Developing a Measure to Assess Participatory Methods

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Developing a Measure to Assess Participatory Methods Testing for Perceptions of Empowerment
Lathrop, Christina Hite
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
University of Florida
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1 online resource (130 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( M.L.A.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Landscape Architecture
Committee Chair:
Thompson, Kevin R.
Committee Co-Chair:
Gurucharri, Maria C
Committee Members:
Swisher, Marilyn E
Graduation Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Academic communities ( jstor )
Community associations ( jstor )
Community life ( jstor )
Community relations ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
Online communities ( jstor )
Personal empowerment ( jstor )
Research methods ( jstor )
Rice ( jstor )
Terraces ( jstor )
Landscape Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
architecture -- empowerment -- landscape -- methods -- participation -- participatory
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Landscape Architecture thesis, M.L.A.


Participatory approaches have historically been used in design and planning practice to generate and encourage greater citizen involvement and input for planning and community visioning.  Varying methods have been developed to engage the community, including focus groups, visual preference surveys, design charrettes, community mapping and participatory video. The successes of these methods vary and are difficult to quantify as the assessment of the result of these processes is rarely done. This study investigates the success of one particular method used to empower voice and build capacity in planning for future community sustainability.  An index and interview method was developed to measure increases in perceived empowerment and tested on a sample population that took part in a participatory landscape mapping exercise.  The results from the assessment are shared and implications for future research and measure development are considered. ( en )
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis (M.L.A.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Adviser: Thompson, Kevin R.
Co-adviser: Gurucharri, Maria C.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christina Hite Lathrop.

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Copyright Lathrop, Christina Hite. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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870713198 ( OCLC )
LD1780 2012 ( lcc )


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2 201 2 Christina Hite Lathrop


3 To all that supported me in this effort : my immediate family, John, Jocelyn and Shane; my UF faculty advisors, Kevin Thompson Tina Gurucharri and Dr. Mickie Swisher ; Jeff Dix and the rest of my Dix.Lathrop fami ly ; to all of my extended family and wonderful friends whom have encouraged me and with honor to my Dad, Eug ene Hite, and in memory of my m om, Wendy Hite She would have been pleased with the effort.


4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge my thesis chair, Kevin Thompson. His commitment and dedication to the profession of Landscape Architecture and teaching is unequaled. His guidance was inspiring and provided me with a broadened view of the profession. I would also like to ack nowledge others whom had a major influence on this journey and also were involved in the project: Dr. Mickie Swisher who elevated my mind and provided my social science foundation; Dr. Kaler Surata Mahasaraswati University, for his hospitality, guidance and support of MapPack and of this research initiative ; Ibu Desak Ekaputri for her help with the MapPack program and for facilitating the data collection, Hannah Plate for helping to run an impactful MapPack program, and the students of Sekolah Menengah Pertama 1 Bangli for their level of enthusiasm and new found appreciation for the rice terrace landscapes of Bangli.


5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INT RODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Participatory Methods within the Landscape Architecture Discipline ...................... 13 Participatory Video ................................ ................................ ........................... 14 Photovoice ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Community Mapping ................................ ................................ ........................ 15 The Research Problem: Shortcomings of Participation ................................ ......... 16 The Research Question: The Effectiveness of Knowledge Based Participatory Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 17 Research Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 18 Organization of this Thesis ................................ ................................ ..................... 18 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 Evolution of Participatory Research Methods ................................ ......................... 20 Participatory Action Research ................................ ................................ .......... 20 Community Based Participatory Research ................................ ....................... 22 Emerging Participatory Methods ................................ ................................ ............. 23 Photovoice ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 23 Participatory Video ................................ ................................ ........................... 25 Community Mapping ................................ ................................ ........................ 27 M ultimedia, Film and Storytelling Applied to Community Visioning .................. 28 Participation: A Theoretical Overview ................................ ................................ .... 29 Class and Gender ................................ ................................ ............................ 30 C ritical Theory Habermas ................................ ................................ ............... 31 Constructivist Structuralism Bourdieu ................................ ............................ 35 Theoretical Construct: Empowerment Theory ................................ ................. 38 Examining Empowerment ................................ ................................ ................. 42 Hypothesis ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 46 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 48 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 48 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 49


6 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 50 Index Development ................................ ................................ .......................... 50 Interview Question Development ................................ ................................ ...... 54 Internal and External Validity ................................ ................................ .................. 57 Data Collection Procedu re ................................ ................................ ...................... 60 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 61 Controls ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 62 Challenges ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 62 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 70 Sample Characteristics ................................ ................................ ........................... 70 Intervent ion Effects ................................ ................................ ................................ 70 Exploratory Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................... 71 Junior High School Participants ................................ ................................ ........ 71 Junior High School Non Participants ................................ ................................ 71 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 72 Collective Action ................................ ................................ ............................... 72 Interpersonal Relationships ................................ ................................ .............. 72 Policy Control ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 73 Food Security, Economic and Environmental Observations ............................. 74 Development pressure ................................ ................................ ..................... 74 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 82 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 82 Interactional Empowerment ................................ ................................ .................... 83 Intra personal Empowerment ................................ ................................ ................... 85 Community Action Activities ................................ ................................ .................... 89 Variable Correlations ................................ ................................ .............................. 90 Beyond Empowerment ................................ ................................ ............................ 91 Refining the Intervention ................................ ................................ ......................... 93 6 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 96 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 96 Research Implications ................................ ................................ ............................. 97 Application to Landscape Architecture Practice ................................ ...................... 99 APPENDIX: INDICES AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................................ ............. 101 Initial Test Index ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 101 Final Index in English ................................ ................................ ............................ 105 Final Index in Bahasa Indonesia ................................ ................................ ........... 110 Initial Interview Questions: ................................ ................................ .................... 116 Final Interview Questions in English ................................ ................................ ..... 116 Final Interview Questions in Bahasa ................................ ................................ ..... 117


7 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 123 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 130


8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Empowerment Theory Constructs, Definitions and Variables ............................. 69 4 1 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test by variable group. Marked tests are significant at p <.05000 ................................ ........................... 76 4 2 Junior high school students/ Group 1/ Participants Kendall tau b correlation coefficients. Marked correlations are significant at p < .05000 ........................... 81 4 3 Junior high school students/ Group 2/ Non Participants; Kendall tau b correlation coefficients. Marked correlations are significant at p < .05000 ......... 81 5 1 MapPack Summary ................................ ................................ ............................ 95


9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 MapPack Activity Modules: Landscape Mapping, Oral Narratives, Landscape Sound, Journaling and Sketching, GPS Photos, Video. Photos courtesy of Hannah Plate. ................................ ................................ .................. 64 3 2 Students Participating in MapPack Activities : Oral Narratives, Sound Recording and Sketch Mapping. Photos courtesy of Hannah Plate. ................. 65 3 3 Rice Terrace Views and Student Participants, MapPack. Photos courtesy of Christina Lathrop and Hannah Plate. ................................ ................................ .. 66 3 4 MapPack Website Home Page. ................................ ................................ .......... 67 3 5 MapPac k Website Page: Landscape Sound. ................................ .................... 68 4 1 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Overall Empowerment ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 77 4 2 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Interpersonal Relationships ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 78 4 3 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Interpersonal Relationships ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 79 4 4 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Interpersonal Relationships ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 80


10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CBPR Community Based Participatory Research PAR P articipatory Action Research PV Participatory Video


11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requireme nts for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture DEVELOPING A MEASURE TO ASSESS PARTICIPATORY METHODS: TESTING FOR PERCEPTIONS OF EMPOWERMENT By Christina Hite Lathrop December 2012 Chair: Kevin Thompson Co cha ir: Tina Gurucharri Major: Landscape Architecture Participatory approaches have historically been used in design and planning practice to generate and encourage greater citizen involvement and input for planning and community visioning. Varying methods have been developed to engage the community, including focus groups, visual preference surveys, design charrettes, community mapping and participatory video. The successes of these methods vary and are difficult to qua ntify as the assessment of the result of these processes is rarely done. This study investigates the success of one particular method used to empower voice and build capacity in planning for future community sustainability. An index and interview method w as developed to measure increases in perceived empowerment and tested on a sample population that took part in a participatory landscape mapping exercise. The results from the assessment are shared and implications for future research and measure developm ent are considered.


12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION When I prepared to go to the subak (rice terraces) I think why must amazing! So many rice plants there! Then I started to do the project with my friend and now I know why the subak is important to us. Thanks for the project yo u gave to me. Now I realize we must protect the subak for the next generation Rani, MapPack participant C ommunity p populations (Jones, 1999, p. 66). In the U.S., citizen participation is central to community support for place making and is rooted in the principles on which the nation was founded, including freedom of speech and right to assembly. In order to solve problems, Americans have traditio nally approached this effort by forming associations (Hester, 1999, p. 12 14). Based in the civil rights movement and with the goal of providing a voice for underserved populations, advocacy planners of the 1960s brought public participation to design and planning, re invigorated participatory democracy and heavily influencing civic design (Hester, 1999, p. 16). Community development legislation was established during this period to require citizen participation at the local level (Hester, 1999, p.17). The civil rights movement however, had a negative impact on participation as it caused distrust of power and authority and the motivations behind decisions that might provide economic gain to those influencing the development process (Hester, 1999, p. 17). Since then, there have been innovations and improvements in participation resu lting in the refinement and development of participatory methods


13 The general aim of participatory approaches is to provide the opportunity for interventions that affect them a nd over which they previously had limited control or which the key stakeholders have influence and control over initiatives that will affect their lives (Cooke & Kothari, 2001, p. 5). Participatory methods aim to engage citizens such that they have the ability to influence and facilitate change. Currently, technology allows for new forms and practices of participation that can potentially elevate public discourse and is used to provide an inter active environment for decision making. Techniques include computer generated design alternatives, fly through simulations and refined group participatory techniques (Evans Crowley & Hollander, 2010) (Hester, 1999, p. 21 ). Partic ipatory video, community mapping and participant photography are specific participation methods that were developed to involve residents in the decision making process (Elmendorf and Rios, 2008), (Fahy & Participatory M ethods within the L andscape Architecture Discipline Th e civil rights movement of the 1960s and its ideals inspired landscape a rchitect Lawrence Halprin to use community workshops throughout the 19 60s and 19 70s as a public ally oriented design process (Merriman, 2010, p. 439) The development of the charrette community engagement process in the 19 90s and its integration into New Urbanist planning initiatives (Bond and Thompson Fawcett, 2007) and community design and planning init iatives (Sutton and Kemp 2006), (Anderson, Fiebe Johnson and Sabia, 2010) have become common practice in many landscape architecture and planning initiatives Hester (1999) challenged the design community to approach


14 result in the creation of places that are inspired by the input of the community and are the result of participation that is inclusive. More recently, participatory meth ods are emerging as an integrated approach to guiding, building and evaluating community based projects (Elmendorf & Rios, 2008, p. 82) (Sandercock & Atilli, 2010). By integrating increasingly effective engagement tools and participatory methods as a par t of the community visioning process, researchers, landscape architects and design and planning professionals are working to solve problems and mobilize social forces to build c onsensus and community action. Some of these methods are seemingly more impactf ul than others Emerging participatory methods are used in landscape architecture, community visioning and planning initiatives, including participatory video (Lunch and Lunch, 2006), (Flower & McConville, 2009), (Evans & Foster, 2009) (Harris, 2009), (Fr antz, 2007 ), photovoice (Wang, 1999), (Nykiforuk, Vallianatos & Nieuwendyk, 2011), and community mapping (Lydon 2003), (Fahy & OCinneide, 2009). Each of these methods may result in a product that can be shared through media platforms such as video and web based interfaces These have the potential of allowing for a greater level of interaction and reaction to the project goals, objectives and vision. Participatory Video Participatory video, (a participatory method in which the participants learn to shoot and edit their own video to communicate a community vision or issue), is adaptable to landscape of personal biography and community history its


15 Sound and movement convey the sense of place and leave strong messages and visual impressions. A participatory video approach enables participants to articul ate their own concerns and vision through the process. Participatory video can have a real and (Thompson, personal communication, 2012); teaching them the video production process and in turn, letting them tell their story in a way that can be easily and democratically disseminated through new media networks such as the internet, or via smart phone technology (Thompson, 2005). Photovoice Participant photography, or photovoic represent and enhance their community through a participants to speak directly and thus b e empower ed to influence their community as include enabling participants to capture images of elements that are important to them, to promote knowledge and communication regarding personal and community strengths and concerns and to communicate both vertically and horizo ntally in the community (Wang, 1999, p. 185). Community Mapping Community mapping results in collective representations of local geography an d landscape, and the process enables a community to determine what they treasure and


16 ( The c ommunity mapping method facilitates meaningful contributions by providing a conduit for recording what is important to the participants. Each of t hese methods presents an altern ative to traditional community engagement in landscape architecture practice In addition, recent landscape architecture focused research initiatives have centered on using participatory video as a community engagement and visioning tool (Thompson & Widme r, 20 10 ) and the integration of o ral narratives into a community visioning project facilitated by the University of Florida Department of Landscape Architecture for the City of White Springs, Florida (Thompson & Lathrop 2011) As promising as new and adap ted methods may be, challenges remain. The Research Problem: Shortcomings of Participation Practitioners and academics note that the challenges to effective participation are numerous and that while inclusive and equitable processes are thought to be ideal they are difficult to real ize in a complex civil society (Bond & Thompson Fawcett, 2007 p. 449), (Hester, 1999, p. 17) Some view the participatory process as becoming so itable (Hester, 1999, p. 12). For example, t he New Urbanist charrette is intended to be a citizen based participatory planning and design process however, the charrette planner or facilitator may be perceived as having too much allegiance to the New Urba n agenda (Bond, Thompson Fawcett, 2007. P. 449). Integrating participation is seen as a way to hide power inequities and enable special interests to pursue their own agendas (Eversol, 2010, p. 30) (Cook and Kothari, 2001). In my own professional experie nce, I have observed a tendency for clients to use consultants as a way to legitimize decisions that


17 have already been made. Academics and practitioners are recognizing the power that planners have in creating a process with the potential to exclude certai n groups Even if one believes that participation increases the power of poor and underprivileged participants, participation does not necessari ly translate to equality (Bond, Thompson Fawcett, 2007), (Albrechts, 2003), (Forester, 1982). While there have been improvements in citizen participation, many are failing because they continu ally exclude and marginalize certain groups in the process (Forester, 1982), (Bond and Thompson Fawcett 2007). The Research Question: The Effectiveness of Knowledge Based P articipatory Method s Inclusive and equitable methods are ideal in the citizen participation process. Knowledge based participatory methods, such as participatory video, ph oto voice and community mapping (methods that are based in community participatory r esearch and practice ) have been explored as strategies that appear to be inclusive and empowering activities for the individuals who participate in them (Lunch and Lunch, 2006), A successful parti cipatory process can be measured by the change in action and community attitudes that result from an intervention. Community mapping, for example, which has centered on Native American and indigenous groups identifying and laying claim to ancestral lands has resulted in reclamation of traditional territories (Lydon, 2000). Participatory video has enabled greater participation in development projects by engaging hard to reach groups, such as the elderly, youth and minority groups in the process (Lunch & Lunch, K. Thompson, personal


18 conversation, 2012), and thereby potentially r ais es the level of empowerment for the participa nts. The effectiveness of participatory methods has been qualitatively observed with the facilitators feeling that the interventions make a difference. It has not been quantitatively measured, however. The research question t his study seeks to examine is whether knowledge based participatory approaches lead to an increased perception of empowerment? Research Focus Participatory video, community mapping, and photovoice are examples of effective participatory method s (Lunch and Lunch, 2006), (Mathison, 2 009), (Wang, 1999), (Fahy (Lydon, 2000) The central focus of this thesis is to develop a method to examine the effectiveness of participatory methods Participatory methods seek to increase knowledge build capacity and perceived em powerment for the participants This can change participant attitudes about their ability to affect change, potentially promoting long term community action T he value of the knowledge associated with participatory practice and community theory can stren gthen the effectiveness of methods and approaches currentl y used by landscape architects and planners ( Sandercock 2000, p. 135 ) This study tests a method for measuring the effectiveness of a knowledge based participatory process and its activities toward s the goal of increasing participant perceptions of empowerment Organization of t his T hesis This thesis suggests the need for creating and testing differences in empowerment resulting from participation in a knowledge based participatory process. Chapter 1 provide d an introduction to participation and participatory methods, define d the shortcomings of participation, identified the research question and the focus of this


19 study. Chapter 2 review s the body of literature dealing with participation, social science, landscape architecture and planning to examine the origins and evolution of participatory methods, the theoretical basis for participatory methods and the theoretical framework for this study. Chapter 3 presents the research methodology C hapter 4 analyzes the research results Chapter 5 is a discussion of the interpretation and explanation of the results, examining what the results imply Chapter 6 draws research conclusions and explores future r esearch opportunities.


20 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW I am so glad that I did this activity, because I never did this before and it made me realize that the rice fields are important for t he next generation. I hope I can make other people think the same as me. I want to tell other people that we sho ul d take care of our rice fields Putrii, Map Pack participant Evolution of Participatory Research Methods In order to develop a measure of effectiveness for participatory methods this research draws from the body of literature in the areas of community organization theory, participatory practice and community engagement. C hapter 2 concludes with the description of the research hypothesis Participatory Action Research The value of a strong theoretical framework lies in the ways in which it can inform int erpretations and evaluations of the areas under study thus fur thering conceptual development. ( Sim, Armstrong, Osborne, & Hart, 2001 p. viii) Participatory methods emerged in the 60 s and were heavily influenced by the writings of Paulo Freire. Freire emph asized education and communication as a mutually beneficial activity demanding mutual respect through informed action. Friere wrote, need, hope needs practice in order to centered in an action based paradigm and with roots based in Marxist theory. The premise of his work was that through education and communication, the marginalized gain a voice and build the capacity that enables them to facilitate change in their communities. Through dialogue between educators and community members, mutual understanding is achieved (Friere and Friere, 1994, p. 39).


21 It was these writing s that inspired Fals Borda (1987) to develop a research methodology that emphasiz ed empowerment and became the foundations for what is today known as Participatory Action Research (PAR) PAR is a combines theory, action and participation committed to further the interest of exploited Fals Borda, 1987, p. 329). PAR seeks to build on academic knowledge within social science while facilitating change t hrough an emphasis on a ls Borda, 1987, p. 329). PAR derives Fals B orda, 1987, p. 329). Participatory methods, such as video, photovoice, community mapping and other emerging approaches are base d on the underlying principles of PAR while m uch of the work being undertaken to examine these methods uses Fals method ology Such research includes identif ying the issues, defining a research focus (one that results in direct and positive benefits to those involved ) and enriched and the research fac ilitates the social, cooperative or collective production The goal is to democratize the rese arch and participatory process while integrating learning by engaging members of the community Wulfhorst, Eisenhauer, Gripne & Ward (2008, p. 23) define community centered t a A s a research model


22 with the opportunity to help guide what issues the research should focus on be involved in defining the research question and conduct the research with the intent of applying the results in the community (Wulfhorst, et al 2008, p. 25). There is some debate that partic ipatory research and PAR differ; however, they share the premise that to conduct meaningful research, community members are not scrutinized by outside experts and that the validity of the participatory approach is based on a process that facilitates community members (Wulfhorst, et al, 2008, p. 26). The challenge of a PAR process involves social dynamics, negotiations, uncertainty and risk. These dynamics will enable or prevent a successful PAR approach. The results of the process for the community are as imp changes can include the acquisition of research skills and empowerment that enables et al 2008, p. 27). The PAR process can be integral to community development and capacity building and the use of various participatory methods can help facilitate this process. Community B ased Participatory Research Community based participatory research (CB PR) evolved from PAR and is directly participation, influence and control by non academic researchers in the process of It is a partnership ap proach that involves conducting research with the active engagement and influence of community members in all aspects of the research process ( Israel, Sch ulz, Parker, & Becker, 2001, p. 184).


23 Emerging Participatory Methods Photovoice, participatory video and community mapping are emerging participatory methods that seek to meet the foundational goals of participatory action research and effective community engagement that results in meaningful, inclusive research and fosters community development and capac ity building. Photovoice Photovoice, a research method that blends narrative with photography to explore community issues (Wang and Burris, 1994) was built on a historical foundation of individuals and communit y populations using images and words to examine and express culture identity history, issues and vision. Phot o voice blends narrative with photography to examine community issues (Nykiforuk, Vallianatos, & Nieuwendyk 2011, p. 104). The method is based on anthropologi cal methods developed by John Collier who was an early advocate of a visual anthropolog ical approach. The visual anthropology method use s photographs to aid in cultural inventory for immediate use and as a baseline record for later comparative evaluation of the Collier used landscape oriented photographs to analyze land use and to derive social and emotional insight from residents (Collier, M., 2007. p. 33). The visual anthropology resea rch method had long term goals, including the political and social empowerment and cultural vitality of the community (Collier, M., 2007, p. 42 49 ). Visual anthropology influenced and inspired participatory methods such as photovoice and participatory v ideo. For example, a visual ethnography project in Gambia, Africa focused on eliminating poverty. The project facilitators worked with local business organizations, fostered participant engagement, and dealt with tourism


24 development issues and cultural and economic impacts The process resulted in a documentary that was aired on the local station for community commentary. V isual ethnography offers enormous potential to collect and disseminate information, which Stadhams, 2007, p. 138). Building on visual anthropology methods, Wang and Burris used photovoice as a method t hat enabled Chinese village women to photograph their everyday health and aphy and education, putting the camera in the control of participants who might not typically have a voice in the decision making process Photovoice enables the participants to capture their voices and visions about their lives, their community and their concerns. Participants share their stories about the images with their peers, the broader public and policy makers and discuss the meanings of the photos and stories. Photovoice has gained popularity as a method that enables researchers from various dis ciplines to help participants visualize their perceptions about their lives Examples include a project that engaged community youth and adults to improve education and economic outcomes ( Foster Fishman, Nowell, Deacon, Nievar, & McCann, 2005 ), examine the essence of play experience to children ( Berinstein & Magalhaes, 2009 ) and assist resident s to examine assets they appreciated and issues they wanted to address ( Carlson, Engebretson, Chamberlain, 2006) Photovoice has commonly been used to explore community health and social issues. Researchers recognizing its potential for examining the built environment and its effects on community health have also use d the photovoice method (Nykiforuk et. a l 2011, p. 104).


25 Participa tory Video Participatory video is another participatory research method based in visual anthropology. Participatory video evolved out of Don Snowden who is considered to be the pioneer of the use of video in facilitat ing a people centered community development approach. The process was developed in 1967 during his work with a small fishing community on the Fogo Islands, Newfoundland. There, Snowdon facilitated a participant centered community development approach in which communi ty members used film to document their ideas, issues and concerns. By that by working together they could solve them (Lunch & Lunch, 2006). Films resulting from the pro cess were shared with different villagers on the island making it clear that all Fogo villages were faced with similar issues and shared similar viewpoints The films were also shared with policy makers unable to visit the island and result ed in severa l change s in policies relating to the governance of the island. These techniques were applied on projects Snowdon worked on until his death in 1984. Snowden wrote a paper to accompany the documentary Eyes See, Eyes Hear that describes how using video im proves communications in a project in India. The work helped to improve economic conditions, intra village communications, and village health. Snowden outlines the role of the community worker and the horizontal learning, exchange learning and vertical co mmunication that accompanies video use in a marginalized community (Snowden, 1984). further refined participatory video (PV) methods. PV is a set of techniques that enable s a group o r community to create their own film. The film can then be shared with peers and policy makers. Video


26 is easy and accessible and is a great way to bring people together to explore issues, voice concerns or simply to be creative by telling stories. This process can be empoweri ng, enabling a group or community to take action to solve their own problems and also to communicate their needs and ideas to decision makers and other groups marginalized people and help them implement their own forms of sustainable Evans and Forster (2009) working on two projects in Mtis British Columbia define PV as an extension of participatory action research that some form of commitment to the direct involvement of the research community in developing the directions and character of the research it e f fundamentally about transforming communities from passive subjects, objects, or & Foster, 2009, p. 105). Participatory video has the same premise and is an extension of the ideas at the foundation of participatory action research. The video component complicates things technically as it requires formatting and editing ; however, it has also become ubiquitous and increasingly acc essible, especially to the viewers (Evans & Foster, 2009, p. 89). The quality of the video, because it is a participant produced product, can be a challenge as it a ffects the communication with the viewer. However, PV has the ability to reach a wide audi ence via web based communication ( Evans & Forster, 2009 p 105). In landscape architecture research and practice, PV has been used to communicate community input for the design of a proposed urban greenway that had


27 impact on a disadvantaged neighborhood in Vancouver, B.C. (Fran t z, 2007) and to engage a community in the exploration of connections and associations with cultural heritage landscapes, the ri ce terraces of Bali, Indonesia (Thompson & Widmer, 20 09 ). Participatory video continues to evolve as a PAR methodology (Sandercock and Atilli, 2010, p. 24). Community Mapping Community mapping is a participatory method that has been used since the 19 60 s and 19 70 s, primarily as a tool to assist indigenous communities to defend and claim ancestral lands an d associated resources (Chapin, Lamb & Threlkeld, 2005, p. 629). 200 3 p. 1 ). Community mapping is a learning process that can also enable participants to ident ify those elements they value. The maps a re collective representations of local geography and landscape. The process enables a community to reflect on what they treasure in their communities. The mapping is not so much of the community, but by the community, in a manner that reflects their assets, values and vision for the futu Cin n eide, 2009, p. 168). Community mapping has grown to include online interactive mapping ( such as Open Green Map ( ) ) Open Green Map is designed as an online interactive mapmaking system, using Google Maps as the platform enabling individuals tes, routes and resources. This particular method provides the opportunity for instant publishing and map updating. The platform eliminates traditional map making barriers Historically, maps (as a contract and the illustration of boundaries that defined property) were power ful to those who drew and owned them (Lydon, 2000, p. 27). Open Green M ap encourages community


28 participation as it is broadly accessible via the web. Outreach programs include corporate, university, youth and government agency mapping initiatives. As of 2004, 150 community based grass roots maps ha ve been developed around the world through the Open Green Map system (Tulloch, 2004). Traditionally, maps were nd instruments of military, cultural and economic power, and increasingly in the hands of those with colonial and commercial peasants and indigenous peoples and subjugated t Community mapping is designed to give the power of mapping to all sectors of society Multimedia Film and Storytelling Applied to Community Visioning Furthering the work in participatory methods using multi media, Asa ntha (2010) and communication technologies amo referred to as Cybermoholla (cyber neig hborhood). The participant s process of learning how to write participants address basic things within the cyber neighborho od framework, including social justice and issues with the state providing basic services such as education, health facilities and educational opportunities (p. 19). Participant commentary includes observations regarding public spaces, such as the lack of pedestrian facilities, lack of street lighting, traffic issues and inaccessibility for the elderly and disabled. This project This project is an example of the ed ucation and learning emboldened in the participatory process. Asantha (2010) notes that the participants learn through content


29 creation and that media educators play a role in facilitating learning and education through collaboration (p. 25). This applic ation of a multi media approach broadens the opportunities for engagement, social involvement, commentary, discourse and learning that is possible using participatory methods Sandercock and Attili (2010) further explore multimedia applications in particip by of inquiry, as a form of meaning making and as a tool of community engagement and as lm in visual anthropology and in planning, Sandercock and Attili (2010) explore the relationship between local knowledge, narrat ives, storytelling and planning, examining ways in which communication is central to planning practice and the ways that multime dia can cultivate community engagement and community development. (p. 26). Thompson and Lathrop (2012) further t he exploration of local knowledge, narrative, storyt elling and its relationship to community visioning by incorporating an oral narrative compon ent into the participatory process. This allows the voice of elders to be directly incorp orated into community visioning providing the opportunity for the tradition of oral history to inform a forward looking participatory endeavor Participation: A The oretical Overview The focus of this research is to develop a measure to effectively examin e the effectiveness of emerging participatory methods. Ideally, the process results in change that provides direct benefit s to community development by providing tho se with a limited voice an opportunity to be heard. As a result of the participatory process community attitudes are modified to support the change. To understand the basis of participation and establish a foundation for this research, the following is an examination of the


30 relevant theoretical perspectives noted in the participation literature, focusing on critical theory and social capital, and touching on structuration, conflict theory and gender. Class and Gender A common theme in successful participatory development approaches is that it takes time and a lot of effort to get to know the community S uccess comes when the community determines its own vision and agenda and the development agent is no lon ger needed to nurture the process (Connell, 1997, p. 258). Putting people first by yields an approach that puts people first; that does not isolate or privilege particular sectors for ; as a result, society is reconfigured the benefit of the majority of its members, while empowering them to develop (Connell, 1997, p. 248). Class and gender inequalities are issues that can prev ent a fully equitable and representative participatory process. Adding to the complexity of successful participatory methodology it takes a tremendous amount of time and effort to properly get to know the ins and outs of the community Class and gender need to be considered within the methodology so that particular sectors are not privileged in the process (Connell, 1997) Gender is a direct construct that has a relationship with the components of social cohesion and empowerment that is often developed through community participation ( Pe terson, Lowe and Aquilino, 2005 p. 233). Kapoor (2001) references political economy and gender as theoretical perspectives to consider in the participatory process. P articipatory processes, if not developed correctly, can be manipulative and in fact harm those who are supposed to be empowered (Cooke and Kothari 2001) Increased power for the marginalized resulting from the intervention is seen as a measure of


31 success. Conflict the orists posit that power is the central feature of society as t he culture of any society reflects the interest of the powerful elite and not the political interest (Allan, 201 1 p. 245). Understanding determinates of social change and power structure is elemental to successful participatory approaches (Cleaver, 2001, p. 38) Issues of politics and power are commonly not addressed with participatory approaches to development. By applying seem to be the most domesticating practices by leaders, to achieve their interest based Critical t heory and constructivist s truct uralism ( of which social capital is a construct ) are both based in Marxist theory. Critical theory is indebted to Marx and 2011, p. 68). Critical theory looks to the pro duction of knowledge. Participatory methods are based on building knowledge and awareness and increasing social capital through expanded social networks. Promoting communicative action through an emphasis on equality and social capital using participatory methodology in community Examining critical theory and constructivist s tructuralism provides the foundation of the theoretical basis for a measure of the effectiveness of a participatory intervention. Critical Theory Habermas Critical theory defined by Jurgen Habermas, is an underpinning in partic i patory research In the form of methodology such as participatory video photovoice and community mapping a vehicle is created for horizontal and vertical communication,


32 potentially influencing community policy. One of the foundations of critical theory is that lieve it is possible to reach methods strive to alleviate the power experts and those in control from having a stronger say than the layperson in the participatory p rocess (Healy, 2008) Participatory video for example, is designed to be a voice for the marginalized as the video that results from the process is produced by the lay participants. This methodology solves some of the issues raised by Cooke and Kothari ( 2001), who challenge the status quo in participation with a focus on confl yranny is the illegitimate and / es are simply not being truly effective. A primary v ehicle for social change is participatory democracy. Participatory methodology is based on this premise; the intent of social democracy is the intellectual and practical involvement of all of its citizens (Allan, 2011, p. 384). This is a strong argument for critical theory to be the most useful perspective for examining participatory methodology. The goal of participatory methodologies is based in communicative action, emphasizing communication, education and equality The process of communication can facilitate mutual consensus and t hus rationally guide our lives (Allan, 2011, p. 382). Participatory methodology that is visual and designed to result in a communication method, such as video, photostory and community mapping facilitate s this goal They give hope to the possibility that a well designed participatory process can foster a healthy and robust civil society by facilitating communicative action that promotes equa lity and social progress


33 (Allan, 2011, p. 382). P articipatory methodology can result in a stronger civil society and a revitalized public sphere (Allan 2011, 379). In addition it may be possible for equality to be facilitated through communicative acti on as individuals are seen as equals and money, pow er and status do no t weigh in the decision making process. The critical theory approach to public participation is flawed when the scientific knowledge of the experts outweighs the voice and input of the participants. Habermasian communicative ethics center upon the notion that fair, free and open forms of debate and communication ensure that no one form of reasoning and/or knowledge dominates others, and so commonly frame attempts to facilitate public participation in technical decision making ( Healy, 2009, p. 164 5 ). The process needs to incorporate the knowledge that is constructed through the participatory methodology : that the experts really guide the process, rather than the participants ultimately truly hav ing a say. debate and favors conventionally validated (i.e. scientific) forms of knowledge over and t he implications of this emphasis on processes, rather than on the sources Healy, p. 1645) should be examined for public participation. One of the biggest challenges of participation is that lay and expert perspectives are dealt with equitably. The participatory proce ss needs to combine different perspectives so that there is a resolution of Whether the approach is PV, photovoice or community mapping, these methods work within and each person is regarded as an equal source of legitimate statements (Allan, 2011, p. 382). Communicative action is facilitated by p articipatory methods that are visual and


34 design ed to result in a communication tool. Participatory methods are based on critical theory and social democracy, promoting the intellectual and practical involvement of citizens. The visual participatory methodology has the ability to develop a greater leve l of communication and shared ideas between participants and provides the opportunity to share the information in the public realm (Lunch and Lunch, 2006, p. 13). Ideally, the process works within the social norms of a community and enables a community t o take action to solve its own problems and to communicate its needs and ideas to decision makers. Learning is also an integral component to the visual participatory process as the goal of visual participatory methods is to aid in the creation of a civil society that emphasizes education, communication and equality (Allan 2011 p. 382). Kapoor (2001) reinforces grounding participatory methodology in critical theory and is concerned with the overall idea that in some participatory work, there is too much of an emphasis on what seems to work in the field, and not a true understanding of the theoretical basis for why it works; and if it does not work, a change is not necessarily n Participatory Rural Appraisal, Kapoor (2002) proposes that effective participatory work should be grounded in theory. Something that seems to work is not enough, and just and equitable outcomes should be produced where citizens deliberate together, engaging in discussions, arguments and counter arguments A consensus is reached only through the (unforced) Kapoor, 2002, p. 107). If the process is deliberat e, it is more likely that the final outcome will meet the consensus of all involved. Kapoor


35 into power and knowledge that would provide greater insights into the power dimensions of the process (p. 103). Critical theory is the foundation for the optimism of the potential success of participatory methodology. Through promoting communicative action, providing a forum within which citizens can determine their own vision and promote their own agenda working toward a society that is educated and rational and communicates freely and equally. One way in which basing parti cipatory methods on critical theory helps to history and society on the one hand and social position and knowledge on the other. To understand any society, one must firs t understand its historical path and the st ructural arrangements within it In designing a particular participatory methodology, an understanding of these relationships and the community that the facilitator is working in is paramo unt. Participatory methods also serve to increase knowledge and eq uality, also a tene t of ; tellectual and 384) Participatory methods strive to build knowledge and active involvement through teaching skills that increase knowledge and designing activities that are meaningful and eng aging. Constructivist Structuralism Bourdieu can be described through a game analogy ; that if we know the rules of the game and the field of play, we can function in society without thinking, just like an athlete who is


36 begins with class. Class is structured in the body through cultural capital and is made up of tastes, habits, social and linguistic skills, etc. ( Allan, 2011, p. 417). People display their class position in the way they sit, walk and talk. What happens is that in social situations where a person is out of place, they will most likely feel uncomfortable and participate poorly. Bourdieu refers to social capital as the social network a person is set within. Social capital is associated with class, as in m Participatory methods are often designed to build social capital. S ocial capital is one of the components necessary for a succe ssful part icipatory methodology ( Okazaki, 2008, p. 516). Bourdieu identifies four types of capital, including social, economic, cultural and symbolic (Allan, 2011, p. 431). Within structuralist constructivism, full weight is given to both structure and personal ag ency. Participatory methods work to modify both the structure and the level of personal agency Hickey and Mohan (2004) envision a positive future for participatory development, while express ing concerns regarding the effectiveness of participation and suggest that well as proper methods of participation that develop social capital and transform the structure that causes social exclusion (p. 13). People in develop ing countries continue Hickey & Mohan, p. 3). E xisting policy is based on the ability of people to be development has often Hickey & Mohan, 2004, p. 4). Many


37 Hickey & Mohan, 2004, p. 11). The approach towards a methodological individualism, obscuring an analysis of what makes participation difficult for marginal groups in the first place. The proper method of participation is to transform the structure that causes social exclusion (structuration ). However, it Hickey & Mohan, 2004, p. 13). In addition to social capital, Bourdieu also address es economic, symbolic and cultural capital all of wh ich Bourdieu identifies as being used in the production of class (Allan, 2011, p. 419). The roots of community development are founded in commitment to further the interests of oppressed, marginalized and exploited groups and classes. The structure of pa rticipatory methods facilitates communication within a community social networks intentionally, or sometimes thorough happ enstance 419). Symbolic cap ital is potentially specifically influenced as new participatory methods use media platforms to share the product of participatory projects Blackshaw (2010) note s : rather than an ex pert, whose role it is to build community capacity, social capital and civic virtu methodologies are designed to have people work together for a common goal and message within the context of the issue or problem the intervention is working to address. In this way, s ocial networks are expanded and therefore potentially social


38 operate more effec tively when they operate collectively. As an interesting counterpoint, social capital is a resource to be exploited and it is the exclusivity of a particular social network that works because it exclude s others. On one hand social capital is a positive resource that has advantages through expanded social networks; on the other hand, it w orks to hide networks of power (Blackshaw, 2010, p. 214). Whether or not participatory methods result in a lasting expansion of social capital is questionable. Per Okazaki, (2008) social capital is just one construct in a methodology for a model of participatory development and cannot stand alone I t is however, a critical component of a fruitful participatory proce ss. Hickey and Mohan (2004) also see social capital as a primary theory in participation methodology. Constructivist structuralism is a foundational theory that helps to address the effectiveness of participatory methods specifically within the construct of the development of social capital. A primary vehicle for social change is participatory democracy ; participatory methodology is based on this premise and the intent of social democracy is the intellectual and practical involvement of all of its citize ns (Allan, 2011, p. 384) This forms a strong argument for constructivist structuralism to be a useful theoretical basis for participatory methodology. Theoretical Construct: Empowerment Theory Critical t heory and constructivist s tructuralism form the theoretical basis of participatory methodology and provide the foundation for e mpowerment which is a component of what successful participation achieves.


39 Empowerment is a social action process through which people gain control, efficacy and social justi ce. One way to develop empowerment is through active, meaningful participation in community groups and activities. Social cohesion is an emerging construct that expands the notion of community participation to include elements such as shared emotio nal co mmitment and reciprocity (Peterson et. al 2005, p. 234). There is also a potential relationship with gender relative to social cohesion and the interactional and intrapersonal components of psychological empowerment (Peterson, et al, 2005, p. 234). Empo werment has been defined as the way that people gain greater control over their life, critical awareness of the sociopolitical environment and democratic participation in communities (Perkins and Zimmerman, 1995). In the process of d eveloping the theoreti cal framework for this research, a common thr ead in the participatory method literature is that participatory methods are meant to be empowering, or that participation in a participatory process results in empowerment. This has been observed and noted usi ng qualitative measures, but not quantitative. The development of power lies in the capacity of grassroots groups ( commonly exploited socially and economically ) to use the knowledge gained in a way that enables them to become active in the advancement of t heir own society and interests. The goal of creating sufficient creative and transforming leverage as expressed in specific projects, acts and struggles and to produce and develop s ocio political thought processes with w hich popular bases can identify Allan, p. 330) society will grow out of a liberal political culture that emphasizes education, communication and equality.


40 Participatory video as a methodology is founded on these principles, as participants learn how to create a video to share their viewpoint that potentially empowers communities (Flowe r & McConville, 2005), (Evans and Foster, 2009). Lunch communities to take control of their des narrative and voice, to elicit greater participation, and to have a concrete conclusion (the resulting video ) This potentially avoids the burnout that are so prevalent among 1995 p. 769) in the community visioning process Lunch (2007) defines PV as a tool for empowering individuals and communities d ialogue and discussion, and setting in motion a dynamic exchange of ideas and see w here their films and stories have traveled and the impact they have had at the The relative ease of sharing video provides the opportunity to share the recorded thoughts and ideas with peers and community leaders. P articipatory v ideo has had a long association with concepts of community empowerment and social reform through its participatory process (Harris, 2009, p. and reconciliation Harris, 2009, p. 542). What seems to matter most in the


41 participatory process is the learning that occurs as a part of the process It is also seen as a step toward or community in shaping and cr (Lunch & Lunch 2006 p. 8). This process can be empowering as it enables a group or community to take action in solving an issue or problem and it also enables them to communicate their needs to higher level decision makers. The PV process also equips people with skills and positive attitudes including video technical skills, group working skills, listening skills and better awareness of community, identity and place Participatory video further works to provide an active role for pa rticipants (Lunch & Lunch, 2006, p. 14). As PV puts the video in the hands of the participants, the process and resulting film or video facilitates empowerment. What matters the most in an effective participatory process is the learning that can occur for people who are part of the process The learning process is a meaningful step toward increas ing levels of empowerment amongst the participants involved ( Lunch & Lunch, 2006, p. 8). Lunch & Lunch state that the effectiveness of video in the community d evelopment process can : thus enhance the capacity of people to share their local knowledge and innovations across distances and to stimulate locally led development in other countries. The films can be used to communicate the situation and ideas of local p eople to development workers and formal researchers and to decision makers and policymakers, for example, those concerned with land issues, marketing, education, research and rural extension (206, p. 12) Fundamentally, Marxism social capital, critical th eory and empowerment are also community mapping as: a relatively new tool with considerable potential in giving practical effect at the local level to sustainable development r hetoric. As a repository of


42 socially constructed knowledge, it has considerable value in democratizing information both in terms of what is recorded and public access to it, in a manner that facilitates more meaningful participation of non experts in plann ing and advocacy processes. Community mapping is based on empowerment theory as it works to put power, through mapping, in the hands of the participants, enabling them to define those community elements that are important to them. For example, by facilit ating increased technology, communications and ecological literacy the goal of Open Green Map (an interactive mapmaking system designed to enable sustainable sites, routes and resources ) is to develop competence, efficacy, and mastery of mapping skills for the participants These are the key components of the intrapersonal constructs of empowerment, as well as increased knowledge of the socio political structure, the key component of the interactional construct of empowerment. The goal of Open Green Map is to enable participants to communicate both vertically and horizontally by facilitating place based planning and visioning, voice assessment of current issues and innovations, and orienta tion to community assets and challenges Like PV, it is also based in experiential learning theory, as mapping skills are gained in the process. Kolb describes experiential learning as a process that is developed by going through cycles, an active process that results in a transformative experience (Kolb, 1984). Examining Empowerment T he goal of emerging participatory methods is to facilitate community de velopment and capacity building and to facilitate empowerment. Perkins and individual well


43 Perkins and Zimmerman (1995 ) believe that empowerment oriented interventions vide opportunities for participants to develop knowledge and skills, and engage The constructs that m ake up empowerment include self perceptions of efficacy, master y and awareness and understanding of the sociopolitical environment (Speer, 2000, p. 52). The independent or predicator variables within the theory that relate to potential benefits from participatory processes are leadership competence, sel f perception of pol icy control in the community, knowledge that power is accessed by working through organizations, and knowledge that power requires strong relationships with others. These are based on the work of Speer (2000, p. 54) that used these variables to measure int conditions which develop communion or cooperation (interactional empowerment) would be associated with communal values such as those expressed in organizational participation and sense o f community while conditions which develop mastery or control (intrapersonal empowerment) would be unrelated to elements in participatory methods (gaining working technical kno wledge, team skills, listening skills, the ability to share a product that can be shown to higher levels of authority, and leadership skills resulting from taking charge of a group effort) are hypothesized to have influence on both constructs of empowermen t. In this regard, it appears that the theory of empowerment would be applicable in studying the effectiveness of participatory processes.


44 interactional empowerment (intellectual understanding of power and social change) and intra personal empowerment (personal sense of control and efficacy); in studying both constructs he found that people with higher levels of both constructs participated in community and organizational activities with greater frequency than those with lower levels. This could imply that those that participate in a participatory process may already have higher perceptions of empowerment; it also implies that participation in a process that increases these measures may result i n an individual that may become more involved in community action activities. Peterson et al (2005, p. 240), expanded empowerment research by empowerment. They found a strong correlation between community participation and intrapersonal empowerment; however, their study found no relationship between community participation and any measure of interactional empowerment. They identified variables within their study that may affect empowerment: gender and environment (i.e. rural vs. urban). Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman & Speer (2006) tested a widely used measure of intrapersonal empowerment, the Sociopolitical Control Scale (SPCS). Soc iopolitical control refers to individuals beliefs about their capabilities in social and political systems and involves self perceptions to organize a group of people as well as influence local community policy decisions They fo


45 Hur produced an interrelated theoretical framework for empowerment by examining conceptual interrelations existing in the theory. In do ing so, Hur defines the process of empowerment in various disciplines (i.e. political science, social health studies). This is useful, as it helps further define the constructs a nd variables that influence the theory. Empowerment has been defined as the mechanism by which people, organizations, and communities gain mastery over their lives (Speer, 2000, p. 52), and further, by which they gain a critical awareness of the sociopoli tical environment, and an understanding of the relevancy of democratic participation in communities (Peterson, et al (Peterson, et al, 2005 p. 233). Actions, activities or structures may be empowering and the outcome of the process may result in a level of being empowered (Perkins & Zimmerman, 1995, p. 570). It is also thought that smaller, locally organized participatory activiti es are more effective approaches to empowerment. Empowerment theory also provides a guide for the development of participatory processes in which the participants feel they have an important stake (Perkins & Zimmerman, 1995, pl 577). The goal of academic research is to test hypotheses, answer questions, and to gain greater understandings of people, places and processes. Much of the time, outside the community. Therefore, t he ownership of the process and product is not


46 the community, and r esearch may be seen as arrogant. Applied research, which is being observed within the context of this study, seeks to find solution s for real world problems through community building and engagement and shared knowledge Participatory research aims to share power and act with humility, and to do research in an effective manner (Campbell, 2008, p. ix). At its best, participatory research results in community driven follow through wherein t he agreed upon community vision is implemented. In addition, participatory research with an externally Hypothesis Individual capaci ty building and empowerment is a significant goal of social work interventions. One way to gain capacity is through active, meaningful participation interpersonal, or political power so that individuals can take acti on to improve their life affect others and the ability to work with others to e ffect change is developed (Gutierrez, 1990, p. 149 150). Participatory methods are seen as a process through which social change can occur and can be u s ed as a tool to encourage individuals and communities to formulate a vision and to take control of their future. The hypothesis this research seeks to examine is that involvement in a community participatory process results in a measurable difference in perceived empowerment for the participants tested statistically If designers of participatory community engagement approaches have a better understanding of how participatory methods shape


47 perceptions of empowerment, they might then be able to refine such method s t hereby building the capacity of citizens to become a voice in or even lead efforts in long term community action. In addition to the statistical analysis to test the f ormal hypothesis, participants are also interviewed to gain further insight into the participatory process. It is anticipated that the participants will disp lay indications of increased perceived empowerment as well as increased awareness of the rapid land use change occurring in the rice terrace landscapes that are the focus of the study.


48 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY I am really happy to do the activities because by doing th e se activities I realize that the rice field is so important for our life I will take care of our rice field forever Sita, Map Pack participant Overview In the summer of 2011 the embarked on a continuation of a community heritage landscape focused participatory process that started in Ubud Bali in 2009 ( K. Thompson, personal conversation, 201 0 ) Building on the foundation of that initial program ( which was composed of a participa tory video process ) t he 2011 program used participatory methods to map and catalogue community landscapes in and around Bangli, Bali, Indonesia. The participatory process, ( called Map Pack ) was designed to be a multi faceted CBPR process with a landscape mapping emphasis. The project focused on the community heritage landscapes surrounding the village of Bangli, Bali, Indonesia; specifically, the rice terrace landscapes currently under pressure from rapid urbanization. The participatory program integrate d sketch mapping, sketch journaling video, oral narratives, soundscape and GIS photo mapping The mapping ac tivity modules were designed to immerse the students in the landscape through activities that encouraged them to observe and become familiar with the land through active, engaged learning. The program worked with junior high school students from Bangli A University of Florida undergraduate student stayed in Bangli to facilitate the program over a seven we ek period. The community mapping activities resulted in a website that was developed to showcase the


49 content that the students developed and provide d a platform from which they c ould share their work with peers and community elders ( K. Thompson, personal conversation, 2011 ) Figure s 3 1 3 2 and 3 3 Illustrate students participating in the mapping activities, and Figures 3 4 and 3 5 illustrate several MapPack website pages. This research is a component of this initiative: an effort to develop a tool that effectively measures one of the potential outcomes of participation in a c ommunity participatory process, perceived empowerment resulting from participant involvement in the MapPack activity. The research examines the differing levels in perceived empowe rment between the students that participated vs. those that did not participate, using a test index and an interview process. Participatory project facilitators working with methods such as participatory video, community mapping and photovoice note that participants come away with a sense of empowerment ; rather than being passive subjects, the participants become agents ( Lunch and Lunch, 2006, P. 10), (Evans and Foster, 2009), (Flower & McConville, n eide, 2009) (Foster Fishman, Nowell, Deacon, Nievar & McCann, 2005). However such conclusions have not been measured quantitatively Th e purpose of this study is to see if participation in the Bangli mapping making activities result s in a measureable level of empowerment. Research Design A cross sectional design which serves to measure differences between groups was used for this study (de Vaus, 2001, p. 170). The differences (level of perceived empowerment hypothesized to be different between the groups) were measured following participation in the Bangli mapmaking activity


50 The theoretical population s of th is study are those who would benefit from a participatory process that potentially increase s their level of empowerment. The students that participated in the landscape mappi ng process were students from Sekolah Menengah Pertama 1 Bangli (junior high school) and the comparative sample, or sampling frame, (Bernard, 2000, p. 147) were students from the same school match ed for age and gender. Cross sectional designs use a simple random sample of each group. In this case, the first group ( those that participated in the mapping activity) is a given. A sample was taken for the control group from the school, matching for those elements that will have a determining factor on the outcome variables (in this case, age and gender) The MapPack project focused on the youth in the community as the program was integrated into the educational curriculum of the junior high school for the 7 week period while it was underway. Engagement of youth has become more common in participatory seeing youth (i.e. ch ildren and adolescents) as problems to viewing them as Instrumentation Index Development The index used to measure perceptions of empowerment resulting from participation in the mapmaking project was developed based on empowerment t heory. The index was developed using social science methods, operationalizing the indirect construct of interactional empowerment ( awareness and understanding of the socio political environment ) a nd the indirect constructs of intrapersonal empowerment ( self


51 perceptions of efficacy, self perceptions of competence and self perceptions of mastery ) Intrapersonal empowerment has been previously measured by researchers using the Sociopolitical Control Scale developed by Zimmerman & Zahniser (1991, p. 194). The scale measures two variables: leadership competence (self perception of leadership competence) and policy control (self perception of policy control in the community). Interactional empowerment has been measured by researchers studying empowerment using a six item scale, the Collective Action and Interpersonal Relationship Scale developed by Speer, (2000, p. 54). This scale measures two variables: collective action (knowledge that power is acc essed by working through organizations) and interpersonal relationships (knowledge that power requires strong relationships with others) (Speer, 2000, p. 55). Netemeyer, Bearden & Sharma (2003) note that assessing construct validity is an ongoing process. The research assessing intrapersonal and interactional empowerment is robust, with well established construct validity. Table 3 1 illustrates the indirect constructs of intrapersonal and interactional empowerment The elements in MapPack (gaining working mapping skills, journaling, sketching, recording, and video skills, the development of team and listening skills, and the ability to share the information gathered via a website that can be shown to higher levels of authority) are hypothesized to have inf luence on both constructs of empowerment. The purpose of this study is to examine the measurable levels of intrapersonal and interactional empowerment resulting from engagement in a participatory mapping


52 process. As past research has established the valid ity of leadership competence, policy control, collective action and interpersonal relationships as variables in measuring the empowerment constructs this established the basis for using these variables in this study. These variables were used as the basis for the development of the index testing empowerment. The items initially tested for each variable are in the Appendix Questions were drawn from the published literature, b ased the work of Zimmerman and Zahniser, (1991), Speer, (2000), Speer and Peter son, (2000) that tested these variables to measure interactional and intrapersonal empowerment The items that were drawn from the literature note the source next to the item. If an item was tested in multiple studies, both sources are listed for the sa me item. The initial index tested has video and film references and was then expanded to include items that refer red specifically to participation in the M ap P ack activities. Direct reference to the MapPack activity was appropriate as but is weighted to ( Adcock and Collier 2001 p. 535 ) Following development of the initial index, it was refined through peer review and question and a series of cognitive tes ting (with youth in the same age range as the Balinese participants) resulting in greater contextual specificity. Adcock and Collier (2001, p. 535), make a point of discussing context specific domains of observation, omy, or society to which they will apply their concept applies. The focus of the index need ed to have much greater contextual specificity as empowerment is often considered a c ontextually dependent construct


53 (Speer & Peterson, 2000, p. 117). Following the cognitive test ing the index was refined again Using the scores computed from the testing, internal consistency reliability for each variable was calculated by computing Cronb (Netmeyer, et al., 2003, p. 11) for each in order to determine if the test items for each variable were consistent with one another and if they were appropri ately measuring the construct (Salkind 2004, a lpha correlate s the score for each item with the total score for (Salkind, 2004, p. 285). SPSS software was used to run the reliability analysis of the index, looking to determine how well the score of each item was internally consistent with the composite scores from the other items. If the correlation is less than 0 .30 indicating a weak correlation for item analysis purposes (de Vaus, 2004, p. 184), then the item was removed from the index. The refined index resulted in a Cro n of 0 .677 for collective action, above 0 .3 for interpersonal relationships, 0 .762 for leadership competence and 0 725 for policy control. Following refined development the index was reviewed and tested in Bali. English language instructors provided peer review and the index was further refined to adjust the language of the questions based on their input. It was also translated into Bahasa Indonesia. The index was then tested using Balinese stu dents and internal consistency reliability was run in SPSS a final time. Following minor adjustments and deletions, the 0 .728, for interpersonal relationships, 0 .716, for leadership competence, .790, and for poli cy control, 0 .747. The index works relative ed to measure similar, but conceptually different, constructs are related. A low to moderate correlation is


54 considered evidence of discriminant that were high in leadership competence were not necessarily high in perceptions of policy control, for example. The SPCS and the CAIRS uses a Likert (Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman & Speer, 2006, p. 290), formulation of the response better matches the question of how close perceptions come to each statement, the correct dimension is perception of trut 1. This will drive the total score of the index; the items/ indicators will form the constructed index score (Netemeyer, Bearden & Sharm a, 2003, p. 5). Note that high scores on each of th higher levels of participatory behaviors rather than low 54). The final test index is attached, both in Bahasa Indonesia and English (Appendix). Interview Question Development olitical climate far better than did the pre in advocating qualitative methods for international project evaluation of development efforts. Based on this insight, the approach to evaluating the level of empowerment with the inde x was accompanied by an interview process. Triangulation, or using several different methods, both quantitative and qualitative, can strengthen a study (Patton 2002 p. 247). In using the index to measure empowerment, and also using an interview process, this should further illuminate the effect of the participatory process on empowerment, thereby


55 providing cross data validity checks. The interview process will test for consistency (Patton, 2002, p. 248). The interview questions will provide further ins ight into to the MapPack participatory process goal, which in addition to empowerment was to provide an opportunity for the participants to gain insight and a tangible connection into those landscapes and exteri or spaces that are under threat and to elevat e the participant s understanding of their collective ability to care for and protect these landscapes. The interview process referenc ed the content and the website that resulted from the MapPack participatory process providing further insight into the l evel of empowerment resulting from the MapPack as well as insight into the participants thoughts on the landscapes studied. The interview questions focused on the content that the participants created during the MapPack process. This focus helped to det ermine what the participants felt was being communicated by the content, using a high level of inference in the interpretation (Mathison, 2009, p. 191). The initial interview questions were developed based on photo voice oriented questions (Wang, 1999, p. 188), and the queries were formatted as probes, using detail oriented questions (Patton, 2002, p. 372): The interview questions were designed as opinion values and feeling questions (Patton, 2002, p. 350). L eading questions were avoided in the initial line of questioning so that the perceived ability to e ffect change was not influenced (Patton, 2002, p. 370). Following the development of the initial questions a cognitive testing procedure was done that paralleled the index development. One of the goals of the cognitive testing procedure was to avoid comprehension problems resulting from how


56 interview questions were structured, making sure the vocabulary was clear. In addition, the testing helped to refine the interview p rocess and ensured that the questions could be answered and that the questions as posed did not create any level of communication difficulty (Collins, 2003, p. 230). Cognitive testing utilized probing and paraphrasing and modifications were made to the qu estions based on ideas a bout how to reword the question and words that they had issues with. (Collins, 2003, p. 235) (Nic hols & Childs, 2009, p. 116), (Willis, 2005, p. 48). The cognitive tests were also performed on participants in the same age range as the Balinese participants. The testing assessed how easily respondents were able to re trieve the information required (Collins, 2003, p. 233 ). The interview questions also went through peer and expert interviewer (Nichols & Child, 2009) re view. This process resulted in the questions being refined to not have sp ecific reference to landscape, in order that this could come out during the interview and not be inferred; also, as the emphasis of the participatory program is on the environmental a nd development conflicts Bangli is facing the questions diverged to ensure that the respondent clearly understands the issues at hand: sustainability, economy, food security and a vision for the future; so that the respondent can determine what side of th e fence he/she sit on. The questioning process will help t o bring the issue more to light so that as citizens in their communities, the participants can dec ide where their own future lies and what they think is in the best interest of their community. T h e questions and resulting answers a d dress the empowerment constructs, although certainly not as systematically as the index. The line of questioning determine d if the respondent s felt they ha d the leadership capability to e ffect change,


57 whether or not th ey felt that re aching out to others would help and whether they had any level of policy control. The interview questions were weak on whet her the respondents felt working within an organization would be helpf ul in voicing their opinion or e ffecting change The questions were associated with the concept, and convergent (Adcock and Collier, 2001, p. 540). The construct validity was reasonably strong; the questions did measure what the y were intended to measure (N etemeyer et al., 2003. p. 11). Balinese English language instructors who provided translation of the questions to Bahasa Indonesia reviewed the final interview questions They also confirmed that the questions were contextually specific and appropriate. The initial and final English version of the interview questions and the final Bahasa Indonesia version of the interview questions are attached in the Appendix. Internal and External Validity There are several strengths in the research design as it relates to internal validity Cross sectional d esigns in general have strength as the common threats to internal validity which include history, maturation, instrument decay, statistical regression, mortality and testing, (de Vaus, 2001, p. 177) exist because other design approaches have a time dimensi on In this design, the measurements are taken at a single point in time following participation in the participatory process and the launching of the resulting website. Selection bias can also have an effect on internal validity (Swisher, 2008, p. 5). Th e study is looking to compare the differences between the participant group and the control group. The control group sample was matched with the participant group to account for those extraneous variables in empowerment research (age, gender) that can aff ect the outcome (Peterson, et al, 2005, p. 235). A primary goal in the design and analysis of cross sectional studies is to control, through sampling, the possible effects of


58 confounding variables that can be measured (Rubin, 2006, p. 7). In addition, the independent variables were grouped, as described above, in relationship to high low measures of empowerment, thereby enabling the like with like to be comp ared (de Vaus, 2001, p. 177). D e Vaus (2001) guide 179). By utilizing the models tested in previous empowerment research, and in using this model to organize the data, causal conclusions can more likely be drawn. The gre atest weakness of the design in terms of internal validity is that the participatory group is a small sample, and even though the control group is being mat ched for characteristics of age and geographical area, the participatory group has the potential of This might directly affect their level of perceived empowerment prior to engagement in the community mapping participatory session. On the other hand, the participants are from a b road cross section (social background), and are not necessarily representative of people that normally have high levels of empowerment, as they are adolescents and students. External validity is the level to which we can extend our conclusions to other peo ple, plac es and conditions. For a cross sectional design to have strong external In this design, the ability of a participatory process to positively affect perceived levels of empowerment for the participants is being teste d. The group being tested will have participated in the participatory process, and therefore is a representati ve sample. The


59 control group is those that have not been involved in a participatory process, but have similar age and gender characteristics. The control sample matches for these characteristics, and thereby is also representative relative to a reasona ble comparison to the participatory group. In addition, the basis for the index and statistical test employed was previously tested in empowerment research (Speer, 2000) as being a successful measure of empowerment. External validity can also be assessed by ensuring theoretical adequacy (Swisher, 2008, p. 7). This strengthens the external validity of the design. In researching applicable theories to participatory me thods, empowerment theory seems to be a good match, as it is measured relative to the ve ry specific items that participatory methods directly relate to: community actions, preven tive activities, organizational participation and sense of community. The study also uses the constructs of empowerment theory (intrapersonal empowerment and intera ctional empowerment) in the research design. In addition, this study and the index generated could be referenced in the examination of the effectiveness of any participatory process with regard to increased le vels of perceived empowerment. With regard to the weakness of the design relative to external validity, sensitization may be an issue. The fact that the participants may respond differently just because they are acutely aware that they are part of a study that is measuring the effects of being invol ved in a participatory process may affect the way they answer the index. Statistically, there may be things that that are not controlled for that would affect the outcome variables, such as aspects relative to social capital (historic caste, resulting fam ily status) that may also have an effect on external validity.


60 In participatory research conducted regarding PV, community mapping and photovoice a recurring theme is that the methods result in empowerment. However, a true test of this hypothesis did not emerge in the research. This study strives to test the effectiveness of participatory methods, and to develop a measure of the actual effectiveness of being involved in a participatory process on perceived empowerment. It seems that one of the difficult elements regarding the measuring of empowerment is that research has shown that it is a process that is fluid, unpredictable, and can change over time and place. It can, however, be measured as an outcome (Hur, 2006, p. 524), which is one o f the objective s of this design, measuring not only the levels of empowerment, but the corresponding relationship to the dependent variables. This serves to strengthen the explanatory power of this research design. Data Collection Procedure The research team returned to Bangli in the spring of 2012 to finalize the MapPack project and to conduct the data collection and interviews of the junior high school participants. The final index had 56 questions, and the interview entailed 13 questions. The respondents answered th e perceived empowerment portion of the index using a 4 point, Likert type response option format ranging from completely true to completely untrue (Nardi, 2006, p. 92). The community action portion of the index was measured using a four point scale ra The primary participants (23 junior high school students) completed the index immediately following the completion of the project. The non participants, matching for the quantity of participants, age and gender, t ook the index within a day of the participants. Both the participants and non participants completed the index as a group. The age of the junior high school participants ranged from 14 to 15. The groups were comprised of 33 %


61 male s and 67 % female s of B alinese decent. The interview sessions were conducted one on one with 1 1 of the junior high school participants. The junior high school teacher who was familiar with the project helped facilitate the interviews and provided translation assistance as nee ded. As per the sampling process described by Barriball & While (1999), a thorough, explanatory, transparent proce ss is necessary to minimize non response in the control group. Prior to the implementation of the survey and interviews, a notification and permission form was sent out to participants and non participants and their parents describing the purpose of the study, providing contact information for any questions and concerns, and acknowledging their right to not participate. There are many reaso ns mortality, or attrition, can occur, including refusal to participate (non response), inability to contact the sample population, or drop out (Swisher, 2008, p. 4). The data collection for both the community mapping participant group and the control group was done at a single point in time, and therefore lack ed a time dimension, (de Vaus, 193) which lessens the concern with drop out. We were very fortunate in that all of the participants of MapPack agreed to and were able to participate in the survey and interviews. Data Analysis The index included the measurement for perceive d empowerment, scored within each construct, and also the community action activities the students had been involved in as a potential variable. Scores represent the mean for each construct of empowerment ( collective action, interpersonal relationships, le adership competence and policy control) and the variable, community action activities. As the sample size is small, the data is ordinal (rank order), and the mean is being compared between the


62 two groups (the participants and non participants), a nonparam etric analysis method for comparing two independent samples was used, the Mann Whitney U test (Salkind b correlation coefficients were calculated for comparisons between the variables and to examine the relationsh ip between each (Salkind, 2004, p. 80) The data from the interviews was transcribed verbatim. A pattern in the responses was sought that may help determine the effectiveness of the participatory methods in increasing empowerment (Patton, 2002, p. 463). B ased on the empowerment variables ( collective action, interpersonal relationships, leadership competence and policy control), the transcripts were coded. Additional codes were also identified to provide A representative quote was selected for each variable and theme for reporting ( Taylor Ritzler, Balcazar, Suarez Balcazar, Kilbury, Alvarado, & James, 2010, p. 6). Controls In addition to the questions relating specifically to perceived empowerment, com munity action was also measured as it can have influence on empowerment (Zimmerman & Zahniser, 1991, p. 200) These items were considered in the analysis. The participants a nd non participants were matched for age range, geographical location and gender for the junior high group. Challenges The biggest challenge to the index and interview process was the translation from English to Bahasa Indonesia and back. Fortunately, Ibu Desak Ekaputri the English language instructor whose students were involved in the project, was available to


63 provide translation and interpreter assistance during the data collection effort. In addition, the translation assi stance by the English language instructors was invaluable. Prior to the data collection phase, the junior high school students were more available for the final steps in the MapPack project (website review and input) and discussion prior to the index. In addition, 11 students were available for follow up interviews.


64 Figure 3 1 MapPack Activity Modules: Landscape Mapping, Oral Narratives, Landscape Sound, Journaling and Sketching, GPS Photos, Video Photos courtesy of Hannah Plate


65 Figure 3 2 Students Participating in MapPack Activities: Oral Narratives, So und Recording and Sketch Map ping. Photos courtesy of Hannah Plate


66 Figure 3 3 Rice Terrace Views and Student Participants, MapPack Photos courtesy of Christina Lathrop and Hannah Plate.


67 Figur e 3 4 MapPac k Website Home Page


68 Figure 3 5 MapPack Website Page: Landscape Sound


69 Table 3 1 Empowerment Theory Constructs Definitions and Variables Empowerment Theory Direct Constructs Indirect Constructs Definition Variables Intrapersonal components of empowerment Self perceptions of efficacy Personal sense of capacity to produce an effect Leadership Competence/ Policy Control Self perceptions of competence Personal sense of possession of required skill, knowledge, qualification or capaci ty Self perceptions of mastery Personal sense of comprehensive knowledge or skill in a subject or accomplishment Interactional components of empowerment Awareness and understanding of the socio political environment Intellectual understanding of power and social change Interpersonal Relationships/ Collective Action (Zimmerman & Zahniser, 1991), (Speer, 2000).


70 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS I was very happy to participate in the project. From this project I realized how i m po r tant the rice field is for our life. Without the rice field we cannot get food an d without the rice field we can not live. We must keep the rice field beca use it is very important to us Sang Ayu, Map Pack participant Sample Characteristics All of the participants of the project participated in the index. There were 23 junior high school participants. The age of the junior high school participants ranged from 14 to 15. The control groups were matched for number of participants and age range Both junior high school groups were comprised of 33 % male s and 67 % female s of Balinese decent, so they were matched for gender. Eleven of the junior high school students participated in the interviews Intervention Effects A nonparametric analysis method for comparing two independent samples was used, the Mann Whitney U test (Salkind 2004, p. 270). A p value < .05 implies a statistically significant finding and the null hypothesis can be rejected (Nardi, 2006. p. 4). The junior high school group s tudents that participated demonstrated an intervention effect for the variables of interactional empowerment (awareness and understanding of the socio political environment), collective action (p = .0066) and interpersonal relationships (p = .0299). The m easure associated with community action activities was also higher for this group (p = .00059). In addition, the z value for each of these variables was over 1.96. If the z value exceeds 1.96 then there is evidence to reject the null hypothesis. (Salkin d 2004, p. 134). Overall, the empowerment measure also demonstrated an intervention effect (p = .0292). The variables of intrapersonal


71 empowerment (leadership competence and policy control) did not demonstrate a significant intervention effect. Results for all these outcomes are reported in Table 4 1. Box plots illustrating the Mann Whitney test outcome s that demonstrated an intervention effect for the junior high school students are illustrated in Table 4 2. Exploratory Analysis In order to further examine the empowerment constructs, exploratory analysis using a Kendall tau b correlation was conducted for the participant group. b determines bivariate associations between ordinal variables (Salkind, 2004, p. 80), (Nardi, 2006, p. 30). T he relationships between each of the variables: collective action, interpersonal relationships, leadership competence, policy control and community action activities were examined. Junior High School Participants For the participant junior high school gr oup, moderate relat ionships measuring between 0.4 and 0.6 (Salkind, 2004, p. 88) were found between leadership competence and collective action; leadership competence and policy control; and policy control and interpersonal relationships. A weak relationship measuring between 0.2 and 0.4 (Salkind, 2004, p. 88) was found between policy control and collective action and leadership competence and interpersonal relationships. The results are reported in Table 4 3 Junior High School Non Participants For the non participant junior high school group, weak relat io nships measuring between 0.2 and 0.4 were found between collective action and leadership competence and between leadership competence and interpersonal relationships. The results are reported in Table 4 4


7 2 Interviews The interviews were structured to dete rmine if the participants displayed empowerment characteristics as they talked through their experiences and observations about their work in the rice terraces. Eleven of the junior high school participants were interviewed individually. Each of the mapp ing techniques w as represented by the participants interviewed to have a good cross section of representation. In addition, the percentage of male s to female s matched the overall gender percentage. If the participant thought the rice terrace was an impor tant landscape to preserve whether for environmental, food security or economic reasons, they were asked what they might do to bring attention to the issue. Collective Action Each of the eleven participants exhibited characteristics indicative of the in collective action : that it is more effective to work What would with for my cousins and relatives. I want to buy Another suggested working within existing organizational structure s Interpersonal Relationships Six of the jun ior high school respondents made comments indicative of the interactional empowerment variable interpersonal relationships They discussed


73 connecting with others to e ffect change, an indication of knowledge of the importance of strong relationships with others to have community influence For example, o ne respondent noted: Another n e to look around the rice field. I wou ld take them to the rice fields. I would take my friends so they could realize how good it is to have the rice fields and realize what would happen if they were lost forever. Others will realize how important it is a Leadership Competence Five of the junior high school students indicated characteristics of the intrapersonal leadership competence the ability to take a leadership role through organization of action plans and having a comfort level with taking charge Several discussed taking the lead on organizing efforts to bring attention to the issue an indication of efficacy and mastery indicative of leadership competence One junior high school stud ent I can do it by myself but I want to talk others into joining in with my project. It is more effective if I work with others, because if we work together it is not as hard Another said I would make a group to try t o protect the rice terraces and I would get the help of others I would get farmers, friends. T he farmer will lose his profession. I would also talk to the The statements also indicate knowledge of collective action and interpersonal relatio nships Policy Control Six of the junior high school participants made statements that suggested the ability to be involved and affect political and policy decisions, indicative of the


74 intr They talked about affecting policy by discussing the loss of the rice terrace landscape directly with village and government leadership Prompted who m one respondent stated : e leaders; let all of the would tell everyone about it, starting at a Banjar (neighborhood) meeting and describe how important the rice field is. I would describe the bad eff ects. If we describe well, we can influence it. So they can decide for themselves whether or not Food Security, Economic and Environmental Observations The other pattern that came out of the interviews was how the individuals characterized the importance of the rice terrace landscape. Nine of the eleven junior high school respondents noted that they felt that it was an importance food source. One food The was an The rice fields are a source of food and li Development pressure One final item that was a repeat comment was that the ric e terrace landscape was being lost to development as a result of encroachment. Each of the respondents noted this O


75 Now, every day I stop for a moment. I am a little worri ed about the future of the rice The Appendix includes a compilation of the interview results, reporting how the response of the interviewee relates to empowerment, their thoughts on the environmental and intrinsic importance of the rice terrace, the participation technique they were involved in, their thoughts on the development pressures and the inferred empowerment variables assigned as a result of their responses.


76 Table 4 1 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test b y variable group Marked tests are significant at p <.05000 Variable Rank Sum Group 1 Rank Sum Group 2 U Z p level Z adjusted p level Valid N Group 1 Valid N Group 2 2*1 sided exact p Coll act 647.0 388.0 135.0 2.679282 0.007378 2.714928 0.006629 23 22 0.006755 Inter rel 624.0 411.0 158.0 2.157049 0.031003 2.170604 0.029962 23 22 0.030926 Lead comp 564.5 470.5 217.5 0.806055 0.420121 0.807546 0.419353 23 22 0.423931 Pol cont 581.5 453.5 200.5 1.192054 0.233241 1.196317 0.231574 23 22 0.235781 Comm act 679.0 356.0 103.0 3.405867 0.0006600 3.432655 0.000598 23 22 0.000449 Empow 625.0 410.0 157.0 0.029276 0.029276 2.179899 0.029266 23 22 0.029136


77 Figure 4 1 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Overall Empowerment


78 Figure 4 2 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Interpersonal Relationships


79 Fi gure 4 3 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Interpersonal Relationships


80 Figure 4 4 Junior High School Students Mann Whitney U Test Box Plots Interpersonal Relationships


81 Table 4 2 Junior high school students/ Group 1/ Participants Kendall tau b correlation coefficients Marked correlations are significant at p < .05000 Variable Collective action Interpersonal relationships Leadership competence Policy control Community action activities Collective action 1.000000 0.192629 0.420693 0.385102 0.123817 Interpersonal relationships 0.192629 1.000000 0.215806 0.416043 0.116868 Leadership competence 0.420693 0.215806 1.000000 0.515647 0.221944 Policy control 0.385102 0.416043 0.515647 1.000000 0.022520 Community action activities 0.123817 0.116868 0.221944 0.022520 1.000000 Table 4 3 Junior high school students/ Group 2/ Non Participants ; Kendall tau b correlation coefficients Marked correlations are significant at p < .05000 Variable Collective action Interpersonal relationships Leadership competence Policy control Community action activities Collective action 1.000000 0.389388 0.161374 0.130864 0.091129 Interpersonal relationships 0.389388 1.000000 0.315757 0.105098 0.083342 Leadership competence 0.161374 0.315757 1.000000 0.117658 .0.241487 Policy control 0.130864 0.105098 0.117658 1.000000 0.042367 Community action activities 0.091129 0.083342 0.241487 0.042367 1.000000


82 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION In my opinion the subak is very important for our lives. When I visited the subak for a long time to do the mapping project. If we we wil l miss the place as the main food source for our life and the famer will miss his profession. There are many elements in the rice field, such as the traditional tools to frighten the birds, and places to pray. For me, it is a very interesting place Wind i, Map Pack participant Overview This study involved a trial to measure differences in empowerment resulting from participation in an action research program incorporating participatory methods designed for junior high school youth. The study found that the quantitative results corroborated the hypothesis for the junior high school group : that there was a difference in the participant junior high school students overall level of perceived empowerment ; it was greater among the participan participants. The qualitative assessment ( the interviews ) illustrated that the study participants felt it was important to work within organized groups and with others to get things accomplished T hey also showed knowledge of the p olitical process and their ability to influence decision making by presenting and discussing the issue with community leaders The students discussed taking action at the local community level, demonstrated knowledge of government structure and a preferen ce to form (or join) a group dedicated to rais ing issue s and concerns identified in the mapping project to community leaders In addition, the qualitative assessment showed a high level of concern for the development pressures on the landscape It also recognized the importance of the rice


83 terraces as a food source, its environmental importance and its role as a local, economic driver (tourism asset and employment for local farmers). A detailed analysis of the results shows that participation in the pro ject had the greatest impact on the Interactional Empowerment The test results showed that the hypothesis was correct overall, but most significantly for the interactional empowerment construct, the awareness and understanding of the socio political environment Th e intellectual understanding of power and social change is measured using the variable s of collective action : knowledge that power is accessed by working through organizations and with oth ers and interpersonal relationships ; knowledge that power requires strong relationships with others. The MapPack participat ion activities encouraged teamwork and resulted in tangible outcomes T his structure dir ectly affected these measures The sketch es, video s maps, and recordings were compiled for the website and shared. Each MapPack component encouraged collaboration and was a group effort. The students were taught each of the MapPack skills and were then assigned a team t hat focus ed on one type of mapping in the field. Some mapping activities required more team work than others. F or example, in the oral narrative activity the team had to decide who was going to conduct the interview, what sorts of questions would be asked, and who would be inte rviewed. The sketch mapping activity was done by a group of students that broke out into teams of two, each producing their own version of a rice terrace map. Each MapPack team presented its work to the other teams in the form of a PowerPoint presentatio n as a part of the activity Seeing their collective effort showcased on the


84 website and thus resulting in a tangible outcome could have resulted in the belief that they had accomplished something substantial. The website also served as a vehicle through which they could share their ideas and concerns with friends, family, and community leaders. It is possible that by contributing to the MapPack activities, and sharing their observations as a group the participants recognized the power and value of collaboration. By participating in the MapPack activities students gained the knowledge that influence is achieved by working together and that relationships are an important component of getting things accomplished within a community fram ework In addition, the process of mapping and documenting the significance of landscape helped the students understand that their village i s dealing w ith a land use issue: th at changing uses are resulting in a loss of landscape s important to their herit age The mapping activities provided the students an opportunity to connect emotionally and intellectually with the landscape. Sketch mapping c ompelled them to take note of landscape details and spatial boundaries. Sketching and journaling led to observ ations of beauty. Recording of oral narratives helped these participants understand the complexities of the heritage landscape issues and the threats imposed by change Recording landscape sound inspired participants to pause and take notice of the detailed components of rice terrace landscape s In aggregate the MapPack activities represent a collective effort to understand the significance of the rice terrace landscape and its importance to village identity and economic vitality By gathering inf ormation and realizing that communication with community leadership is necessary to convey their thoughts on the issue, the study participants gained a heightened level of interactional


85 empowerment. The junior high school students were engaged i n the proje ct and throughout the process remained enthusiastic. Empowerment perspectives that individuals have are perhaps influenced by the context in which they participate (Speer & Peterson, 2000, p. 117). Another attribute that may have contributed to the posit ive effect on interactional empowerment for the study participants is age. Youth are positioned to make positive and important contributions to research and to be agents in community development. (Wong, Zimmerman & Parker, 2010, p. 100). Adolescence is th e time for strengthening developmental assets such as social skills, social supports and connections (Morton & Mont gomery, 20011, p. 417). T his could account for the positive shift in the level of perceived interactional empowerment. In addition, youth c ulture changes so quickly that by the time it catches on with older groups and adults, the youth are already moving on to something new or different (Wong et al., 2010, p. 101). Perhaps this adaptability and openness to new ideas also weighs into the diff erence in the level of empowerment for the participant group Intrapersonal Empowerment The quantitative results were not measurably different between the participant and non participant group for the construct intrapersonal empowerment, self perceptions of efficacy (the capacity to produce an effect), competence (a personal sense of possession of a required skill, knowledge, qualification or capacity), and mastery ( the personal sense of comprehensive knowledge or skill i n a subject or accomplishment). Em powerment is measured for this construct by how individuals feel about themselves in relation to groups and communities (Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 111). In this study this construct was measured using the variables of leadership competence ( self


86 percep tion of leadership competence ), and policy control ( self perception of policy control in the community ) The index used to measure these variables was developed based on the Sociopolitical Control Scale (Peterson et al., 2006), refined and modified for th e context of the MapPack participatory methodology. Why did the MapPack process not have an impact on these two variables? Enhancement of self efficacy is typically a goal of empowerment programs and particularly participatory methods. Methods suc h as participatory video, photo voice, community mapping and MapPack are designed to integrate the development of competency through the learning a skill or skills that a participant masters by being a part of the process. This skill is then applied to produce a tangible result, such as a video, a map, or a series of relevant photos that are shared with peers, elders and community leaders. Participatory methods are developed specifically to include a component that focuses on learning a skill that enables parti cipants to use this skill to communicate their thoughts, ideas and opinions of the topic at hand. Why was change not measured? Even though the junior high school students showed significant results for interactional empowerment, the findings of previous studies focusing on empowerment on Peterson, 2000, p. 117). High scores in one domain of empowerment do not necessarily correspond with high scores in other domains. Additiona d to (Speer & Peterson, 2000, p. 117).


87 Youth are often disconnected from the possibility of political participation because of their age and the fact that they might not have a developed sense of the political process. In addition, leadership might be considered a personality trait, rather than a variable that can be influenced by a short term intervention. The null result r einforces the difficulty of affecting statistically detectable changes in intrapersonal empowerment which has been described a s a relatively stable and trait like construct It can be difficult to change as a result of a short interventio n (Morton and Montgomery 2011) The qualitative assessment revealed that the individuals with a natural inclination towards leadership were more likely to indicate that they would take charge to organize an effort to bring attention to the pressures on the rice terrace landscap e. In addition, participatory experiences may not be frequent enough or as intense as needed to change general attitudes abou t personal efficacy and mastery (Morton & Montgomery, 2010). The participants might not imagine that they will continue to map, video, record, sketch and write about their environment al concerns Perhaps that is why participatory video and media in particular seems to generate the observation that it does increase this component of empowerment The participants may take it on themselves to use this m edium in the future to convey their ideas especially as the technology is becoming increasingly accessible and the modes of communication, via social media, are becoming increasingly ef ficient to disseminate. The design of the intervention was not focused on leadership development or policy control knowledge and navigation. It encouraged interaction and group generated mapping results. In order for an intervention to facilitate modific ations in


88 intrapersonal empowerment specific to leadership competence and policy control the intervention would have to be focused on these variables. The intrapersonal empowerment measure that the index was based on is especially suited for evaluating int erventions that focus on improving community involvement and citizenship and the ability to effect policy (Peterson et al. 2006, p. 294). Certainly, MapPack focused on the goal of enabling the students to effect policy related to the rice terrace landscap e and the associated development issues by sharing what the participants had observed and learned through the mapping process and the resulting website. It also encouraged the students to become more aware and active with this issue. As Peterson, 2000, 117), (Zimmerman, 1995) the null result provides an opportunity for future research to refine the measure of the effectiveness of participatory methods on intrapersonal empowerment. Perhaps in a youth based intervention the measure should be focused more directly on the individual feelings of personal mastery of a skill and competence resulting from participation in the intervention. Youth participation in action and research wherein youth hav e the opportunity to be heard by decision makers, provide project input, voice their opinions and recommend solutions is defined as symbolic participation (Wong, Zimmerman & Parker, 2010). MapPack falls within this definition of participation. In formula ting opinions, this potentially encourages competence, self efficacy and mastery for the participants : each of these is seen as key factor in youth development and perceived empowerment. The MapPack program was designed to encourage the participants to ex perience and gain an appreciation of the rice terrace landscape. This topic was important to the adult


89 leaders in the process; the junior high school teachers, the Mahasaraswati University research partners and the UF researchers. An additional consider ation for y outh based interventions, if empowerment is more specifically the goal of the intervention empowerment was an objective, however, leadership competence specifically was not) the participatory methodology could be focused on t he leadership and policy control aspects of intrapersonal empowerment. The research initiative can still start with the adults, but youth are involved in each step of planning and implementation. The participant s views are more strongly considered and th ey are involved in program design and decision A pluralistic ro le w ith youth and adults sharing control might result in a great er level of perceived empowerment Y ou th empowerment does require adults to be actively involved in creating opportunities for youth to become aware of issues and to develop a critical consciousness The MapPack project fits this model The goal of MapPack, while utilizing participatory methodology that has potential benefits of empowerment, primarily had to do with designing activities that encouraged the students to become aware of the rapid land use changes occurring in the rice terrace landscape. Further research could focus on a mea sure that addresses increased environmental and land use awareness Community Action Activities The levels of community action activities measured higher for the participant junior high school group. O rganizations or community experiences that the stude nts are involved in may also influence their level of perceived empowerment In addition, individuals that report a higher level of involvement in community activities and


90 organizations score higher in empowerment measures Does participation enhance emp owerment, or do empowered individuals participate? In this study, the participant and non participant groups were matched for age and gender and were in the same academic setting and were not a volunteer participant group. This could weigh into the consid eration of this variable for its overall impact on the varying level s of participant empowerment measured in this study In previous research it was found that there is a relationship between community participation and intrapersonal empowerment but not between community participation and interactional empowerment (Peterson et al 2005) T hat lends validity to the effects of this intervention C ommunity action activities, while measuring stronger in the participant group, do not necessarily correlate with the increased level of interactional empowerment resulting from the intervention. Variable Correlations As this study seeks to further empowerment research and the effectiveness of nt, the positive measure for the junior high school participants warrants further discussion as the results potentially reveal an understanding of the impact a participatory intervention may have on empowerment overall M oderate relationships were reveale d between leadership competence and collective action leadership competence and policy control and policy control and interpersonal relationships. Moderate relationships were not found for any of the variables for the non participant junior high school group The positive correlation between leadership competence, collective action and policy control were also revealed in the qualitative assessment The students with leadership tendencies noted that that it was important to work as a group to accomplish a goal and that they felt comfortable taking charge to organize such an effort They were also


91 comfortable addressing the issue directly with community leadership. In addition to the positive correlation between policy control and interpersonal relation ships, the variables for the interactional components of empowerment serve to strengthen the relationship of these two variables within the construct. Perhaps simply being involved in the MapPack activity provided those participants that have a tendency t o be leaders to realize that they have the ability to affect change by working with and leading others, and that relationships with others strengthen their ability to affect policy. Beyond Empowerment MapPack was a participatory action research pro ject that engaged multiple levels of individuals, ranging from the design and implementation of the project by the UF Landscape Architecture Faculty Researcher, the UF graduate assistant, the support and backing of the Mah a saraswati University par tner the jun ior high school teacher s, the UF student facilitator, the University students and the junior high school youth. On the periphery were the parents of the students who were aware of the activity One of primary goal s was to engage the students i n activities that encouraged them to become aware of the rapid land use changes occurring in an important cultural landscape, the rice terraces. I nterviews with the students showed that they had developed a strong c onnectio n to the rice terrace landscape resulting from the MapPack experience. As some of the students noted, they had never been into the rice terrace landscape before being involved in the project If they had experienced the rice terraces before this project, they had not thought about the complexities of the economic, social and environmental issues The participants had a much greater appreciation for the rice terraces as a direct result of the proj ect. Additionally, conversation regarding the MapPack project with the non participants fo llowing the


92 completion of the questionnaires revealed that while interested in the project, the non participants did not share the connection with the rice terrace landscape that was evident in the voices and actions of the students that participated. MapPack activities led to different perspectives and reflections on the rice terrace landscape, especially the students that participated in the interviews with the rice terrace farmers. Collectively, these students seemed to come away with a greater unde rstanding of the social, economic and environmental complexities of the impact of encroaching development on the rice terraces One student noted that the rice farmers work was hard and that by selling their land the farmer s received income from the sale Some farmers need to sell because they need the money. The farmers also want to (Student participant, 2011). Students that participated in the sketchin g and journaling noted that the views were beautiful and discussed the difference in the views between the rice terrace area Subak Mandi (which is less impacted by development), and area known as Subak Aya, (which has been more significantly impacted). Si tting down, taking a moment to sketch resulted in a high level of observation and description of the rice terrace landscape. Students that participated in the sound recording noted they felt they knew so much more about the rice terraces Perhaps the act of just listening to all of the sounds, from water flowing, to the quack of ducks, to the sound of the noise makers designed to chase away birds, heightened their level of awareness of the intricacies of the landscape All of the students, regardless of their specific MapPack role, expressed concern about the loss of the rice terrace landscape, the loss of an important food source, livelihood,


93 and environment. Whether this ultimately translates into community action on their part to affect land use po licy can only be reflected in a longitudinal study. Participatory methods are focused on community development facilitated through cooperation and a tangible outcome that can be shared with others. Using empowerment as the theoretical basis to study the effectiveness of participatory methods is appropriate, as the goal of participatory research and participatory methods, such as MapPack, is to transform participants and communities from passive subjects into agents of change and influence. The quantitat ive results of this study illustrate the effectiveness of participatory methods in raising levels of perceive d empowerment for participants. Refining the Intervention In this case, the measure for interactional empowerment was measurably different for the MapPack participants. The measure for intrapersonal empowerment was not significantly different. If intrapersonal empowerment is a goal of a particular participatory intervention, using MapPack as an example, perhaps the intervention design can be refined to create change in the intrapersonal construct The index measure for intrapersonal empowerment focuses on leadership competence and policy control. The developme nt of leadership competence could be en hanced by designing the program to encourage leadership roles for each participant, potentially resulting in more comfort in this role. For example, when undertaking the oral narrative task, the students would take turns in each of the recording roles, sharing in the interview and recording roles Policy control could also be more directly addressed. The policy steps that would be required to influence the nature of the issue of rapid land use change could be a


94 stronger focus in the discussion. Based on the interviews, the students seemed to have a general idea about the community and government structure A discussion regarding the steps that could be taken to share the information effectively for serious consideration and debate could be a more inte gral pa rt of the process. Affecting policy is often a long term goal of participatory process however, it was not a primary focus for MapPack. This study revealed that the effectiveness of a participatory method for one of its goals (to increase perceived level s of empowerment) can be measured effectively by using a statistical analysis and interview process. We can determine if the process is doing what researchers say it is doing in this case, raising levels of perceived empowerment through a focus on workin g together to map and catalogue imperiled landscapes. Certain methods, as sensed by facilitators of PAR projects ( integrating participatory methods such as participatory video, photovoice, community mapping and multi media ) appear to be more effective at achieving these goals. This had not been statistically measured for the effect of a participatory method prior to this study, however. For landscape architects, social scientists and planners, this study illustrates that we can effectively use the measur e to evaluate if one of the goals of participatory methods, (specifically empowerment ) was achieved. If the goal of an intervention is to effectively empower then leadership competence and policy control should have a more significant emphasis within th e process Table 5 1 illustrates the results of MapPac k relative to empowerment, including a compilation of the effects it had that were expected and not expected, and additional effects MapPack achieved


95 Table 5 1 MapPack Summary MapPack Objectives MapPack results Recommendations for future participatory methods/ assessment Notes/ implications for empowerment theory Teaching mapping skills (voice, sketch, plan, video, gps photography, sound recording) Students beca me familiar with mapping as a concept, and were able to do each of the MapPack modules. Measure of assessment could more directly test intrapersonal empowerment based on new skillset rather than leadership competence and policy control Learning and becoming a master at a new skill potentially fosters intrapersonal empowerment Foster awareness of development pressure on rice terraces The students came away with knowledge of the development pressure the rice terraces face. Create connection for students to the rice terrace landscape The students came away with a new found appreciation for the rice terrace landscape Foster empowerment Interactional empowerment was directly affected. Intrapersonal was not. MapPack was not designed to foster leadership or policy control. These constructs could be a goal of participatory methodology. MapPack encouraged teamwork, tangible outcome illustrated effect of teamwork. Leadership is potentially a stable construct, not effected by a short intervention Sharing knowledge Knowledge was shared between the students, the researchers, and members of the rice terrace community. Knowledge gained that influence is achieved by working together


96 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS I am very happy that I was able to join the project, because now I know many things about the rice field and I now know how important the rice field is for us. The panorama of the rice field is very beautiful. In the rice field we learned many things, such as filming, recording sound and mappi ng. I hope all of the people will take car e of the rice field so that it makes our life better Laurent, Map Pack participant Overview Landscape architects are faced with environmental, social and economic challenges and are tasked with developing success ful design solutions for a diverse range of clients and client groups The generally accepted mission of the practice of landscape architect ure is to participate in the stewardship, thoughtful planning and artful design of cultural and natural environment s ( Historically, landscape architects have worked to integrate participation into the design process but have done so with mixed results. This study establishes one model for quantitatively measuring the effectiveness of participatory meth ods in an action research context with the goal of inform ing future research and provid ing insight into the development of effective and innovative participatory methods for researchers and practitioners alike. With heightened insight and deeper understanding, these methods can be used to better serve the individuals and communities that we work with As participatory approaches are further researched and improved they can be come increasingly inclusive, designed to meet the specific needs of the participants and the goals of the communities in which they are used. By integrating participatory methods into research and practice landscape architects can inspire and promote active continued engagement of the participants in their roles as agents who establish both the vision for


97 the future of their neighborhood s and the landscapes that are important to their communities. This research reinforces the need for effective evaluati on of the participatory process in order to enable practitioners and res earchers to refine method s and thus achieve greater success toward their goals of empowerment It also reinforces the notion that in order to design effective methods it is important to understand the theoretical foundation that the methods are based on. By developing a deeper level of understanding we can therefore design the methods more effectively to achieve participatory goals. Research Implications This study illustrates that t he incorporation of participatory methods into the community developmen t process (and specifically a process where a community is facing land use decisions) can foster collaboration and can bring attention and focus to a land use, an economic and environmental issue It can also effectively raise the One insight gained from the evaluation of the project serving as a test case for this study was that MapPack met the goals of empowerment for the adolescents who participated in its activities Future research cou ld evaluate the effectiveness of modifying the method of engagement based on the demographics of the population for which the intervention was designed. Older participants may be more effectively engaged in a project with a pluralistic role, sharing contr ol of the process and greater involvement in generating the research or project focus. Future research could also incorporate a longitudi nal study where the participant s roles in the community are assessed. Perhaps involvement in a project of this type in the formative junior high school years would result in a greater level of community action. Perhaps it would also influence future career choices.


98 Additional research could also examine the notion that leadership seems to be a stable construct. A par ticipatory intervention could be designed to more directly address the leadership competence and policy control aspects of empowerment in participants subsequently evaluated for change as a result of the intervention. Although not a goal of the primary st udy, community building and organizational efforts to bring light and understanding to an issue might be well served by recognizing leadership potential and working to engage those individuals in the process. Individuals who develop leadership skills as a result of a participatory effort might be more inclined to get involved in community action and carry the torch once the researchers or community development team are no longer involved in the initiative. The participants universally stated that they had a much greater appreciation for the economic, environment al social and visual aspects of the rice terraces as a direct result of the project Simply being a part of the project raised their understanding of the impacts of development pressures faced by t he rice terraces. Additional research could focus on the aspects of the participatory process that serve to raise environmental awareness. MapPack was a unique community mapping project as it integrated mapping in a variety of forms, introducing elements of video, photography, sound, sketching, writing, and sketch mapping. Beyond empowerment, i nsight was gained into the effectiveness of each component to generate awareness of the complexity of the issue. The oral narrative/ landscape voice component of MapPack in particular, gave the interviewers insight into the stories and the issues the farmers face as they consider continuing to farm, o r selling their land to encroaching development. The rice terrace landscape is a


99 finite resource on the island of Bali O nly a small, rapidly decreasing area is suitable for rice farming. d to give them a unique perspective of the landscape and the issue. Future research could study the effectiveness of each module on empowerment thus elevating environmental and land use awareness. Future research could also examine the compilation of ma pping information and effectiveness of the web in generating interest in the information being shared. Application to Landscape Architecture Practice A well conceived participatory process could be applicable in many practice situations. Such a proce ss can be used to help communit ies articulate vision s for the ir future give a voice to those that might not otherwise have a platform to speak and provide a medium through which oral narratives and personal stories can be shared These stories can have an impact on the direction a group may take to seek community change. The incorporation of participatory methods to increase and better develop the efficacy and inclusiveness of citizen participation in the community visioning process are more effective i f they result in collective action. This can result in the ability of and future and lead to an increased citizen involvement and participation regardless of the demographic or project focus This study has shown quantitatively that participatory methods can potentially serve to increase levels of perceived empowerment Participatory methods, if designed to increase empowerment, can have a direct impact on the levels of participant involvement and pro activity in a community L andscape architects, planners and community leaders should consider using participatory method s to engage participants

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100 in assisting a community to define a vision for its future. Th ey should also seek to understand the theory behind the methods, so that the participatory process is better structured to meet the goals of the project. It is often the researcher or practitioner not the community. More often, t he researcher or the practitioner is an agent from outside the community. Research and practice are often perceived as following agendas that may not as directly address the needs of its subjects or clients as well as they could. Participatory methods se ek to find solutions for real world problems through knowledge based, inclusive mutually beneficial participatory methods. The goal of p articipatory research is to share power to invigorate, to be humble and to do research in an effective manner At its best, participatory research includes the follow up needed to apply solutions for problem solving and community visioning I n addition, i t can be empowering for the participants Landscape architecture practice needs to look to the PAR process and take note. Using a measure to examine and determine what participation actually achieves helps to promote honesty and clarity and provides practitioners and researchers alike with greater theoretical understanding of participation.

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101 APPENDIX INDICES AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS The following l ists the initial items tested for each variable, with items drawn from the literature noted with the so urce next to each: Initial Test Index Items measuring Interactional Empowerment (awareness and understanding of the socio political environment). Variables: collective action and interpersonal relationships 1 Only by working together can people get power to change my community Sp eer, 2000, p. 56 2 I can have power in my community only by working in an organized way with other people Speer, 2000, p. 56 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 3 Power is collective, not individual Speer, 2000, p. 56 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 4 Working together to create the films was better than working alone 5 Power lies in the relationships between people Speer, 2000, p. 56 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 6 A person becomes powerful through other people Speer, 2000, p. 56 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 7 The only way I can have power is by connecting with others Speer, 2000, p. 56 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 8 Working on the film project helped me connect with my community 9 I developed important relationships from being a part of the film project

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102 Items measuring Intrapersonal Empowerment ( self perceptions of efficacy, mastery and competence) Variables: leadership competence and policy control 1 I am often a leader in groups Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 2 I would prefer to be a leader rather than a follower Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 3 I would rather someone else took over the leadership role when I'm involved in a group project Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 4 I would rather have a leadership role when I'm involved in a group project Peterson, et al, 2006 p. 294 5 I had a leadership role in the film project 6 I can usually organize people to get things done. Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 7 Other people usually follow my ideas Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 8 I find it very hard to talk in front of a group Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 9 I find it very easy to talk in front of a group Peterson, et al, 2006 p. 294 10 I like to wait and see if someone else is going to solve a problem bothered by it. Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 11 I like to work on solving a problem myself rather than wait and see if someone else will deal with it Peterson, et al, 2006 p. 294 12 I would rather not try something I'm not good at. Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194

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103 Items measuring Intrapersonal Empowerment (self perceptions of efficacy, mastery and competence) Variables: leadership competence and policy control 13 I like trying new things that are challenging to me Peterson, et al, 2006 p. 294 14 The film project was a new, challenging activity for me 15 I enjoy political participation because I want to have as much say in running government as possible Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 16 I enjoyed being involved in the film project because it gave me a say in the community 17 Sometimes politics and government seem so complicated that a person like me can't really understand what's going on Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 18 A person like me can really understand what's going on with government and politics Peterson, et al, 2006 p. 294 19 I feel like I have a pretty good understanding of the important political issues which confront our society Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 20 Participatory film projects can be a way to help the community make decisions 21 People like me are generally well qualified to participate in the political activity and decision making in our country Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 Speer and Peterson, 2000, p. 113 114 22 It hardly makes any difference who I vote for because whoever gets elected does whatever he wants to do anyway Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 23 There are plenty of ways for people like me to have a say in what our government does Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194

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104 Items measuring Intrapersonal Empowerment (self perceptions of efficacy, mastery and competence) Variables: leadership competence and policy control 24 I feel that the film project will help me have a say in my community 25 So many other people are active in local issues and organizations that is doesn't matter much to me where I participate or not Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 26 Most public officials wouldn't listen to me no matter what I did Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 27 A good many local elections aren't important enough to bother with Zimmerman and Zahniser, 1991, p. 194 28 Participating in the film project made me confident in my abilities to communicate my ideas 29 I feel confident in my ability to communicate my ideas through film or video

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105 The following are the final indices and questionnaires used in the research, included in English and Bahasa Indonesia ; highlight denotes negatively worded questions: Final Index in English Please answer the following questions. Mark the box that best describes how tru the statement is to you. Interactional Empowerment (awareness and understanding of the socio political environment). Variables: collective action and interpersonal relationships Collective Action Completely true Somewhat true Somewhat untrue Complete ly untrue 1 Only by working together can we have the ability to influence decisions in the community 2 I can have power in my community only by working in an organized way with other people* 3 Working with others on a community project showed me that together we can change things 4 Power (to change things) is collective, not individual* 5 We are stronger working in groups to establish an opinion and voice than working alone. 6 Working together to establish a community vision is better than working alone 7 Working together on community betterment makes me feel like I am a part of something important

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106 Collective Action Completely true Somewhat true Somewhat untrue Complete ly untrue 8 Being involved in a community project with others helps me have influence in the community Interpersonal Relationships Completely true Somewhat true Somewhat untrue Complete ly untrue 1 I can create long lasting relationships that increase my community influence as a result of being involved in a community project 2 The only way I can have influence (power) is by connecting with others* 3 The only way I can have the power to affect change in my community is by connecting with others 4 Working on a community project will help me connect with others within my community 5 I can develop important relationships that will increase my community influence by being a part of a community activities 6 Power in my community is based on the relationships between people 7 A person becomes powerful through other people* 8 The power to influence a community lies in the relationships between people *Speer 2000 CAIRS

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107 Intrapersonal Empowerment (self perceptions of efficacy, mastery and competence) Variables: leadership competence and policy control Leadership Competence Completely true Somewhat true Somewhat untrue Complete ly untrue 1 I am often a leader in groups* 2 I would prefer to be a leader rather than a follower* 3 I like to be in charge 4 I would rather have a leadership role in a school project 5 I would rather have a leadership role in a community project 6 I can usually organize people to get things done* 7 Other people usually follow my ideas* 8 People usually do what I tell them to do* 9 I find it very hard to talk in front of a group* 10 I find it very easy to talk in front of a group** 11 Being involved in community projects or activities makes it easier for me to talk in front of groups 12 I like to work on solving a problem myself rather than wait and see if someone else will deal with it** 13 I believe that I can solve problems 14 I like trying new things that are challenging to me** 15 I enjoy new, challenging activities

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108 Policy Control Completely true Somewhat true Somewhat untrue Complete ly untrue 1 Being involved in a community project gives me a say in the community 2 I really understand what's going on with government and politics** 3 I feel like I have a pretty good understanding of the important political issues which confront our community* 4 Community projects can be a way to help the community make decisions 5 People like me are qualified to participate in the political activity and decision making in our community* 6 It makes a difference who I vote for because whoever gets elected will represent my interests** 7 When I am allowed to vote it vote for because whoever gets elected does whatever he wants to do anyway* 8 There are plenty of ways for people like me to have a say in what our government does* 9 It is important to me that I actively participate in local issues* 10 So many other people are active in local issues and organizations that is doesn't matter much to me whether I participate or not* 11 Most public officials wouldn't listen to me no matter what I did* 12 Most public officials would listen to me** 13 A good many local elections are important to vote in**

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109 Policy Control Completely true Somewhat true Somewhat untrue Complete ly untrue 14 Community leaders listen to me 15 Community leaders listen to my ideas *Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman, Speer 2006 SPCS ** Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman, Speer 2006 SPCS positively worded Please mark the box that best fits the number of times you have engaged in the following community action activities in the past year: Community Action Activities 4 5 Times 2 3 Times Once Not at All 1 Attended a meeting to push for a policy change in my school or community* 2 Had an in depth face to face conversation about an issue affecting your community or school* 3 Organized or arranged an agenda for a community or school meeting* 4 Attended an event promoting information about community services* 5 Wrote a letter (to voice my opinion on a community or school issue)* 6 Attended a meeting promoting a school activity 7 Attended a community or school meeting to pressure for policy change** 8 Signed a petition** *Speer Peterson 2000 **Peterson, et al 2006 Please answer the following questions: 1. List current community organizations that you are a member of; examples may include school groups, faith based group, civic associations, music groups,

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110 sports teams, art groups, scouts, PMR (Red Cross Organization), PKS (School Police), etc.* 2. For the organizations listed about, describe how often you participate in each (times per week, month, year.)* *Peterson et al 2006 Final Index in Bahasa Indonesia Silahkan jawab pertanyaan berikut. Tandai kotak yang paling menggambarkan betapa benar pernyataan ini untuk anda. Pemberdayaan Interaksional (kesadaran dan pemahaman tentang lingkungan sosial politik). Variabel: tindakan kolektif dan hubungan interpersonal Aksi Kolektif Sepenuhnya benar Agak benar Agak kurang benar Sepenuhnya tidak benar 1 Hanya dengan bekerja secara bersama sama, seseorang bisa mendapatkan kekuatan untuk mengubah komunitas saya 2 Saya dapat memperoleh kekuatan dalam komunitas saya, hanya dengan bekerja secara terorganisir dengan orang lain 3 Bekerja dengan orang lain pada sebuah proyek komunitas menunjukkan bahwa bersama kita dapat mengubah beberapa hal. 4 Kekuatan (untuk mengubah beberapa hal) bersifat kolektif, bukan individual 5 Kita bekerja lebih kuat dalam kelompok untuk membentuk opini dan suara dibandingkan bekerja sendirian. 6 Bekerja sama untuk membangun suatu visi komunitas lebih baik daripada bekerja sendirian

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111 Aksi Kolektif Sepenuhnya benar Agak benar Agak kurang benar Sepenuhnya tidak benar 7 Bekerja sama pada perbaikan komunitas membuat saya merasa, seperti saya merupakan bagian dari sesuatu yang penting. 8 Terlibat dalam suatu proyek komunitas dengan orang lain membantu saya, memperoleh pengaruh di masyarakat. Hubungan Interpersonal Sepenuhnya benar Agak benar Agak kurang benar Sepenuhnya tidak benar 1 Saya dapat menciptakan hubungan jangka panjang yang meningkatkan pengaruh komunitas saya sebagai hasil dari keterlibatan dalam proyek masyarakat. 2 Satu satunya cara saya untuk memperoleh pengaruh (kekuasaan) adalah berhubungan dengan orang lain 3 Satu satunya cara saya memperoleh kekuasaan untuk mempengaruhi perubahan dalam komunitas saya adalah berhubungan dengan orang lain. 4 Bekerja pada sebuah proyek komunitas akan membantu saya terhubung dengan orang lain dalam komunitas saya 5 Saya bisa mengembangkan hubungan penting yang akan meningkatkan pengaruh komunitas saya dengan menjadi bagian dari suatu kegiatan masyarakat. 6 Kekuatan pada komunitas saya berdasarkan pada hubungan antar sesama. 7 Seseorang menjadi kuat melalui orang lain 8 Kekuatan untuk mempengaruhi suatu komunitas terletak pada hubungan antar sesama individu. *Speer 2000 CAIRS Speer 2000 CAIRS

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112 Pemberdayaan Intrapersonal (persepsi diri sendiri kemanjuran, penguasaan dan kompetensi) Variabel: kompetensi kepemimpinan dan kontrol kebijakan Kompetensi Kepemimpinan Sepenuhnya benar Agak benar Agak kurang benar Sepenuhnya tidak benar 1 Saya sering menjadi pemimpin dalam kelompok 2 Saya lebih suka untuk menjadi seorang pemimpin daripada seorang pengikut 3 Saya lebih suka memiliki peran kepemimpinan ketika terlibat dalam sebuah proyek kelompok ** 4 Saya lebih suka memiliki peran kepemimpinan dalam suatu proyek sekolah. 5 Saya lebih suka memiliki peran kepemimpinan dalam suatu proyek komunitas. 6 Saya biasanya dapat mengatur orang untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu 7 Orang lain biasanya mengikuti ide ide saya 8 Orang biasanya melakukan apa yang saya suruh mereka untuk kerjakan 9 Saya merasa sangat sulit untuk berbicara di depan satu kelompok 10 Saya merasa sangat mudah untuk berbicara di depan satu kelompok ** 11 Terlibat dalam proyek proyek masyarakat atau beberapa kegiatan sejenisnya menjadikan saya lebih mudah untuk berbicara di depan kelompok. 12 Saya suka memecahkan masalah sendirian daripada menunggu dan melihat apakah orang lain akan menyelesaikannya. 13 Saya percaya bahwa saya bisa menyelesaikan masalah masalah.

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113 Kompetensi Kepemimpinan Sepenuhnya benar Agak benar Agak kurang benar Sepenuhnya tidak benar 14 Aku suka mencoba hal hal baru yang menantang bagi saya ** 15 Saya menikmati kegiatan kegiatan yang baru dan menantang. Kebijakan Pengendalian Sepenuhnya benar Agak benar Agak kurang benar Sepenuhnya tidak benar 1 Terlibat dalam suatu proyek komunitas memberikan saya sebuah pengakuan untuk diri sendiri dalam masyarakat. 2 Saya benar benar memahami apa yang sedang terjadi pada kepemerintahan dan politik ** 3 Saya merasa seperti saya memiliki pemahaman yang cukup baik tentang isu isu penting politik yang dihadapi oleh komunitas kami 4 Proyek proyek komunitas dapat menjadi satu cara untuk membantu masyarakat membuat keputusan. 5 Orang orang seperti saya cocok untuk berpartisipasi dalam kegiatan politik dan pengambilan keputusan dalam komunitas kami 6 Akan berbeda, siapa yang saya pilih, karena siapapun nantinya yang terpilih akan mewakili kepentingan kepentingan saya ** 7 Ketika saya diizinkan untuk memilih, tidak akan timbul perbedaan terhadap siapa yang saya pilih, karena siapapun yang terpilih nantinya akan bertindak semaunya 8 Ada banyak cara bagi orang orang seperti saya untuk memperoleh suatu pengakuan dalam apa yang pemerintah kami hadapi 9 Penting bagi saya untuk berpartisipasi aktif dalam isu isu lokal

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114 Kebijakan Pengendalian Sepenuhnya benar Agak benar Agak kurang benar Sepenuhnya tidak benar 10 Ada begitu banyak orang yang aktif dalam isu isu lokal dan organisasi yang sebenarnya tidak terlalu penting bagi saya apakah saya berpartisipasi atau tidak 11 Kebanyakan pejabat publik tidak akan mendengarkan saya, tidak peduli apa yang sudah saya lakukan 12 Kebanyakan pejabat publik akan mendengarkan saya ** 13 Pemilu pemilu lokal penting untuk diperhatikan ** 14 Tokoh masyarakat menghargai saya. 15 Tokoh masyarakat menghargai ide ide saya. *Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman, Speer 2006 SPCS Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman, Speer 2006 SPCs ** Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman, Speer 2006 SPCS positively worded ** Peterson, Lowe, Hughey, Reid, Zimmerman, Speer 2006 SPCs positif worded Silahkan tandai kotak yang paling sesuai dengan banyaknya frekwensi keterlibatan anda dalam kegiatan aksi kemasyarakatan berikut ini pada tahun lalu: Kegiatan Aksi Kemasyarakatan 4 5 Kali 2 3 Kali Sesekali Tidak pernah sama sekali 1 Menghadiri pertemuan untuk mendorong perubahan kebijakan di sekolah saya atau lingkungan masyarakat 2 Mengikuti perbincangan mendalam secara tatap muka mengenai suatu isu yang mempengaruhi komunitas anda ataupun sekolah 3 Merancang atau mengatur sebuah agenda untuk satu pertemuan komunitas atau sekolah

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115 Kegiatan Aksi Kemasyarakatan 4 5 Kali 2 3 Kali Sesekali Tidak pernah sama sekali 4 Menghadiri satu acara untuk mempromosikan informasi tentang pelayanan pelayanan kemasyarakatan 5 Menulis surat (untuk menyuarakan pendapat saya tentang masalah komunitas atau sekolah) 6 Menghadiri satu pertemuan untuk mempromosikan suatu kegiatan sekolah. 7 Menghadiri pertemuan masyarakat atau sekolah untuk mendorong perubahan kebijakan ** 8 Menandatangani petisi ** *Speer Peterson 2000 Speer Peterson 2000 **Peterson, et al 2006 ** Peterson, et al 2006 Silahkan jawab pertanyaan berikut ini: 1. Sebutkan daftar organisasi kemasyarakatan dimana anda menjadi anggotanya; contoh mungkin termasuk kelompok sekolah, kelompok yang berbasis keagamaan, asosiasi kemasyarakatan, kelompok musik, tim olahraga, kelompok seni, pramuka, PMR (Palang Merah Organisasi), PKS (Polisi Sekolah), dll 2. Untuk organisasi yang anda se butkan di atas, jelaskan seberapa sering anda berpartisipasi dalam masing masing kegiatan (berapa kali per minggu, bulan, tahun.) *Peterson et al 2006 Peterson et al 2006 Silahkan menjawab pertanyaan berikut: 3. Daftar organisasi masyarakat saat ini b ahwa Anda adalah anggota; contoh mungkin termasuk kelompok sekolah, kelompok yang berbasis keagamaan, asosiasi kemasyarakatan, kelompok musik, tim olahraga, kelompok seni, pramuka, PMR (Palang Merah Organisasi), PKS (Sekolah Polisi), dll 4. Untuk organisas i yang terdaftar sekitar, menggambarkan seberapa sering Anda berpartisipasi dalam setiap (kali per minggu, tahun bulan,.) *Peterson et al 2006 Peterson et al 2006

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116 Initial Interview Questions: 1. What is this picture of? 2. What is happening in the picture? 3. How is this landscape important to you? 4. How does this landscape relate to your life? 5. Would it be okay or bother you if this landscape changed into something else, like a house or a store? The following leading questions will be used if the answer above i s affirmative and will focus on the level of influence the participant feels they have on landscape change. 6. If it bothers you, do you think you have the influence to keep it from changing? If so 7. What would you do? 8. Do you think you have the ability to voice your opinion on the importance of this landscape? 9. How would you do that? Final Interview Questions in English 1. What do you see in this picture? 2. Why did you take this pict ure? 3. Why are the elements in this picture important? 4. How does this photograph relate t o your life? 5. Tell me what you think about the positive and negative impacts of change on this area a. b. c. on the economy 6. Would it be okay or bother you if this area changed into something else, like a house or a store, or a lot of buildings? Why or why not?

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117 The following leading questions will be used if the answer to 6, above is it would bother the participant to see the area change and will focus on the level of influence the p articipant feels they can have on directing change (thus measuring empowerment). 1. If it would bother you that the area changed into a lot of buildings, would you want to try to save it and how? 2. What would you do to keep it from being built on? 3. Would you try to protect it by yourself, or with the help of others? 4. Who would you talk to about it? 5. Do you feel you could get others to help you save this area and if so, how? 6. Would you want to work with an organization to direct change? 7. Describe how you would voice y our opinion about saving this area. The following leading questions will be used if the answer to 6, above is it would be okay to see the area change and will focus on the level of influence the participant feels they can have on directing change (thus mea suring empowerment). 1. If it changed to a built form, what would you like to see? 2. Do you feel you can direct what the change would be? How 3. Would you try to direct change by your self, or with the help of others? Please explain. 4. Would you want to work with an organization to direct change? Final Interview Questions in Bahasa 1. Apa yang anda lihat dalam gambar ini? 2. Mengapa anda mengambil gambar ini? 3. Mengapa elemen elemen dalam foto ini penting? 4. Bagaimana foto ini berhubungan dengan hidup anda?

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118 5. Jelaskan p endapat anda mengenai dampak positif dan negative dari perubahan di dearah ini? a. Tentang keindahan alam vs bangunan. b. Tentang baik atau buruknya bagi pariwisata. c. Terhadap perekonomian. 6. Apakah akan baik baik saja atau mengganggu anda apabila daerah ini berubah menjadi sesuatu yang lain, seperti rumah atau toko, atau banyak bangunan lainnya? Mengapa ya atau mengapa tidak? Pertanyaan berikut ini akan digunakan apabila jawaban sampai 6, hal tersebut di atas akan mengganggu para peserta untuk melihat daerah berubah dan akan fokus pada tingkatan pengaruh, yang peserta dapat rasakan dalam mengarahkan perubahan (demikian pengukur pemberdayaan). 1. Jika hal itu akan mengganggu anda, dimana daerah tersebut berubah menjadi banyak bangunan, akankah anda ingin mencoba u ntuk menyelamatkannya dan bagaimana caranya? 2. Apa yang akan anda lakukan untuk menjaga daerah itu dalam keadaan masa pembangunan? 3. Apakah anda akan mencoba untuk melindungi daerah itu sendiri, atau dengan bantuan orang lain? 4. Dengan siapa anda akan membicarak an tentang hal ini? 5. Apakah anda merasa bisa meminta orang lain untuk membantu anda menyelamatkan daerah ini dan jika demikian, bagaimana caranya? 6. Apakah anda ingin bekerja dengan sebuah organisasi untuk mengarahkan perubahan? 7. Jelaskan bagaimana anda akan m enyuarakan pendapat anda untuk menyelamatkan daerah ini? Pertanyaan berikut ini akan digunakan apabila jawaban sampai 6, hal tersebut di atas akan membantu untuk melihat daerah berubah and akan fokus pada tingkatan pengaruh, yang para peserta dapat rasakan dalam mengarahkan perubahan (demikian pengukur pemberdayaan).

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119 1. Jika hal itu diubah ke bentuk yang dibangun, apa yang akan anda ingin lihat? 2. Apakah anda merasa dapat mengubah perubahan itu? Bagaimana caranya? 3. Apakah anda mencoba untuk mengarahkan perubahan dengan diri anda sendiri, atau dengan bantuan orang lain? Tolong jelaskan! 4. Apakah anda ingin bekerja dengan sebuah organisasi untuk mengarahkan perubahan?

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120 Interview Results (pc: policy control; ca: collective action; ir: interpersonal relationships; lc: leadership control). Participant empowerment approach environmental importance of rice terraces specific importance of rice terraces mapping technique development pressure inferred empowerment variables cahya personally talk to farmer, community, government, work with other people as well food source food source sound buildings bother me ca cintya personally talk to the community and farmer, also organize with others. important ecosystems, food source, fresh air ecosystem, food source sketching keep rice terraces, no buildings ca desak ask others for help, share knowledge with friends food source, ecosystem ecosystem, food source mapping too many buildings ca, ir Participant empowerment approach environmental importance of rice terraces specific importance of rice terraces mapping technique development pressure inferred empowerment variables

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121 fera can do it by herself (leadership competence) but wants to work with others because it is more effective and not as hard; would talk to community leaders, wants to take action now. food, ecosystem eco, food source, visual quality mapping too many buildings lc, ca,pc, ir laurent talk with other people, work with friends, organizations ecosystem, food source oral narrative bad if it changes to buildings ca, ir pasek work with village leaders. Work with others, would use existing young community organization effect of pollution, food source, economic (livelihood) food source, econ mapping buildings, pollution pc,ca,ir, lc rani talk with other people, work with friends and others, government leaders, youth food source food source mapping building around the rice field pc,ca, ir

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122 Participant empowerment approach environmental importance of rice terraces specific importance of rice terraces mapping technique development pressure inferred empowerment variables sang ayu tell people, work with others food source food source oral narrative disappearing, buildings ca, ir viv needs a team, can't do it by myself hard work, sell for money economy oral narrative buildings, population growth ca, lc, pc wibawa work with a team food source, economic, labor food source sketching building ca, pc, lc, windi buffer requirement, group effort, talk to government food source food source mapping building ca,pc, lc

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123 LIST OF REFERENCES Adcock, R. & Collier, D. (2001) Measurement Validity: A shared standard for qualitative and quantitative research. American political Science Review 95 (3), pp. 529 546 Albrecht, L. (2003), Planning and Power: towards an emancipatory planning approach. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 21 p p 905 924. Allan, K. (2011) The Social Lens, An Invitation to Social and Sociological Theory. Sage, London Anderson A, Fiebe J, Johnson E, Sabia T. ( 2010) Optimism and a thousand charrettes. National Civic Review; 99 (3) p. 7 10. Asthana, S. (2010), People, New Media and Participatory Design: A study of Cybermohalla from India. In K. Tyner (ed.) Media literacy: New agendas in communication (p. 11 27 ). New York, NY: Routledge. Barriball, K. L. & While, A. (1999) Non response in survey research: a methodological discussion and development of an explanatory model. Journal of Advanced Nursing 30(3), 677 686. Berinstein, S., Magalhaes, L. (2009) A stu dy of the essence of place experience to children living in Zanizbar, Tanzania. Occupational Therapy International, 16(2) 89 106 Bernard, H.R. (2000). Social Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Sage, London. Blackshaw, T. (2010). Key Concepts in Community Studies. Sage, London. Bond, S. and Thompson Fawcett, M. (2007) Public Participation and New Urbanism: A Conflicting Agenda? Planning Theory & Practice, 8 (4) p p 449 472. Cambell, J. (2008) Forward. (p. ix xxi) In Wilmsen, C., Elmendorf, W., Fisher, L., Ross, J., Sarathy B, and Wells, G. (Eds.) Partnerships for Empowerment: Participatory Research for Community Based Resource Management, Earthscan, Sterling, Virginia Carlson, E., Engebretson, J., Chamber lain, R. M. (2006) Photovoice as a Social Process of Critical Consciousness. Qualitative Health Research, 16 (6). p p. 836 852 Chapin, M., Lamb, Z., Threlkeld, B. (2005) Mapping Indigenous Lands Annual Review of Anthropology 34, pp. 619 638

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124 Cleaver, F., 2001, Institutions, Agency, and the Limitations of Participatory Approaches to Development. In Cooke, B. & Kothari, U., (E ds ) Participation: The New Tyranny? London, Zed Books. Collier, M., (2007); The Applied Visual Anthropology of John Collier. Visual Interventions: Applied Visual Anthropology. Pink, S. (ed) Berghahn Books, New York, NY Collins, D. (2003) Pretesting survey instruments: an overview of cognitive methods. Quality of Life Research 12 (3) pp. 229 238 Connell, D. (1997) Participato ry Development: An Approach Sensitive to Class and Gender Development in Practice 7 (3) pp. 248 259 Cooke, B. & Kothari, U., (2001), E ds. Participation: The New Tyranny? London: Zed Books, 2001 de Vaus, D. (2001) Research Design in Social Research Sag e Pu blication s, London. Elmendorf & Rios (2008) From Environmental Racism to Civic Environmentalism: Using Participation and Nature to Develop Community in the Belmont Neighborhood of West Philadelphia. (p. 69 96) In Wilmsen, C., Elmendorf, W., Fisher, L., Ross, J., Sarathy B, and Wells, G. (Eds.) Partnerships for Empowerment: Participatory Research for Community Based Resource Management, Earthscan, Sterling, Virginia Evans, M., & Foster, S., et al. (2009) Representation in Participatory Video: Some Considerations from Research with Mtis in British Colombia. Journal of Canadian Studies 43(9) pp. 87 108 Evans Cowley, J., & Hollander, J.. (2010) The New Generation of Public Participation: Internet based Participation Tools. Planning Practice & Researc h, 25(3), 397 408. Eversole, R. (2010) Remaking participation: challenges for community development practice Community Development Journal. 47 (1) pp. 29 41 Fahy, F., & constructing the urban landscape through community mapping: an attractive prospect for sustainability? Area, 41(2), pp. 167 175. Fals Borda, O.. (1987) The application of Participatory Action Research in Latin America. Interna tional Sociology 2 (4): pp. 329 347 Flower, E., & McConville, B., (2009) Diary of a participatory advocacy film project: transforming communication initiatives into living campaigns. Development in Practice 19(7) pp. 933 937

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125 Forester, J. (1989) Planning in the Face of Power. University of California Press, Berkeley. Foster Fishman, P., Nowell, B., Deacon, Z., Nievar, M., & McCann, P. (2005). Using Methods That Matter: The Impact of Reflection, Dialogue, and Voice. American Journal Of Community Ps ychology, 36(3/4), pp. 275 291. Frantz, J. (2007) Using Participatory Video to Enrich Planning Process. Planning Theory and Practice, 8 (1) p p 103 107. Freire, P. & Freire, A. M. A. (1994) Pedagogy of hope: reliving Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuu m, London Gutierrez, L. M. (1990) Working with women of color: An empowerment perspective. Social Work, 35, pp. 149 153. Hall, Budd. (1984) Research, Commitment and Action: The Role of Participatory Research. International Review of Education 30 (3): pp. 289 299. participatory video. Development in Practice 19 (4 5) pp. 538 549 Healy, S. (2009) Toward an epistemology of public participation. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, pp. 1644 1654 Hester, Randolph T Jr. (1999). A Refrain with a View [Participation with a View]. Places 12(2), 12 25. Hickey, S & Mohan, G. (2004) Participation: from tyranny to transformation, exploring new approaches to participation in developm ent. London & New York: Zed Books, pp. 1 21 Hur, M. H., (2006) Empowerment in Terms of Theoretical Perspectives: Exploring a Typology of the Process and Components Across Disciplines. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(5), pp. 523 540 Israel, B. A., S chulz, A. J., Parker, E., & Becker, A. B. (2001). Community based Participatory Research: Policy Recommendations for Promoting a Partnership Approach in Health Research. Education For Health: Change In Learning & Practice (Taylor & Francis Ltd), 14(2), pp. 182 197. Jones, S., 1999 Participation and Community at the Landscape the Scale. Landscape Journal, 18 (1) p p 66 78 work on participatory development Third World Quarterly, 23 (1) pp. 101 117

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126 Kolb, David A. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Long, R. & Wall, G. (1995) Small Scale Tourism Development in Bali; Island Tourism; Management Principles and Practice, Conlin, M. & Baum, T. (ed). John Wiley and Sons, NY, New York. p p 230 237 Lunch, N & Lunch, C., (2006) Insights into Participatory Video: a handbook for the field. Insight, Oxford. Lydon M. (2000) Finding Our Way Home. Alternatives Journal (26) 4. p p 27 29. Lydon M. (2003) Community mapping: the recovery (and discovery) of our common ground. Geomatica 57, pp. 131 143. MapPack Student Participant (2012). (nd). Interview Transcript. Bangli, Bali, Indonesia Mathison, S. (2009) Seeing is Believing: What counts as Credible Evidence in applied Research and Evaluation Practice. Donaldson, S, Christie, C., & Mark, M. (Ed). pp. 181 196. Merriman, P. (2010). Architecture/dance: choreographing and inhabiting spaces with Anna and Lawrence Halprin. Cultural Geographies, 17(4), pp. 427 449. Morton, M & Montgomery, P. (2012). Empowerment based non formal education for Arab youth: A pilot randomized trial. Children and Youth Services Review 34, pp. 417 415. Nardi, P. (2006). Interpreting Data: A Guide to Understanding Research. Pearson, Boston. Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling Procedures. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Introduction and Overview, p p. 1 17. Nichols, E., & C hilds, J. H., (2009) Respondent Debriefings Conducted by Experts: A Technique for Questionnaire Evaluation. Field Methods 21 (2), pp. 115 132. Nykiforuk, C. J., Vallianatos, H., & Nieuwendyk, L. M. (2011). Photovoice as a Method for Revealing Community Perceptions of the Built and Social Environment. International Journal Of Qualitative Methods, 10(2). pp. 103 124. Okazaki, E. (2008). A Community Based Tourism Model: Its Conception and Use. Journal of Sustainable To urism, 16(5). pp. 511 529. Patton, M.Q. (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA.

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127 Perkins, D. D. (1995), Speaking truth to power; Empowerment ideology as social intervention and policy, American Journal of Community Psychology (23)5 pp. 765 794 Perkins, D. D.; Zimmerman, M. A. (1995), Empowerment Theory, Research and Application. American Journal of Community Psychology (23)5, pp. 569 579 Peterson, Andrew N., Lowe, John B., Aquilino, Mary L. (2005) Linking social cohesion and gender to int rapersonal and interactional empowerment: Support and new implications for theory. Journal of Community Psychology (33)2, pp. 233 244 Peterson, A.N., Lowe, J.B., Hughey, J., Reid, R.J., Zimmerman, M.A. & Speer, P. (2006) Measuring the Intrapersonal Comp onent of Psychological Empowerment: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sociopolitical Control Scale. American Journal of Community Psychology (38) 2, pp. 287 297 Evaluation of Observational Studies. p. 7 29 in Rubin, D. B., (ed), Matched Sampling for Causal Effects. Cambridge U niversity Press, Cambridge, MA. Taylor Ritzler, T., Balcazar, F. E., Suarez Balcazar, Y., Kilbury, R., Alvarado, F., & James, M. (2010). Engaging ethnically diverse individuals with disabilities in the Vocational Rehabilitation system: Themes of empowerment and oppression. Journal Of Vocational Rehabilitation, 33(1), pp. 3 14. Salkind, N., J, (2004). Statistics for People W ho Think They Hate Statistics, London: Sage Publications. Salmen, L. F. (1987) Listen to the People. New York; Oxford University Press Sandercock, L. (2000), Commentary: The M agpie Profession Planning Theory & Practice 1 (1) p p 134 136 Sandercock, L. & Atilli, G. (2010). Digital Ethnography as Planning Praxis: An Experiment with /film as Social Research, Communit y Engagement and Policy Dialogue. Planning Theory & Practice (11) 1 p p 23 45 Sim, J, Armstrong, H., Osborne, R., and Hart, V., (2001) Report 1 Setting the Theoretical Scene, Armstrong, Helen, Ed. Cultural Landscape Research Unit, QUT Sinwell, L. (2008). Using Giddens's theory of "structuration" and Freirean philosophy to understand participation in the Alexandra Renewal Project. Development Souther n Africa 25(3) Snowden, D. 1984. "Eyes See, Ears Hear." In Eyes See, Ears Hear (1998) e d. D. Richardson and L. Paisley. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

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128 Speer, P. ( 2000) Intrapersonal and interactional empowerment: Implications for theory. Journal of Community Psychology (28)1 pp. 51 61 Speer, P., & Peterso n, A., (2000) Psychometric properties of an empowerment scale: Testing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains. Social Work Research 24(2) p. 109 118 Stadhams, D. (2007) Look to Learn: A Role for Visual Ethnography in the Elimination of Poverty. V isual Interventions: Applied Visual Anthropology. Pink, S. (ed) Berghahn Books New York, NY Sutton, E and Kemp, S. (2006) Integrating Social Science and Design Inquiry Through Interdisciplinary Design Charrettes: An Approach to Participatory Community Problem Solving. American Journal of Community Psychology, 38, (1) p. 125 139 Swisher, M. (2008) Goals of Research Design Thompson, K. & Lathrop, C. (2012) Eldervoice: motivating elder participation in community planning programs. CELA Conference Abstract, University of Illinois. Thompson, K. and Widmer, J. ( 20 10 ) Community Landscape Documentaries : Is Digital Video a More Ex acting Method of Storytelling? (CELA conference paper), University of Florida, Gainesville Tsing A. L., (2005) Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press ans for PPGIS Education and rd Annual Public Participation GIS Conference, Madison, WI ( ). Wang, C. C. (1999) Photovoice: A Participatory Action Research Strategy Applied to p 185 192. Willis, G. B., (2005) Cognitive interviewing: A tool for improving questionnaire design. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp. 273 298 Wong, N., Zimme rman, M., & Parker, E. (2010). A Typology of Youth Participation and Empowerment for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion. American Journal Of Community Psychology, 46(1/2), 100 114. Wulfhorst, J.D., Eisenhauer, B. W., Gripne, S. L., & Ward, J. M. (2008) Core Criteria and Assessment of Participatory Research. (p. 23 46), In Wilmsen, C., Elmendorf, W., Fisher, L., Ross, J., Sarathy B, and Wells, G. (Eds.) Partnerships for Empowerment: Participatory Research for Community Based Resource Management, Earth scan, Sterling, Virginia

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129 Zimmerman, M. A., (1995) Psychological Empowerment: Issues and Illustrations. American Journal of Community Psychology 23(5) p p. 81 99 Zimmerman, M., & Zahnister, J., (1991) Refinements of Sphere Specific Measures of Perceive d Control: Development of a Sociopolitical Control Scale. Journal of Community Psychology 19 p p 189 20 0

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130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Christina Hite Lathrop graduated with a BLA from the University of Georgia. She is the President of Dix.Lathrop and Associates, Inc., a landscape architecture firm in Longwood, Florida. She is a registered landscape architect.