1 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM By TODD GILMORE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FO R THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Todd Gilmore
3 I dedicate this to my fami ly and beloved fiance for their time spent providing me with the adequate atmosphere conducive to the creation of a masterpiece.
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The completion of my thesis has been one of the most fulfilling journeys of my life. It has been a two and a half yea r journey of personal and professional growth and I cherish the time I have been given to devote to completing the ta sk. I wanted to thank my parents, sister and brother in law for t heir wisdom, support and genuine love. I would also like to thank my loving fianc e for her patience, encouragement, and willingness to tolerate me in moments o f frustration. Her wisdom and love are at the center of my success. I am very grateful to have such a loving family and without them, and the support of god, my success would not have been possible. My most gracious thanks go to Dr. Holly Donohoe for b eing such an outstandin g advisor and committee chair. As committee chair, I feel Dr. Holly Donohoe offered exemplary mentorship to me which my success would not have been possible if it was not for her direction motivation and relentless encouragement. I am delighted for her willingness to be my mentor. Dr. Holly Donohoe not only reduced my stress through her positive attitude, but also helped me develop a working level of self confidence to be successful in all facets of life. Lastly, my special th anks and appreciation go to my committee members, Dr. Bertha Cato and Dr. Christine Stopka for their support and expertise. The combination of their perspectives allowed me to not only crystalize my research purpose and objectives, but also grow as an age nt of change with perception based research in the area of health and leisure education at the elementary school level
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Researc h Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................. 11 A Canadian Perspective ................................ ................................ ................... 14 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ..................... 21 Research Purpose Statement and Research Questions ................................ .. 23 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 24 Operational Definitions ................................ ................................ ............................ 24 Teacher Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 School Environment ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 Teacher Skills ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 38 Teaching Competency ................................ ................................ ............................ 42 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 47 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 47 Sampling Method ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 50 4 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ... 53 Demographic Characteristics ................................ ................................ .................. 53 Daily Physical Activity Program Compliance ................................ ........................... 55 Analysis of Teacher Motivation, Skills and Environment ................................ ......... 55 Teachers Perceived Motivation ................................ ................................ ........ 55 Teachers Perceived Working Environment ................................ ...................... 58 Teachers Percei ved Skills ................................ ................................ ................ 59 Multiple Linear Regression Analysis ................................ ................................ 60 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 65 Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 67 Skills ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 70
6 School Environment ................................ ................................ ................................ 72 6 RECOMMENDAT IONS AND CONCLUSIONS ................................ ....................... 74 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 75 Make DPA a Reportable (Graded) Subject or Integrate Grades in Physical Education Grad es ................................ ................................ ......................... 75 Require All Teachers and Administrators to Take an Additional DPA Qualification Course ................................ ................................ ...................... 76 The OME Should Hire Physical Edu cation Consultants (Similar to Literacy and Numeracy Consultants) to Support and Visit Schools ............................ 78 Provide Support and Resources for Teachers ................................ .................. 78 Official Program Evaluation ................................ ................................ .............. 79 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 80 APPENDIX: SURVEY ................................ ................................ ............................... 83 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 9 1 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 104
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Operational Definitions ................................ ................................ ....................... 25 4 1 Summary of motivation items and corresponding results ................................ ... 56 4 2 ANOVA Analysis of teach professional development opportunities ................................ ............................. 58 4 3 Relationship between previous health and physical education training and perceived competence t o deliver the DPA Program ................................ ........... 59 4 4 Overview of grand mean scores from perceived motivation, perceived skills and perceived working environment scales ................................ ........................ 61 4 5 Model characteristics and summary ................................ ................................ ... 61 4 6 Overview of grand mean scores from self constructed single item questions .... 62 4 7 Single item model characteristics ................................ ................................ ....... 62
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Prevelance of Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Canada, classified using BMI, by sex, ages 2 17 ye ars, 1978 79, 2004, and 2007 09 .............................. 13 1 2 Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity (BMI), Canada and provinces, ages 2 17 years, 2009. ................................ ................................ ...... 13 1 3 Motivation Systems Theory Model: the interaction between teacher motivation, skill, environment and competency. ................................ ................. 23 3 1 Simcoe Muskok a Catholic District School Board ................................ ................ 52 4 1 Distribution of teachers responsible for teaching each grade ............................. 54 4 2 DPA Compliance ................................ ................................ ................................ 55
9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science LIVER THE DAILY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM By Todd Gilmore December 2012 Chair: Holly Donohoe Major: Recreation, Parks and Tourism In 2005, the Ministry of Education in Ontario, Canada mandated a policy requiring daily physical activity (DPA) for all Ont ario elementary students in grades one through eigh t. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived competency of competency. The research questions sought to investigate (1) what the relationship is between generalist teacher motivation and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program, (2) what the relationship is between generalist teacher skills and perceived c ompetency to deliver the DPA Program, and (3) what the relationship between generalist teacher school environment and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program. An e survey was circulated to teachers in the Simcoe Muskoka Catholic School Board in On tario and 121 generalist teachers participated. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis revealed that a large portion of schools do not have an active DPA Program. Additionally, this study found that there is a statistically significant relation ship between te achers DPA skills, motivation and perceived competency to deliver DPA. The relationship suggests that the majority of teachers in the SMCDSB lack specific DPA training and motivation
10 to teach the DPA Program. The results enhance understa nding of the teacher based
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Research Problem Statement The World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) identifies that childhood obesity is one of the most s erious public health challenges of the 21st century. Although the definition of obesity has changed over time (Kuczmarski & Flegal, 2007), the literature indicates a general consensus that it can be defined as a medical condition that is caused by an ener gy imbalance when intake of calories exceeds the expenditure of calories and the surplus of energy is stored as body weight (International Association for the Study of Obesity, 2010, p.1). To quantify childhood obesity, several measures have been proposed including the most widely accepted the Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is calculated using a child's weight and height (Dehghan, Danesh, & Merchant, 2005; CDC, 2000). BMI does not measure body fat directly, but it is a reasonable indicator of body fatness f or most children and teens from ages 2 to 19 (WHO, 2011). The scale, scope, and magnitude of childhood obesity is alarming. During the last two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity in the 5 17 age groups has increased by 0.5% per year in the United States and Brazil, and by almost 1% per year in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom (Lobstein, Baur, & Uauy, 2004). In the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children aged 6 11 years has more than doubled since the 1960s (WHO, 2011). In Canada in 1981, 11% of boys and 13% of girls were overweight or obese and these figures have grown exponentially to 33% and 27% respectively in 20 years (Lobstein et al., 2004). Worldwide, over 200 million school age children (5 17) are overweight, makin g this generation the first predicted to have a shorter lifespan than their parents (International Association for the Study of
12 Obesity 2011). This creates not only alarming concern for government officials and health care providers alike, it also challen ges the framework of our society with rapidly rising health care costs and it poses a serious threat to the health and well being of future generations (American Association for Physical Activity and Recreation, 2011). In Canada, approximately 26% of chi ldren ages 5 17 years old are currently overweight or obese (Childhood Obesity Foundation, 2011). When comparing this figure (and the relevant Statistics Canada survey data) with the 2004 Canadian Health Survey BMI data and the Canada Health Measurement Su rvey of 1978/79 (which also assessed height and weight using objective measurement), Tremblay, Inman, and Willms, (2010) found that the prevalence of overweight Canadian children and youth increased from 12% to 18% while the prevalence of obesity increased from 3% to 8% (Figure 1). The most dramatic change across all age groups has been in the prevalence of obesity and most notably, the tripling of childhood obesity rates among 12 17 year olds (Tremblay et al., 2010). The prevalence of obesity and overweig ht children in Ontario is higher than the Canadian average (Figure 2). Although this geographical difference was not statistically significant, these figures strongly support the trend of rising childhood obesity rates in all Canadian provinces and territ ories The WHO (2011) identified two main contributing factors with the rise in childhood obesity worldwide: (1) a shift in diet towards increased intake of energy dense foods that are high in fat and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other healthy micronutrients, and (2) a trend towards decreased levels of physical activity. Deckelbaum and Williams (2001) and others have identified a strong link between childhood obesity and an increased risk for a wide range of chronic diseases including
13 but limi ted to: elevated blood pressure, respiratory disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Global statistics reveal that increased BMI alone was estimated to account for 2.8 million deaths, while the combined total with physical inac tivity was 6.0 million (WHO, 2011) surpassing the excess mortality associated with tobacco, and approaching that of high blood pressure, the top risk factor for death (IASO, 2010). Figure 1 1. Prevelance of Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Canad a, classified using BMI, by sex, ages 2 17 years, 1978 79, 2004, and 2007 09. (Statistics Canada, 2009). Figure 1 2 Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity (BMI), Canada and provinces, ages 2 17 years, 2009. (Statistics Canada, 2009)
14 Although the WHO correlates obesity with the trend towards decreased physical activity and unhealthy eating, obesity is not a simple equation. Obsesity is a complex problem that is deeply imbedded in social and economic development patterns as well as policies in t he areas of agriculture, transport, urban planning, the environment, food processing, distribution and marketing, as well as education (WHO, 2011). In Canada and in countries around the world, the complexity of the problem demands a multi faceted approach to reducing childhood obesity so that the health and wellbeing of children can be restored. In order to do so, stakeholders at all levels including inter governmental agencies, national, state/province, and local level governments, non governmental organi zations, educational institutions, and the general public must be involved. A Canadian Perspective In 2004, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) endorsed the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. The overall development of an enabling environment for sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels that, when taken together, will lead to reduce d provides recommendations for WHO Member States, international partners, private sector, civil society and non governmental organizations for the promotion of healthy diets and regular physical activity for the prevention of non communicable diseases including obesity (WHO, 2011). PHAC (2010, p.3) is using the WHO Strategy to sectoral response invol ving the public, private, health professional and non
15 and other Canadian government agencies are promoting healthy eating and physical Sum mer Active, and the Canada Physical Activity Guide. Concomitantly, a Federal, been established to promote healthy weights. The framework is based on three policy prio rities areas (Curbing Childhood Obesity, 2010, p.4): Supportive environments: making social and physical environments where children live, learn and play more supportive of physical activity and healthy eating; Early Action: identifying the risk of overwei ght and obesity in children and addressing it early; and, Nutritious Foods: looking at ways to increase the availability and accessibility of nutritious foods and decrease the marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and/or sodium to children Th is framework represents a concerted effort on behalf of the federal and provincial/territorial governments to address and take action towards reducing obesity in Canadians. However, it does not specifically address the unique circumstances and needs of Can adian children. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and its associated health risks justifies widespread efforts toward prevention (Goran, Reynolds, & Lindquist, 1999). Although both diet and physical activity have been emphasized as appropria te interventions, children's levels of physical activity are highly variable, and may be influenced by a multitude of factors including physiological, psychological, socio cultural and environmental determinants (Goran et al., 1999). The Public Health Ag ency of Canada has also developed the Canadian Physical Activity Guide (CPAG) to establish and promote physical activity standards and healthy diet approaches through structured and unstructured programs within communities.
16 Addressing children specificall y, CPAG (2001) establishes that children aged 5 11 should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily. The CPAG (2001) guidelines and standards emphasize that Canadians should meet or exceed the minimum activity threshol ds as the greater the variety, intensity and duration of the physical activity; the greater the health benefits. This standard is however, difficult to measure. According to French, Story and Jeffery (2001), any empirical research available on physical a ctivity is often difficult to interpret with respect to national guidelines or in comparison across studies, due to the number of disparities in the way physical education is measured, and because of the continuous changes in national physical activity gui delines. Nevertheless, the CPAG has responded to the aforementioned policy deficiency by focusing on the physical needs of children generally and participation in structured and unstructured activities and implementation ol cafeterias and vending machines nationwide specifically. At the provincial level, the Ontario Ministry of Education (OME) mandated Memorandum No. 138 requiring daily physical activity (DPA) for Ontario elementary students in grades one through eight. learn, behavior, and self esteem (OME, 2005). The policy links positive experiences with physical activity and it seeks to lay a foundation for healthy and productive lives for children from a young age. This policy also provides the foundation for moving forward in ensuring children a re receiving sufficient amounts of daily physical activity, and by
17 extension, the policy is addressing the childhood obesi ty problem in Ontario. The following illustrates a breakdown of the DPA Framework: Policy Requirement: The Ministry of Education sup ports and promotes the participation of students in daily physical activity. Consequently, school boards must ensure that all elementary students, including students with special needs, have a minimum of twenty minutes of sustained moderate to vigorous phy sical activity each school day during instructional time. The goal of daily physical activity is to enable all elementary students to improve or maintain their physical fitness and their overall health and wellness, and to enhance their learning opportunit ies. Daily physical activity may include walking, active games, dance, aquatics, sports, and fitness and recreational activities (where facilities permit). Policy Implementation : Daily physical activity may be incorporated into the instructional day in a variety of ways. For instance, twenty minutes or more of physical activity during a scheduled health and physical education class would meet the daily physical activity requirement. Since physical activity is only one component of a complete health and phy sical education program, there will be days when a health and physical education class does not include physical activity. On these days and on days when no health and physical education class is scheduled, other opportunities for at least twenty minutes o f physical activity during the instructional day will need to be provided. Integrating physical activity into other curriculum areas is one appropriate strategy. All activities must be adapted, as appropriate, to ensure that students with special needs can participate in them. Such adaptations must be consistent with the accommodations and/or modifications that are typically found in a student's Individual Education Plan. Since individual classes may be at different stages of implementation, daily physical activity may initially occur in several short sessions (a minimum of ten minutes each) over the course of the school day. Elementary school principals will make their best effort to ensure that students are receiving at least twenty minutes of sustained mo derate to vigorous daily physical activity during instructional time.
18 Safety Providing physical and social environments that encourage and enable students to engage in safe and enjoyable physical activities will continue to be important. As indicated i n The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1 8: Health and Physical Education, 1998, procedures must be developed to ensure the highest level of safety, while allowing students to engage in a broad range of activities. Reporting and Accountability School boards will monitor the implementation of the policy on daily physical activity to ensure that all elementary students are provided with the opportunity to be active for at least twenty minutes each day during instructional time. School boards and principals should also take appropriate action to ensure that (Source: Ontario Ministry of Education, 2005.) Under this policy framework, a series of Daily Physical Activity in Schools Guides (DPASG) have been made available in schools and on the internet to assist school principals and teachers with implementation. For example, the guides provide an overview of the policy, it identifies the role of school boards, principals, teachers, students, paren ts, and community partners in increasing physical activity, it summarizes the benefits of physical activity, and it provides activity suggestions and checklists for principals and teachers. The Ontario Physical Health Education Association (OPHEA) is partn ering with schools to help promote and implement the Daily Physical Activity in communities through quality programs and supports partnerships and advocacy to enable children and this community based support, it could be argued that those schools that are supported by OPHEA (i.e. funding, resources, workshops) are those who are more likely to ensure Daily Physical Activity (DPA) minimum requirements are met.
19 The challenge of implementing this program however, is related to the role of the generalist teacher in delivering physical education. As is the case in many countries, elementary level physical education is most often delivered by a generalist teacher (i.e., an individual who has not undertaken extensive training in physical education) (Chunlei & De Lisio 2009). The literature contains examples and general concern about the limited competency of generalist teachers to deliver physical education (DeCorby, Halas, Dixon, Wintrup, & Janzen, 2005). As a further challenge, inadequate and inappropriate training has been identified as a major barrier for an elementary generalist teacher to deliver physical educatio n as prescribed by the curriculum (Deacon, 2001; Janzen, Halas, Dixon, DeCorby, Booke, & Wintrup 2003; Tremblay, Pella, & Taylor 1996). Martin and Brown (2008) confirm that many generalist teachers do not feel competent to teach physical education because they did not receive specialized training specialist teacher, a generalist will not have undergone intensive physical education teacher training and as a result, they will likely lack a certain sense of self assurance and embodied understanding of physical education (Chunlei & De Lisio 2009). Chunlei and De Lisio (2009) argues that an individual would not be deemed qualified to teach music based on his or her appreciat ion for music, and the same holds true for any other specialized subject such as visual arts, drama or physical education. In Ontario, very little is known about the competency of generalist teachers to implement the Daily Physical Activity Policy. In fac t, Anderson and Butcher (2006) point out that there have been few longitudinal and cross sectional studies on the competency of teachers for the
20 perceptions and competency is critical for informing policy, program, and curriculum development, as well as teacher training programs and resources. It is imperative to enhance understanding of the operationalization of this provincial physical education policy investment so as to better understand the benefits and limitations of physical activity programs and their value in the context of the childhood obesity epidemic. To summarize the research problem, obesity is a growing and highly complex problem in countries around the world During the past twenty five years, obesity rates among Canadian children have increased substantially, with the result being that a large number of children face the risk of developing such serious illnesses such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Th e literature indicates that a healthy and balanced diet and daily physical activity are the core components for maintaining healthy weight in both adults and children. However, physical inactivity has become a serious health and social issue for children and youth and research indicates that activity levels for the majority of children and youth are not sufficient for healthy growth and development. It also suggests that many young people do not have an opportunity to be physically active every day (Ontari o Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, Ontario, 2004). In health sector, the food industries, workplaces, schools, families and individuals to become part of a co mprehensive province wide effort to change all the factors that DPA is one stra tegy among many that is crucial for the positive development of school aged children and the mitigation of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity
21 and illnesses linked to physical inactivity (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2008a; World Health Organizat ion, 2010). In the province of Ontario, Canada, the Ministry of Education is committed to supporting a healthy school environment where physical activity is an essential component for the growth and development of children and youth. The Daily Physical Act ivity Framework (Table 1) is providing elementary students with opportunities to be physically active and by extension; it is meant to support positive impacts on their physical, mental, and social well being. The development, implementation, and evaluati on of such policies play an important role in promoting health behaviors such as physical activity and healthy Activity Framework requires teachers who are competent to imp lement the program. However, very little is known about the competency of generalist teachers to deliver physical education programs. In this regard, understanding teacher perceived competency is imperative for enhancing understanding of the implementatio n and physical activity programs and their value in the context of childhood obesity epidemic. Theoretical Framework ework that helps us to psychological functions that serve to direct, energize, and regulate goal directed activity: sense of personal agency, whereas motivation becomes the foundation for competence.
22 In contrast, Haney (2002) suggests that competence in any given area (e.g. physical ons, and personal agency beliefs (Figure 3). Furthermore, this theory identifies two types of beliefs that are critical for a e possesses the personal skills needed to may shape their ability to deliver an effective health and physical education program. perceptions about how responsive the environment (external factors and/or people) will be in supporting effective functioning (Haney, 2002). Teachers perceptions of their curriculum guidelines and course requirements, disciplinary, and school contexts may differ, Ford (1992) suggests each might influence the delivery of a health and physical education program. Interactions between capability and context beliefs yield personal agency belief patterns (Ford, 1992). A person with positive capability and conte xt beliefs, for example, is likely to have a robust pattern characterized by a strong sense of purpose and optimistic outlook. In contrast, one with negative capability and context beliefs is unlikely to have much expectation of success (Colbeck & Weaver, 2008). Often overlooked, is the interaction between teachers' skills and knowledge and their beliefs (Graham, Harris, Fink, & MacArthur, 2001). Additionally, teacher efficacy will be a particularly powerful competency. Bandura (1997) suggests often referred to as teacher self efficacy. Under the umbrella of MST, this study will
23 ng factor in determining the motivation and initiative. Figure 1 3. Motivation Systems Theory Model: the interaction between teacher motivation, skill, e nvironment and competency. Research Purpose Statement a nd Research Questions Using Motivation Systems Theory, the purpose of this study is to assess Program. Specifica lly, this study explores the relationship between motivation, skill, and environment generalist t Three research questions guide the research: What is the relatio nship between generalist teacher motivation and perceived competency to deliver the Daily Physical Activity Program? What is the relationship between generalist teacher skill and perceived competency to deliver the Daily Physical Activity Program? What is the relationship between generalist teacher environment and perceived competency to deliver the Daily Physical Activity Program? COMPETANCE MOTIVATION SKILL ENVIRONMENT
24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Operational Definitions s perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program in Ontario. The Ontario Ministry of Education (OME) mandated Memorandum No. 138 requires twenty minutes of daily physical activity (DPA) for Ontario elementary students in grades one through eight. The pol into the curriculum. In this regard, a generalist teacher (i.e., an individual who has not undertaken extensive training in physical education) who is required to provid e 20 minutes of DPA to their children daily, was asked specific questions related to motivation, environment, skills and the impact each can have on their perceived competence to teach the DPA Program. The application of the scales shown in Table 2 helped school environment, skills and overall competence. In September 2006, Ontario was the second Canadian province to introduce a DPA initiative requiring students in grades 1 8 to participate in at least twenty minutes of consecutive moderate to vigorous daily physical activity. Additionally, DPA in Ontario must be scheduled during instructional time and not during lunch, recess, or other breaks in the school day (Chroney, 20 09). Many stakeholders understand the significance of creating a healthy school environment and see the DPA initiative as an opportunity to advocate for quality physical education programming, possibly even quality daily physical education. However, follo w up and accountability must be improved if these initiatives are to be taken seriously and ultimately proven worthwhile.
25 every student is currently receiving the provinci al requirements of physical education programming, then the DPA initiative may contribute to fostering both healthier bodies most commonly identified issues with the DP A program in Ontario and nationwide is the possible dilemma of time allocation and planning in an already tight and in some cases rigid school program (Chorney, 2009). Chroney (2009) argues that the quality of learning experiences for all students is a co ncern given that the level of knowledge required by the teachers responsible for implementing this initiative may not be to a can largely be influenced by how independe ntly motivated they are to teach a subject, how much support they have from their surrounding environment, and the skills, or lack thereof to teach a subject. After teachers college, teachers are left to update their skills and broaden their knowledge of the subjects they are expected to teach. It is speculated that some generalist teachers may be resistant to teach PE based on a environment and individual skills was e valuated based on self reporting of their perceived competency to teach the Ontario DPA Program. Table 2 1 Operational Definitions Construct Item Definition Measurement Scale Motivation A process that activates, orients, reinforces and maintains the be haviour of individuals towards the achievement of intended objectives (Roussel, 2000) Physical Education Self efficacy Scale (PETPAS) The Experience of Recurring Affective Episodes Scale
26 Table 2 1. Continued. Construct Item D efinition Measurement Scale School Environment A variety of activities including formal pedagogy, after school programs, caretaking activities (e.g., feeding, providing a safe environment) as well as the informal social environment created by students and (Marin & Brown, 2008) Classroom Appraisal of Resources and Demands (CARD) (a measure of a the classroom demands and the contributing factors that contribute to teacher stress and school provided resourc es) Teacher Skills How a teacher handles conflictual elements in the role, cultivating warm personal relationships with children and the school, while managing some problems of control with more authoritarian techniques (Woods, 1990) Subject Knowledge Exp ertise Rating Scale (SKERS) Perceived Competence The ability to teach children the necessary knowledge, fundamental skill set, and attitude needed to cultivate a healthy lifestyle at an early age thereby providing them with healthy practices which can lat er be refined and carried through to adulthood (Kirk, 2005) Dependent variable Teacher Motivation When it comes to work motivation, many theoretical strands have been put forward to explain the relationship between individual motivation, job satisfaction and performance at work (Muller, Alliata & Benninghoff, 2009). The breadth and depth of motivation research has evolved substantially through the literature. Vallerand and Thill ct that is used to describe internal and/or external forces that generate the kickoff, the direction, e behaviour of
27 oriented concept: feels no drive or inspiration to act is thus characterized as unmotivated, whereas someone who is For the purpose of this study, teacher motivation was measured by using items from different scales found in the education literature that most closely pertain to elementary school teachers. Motivation was measured by asking participants modified questions from different scales to determine if there is a relationship between motivation, and perce ived competency to deliver the Ontario mandated DPA program. In motivation research, a distinction has been made between motivated behaviour and motivational factors (Thoonen, Sleegers, Oort, Peetsma, & Geijsel, 2011). Motivated behaviour, including prof essional learning and teaching behaviour, is positively influenced by motivational factors (Maehr & Braskamp, 1986; Roede, 1989). Motivational factors typically comprise three components: expectancy, value, and affective components (Peetsma, Hascher, Van der Veen, & Roede, 2005: Pintrich, McKeachie, & Lin, 1987). The expectancy component of motivation has been conceptualized in a variety of ways in the motivational literature (e.g., perceived competence, self efficacy, attributional style, and control bel iefs), but the basic construct teacher self efficacy (Bandura, 1997). Self efficacy is a belief about the level of competence that a person expects he or she will displa y in a given situation. Items and efficacy Scale (PETPAS) was borrowed from the work of Gencay (2009). Similar to Gencay (2009),
28 student, space, time, and institution subscales will be used to help determine teacher motivation and self efficacy to teach the DPA Program. The student factor was used to students did not enjoy, value, or want to participate in classes with a great deal of during individual lessons, or across the week or semester, to adequately teach lessons with high levels of physical activity. The space efficacy perceptions and if they have difficulty teaching physically active lessons due to lack of space, small facilities, or too many students. Finally, the institution factor was composed of questions that represent equipment, and collegial support, which may be seen as obstacles to their ability to teach physically active lessons (Martin & Kulinna, 2003). Bandura (1997) hypothesized that self efficacy beliefs remain relativ ely stable once established, researchers have Moran, Woolfolk & Hoy, 2001, p.785). Furthermore, research has shown that tea engagement in professional learning activities and subsequently enhances the quality of the instruction (Geijsel, Sleegers, Van Den Berg, & Kelchtermans 2009; Goddard, Hoy, & Hoy, 2000; Smylie, 1988; Tschannen Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001). Therefore, through the use of self efficacy related questions, researchers were able to make tangible connections as to how and why generalist teachers are, or are not motivated to teach the DPA Program.
29 Ford (1992, p.16) sug understanding, this study will look at how teachers become motivated by assessing some of their goal related perceptions towards the DPA initiative. Thoonen et al., attributed to the task can be linked to their motivation levels. Motivational processes are (Bandura, 1986; Ford, 1992). Research on teacher commitment to change has is an element of teacher motivation (Gei jsel et al., 2009; Leithwood, Jantzi, & Steinbach, 1999). In order to measure teacher goals and values towards the DPA Program, certain items were adopted from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Although this scale has been most commonly used for students, the items are powerful and will be tailored to a teaching context. For example, teachers were asked questions students so they can learn new thing modified but resemble the same style of MSLQ questions for students. These goal and value related questions will be cr effectiveness of the DPA program along with the goal oriented measures they are taking to implement physical activity based lessons in the classroom. A bulk of motivation literature goes to great lengths to doc ument the reasons why people enter teaching as well as on the important factors influencing teacher
30 retention but gives very little information on the influences that sustain teachers on a re is considerable evidence from the US that teachers enter teaching for reasons to do with the intrinsic nature of the work: including making a difference, doing work they will enjoy, and enhancing lives of children (Shipp, 1999). With regard to teacher r etention, US data indicate that the absence of support structures (Johnson & Birkeland, 2003), low influence on their work and poor leadership (Stockhard & Lehman, 2004) and low earnings (Guarino, Santibanez & Daley, 2006) are important factors in attritio n. While Smith, 2003, p.374), over the long where they are successful and supported, opportunities to work with other educators in professional communities, differentiated leadership and advancement prospects and Smith, 2004, p.391). In Canada, depending on the ju risdiction, an entry level salary can range from $36,305 to $58,980 annually, while the maximum salary level can range from $53,545 to $83,158 annually (Canadian Teachers Federation, 2011). In comparison to the United States, these numbers represent a muc h higher income; therefore, financial motivation was excluded in the discussion. Specifically, this study sought to contextualize the specific perceptions related to feelings or emotional behaviors that underpin generalist teacher motivations to teach the DPA program in Ontario. To attempt to map the kinds of occurrences that keep teachers motivated and to say why some kinds of events are more important than others, this study will make an effort to conceptualize the everyday routine of a
31 generalist to se e how well tuned their motivation towards PE can influence their perceived competence to deliver the DPA program. To categorize how teachers perceive the usefulness of DPA program, it is important to measure their feelings of emotional behavio u rs This s tudy utilized the affective component of motivation, which task, or the school in general (Thoonen et al., 2011). Although researchers stress the importance of analyz (Spillane, Re iser, & Reimer, (2002). Morgan and Hansen (2007) elaborate on this idea by suggesting how reform agendas, school re structuring, accountability, high stakes testing and other macro Additional research suggests that teachers may feel a concern for their well being, often resulting in feelings of uncertainty (Van Veen & Sleegers, 2008). Sorrentino and Short (1986) suggest that the way teachers deal with uncertain situations, often caused by policy initia tives fostering educational change, depends on the tolerance of uncertainty. Uncertain teachers are more prone to working in a routine way, avoiding risks, and maintaining their present attitudes, whereas more certain teachers search for new information, are more flexible in their approaches (Lortie, 1975) and are more willing to engage in professional learning activities (Geijsel, 2001; Van Veen & Sleegers, 2008). Although the level of certainty can be linked to teacher engagement in events inside or out side the classroom, Nieto (2003) progresses this thought by suggesting how the mix of negative emotions like anger, desperation and
32 fear with positive feelings of elation, pride and satisfaction are common among the most committed teachers, and has been we ll documented. This dichotomy leads to the question whether teachers lose motivation because of the undermining effects of negative events or because of the absence of sustaining positive experiences. Some items from the Experience of Recurring Affective Episodes Scale was adopted to professional lives. Respondents will be asked to make two judgements with regard to classroom, school and PE workshop related environments based on a frequency and an tivation, expectancy, value, and affective are sub components that have helped determine why and how teachers operate the way they do, and how their perception can be related to their perceived competency to deliver the DPA program. School Environment A dolescents spend a large proportion of their day in school or pursuing school related activities (Marin & Brown 2008), and it is a result the environment plays a critical ry purpose of school is the academic development of students, Marin and Brown (2008) suggest its effects on adolescents are far broader, also encompassing their physical and mental health, safety, civic engagement, and social development. School environme through a variety of activities including formal pedagogy, after school programs, caretaking activities (e.g., feeding, providing a safe environment) as well as the informal
33 social environment created by students and staff on a daily basi 2008, p.1). Research suggests that there are various environmental factors that can influence the behaviour and choices of teaching a physical education program. Hill and Cleven ( 2004) discuss how availability of equipment, facilities, expertise, and stress of the physical education teachers can all influence the success of a physical education program. DuFour and Berkey (1995) discuss their research on the principals' role to nurt ure and develop teachers' professional growth as part of the school culture. Years later this idea still holds true when classifying an effective teaching environment. The ensure systematic collaboration, encourage experimentation, model commitment, provide one on one staff development, ensure resources are provided to their staff, offer purposeful staff development programs, promote self efficacy, and monitor the sustaine d effort (DuFour & Berkey, 1995). Out of these important features of effective development lies a dominant explanation for a decrease in motivation for school is the lack of person e school environment (Eccles & Midgley 1989). A school environment that is not well tuned to the interests, needs and values of students will adversely affect their identification with school and, as a consequence, will lead to a decrease in their motivati on and efforts in the long run (Thoonen et al., 2011) Though scholars have recognised the supportive role of teachers as part of the school environment, researchers in educational psychology have concentrated mostly concepts (Vedder, Boekaerts, & Seegers 2005).
34 According to Goodlad (1975), teachers are a critical part of school community, and the relationships among primary parti cipants in the community (e.g., teachers and the traditions they uphold, the beliefs to which they subscribe, and so forth, make up the 1997, p.175). Furthermore Grossman (1990) and T schannen Moran (2001) fo und that trust, encouragement, collaboration, and support from admi nistration can be conceptualized as subcomponents of teacher community. Similarly, having a sense of community in schools has been deemed crucial to the shared vision, affect, and motivational beliefs of teaching faculty ( Dewey, 1938 ; Noddings, 1992 ). A strong sense of community in s chools, reflected by shared expectations and supportive relationships among teachers personal well being and job satisfaction (Irwin & Farr, 2004). It has been sai d that community is a component that is prominently missing from school change, possibly the result of its sharp contrast with standards based evaluation In light of the Ontario ma ndated Daily Physical Activity Program, teacher environment, or sense of co mmunity, may have great importance to the motivation and classroom practices of teachers. Additionally, stress and coping have been shown to be closely related to school environment in education literature. One potentially powerful paradigm for better und erstanding teacher stress and coping is the transactional model proposed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). They suggested that when a person encounters life
35 demands, a cognitive process is triggered in which perceived demands of the event are weighted against When this transaction results in a perception that one is facing demands that exceed the resources one has for coping, the stress response ensues (Sapolsky, 1998). ll and Melendres (2009) suggest that teachers who experience excessive demand levels in respect to their environment resources are at risk for the negative effects of stress, which can include health problems and psychological burnout. In fact, teachers a re the largest homogenous occupational group investigated in burnout research, comprising 22% of all samples (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998). Although transactional models of stress and coping emphasize the importance of subjective evaluations of situational d emands and perceived resources in determining whether demands are experienced as stressors (Matheny, Aycock, Pugh, Curlette, & Canella, 1986), most stress research continues to treat stress as a single construct rather than the difference between two disti nct constructs: resources and demands school environment as a key component to provide validity evidence for the Classroom Appraisal of Resources and Demands (CARD; Lambert e t al., 2007), a measure of a factors that contribute to teacher stress and school provided resources. The CARD is based theoretically on transactional models of stress, but f ocuses specifically on the demands of the classroom environment and the material resources available to teachers to meet those demands. The CARD takes into account the unique demands
36 faced by teachers today, who sometimes struggle with ever increasing pre ssures both inside and outside of the classroom (Lambert & McCarthy, 2006). McCarthy et al. (2009) noted that investigations of stress in teachers of young children have identified the following demands: teaching children with problem behaviors (Pratt, 197 8), larger class sizes, administrative or policy related issues, excessive paperwork requirements, workload and time constraints, and pressure from administrators, specifically those related to mandated curricula and instructional strategies (French, 1993) In order to properly measure these items, four subscales were adopted from the CARD scale. The Administrative Demands subscale will be used to addresses demands associated with meetings, paperwork, assessments, and various non instructional duties. Th e Availability of Instructional Materials subscale will be used to look at demands associated with access to materials and supplies. The Children with Problem Behaviours subscale will be adopted to addresses the demands associated with behaviour management and interactions with children who disrupt the learning environment. Finally, The General Program Resources subscale will allow the teachers to rate how helpful they find administrators, other teachers, general instructional materials, and staff developm ent opportunities. A study by Lambert et al., (2007) found sample as w Although these demands and stressors have consistently appeared in the teacher stress research literature for more than 40 years (Kyriacou, 2000), working conditions for teachers have become more difficult in re cent years in several significant ways. Students in Canada may come to school less ready to learn than they did in
37 previous generations. They arrive at school with fewer hours of sleep, less structure in their homes, and more exposure to electronic enterta inment (Lambert & McCarthy, 2006). In addition, a cultural shift has taken place over the last generation whereby parents have moved away from support for and recognition of the authority of educators to a posture of advocacy for their children. All of t hese factors have combined to make teaching a more stressful occupation than it has ever been (McCarthy & Lambert, 2006), thus, school environment needs to be addressed by accounting for of these subcomponents that were measured in this study. Furthermore, McCarthy et al. (2009) collected stress and burnout data from 451 teachers and used hierarchical linear modeling of teachers within 13 elementary schools. Although there was little between school variance in reported burnout symptoms, each of the individu al teacher level CARD variables was associated in the predicted direction with burnout symptoms (McCarthy et al., 2009). The authors discuss how these findings were interpreted as supporting transactional models of stress as individual differences among te achers within schools in perceptions of demands and resources were predictive of burnout symptoms whereas differences in school context were not. This study demonstrated that the CARD is sensitive to between teacher differences, within the same school, in perceptions of both the classroom environment and school clim ate. Understanding the importance of teacher perceptions of demands and resources seems especially relevant to examine in an educational context, where perceptions of both resources and demands c an vary considerably depending on classroom characteristics, teacher background, and school environment (Lambert & McCarthy,
38 2006). Furthermore, experts in the field of teacher stress research have called for assroom conditions, particularly their perceptions of excessive administrative demands, teacher child interactions, and classroom climate (Kyriacou, 2001). The CARD goes beyond the typical measures of management climate to help identify specific sources of teacher stress and stress levels and therefore more closely target specific sources of teacher stress when working with educational administrators. The purpose of adopting some items from the CARD scale was to address whether there is a relationship betw een teacher stress, classroom or school environment and perceived competency to deliver the DPA program. For the purpose of this study, the CARD scale was implemented to compare and contrast whether demands are greater than resources, resources greater th an demands, or resources equal to demands. Teacher Skills Physical education is one of the more difficult subjects in the curriculum for generalist classroom teachers in primary schools to incorporate confidently into their teaching (Quay & Peters, 2008). In many primary schools, the generalist classroom teacher defers to a physical education specialist. Quay and Peters (2008), suggest that this situation has both positive and negative features. This section looked at the skill ion System Theory and how it can be aligned with physical education teaching and the strengths of the generalist classroom teachers based on their understanding of creative planning and implementing. Acknowledging the generalist classroom teacher as a sig nificant provider of physical education raises questions about not only the pre service education of teachers in physical education, but also the ways in which physical education is itself conceived and taught. Colleges of
39 education are under unprecedented scrutiny to produce highly qualified teachers (Sheeler, Ruhl, & McAfee, 2004). School administrators are under pressure to ensure that all of their teachers are highly qualified in the subject areas they teach (Understanding the No Child Left Behind, 200 2). Furthermore, numerous researchers have indicated that there is an obvious need to prepare teachers at the pre service level to generalize newly acquired teaching skills across time and settings has been well established (Boudah, Logan, & Greenwood, 20 01; Bowles and Nelson 1976; Engelmann 1988; Gersten, Morvant, & Brengleman, 1995; Greenwood and Abbot 2001; Noell, Witt, Gilbertson, Ranier, & Freeland, 1997; Rose and Church 1998; Scruggs and Mastropieri 1994; Vaughn, Klingner, & Hughes, (2000). Researche rs express concerns about generalizing behaviour modification techniques from workshop training sessions to classrooms in the early 1970s (Altman & Linton 1971; Bowles & Nelson, 1976). Engelmann (1988) found that less than 30% of what was practiced among t eachers in training settings transferred to actual teaching settings and that more experienced teachers, teachers who taught for more than 2 years before receiving instruction (in direct instruction), had even more problems transferring newly acquired skil ls than new teachers. Han and Weiss (2005) concluded that teacher training alone might not be sufficient to support program implementation over time even when the program was a school wide initiative. Rutherford and Nelson (1988) stated that even though there are a variety of ways to promote the transfer of training, there is still much work needed to be done in demonstrating successful behavioural maintenance and generalization effects in schools today. Twenty years later this statement is still true. E ven when pre
40 service teachers learn effective teaching techniques they may or may not transfer those skills into their own classrooms (Sheeler et al., 2004). The potential of school based interventions to improve physical education and physical activity is promising (Harper, 2010), but implementing new curricular programs lives influence the process (Hargreaves, 1998), as well as the requirement to develop new curricular an d instructional knowledge and skills (Cothran, Hodges Kulinna, & Garn, 2010). In 1968, Baer, Wolf, and Risley set forth the goals of applied behaviour analysis. One of these goals was that applied research can produce changes in behaviour that generalize to a variety of environments, spread to a variety of relevant behaviours, and are maintained after an intervention has terminated. In their 20 year review of the goals of applied behaviour analysis, Baer et al., (1987) again pointed to the importance of g eneralization as "crucial ... to the maximal effectiveness... of the discipline" (p. 321). There are many hypotheses provided in the literature for the limited development of a generalization literature related to teaching techniques and for resistance to transfer itself including compassion, neglect, lack of preparation, and/or resistance to change (Gersten et al. 1995). Lindsley (1992) suggested that a possible explanation for why effective teaching tools are not widely adopted is because academic learn ing (as with physical exercise) requires discipline, practice, and adequate training. Rose and Church (1998) reviewed 49 studies on effects of pre service and in service training on maintenance of teaching skills. In both cases, feedback emerged as the va riable producing the strongest training effect and in both studies the researchers recommended practice with feedback as a necessary
41 component of any training program that is implemented to change teacher behaviour in the classroom. Based on the research on generalization and maintenance of teaching skills by teachers and research on programming for generalization by teacher educators, Rose and Church (1998) discussed four factors which emerged as highly likely to support the improvement of teaching skills These factors are: (a) using immediate feedback to promote efficient and effective acquisition of new skills (Coulter (b) training to mastery on specific teaching skills (Engelmann 1988; Rose and Church 1998), (c) effective programming (Epps and Lane 1987; Scruggs and Mastropieri 1994; Stokes and Baer 1977; Stokes and Osnes 1989), and (d) providing performance feedback in classroom settings (Noell et., al 1997; Leach and Conto 1999). With respect to these factors, educational scholars have been particularly keen to understand the knowledge most necessary to teach well. In 1986, Shulman developed a concept that looked at how teachers translate their understanding of a subject matter into classroom practise. The definitional use of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) has been slightly altered over time, but n most clearly illustrates how the term can be applied to curriculum, (c) teaching strateg ies, and (d) purposes for teaching. Furthermore, PCK embodies the working knowledge teachers use to plan, organize, and guide their
42 skills and knowledge of DPA will be l ooked at by using the Subject Knowledge Expertise Rating Scale (SKERS). Informed from the work of Schempp et al., (1998), the SKERS education content areas. Based o n the Ontario DPA Framework, teachers will be asked to rate their expertise (skills) in four content areas: Policy Requirement, Policy familiarity of this DPA Framework ca n influence their skills and expertise to teach DPA, therefore, asking a general question related to these four components enabled and perceived competency to delive r the DPA program. Teaching Competency It is clear from the research that teachers play a critical role as change agents in schools through the shared responsibility of program implementation and practices that relate to pressing health issues. School e ffectiveness research has shown that student outcomes depend highly on the quality of instruction (Scheerens, 2008). Given these teaching effects, fostering the professional development of teachers seems to be a key challenge for governments, local politi cians, and school managers to improve the quality of education (Thoonen, 2011). In the context of physical education, Kirk (2005) suggests it is critical that teaching effectiveness of physical education at the elementary school level is fostered so child ren develop the necessary knowledge, fundamental skill set, and attitude needed to cultivate a healthy lifestyle at an early age thereby providing them with healthy practices which can later be refined and carried through to adulthood. Furthermore, the su stainability of school based health interventions in Canada and international contexts depends on the extent to which teachers and other key change
43 agents (e.g., principals) continue the implementation effort with fidelity (Dusenbury, Brannigan, Falco, & H ansen, 2003; Rohrbach, Graham, & Hansen, 1993). Therefore, evolving ideologies and government mandates for best practices in education is a necessary step in understand ing and orchestrat ing the school change process. Despite the call for classroom teachers to assume roles in schools as PA activists, little research has examined the feasibility of current recommendations (Webster, Monsma, & Erwin 2010). The present study used the lens of generalist based health promotion. Perceived competency related questions will focus on the how ironment and skills influence their Another competency related question will ask hat your classroom/school helped the researcher distinguish which variables are more or less likely to influence The majority of research cond ucted has been exclusively about PE teaching, given concerns about how well prepared and willing classroom teachers are to teach PE in schools where there is no specialist (i.e., certified physical education teacher) (Rink, Hall, & Webster, 2008). For exam ple, Morgan and Bourke (2008) found pre service
44 & Clarke (2010) found personal PE ex periences and sport participation experiences Furthermore, Parks, Solmon, & Lee, (2007) investigated elementary classroom he academic classroom setting. Contrary to findings about PE teaching, the authors reported that current personal Webster and colleagues (2010) suggest that historical as pects of personal PA perceptions of promoting PA at school. Cothran, Hodges, Kulinna, & Garn, (2010) interviewed 23 elementary classroom teachers about a project in which P A was histories, including physically active behaviour and a healthful diet. Cothran et al., (2010) reported that correlational analyses highlighted age, body mass index (BMI), year in school and satisfaction with K 12 PE experiences as important factors in dy showed that age was negatively correlated with PE teaching competence, BMI was negatively correlated with PE teaching competence and extracurricular competence, year in school was positively correlated with classroom/ recess competence and PE teaching c ompetence, and satisfaction with K 12 PE experiences was positively correlated with competence in all three SPAP contexts as well as with attitudes. Furthermore, Cothran et al., (2010) found that hierarchical regression analysis revealed that participants
45 themselves) accounted for 12% of the variance in attitudes. Based on these findings, Webster et al., (2011) suggested that school based physical activity promotion may be less likely for than later stages of a program, report less favourable PE experiences, and/or have lower perceived PA competence than their program peers (Webster, 2011). In regards to these fin identify, such as the beliefs they have about themselves and overall competency to deliver an effective PE program. Ashy and Humphries (2000) found that PE teachers enrolled in a course, whi ch included teaching experiences, peer observation, self reports and instructor feedback, developed a better understanding of and more positive attitudes toward PE. In addition, Xiang, Lowy, & McBride, (2002) found that completing a field based PE methods course, particularly teaching and observation experiences, enhanced generalists teacher beliefs regarding the value and purpose of elementary PE. Consistent with fun correctly identify such skills and justify their importance in motor learning. These studies identify a range of experiences that might prompt PE teachers to value PE, understa nd its purpose and even develop basic movement and analysis skills (Webster et al., 2010). Based on these findings, PE training can help to lay the foundation for and ensure developmental readiness for learning about how to teach the DPA program in Ontari o. In addition, Webster and company (2010) found that the increase in perceived competence for PE teaching is important should any teacher be called on to lead PE
46 experiences for children. Despite the research suggesting PE should be taught by licensed sp ecialists (Faucette & Hillidge, 1989; Faucette & Patterson, 1989; Lawson, Lawson, & Stevens, 1982; Morgan & Hansen, 2007), most Ontario elementary schools require a generalist classroom teachers to teach elementary PE, therefore, they must be motivated, an d prepared with the proper skills and resources to teacher the Ontario mandated DPA program.
47 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Motivation Systems Theory, the purpose of Daily Physical Activity Program. Specifically, this study explores the relationship between moti vation, skill, and environment and how they influence a generalist The following research question s and hypotheses guided the research. R Q1: What is the relationship between generalist teacher motivation and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program? Ho: There is no relationship between generalist teacher motivation and pe rceived competency to deliver the DPA Program H1: There is a relationship between generalist teacher motivation and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program R Q2: What is the relationship between generalist teacher skill s and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program? Ho: There is no relationship between generalist teacher skill s and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program H2: There is a relationship between generalist teacher skill s and pe rceived competency to deliver the DPA Program R Q3: What is the relationship between generalist teacher school environment and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program? Ho: There is no relationship between generalist teacher e nvironment and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program H3: There is a relationship between generalist teacher environment and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program Research Design This study used an e based survey to collect d ata from a sample population of elementary teachers working in the Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District School Board in
48 Ontario, Canada. Lefever (2007) suggests that one advantage of e survey research is that it takes advantage of the ability of the internet to provide access to groups and individuals who would be difficult, if not impossible to reach through other channels. The literature suggests that online surveys provide a way to conduct studies when it is impractical or financially unfeasible to acces s certain populations (Couper, Traugott & Lamias, 2001; Sheehan & McMillan, 1999). Additionally, they are very cost effective, as the costs per response decrease as sample size increases (Watt, 1999). Mertler (2003) suggests that it is beneficial to use email for direct contact with participants. He emphasizes that being able to publisize an e survey and to encourage participation through email enables the researcher to determine the response rate with a possibility of an increased confidence in the gene ralizability of the research results (Mertler, 2002). Given the context of this study and the distance from the study area (approximately method was judged to be m ost suitable. A total of 20 questions were developed to assess the relationship between the independent variables motivation, environment, skill (Table 2), and the dependent variable competency. Items and subscales from the Physical Education Teache Physical Activity Self efficacy Scale (PETPAS) were borrowed from the work of Gencay (2009). Similar to Gencay (2009), this study used items from the student, space, time, and institution subscales to help determine teacher motivation and self efficac y to teach the DPA Program. According to Gencay (2009), PETPAS has a strong internal and values of teachers towards the DPA Program, some items from the Motivated
49 Strat egies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) were adopted. Pintrich, McKeachie, and Van Veen and Sleegers (2009), the Experience of Recurring Affective Episodes Scale will b e adopted to measure uncertainty and the frequency and affective intensity of environment (i.e. resources and demands), items from the Classroom Appraisal of Resources and Demand s (CARD) were adopted. A previous study by Lambe rt Melendres (2007) found sample specific reliabilities for both reported competency to teach in diverse settings, various questions were developed to link each independent variables (motivation, you feel your school environment allow s you to be competent in teaching the DPA r motivation towards physical education determines your level of competence to deliver the DPA agency beliefs; therefore, self efficacy was an important construct to measure. lead to student learning is a particularly powerful c onstruct, as it is one of the few teacher characteristics that reliability predicts teacher practice and student outcome s (Tshchannen Moran et al., 2001 ). The survey instrument is included in Appendix B of this thesis.
50 Sampling Method The SMCDSB houses 44 elementary schools with more than 4,000 permanent, part time and occasional employees and approximately 22,000 students. There are no middle schools in this region and high schools are not required to teach DPA. A total of 20 schools were asked to par ticipate in the study and the preferred sample size was 120 participants. The sample size was judged to be appropriate due to its statistical capture a representative sam ple of generalist teachers who are responsible for facilitating the DPA Program in the SMCDSB, a stratified random sampling method was applied It is expected that some schools may lack the financial, human or physical resources; therefore, using this met hod helped ensure that some of the smaller more rural schools were be represented in the sample. The purpose of this sampling method wa s to ensure representativeness from each group. In stratified random sampling, the population is divided into subpopula tions (strata) based on one or more classification urban schools. In this case, simple random samples were drawn from each stratum [smaller schools with less than 20 teachers vs. larger schools with more than 20 teachers], proportional to the relative size of each in the population. The sample was pooled to form a stratified random sample where the smaller more rural schools were offset by the larger sample of inner city schools. The stratified random sampling method was operationalized using a 3:1 ratio larger to smaller schools. Therefore, for every 3 schools that were selected from an urban region, 1 school was selected from a smaller rural region. This proces s involved the assistance of the Superintendent (chair) of the school board. The objective was to obtain information with respect to
51 demographic variables, current practices, beliefs and opinions of teachers (participants) in regard to the DPA Program. The Simcoe Muskoka region is of particular significance due to its geographical location as it offers an abundance of natural settings that teachers can take advantage of to promote physical activity outside the school walls (Figure 4). Some of these in expensive activities include, but not limited to, cross country and downhill skiing, mountain biking, rowing, snow shoeing, hiking and camping. It is important to mention that these activities can take up more than the required 20 minutes of DPA, however, some teachers incorporate educational lessons into outdoor activities making the activity both a learning experience and a tool to engage their students in physical activity. Notwithstanding the amount of activities available for outdoor fitness, childho od obesity is still a problem, therefore, this study targeted Program and how specifically their perceived motivation, school en vironment and skills can impact their perceived competency to teach DPA on a daily basis.
52 Fi gure 3 1. Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District School Board (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 2012)
53 CHAPTER 4 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data collection was initiated in the spring of 2012. All elementary teachers (JK grade 8) employed by the Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District School Board (SMCDSB) were asked to participate in an e survey. Since SMCDSB teachers email accounts cannot be accessed publically, invitations an d a URL link to the e survey were distributed by the elementary program coordinator who forwarded the invitation to principals at each school. The principals then distributed the survey and original invitation to all eligible full time teachers in their schools. The e survey link was also Approv al for this study was granted by the Behavioral/Non Medical Internal Review Board at the University of Florida. This research involved no more than minimal risk to consenting adult participants and therefore it qualified for IRB02 review and approval. A c opy of the approval notice can be found in the appendix. Regression analysis was used to measure which among the independent variables are related to the dependent variable, and to explore the direction ality of these relationships. A two step approach was taken to test the research hypotheses and uncover any underlying relationships amongst each variable. This process involved computing grand means for each of the independent variables, running the analysis and making observations based on significance leve ls, correlations and ANOVA scores. Descriptive statistics were used for general analysis purposes. Demographic Characteristics A total of 216 generalist teachers received invitations ; and the sample response rate was 69% (n=136) with 7% (n=15) of surveys being incomplete. One hundred and
54 twenty one (121) surveys were completed in full and completed surveys [only] were used for analysis. Teachers responded and answered a series of questions reflecting various demographic variables, their own current pract ices, beliefs and personal opinions of the DPA Program (see Appendix B). From the 121 generalist teachers who responded to the survey, 71% were from schools with less than 20 teachers (n=86) and 29% were from schools with more than 20 teachers (n=35). Ov erall, 72% of teachers indicated that they had approximately 21 20 students in their class which suggests this was the average class size in the school board. Respondents were also asked to state how many years they have been teaching. Self reported resp onses indicate that a majority of respondents (92%, n=111) have been teaching for more than six years and only 8% (n=10) said they have been teaching f or less than 6 years. Figure 4 1 illustrates the distribution of school grades that the participating t eachers are responsible for teaching. Figure 4 1. Distribution of teachers responsible for teaching each grade
55 Daily Physical Activity Program Compliance In order to assess the operationalization of the DPA program in schools and by individual teacher s, the survey participants were asked if their school had an active DPA program and if they follow the DPA guidelines. Teachers report that the DPA is active in 54% (n=65) of schools surveyed. Concomitantly, the program is not active in 46% of the schools and a majority of the participants (60%, n=72) indicated that they do not follow the DPA Guidelines (Figure 6). These results were not anticipated and are perhaps, the most signifi cant finding of this research. Figure 4 2. DPA Compliance Analysis of T eacher Motivation, Skills and Environment Teachers Perceived Motivation Teachers were asked to rate a series of questions in order to determine if there was a correlation between perceived motivation and perceived competency when delivering the DPA progra m. From the schools that have a structured DPA program in place, 27% (=4.29) of participants agreed that during DPA time, they are more likely to
56 teach course material that challenges their stud ents to learn new things Table 4 1 Inversely, only 7% of te the same statement. A comparison of means revealed that 43% (=5.33) of teachers had a low preference to use course material that arouses their curiosity. When asked directly about their motivation to deliver the DPA program, 52% of teachers from schools that practice DPA either agree d or strongly agree d that they are motivated to lear n and enhance their DPA leadership while only 30% of teachers from schools that do not have an active DPA Program agreed with the same statement. It is possible that this difference is evident because of the independent nature of individual schools and th e influence their values and beliefs have on their curriculum agendas. Motivation to teach the DPA Program may be lacking in some areas and childhood habits may have changed over the years, however, student motivation towards physical education remains hig h. When asked their perception of with the state Table 4 1. Summary of motivation items and correspondin g results Statistic During DPA, I prefer to teach course material that challenges my students so they can learn new things. During DPA, I prefer to use course material that arouses my curiosity, even if it is difficult to teach. When I have the opportunity I teach activities that improve my students motor and balance skills. My teaching philosophy motivates me to teach at least 20 minutes of DPA daily. I am motivated to learn and to enhance my DPA leadership. Min Value 1 1 1 1 1 Max Value 7 7 7 7 7 Mean 4.29 3.63 5.33 4.00 4.57 Variance 2.93 2.44 2.51 3.72 3.37 Standard Deviation 1.71 1.56 1.58 1.93 1.84
57 Table 4 1. (continued) Total Responses 121 121 121 121 121 There was a significant difference between teach ers who have a strong preference towar ds making time for DPA and those who are less motivated to teach the program As such, 60% of teachers from schools that have an active DPA program felt their teaching philosophy motivated them to teach at least 20 minutes of DPA daily while only 15% felt the same at schools with an inactive DPA program. All participants were reluctant to teach unfamiliar and challenging physical activities to their students. ANOVA was computed to determine the relationship between teacher motivation and their likelihood to participate in DPA specific professional development opportunities. Table 4 2 provides a visual comparison of groups who stated they are motivated to participate in DPA professional development in the future, and those who are not. The ANOVA resulted in f =2.789 with 19 and 84 degrees of freedom. F was significant at less than .001 level for between groups. This suggests that the likeliness of teachers to participate in professional development programs in the future can, in some cases, depend on their moti vation to teach DPA. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether there was a perceived competency. Regression analysis revealed that there is a positiv e relationship between teachers perceived motivation and perceived competency (correlation coefficient .324, <.001). Model testing will be discussed in further detail in the following section.
58 Table 4 2. to participate in future professional development opportunities Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 165.255 19 8.698 2.789 .001 Within Groups 261.966 84 3.119 Total 427.221 103 Teachers Perceived Working Environment In terms o f school environment, 46% of respondents from schools with an active DPA program felt that their colleagues, in general, are supportive of the DPA Program. Comparatively, only 33% of respondents from schools with an inactive DPA program felt the same. Th is difference may or may not be indicative of the support schools receive from their prin cipals and school administrators Some of the most revealing descriptive information obtained from the school environment analysis was the overall awareness of the le arning opportunities provided by the school board. A majority of respondents (78%) from schools with an inactive DPA program disagreed that the SMCDSB provides training opportunities to enhance DPA related teaching. In comparison, 47% of ctive DPA schools felt the same. This difference was statistically significant and clearly indicates that program support and general awareness of training opportunities is inconsistent throughout the region. What was also evide nt from the analysis of tea cher s perceived working environment was the lack of time to deliver the DPA Program. Forty two percent of teachers felt they do not have enough time in a day to teach DPA and only 26% felt that their school supports the use of classroom time to deliver th e DPA Program. School environment was suspected to be a strong indicator of perceived competence; however, regression analysis showed this was not as strongly correlated
59 as the other independent variables. Regression analysis revealed that there was no relationship between teachers perceived working environment and perceived competency (correlation coefficient .114, >.005). Teachers Perceived Skills Teachers perceived their skills to be very important in delivering DPA but in general, they report ed tha t they have very little knowledge of the program and confidence to deliver it. Only 6% of respondents considered themselves experts with full confidence in their ability to lead DPA. Only 29% of respondents report previous training in health and physical education and 67% report that they have received no professional development in this area ( Table 4 3) Only 30% of respondents who had training felt they are competent to deliver DPA while 46% who have not received training felt the same. Table 4 3. R elationship between previous health and physical education training and perceived competence to deliver the DPA Program Previous training in health / physical ed. Perceived Competence to Deliver DPA (I feel that I am competence to deliver DPA) Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree TOTAL Yes 0 0 0 5 5 16 14 35 No 4 10 8 6 14 36 3 81 Total 4 10 8 6 19 52 17 121 Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether there wa s a perceived competency. Regression analysis revealed that there was a positive relationship between teachers perceived skills and perceived competency (correlation coefficien t .862, <.001). This relationship was the strongest with a high correlation
60 coefficient from the model test. A detailed description of model testing is outlined in the following se ction: Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Hypothesis tests were conducte d to ascertain whether perceived competency is related to one or more of the independent variables. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to establish model (dependent variable) to deliver D PA based on their motivation, school environment and skills (independent variables). A two step approach was taken to test the research hypotheses and uncover any underlying relationships between variables. This process involved computing grand means for each of the independent variables, running the analysis and making observations based on significance levels, correla tions, and ANOVA scores (Table 4 4 and Table 4 5 ). A significant regression equation was found (F(3,97) = 31.159, p < .001), with an R2 .114(environ_3_mean) + .131(teamotive_3_mean) + .862(skills_2_mean) where each score was based on calculated averages from the independent variables. Model testing showed that 49.1 % of the variation in perceived competence can be explained by difference in teacher motivation towards DPA, school environment and their personal DPA skills. The ANOVA resulted in F=31.159 with 3 and 97 degrees of freedom. F is significant at less than .001 levels.
61 Table 4 4. Overview of grand mean scores from perceived motivation, perceived skills and perceived working environment scales MODEL Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.375 .510 4.655 .000 Q11_Teamotive_1_mean .131 .129 .099 1.022 .309 Q13_skills_2_mean .862 .111 .673 7.783 .000 Q15_environ_3_mean .114 .146 .071 .779 .438 a. Dependent Variable: Q16_COMPET_1 Table 4 5. Model characteristics and s ummary MODEL R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change 1 .701a .491 .475 1.208 .491 31.159 3 97 .000 a. Predictors: (Constant), Q15_environ_3_mean, Q13_skills_2_mean, Q11_Teamotive_1_mea n b. Dependent Variable: Q16_COMPET_1 Based on observations from this study, the teacher skills component held the most strength in explaining perceived competency; however, a second step was needed to establish more concrete evidence of this connection. Step two involved MLR and correlation analysis in order to (1) reinforce the existing relationship, and (2), to isolate which specific items from the independent variable lists are the most useful in explaining perceived competence. Question 16 of the s urvey consisted of various statements such deliver the DPA Program and, (c) I feel I have the resources to deliver the DPA Program. Based on a self reported evaluati on of these statements, respondents were asked to rate each item on a 7 point scale. Similar to the above analysis, which looked at the grand means scores from the modified scales from the literature, each single item was analyzed to confirm the reliabili ty of the model test. As a result, both skill and
62 motivation items were both statistically significant at the 0 .001 level. Table 4 6 provides a visual of this represen tation of the scores and Table 4 7 provides a model summary. R squared values were com pared between both models revea ling a change from .475 (Table 4 5) to .626 (Table 4 7 ). There is a close relationship when comparing perceived competence to motivation and skills to deliver the DPA Program, as indicated by the low p value (<.001). This w as confirmed by the multiple correlation coefficient indicating a positive relationship between the two variables (teacher motivation, teacher skills and perceived competence) Table 4 6. Overview of grand mean scores from self constructed single item questions MODEL Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .173 .464 .374 .709 Q16(i): I feel I am motivated to deliver the DPA Program .324 .086 .324 3.773 .000 Q16(ii): I feel I have the skills to deliver the DPA Program .848 .076 .770 11.118 .000 Q16(iii): I feel I have the resources to deliver the DPA Program .150 .072 .164 2.078 .041 Q16(iv): I feel I am confi dent to deliver the DPA Program .069 .076 .071 .907 .367 a. Dependent Variable: Q16_COMPET_1 Table 4 7. Single item model characteristics R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change 1 .801a .642 .626 .978 .642 40.349 4 90 .000 a. Predictors: (Constant), Q16_COMPET_5, Q16_COMPET_3, Q16_COMPET_4, Q16_COMPET_2 The question 1 null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and it is accepted (H1) that there is a relationship between generalist teacher motivation and perceived competency to deliver the DPA program. The null hypothesis is also rejected for question 2, and it is
63 accepted (H2) that there is a relationship between generalist teacher skill and perceived competency to deliv er the DPA program. Conversely, it is not possible to reject the question 3 null hypothesis as this study found no evidence of a relationship between generalist teacher school environment and perceived competency to deliver the DPA program. Table 4 4 and T able 4 6 underscores this relationship with corresponding .114 and .150. Repeated regression analysis was done to unveil any item level significance of reported school environment versus perceived competency. As such, item 2 ding and external support for the DPA Program is value of .003 indicating that this item alone has a significant Program. In summary, this sec tion analyzed and summarized results of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. Specifically, it presented and described the univariate distributions of all relevant variables from the demographic, school based DPA, and personal biography findings are as follows: 1. DPA program implementation is not consistent across schools the Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District School Board. a) Nearly half (46%) of teachers surveyed report that the DPA is not active in their schools. 2. There is a statistically significant relationship between generalist teacher motivation and perceived competency to deliver the DPA program b) A minority report (43%) that they are motivated to teach activities that improve student m otor and balance skills c) Teachers in schools with an active DPA program are more likely to be motivated to deliver the program than teachers working in schools with an inactive DPA program.
64 d) Key residual: A majority of teachers surveyed report that they are not motivated to deliver the DPA 3. There is a statistically significant relationship between generalist teacher skill and perceived competency to deliver the DPA program e) A minority of teachers (18%) surveyed report that they have completed workshops, courses or certifications that pertain to health and physical activity in the past five years f) A majority of teachers (94%) surveyed report that they do not consider themselves experts with full confidence to deliver the DPA program g) Key residual: A majority of te achers surveyed report that they are confident in their skills to deliver the DPA. 4. There is no statistically significant relationship between the environment and generalist teacher perceived competency to deliver the DPA program h) A minority of teachers (26% ) surveyed report that their school supports the use of class time to deliver the DPA program i) A majority of teachers surveyed report that lack of funding and external affects their perceived competence to deliver the DPA j) Key residual: While this study fo und no statistically significant relationship, the data did suggest a relationship. Future research is needed to better understand this relationship The subsequent section discusses these results in the context of the scientific literature in this area and it explores the potential implications of this study. Recommendations for future research and DPA program management follow.
65 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION In response to a need for a physical activity program for school aged children, the Ontario Ministry of Educ ation (OME) mandated Memorandum No. 138 whereby minutes of sustained moderate to vigorous physical activity each school day during 2005, p. 1). This poli cy was developed to increase physical activity levels in elementary schools throughout Ontario. Although mandated by the OME, implementation of the DPA Program is left to individual school boards, administrators and teachers. Since its launch in 2005, th ere has been little to no evaluation of the experience show that successful programs require periodic evaluation. Schmidt, Pratt, Witmer, (2 006): Gerston, (2004); Hogwood & Gunn ( 1984) argue that successful policy development requires consistent policy implementation and evaluation both important evaluation assesses the effectiveness of a pub 119). Identifying implementation challenges during policy d evelopment and examining policy implementation are important given policy effective ness may be determined by implementation (Levesque & Wilson, 2009; Gerston, 2004; Hogwood, Gunn, 1984). Based on the findings of this study as well as the fact that policy effectiveness can be determined by implementation, it is possible to infer that inc onsistent DPA program implementation suggests that the DPA may not be effective or successful in this school board.
66 All elementary teachers in Ontario are required to deliver the DPA Program, regardless of their individual qualifications and phy sical educa tion experience. Lu and Lodewyk (2 012) suggest there are two types of teachers providing DPA instruction in Canada: (a) generalists, who are normally classroom teachers with limited to no training in physical education whereas (b ) specialists have trainin g in PE either by completing a major (first teachable subject) or minor (second teachable subject) as part of their university undergraduate degree. Usually generalists teach many subjects (e.g., arts, language, math, science, social studies, and physical education) in elementary schools. Lu and Lodewyk (2012) and Lu and De Lisio (2009) suggest that inadequate and in appropriate is identified as a major barrier for teaching staff particularly for the generalist, to develop and implement quality PE and DPA programs in schools. Today, a wealth of evidence suggests that elementary school aged children do not receive PE every day, which is why DPA was introduced to increase physical activity levels. Although this study represents 1 of 29 English Catholic sc hool boards and 72 total schools boards in the province of Ontario, the inconsistent DPA implementation in SMCDSB is certainly troubling given that delivering the program is a requirement of the Government of Ontario. In the provincial context, these find ings are consistent with the work of Stone, Faulkner, Zeglen Hunt and Cowie Bonne (2012) whose research found that less than half of children in Ontario are provided DPA. This paper by Stone et al., (2012) also provides supporting evidence that when this policy is implemented, the intended health benefits are achievable. As such, they found that children who engaged in DPA every day were significantly more active than their peers However, notwithstanding the positive outcomes that can come from DPA, the results from Stone
67 et al., (2012) suggest similar insights that have come from this study the majority of schools are not currently meeting the DPA policy requirements (Stone et al., 2012) Clearly, DPA implementation is i nconsistent across the provinc e; however, more research is needed to validate these proclamations. Motivation In this stud y, regression analysis of teac her s perceived competence to deliver the Ontario DPA Program in the SMCDSB yielded a signifi cant finding related to teacher s per ceived motivation towards DPA. Specifically, perceptions of item 5 from the motivation scale (I am motivated to learn and enhance my DPA leadership) proved to be a core tenant in evaluating perceived comp etence to deliver DPA The motivation focused regr ession analysis scored a p value of .002 which implies a significant relationship and suggests this element is an important reference point for evaluators of the DPA Program. efficacy i s critical and is a more consistent predictor of behavioral outcomes for developing confident and competent teachers (Graham & Weiner 1996; Hoy & Spero, 2006; efficacy within the co ntext of PE and DPA, this study addresses a possible relationship between self efficacy beliefs and teach ers actual delivery of the DPA p rogram. This is pertinent to this study because of the correlation between DPA and PE i.e. teachers who believe in the val ues of PE are more inclined to teach DPA. Evidence from this study shows that 60% of teachers from schools that have an active DPA Pr ogram felt their teaching philosophy motivated them to teach at least 20 minutes of DPA daily while only 15% felt the same from non DPA schools.
68 Additionally, this study looked at teacher motivation and their likelihood to participate in DPA specific professional development opportunities. Through ANOVA testing, a significant relationship (less than .001) revealed that the likel iness of teachers participating in future professional de velopment programs depends on their motivation, and, in some cases, is influenced by the presence of the DPA Program. These findings are, however, under substantiated and require further explanation as to program structure, consistency, integration strategies and challenges associated with the delivery. Research suggests that the quality of learning experiences for all students is a concern given that the level of knowledge required by t he teachers responsible for implementing the DPA initiative may not be to a standard deemed worthy of quality instruction (Chroney, 2009). Furthermore, research has shown that teacher efficacy rning activities and subsequently enhances the quality of the instruction (Geijsel, Sleegers, Van Den Berg, & Kelchtermans 2012; Goddard, Hoy, & Hoy, 2000; Smylie, 1988; Tschannen Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001). This study found that no real difference exist ed in the perceived motivation of teachers who follow the DPA Guidelines that those who have received any extra PE training, however, there was a significant difference between teachers who have a strong philosophy towards making time for the 20 minutes of DPA and those who do not. Research suggests that teacher motivation and commitment is strongly correlated with their belief in, and acceptance of the org (Geijsel et al., 2009; Leithwood, Jantzi, & Steinbach, 1999). In this c level of commitment to org anizational goals was the most important motivational factors for
69 explaining teacher learning and teaching practices. However, the incidence of an active DPA p rogram is limited; therefore, the motivation of higher level leadership must be perpetrated throughout in order for generalists to be active supporters of the DPA initiative. Furthermore, results in this study reflect similar implications by Thoonen et al. nal learning activities, in particular, experimenting and reflection, is a powerful predictor for teaching practices. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing in this study indicated that those teachers who are from schools that have an active DPA Program are more likely to participate in professional learning activities compared to those schools where DPA is nonexistent. Coupled with a modest amount of previous PE training that is seemingly apparent in the SMCDSB, this realization is troubling yet dichotomou s to the amount of teachers who actually follow the DPA Guidelines. It is probable that school wide training and increased monitoring of DPA implementation is suitable, however, there is limited systematic evidence available to support this claim. To this end, this study showed that although the policy may not be effective ly implemented tivation to deliver 20 minutes of daily physical activity This also implied, and confirmed previous fi ndings by (Barrett, 2011), that self efficacy beliefs in teaching DPA tended to be lower for those teachers who did not have an opportunity to teach DPA or see it being taught. With the exception of Barrett (2011) and Xiang et al., (2002) study on general the role of the teacher in program success. While this study does not attempt to evaluate the full spectrum of the relationship between the teacher and program
70 suc cess, it does reveal implementation of the DPA and by extension, it has a role in successful physical education program implementation. Skills The second and m ost significant finding revealed through regression an alysis considered themselves experts with full confidence o f teaching DPA. The amount of teachers who are not fully equipped with DPA skills is plausible because many teachers d o not follow the DPA g uidelines nor do they see them as effective. In addition to the previously mentioned barriers to teachers perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program, the 2008 People for Education Report (2012) suggested that 98% of school princ ipals self reported that DPA was being implemented. However, the perspectives of teachers in this study revealed that only 54%, (n=65) indicated that D PA was being implemented in their classrooms There are many variables that could acco unt for this chang e, including, but not limited to: updated curriculum documents; particularly physical education, enthusiasm of teachers, location and other social and demographic factors. Going forward more in depth analysis and evaluation fo r the DPA Program should be to done to not only assess the current state of the program, but to also provide more up to date knowledge of the current practices and perspectives of both teachers and principals regarding DPA program effectiveness. Currently, it appears that the condit ion of DPA in Ontario schools has not been structured effectively, as evidenced by the lack in consistency, or even the complete oversight (Barrett, 2011), as reported by full time generalist teachers from catholic elementary schools in Central Ontario.
71 perceived themselves to have the skills to effectively deliver the DPA Program. Interestingly, only 15% of respondents considered themselves experts at teaching DPA. A p ossible explanation for this difference may be that there is a significant gap between basic DPA skill levels and those with qualifications in physical education. As a simple ards physical activity, 89% indicated that their students value its benefits and importance. Setting aside the pronounced barriers of insufficient time, equipment and space, Ontario teachers have a unique opportunity to unfold new experiences for their st udents. As change agents, all teachers have a duty that requires them to possess exemplary and versatile characteristics that include full knowledge of the DPA Program agenda and the supporting resources that are available to teach it. Additional ev iden ce from this study presents an interesting perspective on that only 6% of respondents considered themselves experts with full confidence of teaching the DPA Program. In term s of teacher skills towards the DPA Program, this study showed that only 30% of respondents from schools that do not have an active DPA Program in their school are motivated to learn and enhance their DPA leadership. Not accounting for the 18% of teachers that had no opinion, a corresponding 52% of respondents from DPA schools suggested they were motivated to learn and enhance their DPA leadership. DPA leadership and implementation begins with the school board and school administration (principal), before being passed along to the teachers. As highlighted in the Framework for Environment section of the DPA Policy Framework
72 effort to ensure that students are receivin g at least twenty minutes of sustained more a teacher responsibility as it is the principals. As noted by Beets, Flay, Vuchinich, Acock, Li and Allred, (2008), the i nfluence of school administration and school lack thereof, is achieved through a social process whereby teachers interact with the program and pass judgment, either posi tively or negatively, through subjective perceptions of the social system (school), in which they are embedded (Barrett, 2011; Beets et al., 2008). Based on evidence from the literature and results from this study, the role of leadership and individual sc hool culture clearly plays as much, if not more of an important role than the OME in providing teachers with the skills to deliver DPA. Results show that many schools in the SMCDSB do not have an active DPA Program. School Environment In the province of Ontario, the Ministry of Education is committed to supporting a healthy school environment where physical activity is an essential component for the growth and development of children and youth. Unlike many other provinces, which have comprehensive poli health, education and community services together, Ontario schools are mainly left to their own devices to do this vital work (People for Education, 2012). A study by Barrett (2011) suggests clearly pushed health promoting policies yet has left teachers to fend for themselves item 2 from the environment scale d external support for the DPA P rogram
73 perceived competence to deliver the DPA P rogram. Item 2 of the environment scale obtained a p value of .003 indicati ng that prevalence of funding and external support play an instrumental role in Wilson (2009) suggest that although sparse funding has been available in previous years, a long term strategy to sustain the resources and training required for continued DPA implementation is not apparent. A lack of material resources, facilities, equipment, and qualified personnel (Bar roso, McCullum Gomez, Hoelscher, Kelder, Murray, 2005; Deacon 2005). In addition to this current study, the People for Education Report (2012) revealed that DPA implementation resources may not be sufficient in Ontario. Furthermore, this study found t hat 42% of teachers felt they do not have enough time in a day to teach DPA and only 26% felt that their school supports the use of classroom time to deliver the DPA Program. Although these findings are not statistically significant, they are consistent w ith previous findings that have observed that many teach DPA (Barrett, 2012; Morgan & Hansen, 2008a).
74 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS In the last decade, the Ministry of Education, in view of the emerging inactivity and obesity epidemic, has demonstrated a willingness to increase funding for health and physical education specia list teachers in publicly funded elementary schools (Ministry of Education, 2005a). Despite the infusion of funding, not all elementary schools have a physical education expert and most students are still not receiving both physical education and DPA inst ruction from their generalist teachers (Faulkner et al., 2008). The analysis reveals key challen ges for the implementation DPA P rogram in the SMCDSB an d this has implications on DPA P rogram success in Ontario. A set of recommendations a re proposed for mi tigating DPA P rogram implementation challenges both general and teacher competency related. Although findings from this study are preliminary in nature, the following best practices should be explored in terms of strategic planning, skill development an d benchmarking: 1. Make DPA a reportable subject or integrate grades in physical education grades 2. Require all teachers and administrators to take an additional DPA qualification course 3. The OME should hire physical education consultants (similar to literacy an d numeracy consultants) to support and visit schools 4. Provide support and resources for teachers 5. Official program evaluation needs to be completed
75 Recommendations Make DPA a Reportable (Graded) Subject or Integrate Grades in Physical Education Grades DPA is currently a non reportable subject, therefore, teachers may feel that time should be dedicated towards teaching reportable subjects that are of consequence to the students grade records. This study suggests that teachers are constrained by the limited tim e available to teach the curriculum and this constraint is magnified by the the Ontario English Catholic Teachers Association have recently reached an agreement with the Mi this time is likely to be dedicated to preparing reportable subject lessons (ETFO, OECTA, 2012). In order to incorporate DPA into the already tight time constraints, teachers c an utilize varied instructional strategies including, cross curricular and differentiated instruction. Cross curricular allows teachers to integrate two or more subjects into one and differentiated instruction allows teachers to teach beyond traditional t eaching methods. For instance, a teacher can choose a traditional teaching method whereby they are utilizing textbooks to teach measurements in mathematics. A differentiated approach may be to have students physically go outside and walk and/or run throu gh various physical measurements, such as measuring the perimeter of the school or track anything to get them active and moving while learning mathematics. Teachers may want to consider these alternative teaching approaches in order to meet the 20 minu tes of DPA standards. Not all students are alike. Based on this strategy, the National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (2010) suggests that differentiated
76 instruction applies an approach to teaching and learning that allows students to learn v ia a number of multiple intelligences, for example, linguistic, bodily kinesthetic, logical mathematical, intrapersonal etc. This teaching theory is based on the premise that instructional approaches should be varied and adapted in relation to individual and diverse students in classrooms (Tomlinson, 2001). It is noted that this style of teaching is not exclusive to DPA instruction. DPA can also be incorporated into classroom management strategies whereby teachers provide energy release opportunities for students such as jumping jacks, wall sits and sprints in between subjects. Going forward, it may be possible that these types of solutions to DPA instruction can be served as a framework for elementary education in Ontario and abroad. Combined, these les sons would cover both health and physical education, where if properly conceived, could be a highly effective teaching strategy that would not only mitigate time constraints, but also provide students valuable education and promote physical activity standa rds. Require All Teachers and Administrators to Take an Additional DPA Qualification Course Generalist teachers are working in an environment where innovative teaching is paramount. The idea of blending subjects is one strategy that can encourage DPA. R egardless if DPA is a reportable subject or not, continued professional development is quintessential in moving forward towards successful DPA implementation. Children and youth are potentially facing the prospect of living a shorter lifespan than their p arents as a result of inactivity (Granthem, 2007). For elementary generalists, they have an important responsibility since they are a major part of the solution for ensuring that Ontario students receive recommended levels of physical activity (Faulkner e t al.,
77 and skills is highly correlated with school effectiveness (Muller, 1993; Evertson, Hawley, & Zlotnik, 1985; Berg, 1988; Ball & Mc Darmid, 1990; Anderson, 1991). T eachers who are competent in their knowledge content and pedagogy will promote learning among their student and this will give impact to the schools (Ahmad, 2010). Ahmad (2010) suggests that teachers who have competencies that match with the challenges wi ll easily acquire knowledge and be recepti ve to changes and thus realize organizational goal s Going forward, it is recommended that OME implement a mandatory DPA professional development course for all teachers and principals in Ontario. Research su ggests that students taught by staff trained in PE, spend more time being active, have greater improvements in fitness, and have smaller declines in academic performance (Canadian Report Card, 2010). In this regard, it would be useful for generalist teach ers to hav e the opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills of DPA so they can exhibit alternative courses of action that reach beyond traditional teaching methods and lthier lifestyles. In addition to a professional development course for teachers and principals the in future studies in order to develop a greater understanding of spe cifics related to their motivation levels towards the program and PE at large.
78 The OME Should Hire Physical Education Consultants (Similar t o Literacy and Numeracy Consultants) t o Support and Visit Schools In 2004, the OME developed a literacy and numerac y strategy to help boost student achievement. This strategy involved skilled and experienced educators (known as student achievement officers) to work directly with schools and school boards across the province to build capacity and implement strategies t o improve our students' reading, writing and math skills. Currently, there is no strategy in place to do the same for DPA. While partnerships have been forged stakeholder groups (e.g. Ontario Physical Health Education Association, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Health Promotion) and investments have been made in developing resources for the DPA program, the responsibility for program implementation has been left with individual school boards. Evidence from this study suggest that more work needs to be done in ensuring teachers are provided the necessary skills to implement DPA. Barrett (2011) DPA should be a collaborative effort that includes teams of new and experienced teachers, administrators, curriculum specialists, discipline experts, school board senior there is some professional development opportunities are avai lable for teachers in Ontario, results show that the DPA Program is not being consiste ntly taught across the province. This raises questions about the programs utility as well as the amount of investment the OME has made to ensure the programs implementat ion and success. Provide Support and Resources for Teachers Evidence from this study revealed that teachers in the SMCDSB are given little professional support or feedback from peers and administrators. In every profession,
79 employees will learn and grow throughout their careers. Classroom teachers should be offered the same kind of support provided to business professionals. Linking all professional learning to individual, school, district, and province/state goals or initiatives is a common practice amo ng the best practice districts for professional development (State Education Technology Directors Association 2008). According the 2009 report by SETDA, in many cases, teacher professional development is not connected to school improvement goals and, ther efore, is not a priority and lacks the resources necessary to be effective. In order for the DPA Program to be effective in the future, results from this study suggest that there needs to be more peer support for brainstorming and collaboration, goal set ting with superiors, and the infrastructure, resources and tools necessary to achieve those goals within individual schools. Sixty six percent of teachers who were formally mentored by another teacher reported that it lot (US Department of Education, 2002). Classes taught by new teachers working with teacher mentors are more likely to result in positive academic gains for students (Ingersol, 2003). Currently, teachers in SMCDSB report that they are not aware of the res ources available to them and they do not feel supported in their role as DPA leaders. In this regard, it would be useful for school boards and the OME to encourage coaching or mentorship within schools to provide opportunities for collaboration on plannin g and co teaching to help teachers utilize new practices and resources in the future. Official Program Evaluation In 2005, the Ontario Ministry of Education made an active stride towards promoting the health and well being of school aged children whereby public health units are, and will be a valuable partner for DPA implementation. Since then, a series of
80 reports an d journal articles have reported similar that children are still not receiving enough physical activity. Robertson Wilson and Levesque (200 9) suggest that if DPA program related resources, training, or support are provided to schools through public health efforts, implementation and evaluation of the challenges, facilitators, and use of resources could be conducted and publicly shar ed with sc hool stakeholders across the province. This type of strategy is essential go ing forward, however, the Ontario Ministry of Education has, and receives, little relevant information on providing DPA in Ontario schools, despite its continued funding and suppo rt for the program (Barrett, 2011). To achieve successful DPA in Ontario, it is suggested that the Ministry of Education complete a formal evaluation. Based on the results, the Ministry could then take action to improve on the programs successes and fai lures. C onclusion The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived competency of program for elementary schools. The research questions specifically sought to explore the relationships between: (1) generalist teacher motivation and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program; (2) generalist teacher skills and perceived competency to deliver the DPA Program; and (3) generalist teacher school environment and p erceived competency to deliver the DPA Program. Throughout the research process, it became of the DPA are inconsistent throughout the Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District Sc hool Board. Almost half of schools in the SM CDSB do not have an active DPA P rogram and teachers do not perceive themselves as competent to deliver the program. Congruent
81 with the province wide research of Stone et al. (2012), the research suggests that a serious sit uation is evolving whereby DPA P rogram success is at risk and by extension, so are the health benefits for the children of Ontario. Strategies are recommended for mitigating program im plementation challenges; r ecommendations that require the effort of all stakeholders provincial agencies, school boards, school administrators, teachers, parents, and students. In the very least, it is recommended that a province wide program evaluation needs to be done to assess the state of the program. Thi s assessment can inform the enhancement of the program or activity and improving their health. Research is also needed to better understa nd the role of teachers in DPA P rogr am implementation as well as other factors that may be affecting implementation in SMCDSB and other areas of the province. Results from this study suggest that there needs to be more peer support for brainstorming and collaboration, goal setting with supe riors, and the infrastructure, resources and tools necessary to achieve those goals within individual schools. In addition to a formal evaluation, it would be useful for school boards and the OME to encourage coaching or mentorship within schools to provi de opportunities for collaboration on planning and co teaching to help teachers utilize new DPA practices and resources in the future. This study found that there is a statistically significant relationship between teachers DPA skills, self efficacy, and perceived competency to deliver DPA. In this regard, i t is suggested that future work include focus groups and personal interviews, along with classroom observations, to assist in supporting the results derived from this quantitative study and future exa minations.
82 It is hope d that this study will inform both broad based evaluation of the DPA P rogram and future r esearch concerned with the DPA P rogram specifically, and physical education programs generally. Evidence has revealed that the current strate gy has little success; therefore, continued evaluation from both scholars and the Ministry of Education in Ontario should be further explored so that successful programming can meet the diverse needs of Ontario students.
83 APPENDIX SURVEY Q1 Are you a generalist (regular classroom teacher)? Yes No If No Is Selected, Then Skip To End of Survey Skip Logic Q2 What school do you teach at? Q3 What grade(s) do you teach? Q4 Please indicate the number of students in your class by selecting the most appropriate category. 11 15 16 20 21 25 26 30 30+ Q5 Please indicate the number of teachers in your school. Less than 20 More than 20
84 Q6 Please indicate the number of years you have been teaching by selecting the most appropriate category. 0 5 6 10 11 15 15 20 20+ Q7 Do you have any formal training in physical activty? E.g. Degree in physical education, personal training or coaching certification, and/or additional qualifications. Yes No If Yes Is Selected, Then Skip To If yes, please list your formal train... Skip Logic Q8 If yes, ple ase list your formal training. Q9 Is the Daily Physical Activity Program active in your school? Yes No Q10 Do you follow the Daily Physical Activity Guidelines in your teaching practice ? Yes No
85 Q11 The first set of questions is designed to focus on your motivation towards Daily Physical Activity. Please evaluate your motivation towards DPA on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 ( strongly agree). Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree During DPA, I prefer to teach course material that challenges my students so they can learn new things. During DPA, I prefer to use course material that arouses my curiosity, even if it is diff icult to teach. When I have the opportunity, I teach activities that improve my students motor and balance skills. My teaching philosophy motivates me to teach at least 20 minutes of DPA daily. I am motivated to learn and to enhance my DPA leadership. Please use this space to provide the researchers with additional comments.
86 Q12 The next set of questions are designed to focus on your students motivation towards Daily Physical Activity. Please evaluate your perception of your students motivation towards DPA on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Strongly Disagree Disag ree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree My students are not concerned with being physically active. My students do not highly value physical education. My students do not enjoy partici pating in callisthenic activities. My students would prefer unstructured vs. structured physical activity. My students do not enjoy spending large amounts of class time being physically active. Please use this space to provide the researchers with additional comments.
87 Q13 The next set of questions is designed to focus on your Daily Physical Activity skill s. Please evaluate your skills in delivering the Daily Physical Activity policy guidelines on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongl y Agree I consider myself an expert at teaching DPA. I have completed workshops, courses or certifications that pertain to health, wellness or physical education in the past 5 years. I have completed a DPA workshop in the last 12 months. I am confident in my skills to deliver the DPA Program. My DPA teaching strategies are informed by the DPA guidelines. Please use this space to provide the researchers with additional comments.
88 Q14 The next set of questions is designed to focus on your perception of time for delivering Daily Physical Activity lessons. Please evaluate your percep tion of time for delivering the Daily Physical Activity policy guidelines on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree My school supports the use of classroom time to deliver the DPA Program. I spend too much time on classroom management to deliver consistent DPA. I do not have enough time in a day to deliver DPA to my students. I spend too mu ch time on other curriculum goals. My other classes are too long in duration to allow for DPA. Please use this space to provide the researchers with additional comments.
89 Q15 The next set of questions is designed to focus on your classroom/school environment. Please evaluate your classroom/school environment for delivering DPA on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree My school provides the resources required to deliver the DPA Program. Funding and external support for the DPA Pr ogram is insufficient. There are safe and accessible space(s) available in which to deliver the DPA Program, including but not limited to the classroom, the gymnasium, and the outdoors. My colleagues in general are supportive of t he DPA Program. My school board provides training opportunities to enhance DPA related teaching. Please use this space to provide the researchers with additional comments.
90 Q16 The next set of questions is designed to focus on your competence in teaching Daily Physical Activity. Please evaluate your competence in teaching DPA on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 ( strongly agree). Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree I feel that I am competent to deliver the DPA Program. I feel that I am motivated to deliver the DPA Program. I feel that I have the skills to deliver the DPA Program. I feel that I have the resources to deliver the DPA Program. I feel that the DPA Program is useful and beneficial to my students. Please use this space to provide the researchers with additional comments. Q17 Given the availability of Daily Physical Activity specific professional developmen t and training opportunities, how likely are you to participate in the future? Very Unlikely Unlikely Somewhat Unlikely Undecided Somewhat Likely Likely Very Likely Please feel free to provide the researchers with additional comments about the Daily Physical Activity Program or any of the other themes addressed in this survey
91 LIST OF REFERENCES 2010 Canadian Report Card. Retrieved February 28th, 2011, from: http://www.activehealthykids.ca/ReportCard/2010ReportCardOverview.aspx Across Canada Ontario | PHE Canada Retrieved February 28th, 2011, from http://www.phecanada.ca/advocacy/across canada/ontario best practices to school effectiveness. Institute of Educational Management and Leadership Ministry of Education Malaysia. Retrieved October 3rd, 2012 Altman K J Linton, T E (1971). Operant conditioning in the classroom setting: A review of the research. Journal of Educational Research 64 277 286. American Association for Physical Activity and Re creation: Leisure education in schools: Promoting healthy lifestyle for all children and youth. Retrieved on September 18, 2011 from: http://www.aahperd.org/aapar/news/positionpapers/upload/LEITS position paper.pdf Anderson P M Butcher K F. (2006). C hildhood obesity: Trends and potential causes. The future of children, 16(1) 19 45. Anderson, L.W. (1991). Increasing Teacher Effectiveness, UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris. ons on windy days: Elementary Action in Teacher Education 22(1), 59 71. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applie d Behavior Analysis 1, 91 97. Ball, D.L., & Disarmed G.L., (1990). The subject matter preparation of teachers. In W.R. Housten,(ed). Handbook of Research in Teacher Education, 38, 2 8 Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman. Barrett, J .M Initiative and Their Emerging Self Efficacy as Daily Physical Activity Instructors (Doctoral Dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and These s database. (UMI No. 3459116) Barroso C S McCullum Gomez C, Hoelscher D M Kelder S H Murray N G (2005). Self reported barriers to quality physical education by physical education specialists in Texas. J Sch Health 75, 313 19
92 Beets M.W, Flay B.R, Vuchinich S, Acock A.C, Li K.K, Allred C., (200 8) School climate and action program: A diffusion of innovations model. Socie ty for Prevention Research. 9:264 275. Berg, J.A ( 19 88). Teacher self concept of teaching ability: Does it make a difference? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University. Boudah, D. J., Logan, K. R., & Greenwood, C. R. (2001). The research to practice projects: Lessons learned about changin g teacher practice. Teacher Education and Special Education, 24, 290 303. Bowles, P. E., & Nelson, R. O. (1976). Training teachers as mediators: Efficacy of a workshop versus the bug in the ear technique. Journal of School Psychology, 14, 15 26. Canada Tea chers Federation (2011). Retrieved on September 13th, 2011 from: http://www.ctf fce.ca/AboutUS/Default.aspx?id=625890 people through physical activity and sports: A rep ort to the president from the GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prev ention and Health Promotion. Centers for Dise ase Control and Prevention CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 46 (RR 6), 1 36. Retrieved October 24, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ PDF/rr/rr4606.pdf Chief Medical Officer of Health Report: Healthy Weights Healthy Lives (2004). Retrieved on August 24, 2011 from: http://www.mhp.gov.on .ca/en/heal/healthy_weights.pdf Childhood Obesity Foundation: Retrieved 12/14/11 from: http://www.childhoodobesityfoundation.ca/ Chorney, D., (2009). Daily physical activity initiatives across Canada : A progress report. Physical and Health Education Jou rnal 75 (3), 1 12. Chunlei, L. U., & De Lisio, (2009). Specifics for generalists: Teaching elementary physical education. International Electronic Journal of El Cochran Journal of T eacher Education 54, 371 375. Cochran Smith, M. (2004) Editorial. Stayers, leavers, lovers and dreamers: insights about teacher retention, Journal of Teacher Education 55, 387 392.
93 Colback, S.L., & Weaver, L.D., (2008). Faculty engagement in public scho larship: A motivation systems theory perspective. Journal of Higher Education and Outreach Engagement 12(2), 7 32. Cothran, D.J., Hodges Kulinna, P., & Garn, A.C. (2010). Classroom teachers and physical activity integration. Teaching and Teacher Educati on 26, 1381 1388. Coulter, G. A., & Grossen, B. (1997). The effectiveness of in class instructive feedback versus after class instructive feedback for teachers learning direct instruction teaching behaviors. Effective school practices, 16, 21 35. Couper, M. P., Traugott, M. W., & L amias, M. J. (2001). Web survey design and administration. Public opinion quarterly, 65, 230 253. Crawford, S., Couper, M., & Lamias, M. (2001). Web surveys: Perceptions of burden. Social Science Computer Review, 19(2), 146 162. Curbing Childhood Obesity: A federal, provincial and terrirtorial framework for action to promote healthy weights. (2010), Full Report. 1 6. Deacon, B.W. (2001). Physical education curriculum review report. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education Curriculum D ivision. Deckelbaum, R. J., & Williams, C. L. (2001). Childhood obesity: The health issue. Obesity, 9, 239S 243S. DeCorby, K., Halas, J., Dixon, S.,Wintrup, L. and Janzen, H. (2005) Classroom Teachers and the Challenges of Delivering Quality Physical Educ ation. Journal of Educational Research, 98, 208 20. DeFusco, R. A., & Pinto, J. E. (2007). Quantitative investment analysis John Wiley & Sons Inc. Dehghan, M., Akhtar Danesh, N., & Merchant, A. T. (2005). Childhood obesity, prevelence and prevention. Nut rition Journal 4, 24. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. NY: Macmillan. DuFour, R. & Berkey, T. (1995). The principal as staff developer. Journal of Staff Development 16(4), 2 6. Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W.B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: Implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18(2), 237 256. classrooms for ea Edited by: Ames, R.E.
94 Engelmann, S. (1988). The logic and facts of effective supervision. Education and treatment of children, 11, 328 340. Epps, S., & Lane, M. P. (1987). Assessment and training of teacher interviewing skills to program common stimuli between special and general education environments. School Psychology Review, 16, 50 68. Evertson, C.M., Hawley, W.D.,& Zlotnik, M.(1985). Making a difference ineducational quality through teacher educ ation. Journal of teacher Education,36, 2 10 Faucette, N., & Hillidge, S.B. (1989). Research findings physical education specialists and classroom teachers. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 60(7), 51 54. Faucette, N., & Patterson, P. (198 9). Classroom teachers and physical education: What they are doing and how they feel about it. Education, 110, 108 114. Ford, M. E., (1992). Motivating Humans: Goals, Emotions and Personal Agency Beliefs. Sage Publications, 258 283. French, N. (1993). Ele mentary teacher stress and class size. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 26, 66 73. French, S. A., Story, M., & Jeffery, R. W. (2001). Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annual Review of Public Health, 22(1), 309 33 5. Geijsel, F. (2001). Schools and innovations: Conditions fostering the implementation of educational innovations. University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Geijsel, F., Sleegers, P., Van den Berg, R., & Kelchtermans, G. (2009). Conditions fostering the implementation of large scale innovation programs in schools: 166. Self efficacy Scale with a Turkish sample. Journal of Social behaviour and Personality (2)37, 17 38. Gersten, R., Morvant, M., & Brengleman, S. (1995). Close to the classroom is close to the bone: Coaching as a means to translate research into classroom practice. Exceptional Child ren, 62, 52 66. Gerston LN. (2004) Public Policy Making: Process and Principles, 2nd ed. New York: M.E. Sharpe. Goddard, R., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Edu cational Research Journal, 37, 479 507.
95 Goodlad, J. I. (1975). The dynamics of educational change: Toward responsive schools. NY: McGraw Hill. Goran, M. I., Reynolds, K. D., & Lindquist, C. H. (1999). Role of physical activity in the prevention of obesity in children. International Journal of Obesity 23, 18 33. Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Fink, B., & MacArthur, C. A. (2001). Teacher efficacy in writing: A construct validation with primary grade teachers. Scientific studies of reading, 5(2), 177 202. Retrie ved on April 6th, 2011 from: https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=4802790&site =ehost live Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1 996). Theories and principles of motivation. In D. C Berliner & R.C Calfee (Eds). Handbook of Educational Phycology. p. 63 84. New York, NY: Mcmillan. Greenwood, C. R., & Abbott, M. (2001). The research to practice gap in special education. Teacher Educati on and Special Education 24, 276 289. Grossman, P.L. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teaching education. New York: Teachers College Press. Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L. & Daley, G. A. (2006) Teacher recruitment and retention: A Rev iew of recent empirical literature, Review of Educational Research, 76, 173 208. Haney, S.S. (2002). Sustainability of teacher implementation of school based mental health programs. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33(6), 665 679. Han, S.S, Weiss, B. (2005). Sustainability of Teacher Implementation of School Based Mental Health Programs. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33, (6) 665 679. Hargreaves, A. (1988). The emotional practise of teaching Teaching and Teacher Education. 14, (8), 835 854 H arper, P. M. S. (2010). PM highlights government legislation becoming law Stephen Harper / Prime Minister, Retrieved from http://pm.gc.ca/ Hart, M.A. (2005). Influence of a physical education methods course on elementary Educator, 62(4), 198 204. education activities by ethnicity. The University of North Ca rolina Press, 16 33 Hogwood B.W, Gunn L.A. (1984). Policy Analysis for the Real World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
96 Hoy, A.W., Spero, R.B., (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy in the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teaching and Teaching Education 21. 342 346 Ingersoll, R. (2003, September). Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). Retrieved on August 13, 2011 from: http://www.iaso.org/publications/obesityreviews/ Irwin, J. W., & Farr, W. (2004). Collaborative school communities that support teaching and learning. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 20, 343 364. Janzen H., Halas, J., Dixon, S., DeCorby, K., Booke, J., & Wintrup, L. (2003). The quality of physical education in Manitoba schools: A three year study. Physical and Health Education Journal, 69(2), 44 Johnson, S. M. & Birkeland, S. E. (2003) Pursuing a sense of success: New teachers explain their career decisions American Educational Research Journal 40, 581 617. Kirk, D. (2005). Physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation: The importance of early learning experiences. European Physical Educat ion Review, 11(3), 239 255. Kuczmarski, R, J., & Flegal, K.M., (2007). Criteria for definition of overweight in transition: Background and recommendations for the united states. American Journal of Clinic al Nutrition 72 (5), 1074 81; Kyriacou, C. (2000). Stress busting for teachers. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes. Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: Directions for future research. Educational Review, 53, 27 35. Lambert, R., & McCarthy, C. (Eds). (2006). Understanding teacher stress in an a ge of accountability. Information Age Publishing, Inc. and classroom structural characteristics in elementary settings. In G. Gates, M. Wolverton, & W. Gmelch (Eds.), Em erging thought and research on student, teacher, and administrator stress and coping (pp. 109 131). Charlotte, NC: Information (Vol. 4). Greenwich. CT: Information Age. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Spring er.
97 Lawson, H., Lawson, B., & Stevens, A. (1982). Meanings and functions attributed to elementary physical education. Canadian Association for Health. Physical Education and Recreation Journal 48(4), 3 6 Leach, D. J., & Conto, H. (1999). The additional ef fects of process and outcome feedback following brief inservice teacher training. Educational Psychology, 19, 441 462. Lefever, S., Dal, M., & Matthasdttir, (2007). Online data collection in academic research: Advantages and limitations British Journ al of Educational Technology 38(4), 574 582. Leithwood, K. A., Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R. (1999). Changing leadership for changing times. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press. Levesque, L, Robertson y Policy for Elementary Schools: Is Everything in Place for Success? Canadian Journal of Public Health 100(2), 125 29. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 25, 21 26. Lobstein, T. Baur, L., & Uauy, R. (2004). Obesity in children and young people: A crisis in public health. Obesity Reviews, 5, 4 85. Lortie, D. C. (1975) School teacher (Chicago, University of Chicago Press). Lu, C., Lodewyk, K. (2012). The physical education profes sion in Canada. Journal of Physical Education & Health 2012, vol. 1 (1), 15 22. Lu, C., De Lisio, A. (2009b). Specifics for generalists: Teaching elementary physical education International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education 1(3), 170 187. Maehr M. L., & Braskamp, L. A. (1986). The motivation factor: A theory of personal investment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Marin, P. & Brown, B. (2008). The School Environment and Adolescent Well Being: Beyond Academics. Child Research Brief. (11), 1 26. Martin, J. J., & Kulinna, P. H. (2003). The development of a physical education activity self efficacy instrument Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22, 219 232. Matheny, K. B., Aycock, D. W., Pugh, J. L., Curlette, W. L., & Ca nella, K. A. (1986). Stress coping: A qualitative and quantitative synthesis with implications for treatment. Counseling Psychologist, 14, 499 549.
98 erience, stress, and coping resources to burnout symptoms The Elementary School Journal, 109, 1 19. McGraw SA, Sellers D, Stone E, Resnicow KA, Kuester S, Fridinger F, et al. Measurin g implementation of school programs and policies to promote healthy eati ng and physical activity among youth. Prev Med 2000;31(Suppl):S86 S97. Mertler, C. A. (2003). Patterns of Response and Nonresponse from Teachers to Traditional and Web Surveys. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 8, 22. Mertler, C. A. (2002). Pat terns of response and nonresponse from teachers to traditional and web surveys. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 8, 22. Morgan, P., & Hansen, V. (2007). Recommendations to improve primary school ive. The Journal of Educational Research 101(2), 99 111. British Educational Research Journal. 36 (2), 191 208 Morriso n, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., & Kelman, H. (2009). Designing effective instruction Wiley. 67. Muller, K., Alliata, R., Benninghoff, F (2009). Attracting and Retaining Teachers: A Ques tion of Motivation. Education Management Administration and Leadership. SAGE Publications. 37 (5), 574 599. Muller, C. (1993). Parent involvement and academic achievement: An analysis of family resources available to the child. In B. Schneider & J. S. Col eman (Eds.), Parents, their children, and school (pp. 77 113). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (2010). Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation: Effective Classroom Practises Report Retrieved on 09/22/12 from: http://aim.cast.org/sites/aim.cast.org/files/DI_UDL.1.14.11.pdf Nieto, S. (2003) What Keeps Teachers Going (New York, Teachers College Press). Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education. NY: Teachers College Press.
99 Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. Schoo l Psychology Quarterly, 12, 77 88. Ontario Ministry of Education: Policy/Program Memorandum No. 138 (2005). Retrieved on April 16th, 2011 from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/ Ontario Ministry of Edu cation. Daily physical activity in schools: Guide for school boards. Available online at: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teachers/ Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care: Public information. Retr ieved on 06/18/11 from: http://www.mhp.gov.on.ca/en/active living/default.aspdpa_boards.pdf (Accessed August 6, 2012). OPHEA: Healthy schools and healthy communities (2011). Retrieved on July 18, 2011 from: http://www.ophea.net/healthy schools communities. generalization and maintenance of systematic instruction competencies by teachers using behavioral supervision techniques. Education and training in mental retardation and devel opmental disabilities, 29, 22 33. Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of soil cognative theory and of self efficacy. Retrieved from: www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html perceptions of p hysical activity: A collective efficacy perspective Journal of Research in Childhood Education 21(3), 316 328. Peetsma, T. T. D., Hascher, T., van der Veen, I., & Roede, E. (2005). Relations evaluations, time perspectives, m otivation for school and their achievement in different countries and at different ages. European Journal of Psychology of Education 20, 209 225. on August 1, 2012 from : http://www.peopleforeducation.ca/faq/what is daily physical activity dpa/ Pintrich, P.R., McKeachie, W.J., & Lin, Y.G. (1987). Teaching a course in learning to learn. Teaching of Psychology, 14, 81 86 Pratt J. (1978). Perceived stress among teachers: The effects of age and background of the children taught. Educational Review, 30, 3 14.
100 Public Health Agency of Canada: Curbing Childhood Obesity: An overview of the federal, provincial and territorial framework for action to promote health weights (20 01). 10/24/2011 from: http://www.phac aspc.gc.ca/hp ps/hl mvs/framework cadre/intro eng.php Quay, J. Peters, J (2008). Skills, strategies, sport, and social responsibility: reconnecting physical education. Cirriculum studies. 40(5), 601 625 Ramanathan, S, Allison, K.R, Faulkner G, Dwyer JJM. Challenges in assessing the implementation and effectiveness of physical activity and nutrition policyinterventions as natural experiments. Health Promot Int 2008;23:290 97. Rink, J.E., Hall, T., & Webster, C. (2008). Physical education. In S. Mathison & E.W. Ross (Eds.), Battleground Schools. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, (1), 483 489. Robertson elementary schools: Is everything in place for success? Canadian Journal of Public Health 2009; 100(2):125 29 Roede, E. (1989). Explaining student investment: An investigation of high school (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Unive rsity of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Rohrbach, L.A., Graham, J.W., & Hansen, W.B. (1993). Diffusion of a school based substance abuse prevention program: Predictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine, 22, 237 260. Rose, D. J., & Church, R. J. (1998). Learning to teach: The acquisition and maintenance of teaching skills. Journal of Behavioral Education 8, 5 35. Roussel, P. (2000) La Motivation au Travail Concept et Theories. Notes du Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de recherch sur les Res sources Humaines et Rutherford, R. B., & Nelson, C. M. (1988). Generalization and maintenance of treatment effects. In J. Witt, S. N. Elliott, & F. M. Gresham (Eds.), Handbook of behavior therapy in education. New York: Plenum. Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54 75 stress related diseases, and coping. New York: W. H. Freeman. Schaufeli, W. B., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout component to study and practice. London: Taylor & Francis.
101 knowledge. Journal of Teaching i n Physical Education Human Kinetics Publishers Inc. 17. 342 356. Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1994). The effects of generalization training: A quantitative synthesis of single subject research. Advances in Learning and Behavioural Disabilities, 8 259 280. SETDA, (2008). Empowering Teachers: A Professional and Collaborative Approach. Accessed on October, 5th, 2012. Sheehan, K. B., & McMillan, S. J. (1999). response variation in e mail surveys: An exploration. Journal of Advertising Research, 39( 4), 45 54. Shipp, V. (1999) Factors influencing the career choices of african american collegians: Implications for minority teacher recruitment, Journal of Negro Education 68, 343 351. Sheehan, K. B., & McMillan, S. J. (1999). Response variation in e mai l surveys: An exploration. Journal of Advertising Research 39 (4), 45 54. Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education 27, 396 407. Scheerens, J. (2008 ). Een overzichtsstudie naar school en instructie effectiviteit [An overview study of school effectiveness and the effectiveness of instruction]. Enschede, Netherlands: University of Twente, Vakgroep Onderwijsorganisatieen Management. Schmid, T.L, Pratt M, Witmer. (2006). A framework for physical activity policy research. J Phys Act Health 2006;3(Suppl 1):S20 S29. Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand; Knowledge growth in teaching: Journal of Educational Research 15, 4 21. Smylie, M. A. (1988). The enhancement function of staff development: Organizational and psychological antecedents to individual teacher change American Educational Research Journal, 25, 1 30. Sorrentino, R. M., & Short, J. C. (1986). Uncertainty orientation, motivation, and cognit ion. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation Spillane, J. P., Reiser, B. J., & Reimer, T. (2002). Policy implementation and cognition: Reframing and refocusing implementation research. Review of Educational Research, 72, 387 431. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Cycle 1 Data Tables, 2007 to 2009. 2010;82 623 X.
102 Statistics Canada: Canadian Community Health Survey: Measured Obesity. Overweight Canadian Children and Adolescents. 2005;82 620 MWE2005001. Stockhard, J & Lehman, M. (2004) Influences on the satisfaction and retention of 1st year teachers: the importance of effective school management, Educational Administration Quarterly, 40, 742 771. Stokes, T. F., & Osnes, P. G. (1989). An operant pursuit of generaliz ation. Behavior Therapy, 20, 337 355. Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349 367. Stone, M., Faulkner, G., Zeglen Hunt, L., and Cowie Bonne J., (2012). The daily physica l activity (DPA) policy in Ontario: is it working? An examination using accelerometry measured physical activity data The Canadian Journal of Public Health [in review] Strike, K. (2004). Community, the missing element of school reform: Why schools should be more like congregations than banks. American Journal of Education 110, 215 233. Thoonen, E. E. J., Sleegers, P. J. C., Oort, F. J., Peetsma, T. T. D., & Geijsel, F. P. (2011). How to improve teaching practices: The role of teacher motivation, organiza tional factors, and leadership practices. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(3), 496 536. doi:10.1177/0013161X11400185. Tomlinson, C. A., (1995). Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed ability middle school classroom. ERIC Dig est E536. Tremblay, M. S., Inman, J. W., & Willms, J. D. (2000). The relationship between physical activity, self esteem, and academic achievement in 12 year old children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12(3), 312 323. Tremblay, M Pella, T., & Taylor, K. (1996). The quality and quantity of school based physical education: A growing concern. Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance Journal 62(4), 4. Tremblay, M. S., Shields, M., Laviolette, M., Craig, C. L., Janssen, I., & Gorber, S. C. (2010). Fitness of Canadian Children and Youth: Results from the 2007 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep, 21(1), 7 20. Tschannen Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17,783 805. Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act (2002). Retrieved on 02/11/12 from: http://www.learningpt.org/pdfs/qkey6.pdf
103 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2002) The Condition of Education 2002. Table 33 4. Washington, DC. Vallerand, R.J., & Thill, E.E. (1993). Introduction au concept de motivation [Introduction to the concept of motivation]. In R.J. Vallerand, & E.E. Thill (Eds.), Introduction a la Psychologie de la Motivation [In troduction to the Psychology of Motivation], (3), 39 123. a context of reform, paper presented at American Educational Research Association 2008 Meeting, New York, March 24 28. Vaughn, S., Klingner, J., & Hughes, M. (2000). Sustainability of research based practices. Exceptional Children, 66, 163 171. Vedder, P., Boekaerts, M. and Seegers, G. 2005. Perceived social support and well thnicity Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34(3): 269 78. Watt, J. H. (1999). Internet systems for evaluation research. Information technologies in evaluation: Social, moral epistemological and practical implications (pp. 23 44). san francisco: Josey bass Webster, C., Monsma, E., & Erwin, H. (2010). The role of biographical characteristics in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 29, 358 377. WHO : World Health Organization Retrieved 2/28/2011, from http://www.who.int/en/ WHO: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Retrieved on October 24th, 2011 from: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.p df Woods (1990). Teacher Skills and Strategies. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data, 96, 96 135 Xiang, P., Lowy, S., & McB ride, R. (2002). The impact of a field based elementary Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21, 145 161.
104 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Todd Gilmore earne d a Bachelor of Arts degree in leisure s tudies from the Univ ersity of Ottawa in 2010 and a M aster of S cience degree in recreation, parks and tourism professional career, he has demonst rated strong values towards leisure education and playing competitive sport, coaching and mentoring others is what inspired him to pursue his m aster level studies and thi s thesis.