Citation
Case Studies on the Need for Building Information Modeling in Facilities Management

Material Information

Title:
Case Studies on the Need for Building Information Modeling in Facilities Management
Creator:
Rishikesh Jajee, Kavya
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.B.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Building Construction
Committee Chair:
Issa, Raja Raymond A
Committee Co-Chair:
Olbina, Svetlana
Graduation Date:
8/10/2013

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Assets ( jstor )
Construction industries ( jstor )
Information modeling ( jstor )
Life cycle ( jstor )
Maintenance ( jstor )
Maintenance costs ( jstor )
Maintenance management ( jstor )
Preventive maintenance ( jstor )
Return on investment ( jstor )
Roofs ( jstor )
bim
fm

Notes

General Note:
In the past few years BIM (building information modeling) has changed the perspective of the construction industry. Many Architects, Engineers and Contractors are willing to adopt BIM over traditional construction methods. The owners are requesting BIM deliverables. As BIM is a relatively new technology it appears that it is still being widely used in the design and construction phase, but not much in the O&M (operations and maintenance) phase of a facility. This is despite the fact that most definitions of BIM state that it facilitates the process of design and construction through completion and this data rich model facilitates in efficient facility management. There have been not many publications related to the advantages of BIM in the O&M phase and owners are generally not aware of the benefits a BIM could convey during facility management. In recent times the industry has started to realize the significance of the O&M phase and why a BIM has to be designed with the end in mind. There are a few reasons the industry has to concentrate on the O&M phase, they are: ·  The O&M is the longest phase of a typical building’s life-cycle compared to the design and the construction phase. ·  Eighty five percent of the life-cycle cost of a facility occurs in the post construction phase. The need to broaden the benefits of BIM, and explore the technology to improve life-cycle facilities management is discussed in this research. The objective of this research was focused on demonstrating to the owner the magnitude of cost savings the adoption of BIM would result in.  This research documented and analyzed the inefficiencies in the current processes used by the O&M team of a large world class entertainment company; and then the cost saving was projected by comparing it with a hypothetical BIM assisted project. In addition data on the percentage increase in efficiency and the potential savings in time by the use of BIM was analyzed and documented. The significance of the research is in helping the owners to realize the magnitude of savings encountered if BIM were used for O&M process.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Embargo Date:
8/31/2015

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1 CASE STUDIES ON THE NEED FOR B UILDING INFORMATION MODELING IN F ACILITIES M ANAGEMENT By KAVYA RISHIKESH JAJEE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Kavya Rishikesh Jajee

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3 To my m om

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am extremely thankful to Dr. Raymond Issa for his guidance; his confidence drove me through out this research. I would also like to thank my committee members Dr. Svetlana Olbina and Dr. Douglas Lucas for their patience, guidance, and direction. I give tremendous thanks to my adopted parents Jon and Betty Ruth for their undivided support and inte rest. They have been very supportive and encouraging throughout this research. I am grateful also to my parents Dr. C. S. Nagaraj and Sadhana Raj who have always been my inspira tion and supported my interests My exceptional thanks to my mom whose persist ence, patience and confidence in me, was the only reason I opted to pursue a masters and also write thesis. I would like to express speci al thanks to Brittany Giel for her direction; she has been a great inspiration and help throughout this research. Fina lly, I would like to thank the Rinker School family and Walt Disney World for all their support without which this thesis would not have come to fruition.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 13 Statement of Purpose ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 Research Objective ................................ ................................ ................................ 15 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ........................... 16 Building Information Modeling ................................ ................................ ................. 16 Characteristics of BIM ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 BIM is Object Oriented ................................ ................................ ..................... 18 BIM is Intellige nt ................................ ................................ ............................... 18 BIM is Parametric ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 What BIM is Not? ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Integrated Projec t Delivery (IPD) ................................ ................................ ............ 20 BIM the Solution for Interoperability and Fragmentation in the Construction Industry ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 22 Status of BIM in Arc hitecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry ......... 23 Rapid Growth in Adopting BIM ................................ ................................ ................ 24 Causes for Decline in Productivity in Construction ................................ ................. 25 History of Facility Management Trends ................................ ................................ ... 28 BIM Applications ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 29 Benefits of BIM in Planning, Design and Construction Phase. ................................ 30 BIM Uses During a Projects Life Cycle ................................ ................................ ... 34 Post Constr uction Benefits ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 Scope of BIM throughout the Lifecycle ................................ ................................ ... 36 Digital Information Flow through the Building Lifecycle ................................ ........... 38 Potential Time and Cost Savings ................................ ................................ ............ 39 Return on Investment (ROI) on BIM ................................ ................................ 40 E xample of a builder who reduced their expenses and increased profit with the adoption of BIM. ................................ ................................ ...................... 43 What is O&M (Operations and Maintenance) ................................ ......................... 44 Types of Maintenance Programs ................................ ................................ ...... 44

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6 Reactive Maintenance ................................ ................................ ...................... 45 Preventive Maintenance ................................ ................................ ................... 45 Predictive Maintenance ................................ ................................ .................... 46 Reliability Centered Maintenance ................................ ................................ ..... 47 Defining Facility Management (FM)/ Property Management/Asset Management .... 48 Typical Approach to Maintenance by Manufacturers and O&M Personnel. ...... 48 Significance of O &M in the Construction Industry. ................................ ........... 49 Effect of Adequate and Timely Maintenance and Repairs on the Service Life of a Building ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 51 C urrent FM Methods ................................ ................................ ............................... 53 Existing Role of BIM in the FM Industry ................................ ........................... 53 Barriers to Implementing BIM in FM ................................ ................................ 54 Benefits of BIM in FM ................................ ................................ .............................. 55 Need for BIM in FM ................................ ................................ ................................ 55 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 57 Research Impetus ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 57 Methodology Overview ................................ ................................ ........................... 60 4 PROCESS AND CASE STUDIES ................................ ................................ ........... 64 Company XYZ Characteristics ................................ ................................ ................ 64 Process Study #1 Warranty Management ................................ .............................. 67 G lobal Roofing Program ................................ ................................ ......................... 67 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 67 Warranty History ................................ ................................ ............................... 68 VueWo rks and Maximo Program Procured. ................................ ..................... 68 Work order creation and process ................................ ................................ ..... 70 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 71 Inefficiencies in Vueworks ................................ ................................ .......... 71 Inefficiencies in Maximo ................................ ................................ ............. 72 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 73 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 73 Process study #2 Custom Color Development of Elements. ................................ ... 74 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 74 Existing process used by the FAM team to finalize a color .............................. 75 Data collection and analysis ................................ ................................ ............. 76 Data analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 78 Result ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 78 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 79 Case Stud y 1 Commercial Roofing ................................ ................................ ........ 80 Introduction/Purpose of the facility ................................ ................................ ... 80 Function for analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 80 Existing roof system details ................................ ................................ .............. 80 Reason for repair /replacement ................................ ................................ ........ 80 Existing issue ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 81

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7 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 81 Result ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 82 Environmental Implications ................................ ................................ ............... 82 Conclusion and Recommendations ................................ ................................ .. 82 Case Study 2 Domestic Water Piping Replacement ................................ .............. 83 Introduc tion/Purpose of the facility ................................ ................................ ... 84 Function for analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 84 Piping system details ................................ ................................ ........................ 84 Reason for new replaced pipe failure ................................ ............................... 84 Summary and discussion ................................ ................................ ................. 85 Existing issue ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 85 Result ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 86 Environmental Implications ................................ ................................ ............... 86 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 86 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ........................... 87 Case Study 3 Facility Support Building ................................ ................................ .. 87 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 87 Function for analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 88 Existing site details ................................ ................................ ........................... 88 Reason for redesign and replacement ................................ ............................. 88 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 88 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 89 Existing issue ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 90 Result ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 90 Conclusion/Recommendations ................................ ................................ ......... 90 5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH ................................ ......................... 91 Conclusions on the Study of Existing Processes ................................ .................... 91 The Warranty Management Study ................................ ................................ .... 91 Custom Color Development of the Elements ................................ .................... 92 Conclusions from the Case Studies ................................ ................................ ........ 92 Case Study #1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 92 Case Study #2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 93 Case Study #3 ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 93 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 94 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ........................ 95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................... 100

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Facility types and their design life expectancies ................................ ................. 50 3 1 Data gathering outline how and w hy. ................................ ............................... 63

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Comparing an IPD approach with traditional construction delivery methods ...... 21 2 2 Comparing the IPD and traditional constr uction delivery method with the MacLeamy curve ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 2 3 Compariso n of construction and non farm industries l abor productivity index .... 26 2 4 Ability to influence cost during the project life cycle ................................ ............ 30 2 5 Impact on cost at different stages in the facility life cycle caused by design changes ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 31 2 6 MacLea ................................ ................................ .. 33 2 7 Perceived ROI on BIM according to the experience level of users ..................... 42 2 8 Phases of a facility life cycle ................................ ................................ ............... 50 2 9 Effect of maintenance on facility performance ................................ .................... 52 3 1 National BIM project savings c urve ................................ ................................ .... 59 3 2 Mapping the O&M departments/entities structure and practice .......................... 66 3 3 Mapping the existing c olor approval process ................................ ...................... 76 3 4 Time spent at each step of the color approval process ................................ ...... 77 3 5 Time spent at each step of the color approval process in a BIM assisted project ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 79

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S AEC Architecture, Engineering and Construction AECOO Architects, Engineers, Constructors, Owners and Operators AIA The American Institute of Architects ASHRAE The American Society of Heating, Refr igerating and Air Conditioning Engineers BIM Building information modeling CAD Computer Aided Design CAE Computer Aided Engineering CAFM Computer Aided Facility Management P rograms CMMS Computer MANAGEMENT FIC Facilities Information Council IPD Integrated Project Delivery MEP Mechanical/ Electrical/ Plumbing NBIMS National Building Information Modeling Standards NIBS National Institute for Building Sciences O&M Operations and Maintenance ROI Return on Investment VDC Virtual Design and Construction WBDG Whole Building design Guide

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11 Abs tract of T h e s i s Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction CASE STUDIES ON THE NEED FOR B UILDING INFORMATION M ODELING IN F ACILITIES M ANAGEMENT By Kavya Rishikesh Jajee A u g u s t 201 3 Chair: Raymond Issa Cochair: Svetlana Olbina Major: Building Construction In the past few years BIM (building information modeling) has changed the perspective of the construction industry. Many Architects, Engineers and Contractors are willing to adopt BIM over traditional construction methods. The owners are requesting BIM deliverables. As BIM is a relatively new technology it appears that it is still being widely used in the des ign and construction phase, but not much in the O&M (operations and maintenance) phase of a facility. This is despite the fact that most definitions of BIM state that it facilit at es the process of design and construction through completion and this data ri ch model facilitates in efficient facility management. There have been not many publications related to the advantages of BIM i n the O&M phase and owners are generally not aware of the benefits a BIM could convey during facility management. In recent times the industry has started to realize the significance of the O&M phase and why a BIM has to be designed with the end in mind. There are a few reasons the industry has to concentr ate on the O&M phase, they are, t he O&M is the longest phase of a typical buil ding s lifecycle compared to the de sign and the construction phase; e ighty five percent of the lifecycle cost of a facility occurs in the post construction

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12 phase. The need to broaden the benefits of BIM, and explore the technology to improve lifecycle fa cilities management is discussed in this research. The objective of this research was focused on demonstrating to the owner the magnitude of cost savings the ad option of BIM would result i n. This research documented and analyzed the inefficiencies in the cu rrent processes used by the O&M team of a large world class entertainment company; and then the cost saving was projected by comparing it with a hypothetical BIM assisted project. In addition data on the percentage increase in efficiency and the potential savings in time by the use of BIM was analyzed and documented. The significance of the research is in helping the owners to realize the magnitude of savings encountered if BIM were used for O&M process.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Building information modelin g (BIM) has been an emerging tool in the construction industry; the term BIM came to popular use in 2002 (Eastman et al 2009) Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. A BIM i s a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition (NB IM S). The National BIM Standard (NBIMS) defines Building Information Modeling (BIM) (NBIMS 2007). A building information model represents a shared knowledge resource, or process for sharing information about a facility, forming a reliabl e source for decisions cycle from inception onward. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published a report in 2004 which stated that $15.8 billion per year was expended by the construction industry due to po or interoperability and data management; comprising approximately 3 4% of the total industry. Since then many firms have adopted BIM, an emerging technological information management process and tool, as the solution to this problem ( Gallaher et al. 2004 ). typical, that is the reason many government agencies have been mandating energy reduction measures. According to a study by Foster (2011) energy constituted 25 percent of the overall cost of federal building operations and the O&M was around 50 percent, nevertheless there have been steps taken to reduce energy consumption but

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14 no emphasis has been made to reduce the costs associated with O&M like developing strategies to re duce costs or even just tracking the historic O&M cost data. BIM is being used in the design and the construction phase but has to be adopted throughout the lifecycle to include facility management (FM). The construction industry is trapped in the two dime nsional world and is focused on the creation of construction documents. Use of BIM for facility management has to be considered rather than just utilizing its benefits at t he design and construction phase. The design and construction phase last s for a maxi mum of two or three years (Foster 2011). Statement of Purpose Facility managers usually receive many boxes full of information about their facilities at construction handover. This information is provided as paper documents that describe equipment warrant ies, manufacturing company details, replacement parts lists, building system operating instructions, maintenance job plans, fixed asset lists, etc. Paper based documents are often lost; they are less easily updated and take up a large amount of space. A l ot of time and money is spent on searching for these documents ( East and Brodt 2007). Current construction practice is very fragmented; different procedures are carried out by various stakeholders who are not contractually responsible to each other. I nfor mation exchange between the different parties is very limited, which may cause problems in the operations and maintenance (O&M) phase, as there is no adequate documentation maintained. The O&M phase requires all the updated documentation and details on all the equipment and product from every stakeholder who works on the project. A significant amount of time is spent of searching for this information. A few problems that are often encountered are related to the lack of operational

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15 and asset management info rmation and include 1. Replacement of specific equipment which is made more difficult when the product data is not readily available to the O&M Department or building manager. The manager must track down the information on the existing equipment to determin e what needs to be purchased, rather than retrieving the electronic information and starting a procurement activity. A minimum of one site visit to capture manufacturing data, and several hours on the phone is required for each piece of equipment that does not have its own electronic description. 2. Replacement or repair of equipment that is no longer manufactured is a much more difficult task. Even if the original equipment information is provided, the design loads associated with the equipment are not spe cified, the O&M team does not know how close the installed equipment matche s the design requirements. Failure to consider the required design loads will result in safety problems, a shortened product life, or higher than required cost of replacement part s ( East and Brodt 2007). BIM is a tool that can foster project integration on different levels, because it can facilitate information exchange, access to real ti me information, and information gathering among project members. Research Objective This resear cycle. The objective of this thesis is to study the existing process used by an O&M department of a company and determine where most of the time is being lost or to determine the ine fficiencies in the current O&M process, and provide a BIM solution for the existing issue. This research is also focused on discovering the necessary attributes required by each element of the facility by the O&M department for its appropriate maintenance. The ultimate goal is to gather the results of the inefficiencies in terms of a cost value; and then to be able to demonstrate the expenses that could have been avoided if it were a BIM assisted project.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will pro vide a summary of the information available on building information modeling and f acility operations and management (O&M) in the construction industry. It discusses the different definition s of BIM and provides an overview of the current status of BIM in t he a rchitecture engineering and construction (AEC) industry. The history of construction industry and the reasons for the productivity decline over the years is explained how BIM could be a solution for the interoperability and fragmentation issue in the industry is discussed Facility management ( FM ) and O&M definitions and their importance in the industry are discussed. The b enefits of adopting BIM during its lifecycle including the cost savings due to BIM and a few case studies are then explored Build ing Information Modeling There are numerous definitions of BIM; here are a few which give a good perspective on the different aspect s of BIM. BIM is a modeling process which enables a designer to visualize a building virtually before it is built. The model provides a detailed view of spatial relationships, geographical information etc. The quantities and properties of the architectural, mechanical and structural building components can be retrieved instantly. BIM facilitates the designers, architects and th e owners to simulate construction and performance before the actual construction begins. Changes made in the design can cause var iations in project cost for example when an architectural building component is moved or deleted in the building the mechanical and the structural systems will be affected and it will result in deviation of the project cost. With

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17 BIM these changes can be seen well before the y are actually made. All the disciplines work simultaneously in real time in one virtual model, which enable s the design and construction to be tracked parallel to each other (Phillips 2010). Different sectors of the AEC and the FM industry has defined BIM on the basis of their needs and knowledge of BIM. According to Associated General Contractors Guide (2006), rich, object oriented, intelligent and parametric digital be extracted and analyzed to generate information that can be used to make decisions and impro ve the process of delivering the facility ( Motamedi and Hammad 2009). The NIBS Facilities Information Council (FIC) defines building information modeling (BIM) as an d its related project/lifecycle information using open industry standards to inform decision making for realizing better value (NIBS 2007). For any document transactions during the buildings lifecycle, BIM helps in organizing, using and reusing the data ( Eastman et al. 2008). The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air graphic and data modeling software to create optimized and integrated building design solutions (A SHRAE 2007). Holness (2008) points out that to the ASHRAE members the additional important factor of BIM is its ability to use three dimensional, real time, intelligent and dynamic modeling and facilitate in successful coordination and collaboration. Buil functional characteristics of a facility. As such it serves as shared knowledge recourse for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life cycle

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18 fro m inception onward (NBIM S 2008) This definition focuses on the data sharing aspect of BIM and that it becomes a reliable recourse of all information which is the basis of all decisions (Smith 2011). Characteristics of BIM BIM i s Object Oriented I n a typi cal process designers draw lines but in a BIM a designer creates a 3D model by inserting readymade objects. The modeling platforms are embedded with these readymade objects like the stairs, doors, windows, electrical fixtures, furniture etc. which are cal led families. If the objects are not readily available to the designer it can be modeled in the 3D environment with the required parameters and information, this object will then become a family which like the other families can be used in the model. The p arameters or design constraints of the readymade or the custom made families can be changed according to the design needs, and the information can be customized (Hurtado et al. 2012). BIM i s Intelligent in the AEC industry. The notion of intelligent objects in the building modeling has conveyed relationships and links between these objects and their parameters within the building information model. These parameters maintain modeling constrictions which en ables efficient building analysis (Gu and London 2010). According to Madsen (2008) BIM is an information rich model. This information includes physical and functional characteristics of a building and all the life cycle information, consider an air conditi oning unit in a BIM. The model would have all the physical components like the dimensions and location along with data about the

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19 manufacturer, supplier, operations and maintenance processes, clearance around the equipment, flow rates etc. (CRC Construction Innovation 2007). BIM is P arametric Parameter in simple words means the rules that are applied and affect the object. A single object is associated with parameters that describe various options. Parametric objects have the capability to imitate its natur al behaviors and attributes and a parametric model has the ability to document these changes and is responsive to the components and changes made in the objects. If a user wants to change a generic window in a model to a bay window it can be selected from the pull down list, once selected the generic window will automatically change into a bay window with all the associated characteristics. If the user wanted to change this window to any other type t he y can do so by just choosing the type from the drop dow n list. A few other examples which demonstrate the benefits of parametric modeling: Consider if the pitch of a roof is changed then the model itself realizes that the wall has to follow the revised roof line and it gets updated by itself, if a window is pl aced in a wall, the wall identifies the object and accepts the window according to the parameters. When an object is placed in a model the plan, elevation, section and the 3D view gets updated and if the parameters in any object is changes it is reflected in all the views and even the schedule gets updated. This helps in visualization during design and also helps for q uantity take off and estimation (Wisconsin DOA 2009). What BIM is N ot? BIM is a powerful design tool but not a project delivery system. Hurt ado et al (2012) noted that BIM might be considered the most powerful tool created compared to all the tools developed till now but conversely it should not be mistaken to a new project

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20 delivery system. The collaborative efforts among stakeholders in desi gn development and implementation encouraged by BIM is sometimes misidentified as Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) which is a project delivery method. IPD is independent of BIM, in other words IPD can be implemented in a non BIM assisted project. There a re many benefits added to the IPD process and design build projects when BIM is in place. A BIM assisted project is not obligated to use any particular project delivery method, but having a building information model brings many benefits to any project del ive r y method selected. (Hurtado et al 2012). Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) project delivery approach that integrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively utilizes the talents and i nsights of all participants to optimize project results, increasing value to the Owner, reduce waste, and maxi mize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction According to Salmon (2012) the key characteristics of IPD are i t involves the project stakeholders in the initi al phase of design and planning; i t is an approach where the risk and compensation a re shared by all stakeholders; i t allows the stakeholders to cont rol the project collaboratively; i t encourages colla borative approach during development of objectives or goals and the same approach through the validation process; i t involves shifting when the various stakeholders get involved in the process and when the project phases are resolved. Figure 2 1 illustrat es these shifts.

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21 Figure 2 1 C omparing an IPD approach with traditional construction delivery methods (AIA California council 2007) The IPD process redefined the project phases and shifts the design decision making forward which is illustrated in Figur e 2 1, in addition to that there are two other concepts introduced which are early involvement of stakeholders (designers, fabricators, suppliers, installers, constructors etc.) and the simulation capability of BIM to check project accuracy. These two conc epts are the key factors which allow attaining a higher level of completion in design before the documentation phase. Figure 2 2 compares the magnitude of design effort in traditional and an IPD design delivery process with the MacLeamy curve to relate how an IPD process can save cost ( AIA California C ouncil 2007).

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22 Figure 2 2. Comparing the IPD and traditional construction delivery method with the MacLeamy curve ( AIA California council 2007) The AIA California C ouncil (2007) explained the Importance of the IPD process by using the illustration in Figure 2 2 The y axis represents the MacLeamy curve, the x axis represents the traditional and IPD processes and the z axis represents the level of design effort by the stakeholders involved in the project. F ig ure 2 2 clearly shows the increase in design effort by the constructors and trade contractors in initial phase of construction in the IPD process over the traditional delivery method. This effort in the IPD process occurs during the recommended shift perio d by the MacLeamy curve, the period or phase where the changes made do not majorly affect the cost of construction. BIM the Solution for Interoperability and Fragmentation in t he Construction Industry The construction industry is fragmented in nature. Thi s is applicable to the entire industry which includes Architects, Engineers, Constructors, Owners and Operators

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23 (AECOO). Because of the disjointed nature of the industry the process will require major coordination efforts between the different parties or s takeholders involved in the project. The competence and performance of the industry has been considerably affected due to the existing fragmentation in the industry. It is also the major reason behind the on hand communication obstructions between the stak eholders involved in the project (Isikdag et al. 2008). Lack of interoperability in another major setback in the construction industry, the U.S. capital facilities lost US$15.8B annually due to the interoperability issue (Gallaher et al. 2004). The AECOO industry is in an obvious need of standardization in terms of the information transfer data between the different software platforms used by the stakeholders. According to Isikdag et al. (2008) the tool developed to tackle the interoperability and informat ion integration issue is BIM. BIM encourages coordination, sharing and exchange of information and provides effective management solutions through its entire lifecycle. S tatus o f BIM i n Architecture Engineering a nd Construction ( AEC ) Industry A survey i n 2008 by AECbytes provided an overview of the status of BIM in the AEC industry at the time have also been were 1. The AEC industries rely on the two dimensional drawings for collaboration, even though most disciplines are now working in three dimensional environment. 2. BIM ability to produce construction documents in 2D format and no other drafting application is needed was appreciated. 3. Demand for advanced and comprehensive object libraries and intelligent modeling to maintain relationships with other objects was high.

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24 4. Users wanted technology that supports distributed work process es and large projects. 5. Most of them wanted the capabilities of BIM li ke the automated management and coordination system but also wanted the ability to provide conventional 2D construction documents and visualization competence of a CAD platform. 6. Smaller firms preferred more spontaneous project environments but the larger f irms required tools with greater flexibility which helps in customization as they are prone to deal with large scale complex projects. 7. The information in the BIM was valued more than the 3D visualization capabilities. 8. There was a great demand for better tr aining materials and technical support. 9. Tools for analysis of the building, performance simulation and data interoperability are important, but w ere not considered a very strong issue by the respondents at that time. In this survey when the respondents wer e asked what their requirements for BIM were a few of the most frequently mentioned criteria were Integration with Facility management, ability to share contents and standards from one project to another and quality assurance for information in the model ( Khemlani 2007). of BIM in the industry are not looking at the big picture and considering BIM as a new perspective to design and construction but are looking at it as just a new software (Egan 2008). Rapid Growt h i n Adopting BIM According to the McGraw Hill BIM Smart Market Report in 2009, the usage of BIM has been rapidly growing; the statistics showed that there was a 75% increase in the usage of BIM by the AEC industry an d the owners from 2007 to 2009. Approximately 50% of the contractors were using BIM or BIM related tools which was four times more that the report in 2007. Most non users of BIM (42%) accepted that BIM w ould be useful

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25 and beneficial to the industry and wer e willing to adopt it. When the knowledge levels of the users were compared 42% of them were advanced users, and about 66% of these users were using BIM for more than half of their projects. Almost 33% of all users were using BIM for more than 60% of thei r projects and the remaining users anticipated to reach that level of usage by the year 2011 (McGraw Hill Construction 2009) Causes for Decline in Productivity i n Construction P roductivity in the construction industry has been gradually declining from t he early 1960s (Teicholz 2004). Teicholz compares these numbers to other non farm industries which had shown steady progression with a 1.77% increase in productivity per year. This indicates that the construction industry has been slow in developing ideas for labor saving techniques and in substituting equipment for manual work. Figure 2 3 illustrates the productivity difference between construction and other non farm industries from the year 1964 to 2004.

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26 Figure 2 3. Compar ison of construction and non farm industries l abor productivity index (bureau of labor statistics) Teicholz (2008) explains five core reasons for the productivity reducti on in t he construction industry 1. The design bid build approach for construction; 2. Const ruction industry relies on 2D drawings which does not promote a collaborative approach; 3. The construction industry is comprise d of many small vendors and clients who do not have the cap acity to adopt new technology; 4. Investment for research and Development i n the co nstruction industry is very low; 5. Construction labor wages are low. Conventionally most construction projects are delivered in the design bid build method, the fragmented nature of this approach is one of the reasons for the productivity loss. In t he design bid build method of construction the design and construction are handled independently therefore the construction knowledge is not considered in the design phase. This result s in the increase of project cost because of

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27 changes made and conflicts which occur in the construction phase, these in turn result in an increase in project time which indirectly results in increasing the project cost (Teicholz 2008). Even though the construction industry has adopted many new techniques like CAD/CAE systems they all work independently and do not support active collaboration by different stakeholders o n the team. Architects and designers produce drawings in CAD format but these drawings are not integrated with any information like the specification, cost detai ls, schedules etc. When the contractors review these documents they plot the drawings o n paper and make comments, this process is manual and oftentimes result s in information loss. The estimators have to manually do the quantity take off based on the CAD d rawings. This fragmentation of data being reinterpreted and reproduced because of lack of interoperability between different systems requires increased effort and tim e. Therefore regardless of the use of new technology in the industry there is no significa nt increase in the overall productivity. The construction industry is comprise d of many small regional specialized firms, vendors, designers, sub contractors and general contractors. These small companies cannot afford to adopt new and expensive technolog y and it is difficult for these small firms to provide leadership and training in new techniques. The wages of construction workers are considerably lower than workers in other disciplines, so the need or demand for equipment and technology to substitute l abor is very low. Lastly the lack of research and development in construction is one of the grounds for low productivity (Teicholz 2008).

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28 History of F acility M anagement Trends FM was among the last group to embrace new technology, despite the fact that the other departments like the finance and procurement were using new technologies to increase productivity and decrease cost for a long time the FM department opted to use traditional methods (paper) to administer their activities according to Paul N. Cla ybaker the operations division of Carol Stream, IL based FacilityTree.com. Schwarts (2008) points out that there were very few computer aided facility management programs (CAFM) which could understand the complex system of FM and embrace the multi layered demand; on the other hand architects and designers had access to many computer aided design (CAD) programs to meet their needs and several computer aided maintenance management software (CMMS) which gave enough leverage for the management department to ado pt the new technologies (Schwartz 2008). Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High Tech Products to innovators, early adopters and laggards taking into account the human responses to new technology. Innovators are defined as the group who introduce s the new technologies to market, early adopters are the enthusiasts who are curious and want to try new technologies this is the group of people who purchase the latest t echnologies managers were pragmatists in terms of adopting any FM software when these terms were introduced to them (Schwartz 2008). Tracking energy performance has bee n a most important factor over the years; this is usually done by collecting historic data on energy consumption of a facility, other than energy performance of a facility very few organizations collect and store any other

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29 O&M related data. It is evident t hat buildings are seen more as a liability than an asset, and maintenance is not a priority. O&M decisions have always been typically made reactively and to this day reactive maintenance has been is the most general approach. The FM industry is not yet a d ata driven industry (Lewis and Whittaker 2012). BIM Applications A building information model has many applications and as the users are getting more matured they have been discovering added BIM applications. BIM is used for visualization and marketing. T he walkthroughs, renderings and navigation capability of BIM have the potential to be used for a dverti s ing and marketing purposes. The visualization capabilities can be useful in renovation projects for executive decisions like construction methods to be u sed, equipment accessibility rem odeling etc. (Becerik Gerber et at 2012). The Model generates shop drawings for all building systems instantly which are used for fabrication, for example shop drawings for sheet metal ductwork can be produced directly from a finished model. The model can be used for code reviews, cost estimation, quantity take off, forensic analysis like leaks, failures in building systems and equipment etc. BIM is very helpful in construction sequencing process, like it can be used to insta ntly generate material orders, delivery schedules of components and equipment, fabrication etc. The 3D virtual interface can be very useful for clash detection. The model is created to scale and the various building components can check in the virtual atmo sphere for clashes before the construction begins (Azhar et al. 2008). Another important application of BIM is its use in the Operations and Maintenance phase by the facility managers for building maintenance and renovation purposes and

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30 the data in the mod el can be used for tracking safety information, equipment life etc. (Hergunsel 2011). BIM helps facility managers locate emergency power, exits, fire alarm, fire extinguishers, sprinkler systems, smoke detectors etc. (Liu 2010). Benefits o f BIM i n Planning Design a nd Construction Phase. Eastman et al (2008) explains how as projects proceeds the design changes get more and more expensive. Figure 2 4 illustrates how the construction cost and the ability to influence the cost are related with the life c ycle of the project. Figure 2 4. Ability to influence cost during the project life cycle ( Adapted from Eastman2008 ) In Figure 2 4 the solid red line represents the ability to influence cost and the dotted line represents the cost of construction. When t he project is in the design and planning stage any design decisions made or changed does not affect the construction cost, but as the project pr o ceeds into the next phases the any design changes made exponentially affects the construction cost. In short al l decisions are best to be made in

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31 the design and planning phase before the construction begins, any change s made in e construction cost. Gellar et al (1998) explain ed a situation where if an O&M criteria are not considered i n the initial stages of design they will impact the cost of the project. Figure 2 5 shows the i mpact on cost at different stages in the facility life cycle caused by design changes. Figure 2 5. Impact on cost at different stages in the facility life cyc le caused by design changes ( Adapted from NRC, 1998 ) Gellar et al (1998) explain ed the importance of taking into account the O&M requirements at the initial design stages by using a typical example where the O&M requirements of heating and ventilation eq uipment were not considered in the design phase. Even if the designer had designed the heating and ventilation equipment with all the necessities of the room to house the system in terms of space constraints and

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32 space allocation, after installation and the facility is in use the facility operators may have difficulties to maintain the equipment because the clearances required for regular maintenance was not considered in the design stage. This might require a design change at the O&M phase which will requir e a physical repositioning of a wall. At this phase of a facility any design changes can be extremely expensive. Geller et al (2004) noted that it wa s better to resolve these kind of design conflicts before construction begins as it is efficient and cause s less disruption. They also emphasize d that better interoperability may avoid such design conflicts. According to Sapp (2011) c onsiderations for the O&M of a facility should start from the planning and design and continue all the way through its lifecycle By the early involvement of the O&M personnel the attributes required for efficient maintenance such as equipment access routes, warranties, sensor connections etc. can be determined and incorporated in the design He also suggest ed that the O&M team sho uld be a part of the project development team, this will make the O&M team well aware of the type of equipment, controls etc. which they will be maintaining once the facility is handed over to the owners. Use of BIM efficiently in the planning and design p hase has the potential to impact the project; it can reduce the project cost, promote and improve the collaborative efforts of the different stakeholders of the project team which in turn improves the overall quality of the project. There are many benefits of using BIM in the construction phase; it helps in cost estimation, quantity takeoff, sequencing, building system analysis, fabrication etc. (Hergunsel 2011). BIM helps reduce waste on site and accelerates the process; it diminishes the need for coordina tion checks on site as the information

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33 generated from a BIM is more accurate and synchronized (Smith 2011). The b enefits of BIM and Integrated project delivery (IPD) can be explained better by considering the MacLeamy Curve. Figure 4 illustrates the MacLe amy Curve. Figure 2 6 Macleamy ( Adapted from HOK building SMART) Patrick MacLeamy founder of the IAI (International Alliance for Interoperability) well known as the MacLeamy Curve. The MacLeamy Curve diagram illustrates that the cost of design change becomes more and more expensive the further you are through the design process. Design changes in the later phases of construction direct ly affect the project schedule and project cost (increase delivery cost and wastage). Light (2011)

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34 noted that BIM is the best solution considering this issue. In a BIM process all the stakeholders involved in the project are brought together in the initial phases of design, this allows the stakeholders to coordinate their design input and discuss any potential clashes and incidents possible. BIM encourages a th o rough integrated process (project design and delivery method) from the st art to the end of constr uction. BIM U ses d uring a Projects Life Cycle importance in the AEC industry. The capability o f BIM to incorporate object textures, i nterior fixtures, natural lighting, landscape e tc. into the graphical 3D interface provides the designers/ users an enhanced illustration of the space they are working on during the design, construction and FM phase s The 3D models can be used by the owners for training purposes like evacuation path et c. (Becerik Gerber et al. 2012). 3D rendering of a BIM are easy to produce (Azhar et al. 2008). BIM has the capacity to store all the digital information required for the design, construction and O&M phases and has the technology to potentially integrat e different systems which surmounts the conventional design tools. BIM presents a virtual platform for all the stakeholders to work together at the same time, the stake holders can share data, integrate different factors and effectively communicate if ther e is any conflict. Since BIM allows simulation the stakeholders can visualize projects at different anticipated conditions (Olatunji and Sher 2009). According to Light (2011) the effort which is put in during the design and construction phase is not transf erred during the handover process, it is often lost once the facility is handed over to the owners. For efficient life cycle management of the building Light (2011) suggest ed that the involvement of the architect/designer who has

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35 been thoroughly involved a nd understands the facility should sustain the relationship with the owner throughout its lifecycle. This approach can be called BIM 360 or true building lifecycle management. Post Construction Benefits According to an industry research 85 percent of the l ifecycle cost of a facility transpires in the post construction phase (Jordani 2010). A survey was conducted by interviewing numerous facility managers to find out their expectations regarding using BIM T h e survey revealed that many facility managers were skeptical and reluctant to use BIM as there was lack of knowledge and there w as no documentation on the cost benefits which was the reason for the slow adoption of BIM within f acility management. But the survey revealed that there is a growing demand for BIM in the operations and maintenance phase. Many owners have been developing guidelines in such a way that the BIM data will be useful in the future for the facilities maintenance (Jordani 2010). There are many benefits of using BIM in the post constructi on or the operations and maintenance phase of a facility. All the information related to every product, equipment, fixtures etc. can be added to an as built BIM and most of this information is useful in the O&M phase and this data also helps users in makin g more knowledgeable decisions (Madsen 2008). BIMs have the capacity to be integrated with facility management systems which enables straightforward and constant maintenance of complicated structures. Due to the integration of the FM systems there will be no information loss or incidence of manual data entry error. Basically BIM can effectively time control systems and provide a natural interface for sensors and remote operating management of facilities (Eastman et al. 2008). A publication by SSOE, Inc. (2007) explains the value of BIM over the buildings life

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36 cycle. The article mentions a scenario where building information models are used in the post construction phase i.e. when a facility manager or operations staff need any information associated with equipment like warranty, next scheduled maintenance date, date of installation, manufacturing details etc. several years after the construction is complete they are readily accessible in BIM. Conventionally all these documents a re stored in paper format and are difficult to find. According to Madsen (2008) BIM is an information rich model which is valuable for facility management. The effort used during the design phase to produce accurate drawing documents and the effort of doc umenting all the related data during the construction phase makes the models rich in information and could be extremely helpful to the building operators. Information on all the elements inside the building and outside can be documented in the model like t he finishes, paint details, products and fixture details, e quipment blow up diagrams etc. (Madsen 2008). lighting, mechanical systems etc. by building analysis programs. The buildi ng automation system monitors the electrical and mechanical equipment constantly and these can be connected to the record model to generate location based maintenance program s In the post construction phase BIM is very helpful in tracking and maintaining the assets of the facility throughout its lifecycle. BIM is also helpful in disaster planning and space management in the post construction phase (Hergunsel 2011). Scope o f BIM throughout t he Lifecycle Information exchange between the different stakeholder s occurs throughout the lifecycle of the building. BIM operates as the knowledge core and information backbone, it stores all the historical and current data of the facility throughout its lifecycle. It

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37 enables the different stakeholders to access all the stored information instantly (NBIMS 2007). The National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) describes the scope of BIM in the following context 1. 2. BIM as a collabora tive process involves business drivers, automated process capabilities, and use of open information standards for sustainability and integrity of information. 3. BIM as a facility lifecycle management tool enables information exchanges, workflows, and procedu res which stakeholders use throughout the building lifecycle. The information stored is transparent, certifiable and sustainable, and it can be used/ reused by the stakeholders (Isikdag et al. 2008). According to Isikdag et al. (2008) two conclusive charac teristics of BIM were the capability to operate as enabler of interoperability and a facilitator of data sharing and exchange between software applications. B uilding information models are rich in data which includes geometric representation along with the semantic information; the information at different phases of the building lifecycle is stored in this model. Another important distinctiveness of BIM is its flexibility, transparency and it is vendor neutral. Models can be digitally stored in a database o r can be copied in to a physical file for sharing and exchang ing between applications (Isikdag et al. 2008). Light (2011) the BIM manager for HOK London noted that BIM has allowed them to easily test the design efficiency in less time, help in generating l ife cycle costing and it is a great tool for demonstration. A BIM is an efficient tool for illustration, for example demonstrating the exceptional insight on the buildings performance well before the construction begins to the clients. BIM is very helpful in the O&M, property management and facility management.

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38 Digital Information Flow t hrough the Building Lifecycle There is a huge amount of project information created and collected by the project team from the planning and design phase through the construc tion phase. This data is extremely valuable to the facility managers and owners for effective maintenance of the facility throughout the lifecycle (Autodesk BIM Workshop) Planning and design, construction, O& M and decommissioning/disposal/ recycling/ reus e are the four main phases during the life cycle of a building. Ergen et al. (2007) explain ed that these phases are typically administered separately and these phases are further more divided into multiple layers of information. A f ew characteristics of t his information which has to be considered to enable the different stakeholders to instantly access the required informatio n throughout the life cycle are 1. A facility is composed of numerous components/ assets which have to be managed throughout its lifecy cle. 2. All the information related to these assets has to be tracked independently 3. The information should be easily accessible to all the stake holders so the storage location of the information is very important. 4. The fo rmat of the information is another aspect for consideration; the information should be in a convenient format for all the stakeholders. All the information related to the assets including the process related data have to be easy to access instantly for ef fective response and for decisions related to the assets. Ergen et al (2007) noted that the need for instant access to all related component data has led to the various BIM standards like NB MIS. One of the goals of NBMIS is to accelerate the open BIM stand ard adoption in the industry by promoting the IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) model as a standard of information exchange. Rather than handing over 2D static documents during the commissioning phase a

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39 live integrated BIM model could be of immense value, this information can further support the O&M day to day activities and have a positive effect on the O&M efficiency. monitoring, commissioning data, tracking assets e tc. is valuable data and can be helpful in making informed decisions for future improvements, renovations and new construction projects (Autodesk BIM Workshop 2011 ). Potential Time and Cost Savings According to Phillips (2010), BIM has a tremendous capab ility to influence time of completion so when the building schedule is advanced, costs are reduced. The technology also reduces costly change orders. BIM enables designers and architects to understand the variables that affect energy consumption by simulat ing energy performance in the early stages of building design. These simulations help designers create buildings that are more energy efficient and sustainable. Phillips (2010) mentioned that aging technologies and the lack of good data create inefficienc ies in the maintenance processes. Many facilities have stacks of physical drawings stored somewhere, such paperwork often can take hours to find and is difficult to keep current. In contrast, with BIM, all information, including manuals, maintenance schedu les and schematics for all equipment and components, is readily accessible in one virtual location. A lot of time, energy and money are spent on inaccurate information. Holness (2006) estimated 15% to 40% savings in construction cost through the adoption of BIM A report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 2004) indicate d that $15.8 billion is lost each year because of inefficient data exchange during the design, construction, facilities management and operations of large commercia l,

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40 institutional and industrial buildings, facilities and plants. Furthermore, Phillips (2010) found that owners and operators linking BIM and facilities management software on existing facilities can save in excess of 25 to 35 cents per square foot per ye ar through energy management, asset management, improved interoperability, strategic facilities management, reduced custodial costs and capital replacement. Crate and barrel adopted BIM for all their construction project s and experienced a reduction in the construction cycle. According to the Director of Construction for Crate & Barrel, BIM has accelerated their process of producing contract documents from 32 to 24 weeks (Madsen 2008). When a building information model is created with collaborative effort a nd shared, it saves a lot of time and effort which is usually wasted on building the knowledge base which is not transferred between the different stakeholders. It has been observed that time is wasted in the creation of unnecessary and sometime inconsiste nt documents which can be easily re solved when a building information model is in place (Madsen 2008). Return on Investment (ROI) on BIM measure of investment size percentage return on the capital expenditure is the ROI. To calculate the ROI the profit/ benefit/ returns are divided by the total cost of investment. This value is multiplied by 100 to get the percentage; ROI is expres sed in percentage or as a ratio (Gi el and Issa 2011 ). ROI can be expressed using the following equation (Feibel 2003) ROI = Gain from Investment Cost of Investment Cost of Investment

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41 A survey was done by McGraw Hill (2009) to project the overall valu e of BIM in the construction industry, according to the survey most of the users have reported that they have observed optimistic returns on their investment on BIM. The survey showed that 63% of the BIM users see a positive ROI on the total investment; a nd 15% of the users reported a ROI of 50% or more and the remaining 20% report that they incurred neither profit nor gain. Many users mentioned that there were many benefits of adopting BIM which included better quality work, increase in productivity, pros pects for new business and in general better project outcomes. This survey revealed that the users who estimated the returns report lower returns than the users who calculated the ROI on BIM and therefore the benefits reported by the use of BIM were greate r than many users believed. The report also illustrate d that as the users get more experienced in the use of BIM they tend ed to see more benefits. Figure 2 7 illustrates the perceived ROI on BIM according to the experience level of users. The more matured users experience better benefits of BIM, the users say that as they get more proficient at BIM, they can tailor the technology to their use and benefit. The evolution has been observed to be stable, 87% of the matured users observe a positive ROI where as only 38% of beginners see a positive ROI. The article concluded that c onsidering that BIM has a lot of scope to be developed it should increase the ROI as the technology improves and the users get more knowledgeable (McGraw Hill 2009).

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42 Figure 2 7. Perc eived ROI on BIM according to the experience level of users ( Adapted from McGraw Hill 2009 ) According to the research done by Holness (2008) a large industrial project which ranged from $75 to 150 million, showed additional savings of 0.25 to 0.5% of the total construction cost through the adoption of BIM, 5% to 10% of which accounted for design fees. The BIM capability of clash detection and coordination has resulted in fewer conflicts in construction, this capability accounts for 3% to7.5% savings in con struction. Researchers project a 7.5% to 10% savings due to BIM capa bility to produce shop drawings and eliminate waste. According to Madsen (2008) BIM cap abilit ies for coordination and clash detection has reduced the number of change orders and reque sts for information, which in turn saves a lot of time and money. Michael LeFevre, vice president and head of

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43 Holder Construction's BIM department noted that a small investment by Holder Construction for the adopting BIM proved a high ROI. $4000 was invest ed to create a BIM for a small project, 35 clashes were found and rectified before construction which accounted for $135,000 in savings (Madsen 2008). Example of a builder who reduced their expenses and increased profit with the adoption of BIM. Crate & Ba rrel : Crate and B arrel has been using BIM for quite some time now for their store construction According to John Moebes Director of Construction for Crate & Barrel, they have even substituted their established vendors who were not ready to adopt BIM. He i llustrated the benefits of BIM by citing the following example, by the use of BIM in the construction process the project time was decreased by two weeks; this consecutively result ed in early opening of the store, and two weeks of sale total ing $600,000. H e mention ed that there are about 150 stores operated by C rate and B arrel and the two weeks reduction in the construction time is very valuable. Moebes said improve our and he also mentioned that all the crate and barrel stores will adopt BIM from 2008 onwards (Egan 2008). According to Moebes the parametric modeling benefits of BIM shorten the construction cycle, when the C rate and B arrel team accounted back for the amount of time taken to generate design and construction documents in the conventional methods it made them realize that BIM could speed up the process. Moebes mention ed a success story that when the company dec ided to use BIM they noticed a reduction in their scheduled times from 32 weeks to 24 weeks for the production of their contract documents (Madsen 2008)

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44 Another immediate benefit of using BIM that C rate and B arrel observed was for cost segregation studies (Madsen 2008). property components that are considered personal property or land improvements under the federal tax code. The primary goal of a cost segregation study is to identify all construction related costs that can be depreciated over a shorter tax life (typically 5, 7 and 15 years) than the building (39 years for non residential real property) 2011). In a BIM the assets like the building systems and materials can be allocated with asset values this eases the process of accounting for the reduction in recognized value of these assets over the lease period. T he cost segregation studies sometimes had to be done by individuals who were not a part of the design team and this results in many errors but with a BIM which facilitates assigning the asset codes to the building systems it is easy to generate accurate asset schedule automatically (Madsen 2008). What is O&M (Operations and Maintenance) The WBDG (Whole Building D esign Guide) explains that f a cilities operations and maintenance overlooks all the related services which are required to assure that the built facility will execute the functions for which it was designed and constructed. Operations and maintenance in general is involved in everyday activities that are required for the facility its systems and equipment to function the way it was intended and designed to do (Sapp 2011). He points out that a facility cannot operate at its highest competency without being maintained, thus the term O&M or Operations and M aintenance are always used collectively (Sapp 2011). Types of Maintenance Programs The term maintenance is typically associated with the actions taken after

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45 equipment is damaged or broken (Sullivan et al. 2010).Maintenance is defined a act which involves fixing any sort of mechanical plumbing or electrical device should it ( EFNMS E uropean F ederation of N ational Maintenance societies) Reactive Maintenance Reactive or Corrective Maintenance is any unscheduled procedure which takes place when a system or a product fails. It is an effort to re establish a particular performance level for a system or a product. Reactive maintenance includes procedures like verifying conditions and performance, replacement or removal of parts in a system, identifying failures, isolation, localization, reassembling products or systems etc. (reference for business.com) mention ed that more than 55% of the maintenance activities are reactive. Reactive maintenance does not require more staff and it is cost effective but there are many disadvantages related to it such as the unexpected expenses due to the failure of equipment, which also r elates to increased labor and increase in time unplanned expenses due to repair and replacement and costs related to inefficient use of staff resources. Preventive Maintenance Preventive Maintenance aims to maintain or prolong a system s useful life thr ough controlling acceptable levels of degradation. The maintenance actions scheduled based on expected durability or machine run time is called preventive maintenance. The schedule is supported by factors that detect, preclude, or mitigate degradation of c omponents or systems (Sullivan et al. 2004). Preventive maintenance includes activities like periodic inspections, adjustments, repairs and replacements required to

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46 avoid machine breakdowns, condition monitoring, calibrations etc. The principle intention o f preventive maintenance is to make sure that the performance of the facility is maintained and the expected design life is met or preferably exceeded. Anthony noted that He give s a different perspective to preventive maintenance as its efficiency being perceived as a measure of management excellence. An efficient preventive term commitment, constant monitoring of new technology, a constant asses sment of the financial and organizational tradeoffs in contracting out versus in house maintenance, and an awareness of the impact of the r egulatory and legal environment (reference for business.com) Preventive maintenance plans are cost effective in ca pital intensive processes; the flexible characteristic of this type of maintenance allows periodic regulations in the maintenance plans. When compared to reactive maintenance program preventive maintenance has been estimated to save 12% to 18% in cost and preventive maintenance has demonstrated to save energy and reduced component failures. A few drawbacks to this process are that it does not promise non failure maintenance, component breakdowns are probable to occur. It is a long term and labor intensive p rocess, it sometimes incorporates unnecessary maintenance. The unnecessary maintenance actions may result in secondary damage to equipment (Sullivan et al. 2004). Predictive Maintenance that detect the onset of system degradation (lower functional state), thereby allowing causal stressors to be eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the

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47 component physical state. Results indicate current and future functional ca predictive maintenance the maintenance needs are based on the actual condition of components or equipment and not on a predetermined schedule. There are many advantages of predictive maintenance; a well premeditated predictive maintenance pro gram can eliminate disastrous equipment and component failures. This type of maintenance program has proven to save 8 to 12% more than preventive maintenance reactive maintenan ce and material condition. Industrial average savings by adopting predictive maintenance program in th eir organization are as follows, ROI (Return on investment) was 10 times higher ; maintenance costs reduction was 25 to 30% ; i t has been observed that 70 to 75% breakdowns were eliminated ; d owntime of equ ipment was reduced by 35 to 45%; o verall produc tion was Increased by 20 to 25%; According to Sullivan et al. (2004) there are a few disadvantages of this type of maintenance program like increase in expens es caused by investment in investigative devices and staff training, and he points out that the savings are not seen automatically by management. Reliability Centered Maintenance Moubray (1997) defines Reliability Centered Maintenance often known as RCM a s which are not considered by other maintenance programs. It considers that all f ailures are not necessarily linked to age of the asset; it identifies the difference between asset design reliability and the necessities of assets from a user perspective and focuses on

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48 managing component condition. RCM actions are targeted to manage the process of failure and not to predict life expectancies and also links the associated tolerable risks levels to maintain strategy development ( Moubray 1997). RCM is a combination of preventive, predictive and reactive maintenance programs. It is calculate d that 45 to 55% of it is predictive, 25 to 35% is preventive and less than 10% to be reactive maintenance. RCM selects the unimportant and in expensive assets to be dealt by reactive maintenance approach (Sullivan et al. 2004). There are many advantages t o RCM like it can be the most well organized and capable program for asset management, it has proven to eliminate unnecessary maintenance activities and therefore lowers costs, frequency of repair/renovate/refurbishment if minimized, equipment failures are probable to reduce and component reliability is increased. RCM allows focusing on root cause analysis and targets critical asset maintenance activities. A few disadvantages include higher start up expenses and the savings with RCM are not readily visible to management (Sullivan et al. 2004). Defining Facility Management ( FM )/Property Management/Asset Management integrated approach to operating, maintaining, improving and adapting the buildings and infrastructure of an organization in order to create an environment that strongly supports the primary objectives of that organization (Atkin and Brooks 2009). The International Facility Management Association that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by i ntegrating people, p Typical Approach to Maintenance by M anufacturers and O&M Personnel.

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49 upkeep his definition reflects that when a component or equipment is about to fail the actions implemented to prevent it from failing which includes repairing degrading equipment, replacing worn out parts etc. to retain its proper work order is maintenance. Even thought the definition in short means upkeep, m ost private and government facilities do not invest in recourses required to maintain a facility or equipment. Instead of investing in regular maintenance most agencies wait till the component fails and then take the necessary actions to repair or replace equipment/ component (Sullivan et al. 2004). This type of maintenance is also called reactive maintenance and many manufacturers still follow this mode of operation. If the equipment breaks down, it is instantly fixed and put in use until it breaks down a gain. Reactive maintenance does not take full advantage of the expected life of the assets and is an unreliable process of maintenance ( reference for business.com) Significance of O &M in the Construction Industry. The National Research Council (NRC 1998) determined the expected design lives of different facility types (see Table 2 1) T he average life expectancy of a facility in general was calculated to be 50 to 70 years. According to Geller et al. (2004) t he O&M phase is the longest in a building s life cycle, the design and construction of a facility might last for two to five years, and the facility will be in working condition for the next 45 to 50 years. The O&M phase constitutes about 60 to 70 percent of the total life cycle cost, therefore maintain ing the facility and operating it effectively is the most cost effective way to ensure efficiency and reliability (Gallaher et al 2004).

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50 Table 2 1 Facility types and their design life expectancies Facility Type Expected Design Life Commercial buildings 30 to 50 years Industrial buildings 50 to 60 years Utility buildings 75 to 100 years Sullivan et al. 2010 observed that in the past and even today many government and private facilities consider that maintenance as the actions related to elements, equ ipments etc. after they are out of order. In Table 2 1 the expected design life of an industrial building is 50 to 60 years but according to Gallaher et al (2004) a number of industrial owners investment decisions are not based on lo Figure 2 8 shows the f our typical life cycle phases of a commercial building and the time taken by each phase during a facilities lifecycle. The four phases are planning and design, construction and commissioning, O&M and renewal/revitalization and the final phase which is deco mmissioning and disposal. Figure 2 8. Phases of a facility life cycle ( Adapted from NRC 1998) These four life cycle phases are valid for all facility types. The planning and design

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51 phase may take one to two years and the construction and commission phas e may take one to three years, so the first two phases takes two to five years in a life cycle of a facility which has a total life expectancy of 45 to 50 years, but these two phases account for 30 to 40 percent of the total life cycle cost of a facility. The third phase or the O&M and renewal/revitalization phase lasts for 30 to 50 years and accounts for 60 to 70 percent of the total life cycle cost of a facility. Gallaher et al. (2004) mentions that O&M expenses have been the leading costs for owners. Yet owners tend to focus on the design and construction phase during the budget cycle and not pay attention to the O&M expenses. Effect of Adequate and Timely Maintenance and Repairs on the Service Life of a Building The O&M phase is a very important phase in the life cycle of a facility, It is the longest phase and accounts for most of the expenses during the life cycle. Periodic maintenance, repairs and replacements are required by all facilities and equipment to upkeep their performance. Figure 2 9 shows ho w a buildings performance is affected by time, as the building ages the performance declines, but with periodic maintenance efforts the performance decline can be reduced to an optimized rate (Gallaher et al 2004). Effective O&M programs are needed for the building for its optimal performance. Figure 2 9 shows two settings of the same building one curve represents the buildings performance with normal or regular maintenance and the other curve represents the same buildings performance without maintenance. S ullivan et al. (2004) mentions that this figure depicts only the extended service life gained by the buildings by effective O&M but there is an added benefit to it, he points out that by regular maintenance of

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52 buildings/ equipment the building operating co sts in relation to the energy consumption is considerably reduced. Another related benefit was that a well maintained facility reflects a safe environment, for example well maintained equipment is prone to few hazards. Figure 2 9. Effect of maintenance on facility performance ( Adapted from NRC 1998) According to Sapp (2011) c onsiderations for the O&M of a facility should start from its planning and design phase and continue all the way through its lifecycle. By the early involvement of the O&M personnel the attributes required for efficient maintenance can be determined and incorporated in the design such as equipment access routes, warranties, sensor connections etc. He also suggests that the O&M team should be a part of the project development team, thi s will make the O&M team well aware of the

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53 type of equipment, controls etc. as the O&M team will be responsible for maintenance once the facility is handed over to the owners. According to Smith and Tardif (2009) the lifecycle aspect of BIM is of utmost im portance and this capacity has distinguished it from other digital technologies. As BIM has proven to have positive impact in the design and construction phase many facility managers and owners want to explore its benefits to improve the O&M phase. For e fficient maintenance of the facility throughout its lifecycle the information captured during the design and construction phases can be very useful. Current FM M ethods Typically facility managers are given stacks of documents like drawings, mechanical equi pment details etc. which have been collected throughout the design and construction phase. These documents are usually in paper format and the information tends to be inconsistent and easily lost during the process (Olatunji et al 2009). Existing Role of BIM in the FM I ndustry BIM has been rapidly gaining momentum and transforming the approach of designing, building, programming, operating, disposing and disassembling a facility. According to Suermann (2009) BIM will soon be a standard from designing to th e disposal of a facility, one of the leading owners who are extensively adopting this transformation is the federal government (Suermann 2009). Over the last few years owners have been observing the benefits of adopting BIM in the design and construction p hase like delivering a better quality and cost effective project quicker that traditional construction methods. There has been not much research done on the benefits BIM can have in performing the day to day activities in the O&M of the facilities and ther efore there is a lack of understanding on how BIM can be explored

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54 in the O&M phase. Many owners have demonstrated their interest in taking advantage of BIM data for O&M efficiency. But as the value of BIM in facility management and the procedures has not b een well documented the owners rate of adopting BIM is considerably slow (Jordani 2010). A survey done by Forns samso (2010) revealed that the use of BIM for O&M has not been extensively a pplied in the industry; it is viewed more as a potential theory th an a reality. Forns samso (2010) says that this notion in the industry is expected to change quickly. Foster (2010) mentions that the capability of BIM to contain, maintain, link and exchange information (database) possess the potential to support the O&M phase and assist in improving the efficiency of facilities/ assets in the O&M phase. Gu and London (2010) mention that it is not just for technological reasons that the FM industry has not adopted BIM, but other factors like the structure of the organizati on, training the users, business interest, work culture etc also inhibit adoption Barriers to I mplement ing BIM in FM According to a study done by Becerik Gerber et al. (2012) a majority of FM functions are still done follow ing conventional methods The a uthors note that many errors can be decreased and efficiency can be increased by the use of BIM in the FM functions. Th is study also discovered some of the major factors which were inhibiting the FM industry from adopt ing BIM 1. Benefits of BIM for FM have n ot been proven i.e. they have been ambiguous and not much research has been done on this topic. 2. Lack of specification on the design criteria for the FM model and the amount of work needed to specify the FM requirements; 3. Lack of interoperability between BI M pl atform and the CMMS used for FM; 4. There has been an increase in demand for BIM in the design and construction

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55 phase s by the owners but not in the operations and maintenance phase. 5. FM tools and processes lack consistency ; 6. The contractual and insurance requirements are not clearly defined. 7. FM personnel do not have much knowledge about BIM and its benefits and they lack experience with BIM. Benefits of BIM in FM According to Forns Samso (2010) one of the major concerns in the operations and maintenanc e phase has been the inability to access accurate data, he mentions that access to accurate and relevant data is critical for the facilities operation. BIM can be used for renovations, new projects and O&M by the owners and facility managers. In the O&M ph ase the owners can use the existing BIM of the facility as a database for any information related to the assets/equipment of the facility like the spatial information, inspection matrix, commissioning reports, schedules, warranties etc. ( Liu 2010) Need f or BIM in FM A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report shows that $15.8 billion was spent per year due to inadequate interoperability, when these numbers were analyzed it revealed that $10.6 billion (which accounts for around 67%) of t he total cost of interoperability was incurred by the owners and the operators and maintenance team (Gallagher et al. 2004). According to Jordani (2010) owners and facility managers are exploring new techniques to broaden the use of BIM with the intention of improving the operations and management phase of a facility. Some of the reasons for this interest were that the buildings have become more complicated and sophisticated and they require all the

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56 information from the design and construction phase to ope rate and maintain the facility throughout its lifecycle (Jordani 2010)., approximately eighty five percent (85%) of the lifecycle cost transpires in the post construction phase according to an industry research (Teicholz 2001). NBIMS (2007) states that the accounts for most of the expenses associated with the facility throughout its lifecycle. The personnel in the O&M phase require proper training and the processes which support the O&M phase require optimiza tion to improve the ir efficiency. R esearch done by Carnegie Mellon University ( NBIMS) found that an increase in productivity (building functions) by 3.8% would pay off the design, construction, operations and maintenance expenses of the facility.

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57 CHAPT ER 3 METHODOLOGY Research Impetus The largest industry in the world is construction. When compared to the other major industries like aviation and manufacturing the construction industry has experienced a significant decline in productivity over the years It has been observed that the major large industries have been adopting new technological approaches like utilizing information technology, web technology, simulations etc. These re engineering efforts were the main reason for the productivity gain in th ese industries (Teicholz 2008). A study commissioned by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2004 discovered that $15.8 billion per year was expended by the construction industry due to inadequate interoperability and data managemen t; two thirds of this costs incur predominantly during ongoing facility operation and maintenance phase. Manual re entry of data, duplication of business functions, and the continued reliance on paper based information management systems are a few of the e xamples of inefficiencies from inadequate interoperability ( Gallaher et al. 2004). A report published in 2008 by NB IM S reflected that $1.28 trillion was the estimated gross spending by the construction industry in U.S. The report showed that 60% or $600 bi llion of this spending was due to the insufficient information exchange, data sharing deficiencies and rework (NBIMS 2008). These studies brought this existing issue in to the limelight to the AECO community who were unaware of its magnitude. BuildingSMART sponsored by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) was approached as the solution for these issues. BuildingSMART is a union of

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58 construction and facilities management organizations. Universities, facility managers, contractors, manufacture rs, research laboratories, government agencies, software and information providers are along with the AECO community. This group focuses on standardizing the information exchange process and format within the construction industry and is focused on improvi ng the technology currently used to manage a facility throughout its lifecycle. BuildingSMART believes that the capabilities of BIM with respect to information storage and exchange are the solution for these existing issues (buildingsmart.org). This resear ch conducted an extensive literature review which included books, peer reviewed journals, websites, industry publications, white papers, thesis reports, industry publications and newsletters. From the literature review it is evident that BIM has been adopt ed in the design and construction phases by the majority of the industry and has proven to be beneficial but the capabilities of BIM ha ve not yet been fully explored and its benefits have not yet ameliorated the O&M phase. T he O&M phase of a facility is th e longest and accounts for 60 to 70 percent of the total life cycle cost so efficient maintenance of the facility is of utmost importance. (Gallaher et al 2004). NB IM S realized the importance of the O&M phase and conducted a study where a traditional des ign build approach and a VDC approach were compared to project untapped sav ings in the O&M phase. Figure 3 1 shows the savings which are untapped in the traditional approach. The gold curve in Figure 3 1 represents the traditional approach with necessary m aintenance where the expenses accelerates at the planning design and construction phase and at the O&M phase initially drop then again increases as the facility gets older.

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59 Figure 3 1. National BIM project savings c urve ( Adapted from NBIMS 2006) The re d curve represents an approach where routine maintenance is deferred in the initial O&M phase and therefore in the later stages the replacement of items gets more expensive and the life of the components are shortened. The b lack curve represents a VDC appr oach using a BIM; here the virtual model s performance is analyzed before construction. For this reason the initial expenses in the design and construction phase s are higher compared to the traditional approach but in the O&M phase the expenses are much lo wer. There is some savings observed in the design and construction phase s which is a result of VDC, clash detection etc. which results in the

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60 an d execution section on Fig ure 3 1 However the majority of savings are projected to be in the O&M phase in a BIM assisted project, the section rendered in green is the projected magnitude of savings in the O&M phase ( NBIMS 2006 ). Methodology Overview The objective of this research is to validate the need for BIM for facility management in the O&M phase and its benefits. The methodology used for this purpose was to choose a large existing owner organization which has a strong FM department and has considerable expenses in the O&M ph ase. The company XYZ was chosen for a case study. This organization is a world class entertainment company and has theme parks and resorts all over the world. It has some of the most unique structures and is known to still look the same as the day it was b uilt. This case study property in Florida. This research was achieved in 6 stages, many steps in the methodology are interrelated and it required a combination of each step to gather the required information The first step of the r esearch was to document the unique characteristics of XYZ The second step was to understand the different entities of the company and their responsibilities. This step was required because the magnitude of this company was too large and it invol ved many unique and exclusive entities which are not usually found in other owner organizations. This step was also required to understand how the organization has been administered and operated for the past four decades This step also involved collecting the institutional knowledge and organizational knowledge of the company which was a very challenging and exhausting process taking into account the

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61 size of the company and the various entities involved. The third step was to focus on the entities which d ealt exclusively with the O&M of existing assets/facilities. Here the existing process es that were used by the O&M department to maintain the facilities were analyzed. The aim at this juncture was to determine which existing process es needed attention in t erms of improving the efficiency of work. During the data acquisition which involved interviewing the key personnel in the company numerous incidents specific to the facilities in the company were brought to attention which then led the research er to incl ude these independent case studies as a part of the analysis. The fourth step was to scrutinize the data collected with a goal to come up with a few processes which needed more attention than the others in terms of efficiency in the process time and techn ological approach. By thorough inspection two processes were selected to be researched further 1. Warranty management a nd work order management system; 2. The Custom color development of the elements used in this facility which was the most cumbersome and ti me consuming process. The fifth step involved extensive background study of the selected process es history of the management process, current management process and the technology used for the management. Interviews were conducted again with the core g roup who managed these systems to get their opinion s on how efficient they considered these programs or systems to be and on how these systems could be improved or what kind of system they thought would help them do the work more efficiently. In a ddition t o that data were collected on the time spent to process the work for a few projects and the average amount spent on each step of the process was calculated. The final step was

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62 to compare the calculated average time with the time spent in a BIM assisted pro ject to illustrate how much time is being wasted in the current process and how beneficial BIM can be in the O&M phase. As mentioned in step three in the process of gathering all this information a few explicit occurrence s were mentioned by the interview ees which were also considered as a good evidence in determining the downfalls in the management system and how BIM could have been a savior. Accordingly three independent case studies will be also be analyzed as a part of this research to determine the ne ed for BIM and how beneficial it is in the O&M phase. Data acquisition : The data gathering took almost a year considering the structure and magnitude of the company. The data gathering cannot be categorized as just interview or survey. The data collected was a result of the researchers work experience synergy, the departments/entities involved and their part of the synergy, identifying the process used by different departments and how they ultimately synthesize these efforts to manage this huge organization. From the above mentioned factors the ultimate goal was to determine the key personnel who had the information and interviewing them. Most interviews gave partial information and usually resulted in interviewing many other personnel related to the process or individual case studies. The data acquisition methods used are summarized in Table 3 1.

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63 Table 3 1. Data gathering outline how and w hy. How Details Why (Purpose) Resear personal experience in Company XYZ The researcher served two internships in the two of the three departments which deal with the O&M of the entire organization. Determine the existing structure Discover the existing structure and hierarchy of the organization to find the core group with the most knowledge. Personal interviews Once an understanding of acquired a group of people were interviewed. Determine the existing process of the FM and other related entities. Extra ct more organizational knowledge. Follow up interviews. The magnitude of the company required numerous interviews, many a times one interview would result in interviewing the entire team. FM processes which devour more time due to lack of documentation. FM process which needed attention in terms of improving the efficiency. The process and approach es used to gather the data are shown in Table 3 1. As mentioned before the final data gathered was through a combination of process mentioned in T able 3 1 and other factors like observation of the management processes, experiencing the work environment and work culture, understanding the evolution of the management process and personal experience with the management s ystem played an important role.

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64 CHAPT ER 4 PROCESS AND CASE STU DIES Company XYZ Characteristics As this research was focused on validating the benefits of adopting BIM during a facilities lifecycle, the uniqueness of this organization played an imperative role so the first step of research was to discuss the characteristics of the C ompany XYZ To understand and find out where the existing processes and methods can be improved an existing organization was chosen which had an active FM department in place. The organization chosen for this rese arch has the following characteristics 1. It is a 30,000 acre existing property with approximately 20 million square feet of built facilities; 2. This company has been expanding for many ye ars and will continue to expand; 3. It consists of 15 resorts and four the me parks; 4. It is one of the largest single site employers in the United States; 5. This company has mor e than 66,000 employers; 6. It spends m ore than $ 1.2 billion on wages; 7. The property asset valu e is approximately $ 17 billion; 8. The O&M and FM department has been active from the time the facility was built. This department is called Facility asset management (FAM) in the company. 9. The facilities have been maintained remarkably considering 20 million people visit the theme parks and resorts each year. The proper ty has been maintained to a show level as it was built 42 years ago. 10. More than 5,000 employees are dedicated to maintenance and engineering, which includes 600 painters on site for the upkeep. 11. According to one of the local magazines it was calculated that $ 100 million was spent every year on maintenance of one of the parks. 12. The owner (O&M and FM team) has been responsible for the maintenance; 13. Every project/ facility on this site is unique (custom made entities) and the

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65 maintenance requirement is explicit 14. The project requires constant maintenance. 15. Maintenance records (work orders) have been maintained. 16. The facility has been operating for 42 years. There has been not one day that these parks were closed or opened late for any reason. 17. It is an operating facility so has restricted and strict schedule, therefore maintenance should be done in the most efficient way possible. 18. Majority of the maintenance activities unless impossible happens in the night when the parks are closed and by the next morning it sh ould be as new as the day it was built. The departments/entities of this company which deal with FM and O&M w ere evaluated. For this reason understanding the different entities of this company and their responsibilities was the second step of this resear ch. O&M Organizational structure and processes : As shown in Figure 3 2, FAM, IFP and A&FE were the three core teams responsible for the O&M of the company. These entities were further examined with the goal to determine which existing processes needed att ention in terms of improving the efficiency of work. After intensive research and investigation and numerous interviews with the different teams in FAM, IFP and A&FE; it was realized that there were a few major processes, which needed improvement and had p otential to be executed more efficiently. After summarizing all the interviews, it was evident that lack of electronic documentation was a major issue and accessibility of any related documents required to make an informed and intelligent decision was not clear. Most documentation was still in paper format and many incidents confirmed that they were either missing or never found. This usually led to rework and related expenses. It was observed that there was an elevated need for electronic documentation and more prominently a path to easily and automatically

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66 access these documents from a virtual storage space. To validate that BIM is the solution for these existing issues a feasibility study was conducted on the warranty and work order management and the cus tom color development process es Figure 3 2 Mapping the O&M departments/entities structure and practice

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67 Process Study #1 Warranty M anagement M anagement changes in the organization resulted in asset and life cycle assessment and reviews by local engin eering teams. The feedback from the reviews The review of assets by the engineers encouraged management to come up with a program for individual assets and develop ne xt cycle of actions for all attractions, rides and overall assets including roofs. This action was a result of elevated spending levels for maintenance. IFP was responsible for captur ing these assessments and come up with the next action cycles for five, t en and fifteen year programs. To create these next action cycles the IFP team had to rely on all the documents related to the asset. Until warranties. Global Roofing Program Background The subject of study is a 30,000 acre existing property consisting of 15 Resorts and 4 theme parks and total roof areas of approximately 20 million square feet. Approximately 25% of these roofs are themed roof systems, these are the roofs which can be seen by the guests and are categorized as themed roofs or show roofs and the remaining roofs are categorized as non show roofs. The themed roofs have variations based on functional requirements and overall aesthetic needs. The show roofs are made up of metal, wood, synthetics thatch and shakes along with concrete and clay tile. The remaining non show roof systems are commercial grade low sloped modified bitumen roofs or single ply type roofs. The expansion or addition to the property stretched over four decades starting since the late 1960s.

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68 Warranty History One of the first theme parks opened by this organization was in the 1955 and the experience and knowledge gained by the design, construction and mainly the management phase led to the developmen t of the warranty programs. The roofing was realized as a very important factor for the organization. As 25% of the roof sections were show roofs where the materials sel ected were more show driven and most of them worked against the true asset management value, so the off show roof systems were given more attention as these systems covered 75% of the assets overall. The warranty or to Park and first Resort openings with a standard 5 year labor and material warranty and an additional 15 year material defect teams, the global roofing program started in the year 2001. Until then most of the documents including warranties were maintained in paper format and filed in file cabinets. Most of these warranties were not captured by the preventive maintenance plan. Consequently there was a lack of inspections wh ich had to be initiated by the owner to maintain roofs and the warranties. As the assets aged these expenses became larger VueWorks and Maximo Program P rocured In 2006 FAM Global roofing team in coordination with IFP team researched a number of web base d GIS (Geographic Information S ystem ) centric asset management software programs to manage infrastructure assets more cost effectively. After intensive market and industry research the Vueworks program was chosen by IFP management as a relevant tool to cap ture roofing assets information including all available warranties

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69 across the property. The use of this program was an improvement as it was an attempt to not rely on paper documentation anymore but this system still require d a great deal of manual input to maintain data and warranties. The existing system requires each roof section to be assigned an asset number to place and track data including older and new roof warranties. This process is completely manual as Vueworks does not identify the roofs automa tically; the roof edges are traced and then assigned the roof number. Additionally Vueworks lacks the ability to provide good quality visuals of the existing property which makes the tracing process more time consuming and cumbersome as it is hard to somet imes even identify the roof edges. This has forced IFP to rely on Google earth and bing.com to get accurate details especially the geographical view of the asset. Most of the visual aid needed for any management reviews are not retrieved from Vueworks. A s of October 2012, the 7,000 roof sections (20 million sft) have been identified and assigned a roof number. Approximately 20 % (1.9 million sft) of all the roof sections currently have a roof warranty. This leaves the remaining 80% without an active roof warranty. Maximo was another asset management tool used by IFP. It is a web based system which is used to track all the assets in the company and is used to generate work orders. The integration of Maximo as an asset management tool with Vueworks has all owed for better coordination of next actions using the known warranty information and roof sections. While the Maximo system has improved asset management overall both the Maximo and Vueworks programs still require manual loading of preventive

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70 maintena nce work orders and any planned work orders required to maintain the warranty and asset itself. The availability of a program or a tool to link all known building information including roof warranties is critical for the effect ive manage ment of all the as sets in the company. Work order creation and process On an average, the Florida IFP team generates approximately 1,600 to 1,900 new work orders at the beginning of each year. By the time final presentation occurs, the approved plan has approximately 1,20 0 to 1,500 work orders. These numbers do not include the work orders for already approved unbudgeted projects/jobs. In addition to that there are many work orders requested by FAM which ha ve to be created for other parties and work orders that ha ve to be c reated for jobs which need immediate attention; this request could be from FAM, engineering services, operations or A&FE. This r esearch was done to determine the time it takes to process a work order, all the interviewees had a similar response that they could not calculate the time as each work order is different and each individual work order requires various reviews to be done before the work order is accepted and finalized. Briefly the steps taken finalize on a work order could take months, the IFP tea m has to meet with all the partners involved (FAM, A&FE, engineering, management of the individual project of concern) on each work order. After walking the job with the related partners it is then decide d whether the work order i s justifi ed All the work orders are reviewed and deci sions are made whether they have can be moved out for review in a future fiscal year. Once the work orders for the present fiscal year are finalized the scope, justification and money nee d ed for the work proposed have to be detailed within that work order. At this point the information required for the particular job has to be

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71 determined i.e. surveys that need to be located, quantities, areas, scope, previous work etc. as well as the justi fication has to be written. determine the proper funding needed for that project/ job. no scope, justification or accurate financial information), it usually takes 8 to 10 minutes, this is the time required to fill out all the available information and save the work order in the data base. In case it is decided to push the job to future wor k, the work order has to be duplicated. To duplicate an existing work order and tweak the information in reference to future work it takes about half the time (4 to 5 minutes). All this data has to be entered manually into the system. Results Inefficiencie s in Vueworks Few of the inefficiencies in Vueworks were collected by interviewing the employees who enter data, and the project managers who are the main users of this data. Few of the inefficiencies are listed below 1. It is a 2D representation of the ass ets; 2. The assets are not automatically identified ; 3. The roof sections have to be manually t raced and assigned roof numbers. 4. The quality of the view of assets is very poor therefore the tracing process is extremely cumbersome and has been observed to be inacc urate. 5. The 7,000 roof sections were traced manually and assigned a roof number which has taken approximately six years. 6. The traced roof sections cannot be used for basic information; like to calculate the area of a flat roof because of the inaccuracy. 7. A site visit is usually required if accurate inform ation is needed;

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72 8. All the informa tion has to be entered manually; 9. As it lacks the ability to provide good quality visuals of the existing property, it forces the teams to rely on other sources for visualizati on. 10. Most of the visual aid needed for any management reviews are not retrieved from Vueworks. 11. It cannot be linked to M aximo ; 12. As M aximo and V ueworks are not linked; all the information has to be manually transferred, this is double rework. 13. Vueworks is u sed only by the FAM team, as of now it is been extensively used by the roofing team, and recently the paving / roads team and the team responsible to track the electric poles on property have started using it. 14. It can identify only the assets existing on a p lan view of the property. Inefficiencies in Maximo The inefficiencies in Maximo were collected by interviewing the employees in the IFP department as they control the data entered in the system, and all the other users in the company who directly or indire ctly use the maximo information. Few of the inefficiencies are listed below c urrently Maximo is used only by IFP department and all the information i s manually loaded in the system; t he manual data entry work for each work order is approximately 10 minut es; t he manual data entry work for the duplication of each work order is a pproximately five minutes; t here is no transfer of information from any oth er systems to Maximo at present; a s the research work for the creation of the work order program differs d rastically, and sometimes takes several months, only the manual data entry time was calculated t ime required to manually input all the data to create a work order: 10 minutes ; n umber of new work orders per year: 1500 ; t ime spent for manual entry work: 15 00 x 10 = 15000 minutes = 250 hours;

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73 a verage pay rate / hour: $110 ; t herefore the approximate amount spent in the manual work: 250 x 110 = $ 27,500 ; t here are 9 employees dedicated to work on the program year round. Discussion As the different entities of the company work with various different systems/software the biggest issue that found was that the information was duplicated several times. The re is a crucial need for a common platform that all the systems/software could use and that has the capabili ty to integrate all the information. Conclusion A BIM server for the O&M department can be the solution to this existing issue; this server should be integrated with the Maximo server. The BIM server can support all the various systems used by the related partners, it can serve as the most efficient tool for collaboration within the company. The BIM server can replace Vueworks BIM can capture much more information that the Vueworks and it identifies the assets automatically, the BIM server can be integrat ed with a GIS for location information. Nevertheless the BIM has to be maintained and updated regularly with the most recent information required by the O&M entities. But once the information related to any project is uploaded into the server it is automa tically updated in all other integrated systems. As the company uses Maximo for the generation of work orders, Maximo should be integrated with the BIM server for most updated information. IBM introduced a Maximo extension for BIM which supports data tran sfer form BIM into Maximo it allows the automatic loading of the data from BIM into Maximo which eliminates all the manual data entry work and allows starting the process of maintaining

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74 the building much earlier. The extension is also capable of providing the 3D view of the BIM in context with the imported data. This could be a very helpful aspect in improving the efficiency of work planning and execution. When a Maximo record is selected the corresponding view or 3D model in the viewer zooms and centers t he view on that item and vice versa. The viewer can be used to create work orders and to request service. It is integrated with N avisworks so it enables a full 3D navigation, and all other related model properties like searching the contents of the model l ike features, measurements, details etc. (IBM Maximo integrated service management library 2012). This research was also focused on discovering the necessary attributes required by each element of the facility. These attributes were determined by the re quirements of the related O&M department for the optimum maintenance of the facilities This focus lead to the second process which was chosen to be further studied the custom development of colors. To keep this study less complicated, only the process u sed by the global roofing team was explored. Process study #2 Custom Color Development of E lements. Background As mentioned before the buildings in this property are unique and the themed roof or show roofs are made of custom created materials. The property has 5 million square feet of themed roof which are made of metal, wood, synthetics thatch and shakes along with concrete and clay tile. All the show roofs are designed and custom created by the creative team /imagin ative team of the company. The organization has developed their own custom color palette over the past 50 years and the details of these colors (color chips) are stored in document control (The data base for the entire custom color palette developed for the whole organization).

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75 Existing process used by the FAM team to finalize a color The FAM team sends a request for proposal (RFP) to the creative/imaginative team for support; the creative/imaginative team provides a funding request proposal back to FAM team for funding, once the FAM te am approves the funding the work begins. The Creative/Imaginative team pulls the color chips from document control and these chips are taken to the field to check against the existing colors for confirmation, once this is finalize d these chips are sent to the FAM office by interoffice mail or have to be picked up in person. The FAM team then contacts the paint company to pick up these color chips, directions are given to the paint company on the texture and sheen required, they are requested to provide FAM team with six sample drawdowns These drawdowns are sent to the creative/imaginative team for approval, the approved colors are then sent to FAM team, if the drawdown gets rejected the process has to be started all over again. This process takes three to four weeks on an average according to the FAM project manager of the company. If these approved colors are to be used as roof coating systems or synthetic tiles etc. the FAM team selects a vendor who is requested to make six product samples, and to assign a model number to them. The vendor submits the products to FAM team which then take s them to the creative/imaginative team for final approval. The existing problem is that this information does not get recorded on the design documents most likely, leaving this effort as part of submittal with less documentation. As this process is not documented there have been instances where this process has been repeated from scratch Figure 3 3 is a flow chart describing the existing process.

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76 Figure 3 3 Mapping the existing color approval p rocess Data collection and analysis As there was no system used for this process it was difficult to track the processing time, most interactions were done through emails and phone calls. As tracking the phone calls for each appro val process was difficult only the emails were tracked and the time spent at each step of the approval process was calculated. This data was combined with the information gained by interviewing the Project Manager at

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77 the FAM global roofing team and finally the average time spent at each step of the approval p rocess was calculated. Figure 3 4 is a flowchart of the approval process with the calculated time spent at each step. Figure 3 4 Time spent at each step of the color approval process Managers are frequently faced with the challenge of storing historical and current data, and also improving and standardizing the quality of the information they have. This information is very useful to meet the day to day operation needs and for organizational

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78 managem ent and planning. According to E ast and B rodt (2007) the main attributes required for the O&M are the product data, as built layout, serial number, warranties and spares. But when the project is unique the O&M process are exclusive, the identification of attributes required in the model for optimum maintenance is also very important. Data analysis For analysis purposes it would have been ideal if this process could be compared with an actual BIM assisted project, but as this process was unique a hypothetic al comparative study was done. If the same process of approval were to be used in a BIM assisted project then the time taken by each step of the process was noted. Figure 3 5 shows the flow of work with the associated time spent in each step for a BIM as sisted project. In the hypothetical BIM assisted project a shared BIM for the project is considered. Here the BIM is updated regularly for all the related stakeholders to access the most current data. Result When the existing process and the hypothetical BIM assisted project process were compared it became apparent that a lot of time is being lost in the current process just to find the accurate information. Access to color details in the current process is not transparent, and requires unwanted manual wor k for confirmation of colors. In a situation where a BIM is in place all the information related to the project can be stored in one place and all updates can also be tracked in a BIM.

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79 Figure 3 5 Time spent at each step of the color approval process i n a BIM assisted project Comparing the existing process and a BIM assisted project a verage time spent for the existing approval process = 4 weeks ; t ime spent to find all necessary information = 2 weeks ; a verage time spent for approval process in a BIM ass isted project = 2 weeks ; t ime spent to find all necessary information = All the information is a click away Conclusion Using BIM to find information instantly increases productivity by 50%, which is 5 0 % money saved per year just on the color approval pr ocess.

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80 Case Study 1 Commercial Roofing Case study approach: Problem oriented. Facility type: Commercial Category of facility: Existing Age of the facility: 15 years Size of the asset (roof): 200,000 sq ft. Introduction/Purpose of the facility It is a t extile service facility which serves the entire 30,000 acre property. T he facility operates 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. The facility accommodates washer, dryer, iron station, folding station and a stain inspection unit. Function for analysis T his c ase study analyzed the existing management of roofing system to identify the major problems that exist and to suggest solutions to these problems. Exist ing roof system details This facility was built in 1997. The roofing system was built on a non vented drainage. The roof system has one base sheet fastened through the installation package into the the roofing syste m. Reason for repair /replacement FM received complaints about roof leaks which lead to the inspection. Even thought the organization has an active preventive maintenance program, there have been many maintenance actions which are reactive because of lac k of documentation of warranties and specifications.

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81 Existing issue Review of existing building documents revealed that there was a lack of warranty information about the roof system which prevented the appropriately manage ment and long term maint enance of the roof system Summary roof system. The O&M at the textile services facility did not have access to the warranty, which specified that the roof required yearly inspections a nd these inspections had to be initiated by the owner to maintain the warranty. Unaware of the fact that the roof had warranty the local O&M had been initiating roof repairs outside the warranty agreement at the cies and caused permanent damage to roof system. In 2009 the Project manager (PM) from FAM was alerted to a roof leak and as the roof was by then just 12 years old FAM decided to search for the warranty. The PM had to inspect the roof and figure out who wa s the roofing manufacturer as there were no manufacturing details available. As the PM had been working in the company for 37 years, his acquaintance with the roofing systems used in the company helped him figure out who the probable manufacturer was. The PM investigated the structural details of the roof to identify the manufacturer and contacted them for the warranty details. From the information received from the manufacturer it was discovered that the roof was still under warranty. The PM talked them in to sending a copy of the warranty for FAM records. The roof warranty was maintained at FAM and a copy of it was given to the textile services O&M for regular maintenance purposes. Agreement was made with the manufacturers that inspection will be done twice a year from then on and the responsibility for initiation for these inspections were authorized to the textile

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82 services O&M. In 2012 the PM received a few leak complaints for the same roof. It was discovered that FAM had lost the warranty and unfortunate ly the management change in the textile services O&M caused the m to lose the warranty as well. The lack o f warranty information was the reason that the regular inspections were not initiated by the new O&M management. Result Currently the search for the w arranty has begun all over again and if the warranty is not found then the owner has to bear all the expenses for the roof repair or replacement. In addition to the expenses for the roof repair/replacement already a huge amount of money was spent in buying and renewing the warranty. e stimated cost spent on repai r: Approximately $184,000; e stimated cost of repair (coating the roof): $ 1.6 million ; c ost of warranty when coated: 5 cents/s q ft = 2000000 s q ft x 0.05 = $ 10,000 ; e stimated cos t of replacement: $ 4.1 million; c ost of warranty when replaced: $ 0.10 / s q ft = 200000 s q ft x 0.10 = $ 20,000; n umber of years the warrant was bought: 20 years Environmental Implications The asphalt based roofing system has developed major deficiencies including system del amination and surface blisters. As some areas of this roof system is in failed condition t he owner faces the prospect of replacing some or all sections of the existing roof. The roof presently weighs 6 pounds/s q ft. This will result in placing1.2 million p ounds (200000s q ft x 6lbs) of roof waste into the land fill. Conclusion and Recommendations As discussed before this company has a preventive maintenance program in place. Integrated Facility Planning (IFP) is the planning sector of the company that is

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83 resp onsible to plan the maintenance activities. Maintenance activities for the next 5, 10 and 20 years are planned and placeholder work orders are placed as a part of preventive maintenance program. The CMMS used for this purpose is Maximo. Maximo maintains al l the warranties and alerts FM to the need for inspection, then a survey is usually recommended at this stage and the next action is determined by analyzing the reports of the survey. Two factors have to be considered in this situation for the efficient ma nag ement of the roofing warranties 1. Most roofing warranties have a maintenance requirement for inspection and the owner is responsible for coordination of yearly inspections to maintain the 2. When the warranty is not in the organiza tions CMMS, it then becomes a reactive maintenance work order, as the need for inspection is alerted only when the system fails. By considering the existing IFP process and the above mentioned factors the solution to the issue is to electronically save t he warranties and maintain the information in M aximo But there is an accessibility issue which might arise if there are two different storage platforms and in addition reentry of the data is another related issue. So the best solution is to opt for a BIM server which is capable of containing all the warranties and it also can be integrated with M aximo to automatically generate work orders periodically as a part of the preventive maintenance program. The BIM server could serve as the exclusive platform to r etrieve any related information periodically as a part of the preventive maintenance program. Case Study 2 Domestic Water Piping Replacement Case study approach: Problem oriented. Facility type: Resort Category of facility: Existing

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84 Age of the facility: 22 years Size of the asset (Resort):22 million sq ft of built up area. Introduction/Purpose of the facility The subject of study is a large resort, which has three floors and has 1,192 guest rooms. Function for analysis T his case study analyzed a planned work project for replacing the domestic water piping. These new pipes broke within 30 days of project completion and caused a lot of damage, this study is to identify the major problems in the management process that led to the water damage and to suggest solutions. Piping system details The old piping system con and which w ere ( Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride ) pipes was proposed. Design & Engineering of the domestic water lines included replacement of exi sting main water lines and installation of control valves leading to each guest room. Reaso n for new replaced pipe failure replacement for the to be poor choice for this project. When the new domestic hot water line broke, the e caused by this incident was approximately $300,000 which does not include the revenue loss incurred by the resort.

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85 Summary and discussion When the building documents were reviewed and the field representative and the project manager for the pipe replace ment job were interviewed, it was evident that the local engineering services team and the local O&M team responsible for the support and maintenance; lacked basic information about the job. Furthermore it was discovered that the as builts for this job was not turned over to the owner. When the new replaced pipes exploded the local O&M personnel had absolutely no idea where the valves were located in order to turn them off. The local O&M called the field representative who had executed the job for assist ance. The field representative knew the valve location but as the design documents were not turned over to the O&M he could not efficiently assist them and it would take him more than an hour to get to the job site. By then the job was more than a month ol d but fortunately a plumber who was involved in the replacement job was on site working on a different floor. So the field representative called him and he was able to isolate system shut offs from top two floors. It took less than 5 minutes for the plumbe r to react to this call as he knew the precise location of the valve. But by the time he was notified the water had damaged 33 rooms and the caf. They were out of service for a month. Existing issue By analyzing the design and engineering documents and the interviews it was determined that the major issue was that the O&M personnel were not given enough information to manage the asset. The project hand over document details and its specification which the owner receives has to be better defined before th e project is awarded to the contractors.

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86 Result The new piping system failed within 30 days of replacement and destroyed 24 rooms. All materials including the ceiling and the furniture were discarded. All these rooms including the caf had to be redone, and the rooms and the caf were out of piping system. c o $939,000 ; c tem = $ 745,000 ; d amage caused by the pip e failure to the existing rooms and caf = $300,000 ; c ost of one room in the resort = $400 (approximately) ; r evenue loss during one month closeout: $400 (approximately) x 33 x 30 days = $396,000 ; l oss of r evenue from the caf = difficult to estimate ; t ota l loss because of the wrong specifications = $939,000 ; t otal water damage caused = $ 696,000 Environmental Implications Water damage resulted in replacement of all ceilings, wall materials, finishes and much of room furniture in 24 rooms of the Resort. The estimated waste sent to landfill was 48,000 pounds. Conclusion replacement system installed lead to poor reaction and excessive damage to the resort rooms and caf. t otal Expen ses by the end of the job = $ 2.5 million ; c ost of the existing piping system = $ 745,000 If the specifications were right the first time and a BIM was in place to find the valve on time $ 1,635,000 would have been saved approximately by the owner.

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87 Reco mmendations This situation could have been totally avoided if a BIM was in place. The two issues which h appened in this case study were 1) The wrong type and size of pipe were chosen for the job. 2) Identifying the valve to isolate the main pipes took too long Solution for the first issue: If this were a BIM assisted project then the tool for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) introduced by Autodesk Simulation 360, could have helped understand the flow pattern, and assess the potential points of failure. The CFD tool helps predict project performance, validate the behavior and optimize the designs (autodesk.com). If the simulation was done to validate the design the model would have predicted the failure virtually and avoided the whole i n cident of redesign and replacement of the new piping system. Solution for the second issue: The MEP (mechanical, electrical, plumbing) portion of a BIM can identify the location of the valve just by clicking on the pipe which failed. Case Study 3 Facility Support Building Case study approach: Problem oriented. Facility type: unknown Category of facility: New Size of the site : 10,000 sq ft. Introduction T his was a site in the property, and the analysis was on preparation of the building site for the construction of a sup port facility.

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88 Function for analysis T his case study analyzed a planned work project focusing on figuring out the major issues which caused the failure of design and suggesting probable solutions on how these unanticipated expenses could have been avoide d. Existing site details The site is located within the already developed area of the property and there are many buildings surrounding the location and therefore normal site development is restricted. Reas on for redesign and replacement The designed aluminum piles failed on site and they had to be redesigned, the non availability of the redesigned piles and the rigid schedule to finish the project resulted in procurement of much stronger and expensive piles. There was a huge amount of additional unant icipated expenses encountered by the end of the job Summary o n the project was to do a soil testing and check ing the soils report to determine the type of foundation and the depth of the piles in case of this project. The so ils reports reflected that soil had a lime rock panel elevation at 15 feet below ground level. The structural engineer designed the piles to be 15 feet deep aluminum and then concrete to be p laced to create the building pad required for the structure. When the piles got on site and the drilling started the pile could not go deeper than 11 feet, the team was called on site to make a decision on how to move forward and finish the project. After review of site conditions the decision was made to go ahead and r edesign the building pad as soon as possible and order new piles. The intended

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89 restriction project had to go with the stainless steel piles. According to the structural engineer these piles were twice the required size and three times the cost. The 15 feet aluminum piles were discarded as they were of no further use for the construc tion of this facility. Project schedule constraints a s with most entertainment companies, projects are planned on a very tight schedule, once the operating date is announced expectation is that the facility must to be constructed, completed and in workin g condition on the exact date. Any delay to public announcement day of opening provides poor feedback from Discussion The structural engineer pointed out the main reason for this inciden t was the soils report. As stated, this area certainly would have been tested for the soil conditions approximately 15 to 20 times over past years being located within the many existing buildings surrounding it. If the structural engineer had access to the surrounding soils reports from past projects readily accessible he would have looked to the surrounding reports as reference first. The new soils report would have been questioned or doubted for accuracy, when the tests showed such a difference from the s urrounding ones. The engineer would have requested re test the soil condition to be sure. The structural engineer mentioned that he had four shelves of soils reports which he had to go through to find a few which belonged to the area, not being sure what r eports were in the shelves it was easier to just get the soil tested than going through a pile of reports to find a few.

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90 Existing issue The soil reports were stored in a cabinet, there was no log maintained about the reports and the updates. Paper based documents are often lost and take up a large amount of space. A lot of time and money is spent on searching for these documents. In this case a new soils report was requested without spending the effort to find the report. Result The project change order i mpacted the budget by $ 200,000 additional expenses and forced a schedule extension for a week. As per the structural engineer, this could have been easily avoided if he had these reports were available to him in digital format. Conclusion/Recommendations This situation could have been avoided if the documents (soil reports) were digitally stored. The need to have a single platform where this data can be stored and retrieved is crucial to avoid situations like these.

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91 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION S AND FUTURE RES EARCH Based on the analysis of the two processes and the three case studies, it can be concluded that the current O&M techniques are inefficient and need technological reconsideration. The results obtained from these studies reflected that the majority of the issues could be resolved by the adoption of BIM assisted projects. Conclusions on t he Study o f Existing P rocesses The Warranty Management Study This study revealed that the same information was manually dupl icated several times. This re work was a res ult of the non existence of a link between the different software systems used by the entities in the company. IFP used M aximo as preventive maintenance tool and to generate work orders, whereas FAM used V ueworks to store the roofing warranties. If IFP had to generate a work order for a particular roof, then the warranty information (if it exists) in V ueworks must be retrieved by FAM and sent to IFP. The person responsible to create the work order has to manually input the information into M aximo A common platform which could hold all the information and is accessible to all the teams for retrieval of information is the crucial need for the company. According to a survey done by Foster (2010) where the FM professionals were interviewed; 43% of them said tha t most information they needed were available to them but accessing the O&M information was a major issue mainly because they were stored in different locations and it would be time consuming and laborious to determine the right location. So the issue was that the information was available but not in one place. This is the identical concern C ompany XYZ is facing, in addition a lack of digital storage of the documents has also resulted in losing the information. The solution for

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92 these existing O&M issues is to adopt a technology that is capable to integrate all the systems/software used by the company, have one virtual storage platform to store the data and improve collaboration. The best tool which can accommodate all the requirements is for the company to have a BIM server. This server when integrated with M aximo would enable automatic generation of work orders and gets rid of all manual input work. Using the BIM server as the one stop source to access any information is the best solution. Custom Color De velopment of t he Elements The analysis procedure adopted was to collect the information on how much time was being spent at each step of the color approval process; this was achieved through a series of interviews. The ultimate goal was to come up with a t ime line for the existing process. The time line achieved illustrates that most of the time is being lost in finding the related data. In addition to that the color chips were physically transferred by interoffice mails for approval, this consumed a portio n of the timeline which could be avoided. compared to a hypothetical BIM assisted project and the result achieved was that the same process could take less than half the tim e to be completed if BIM was in place. Conclusions from t he Case S tudies Case Study #1 The results achieved from case study one illustrated how significant digital saving of documents is and could serve as an excellent lesson learned by the company. The research revealed that the company might have to spend approximately $ 4.1 million to replace the roof, which is recommended by the engineering services, but even if it has

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93 to be repaired it will cost $ 1.6 million approximately. In addition to that as the warranty existence was not known the company/owner has already spent approximately $184,000 on repairs (reactive maintenance). As this roof was under warranty the manufacturer would have been responsible for its condition and the associated cost. If the w arranty was saved digitally and the O&M had access to it the company could have saved approximately $ 4.3 million. Case Study #2 The research revealed the major issues which were the reason for the new piping replacement job to fail. This was a classic ex ample of poor hand over documents at the end of the job to the O&M. The O&M personnel who were responsible to react when the pipes failed lacked the project knowledge to make any decisions instantly. Even though the plumber who had the knowledge could isol ate the pipes within five minutes of getting the call, it caused considerable damage. It had taken approximately 15 minutes for O&M to determine who knew the location of the valve. The incident resulted in additional $1, 635,000 expenses to the owner and $3 96,000 in loss of revenue. The total cost of completion of this job was $2.5 Million. Testing the piping design before construction virtually in a building information model could have helped in better specification of the pipes. The use of BIM to locate t he valve could have reduced the reaction time significantly and caused less damage. Case Study #3 The results from this case study reinforced the importance of digital documentation. The lack of digital documentation caused the structural engineer to de sign the piles twice. The first design failed on site which led to the second design. The non availability of the designed pile and the restricted time schedule led to choosing

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94 a pile which was three times stronger and more expensive than the required desi gn. This resulted in over $200,000 in additional expenses and forced the extension of schedule by one week. This research clearly has determined that the main issue in the C ompany XYZ is the lack of electronic documentation. It was observed that many proce dures were repeated and manual reentry of the same information was consistently noted. Another consistent reason for inefficiency was observed to be the fragmentation of data storage. Adopting BIM could improve the O&M of the company significantly. BIM is useful not only for 3D visualization, but also for the storage of all the required information. It is a central knowledge core, the information backbone for storing and sharing information. The core is made up of integrated repositories which provide histo rical and current data. Through analysis, backbone data can provide knowledge and alternative future projections (NBIMS 2007). Future Research Company XYZ over four decades old and has a rich tradition and history. Many employees have been in the compan y from the day they started building it. Preserving historical information and institutional knowledge is of utmost importance for the upkeep of this organization, however, it was observed that there was no documentation of this knowledge. Future research should focus on exploring options for documenting the institutional and historical knowledge of the organization.

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95 LIST OF REFERENCES < http://www.agcnebuilders.com/documents/BIMGuide.pdf > (March. 19, 2012). Blackwell publishing ltd. Azhar, S., Hein, M., and Sketo, B. Conference (on CD ROM), Auburn, Alabama, April 2 5, 2008. om http://info.aia.org/SiteObjects/files/IPD_Guide_2007.pdf (June 10, 2012). Journal of Ac countancy http://www.ascsp.org/ (September 7,2012). Becerik Gerber, B., Jazizadeh, F., Li, N., and Calis, G. (2012). Data Requirements for BIM Journal o f Construction Engineering Management 138(3), 431 442. (CRC Construction Innovation. (2007). Adopting BIM for Facilities Management: Solutions for Managing the Sydney Opera House Cooperative Research Center for Construction Innovation, Brisbane, Austral ia.) Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., and Liston, K. (2008). BIM Handbook: a guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers, and contractors Wiley, New Jersey. Journal of Building Information Modeling ,28 35. cycle data management of engineered to Advanced Engineering Informatics 21(4), 356 3 66. national real estate investor, http://nreionline.com/technology/building_information_modeling_t echnology_012 3/ (March 15, 2012) Feibel, B. (2003). Investment Performance Measurement Wiley and Sons, New York. Forns Perceived value of building information modeling in facilities

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96 presented t o University of New Mexico at Albuquerque, New Mexico, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of masters of sciences civil engineering. National Labs. Fos Webinar presented at The AIA Corporate Architects and Facility Management (CAFM) Knowledge Community. Journal of Building Information Modeling spring 2011., 18 19. NIST Publication GCR, 04 867, from: . Journal of Building Information Modeling spring 2011., 24 27. ding and facilitating BIM adoption in the AEC Automation in Construction 19, 988 999. Hergunsel, M. F. (2011). Benefits of building information modeling for construction managers and BIM based scheduling. Unpublished Thesis, Master of Science i n Civil Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute. ASHRAE Journal 48(8), 38 46. ASHRAE Journal 50(6), 28 40. Hurtado, K. A., Hurtado, S. C. and Vardaro Through the Sizzle to Draft Meangingful BIM Contract Terms,"ABA National Convention, April 2012 http://www.legalist.com/lasvegas2 012/papers/WorkshopF.pdf Extending the value of service (Feb. 24 2012) https://www304.ibm.com/software/brandcatalog/ismlibrary/details?catalog.label= 1TW10MA44# (Oct 21, 2012). Maint Reference for business, 2nd Ed., http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log Mar/Maintenance.html#b (October 5, 2012).

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97 Isikdag, U., Underwood, J. of building information models in geospatial environment in support of site Advanced Engineering Informatics Journal of Building Information Modeling spring 2010 ., 13 16. AECbytes http://www.aecbytes.com/feature/2007/BIMS urveyReport.html AECbytes (September12, 2012). JBIM spring 2012 18 19. http://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/jbim_spring12.pdf Feasibility Analysis of BIM Based Information System for Facility BIM Implementation HOK buildingSMART National BIM Library, http://www.thenbs.com/topics/bim/articles/BIM Implementation_HOK buildingSMART.asp (Sep. 14, 2012). Madsen, J. (2008). "Build smarter faster, and cheaper with BIM (BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING) Eliminate inefficiencies in current construction practices by using BIM, which has the potential to benefit all stakeholders in the design, construction, ownership, and operation of buildings )." Buildings ,102 (7), 94. Motamedi, A., and Hammad, A. (2009) Lifecycle management of facilities components using radio frequency identification and building information model Journal of In formation Technology in Construction., 14, 238 262. 1: Overview, US National Institute of Building Sciences Facilities Information Council BIM Committee, from: < http://www.facilityinformationcouncil.org/bim/publications.php > (March. 17, 2012). n Handbook of Research on Building Information Modeling and Construction Informatics (first edition), 239 253. Information

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98 Science Publishing. American School & University Academi c Search Premier, EBSCO host, 208 210. Referenceforbusiness.com http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log Mar/Maintena nce.html (August 27, 2012). Facility Manager, http://www.todaysfa cilitymanager.com/2008/06/web based fm trends decoding the acronym puzzle (June 30, 2011). AUGI, http://www.augi.com/library/wicked ipd procurement programs ipd bim solutions unleashed (June 5, 2012). Whole Building Design Guide, http://www.wbdg.org/om/om.php (November 09, 2011). NBS http://www.thenbs.com/topics/bim/articles/bimInConstruction.asp (Mar ch, 2011). Webinar presented at The AIA Corporate Architects and Facility Management (CAFM) Knowledge Community. Smith, D. K., and Tardif, M. (2009). Building Informati on Modeling: A Strategic Implementation Guide for Architects, Engineers, Constructors, and Real Estate Asset Managers ., Wiley, New York. The State of Wisconsin Department of Administration Division of State Facilities (2009) Building Information Modelin and recommendations for implementation. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (No. R elease 2.0). Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy. Florida., Ga inesville, FL.

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99 Facility Design and Management Handbook McGraw Hill Profession al. AEC bytes, http://www.aecbytes.com/viewpoint/2004/issue_4.html (April14, 2004).

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100 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kavya Rishikesh Ja jee completed her Bachelor in a rchitecture from Gogte Institut e of Technology, Belgaum, India. She worked for three years as an architect in India before p ursuing her Master of Science in b uilding c onstruction from the M. E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction in 2010 at the University of Florida. While at Un iversity of Florida she worked as a graduate assistant at CACIM (Center for Advanced Construction and Information Modeling). Her research was mainly based on Advanced Construction Information Modeling (ACIM), Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) and Infor mation technology in the delivery of Construction projects. She also worked as a teaching assistant for the BCN 3255 Graphic Communications course, the focus of this course was print reading and Autodesk Revit. In the f all 2011 she worked as a Project ma nagement intern in Walt Disney World Facility Asset Management Dept. Kavya assisted the Project Manager with many large projects and was also involved in I ntegrated F acility Program development and gained practical and business management experience. She is currently working as an intern at Walt Disney World Architecture and Facility Engineering; where she is focused on developing strategies for the company to develop BIM for the first building project and is involved in preparing the BIM execution Plan career in the construction and architecture industry with a focus on BIM and VDC.