Human Skeletal Health and Dietary Assessment of Metal Age Central Thailand

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Human Skeletal Health and Dietary Assessment of Metal Age Central Thailand the Impact of Changing Social Complexity and Regional Variation
Liu, Chin-Hsin
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[Gainesville, Fla.]
University of Florida
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1 online resource (479 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
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Committee Chair:
Krigbaum, John S
Committee Members:
Warren, Michael W
Davidson, James M
Lai, Guolong
Graduation Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Apatites ( jstor )
Bones ( jstor )
Bronze age ( jstor )
Collagens ( jstor )
Iron age ( jstor )
Isotopes ( jstor )
Rice ( jstor )
Signals ( jstor )
Teeth ( jstor )
Tooth enamel ( jstor )
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
bioarchaeology -- isotopes -- paleopathology -- prehistory -- thailand
City of Gainesville ( local )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.


Reflected in mortuary context, increasing social stratification and complexity are indicators of major sociocultural changes fora prehistoric community. Human lifeways, general well-beings and diet in particular, is often directly impacted by these social processes. Central Thailand was an area with vast ecological and cultural diversity in prehistory which subsequently became the epicenter of a prosperous state and cultural entity of Dvaravati in early historical period. During the course of Metal Age,archaeological evidence suggests that this area underwent gradual but significant social and subsistence changes due to increased regional interaction, integration, and adoption of newly introduced cultigens. Using paleopathological and light stable isotopic ratio analyses, this study aims to delineate the impact of social complexity change on human skeletal health and dietary change through time on intra- and inter-site levels. Based on the assumption that people occupying different social strata having different access/preference to resources and practicing varied tasks, it is hypothesized that as social complexity increased (evident in mortuary variability), the variation of human skeletal health and dietary composition also increased. In addition, this study reconstructs central Thai people’s health life history and dietary pattern on a site level to be used in cross-regional comparison. Human and faunal skeletal remains from central Thai archaeological sites are incorporated.The results indicate that no detectable health and dietary changes were associated with social status differentiation during Metal Age in central Thailand. The lack of biological impact from social change is interpreted as either social status expressed in burial did not entail differentiation of resource access and daily tasks in life or the inherent ecological variability within the region facilitated a tradition of highly inert and locale-specific human biology that endured the impact of social structure change through time. Previous archaeological, cultural, and biological research of Mainland Southeast Asia appears to support the latter interpretation. This study provides a large scale regional synthesis on the interaction among social, ecological, and human biological aspects of Metal Age central Thailand that is beneficial for the further understanding of human lifeways and sociocultural change in a larger Southeast and East Asian context. ( en )
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Adviser: Krigbaum, John S.
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by Chin-Hsin Liu.

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LD1780 2012 ( lcc )


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2 2012 Chin hsin Liu


3 To my parents, Mr. Ken chih Liu and Mrs. Hsi u chen Lin


4 AC KNOWLEDGMENTS The completion of this dissertation is truly a composite effort by a large number of people around the globe. A s a clich it may be, I c ould not have accomplished anything remotely resembles this scale on my own. Coming from an Asian family gratitude is never taken for granted but always expressed implicitly As my graduate career is coming to an end I no longer feel a subtle thank you is sufficient for everyone s effort in helping me through various stages of my life in the past decade. Dur ing the decision making period before coming to the University of Florida, my and caring personality was ex uded thoroughly in the emails to me. For an international student about to embark a lengthy and stre ssful graduate career, his encouragement provided great comfort. Over the years, his scholarship, people skill, young spirit, and extremely kind heart have been my biggest inspirations. He is the go to person during crises and it is comforting to know that (almost) everything would be alright after talking to John. I am forever grateful for his tireless mentorship, editorial eyes, and brilliant ideas. From him, I learned to be ot enough thank you s to express my appreciation to him. Also in the Department of Anthropology, Dr. Michael Warren introduced me to the intricacies of forensic anthropology and human osteology. His wealth of knowledge and gracious mentoring style are inva luable both to my research and teaching experience. Dr. James Davidson, an expert in historical mortuary archaeology, offered a fresh perspective into my prehistoric investigation of mortuary behavior. His meticulous scholarship and peculiar sense of humor are always inspiring. Dr. Guo long Lai in the Department of Art History offered his profound knowledge in East and Southeast Asian


5 prehistory that broadened my dissertation to a greater regional context. His thoughtful and first hand advice to my career p lanning is also greatly appreciated. In Thailand, numerous friends and colleagues generously offered their time, knowledge, and warm friendship that helped me throughout episodes of field trips in the Kingdom of Smile. My research could not have been succ essful without the collaborative effort from the Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University in Bangkok. Having been traveling to Thailand regularly since 2005, Dr. Thanik Lertcharnrit invited me to participate in his 2007 field season in Promtin Tai wher e he opened the door of Thai archaeology for me. He has been helpful i n providing the Promtin Tai information and arranging travel logistics when I took trips to the field. Professor Surapol Natapintu has been tremendously kind of being one of my core coll aborators and answering my long list of inquires even when he was highly demanded by the administrative and teaching obligations. Dr. Rasmi Schoocondej is an invaluable source of good ideas giving me sound advice and connecting me with other Thai colleague s. Professors aided in the logistics and administrative procedures. Dr. Podjanok Kanjanajuntorn in Thammasat University offered scholarly discussion, encouraging words, and a face of familiarity when visiting Bangkok. This research project is approved by the National Research Council of Thailand. Khun Praphid Phongmas in Office of Fine Arts (Bangkok) and Dr. Pakpadee Yukongdi in the 4th Regional Office of Fine Arts (Lopburi) o f the Thai Fine Arts Department provided administrative assistance. I thank Khun Manita Kueunkun, Director of the


6 Somdet Phra Narai National Museum in Lopburi, for granting me access to the As a foreign researcher, I am thankful fo r my army of field crew and friends associated with Silpakorn University who made my fieldwork possible and my stay in Tawanrat Grittiyaporn Pativetvithul ssaraporn Rittichai Apirat Chehlao Asawasoontrarangkul Spending precious holidays with me for long fieldwork with rudimentary accommodations and di ning at a maggot infested local (and the only) eatery could not have been fun, yet they managed with humor and grace. They strived to meet my pressing travel schedule and demand of difficult translations of site reports/field notes. They provided warm comp any and supplied endless laughter. They taught me to take the time to enjoy the little things in life, to let the uncontrollable matters resolve on their grateful for Natn detailed explanation on the excavation of Ban Pong Manao burials. Khob khun mak ma to all!


7 While i n rural Thailand, villagers Mr. Suwan Tritos and his family at Promtin Tai and Mr. Somsuan Buranapong at Ban Pong Manao provided essential logistic assistance that I could not have gone without. As I mostly stayed in community temples when visiting the sit es, I am indebted to the abbots for accommodating our stay and keeping an eye out for our safety. Since this research project involves multiple sites, the collaboration with various site directors and researchers is essential. Among them, I would like to e xpress my utmost gratitude to Dr. Vincent C. Pigott for his constructive input to my research and for coordinating the collaborative efforts among the researchers associated with the rofessor Anagnostis Agelarakis and Ms. Stefani e Valsamopoulos ( Adelphi University) generously facilitated my sampling of the Non Mak Lak skeletal material held in the laboratory there I thank Professor Agelarakis for kindly granting me access to his unpu b lished data on Non Mak La materials. I wish to thank Dr. Judy C. Voelker (Northern Kentucky University) who graciously supplied me with a preliminary chronology and burial sequence for Non Mak La. T he study of the site is a work in progress and the data re main unpublished at this time Drs. Roberto Ciarla and Fiorella Rispoli (Istituto Italiano kindly granted me access to the human skeletal remains from the Noen Din location in their Kao Sai On area excavation, as part of the Thai Italian Lopburi Regional Archaeology Project (LoRAP). I would also like to thank Dr. Rispoli for her assistance with her newly modified central Thai chronology, which remains unpublished at this time. Their field crew member Khun Narong Saikon gdee accompanied me when I collected the Noen Din data in the Somdet Phra Narai National


8 Museum Dr. Chureekamol Onsuwan Eyre (University of Pennsylvania) has been informative regarding research permit procedures and Ban Mai Chaimongkol burial chronology. Dr. Saam Lee Noonsuk (Cornell University) translated several crucial pages from Ban Mai Chaimongkol reports. I am grateful for Drs. Nancy Tayles and Sian Halcrow (University of Otago, New Zealand) for meticulously lifting the human burials from the Promtin Tai excavation pits and providing their field notes. Alison Carter (University of Wisconsin Madison) shared data and interpretation of her analysis on Promtin Tai beads. I am thankful for her friendship that made me realize I am not alone working in this particularly complex geographic region. Wesley Clarke (Ohio University) compiled a list of Dvaravati Period burial sites. King generously transferred the human skeletal samples t o me for stable isotope analysis. Drs. R. Alex Bentley (Bristol University) and Nancy Tayles clarified the provenience of the dental data in their 2007 publication. After meeting her for the first and only time, Dr. Michelle Toomay Douglas kindly sent me c rucial references on Khok central Thai chronology. This diss ertation project was funded by the 2009 2010 East and Southeast Asian Archaeology and Early History Dissertation Fel lowship awarded by Henry Luce Foundation, represented by the American Council of Learned Societies. Additional travel funds came from Office of Research, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Department of Anthropology, Graduate Student Council, all of whi ch are affiliated with the University of Florida. Faculty members (Drs. Ken Sassaman, Allan Burns, Susan


9 deFrance) and office staff (Karen Jones, Juanita Bagnall, Patricia King, Pamela Freeman) in the Department of Anthropology have been instrumental in se curing funding for me and ensuring good record keeping throughout the years. Dr. Jason Curtis in the Department of Geological Sciences provided imperative conceptual and technical support for stable isotope analysis. Undergraduate student Duncan Hock volun teered his time helping me prepare the skeletal samples for isotopic analysis. Yin hsuan Chen in the Department of Geograp hy kindly produced Figure 3 1. I thank Dr. Susan deFrance (Department of Anthropology), Dr. David Steadman ( Ornithology ), Ms. Candace McCaffery (Mammals), and Mr. John Slapcinsky (I nvertebrates) in Fl orida Museum of Natural History for their a ssistance on identi fying the faunal samples. During my affiliation with the Department of Anthropology, I have been lucky to have a large group of friends that reminded me researching does not count as life. Among them, I am particularly appreciative of the scholarly discussion and friendship of Carrie Brown, Michelle Eusebio, Laurel Freas, June Kung, Ann Laffey, Asmeret Mehari, Dawit Okubatsion, Gyp sy Price, Katie Skorpinski, Chikaomi Takahashi, Erin Thornton, Bryan Tucker, Anna Vick, and Allysha Winburn. I owe special thanks to Ellen Lofaro, Benjamin Valentine, Carlos Zambrano, JD Pampush, Ron Wright, and Traci van Deest for extending their helping hands to a friend in need on a short notice. This dissertation is finalized while I am employed at Appalachian State support as I balance my newly acquired role as an acade mic professional and the unfinished duties as a graduate student.


10 My friends outside of the anthropological realm constantly reminded me that there are still many other ways to look at the world. I thank Ai hsuan Chiang, Judith Cheng Chu chuan Ch i u Chiun g Ming yuan Huang Yu yun Huang, Ivy Hsieh Michael Kung Shun pei Miao Dalia Potosme, Reuben Rojas, Ross Tsai, Yuchen Yang, Heidi Wang, and Ting bing Wu for their company. I am nal support He allowed me to be somewhat irrational and unpredictable during the last stages of dissertation writing. As I make major life decisions, he gives me unconditional freedom and listens to my sometimes unproductive assessment of life. I treasure his daily emails, mess ages, phone calls, company, and love. I would like to extend my gratitude to his mother Mrs. Lois Hines for her wise and caring words. As I am an ocean and a continent away from home, family members and friends in the U.S. kindly opened their homes for me during holidays and rescued me from prolonged airport stays at times. I am blessed to have Auntie Pauline, Uncle James, Auntie Amy, Uncle Steven, Cousin Mei ling, the Ou family, the Koh family, and the Carratello family in my life. I thank my friends and e xtended family in Taiwan for continuously sending me good wishes. Last but certainly not the least, n othing can ever surpass unconditional love and support, emotionally and financially. Their smiles and laughter has been the fuel powering me th rough every step of the way in graduate school and in life. My strength comes from their frequent phone and video calls. I thank them for letting their only child disappearing into a foreign country and gallivanting around the world for a decade. I appreci ate their understanding of my passion in all things skeletal,


11 which in home culture could be considered odd. They teach me to be forgiving, grateful, and brave. With the completion of this dissertation, I hope I have made them proud. Also, I wish my dear g randparents could have seen me through. I thank all of them from the bottom of my heart.


12 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 17 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 21 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 25 C H A P T E R 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 27 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ............................... 31 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 32 Dissertat ion Structure ................................ ................................ ............................. 33 Research Impact ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 36 2 CENTRAL THAILAND LANDSCAPE, GEOGRAPHY, AND PREHISTORY ........... 37 Geophysical Landscapes of Prehistoric Thailand ................................ ................... 37 Central Thailand Geography ................................ ................................ ................... 38 Cultural History of Thailand and Central Thailand ................................ .................. 41 Pre Neolithic and Hoabinhian Periods ................................ .............................. 43 Neolithic ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 46 Bronze Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 49 Iron Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 67 Protohistoric Period and State ................................ ................................ .......... 74 3 SITE OVERVIEW AND CHRON OLOGY ................................ ................................ 79 Non Mak La ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 79 Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ................................ ............................. 82 Promtin Tai ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 87 Late Bronze Age ................................ ................................ ............................... 88 Iron Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 88 Dvaravati Period (~6 th 8 th century A.D.) ................................ .......................... 89 Ayutthaya Period (~mid 14 th to mid 18 th century A.D.) ................................ ..... 89 Ban Pong Manao ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 93 Kao Sai On Noen Din ................................ ................................ ........................... 100 Khok Phanom Di ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 104 4 PALEOPATHOLOGY AND STABLE ISOTOPES ................................ ................. 118 Bioarchaeology ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 118


13 Paleopathology and Morphological Assessment of Skeletal Remains .................. 121 A Multifactorial Approach to Paleopathology ................................ ........................ 124 Stature ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 124 Dental Pathologies and Conditions ................................ ................................ 126 Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) ................................ .............................. 126 Dental caries ................................ ................................ ............................ 128 Dental calculus ................................ ................................ ......................... 128 Periapical cavity ................................ ................................ ....................... 129 Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) ................................ ................................ 130 Skeletal Pathologies ................................ ................................ ....................... 131 Porotic hyperostosis/cribra orbitalia (PH/CO) ................................ ........... 131 Degener ative joint disease (DJD) ................................ ............................ 133 Trauma ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 134 Paleopathology in Southeast Asian Prehistory ................................ ..................... 134 Concepts of Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis ................................ ........................... 136 Application of Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis in Bioarchaeology ........................... 143 Paleodiet ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 144 C 3 and C 4 plants ................................ ................................ ....................... 144 Trophic level and protein consumption ................................ .................... 145 Marine vs. terr estrial based diet ................................ ............................... 145 Freshwater vs. terrestrial based diet ................................ ....................... 146 Water and Protein Stress ................................ ................................ ............... 146 Infant Feeding and Weaning Practice ................................ ............................ 147 Status and Intra population Variations ................................ ........................... 148 Population Move ment and Residential Origins ................................ ............... 148 Life History ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 149 Stable Isotope Analysis Application in Mainland Southeast Asian Prehistory ....... 150 Independent Archaeological and Bioarchaeological Evidence for Isotopic Data ... 153 5 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ 157 Paleopathology Observation Protocol ................................ ................................ ... 157 Demography ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 157 Stature ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 158 Dental Pathologies and Conditions ................................ .......................... 159 Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) ................................ .............................. 159 Dental caries ................................ ................................ ............................ 159 Dental calculus ................................ ................................ ......................... 160 Periapical cavity ................................ ................................ ....................... 160 Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) ................................ ................................ 161 Skeletal Pathologies ................................ ................................ ....................... 161 Porotic hyperostosis/cribra orbit alia (PH/CO) ................................ ........... 161 Degenerative joint diseases (DJD) ................................ ........................... 162 Trauma ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 162 Collection Condition, Paleopathology Observation, and Sampling ....................... 162 Non Mak La ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 163 Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ................................ .................... 164


14 Promtin Tai ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 1 64 Ban Pong Manao ................................ ................................ ............................ 165 Kao Sai On Noen Din ................................ ................................ ..................... 167 Khok Phanom Di ................................ ................................ ............................ 168 Sample Processing for Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis ................................ .......... 168 Bone Sample Preparation Protocol ................................ ................................ 169 Collagen Extraction Protocol ................................ ................................ .......... 170 Collagen Extraction Procedures ................................ ................................ ..... 172 Bone Apatite Purification Protocol ................................ ................................ .. 174 Dental Enamel Preparation Protocol ................................ .............................. 175 Dental Enamel Apati te Purification ................................ ................................ 176 Mass Spectrometry ................................ ................................ ........................ 176 C/N ratio ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 176 Collagen ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 177 Apatite ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 177 Diagenesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 177 Collagen ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 178 Apatite ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 180 Isotopic Signals and Diet ................................ ................................ ...................... 181 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ 182 6 RESULTS OF PALEOPATHOLOGY ................................ ................................ .... 186 Demography ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 187 Stature ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 189 Dental Conditions and Pathologies ................................ ................................ ....... 190 Deciduous Dentition ................................ ................................ ....................... 190 Permanent Dentition ................................ ................................ ....................... 191 Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) ................................ .............................. 191 Dental caries ................................ ................................ ............................ 193 Dental calculus ................................ ................................ ......................... 195 Periapical cavity ................................ ................................ ....................... 197 Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) ................................ ................................ 199 Skeletal Pathologies ................................ ................................ ............................. 200 Porotic Hyperostosis/Cribra Orbitalia (PH/CO) ................................ ............... 201 Degenerative Joint Disease ................................ ................................ ............ 202 Trauma and Anomalies ................................ ................................ .................. 204 Stature and Dental Health of Cent ral Thailand in a Regional Context .................. 206 Stature ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 207 Dental Pathologies and Conditions ................................ ................................ 209 Linear enamel hypop lasia (LEH) ................................ .............................. 209 Dental caries ................................ ................................ ............................ 210 Dental calculus ................................ ................................ ......................... 211 Periapical cavity ................................ ................................ ....................... 212 Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) ................................ ................................ 213 Regional Comparison of Dental Health ................................ ................................ 214


15 7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF ISOTOPIC SIGNALS OF FOOD RESOURCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 254 Calibration Standards and Precision of Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis ................. 254 Archaeological Faunal Isotopic Signature ................................ ............................. 255 Bone Samples ................................ ................................ ................................ 255 Enamel Samples ................................ ................................ ............................ 260 Ecological Baseline ................................ ................................ ............................... 263 8 RESULTS OF STABLE ISOTOPIC ANALYS ES ON HUMAN SAMPLES ............ 274 Site Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 275 Bone Samples ................................ ................................ ................................ 275 Enamel Samples ................................ ................................ ............................ 278 Intra Site Analysis of Stable Isotope R esults ................................ ........................ 280 Non Mak La ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 281 Bone samples ................................ ................................ .......................... 281 Enamel samples ................................ ................................ ...................... 282 Life history ................................ ................................ ................................ 283 Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ................................ .................... 284 Bone samples ................................ ................................ .......................... 284 Enamel samples ................................ ................................ ...................... 284 Life history ................................ ................................ ................................ 285 Promtin Tai ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 286 Ban Pong Manao ................................ ................................ ............................ 286 Bone samples ................................ ................................ .......................... 287 Enamel samples ................................ ................................ ...................... 289 Life history ................................ ................................ ................................ 289 Kao Sai On Noen Din ................................ ................................ ..................... 289 Khok Phanom Di ................................ ................................ ............................ 290 Bone samples ................................ ................................ .......................... 290 Enamel samples ................................ ................................ ...................... 293 Life history ................................ ................................ ................................ 294 9 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 351 Demography ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 351 Stature and Sexual Dimorphism ................................ ................................ ........... 355 Childhood Physiological Stress ................................ ................................ ............. 357 Dental Health ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 361 Non Mak La ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 362 Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ................................ .................... 365 Promtin Tai ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 368 Ban Pong Manao ................................ ................................ ............................ 369 Kao Sai On Noen Din ................................ ................................ ..................... 371 Skeletal Health ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 371 Skeletal Indicator of Systemic Stress ................................ ............................. 371


16 Degenerative Joint Disease ................................ ................................ ............ 37 3 Trauma and Anomalies ................................ ................................ .................. 376 Paleohealth Variation in Central Thai land ................................ ............................. 377 Summary of General Health in Central Thailand ................................ .................. 379 Ecological Baseline for Prehistoric Human Diet ................................ .................... 379 Human Dietary Behavior ................................ ................................ ....................... 383 Inter site Dietary Variation ................................ ................................ .............. 383 Regional dietary diversity ................................ ................................ ......... 384 Temporal dietary diversity ................................ ................................ ........ 395 Intra site Dietary Variatio n ................................ ................................ .............. 398 Non Mak La ................................ ................................ .............................. 398 Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ................................ .............. 402 Promtin Tai ................................ ................................ ............................... 404 Ban Pong Manao ................................ ................................ ..................... 406 Khok Phanom Di ................................ ................................ ...................... 410 Biological and Cultural Diversity in Central Thailand ................................ ............ 419 1 0 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 428 APPENDIX A LIST OF FAUNAL BONE SAMPLES AND DATA ................................ ................. 433 B LIST OF FAUNAL ENAMEL S AMPLES AND DATA ................................ ............ 437 C LIST OF HUMAN BONE SAMPLES AND DATA ................................ .................. 439 D LIST OF HUMAN ENAMEL SAMPLES AND DATA ................................ ............. 449 LIST OF REFEREN CES ................................ ................................ ............................. 453 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 478


17 LIST OF TABLES Table page 5 1 Regression formulae used for stature estimation for Th ai Chinese population 184 5 2 Sex distribution of individuals sampled for stable isotope analysis ................... 184 5 3 Species distribution of faunal skeletal and dental samples selected for stable isotope analysis by site ................................ ................................ ..................... 185 6 1 Demographic structure of Non Mak La ................................ ............................. 218 6 2 Demographic structure of Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ............. 219 6 3 Demographic structure of Promtin Tai ................................ .............................. 220 6 4 Demographic structure of Ban Pong Manao ................................ ..................... 221 6 5 Demography of Kao Sai On Noen Din individuals incorporated in this study ... 221 6 6 Esti mated adult stature by site ................................ ................................ .......... 222 6 7 Prevalence of linear enamel hypopolasia (by tooth count) of Non Mak La ....... 223 6 8 Prevalence of linear enamel hypop olasia (by tooth count) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 224 6 9 Prevalence of linear enamel hypopolasia (by tooth count) of Promtin Tai ........ 225 6 10 Prevalence of linear enamel hypopolasia (by tooth count) of Ban Pong Manao ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 226 6 11 Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth count) of Non Mak La ............................ 227 6 12 Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth count) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol ............. 228 6 13 Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth count ) of Promtin Tai ............................. 229 6 14 Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth count) of Ban Pong Manao .................... 230 6 15 Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth count) of Non Mak La ......................... 231 6 16 Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth count) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol ......... 232 6 17 Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth count) of Promtin Tai .......................... 233 6 18 Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth count) of Ban Pong Manao ................. 234


18 6 19 Prevalence of periapical cavity (by alveolus count) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol .. 235 6 20 Prevalence of periapical cavity (by alveolus count) of Promtin Tai ................... 236 6 21 Prevalence of periapical cavity (by alveolus count) of Ban Pong Manao .......... 237 6 22 P revalence of antemortem tooth loss (by alveolus count) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 238 6 23 Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss (by alveolus count) of Promtin Tai ......... 239 6 24 Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss (by alveolus count) of Ban Pong Manao 240 6 25 Incident count of the degenerative joint disea se among inland central Thai sites ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 241 6 26 Site information of bioarchaeological studies in Mainland Southeast Asia ....... 242 6 27 Estimated average stature (in cm) by sex in Mainland Southeast Asia ............ 244 6 28 Sexual dimorphism of the estimated average stature in Mainland Southeast Asia ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 245 6 29 Prevalence of dental pathology in Mainland Southeast Asia ............................ 246 6 30 P el hypoplasia prevalence among central Thai sites ................................ ................................ .................. 247 6 31 P central Thai sites ................................ ................................ .............................. 247 6 32 P central Thai sites ................................ ................................ .............................. 247 6 33 P of periapical cavity prevalence among central Thai sites ................................ ................................ .............................. 248 6 34 P among central Thai sites ................................ ................................ .................. 248 7 1 collagen samples ................................ ................................ .............................. 265 7 2 Summary stable isotopic values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone apatite samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 265 7 3 apatite samples ................................ ................................ ................................ 266


19 8 1 all sites analyzed ................................ ................................ .............................. 296 8 2 Summary stable isotopic of human bo ne apatite samples from all sites analyzed ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 296 8 3 13 C bone apatite 13 C bone collagen sa mples from all sites analyzed ................................ ................................ ........ 296 8 4 ooth enamel apatite samples from all sites analyzed ................................ ................................ ...................... 297 8 5 .. 297 8 6 ..... 298 8 7 13 C bone apatite 13 C bone collagen spacing ( samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 298 8 8 sample s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 299 8 9 .................... 299 8 10 Summary stable isotopic values .......... 300 8 11 apatite samples ................................ ................................ ................................ 300 8 12 .... 300 8 13 sam ples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 301 8 14 samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 301 8 15 Summary stable samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 302 8 16 13 C bone apatite 13 C bone collagen f Ban Pong Manao bone samples ................................ ................................ ....................... 302 8 17 apatite samples ................................ ................................ ................................ 302 8 18 Summary stable isoto ... 302


20 8 19 samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 303 8 20 apatite samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 304 8 21 13 C bone apatite 13 C bone collagen hanom Di bone samples ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 305 8 22 namel apatite samples ................................ ................................ ................................ 306 8 23 apatite samples (see text) from individuals sampled for bone apatite and enamel apatite ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 307 8 24 ............ 308 A 1 Faunal samples and data included in analyses ................................ ................ 433 A 2 Faunal samples excluded from analyses ................................ .......................... 436 B 1 Faunal enamel samples and data included in analyses ................................ ... 437 C 1 Human bone samples included in analyses ................................ ..................... 439 C 2 Human bone isotopic data included in analyses ................................ ............... 442 C 3 Human bone samples excluded from analyses ................................ ................ 445 D 1 Human enamel samples and data included in analyses ................................ ... 449 D 2 Human enamel samples excluded from analyses ................................ ............ 452


21 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Locations of the sites included in this study ................................ ...................... 115 3 2 Site map of Ban Pong Manao showing ten excavation squares ....................... 116 3 3 Relative locatrion of the squares ex cavated during 2006 field season ............. 117 3 4 Relative location of SQ1 and SQ4 during 2007 field season ............................ 117 6 1 Plo t of average estimated stature from each available comparison site in Mainland Southeast Asia ................................ ................................ .................. 249 6 2 Prevalence of linear enamel hypoplasia in Mainland Southeast Asia ............... 250 6 3 Dental caries prevalence in Mainland Southeast Asia ................................ ...... 251 6 4 Prevalence of dental calculus in Mainland Southeast Asia ............................... 252 6 5 Prevalence of periapical cavity and antemortem tooth loss in Mainland Southeast Asia ................................ ................................ ................................ 253 7 1 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone samples by species. ................................ ................................ ......................... 267 7 2 13 C 15 N values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone col lagen by species ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 268 7 3 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of Ban Pong Ma nao faunal species ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 269 7 4 13 C 18 O values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone apa tite by species ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 270 7 5 13 C enamel apatite 18 O enamel apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal tooth enamel samples by specie s ................................ ................................ .............. 271 7 6 13 C enamel apatite 18 O enamel apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal spe ci es ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 272 7 7 18 O bone apatite 18 O enamel apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal spe cies ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 273 8 1 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of human bone samples by site. ........ 309 8 2 13 C 15 N values of human bone collagen by site ................................ ...... 310


22 8 3 13 C 18 O values of human bone apatite by site ................................ ........ 311 8 4 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of human bone samples by site ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 312 8 5 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of human bone samples by site, plotted with pr otein and energy reference lines ................................ ................ 313 8 6 13 C 18 O values of human tooth enamel apatite by site ............................ 314 8 7 13 15 N values of Non Mak La human bone collagen by sex ................. 315 8 8 13 C 18 O values of Non Mak La human bone apatite by sex .................... 316 8 9 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of Non Nak La human bone samples by sex ................................ ................................ ........................ 317 8 10 13 C values of Non Mak La human bone collagen and apatite by sex, plotted with protein and energy reference lines ................................ ............................ 318 8 11 13 15 N values of Non Mak La human bone collagen by time period ..... 319 8 12 13 18 O values of Non Mak La human bone apatite by time period ....... 320 8 13 13 18 O values of Non Mak La toot h enamel apatite by sex ................... 321 8 14 13 18 O values of Non Mak La human tooth enamel apatite by time period ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 322 8 15 13 C values of bone and tooth enamel apatite of Non Mak La individuals by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 323 8 16 18 O values of bone and tooth enamel apatite of Non Mak La individuals by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 324 8 17 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Non Mak La individuals by sex ................................ ................................ ............................. 325 8 18 13 1 5 N values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol human bone collagen by sex .. 326 8 19 13 18 O values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol bone apatite by sex ................ 327 8 20 13 18 O values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol tooth enamel apatite by sex ... 328 8 21 13 18 O values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol tooth enamel apatite by ti me period ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 329 8 22 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Ban Mai Chaimongkol individuals by sex ................................ ................................ ........ 330


23 8 23 13 18 O values of Promtin Tai tooth enamel apatite by sex .................... 331 8 24 13 18 O values of Promtin Tai tooth enamel apatite by time period ....... 332 8 25 13 15 N values of Ban Pong Manao bone collagen by sex ..................... 333 8 26 13 18 O values of Ban Pong Manao bone apatite by sex ....................... 334 8 27 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of Ban Pong Manao human bone samples by sex ................................ ................................ ........................ 335 8 28 13 C values of Ban Pong Manao human bone collagen and apatite by sex, plotted with protein and energy reference lines ................................ ................ 336 8 29 13 18 O values of Ban Pong Mana o tooth enamel apatite by sex .......... 337 8 30 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Ban Pong Manao individuals by sex ................................ ................................ ................. 338 8 31 13 15 N values of Khok Phanom Di human bone collagen by sex ......... 339 8 32 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human bone apatite by sex ............ 340 8 33 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of Khok Phanom Di human bone samples by sex ................................ ................................ ........................ 341 8 34 13 C values of Khok Phanom Di human bone collagen and apatite by sex, plotted with protein and energy reference lines ................................ ................ 342 8 35 13 15 N values of Khok Phanom Di human bone coll agen by mortuary phase ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 343 8 36 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human bone apatite by mortuary phase ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 344 8 37 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of Khok Phanom Di human bone samples by mortuary phase ................................ ................................ ..... 345 8 38 13 C values of Khok Phanom Di human bone collagen an d apatite by mortuary phases, plotted with protein and energy reference lines .................... 346 8 39 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human tooth enamel apatit e by se x ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 347 8 40 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human tooth enamel apatite by mortuary phase ................................ ................................ ................................ 348 8 41 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Khok Phanom Di individuals b y sex ................................ ................................ ......................... 349


24 8 42 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Khok Phanom Di individuals by mortuary phase ................................ ................................ ...... 350


25 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy HUMAN SK E LETAL HEALTH AND DIETARY ASSESSMENT OF METAL AGE CENTRAL THAILAND: THE IMPACT OF CHANGING SOCIAL COMPLEXITY AND REGIONAL VARIATION By Chin hsin Liu December 2012 Chair: John Krigbaum Major: Anthropology Increased social stratification and complexity are indicators of major socio cultural changes for a prehistoric community. Human lifeways, general well beings and diet in particular, is often directly impacted by these social processes and may be reflected in mortuary contexts In prehistoric times, c entral Thailand was an area with vast ecological and c ultural diversity which subsequently became the epicenter of Dvaravati, a prosperous state and cultural entity of Dvaravati in early historic period. During the course of the Metal Age, archaeological evidence suggests that this area underwent gradual but significant changes in social and subsistence due to increased regional interaction, integration, and adoption of newly intr oduced cultigens. Using paleopathological and light stable isotop ic ratio s, this study aims to delineate the impact of social complexity change on human skeletal health and dietary change through time on intra and inter site levels. Based on the assumptio n that people occupying different social strata having different access/preference to resources and practicing varied tasks, it is hypothesized that as social complexity increased ( as evident in mortuary variability), the variation of human skeletal health and dietary


26 composition also increased. In addition, this study assesses health life history and dietary pattern on a site level to be used in cross regional comparison. Human and faunal skeletal remains from central Thai archaeological sites are incorpor ated. The results indicate that no detectable health and dietary changes were associated with social status differentiation during the Metal Age in central Thailand. The lack of biological impact from social change is interpreted as either social status ex pressed in burial did not entail differentiation of resource access and daily tasks in life or the inherent ecological variability within the region facilitated a tradition of highly inert and locale specific human biology that endured the impact of socia l structure change through time. Previous archaeological, cultural, and biological research of Mainland Southeast Asia appears to support the latter interpretati on. This study provides a large scale regional synthesis on the interaction among social, ecolo gical, and human biological aspects of Metal Age central Thailand that is beneficial for the further understanding of human lifeways and socio cultural change in a larger Southeast and East Asian context.


27 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Social status differentiati on is an important dimension of social complexity. Naturally existing diversity of human personalities and physical characteristics are key elements of all social relationships (Ames, 2007). These variations are inherent differences and do not necessarily these differences with cultural and social meanings, prizing, and rewarding some over 487). Ames (2007, 2010) argues that competition and dominance are deeply ro oted in human history and results in the universal presence of inequality throughout human societies. While personality and biological differences are not inequalities, per se, differential access to key resources and concomitant economic and social conseq uences are often associated with these inherent differences (Ames, 2007). Scholars attempt to develop distinctions between inequality and status, in which the latter is a more fixed and structured phenomenon in society (e.g., Hayden, 2001; Ames, 2007). Th e social position of individuals in prehistoric populations is often inferred from their mortuary context. To a larger extent, mortuary context informs the overall social structure and complexity at the population level (e.g., Saxe, 1970; Binford, 1971). I n a various ways. The biological aspects of human life in particular, represented by health and diet, are two direct means to evaluate this relationship between social and biological change (e.g., Ambrose et al., 1997; Larsen, 2002; Pechenkina et al., 2002; Temple and Larsen, 2007).


28 Studies elsewhere have established a positive relationship between social status and skeletal health (e.g., Walker and Hewlett, 1990; Goodman, 1 998). People of higher status may not have participated in daily physical tasks extensively. Indeed, the division of labor among social groups is sometimes evident (e.g., Robb et al., 2001). As for dietary behavior, higher status individuals tend to have, and may monopolize, access to high value foods such as premier cuts of meat, exotic foods, foods with higher nutritional value, and foods requiring extensive processing (Curet and Pestle, 2010). In societies where certain food items were deemed of high val ue, individuals of higher status seem to have utilized more of those items than lower status individuals (e.g., White et al., 1993; Ambrose et al., 2003). If social status is inherited (ascribed), individuals with better nutrition would lead a healthier ch ildhood and would develop a better immune system, reflected in fewer skeletal pathologies caused by childhood stress. As a result, higher status people often have lower prevalence of activity related skeletal degeneration and overall better skeletal healt h (Danforth, 1999). The relationship among social status, health, and diet, however, is not always clear. Often, there is no correlation between skeletal health and dietary pattern among people of different social status (e.g., Paine et al., 2007; Woo and Sciulli, in press). In these cases, the lack of a consistent relationship between social status and biological change has been explained as social status being not transparently inferable from burials, being expressed in a more subtle way, or that high sta tus did not preclude the risks of individuals suffering from skeletal degeneration and/or stress related events (Goodman, 1998; Pain et al., 2007). While higher status people do have lower prevalence of activity related skeletal markers suggesting a differ ent physical pattern


29 from others in a population, prevalence of skeletal markers indicative of nutritional and al., 2001). These scenarios underscore the complexity o f relationship between social status and biological status as inferred from skeletal remains. Mainland Southeast Asia is a region with an immense degree ecological and cultural diversity (Higham, 2002). In present day Thailand, the area referred to as cen tral Thailand is low in altitude and enclosed by mountainous ridges and highland to its west, north, along its southern border (Higham and Thosarat, 2012). This region has remarkably complex sy stems of hydrology, typography, and geology, resulting in high habitat diversity. The assortment of subsistence and cultural diversity in prehistory (Higham, 2002; Eyre, 20 06, 2010; White, 2011; Higham and Thosarat, 2012). Central Thailand has a long cultural history spanning from the late Neolithic to the Metal Age, before t ransitioning into the historic period. At around A.D. 700 800, central Thailand became the epicenter of the first state level polity and its associated cultural period, the Dvaravati, whose heavily Buddhist cultural elements and political structure profoundly influenced the development of early civilization in central Thailand and nearby regions (Higham a nd Thosarat, 2012). The Metal Age, a transitional period betw een the Neolithic and historic period, was a critical time within which significant social and technological changes occurred that contributed to the state formation (Higham, 2002). The technolo gical and craft specialization in central Thailand was also prominent. The Khao Wong Prachan Valley, in particular, was a major metal source that facilitated


30 the development and production of copper and related crafts (e.g., Natapintu, 1988; Pigott et al., 1997; Pryce et al., 2010). During the Metal Age, copper products became a status symbols due to their rarity and difficulty of production (Higham and Thosarat 2012). Traces of social differentiation existed during the early Metal Age and the gradual and s ignificant change of social structure did not become apparent in mortuary context until the later part of the Metal Age (Iron Age) (Higham, 2002). Iron Age Thailand was a period of population growth, settlement expansion, heightened ceramic diversity, and marked mortuary variation (Higham, 2002; Higham and Thosarat, 2012). Human burials during this period were associated with mortuary items and treatments expressed in the forms of ceramic goods, bronze ornaments, iron tools, stone tools, faunal remains, and body placements (Higham, 2002; Lartcharnrit, 2006; Ciarla, 2007a; Higham and Thosarat, 2012). The degree of mortuary elaborateness among individuals within a site, however, often varied. The difference in mortuary treatment and generally more elaborated b urial practice during Iron Age indicate that social status differentiation became more prominent when compared to the Bronze Age and earlier periods (Higham, 2002). With the process of subtle and prevailing social change during the Metal Age in central Tha iland, it is important to address how social processes may have impacted human lifeways. If such an impact does exist and is detectable within the skeleton (morphology/paleopathology), the level and extent of the impact is also critical to clarify the rela tionship between social and biological change. The implications of an overall (all or most members of a society), partial (certain segments of a society), or no impact (no change of skeletal health and dietary behavior) by social change on human biology ar e


31 germane to the assessment of social structure development and its associated socio cultural aspects of life. Research Objectives It is the objectives of this study to delineate the impact of social change, social status differentiation in particular, on human biological health and dietary choices during the Metal Age in central Thailand. More specifically, the main focus is to measure and understand the impact of social stratification on human physical well being and on inferred dietary behavior. This st udy also addresses aspects of skeletal health and dietary pattern on a regional level, using a biocultural approach (e.g., Goodman et al., 1988). Two hypotheses will be examined using skeletal and dietary data. First, higher social differentiation would r esult in higher variation of skeletal health within a population through time. This would also be true when the skeletal pathology data from sites occupying different time periods are compared in a chronological sequence. Second, greater social difference would result in greater variation of inferred dietary behaviors within a population through time. This would also be true when the dietary data from sites occupying different time periods are compared in chronological sequence. It is worth noting that whil e the fluctuation of pathology prevalence and inferred diet through time or among sites is important evidence to gauge population well being and reconstruction of the relationship between humans and the landscape, respectively, it is the variation of these two biological aspects within a site and among sites through time that may lead to the detection of social differentiation. This is based on the assumption that increased social stratification would lead to differential access to food


32 resources and/or var ied participation in physical tasks. Both of which could contribute to the variation of individual skeletal health and dietary pattern. Human skeletal remains from six archaeological sites from central Thailand are incorporated in this study. Five of which are located in inland central Thailand (Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai, Ban Pong Manao, Kao Sai On Noen Din) and one is in coastal central Thailand just inland of the Gulf of Thailand (Khok Phanom Di). The latter is a large, well studied lat e Neolithic site (Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 2004), that serves as an ecological and temporal outgroup for comparison with the inland central Thai Metal Age sites. Methods To maximize data collection and resolution in often poorly preserved human skeletal assemblages, characteristic of tropical and subtropical Thailand, two analytical approaches are employed. Paleopathological observation is performed to assess the composite general health evident in skeletal and dental remains. The data are analyzed on sit e and regional levels. Human skeletal biology research has been constructive in many parts of Mainland Southeast Asia (e.g., Oxenham and Tayles, 2006; Domett and Quebral, 2010). These studies provide a solid framework for understand ing regional human biology and inferred social change. Bone chemistry data for Mainland Southeast Asia, and Thailand in particular, has also been co nducted, but to a less extent. Dietary and mobility assessments for northeast and coastal central Thai sites have been conducted using strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotopes (Bentley et al., 2005, 2007; King, 2006; King and Norr, 2006; Cox et al., 2010). These studies not only offer significant insight to the more nuanced aspects of prehistoric life, but also pr ovide key insight to social structure (e.g., residency, marriage system, population movement)


33 and human landscape interaction. The inferences from these studies are incorporated in the interpretation of the data generated in the current study. Dissertation Structure There are 10 chapters in this dissertation. After this introductory chapter, Chapter 2 outlines the physical geography, geology, and ecology of central Thailand to illustrate the diversity of the region. As this study focuses on the relationship between social and biological changes, cultural history, settlement, and subsistence are also reviewed both regionally and in central Thailand. The prehistory is relevant towards the development of an interpretative framework within which the biological d ata may be interpreted. Debates on central Thai prehistoric chronology during the Metal Age and inferred inter community structure are also reviewed. Chapter 3 details the archaeological and cultural background of each site incorporated in this research. W here possible, sites are divided into further sub chronological groups to provide better resolution when assessing intra site biological change through time. Chapter 4 reviews the development and application of paleopathology and stable isotopic analysis i n the field of bioarchaeology and Mainland Southeast Asia. The etiology and implication of skeletal pathologies included in this study (dental pathologies, porotic hyperostosis/cribra orbitalia, degenerative joint disease, and trauma ) are detailed in this chapter. Stable isotope ratio analysis has been widely utilized in reconstructing various aspects of human dietary behavior, residency/mobility, cultural practice, and the surrounding environment over the past few decades. Therefore, the mechanics and inte rpretive strength of these techniques on their own (stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopes) and combined are also discussed. A


34 brief review on the application of isotopic analysis for paleodietary reconstruction is also provided. Chapter 5 details th e methods used for paleopathological observation and stable isotope ratio analysis. The preservation and condition of human skeletal remains is assessed for each archaeological site. Protocols for selecting skeletal and tooth samples for stable isotope ana lyses are presented, and laboratory protocols for extracting bone collagen and hydroxyapatite from skeletal/dental samples reviewed. The analytical process of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and statistical analyses used in the interpretation of isotopic d ata is explained. Chapter 6 reports the results of skeletal health based on observed pathologies. pathology/health indicator. This provides a clear assessment of health among s ites analyzed. As the data show, paleopathological profiles for the inland sites and the coastal sites are quite distinct. To further examine the paleopathological variation at the population level, intra regional comparison is conducted between inland cen tral Thai sites. Chapter 7 presents the stable isotope data derived from sampled faunal remains. Animal species tend to have predictable habitats and dietary behaviors that allows for the establishment of an isotopic, ecological baseline, which in turn fac ilitates interpretation of the human isotopic data. Chapter 8 details the results of the stable isotopic data derived from human skeletal and dental remains. Bone collagen 13 C bone coll 15 N bone coll ), bone apatite 13 C bone ap 18 O bone ap ) and e namel apatite 13 C en ap 18 O en ap ) data are


35 reported by site and between sites to provide regional and assess dietary variation through time. In depth evaluation of human dietary choices and resource utilization patterns within each site is also discu ssed. Where possible, isotopic data are compared between sub chronological periods within a site to assess potential dietary variation. In finer sub chronology to g auge the possible effects of change in social structure on Chapter 9 integrates the paleopathological and stable isotopic data with respect to the archaeology, culture, and ecology of the region to see if change in social complexity had a measureable impact on human skeletal health and diet. Data indicative of human overall health are discussed first on the site level and then on regionally for central Thailand. In doing so, the firs t hypothesis that variation of human skeletal health would increase as social complexity increased is examined. The variation or lack thereof in paleohealth indicators between inland central Thai sites is discussed. The reconstruction of human dietary beha vior constitutes the second portion of this chapter. The dietary variation as inferred from stable isotopes is also assessed, by site, and then regionally (inland vs. coastal), and temporal evaluation of isotopic data are assessed with respect to the corre lation of dietary change and increased social complexity. Data from each site are then examined in order to assess the variation v is vis variation would increase as social c omplexity increased is examined here. To address human health and dietary variation in central Thailand, the role of ecological diversity


36 and its effect on human lifeways alongside social development in central Thailand are evaluated. Lastly, Chapter 10 su mmaries and concludes this study. Research Impact This dissertation generates the first large scale isotopic data set in central Thailand for dietary reconstruction. To date, King (2006) and King and Norr (2006) are the only similar studies with a special focus on northeast Thailand. Central Thailand, an ecologically diverse region, offers a rich background to address how human dietary behavior in this area may contribute to understanding how local ecology influences e, paleopathological research has been solidly established in northeast, coastal central Thailand, and other parts of Mainland Southeast Asia. The assessment of skeletal health in central Thailand provides the first comprehensive paleopathological analysis addressing both individual and population based biocultural response to a changing social context. This study provides a regional comparative and inter regional synthesis based on complementary data from paleopathology and stable isotopes. When the biolog ical data are interpreted in conjunction with more archaeological record, how other key socio cultural aspects such as trade network, polity structure, residency, and regional integration affected human lifeways over time may be elucidated.


37 CHAPTER 2 CENTR AL THAILAND LANDSCAPE, GEOGRAPHY, AND PREHISTORY Geophysical Landscapes of Prehistoric Thailand With its complex geology and hydrology, Mainland Southeast Asia has a high degree of diversity in both physical and cultural landscapes. Principally situated in the subtropical monsoon belt, environmental factors such as altitude and proximity to the coast facilitate intricate patterns of rainfall, areal dry season, and temperature fluctuation (Higham, 2002). T he three major river systems (Chao Phraya River, Meko ng River, Red River) from southern China in Mainland Southeast Asia can be considered the lifelines of the human cultural landscape (Higham, 2002). The Chao Phraya River runs through northern and central regions of Thailand and drains into the Gulf of Thai land The Mekong River, with its famous Mun and Chi Rivers as up stream tributaries branching in the Khorat Plateau northeastern Thailand ) extends to Cambodia and Vietnam before emptying into the South China Sea. The Red River runs from Yunnan Province C hina and enters Vietnam, form ing part of the China Vietnam border before drain ing into the Gulf of Tonkin. Because of Thailand dense subtropical forest t ributaries of the Chao Phraya and Mekong Rivers served as the main arteries for transportation, cult ural transmission, and exchange (Higham, 2004). However, annual water flow of these rivers is not constant but intermittent during dry spells Alternating dry seasons and annual floods are unpredictable The combined effect s of the time and extent of monsoon rain, the amount of snow melt at the head water, and the rain shadow effect in mountainous zones and water catchments are all Repetitive annual


38 flood ing of major river systems create s large floodplains and over time extend s to their respective river deltas. M onsoon s are unpredictable in strength and duration. Similar patterns occurring today most definitely occurred in prehistory In fact, as this dissertation is being completed, Thailand is experiencing the worst flood in half a decade inundating the central coastal areas for months. The extreme annual fluctuation of rainfall/water flow in most parts of Thailand no doubt influen ced the life ways of prehistoric people and their diverse adaptive responses to this dynamic environment (Higham, 2002, 2004, described in detail below). In addition to dynamic features of the monsoon and potential flooding on land, sea level during the Holocene was al so in flux. A series of sea level oscillation between 8,000 4,000 B.P. also contributed to coastal settlement and subsistence patterns in prehistory At around 10,000 B.P., sea level was about 40 60 m below present day level (Geyh et al., 1979, cited in Hi gham, 2002: 8). Based on geomorphological studies in the region, during 5,000 4,000 B.P. sea level was approximately 2.5 5.8 m higher than present and began to recede to its current level at around 4,000 B.P. (Tjia, 1980 cited in Higham, 2002: 8). In terms of soil composition, higher sea level also left behind layers of marine clay to as much as 14 m near current Bangkok area (Higham, 2002). Higher sea level in the past means human occupation along the Chao Phraya and Mekong River systems were much closer t o the coast. Central Thailand Geography Central Thailand borders modern day Myanmar to the west with mountainous ridges and valleys extend ing west east from Myanmar to Laos in the north, Phetchabun Ridge to the northeast highland s (Khorat Platea u), and t he Gulf of Thailand to the south (Figure 2 1). Central Thailand


39 including northern peninsular Thailand (Higham and Thosarat, 1998). Within this area, there are three geogra phic areas: the West Continental Highlands, the Central Highlands, and the Central Plain. The West Continental Highlands make up parts of Thai Myanmar border and have yielded evidence of human occupation from late Pleistocene onwards (Higham, 2002). Neighb oring the Khorat Plateau, Central Highlands are comprised of undulating terrain and the Pa Sak River system occupying most part of the eastern centr al Thailand. Ban Pong Manao (PMN) included in this study is situated in the Central Highlands. Sloping westw ard and southward, catchments around the tributaries of the Chao Phraya River form the riverine Central Plain that is the heart of central Thailand. J ust north of modern day Ayutthaya, the Pa Sak River drains into the Chao Phraya River which continues to p resent day Bangkok and empties into the Gulf of Thailand When sea level was higher at around 5,000 B.P., the coastal area was as close as to Ayutthaya and therefore, the Central Plain was a shallow extension of the river delta formed by the accumulation o f as it is the major source of agricultural production and population center in Thailand (Higham and Thosarat, 1998). Predominantly rice is grown in the Central Plain wh ereas cultigens requiring drier, more seasonal conditions (e.g., millet, corn, sorghum, and chi l ies) are more common in the northern part of the Central Plain such as the Lopburi area. This is partially due to the change of geological landscape as limesto ne outcrops and inselbergs become more abundant inland than in the swampy lowland (Higham, 2002).


40 T he fluctuating rainfall between dry and rainy seasons characteristic of the inland Central Plain is another contributing factor to the change of vegetation a nd what cultigens may be grown locally The mountain ridges enclosing th e west, north, and east sides of the Central Plain shield the Central Plain from the moisture brought in by the Siberian cold front. As the front travels through mountain ridges to the north and northeast of central Thailand, the windward side of the mountain captures the majority of moisture in rain and snow form leaving only dry air to continue southward to the Central Plain. A rain shadow effect for the inner Central Plain thereby ex ists which result s in a long dry season between the months of December and March (Higham, 2002). Between the years 1971 2000, average precipitation during the driest month of January was recorded as low as 16.7 mm (Thai Meteorological Department, 2012). Du ring these years for the monsoon season from mid May to October, precipitation averaged 903.3 mm in central Thailand; Thai Meteorological Department, 2012) which can overwhelm land and river systems causing extensive floods annually W hile the flooding ma unpredictable drought during the dry season rendered year around wet rice agriculture unsustainable. Alternatively, the incorporation of arid cultigens as food sources was likely the best option As evident in archaeological record, the complex geological and hydrological characteristics of central Thailand have shaped a very diverse cultural history of the past peoples (Higham, 2002). The aforementioned sea level rise between 5,0 00 and 4,000 B.P not only had immense effects on altering physical landscape but also impacted on human subsistence, lifeways, and cultural landscape in general (e.g.,


41 Higham and Thosarat, 1998). The much closer coast in the past in central Thailand would have greatly facilitated the exploitation of marine resources via shortened course to the sea on the Chao Phraya River. The easier access to the coast also would have contributed to population interaction, mobility, and exchange (e.g., Bentley et al., 200 7). Cultural History of Thailand and Central Thailand Thailand is the only country unaffected by 18 th century European colonialism in the region and is relatively unscathed from the disturbance of recent wars. The s table political condition and encouraging social attitude toward s understanding the past have facilitated the early establishment of archaeology by local scholars since the mid 18 th century. In 1959, the first joint international collaboration between was established between Thai and Danish archa eologists led by Srensen excavating the Ban Kao site in Kanchananburi, western Thailand (Higham, 2002). Since then, multiple collaboration s have produced well excavated sites throughout the country More recently, V ietnam and Cambodia has also attract ed major attention of local and international scholars resulting in intensive excavation and studies (e.g., Stark and Bong, 2001; Stark, 2004; Evans et (e.g., Sayavongkha mdy et al., 2000; White and Bouasisenogpaseuth, 2008) and 2007) are also ongoing In general, current knowledge on Mainland Southeast Asian prehistory is largely based on archaeol ogical research in Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia T he cultural history of Mainland Southeast Asian prehistory follows the tradition of three developmental/evolutionary stages, namely the Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age (e.g., Higham, 1989, 1996, 200 2, 2004; White, 1995a; Bellwood, 1997, 2006;


42 Bellwood and Glover, 2006). It is worth noting that in Southeast Asia, the transition from one period to the next is often ill defined and these transitions do not necessary imply significant social or lifeway c hanges. For example, Eyre (2010: 46) notes that Higham and Higham (2009: 132) describe the transition from the Ban Non Wat late Bronze Age phase to the only way to distinguish between t he two periods. Pigott et al. (1997) also suggest no major socio cultura l changes at the Bronze Age to Iron Age transition. In addition, the commencement of iron smelting and manipulation of Iron did not abrupt ly replace the continued use of bronze While utilitarian tools were largely made of iron toward s the later Iron Age (e.g., Ban Na Di and Ban Chiang, Higham, 2002), the frequency of bronze ornamental objects at this time did not diminish. A combination of both iron and bronze based craft production wo uld have increased the efficiency of the production process, enhanced the performance of the final products, and added to the diversity of toolkits (Higham, 2002). Technologically speaking, the so advances may have been evident in habitation and burial contexts, the transition of technological traditions itself may not necessarily have been a driving force for a marked cultural change (e. g., Eyre, 2006; Pryce, 2009; White and Hamilton, 2009). T he prehistory of Thailand extends to the late Pleistocene. Since then, modern human occupation has occurred across space and time in the region, including central Thailand. The following sections pro vide an overview of cultural history in prehistoric Thailand and a brief description of early historic period.


43 Pre Neolithic and Hoabinhian Periods The pre Neolithic period in Mainland Southeast Asia is evident from a number of archaeological sites : Nguom (>23,000 B.P.), Dieu (from 30,000 B.P.), Son Vi (~23,000 13,000 B.P.), Hoabinhian (~18,000 B.P.), and Bacsonian (~10,000 B.P.) (Higham, 2002). Sites dating to these periods are usually found in upland caves and rock shelters in Vietnam and Thailand due to better preservation and less disturbance by the elements and later activities. Hunting and gathering was the main mode of subsistence. Faunal assemblages presumed to reflect hunted and collected foods, excavated from the Red River Valley sites and coastal Vietnam include wild cattle, water buffalo, rhinoceros, forest birds, water turtle, land tortoise, shellfish, crab, deer, gastropod, and bivalve shellfish (Higham, 2002: 34). In Chao Phraya Valley, remains of sambar deer, pig deer, barking deer, bovine, p ig, freshwater/bivalve shellfish, gastropod, turtle, and crab were discovered and likely were food items in the past. The variety of recovered faunal remains suggests that people had a broad spectrum diet and exploit ed riverine and lacustrine habitats (Hig ham, 2002). The term Hoabinhian initially referred to a stone tool type first found in a northern Vietnamese province of Ha Bnh in the late 1920s by Colani. The Hoabinhian stone tool industry is based on river cobbles that produced limited tool categori es including sumatralith s (unifacial discoid tools ) and short axes. The term later has been used to designate the period/culture on Mainland Southeast Asia (and northeastern Sumatra) immediately before the Neolithic rice agriculture as far back as around 16,000 B.C. (Higham, 2002) A bone industry was also evident at Da Phuc rock shelter in Vietnam which reflects hunting tools (points or awls). Fired pottery vessels and marine shells are


44 among the Hoabinhian artifacts indicating that the people had a devel oped knowledge in tool making and contact with the coastal groups (Higham, 2002). Similar to other pre Neolithic sites, Hoabinhian sites tend to be situated in caves by rock shelters with usually thin layers of habitation evidence (Higham, 2002). This evide nce suggests seasonal occupation was the typical mode of dwelling characteristic of mobile hunter gatherers (e.g., Higham, 2002). Shoocongdej (2000) attempts to fit a tropical mobility model for the l ate and post Pleistocene cave site of Lang Kamnan in wes tern Thailand that m obility during the wet season was for residential purpose while dry season movement was for logistics. The archaeological remains from this site support residential wet season mobility ; however, no substantial evidence is present suppor ting logistically driven dry season mobility. Therefore, Shoocongdej (2000: 34) suggests that the hi gh degree of subsistence and settlement pattern variation existed among the hunter gatherer groups during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene in Mainlan d Southeast Asia was a result of changing a vailability of food resources in seasonal tropical environments Notable Hoabinhian sites within modern day Thailand are distributed in all geographic regions. In the uplands of northern Thailand, Spirit Cave, Bany an Valley Cave, and Steep Cliff Cave represent a hunter gatherer tradition that adapted to forested and webbed stream systems (e.g., Gorman, 1971, 1972, 1977; Yen, 1977). In Chao Phraya River Valley, Khao Talu site along Kwae Noi River and Laang indicating the utilization of wide spectrum foodstuffs (Pookajorn, 1981). Both Kwae Noi and Kwae Yai are tributaries of the Chao Phraya River. In peninsular Thailand, Lang


45 Rongrien and M oh Khiew and Sakai are large cavern sites containing Hoabinhian tools and human remains (Pookajorn, 1992; Higham, 2002). At the northern border of the Gulf of Thailand Nong Nor and Khok Phanom Di are the most prominent sites. Nong Nor is a seasonal shell midden site occupied for a few months ~ 2,450 B.C. Due to sea level fluctuation in the past, sediment evidence near Nong Nor suggests it was located by an embayment with unrestricted access to the sea while protected by shallow low lying land surrounding t he site (Higham and Thosarat, 1998, 2012; Higham, 2002). Despite its or temporal boundary as it can refer to a time period, subsistence economy, or technology on Mainland Southeast Asia Acknowledging some degree of validity in Vietnamese sites, defined meaning and does not constitute an integral entity. Other stone tool types coexisted with over a conside rable period of time. Therefore, she states that Mainland Southeast Asia in general and she suggests dropping the use of th e term as it over simplifi es of the co mplex hunter gatherer period in Mainland Southeast Asia. Regardless of the naming issues of this pre Neolithic period, the first peoples of Mainland Southeast Asia likely lived in fairly rough and dense subtropical terrain, and sought protection from the e lements and potential predators in caves and rock shelters. Stone tool assemblages suggest that hunting and gathering was the principle subsistence strategy. P re Neolithic settlements are rare and suggest low population density in the region; h owever, the presence of non local artifacts suggests long distance contact as well


46 Neolithic The transition from the Hoabinian to the Neolithic period in Mainland Southeast Asia is large ly associated with the transition from hunting and gathering subsistence to rice agriculture. T he exact timing of this subsistence transition is difficult to identify, however, at present the consensus rests upon the heavy influence of rice farmers from southern China and their expansion in to Mainland Southeast Asia (Higham, 2002, 2004 ; cf. White, 2011). The temperature oscillation at around 8,000 6,000 B.C. seem s to have been associated with the domestication of rice and some animal species in the Yangze River Valley in China (Higham and Lu, 1998; Higham, 2002). By the 3 rd millennium B .C., rice expansion reached areas of south/southeastern China, Vietnam, central Thailand and the Khorat Plateau, made evident by the particular styles of mortuary practice and artifacts that were similar to those in the Yangze River Valley sites (Higham, 2 002). The dispersion of the rice farmers transported their material culture and lifestyle into Mainland Southeast Asia. Prolonged interaction with local hunting and gathering peoples, a hybridization with local culture emerged (e.g., Higham, 1996, 2002, 20 06; Bellwood, 1997, 2005, 2011; Rispoli, 2007; Sanchez Mazas et al., 2008). Rice was not an exotic plant for Southeast Asia prior to the Neolithic period since rice remains have been discovered at early Hoabinian sites in Thailand and Vietnam (Higham, 2002 2004). Most likely driven by demographic expansion of the rice farming populations (Bellwood, 2011), the spread of rice agriculture arrived in Mainland Southeast Asia either by land via the Lingnan area of southern China or along the Vietnamese coast by sea route, although perhaps not in homogeneous fashion (Higham, 2002). While northeast Thailand sites such as Non Nok Tha have eviden ce for rice cultivation and associated ceramic style, contemporaneous settlements in Vietnam


47 maintain a hunting and gatheri ng subsistence (Higham, 2004). The famous Neo lithic site of Khok Phanom Di on the Gulf of Thailand also preserved episodes of mortuary variation and material culture suggesting the intrusion of rice farmers, either from central Thailand or via the sea (Hig ham and Thosarat, 1998). The Neolithic sites in Thailand are scarce compared to the later time periods, although the spatial distribution of these sites is not restricted to a particular region of Thailand (Higham, 2002). A suite of hallmark traits charact erizing Neolithic material culture bear similarit y with Yangzi farming cultures and have been found throughout Thailand, mostly within mortuary context s They include incised and/or painted fine ceramic pots, black burnish ed pottery, and jar burials with i nfants and adults (Bayard, 1972; White, 1986; Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 1998; Pigott et al., 1997; Rispoli, 1997, 2007; Higham, 2002, 2004, 2009, 2011). Most notab le sites include Non Nok Tha, Ban Chiang Ban Non Wat, Ban Lum Khao a nd Noen U Loke in nor t heast Thailand; Ban Tha Kae, Phu Noi, Non Pa Wai, Nil Kham Haeng, and Khok Charoen in central Thai land; and Khok Phanom Di on the Gulf of Thailand (Higham, 2002). The practice of animal domestication is suggested based on the presence of dog, pig, and bovi ne skeletal remains found at Ban Non Wat and Ban Lum Khao sites (Upper Mun River Valley) that show evidence of human consumption and roles in mortuary practice. In addition, artifacts made with exotic shell (marine) species are discovered in the Neolithic sites indicating certain degree of exchange system had been established (Higham, 2004). Khok Phanom Di is perhaps the best studied (pre)Neolithic site in Thailand. The site witnessed a relatively rapid deposit of material culture and human burials over a


48 p eriod of 600 years (~2,100 1,500 B.C.; Higham and Thosarat, 2004). The sequence (divided into seven phases) suggests a marine oriented hunting and gathering subsistence was maintained well into the 2 nd millennium B.C. During phases 3B and 4 (~1,750 1,650 B .C.), evidence of intrusive rice farmers, based on mortuary artifacts, appeared at the site. This period coincided with the receding coastal margin and extension of the marsh areas previously covered by sea water, creating favorable freshwater environment for rice cultivation. Consumption of cultivated rice seems unequivocal since remains of rice husk were found in human feces and stomach content s preserved in the abdominal area of certain individuals (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). A fter the sea level returne d to its previous level at ~ 1,650 B.C., the main dietary sources reverted from terrestrial plants and animals to mangrove and marine based sources Higham and colleagues (e.g., Higham and Thosarat, 1994) suggest pottery making and the consumption of rice a nd rice farming in the Neolithic transition go hand in hand. These characteristics, in fact, were used to distinguish the original Khok Phanom Di hunting and gathering culture from the intrusive rice farming cultural tradition (cf., White, 1995b) (see Chap ter 3 for more detailed description on Khok Phanom Di). The introduction and adoption of rice agriculture is a defining trait marking the transition from previous period into the Neolithic period in Mainland Southeast Asia. However, the spread and adoption of rice agriculture could be limited by factors such as geographic barriers (Bellwood, 2011), precipitation patterns (monsoon rain), soil quality, and the need for a new food source. With high degree of landscape diversity in Mainland Southeast Asia, it i s expected that dietary needs were met by broad spectrum hunting and gathering activities. For coastal sites, the wealth of marine oriented food


49 re sources and saline soil composition might have prolonged the adoption of rice agriculture. Evidence for anima l domestication and the remains of fish and shellfish suggest stable animal protein re sources, although the distribution of animal protein consumption among prehistoric people is unknown. In general, Neolithic subsisten ce here was likely a mixture of plant cultivation (rice and in some parts, millet), supplemented by foodstuffs raised domestically and/or procured from the environment. Bronze Age The timing when Southeast Asia, Thailand especially, transitioned from the Neolit hic p eriod into the Bronze Age i s currently a heated debate among scholars. While the discovery and interest of the Bronze Age in Mainland Southeast Asia initiated back in the 19 th century, in the past four decades, new discoveries and techniques intensified the debate over the issues co ncerning the date and origin of Southeast Asian copper base metallurgical tradition (e.g., White, 1986, 1997, 2008; Ciarla; 2007b; Pigott and Ciarla, 2007 ; Higham and Higham, 2009; Higham et al., 2011; White and Hamilton, 2009). The excavation in Non Nok T ha in northeast Thailand during 1965 1968 produced, among others, a particularly sophisticated tin bronze socketed implement. Considering the two charcoal dates available, Solh eim believed that the earliest Bronze Age sequence at Non Nok Tha can be dated b ack to the 3 rd millennium B.C. and that the northeast Thai Bronze Age and level of sophistication of the so cketed tool prompted the discussion of an independent bronze tradition of Southeast Asia, contra to the then well acknowledged notion of a Near Eastern origin (see White, 2008). During 1974 1975, an international collaboration between the University of Pen nsylvania Museum and the Fine Arts


50 Department of Thailand, led by Gorman and Charoenwongsa, conducted two seasons of resc ue excavation at Ban Chiang. Based o n erroneous abs olute date s Gorman and Charoenwongsa (1976) propose d that northeast Thailand entere d the Bronze Age at around 3,600 to 2,900 B.C. Not long after the publication of these early dates, scholars began to challenge the dating techniques and relevance of sample context (e.g., Loofs Wissowa, 1983; Higham, 1984). Higham, among others, wa s conce rned with the archaeological context where the charcoal w as from grave fill sediments cannot be securely ascertained to have been associated with the actual stratigraphy intended to be dated (e.g., Higham, 1984, 1988). Higham has challenged the implications of an early Bronze Age date by citing typological and technological similarities of bronze objects between southern China and northeast Thailand, falsifying the possibility of an independent development of copper bas e considered valid (e.g., White, 1986, 1997, 2008; Higham, 1996, 2011; Ciarla, 2007b; Pig ott and Ciarla, 2007). Currently, there are two major views concerning the date of initial Bronze Age in Thailand that are almost one millennium apart. White, being th e principal s cholar in charge of the excavated materials from Ban Chiang af ter Gorman, pr oposes a later date for the earliest Bron ze Age phase to be around the early 2 nd millennium B.C. (White, initial Bronze Age phase appears fully developed, lacking any trace of an experimental stage. This led her to dispute the speculation of an independently developed bronze


51 tradition in northeast Thailand. Instead, she s uggests that the copper base metal working tradition here has external origin/origins (White, 1988), possibl y from Inner Asia (e.g., White, 1986, 2008; White and Hamilton, 2009). Again, the publication of this date was followed by a series of debates and criticism. Aside from the provenience/context problems Higham raised previously (1984), the origin and transm iss ion sequence of the copper base technology in northeast Thailand is also a concern (e.g., Higham, 1988, 1996, 2002 ; Higham et al., 2011 ). Higham, on the other hand, has long advocat ed for a later Bronze Age date for Mainland Southeast Asia, at ~ 1,500 B. C. or possibly later (Higham, 1984, 1988, 1996, 2004 ; Higham et al., 2011 ). For example, evaluating (valid, i.e., in situ charcoal) radiocarbon dates and artifact contexts from several sites in northeast Thailand (e.g., Ban Na Di, Ban Chiang Hai, Ban Kho N oi, Non Chai) and Vietnam, Higham (1984: exposure to Chinese expansion during this time or earlier brought about the bronze working tradition to northeast Thailand by ways of exchange. charcoal samples used by Gorman and Charoenwongsa (and later by White), White submitted another set of Ban Chiang samples for AMS dating to further understand the chronology, especially the early Bronze Age, of northeast Thailand. The seven samples are from rice tempered mortuary vessels (White, 1997), although Higham et al. (2011) specify six are from orga nic temper of mortuary vessels and one from rice phytolith found in the sediment filling a mortuary pot. With two samples eliminated from consideration due to dramatically old dates, five dates


52 viewpoint on an early date for Br onze Age Ban Chiang (early 2 nd millennium B.C.). In 2008, White published two more AMS dates from charcoal samples. Combining the seven valid samples, White concludes that the Neolithic Bronze Age transition occurred ~ 2,000 B.C. at Ban Chiang and across no rtheast Thailand more general ly (White, 2008; White and Hamilton, 2009). Based on the recent dating data, White and Hamilton (2009) construct a possible transmi ssion route of the copper base metallurgy into northeast Thailand from the central Asian Steppes via the Seima Turbino trans cultural phenomenon Higham, not surprisingly, takes issue with th ese new dating result s and their interpretation. While using the organic temper is acknowledged as being more reliable and has been used in dating the well studi ed site of Ban Don Ta Phet (Glover, 1990), Higham and colleagues utilized to prepare the 1997 samples and hold that the inbuilt age of the 2008 charcoal samples is a confounding issue (Higham and Higham 2009; Higham et al., 2011). In where the 14 C date reveals the time when the carbon atoms were removed from the atmosphere and incorporated into plant organisms. Wi th the taxonomy unidentified, it is unknown if the charcoal samples from Ban Chiang were derived from older trees that might have had already lived for decades or hundreds of years before burned by human, resulting in charcoal remains. With concerns of inb uilt age, the radiocarbon dating using charcoals may have produced a much older date range than what is being dated in reality (Gavin, 2001; Higham et al., 2011). Therefore, Higham and colleagues (e.g., Higham and Higham, 2009; Higham, 2011; Higham et al., 2011) propose that results of charcoal radiocarbon date (not only those from Ban Chiang) can be at best


53 viewed a terminus post quem mean the artifacts/burials/evidence of occupation was deposited aft erwards, not indicative of certain events (e.g., initial Bronze Age phase). In r ecent years, Higham led a large scale excavation at Ban Non Wat in the Khorat Plateau, with one of the goals as to establish a chronological framework based on a series of abs olute dates (Higham, 2011). The date determinations majorly include freshwater shells that were placed as grave goods, while some previously obtained charcoal dates were incorporated in constructing the Ban Non Wat sequence. Since Higham advocates against the reliance on charcoal dates, Higham (Higham and Higham, 2009) provides a justification by comparing the date ranges derived from five charcoal samples found in a nearby site of Ban Lum Khao with the Ban Non Wat charcoal dates. A total of 75 (Higham and Higham, 2009) or 76 (Higham, 2011; Higham ranges of its 12 mortuary/occupation phases of Ban Non Wat, previously designated by archaeological context. The samples from the initial Bronze Age phase bracket the Neolithic Bronze Age transition at 1,053 996 B.C. (calibrated date) (Higham and of the initial Bronze Age in Thailand. With dates f rom Ban Non Wat sequence, Higham and Higham (2009) proceed to further iterate the southward tr ansmission route of copper base metallurgy from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers during Shang Dynasty China, via Lingnan (the mountainous range in southern China), t o northeast/central Thailand.


54 In a further attempt to resolve the criticism put forth regarding a series of Ban Chiang dates, Higham and colleagues proceed to perform the AMS dating on 14 skeletal samples (ten human and four pig) from the Ban Chiang colle ction (Higham et al., 2011). They believe that bones with good collagen preservation are the best and most direct sources to obtain reliable dates, satisfying both methodological and contextual requirements. The results are dramatically different from Whit perspective of a late 2 nd millennium B.C. date of the early Bronze Age in northeast Thailand. The contrasting views on the Bronze Age date between Higham and White great ly influence the approach of each when formulating arguments regarding tra nsmission routes of copper base metallurgical tradition s into Mainland Southeast Asia and the scenarios of socio cultural structure on both intrasite and inter site levels, during an d after the Neolithic Bronze Age transition in prehistoric Thailand. Since the 1980s, Higham has promot ed a gradual diffusion process and southward transmission route of bronze working tradition from Lingnan area in southern China to Southeast Asia The bas e o f his argument include s the timeframe between the development of technological and styl istic similarities between these two areas (e.g., Ciarla, 2007 b ; Pigott and Ciarla, 2007; Higham, 2011; Higham et al., 2011). Higham cites extensive evidence suggesting waves of southward expansion of rice farmers from Yangze River Valley through various w ater channels in the Lingnan area in southern China into


55 north/northeast Thailand occurred as early as the Neolithic period (~first half of the 3 rd millennium B.C.). Based on the remains of rice and implements for rice agriculture/processing found i n Khok Phanom Di on the Gulf of Thailand and Ban Non Mainland Southeast Asia and contact with local people intensified via river and/or marine routes by at least early 2 nd millennium B.C., or perhaps some centuries earlier (Rispoli, 2007; Chi and Hung, 2010; Higham, 2011; Higham et al., 2011). Higham and colleagues strongly advocate the linkage between the intensification of northern farmer Southeast Asian villager interaction and the transmission of new craft production technology, namely copper base metallurgy among others. Typological, compositional, and stylistic similarities and evolution between Shang/later Chinese artifacts and those found in Thai Neolithic and Bronze Age sites s upport a southward diffusion of craft production from southern China to Mainland Southeast Asia (Higham et al., 2011). On the other hand, as briefly mentioned above, White and Hamilton (2009) suggest t he establishment of copper base technology in northeast Thailand as derived from Inner Asian Steppes, most likely near the Urals. Combin in g evidence from the archaeological record available in recent years from China and Russia and the early date of the Bronze Age in northeast Thailand, they indicate that the Inner Asian bronze tradition being the source for that of Southeast Asia is most plausible in terms of the timeline for the appearance of bronze metallurgy and technological/stylistic closeness in both places. White and Hamilton (2009), who view a pproach criticize his use of the chronological data and technological evidence. They also argue


56 transmission process and is constricted by core/peripheral bi as on the theoretical level (see White and Hamilton, 2009 for detailed argument ; cf. Ciarla, 2007b; Pigott and Ciarla, 2007 ). For Higham (Higham, 2011; Higham et al., 2011), among other things, intuitive as th e terrain is much more treacherous dense ly vegetated and often impassible in prehistory between Inner Asia and northeast Thailand, making it difficult for the latter to be expo copper base metallurgy. Higham also argues that the early date of the Bronze Age held by White predates the time when Chinese bronze metallurgy can be confidently dated (~3 rd and the first half of the 2 nd millennium B.C.) and that the Urals data White cited were not securely dated. Aside from the similarities bet ween Southeast Asian bronze artifact/technology that from the Chinese Central Plain and that from the Lingnan region of southeast China, Ciarla (2007b) and Pigott and Ciarla (2007) observe some technological parallels and behavioral patterns characterist ic of both Southeast Asian and Inner Asian Steppe communities. This prompted Ciarla ( 2007b : 323 ) to suggest there might have be cultural package t hat transmitted its metal working tradition into Shang Dynasty China and then gradually di ffused to Mainland Southeast Asia. The Lingnan area in southern China, instead of being the gateway of Chinese Shang metallurgical tradition coming to Southeast Asia as proposed by Higham, acted as the final filter eliminating trace of Chinese influence on the Inner Asian bronze working tradition before it spread to Southeast Asia (Pigott and Ciarla, 2007; White and Hamilton, 2009: 374). Along with the filtering mechanism, the characteristic parallels between Inner and Southeast Asia are the centers of Whit arguments of an Inner Asian bronze transmission route to Southeast Asia. Higham, in


57 contrast foc uses heavily on the commonalities between the Shang Chinese and Southeast Asia n bronze working traditions. As the debate continues, more scholars seem to l ean toward s date of Thai Neolithic Bronze Age transition. Surely, more refined dating techniques and better interpretation of the data sources should aid in revealing a more clear view on Southeast Asia prehistory, specifically, the timing w hen the Bronze Age in Thailand started. As the main objective of this dissertation is the physical effects of social status differentiation, it is necessary to group individual burials into earlier and later periods in order to compare and contrast the dat a within a site. Therefore, it is the chronological chronology itself. In the case of Ban Mai Chaimongkol Onsuwan Eyre follow s chronology and places the initial B ronze Age at ~ 2,000 B.C (e.g., Eyre, 2006). Her extensive research on its pottery and burial sequences (Onsuwan 2000, 2003; Eyre, 2006, 2010) are adopted in this dissertation for th is site and its cultural sequence. Furthermore, social status differentiati on is suggested to have occurred during the later part of the Bronze Age and continued well within the Iron Age in Mainland Southeast Asia (e.g., Higham, 2002, 2004; cf. Higham, 2009, 2011). Thus, the timing of when the Bronze Age actually started does not affect the analysis and interpretation of the data studied here. Amid the uncertain date of the initial Bronze Age, the cultural landscape of this period is nonetheless versatile. In Thailand, there are two copper mines utilized in prehistory that are hig h yielding and high quality, Phu Lon in the north (e.g., Natapintu, 1988) and the mines in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley in the central region ( e.g., Pigott


58 et al., 1997). Northern Thai sites that yielded critical dates pertaining to the beginning of the Br onze Age it has been s uggested were using copper mined from the Phu Lon. The three central Thai sites studied by the Th a iland Archaeometallurgy Project (TAP) utilized copper ores originating from the Khao Wong Prachan Valley (see Pryce, 2009 for a detailed review and study of archaeometallurgy in this region). Research projects such as TAP aimed to investigate the development of copper base metallurgy in the core rich district of the Khao Wang Prachan Valley. Their research uncovered a cluster of three site s that are somewhat contemporaneous and have similar cultural context Among them, Non Pa Wai in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley shows evidence for copper smelting over an area of 5 h a (Pigott et al, 1997). Peculiarly, despite strong evidence of on site smelt ing activities, final products made of bronze alloy are rarely found. Mudar and Pigott (2003) propose that the roughly smelted copper was exported to communities that we re not geographically close to the mine sources. The outward distribution of central Th ai ingots not only may have contributed to the commonality of bronze objects within and across the regions, but also helped central Thai people obtain necessary food resources coping with the unsustainable agricultural syste m impacted by frequent draughts. As most of the prehistoric Thai sites, the Bronze Age communities are often located along water sources, be it river tributary or creek. In addition to being beneficial for agricultur e and day to day activities involvement in far reaching trading network. Copper ingots and other archaeologically visible objects have been found some distance away at sites that do not have proximity to known metal sources (Higham, 2004). The cop per smelting and casting activities,


59 common to the Khao Wong Prachan Valley in central Thailand, were conducted on a massive scale that may have mostly occurred during the dry season as an alternative to wet season farming (White and Pigott, 1996; Pigott e t al., 1997). D ue to its proximity t o copper mine sources, Khao Wong Prachan Valley sites yield archaeological evidence indicating a community industrial level output of metal working (White and Pigott, 1996; Pigott et al., 1997). However, the lack of a centralized sme lting locale plus large scale metal workshop and dispersed distribution of smelting debris in th e Metal Age cent ral Thai sites prompts Pigott and colleagues (White and Pigott, 1996; Pigott et al., 1997) to suggest that the copper sm elting activities were community based. Cop per smelting and casting require s extensive metallurgical knowledge and craftsmanship and both would have been valuable capital to control for should a centralized organizational force exist. The un ique production scheme in Metal Age Thailand inspires the prop osition that a heterarchical social structure, rather than a hierarchical one, was in place on a Heterarchy is an alternative structural construct of human interaction from hierarchy that best address es the fluid relationships among polities and the sociopolitical dynamics within a community (Crumley, 1979, 1995). Taking spatial, temporal, and biological dimensions into account, a heterarchical structure among polities does not assume power as unidirecti onal or as an obligatory relationship discussing the evolution of social relationships (White 1995a: 104). Hierarchical structure needs not and cannot be the only alternative option from egalitarian structure


60 when explaining sociopolitical relation Bronze Age n orth and northeast Thailand, archaeological evidence does not yield any si gn of access restriction to mining source s hierarchical organization of labor, spatial arrangement of tasks, or overarching control power regarding metal working within a community. Each household was likely to participate in all steps of cop per smelting process, including 2003) apply the heterarchy concept in prehistoric Mainland Southeast Asia, mainly to the Bronze Age, arguing that the sociopolitical milieu in this area is best characterized as fluid and flexible. In terms of social status of individuals, qualitative and quantitative variations of grave goods do exist at sites such as Ban Na Di, Non Nok Tha, Khok Phanom Di, Nong Nor (Higham, 2004) and Ban Lum these sites, a handful of burials stand out as being interred with exotic items or larger number of grave goods compared to other burials within its respective site. In Nong Nor, for example, among mo stly plainly buried individuals, an unusually large and wealthy male burial in the vicinity of a richly interred female demonstrates some degree of intrasite social status differentiation (Higham, 2004). However, clustering of grave goods and osteologial a nalyses do not reveal any clear pattern associated with age and sex seen in highly stratified societies where individual social status inferred from burial context is usually patterned by age cohort or sex. Also, types and quantity of grave goods often exhibit clustered patterns according to an 1970; Binford, 1971; Tainter, 1978). For example, at Ban Lum Khao, 85% (N= 95) of


61 burials contain ten or fewer grave i tems and only 3% (N= 3) yield 20 30 artifacts. The types of grave goods here are common across the site, including pig bones, shell beads, bangles, adzes, abraders, spindle whorls, ceramic anvils, ochre, copper alloy, and bival ve shells. No statistical significance is found when assessing the distribution of each goods category against age and sex groups. There are also no apparent symbolic items. Despite having signs of bronze crafting, no bronze artifact was discovered in buri al context. All ceramic types are distribute d in no particular pattern across the site. This site also lacks monument s, religious structure s or spatial arrangement s for wealth y individuals that were buried The mortuary context, both grave goods and osteo logy, shows no visible evidence of any ascribed or achieved social sta tus. Overall, Ban Lum Khao does not conform to what is expected to be a structured hierarchical society during the d other sites combined there appears to be little evidence suggesting marked social differentiation in Bronze Age Thailand. Starting in 2002, the excavation of Ban Non Wat, a large continuous occupation from the Neolithic to the late Iron Age on the Khorat Plateau (central Th ailand), has skeletal remains discovered, those buried between cultural phases of Bronze Age (BA) 1 and 3 are exceptionally wealthy in terms of grave size and grave offering s, with BA 2 and 3A (~1,000 800 B.C.) being the most ostentatious. These individuals were found within large graves that are w ell beyond the areas needed for the coffin/body. A wide variety and extraordinarily large amount of burial goods were associated w ith individuals in all age groups and both sexes, placed above the head, on the body/face, between


62 legs, or below the feet. The grave goods include shell jewelry made with exotic marine species, labor intensive stone and shell beads, precious marble earrin gs, pottery vessels with a wide array of forms and intricate motifs, lavish meat portions from pigs and cow, and bronze implements. Some burials (infants included) we re discovered with shell beads and large marine shell bangles numbered beyond aesthetic pu rpose in life (e.g., a middle aged male was buried with 23,682 shell beads and another with 54 large Trochus and 18 Tridacna bangles). The n umber of ceramic vessels also rose dramatically from fewer than ten on average among the Neolithic burials to an a verage of 30 among BA 2 burials. Higham refers this ostentatious display of wealth as a during the early Bronze Age (Higham, 2009, 2011). It is particularly interesting to note that t here is no abrupt abandonment or reoccupation of the site at the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. The only indication (or identification) of the Bronze Age is the appearance of bronze artifact/evidence of bronze casting associ ated with living floors and/or burials. The sudden full blown display of wealth during the early phases of the Bronze Age lasted for about 200 years before the quantity and quality of grave offerings rapidly declined right after BA 3. Higham (2011), follow ing Clark and Blake (1994) and Hayden (2001), argues that the distinctively wealthy burials in the early Ban Non Wat sequence indicate the site had a certain degree of surplus accumulation for the aggrandizers to convert into prestige goods, differential a ccessibility (possibly by familial lineage) to valuable goods and resources, and the people practiced funerary feasting as a means to maintain social status. Higham (2011) also speculates the mostly contemporary Ban Lum Kao site nearby which yielded a poo r assemblage of


63 burials might have served the needs of the Ban Non Wat people. This implies that there was a hierarchical structure between/among sites during the early Bronze Age. However, burials between the later Bronze Age periods and the early Iron A ge appear to be lacking signs of marked intra site social status differentiation, where utilitarian objects are most common. The short lived (or unsustainable) aggrandizer display of wealth is different from what is seen during the Iron Age, where social d ifferentiation remained in place and lasted well into the formation of states. Among sites outside of the Khorat Plateau in central Thailand, a heterarchical relat ionship seems to be evident during the Bronze Age (White and Pigott, 1996; Eyre 2006, 2010). In central Thailand, the TAP team excavated a group of three neighboring sites in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley : Non Pa Wai, Nil Kham Haeng, and Non Mak La (Pigott et al., 1997) The event of metallurgy in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley is now thought to be ~1,100 B.C. and later (Pigott, 2012 personal communication) At Non Pa Wai there is a shallow Neolithic deposit containing some human burials that dates from the early to mid 2 nd millennium B.C. This Neolithic deposit is followed by a Bronze Age deposit sp anning from the late 2 nd into the 1 st millennium B.C. (Rispoli, 2012 personal communication). The Bronze Age deposit contains five burials with metallurgy related finds; at Non Pa Wai, a total of 25 burials are known from Neolithic to Bronze Age deposits, while none are associated with Iron Age. T he site is capped by major Iron Age deposits of copper smelting debris that is about 2m in depth. This debris was mixed with habitation materials, e.g., domestic potsherds and faunal remains, scattered across an ar ea of ~5 ha Massive amounts of smelting debris characterize Non Pa Wai as a major Iron Age copper smelting site. Among the prevalent artifacts are tens of thousands of


64 intact and fragmentary ceramic molds in a variety of cup and conical shapes. Evidence s uggests stages of copper working were performed at Non Pa Wai and the overwhelmingly large number of ingot casting molds indicate the site was specialized in their production for purposes of trade and exchange (White and Pigott, 1996; Pigott et al., 1997; Pryce et al., 2010). The nearby site of Nil Kham Haeng also yielded a remarkable amount and varieties of copper working debris. However this site is characterized by unique deposits derived from the intensive crushing of copper ore to a fine grav e l, a tech nique not seen at Non Pa Wai. Unlike Non Pa Wai, Nil Kham Haeng and concentrated habitation activitie 164) and mortuary features that clearly indicate the existence of long term occupati on Recen t archaeometallurgical studies of copper smel ting techniques practiced at Non Pa Wai and Nil Kham Haeng suggest slight different copper extraction methods were utilized by metal workers at these two sites (Pryce and Pigott, 2008; Pryce, 2009). The third TA P site, Non Mak La, yielded much less evidence for sustained copper working in the area excavated by TAP. This excavated area was oriented more for habitation and mortuary purposes (Natapintu, 1988). Pigott and colleagues (1997) have suggested that Non Ma k La may have served as a settlement for Non Pa Wai metal workers. But this idea has been discounted as of late (Pigott, 2012 persona l communication). These somewhat contemporary but differing function sites are explained as being in a heterarchical relatio nship with one another, serving different purposes with no hierarchical structure governing the relative control of power for one site over another (White and Pigott, 1996).


65 White and colleagues (1995a, White and Pigott, 1996) have suggest ed there was a la ck of regional governing force controlling the access to the metal ore sources and distribution of goods (metallurgical products or food resources ) at sites in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley. The typical hierarchical polity structure in which one or few cen t ral settlements dictate the production and trade of the satellite communities did not exist in northeast and central Thailand until quite late in the Metal Ag e, i.e., the later 1 st millennium B.C. Thus at Thai Metal Age sites, a heterarchical relationship better explains the settlement layout, choice of craft production, differential involvement in trade network s and in the items being exchange. In addition to the focus on metallurgy when addressing the relationships among the cen tral Thai sites, the analys is of settlemen t pattern and ceramic traditions also suggest a hierarchical structure was in place during the Metal Age in the region (Eyre, 2006). Eyre argues that the Metal Age villages varied in size and were occupied in diverse environmental zones. Cat egorizing ceramic typology into subregions and treating them as the products of inter site networks, Eyre observes that these ceramic sub traditions did not remarkably change throughout the Metal Age. Along with survey data on settlement patterns in the re gion, Eyre concludes that central Thailand (Central Plains and the undulated terrains) sustained a non hierarchical settlement system with uninterrupted occupation. The subsistence of Metal Age Thailand largely follows the previous regime of hunting and ga thering, supplemented with domesticated food sources. Based on the analysis o f the carbonized seeds collected from the TAP sites, Weber et al. (20 10) suggest that millet was an important cultigen in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley during


66 the 3 rd and 2 nd mille nnia B.C. Rice did not enter the archaeol ogical sequence until the 1 st millennium B.C. If one accepts ither via land routes for n ortheast Thailand or ma rine routes for co a stal sites (e.g., Khok Phanom Di), that graduall y brought about the copper bas e metallurgy fr om China t o Mainland Southeast Asia. C ontact occurred during the later part of the Neolithic p eriod, in northeast Thailand specifically. Broadly speaking, t h e documentation of rice by Weber and colleagues (2010) in the K hao W ong P rachan Valley in the 1 st millennium B.C. fits well with During the Bronze Age in central Thailand, it is reasonable to postulate that rice cultivation was being established, while millet continued to be consumed. Dry farming and/or rainfed fields we re likely to be the principle methods of rice cultivation in concert with traditional millet agriculture ( Weber et al., 2010; Castillo, 2011). The combination of millet and rice, accompanied by foods from local sources (fish, terrestrial mammals and birds), is likely representative of the dietary spectrum of Bronze Age people living in northeast and central T hailand (e.g., Higham, 1984; Weber et al., 2010). The extremely diverse landscape and ecology in Mainland Southeast Asia has sustained a versatile and highly local subsistence regime for prehistoric Thai people (Bentley et al., 2007). In addition, consider ing the sharp contrast between the abundance of copper metallurgical debris an d rarity of actual copper base final p roducts foun d at the Khao Wong Prachan Valley sites, Mudar and Pigott (2003) propose that the copper products (in both ingot and final produ ecologically oriented study of prehistoric central Thailand suggests this area was not


67 suitable for sustainable wet rice agriculture, due to the unpredictability of monsoon rain and r elatively poor soil quality. The copper food trading system was likely a buffering strategy in order to cope with the unpredictability of local agricultural output (Mudar and Pigott, 2003). However, this is a hypothesis that remains to be demonstrated. Iro n Age Contrasting to the Neolithic Bronze Age transition, the timing between the Bronze and Iron Ages in Mainland Southeast Asia is generally agreed to be ~ 500 B.C. and lasted until ~ A.D. 500 (e.g., Pigott et al., 1997; Higham, 2004). One theory suggests t hat i ron working techniques in this area may have been i ntroduced from southern China (Higham, 2002). As a transitional phase bridging prehistoric and (proto)historic periods in Southeast Asia, the Iron Age witnessed a suite of remarkably different charact eristics from its predecess or. Geologically speaking, iron ores are more ubiquitous than copper (or tin) in Sout h east Asia, and even the Khao Wong Prachan Valley had a major source of iron ore ( Natapintu, 1988; Pigott et al., 1997). The q uality of iron cou ld be made higher if properly smelted and forged (Higham, 2004). Although this would requir e a higher temperature to manipulate, iron working does not involve the extra step of mixing ores as bronze does. I ron ores can be smelt ed to produce iron metal that can be hand forged into desi rable shapes. By the Iron Age, while bronze was usually cast int o ornamental objects, iron objects were produced for utilitarian purpose s (Higham, 2004) and were encountered in habitation areas and frequently in burial context. In contrast to the narrow typological range of bronze objects, with iron there is an extensive arra y of functions which includes cutting, chopping, tilling warfare, and animal husbandry ( Higham, 2002). The relative ease with which iron could be produced meant that an abundance of utilitaria n iron objects


68 dramatically enlarged the selection of implements in the prehistoric too lkit s in the region. Therefore, the adoption of iron working is suggested to have contributed to the expansion of settlement/populat ion and changing settlement patterns (Penny, 1984; Welch and McNeill, 1991, cited in Eyre, 2006). In central Thailand, t he prospero us iron working activities brought about ecolog ical impacts Higher temperature requirement s for forging iron led to a higher demand for fire wood and consequently, intensified the process of deforestation (Mudar and Pigott, 2003). Modification of the landscape and changing pattern s of land use are key characteristics of the Iron Age (Higham, 2002). Food re sources that were depen dent on forest ed environment s diminished in numbers gradually as iron working became more common. Mudar and Pigott (2003) suggest that terrestrial protein sources for humans may have switched from largely forest dwelling mammals to fresh water fish. In ter ms of population movement and settlement, Eyre (2006) also implies that the appearance and widespread use of iron products may have stimulated the expanded usage of lowland areas in central Thailand and the establishment of more concentrated settlement s P opulation size and density during the Iron Age also increased. A case study using stable isotope analysis on human teeth collected from an Iron Age site on Khorat Plateau (Noen U Loke) shows the increased population size at this site was a result of intrin sic improvement of fertility rather than population movement (Cox et al., 2011). It has been understood that the Bronze Iron Age transition in northeast and central Thailand wa s accompanied by marked change s in settlement structure, namely the appear ance o f large moated sites (e.g., Higham, 2004). Many Iro n Age sites are


69 encircled by a moat (or sometimes multiple moat s), presumably for purposes of defense and water retention (Higham, 1996, 2002, 2004; McGrath and Boyd, 2001). Higham (1996, 2002) suggests th at the Iron Age witnessed a significant transition in social structure from a more autonomous structure in the Bronze Age (with a certain degree of social/wealth inequality as seen at Ban Non Wat; Higham, 2009, 2011) to a more hierarchal structure whereby intensified wet rice agriculture was a principle driving force. He also observes that the Iron Age sites display signs of sophisticated rituals, larger and more structured site layouts, potentially intensified control of labor, social compartmentalization, and possibly inter population defense (Higham et al., 1982). These are all hallmarks of centralized societies. On the other hand, Eyre (2006) citing a suite of newer dates on the earth work moats and paleoenviron me ntal evidence argues that the appearance o f iron technology and formalized earthworks did not occur at the same time, as evidence for the latter dates to the early 1 st millennium A.D., ~ 500 years after the initial phase of the Iron Age. Other signs of social centralization such as warfare (inferre d from projectiles ; Higham, 2002) and labor specialization (inferred from more sophisticated iron work and ceramic production; Higham, 1989, 2002) are also not concurrent with the first appearance of iron technology. As a result, Eyre (2006) refutes the vi ew that the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age is associated with the abovementioned hallmarks of centralized social change. She observes that in central and northern Thailand, smaller communities that lack moats but with a l ong occupation sequ ence from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age continued to produce iron objects in a community based fashion that was non hierarchal on the regional level. Thus, she suggests that significant social


70 c hanges did not occur until the late Iron Age certainly not d uring the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Thailand. These two contra s ting perspectives on developmental timing of major social change in pre state Thailand underscores the fact that Thailand is diverse both in its physical environment and cultural landscape. In prehistoric Thailand where access to water food resources and forest, and metal ore sources were critical factors for choosing settlement location, it is entirely possible that major social change did not occur in a rapid and homo geneous manner. Instead, pockets of areas may have been shielded from the prevailing activities happening elsewhere and therefore sites may exhibit a delayed manifestation of social change (Pryce, 2009). The debates on dates of the initial Bronze Age discu ssed above and major social change s during the Bronze Iron Age transition in this area place central Thailand as a key arena for understanding issue s of social evolution in prehistory This in turn warrants an in depth investigation on the physical dietary manifestation on human populations during and across these critical time periods. In terms of trade networking and its implication on social evolution during the Iron Age, artifacts excavated from Ban Don Ta Phet site are invaluable sources to the underst anding of material culture during this period. With long term efforts invested by Glover and his team, Ban Don Ta Phet ( ~ early 4 th century B.C.) in western central Thailand is the best documented site that displays Iron Age funerary features (Glover, 1980 1983; Higham, 2004). Although human skeletal remains did not preserve well due to acidic soil s iron objects such as spears, harpoons, axes, and billhooks were recovered as grave goods. The site is at a strategic locale comm a nding access to Three


71 Pagodas Pass that links the Chao Phraya plains to the Indian subcontinent (Higham, 2004). One of the most special features of Ban Don Ta Phet is the vast amount of evidence portraying a heavily Indian influenced material culture. Glass products and carnelian and agate ornaments with Indian motifs and production techniques are common. Bronze ornaments with Indian motifs and bowls with high tin content are apparent products of cultural contact between the two areas. The material, technology, and motif of these objec ts all indicate exchange or cultural assimilation was in progress between Thailand and the Indian subcontinent as early as the beginning of the Iron Age. While the motif on the Ban Don Ta Phet bronze bowls is drastically different from the high tin drums f Don Ta Phet bronze artifacts can also be observed in as inland as Ban Na Di on Khorat Plateau. Furthermore, a nephrite ornament most commonly seen in Vietnam and the Philippines is also evident in Ban Don Ta Phet (Glover, 1990; Higham, 2004: 59), suggesting a south southeastward trade/contact direction, in addition to the interaction westward with India. It is worth noting that traces of Indian influence do not necessar ily link to the dir ect import of artifacts from India. Carnelian and agate beads are commonly recognized as prestigious items signaling higher social/economic status. Bellina (2003) demonstrates that these beads made with semi precious stones can be categorized into two gr oups by time period and production provenience and represent products of different locales with different cultural implications. Beads in the earlier group (~ late 1 st millennium B.C.) are generally made with sophisticated Indian techniques, but the styles are highly local. Bellina (2003) suggests this is most likely a result of Southeast Asian


72 elites ordering (i.e., importing) beads from India to legitimize their elite status by means ) objects. The bea ds in the second/later group (~ 1 st millennium A.D.), however, generally lack the superior quality compared to those recovered from the earlier period. The se later beads are locally made and bead manufacturing workshops have been identifie d at select Iron Age sites. Bellina (2003) suggests that the elites during this later period may have still imported beads directly from India o r invited Indian craftsmen to manufacture the beads enjoyment. The locally manufactured beads of inferior quality serve the purpose of supplying their subordinates colleagues (2000) further challenge the diffusionist assumptio n that the beads were derived from India. They suggest, alternatively, that the carnelian and agate beads could have a multi source origin and the Indian influence may not have been such a powerful mechanism that brought about state level social developmen t in Southeast Asia. Semiprecious stones (agate and carnelian), rock crystal, and nephrite became common from fourth century B.C. onward at Ban Don Ta Phet. These materials replaced the softer ones used to craft ornaments in earlier periods. Objects made o f these newer materials are often unevenly distributed among human burials, suggesting they may have been considered more valuable by the Ban Don Ta Phet people and thus, an indicator of social status differentiation (Glover, 1990; Higham, 2002, 2004). At other Iron Age Thai sites (e.g., Noen U Loke, Khao Sam Kaeo), agate and carnelian ornaments are richly present, demonstrating the widespread nature of the se new


73 crafting materials (Bellina, 2003). Khao Sam Kaeo, in particular, is located in peninsular Thai land and is another example of late Iron Age trad e between Thailand and India. Th is site yielded clear evidence of Indian influenced jewelry making techniques and materials. It also yielded evidence of local production of prestigious goods, possibly using imported materials (Bellina and Silapanth, 2006, 2008). Whether the newly appeared ornaments were traded in from India or locally made is still being revised pending new excavation, it is clear that as early as in the fourth century B.C., plenty of contact and exchange occurred between people and sites associated with Maurya Sunga Period (350 items and concepts across the region (Bellina and Glover, 2004; Indrawooth, 2004). In terms of subs istence and dietary staple s according to Weber a (2010) seed analysis, rice entered the central Thai sequence in the early 1 st millennium B.C. Rice agriculture would have been in place for quite a few centuries at the commencement of the Iro n Age. Despite the disagreement between Higham (2004) and Eyre (2006, 2010) on whether the Bronze Iron Age transition coincided with wet rice agriculture, varied degrees of rice management (possibly dry rice) and consumption would have been well underway. Continuing the subsistence strategies from the Bronze Age, the Iron Age people in central Thailand, in addition to rice cultivation, were likely to have explored their local environment for supplementary food resources and animal protein. Since a trade net work had been established since late Neolithic (Higham, 2004), exchanging foods from other ar eas could also be a source of food procurement, although levels of participation among settlements could vary.


74 Protohistoric Period and State At the later part of the Iron Age, evidence for exchange/interaction between Thailand and other South and Southeast Asian areas becomes much more abundant suggesting extensive trade relations (Indrawooth, 2004). Glass and carnelian beads and bronze objects with high percentage of tin alloy in mortuary context are encountered in northeast and central Thailand. These objects almost uniformly display a high degree of Indian influence in material, technology, and/or style. High tin bronzes throughout western and central Thailand ar e thought to represent imports or influences from the Indian subcontinent (Higham, 2002). An on going excavation in Khao Sam Kaeo site in Thai Malay peninsula has produced a suite of evidence documenting the continuous participation of late prehistoric Th ai people in a trading network and the localization of Indian influenced craft production (e.g., Bellina and Glover, 2004; Bellina and Silapanth, 2008; Pryce et al., 2008). Higham (2002) emphasizes that it was the deeply rooted tradition of exchange networ k (inter and intra regional) that contributed to the formation of chiefdom societies during the Iron Age and largely facilitated the establishment of st ate level polities during the proto historic period in Mainland Southeast Asia. For Thailand, with an ex change system in place for approximately one millennium, central Thailand has been confirmed as the homeland of the early ~ A.D. 500 600 (Indrawooth, 2004). Whether the complex chiefdom (fragmented or but it is accepted that there was a ruling class with some degree of hierarchical differentiation among the ruled (Dhida, 1999; cited i the Iron


75 Age in modern day Thailand and Myanmar (Glover, 2010). However, the realms of political and cultural Dvaravati do not necessarily coi 65 66) these things -a culture, comprised mostly of Mon speakers who produced predominantly religious art and lived in large towns concentrated in the Chao Phraya Dvaravati are somewhat problematic as some propose it to have evolved from the already stratified societies in the Iron Age, while others believe external infl uence from however, agreed upon that by seventh century A.D., a large number of the post Iron Age sites displayed the moated structure, a distinct characteristic of the Dv aravati Culture (Indrawooth, 2004). The trade network established back in the Iron Age brought about the Buddhist belief and associated sociopolitical systems and artifacts from India. Indian influenced coinage, seals and sealing, and decorative motifs on ceramics featuring fauna and flora unique to the South Asian subcontinent started to appear in Thai Dvaravati sites. Agate, carnelian, and bronze personal ornaments continue to be common goods (Bellina and Glover, 2004; Indrawooth, 2004). Literary evidence (inscriptions and images) shows highly Indianized Buddhist sects widely distributed across Thailand and that Buddhism was the main religion of the Dvaravati elites, if not to all commoners. Religious items d stone carvings found in small scale sites in central Thailand (e.g., Promtin Tai) demonstrate how prevailing and pe rvasive Buddhist belief and Dvaravati Culture was during this time. Traditionally, the Dvaravati


76 was believed to be part of the confederacy controlled by the Mon people based in Thaotin (Lower Burma). However, recent reviews of archaeological, linguistic, and literary evidence led Indrawooth (2004) to suggest that the protohistoric Thai kingdom was derived from local chiefdoms established by Austroasiatic language groups during the Iron Age. Indrawooth (2004) believes that local elites acknowledged the supremacy of Indian Buddhist concepts in order to justify the legitimacy of their secular ruling in Dvaravati court. Administrative concepts an d artifacts brought in by the invited Indian priests contributed to the admixture of Thai In dian culture in the early historic period. Despite the debates centered on the political realm of Dvaravati polity (or polities), the Dvaravati Culture was extensiv ely spread across protohistoric Thailand and Burma. In Thailand specifically, Dvaravati Culture was most prevailing but not restricted to the Central Plains. Dvaravati influenced sites are found o n the Khorat Plateau in the northeast, Lamphum Province in t he northwest, Peninsular Thailand in the south, and parts of Malaysia bordering Thailand (Indrawooth, 2004). Sites that are more distant from the Indian subcontinent such as those on the Khorat Plateau and some in Central Thailand have degrees of Khmer and Hindi admixture, respectively cultural force and this admixture highlights the cultural complexity of the Dvaravati period. Focusing on Central Thailand, the majority of D varavati settlements are distributed in the Central Plain, mostly along major river routes. In the western portion, Meklong Ta Chin Valleys harbor large sites including Ku Bua, U Thong, and Nakhon Pathom (possibly the capital of Dvaravati, Boisselier, 1971 Lopburi Pa Sak Valleys (tributaries of Chao Phraya River) in central eastern Plain,


77 Chansen and Sub Champa are most prominent; and in the Ban Pakong Valleys in the southeast at the corner of the Gulf of Thailand Sri Mahosot and Muang Phra Rot are significant in their roles involved in Dvaravati transportation routes (Indrawooth, 2004, within the moats whose purposes could be irrigation and/ or defense (Higham, 2002; Reincarnation being its central belief, cremation gradually replaced primary interment in funerary practice as Buddhist concepts entered Thailand during the Dvaravati period. While some Dvaravati burial sites do e Mae Nang Muang, Clarke, 2011: 198), human burials bec o me very rare and our understanding of past lifeways relies heavily on inscriptions and recovered material remains (Glover, 2010). Settlement patterns indicate that people continued to settle along water sources that were suitable for subsistence and trade routes, as their Metal Age predecessors did (Eyre, 2006). Location of the sites is also advantageous in terms of access to irrigation water for agricultural purpos es in th e Central Plain. It is further suggested that these Dvaravati sites may not have been as far inland during early protohistoric period as they currently are due to episodes of sea level rise (Higham, 2002). Some sites that are nowadays landlocked may have h ad direct access to the sea at th is While this proposition has yet to be confirmed, proximity to the coast would have greatly in trade. As with social structure, differentiation of ruling and ruled classes was distinct with marked stratification in wealth, as already apparent during the Iron Age. Division of labor, such


78 as specialized craftsmen, merchants, and farmers, was also l Again, the unavailability of human remains prevents direct assessment of human diet and lifeways Paleoenvironmental studies analyzing phytoliths excavated from occupation sites and in c h annel cores suggest there was a regional wet rice agriculture intensification and explanation as early as 3,000 B.P. (~1,000 B.C.) (Kealho f er, 1997; Kealhofer and Grave, 2008). Community level water management and population growth are the accompanying features during this pre Iron Age period (Kealho fer and Grave, 2008). Since then, with the development of moated site (assuming they function as part of an irrigation system) in the late Iron Age and continuous expansion of population (inferred by site size), it is reasonable to postulate that (wet) ric e agriculture was the main subsistence during the Dvaravati period. People would have still practiced broad spectrum hunting and gathering to suppl ement dietary protein and m aintain a diversity of foodstuffs.


79 CHAPTER 3 SITE OVERVIEW AND CHRONOLOGY Human sk eletal remains from a total of six prehistoric archaeological sites are incorporated in this research. All of the sites are situated in central Thailand with five inland sites and one coastal (Figure 3 occupation length the se sites are spatially and temporally diverse and cover a range of ecological zones The inclusion of these sites and their associated human remains accounts for the environmental and temporal variability when exploring the relationship between human health/dietary change and sociocultural development during the Metal Age in Thailand. Figure 3 1 displays the location of each site. The ecological and material characteristics of each site are described below including information about the general excava tion, excavation timeline and note about the context o f the human skeletal remains recovered that are the subject of this dissertation Non Mak La Non Mak La ( Archaeometallurgy Project (TAP), was excavate d during a sing le season in 1994. In order to place Non Mak La in proper context, I offer the following brief overview of the TAP excavations in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley where the site is located. The TAP excavated a cluster of three sites in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley that are ~1 2 km nearby one another, namely Non Pa Wai, Nil Kham Haeng, and Non Mak La (Pigott et al., 1997). The three sites are within the administrative area of Huai Pong Subdistrict, Khok Samrong District, Lopburi Province. Non Pa Wai (~ 5 ha) is best characterized as a major copper smelting site. It yielded massive amount s of copper smelting byproducts s uch as slag and crushed ores.


80 Fragments of ceramic crucibles, molds, and chimneys are also evident. Traces of firing casting (bivalve) molds all point to the inference that Non Pa Wai was a major copper production site whose activities covered an entire suite of copper working including ore exploitation, smelting, and casting (Pigott et al., 1997; also see Pryce, 2009 a nd Pryce et al., 2010 for detailed analyses on copper chemical composition and metal working technology). Littl e spatial segregation existed at Non Pa Wai between copper/metal working and domestic activities (Pigott et al., 1997). I n terms of human remains 22 human burials (current working assessment) were recovered from Non Pa Wai Four burials have been dated to the Metal Age based on finds of either metal or casting molds associate with the buri als ( Rispoli, 2012 personal communication) Nil Kham Haeng r anges in time between ~500 B.C. and A.D. 300 and the ceramic typology indicat es the most intense occupation may have occurred between 300 B.C. and A.D. 300 (Rispoli, 2011 personal communication). This is the period also of intense copper ore crushing and smelting that resulted in the formation of the site which is >4 ha in size and ~6 m deep in plac es. Based on current working assessment approximately 14 h u man burials were encountere d within this period of industrial deposit. The presence of burials thro ughout the sequence, often associated with grave goods, contrasts with the burial pattern observed at Non Pa Wai. The excavators believe that Nil Kham Haeng was most probably occupied year around. T he presence and amount of faunal remain s, domestic ceramic s, and copper production debris support the in ference that the site was used for both intensive copper production and long term habitation (Pigott et al., 1997: 127).


81 Non Mak La, as a site, is l ocated on a hillside sloping towards a cr eek bank nearby and l ies ~500 m southeast of Non Pa Wai. The boundary of the site itself is not clear as modern agricultural activities and irrigation construction extensively disturbed the original landscape. S urface scatter of archaeological remains suggests that the overall site area could amount to tens of hectares (the depth of the deposit is ~ 2 m, revealed by the profile of a then newly dug irrigation canal ; Pigott et al., 1997). Non Mak La shares a basically similar chronologica l sequence with Non Pa Wai (P igott and Nata pintu, 1996 1997). However, c eramic production techniques and motif analyses suggest that the ceram ic traditions between Non Pa Wai and Non Mak La have a somewhat weak connection (Rispoli, 1997). Establishing the chronology and cultural sequence of Non Mak La is currently a work in progress. Thus, at this conjucture, what we know is that Non Mak La was occupied over the time span from the 2 nd into the 1 st millennium B.C. (Voelker and Pigott, 2012 per s onal communication). At Non Mak La, among the major finds we re 56 primary human burials that span the time range of the site. In contrast, at Non Pa Wai, human burials were encountered only in the deposits of Neolithic and Bronze Age date. No burials were encountered in Iron Age deposits. Domestic pottery and f aunal remains were also abundant. Ceramic assemblages and evidence of non metallurgical craft production (stone bracelets and associated manufac turing debris) were recovered at Non Mak La as well (Pigott et al., 1997: 132). At Non Mak La, the human skeleta l remains themselves are poorly preserved with a brittle and sometimes fossilized texture. Sediment conglomerates often obstruct


82 features on the bones preventing detailed observation of morphological changes. The nature of preservation without question mad e interpretation difficult. As part of an on going post excavation effort by D r s Judy C. Voelker a nd Vincent C. Pigott, the Non Mak La chronology continues to be investigated. At this time, t he human burials have been tentatively categorized into three gr Neolithic? Pre Metal, and Metal Age ( Voelker and Pigott, 2012 personal communication) This working categorization is based on the analysis of stratigr aphy and grave good associations. It sho uld be noted that these three groupings are in the proce ss of being refined and will most certainly change as more detailed c ontextual information becomes available. Currently, t here have been identified 20 Neolithic? burials, four Pre Metal Age burials and two burials associated with metal objects and thoug ht to be Metal Age in date (Voelker and Pigott, 2012 personal communication). In this study, for analytical purpose s burials belong ing to the Pre Metal and Metal Age have been further grouped together to form a Later group (N= 6) while the Neolithic? bu rial s form the Earlier group (N= 20). This further grouping was done to perform an intra site comparison on health and dietary changes through time. Again, it must be emphasized that these grouping s should not be considered final and the results are to be cautiously interpreted. Ban Mai Chaimongkol District, Nakhon Sawan Province. The site is east of the Chao Phraya River and is reasonabl y close (3 100 km) to other eastern Chao Phraya Metal Age sites such as Chansen, Phu Noi Tha Kae, Kok Charoen, and Khao Wong Prachan Valley sites. Ban Mai Chaimongkol was f irst recognized as an archaeological site in 1984 during a survey


83 conducted by the Central Thai Archaeological Project and formally excavated in summer 1994 and 1995 field seasons (Onsuwan, 2000). All human skeletal remains The site is on a low mound at the ju nction of the undulating terrain in the east northeast and alluvial plain in the south southwest. The m odern floral landscape immediately adjacent to the site includes rice fields, corn, and coconut (Onsuwan, 2000). While the exact size of the site is unknown due to modern disturbance, it is minimally estimated to be ~ 150 x 150 m based on t he margin of rice fields (Natapintu, personal communication, cited in Onsuwan, 2000: 10). In 2002, Onsuwan (Eyre) conducted an intensive survey in the Kok Samrong Takh li Undulating Terrain (KSTUT). The KSTUT encompasses a variety of landscape s as the undu lating terrain extends NW SE from the Takhli District (Nakon Sawan Province) to the Kok Samrong District of Lopburi Province (Natapintu, 1997: 49 50) lying alluvial plain, middle terrace, and uplands (Eyre, 2006). A two stage survey (a reconnaissance survey covering ~1000 km 2 and a systematic foot survey for ~60 km 2 ) was conducted to explore the structure and dynamics of the pre state Metal Age settlement system S pecifically their objectives were to identify subregional ceramic variation and potential temporal and geographic shifts in ceramic subregions, and to collect evidence for economic specialization among sites of varying sizes (Eyre, 2006). The preliminary chronology of Ban Mai Chaimongkol (Onsuwan, 2000) and Chans en ( a protohistoric site; Bronson, 1976) provide a basic framework to further refine the Metal Age Thai chronology using ceramic typolog ies developed from data collected in the KSTU T survey. The ir ceramic sequence h as also


84 been used to argue for a regional heterarchical inter community structure in central Thailand during the pre State era (Eyre, 2006, 2010; White and Eyre, 2010). Six 3 x 3 m squares were opened in Ban Mai Chaimongkol in 1994 and 1995: S15W24, S17W24, S18W2 4, S16W23, S17W22, and S18W22. Am ong them, S17W22 and S18W22 were excavated to sterile level s. S17W22 yielded human burials. However, these skeletal materials are not incorporated in this research since they are not curated with the main collection o n the Cha am Campus of Silpakorn Univer sity (Eyre, 2010 personal communication). Ban Mai Chaimongkol stratigraphy contains both habitation and cemetery substrates and g rave cuts often extend well into adjacent below habitation debris and/or previous burials, making chronological reconstruction difficult (Onsuwan, 2000, 2003). The multi component nature of the site seems to be a common feature among its contemporaneous neighbors in the region as a bout two thirds of the 25 KSTUT sites surveyed display this admixture of site use (Eyre, 2006). Ban M ai Chaimongkol also lacks a naturally well defined soil profile and stratigraphic interpretation is further complicated by frequent disturbance from modern activities, which further complicates chronology reconstruction. Nonetheless, a working chronology b ased on the grave cuts (superposition and disturbance patterns) and associated grave furnishing has been attempted based on data derived from excavation squares S17W22 and S18W22 (Onsuwan, 2000). Ban Mai Chaimongkol is divided into two major phases Bronze and Iron, where Bronze Phase has three subphases (lower, middle, upper) and Iron Phase has two (lower, upper). The density of Bronze Phase burials and scarcity of non burial materials during this time ( > 125 cm below datum) suggest that the site was intens ively used as a


85 cemetery during this phase and continued into a mixture of cemetery and habitation area during the Iron Phase. Onsuwan (2000) based on seriated pottery typology suggests that the area was used as a habitation zone during the lower subphas e of Iron Phase followed by a period of mortuary use. T here is no apparent hiatus between phases indicating that Ban Mai Chaimongkol (represented by S17W24 and S18W22) was continuously and intensively occupied. While no charcoal samples are available for r adiocarbon dat ing the site is proposed to have been occupied between ~ 2,000 B.C. to A.D.1, after correlating the absolute dates and ceramic ser i ation from 11 other sites in the region (Onsuwan, 2000). In terms of mortuary practice, burial orientation was varied where bodies were placed with heads pointing to East, Northeast, and South. There is no obvious pattern or grouping regarding head direction and time period. Heavy intercutting of burials (prehistoric disturbance) is commonly encountered and the ma jority of burials were individual was identified from either Bronze or Iron Phase contexts (Onsuwan, 2000). In general, burial goods include bead (shell, stone, ceramic), b racelet (stone, shell), stone axe, ceramic bivalve mold, iron fragment, bronze fragment, spindle whorl, glass fragment, earring (shell), bronze socketed axe, animal bone, and pottery (Onsuwan, 2000). Interestingly, the bronze personal ornaments (e.g., ring s and bracelets) frequently seen at other Metal Age sites in Thailand are not found at Ban Mai Chaimongkol (in S17W22, S18W22), nor is their evidence for metal working (Onsuwan, 2000, 2003; Eyre, 2006, 2010). A few Upper Iron Phase individuals were found i n shallow pits with mound burials. Also in this top layer of Ban Mai Chaimongkol


86 sequence, evidence of pots being broken before interment was observed in B5i/6i (Onsuwan, 2000). An overall impression, however, is that there was no apparent difference of gr ave good categories between Bronze and Iron Phases, except for the appearance of iron objects (associated with B6i) at the juncture of Upper Bronze and Lower Iron Phases marking the beginning of Iron Phase. Pottery assemblages also changed at this juncture as new pot forms appeared to supplement the pre existing ceramic tradition. Although some older forms stopped, certain pot forms found in earlier phases were well represented into the Iron Phase. This further supports the proposition that Ban Mai Chaimong kol was a continuously occupied site. The Ban Mai Chaimongkol human skeletal remains are in satisfactory condition. While fragmentary in overall preservation some cleaning and restoration efforts invested by previous researcher(s) greatly facilitated mor phological observation in this study Diagenetic factors were evident such that fossilization obviously took place when when lightly tapped, and the cross sections displayed si gns of deteriorated cortical integrity. The preservation of the Ban Mai Chaimongkol skeletal remains impacts greatly on stable isotope assessment. Situat ed in the upland terrain as many other early Metal Age sites are, the location of Ban Mai Chaimongkol is not suitable for wet rice agriculture (Mudar, 1993; Eyre, 2006) even though this time period is when wet rice cultivation was thought to have been practiced throughout the region (Eyre, 2006) P aleoenvironmental data suggest that wet rice was not nece ssari ly the focus of early plant cultivation, especially in upland areas. Instead, tree crops, tubers, and wild grains other than rice were more


87 likely earlier cultigens (Yen 1977; White, 1995b; Hather, 1996; Kealhofer, 1996, 2002; White et al., 2004 b ). Wi thin the complex tropical landscape, the KSTUT survey data indeed revealed that people during the Metal Age likely utilized diverse environment s and established and maintained sufficient subsistence strategies that sustained them for millennia, in dependent of wet rice cultivation (Eyre, 2006). In modern contexts ethnographic evidence suggests millet, dry rice, and tubers were typically incorporated as part of an upland agricultural system (Mudar, 1995). It is likely these crops were incorporated in the hum an dietary spectrum during the Metal Age in upland central Thailand (Mudar, 1995) and Ban Mai Chaimongkol people were no exception. Promtin Tai ) is located in Kok Samrong District, Lopburi Province, about 20 km northeas t of Lopburi City. It is close to the copper ore site of Khao Wong Prachan Hill (~12 km) in the southeast where copper smelting began as early as the 2 nd millennium B.C. and persisted well into the 1 st millennium B.C. (Pigott et al., 1997). The Promtin Tai village is situated on an eroded limestone terrace as part of the undulating terrain, at an elevation between 10 20 m above current sea level (Lertcharnrit, 2006). The excavated area is ~ 100 m from Wat (Temple) Promtin Tai that serves as the community ce nter of the village The archaeological site was first explored in the early 1980s and a test pit was excavated by the Thai Fin e Arts Department in 1991. Two human skeletal remains were discovered a ssociated with burial goods including as beads, iron imple ments, pottery, and bronze ornaments (Srichi, 1991, cited in Lertcharnrit, 2006: 259). While no longer visible, the original site contour is believed to be a somewhat small semicircular moated town ~ 1 x 1 km in area (Vanasin and Supajanya, 1981, cited in L ertcharnrit, 2006: 258).


88 A pedestrian survey in January 2004 was followed by a series of excavation seasons that continue to date, led by Dr. Lertcharnrit of Silpakorn University. During several months in 2004, four test pits were opened (PTT S1 S4), 3 x 3 m each and S2 in particular received extensive excavation until sterile levels were reached. T wo poorly preserved human burials were discovered, along with an array of bronze personal ornaments and pottery. These two burials, however, were left in situ and backfilled with all other pits when 2004 excavation season ended. Based on S2 excavation, Lertcharnrit (2006) offers a preliminary site chronology that includes four major time periods. Late Bronze Age A human skeletal individual was found in this bas al layer in extended supine position. The burial was associated with bivalve shells, bronze bracelets, and pottery. One charcoal (OAEP 2169) provided an uncalibrated radiocarbon date of 2430 260 B.P. However, the existence of a Bronze Age occupation was very limitedly supported, aside from th is single burial feature and radiocarbon date. Iron Age H uman activity continued from the basal layer into the Iron Age phase where the majority of extended supine human burials were encountered. The burials were ofte n accompanied with ceramics, iron tools, glass beads, bronze ornaments, and one individual was associated with a bronze bowl. In non mortuary context, stone and clay bracelets, spindle whorls, polished stone adzes, beads ( glass, carnelian and agate ) were common Lertcharnrit (2006) notes that similar artifacts we re found at other central Thai land Iron Age sites (e.g., Tha Kae, Chan Sen, Ban Dong Ta Phet). Three of five charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon dating yielded calibrated dates suggesting


89 th e Iron Age period spanned from 2860 220 to 1810 220 B.P. (Lertcharnrit, 2006). However, the earliest valid calibrated date (OAEP 2163: 2860 220 B P ) appears to be older than the OAEP 2169 that supposedly came from an earlier cultural layer. Aside fr om possible preservation and contamination issues, it is also likely that the burial and charcoal sample were intrusions from layers later in the sequence. Dvaravati Period (~6 th 8 th century A.D.) Promtin Tai was most intensively occupied during the earl y h istoric period. This is evident from the wide spectrum of typical Dvaravati artifacts, including Dvaravati spouted pots (fragmented), carinated pots, stamped potsherds, clay coins, glass beads, and lead earrings (Lertcharnrit, 2006). Ayutthaya Period (~ mid 14 th to mid 18 th century A.D.) Lertcharnrit (2006) observes a hiatus of occupation after the Dvaravati period b ut later the site was resettled or reused. This re occup ation episode was marked by recovered Sukhothai stoneware, Chinese porcelain, and an Ayutthaya style brick monument and boundary stones. However, the Ayutthaya materials are found in very shallow layers and within the plowzone. Subsequent disturbance after Ayutthaya period and modern agricultural activities obscure a definitive chronology during these late historic periods. As noted by Lertcharnrit (2006), the inclusion of Bronze Age in Promtin Tai is based solely on limited evidence and the issue needs to be explored further to confirm its legitimacy. Therefore, Promtin Tai in this disse rtation is considered a n Iron Age and Dvaravati period site. In February and March 2007, S3 was reopened and the wall between S2 and S3 was exposed. The 6 x 6 m unit in the 2007 field season was designated as PTT S2/S3


90 and yield ed 32 burials (although 33 burial numbers were assigned, however, B22 was canceled after analysis) A ll recovered burials from Promtin Tai are incorporated in this research. A n arrangement between the site director and local villagers in 2010 left 15 burials and associated grave off erings in situ after their discovery and preliminary study. Unfortunately, a flood in October 2010 inundated the site and all materials within the excavation square. The square was backfilled in April 2011. Surface finds and a rtifact s recovered from upper Promtin Tai include clay coins, terracotta tablets with Buddha image, and pottery indicative of a Dvaravati occupation (~A.D. 600 onwards). In layers pre ceding the early historic period, there was no apparent sequential break of occupation. Iron Age potter y and metal artifacts were encountered throughout the pre historic layers and suggest a relative dat efor the lower sequence to the Iron Age (500 B.C. to A.D. 500), which matches the chronological sequence in S2. The evidence of a continual occupation from t he late prehistoric to the early historic period makes Promtin Tai one of the rare sites that witnessed the prehistoric historic trans i tion in central Thailand (Lertcharnrit, 2006). Sticky clay was the main soil type in the entire Promtin Tai sequence wi th variation in color shades. The acidity and moisture content in the clay greatly jeopardized the post depositional preservation of human skeletal remains and all biological materials particularly the bones that were exposed to the air (personal observat ion) Regardless of the preservation conditions traces of mortuary practice could still be documented. Bodies were all arranged in extended supine position, in most cases head s pointing to the east. The body was buried with no apparent grave cut suggestin g soil covering on top was likely. Various grave goods were recovered in most


91 burials including pottery, spindle whorl, bead s (agate, carnelian, shell), ivory bracelet and earrings, iron tools (knife, socketed adzes), bronze ornaments (ring, bracele t), biv alve shell, and stone mo ld. It is particularly interesting to note that while most of the of the original vessel anatomy was intentionally removed before being placed alongside the deceased ) (Lertcharnrit, 2006). Iron knives found associated with burials, as another in real life). In Ban Pong Manao, Kao Sai On Noen Din (see below), a nd Ban Don Ta Phet (Glover, 1983, 1990), potsherds derived from deliberately broken vessels were (Ciarla, 2007a) and oods prior to interment, albeit varied in manifestation (Promtin Tai burials were not buried with scattered potsherds), seems to be a common mortuary behavior in Iron Age contexts in Central Thailand (Lertcharnrit, 2006). Faunal remains recovered from Prom tin Tai include bovine, Sus deer ( Muntiacus sp. and a medium sized deer), dog, large rat ( Rattus sp.), turtle, chicken, and snake bones and some teeth. Large amount s of land snail, freshwater shellfish, and freshwater fish made up the majority of (semi )a quatic species (personal observation) As for plant species, since flotation was not incorporated in the excavation method, potential plant specimens such as phytoliths seeds, or rice grains were not collected. Lertcharnrit (2006) suggests that the Promti n Tai people may have hunt ed and gather ed for foodstuffs from the ir surrounding local area.


92 Copious amount of slag, a byproduct of metal smelting, was found in non burial and burial context s, the latter with sediment direct ly covering the body. Stone mol d s and copper ingots (cf. Lertcharnrit, 2006: 262) were also recovered from the site. Just outside of the Promtin Tai village, iron oxide infused reddish earth is found in nearby hillside s where rich iron ore was/is exploited. All evidence supports the infe rence that iron metal working was in place in prehistory h owever, no sign of burn t earth or fragments of furnace or chimney have been found in excavated contexts suggesting the actual metallurgical workshop(s) w ere likely elsewhere Judging from the dens ity of burials, the area of PTT S2/S3 may have indeed been used mainly as a cemetery. In addition, Lertcharnrit (2006) speculates that the bronze ornaments and certain styles of pottery were imported, indicative of trading activity. The discovery of ivory ornaments and beads in varied chemical composition and typology, among others, also indicates exchange with other communities took place for the Promtin Tai people. While the Iron Age occupation in Promtin Tai appeared to be continuous, slight soil change s and ceramic typology variation warrant the division of burials into earlier and later Iron Age periods (Lertcharnrit, 2007 personal communication). Th is categorization facilitates an intra site chronological comparison of human he alth and diet. Albeit its small scale and poor preservation of biological remains, Promtin Tai helps capture the nature of the Iron Age sites distributed across the undulating terrain of central Thailand that are best characterized as small but diverse (Eyre, 2006). With large sca le sites existing in neighboring northeast and northern Thailand, the smaller sites in central Thailand do contain a wealth of information relevant for reconstructing past human lifeways.


93 Ban Pong Manao Ban Pong Manao is situated in the village with the sa me name in Huay Khun Ram Subdistrict, Phattana Nikhom District, Lopburi Province. It is 45 km northwest of Phatthana Nikhom Subdistrict center, 85 km northeast to modern downtown Lopburi City, and 120 km south east of Ban Mai Chaimongkol Geographically, Hu ay Khum Ram Subdistrict is at the eastern margin of Lobpuri Province and close to Saraburi Province in the east. About 10 km west of the Phetchabun Ridge that separates the Khorat Plateau and the Central Highlands, the village of Ban Pong Manao is situated on an east west slop e surrounded by streams and creeks ~ 180 m above current sea level. The major waterways are tributaries of the lower Pasak River drainage (~10 km west). Similar to many other Thai sites, Ban Pong Manao is located within the premises of a Wat that serves as community center (Natapintu, 2002, 2003, 2005). The site ( ) is estimated to be ~ 6 h a ( Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). Cash crop cultivation, namely sugar cane, corn, and sunflower, accounts for the majority of food production in the surrounding area. An archaeological team from the F aculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University in conjunction with the Thai Fine Arts Department first worked at the site after villages reported heavy looting. Italian researchers (Drs. Roberto Ciarla and Fiorella Rispoli ) affiliated with the Insti tute of Or iental Studies, Rome, sponsored by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs later joined the excavation and participated in intensive field work between 2000 and 2004. During this period 10 units were excavated, distributed across Wat Pong Manao premises (F igure 3 2 modified from Natapintu, 2005 ). SQ 1 and 4, joined by a wall (later exposed in 2007, designated as SQ 1/4), are located behind the main preaching hall and an on site museum is situated in the western portion of the


94 Wat SQ 2 and 3 are situate d a t the eastern portion of the Wat A large number of human skeletal remains, most associated with burial goods, we re uncovered in these four units Based on the pattern and density of huma n burials discovered, SQ 1 4 are designated cemetery areas of the sit e SQ 5 (3 x 2 m) and SQ 6 (2 x 5 m) are likely domestic living floor with recovered potsherds, faunal remains, and stone artifacts. While principally a habitation area, SQ 6 yield ed a large ceramic pot containing skeletal remains of a human infant. Along with another two infant jar burials in SQ 10, these are the only three of their kind di scovered in Ban Pong Manao (Natapintu, n.d.). The jar burials and associated goods are on display in the on site Pong Manao Archaeological Museum and could not be access ed, thus three individuals were not incorporated in this research. As SQ 5 and 6 are located toward s to the eastern margin of Wat Pong Manao premises, Natapintu (n.d.) suggests th e east side of the site could have been used as the living area where daily m undane activities took place. SQ 7 (5 x 5.5 m) contain ed mostly potsherds. A p artial human burial (feet) wa s ern baulk suggesting that this area could be part of the cemetery zone (Natapintu, n.d.). However, SQ 7 is a somewh at isolated pit ~ 60 m northeast from the main cemetery area (SQ 1 and 4) and no other square wa s opened in its vicinity It is possible that either the cemet ery area was unexpectedly large and extend ed from SQ 1 and 4 near SQ 7, or the partial burial was b uried in SQ 7 for unknown reasons. SQ 8 is at the southern margin of the site, close to a natural stream. It yield ed mostly potsherds and habitation debris, although this area was not as heavily used as SQ 7. SQ 9 in the eastern portion of the site, has si milarly limited habitation evidence as SQ 8. With ~ 1 m of archaeological debris including artifacts and fauna, SQ


95 10 is believed to be the main habitation area of the site. SQ 10 also has two jar burials with a young infant in each and is situated ~200 m west of SQ 6 (Natapintu, 2005). In 2006, a n archaeological field school led by Dr. Rasmi Shoocondej ( Silpakorn University Bangkok) excavated 7 squares/trenches (SQ 11 14, T 15 17) in the eastern portion of the site adjacent to SQ 2 and 3. Th eir objective was to determine the boundary of the eastern cemetery and explore the area between the known cemetery and habitation areas ( Lerdpipatwora kul, 2009; Figure 3 3, modified from Lerdpipatwora kul, n.d. ). SQ 11 14 expansions of SQ 2 and 3 yielded more human skel etal remains and associated burial goods T 15 17 are 1 x 7 m each located ~ 25 m east of SQ 3. The team found more human skeletal remains in the western portion of T15, while T16 and T17 did not contain burial related artifacts. It is preliminarily propose d that the transition between the cemetery zone and the habitation area wa s located east of T15 (Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). In 2007, Natapintu led another archaeological field season at Ban Pong Manao In the western portion of the site where SQ 1 and 4 are located, a 1 x 7 m trench was opened expanding the western wall of SQ 1 and 4 (Figure 3 4 modified from Lerdpipatworakul, n.d. ). The baulk separating SQ 1 and 4 was also exposed (SQ 1/4). M ore human skeletal remains were found within the newly opened are as enlarg ing the area of the western cemetery to 5 x 7 m. In the eastern part of the Wat immediately north of SQ 14, SQ 18 (2.5 x 3 m) was excavated and yielded more burials and grave goods (Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). A preliminary report detailing the locat ion and associated features of the human burials recovered from the 2006 and 2007 excavat ions was prepared by Lerdpipatworakul (n.d.).


96 Natapintu es timates that Ban Pong Manao contains two cultural periods, ~1,500 1,000 B.C. ( the early Bronze Age) and ~A.D 300 400 (late Iron Age) b ased on analyses of recovered material culture. The Bronze Age occupation is likely represented by a small hunting and gathering community. During the Iron Age, the population became larger and subsistence strateg ies likely becam e more complex a s exchange network s were more involved with neighboring groups (Natapintu, 2002, 2003). Natapintu considers this to be a complex society based on the well organized cemetery area being separated from other activity areas at the site (Natapi ntu, 2002, 2003). Variations in g rave good s (specifically iron objects and ceramics), however, indicate the majority of the human bur ials were deposited during late Iron Age occupation. The human burials were first discovered ~ 40 cm below modern surface le vel s which suggests that the site location was possibly not (intensively) occupied until fairly recently after abandonment of the site in late prehistory (Natapintu, 2005). The m ajority of the human burials at Ban Pong Manao we re in extended supine posit ion, except the three jar burials in SQ 6 and 10. Bodies were placed uniformly in east west direction, suggesting a well established tradition of mortuary practice (Natapintu, n.d. ). Somewhat alkaline soil (pH 8 8.5) facilitated the preservation of the bon es (Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). Grave offerings at Ban Pong Manao were more common than at other Iron Age sites included in this research (e.g., Promtin Tai). Pottery, in forms of sherd clusters and intact pots, wa s the most frequent grave good associated wit h almost every burial. One special feature was sherd clusters that were the results of intentional breaking of the pot and then arranging/scattering the fragments


97 refer at other Metal Age central Thai sites (e.g., Kao Sai On Noen Din, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Ban Don Ta Phet). Bronze ornaments (bracelets, rings, earrings), beads (glass, shell, carnelian, stone), o rnaments made of bones/marine turtle carapaces, tools (iron knives, spears, axes, a bimetallic spear point, stone tool), and fragments of glass we re frequently encountered in burial context. Among the non ornamental goods, iron knives were often curved tips). A number of burials were found cutting into previously interred graves indicating repetitive and intense use of the area for burial, both in western and eastern areas of the cemetery. This reinforces the archaeologi Man ao had segregated zones designated for cemetery and habitation. Based on a preliminary pottery study on 79 pots in burial context by Praemjai (2002, cited in Eyre 2006), Eyre (2006) points out that the ceramic assemblage from Ban Pong Manao is quite differ ent from that of Ban Mai Chaimongkol, both in form and decoration. Thus, Ban Pong Manao pottery represents a ceramic area distant from the Khao Wong Prachan Valley and the KSTUT survey area. Indeed, there were pottery remains found at Ban Pong Manao that r esembled the Phimai Black pottery tradition (Khorat Plateau in northeastern Thailand) in manufacture and decoration (Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). This ceramic typological similarity is consistent with Ban Pong and relative distan ce from the Khao Wong Prachan Valley. It also provides evidence indicating a certain degree of contact and/or exchange with people associated with the Ban Pong Manao site in prehistory. The discovery of tools and ornaments made of large marine sea shell and turtle


98 carapace, respectively, support the existence of a long range exchange system and/or contact with other non local communities. Fragmen ts of clay crucible and clay mo lds indicate the existence of on site metal working. Trace elem ent analysis indicates Ban Pong Manao people produced both copper lead alloy and high tin bronze. Slag and common encounter of iron tools point to the fact that local iron smelting was in place (summarized in Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). These observations mak e Ban Pong Manao inhabitants not only consumers of the metal products but also active producers during the Metal Age in central Thailand. A large amount of faunal remains were recovered at Ban Pong Manao throughout the excavated areas, especially in areas of habitation. The faunal assemblage encompasses a variety of species, ranging from Cervus (possibly include Cervus eldii the Thai brow antlered deer), barking deer ( Munt iacus ), Sus Bos Lepus Rattus river otter, chicken, fresh water shells, land snai ls, turtle, and small fish (Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). The wide species diversity suggests the utilization of a diverse landscape and ecological zones. geographic location, it is postulated that the prehistoric Ban Pong Manao lands cape was a grassland near deciduous tropical forest, with local water sources (Lerdpipatworakul, 2009). The habitat of recovered species is consistent with the proposed environmental scenario and underscores a broad spectrum subsistence that might compleme nt other facets of a developed Iron Age subsistence For example, f aunal analysis on Sus dental remains revealed that the age at death ranged from 4 to 17 mo nth s, suggesting that some degree of pig domestication was in place in addition to the possibility of wild boar hunting (Borripon, 2011 personal communication).


99 In terms of rice cultivation, rice husk and rice tempered pottery was recovered; h owever, the location of Ban Pong Ma nao on upland terrain was subject to extensive months of dry season which wo uld have made wet rice cultivation unlikely (Natapintu, 2002, 2003, cited in Eyre, 2006). At other highland sites, such as Sub Champa and Khok Charoen, evidence for wet rice cultivation was also absent both in prehistory and in the present day (Eyre, 2006) Instead, dry rice cultivation (and possibly exchange) could explain the existence of ric e remains at Ban Pong Manao While millet was not positively i dentified at Ban Pong Manao possibly due to the lack of fine screening and floatation procedure s during excavation, it is likely millet was utilized as a staple food. Millet prefers a dr i er grassland with limited water supply and thrives in a wide range of landscapes (Weber and Fuller, 2008), characteristics which match well with the environment around Ban Pong Manao. In Southeast Asia, foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) is the most likely millet variet y used in antiquity (Weber et al., 2010). However, the recovery of millet is rare archaeologically However, r ecently,Weber and colleagues analyzed carbonized seeds from Non Pa Wai, Nil Kham Haeng, and Non Mak La and suggest the presence o f foxtail millet ( Setaria italic ) at Non Pa Wai at the end of the 3 rd millennium B. C. (Weber et al., 2010). In addition, while not positively identified, the P anicoideae phytol iths recovered at Khok Phanom Di may derive from Setaria italica supporting the idea that the use of millet can be traced to the late 3 rd millennium B.C i n central Thailand (Kealhofer and Piperno, 1994; Kealhofer and Grave, 2008; Weber et al., 2010) Over all, at Ban Pong Manao a mixture o f gathering, hunting, and small scale farming was most likely the main subsistence strategy.

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100 Kao Sai On Noen Din administratively belongs within th e Muang District, Lopburi Province. The archaeological site was first identified in 1989 during the Thai Italian Lopburi Regional Archaeology Project (LoRAP) when veins of metal bearing ores in contact with layers of intrusive rock attracted the attention of researchers (Cremaschi et al., 1992 cited in Ciarla, 2007a, 2008: 313). Kao Sai On area was subsequently surveyed revealing trace s of prehistoric human occupation, particularly evidence for metalworking activities within a ~ 2 km radius of the site In 2 or IsIAO) led excavation that included two stratigraphic trenches in two locales within Kao Sai On TT1 (Khok Din) and TT2 (Noen Din). These trenches exposed diagnostic artifacts confirming pre historic human activit y (Ciarla, 2007a). M ore intensive investigation followed at Khok Din and more trenches were opened/extended at Noen Din a neighboring site, during the 2007 and 2008 field seasons. N o human skeletal remain s w ere reported at Khok Din (Ciarla, 2007a) However, at situated on slightly sloping terrain ~ 1.5 km northeast of Khao Sai On. Its modern landscape consists of farmland, patches of deciduous tropical forest, bamboo st ands, and palm and teak trees (Ciarla, 2007a). Sorghum and sunflowers are the main cash crops, commonly seen in Lopburi and Saraburi to the east. Villagers also collect taro tubers, edible wild plants, and honey to supplement their local diet. Between 2006 and 2008, survey and excavation in eig 7, Op. 1 East Extension) produced a total of 151.25 m 2 excavated area Ciarla (2008) estimates that the archaeological area at Noen Din to be ~0.25 ha at maximum The site exhibits

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101 elev ated bioturbation and shallow deposit s (~70 110 cm on average) were encountered in each excavated trench is best characterized as having a high frequency of artifacts and debris resulting from smelting sul f ide and oxide cop per bearing ore. Fragments of ceramic cruc ibles, furnace chimney, clay mo lds, slag, and stone hammers/anvils are common. Among the se fragments of furnace chimney are most significant in that they are identical to those recovered from Nil Kham Hae ng (~1 km southeast of Non Mak La ) in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley (~ 20 + km to the northeast). Th is find allow s for a rela tive date at Noen Din between the end of the 1 st millennium B.C. and first part of the 1 st millennium A.D. (ca. 200 B.C. A.D. 300) (Ciarla, 20 07a, 2008). Ciarla (2008: 335) points out that Noen Din may have been formed over a few decades during the central Thai Iron Age in which the metallurgical artifacts belonged to the same tool assemblage and were used during the same period. Whether the sit e was occupied year round or seasonally has yet to be determined, but nonetheless the site provides a window for life in the Iron Age particularly with respect to how a small community explo ited and utilized its local natural resources (Ciarla, 2008). It is noteworthy that the metallurgy related artifacts and debris found at Noen Din (in fact, Khok Din also contains a suite of evidence for extensive metalworking) represent all stages of the metallurgical production sequence (both mining and smelting). This is consistent with other Metal Age central Thai sites (e.g., Khao Wong Prachan Valley sites ; White and Pigott, 1996; White, 1997; Pryce, 2009) whereby relatively small communities engaged in almost all stages of metallurgy, beginning with ore removal and crushing (with stone hammers and/or anvils), smelting (involving clay

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102 crucible, ceramic furnace chimney), to casting (in bivalve clay mol ds). These activities not only require extensive knowledge about metal working but also demand intensive labor, skills, and logistic s As in many parts of the Old World, an organized regional polity network may have been in place to coordinate each stage of metallurgy and exchange and possibly involv ed a hierarchical structure (White and Pigott, 1996) controlling valuable resources and/or redistributing labor to achieve higher output. In central Thai sites, this does not seem to have been the case. A heterarchical structure has been proposed and discussed as an alternative to hierarchy based on the lack of evidence conform ing to the criteria required for a hierarchical network (White, 1995a; Noen Din discoveries reinforce the concept that a centralized power controlling metal resources and labor may not have existed in central Thailand during the Iron Age Similar to the practice commo nly found at Ban Pong Manao Noen Din skeletons placement of the corpse, ceramic pots were intentionally broken and either scattered at the area (partially or entirely) where the corpse would be placed or arranged (mended) into original state after the skeletal remains are exhu med However, burial practice at Noen Din is vari ed In fact, body placement and direction, the existence and arrangement of the potsherds, and pitted graves led Ciarla (2007a) to propose two mortuary ph ases at Noen Din based on data from the 2007 field se ason however, t ypological analysis on reconstructed pottery by Dr. Rispoli (associate researcher of the Kao Sai On archaeological project) later revealed that the pottery

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103 interred intact was typologically and structurally identical to those used as grave goods at Noen Din. Thus, only one mortuary phase was actually apparent (Ciarla, 2008). Regardless of burial layout, a wide array of funerary goods was found associated with all burials at Noen Din. Beads (shell, stone, carnelian, glass bead imitating carne lian), ornaments (bronze bracelet and ankl et, turtle shell disk), clay mo lds, terracotta furnace chimney s and pottery were encountered as burial offerings (Ciarla, 2007a, 2008). In one particular case (Op. 5 Grave 6), a newborn infant was interred with l avish burial goods including a necklace (18 carnelian beads and one shell beads), five shell pendants, a stone? anklet, three ceramic vessels (not intentionally broken), nine ceramic bivalve casting mo lds, and a bivalv e clam shell. The clustered mol ds were different in shape, size, and profile but all display ed clear signs of repair or were u nusable (e.g., chipped edges). Two of the three ceramic vessels, upon detailed inspection, showed evidence of restoration in prehistory and were deprived of their origi nal functions prior to entering the burial context (Ciarla, 2008). It is suggested that these unusable utilitarian items were offered as memorial symbols for this young infant rather than selected for their actual function as casting mold s. As for the ske letal remains, they are in very poor preservation due to heavy bioturbation and soil characteristics. Bones were reported to be fragmentary and some were fossilized upon their excavation (Ciarla, 2007a, 2008). Direct study of the excavated bone assemblage, stored in the King Narai Museum in Lopburi Province they are referred to publications) were designated based on partial pieces of anatomically positioned bone and bone scatter associate d with arranged artifacts (Ciarla, 2007a). Poor preservation

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104 of the biological remains greatly hinders assessment of paleo pathology and potential extraction of stable isotop e signals. Other biological remains recovered include bones and antler of a male de er that exhibited evidence of butcher marks and a clam shell ( Arca sp.), and the latter was found in a burial context (Ciarla, 2008). Khok Phanom Di Khok Phanom Di is a 5 ha low mound site situated in the lower Bang Pakong river valley in Chonburi Provinc e. The mound varie s in elevation between 7 to 12 m above the surrounding plain and presently is ~ 22 km northeast from the Gulf of Thailand (Higham et al., 1987). T est pits were opened in the late 1970s and early 1980s by local researchers and the site was intensively excavated by Drs. Charles Higham and Rachanie Bannanurag (Thosarat) for seven months in 1985 The 10 x 10 m unit revealed 11 natural layers and yielded a large amount of ecological and cultural remains providing information about the local paleo environment and human lifeways (e.g., Maloney, 1988; Maloney et al., 1989; Maloney and Brown, 1990; Higham et al., 1992; Tayles,1999). With a deep deposition of ~7 m the site was initially speculated to have evidence of past human activities over a time s pan of millennia. However, 18 calibrated radiocarbon dates bracket the site between 2,000 and 1,500 B.C. (Higham and Bannanurag, 1990). A total of 154 human burials were recovered and categorized into seven mortuary phases (MP) (Tayles, 1999). The mortuary phases (MP1 being the earliest of the sequence) are used as a sequential framework when analyzing and interpreting the recovered remains (Higham and Bannanurag, 1990). The area, speed of deposition, and number of burials recovered suggest Khok Phanom Di w as continuously occupied year round by a fairly large community performing a suite of daily activities.

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105 A series of cores sampled at the site demonstrates that Khok Phanom Di was established upon layers of clay deposited during periods of high sea level s tarting ~ 6,000 B.C. Pollen indicates mangrove was dominant between 6,000 to 1,500 B.C. (Maloney et al., 1989) consistent with t he presence of marine and estuarine fish species, marine and intertidal mollusks, mangrove crabs, and botanical remains All evi dence suggests that initial Khok Phanom Di occupation was near a major estuary with direct access to marine, mangrove, and riverine habitats (Thompson, 1996). Food items from marine and sandy coastal areas were most likely utilized. Material remains such a s shell ornaments are common and fishing tools (net weight s and fish hook s ) in burial context confirm the exploitation of a wide range of ecological zones for subsistence and artifact manufacture (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). Moreover, osteological analysis of the human skeletal remains found evidence for sea faring activities (e.g., canoeing) manifested as robust musculature on upper limbs and arthritis resulting from heavy use of the upper body, especially in males (Tayles, 1992, 1999). The broad spectrum of resource s exploit ed for diet continued until the first half of MP3 (or MP3A) corresponding to ~1,900 1,750 B.C. (Higham and Thosarat, 2004). At the juncture of MP3 and MP4, an abrupt and possibly damaging episode of environmental change occurred. Plausi ble causes include a brief period of receding sea level and the changing course of the Bang Pakong River and its estuary to the west. The loss of easy access to the sea and mangrove areas was evident in decreased amount s and diversity of shell artifacts, l ower diversity of recovered marine fish species, and absence of fishing tools associated with burials. In turn, a number of previously rare freshwater fish and shell fish species rose sharply during MP4 and MP5 accompanied by

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106 the decreased reliance on marin e shellfish species (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). The abundance n umber and variety of land oriented tools such as adzes, burnishing stones, anvils, and shell knives become evident (Higham and Thosarat, 2004). Pottery analysis conducted by Brian Vincent (199 8) further discovered a change of clay source and temper used in pottery ma nufacture between MP3 and MP4. O steolog ically male skeletons became less robust with lower prevalence of arthritis and shorter longevity for all individuals in general, and fewer i nfant deaths in MP4 compared to previous phases. Fewer infant deaths is perhaps due to a change of interaction with malarial agencies resulting from a switch in water regime (Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 2004; Tayles, 1999). Changes in all dimensions of dail y life and human biology observed between MP3 and MP4 portra y a dramatic transformation of the environment leading to a series of readjustment s and adaptation by this coastal prehistoric community Starting from MP5 (~1,650 B.C.) until the end of the mortu ary sequence (MP7), marine/mangrove shell species reappear in abundan ce indicating a return of salt water condition s around the site. Burial context also saw an influx of shell beads and other ornaments incorporated as grave offering s A t hick accumulation of shell middens surrounding some burials w as encountered, possibly resulting from mortuary feasting judging from their vicinity to burials and the quantity of shell in specific middens (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). However, freshwater and terrestrial spec ies remain common. H uman dietary choices seem to have remained marine oriented in the later part of occupation but were supplemented by freshwater resources (Bentley et al., 2007). Human skeletal remains demonstrate that males continued to be rela tively i nactive compared to MP1 MP3 and suffered from fewer degenerative joint condition s Dental

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107 wear and periodontal disease also persisted but was not as severe as that observed in MP1 MP3 suggesting change of diet from abrasive shellfish coarse food items to s ofter foods (Tayles, 1999). Another important find at Khok Phanom Di regarding food items was the presence of rice. With extensive and meticulous flotation procedures, remains of rice grains and chaff were recovered. In earlier levels, while not in great quantity, rice remains were identified as a domestic variety (Thompson, 1996). Rice chaff was also found in the temper of pottery in the earliest sequence. These potsherds, however, turned out to be exotic imported from other site s (Vincent, 2006). It is therefore uncertain if the rice found in MP1 and MP2 w as cultivated locally by the Khok Phanom Di people or imported from elsewhere. During MP3 and MP4, evidence for local rice cultivation appeared in burial context, including shell reaping knives and gran ite hoes as harvesting tools. In a rare case within MP3, a burial ( of B56 ) was associated with partially digested food preserved in situ In addition to freshwater fish scales and stingray teeth, small rice chaff fragments were among the items ingested. Al so in MP3, excrement ( B67 ) was also preserved which contain ed fragmentary rice chaff. Close examination revealed that the rice chaff was derived from a domestic variety based on morphology of the abscission scars (Higham and Thosarat, 1994; Thompson, 1996) The brief yet significant period of rice cultivation at Khok Phanom Di coincides well with the previously mentioned environmental change that occurred in late MP3 and MP4. The further distan t from the sea the condition is more conducive to growing rice (more freshwater). The presence of rice in later phases became rare starting from MP5, which again echoes environmental change. This time, the marine/saline condition s seem to

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108 reoccup y to the site making it a hostile environment for domestic rice to contin ue growing in abundance. Animal domestication, unlike other inland sites in Thailand, was not present in Khok Phanom Di, except for the presence of dogs. Other recovered mammal s pecies include deer, bovid, crab eating macaques, and pigs. Reptiles and wate r dependant species such as crocodile, otter, and sea birds were also recovered However, individual count of each species throughout the sequence was ubiquitously low (pigs and macaques were slightly more prevalent than other species ). S mall deer and wate r buffalo first appeared during MP3 and MP4. This is interesting as the presence of t hese terrestrial animals suggest s the supplementary status of land protein into the diet during this period (Thompson, 1996). Overall, based on faunal analyses, non fish/s hellfish animal protein minimally contribute d to human diet (Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 2004; Higham, 2002). Aside from the profusion of paleoenvironm e ntal data, the significance of Khok Phanom Di is underscored by the wealth of human burials and associate d mortuary practice (e.g., Bannanrung, 1991; Tayles, 1992, 1999). Interment patterns varied but in general bodies were covered in red ochre with head s pointing to the east, wrapped in shroud s and usually placed with various grave offerings. In the earlies t MP1 (N= 6), burials were found in discrete graves scattered within the excavation area. Beginning in MP2 and into MP3, burials were arranged into clusters with a few superimposed graves cutting into the earlier ones. Researchers interpret this as familia l burial clusters suggesting generations of related individuals (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). Among other grave goods, shell beads were the most common and abundant. The number of

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109 shell beads fluctuated among mortuary phases. Statistical analysis shows that MP2 is the earliest episode when wealth in grave offerings peaked. The variation and number of shell beads, in particular, we re much higher than in MP3 and MP4. MP3 and MP4 represent an episode of diminishing burial wealth in stark contrast with that of M P2 and that observed later in MP5. The number of shell beads gradually declined at the end of MP2 and persisted well into MP3. MP4 yielded the lowest number of beads among all mortuary phases. As the sequence progressed, two of the four MP5 burials represe nt some the wealthiest individuals at Khok Phanom Di. One individual ( B15 ) nicknamed old female found in a deep wide grave covered with clay cylinders (possibly raw material for pottery making) accompanied with elaborate grav e furniture She was wearing a shell adorned vest, ornamented with 120,787 shell disc beads, a shell bracelet, a headdress, two large shell discs on each shoulder, and placed with 8 to 10 pottery vessels. Parallel and nearby, a 15 month old infant (B16) wa s buried in another large grave adorned with thousands of shell disc beads, a shell bangle, and a miniature clay anvil, and a mount of clay cylinders. Also close to B15, an infant was found inside two large and elaborately decorate d pottery vessels. This i s the only jar burial discovered at Khok Phanom Di (Higham and Bannanurag, 1990; Higham, 1991; Higham and Thosarat, 1994; Tayles, 1999). MP6 shows a different mortuary pattern, where the placement of burials was located either under a raised structure or bu ried in a row. These two categories of burials were assigned as two clusters. As for the last mortuary phase, MP7 contains 4 burials at the eastern edge of the excavation square (Higham and Thosarat, 1994).

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110 A nalyses of grave goods (Bannanurag, 1991; Higha m and Thosarat, 2004) detected no clear relationship between amount and type of grave goods and age (adult or subadult). The only consisten t find occurred associated with newborn infants that they were almost always buried with no or few grave offerings, s ome covered by red ochre. However, once the individuals lived to at least a few months of age, they received similar burial treatment s and grave offering s much like the adults. With respect to sex, difference s of we alth were not significant in MP2 3. Yet i n MP3 4, objects made of turtle carapace were reserved for males while clay anvils (for pottery production) were found only with females children, and infants. In MP5 6, adult females are clearly the most lavish and wealthiest graves identified at Khok P hanom Di (Tayles, 1999). Upon close examination of the human skeletal assemblage, Tayles (1992, 1999) was able to reconstruct a life history of each individual based on osteology and burial context. She observe d that both males and females were frequently engaged in vigorous physical activities as shown in musculature development and degenerative joint disease. The location of these osteological changes between sexes and across mortuary phases suggests a division of labor over time. As mentioned earlier, m ales in earlier mortuary phases were generally robust and displayed signs of heavy repetitive use of both upper and lower limbs. In particular, right upper arms showed marked areas for the attachment of powerful muscles. Combined with environmental factors frequent canoeing was probably the main cause. Khok Phanom Di men may have used watercraft during their hunting and sea faring forays to contribut e to the subsistence of their community seem to have b ec o me more sedentary through the end of the mortuary sequence. On the other hand,

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111 female skeletons exhibited consistent patterns of strong musculature and various degrees of degenerative joint condition s on the upper body, upper limbs, and hands. These ost eological modification s correspond to repetitive gathering motion s which may correlate to the processing of foodstuffs and manufacture of pottery. Abundant, h igh quality, and elaborately decorated pottery was manufactured on site, particularly by women. T his is evident in the fact that pottery making tools including burnishing stones, clay anvils, and mounts of clay cylinders were more often found associated with female burials. Towards the middle occupation, the anvils were found only associated with fema le burials (Higham and Thosarat, 2004). Skeletal pathology on females shows a high degree of arm/hand activity suggesting robust musculature, thicker metacarpal cortex, and arthritis in the affected area (Tayles, 1999). Higham and colleagues have long prop osed that Khok Phanom Di people participated in exchange and trade with both nearby groups and inland communities, based on the recovery of pottery with exotic decoration motifs and ready made stone artifacts (e.g., adzes) manufactured with sediment source s from the distant northeast (Hall, 1993; Pisnupong, 1993). Also, domestic dogs and rice cultivation were likely the result of exchange or contact (Higham and Thosarat, 2004). Perhaps as a response to the environmental change during MP3 and MP4, fine potte ry was used as a means of exchange for marine/mangrove food resources shell ornaments, and/or lithic artifacts that were less easily accessible. Therefore, the higher demand of pottery may have led to females being more highly valued by the ir community, h aving elevated social status reflected in Thosarat, 1994). Furthermore, in MP5 and MP6, female burials not only outnumbered

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112 male ones but also contained much more wealth in terms of grave offerings. Analysis o f pottery motif s demonstrated that vessels associated with each burial cluster had a continual motif tradition over generations (i.e., superposition of burials), and there were slight differences in preference of motif placement on vessels among clusters (Hall, 1993; Vincent, 2004). All lines of evidence led researchers to suggest that a matrilineal kinship structure may have been in place to ensure th at a female oriented pottery making tradition, and requisite knowledge and skills remain ed within the community F emales were certainly treated with great care and respect upon entering the burial conte xt (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). A stable isotope study on mobility and migration was conducted by Bentley et al. (2007) usin g strontium ( 87 Sr/ 86 13 18 O) isotope data derived from human tooth enamel (representing childhood dietary signals). Results demonstrated that females from MP1 to MP3A had non local strontium isotopic signals (i.e., grew up in d ifferent locales and were buried at Khok Phanom Di) By MP4, females exhibit largely local signals in their 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values 87 Sr/ 86 Sr was defined by two standard deviations from the average 87 Sr/ 86 under the assumption that small children and infants buried at Khok Phanom Di were less likely to be immigrants from other locales. From MP5 onward, the majority of richly buried individuals showed local 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signature s in both males and females. Although t he 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values at Khok Phanom Di represent strong marine based signature and may indicate th at people originated from other coastal areas, the 13 18 O values helps to narrow down place of chi ldhood based on their diet. During MP5 13 C values of all individuals sampled fall within the

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113 range of a marine oriented diet, the clustering i 18 O values similarly show compact clustering. In particular, B15 and B43 (two richly buried individuals in MP5) yielded ident ical local strontium and carbon isotope signals indicating they likely lived in the same locale during childhood and consumed a broadly similar diet. With multiple isotope s ystems people in MP5 and MP6 very likely consumed a more similar local diet and wa ter during childhood. In short, women represented in early mortuary phases at Khok Phanom Di were immigrants from elsewhere, possibly by marriage. An abrupt change happened during MP4 where women buried at Khok Phanom Di exhibited local isotopic signals in dicating local residence was maintained well into adult life. Also during MP3 and MP4, ceramic artifacts show a vital transition using a new clay source and temper accompanied by subtle changes in form and decoration of produced local potter This phenomen on may be associated with women as potters entering from elsewhere but shar ing their basic ceramic tradition s but bringing new production and decorative elements to the Khok Phanom Di community during MP3 and MP4 (Higham, 2002). Bentley and colleagues (20 07) cautiously offered three hypotheses attempting to explain the fluctuation of local versus non local strontium signals among the Khok Phanom Di females over time. One hypothesis suggests a transition from a patrilineal to a matrilineal kinship system fr om early to later occupation. Females growing up on site were considered valuable since they possessed the skills and knowledge to manufactur e high quality pottery that would have been useful for purposes of trad e The second possibility is that women may have immigrated into Khok Phanom Di from inland areas during MP1 3 and from other coastal areas during and after MP4 for marriage, as the strontium isotopes show non

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114 during these mortuary phases. Another, less likely scenario is that the increasing evidence of rice cultivation limited mobility for Khok Phano m Di people, which may not account for the specific change in female 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from non local to local signals during MP4 and onwards. Nonetheless, the se results coincide with the changing patterns of residen ce and the environment known to have occurred during MP3 and MP4 Issues such as marital structure (matrilineal vs. matril ocal), transmission of rice cultivation, and material culture are further addressed using the bone chemistry data (see Bentley et al., 2007 for details)

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115 Figure 3 1. Locations of the sites included in this study

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116 Figure 3 2. Site map of Ban Pong Man ao showing ten excavation squares

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117 Figure 3 3. Relative locatrion of the squares excavated during 2006 field season Figure 3 4. Relative location of SQ1 and SQ4 during 2007 field season

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118 CHAPTER 4 PALEOPATHOLOGY AND STABLE ISOTOPES Bioarchaeology Bioa rchaeology is a term first introduced by Buikstra (1977) that is the study of human remains in archaeological context (Larsen and Walker, 2010). Following this nutri tional status, biological relationships with other populations, and some aspects of cultural practice in the past (e.g., Huss Ashmore et al., 1982; Larsen, 1997). Morphological observation of skeletal abnormality, or paleopathology, has been an important r esearch objective in bioarchaeology to assess the health dimension of past human well beings. While somewhat genetically predisposed, the development and maintenance of skeletal macro and micro structure throughout life are sensitive to cultural behaviors and the environment. Therefore, skeletal remains are also proxies to infer socio cultural behaviors and ecology that may affect individual growth trajectories, diet, human landscape interaction and animal/plant management (e.g., Larsen, 1997, 2002, Larsen and Walker, 2010). With the advances of biochemistry and molecular anthropology, the immense information extractable from skeletal remains greatly expands the inferential ability of bioarchaeology (e.g., Wright and Yoder, 2003; Katzenberg and Sauders, 200 8; Knudson and Stojanowski, 2008; Buikstra, 2010; Schoeninger, 2010). Either explicitly or implicitly, bioarchaeological studies have been conducted in a highly contextualized manner in which archaeological and sometimes ethnographic evidence may be incorp orated to interpret biological data (Larsen, 1997; Buikstra and Beck, 2006). A biocultural approach, developed prior to and around the formalization of

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119 bioarchaeology as a field of study (e.g., Armelagos, 1969; Buikstra, 1977; Goodman et al., 1988) is ofte n employed to expand the explanatory capability of the biological data. In this approach, observed skeletal variations may be attributed to the interaction between biology, culture and the environment (Larsen and Walker, 2010: 379). On the individual leve l, demographic parameters (sex and age of death) and general skeletal/dental health can be determined based on skeletal remains. Combined with biological data, the archaeological provenience and associated artifacts/ecofacts with the skeletal individual al low inferences on life history and individualized socio health is aggregated by appropriate temporal and geographical division as a population, the collective health o f a particular population and its archaeology can portray a scenario of past lifeways and address larger socio cultural issues (Larsen, 1997). As a living organism, skeletal tissue is constantly undergoing resorption and remodeling processes to maintain ho meostasis and integrity, sometimes in reaction to adverse stimuli from trauma or poor nutrition (Tayles, 1999). Aside from rare occasions where skeletal lesion with specific etiology or localized physiological insult is identifiable, the skeletal system is a bulk record of bone development, growth, and remodeling specific and systemic nature of information derived from skeletal remains offers a long term synthesis of interaction between human biology and the external elements. While visible acute or specific lesions in the skeleton may reveal details of past life, it is the collection of lifelong skeletal lesions observed in a population (community health) that is quantifiable and comparable. As this study pursues the trend(s) of population health and dietary behavior across time

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120 and space, the often non specific nature of paleopathological observation provides an informed perspective into the context as to how people lived their lives across a trajectory of increased social complexity. However, Wood and colleagues (1992) raise a concern that inferring population Simply put, since many skeletal and dental pathologies are age progressive, it could be wrong to conclude a population displaying few incidences of skeletal pathology is rs. Goodman and colleagues (Goodman, 1993; Goodman and Martin, 2002) have since offered a series of methodological solutions to mitigate the potential problems associated with the osteological paradox. Among them, Goodman (1993) stresses the importance of a multifactorial approach when conducting paleopathological assessment. While most of the common skeletally visible pathologies are non specific, they do have a suite of biological etiologies that could have resulted in their manifestation in the skeleton. after collectively assessing multiple disease/condition markers. Goodman (1993) also emphasizes the crucial role of archaeological context, subsistence and settlement, demographi c structure, and ecology (Larsen, 1997). More recently, Buikstra and Beck (2006) further solidify the importance of a contextual approach in bioarchaeology to temper the valid concerns of the osteological paradox. This study adopts the interdisciplinary ad vances in bioarchaeology by incorporating paleopathology and bone chemistry (stable isotope ratio analysis) to

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121 maximize the inferential capability of the human skeletal remains from central Thailand. Biological data are placed into a regional archaeologica l and ecological context to infer past lifeways of the Metal Age people in central Thailand. Paleopathology and Morphological Assessment of Skeletal Remains Bioarchaeology promotes a broadly defined approach to paleopathology, rather than the narrowly defi ned study of past disease, and encourages focus on both the manifestation of disease itself (infectious disease particularly) and the biocultural conditions contributing to individual health status. The latter group includes nts), congenital anomalies, circulatory, endocrine, growth (dysplasias), hematological and metabolic disorders; oral pathologies; neoplastic conditions to assess echoes the c all for a multifactorial approach in paleopathology inquiry as advocated by Goodman (1993). While microscopes, CT scans, and molecular analyses have been used in recent years, gross morphological observation of human skeletons remains the most practical an d direct means of paleopathological observation and assessment. In this study, due largely to contingencies of bone preservation and excavation, visual morphological assessment, sometimes aided by hand held loop (10x) and secondary light source, was used w hen conducting paleopathological evaluation. The pathological conditions observable on the skeletons are often considered stress markers. Stress here is defined as the physiological disruption of an organism resulting from environmental perturbation (Hu ss Ashmore et al., 1982: 396). In Goodman and colleagues Goodman et al., 1984, 1988, 1991; Goodman and Armelagos, 1989; Skinner and Goodman, 1992), stress is a product of three key factors: environmental constraints, cultural systems, a nd host resistance The

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122 environment and culture contribute to survival (e.g., natural resource s cultural practices for buffering stress) and are the potential sources for generating stress (e.g., restricted access to food resource s environmental or cultu ral induced stressors, and the ir combined effects). If the host (individual or population) is not able to resist the stressors, the environmental and cultural factors could in turn cause physiological disruption (stress) in the host At this stage, the hos t has reduced fitness and d epending on the magnitude of the stressor and the host s resiliency the consequence could range from acute illness to chronic physiological disruption that m ay eventually lead to death. This model underscores the importance of i nterpreting stress markers in broad cultural and environmental context, and is the underlying rationale for reconstructing past human behavior in bioarchaeolog y (Larsen, 1997). The cells in the human body are responsible for the development of dental and s keletal tissues and their functions are easily disrupted if insults occur while tissues are forming. At the skeletal level, the response to stressors is manifested as disruption to normal bone growth and remodeling processes and dental development, i.e., p athological or abnormal expression of skeletal and dental tissues (Larsen, 2002). The severity and pattern of stress markers on the skeleton are combined results of the interplay between the extent of environmental stressors and the host response to such s tressors The type, severity, frequency, and distribution of the stress markers all aid in drawing inferences on the functional and adaptive effects of illness at the level of the individual and the population (Goodman et al., 1988 ; Goodman and Armelagos, 1989) S keletal stress markers are categorized into two types, specific and non specific stress indicators Specific stress markers are those whose etiologies can be positively

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1 23 identified. Specific stress indicators commonly seen in archaeological skeletal assemblages include rickets (vitamin D/sunlight deficiency ), scurvy (vitamin C deficiency), treponematosis (osteological manifestation of venereal and non venereal syphilis, and yaws; caused by pathogens in the genus Treponema ), tuberculosis, and leprosy (Larsen, 1997). T he expression and increased incidence of stress markers in an individual usually suggests a systemic physiological insult is underway Thus, the m ajority of paleopathologies are non specific in nature. The most commonly assessed non speci fic skeletal/dental stress indicators include linear enamel hypoplasias ( decreased thickness of enamel ), porotic hyperostosis/cribra orbitalia ( indicator of anemia ), Harris lines (radiographically visible growth arrest lines on long bones) arrested growth and development ( decreased long bone length, decreased stature, delayed growth, reduced size of the neural canal of vertebrae, delayed tooth formation and eruption schedule, small tooth size, etc.), fluctuating and directional dental asymmetry, Wilson ban ds on enamel histological structure (pathological striae of Retzius), dental pathologies/conditions (caries, calculus, periapical abscess, antemortem tooth loss), and periostitis and osteomyelitis (general reactions of bone infection) (summarized in Larsen 1997 2002 ). Since it is difficult to gauge specific stress load using skeletal remains, non specific stress markers are often used, in conjunct ion with cultural and biological characteristics, to evaluate overall stress patterns among population s, and a ssist in inferring general health status within a broader cultural framework (e.g., Douglas, 1996; Ribot and Roberts, 1996; Keenlyside, 2003; Pinhasi et al., 2006; Fiscella et al., 2008).

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124 While most stress markers listed above do not directly lead to mort ality, there is a correlation between the appearance of stress markers on an individual and that shortened longevity (Goodman and Armelagos, 1989). This is especially apparent for individuals who suffer stress episodes during childhood. It see ms that these individuals are predisposed to early death (i.e., the association of childhood morbidity and early mortality) after being exposed to physiological stress ors at an early age A w eaker immune system and physiological constitution could be the r esults of these events that impair ability to cope with future stress (Blakely, 1988; Duray, 1996; Larsen 1997; Stodder, 1997). Among the stress markers, the following conditions and pathologies were incorporated in this study. A Multifacto rial Approach to Paleopathology a multifactorial approach in assessing population health using demographic and paleopathologica l markers. T his study incorporates the following growth and health indicators to evaluate human skeletal health of people from prehistoric central Thai sites. Stature In the past century, studies of adult stature have observed that average height from both parents is a good predictor of potential offspring height, which suggests that stature is highly regulated by the genetics (Lettre, 2009). Biological factors such as sex and ethnicity also heavily affect the attainment of stature. Genetics aside, environm ental factors (e.g., nutrition) and cultural practices (e.g., heavy axial load during growth) play a significant role in determining adult stature (Haviland, 1967; Bogin, 1999). Since growth occurs largely during childhood and teenage years, adult stature is indicative of

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125 health and nutritional status during these formative life stages (Steckel et al., 2002). Stature is not only related to the linear progression of growth, it also conforms to genetically regulated body proportions. Comparison of stature amo ng populations is therefore most relevant when they are genetically similar (Goodman et al., 1984). Estimation of stature from skeletal remains is most often based on the correlation between body height and limb bone length A series of regression formula e have been developed using long bone measurements from individuals with known stature and biological profiles (see Bass, 1995 ; White, 2012 ). According to White (20 12 ), the classic regression formulae developed from the Korean War dead that include d Americ an and Asian individuals by Trotter (1970) are the most commonly used methods in North America, along with those presented in Trotter and Gleser (1958) and Genoves (1967). It has been noted that the tibial length was measured in an unconventional way when developing the regressions by Trotter and Gleser (1958). Jantz et al. (1994) provide a set of adjustments for the 1958 formulae. In addition, Sjovold (1990) propose d a non ethnic method that may be used to bypass the population specific issue ( Pietrusewsky and Douglas, 200 2a ). Since stature varies widely among populations, stature estimation would be most accurate when regression standards derived from the same/similar population to be estimated are used. In Southeast Asia, Sangvichien and colleagues (1985, n.d.) derived a set of regression formulae from modern Thai Chinese cadavers. While the standard errors are not reported in their work (the long bone formula with the smallest standard error is the most ideal one for stature estimation), these are the onl y available formulae derived from a population relevant to this study.

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126 Dental Pathologies and Conditions A suite of dental pathologies and conditions commonly used to assess past health and diet is used in this study. These oral health indicators include linear enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, dental calculus, periapical cavity, and antemortem tooth loss. The etiology and implication to dental health of each pathology/condition is discussed in this section. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) LEH is a linear l esion of decreased enamel thickness result ing from disruption of enamel formation (amelogenesis) Tooth enamel, comprised of 98% mineral, is one of (Hillson, 1996). When an individual suffers from physiological insults, nutrients and energy are re allocated to maintain homeostasis and ensure survival, temporarily discontinuing the formation of enamel. Once the insult is eliminated or ameliorated, enamel formation may resum e (Goodman and Rose, 1990). The enamel matrix secretion is sensitive to even a short period of stress, such as diarrhea, fever, dehydration, and blood loss. When hypoplastic lines are observed on the same tooth on both sides of a jaw (its antimere ) system ic stress is often the cause and the lines are considered markers of survival (Goodman and Rose, 1990). Scenarios explaining the relationship between the physiological marker and demographic consequence include 1) an individual is naturally frail with low er thresholds against stress (manifested as hypoplasic episodes) and the frailty may contribute to their early death rather than due to a harsh childhood; 2) hypoplastic defects are caused by differential exposure to external stressors (social, cultural, b ehavioral) among individuals during childhood and these individuals continue to be

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127 affected by these stressors later in life; and 3) the physiological stress that causes the ph ysiological insults, leading to a shortened lifespan (Armelagos et al., 2009). For a population, prevalence of LEH suggests certain c ultural and/or environmental factors may have induce d stressful episodes for a portion of its population. In addition, too th crown formation occurs shortly before birth and lasts to the early teen ager years following a well established formation schedule with subtle variations among populations. Once a tooth is formed, unlike bone, tooth enamel does not go through a remodeli ng process (Hillson, 1996). As Armelagos and colleagues suggest enamel hypoplasia provides a kymographic record that is a Teet h are also the hardest tissue in the human body and preserve well even in hum id and warm environment s such as central Thailand Thus, LEH has the advantage of recording childhood stress episodes and is useful for address ing specific population level questions if systematically studied. With all these advantages, LEH has been routin ely used in bioarchaeological studies as an indicator of systemic stress for an individual and a proxy of population health (e.g., Skinner and Goodman, 1992; Wright, 1997 ; Pechenkina et al., 2002; King et al., 2005; Temple, 2007). With respect to M ainland Southeast Asia, LEH has been extensively studied in northeast and some central Thai archaeological populations and various sites in Vietnam (e.g., Douglas, 1996; Tayles, 1999 ; Domett, 2001; Halcrow and Tayles, 200 ). These studie s provide excellent comparative data for LEH data from prehistoric central Thai populations.

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128 Dental caries Dental caries is a result of the demineralization process of dental hard tissues caused by acids produced by bacterial fermentation of cariogenic sub stance s found frequently in carbohydrates (Larsen, 1997: 65). As the demineralization process progresses beyond enamel, dentine and cementum can be eroded resulting in gross destruction of tooth morphology, infection, and tooth loss (Hillson, 1996). Freque ncy of dental c aries is widely used as a proxy for subsistence, diet, and general health status ( e.g., Turner, 1979; Hutchinson and Norr, 2006; Temple and Larsen, 2007; Hillson, 2008). Personal oral hygiene, diet, and enamel defect s are all possible causes of caries. On a population level, a general association is observed between the development and intensification of agriculture and increased prevalence of dental caries especially in the New World where in particular contexts, maize is the principal carb ohydrate source (Turner, 1979; Cohen and Armelagos, 1984; Larsen, 1997; Cohen and Crane Kramer; 2007). In Southeast Asia, the trend of increasing caries frequency with the intensification of agriculture is often not observed. It is postulated that rice th e main staple of this area is less cariogenic W hile practicing rice agriculture and presumably consuming rice, people still consumed a broad spectrum of foodstuffs obtained from the ir local environment s Therefore, a more balanced diet and a lower portio n of cariogenic foods in their diet may have contributed to this phenomenon (Tayles et al., 2000; Pietrusewsky and Douglas, 2002a, b; Oxenham et al., 2006 ; Krigbaum, 2007; Ikehara Quebral, 2010 ). Dental calculus Calculus is the accumulation of the minerali zed bacterial plaque that deposits on the non occlusal enamel surfaces of a tooth. The mineralization of bacterial plaque

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129 occurs most commonly in a higher pH, or alkaline, oral environment (Greene et al., 2005). Calculus can build up along, above, and belo w the gum line, in all dimensions of a tooth (Hillson, 1996). Individuals with a protein rich diet that tends to increase the alkalinity, usually display less calculus formation, although other factors such as salivary flow rate, hydration, blood calcium p hosphate level s mineral content of drinking water, and silicon content of food and water also contribute to the formation of dental calculus ( Lieverse et al., 2007: 332) Food consistency is another contributing factor as s oft and sticky food tends to be captured more easily along the gum line, while coarse food is more effective in removing non mineralized bacterial plaque and preventing food remains from accumulating in the mouth Although not a pathology itself, when combined with other dental health i ndicators, calculus prevalence of a population is a gauge of dietary composition and dental hygiene (Lukacs, 1992) Periapical cavity Previously termed abscessing (e.g., Larsen, 1997), periapical cavity is caused by an alveolar nodule that contains a ben ign granulo ma and/or periodontal cyst (Dias and Tayles, 1997), often found at the apex of tooth root(s). If the inflammation persists, the alveolus surrounding the lesion becomes eroded and a small and smooth walled cavity would appear that is observable i identify benign granuloma and active infection on dry bones. Regardless of the term used periapical cavity is a periodontal condition caused by factors such as (but not limited to) dental caries, trauma, and exposed pulp cavity due to heavy attrition. If left untreated, the local infection could lead to antemortem tooth loss and/or systemic

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130 infection. Prevalence of periapical c avity in a population is routinely used as an indicator of the distribution of severe attrition and long term oral pathologies. Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) Antemortem tooth loss is the loss of teeth prior to death. The cause of AMTL can be multifactorial and distinct etiological processes are often involved. Signs of AMTL include resorptive destruction of the alveolar bone (shallowing alveoli) surrounding the tooth socket (Lukacs, 1989: 271) and by remodeling (closure) of the socket after tooth loss. AMTL is the final and most severe stage of periodontal disease, dental attrition, dental caries, exposed pulp cavity, periapical cavity, and trauma (including intentional ablation) (Lieverse et al., 2007; Lukacs, 2007). It is worth noting that in prehistoric S outheast Asia intentional tooth ablation is not uncommon. This is a cultural practice observed to often involve various combinations of ablation of anterior teeth (e.g., the lateral incisor is the second most common tooth group to be congenitally missing, or agenesis, after the third molar (e.g., Niswander and Sujaku, 1963; Garib et al., 2010). This phenomenon has also been documented in a prehistoric Thai site of Noen U Loke (Nelson et al., 200 1). The agenesis of lateral incisors, bilateral or not, coincides with the most commonly observed tooth ablation patterns recorded in Phum Snay (Domett and remodeling and diastema( ta) at the location(s) of the agenetic teeth are informative in distinguishing agenesis from AMTL. Similar to other dental pathologies, AMTL is an age progressive pathology since the longer the teeth are functional, the higher the chance for the risk of lo ss to accumulate A MTL has been incorporated in all comprehensive bioarchaeological studies in large scale Thailand prehistoric sites ( e.g.,

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131 Douglas, 1996; Tayles et al., 1998 ; Tayles, 1999; Domett, 2001; Pietrusewsky and Douglas, 2002a). Again, AMTL data from central Thailand will be compared to the existing data and address health issues critical to the region. Skeletal Pathologies Due to various preservation status among the sites included in this study, select cranial and postcranial pathologies are us ed as key indicators of prehistoric health. They include porotic hyperostosis/cribria orbitalia, degenerative joint disease, and trauma. Porotic hyperostosis/c ribra orbitalia (PH/CO) PH/CO is a cranial lesion caused by multiple types of anemia most often attributed as iron deficiency anemi a (Stuart Macadam, 1987 1992 ; Wintrobe, 1993 ; but see Wapler et al., 2004 for inflammatory disease; Ortner et al., 1999 for scurvy; see Walker et al., 2009 for an alternative e tiology of PH/CO ). The gross lesion is manif ested as a spongy or sieve like area on various locations of the cranium such as the cranial vault and eye orbits. If an anemic episode is resolved, remodeling process begins to heal the bony lesion. Therefore, stages of the porotic lesion (active, mixed, and healed) are indicative of anemic processes experienced by an individual at the time of death (but see Stuart Macadam, 1985). Prevalence of PH is positively associated with the intensification of agriculture and increasing dependence on cultivated produ cts in the New World. An im balanced diet, decreased dependence on iron rich foodstuffs acquired from hunting and gathering, and low iron concentration in plant food resources are often cited as explanatory reasons for increased prevalence of PH/CO (Cohen a nd Armelagos, 1984; Pietrusewsky and Douglas, 200 2b ; Cohen and Crane Kramer, 2007).

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132 While congenital anemia such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia may produce porotic reactions in parts of the Old W orld where they are common, the condition for iron def iciency anemia due to imbalanced diet is far more prevalent worldwide (Stuart Macadam, 1992; Wintrobe, 1993). However, from a physiological perspective, iron deficiency anemia may not be solely a result of insufficient diet. Iron metabolism in the human bo dy is reported as an almost closed system. Approximately 90% of the iron needed for the production of new red blood cell is recycled from old red blood cells which are destroyed by the metabolic system. It therefore follows, that very little iron is incorp orated from the diet (Hoffbrand and Lewis, 1981; Stuart Macadam, 1998). Instead, loss of blood, by menstruation, trauma and chronic bleeding, is the primary factor for decreased iron concentration. Infection, most commonly from parasites, has long been lin ked to internal chronic blood loss. Research on the prevalence of PH in populations with a high parasitic load has revealed that the incidence of iron deficiency anemia and parasitic infection are correlated (Hengen, 1971; Walker, 1986; Merbs, 1992). In 2 009, after re evaluating the underlying physiological and structural causes of PH, Walker and colleagues argue that iron deficiency anemia should no longer be used as the main etiology of PH. However, Oxenham and Cavill (2010) offer a counter argument that pertaining to iron deficiency anemia. Iron metabolism is a complex physiological process in the human body. A variety of factors and their interactions could affect iron status, including iron absorption, diet, blood loss, iron withholding, and genetics (Stuart Macadam, 1998). A singular etiology of iron deficiency anemia may not be specifi able

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133 based on analysis of skeletal remains. Thus PH/CO is regarded as a non specific stress indicator. Studies conducted among maritime foragers (Walker, 1986; Walker et al., 2009) reveal that the porotic lesions (often CO) were as common in these populations as tho se less dependent upon marine subsistence (or more maize dependent). This f inding counters t he expectation that since a diet with a marine component tends to be iron rich and provides sufficient amino acids needed for normal metabolism, its population would have lower prevalence of iron deficiency anemia manifesting into PH. However, a higher ris k of food and water contamination from fish/shellfish borne bacteria and parasites is equally associated with seaside dwelling that could also result in chronic blood loss, thus anemia. Degenerative joint disease (DJD) Degenerative joint changes, includin g osteoarthritis, are the accumulated results of multifactorial causes and processes affecting the health and integrity of the joints (Domett, 200 1 summarizing Hutton, 1987 and Hough and Sokoloff, 1989). While it is impossible to isolate the main cause of DJD at a particular joint, it is likely that repetitive heavy loading of a joint could result in the wear and tear of the cartilage and varied degrees of chronic inflammation Prevalence and patterns of OA are informative of occupational activities and ma y also indicate sex specific labor differentiation The clinical term osteoarthritis is used strictly for synovial joints. Nonetheless, in this research the bony outgrowth along the rims of vertebral bodies (vertebral osteophytosis) is included in this category as part of the arthritic expression of ca rtilag in ous loss. DJD has been systemically studied in Thai sites with better preserved human remains (Tayles, 1999 ; Domett, 2001; Pietrusewsky and Douglas,

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134 2002a; Domett and Tayles, 2007) and aspects of so cial practice (e.g., craft specialization, division of labor) may be inferred based on the differential involvement of joints among members of a population. Trauma Trauma is indicative of extrinsic influences of the environment on the skeleton and is often related to physical activities and risks that are subsistence /occupational specific ( Larsen, 1997; Lovell, 1997 ; Domett, 2001). It is important to document types of trauma ( e.g., fracture, dislocation), distribution of skeletal elements involved and degr ees of healing (if any). All trauma related data can provide insight to the lifeways of a population (Larsen, 1997). In previous Thai bioarchaeological studies, prevalence of trauma was recorded by skeletal element and compared among sites (e.g., Domett an d Tayles, 2007; Douglas and Pietrusewsky, 2007). However, poor preservation of the central Thai skeletal assemblages limit s the effectiveness of this comparative approach in this research Paleopathology in Southeast Asian Prehistory In Mainland Southeast Asia, scientifically excavated human skeletal remains are abundant and a series of bioarchaeological studies involving paleopathology have been conducted. While often coupled with a variety of socio cultural variables and social evolutionary stages, a per vading research theme is to address the relationship between human skeletal health and changes in subsistence practice, including the adoption of agriculture. These studies cover human skeletal remains from northeast Thailand (Tayles, 1992; Douglas, 1996, 2006; Domett, 2001; Pietrusewsky and Douglas, 2002a, b; Domett and Tayles, 2006a, b; Halcrow, 2006; Douglas and Pietrusewsky, 2007), highland central Thailand (Domett, 2001, 2004; Nelsen et al., 2001; Tayles and Buckley,

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135 2004; Domett and Tayles, 2006b, 200 7; Halcrow, 2006; Tayles et al., 2007), coastal central Thailand (Tayles, 1992, 1996a, b, 1999), northwest Cambodia (Domett and Quebral, 2010; Pietruesewsky and Ikehara Quebral, 2006), the Red Ma Ca Rivers of nor thern Vietnam (Oxenham et al., 2005, 2006, 2008, 2011; Oxenham, 2006). Rice impressions and remains on ceramic assemblages lead to a general consensus that rice was not introduced to Mainland Southeast Asia from China until 3,500 B.C., more possibly, afte r 2,500 B.C. or even much later, with variation by region (e.g., Higham, 1989; Glover and Higham, 1996; Thompson, 1996, 1997; Higham and Lu, 1998; Bellwood, 2001, 2005; Kealhofer, 2002; Weber et al., 2010: 82). Rice phytoliths have been dated at Ban Chiang (northeast Thailand) to be at ~ 2,500 B.C. (Kealhofer, 2002), although rice cultivation and large scale storage system s d id not become established at some sites until ~ 1,500 B.C. at the coastal central Thai site of Khok Phanom Di (Thompson, 1997). Rice ag riculture (wet rice and dry land rice) is the ubiquitous mode of food production in M ainland Southeast Asia with supplementary food resources derived from hunting and gathering. As briefly mentioned above, agricultural intensification in the New World wher e maize is the main staple is associated with deteriorating health reflected by heightened prevalence of dental and skeletal pathologies (Cohen and Armelagos,1984; Larsen, 1997, 2002; Cohen and Crane Kramer, 2007). To date, the paleopathological studies a mong prehistoric M ainland Southeast Asian human skeletal remains present a scenario where the association between deteriorated health and agriculture observed in the Western Hemisphere d oes not seem to have occur red in this

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136 area. People in p rehistoric M ain land Southeast Asia seem to be very healthy based on analyses of their skeletons and their health did not undergo any significant change (for better or for worse) while other socio cultural practices such as rice agriculture and craft specialization were b eing advanced (White, 2011). A recent review and comparison of prevalence o f each health marker among the M ainland Southeast Asian sites listed above can be found in Ikehara Quebral (2010). Owing to the vast diversity of landscape and climate in M ainland Southeast Asia, millet agriculture and sometimes a mixture of millet and dry land rice cultivation w as also practiced in particular areas (Weber et al., 2010). Recently, Weber and colleagues (2010) suggest that rice did not appear in central Thai archaeolo gical assemblages until the 1 st millennium B.C. In fact, foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) was the dominating plant utilized in central Thai context s as early as 3 rd millennium B.C., much earlier than the introduction of rice. Millets continued to be consum ed by past humans even after rice cultivation was imported into the area. Several of the sites incorporated in th is research are either in close proximity to the geographical area (Non Mak La and Ban Mai Chaimongkol) or in similar climatic zone (Ban Pong M anao) where the sites Weber and colleagues studied are located. While rice may have been the predominant cultigen in most parts of M ainland Southeast Asia, it is important to investigate if and how human skeletal health was affected by millet consumption a nd local landscape variations during periods of socio cultural change known to have taken effect prior to the Metal Age of central Thailand Concepts of Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis Isotopes of a chemical element are atoms with the same number of electro ns and protons but different number of neutrons in their nuclei (DeNiro, 1987). The sum of

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137 the protons and neutrons determines the atomic weight so isotopes of the same element differ in their mass. There are two forms of isotopes stable and unstable, wh ere the masses of the stable ones do not decay over time I sotopes of the same element generally have similar chemical properties (Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991) and m any elements occur naturally as two or more stable isotope s although some isotopes are more abundant than others. The difference in atomic weight of each isotope determines the chemical reaction rate with other elements and/or isotopes. L ighter isotopes (fewer neutrons) are more mobile and react faster than the heavier ones. Environmental a nd physiological factors of organisms either select for or discriminate against heavier isotopes over lighter ones, result ing in variation s of the isotopic ratio s in natural settings. This is referred to as the fractionation process. The difference is usua lly subtle but measurable using methods of mass spectrometry The fractionation process is often associated with photosynthesis, food metabolism, and temperature fluctuation (Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991 ; Ambrose, 1993; Katzenberg, 2000; Schwarcz, 2000; Krigbaum, 2003: 297 ). When a human individual /animal consumes plants or other animals, the isotopic composition from foodstuffs is incorporated into tissues developed around the time of consumption via digestive and metabolic processes. S keletal and dental t issues both incorporate isotopes, however, bone represents a long term average compared to tooth enamel process is complete. Three light stable isotopes are used in this st udy: carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Stable isotope ratios are the abundance ratios between the heavier stable isotopes ( 1 3 C

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138 1 5 N, and 1 8 O ) and their lighter and naturally abundant counterparts ( 1 2 C 1 4 N, and 1 6 O, respectively). The stable isotope ratio from a particular sample is then compared with an The standard for stable carbon and oxygen isotopes is Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB, Craig, 1957) or V PDB, calibrated against a standard gas laboratory equivalent (e.g., N BS 19 ) A tmospheric N 2 (AIR) is used as the standard for stable nitrogen isotope rati o (Criss, 1999). Since both bone collagen and bone apatite posses stable carbon isotopes, USGS 40 and NBS 19 (s imilar stable carbon isotope composition as V PDB) are use d as standards for each bone tissue fraction respectively. The stable isotope ratios are converted to delta notati on ( ) in per thousand units, or permil lower 13 C than that of the standards, the 13 C values from bone collagen, bone apatite, and t oo th enamel apatite are typically negative (Ambrose, 1993). There are two models that are useful to outline to explain how carbon isotope signals are incorporated into bone tissues ( bone collagen, specifically) The l inear mixing model, sometimes referred to as the carbon ions contained in protein, carbohydrate, and lipid portions of the whole diet equally contribute to the 13 C values from bone collagen (e.g., van der Merwe, 1982; Schoeninger, 1989). This model is best used to detect dietary differences among herbivores who acquire proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids from the same food source (Tieszen, 1991). In omnivor ous h umans, the three dietary components are obtained from a wide range of food sources (Klepinger and Mintel, 1986), resulting in the 13 C values from bone collagen and bone apatite sometimes displaying contrasting signals (Ambrose and Norr, 1993). Moreover i n a diverse environment with the co existence of

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139 C 3 and C 4 plants on the landscape this situation may further complicate the delineation of a C 3 vs. C 4 diet. Thus, the linear mixing model may not be suitable in the case of assessing diet from 13 C bone col l of prehistoric central Thai people as that mixture of C 3 and C 4 plants seems to be present by the Metal Age On the other hand, the routing model holds that the carbon atoms in different macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, and lipid) are deposited i nto skeletal tissues differently. For collagen (a form of protein), the carbon atoms are incorporated preferentially from the protein portion of the diet. For carbonate, the carbon is derived from energy generating macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, an d excess proteins) that are contributing (via the form of CO 2 in blood) to the composition of the mineral portion of booth/tooth enamel, hydroxyapatite (Krueger and Sullivan, 1984; Chisholm, 1989). Schwarcz (1991) coins the phenomenon of differential alloc ation of isotopically distinct 99), supported by animal experiments on controlled diet Ambrose and Norr (1993) and Tieszen and Fagre (1993) fed laboratory mice and rats with manipulated dietary components with varied C 3 and C 4 combination (i.e., differe nt proportions of proteins, starch, cellulos e and lipids), and later analyze the 13 C f rom bone tissues. Results of these experiments confirm that the 13 C derived from bone collagen yields isotopic signatures of 13 C dietary protein while the 13 C from bone apatite yields isotopic signatures that reflect dietary carbohydrates, lipids, and p 2003). Following this observation, the difference between 13 C bone ap and 13 C bone coll (or 13 C ap coll ) is indicative of varied isotopic composition from dietary sources that provide

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140 the carbon atoms to produce en ergy (carbohydrates, lipids, excess proteins) and protein. For animals that are strict herbivores and carnivores, the carbon atoms in macronutrients are synthesized from the same categories of food sources, vegetation and protein rich meat, respectively. T herefore, depending on digestive physiology and types of food consumed, herbivores have wider 13 C ap coll ( ) and carnivores have narrower 13 C ap col l ( ) The 13 C ap coll of omnivores, expectedly, falls between the two extremes (Krueger and Sullivan, 1984; Lee Thorp, 1989). Upon digestion, carbon atoms in food are metabolized and incorporated into various biological tissues. The process of enrichment during metabolism increases the 13 C 13 C diet collagen ) in large bodied herbivores and humans (Krueger and Sullivan, 1984; Lee Thorp et al., 1989; Vogel 1978; Vogel and van der Merwe, 1977). However, this is only relevant in a dietary setting where protein and energy macronutrients come from the same isotope ratio group (C 3 or C 4 ). If protein and non protein sources are in different isotope ratio groups, then the range of 13 C diet collagen fluctuates between Norr, 1993; Ambrose et al., 1997, 2003). As for the fractionation in bone apatite carbonate, it consistently yielded in animal feeding experiments 13 C diet apatite regardless of th 13 C difference between protein and non protein foods (Ambrose and Norr, 1993). This again supports the proposition that bone apatite follows the linear mixing model when incorporating carbon atoms from food sources. derive a 13 C ap coll 3 protein C 3 energy and C 4 protein C 4 energy). In a diet of C 3 protein and C 4 energy, the 13 C ap coll becomes much wider.

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141 When a diet is comprised of C 4 protein and C 3 13 C from on a compilation of datasets derived from modern control fed animals ( with various body sizes ) and archaeological human skeletal remains. They suggest that while the traditional data plotting of bone collagen 13 C against bone apatite 13 C produces significant correlation, this alone does not have enough predictive power to paleodiet because a considerable amount of scattering still exists along the regression line (Kellner and Schoeninger, 2007, Figure 2a). Similarly, standalone values of 13 C bone coll 13 C bone ap and absolute 13 C ap coll are equally insufficient to be accurately indicative of diet, if explained based only on linear mixing and/or routing models. This is especially the case for situations with mixed dietary sources (e.g., C 3 based protein and C 4 based energy, marine based protein and C 3 based energ y). Consequently, Kellner and Schoeninger (2007: 1122, Figure 2b) note that when 13 C bone coll against 13 C bone ap is controlled by dietary protein sources (C 3 C 4 marine), three distinct regression lines can be established that are useful to predict energy dietary sources regardless of animal body size and trophic level. As early as in 1981, DeNiro and Epstein demonstrated the relationship of stable nitrogen isotope ratios ( 1 5 N ) between diet and tissue s. The current consensus is that there is a ~ 3. 0 st widely cited) enrichment of 1 5 N per trophic level from produ cers to various levels of carnivores -an accumulation effect across the food chain ( Minagawa and Wada, 1984; Schoeninger and DeNiro, 1984; Ambrose, 1991, 1993; Ambrose et al., 2000 ). 96) literature search,

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142 herbivores have 1 5 N range 1 5 N 1985, 1989; Ambrose and DeNiro, 1986; Katzenb erg, 1989; Bocherens and Drucker, 2003). In addition to the effect of meat consumption, 1 5 N can also be used to differentiate consumption of terrestrial v s. aquatic (marine and freshwater) dietary sources. This is because the 1 5 N in marine systems is gen erally more enriched than on land due to the fact that nitrates are washed off from land to water, resulting in higher 1 5 N for aquatic plants and lower 1 5 N for terrestrial ones (DeNiro, 1987). Among the plants, marine plants have even higher 1 5 N than freshwater plants. Therefore, 1 5 N in marine carnivores are more enriched than that in terrestrial fauna (Schoeninger and DeNiro, 1984). Among the central Thai sites studied in this research, geographically only Khok Phanom Di site has the potential to have utilized marine resources for diet. However, all of the sites are located near streams or creeks. The aquatic spec ies from freshwater environment s uch as small fishes and snails may have been important food sources in prehistoric times. Despite the fact that 1 5 N values can vary greatly among freshwater animals, factors including habitat, diet, and maturity of the animal (Katzenberg and Weber, 1999: 655 in King, 2006: 97), the 1 5 N values from bone collagen should be interpreted with freshwater aquatic foodstu ffs in mind. Stable oxygen isotopes are found in bone and enamel apatite carbonate. The ratio ( 1 8 O ) is dictated by the environmental variation where the stable oxygen isotope ( 1 8 O heavier in mass) in water molecules is not as rapidly evaporated as the li ghter and

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143 more abundant 1 6 O isotope (Fry, 2007, Knudson et al., 2010). 1 8 O is highly reflective of local meteoric precipitation. When water is ingested or via food consumed, the constant mammalian body temperature facilities a predictable offset of 1 8 O i n bone/enamel mineral from body water (Wright and Schwarcz, 1998: 3). Therefore, 1 8 O often serves as a marker of environment, water sources, mobility (migration), and seasonality useful in both paleoenvironmental and paleodietary studies (e.g., Bryant et al., 1996; Schoeninger et al., 2003). Application of S table I sotope R atio A nalysis in B ioarchaeology S table isotope ratio analysis is particular ly useful in analyzing osteological remains because it provides an extra dimension of information beyond morpho logical data Although data regarding lifeway s reconstruction can be extracted from archaeological and bioarchaeological (faunal/floral) contexts, osteological remains are the most direct record of the interaction between an individual and its surroundings In addition, signatures of diet preserved in human skeletal remains have tremendous potential of inferring migration patterns, status, life history, land use, labor differen tiation, etc., all of which are critical aspects of both individual and populatio n lifeways (see below). Since the development of stable isotope ratio analysis in the 1970s, bone chemistry and bioarchaeology have been closely intertwine d. Refined techniques and theoretical models have enabled bioarchaeologists to use this approach in a ddressing important archaeological question s regarding past human behavior (Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991 ; Katzenberg and Harrison, 1997). In the last two decades, stable isotope analysis has been applied to more novel research problems and the traditiona l issues are tackled more sophisticatedly using a wider variety of evidence, along with

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144 isotopic d ata (e.g., Knudson and Stojanowski, 2008). In general, the use of stable isotope ratio analysis has tremendously expanded the research scope of bioarchaeology helped in the development of broader archaeological questions, and brought in a wide array of advances from other disciplines (e.g., geology, geography, chemistry ecology). Paleodiet Based on its chemical attributes and relationship with the physical en vironment, each stable isotope system characterizes a certain dimension of human dietary behavio r The interaction of these stable isotopic systems derived from skeletal remains furthers the understanding of human landscape relationship. C 3 and C 4 plants Terrestrial plants are categorized into three groups (C 3 C 4 CAM) according to the photosynthesis pathways used to incorporate carbon from atmospheric CO 2 C 3 plants are trees, herbs, shrubs and grasses mostly foun d in temperate areas. C 3 plants have 13 C values ranging from 20 to 35 with an average of 26.5 (Krigbaum, 2003). C 4 plants are grasses and sedges typically found in more arid zones with 13 C ranges from 9 to 14 averag ing 12.5 (Ambrose et al., 2003). CAM plants such as cacti, ar e also found commonly in arid areas and their 13 C values fall between those of C 3 and C 4 plants. These plants are less likely to be incorporated into human diet, except for those populations occupied in areas where CAM plants are prevalent and exploited f or food I t is the different photosynthetic pathways among plants that permit paleodietary assessment using stable carbon isotope ratios to be made One of the most prominent issues in New World archaeology is the domestication and consumption

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145 of maize (C 4 ) in prehistoric populations. Inferred from a rchaeological evidence, it was held that people relied heavily on maize as early as the Woodland period. Stable carbon isotope ratios from human bone collagen samples suggest it was not until the Mississippian p eriod tha t maize became the major staple in North American (e.g., Buikstra and Milner 1991; Larsen et al., 1992). The distinction of C 3 and C 4 plant foods and the amount ( % ) of each category consumed, based on 13 C values, are now used widely in paleodiet ary reconstruction worldwide (e.g., Ambrose et al., 1997, 2003; Pechenkina et al., 2005 ; Knudson et al., 2007; Gil et al., 2011 ). Trophic level and protein consumption Higher trophic level in human adults are often explained as having consumed (i.e., allow ed accessed to) animal protein. Animal protein deriv ed from either wild or domestic sources is considered food of higher value since it requires significant amount of energy to procure in the wild and/or to raise, and more processing is involved after the animal is captured/killed (skin, butcher, cooking, storage). Thus, in most agriculture based societies, animal protein is considered high status food or food that may be used in occasional feasting (Curet and Pestle, 2010). People consuming more marine bas ed animal protein will exhibit high er 1 5 N values due to the cumulative trophic level effect in food chain s within the ocean. Recent e vidence suggests that the amount of calcium isotopes 44 Ca and 4 0 Ca var ies according to trophic level (e.g., Clementz et al. 2003), and that 44 Ca may be a usef ul indicator of terrestrial meat vs. marine meat resource consumption (Knudson and Stojanowski, 2008). Marine vs. terrestrial based diet The main source of carbon for marine organisms is dissolved carbonate that has a 13 C value of 0 while the main carb on source for terrestrial organisms is

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146 atmospheric CO 2 with a 13 C value of 7 As food items were consumed, the 7 differen tial is reflected in mammal tissues and can be detected in 13 C values (Katzenberg, 2000: 314 315). W h ile complexity and uncertaint y may be raised if C 4 and/or C AM food items were consumed along the possibility of marine food consumption, the inclusion of nitrogen stable isotope signals and the development of a local faunal/floral isotopic baseline helps delineate a more realistic mar ine versus terrestrial based dietary pattern (in Katzenberg, 2000). F reshwater vs. terrestrial based diet For a period of time, it was assumed that freshwater fish had carbon isotope values similar to those of terr estrial C 3 consu min g organisms. Katzenb erg (1989) is the first to discover that freshwater fish actually have a wide range of 13 C values due to the fact that carbon sources of freshwater fish (lakes, streams, for example) include atmospheric CO 2 dissolved carbonate from rocks and soils, organ ic waste/decomposition matters from both terrestrial and water dwelling organisms. Freshwater fish also exhibit a trophic effect as carnivorous fish hav e higher 1 5 N values. Katzenberg and Weber (1999) derive a range of 13 C values from 14.2 to 24.6 v arying by the depth of the habitats among Lake Baikal fish, Siberia. More recently, sulfur isotopes ( 34 S ) in bone collagen are prov ing useful in elucidating the consumption of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial resources (Richards et al. 2001; Privat et al. 2007) Water and P rotein S tress Increased 1 5 N values have also been used to detect prolonged water stress both in the human body and in terrestrial organisms consumed as animal protein source (Ambrose and DeNiro, 1986). The rationale is that urea i s depleted in 1 5 N relative to

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147 diet. When under conditions of water stress, more urea is excreted relative to the total volume of urine and thus more of the lighter isotope ( 1 4 N ) is lost. This results in a greater proportion of 1 5 N being retained in the bod y for tissue synthesis in the future. Following this concept, elevated 1 5 N values could be found in protein stress ed individuals (human and animals) since insufficient protein intake could result in the breakdown and re utilization of existing tissues in the body that are already enriched in 1 5 N due to preferential excretio n of 1 4 N (Katzenberg, 2000: 318). It is important to consider all possible factors, suggested by the landscape, faunal ecology, and archeological context, to correct ly identify for the causal factors influencing higher 1 5 N value s in bone collagen, as it c ould be a reflection of increased consumption of marine protein (or freshwater fish), higher trophic position, and protein and water stress. Infant F eeding and W eaning P ractice One of the main goals of bioarchaeological research is to place the observed/an alyzed characteristics derived from skeletal remains into a cultural framework. I t is through this biocultural approach that bioarchaeological data contribute to the understanding of human lifeways in the past. Patterns of population growth have long been used as gauges for population adaptability to its landscape and cultural traditions. Duration of breastfeeding and weaning age, in particular, are directly linked to birth spacing, and population growth. Owing to their ability to identify trophic level, ni trogen stable isotopes are used as indicators of weaning process. By comparing 1 5 N values from infant bone collagen to the rest of the population (or females in fertile age, to be more conservative ), it is possible to derive a fairly narrow age range of tra ns ition from breastmilk (mother s tissue, one trophic level above) to non bre a st milk foodstuffs, i.e., weaning age (e.g., Fuller et al., 2003, 2006). More recent research has attempted

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148 to use t oo th enamel apatite ( 1 8 O 1 3 C ) and dentine collagen ( 1 5 N 1 3 C ) to further establish a more precise weaning pattern (e.g., Wright and Sch warcz, 1998; Fuller et al., 2003, 2006; Schurr and Powell, 2005). Human breastmilk is derived from body water that is 1 8 O enriched (i.e., higher 1 8 O ) than the 1 8 O in water ingested by the mothers. Via the food chain, suckling infants may have higher 1 8 O in bone and enamel apatite than weaned children as a result (Wright and Schwarcz, 1998). Status and I ntra p opulation V ariations Early applications of stable isotope ratio analysis mostly focus on dietary patterns with population as an interpretation unit Since the early 1990s, intra population differences, isotopic variations by age and sex specifically, started to draw attention of various researchers (in Katzenberg, 2000). Status differences included, isotopic variations within a population by demograp hic parameters could result from differential access to certain food categories, dietary taboos/restrictions/rituals, labor differentiation by sex and age, etc. More recently, studies such as Ambrose et al. (2003) have proved that isotopic data not only ar e able to provide unique insight into paleodiet, but also may help place human diet in broader cultural context. Population M ovement and R esidential O rigins Stable oxygen isotope ratios are associated with water sources and climate parameters. 1 8 O values generally decrease with increasing latitude, increasing distance from the coast, and increasing altitude, all of which are due to the fact that more of the heavy isotope, 1 8 O falls in precipitation Temperature and relative humidity are positi vely and negatively correlated, respectively, with the 1 8 O values ( e.g., Luz and Kolodny, 198 5; Katzenberg, 2000: 320). T hus, 1 8 O values in bone/enamel

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149 carbonbate (and phosphate ) are proxies of the water and climate related environmental signatures durin g the time period in life while the tissues analyzed were being formed. Strontium isotope s ( 87 Sr/ 8 6 Sr) are another useful indicator of geological origin as these correspond closely with local rock and soil. With reference mapping available, it is possible to pinpoint a specific origin of an individual based on strontium abundance in a particular geological region For many areas such mapping is yet available. However, by comparing intra population 87 Sr/ 8 6 Sr values among subgroups (sex, age, individuals asso ciated with special burial context, etc.) and local geological signals it is still likely to identify local versus non local individuals, and further address residency issues (Bentley, 2006). Ericson (1985; cited in Katzenberg, 2000) is the first to p oint out the potential of strontium isotopes for migration/residency studies. But t he combined use of heavy and light isotope analyses, such as strontium, lead (another geologically specific element) and oxygen isotopes, to investigate residential mobili ty (pre /post marital residency, colonization, ethnicity, population migration) is a relatively recent development (Knudson and Stojanowski, 2008). T his approach has great potential and its application can be found in a variety of prehistoric populations a cross the world (e.g., Price et al., 1994, 2006; Ezzo et al., 1997; White et al., 2004; Bentley et al., 2005, 2007; Montgomery et al., 2005; Wright, 2005; Knudson and Buikstra, 2007) Life H istory In bioarchaeology, a population trend is usually inferred f rom individual data points. With the development of microsampling and laser ablation techniques using tooth enamel, stable isotopes ( 87 Sr / 86 Sr, 1 8 O 1 3 C ) also have great potential to elucidate residential mobility and seasonal movement at the individual level. Life history can be traced with fine grained resolution on individuals with special interests (e.g.,

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150 people with a peculiar pathology/trauma, buried in a certain context/pattern, elites) using these new techniques (e.g., Bell et al., 2001; Sponheime r et al., 2006). A series of data points from an individual can also be used to t race individual residency mobility status fluctuation over lifetime and may lead to positive identification in special contexts. Aside from strontium and sta ble oxygen isotopes that are geologically sensitive, stable carbon isotopes derived from tissues of the same individual formed at different life stages also contribute to the understanding of individual life history. Tooth enamel apatite and bone apatite c an both yield 13 C signals. The 13 C value extracted from bone apatite represents the carbon ions incorporated from diet during the last decade of life due to the constant remodeling nature of bone tissues. Tooth enamel, on the other hand, does not remodel throughout li fe. Therefore, the 13 C signal contained in tooth enamel represent the dietary carbon intake during the time period a particular tooth (crown) is formed. In an adult individual, while the majority of the bones preserve stable carbon isotope signals synthes ized later in life, his/her tooth enamel retains the stable carbon isotope composition from early childhood and early adolescen ce The difference (or similarity) of 13 C apatite values between bone (later in life) and enamel (childhood/early adolescent) in dicates the dietary difference between stages of life. Individual life history data complement the traditional bulk sample analysis of bone collagen and apatite, and provide solid ground for more precise inferences and research questions regarding a sample population. S table I sotope Analysis Application in M ainland Southeast Asian Prehistory In M ainland Southeast Asia, the application of stable isotope ratio analysis on past human behavior has a shorter history, but the results and implications have been pr ofound. In a preliminary report, Bower et al. (2006) utilize human skeletal remains

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151 from Nui Nap (Metal Age, ca. 1 ,700 B.P.) and Con Co Ngua (Neolithic, ca. 5 000 B.P.) sites to isotopically evaluate the role of plant exploitation during the Neolithic peri od in Vietnam. Stable carbon isotope ratios were analyzed from dental apatite for the Con Co Ngua individuals, where 13 C and 1 5 N from bone collagen samples were measured for the Nui Nap site. In addition, trace elements barium and strontium isotopes ratios (Ba/Sr) at both sites were determined in an attempt to estimate the importance of marine v s. agricultural food sou rces. Results show an agreement with the incipient plant exploitation at Con Co Ngua based on archaeological records. Dietary C 3 plants that might have included rice played a smaller role than at Nui Nap. Also, marine food re sources appear to have been mor e significant at the Neolithic site than at the Metal Age site In Thailand, King (2006) and King and Norr (2006) employ stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, derived from human bone collagen and bone apatite from pre state Metal Age populations in northea st Thailand, to reconstruct paleodiet. The samples are from four sites (Ban Chiang, Ban Na Di, Ban Lum Khao, and Noen U Loke) ranging in age from 2 000 B.C. to A.D. 500. This study was the first to systematically recover bone collagen from sites in subtrop ical M ainland Southeast Asia. The results show a gradual shift in diet through time, especially among females, suggesting a transition of foods gathered in denser forests to those grown in open fields and/or partial consumption of C 4 crops, such as millet. There is also evidence for a dietary shift from terrestrial protein to aquatic protein, possibly a result of increased forest clearance due to intensified agriculture. From 2 000 B.C. to A.D. 500, human diet increasingly relied on

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152 domesticated plants and animals, while maintaining a broad spectrum diet of gathered local foodstuffs. Exchange of goods (including foods, metal products) in M ainland Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand during the late Neolithic to Metal Age period has been increasingly docum ented in archaeological records. It is apparent that people as the media of exchange were likely involve d in movement of residency. Bentley and colleagues (2005, 2007) utilize strontium and oxygen isotopes extracted from human tooth enamel of individuals f rom Ban Chiang and Khok Phanom Di (northeast and southeast Thailand, respectively) to assess group movements and marriage patterns. In Ban Chiang, t he results exhibit a high degree of intra site variation for males that fluctuated between different mortuar y phases An abrupt reduction of female 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values is observed during the second millennium B.C. (Bentley et al., 2005). Strontium ratios from males tend to fall beyond local strontium ranges while the tightly aggregated female signals show a local origin The authors argue that matrilocal trends were associated with the spreading of agriculture where male hunter gathers came to reside in female agricultural communities. Similar ly, a sudden reduction of female 87 Sr/ 86 Sr variance is found ~ 1,600 1,70 0 B.C., while a wider variance of male 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values persist throughout the Khok Phanom Di sequence (Bentley et al., 2007) T he data demonstrate trends of male immigration to the occupation from other areas. Accompanied by a clear increase in the presti ge of female burials, the authors suggest that a shift in the pattern of exogamy with a concomitant change in gender relations was possible. The possible male immigration patterns in Ban Chiang and Khok Phanom Di are very similar, despite the geograph ical distance between the two sites. Supported by

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153 the ceramic tradition in Khok Phanom Di, Bentley and colleagues (2007) further argue that it may have been part of a region wide social transition during this time period. A s imilar approach of strontium isotope s wa s employed to investigate the source of population growth during the transition from Bronze Age to Iron Age in Upper Mun River Valley, northeast Thailand (Cox et al., 2011). Teeth of 34 individuals from Noen U Loke site (300 B.C. A.D. 500) were sample d for 87 Sr/ 86 Sr 1 8 O and 13 C analyses. The data demonstrate the sampled individuals have tightly distributed isotopic signals in all three elements, indicating short ranges of mobility and small dietary variation. V ery few individuals (N= 3) have isotop immigrants from other areas. The authors conclude that the increasing population size during the Iron Age was intrinsic in nature (increased fertility), rather than extrinsic with respect to a movement of people. The biogeochemistry approach used on prehistoric M ainland Southeast Asian populations although few in number s has provided valuable insights to aid in the further understanding of many critical issues of the region s prehistory. Issues such as the exploitation of food resources, land use, migration and exchange patterns, intra and inter site dietary variation, are now better understood Along with other lines of bioarchaeological evidence (paleopathology, health status), human behavior in this region can be interpreted in a wider scope of biocu ltural context. Independent Archaeological and Bioarchaeological Evidence for Isotopic Data Despite being able to address a wide spectrum of research questions, i sotopic data cannot stand alone in effect ive ly providing meaningful information to the question s posted. Isotop ic analysis to infer human behavior is one approach. The basic rationale of using stable isotope data as a proxy to diet is based on the fact that chemical

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154 signatures embedded in rocks, soils, water, and air are incorporated into human tissues directly through ingestion of vari ed forms of these environmental elements, and/or through the consumption of organisms that lived in a particular environment. Without sufficient knowledge of the ba ckground ecology, isotopic data do not have a baseline framework with which they may be interpreted against Therefore, it is standard procedure to analyze faunal remains (floral remains are also useful although rarely preserved) from the same (or similar) archaeological context s being studied to retrieve isotopic baseline signature s from identified taxa when attempting to perform paleodietary reconstruction and address other interests. In fact, isotopic data used to address the above listed research inter ests are all derived from dietary signals, only these interests go beyond purely characterizing dietary patterns. Depending on the context, faunal remains may include species of free ranging local animals, animals that live on scraps of human food waste, d omestic animals with certain range s of diet, and sometimes migratory taxa It is also important to identify and understand the general dietary behavior of each species involved. Additionally, modern faunal and floral parts that may have existed during the archaeological period are sometimes included to increase the potential of understanding local and regional food webs (e.g., King, 2006). The isotopic data derived from the fauna l and floral analysis serve as a local isotopic baseline to facilitate the inte rpretation of huma n isotopic data. (e.g., Drucker and Bocherens, 2004; Pechenkina et al., 2005). It cannot be stressed enough tha t isotopic data should be placed in an appropriate archaeological context. Burial characteristics including body / face orientat ion, interred posture, location of the burials in relation to the cemetery amount

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155 and type of grave goods and placement, preservation state, and sp a t ial relationship with other burials/features, are all valuable clues to the biological and cultural profil e of an individual. These variables can assist in the inference of individual sex, age, status, possible occupation, and biological origin. Ambrose and colleagues (2003) use a previously studied group with variable status inferred from the archaeological r ecord at Cahokia to examine the isotopic variation among lower and higher status individuals. The results largely match the archaeologically inferred status and reveal a positive correlation between status and a cc ess to higher protein foodstuffs. Their arc haeological and isotopic data are in agreement supporting a status difference both in burial context and dietary habits. It is entirely possible that isotopic data can elucidate certain archaeologically invisible characteristics, or even contradict the arc haeological inference. Nonetheless, archaeological data not only serve as complementary data for isotopic analysis, but can also be formulated as hypotheses being tested using bone chemistry methods Moreover, bioarchaeological data such as prevalence of p aleopathology (disease markers, age related wear and tear, growth arrest indicators, trauma, congenital deformity ) and dental wear (gross and micro) are critical in providing parameters for the individual samples analyzed isotopically. The approach of comb ining bioarchaeological data with isotopic data has been increasingly prevalent in prehistoric population studies (e.g., Larsen, 2002; Hutchinson and Norr, 2006; Pechenkina et al., 2007; Knudson and Stojanowski, 2008). For example, Wright (1994, Wright and White, 1996) assess es the validity of ecological models of the Classic Maya collapse in which elevated disease and deteriorating diet are commonly assumed by evaluating both skeletal pathology

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156 and stable isotopic signals. The results show that neither d ataset consistently supports this long held model, and therefore, other political and environmental factors may have played a bigger role in the collapse in Classic Maya. Krigbaum (2007) presents acquired dental pathology data in conjuncture with stable ca rbon isotope ratios to explore the dietary shift during Neolithic occupation in island Southeast Asia. The research demonstrates that the dental data complement the isotopic results, both of which suggest a gradual dietary shift toward s increasing consumpt ion of plant foods grown in more open habitats, while maintaining a broad spectrum for aging pattern

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157 CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY Paleopathology Observation Protocol To accommodate the varied excavation methods and preservation status of each site, the assessment of human skeletal health was conducted in slightly different manners. Specific paleopathological observation and sampling process are detailed in the following sections where the condition of each site and its skeletal assemblage and burial context are de scribed. However, the standards and methods of demographic and paleopathological analyses are held consistent as outlined in this section. Demography Age at death and sex of each skeletal individual w as assessed using the standards and guidelines in Buikst ra and Ubelaker (1994). A ge determination criteria utilized include d dental eruption/formation sequence, epiphyseal fusion, pubic symphyseal morphology, cranial suture closure, and tooth wear. When possible, an individual was categorized into one of the fo llowing age categories: subadult (0 20 years old), young adult (20 35 years old), middle adult (35 50 years old), and old adult (50 years and older). When preservation hindered confident assignment of age category, an individual was determined to be an adu lt or subadult based on available skeletal features. In cases of particular ly bad preservation, age estimation was not attempted and an individual was categorized as unknown with respect to age. F iner age categories have been used in other Southeast Asia n bioarchaeological studies (e.g., Tayles, 1999; Douglas, 2006; Domett and Tayles, 2006; Oxenham et al., 2006; Ikehara Quebral, 2010) h owever, the mostly poor preservation of the studied skeletal remains

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158 in this dissertation preclude more specific age cat egories, at the same time maintaining statistical relevancy for data analysis. Following conventional practice, only adult individuals ( > 20 years) were assessed for sex determination. While there were several late adolescent individuals whose sex was dete rminable, the se result s w ere not used in data analysis unless otherwise noted for consistency purpose s The criteria for sex determination include d non metric pelvic and cranial morphology as outlined in Buikstra and Ubelaker ( 1994). Stature Stature estim ation was conducted on adult individuals only to ensure growth had ceased and an individual had reached his/her maximum height. As stated in Chapter 4 stature is a relatively stable genetic trait that may be influenced by the interplay of biological and c ultural factors. Stature estimation standards are highly population specific, as stature not only reflects linear growth of an individual but also body proportion. Among various sets of population stature estimation standard s the regression formulae deriv ed from Thai Chinese cadavers by Sangvichien and colleagues (1985, n.d.) were chosen for stature estimation in this study (Table 5 1). This decision assumes that 1) body proportion of prehistoric and modern Thai people remain somewhat comparable; and 2) th e secular change s in stature among modern Thai people due to dietary and cultural reasons is negligible. Furthermore, their regression formulae have been widely used in other Southeast Asian bioarchaeological studies which enable the data generated in this study comparable with the published literature Intact long bones were measured following the definitions and illustrations in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994).

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159 Dental Pathologies and Conditions As described earlier, a number of human skeletal materials at so me of the central Thai sites incorporated in this study remained in situ in the excavation pits. This practice often prevents a thorough observation of the posterior dentition and the lingual aspects of the teeth. The following section details the ob servat ion procedures, restrictions, and attempt s to mitigate these restrictions for each dental pathology and condition. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) Linear enamel hypoplasia, represented as linear depression on dental enamel, was observed on all dimensions of observable tooth crowns. When necessary, palpation and/or a dental pick were used to verify the results of visual inspection. For dentitions that remained in situ or partially obstructed, cautious and minimal cleaning procedures were employed to expose th e enamel surfaces for observation. A dental inspection mirror and a flashlight were sometimes used to assess the lingual aspect of teeth if un observable via direct visual inspection. C leaning procedures and additional observation were applied to all dental pathologies scored, listed below. LEH was scored as present or absent for each tooth. When calculating LEH prevalence, the tooth count method wa s the main reporting method adopted Number of individuals present with LEH defects wa s reported while overall prevalence of LEH by individual count wa s not reported since the number of teeth preserved for each individual varies widely across the samples observed A s imilar analytical approach was used for all dental and skeletal pathologies/conditions described b elow. Dental caries Each tooth available for observation was scored as absent or present for a carious lesion. Location and general morphology of each lesion was also described.

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160 Prevalence of caries wa s reported and compared by tooth count. Since severe ca ries can result in tooth loss, Lukacs (1995) propose d a caries rate correction factor using the number of teeth lost antemortem (antemortem tooth loss AMTL) to account for severely carious teeth that may have fallen out prior to death. Considering the rar ity and the lack of severity of observed carious lesions in the studied samples ( see Chapter 6), the caries rate correction factor was not applied in this study to avoid artificially inflating caries prevalence. However, special cases were noted where it w as likely that a periapical cavity or antemortem tooth loss loci was the result of severe dental caries. Dental calculus All observable teeth were assessed as absent or present for dental calculates. Special caution was used when exposing the obstructed t eeth to ensure no calculus deposits were accidentally removed. Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994, citing Brothwell, 1981) categorize dental calculus into three subcategories based on the amount of buil d up. A g eneral observation on the studied dental remains is that the overall prevalence of calculus was low only a small number of teeth were present with calculus build up reports the prevalence of dental calculus by tooth co unt and does not include subcategories of severity. Periapical cavity Bony loss and remodeling of the alveolar processes was scored and the tooth position associated with the periapical cavity was recorded. Since periapical cavity is a result of pulp chamb er infection (Hillson, 2008), depending on the stage of infection and severity, the bony loss can occur when a tooth was still in its socket or may have been lost antemortem Thus, the alveolar position (remodeled or not) was used as the

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161 denominator to cal culate periapical cavity prevalence. Each alveolus was scored as present or absent with respect to evidence of bony loss or remodeling around the locations of the tooth roots. Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) Tooth loss before death is the ultimate result of dental caries, periodontal diseases, trauma, attrition, or any combination of these factors. Antemortem tooth loss ( AMTL ) was scored as present when clear signs of socket remodeling w ere observed at particular loci of the alveolus Possible ambiguities bet ween AMTL and dental agenesis, particularly for third molars and some anterior teeth, were mitigated by detailed inspection of tooth antimeres (corresponding teeth in the same jaw ) dental attrition of the occlus al surfaces of the antimeres, dental realign ment, and the alveolar process proper The n umber of the alveolar positions scored was used as the denominator for AMTL prevalence. Skeletal Pathologies All available human skeletal remains were examined for skeletal pathologies. U nlike the dentition, s kel etal remains from the central Thai sites were often in a highly fragmented state. O b servation attempts were made to enhence data accuracy and consistency, while the highest priority was given to maintaining collection integrity. Porotic hyperostosis/c ribr a orbitalia (PH/CO) While combining porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia as one collective indicator for anemia, both location (bone type) and stage of healing (active, remo deling, remodeled ) were examined on available cranial bones and eye orbits. Th e lesion patterns, hair on or onion skin as termed in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), were

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162 distinguished. W hen cranial bones were obstructed, careful cleaning attempts were employed to expose and view the requisite surfaces of the skull Degenerative joint diseases ( DJD ) All accessible joint areas were examined for evidence of degenerative joint diseases. As osteoarthritic reaction manifests into multiple forms, detailed description of each osteoarthritic condition was performed. Following the data re cording instructions in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), the description of each affected joint included bone(s) involved, bony growth (osteophytes and/or bony spurs on non vertebral joints), porosity and exten t of joint deformation. Trauma All available hum an skeletal remains were assessed for signs of traumatic injuries, following guidelines in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994). Possible types, skeletal elements involved exten t of deformity and remo del ing stages were noted. Due to the rarity of trauma across t he studied skeletal samples and unequal preservation among skeletal elements, individual description of trauma is reported instead of overall prevalence Collection Condition, Paleopathology Observation, and Sampling Depending on the location curation, an d condition of each human skeletal assemblage reviewed in this study paleopathology observation and sampling strategies varied slightly. Paleopathology studies previously completed by various researchers are noted for a subsample of Ban Mai Chaimongkol (P uenpathom, 1996; Pureepatpong 1996) and Ban Pong Manao ( Lerdpipatworakul 2003, 2009 ) and the entire sample for Non Mak La (Agelarakis, 2010, 2012a, 2012b) and Khok Phanom Di (Tayles, 1992,

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163 1999). Each study focused on different but overlapping sets of he alth markers, using various reference s In terms of a sampling strategy for stable isotop e analysis one bone and one tooth from each individual was the goal to maximize the amount of information while preserving burial integrity. All human bone and t oo th samples selected had no evidence of pathology or diagnostic features. Faunal bones sample d we re also free of pathology but were diagnostic or identifiable to the smallest taxonomic level possible. Non Mak La The Non Mak La human skeletal remains are curre ntly curated at Adelphi University ( Garden City, New York ) under the care of Dr. Anagnostis Agelarakis. The preservation of the Non Mak La skeletal assemblage is poor. S imilar to the preservation at Promtin Tai, the Non Mak La bone was re calcified in its b urial environment Many skeletal features we re inaccessible due to the conglomeration of multiple bones and/or masses of soil / dried clay. Bones we re mostly brittle and fragmentary with no mending of long bones possible. T herefore, no stature estimation cou ld be calculated for this sample Many bones and teeth are stained light green, likely a result of contact with associated bronze objects in particular burial context s (Agelarakis, 2010 personal communication). Demography and paleopathology of the Non Mak La human assemblage w as studied and updated by Agelarakis (2010, 2012a, 2012b) and these studies are used in this dissertation when addressing the bioarchaeology of Non Mak La. Thirty human primary burials we re sampled for isotopic analysis (10 males, 8 fe males, 12 subadults) (Table 5 2). No faunal samples we re collected for Non Mak La as the animal bones are stored elsewhere and were not accessible at the time of this study.

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164 Ban Mai Chaimongkol A portion of the Ban Mai Chaimongkol human skeletal remains ar e currently stored in the Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University (Bangkok Campus, Thailand), however, the majority of recovered remains are stored on the Cha Am Campus of Silpakorn University (Phetchaburi). Only those human remains curated o n the Cha Am Campus we re included in this study (SQ S17W22, Eyre, 2010 personal communication) The Ban Mai Chaimongkol skeletons have been meticulously cleaned by the excavation team and previous researchers, and have been reconstructed whe re possible. The human s keletons exhibit well preserved morpholog y with very few cases of conglomeration, which greatly facilitates paleopathological observation. Bone quality is poor with most bones showing signs of cortical degradation (porous, light weight, and brittle). A tot al of 26 individuals we re sampled for isotopic study (10 males, 11 females, 5 subadults) (Table 5 2). A small number of animal bones and teeth were also sampled (Table 5 3). Promtin Tai In the village of Ban Promtin Tai, the human burials excavated during the 2007 2008 field season remained in situ until the site director (Dr. Thanik Lertcharnrit) decided to have 11 human burials exhumed with the assistance of Drs. Nancy Tayles and Sian Halcrow in late 2008 as a means to better preserve the skeletons. Subse quently, a field school team from North Carolina State University and Eckerd College lifted one burial (B#12) in summer 2009. By 2010, there were 17 burials in situ The exhumed human skeletal materials are stored in an on site space intended for a museum location in the future. Unfortunately, intense rainfall during August and

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165 September 2010 in central Thailand severely flooded the village and submerged all in situ burials. T he author participated and supervised the exposure and excavation of most human b urials during February and March 2007, the demography study and paleopatholog ical analysis were initially conducted in situ as the burials were being discovered and uncovered Multiple research visits were made to reexamine the burials in detail after they were exhumed and cleaned. Thus, the paleopathology data presented in this research are a collection of in situ study of the burials remained in the pit and more detailed observation of those individuals who were exhumed In terms of the samples for isotop ic analysis, one bone fragment and one loose tooth were selected from each burial when possible. Due to the clay dominant soil profile and annual monsoon, the preservation of bones and other organic matters in Promtin Tai was very poor Some bones were com pletely fossilized where cortical portions were replaced by minerals from surrounding water and soil. While dental enamel resists degradation, some tooth crowns from Promtin Tai appeared chalky and soft in texture, indicating diagene tic alteration Thus, i n some cases, to maximize the chance of extracting valid isotopic signals two bone fragments or teeth were sampled when the burials observed were in very degraded condition. A total of 18 individuals were sampled (8 males, 4 females, 1 unknown sex adult, 5 subadults) (Table 5 2). A small number of faunal bones and teeth were also sampled (Table 5 3). Ban Pong Manao Human skeletal individuals (> 60 ) from Ban Pong Manao were exhumed from various pits throughout the field seasons since 2000 and are stored on site in a storage shed. With the help of villagers, all human skeletal materials were temporar ily moved to

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166 the on site museum to facilitate their study and have access to electricity. All excavated skeletons we re carefully examined and scored for pathologi es and other notable features. As a major museum attraction, three large pits with in situ human burials and burial goods are maintained and moderate traffic by visitors on weekends was observed. To preserve and enhance the appearance of the skeletons, ove r the years exposed surfaces of the skeletons either by archaeologists or villagers. This in turn created major difficulties to thoroughly study the in situ burials. Therefore, maximum effort was made to observe the available skeletal and dental features, with the caveat that some pathologies may have been omitted due to the ir inaccessibility. Among the three pits, one contain ed looted burials and its provenience was severely di sturbed both Burials in this pit, thus, are not included in this study Skeletal and dental samples we re selected mostly from exhumed burials with clear provenienc e. The Ban Pong Manao skeletons we re uniquely better preserved compared to other central Thailand sites in this stud y The bones frequently appear solid with little discoloration. The cortical integrity of most long bones is also macroscopically intact. Th e sandy soil and the prevent ed water accumulation thus promoting good bone preservation Prolonged dry seasons help ed to lower the humidity as well. The sampling strategy of one bone one tooth for each individual was attempted whe r e possible. Skeletal and dental samples from nine in situ burials are also selected were

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167 applied to many skeletal elements that could affect the validity of stable isotop e analysis As a result, only bone fragments not exposed to the preservative were selected. These fragments we re usually from the posterior parts of long bones since most burials we re extended in supine position. Dental sample selection targeted the posterior dentiti on as they we re usually shielded by mandibular rami and natural rotation of the skull during decomposition often obstructs the exposure of posterior teeth to the preservative s Combined, 30 individuals we re sampled from Ban Pong Manao site (19 males, 7 fem ales, 1 unknown sex adult, 3 subadults) (Table 5 2). A large number of recovered faunal remains were also sampled and all were associated with good provenience (Table 5 3). The goal was to sample as many species as possible to establish the ecological/die tary baseline for human isotopic signals. T he Ban Pong Manao faunal remains make up the main ecological baseline assemblage in this study, owing to their superb preservation. Fish bones and small faunal remains however, we re rarely encountered in the asse mblage. This may be a result of taphonomy and excavation bias instead of the complete (and unlikely) lack of consumption of fish and small animals. Kao Sai On Noen Din The KSO ND human skeletal remains from the 2007 2008 field seasons are in the storeroom Thailand). Upon inspection and unpacking the boxes, the skeletons were wrapped in still damp bandage clothes soaked with the was usually still adhering to the bones, especially the crania and rib cages, since the latter were extremely fragmentary and fragile. Minor cleaning of the orbital roofs and teeth was attempted to expose areas fo r paleopathology observation. However, no

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168 major cleaning and reconstruction was attempted due to time constrain ts and discussion with the site director (Dr. Roberto Ciarla). In addition to being fragile and saturated with preservatives, the bones appear se verely degraded with visible cortical bone loss and discoloration. Skeletal and dental elements were selected from three individuals (2 males, 1 subadult, Table 5 2) for isotopic analysis, although the interpretation of isotopic results requires extra caut ion regarding the potential bias created by the preservatives. No faunal sample s w ere collected as the studies of the zooarchaeological remains have yet to be completed Khok Phanom Di Khok Phanom Di as a key site for early human occupation in southern cen tral Thailand, its skeletal remains have been extensively studied and question oriented research has been conducted revealing the unique lifeways of the Khok Phanom Di people (Tayles, 1999; Bentley et al., 2007). Inferences of Khok Phanom Di bioarchaeology are drawn based on these previous publications. Per Dr. Christopher physical anthropologist ), bone fragments from 60 human adult individuals selected by Dr. King were transferred to the Bone Chemistry Lab, University of Florida to complement this dissertation research. Among the individuals, bones from 32 males and 28 females we re used in this study (Table 5 2). No human teeth or faunal remains were available at the time of this study Cortical integrity of each bone sample varies widely, from good to very poor. Detailed description of burial preservation is documented in Tayles (1999). Sample Processing for Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis Since stable isotope analysis is a destructive a pproach, documenting the samples is essential so as to minimize the impact on collection integrity and retain

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169 morphological data. All samples for isotopic analysis we re photographed with a metric scale and cataloged. T wo to six high resolution photographs were taken for each sample. While one key criterion during field sampling wa s to eliminate bones/teeth with diagnostic features and pathologies, all collected samples (bones and teeth) we re re examined before physical pretreatment, using an optical microsc ope with an external light source to confirm the lack of pathology and /or anomaly. Species of each faunal sample were re analyzed and re identified to taxon, when possible, using comparative collections housed in the Department of Anthropology and the Flor ida Museum of Natural History (University of Florida). All morphological observation and physical pretreatment wa s performed in the Bone Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida. Bone Sample Preparation Protocol T o eliminate the impurities attached on or entrapped in the bone sample fragments, the following protocol was adhered: o bserve the bone samples using a magnifying lamp to check for ash, textile patterning, cut marks, anomal ies, and other special features Depending on t he skeletal element and cortical quality of the bone sample, approximately 5 10g of bone is segmented for collagen extraction and apatite purification. A surgical scalpel with a No. 20 blade is used to remove the outer most surface of the bone until the at tached containments (e.g., humus, soil, debris, ink of permanent marker, preservatives, glue) are no longer visible. Long bone shafts and rib sections are split open with either the scalpel or a hammer (cushioned by layers of KimWipes) to expose trabecular bone and containments trapped within. T rabecular bone ha s a faster (shorter) turnover rate and would create complications when mixed with cortical bone whose turnover rate is slower (longer) Cortical bone thus represent s long term diet. Hence, the trabe cular bone was eliminated from the sample. The scalpel is cleaned between samples with KimWipes dampened with distilled water.

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170 The bone fragments are placed in a labeled glass beaker filled with distilled water and sonicate d for 10 15 minutes. When the sam ples are particularly dirty, more sonication cycles are required. Water is changed when it bec o me s cloudy. If any contaminants are still visibly attached to the bone, a soft bristle tooth brush is used to scrub off the debris. The bones are then air dried on a plastic tray padded with layers of KimWipes for at least 24 hours. A layer of KimWipes is placed on the drying bones to act as a dust cover. Each dried bone sample is ground with a clean ceramic mortar and pestle set The ground bone fragments are pas sed through a stacked sieve (mesh size 0.50mm and 0.25mm). Bone fractions between 0.25 0.50mm are collected for collagen extraction; those < 0.25mm are used for apatite purification. The bone fractions are transferred from the sieve to labeled plastic scin tillation vials via a weighing paper (separate paper for each sample). The collagen and apatite fractions are stored in separate vials. The sieve is cleaned with a soft brush and wiped with KimWipes between samples. Collagen Extraction Protocol Initially d eveloped to extract bone collagen for radiocarbon dating, Longin (1971) has been the basic method on which essentially all the variant collagen extraction dissolving bone minerals (carbonates in particular) from ground bones in an 8% HCl solution followed by gelatinizing the collagen solution in a weak HCl solution (pH= 3) at (lyophilized) before being combusted and analyzed by mass spectromet ry DeNiro and Epstein (1981) propose d a soak in NaOH before gelatinization to remove humic acids. Brown et al (1988) later call ed for the filtration process to remove acid insoluble impurities suspended in the solution. In recent years, a combination of the three aforementioned protocols involving three major pretreatment processes (HCl soak, NaOH soak, and filt ration) is usually adopted (e.g., Ambrose, 1990; Ambrose et al., 1997, 2003; Cannon et al., 1999). A series of methodological adjustments on the duration and molarity of HCl soak, duration and molarity of NaOH soak, and the effects of filtration 13 15 N

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171 values (e.g., Jrkov et al., 2008) has been applied in the fields of paleodietary study and radiocarbon dating analysis. Due to the generally poor preservation of bone and sometimes very small amount of bone sample d from central Thai sites a protocol capable of producing valid results and accommodates the limitations of samples is required. Although there is another tradition of collagen extraction protocol using bone chunks instead of ground bone powder (e.g., Richards and Hedges, 1999), it is suggested that the Longin based bone powder method is more suitable for poorly preserved archaeological samples (Tuross et al., 1988; Schoeninger et al., 1989; Pfeiffer and Varney, 2000). In this study, besides conforming to the essence of Longin (19 71) and DeNiro and Epstein (1981), an established. In Jorkov et al. (2008), the ultra filtration process is not performed in te that percent collagen yield is remarkably higher in non 13 15 are not signif icant ( p= 0.930 ; respectively). Although the ratios for all their samples (N= 8) fall within the range of 2.9 3.6, which is conventionally considered valid collagen quality (DeNiro, 1985; A mbrose, 1990). With the advantage of maximizing percent collagen yield, the filtration process is eliminated in this central Thai study. Instead, a 20 minute centrifuge cycle at 2 200 rpm wa s implemented to remove the acid /water insoluble impurities. Sinc e filtration is no longer required, 15 ml plastic centrifuge test tubes replace the conventional use of filtration mesh lined glass funnels

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172 for demineralization (HCl soak) and humic acid removal (NaOH soak). The centrifuge cycle should retain the impuritie s at the bottom of each tube while only the gelatinized solution is transferred to the glass vials for final collagen reduction by evaporation, and thus eliminate the potential bias created by the impurities. To further ensure the accuracy of decanting and transferring procedures, clean pipet tips are used to remove only the liquid from the centrifuged tubes. As described in detail in the following section, the molarity of HCl and NaOH is diluted with dis tilled water from the usual 0.2 1M to 0.1M and 0.125M to 0.0625M, respectively. In addition, since the time for a complete demineralization is sometimes fairly short (~4 to 6 hours) for very poorly preserved samples, the duration of NaOH soak for each sample is individually adjusted (usually ~6 to 8 hours) a ccording to the speed of demineralization. These adjustments are necessary in order to prevent the hydrogen bonds in collagen molecules from becoming water soluble caused by prolonged soak in a strong HCl solution (Longin, 1971) and protect the collagen yi eld from being reduced due to extended immersion in a higher molarity NaOH solution. C ollagen E xtraction P rocedures Bone collagen extraction process was conducted following the procedures detailed below: l abel a 15ml centrifuge test tube with sample la bor atory number and provenience w eigh and recor d the labeled tube without lid t are the l idless tube weight on the scale v aried by preservation and available amount of each sample, place approximately 0.40 0.70g of 0.25 0.50mm bone fractions in to a tube; recor d sample weight

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173 a dd ~12ml 0.1M HCl in tube, vortex to make sure all bone fraction s are well mixed with the acid p lace tube on a foam holder and loosen the lid slightly to release the CO 2 and other gases produced by the deminera lization reaction and record time m onitor closely every 4 to 6 hours The demineralization process is considered complete when collagen flakes are floating or falling slowly in the tube when agitated. Again, depending on quality of the samples, the demineralization process can range fr om 4 to 16 hours. c entrifuge the tu bes for 20 minutes at 2,200 rpm The undissolved bone fraction and collagen flakes should be packed tightly at the bottom of the tubes. Use a pipet to decant the dirty acid. Refill the tube with distilled water to rinse o ff the acid, vortex, centrifuge for another 20 minutes, and decant. Repeat the rinsing process until the solution becomes neutralized (pH= 7), which usually takes four to five rinsing cycles. When the collagen samples are neutralized, add ~ 12ml 0.0625M NaO H to the tube. Vortex gently. Let reaction continue for four to eight hours, depending on the demineralization speed of each sample. Faster complete demineralization (shorter time in 0.1M HCl), shorter duration of 0.0625M NaOH soak. Record time. r inse the solution t o neutral with distilled water (u se pH strips to check neutrality ) r ecord the weight of a clean labeled 20 ml glass sci ntillation vial without the lid a dd ~10 ml of 10 3 M HCl (pH= 3) to each neutralized sample t ransfer the entire content in the tub e to its respective glass vial (m ake sure no collagen flakes are st uck on tube walls) c lea n the tube with distilled water p lace the vials without li a dd ~30 40l of 1M HCl to each vial to co mpletely dissolve the collagen (r eturn vials to the oven for another 4~5 hours ) a dd a few squirts of 10 3 M HCl to replace the evaporated solution if necessa ry t ransfer the content in vial back to its respect ive tube used in earlier steps c lean the vials with distilled water c entrifuge the tubes for 20 minutes at 2 200 rpm

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174 t ransfer only the solution in tub e back to its respective vial (a ll the undissolved impurity should rem ain at the bottom of the tubes) p lace the vials without lids in a The goal is to condense the solution to ~2 ml. Avoid sample from complet ely dr ying out. Check frequently. When it is close to ~2 ml level, remove vials from oven, let cool, and put lids back on. Place into the freezer. After complet ely frozen, loosen the lids slightly and place the vials in the freeze dryer for about two days until the content in vials appears as dried bubbles. r emov e vials from the freeze dryer and w eigh the vials (with collagen) without lids to calculate % coll age n yield l oad the collagen in tin capsules for mass spectrometry Bone Apatite Purification Protocol The protocol wa s modified to best suit the poorly preserved bone and teeth from central Thailand, based on Lee Thorp (1989). The bone apatite purification pr ocess was performed following these procedures : l abel a 15ml centrifuge test tube with sample la boratory number and provenience w eigh and recor d the labeled tube without lid t are the l idless tube weight on the scale p lace approximately 0.40 0.50g of <0.25m m bone fractions in to a tube; record sample weight a dd ~12 ml 50% Clorox solution (sodium hypo chlorite) to each tube to remove the organic substance attached to the bone fractions vortex thoroughly then l et reaction continue for 16 hours (vortex occasional ly) c entrifuge 15 20 minutes (2 200 rpm) and decant the Clorox with a clean pipet a dd ~12ml distilled water, vortex, centrifug e for 15 20 minutes and decant r epeat the rinsing cycle for four to five times until neutralized (pH= 7) a dd ~12ml 0.1M acetic aci d in each tube and vortex thoroughly l et reaction continue for eigh t to ten hours

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175 r epeat Step 6 to rinse the sample off the acetic acid to neutral and p lace the tubes with lid in a freezer a fter completely frozen, loosen the lids slightly and place the tub es in the freeze dryer for about one day r emove the tubes from freeze dryer, weigh the tube (with apatite) without li d to calculate % apatite yield l oad 0.50 0.60mg apatite p er sample for mass spectrometry Dental Enamel Preparation Protocol Tooth enamel ap atite purification process was conducted following the procedures listed below: A Brassler dental drill with a carbide tip under an optical microscope was used to remove a portion of enamel from the crown. A microfiber optical light source was also mounted by the microscope. A fter examined under the microscope for pathologies and anomalies, the tooth crown was observed for existed cracks and structurally weak points. These landmarks usually broke easily upon contact with the power dental drill and thus the drilling area(s) was carefully planned according to the positions of these structurally unsound portions. A lower drill speed ( ~ 10 000 rpm) was used to polish the enamel surface removing attached soil, debris, calculus (if any), and discoloration. A high er drill speed ( ~20 000 rpm ) was used on an enamel section was removed from the tooth crown for apatite purification. This enamel section was usually a quarter of a human permanent molar in size. Depending on the enamel thickness of each tooth and species (e.g., carnivores have much thinner enamel), the enamel sectioned for apatite purification varied in size. The goal wa s to have th e cleaned weight of enamel ~0.4 0.7 g, while minimizing the destruction to the tooth crown. S ince it was structurally differen t from enamel and highly prone to diagenesis, dentine was entirely eliminated from all enamel samples. A lower drill speed was used to remove all traces of dentine under a microscope. A properly cleaned enamel section should have a semi translucent appeara nce when held against the light source. A clean agate mortar and pestle set was used to grind each enamel section into fine powder. The powder was stored in a labeled microcentrifuge tube before purification.

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176 Dental Enamel Apatite Purification With similar molecular structure (hydroxyapatite), dental enamel apatite purification process largely followed the protocol for bone apatite purification. Since the amount of the enamel samples are smaller than those from bones, the 15 ml centrifuge tubes were replace d by 2 ml microcentrifuge tubes. The amount of enamel powder ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 g. The centrifuge time was reduced from 15 20 minutes to 8 minutes (15 000 rpm). Since dental enamel was generally less prone to diagenesis, the duration of acetic acid s oak was set to 16 hours. The same amount of enamel apatite (0.50 0.60 mg) as bone apatite was loaded for mass spectromet ry Mass S pectrometry The mass spectrometers in which the purified bone collagen and bone apatite samples we re processed are housed in t he Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida. After bone collagen, bone apatite, and tooth enamel apatite samples were freeze dried, these samples were transported to the Department of Geological Sciences and stored in a desiccator pri or to being processed by the mass spectrometers. C/ N r atio A small amount (~0.1 mg) of freeze dried collagen was loaded in a tin capsule and combusted and analyzed for % carbon and % nitrogen using the Carlo Erba NA 150 0 CNS elemental analyzer. The C/ N ra tio was calculated as (%C/%N) x 1.6667 Samples with an appropriate C/ N ratio (2.9 3.6, DeNiro, 1985) were loaded for stable isotope analysis.

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177 Collagen About 0.5 mg of collagen flakes w as introduced to the mass spectrometer, combusted, and stable isotope d ata we re produced. The mass spectrometer used is a Finnigan MAT 252 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Apatite For bone and enamel apatite, about 0.8 1.0 mg of the purified apatite from each sample was introduced to a common acid bath and dissolved in 100% phosphoric acid. The CO 2 gas produced in this reaction was measured using a VG PRISM Series II with a Multiprep preparation device, an Isocarb common acid bath preparation device, a 10 port tube cracker preparation device, and a triple trap preparation dev ice linked to the Carlo Erba NA 1500 CNS elemental analyzer. Diagenesis To ensure the effectiveness of stable isotope value s derived from skeletal remains as a proxy of paleodiet, it is essential to evaluate the quality of bone and tooth samples for their structural integrity, and more importantly, the preservation of their in vivo chemical signatures. After entering the burial context (intentional or natural deposition), bones are subject to a wide variety of diagenetic factors, such as dissolution, erosio n, exchange of ions, precipitation, breakdown and leaching of collagen, microbiological attack, and recrystallization. All of these factors may either react alone with bone or collectively with one another produc ing negative impacts on bone preservation. R esults of these reactions may eventually lead to changes in chemical composition and structure of the bones (Hedges, 2002). If not detected and erroneously incorporated in paleodiet reconstruction, the diagenetic signals would

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178 obfuscate the biogenic signal s and result in misinterpretation of the actual dietary scenario. While the complexity of diagenesis continues to confound researchers, attempts have been made to understand the alteration processes occurring before excavation and the impact of environment al conditions on bone integrity. For example, Nielsen Marsh and Hedges (2000) present the correlated effects among different diagenetic parameters such as bone histology, bone porosity, protein content, bone apatite crystallinity, carbonate content, and mo dification of the chemical bone composition. Collagen To eliminate diagenetically altered collagen values and thus indirectly detect poor bone preservation, t h ree mechanisms are commonly used for evaluating collagen validity : collagen yield by weight (% co llagen yield) %C and %N and C/N ratio (Schoeninger et al., 1989; Ambrose, 1993; Collins et al., 2002). Samples having low % collagen yields may indicate the effects of severe degradation and protein loss thereby limiting the amount of intact collagen rem ain s to provide biogenic isotope values. If this holds true, a low collagen yield may well be contaminated with other substance s and exhibit diagenetically altered isotope signal s (Ambrose, 1990, 1993). However, it is noteworthy that the standard for valid collagen yield weight used by researchers varies widely from 5 6% to 10%, while others consider as low as 1% to be satisfactory (Tuross et al., 1988 ; Schoeninger et al., 1989 ; Ambrose, 1990; Pechenkina et al., 2005; Hu et al., 2006, 2008; Cox et al., 2011 ). Percent carbon and percent nitrogen concentration by weight in the extracted collagen is another indicator of collagen quality. Ambrose (1990) demonstrates that m odern mammal bones have %C values ranging from 15% to 47%, and %N values

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179 from 5% to 17%. F or archaeological bones, he suggest s that collagen samples with %C and %N below 13% and 5%, respectively, should be considered as diagenetically altered, contaminated, and/ or poorly preserved Lastly, t he atomic weight of carbon and nitrogen is routinely r eported. It is suggested that as collagen undergo es diagenesis, the amount of carbon and/or nitrogen is either lost due to leaching or altered by the replacement of carbon rich contaminants such as hum ic acids or lipids in the surrounding soil (Ambrose, 1 9 90). DeNiro (1985) provides a C / N ratio value range based on modern bone collagen from 2.9 to 3.6. A collagen sample with a C/N ratio outside of this range suggests the carbon and/or nitrogen ions do not maintain their natural ratio and thus is diagen et ic ally altered and does not represent a biogenic isotope value. The atomic C/N ratio is calculated by dividing weight %C by weight %N, and then multiplied by a value of 1.16667 to adjust for elemental atomic weight. In this study, the %C and %N and atomic C /N ratio are the key criteria for validating collagen quality. Percent collagen yield by weight from central Thai human bones is generally low, despite weakened concentration of reagents and shortened reaction time. Acknowledging the risk, the acceptable p ercentage of collagen yield is set to 1%. Along with other higher yielding collagen samples, the lower yielding ones are loaded in the mass spectrometer for %C and %N (and thus providing for atomic C/N ples from being loaded for isotopic signal readings. Almost uniformly, the low collagen yield bone samples do not produce normal %C and/or %N. In cases when %C and %N are normal, the atomic C/N ratios usually still outside the 2.9 3.6 acceptable range. T herefore, the possibility of including

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180 low collagen yield samples that may contain isotop ic values that are diagenetically altered is deemed low. Apatite While essentially mineral in nature, bone structural carbonate (bone apatite or bioapatite) is highly susceptible to contamination and post depositional alternations of isotopic composition This could happen even when the collagen portion of the same bone is well preserved (Wang and Cerling, 1994; Wright and Schwarcz, 1996 ; Pechenkina et al., 2005: 1178). However, since bone apatite reflects the carbon isotopes metabolized from total diet while bone collagen preserves the carbon from 13 C values of apatite and collagen from the same bone sample should maintain a positive co rrelation (Lee Thorp et al., 1989) Thus, e xamining the correlation between apatite and collagen carbon isotope values can further avoid the inclusion of diagen et ic s ignals (e.g., Pechenkina et al., 2005) Percent apatite yield after pretreatment is often reported (e.g., Hu et al., 2006, 2008). However, the yield varies widely across treatment time and strength of acetic acid, and not necessarily in accordance with original bone quality (Garvie Lok et al., 2004). The percent yield of apatite is not used her e as a control mechanism. In addition, Kellner and Schoeninger (2007), among others, advocate the notion that researchers need to have general expectations of the plausible isoto pe value range that the samples are to yield To achieve this an isotope base line established by modern food items accessible in local environment is useful. This approach calls for close evaluation and cautious interpretation of outlier isotope values that may have been produced by diagen et ic ally altered collagen samples that ma rginally pass the filter of the three collagen quality indicators Ecological baseline is indeed reconstructed in

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181 the current study using archaeological faunal remains from sites where human skeletal remains are sampled. In terms of t ooth enamel its high mineral content and strong crystal ine structure facilitate better preservation of biogenic isotope signals (Hillson, 2005) As a result, isotopic ratios from all enamel samples processed are incorporated. W hen bone collagen and/or apatite samples from an individual do not yield valid isotope values, it is still possible to in clude his/her dietary patterns into a population level analysis using the 13 C value derived from his/her tooth enamel apatite. In other words, incorporating tooth enamel apatite data is an efficient way to assess paleodiet of diagenesis prone sites, such as those in the humid (sub) tropic of central Thailand. In this dissertation study, apatite samples from the same bones (individuals) that do not produce valid collagen stable isotope v alues are excluded from loading for the bone has undergone diagenesis and apatite sample from the same bone is very likely to be affected as well. Moreover, high molarity and prolonged treatment of acetic acid increase the risk of recrystallizing the dissolved diagenetic carbonates and turning them into brushite (Lee Thorp, 1989; Lee Thorp and van der Merwe, 1991; Garvie Lok et al., 2004). Thus, a reduced duration of treat ment and weakened concentration of acetic acid are implemented to avoid further degrading the compromised bone apatite samples. Isotopic Signals and Diet To reconstruct the dietary sources for prehistoric central Thai people, the isotopic categories of pla nt foods and animal diet need to be inferred from faunal and human skeletal/dental remains. For collagen, the 13 C isotopic spacing between bone collagen

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182 conducted on rats a nd mice (Ambrose and Norr, 1993; Tieszen and Fagre, 1993). As 13 C apatite diet al., 200 4). The rational is tha t since 13 C bone coll 13 C diet then it is possible to deduc e the best possible spacing between 13 C bone ap and 13 C diet with known 13 C diet (Harrison and Katzenberg, 2003). After plotting the human bone data based on the three values (9. theoretically be equal) occurred between 13 C bone coll 13 C bone ap minus 13 C apatite diet = 13 C diet from 13 C apatite (from bot h bone and enamel). Statistical Analysis A series of descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted to determine the existence and extent of health and dietary trends at both intra and inter site levels. Prior to any inferential statistic al analysis, all metric (or nominal) data were subject to exploratory data analysis (EDA) to characterize their distribution. When one of the sample groups in each data set showed deviation from a normal distribution, statistical tests in nonparametric cat egory were used. Replacing the one way analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) for parametric analysis, Kruskal Wallis tests were performed to evaluate the variance of each sample group since most of the datasets did not form a normal distribution. Instead of test to evaluate the means for two samples of normal distribution, Mann Whitney U tests were used to test if the mean of one sample group is significantly higher than the other nonparametric category. Kruskal Wallis tests were also used when c omparing the means of more than two sample

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183 groups of non normal distribution. Levels of significance were set to 0.05. SPSS Statistics v.17 was used to perform all statistical analyses.

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184 Table 5 1. Regression formulae used for stature estimation for Thai C hinese population (see text) Males Females Upper Limb Bones (Sangvichien et al., n.d.) S= 3.0197*humerus max* + 70.0340 S= 2.7501*humerus max + 74.0862 S= 3.3658*radius max + 81.4874 S= 2.6743*radius max + 92.5011 S= 3.4970*ulna max + 72.8812 S= 2.702 5*ulna max + 87.1950 S= 1.6192*(humerus max + radius max) + 70.4181 S= 1.6192*(humerus max + radius max) + 70.4181 Lower Limb Bones (Sangvichien et al., 1985) S= 1.7289*femur max + 88.1320 5.3885 S= 2.5815*femur max + 49.2412 3.0007 S= 2.7638*ti bia max + 62.6946 4.5232 S= 2.9716*tibia max + 51.6015 3.4687 S= 1.4210*(femur max + tibia max) + 49.6080 4.2087 S= 1.4074*(femur max + tibia max) + 48.4454 3.1019 *max= maximum length (cm) Table 5 2. Sex distribution of individuals sampled for stable isotope analysis Male Female Subadult ?Sex adult Total Site Bone Enamel Bone Enamel Bone Enamel Bone Enamel Bone Enamel Non Mak La 10 8 8 8 9 11 0 0 27 27 Ban Mai Chaimongkol 8 8 9 9 5 5 0 0 22 22 Promtin Tai 8 5 4 4 4 4 1 1 17 14 Ban Pong Ma nao 17 8 7 5 2 3 1 0 27 16 Kao Sai On Noen Din 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 Khok Phanom Di 32 0 28 0 0 0 0 0 60 0

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185 Table 5 3. Species distribution of faunal skeletal and dental samples selected for stable isotope analysis by site Faunal Species Bovidae Sus scr ofa Cervinae a Canis sp. Gallus gallus Lotra sp. Rattus sp. Hystricidae B b E B E B E B E Bone Bone Bone Enamel Non Mak La 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ban Mai Chaimongkol 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Promtin Tai 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ban Pong Manao 5 8 9 8 16 7 7 3 5 1 1 1 Kao Sai On Noen Din 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Khok Phanom Di 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a Cervinae: Old World deer, including Muntiacus muntjak and large bodied deer ; b B: bone; E: enamel

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186 CHAPTER 6 RESULTS OF PALEOPATHOLOGY This chapter pre sents the results of the osteological and paleopathological assessment on human skeletal remains from the five central Thai sites studied. While Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Ban Pong Manao skeletal assemblages were previously studied by Thai scholars from Silpa korn University (Puenpathom, 1996; Pureepatpong 1996; Lerdpipatworakul, 2003, 2009 ) only a subset of each assemblage was incorporated in their respective study. During July 2009 and January 2010 all available human skeletal remains from Ban Mai Chaimong kol and Ban Pong Manao were inventoried and included as part of this dissertation study. Therefore, this chapter presents demographic and paleopathological data from the complete burial assemblages from Promtin Tai, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, and Ban Pong Manao human skeletal assemblages. Non Mak La skeletal remains were studied by Agelarakis (2010, 2012a, 2012b) and those from Khok Phanom Di human were studied by Tayles (1992, 1999). The burial sequence for Non Mak La is currently being revised (Voelker and Pigo tt, 2012 personal communication) allowing for paleopathological data from this site to be re examined Data from Khok Phanom Di, however, are presented with other Mainland Southeast Asian bioarchaeological studies in a later part of this chapter. The tempo ral position of Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, and Promtin Tai allows further sub division of burials into two groups for each site. At Promtai Tai, for example, the burials are grouped into Early or Late Iron Age groups, following the criteria described in Chapter 3. Ban Pong Manao a late Iron Age site lacked contextual evidence supporting a ny meaningful temporal sub grouping and Kao Sai On Noen Din yielded very few individuals with poor preservation, therefore, no sub grouping is

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187 assigned. At Non Mak L a, the burials are grouped into Earlier and Later periods following the working burial chronology discussed in Chapter 3. For those individuals yet to be categorized into a time period, their associated data Site tables and not used in intra site comparison s Ban Mai Chaimongkol burials are grouped into Bronze Age and Iron Age periods based on the burial sequence reported in Onsuwan (2000). Twelve individuals from Ban Mai Chaimongkol had poor preservation of buri al provenience and chronological grouping could not be established with confidence. Thus, similar to Non Mak La unassigned Ban Mai Chaimongkol individuals Site the tables but their associated data are not in cluded in intra site comparison Since these individuals are generally more fragmentary than others, there were no intact long bone s associated for use in stature estimation. Thus, the exclusion of these individuals from stature statistics does not influence the validity of the reported results. Demography Tables 6 1 to 6 5 present demographic structure for Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai, Ban Pong Manao, and Kao Sai On Noen Din, r espectively. For Non Mak La, it is worth noting that Agelarakis (2010, 2012b) estimated sex for subadults display ing clear skeletal indicators of biological sex. Both sexes are somewhat evenly distributed in the Earlier and Later periods (Table 6 1) with slightly more males than females. When periods are combined and the unk nown period individuals are included into the total population, males are slightly better represented than females (male= 20.3% vs. female= 16. 2% ). I n terms of age distribution, subadults comprise a majority of the Non Mak La population (42.9% in Earlier p eriod, 14.3% in Later period, 44.6% total). Following subadults, young adults are the second most

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188 populous group with 23% of the total being individuals whose age at death is estimated to have been between 20 and 35 years old. For Ban Mai Chaimongkol, the numbers of male and female individuals in both time periods are balanced (Tab le 6 2 ). When time periods are combined and unassigned individuals are added to the total, the ir proportion remains equal Subadu lt s make up 21% of the total population (20% duri ng the Bronze A ge and 30% during the Iron Age ). As for adults whose age can be estimated to a finer range, the majority of individuals fall within in the young adult age group. A large portion of Ban Mai Chaimongkol burials could not be confidently identif ied for sex or age cohort due to poor preservation. At Promtin Tai, bot h Early and Late (Table 6 3) Iron Age contexts have slightly more males than females, with the Earl y period (N = 26) larger in sample size than the Late period (N= 9). There are three s ubadults represented in both time periods, although subadults from the Early period ( 12% ) are a smaller proportion of the total population than those from the Late period ( 33% ) When the burials from Promtin Tai are combined, the number of males is higher than females (26% vs. 17%, X 2 = 0.600, p= 0. 43, Table 6 3 ) an d subadults constitute only 17% of the total population. Young and middle age adults are the major age groups for Promtin Tai adults. Again, a high proportion of burials cannot be unambiguously as sessed for sex and/or biological age. At Ban Pong Manao, multiple excavation seasons during a ten year period spread across a large site create d complications in provenience when assessing total numb er of individuals The agreement between the excavation t eam and village level management allowing a large number of burials to remain in situ for purpose s of tourism

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189 added to the difficulty in accurate demographic assessment. Human skeletal remains we re often packaged in containers with unclear provenience info rma tion and/or burial designation. Therefore, the individuals included in this demography section and their skeletal/dental remains used in th is paleopathological analys i s comprise only those with clear burial provenience. It should be kept in mind that th e overall prehistoric Ban Pong Manao population size wa s larger than reported here. There are more males (N= 21, 43%) than females (N= 14, 29%), although the proportion difference is not statistically significant ( X 2 = 1.400, p= 0.24 Table 6 4). Subadults (N= 3) make up only 6% of the total population. There are skeletal remains from two or m ore subadults, in jar burials, in Ban Pong Manao, but we re not included in this study (see Chapter 3) Most of the Ban Pong Manao adults were young adult (male: 29%; fe male: 10%). H alf of the Ban Pong Manao burials were assigned to age cohorts and ~75 % were confidently assigned to sex These proportions are particularly higher than Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Promtin Tai Finally, only three individuals from Kao Sai On Noen Din we re incorporated in to this study (Table 6 5). Amon g them, there is one subadult (<3 years old), one young adult male, and one adult male. Stature Stature is an indicator of nutritional sufficiency and physiological stress during growth M alnourished a nd/or stressed individuals tend not to reach their maximum ( genetic ) height potential. Unfortunately, there were no intact long bones preserved for Non Mak La and Kao Sai On Noen Din required for stature estimation. Estimated stature for Ban Mai Chaimongko l, Promtin Tai, and Ban Pong Manao is presented in Table 6 6 Ma les from Promtin Tai and Ban Pong Manao on average are tallest, while

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190 Ban Mai Chaimongkol males are slightly shorter. When viewed by intra site changes over time, there is no apparent trend in stature variation as Ban Mai Chaimongkol males show decrease in height while Promtin Tai males show an increase in height. With respect to female s, Promtin Tai and Ban Pong Manao have the tallest females compared to Ban Mai Chaimongkol. Similar to males, female height change s over time with females getting shorter at Ban Mai Chaimongkol and females show an increase in height at Promtin Tai Caution should be used with these results, as s mall sample size in all the inland central Thai sites may bias these o bservations In terms of sexual dimorphism of average height at each site, Promtin Tai males are significantly taller than their female counterparts (t test, p= 0.04). For the Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Ban Pong Manao samples, however, individuals do not sho w significant height difference between the sexes (p= 0.22 and 0.12, respectively). Dental Conditions and Pathologies Prevalence of dental conditions and pathologies at each site is presented in Tables 6 7 to 6 24. All dental pathology prevalences are repo rted by tooth count, while individual counts are described in the text. Prevalence of each pathology/condition is reported for permanent teeth only. Unless otherwise stated, the statistical analysis performed to test the significance of prevalence differen ce s between two sample groups less than 5 Deciduous Dentition A total of 310 deciduous teeth (Non Mak La Earlier period= 124, Non Mak La Later period= 10, Non Mak La unknown period= 59 Ban Mai Chaimogkol Bronze Age= 28, Ban Mai Chaimongkol Iron Age= 17, Ban Mai Chaimongkol unknown period= 20, Promtin Tai Early Iron Age= 10, Promtin Tai Late Iron Age= 25, Ban Pong Manao= 17)

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191 and 176 deciduous alveolus positions (Ban Mai Chaimogkol Bronz e Age= 40, Ban Mai Chaimongkol Iron Age= 20, Ban Mai Chaimongkol unknown period= 20, Promtin Tai Early Iron Age= 20, Promtin Tai Late Iron Age= 39, Ban Pong Manao= 37) are observed. The alveolus count for Non Mak La wa s not explicitly reported in Agelaraki s (2010, 2012b). Among these deciduous teeth, only three we re affected with dental caries. One belong ed to a 5.5 6.5 year old child from the Iron Age Ban Mai Chaimongkol (see below) and two caries belonged to a 1 1.5 year old child from the Earl y period at Non Mak La. No other dental pathology wa s observed in any other deciduous teeth among all sites. Permanent Dentition Since dental pathologies were rarely observed on the deciduous dentition, prevalence of dental pathologies on the permanent teeth was used throughout this study when characteriz ing childhood physiological stress and dental health. In addition, only the prevalence of dentel pathologies on the permanent teeth was considered when comparing the central Thai data with those from other Mainland So utheast Asian prehistoric populations. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) During the Earlier period at Non Mak La, one middle adult male (one tooth) wa s affected with LEH, 1.3% of the 75 male teeth observed for this period (Table 6 7 ). N o LEH were observed in female or subadult teeth The prevalence difference between males and females during the Earlier period is not significant (1.3% vs. 0%, p = 1.00). During the Later period, one subadult male (one tooth) and one young adult male (three teeth) we re affected with LEH, making LEH prevalence for Later period male s 5.8% (Table 6 7 ). The inc rease from the previ ous period is not significant (p= 0.19). For Later

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192 period females, one young adult female (two teeth) we re observed with LEH. Again, the heightened prevalen ce of LEH during the Later period (4.0%) compared to the Earlier period (0%) for females is not significant (p= 0.17). The difference between males and females is also not significant (5.8% vs. 4%, p= 1.00). No permanent t eet h from subadults in the Later p eriod showed LEH. When teeth from both periods and from unknown period individuals are combined, females (8.7%), interestingly, have a higher LEH prevalence than males ( 3%) (Table 6 7 ). T he difference is statistically significant (chi square test, p= 0.02) No subadult permanent tooth wa s affected. Overall, LEH prevalence for Non Mak La is 4.3% (20/461). Only one out of 372 total teeth observed from Ban Mai Chaimongkol shows an episode of hypoplastic defect (0.3 %) (Table 6 8). It is associated with a n Iron Age middle adult female. No statistical significance wa s detected either between sexes during the Iron Age or between time periods for females (p= 1.00 and p = 1.00, respectively). At Promtin Tai, hypoplastic defects were observed on Early Iron Age teeth f rom one young adult male (four teeth), one middle adult male (two teeth), one young adult female (one tooth), one subadult (five teeth), and one adult (two teeth) (Table 6 9 ). shows no statistical significance when prevalence of LEH bet ween the Early and the Late Iron Age males are compared (p= 0.18). LEH prevalence of Early Iron Age male teeth (8.8%) is higher than that of the Early Iron Age females (1.9%), but th is difference is also not significant (p= 0.13). Five of the Early Iron Ag e subadult permanent teeth we re a ffected with LEH (21.7%, 5/23), while none of the 15 subadult permanent teeth from the Late Iron Age were LEH positive (0%, 0/15). The prevalence

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193 difference among subadults between periods is statistically significant (p= 0 .02). When the prevalence is calculated regardless of time period, Promtin Tai male teeth seem to be affected with LEH more frequent ly than female teeth, but again this trend is not supported statistical ly (p= 0.13) (Table 6 9). To tal prevalence of LEH (ag e, sex, time period combined) for the Promtin Tai sample is 3.1% (7/226). At Ban Pong Manao, only one young adult male and one adult female we re affected with LEH (one tooth eac h) (Table 6 10). The dif ference of prevalence between teeth from males (0.5%) a test, p= 0.69). Overall LEH prevalence for Ban Pong Manao teeth is 0.6%. At Kao Sai On Noen Din, two of t hree individuals do not have teeth associated with the skeletal remains and no LEH were observed on the dentition of the young adult male (tooth count= 25; alveolar count= 25). Dental caries While the location of each dental caries was recorded, overall assessment revealed that all carious defects we re located on either the buccal or th e occlusal surface. As reported below teeth from these central Thai sites we re rarely affected with dental caries. Therefore, caries location is combined for the prevalence calculation to avoid further fragmenting the dataset. At Non Mak La, dental caries was seen on seven out of the 75 teeth observed for Early period males (9.7%), belonging to one middle a dult male and one old adult male (Table 6 11 ). O ne Early period middle adult female (one tooth) wa s affected with caries (1.4%). The difference of carie s prevalence between Early period males and females is not significant (p= 0.06). During the Later period, one 15 17 year old and one 16 20 year old subadult male (one tooth each) were observed with caries lesions, making

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194 Later period male caries prevalenc e 2.9 % (Table 6 11 ). Non e of the Later period female teeth had caries. The caries prevalence between Later period males and females is not significant (p= 0.51). For individuals whose sex cannot be determined in both periods, no tooth was affected with car ies. When prevalence of caries is compared for males from Earlier and Later period Non Mak La, the former has higher but not significant prevalence over the latter (p= 0.17). Female caries prevalence between periods also is not significantly different (p= 1.00). When all the teeth (including individuals with known or unknown period designation) from Non Mak La are combin ed into one group, males have a 5.2% caries prevalence, while females have a 0.7% rat e ( Table 6 11 ). The difference of prevalence between m ales and females is significantly different (p= 0.02). In addition, those individuals with undetermined sex have three caries positive teeth. Overall, caries prevalence at Non Mak La is 3.5%. Prevalence of dental caries among male teeth (3.2%) during Bronz e Age Ban Mai Chaimongkol is slightly lower than female teeth from the same period (3.7%) (Table 6 12 ). Sample bias (discrepancy i n the number of observable teeth) between males and females heavily influences th is result. The carious lesions are distribute d among one young adult male and one adult female. No statistical significance wa s observed on the prevalence difference between Bronze Age males and females (p= 1.00). None of the Bronze Age subadult permanent teeth wa s affected with dental caries. When i t comes to the Iron Age at Ban Mai Chaimongkol, two young adult females we re recorded to have carious lesions on their molars ( Table 6 12 ). Both of t he se individuals died during childhood with caries on their posterior teeth (tooth count prevalence= 6.6%). One of them also ha d a carious lesion on its deciduous lower right second molar. No statistical

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195 significance wa s found in caries prevalence between the Iron Age males and females (p= 0.16). When compared by time period, male teeth show a higher caries rat e during the Bronze Age, while female teeth show a higher caries rate during the Iron Age. Iron Age subadult teeth display more carious lesions than their Bronze Age counterparts. These observed differences in caries incidence among time periods, sexes, an d age groups, however, are not statistically significant. When all individual teeth are observed for all time periods (including those with unknown time period) Ban Mai Chaimongkol males have a lower caries rate (2.0%) than females (6.4%), but the differe nce is not significant (p= 0. 08) ( Table 6 12 ). Prevalence of caries on permanent teeth from subadults falls between that observed overall for males and females. Site wise caries prevalence at Ban Mai Chaimongkol is 3.2%. At Promtin Tai, none of the teeth had a carious lesion, regardless of time period, sex, and age gro up (Table 6 13). At Ban Pong Manao, two young adult males we re affected with caries (three teeth) and two young adult females (four teeth) we re caries pos itive (Table 6 14). Carie s prevalence for males and females is 1.5% and 3.1%, respectively. The difference is not significant (p= 0.44). Prevalence for Ban Pong Manao as a whole is 2.1% (7/335). Kao Sai On Noen Din teeth we re caries free. Dental calculus For Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai, and Ban Pong Manao, locations of dental calculus were noted during paleopathologi c al assessment. The most often encountered calculus location wa s on the buccal surface along the gum line (slightly below the cement enamel junction). In individuals with more than one tooth affected, the plaque w as consistently deposited on the buccal surface regardless of tooth type. Locations of calculus for Non Mak La teeth we re not reported in Agelarakis (2010).

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196 A t Non Mak La, females have a significantly higher prevalenc e (20%) of calculus than males (1.3%) during the Earlier period (chi square test, p= 0.0 0) (Tab le 6 15). However, when the number of affected individual s is considered, there is only one individual in each sex group (one middle adult male and one middle ad ult female) that has dental calculus. With respect to the Later period, one subadult male (two teeth) and one young adult female (20 teeth) we re observed with calculus (Table 6 15 ). The prevalence for Later period males is 2.9% and for female s is 40% where the latter is significantly higher (chi square test, p= 0.00). When prevalences of calculus by tooth are compared by time period, males do not show significant increase from Ea r lier to Later (p= 0.61) while females do increase significantly (chi square te st, p= 0.00). Aside from the two subadult male s mentioned previously, no other subadult permanent tooth ha d calculus. When all the teeth from Non Mak La are segregated by sex, prevalence of calculus for males is 1.3%, significantly lower than the 22.8% for females (chi square test, p= 0. 00 ) (Table 6 15 ). O verall, prevalence of calculus for Non Mak La is 8.0% (37/461). Teeth from Ban Mai Chaimongkol we re es sentially free of dental calculus (Table 6 16). There was no tooth affected with this condition during the Bronze Age and only one tooth from an Iron Age middle adult female with calculus on her lower left canine (accompanied by LEH), making the calculus prevalence for Iron Age female s 1.9% (1/52). Overall calculus prevalence for females is 1.1% (1/94). As expected, the prevalence difference between all combinations of grouping is not significant. At Promtin Tai, calculus seems to be more frequent on Early Iron Age male teeth than on female teeth (7.4% vs. 1.9%, p= 0 .23) (Table 6 17 ). H owever, these teeth

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197 belonged to one young adult male and one young adult female that does not necessary imply a sexually different calculus deposition trend. During the Late Iron Age, male teeth have a significantly higher prevalence of calculus than females (75% vs. 20%, chi square test, p= 0.0 0) (Table 6 17 ). Again, all calcul us positive teeth from the Late Iron Age come from one middle adult male and one young adult female (i.e., individual count: male=1, female=1). Although the high calculus rates within these individuals lead to statistically significant prevalence difference s 1) among males by period (chi square test, p= 0.00), 2) among females by period (p= 0.02), and 3) between sexes in combined period (chi square test, p= 0.00), these results should be interpreted with caution. Total calculus prevalence of Promtin Tai teeth is 14.5 % (Table 6 17) In Ban Pong Manao, five males and two females, all young adults have calculus on their teeth (both anterior and posterior teet h) (Table 6 18). Males have a prevalence of 11.9% and females have a prevalence of 16.3% (chi square test, p= 0.32). No permanent teeth from subadults we re affected. Total calculus prevalence for Ban Pong Manao teeth is 13.1% (43/335). Kao Sai On Noen Din teeth we re free of calculus. Periapical cavity As its name suggests, periapical cavity is a dental pathology occurring at or around the alveolar processes near the apex of tooth root(s). Therefore, the unit of periapical cavity prevalence is the number of alveoli (or tooth sockets). Since alveolus count f or Non Mak La is unknown (Agelarakis, 2010, 2012b), periapical cavity prevalence for this site wa s not calculated. However, there is one old adult male at Non (tooth p resent) (Agelarakis, 2010) and this designation

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198 buccal alveolar bone ( Agelarakis 2012 personal communication ) At Ban Mai Chaimongkol, no alveolus from the Bronze Age indiv iduals shows evidence of periapical ca vity (Table 6 19 ). As for the Iron Age, periapical cavity is observed on one tooth (mandibular second molar) from a young adult female, making its prevalence for the Iron Age female alveoli 1.5 % (1/65) Pr evalence diff erences between the sexes during the Iron Age and between time periods among females is not significant (p= 1.00 and p= 1.00, respectively). Prevalence of periapical cavity of female alveoli from both time periods and from individuals with unclear period a ssociation is 1% (Table 6 19 ). Prevalence of the entire site is 0.2% (1/416). Again, there is no significant difference between overall male and female prevalence (0% vs. 1.0%, p= 0.30). One individual of each sex (middle adult male and young adult female, both on second premolar alveoli) from the Early Iron Age Promtin Tai shows sign of periapical c avity ( Table 6 20 ). The male periapical lesion is accompanied by antemortem tooth loss, implying that the loss of his t ee th wa s a result of root/pulp caries These two cases produce a prevalence of periapical cavity for Iron Age male alveoli of 1.3% and 1.9% for females (p= 1.00). During the Late Iron Age, two alveoli from one middle adult male were affected with periapical cavity (6.3% for total Late Iron Age male) ( Table 6 20 ). N o alveolus in Late Iron Age females ha d this pathology Although there is an increase of periapical prevalence from the Early to the Late Iron Age for males (from 1.3% to 6.3%, p= 0.24), there is a decrease of prevalence with females ( 1.9% to 0%, p= 1.00). Therefore, no clear and definitive trend of prevalence change through time is observed. When time periods are combined, prevalence of periapical cavity for males is 2.7% and

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199 1.2% for female s (p= 0.63 ) (Table 6 20 ). O verall prevalence of periapical cavity at Promtin Tai is 1.6% (4/246). At Ban Pong Manao, periapical cavity occurs on the alveoli from two young adult males one middle adult male, and one young adult fema le (Table 6 21). Pre valence of this defect for males is 2.1% and for females is 2.0% (p= 1.00), essentially identical. No permanent alveoli from subadults we re affected. Overall site prevalence is 2.0% (8/396). Kao Sai On Noen Din ha d no periapical cavity on any of the preserved alveoli. Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) Antemo rtem tooth loss (or tooth loss prior to death, AMTL) is presented as remodeled tooth socket and resorbed alveolus, depending on the duration between tooth loss and death. Since the affected teeth were no longer present in the mouth upon interment, the unit of prevalence calculation for AMTL is the number of alveoli observed With no alveolus count reported for Non Mak La, no prevalence of AMTL is provided here. In Agelarakis (2010), AMTL is absent from all dental remains examined. At Ban Mai Chaimongkol, a total of five alveolar positions from males during the Bronze Age show signs of AMTL (one young adult male and one middle adult male), making the prevalence 3.4% for this grou p (Table 6 22 ). O ne alveolus from one Bronze Age young adult female shows sign s of AMTL (2.9%). The difference between male and female prevalence for the Bronze Age is not significant (p= 1.00). No alveolar position from subadults showed evidence of AMTL. During the Iron Age, four alveoli, all from one young adult male, show ed evidenc e of AMTL (12.9% ) ( Table 6 22 ). Nin e alveoli from one young adult female and three from one middle adult female showed evidence for AMTL (18.5%). The difference between males and females is not significant (p= 1.00). Again, no subadult alveolus wa s affecte d with AMTL. When compared by time

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200 period, both males and females show significantly higher prevalences of AMTL during the Iron Age than the Bronze Age (p= 0.05 and p= 0.03, respectively). When time periods are combined, females do show a significantly hig her prevalence of AMTL (12.6%) than males (3.8%) (p = 0.00) (Table 6 22 ). Ove rall, AMTL prevalence for Ban Mai Chaimongkol is 5.3% by alveolus count (22/416). Among all the alveolus positions at Promtin Tai, only two we re affected by AMTL both in a n Early Iron Age middle adult male (2.6%) ( Table 6 23 ). No o ther incidence of AMTL wa s recorded regardless of time, sex, or age group Preval ence difference between sexes in either period wa s significant. Early Iron Age AMTL prevalence among males wa s slightly hig her than Late Iron Age, however, the difference is not significant (p= 0.51). Overall prevalence of AMTL at Promtin Tai is 0.8% (2/246) At Ban Pong Manao, six alveolus positions among three young adult males and two positions from one middle a dult male w e re af fected by AMTL (male prevalence = 3.4% ) (Table 6 24). T wo young adult females show a total of five AMTL affected alveoli (3.4%). No statistically significant difference wa s found between male and female AMTL prevalence (p= 1.00). No subadult alveolus wa s affected. Overall prevalence of AMTL at Ban Pong Manao is 3.3% (13/396). Skeletal Pathologies Prevalence of skeletal pathologies is detailed in the following section using a different reporting system. Instead of an overall prevalence for a population or demographic group, prevalence of skeletal pathologies is generally reported as an incident count, unless otherwise noted. The rationale is provided for each skeletal health indicator below.

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201 Porotic Hyperostosis/Cribra Orbitalia (PH/CO) Porotic hyperost osis/ c ribra orbitalia is a condition appearing on the cranial vault and the orbital area, indicative of anemia. Due to the overall fragmentary state of most human skeletal remains incorporated in this study, preservation of the cranial vault and orbital ar eas varie d greatly by individual. It wa s very rare for an individual to have large, intact cranial bones and orbital areas preserved not to mention being coated with preservative that often obstructed visual inspection. In addition, some burials at Promti n Tai and Ban Pong Manao remained in situ at the time of data collection which often obstructed the occipital and parietal portions of the crania. To avoid further distorting the prevalence of PH/CO, it is not reported by total individual count. Instead, number of observable orbital areas wa s used as the denominator of prevalence. As for cranial vault area, since the incidence wa s very rare, each case is described in the text below There is no indication of PH/CO in Agelarakis (2012a, 2012b) among Non Mak La individuals. It is unclear if cranial remains were examined for PH/CO or if none of the Non Mak La individuals wa s affected with PH/CO. At Ban Mai Chaimongkol, three individuals we re affected with CO in the orbital areas. They include a Bronze Age youn g adult male (bilateral active CO), a Bronze Age subadult (active CO in right orbit and no CO on left orbit), and an Iron Age young adult female (bilateral active CO). The prevalence of CO is 25% (3/12) and 17% (2/12) by orbit count (right and left, respec tively). There wa s no PH observed on a total of 13 relatively intact cranial vaults. At Promtin Tai, none of the seven right and eight left orbital areas wa s affected with CO. Among the 12 individuals whose cranial vaults we re relatively intact, none of t hem show ed any sign of porotic lesions or increased cranial thickness. At Ban Pong

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202 Manao, three out of the 14 preserved right orbital areas affected with CO (21%) and one out of the 13 left orbital areas show ed signs of CO (7.7%). These lesions we re distri buted among three individuals, a middle age female, an adult female, and a subadult (17 19 years old). The CO lesions on the two females we re healed scars of CO while the subadult ha d asymmetrical lesion s where its right orbit ha d healed but the left one w as in the process of healing upon death. The cranial vault of one adult individual of unknown sex had PH lesion bilaterally on its parietals, but no evidence of cranial bone thickening. This wa s the only case out of 19 observed individuals whose cranial va ults we re relatively intact (5.3%). A t Kao Sai On Noen Din no orbital area and only a few pieces of fragmentary cranial bones we re preserved for the three individuals Among identified cranial bones, no CO or PH wa s observed. Degenerative Joint Disease D egenerative joint disease (DJD) is recorded when a joint surface displays signs of joint deformation (lipping, bony outgrowth, eburnation, collapse, etc.) due to wear and tear through out life. When a joint has evidence of deformation, bone(s) in the same j oint and surrounding bones are also inspected to exclude the deformations induced by trauma, inflammation, or other non degenerative causes. All non DJD joint deformations are presented below the over all preservation of the skeletal remains studied here DJD was not further divided by severity of each DJD, although it was recorded. show ed evidence of joint disease, often in th e forms of lipping and osteophytes. There are eight individuals (one young adult female, two middle a dult females, four middle a dult males, and one old adult male) from the Earlier period, two individuals (one young

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203 adult male and one young adult female) f rom the Later period, and ten from unknown time period (one young adult female, three young adult males, two middle a dult females, two unknown sex young adults, one unknown sex middle adult). The most frequently affected joints we re from the vertebral colu mn. In addition from predominantly involving the spine and sacroiliac joint, often associated with gen etic factors (Ortner, 2003). It is also worth noting that osteoarthritis and signs of other joint diseases we assessment (2012a). The higher frequency of middle adult individual s being affec ted with joint diseases wa s expected as a result. Table 6 25 tabulates the location and demographic distribution of DJD incidents for Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Ban Pong Manao. Since no individual was associated with all of its skeletal elements preserved amo ng the sites incorporated in this study and since most bones we re fragmentary, the prevalence of DJD by either bone, joint, or overall individual count wa s likely to introduce statistical bias. Therefore, Table 6 25 reports numbers of individual s observed whose skeletal remains had cases of recorded DJD. At Ban Mai Chaimongkol, only middle adult individuals we re affected with DJD. It should be clarified that evidence of DJD was not employed in age estimation in this study Among affected individuals, an e qual number of males and females we re DJD positive. There does not seem to be a pattern when the location of DJD is considered. The severity of DJD wa s mostly slight that involve d osteophyte ou t growth at the affected

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204 joint surfaces. Only one Bronze Age mal e show ed collapsed C3 to C6, T10, and L1 to L5 vertebral discs. These appear ed to be a compression fracture due to long term wear and tear. There we re also osteophytes along the r i m of these pathological discs. a ll the females affected with DJD we re from t he unknown time period, thus temporal comparison with Ban Mai Chaimongkol could not be assessed At Promtin Tai, there wa s no evidence of DJD on any vertebral column or appendicular skeleton observed. This is likely to be a result of preservation factors a nd the practice of leaving burials in situ The extended supine position of the burials prevented the observation of the vertebrae and the posterior aspects of bones when not exhumed from the excavation pits. At Ban Pong Manao, there we re more males affect ed with DJD than females. However, this observation needs to be interpreted with caution since male s were better represented in the population than females at this site For those individuals whose age at death was estimated with confidence, only young adu lts display ed signs of DJD. In terms of joints affected, lower thoracic and lumbar regions we re most frequent, although none of these vertebrae involved we re severely deformed or collapsed. In addition, two of the total 11 individuals affected with DJD in Ban Pong Manao ha d degenerative changes at the first metatarsophalangeal joints. At Kao Sai On Noen Din, no sign s of DJD were observed. Trauma and Anomalies Incidences of skeletal trauma and anomaly are fairly rare in the sites studied. This is likely due to differential preservation of skeletal elements E ach case of trauma and anomaly is described below

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205 At Non Mak La, three individuals we re observed with possible signs of trauma on the cranial bones (one middle a dult male and two middle a dult females), although in each case, taphonomic factors cannot be ruled out (Agelarakis, 2012a, b). There is one n ation possibly the left distal humerus and proxi mal ulna (Agelarakis, 2012a). At Ban Mai Chaimongkol, one young female adult from the Bronze Age ha d a bony outgrowth on the posterior third of her left femur (popliteal surface), roughly 19.49 mm by 45.12 mm at its maximum projection. The bone formation w as well organized dense bone with spicule like structure that does not appear to be a reaction to fracture. Differential diagnosis points to a possible case of chondromyxoid fibroma, a benign tumor that occurs on the metaphysis of long bone s (Ortner, 2003) A Bronze Age young adult male from Ban Mai Chaimongkol ha d a healed fracture on his right clavicle bone. No Iron Age individual from this site display ed any trauma or abnormal skeletal condition. Consistent with the rarity of DJD, Promtin Tai ha d only on e individual (the Early Iron Age young female) exhibiting trauma of a healed fracture on the left clavicle. At Ban Pong Manao, there we re five cases of trauma or skeletal anomalies, all of which were observed on the appendicular skeletons. One adult male h a d a malaligned healed fracture along the distal third of the left ulna. A middle a dult male ha d a flattened proximal left fibular shaft just below its head The deformity d id not continue to any portion of the shaft distal to the locale and the associate d tibia d id not show any abnormal skeletal feature. The locale does not seem to be fracture or trauma induced. Another young adult male displays periostitic reaction on the posterior lateral portion of

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206 the left tibia. Also on a left tibia, an unknown sex a dult ha d new bone deposition at the distal portion of the interosseous surface, likely to be associated with the development and/or movement of the muscles attached. Lastly, an unknown sex adult ha d a deformed right distal ulna and right fifth metacarpal b one. These deformities we re likely the right radius show ed arthritic lipping at the distal portion, indicating the trauma was sustained over a period of time prior to dea th and the injured area was functional (perhaps limited). Individuals from Kao Sai On Noen Din show ed no sign of trauma or skeletal anomaly. Stature and Dental Health of Central Thailand in a Regional Context Estimated stature and prevalence of each pathol ogy offer insight into the general well being of the prehistoric central Thai people. When placed into a larger regional context, the data can further contribute to a portra yal of the lifeways of these people considering temporal and geographical factors. In this section, stature and paleopathological data from this current study (Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai, Ban Pong Manao, Kao Sai On Noen Din) are compared with studies of human skeletal remains from various parts of Mainland Southeast A si a. Table 6 26 i s a list of the human skeletal assemblages used in comparison and their archaeological/ecological/cultural background, seriated by time perio d. The majority of these assemblages occur in modern day Thailand, with two from Cambodia and three from Vietnam. Due to a portion of the burials being in situ in some inland central Thai sites a full assessment of skeletal pathologies and the bias due to inferior preservation status is recognized such that prevalences of cranial and postcranial pathol ogies

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207 (porotic hyperostosis/cribra orbitalia, degenerative joint disease, trauma and anomalies) are not included in this comparison. Stature Owing to similar academic traditions among the scholars who studied the comparison osteological assemblages, the sa me set of stature estimation formulae (Sangvichien et al., 1985, n.d.) have been consistently used to reconstruct stature for past population s from Mainland Southeast Asia. This facilitates a sound methodological ground for a regional stature comparison. F igure 6 1 is a visual demonstration of stature fluctuation of males and females from each compara tive site. Those sites that do not appear on this figure either do not have intact long bones preserved for stature estimation or no stature information wa s re ported in the reference literature. Accompanied by the data presented in Table 6 27 male stature fluctuates ~ 165.1 cm (overall average stature) displaying no apparent temporal or geographical trend. Among all sites, Noen U Loke in northeast Thailand shows the tallest males on average (169.3 cm), where the absolute tallest male is from Nong Nor in central costal Thailand (181.6 cm). Males from Man Bac in northern Vietnam are shortest on average (161.4 cm), closely followed by Ban Mai Chaimongkol in central Thailand (161.5 cm). The absolute shortest male is from Ban Pong Manao (152.0 cm), also in inland central Thailand. When only the central Thai sites are con sidered average male height from these sites (except Nong Nor) tend to be among the shortest compar ed to other non central Thai sites. Phum Snay in northwest Cambodia has the tallest females on average (161.1 cm) followed by the second tallest female population from Promtin Tai in central Thailand (156.8 cm). Phum Snay produce d the absolute tallest fem ale (173.7 cm)

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20 8 among all individuals assessed. Conversely, average female height is the shortest at Non Nok Tha (northeast Thailand) during its Early period (152.0 cm). For those sites whose female height range is available, Khok Phanom Di in coastal centr al Thailand has the shortest female of 141.1 cm. Overall, stature at that site fluctuates around 154.8 cm and there seems to be a subtle increase of stature over time However, if the exceptionally tall female population of Phum Snay is excluded from compa rison, the difference in average height between the shortest (Early Non Nok Tha, also the earliest) and the tallest (Promtin Tai) is 4.8 cm, very close to the height difference (4.3 cm) between the tallest (Phum Snay, 161.1 cm) and second t allest populatio n (Promtin Tai, 156.8 cm). This phenomenon illustrates the variation of female stature among these comparison sites across during this transitional period Thus, the meaning of the general increase of female height over time may not be so apparent Unlike male height, females from central Thai sites are not usually among the shortest compared to females from other geographical regions of Mainland Southeast Asia. In short, there does not seem to be a temporal or geographic trend for stature for either males or females among these Mainland Southeast Asian populations. In addition, sites that produce d the tallest males do not necessarily have the tallest females, indicating again the variation of intra site sexual dimorphism of height. The difference of statu re between males and females (sexual dimorphism, in %) for each site is show n in Table 6 28 Pietru sewsky and Douglas (2002a) suggest that the proportion of stature difference between sexes against average male stature is a rough estimate of sexual dimorph ism in a population. For example, t he difference be t ween average stature of males and females at Ban Pong Manao is 6.5 cm ( see

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209 Table 6 27 ). T his number is 163.0 cm Since degree of sexual dimorphism is recorded a s a percent the quotient is multiplied by 100 resulting in a stature sexual dimorphism at Ban Pong Manao of 4.0%. T able 6 28 shows a par ti c ularly interesting pattern namely that inland central Thai sites have the lowest degrees of sexual dimorphism in stature, ranging between 4.0% and 5.4%, among all other Mainland Southeast Asian sites (total range= 3.9% 8.7%). Dental Pathologies and Conditions Table 6 29 compiles the dental pathologies and conditions from all comparison sites. The affected and obser ved teeth we re permanent teeth only, often includ ing all tooth types and all individuals from each site. These permanent teeth we re derived from both adults and subadults. However, data for certain pathologies at a few sites we re available for adult indivi duals only. The exceptions we re noted in Table 6 2 9 P revalence was calculated by tooth count, unless otherwise noted. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) Figure 6 2 plots the LEH data presented in Table 6 29 for visual comparison of LEH prevalence through tim e among sites. As noted, the particularly high prevalence of LEH from the three Vietnamese assemblages are derived from LEH observed on either anterior teeth or canines only and calculated by individual count in Oxenham (2006) and Oxenham et al. (2011). It is well known that the anterior teeth, especially canines, are most frequently affected tooth types for LEH (Goodman and Rose, 1990). The special focus on the LEH prevalence among anterior teeth is the main reason these three sites seem to have highly ele vated LEH prevalences. When the Vietnamese sites are excluded from the comparison, prevalence of LEH in all remaining sites are at or below

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210 20%. Khok Phanom Di in coastal central Thailand (20.7%) and Ban Na Di in northeast Thailand (17.3%) have the highest LEH prevalence while Ban Mai Chaimongkol (0.3%) and Ban Pong Manao (0.6%), both in inland central Thailand, have the lowest LEH prevalence (Kao Sai On Noen Din has a small sample si z e in both tooth and individual counts). Temporally, there is no apparent pattern of LEH prevalence from the Neolithic to the Late Iron Age in Mainland Southeast Asia. For Non Nok Tha, LEH prevalence of the Earlier period is significantly higher than the Later period. As for Ban Chiang, the intra site difference of LEH prevalen ce though time is not significant (Douglas, 1996). When only central Thai sites are considered, all inland sites are among the lowest LEH prevalent sites. In fact, five out of the seven sites with the lowest LEH prevalences are from inland central Thailand Dental caries Table 6 29 and Fi gure 6 3 present the caries prevalence at all compar ative sites. Aside from observed caries prevalence, several previous studies also provide corrected caries prevalence, following Lukac (1995) recommendation to account for the cases where severe caries ultimately may cause antemortem tooth loss. However, as the prevalence of caries for all inland central Thai samples we re uncorrected (observed), the uncorrected caries prevalence from all comparative sites is utilized he re to eliminate methodological bias. It should also be noted that caries prevalence at Noen U Loke is reported based on adult teeth only as reported in Tayles et al. (2007). Similar to LEH, Khok Phanom Di ha d the highest caries prevalence (10.8%) among al l the assemblages compared, followed by Phum Snay (9.0%) in northwest Cambodia and Man Bac (8.6%) in northern Vietnam. There is no temporal trend in

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211 terms of caries prevalence from the earliest assemblages (Da But/Neolithic period of Con Co Hgua in norther n Vietnam and the Neolithic Early Bronze Age assemblage of Non Nok Tha in northeast Thailand) to the Late Iron Age Ban Pong Manao assemblage in central Thailand). Aside from a few caries prevalent sites (e.g., Khok Phanom Di, Phum Snay, Man Bac, Early Ban Chiang, Nong Nor), caries prevalence in all other sites are consistently low (around or below 5%). The caries prevalence between Early and Late periods at Non Nok Tha is significantly different, with the teeth from the Later period having much higher carie s prevalence than the Early period teeth (Douglas, 1996). With the prevalence of other dental pathologies also increasing through time (see below), Douglas (1996: 583) views this trend as evidence of shifting dietary composition from coarse/fibrous to star chy/sweet foodstuffs. Again, inland central Thai sites exhibit among the lowest caries prevalence Promtin Tai, especially, does not yield any carious tooth among all observable dentitions. Dental calculus Dental calculus is the most ubiquitous dental con dition in all the inland central Thai sites studied in this research and across the comparison human skeletal assemblages. The extent of calculus deposit, however, varied widely among sites. Since some sites from inland central Thailand (e.g., Ban Mai Chai mongkol and Kao Sai On Noen Din, Table 6 29 Figure 6 4) have very low calculus prevalence, the severity of calculus (slight, moderate, marked), while recorded, is grouped together and treated as calculus present. This approach is different from the studie s on Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha remains where Douglas (1996) groups advanced (moderate and marked) calculus as a category and uses it to conduct inferential statistical analyses against numbers of teeth with no or slight calculus deposit. In addition, only adult teeth are used

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212 when reporting calculus prevalences for Ban Chiang (Douglas, 1996), Non Nok Tha (Douglas, 1996), and Noen U Loke (Tayles et al., 2007). However, Douglas (1996) notes that only on rare occasions we re permanent teeth from subadult indiv iduals affected with calculus at Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha. Prevalence of dental calculus ertr the highest (~30%) in three assemblages: Early Ban Chiang (32.8%), Late Non Nok Tha (32.4%), and Early Non Nok Tha (29.4%), all of which are situated in northe ast Thailand occupying the early spectrum of chronology (the Neolithic to the Bronze Age). There seems to be a decline of calculus prevalence (~10%) during the Bronze and Iron Ages compared to the Neolithic period. Among the later assemblages, prevalence o f calculus of Late Ban Chiang (20.3%) is significantly lower than its Early period counterpart (32.8%) (Douglas, 1996). W ith respect to central Thai sites, they are the least calculus prevalent assemblages (ranging from 0% in Kao Sai On Noen Din to 14.5% a t Promtin Tai). Periapical cavity Periapical cavity is termed somewhat differently among various compar ative groups. For the Vietnamese assemblages, Oxenham (2006) refers to this pathogenic erosion of the Co Hgua and Red Ma Ca River Valley human dentitions. For the Man Bac assemblage, Loke site from addition, prevalence of periapical cavity was restricted to only adult individuals at Thai sites of Khok Phanom Di (Tayles, 1999), Nong Nor (Domett, 2001), Ban Lum Khao (Domett, 2001), Ban Na Di (Domett, 2001), and Noen U Loke (Tayles et a l., 2007).

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213 When all 18 human skeletal assemblages (alveolus count at Non Mak La is not available) are compared, prevalence of periapical cavity is ubiquitously low, ranging from 0% in Kao Sai On Noen Din (or 0.2% in Ban Mai Chaimongkol if discounting Kao Sai On n Chiang Late period (Table 6 29 Figure 6 5). In fact, other than Late Ban Chiang, Noen U Loke, Khok Phanom Di, and Early Ban Chiang, prevalence of periapical cavity in all other 14 assembla ges are 2.7% or lower. The highest four assemblages, however, do not aggregate in a particular time period, suggesting the lack of a temporal trend in periapical cavity prevalence over time in prehistoric Mainland Southeast Asia. Very similar to the observ ations on other dental pathologies, dentitions from inland central Thai people display the rarest occurrences of periapical cavity. For coastal central Thai sites, the Khok Phanom Di dentition has one of the highest periapical cavity prevalences (6.0%) whi le Nong Nor its neighbor and slightly later in time is among the least frequently affected assemblages at 0.8% Antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) Prevalence of AMTL is reported in all but one (Non Mak La) skeletal assemblage. While in most of the assemblages AMTL prevalence was calculated by using all permanent alveolus positions from both subadults and adults, the following assemblages report only adult AMTL prevalences, Khok Phanom Di (Tayles, 1999), Nong Nor (Domett, 2001), Ban Lum Khao (Domett, 2001), Ban Na Di (Domett, 2001), and Noen U Loke (Tayles et al., 2007). Shown in Table 6 29 a nd Figure 6 5, Late Non Nok Tha dentitions have the highest prevalence of AMTL (10.4%) followed by Khok Phanom Di (8.9%). AMTL in Early and Late Ban Chiang assemblages is al so frequent (6.6% and 6.9%,

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214 respectively). Aside from these four assemblages, there seems to be a status quo of AMTL prevalences at ~5% or lower, regardless of location and inferred site ecology Through time, a slight decrease (except for the higher rate at Late Ban Chiang) of AMTL prevalence is observed. Among the inland central Thai sites, Ban Mai Chaimongkol (5.3%) is the only assemblage that produces a comparable AMTL prevalence with other non central Thai sites All other inland central Thai sites hav e AMTL rates ranging from 0% (Kao Sai On Noen Din) to Ban Pong Manao (3.3%). For coastal central Thai sites, Khok Phanom Di has one of the highest AMTL prevalence among all, while Nong Nor has a much lower AMTL prevalence at 4.4%. All of the Vietnamese and Cambodian sites (temporally and geographically diverse) have an AMTL prevalence of 5% or lower. Regional Comparison of Dental Health As this study aims to conduct in depth investigation of the human lifeways of six central Thai sites (Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai, Ban Pong Manao, Kso Sai On Noen Din, Khok Phanom Di) and place them in a regional perspective, it is imperative to also understand the variations existing among these six sites. To achieve this and to facilitate the interpretatio n of isotopic data, prevalence of dental conditions and pathologies of these six sites (when available) we re compared among themselves Table s 6 30 to 6 34 present the comparative result s by site. In Ta ble 6 30 th e proportion of teeth affected with LEH is available for all six sites. The proportion for LEH positive teeth is significantly different in the following inland site pairs: Non Mak La vs. Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai vs. Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Non Mak La vs. Ban Pong Manao, Promtin Tai vs. Ban Pong Manao. When the prevalence of LEH at each site is considered, the absolute differences of LEH prevalence between those affected

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215 more frequently (Promtin Tai and Non Mak La) and those rarely affected (Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Ban Pong Manao, and Kao Sai On Noen Din) are obvious and confirmed by the statistical analyses. Khok Phanom Di, as an outgroup both temporally and geographically/ecologically, does have significantly higher proportion of teeth affected with LEH than any other inland central Thai sites. In fact, sites with the lowest (Kao Sain On Noen Din and Ban Mai Chaimongkol) and highest (Khok Phanom Di) prevalence of LEH are from central Thailand. The small sample size of Kao Sai O n Noen Din assemblage likely contributes to the overall non significant FET results and this trend ies are consider ed. Table 6 31 sh ows the results of FET analyses on dental caries prevalence from the centr al Thai sites. For inland sites, the complete lack of caries at Promtin Tai (with good sample size) contributes to the significantly different results with respect to the proportion of carious teeth when compared to Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, and Ban Pong Manao. These latter three sites do not show significantly different prevalence of caries. When Khok Phanom Di is compared, its particularly high caries prevalence (10.8%) is significantly different from all of the inland central Thai sites (except Ka o Sai On Noen Din for reasons stated previously). As for dental calculus, Ban Mai Chaimongkol has an exceptionally low proportion of teeth affected (0.3%). This low proportion is significantly different from that of Non Mak La, Promtin Tai, and Ban Pong M ana o (Table 6 32 ). On the other end of the spectrum in terms of calculus prevalence, Promtin Tai has the highest at 15.4%. This makes Promtin Tai having significantly different proportion of caries teeth from all other

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216 inland central Thai sites. Dental cal culus prevalence from Khok Phanom Di, however, is not available. In Ta ble 6 33 the proportion of the alveoli affected with periapical cavity is significantly different between the site s having the highest prevalence (Ban Pong Manao, 5.1%) and the site wi th the lowest prevalence ( Ban Mai Chaimongkol 0.2%) among the inland central Thai sites. While the Non Mak La dental study does not report alveolus count in Agelarakis (2010, 2012b), the proportionally small sample size from Kao Sai On Noen Din again dimi nishes its comparability to other sites, despite its lack of periapical cavity. Khok Phanom Di in coastal Thailand has a slightly elevated prevalence of periapical cavity (6.0%) compared to the highest site in the inland central Thai group (Ban Pong Manao, 5.1%), although the prevalence with the former is from adult individuals only (Tayles, 1999). With this in mind, periapical cavity at Khok Phanom Di is significantly higher than Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Promtin Tai. Lastly, in T able 6 34 the difference o f AMTL prevalence between the two extremes of the prevalence spectrum of inland central Thailand (Ban Mai Chaimongkol 5.3% and Promtin Tai 0.8%) are indeed significant. When Khok Phanom Di is added for comparison, its higher AMTL prevalence of 8.9% (adul ts only) is significantly different from all the inland sites (except Kao Sai On Noen Din for sample size reasons) that have much lower proportion of alveoli affected with AMTL. To summarize, there is a great amount of variation in the aspect of dental con dition/pathology prevalence among inland central Tha i sites. T here is no one site that consistently has the highest prevalence of all or even the majority of dental conditions/pathologies. Among them, Promtin Tai is the only inland site that has the

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217 highes t prevalence of two out of the five dental conditions/pathologies ( LEH and dental calculus ) On the other hand, Promtin Tai is a site that completely lacks dental caries. All of the other inland sites that have sufficient dental sample sizes (Non Mak La, B an Mai Chaimongkol, and Ban Pong Manao) register the highest prevalence of one dental condition/pathology or the other. When lower prevalence for dental condition/pathology is con sidered Ban Mai Chaimongkol seems to record the lowest prevalence of dental health indicators more frequently (in LEH, calculus, and periapical cavity) than any other inland site, followed by Promtin Tai in two categories (caries and AMTL). Most interes tingly, Khok Phanom Di as an out group in this study is clearly asynchronous wit h respect to dental conditions/pathologies observed In addition to its consistently higher prevalence of dental conditions and pathologies compared to that of the inland central Thai sites, the pathological prevalence of Khok Phanom Di are often significa ntly higher than all other Mainland So utheast Asian sites in general

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218 Table 6 1. Demograp hic structure of Non Ma k La Male % Female % Sex ? a % Total % Early Period SA b 1 4.8 0 0.0 9 42.9 10 47.6 YA 0 0.0 2 9.5 0 0.0 2 9.5 MA 4 19.0 3 14.3 0 0.0 7 33.3 OA 1 4.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 4.8 Adult 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 4.8 1 4.8 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 6 28.6 5 23.8 10 47.6 21 100.0 Later Period SA 2 28.6 1 14.3 1 14.3 4 57.1 YA 1 14.3 1 14.3 1 14.3 3 42.9 MA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 .0 OA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Adult 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 3 42.9 2 28.6 2 28.6 7 100.0 Site Total SA 4 5.4 1 1.4 33 44.6 38 51.4 YA 5 6.8 6 8.1 6 8.1 17 23.0 MA 4 5.4 5 6.8 4 5.4 13 17.6 OA 1 1.4 0 0.0 1 1.4 2 2.7 Adult 1 1.4 0 0.0 2 2.7 3 4.1 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.4 1 1.4 Total 15 20.3 12 16.2 47 63.5 74 100.0 a Sex ? : unknown sex individuals ; b SA: subadult (0 20 years old); YA: young adult (20 35 years old); MA: middle adult (35 50 years old ); OA: old adult (50 years and older); Adult: adult with unknown specif ic age range; Age ? : unknown age

PAGE 219

219 Table 6 2. Demographic structure of Ban Mai Chaimongk ol Male % Female % Sex ? % Total % Bronze Age SA 1 6.7 0 0.0 2 13.3 3 20.0 YA 2 13.3 3 2 0.0 0 0.0 5 33.3 MA 1 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.7 OA 1 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.7 Adult 0 0.0 1 6.7 3 20.0 4 26.7 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.7 1 6.7 Total 5 33.3 4 26.7 6 40.0 15 100.0 Iron Age SA 0 0.0 1 10.0 2 20.0 3 30.0 YA 1 10.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 10.0 MA 0 0.0 2 20.0 0 0.0 2 20.0 OA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Adult 3 30.0 0 0.0 1 10.0 4 40.0 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 4 40.0 3 30.0 3 30.0 10 100.0 Site Total SA 1 2.6 1 2.6 6 15.8 8 21.1 YA 3 7.9 4 10.5 0 0.0 7 18.4 MA 3 7.9 5 13.2 0 0.0 8 21.1 OA 1 2.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 2.6 Adult 4 10.5 2 5.3 5 13.2 11 28.9 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 7.9 3 7.9 Total 12 31.6 12 31.6 14 36.8 38 100.0

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220 Table 6 3. Demograph ic structure of Promtin Tai Male % Female % Sex ? % Total % Early Iron Age SA 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 11.5 3 11.5 YA 2 7.7 4 15.4 0 0.0 6 23.1 MA 2 7.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 7.7 OA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Adult 1 3.8 0 0.0 11 42.3 12 46.2 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 11.5 3 11.5 Total 5 19.2 4 15.4 17 65.4 26 100.0 Late Iron A ge SA 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 33.3 3 33.3 YA 0 0.0 1 11.1 0 0.0 1 11.1 MA 2 22.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 22.2 OA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Adult 2 22.2 1 11.1 0 0.0 3 33.3 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 4 44.4 2 22.2 3 33.3 9 100.0 Site Total SA 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 17.1 6 17.1 YA 2 5.7 5 14.3 0 0.0 7 20.0 MA 4 11.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 4 11.4 OA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Adult 3 8.6 1 2.9 11 31.4 15 42.9 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 8.6 3 8.6 Total 9 25.7 6 17.1 20 57.1 35 100.0

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221 Table 6 4. Demographic struct ure of Ban Pong Manao Male % Female % Sex ? % Total % SA 0 0.0 1 2.0 2 4.1 3 6.1 YA 14 28.6 5 10.2 0 0.0 19 38.8 MA 1 2.0 1 2.0 0 0.0 2 4.1 OA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Adult 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Age ? 6 12.2 7 14.3 12 24.5 25 51.0 Total 21 42.9 14 28.6 14 28.6 49 100 .0 Table 6 5. Demography of Kao Sai On Noen Din individuals incorporated in this study Male % Female % Sex ? % Total % SA 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 33.3 1 33.3 YA 1 33.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 33.3 MA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 OA 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Adult 1 33.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 33.3 Age ? 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 2 66.7 0 0.0 1 33.3 3 100.0

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222 Table 6 6. Estimated adult stature by site (all stature measurements are in cm) Male Female Site Phase N a Mean Min. Max. s.d. Phase N Mean Min Max s.d. BMC b Bronze 2 165.5 164.9 166.1 0.6 Bronze 1 155.1 155.1 155.1 --Iron 1 153.5 153.5 153.5 --Iron 1 151.3 151.3 151.3 --Combined 3 161.5 153.5 166.1 5.7 Combined 2 153.2 151.3 155.1 1.9 PTT Earlier 2 162.9 162.3 163.5 0.6 E arlier 3 155.1 152.4 158.4 2.5 Later 1 165.6 165.6 165.6 --Later 1 161.6 161.6 161.6 --Combined 3 163.9 162.3 165.6 1.4 Combined 4 156.8 152.4 161.6 3.5 PMN Combined 11 163.0 152 .0 173.7 6.9 Combined 4 156.5 150.8 162.6 6.1 KPD c Combined 30 162 .3 153.8 171.9 5.2 Combined 36 154.3 141.1 163.2 4.5 Note: Statures are used in site comparison. a N: number of individuals; Min.: minimum; Max.: maximum; s.d.: standard deviation ; b BMC: Ban Mai Chaimongkol; PTT: Promtin Tai; PMN: Ban Pong Manao; KPD: Khok Phanom Di ; c KPD: calculated from data reported in Tayles ( 1999 )

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223 Table 6 7. Prevalence of linear enamel hypopolasia (by tooth count) of Non Mak La Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Ob served % Earlier Period SA 0 0 --0 0 --0 57 0.0 YA 0 0 --0 33 0.0 0 0 --MA 1 55 1.8 0 37 0.0 0 0 --OA 0 20 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 1 75 1.3 0 70 0.0 0 57 0.0 Later Pe riod SA 1 49 2.0 0 30 0.0 0 6 0.0 YA 3 20 15.0 2 20 10.0 0 0 --MA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 4 69 5.8 2 50 4.0 0 6 0.0 Site Total SA 1 49 2.0 0 30 0.0 0 71 0.0 YA 5 109 4.6 2 60 3.3 0 3 0.0 MA 1 55 1.8 11 59 18.6 0 5 0.0 OA 0 20 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 7 233 3.0 149 149 8.7 0 79 0.0

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224 Table 6 8. Prevalence of line ar enamel hypopolasia (by tooth co unt) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Bronze Age SA ------------0 11 0.0 YA 0 105 0.0 0 26 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 20 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 1 0.0 0 15 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 125 0.0 0 27 0.0 0 26 0.0 Iron Age SA ------------0 33 0.0 YA 0 24 0.0 0 49 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 0 --1 3 33.3 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 24 0.0 1 52 1.9 0 33 0.0 Site Total SA ------------0 59 0.0 YA 0 129 0.0 0 78 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 75 0.0 1 15 6.7 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 1 0.0 0 15 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 204 0.0 1 94 1.06 0 74 0.0

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225 Table 6 9. Prevalence of linear enamel hypopolasia (by t ooth count) of Promtin Tai Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Obs erved % Affected Observed % Early Iron Age SA ------------5 23 21.7 YA 4 32 12.5 1 53 1.9 0 0 --MA 2 36 5.6 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --2 9 22.2 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 6 68 8.8 1 53 1.9 7 32 21.9 Late Iron Age SA ------------0 15 0.0 YA 0 0 --0 30 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 28 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 28 0.0 0 30 0.0 0 15 0.0 Site Total SA ------------5 38 13.2 YA 4 32 12.5 1 83 1.2 0 0 --MA 2 64 3.1 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --2 9 22.2 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 6 96 6.3 1 83 1.2 7 47 14.9

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226 Ta ble 6 10. Prevalence of linear enamel hypopolasia (by tooth count) of Ban Pong Manao Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % SA ------0 20 0.0 0 11 0.0 YA 1 161 0.6 0 92 0.0 0 0 0.0 MA 0 6 0.0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0.0 OA 0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 Adult 0 27 0.0 1 17 5.9 0 1 0.0 Age ? 0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 Total 1 194 0.5 1 129 0.8 0 12 0.0

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227 Table 6 11. Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth count) of Non Mak La Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Earlier Period SA 0 0 --0 0 --0 57 0.0 YA 0 0 --0 33 0.0 0 0 --MA 3 55 5.5 1 37 2.7 0 0 --OA 4 20 20.0 0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 7 7 5 9.3 1 70 1.4 0 57 0.0 Later Period SA 2 49 4.1 0 30 0.0 0 6 0.0 YA 0 20 0.0 0 20 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 2 69 2.9 0 50 0.0 0 6 0. 0 Site Total SA 2 49 4.1 0 30 0.0 0 71 0.0 YA 3 109 2.8 0 60 0.0 2 3 66.7 MA 3 55 5.5 1 59 1.7 1 5 20.0 OA 4 20 20.0 0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 12 233 5.2 1 149 0.7 3 79 3.8

PAGE 228

228 Table 6 12. Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth co unt) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Bronze Age SA ------------0 11 0 .0 YA 4 105 3.8 0 26 0 .0 0 0 --MA 0 20 0 .0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --1 1 100.0 0 15 0 .0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 4 125 3.2 1 27 3.7 0 26 0 .0 Iron Age SA ------------2 33 6.1 YA 0 24 0 .0 5 49 10.2 0 0 --MA 0 0 --0 3 0 .0 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 24 0 .0 5 49 10.2 2 33 6.1 Site Total SA ------------2 59 3.4 YA 4 129 3.1 5 78 6.4 0 0 --MA 0 75 0 .0 0 15 0.0 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 15 0 .0 Age ? 0 0 --1 1 100.0 0 0 --Total 4 204 2.0 6 94 6.4 2 74 2.7

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229 Table 6 13. Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth count) of Promtin Tai Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Early Iron Age SA ------------0 23 0 .0 YA 0 32 0 .0 0 53 0 .0 0 0 --MA 0 36 0 .0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 9 0 .0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0 .0 Total 0 68 0 .0 0 53 0 .0 0 33 0 .0 Late Iron Age SA ------------0 15 0 .0 YA 0 0 --0 30 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 28 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 28 0.0 0 30 0.0 0 15 0 .0 Site Total SA ------------0 38 0 .0 YA 0 32 0.0 0 83 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 64 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 9 0 .0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0 .0 Total 0 96 0.0 0 83 0.0 0 48 0 .0

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230 Table 6 14. Prevalence of dental caries (by tooth count) of Ban Pong Ma nao Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % SA ------0 20 0.0 0 11 0.0 YA 3 161 1.9 4 92 4.3 0 0 --MA 0 6 0. 0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 27 0.0 0 17 0.0 0 1 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 3 194 1.5 4 129 3.1 0 12 0.0

PAGE 231

231 Table 6 15. Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth count) of Non Mak La Male Female Sex Unknown Affecte d Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Earlier Period SA 0 0 --0 0 --0 57 0.0 YA 0 0 --0 33 0.0 0 0 --MA 1 55 1.8 14 37 37.8 0 0 --OA 0 20 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 -Total 1 75 1.3 14 70 20.0 0 57 0.0 Later Period SA 2 49 4.1 0 30 0.0 0 6 0.0 YA 0 20 0.0 20 20 100.0 0 0 --MA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 2 69 2. 9 20 50 40.0 0 6 0.0 Site Total SA 2 49 4.1 0 30 0.0 0 71 0.0 YA 0 109 0.0 20 60 33.3 0 3 0.0 MA 1 55 1.8 14 59 23.7 0 5 0.0 OA 0 20 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 3 233 1.3 34 149 22. 8 0 79 0.0

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232 Table 6 16. Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth co unt) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Bronze Age SA ------------0 11 0.0 YA 0 105 0.0 0 26 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 20 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 1 0.0 0 15 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 105 0.0 0 27 0.0 0 26 0.0 Iron Age SA ------------0 33 0.0 YA 0 24 0.0 0 49 0.0 0 0 -MA 0 0 --1 3 33.3 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 24 0.0 1 52 1.9 0 33 0.0 Site Total SA ------------0 59 0.0 YA 0 129 0.0 0 78 0.0 0 0 --M A 0 75 0.0 1 15 6.7 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 15 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 1 0.0 0 0 --Total 0 204 0.0 1 94 1.1 0 74 0.0

PAGE 233

233 Table 6 17. Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth count) of Promtin Tai Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Early Iron Age SA ------------0 23 0.0 YA 5 32 15.6 1 53 1.9 0 0 --MA 0 36 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 9 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0.0 Total 5 68 7.4 1 53 1.9 0 33 0.0 Late Iron Age SA ------------0 15 0.0 YA 0 0 0.0 6 30 20.0 0 0 --MA 21 28 75.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 21 28 75.0 6 30 20.0 0 15 0.0 Site Total SA ------------0 38 0.0 YA 5 32 15.6 7 83 8.4 0 0 --MA 21 64 32.8 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 9 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0.0 Total 26 96 27.1 7 83 8.4 0 48 0.0

PAGE 234

234 Table 6 18. Prevalence of dental calculus (by tooth count) of Ban Pong Manao Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % SA ------0 20 0.0 0 11 0.0 YA 23 161 14.3 21 92 22.8 0 0 --MA 0 6 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 27 0.0 0 17 0.0 0 1 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 23 194 11.9 21 129 16.3 0 12 0.0

PAGE 235

235 Table 6 19. Prevalence of periapical cavity (by alveolus co unt) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Bronze Age SA ------------0 11 0.0 YA 0 119 0.0 0 32 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 26 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 2 0.0 0 15 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 145 0.0 0 34 0.0 0 26 0.0 Iron Age SA ------------0 33 0.0 YA 0 31 0.0 1 61 1.6 0 0 --MA 0 0 --0 4 0.0 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 31 0.0 1 65 1.5 0 33 0.0 Site Total SA ------------0 60 0.0 YA 0 150 0.0 1 97 1.0 0 0 --MA 0 88 0.0 0 4 0.0 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 2 0.0 0 15 0.0 Ag e ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 238 0.0 1 103 1.0 0 75 0.0

PAGE 236

236 Table 6 20. Prevalence of periapical cavity (by alv eolus count) of Promtin Tai Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Early Iron Age SA ------------0 23 0.0 YA 0 32 0.0 1 54 1.9 0 0 --MA 1 46 2.2 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 11 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0.0 Total 1 78 1.3 1 54 1.9 0 35 0.0 Late Iron Age SA -----------0 15 0.0 YA 0 0 --0 32 0.0 0 0 --MA 2 32 6.3 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 2 32 6.3 0 32 0.0 0 15 0.0 Site Total SA ------------0 38 0.0 YA 0 32 0.0 1 86 1.2 0 0 --MA 3 78 3.8 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 11 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0.0 Total 3 110 2.7 1 86 1.2 0 50 0.0

PAGE 237

237 Table 6 21. Prevalence of periapical cavity (by alveolus count) of Ban Pong Manao Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % SA ------0 23 0.0 0 11 0.0 YA 3 192 1.6 3 105 2.9 0 0 --MA 2 15 13.3 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 2 8 0.0 0 21 0.0 0 1 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 5 235 2.1 3 149 2.0 0 12 0.0

PAGE 238

238 Table 6 22. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss (by alveolus count) of Ban Mai Chaimongkol Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affec ted Observed % Bronze Age SA ------------0 11 0.0 YA 1 119 0.8 1 32 3.1 0 0 --MA 4 26 15.4 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 2 0.0 0 15 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 5 145 3.4 1 34 2.9 0 26 0 .0 Iron Age SA ------------0 33 0.0 YA 4 31 12.9 9 61 14.8 0 0 --MA 0 0 --3 4 75.0 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 4 31 12.9 12 65 18.5 0 33 0.0 Site T otal SA ------------0 60 0.0 YA 5 150 3.3 10 97 10.3 0 0 --MA 4 88 4.5 3 4 75.0 0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 2 0.0 0 15 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 9 238 3.8 13 103 12.6 0 75 0.0

PAGE 239

239 Table 6 23. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss (by alveolus count) of Promtin Tai Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % Early Iron Age SA ------------0 23 0.0 YA 0 32 0.0 0 54 0.0 0 0 --MA 2 46 4.3 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 11 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0.0 Total 2 78 2.6 0 54 0.0 0 35 0.0 Late Iron Age SA ------------0 15 0.0 YA 0 0 --0 32 0.0 0 0 --MA 0 32 0.0 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 0 32 0.0 0 32 0.0 0 15 0.0 Sit e Total SA ------------0 38 0.0 YA 0 32 0.0 0 86 0.0 0 0 --MA 2 78 2.6 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 0 --0 0 --0 11 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 1 0.0 Total 2 110 1.8 0 86 0.0 0 50 0.0

PAGE 240

240 Table 6 24. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss (by alveolus count) of Ban Pong Manao Male Female Sex Unknown Affected Observe d % Affected Observed % Affected Observed % SA ------0 23 0.0 0 11 0.0 YA 6 192 3.1 5 105 4.8 0 0 --MA 2 15 13.3 0 0 --0 0 --OA 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Adult 0 28 0.0 0 21 0.0 0 1 0.0 Age ? 0 0 --0 0 --0 0 --Total 8 235 3.4 5 149 3. 4 0 12 0.0

PAGE 241

241 Table 6 25. Incident count of the degenerative joint disease among inland central Thai sites BMC, Middle Adult c PMN, Young Adult PMN, Adult Male Female Male Female Male ?Sex Joint Bronze ?Period ?Period TMJ a 1 cervical 1 thoracic 1 2 1 lumbar 1 3 1 3 sacrum shoulder 1 elbow 1 wrist hand phalanges hip 1 knee 1 ankle foot (1st phalanx) 1 1 foot (1st MT b ) 1 a TMJ: temporo mandibular joint ; b MT: metatarsal ; c BMC: Ban Mai Chaimongkol; PMN: Ban Pong Manao

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242 Table 6 26 Site information of bioarchaeological studies in Mainland Southeast Asia Site (Location) Period (Date Range, B.P.) Subsistence Environment N b Bioarchaeological References Ban Pong M anao (C Thailand a ) Late Iron Age (2000 1500) agriculture inland/highland 49 current study Kao Sai On Noen Din (C Thailand) Iron Age mixed inland/undulating terrain 3 current study Vat Komnou (S Cambodia) "Early Historic" (2200 1800) mixed inland 111 Ikehara Quebral (2010) Ban Chiang Late (NE Thailand) Iron Age (2300 1800) agriculture highland/riverine 46 Douglas (1996), Pietrusewsky and Douglas (2002a, b) Phum Snay (NW Cambodia) Iron Age (~2350 1800) mixed inland 21 Domett and O'Reilly (2009) Promtin Tai (C Thailand) Iron Age (2500 1500) agriculture inland/undulating terrain 35 current study Noen U Loke (NE Thailand) Iron Age (2500 1500) agricul ture highland/riverine 120 Domett (2001), Domett and Tayles (20 06), Nelsen (1999), Tayles et al. (2007) Red Ma Ca River Valley (N Vietnam) Bronze Iron Age (2500 1700) mixed riverine/estuary 78 Oxenham (2006) Ban Na Di (NE Thailand) Late Bronze Early Iron Age (2600 2400) agriculture highland/riverine 78 Domett (2001) Ban Mai Chaimonkol (C Thailand) Bronze Iron Age mixed inland/und ulating terrain 38 current study Ban Lum Khao (NE Thailand) Bronze Age (3000 2500) mixed highland/riverine 110 Domett (2001, 2004), Domett and Tayles (200 6) a C Thailand: central Thailand; S Cambodia: southern Cambodia; NE Thailand: northeast Thailand; NW Cambodia: northwest Cambodia; N Vietnam: northern Vietnam ; b N: number of ind ividual s

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243 Table 6 26. Continued Site (Location) Period (Date Range, B.P.) Subsistence Environment N Bioarchaeological References Non Mak La (C Thailand) Late Neolithic Early Metal Age foraging/ agriculture? inland/undulating terrain 74 Agelarakis (1997, 2010, 2012a, 2012b) Nong Nor (C Thailand) Late Neolithic Bronze Age (3100 2700) agriculture/ foraging coastal/riverine 155 Domett (2011), Tayles et al. (1998) Non Nok Tha Late (NE Thailand) Bronze Age ( 3500 2000) mixed highland/riverine 39 Douglas (1996, 2006) Man Bac (N Vietnam) Neolithic (3800 3500) coastal 78 Oxenham et al. (2011) Khok Phanom Di (C Thailand) Neolithic (4000 3500) foraging/ agriculture? coastal/riverine 154 Tayles (1 999) Ban Chiang Early (NE Thailand) Neolithic Bronze Age (4100 2300) foraging/ mixed highland/riverine 93 Douglas (1996), Pietrusewsky and Douglas (2002a, b) Non Nok Tha Early (NE Thailand) Neolithic Early Bronze Age (5000 3500) mixed highland/riverine 37 Douglas (1996, 2006) Con Co Hgua (N Vietnam) Neolithic (6000 5500) foraging estuary/riverine 96 Oxenham (2006), Oxenham et al. (2002, N= 81; 2006, N= 71)

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244 Table 6 27. Estimated average stature (in cm) b y sex in Mainland Southeast Asia Male Female References Site N a Mean s.d. Min. Max. N Mean s.d. Min. Max. Ban Pong Manao 11 163.0 6.9 152.0 173.7 4 156.5 6.1 150.8 162.6 current study Vat Komnou 11 165.3 4.3 157.9 172.7 8 154.8 3.0 151.1 159.9 Ikehara Quebral, 2010 Ban Chiang Late 17 165.4 3.7 ----16 153.7 3.4 ----Douglas, 1996 Phum Snay 4 167.7 7.9 160.6 176.9 6 161.1 8.0 153.7 173.7 Domett and O'Reilly, 2009 Promtin Tai 3 163.9 1.4 162.3 165.6 4 156.8 3.5 152.4 161.6 current study Noen U Loke 9 169.3 3.1 165.3 173.7 4 154.6 4.7 151.5 161.1 Domett, 2001 Ban Na Di 17 168.0 4.9 159.5 176.0 13 155.9 4.0 150.0 164.4 Domett, 2001 Ban Mai Chaimonkol 3 161.5 5.7 153.5 166.1 2 153.2 1.9 151.3 155.1 current study Ban Lum Khao 18 164.7 6.2 152.4 174.9 25 154.7 3.8 147.9 162.2 Domett, 2001 Nong Nor 19 167.2 6.5 158.8 181.6 14 156.1 3.6 150.7 162.1 Domett, 2001 Non Nok Tha Late 17 166.0 4.2 ----15 155.0 3.7 ----Douglas, 1996 Man Bac 11 161.4 5.7 155.6 171.5 8 154.0 3.7 146.6 157.7 Oxenh am et al., 2011 Khok Phanom Di 30 162.3 5.2 153.8 171.9 36 154.3 4.5 141.1 163.2 Tayles, 1999 Ban Chiang Early 12 166.0 3.6 ----9 154.7 2.0 ----Douglas, 1996 Non Nok Tha Early 15 164.7 2.4 ----16 152.0 3.9 ----Douglas, 1996 a N: number of individual s ; s.d.: standard deviation; Min.: minimum; Max.: maximum

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245 Table 6 28 Sexual dimorphism of the estimated average stature in Mainland Southeast Asia Site Sexual Dimorphism (%) Ban Pong Manao 3.99 Vat Komnou 6.35 Ban Chiang Late 7.07 Phu m Snay 3.94 Promtin Tai 4.33 Noen U Loke 8.68 Ban Na Di 7.20 Ban Mai Chaimonkol 5.14 Ban Lum Khao 6.07 Nong Nor 6.64 Non Nok Tha Late 6.63 Man Bac 4.58 Khok Phanom Di 4.93 Ban Chiang Early 6.81 Non Nok Tha Early 7.71

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246 Table 6 29 P revalence of dental pathology in Mainland Southeast Asia LEH Dental Caries Dental Calculus Periapical Cavity AMTL site A a O b % A O b % A O b % A O c % A O c % 4 PMN d 2 335 0.6 7 335 2.1 44 335 13.1 8 396 2.0 13 396 3.3 4 KSO ND d 0 25 0.0 0 25 0.0 0 25 0.0 0 25 0.0 0 25 0.0 5 VK e 39 445 8.8 25 497 5.0 100 481 20.8 10 523 1.9 23 647 3.6 6 BC (L) f 35 508 6.9 12 232 5.2 75 369 20.3 36 548 6.6 48 698 6.9 7 PS g 7 168 4.2 17 188 9.0 ------3 181 1.7 2 267 0.7 4 PTT d 14 226 6.2 0 227 0.0 33 227 14.5 4 246 1.6 2 246 0.8 8 NUL h 72 676 10.7 46 956 4.8 ------34 571 6.0 69 1334 5.2 9 RMC i 37 55 67.0 26 1152 2.6 168 1152 14.6 39 1518 2.6 46 1518 3.0 10 BND j 92 531 17.3 24 573 4.2 ------15 707 2.1 38 707 5.4 4 BMC d 1 372 0.3 12 372 3.2 1 372 0.3 1 416 0.2 22 416 5.3 10 BLK j 89 737 12.1 41 977 4.2 ------15 1154 1.3 59 1154 5.1 11 NML k 20 461 4.3 16 461 3.5 37 461 8.0 ------------10 NN j 110 906 12.1 67 1079 6.2 ------11 1323 0.8 58 1323 4.4 12 NNT (L) l 20 520 3.8 22 536 4.1 138 426 32.4 16 599 2.7 80 766 10.4 13 MB m 181 279 64.9 64 744 8.6 ------13 935 1.8 19 935 2.0 14 KPD n 225 1086 20.7 139 1282 10.8 ------122 2047 1.8 183 2047 8.9 6 BC (E) f 40 535 7.5 65 857 7.6 137 416 32.8 31 565 1.8 44 667 6.6 12 NNT (E) l 42 622 6.8 11 666 1.7 146 497 29.4 11 767 1.8 45 900 5.0 15 CCH o 38 53 71.7 14 951 1.5 211 951 22.2 22 1430 1.8 69 1430 4.8 a A: affected; b O: observed teeth; c O: observed alveoli; d current study; e Ikehara Quebral, 2010; f *: statistically significant intra site prevalence difference by time; moderate (advanced) calculus on adults only; number of observed teeth calculated from Douglas (1996); g Domett and O'Reilly, 2009; h adults only for caries, periapical cavity (termed "alveolar lytic lesion"), and AMTL prevalence (Tayles et al., 2007); i LEH: prevalence calculated by individual count, canines only; periapical cavity termed "alveolar defect of pulpal origin" (Oxenham, 2006); j adults only for periapical cavity and AMTL prevalence (Domett, 2001); k Agelarakis, 2010, 2012b; l *: statistically significant intra site prevalence difference by time; caries: uncorrected prevalence (Douglas, 1996); m LEH: anterior teeth only (Oxenham et al., 2011); periapical cavity termed "alveolar defect", n adults only for periapical cavity and AMTL pr evalence (Tayles, 1999); o LEH: prevalence calculated by individual count, canines only; periapical cavity termed "alveolar defect of pulpal origin" (Oxenham, 2006)

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247 Table 6 30 P ng central Thai sites Site (prevalence) BMC (0.3%) PTT (6.2%) PMN (0.6%) KSO ND (0.0%) KPD (20.7%) NML (4.3%) 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.62 0.00 BMC (0.3%) --0.00 0.25 1.00 0.00 PTT (6.2%) ----0.00 0.37 0.00 PMN (0.6%) ------1.00 0.00 KSO ND (0.0%) --------0.00 Note: Statistical significance was set to 0.05. Table 6 31 P Site (prevalence) BMC (3.2%) PTT (0.0%) PMN (2.1%) KSO ND (0.0%) KPD (10.8%) NML (3.5%) 0.85 0.00 0.21 1.00 0.00 BMC (3.2%) --0.00 0.36 1.00 0.00 PTT (0.0%) ----0.04 1.00 0.00 PMN (2.1%) ------1.00 0.00 KSO ND (0.0%) --------0.10 Table 6 32 P among central Thai sites Site (prevalence) BMC (0.3%) PTT (15.4%) PMN (10.1%) KSO ND (0.0%) NML (8.0%) 0.00 0.01 0.32 0.24 BMC (0.3%) --0.00 0.00 1.00 PTT (15.4%) ----0.07 0.03 PMN (10.1%) ------0.15

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248 Table 6 33 P exact tests of periapical cavity prevalence among central Thai sites Site (prevalence) PTT (1.6%) PMN (5.1%) KSO ND (0.0%) KPD (6.0%) BMC (0.2%) 0.07 0.00 1.00 0.00 PTT (1.6%) --0.30 1.00 0.00 PMN (5.1%) ----0.34 0.56 KSO ND (0.0%) ------0.40 Table 6 34 P Site (prevalence) PTT (0.8%) PMN (3.3%) KSO ND (0.0%) KPD (8.9%) BMC (5.3%) 0.00 0.17 0.63 0.01 PTT (0.8%) --0.06 1.00 0.00 PMN (3.3 %) ----1.00 0.00 KSO ND (0.0%) ------0.16

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249 Figure 6 1. Plot of average estimated stature from each available comparison site in Mainland Southeast Asia Note: PMN Ban Pong Manao, VK Vat Komnou, BC (L) Ban Chiang (Late), PS Phum Snay, PTT Promtin Tai, NUL Noen U Loke, BND Ban Na Di, BMC Ban Mai Chaimongkol, BLK Ban Lum Khao, NN Nong Nor, NNT (L) Non Nok Tha (Late), MB Mac Bac, KPD Khok Phanom Di, BC (E) Ban Chiang (Early), NNT (E) Non Nok Tha (Early), CT central Thailand, SC s outhern Cambodia, NET northeast Thailand, NWC northwest Cambodia, NV northern Vietnam

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250 Figure 6 2. Prevalence of linear enamel hypoplasia in Mainland Southeast Asia

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251 Figure 6 3. Dental caries prevalence in Mainland Southeast Asia

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252 Figure 6 4. P revalence of dental calculus in Mainland Southeast Asia

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253 Figure 6 5. Prevalence of periapical cavity and antemortem tooth loss in Mainland Southeast Asia

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254 CHAPTER 7 R ESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF ISOTOPIC SIGNALS OF FOOD RESOURCES Stable isotopic methods ar e a unique means to reconstruct past human diet that complements paleopathological assessment of the study population(s). To understand dietary behavior of the Metal Age central Thai people, it is critical to first establish a baseline isotopic structure o f the ecology from which human food re s our c es are derived. Being largely omnivor ous humans are positioned toward s the top of the food chain. Isotopic signals from faunal skeletal and dental remains associated with burial or domestic contexts provide excel lent background data for human paleodietary reconstruction. A rchaeological faunal isotopic data are presented below and comparisons by site are reviewed by region. The following chapter (Chapter 8) presents the r esults of human stable isotopic analyses. Ca libration Standards and Precision of Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis 13 18 O) stable isotop e ratios from bone collagen and bone apatite samples are calculated against the V PDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite), following the recommendation o f the Int ernational Atomic Energy Agency Nitrogen 15 N) stable isotop e ratios from bone collagen are measured against the AIR (atmospheric N 2 ) standard The l aboratory standard used for collagen samples at the University of Florida 13 C preci 15 N precision= 0.09), while NBS 19 is used as the 13 18 O precision= 0.06). Standard precision is one standard deviation from the mean isotopic value for all standards loaded for mass spectromet ry during multiple runs (USGS loaded= 29; NBS 19 loaded= 71).

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255 Relevant isotopic data from publications are incorporated for comparison. Some studies 18 O calibrated against V SMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Conversion is performed when nec essary using formulae provided by Coplen et al. (1983) : 1 8 O VSMOW = 1.03091 x 1 8 O VPDB + 30.91 ; 1 8 O VPDB 1 8 O VSMOW 29.98 Archaeological Faunal Isotopic Signature When selecting these samples, efforts were made to deliberately select faunal bo ne fragments from the same taxon that were found far apart from one another in a site to best avoid accidentally sampling bones from the same individuals. As described in Chapter 5, all faunal sam ples were re examined to ensure an accurate taxonomical iden tification. Bone Samples A total of 52 archaeological faunal skeletal samples from three sites (Bai Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai, and Ban Pong Manao) were processed for collagen and apatite analyses. Among them, 42 produced good C/N ratios (Appendix A) sug gesting good collagen and that both 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone a p had s atisfactory correlation indicating intact crystalline in carbonates (Figure 7 1, R 2 = 0.501, p= 0.00). Since bone apatite is more prone to post depositional diagenesis whereby biogenic c arbonates be come dissolved and/or re crystalliz ed with the diagenetic subst rate the integrity of bone collagen from the same bone sample can be used as a proxy for carbonate integrity. Only apatites from those bone samples that yielded valid collagen were loaded for isotopic analysis. It is acknowledged that under some circumstances, the carbonate may not maintain its original crystalinity and its composition may be altered even with

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256 good bone collagen (Wang and Cerling, 1994; Wright and Schwarcz, 1996). T o mitigate 13 C bone coll 13 C bone ap and correlation coefficient are provided (Figure 7 1). Since the 13 C bone ap value reflect s total dietary composition and the 13 C bone coll re flects the protein portion o f the diet (Ambrose and 13 C values (Lee Thorp et al., 1989), assuming the consumers are not protein deprived (stressed) Among all the faunal bones processed for collagen extractio n, only bones from Ban Pong Manao produced valid collagen for analysis. Table 7 1 summarizes 13 1 5 N 1 8 O values by species. Figures 7 2 to 7 4 respectively display the mean isotopic values for each taxon analyzed by site 13 C bon e c oll 1 5 N bone c ol l 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap 13 C bone ap 1 8 O bone ap Stable oxygen isotope ratios ( 1 8 O) in animals are sensitive to slight isotopic changes of its water source water intake behavior, body size, and digestive physiology (Katzenberg, 1992) are important considerations when inferring human water sources and human 1 8 O data Since 1 8 O en ap data are much more resistant to diagenesis than 1 8 O bone ap data, the 1 8 O bone ap data will be discusse d in conjunct ion with the 1 8 O en ap values to help establish an isotopic baseline for water. Human bone collagen and bone apatite data are here included, by site as reference points to be discussed in the follow ing chapter At Ban Pong Manao, pig bones we re the most abundant species recovered in the excavated faunal assemblage The ir 13 C bone c oll ( 13 C bone ap ( values fall within an intermediate range suggesting a mixed C 3 C 4 for both protein and total diet, with slightly heavi er reliance on C 4 foods (Figure 7 3). Pigs ( Sus

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257 scrofa ) have a long history of domestication dat ing back to the establishment of rice agriculture in East Asia and prior to 4,000 B.P. in Thailand (Higham, 2002; summarized in Larson et al., 2009). Based on t he abundance of pig remains from Ban Pong Manao, their relatively young age of death (Borripon, 2006), and the later date of the site in general (~A.D. 300 500), pigs were very likely to have been domesticated or at least were sympatric with the Ban Pong M anao community It is thus not surprising that Ban 13 C values from bone collagen ( 3). The 1 5 N ~one t 2), which supports the expectation that humans were and still are consumers of pigs. Next in abundance to pig were deer remains recovered from Ban Pong Manao. The deer were identified in to two groups based principally on size -barking deer ( Muntiacus muntjak ) and larger bodied deer (Cer vus or Old World deer). Barking deer are browsers and small bodie d (~ 15 20 kg) and are ubiquitous in modern day So utheast Asia. Their skeletal remains have been reported at sites such as Ban Chiang, Ban Lum Khao, and Ban Na Di in north and northeast Thailand (King, 2006). They are adapted to a wide spectrum of habitat ranging from deep forest, forest edge, to grasslan d, and feed on fruits, flowers, buds, and tender grass/leaves ( Oka, 1998; Kitchener et al ., 1990). At Ban Pong Manao barking deer have 13 C values that reflect a C 3 oriented protein diet (average 13 C bone c oll = 1 13 C bone ap = with some C 4 plant carbohydrates (Figures 7 1 and 7 3). As most forest plants and grasses in temperate zones are C 3 plants, the browsing beha vior and isotopic signals of the barking deer

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258 match fairly well with what would be expected in this highland site. C 4 plants such as Coix lacryma jobi) may have been available carbohydrate (White, 2011). In addition, the 13 C distanc e between barking deer and Ban Pong Manao humans suggests the former utilized different food sources from the latter. The humans may have embarked on hunting activities and brought back the barking deer for consumption. The larger bodied deer, on the other hand, have 13 C bone c oll value s that indicat e a dietary preference toward s mixed C 3 C 4 plant protein (average 13 C bone c oll = bodied deer whose 13 C bone c oll ( toward s the C 4 protein range, the 13 C bone c oll values of the remaining two deer (average 13 C bone c oll = are close to the barking deer. This in turn suggests these larger bodied deer included more C 4 grasses in their diet, and perhaps grazed and browsed in more open habitats where such grasses are mor e plentiful and potentially managed by humans Mean 13 C bone ap value ( larger bodied deer confirms a mixed C 3 C 4 diet ary regime with a greater preference for C 4 plants compared to the barking deer Both barking deer and larger bodied deer have the lowest average 1 5 N values (average 1 5 N sampled as is expected among herbivores with lower body mass (compared to horses and cattle). Bos species constitute the third most domina n t group foun d a t Ban Pong Manao. While difficult to differentiate cattle from water buffalo based on limited bone fragments, the bovines were both likely domesticated or managed by humans. Ban Pong Manao bovines acquired dietary protein and carbohydrates from a greater p roportion of C 4 grasses as suggest 13 C bone co ll ( 13 C bone ap ( values, respectively. Bovines are largely grazers o f open plains where C 4 grasses are

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259 abundan t. B ov 15 N values average range and sits on e trophic level below Ban Pong Manao humans. As for the carnivores and small sympatric (with humans) animals, all yielded stable isotopic signals that were expect ed based on their known ecology and diet The dogs ( Canis lupus 1 5 N values 1 5 N bone coll all fauna analyzed, similar to the human result s (i.e., no trophic level difference) (Figure 7 2). While it may lead to speculation that the dogs were non food companions or hunting aids, cut and burn marks were observ ed on some of the dog bones. Thus, dog was likely considered a food source in prehistoric Ban Pong Manao. D ogs show 15 N enrichment because they are omnivores, like humans, dog 13 C bone c oll ( and 13 C bone ap ( values are similar to that of the Ban Pong Manao humans where a mix ed C 3 C 4 protein and energy sources was utilized (Figure 7 3). Other carnivores ( Canis sp larger bodied canid ) consumed slightly more C 4 oriented proteins 13 C bone c ol l = hat fed on millets. C arnivore average 13 C bone ap ( s show 13 C enrichment reflecting, in part, a C 4 carbohydrate signal. The lone black rat ( Rattus sp. ) sampled exhibits the most 13 C enriched 13 C values 13 C bone c oll = 13 C bone ap = 4.8 species sampled Human been exploited by the rodents. Chicken bones ( Gallus gallus ) produced average 13 C bone c oll ( 13 C bone ap ( ng Manao human results, suggesting a close feeding relationship with people (like dogs) The 1 5 N bone c oll also nature.

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260 Enamel Samples A total of 29 animal teeth were sampled for enamel apati te stable isotope composition (Table 7 2, Figure 7 5, Appendix B). Since dental enamel is densely mineralized making it le ss prone to diagenesis, all enamel apatite values ( 13 C and 18 O) we re used in statistical analyses. Due to excavation techniques, pre servation (wear and taphonomic process), and curation problems (animal remains were often curated elsewhere from human skeletal remains), almost all faunal teeth sampled were from Ban Pong Manao O ne pig molar from Promtin Tai and one bovine molar from Ban Mai Chaimongkol are also included in this sample It should be noted that these faunal teeth samples were not derived from the same individuals in the previous section whose bones were analyzed. Figure 7 5 demonstrates the range of isotopic values from t ooth enamel observed in the sampled fauna. I 13 C= 1 8 O = 13 18 O = that each lay at the extreme of range, but relatively close to their Ban Pong Manao conspecifics To remove confounding factors such as site location and ensure comparability, these two data points are not included when calculating 13 18 O placing Ban Pong Manao as the principle site for in 18 O 13 C from seven pig molars from Khok Phanom Di. The data are used as Khok Phanom Di ecological baseline. Since Khok Phanom Di is a coastal site and is treated as an outgroup for comparison in th is study, the faunal data will be presented and addressed separately.

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261 Figure 7 13 18 O values of each species from Ban 13 C va lues of Ban Pong Manao pigs ( uggests their total diet was mix ed C 3 C 4 with a slightly greater reliance on C 4 foodstuffs. This is in accordance with the Ban Pong Manao pig bone data presented above 13 C bone c oll distribution, the barking deer (N= 3) have tightly 13 18 O values from enamel apatite 13 C average= 18 O average= from distant loca tions a nd depths at Ban Pong Manao and each had distinct wear pattern. Ther efore, it is unlikely the teeth sampled belonged to the same individual. The 13 C en ap values suggest their diet was derived from predominantly C 3 plants, similar to the isotopic results of their bone 13 C en ap value of the larger bo died deer ( mixed C 3 C 4 diet with a greater emphasis on the C 4 end of the spectrum 13 C value s from each enamel sample are considered (Figure 7 5), the four deer individuals fall into two ends of the C 3 C 4 spectrum. Deer are traditionally grouped into grazers and browsers that forage in forest floor/open grassland and canopied forest/short bush habitat respectively. The open grasslands host more C 4 plants while the leaves and buds from the forests are commonly 13 C deplete d due to the canopy effect (see Krigbaum, 2003; van der Merwe and Me d ina, 1991). Although it is possible that the browser deer indeed consumed C 3 based plants for protein and carbohydrates, the 13 C depleted plant foods consumed could contribute to a C 3 lik 13 C signal for the deer. Regardless of their specific feeding ground s the broad spectrum habitat of the Cervinae sp. suggest that the Ban Pong

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262 Manao people also exploited a broad spectrum of foods across a wide range of landscapes. The bovine enamel su ggests a heavy reliance on C 4 grasses 13 C en ap = Although the C 4 signals are not as strong in the bones as they are in the enamel, the enamel apatite data co rrorborate the interpretation based on the bovine bones for a C 4 dominant diet. The fact that the bones and enamel did not come from the same individual may account for the discrepancy. The dogs and carnivores in general have 13 C en ap 13 C e n ap = the lone Canis sp. is towards the C 4 end of the total diet 13 C en ap values reflect the versatile (roaming) and adaptive nature of the carnivores. Figure 7 1 8 O from bone apatite against that of enamel apatite sample s. The oxygen isotopic values from bone apatite reflect the 1 8 O composition of meteoric water an animal drinks directly and acquires through consumed food (Longinelli, 1984; Iacumin et al., 1996). Relative humidity in dr i er areas can also 1 8 O value of the water (i.e., higher 1 8 O values ) due to evaporation of the lighter, more depleted 1 6 O isotope. The lower relative humidity may be reflected in the process of evapo transportation onto the leaves and other plant parts consumed by terrestrial he 1 8 O (Luz et al., 1990; Kohn, 1996; Levin et al., 2006; Drucker et al., 2009). In Figure 7 6, despite the fact that the teeth and bones were not from the same faunal individuals, the species avera ge 1 8 O values cluster tightly in accordance to their digestive physiology and expected water consumption behavior. The herbivores (deer

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263 1 8 O values from both bone apatite and enamel apatite, compared to the omnivo res and carnivores. Since these samp les are from Ban Pong Manao a dr i er interior site whose modern day dry season lasts for six months per y 1 8 O values reflect the arid ity characteristic of the site. In addition, studies on modern herb ivores and carnivores/omnivores from the same ecological areas suggest that herbivore enamel apatites are generally more enriched in 18 O due to water drinking behavior resulting in higher 18 O than carnivores and mix feeding animals (Sponheimer and Lee Th orp, 1999). This pattern is clearly displayed by the higher average 18 O values for all herbivore faunal categories (Cervinae sp., Munti, Bos sp.) as shown in Figure 7 6. While diet and water sources (i.e., locales) contribut e to the 18 O variation (Bochere ns et al., 1996), in the case of Ban Pong Manao fauna, the physiological and behavioral fac t ors best expl a in the discrepancies of average 18 O values between diverse ( herbivore vs. non herbivore ) taxa 18 O of the carnivores (dogs and Canis sp.) ar e in termediate between the herbivores and the omnivorous 18 O enriched plant foods as the herbivores. The pigs ( Sus scrofa 18 O values to the (Ban Pong Manao) humans. This echoes t he interpretation that pigs were sympatric to humans and were likely kept close to human living areas where water sources were shared. Ecological Baseline The ecological baseline constructed from Ban Pong Manao faunal remains portra ys the isotopic ranges of possible food re s our c es of prehistoric central Thai people. It is unfortunate that bones from other sites sampled did not yield informative data. In summary, most animal species produced dietary ranges as expected in

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264 accordance to their known diet and preferred habitat. Barking deer, large bodied deer, 15 N values that are lowest among all species 15 N values from bones are expected and indeed observed, reflectin g their higher trophic levels. Most of the species 13 C values match the ir preferred food source as well as their varied habitats This is e specially the case for the bovines and the chickens while the d ogs and pigs have a more narrow range. Aside from sm all sample size for some species, the lack of tight clusters could indicate that the animals were free roaming (i.e., lack ed a specified feeding regime from human s ) and more opportunistic feeders exploiting a wide spectrum of food re sources. As fauna vary isotopically, their dietary variation is transferred to humans by the foods humans eat within the food chain The effects of this diversity are expected to be evident in the stable isotope signals derived from the human skeletal remains.

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265 Table 7 1. Summar y stable isotopic values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone collagen samples Species N a 13 C s.d. b range 15 N s.d. range Bos sp. 4 11.49 6.13 19.58 ~ 4.81 6.93 1.74 5.04 ~ 8.81 Canis lupus 4 12.00 4.56 18.23 ~ 7.28 8.93 1.56 8.03 ~ 11.26 Canis sp. 3 10.23 2.77 13.22 ~ 7.76 8.15 0.24 7.91 ~ 8.38 Cervinae sp. 3 13.59 6.69 17.44 ~ 5.98 3.65 0.64 3.16 ~ 4.38 Gallus gallus 5 12.39 4.97 18.00 ~ 4.96 8.13 0.95 6.90 ~ 9.14 Muntiacus muntjak 12 19.24 3.83 22.56 ~ 9.20 5.56 1.67 4.17 ~ 10.27 Rottus sp. 1 7.16 n/a n/a 8.13 n/a n/a Sus scrofa 10 13.68 4.62 21.54 ~ 7.71 7.2 2.08 4.58 ~ 12.00 a N: number of samples ; b s.d.: standard devia tion Table 7 2. Summary stable isotopic values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone apatite samples Bone apatite N 13 C s.d. b range 18 O s.d. range Bos sp. 4 6.37 2.76 8.80 ~ 3.85 4.45 0.66 5.20 ~ 3.59 Canis lupus 4 6.04 2.90 10.29 ~ 3.74 5.89 0.84 6.63 ~ 4.77 Canis sp. 3 5.30 0.80 5.85 ~ 4.38 6.26 0.61 6.62 ~ 5.55 Ce rvinae sp. 3 8.30 2.49 10.74 ~ 5.77 4.61 0.37 4.93 ~ 4.21 Gallus gallus 5 5.91 1.45 7.44 ~ 3.67 5.50 0.74 6.31 ~ 4.30 Muntiacus muntjak 12 8.77 2.26 12.41 ~ 4.41 5.14 1.15 7.68 ~ 3.13 Rottus sp. 1 4.82 n/a n/a 5.61 n/a n/a Sus scrof a 10 6.62 1.92 9.54 ~ 4.41 5.82 1.09 7.06 ~ 4.03

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266 Table 7 3 Summary stable isotopic values of Ban Pong Manao faunal tooth enamel apatite samples Species N 13 C s.d. range 18 O s.d. range Bos sp. 8 2.42 1.52 4.64 ~ 0.46 1.95 1.49 3.43 ~ 0.06 Canis sp. 1 1.94 n/a n/a 7.00 n/a n/a Canis lupus 2 9.71 4.29 12.74 ~ 6.68 4.73 2.07 6.20 ~ 3.27 Cervinae sp. 4 7.83 4.72 13. 09 ~ 3.19 2.18 1.63 4.08 ~ 0.64 Muntiacus muntjak 3 13.04 0.28 13.20 ~ 12.72 1.92 0.09 1.97 ~ 1.82 Sus scrofa 8 6.84 2.60 10.10 ~ 2.58 6.37 1.12 7.75 ~ 4.13 Porcupine 1 14.54 n/a n/a 7.90 n/a n/a PTT Sus scrofa 1 12.37 n/a n/a 6.91 n /a n/a BMC Bos sp. 1 0.72 n/a n/a 1.38 n/a n/a

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267 Figure 7 1. 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone samples by species. Note: s 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values.

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268 Figure 7 13 C 15 N values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone collagen by species, compared with mean 13 C 15 N values of bone collagen from each site analyzed

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269 Figure 7 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal species, compared with mean 13 C bone collag en 13 C bone apatite values from each site analyzed

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270 Figure 7 13 C 18 O values of Ban Pong Manao faunal bone apatite by species, compared with mean human 13 18 O values of bone apatite from each site analyzed

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271 Figure 7 13 C en amel apatite 18 O enamel apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal t ooth enamel samples by species Note: o ne Sus scrofa sample from Promtin Tai and one Bos sp. sample from Ban Mai Chaimongkol are labeled.

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272 Figure 7 13 C enamel apatite 18 O en amel apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal species, compared with mean 13 C enamel apatite 18 O enamel apatite values from each site analyzed

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273 Figure 7 18 O bone apatite 18 O enamel apatite values of Ban Pong Manao faunal species, co mpared with mean 18 O bone apatite 15 N enamel apatite values from each site analyzed

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274 CHAPTER 8 RESULTS OF STABLE ISOTOPIC ANALYSES ON HUMAN SAMPLES A total of 163 human bones from six archaeological sites in central Thailand were processed for bon e collagen and apatite stable isotope analyses (Appendix C). Among them, 63 (39%) yielded valid collagen (i.e., C/N ratio= 2.9 3.6). Each sample represents one individual except for the Ban Pong Manao2007 Square 18 Burial 1 individual which was sampled twi ce (C 10 2031 & 2032). The C 10 2032 collagen sample is excluded from statistical analysis to facilitate interpretation. Thus, isotopic signals from 62 individuals that produced good bone collagen are included in this chapter. Figure 8 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap to establish a correlation to assess apatite integrity. The correlation coefficient (R 2 ) is 0.464 which is statistically significant (p= 0.00) thus the carbonate structure is indeed biogenic in those bone s that produced valid collagen. While the correlation coefficient is not particularly high, it is not unexpected upon reviewing the data. Experimental feeding studies by Ambrose and Norr (1993) and Tieszen and Fagre (1993) discover ed 13 C val ues of protein and non 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap values we re poorly correlated as a result (Harrison and Katzenberg, 2003). 13 C bone coll 13 C bone ap is expected when protein and non protein foods are derived from the same or isotopically similar carbon source (i.e., a monoisotopic diet). In the discussion that follows it will be demonstrated that this spacing 13 C ap coll ) helps to clarify Metal Age c entral Thai people did not have a monoisotopic diet, which in turn explains the lower (but significant) correlation observed in 13 C c oll agen 13 C apatite values from the human bone samples analyzed

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275 Site Overview As described in previous chapters, the six archaeolo gical sites from central Thailand are distributed across a large geographic area and temporally across millennia. While some sites are located closer to one another (Promtin Tai, Non Mak La, Kai Sai On/Noen Din), some are quite ecologically distinct from o ther sites (e.g., coastal vs. inland). The highly diversified landscape in the region influenced availability of local foodstuffs which in turn influenced human diet Increased socio cultural complexity over time also fostered more effective and/or alterna tive ways humans interact ed with the landscape. To evaluate how site locale may have played a role in human dietary choices, it is therefore important to review the results of stable isotope ratio analys i s at the site level. Bone Samples Figures 8 2 and 8 3 plot the isotopic val ues of all valid human collagen and 13 C bone c oll 15 N bone c oll 13 C bone ap 18 O bone ap respectively Table s 8 1 to 8 3 pre sent a summary of these isotopic parameters by site. Unfortunately, none of the bone samples collected from Promtin Tai yielded valid collagen. As a result, no apatite data are reported for this site. In Figure 8 2 (Table 8 1 ) 13 C bone c oll values cluster by site. Ban Pong Manao occupies the positive 13 C spectrum (average= 13. ), followed by Khok Phanom Di ( and Non Mak La ( show 13 C bone c oll values (average= A Kruskal Wallis t 13 C values at these sites are significantly different (p= 0.00). A Mann Whitney U test was performed to 13 C averages. The results suggest 13 C values from Ban Pong Manao are distinctly different from that of all other

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276 sites (vs. Non Mak La, p= 0.01; vs. Ba n Mai Chaimongkol, p= 0.02; vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 1 5 N values Ban Mai Chaimongkol individuals have the highest 15 N values rence among site averages is statistically significant (Kruskal Wallis t est, p= 0.00). Mann Whitney U t ests on paired 15 N values between each site is statistically significant (Non Mak La vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.04; Non Mak La vs. Ban Mai Chaimongkol, p= 0.01; Non Mak La vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.00; Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.01; Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.02; Ban Pong Manao vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.00). Figure 8 3 plots 13 C bone ap values which als o show distinct clustering by site. Ban Pong Manao individuals have least negative 13 C bone ap values (average = followed by Ban Mai Chaimongkol ( Di ( ) (see Table 8 2 for summary statistics). A K ruskal Wallis t est yield s a statistically significant difference (p= 0 .00) between the site means. Results of the Mann Whitney U t 13 C bone ap values are statistically significant between all site pairs (Non Mak La vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.00; Non Mak La vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.01; Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.01; Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.01; Ban Pong Manao vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.00) except Non Mak La and Ban Mai Chaimongkol (p= 0.8 4). In contrast with carbon and nitrogen stable isotop e 18 O values do not show clustering at 18 O values of all bones sampled show slight variation ranging from S ite average 18 O

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277 values are also similar with Ban Pong Manao having 18 O ( Non Mak La ( A Kruskal Wallis t est yielded no significant difference among the 18 O by site (p= 0.43). Paired Mann Whitney t ests also did not produce significant difference s between any site pairs. 13 C bone ap values reflect 13 C coll values reflect the protein p ortion 13 C bone ap and 13 C bone coll values 13 C ap coll ) may be used as a proxy to the isotopic composition of carbohydrates and lipids. Figure 8 13 C ap coll 13 C bone c oll (see summary in Table 8 3 ) 13 C ap coll = ( 13 C value of a monoisotopic diet partitioning C 3 vs. C 4 en ergy and protein sources ) i s placed on this plot as a reference (Ambrose et al., 1997 ; see Chapter 9). Figure 8 4 shows that only a few data points fall closely near the 13 C ap coll show less 13 C ap co ll spacing > La individuals display the second lowest 13 C ap coll ntly diff erent (Kruskal Wallis t est, p= 0.00). Mann Whitney U t ests among site pairs produced the following results : Non Mak La vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.01; Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.03; Ban Pong Manao vs. Khok Phanom Di, p= 0.00. Other paired Ma nn Whitney U t ests among Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Non Mak La, and Ban Pong Manao alone did not yield statistical signficance (Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Non Mak La, p= 0.10; Non Mak La vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.59; Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.46). With results from the two tests combined,

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278 all suggest that average 13 C ap coll at Khok Phanom Di contributed to the statisitical significance in the non parametric multiple independent sample test. The greater the 13 C ap coll in either direction, the less likely the diet was monoisotopic in nature. Figure 8 4 lends support to the low R 2 (i.e., protein vs. non protein carbon sources) to explain data validity ( see Figure 8 1). 13 C composition of protein and energy food sources, Kell ner and Schoeninger (2007) offer a set of regression models. Figure 8 5 plots the same data points as in Figure 8 13 C bone coll 13 C bone ap ) with regression lines provided in Kellner and Schoeninger (2007: 1122, Figure 2) as (1) C 3 protein line: y = 1.74 x + 21.4, (2) C 4 protein line: y = 1.71 x + 10.6, and (3) marine protein line: y = 2.18 x + 18.6. The data distribution shown in Figure 8 5 demonstrates that all but one Ban Pong Manao individual lies between the C 3 and C 4 protein lines, regardless of site location. 13 C bone ap values from Ban Pong Manao show a marked departure from other sites whose energy sources seems to have included more C 4 carbohydrates 13 C bone c oll values of Ban Pong Manao individuals also show slight clustering towards the C 4 end of the spec trum Non Mak La and Ban Mai Chaimongkol data, on the other hand, fall towards the C 3 protein line and towards the C 3 energy spectrum. Kho k Phanom Di 13 C bone c oll data interestingly show a somewhat bi modal distribution towards either protein line with mor e individuals group ed towards the C 4 13 C bone ap data from Khok Phanom Di, however, invariably cluster towards the C 3 energy end and exhibit a fairly narrow spectrum. Enamel Samples Eighty six human teeth from the five inland central Tha i sites were processed for stable isotope ratio analysis. Among them, eight were from the same individual and

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279 each duplicate sample these was excluded from statistical analyses and graphs to ease interpretation of the total individual sample (N= 78). Appe ndix D tabulates the isotopic da ta from each tooth and Table 8 4 presents the summary statistics. Figure 8 6 13 C en l ap values vs. 18 O en ap values 13 C en ap values at Non Mak La show the least negative values (average= ), followed by Ban Pong Manao ( kol ( d Promtin Tai ( sampled from Kao Sai On 13 C en ap ( highest 13 C en ap values produced among all samples analysed When evaluating the difference between site means for 13 C en ap values Kao Sai On Noen Din value is not incorporated (applies for corresponding 18 O en ap value as well) A Kruskal Wallis t est reveals that the site means are significantly different (df= 3; p= 0.00). Paired Mann 13 C en ap value s at Promtin Tai is most different from other sites (vs. Non Mak La, p= 0.00; vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.00; vs. Ban Mai Chaimongkol, p= 0.00) and the distance between Non Mak La and Ban Mai Chaimongkol averages is also statistically significant (p= 0.00). H owever, the 13 C en ap value between Non Mak La and Ban Pong Manao (p=0.59) and Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Ban Pong Manao (p= 0.09) are not statistically significant. 18 O en ap values the range is fairly small ( to 6 all human samples analyzed 18 O bone ap described above Promtin Tai shows a distinct clustering towards the higher 18 O values (average= Except for two higher values from Ban Pong Manao, data from the other f our sites are scattered between to Noen Din yielded a

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280 18 O value of sample values 18 O en ap values by site from highest to lowest is Ban Pong Manao ( imon gkol ( for Promtin Tai ( A Kruskal Wallis t est demonstrates this difference is statistically significant (p= 0.00). A P aired Mann Whitney U t est confirm s the visual distribution of 18 O va lues that Promtin Tai is skewing these results to significance, when means are compared between multiple samples (vs. Non Mak La, p= 0.00; vs. Ban Mai Chaimongkol, p= 0.00; vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 18 O valu es between Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, and Ban Pong Manao is not significant (Non Mak La vs. Ban Mai Chaimongkol, p= 0.85; Non Mak La vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.45; Ban Mai Chaimongkol vs. Ban Pong Manao, p= 0.63). Intra Site Analysis of Stable Isotope Results The main purpose of this study is to assess Metal Age c entral Thai changes in human diet and health, if any, over time with respect to proposed increases in soci o complexity in the region To gain insight in to perceived biological change s as a resul t of sociocultural development s stable isotope ratio analysis of data derived from human skeletal and dental samples from each site are analyzed by parameters including biological sex, time period, and landscape shift when possible. In addition, life hist ory reconstruction is attempted on proper individuals. Isotopic composition derived from bone samples is reflective of the dietary patterns during the last decade of life (in adults particularly), while the isotopic signals from t oo th enamel depending on specific dental formation schedule, provide insight to early childhood and sometimes in utero In this study, additional effort was invested during sampling to collect one bone and one tooth from each individual whenever possible. Since

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281 car 13 C and 18 O), the isotopic difference between bone and enamel apatite is one approach to delineate dietary and/or water source changes between early childhood and later in life. The life history data will be discussed more in contingent with paleopathology data in Chapter 9. Non Mak La The stable isotopic signals of human bone and tooth enamel samples from Non Mak La are reported in the following sections. While small in valid sample size, life history data inferred from the difference between 13 C bone ap 13 C en ap 18 O bone ap 18 O en ap are also displayed. Bone samples Among the 27 human bone samples from Non Mak La processed for stable isotope analyses, eight produced good bone collagen yields Thus, eight sets (from the same indivi duals) of bone collagen and bone apatite isotop e data are included. Figures 8 7 and 8 8 13 15 13 18 O from bone apatite, respectively. Sex of the individuals is marked (male= 3, female= 2, subadult= 3). The dist ribution of the data shows that the range of each isotopic parameter is fairly for 18 O bone ap for 13 C coll Summary stati stics are tabulated in Tables 8 5 to 8 7 The mean value of each isotop e ratio does not portray an y marked difference among biological categories and small sample size hinders statistical analys i s. Figure 8 9 13 C ap coll 13 C bone c oll while Figure 8 10 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap The dietary protein l ines (C 3 C 4 marine) from Kellner and Schoeninger (2007) are added to Figure 8 7(c) as reference. Figure 8 9 shows that Non Mak La the 13 C ap coll regardless of sex, is

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282 somewhat 13 C ap coll 10 on 1 3 C bone coll values are intermediate between the C 3 and C 4 protein line s with a tendency towards the C 3 protein spectrum. When these eight individuals are grouped by time period, there is no significant isotopic difference (via Mann Whitney U t est) between Earlier ( N= 3; one female, two subadults) and Later ( N= 5; three males, one female, one subadult ) periods for either 13 C bone c oll : 46; 15 N bone c oll 13 C bone ap : 18 O bone ap : Figures 8 11 and 8 12 show a ll isotopic for 13 C b one c oll values. T he small difference in stable isotop e ratios over time suggests that these data reflect site specific dietary regime s Enamel samples To compensate for the poor preservation of bones, 25 human tooth enamel sample s were analyzed from Non M ak La (summary statistic s in Table 8 8 ). F igure 8 13 13 18 O values from enamel apatite samples (male= 8, female= 6, subadult= 13 18 O values. In particular, data from male individuals show a wider range than data fro m 13 C: minimum= 18 O: minimum= 13 C values from females show a minimum of 18 O data, the minimum is es 13 18 O values are 13 C and

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283 18 O at 13 C en ap between males and females, however, is not statistically significant (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.20). These 25 individuals are then grouped into Earlier and Later periods. Among them, provenience of two individuals prevents confid ent grouping. Thus, 23 individuals with dental enamel apatite signals are analyzed for intra site dietary change through time at Non Mak La (Earlier: N= 18; Later: N= 5). Figure 8 14 plots the distribution of 13 C en ap 18 O en ap signals. The majority o f the Earlier period individuals seem to cluster towards the less negative 13 C en ap values while the Later period individuals 18 O, Earlier period individuals show greater deviation in 18 O value 13 C en ap value during the Earlier period is 18 O en ap value during the Earlier period is the Later period is Interestingly, Mann Whitney U t ests reveal that the difference of enamel apatite signals between time period is 13 C (p= 18 O (p= 0.62). Life history Among all the Non Mak La individuals (N= 30) incorporated in the stable isotope analyses, seven yielded valid apatite isotope signals from both bone and tooth enamel. Figures 8 15 8 16, and 8 13 C bone ap 13 C en ap 18 O bone ap 18 O en ap and 13 C en ap bone ap 18 O en ap bone ap respectively. Ta ble 8 9 presents summary statistics. On Figure 8 15, no clear pattern of dietary shift in 13 C values is observed among individuals. As for the stable oxygen isotopes (Figure 8 16), all individuals show a slight 18 O shift from more positive to less positi ve 18 O values. Figure 8 18 O change from earlier to later in life. It also shows

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284 that Non Mak La females show 13 C from younger to older age in life, although males have somewhat spread 13 C en ap and 13 C bone ap spacing. For the two subadults, o 13 C between earlier and later in life. Ban Mai Chaimongkol The stable isotopic signals of human bone and tooth enamel sampl es from Ban Mai Chaimongkol are reported in the following sections. Particularly inferior cortical bone integrity commonly among the samples selected from this site, however, resulted in limited life history data. Bone samples During the sample collecting process, it was observed that the majority of the Ban Mai Chaimongkol skeletal remains were highly degraded and some were indeed fossilized. It is not surprising that among the 23 human bones sampled, only three yielded satisfactory collagen. Consequently, three sets of bone collagen and bone apatite isotope signals are presented here. The three individuals are one male, one female, and one subadult, and all are associated with Iron Age contexts ( Figures 8 18 and 8 19, Table 8 10 ). With these limited data p oints, it is interesting to see all samples cluster tightly for 13 C bone coll 15 N bone c oll range= 13 C bone ap 18 O bone ap samples produced valid collagen signals, comparison of intra site isotopic change by time period is not p ossible for this site. Enamel samples A total of 28 human teeth were processed for stable carbon and oxygen isotope analyses. Among them, five were from duplicate individuals and excluded from analysis.

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285 The 23 valid enamel apatite data points are plotted i n Figure 8 20 and summarized in Table 8 11 (male= 8, female = 10, subadult= 5). Males display a wider range in each isotopic ra 13 18 13 18 18 O between males and females is 13 than that of the females. Mann Whitney U t est however, does not indicate statistical significance (p= 0.13) for this observation The subadults with unknown sex produced 13 18 O values as their adult site members with ranges of respectively. The Ban Mai Chaimongkol enamel apatite data are then categorized by time period, whe re possible (Figure 8 21). The Bronze Age individuals (N= 8) show a slightly narrower range 13 C values compared to the Iron Age ones (N= 18 O, however, individuals from the Iron Age demonstrate a slightly smaller range. Statistical analysis is performed by grouping the individuals into the Bronze and Iron Ages to increase the sample size. Mann Whitney U t ests show that the differences of avera 13 18 O values between time periods is not statistically significant (p= 0.93 and 0.46, respectively). Life history Among the teeth sampled above, one tooth corresponded with each of the three individuals whose bone yielded valid apatite isotope signals, enabling an isotopic portrait of life history. Figure 8 22 and Tabl e 8 12 show that t here was no or minimal 18 O from childhood to later in life, while the shifting directions of 13 C varied among individuals.

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286 Promtin Tai D ue to poor preservation of organic s no human bones sampled from Promtin Tai (N= 19) for collagen and apatite analyses produced valid isotopic signals. However, 15 13 18 O apatite analyses. Among them, two were from dupli cated individuals and therefore excluded from analysis. Upon reviewing the data (N= 13) plotted in Figure 8 23, all but one point clusters tightly along 13 C and 18 O axes. Burial 2, based on its provenience, is likely to be a temporal outlier and is not 13 C= 18 O= 13 18 = = 13 C range of in.= 18 = max.= 13 ). There is no statistical significance of either isotope ratio between males and females (Mann Whitney U t ests, p= 13 C, p= 18 O). When evalua ted by time period (Figure 8 18 O values of individuals from the Earlier Iron Age seem to be collectively more positive than their Later Iron Age counterparts. A Mann Whitney t est produced a p value of 0.06, close to statistical significance. As 13 C values there is no clear distributional or statistical significance (Mann Whitney t 13 C difference between time periods. Since the data are only available for the enamel apatite fraction for Promtin Tai individuals, life history parameters using stable isotope ratios cannot be addressed. Ban Pong Manao The stable isotopic signals of human b one and tooth enamel samples from Ban Pong Manao are reported in the following sections. Among the central Thai human samples analyzed for stable isotopic signals, Ban Pong Manao skeletal remains

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287 provided the most valid bone chemistry data, possibly due to its drier environment and soil characteristics. be best obser ved at this site. Bone samples Among the 30 human bone fragments processed for isotopic analyses from Ban Pong Manao 25 produced valid collagen. This is the highest yield percentage (83%) among all six sites studied. Figures 8 25 and 8 13 C vs. 15 N values of bone 13 18 O values of bone apatit e by sex, respectively. Table s 8 14 to 8 16 summarize 13 C bone co ll axis in Figure 8 25, most males (N= 16) cluster towards the less negative end of the spectrum (mean= in the negative direction (mean = show more varied results than A Mann Whitney U t est indicates a c lose to significant 13 C values between males and females (p= 0.07). With respect to 15 N values most individuals (7 out of 25) cluster in the range of ~9.5 this group, males make up the majority. A group of three indivi duals (two males and one subadult) occupy the more positive end of the 15 N range (~1 more positive than the previous group) while four individuals (three females and one male) have the lowest 15 N values (~1 ze difference s exist between the 15 N values. On the other hand, when strictly categorized by sex, a Mann Whitney U t est indicates that the 15 N values of males and females i s indeed significant (p= 15 N values than other adults. In Figure 8 26, there is no major patterning between sexes for 13 18 O values Male

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288 13 C bone ap values, however, show a wider range ) compared to that of females 13 C values between males ( ( Whitney U t est, p= 0.38). A similar distribution occurs with 18 O bone ap values, where the mean dif ference between male s ( s ( Whitney U t est, p = 0.42). The 13 C bone ap values and more positive 18 O bone ap values compared to other Ban Pong Manao adults. When dietary carbon sources are considered, Figure 8 13 C ap coll 13 C bone c oll values to show the carbon source discrepancy between protein and non protein foods. The majority of males have a 13 C ap coll close to the monoisotopic line 13 C bone c oll 13 C ap coll o a 13 C ap coll 13 C ap coll between males and females is not significant (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.16). T his may be attributable to the effect of one male individual 2001 SQ1 B#10 who has a 13 C ap coll Figure 8 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap data with 13 C bone c oll v alues cluster towards the marine and C 4 13 C bone c oll values are slightly less enriched towards the C 3 protein line. Since the majority of the human skeletal remains excavated date to the late few centuries of Iron Age occupation (~A.D. 300 500), the relatively short occupation and high degree of burial intercutting at Ban Pong Manao prevent further dividing burials into finer time periods. Therefore, the isotopic data are only analyzed by sex.

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289 Enamel samples Dental enamel from 16 human teeth (male= 8, female= 5, subadult = 3) was 13 18 O from enamel carbonate (Table 8 17 ). Figure 8 29 demonstrates that except for two male outliers, there is no distribution pattern between males (mean= 13 C en ap A Mann Whitney U t est confirms this visual observation (p= 0.47). The two outliers were recovered from nearby locations in the same excavation unit and did have good tooth enamel integrity before sampling. Their distinctly d ifferent 13 18 O values warrant discussion below (Chapter 9) Similar distribution of 18 O en ap values is observed at Ban Pong Manao where all but the two outliers cluster tightly within a range of a disti nctly different average or range (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.20). The three subadults do show more positive 18 O values than all other individuals (outliers excluded). Life history Figure 8 30 plots the isotopic spacing between enamel apatite and bone apat ite 13 18 O. It appears that again (Table 8 18 ), other than the distinct outlier (2007, SQ1/4, Feature 4), male and female isotopic values are quite similar No difference in patterning is found between males and females. A Mann Whitney U t est sup port s this 13 18 O). Kao Sai On Noen Din Similar to Promtin Tai, none of the four bone samples, from three individuals of Kao Sai On Noen Din, produced valid collagen. Therefore, their corresponding bone apatite was not loaded for stable isotope analysis. One tooth ( a maxillary left third molar) from an adult male was processed and examined for stable carbon and oxygen

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290 isotope values. The results are 13 C and 18 O. When compared among the human e namel apatite results by site presented above this individual falls within the observed range of Non Mak La individuals. Khok Phanom Di The stable isotopic signals of human bone and tooth enamel samples from Khok Phanom Di are reported in the following se ctions. Six major mortuary phases (MP) were designated by previous studies based on mortuary pattern and ecological change (Higham and Thosarat, 2002). Since K hok Phanom Di serves as a chronological and geographic comparative group to the inland central T hai sites data reporting of this site is designed to highlight not only its overall different stable isotopic signals from all other inland central Thai sites but also the potential fluctuation of dietary signals within Khok Phanom Di as the environment c hanged. Bone samples A total of 60 human bone fragments were processed for stable isotope analyses and 26 produced collagen with satisfactory C/N ratios indicating good bone integrity (Table 8 19 ). Figures 8 31 and 8 13 C bone c oll 15 N bone c oll 13 C bone ap vs. 18 O bone ap respectively. In Figure 8 31, it is interesting to observe a somewhat bi modal 13 C bone c oll values, where one group varies around her fluctuates around to 13 C bone c oll values tend to be more positive group (N= 14; mean= 13 C bone c oll values follow s a bi modal distribution (N= 12; mean= mal es and females is statistically significant (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.04). In terms of 15 N values all but two male individuals cluster slightly more positive than do the females. This is reflected in the mean 15 N value s of male s s

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291 (1 sampled from the site 15 N means between sexes are not statistically different (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.29). Overall, the Khok Phanom Di have 15 13 C bone coll values, 13 C bo ne ap values d o not display any distinct pattern collectively (Figure 8 32 Table 8 20 ) but the more positive end of the spectrum (mean= emales have a more scattered distribution (mean= means between sexes is not statistically significant (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.50) The 18 O bone ap values show tight clustering with a range of ~ similar means ( 18 O averages between sexes is not significant (p= 0.24) as is e xpected Figure 8 13 C ap coll 13 C bone ap values (Table 8 21) It is clear that 13 C ap coll 13 C ap coll for and for females is t significant (Mann Whitney U t among protein and non protein foods. This is clarified 13 C values from bone collagen and bone apatite are plotted against each other with Kellner a (2007) protein reference lines (Figure 8 34). The majority of the Khok Phanom Di individuals produced data closer to the marine and/or C 4 line. Only six of the data points cluster closer to the C 3 protein line. Interestingly, males overwhe lmingly cluster towards marine protein 13 C bone c o ll spectrum. It is not straightforward, based on Figure 8 34, whether the more positive clustering of male

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292 13 C bone co ll val u es is in fact towards the marine or C 4 line, or even both. This is discus sed in detail below The stratigraphic context for Khok Phanom Di is well established and recovered individuals have been divided into several mortuary phases based on burial context and artifact association (Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 2004). These phases corresponded to sea level fluctuation s in the past that mirrored ecosystem changes between estuarine coastal mangrove and freshwater pond/lake systems. Figure 8 13 15 N values from bone collagen plotted by mortuary phase. Filled symbols on this figure represent phases associated with an estuarine coastal system and empty symbols represent phases associated with more freshwater habitat s The previously observed bi modal distribution with 13 C values is apparent as individuals buried during estuarine coastal environment al periods exhibit less negative 13 C v alues than those individuals buried during more freshwater type periods of occupation at the site. No particular pattern is observed among mortuary phases/ecosystems with respect to 15 N values Figure 8 13 18 O from bone apatite by mortuary phase/ecosystem. The 13 18 O axes with no clear clustering. To examine how human stable isotope ratios (i.e., dietary and water sources) varied vis a vis inferred environmental change, individuals from vario us mortuary phases were then grouped into two ecosystems: estuary/coastal system includes mortuary phases 1, 2, 3A, 5, and 6 while freshwater pond/lake systems include mortuary phase 3B and 4. A Mann Whitney U t est was performed to evaluate if the differen ce for each stable isotope ratio between ecosystems was significant. Despite the observation of bi modal 13 C bone co l l values by ecosystem, the results show no statistical

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293 significance of difference between group averages : 13 C bone c oll 15 N bone c oll (p= 13 C bone ap 18 O bone ap (p= 0.25). Figures 8 37 and 8 38 display the dietary carbon categories (with reference lines) that would influence individuals from Khok Phanom Di. Those buried during estuarine/coastal period s collectively exhibits s 13 C ap coll (Figure 8 37) while those buried during freshwater pe riods show no 38, all but one individual associated with an estuarine/coastal period falls towards the marine and/or C 4 protein line and the freshwater habitat episode exhibits a more varied C 3 /C 4 /marine protein distribution, although the difference again is not statistically significant (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.77). Enamel samples Dental enamel samples from Khok Phanom Di have been p reviously sampled and analyzed for stable isotope ratios by Bentley and colleagues (2007) to explore issues of marital residential patterns and mobility. A total of 72 teeth were processed for 13 18 O, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotope ratios. Among them, 66 yield 13 18 O data that are used here in graphs and statistical analyses, in conjunct ion with the bone collagen data. The standard used to calculate the stable oxygen isotope ratios in Bentley et al (2007) was SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water), whi ch is different from the V PDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) used in this 18 O smow values were converted following the formulae listed in Chapter 5 A complete list of enamel data are presented in Bentley et al. (2007: 306 307) and Table 8 22 summari z es the stable isotope parameters based on the converted data from Bentley et al. (2007) Figure 8 13 18 O values by sex. On a population level, Khok Phanom Di

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294 individuals (except for a few outliers) possessed small variation of b 13 18 O clustering is also apparent when the data are categorized by sex. Males have an average of 13 have a 13 C average of 18 O, the clustering is even tighter with the male range of range of 13 C (p= 18 O (p= 0.83) among sexes. When the data reported in Bentley et al. (2007) are categorized by mortuary phase/ecosystem (Figure 8 13 18 O values do not cluster in 13 C for estuarine/ coastal individuals (N= 45) is periods (N = 21, range 18 O for people buried during estuarine/coastal periods is individuals the average is A s expected no significant difference between group means of each isotopic ratio is found (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 13 C and p = 18 O). Life history There are 22 individuals whose bones (current study) and teeth (Bentley et al ., 13 C values and are used in l ife history analysis (Table 8 23 ). Figures 8 41 and 8 42 (based on data summarized in Table 8 24) plot the spacing of isotopic values derived from carbonate between tooth enamel and bone. When the data a re evaluated as a whole, it is noteworthy that almost all individuals exhibit 13 C 18 O values during childhood than later in life. The same trends are observable among male (N= 12) and female (N= 10) individuals (Figure 8 41). No

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295 statisti cal significance is observed between group means (Mann Whitney U t est, p= 13 18 O). W ith ecosystem included as a separat e variable (Figure 8 42), people buried during the estuarine/coastal environment (N= 9) seem to exhibit less varied 13 C values between earlier and later stages mean= exhibit a wider 13 C difference between earlier and later The differ ence between group means, nonetheless, is not significant (Mann Whitney U t 18 O between early and later life, however, does not appear to be affected by environmental factor s estuarine/coastal and freshwater, respectively; Mann Whitney U t est, p= 0.15).

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296 Table 8 1. Summar y stable isotopic value s of human bone collagen samples from all sites analyzed Site N 13 C s.d. Range 15 N s.d. range Non Mak La 8 15.53 1.35 18.28 ~ 14.03 9 .92 0.49 9.10 ~ 10.67 Ban Mai Chaimongkol 3 16.25 0.67 16.99 ~ 15.55 11.86 0.33 11.66 ~ 12.24 Ban Pong Manao 25 13.23 2.09 18.33 ~ 10.16 9.37 1.07 7.03 ~ 11.44 Khok Phanom Di 26 15.23 1.55 18.38 ~ 13.01 10.97 0.64 9.65 ~ 12.06 Total 62 14.51 2.02 18.38 ~ 10.16 10.23 1.15 7.03 ~ 12.24 Table 8 2. Summary stable isotopic values of human bone a patite samples from all sites anal yzed Site N 13 C s.d. Range 1 8 O s.d. range Non Mak La 8 9.74 0.97 11.11 ~ 8.67 6.93 0.34 7.57 ~ 6.65 Ban Mai Chaimongkol 3 9.49 0.30 9.75 ~ 9.16 6.75 0.57 7.37 ~ 6.25 Ban Pong Manao 25 6.94 1.75 9.43 ~ 3.61 6.68 0.33 7.27 ~ 6.05 Khok Phanom Di 26 10.88 0.67 12.08 ~ 9.72 6.81 0.56 7.72 ~ 5.64 Total 62 9.07 2.19 12.08 ~ 3.61 6.77 0.45 7.62 ~ 5.64 Table 8 3 Summary 13 C bone apatite and 13 C bone collagen spacing of human bone samples from all sites analyz ed 13 C ap col l ) Site N mean s.d. Range Non Mak La 8 5.80 0.80 4.96 ~ 7.17 Ban Mai Chaimongkol 3 6.76 0.83 5.80 ~ 7.32 Ban Pong Manao 25 6.29 1.55 4.39 ~ 10.76 Khok Phanom Di 26 4.35 1.49 2.51 ~ 7.44 Total 62 5.44 1.69 2.51 ~ 10.76

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297 Table 8 4. Summary stable isot opic values of human tooth enamel apatite samples from all sites analyzed Site N 13 C s.d. r ange 18 O s.d. r ange Non Mak La 25 7.93 1.59 11.09 ~ 5.53 6.00 0.57 6.93 ~ 4.67 Ban Mai Chaimongkol 23 9.41 1.95 12.58 ~ 4.65 5.98 0.61 6.72 ~ 4.41 Promtin Tai 13 12.27 1.24 13.47 ~ 8.64 4.69 0.79 6.09 ~ 3.38 Ban Pong Manao 16 8.41 2.46 12.91 ~ 4.58 5.90 1.12 6.99 ~ 3.11 Kao Sai On Noen Din 1 5.86 n/a n/a 6.38 n/a n/a Total 78 9.16 2.39 13.47 ~ 4.58 5.76 0.89 6.99 ~ 3.11 Table 8 5 Summary stable isotopic values of Non Mak La bone collagen sa mple s Sex Period N 13 C s.d. range 15 N s.d. range Male Earlier 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Later 3 15.38 0.71 16.06 ~ 14.64 9.84 0.43 9.55 ~ 10.33 Combined 3 15.38 0.71 16.06 ~ 14.64 9.84 0.43 9.55 ~ 10.33 Female Earlier 1 14.22 n/a n/a 10.1 n/a n/a L ater 1 15.74 n/a n/a 10.67 n/a n/a Combined 2 14.98 1.07 15.74 ~ 14.22 10.39 0.40 10.10 ~ 10.67 Subadult Earlier 2 16.16 3.01 18.28 ~ 14.03 9.56 0.65 9.10 ~ 10.02 Later 1 15.88 n/a n/a 9.97 n/a n/a Combined 3 16.06 2.13 18.28 ~ 14.03 9.70 0.52 9.10 ~ 10.02 Total 8 15.53 1.35 18.28 ~ 14.03 9.92 0.49 9.10 ~ 10.67

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298 Table 8 6. Summary stable isotopic values of Non Mak La bone apatite samples Sex Period N 13 C s.d. range 1 8 O s.d. range Male Earlier 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Later 3 9.37 0.66 9.97 ~ 8.67 6.81 0.26 7.11 ~ 6.55 Combined 3 9.37 0.66 9.97 ~ 8.67 6.81 0.26 7.11 ~ 6.65 Female Earlier 1 8.78 n/a n/a 6.78 n/a n/a Lat er 1 10.78 n/a n/a 7.57 n/a n/a Combined 2 9.78 1.41 10.78 ~ 8.78 7.18 0.56 7.57 ~ 6.78 Subadult Earlier 2 9.93 1.68 11.11 ~ 8.74 6.72 0.1 6.79 ~ 6.65 Later 1 10.37 n/a n/a 7.21 n/a n/a Combined 3 10.07 1.21 11.11 ~ 8.74 6.88 0.2 9 7.21 ~ 6.65 Total 8 9.74 0.97 11.11 ~ 8.67 6.93 0.34 7.57 ~ 6.65 Table 8 7 S ummary 13 C bone apatite and 13 C bone collagen spacing of Non Mak La bone samples 13 C ap coll ) Sex Period N mean s.d. range Male Earlier 0 n/a n/a n/a Later 3 6.01 0.8 5.17 ~ 6.76 Combined 3 6.01 0.80 5.17 ~ 6.76 Female Earlier 1 5.44 n/a n/a Later 1 4.96 n/a n/a Combined 2 5.20 0.34 4.96 ~ 5.44 Subadult Earlier 2 6.23 1.33 5.29 ~ 7.17 Later 1 5.51 n/a n/a Combined 3 5.90 1.03 5.29 ~ 7.17 Total 8 5.80 0.80 4.96 ~ 7.17

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299 Table 8 8 Summary stable isotopic values of N on Mak La tooth enamel apatite samples Sex Period N 13 C s.d. range 18 O s.d. range Male Earlier 5 7.81 2.18 11.09 ~ 5.53 5.97 0.87 6.93 ~ 4.67 Later 3 10.05 1.11 10.81 ~ 8.78 6.48 0.15 6.58 ~ 6.31 Combined 8 8.65 2.10 11.09 ~ 5.53 6.16 0.72 6.93 ~ 4.67 Female Earlier 5 7. 19 0.79 8.41 ~ 6.32 6.06 0.24 6.28 ~ 5.79 Later 1 8.31 n/a n/a 6.78 n/a n/a Combined 6 7.38 0.84 8.41 ~ 6.32 6.18 0.36 6.78 ~ 5.79 Subadult Earlier 8 7.69 1.56 10.29 ~ 5.86 5.82 0.61 6.33 ~ 4.67 Later 1 9.01 n/a n/a 5.72 n/a n/a Combined a 11 7.70 1.40 10.29 ~ 5.86 5.78 0.52 6.33 ~ 4.67 Total 25 7.93 1.59 11.09 ~ 5.53 6.00 0.57 6.93 ~ 4.67 a Combined : two subadults cannot be categorized into time periods Table 8 9. Summary stable isotopic life history of Non Mak La samples 13 C enamel bone apatite 18 O enamel bone apatite Sex Period N mean s.d. range mean s.d. range Male Earlier 1 0.07 n/a n/a 0.17 n/a n/a Later 3 0.68 1.96 1.90 ~ 0.69 0.33 0.41 0.10 ~ 0.08 Combined 4 0.53 1.11 1.90 ~ 0.69 0.29 0. 34 0.08 ~ 0.80 Female Earlier 1 2.09 n/a n/a 0.59 n/a n/a Later 1 2.47 n/a n/a 0.79 n/a n/a Combined 2 2.28 0.27 2.09 ~ 2.47 0.69 0.14 0.59 ~ 0.79 Subadult Earlier 2 0.68 1.23 1.55 ~ 0.19 0.35 0.3 0.14 ~ 0.56 Later 1 1.36 n/a n/a 1.49 n/a n/a C ombined 3 0 1.46 1.55 ~ 1.36 0.73 0.69 0.14 ~ 1.49 Total 9 0.27 1.54 1.90 ~ 2.47 0.52 0.47 0.08 ~ 1.49

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300 Table 8 10 Summary stable i sotopic values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol samples bone collagen bone apatite 13 C ap coll Sex Period N 13 C 15 N 13 C 18 O Male Iron Age 1 16.89 11.66 9.57 7.37 7.32 Female Iron Age 1 16.31 12.24 9.16 6.25 7.15 Subadult Iron Age 1 15.55 11.69 9.75 6.62 5.80 Total Iron Age 3 16.25 11.86 9.49 6.75 6.76 Table 8 11 Summary stable isotopic values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol tooth enamel apatite samples Sex Period N a 13 C s.d. range m 18 O s.d. range Male Bronze 4 8.46 2.77 11.22 ~ 4.65 5.85 1.00 6.72 ~ 4.41 Iron 3 7.34 2.24 8.87 ~ 4.77 6.3 5 0.25 6.61 ~ 6.10 Combined b 8 8.43 2.57 11.55 ~ 4.65 6.01 0.73 6.72 ~ 4.41 Female Bronze 2 10.01 1.85 11.32 ~ 8.70 6.37 0.17 6.49 ~ 6.25 Iron 6 10.00 0.85 11.30 ~ 8.76 6.25 0.24 6.48 ~ 5.93 Combined c 10 9.97 0.94 11.32 ~ 8.70 6.07 0.47 6.49 ~ 5.15 Subadult Bronze 2 10.42 0.69 10.90 ~ 9.93 6.48 0.30 6.70 ~ 6.27 Iron 2 10.75 2.58 12.58 ~ 8.93 5.20 0.41 5.79 ~ 4.91 Combined d 5 9.86 2.11 12.58 ~ 6.95 5.76 0.71 6.70 ~ 4.91 Total 23 9.41 1.95 12.58 ~ 4.65 5.98 0.61 6.72 ~ 4.41 a N: number of individuals; b one male cannot be categorized into time period ; c two females cannot be categorized into time period s ; d one subadult cannot be categorized into time period Table 8 12. Summary stable isotop ic lif Ban Mai Chaimongkol samples Sex Period N 13 C enamel bone 18 O enamel bone Male Bronze 0 n/a n/a Iron 1 0.7 1.01 Female Bronze 0 n/a n/a Iron 1 2.14 0.16 Subadult Bronze 0 n/a n/a Iron 1 0.82 1.13 Total 3 0.21 0.66

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301 Table 8 13 Summary stable isotopic values of Promtin Tai tooth enamel apatite samples Sex Period N 13 C s.d. range 18 O s.d. range Male Early Iron 3 12.40 0.68 12.96 ~ 11.64 4.87 0.51 5.44 ~ 4.48 Late Iron 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Female Early Iron 3 13.35 0.19 13.45 ~ 13.14 4.21 0.5 2 4.76 ~ 3.74 Late Iron 1 11.97 n/a n/a 5.12 n/a n/a Combined 4 13.01 0.71 13.47 ~ 11.97 4.44 0.62 5.12 ~ 3.74 Sex UID adult Early Iron 1 12.00 n/a n/a 5.05 n/a n/a Late Iron 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Subadult Early Iron 2 12.26 0.10 12.33 ~ 12.19 3.52 0.20 3.66 ~ 3.38 Late Iron 2 12.61 0.41 12.89 ~ 12.32 5.23 0.32 5.45 ~ 5.00 Combined 4 12.43 0.31 12.89 ~ 12.19 4.37 1.01 5.45 ~ 3.38 Total 12 12.58 0.60 13.47 ~ 11.64 4.57 0.70 5.45 ~ 3.38 Note: B#2 is excl uded in this summary. Table 8 14 Summary stable isotopic values of Ban Pong Manao bone collagen samples Sex N 13 C s.d. range 15 N s.d. range Male 16 12.70 2.21 18.33 ~ 10.16 9.61 0.81 7.81 ~ 11.44 Female 6 14.17 1.32 15.46 ~ 11.80 8.32 1.11 7.03 ~ 9.45 Sex UID adult 1 11.81 n/a n/a 9.47 n/a n/a Subadult 2 15.47 0.73 15.98 ~ 14.95 10.59 1.00 9.88 ~ 11.29 Total 25 13.23 2.09 18.33 ~ 10.16 9.37 1.07 7.03 ~ 11.44

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302 Table 8 15 Summary stable isotopic values f Ban Pong M anao bone apatite samples Sex N mean 13 C s.d. range 18 O s.d. range Male 16 6.55 1.87 9.43 ~ 3.61 6.69 0.35 7.27 ~ 6.05 Female 6 7.21 1.27 9.10 ~ 5.25 6.78 0.30 7.01 ~ 6.24 Sex UID adult 1 7.31 n/a n/a 6.53 n/a n/a Subadult 2 9.09 0.38 9.36 ~ 8.82 6.39 0.11 6.46 ~ 6.31 Total 25 6.94 1.75 9.43 ~ 3.60 6.68 0.33 7.27 ~ 6.05 Table 8 13 C bone apatite 13 C bone collagen Ban Pong Manao bone s amples 13 C ap coll ) Sex N mean s.d. range Male 16 6.15 1.78 4.39 ~ 10.76 Female 6 6.9 5 0.78 6.01 ~ 8.28 Sex UID adult 1 4.50 n/a n/a Subadult 2 6.38 1.11 5.59 ~ 7.16 Total 25 6.29 1.55 4.39 ~ 10.76 Table 8 17 Summary stable isotopic values tooth enamel apatite samples Sex N 13 C s.d. range 18 O s.d. range Male 6 7.75 2.01 10.47 ~ 4.63 6.54 0.18 6.66 ~ 6.23 Female 5 7.01 1.79 9.59 ~ 4.58 6.32 0.41 6.99 ~ 5.98 Subadult 3 9.11 1.61 10.46 ~ 7.33 5.71 0.21 5.83 ~ 5.46 Total 14 7.78 1.89 10.47 ~ 4.58 6.29 0.43 6.99 ~ 5.46 Table 8 bone samples 13 C enamel bone apatite 18 O enamel bone apatite Sex N mean s.d. range mean s.d. range Male 6 1.32 3.64 8.46 ~ 1.71 0.73 1.72 0.52 ~ 4.16 Female 5 0.06 1.54 2.41 ~ 1.78 0.57 0.57 0.39 ~ 1.01 Subadult 2 0.91 0.27 1.10 ~ 0.72 0.74 0.16 0.63 ~ 0.85 Total 13 0.73 2.60 8.46 ~ 1.78 0.67 1.16 0.52 ~ 4.16 Note: two outliers excluded

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303 Table 8 19 Summary stable isotopic values of K hok Phanom Di bone collagen samples Sex 1 MP N 13 C s.d. range 15 N s.d. range Male 1 1 14.02 n/a n /a 12.06 n/a n/a 2 1 14.30 n/a n/a 11.03 n/a n/a 3A 3 14.90 0.35 15.30 ~ 14.65 11.28 0.26 11.10 ~ 11.58 4 8 14.88 1.65 17.61 ~ 13.01 11.04 0.64 9.66 ~ 11.80 6 1 14.40 n/a n/a 9.98 n/a n/a Combined 14 14.75 1.25 17.61 ~ 13.01 11.08 0.64 9.66 ~ 12.06 Female 3A 1 17.96 n/a n/a 11.76 n/a n/a 3B 2 18.00 0.02 18.01 ~ 17.98 10.94 0.57 10.54 ~ 11.34 4 7 15.17 1.44 18.38 ~ 14.32 10.76 0.70 9.65 ~ 11.52 5 1 15.09 n/a n/a 10.37 n/a n/a 6 1 14.30 n/a n/a 10.84 n/a n/a Combined 1 2 15.80 1.71 18.38 ~ 14.30 10.85 0.63 9.65 ~ 11.76 Total 1 1 14.02 n/a n/a 12.06 n/a n/a 2 1 14.30 n/a n/a 11.03 n/a n/a 3A 4 15.67 1.56 17.96 ~ 14.65 11.40 0.32 11.10 ~ 11.76 3B 2 18.00 0.02 18.01 ~ 17.98 10.94 0.57 10.54 ~ 11.34 4 15 15.01 1.51 18.38 ~ 13.01 10.91 0.66 9.65 ~ 11.80 5 1 15.09 n/a n/a 10.37 n/a n/a 6 2 14.35 0.71 14.40 ~ 14.30 10.41 0.61 9.98 ~ 10.84 Combined 26 15.23 1.55 18.38 ~ 13.01 10.97 0.64 9.65 ~ 12.06

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304 Table 8 20 Summary stable isotopic values of K hok Phanom Di bone apatite samples Sex MP N 13 C s.d. range 18 O s.d. range Male 1 1 11.51 n/a n/a 5.64 n/a n/a 2 1 10.59 n/a n/a 6.05 n/a n/a 3A 3 11.12 0.30 11.47 ~ 10.94 6.46 0.11 6.54 ~ 6.34 4 8 10.61 0.62 11.28 ~ 9.78 6.99 0.36 7.40 ~ 6.33 6 1 10.85 n/a n/a 6.94 n/a n/a Combined 14 10.80 0.56 11.51 ~ 9.78 6.71 0.51 7.40 ~ 5.64 Female 3A 1 11.43 n/a n/a 6.94 n/a n/a 3B 2 11.77 0.33 12.00 ~ 11.54 7.45 0.24 7.62 ~ 7.28 4 7 10.97 0.71 1 2.08 ~ 10.09 6.66 0.66 7.61 ~ 5.88 5 1 9.72 n/a n/a 7.51 n/a n/a 6 1 10.11 n/a n/a 7.12 n/a n/a Combined 12 10.97 0.79 12.08 ~ 9.72 6.93 0.61 7.62 ~ 5.88 Total 1 1 11.51 n/a n/a 5.64 n/a n/a 2 1 10.59 n/a n/a 6.05 n/a n/a 3A 4 11.20 0.29 11.47 ~ 10.94 6.58 0.26 6.94 ~ 6.34 3B 2 11.77 0.33 12.00 ~ 11.54 7.45 0.24 7.62 ~ 7.28 4 15 10.78 0.67 12.08 ~ 9.78 6.84 0.53 7.61 ~ 5.88 5 1 9.72 n/a n/a 7.51 n/a n/a 6 2 10.48 0.52 10.85 ~ 10.11 7.03 0.13 7.12 ~ 6.94 Combined 26 10.88 0.67 12.08 ~ 9.72 6.81 0.56 7.62 ~ 5.64

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305 Table 8 21. Summary 13 C bone apatite and 13 C bone collagen spacing of Khok Phanom Di bone samples ( 13 C ap coll ) Sex MP N mean s.d. range Male 1 1 2.51 n/a n/a 2 1 3.71 n/a n/a 3A 3 3.78 0.59 3.18 ~ 4.36 4 8 4.27 1.85 2.59 ~ 7.44 6 1 3.54 n/a n/a Combined 14 3.9 5 1.46 2.51 ~ 7.44 Female 3A 1 6.53 n/a n/a 3B 2 6.23 0.31 6.01 ~ 6.45 4 7 4.20 1.43 2.78 ~ 7.14 5 1 5.37 n/a n/a 6 1 4.19 n/a n/a Combined 12 4.83 1.44 2.78 ~ 7.14 Total 1 1 2.51 n/a n/a 2 1 3.71 n/a n/a 3A 4 4.47 1.46 3.18 ~ 6.53 3B 2 6 .23 0.31 6.01 ~ 6.45 4 15 4.24 1.61 2.59 ~ 7.44 5 1 5.37 n/a n/a 6 2 3.87 0.45 3.55 ~ 4.19 Combined 26 4.35 1.49 2.51 ~ 7.44

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306 Table 8 22 Summary stable isotopic values of Khok Phanom Di tooth enamel apatite samples (see text) Sex MP N mean 13 C ( s.d. Range ( 18 O ( s.d. Range ( Male 1 2 12.95 0.10 13.00 ~ 12.90 5.39 0.80 5.93 ~ 4.86 2 4 12.35 0.51 13.00 ~ 11.90 4.98 0.70 5.83 ~ 4.28 3A 7 12.70 0.37 13.20 ~ 12.20 5.59 0.62 6.22 ~ 4.37 4 7 12.11 0.81 13 .30 ~ 11.00 4.89 0.35 5.54 ~ 4.47 5 1 12.10 n/a n/a 5.54 n/a n/a 6 2 11.65 0.78 12.20 ~ 11.10 5.05 0.27 5.25 ~ 4.86 Combined 23 12.37 0.64 13.30 ~ 11.00 5.21 0.58 6.22 ~ 4.28 Female 1 1 10.90 n/a n/a 5.44 n/a n/a 2 7 12.10 0.5 0 12.70 ~ 11.20 4.98 0.50 5.44 ~ 4.28 3A 6 12.57 0.70 13.30 ~ 11.60 5.64 0.40 6.41 ~ 5.15 3B 3 12.95 1.40 13.80 ~ 11.35 5.86 0.10 5.93 ~ 5.73 4 7 12.89 0.80 13.80 ~ 11.90 5.05 0.43 5.54 ~ 4.47 5 1 12.10 n/a n/a 4.37 n/a n/a 6 4 12.05 0.40 12.50 ~ 11.60 5.37 0.77 6.51 ~ 4.86 Combined 29 12.43 0.80 13.80 ~ 10.90 5.27 0.60 6.51 ~ 4.28 Subadult 1 1 14.10 n/a n/a 5.64 n/a n/a 2 5 11.50 3.10 13.60 ~ 6.10 4.98 0.50 5.83 ~ 4.47 3A 1 12.80 n/a n/a 4.18 n/a n/a 4 4 11.65 0.30 12.00 ~ 11.20 4.69 0.50 5.34 ~ 4.18 5 1 10.70 n/a n/a 3.79 n/a n/a 6 2 12.25 0.60 12.70 ~ 11.80 5.34 0.10 5.44 ~ 5.25 Combined 14 11.87 1.90 14.10 ~ 6.10 4.85 0.60 5.83 ~ 3.79 Total 1 4 12.73 1.33 14.10 ~ 10.90 5.47 0.45 5.93 ~ 4.86 2 16 11.98 1.67 13.60 ~ 6.10 4.98 0.51 5.83 ~ 4.28 3A 14 12.65 0.50 13.30 ~ 11.60 5.51 0.63 6.22 ~ 4.18 3B 3 12.95 1.39 13.80 ~ 11.35 5.86 0.11 5.93 ~ 5.73 4 18 12.31 0.86 13.80 ~ 11.00 4.91 0 .41 5.54 ~ 4.18

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307 Table 8 22 Continued Sex MP N 13 C s.d. range 18 O s.d. range 5 3 11.63 0.81 12.10 ~ 10.70 4.57 0.89 5.54 ~ 3.79 6 8 12.00 0.51 12.70 ~ 11.10 5.28 0.54 6.51 ~ 4.86 Combined 66 12.29 1.09 14.10 ~ 6.10 5.16 0.59 6.51 ~ 3.79 Table 8 23 Summary stable isotopic values of Khok Phanom Di tooth enamel apatite samples (see text) f rom individuals sampled for bone apatite and enamel apatite Sex MP N 13 C s.d. r ange 18 O s.d. r ange Male 1 1 13.00 n/a n/a 4.86 n/a n/a 2 1 12.50 n/a n/a 4.57 n/a n/a 3A 3 12.87 0.42 13.20 ~ 12.40 5.41 0.95 6.22 ~ 4.37 4 6 12.13 0.89 13.30 ~ 11.00 4.91 0.38 5.54 ~ 4.47 6 1 12.20 n/a n/a 4.86 n/a n/a Combined 12 12.43 0.72 13.30 ~ 11.00 5.00 0.55 6.22 ~ 4.37 Female 3A 1 12.10 n/a n/ a 5.54 n/a n/a 3B 2 12.58 1.73 13.80 ~ 11.35 5.93 0 5.93 ~ 5.93 4 5 13.14 0.83 13.80 ~ 11.90 5.03 0.47 5.54 ~ 4.47 5 1 12.10 n/a n/a 4.37 n/a n/a 6 1 12.50 n/a n/a 6.51 n/a n/a Combined 10 12.76 0.91 13.80 ~ 11.35 5.35 0.7 6.51 ~ 4.37 Total 1 1 13.00 n/a n/a 4.86 n/a n/a 2 1 12.50 n/a n/a 4.57 n/a n/a 3A 4 12.68 0.51 13.20 ~ 12.10 5.44 0.78 6.22 ~ 4.37 3B 2 12.58 1.73 13.80 ~ 11.35 5.93 0 5.93 ~ 5.93 4 11 12.59 0.97 13.80 ~ 11.00 4.96 0.4 5.54 ~ 4.47 5 1 12.10 n/a n/a 4.37 n/a n/a 6 2 12.35 0.21 12.50 ~ 12.20 5.69 1.17 6.51 ~ 4.86 Combined 22 12.58 0.81 13.80 ~ 11.00 5.16 0.63 6.51 ~ 4.37

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308 Table 8 24. Summary stable isotopic life history of Khok Phanom Di samples 13 C enamel bone apatite 18 O enamel bone apatite Sex MP N mean s.d. range mean s.d. range Male 1 1 1.49 n/a n/a 0.78 n/a n/a 2 1 1.91 n/a n/a 1.48 n/a n/a 3A 3 1.74 0.71 2.25 ~ 0.93 1.05 0.85 0.28 ~ 1.97 4 6 1.51 1.43 3.52 ~ 0 .23 2.22 0.55 1.29 ~ 2.93 6 1 1.35 n/a n/a 2.08 n/a n/a Combined 12 1.59 1.03 3.52 ~ 0.23 1.73 0.79 0.28 ~ 2.93 Female 3A 1 0.67 n/a n/a 1.40 n/a n/a 3B 2 0.81 1.40 1.80 ~ 0.19 1.52 0.24 1.35 ~ 1.69 4 5 2.45 1.01 3.41 ~ 0.81 1.73 1.01 0.4 4 ~ 2.94 5 1 2.38 n/a n/a 3.14 n/a n/a 6 1 2.39 n/a n/a 0.61 n/a n/a Combined 10 1.93 1.15 3.41 ~ 0.19 1.69 0.92 0.44 ~ 3.14 Total 1 1 1.49 n/a n/a 0.78 n/a n/a 2 1 1.91 n/a n/a 1.48 n/a n/a 3A 4 1.48 0.79 2.25 ~ 0.67 1.14 0.72 0.28 ~ 1 .97 3B 2 0.81 1.40 1.80 ~ 0.19 1.52 0.24 1.35 ~ 1.69 4 11 1.94 1.29 3.52 ~ 0.23 2.00 0.79 0.44 ~ 2.94 5 1 2.38 n/a n/a 3.14 n/a n/a 6 2 1.87 0.73 2.39 ~ 1.35 1.34 1.04 0.61 ~ 2.08 Combined 22 1.74 1.07 3.52 ~ 0.23 1.71 0.83 0.28 ~ 3.14

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309 Figu re 8 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of human bone samples by site. Note: 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite signals

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310 Figure 8 13 C 15 N values of human bone collagen by site

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311 Figure 8 13 C 18 O values of human bone apatite by site

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312 Figure 8 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of human bone samples by site Note: 3 vs C 4 ) of energy and protein sources.

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313 Figure 8 13 C bone collagen 13 C bone apatite values of human bone samples by site, plotted with protein and energy reference lines

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314 Figure 8 13 C 18 O values of human tooth enamel apatite by site

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315 Figure 8 13 15 N values of Non Mak La human bone collagen by sex

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316 Figure 8 13 C 18 O values of Non Mak La human bone apatite by sex

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317 Figure 8 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of Non Nak La human bone sa mples by sex Note: 3 vs. C 4 ) of energy and protein sources.

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318 Figure 8 13 C values of Non Mak La human bone collagen and apatite by sex, plotted with protein and energ y reference line s Higher % C 4 Energy C 4 Protein Line C 3 Protein Line Marine Protein Line Higher % C 3 Energy

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319 Figure 8 13 15 N values of Non Mak La human bone collagen by time period

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320 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Non Mak La human bone apatite by time period

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321 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Non Mak La tooth enamel apatite by sex

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322 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Non Mak La human tooth enamel apatite by time period

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323 Figure 8 15. 13 C values of bone and tooth enamel apatite of Non Mak La individuals by sex

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324 Figure 8 18 O values of bone and tooth enamel apatite of Non Mak La individuals by sex

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325 Figure 8 17. 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Non Mak La individuals by sex

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326 Figure 8 13 15 N values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol human bone collagen by sex

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327 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol bone apatite by sex

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328 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol tooth enamel apatite by sex

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329 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Ban Mai Chaimongkol tooth enamel apatite by time period

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330 Figu re 8 22. 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Ban Mai Chaimongkol individuals by sex

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331 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Promtin Tai tooth enamel apatite by sex Note: UID= unidentifiable

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332 Figure 8 13 18 O values o f Promtin Tai tooth enamel apatite by time period

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333 Figure 8 13 15 N values of Ban Pong Manao bone collagen by sex

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334 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Ban Pong Manao bone apatite by sex

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335 Figure 8 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of Ban Pong Manao human bone samples by sex Note: 3 vs. C 4 ) of energy and protein sources

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336 Figure 8 13 C values of Ban Pong Manao human bone collagen and apatite by sex, plotted with protein and energy reference lines Higher % C 4 Energy Higher % C 3 Energy C 4 Protein Li ne C 3 Protein Line Marine Protein Line

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337 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Ban Pong Manao tooth enamel apatite by sex

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338 Figure 8 30. 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Ban Pong Manao in dividuals by sex

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339 Figure 8 13 15 N values of Khok Phanom Di human bone collagen by sex

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340 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human bone apatite by sex

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341 Figure 8 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen valu es of Khok Phanom Di human bone samples by sex Note: 3 vs. C 4 ) of energy and protein sources

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342 Figure 8 13 C values of Khok Phanom Di human bone collagen and apat ite by sex, plotted with protein and energy reference lines Higher % C 4 Energy Higher % C 3 Energy C 4 Protein Line C 3 Protein Line Marine Protein Line

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343 Figure 8 13 15 N values of Khok Phanom Di human bone collagen by mortuary phase Note: Filled markers are mortuaray phases with estuarine coastal/mangrove conditions; blank markers ar e mortuary phases with freshwater lacustrine conditions

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344 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human bone apatite by mortuary phase

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345 Figure 8 13 C bone apatite bone collagen 13 C bone collagen values of Khok Phanom Di human bone samples by mortuary phase Note: 3 vs. C 4 ) of energy and protein sources.

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346 Figure 8 13 C values of Khok Phanom Di human bone collagen and apatite by mortuary phase s, plotted with protein and energy reference lines Higher % C 4 Energy Higher % C 3 Energy C 4 Protein Line C 3 Protein Line Marine Protein Line

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347 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human tooth enamel apatite by sex ( see text for data source)

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348 Figure 8 13 18 O values of Khok Phanom Di human tooth enamel apatite by mo rtuary phase ( see text for data source)

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349 Figure 8 41. 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Khok Phanom Di individuals by sex ( see text for data source)

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350 Figure 8 42. 13 C and 18 O values of tooth enamel bone apatite spacing of Khok Phanom Di individuals by mortuary phase ( see text for data source)

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351 CHAPTER 9 DISCUSSIO N The results presented in Chapters 6 to 8 represent a comprehensive dataset on human skeletal health and diet for inland Metal Age central Thai sites. In this chap ter, these biological data are interpreted in archaeological, geographical, and social contexts for each site in attempt to portra y the lifeways of the central Thai people during th is transitional period of social change. The findings in this thesis are al so placed in larger regional perspective to clarify the context of central Thai compared to findings from other broadly contemporaneous sites. As discussed in Chapter 2, the Metal Age is a transitional period in Mainland Southeast Asia during which a suit e of cultural changes occurred, particularly in the aspect of social complexity. How human biology reacted to the socio cultural change, if visible on skeletal remains, is examined in this study. Demography Ideally, a site wise bioarchaeological assessmen t is established upon a full excavation of a population unit (village or community). However, this is rare if not impractical for various reasons and the skeletal remains included in a study are typically a sub sample of each site. Therefore, an examinatio n of the demographic structure of the human skeletal remains studied from each site is critical to assess the representativeness of the skeletal assemblage. Weiss (1977) observe d that juvenile (<15 years old) mortality in a human population often falls bet ween 30% and 50% in proportion. Although this current study utilizes a subadult/adult cutoff of 20 years (Buikstra and Ubelaker, 1994), Weiss s juvenile mortality proportion range is adopted as an approximate gauge of subadult representation in a populatio n

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352 About half (51%) of the total skeletal assemblage from Non Mak La are individuals < 20 years of age. Since individuals aged between 15 and 20 are included the actual proportion of juvenile s in Weiss s definition would be lower for Non Mak La ( 30 50% ) T he proportion of males and females are similar among all the Non Mak La adult and sex identifiable subadult individuals. Sex of more than half of the population, however, c ould not be determined due to poor preservation. About 75% of the population is < 35 years of age, which is normal for prehistoric and pre industrial populations (Chamberlain, 2006). At Ban Mai Chaimongkol it is obvious that the proportion of subadult individuals of adequate subadult representation. According to Onsuwan (2000), the six excavated squares of Ban Mai Chaimongkol were selected due to logistic constraint, representing only 0.24% of the site area surveyed. Among the excavated burials from the site, indi viduals from S17W22 were not incorporated in this study as they are stored in a separate location (Eyre, 2010 personal communication). Males and females each occupy approximately one third of the included population, while the remaining third are individua ls of unidentifiable sex. The majority of all 38 individuals studied we re determined to be skeletally younger than 35 years old. The proportion of older individuals (35 years and older) is the highest (24%, 9/38) among the inland central Thai sites include d in this study. There is no marked difference in sex and age distribution between the Bronze and the Iron Ages. While the skeletal assemblage included here is a subsample of the Ban Mai Chaimongkol prehistoric population, the skeletal and dietary data gen erated in this study, in conjunct ion with the wealth of information on

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353 material culture (e.g., Onsuwan, 2000, 2003; Eyre, 2006, 2010; White and Eyre, 2010), offer s insight concerning to the interaction between human biology and social change. At Promtin Ta i, an even smaller proportion of subadults (17%) is represented The under representation of subadult individuals is often attributed to either differential burial locale for subadults or simply not a large enough sample Having participat ed in the excavat ion in 2007, I observed that subadults were indeed buried at the same cemetery locale as their adult counterparts. A few subadults were interred in close proximity with adults, sometimes with skeletal elements overlapping one another. By the end of that fi eld season, the margins of Promtin Tai cemetery had not been determined as more burials were still partially embedded in the unopened walls. Until the 2010 flood inundated the exposed excavation units ( later backfilled ) the excavation was on going, expand ing the excavation area to the south side. Although the plans to resume Promtin Tai excavation are unknown, it is very likely that more human skeletal remains, subadults included, will be discovered As for sex ratios for individuals whose sex could be est imated males slightly outnumber females. However, more than half (57%) of the Promtin Tai burials we re too fragmentary to confidently assign biological sex. Individuals < 35 years old make up more than a third of the total population included. The demograp hic structure between the Early and Late Iron Age periods may appear drastic if proportion (%) is considered. However, when number of individuals in each age and sex category is evaluated, the difference is in fact a statistical artifact due to uneven samp le sizes between periods. In terms of Ban Pong Manao subadults are unusually low (N= 3), making up only 6% of the total population observed. In the on site collection facility, there were skeletal

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354 elements from a few more subadults throughout the Ban Pong Manao assembla ge, but their provenience was unclear and they are not incorporated in the cu rrent research. Even counting these few individuals, subadults in at Ban Pong Manao are severely underrepresented. As mentioned in Chapter 3, three infant jar buria ls were di scovered in the habitation area of Ban Pong Manao. There were no human skeletal remains uncovered outside of the determined cemetery area s other than these three. M odern structures within the premise of Wat (temple) Pong Manao include a temple, a monastery, a museum, and storage are very close to known cemetery areas It is highly possible that prehistoric Ban Pong Manao subadults were interred in separate locales from the adults. Among the individuals included here, there are more males than fema les, with 29% of unknown sex. Almost all individuals died before reaching 35 y ears old, although nearly a quarter were individuals whose age could not be determined. highland climate helped to pres erve all skeletal remains Both human and faunal remains from this site have uniquely good preservation compared to the poor preservation found at the other central Thai sites included in this study The heightened proportion of bone samples yielding bone valid collagen and bone apatite stable isotopic signals not only provides the human landscape interaction data during the late Iron Age in central Thailand, but also aids in establishing the ecological baseline for the area (see Chapter 7). Excavation at K ao Sai On Noen Din are ongoing, thus the three individuals Again, the scope of central Thai biological study is broadened by the inclusion of Kao Sai On Noen Din materials, albeit to a limited extent.

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355 A mong all inland central Thai sites included in this study, only Non Mak La has a representative number of subaudults resembling a natural demographic structure. The majority of individuals di ed during their young adulthood Mal e and female individuals are somewhat balanced in most sites, except in Ban Pong Manao where there are more male individuals than females. None of the sites were fully excavated either to thei r surveyed site boundaries or to depth due to various logistic a nd funding reasons. In spite of the fact that the demographic structure is not ideal for most of the sites, the amount and quality of the skeletal data (paleopathological and isotopic ) from these sites outweighs any concerns of misrepresentation. Stature a nd Sexual Dimorphism E stimated stature from intact long bones is an indicator of growth trajectory and physical well being during development ( Larsen, 1997 ). In Table 6 6 Promtin Tai adults, both males and females, are on average the tallest among the inl and central Thai sites studied here, closely followed by the Ban Pong Manao people. Ban Mai Chaimongkol people are collectively shorter than those from sites with similar context. Within Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Promtin Tai, the former displays a decrease o f stature from the Bronze to the Iron Age while the latter witnesses an increase in stature for both males and females. The lack of a consistent stature fluctuation pattern for these two sites is observed at other Mainland Southeast Asian sites (Table 6 27 ). There is a stature increase from Early to Late period among Non Nok Tha males and a slight decrease among Ban Chiang males over time. With respect to female stature, Non Nok Tha shows a 3 cm increase on average over time while Ban Chiang shows a slight decrease in height. It is interesting, however, that rather than stature staying the same each site has a directional tendency (increase or decrease) of diachronic stature

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356 change over timeshared by males and females. These sites (Non Mak La, Ban Chiang, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, and Promtin Tai) are geographically and chronologically distinct. This site specific characteristic is observed with the prevalence of paleopathologies and dietary pattern (see below). When estimated stature from the Metal Age central Thai sites is compared with other Mainland Southeast Asian sites, stature of males falls towards the lower end of the stature spectrum (Figure 6 1) while the female statures of inland central Thailand often hover around the average of all comparative sampl es. The low degrees of stature s exual dimorphism of inland central Thai populations (Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai, Ban Pong Manao) are worth noting (Table 6 2 8 ). According to Molnar ( 2002 ), normal range of sexual dimorphism for humans is between 5% and 10%. Both Promtin Tai and Ban Pong Manao have lower than 5% stature sexual dimorphism (4.3% and 4.0%, respectively) and are among the lowest in Mainland Southeast Asian compar ative populations Small stature sexual dimorphism could have behavioral implica tions such as females sharing similar daily tasks with males or there could exist a dynamic division of labor by sex. Based on observation s of activity induced skeletal markers on long bones, females from these sites we re robust both in muscular developmen t and limb proportion. Undoubtedly social/labor roles between sexes we re much more culturally determined than simply a biological by product. However, less dimorphic stature (and body proportion, although not systematically studied) among all adult indivi duals in these inland central Thai sites indicates a more homogeneous physical condition that could have a positive impact on labor input.

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357 Childhood Physiological Stress Evidence and consequences of growth disturbance during early life often leave traces o n dental tissues and determine the achievement of potential stature that is strongly controlled by genetics (Larsen, 1997). Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is considered a hard record of growth arrest and physiological stress during the secretion phase of e namel formation (Goodman and Rose, 1990), thus LEH are an excellent marker of childhood stress even if an individual lived well into adulthood. Since deciduous tooth enamel is secreted and calcified in utero or during early infancy, the appearance, or the lack of, LEH is a good indicator of maternal health during late pregnancy and the nutritional/developmental status of newborn. The fact that no deciduous tooth from any of the inland central Thai sites was LEH positive suggests pregnant women from these sites had access to adequate nutrition, at least during the last trimester. After birth, the infants would have been provided with sufficient nutrition and protected from physiological insults such as systemic infection, diarrhea, and/or chronic illnesses. The well developed deciduous dentition of inland central Thai children and the lack of evidence for LEH indicates that the pregnant women and newborns were able to physiologically afford the nutritional and energy demand of enamel formation, as tooth enam el is physiologically an expensive tissue. However, the overall good maternal health during late pregnancy and healthy first new years of childhood does not necessarily guarantee a continuously good health later in life for a child, since individuals with deciduous teeth observed entered the mortality sample within their first decade of life (Wood et al., 1992). Since enamel formation would only resume its normal secretion regime after the episode of growth disruption ends, LEH is a marker of survival (Good man et al., 1980). Taking Non Mak La as an example, the

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358 proportion of subadult individuals is about the same as that of the adults, yet none of the subadults is LEH positive. This leads to a scenario that these subadults did not have high thresholds when f acing physiological insults and promptly died due to these insults. Harsh living conditions such as demands of daily labor, polluted foods/water, and/or inadequate care from adults could have contributed to their mortality. On permanent teeth, prevalence o f LEH in each inland central Thai site is often low, with no patterned prevalence disparity between males and females. At Non Mak La, there is no sex difference of LEH prevalence during either Earlier or Later period. There is also no significant change ov er time for either males or females. When all of the observable teeth are combined regardless of time period, an intriguing sex difference of LEH prevalence emerged. Non Mak La females have significantly higher LEH prevalence than males. This indicates tha t females here were more likely to suffer from growth disruption induced by physiological insults during early childhood. They in turn survived the incident(s) and lived into adulthood. Due to the needs for child bearing, female physiology has a better buf fering system than male in general (Stinson, 1985). This translates as females tend to fare better when facing physical stress and have a higher likelihood of recovery/survival. Were it possible to reliably determine sex of subadults, it would have been in formative to know the sex ratio of the Non Mak La subadults to explore the possibility that fewer females died at a younger age compared to males. Alternatively, it is also likely that female children suffered more severe physiological stress during enamel formation. This leads to speculation that male children may have enjoyed a more protected growth environment such as better weaning/post weaning diet, more invested care by the adults, and/or less exposure to

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359 harmful settings. Aside from a site wise sex d ifference of LEH prevalence, the fact that there is no significant difference between Earlier and Later periods suggests the increased soci al complexity did not adversely impact Non Mak La people, or at least not their childhood growth. While there may hav e been an internal, behaviorally induced LEH prevalence difference by sex, the overall low prevalence at Non Mak La compared to other Mainland Southeast Asian sites indicates a lower level of physiological stress at the site during early childhood. At Ban Mai Chaimongkol, only one tooth was observed with LEH, making the overall LEH prevalence 0.3%. Due to this extremely low prevalence, it is expected that no significant difference was detected between sexes and time periods. Ban Mai Chaimongkol people who l ived to have permanent teeth may have enjoyed a virtually stress free or have endured stressful episodes that were not severe enough to disrupt enamel growth. As for Promtin Tai, all LEH episodes were recorded on permanent teeth from five Early Iron Age in dividuals (two males, one female, one subadult, one adult with undetermined age). There is no significant difference of prevalence between sexes and time periods, despite the lack of LEH among the Late Iron Age teeth/individuals. It is again possible that social complexity change did not impact heavily people at with respect to their biological development during their early childhood. On the other hand, 22% (7/32) of the Early Iron Age permanent teeth from subadults are LEH positive, significantly higher t han the 0% prevalence for the Late Iron Age sample. It should be noted that all seven LEH positive teeth are from a single subadult and there are only three subadults from Early Iron Age contexts. The uneven distribution of LEH positive

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360 teeth among individ uals and overall small sample size preclude further interpretation of the statistical results with respect to physiological and/or behavioral implications. LEH prevalence at Promtin Tai is 3%, falling at the lower end of the LEH prevalence spectrum (0% 21% excluding sites reported with different prevalence calculations/observation methods) among the comparative Mainland Southeast Asian populations. At Ban Pong Manao, one young adult male and one unknown aged female each has one permanent tooth affected wit h LEH. No subadults have hypoplastic teeth. It is obvious that there is no statistical significant of prevalence between male and female. This late Iron Age site has an overall LEH prevalence of 0.6%, making it one of the lowest LEH incidences observed in this study and comparative samples. Chronologically, the skeletal remains from Ban Pong Manao are situated towards the end of the prehistoric period in central Thailand. This site does not have evidence for highly varied burial wealth among individuals who were mostly interred on a bed lined with intentionally broken pottery sherds. This mortuary practice suggests uniform social wealth across sex and age groups (see Chapter 3). The lack of LEH implies a physiologically robust childhood shared by its populat ion that was likely the result of well balanced nutrition, good site hygiene, clean water supply, and/or well managed child care efforts (e.g., Goodman et al., 1980). Of course, the demography and skeletal sewhere, of Ban Pong Manao could add to the reconstruction of their growth experience. The small number of individuals (N=3) and permanent teeth (N=25) observable at Kao Sai On Noen Din do not include any teeth (one individual) with evidence of LEH.

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361 Since this site is unrepresentative in all demographic parameters, aside from the fact that these three individuals observed do not seem to have suffered severe physiological stress during childhood, the lack of LEH does not reveal much about the potential socia l impact on Kao Sai On To summarize, growth disturbance recorded on dental enamel was not frequently observed on teeth from inland central Thai people during the Metal Age. F or multi component sites with a n intra sit e chronology, there is no difference of LEH prevalence between time periods. The impact of developed(ing) social complexity on human biological health during late pregnancy and early childhood seems minimal at best. On an inter site level, there seems to b e a pattern for neither increased nor decreased LEH prevalence over time. These sites seem to have the lowest LEH prevalence among all Mainland Southeast Asian sites compared in this study. When compared by region, inland central Thai sites collectively ha ve much lower LEH prevalence than most northeast and coastal central Thai sites. Dental Health When non physiological stress dental conditions/pathologies are considered, the prevalence of each and their combined occurrence patterns are indicative of gener al oral health and dietary choices (Larsen, 1997). Only three out of the 310 observed deciduous teeth were affected with dental caries, distributed between a 5.5 6.5 year old child from Iron Age Ban Mai Chaimongkol and a 1 1.5 year old toddler from Earlier Period Non Mak La. These caries are on the buccal side of the molars at the fissure between protoconid and hypoconid (buccal pit caries) Low prevalence of deciduous dental caries and the absence of any other dental pathology among inland central Thai sit es signify these younger subadults had healthy oral hygiene. General observations on

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362 deciduous teeth revealed that most individuals had varied degrees of enamel removal by mastication, exposing dentine. Although deciduous teeth has much thinner enamel comp ared to permanent teeth, the accumulation of cariogenic substances could have been removed due to wear leading to no caries on the occlusal surfaces. Aside from these three pathological deciduous teeth, no other deciduous teeth show any evidence of dental pathologies among the inland central Thai sites. The following sections discuss dental health based on pathologies and conditions observed on permanent teeth on a site wise structure. Non Mak La Non Mak La permanent teeth collectively show a 3.5% caries pr evalence, the highest among the inland central Thai sites. When inspected in detail, seven teeth were affected with caries among Earlier period males, distributed between two individuals. In addition, only one female from the Earlier period had one carious tooth. Carious teeth are also recorded sparsely among Later period individuals, both of them teenage males. No significant difference of caries prevalence for each sex over time was found. Since dental caries is most strongly associated to the consumption of cariogenic foodstuffs such as high sugar carbohydrates (Hillson, 2005), the lack of prevalence difference between Earlier and Later periods suggest there was no significant change of overall dietary behavior as social complexity gradually evolved. A to oth decays as a result of demineralization of dental enamel, caused by the acids formed during the fermentation of carbohydrates by the bacteria attached on dental plaque (Hillson, 2005). The removal of these acids, by dental attrition, helps prevent the d emineralization from continuing, prevalence over time implies the rate/extent of tooth wear may have remained similar

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363 throughout the occupation of the site. Another contributi ng factor to caries prevalence is the staple consumed during these time periods. Carbonized seed analysis by Weber et al. (2010) implies that foxtail millet was the principal grain, very likely consumed regularly, before the 1st millennium B.C. Rice did no t enter the Non Mak La archaeological context until after the 1st millennium B.C. While the arrival of rice did not necessary replace the consumption of millet, rice is presently the most important staple in Southeast Asia. However, unlike maize in the New World where its consumption caused significant deterioration of dental health (e.g., Armelagos and Cohen, 1984; Larsen, 1997), neither millet nor rice has an apparent association with the increased caries prevalence among Mainland Southeast Asian populati ons (Oxenham, 2000; Tayles et al., 2000; Domett, 2001; Oxenham et al., 2002; Pechenkina et al., 2002; Pietrusewsky and Douglas, 2002a, b). The incorporation of rice during the Later period of Non Mak La did not affect the prevalence of dental caries. Howev er, when all the teeth are combined regardless of time periods, It is possible that sexually divided daily tasks and/or differential access to food choices may have been the causes to the disparity of caries prevalence between sexes. The higher caries prevalence of Non Mak La males contradicts to other late Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in Thailand where adult females consistently had significantly higher prevalence of caries than males (Domett, 2001). Domett interprets it as a result from their food choices to be high in carbohydrates and low in protein. While the average number of cari ous teeth for each affected individual from these comparative Thai sites

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364 was not reported, in Non Mak La individuals affected by caries do not constantly have a high number of carious teeth within a set of dentition (ranging from 1 to 4 teeth). Whether the social/subsistence role of males might have been in Non Mak La, this weakens the proposition that task related or sexually divided food choice is the main choice of diet and oral hygiene may trump the likelihood of caries induced by a site wise behavioral pattern. Dental calculus is the outcome of mineralized dental plaque, caused by the accumulation of products from the interaction among oral bacteria, food debris, and s aliva (Hillson, 2005). Saliva is the main source of calcium phosphate that aids in plaque mineralization. Therefore, oral environment (pH in particular) and oral hygiene are key factors in the formation of dental calculus (Hillson, 2005). In Non Mak La, fe males have much higher prevalence of dental calculus than males, regardless of time periods. Among females, there is a significant increase of dental calculus prevalence from Earlier to Later period. This would have been an indicator of differential food c onsumption behavior between sexes and changing oral microflora among females over time. However, for the teeth contributed to high female calculus prevalence, all of them belonged to two female individuals, one from Earlier and Later period each. The dispr oportional concentration of dental calculus on individual level, when analyzed by tooth count, greatly skewed the results to exaggerate the proportion of female permanent teeth affected with calculus. On a broad term, Non Mak La females may have had a diet ary regime that was higher in pH, facilitating the mineralization of dental plaque into calculus. If this was the case, the lower prevalence of caries among females

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365 of Non Mak La fits well in this scenario since an overall lower pH oral environment is the main culprit of dental caries. Collectively, Non Mak La has a dental calculus prevalence of 8%. This number situates at the upper end among the inland central Thai comparative samples, while remains a very low figure in comparison to all other Mainland Sou theast Asian sites. Dental pathologies are signs of wear and tear that are age progressive. The longer a tooth is in use, the higher the risk for it to be adversely affected by attrition, decay, injury, and plaque (Brothwell, 1989). Therefore, prevalence o f dental pathologies needs For example, Ban Na Di in northeast Thailand has a higher proportion of older adults than other Thai sites (Ban Lum Khao, Nong Nor, Khok P hanom Di) studied/compared by Domett (2001). Ban Na Di skeletal assemblage subsequently shows much higher prevalence of advanced attrition, dental caries, and antemortem tooth loss comparatively. In Non Mak La, the age structure indicates it is a populatio n with early mortality evident by a large proportion of subadult and young adults. However, there are indeed more individuals older than 35 years old affected with caries and calculus than the younger age cohorts in general. This is in keeping with the age dependent nature of dental pathologies and reflects a realistic profile of population dental health. Ban Mai Chaimongkol Occupying the entire duration of the Metal Age, Ban Mai Chaimongkol has the most ideal chronological context for to assess the potenti al impact of increasing social complexity on human skeletal health. For dental caries, there is no difference in prevalence by sex either within the Bronze or the Iron Age. It is worth noting that a large sample size discrepancy between observable male and female permanent teeth (125

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366 and 27, respectively) in the Bronze Age could have a skewing effect on the prevalence result. Between time periods, there is also neither a marked change nor consistent pattern of dental caries prevalence when permanent teeth o f males and females are analyzed separately. Males have higher caries prevalence during the Bronze Age, while females show a reversed trend. Subadults with permanent teeth display higher caries prevalence during the Iron Age. When teeth are combined regard less of periods, females have proportionally more caries than males, albeit not significant. It may have seemed reasonable that higher subadult caries prevalence during the Iron Age was explained as a result of children sharing similar food categories with females (the prevalence of caries. However, it would follow that were these children to have survived into adulthood, the carious teeth would have entered the adult caries pre valence in either male or female category. This is not the case as adult males from the Iron Age are caries free. Therefore, it is best to avoid over interpreting the Iron Age sex discrepancy of caries prevalence. Despite the developments in socio cultural context at Ban Mai Chaimongkol was persisting, the impact of heightened social differentiation and/or population growth (Eyre, 2006) does not seem to have a detectable impact of human dietary behavior and oral health. Ban Mai Chaimongkol has an overall 3% caries prevalence. Albeit very low compared to other Mainland Southeast Asian sites, it is the second highest caries prevalence among the inland central Thai sites, underscoring the consistently healthy dentition across these sites. Dental calculus in Ban Mai Chaimongkol is virtually absent (0.3%). Only one middle adult female from the Iron Age had one tooth affected. This is indeed unusual

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367 when other comparative sites all have much frequent dental calculus than Ban Mai Chaimongkol. A more alkaline oral en vironment due to food/water sources may be the case. The fact that Ban Mai Chaimongkol is located in close vicinity of limestone outcrops (Eyre, 2006) may have contributed to water alkalinity. Similarly rare in occurrence is periapical cavity (0.2%). Only one young adult female from the Iron Age had one alveolus affected. Needless to say, the intra site prevalence difference over time for these two dental pathologies is insignificant. As for antemortem tooth loss (AMTL), there is no marked difference of pre valence between sexes in either time period but when all individuals are combined, the Iron Age dental remains have a much higher AMTL prevalence than the Bronze Age ones for both sexes. Age structure of the affected individuals does not seem to have an in fluential effect since young adults in either time period tend to have more AMTL than the older ones. Upon a closer inspection, the discrepancy on the numbers of observable alveoli between time periods and the distribution of AMTL among individuals could b e a skewing factor leading to the statistical significance. The relatively large number of AMTL locales during the Iron Age is recorded among three individuals, one of which has nine AMTL. The highly individually concentrated AMTL distribution does not nec essarily reflect a site wise AMTL pattern that is normally related to overall dental hygiene. Interestingly, no dental caries were found among the individuals showing signs of AMTL and periapical cavity, usually a precursor of tooth loss. Other periodontal diseases and severe attrition were also contributing factors to tooth loss (Hillson, 1996). It is likely that these AMTL positive individuals had particularly inferior dental health and/or experienced different patterns of attrition (due to diet or task r elated abrasion). AMTL

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368 prevalence at Ban Mai Chaimongkol (5%) is on par with other Mainland Southeast Asian sites, while is higher among the inland central Thai sites. Overall, Ban Mai Chaimongkol people continuously had superior dental health albeit socia l complexity was on the increase. Promtin Tai There is no dental caries observed on any teeth (deciduous and permanent) from Promtin Tai. While this may seem unlikely, the sample size for each sex, age, and time period group suggests it is not a product of sampling or demographic bias. Dental calculus, however, is not so uncommon in Promtin Tai. On a site level, the dental calculus prevalence is 15%. It is the highest among the inland central Thai sites, although when compared to other Mainland Southeast As ia sites it falls in the lower middle end of the prevalence range (0% 32.4%). The higher prevalence of dental calculus of Promtin Tai could to be used to explain the lack of dental caries. Dental calculus is more prone to occur when the oral environment is more alkaline, while dental caries indicates a more acidic one. More frequent calculus among permanent teeth of the Promtin Tai people implies that a higher oral pH was the case, lowering (and eliminating) the occurrence of dental caries. When the overa ll calculus prevalence is broken into sex groups and time periods, a more cautious approach is needed to interpret the numbers and statistical results. Males are observed to have much higher prevalence of calculus during both time periods and on the overal l. There also seems to be a significant increase of calculus prevalence from the Early to the Late Iron Age. However, the calculus positive teeth contributing to the marked prevalence difference belonged to only two individuals (one male and one female) du ring the Late Iron Age. These individuals, furthermore, represent the majority of teeth observable. As a result,

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369 when calculus is calculated by tooth count, the highly individual oriented distribution of affected teeth much exaggerated the significance. In short, the recovered Promtin Tai dentition exhibits a moderate prevalence of dental calculus whose biological and cultural implications are limited due to uncontrollable sample bias. In terms of periapical cavities, Promtin Tai has a 2% overall prevalence situating at the lower end among all the comparative sites including inland central Thai sites. The distribution of the affected teeth is sporadic across sex groups and time periods. Therefore, no significant different is observed on the prevalence diffe rence between sexes and over time. The lack of marked dietary and/or oral health change could be the case along social complexity increase. However, the periapical cavity, as an age progressive pathology, does appear more frequently among older individuals (>35 years old). In one case, the ultimate loss of a tooth is accompanied by the sign of periapical cavity, indicating the pathology history of this alveolar locale. AMTL in Promtin Tai is similarly rare (0.8%) where only two alveoli show signs of remodel ed alveolar process after tooth loss, both are on a single middle age male from the Early Iron Age. Naturally, the low prevalence of AMTL did not permit a meaningful comparison between sexes and time periods. In short, aside from the higher prevalence of d ental calculus, Promtin Tai people as a whole sustained very good oral health and did not have a marked fluctuation on any particular dental pathology as social complexity gradually increased as reflected on the material culture. Ban Pong Manao With an ove rall dental caries prevalence of 2%, there is no marked sex difference among Ban Pong Manao individuals, although female prevalence seems to be twice as high as that of the males. As a chronologically latest site among all comparative

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370 samples of Mainland S outheast Asia, Ban Pong Manao dental caries is among the lowest. While there does not seem to be a time related fluctuation of dental caries prevalence in the region, the low prevalence of Ban Pong Manao is on par with other inland central Thai sites, all very rare with caries compared to non inland central Thai sites. Very similar to the results in Promtin Tai, prevalence of dental calculus in Ban Pong Manao is quite high (13%) among the inland central Thai sites. Females are more frequent to have calculus positive teeth than males but the proportion difference is not marked. The more alkaline oral environment is likely the case resulting in this low in caries and high in calculus dental health profile. As for periapical cavity, Ban Pong Manao has an overal l 2% prevalence distributed among three males and one female. There is a lack of significant difference on prevalence between sexes. The overall prevalence of Ban Pong Manao is comparable and sometimes slightly higher than other Mainland Southeast Asian si tes. Prevalence of periapical cavity among the comparative samples are generally very low, contrasting with any other dental pathology. There is no trend of prevalence fluctuation about time either. Periodontal diseases can be slow in manifesting skeletall y invisible lesions on the alveoli and the fact that these prehistoric populations generally did not have particularly long longevity is possibly the factor leading to fewer signs of periapical cavities. Ban Pong Manao has an overall 3% of AMTL with no mar ked difference between sexes. While AMTL is also a heavily age progressive pathology, there does not seem to be an age related pattern of AMTL distribution among the Ban Pong Manao people. Although it is on the moderate to higher end of the inland central Thai spectrum

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371 of AMTL, it again occupies the very low end of the Mainland Southeast Asian spectrum. In all, Ban Pong Manao being the latest prehistoric site among all analyzed, does not have particularly lower or higher prevalence of dental pathologies. Th health appeared healthy in general and has no association between number/category of burial goods and dental health. Kao Sai On Noen Din As introduced in previous chapters, skeletal samples studied from Kao Sai On Noen Din are very small (N =3). Among these three individuals, all dental remains appeared to be free of pathologies. Based on the limited finding, these individuals may have maintained satisfactory oral health throughout their lives. Skeletal Health Skeletal Indicator of Systemic S tress Three major categories of skeletal pathology are observed on most of the inland central Thai sites. Active and healed cribra orbitalia/porotic hyperotosis (CO/PH) is indicative of prolonged anemic episodes. As anemia is a systemic condition often cau sed by parasitic infection and imbalanced nutritional status, prevalence of CO/PH in a population is a gauge of environmental hygiene and overall or sexually differentiated nutritional well ). Granted that genetic diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia could have contributed to systemic anemia, these diseases are usually severe and could lead to early mortality without modern medicine and management (e.g., Ascenzi and Balistreri, 1977; Tayles, 1996; Hershkovitz et al., 1997). In inland central Thailand, CO/PH is observed on cranial bones of individuals across all age groups. This indicates that congenital anemia may not have been the main cause for these populations.

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372 While prevale nce of CO/PH at Non Mak La is not available, Ban Mai Chaimongkol has three younger individuals affected with this condition, all of which have the lesions appearing active on the orbital area. The prevalence by right and left orbit count seem high (25% and 17%, respectively). This could be explained as a sample size induced bias (intact orbit count is 12 for both sides). When evaluated by individual count (with the caveat that not all individuals have observable orbits), the prevalence is not particularly h igh (8%, 3/38). There is no marked difference or tendency of prevalence between time periods or between sexes. However, the fact that all affected individuals died at a younger age with active lesions (one subadult and two young adults) fits Stuart Macadam adult phenomenon. While it is not possible to directly link the cause of death for these individuals with anemia, the overall frailer physical health of the anemic individuals may have lowered their immu ne thresholds against physiological insults. At Ban Pong Manao, CO lesions are found on 21% of the right orbits and 8% of the left ones, distributing among three individuals. While the prevalence by orbit count may seem high, the proportion of individuals affected is not particularly overwhelming (3/49, 6%). Among these three, two are females (one is subadult). Since the number of affected individuals is quite low, it is inappropriate to further infer sex difference of CO prevalence. Differing from the age aggregation of CO positive individuals in Ban Mai Chaimongkol, in Ban Pong Manao those affected with CO are a subadult, a middle age adult, and an adult with unknown specific age range. For the two females, their orbits display healed CO scars. It is indic ative that they survived an earlier systemic anemic episode, likely occurred during their childhood or young adulthood. The subadult,

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373 however, has asymmetrical CO lesion status active in right orbit and healing in progress in left orbit upon death. With t he age and lesion status information combined, it supports the proposition that CO is a younger age phenomenon (Stuart Macadam, 1985). There is only one individual observed with PH on its cranial vault. While intra site comparison of CO/PH prevalence for B an Mai Chaimongkol is not meaningful due to small sample size, the site level CO/PH prevalence by orbit count for Ban Mai Chiamongkol and Ban Pong Manao do not portray a clear trend of CO/PH prevalence fluctuation over time/social developments. Both Promti n Tai and Kao Sai On Noen Din lack CO/PH among their individuals. than sample size bias or early mortality. The lack of systematic physiological stress markers su ch as CO/PH for this site is in keeping with its low LEH prevalence, another indicator of childhood stress. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that Promtin Tai people as a whole enjoyed a healthy childhood into early adulthood throughout the duration of physiological stress level. In the case of Kao Sai On Noen Din, as mentioned before, this is a site where excavation is ongoing and preliminary studies are being conducted. T he very small sample size and inferior preservation status are likely the main causes for the lack of dental and skeletal pathology. Degenerative Joint Disease Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a category of joint anomalies caused by wear and tear throug hout lifetime (Larsen, 1995). The location and severity of DJD are often linked with activity patterns of an individual. On a population level, if certain joints are affected with DJD more prevalently than others, coupled with demographic parameters,

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374 a sex or segmented daily task pattern may be derived. For example, certain ornately adorned Khok Phanom Di women buried during mortuary phases 4 and later had a higher prevalence of DJD on their wrists (Tayles, 2002), which Higham and Thosarat (2004) interpret to be associated with pottery making. During these phases, the site saw a drastic environmental change (from a marine to a freshwater ecology), burial pattern shift, and diverse material culture patterns (in ceramics, especially). These women not only were interred with exceptionally wealthy burial goods (including tool kits and raw materials for pottery making) but also their burial ceremonies were likely performed on a raised platform, indicating special treatment in funerary rites likely associated with higher social status (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). With the archaeological and biological data, the particularly higher prevalence of wrist DJD among women during this period in Khok Phanom Di is interpreted that these women were likely the key players in a matrilineal society where highly skilled pottery makers and pattern designers were highly valued (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). For the inland central Thai sites, however, the DJD affected joints are not distributed in any clear pattern in the regard of sex or age categories, except in Ban Mai Chaimongkol. DJD is not observed among Promtin Tai and Kao Sai On Noen Din people. Cautiously, this is possibly due to preservation and excavation bias. Buried extended and supine, the excavation practice of leaving ma ny Promtin Tai individuals in situ prevented thorough examination of the vertebral column. The extremely small sample size and fragmentary preservation of Kao Sai On Noen Din also hindered meaningful assessment of DJD. Joint diseases are most common on the vertebral column for Non Mak La people with no marked difference in number of males and

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375 frequent association between DJD affected individuals and their advanced age groups is an artifact due to the use of DJD as an age assessment (Agelarakis, 2010a). For Ban Mai Chaimongkol, all DJD affected individuals are middle age adults. Since the presence of DJD was not used as a reference for age estimation for this site, the age pro gressive nature of DJD explains well that as people become older the more likely the joints accumulate more evidence of wear and tear. The vertebral column is more frequently affected than other appendicular joints. In Ban Pong Manao, while more males than females are observed with DJD by individual count, the site does have more males than females in proportion. Similar caution is applicable to the heavier distribution of DJD on young adults. Regardless, vertebral column, especially the lower thoracic and lumbar sections, is again the most frequently involved areas of DJD. The degenerative signs include varied degree of osteophytosis, lipping on the vertebral centra, and collapsed discs. Lower back joint degeneration is often considered a by product of bipe dalism. Behavioral variables such as weight bearing and habitual bending accelerate the deterioration of the lower thoracic and lumbar joints (Hough and Sokoloff, 1989). The fact that both Ban Pong Manao and Ban Mai Chaimongkol individuals exhibit DJD most frequently on the lower back indicates a normal and perhaps somewhat demanding physical load consistent with agriculture and transportation of goods. In terms of the number of individuals and areas affected with DJD, there is no clear difference either wi thin Ban Mai Chaimongkol by time or between Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Ban Pong Manao. The widest chronological gap between these two sites is roughly 1500 years. The steadily low frequency of DJD suggests a largely

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376 unchanged activity pattern/load over time. The change of subsistence, if any, and social complexity did not impact greatly on the physical aspect of the inland central Thai people. Trauma and Anomalies Skeletal trauma and anomalies among all inland central Thai sites are not very common. They occur red in a sporadic fashion with no clear pattern associated with body parts, sides, severity, healing stages, sexes, or age groups. The most common trauma is fracture on the clavicle bones which occurred on one individual each in Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Pro mtin Tai. Among the rare cases of skeletal anomaly, one of them is likely a result of a benign tumor of chrondromyxoid fibroma (Bronze Age Ban Mai Chaimongkol young female; Ortner, 2003). The others are most likely bone deposition and remodeling due to fra cture and/or bone infection. Most of these new bone growth and healed fractures do not appear debilitating, except in the unknown sex ulna and the fifth metatarsal. The def ormity is severe and would have been grossly visibly. It could have hindered the muscle strength on the medial side of the right forearm, leading to a less strong right arm. Its associated radius does show signs of osteoarthritis, indicating certain degree of soft tissue compensation was in place for a period time before death. Among all the sites, there is no reporting of un remodeled trauma, suggesting no immediate connection between skeletal trauma and cause of death. Overall, only a few individuals from the inland central Thai sites suffered skeletal trauma or anomalies. The lack of pattern of any kind implicates these observed trauma and anomalies are isolated cases due to injuries or genetic factors. There is also no

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377 evidence pertaining to the associat ion between trauma/anomaly prevalence and social complexity change. Paleohealth Variation in Central Thailand As discussed above, when compared with other regions of Mainland Southeast Asia, prevalence of dental pathologies are uniformly low among the inla nd central Thai sites and skeletal pathologies are also rare. However, within the latter, it is not without variations. Each site has at least one kind of dental pathology having a significantly higher prevalence than other regional sites, indicating the l ack of a consistent pattern of dental health in the region. For example, Promtin Tai has the highest prevalence of LEH, while dental caries prevalence is the highest in Non Mak La. Dental calculus and periapical cavities are most prevalence in among Ban Po ng Manao teeth and Ban Mai Chaimongkol has the largest proportion of alveoli affected with AMTL. Although the ranges of these dental pathology prevalence among sites may not seem particularly wide, the discrepancies often achieve statistical significant. T he exceptionally high dental pathology diversity portraits a site specific phenomenon in terms of population dental health and the contributing factors such as dietary behavior. Despite the change in social complexity over time and the advances in material culture (e.g., metallurgy and ceramics), there is no marked departure of dental health (and skeletal) from the originally healthy baseline towards the early period in chronology within a site. When these inland sites are sequenced chronologically, there i s also no trend in dental and skeletal health as time went on. Khok Phanom Di, situating at the coastal area of central Thailand with a period of freshwater ecology, serves seamlessly as an outgroup among the central Thai sites. Almost all of its dental pa thologies are significantly higher than the inland sites. Khok

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378 Phanom Di is a much earlier site compared to many of the inland ones. However, its detailed sequence indicates high level of craft manufacturing and intricate social groupings possibly by kinsh ip (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). Khok Phanom Di has a much higher prevalence of dental caries and LEH that is more than three times higher than the highest ones among the inland central Thai sites. In Tayles et al. (2000), they compare Khok Phanom Di caries prevalence with two inland sites in the Mun Valley (northeast Thailand) with later chronological positions (Ban Lum Khao and Noen U Loke) and discover that there was no positive association between the intensification of rice agriculture and increased den tal caries prevalence. While rice is intrinsically low in cariogenicity, the complex causes of dental caries such as abrasion rate, saliva flow speed, and oral pH are to be taken into consideration. Human dietary and activity patterns and resource manageme nt would have been drastically distinct between the coastal dwelling Khok Phanom Di people and the inland populations. Prevalence of dental caries in Ban Lum Khao and Noe n U Loke, as shown in Table 6 29 are not too far apart from the inland central Thai s ites analyzed in the current study. In terms of LEH, as a childhood physiological stress indicator, teeth from Khok Phanom Di recorded a site wise stressful childhood experience yet these affected people survived into adulthood. Unlike Khok Phanom Di, inla nd central Thai people as a whole, regardless of time period, collectively have very rare incidences of LEH suggesting low or individual specific physiological stress during childhood. Overall, Khok Phanom Di is not only a chronological and geographical bu t also a biological outgroup that underscores the unique biological milieu of inland central Thai people.

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3 79 Summary of General Health in Central Thailand Low prevalence of skeletal and dental pathologies among the inland central Thai people are in accordance with the results from other Mainland Southeast Asian skeletal studies The intensification of agriculture, increasing social complexity, and heightened social status differentiation did not exert skeletally visible impacts on human biology. While K hok Pha nom Di and some earlier northeast and coastal Thai sites show higher prevalence of patholog y the somewhat chronologically comparable inland central Thai sites include d in th e current study generally have very healthy ( skeletally ) individuals. It should be cautioned that these latter sites have a majority of younger individuals This is a n indicator of early mortality and inferring the existence of a poor/harsh living condition In short, the uniquely low prevalence of pathology among inland central Thai pe ople suggest there may be certain environmental and behavioral attributes specific to inland central Thailand that contributed to the uniformly good oral health. Ecological Baseline for Prehistoric Human Diet Before discussing human dietary behavior of cen tral Thailand, stable isotopic values derived from faunal skeletal and dental remains provide baseline information on local ecology and species specific dietary variations. For skeletal samples, only bones from Ban Pong Manao yielded viable collagen and ap atite signals. When faunal dental enamel samples are concerned, the stable carbon isotopic signals from enamel apatite represented by the lone pig and bovine enamel sample from Promtin Tai and Ban Mai Chaimongkol, respectively, fall at the outer edge of pi g and bovine range of the Ban Pong Manao samples (Figure 7 5). While the stable oxygen isotopic signals of these two points are well within the ranges of Ban Pong Manao pigs and bovines, the isotopic 13 C of Promtin Tai and Ban Mai Chaim ongkol faunal enamel

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380 indicates the existence of inter site variation, most likely induced by site plant ecology and geology. To maintain a clear faunal baseline profile, only signals from Ban Pong Manao faunal teeth are used. Being a late prehistoric highl and site of central Thailand, it should be kept in mind that the ecological baseline established based on Ban Pong Manao faunal samples may not be as representative for the entire central Thai site as this study intended to be. It, however, offers a genera l understanding on how people managed and utilized the faunal resources on the landscape. Pig is the most skeletally abundant species at Ban Pong Manao. Its sympatric 13 C values both f rom bone collagen and apatite (bone and teeth) between pig and human. Much like the humans, Ban Pong Manao pigs consumed a C 3 C 4 mixture diet with slightly heavier reliance on C 4 grains. Stable nitrogen isotopic value s of pigs are on average one trop h ic le vel lower than humans. Combined with young age of death of pigs and processing marks found on pig bones (butchered and burn marks), it is clear that Ban Pong Manao people domesticated pigs and incorporated them into diet. Aside from having signs of pig dom estication, Ban Pong Manao people also had close relationships with smaller sized carnivores and species that are commonly present within human settlements. Dog skeletal remains revealed the highest trophic level isotopically among all other faunal species trophic level. While isotopes alone may not lead to a definitive conclusion that dogs were considered as a human food source, cut and burn marks found on some dog skeletons pointed to the possibility that they were more than human companions or sympatric species with no food chain relationship. If the only bone sample from a black

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381 rat was indeed indigenous of the area, the high level of C 4 protein signal indicated a C 4 plant prevalent field of Ban Pong Manao landscap and nitrogen isotopic ratios from chicken bones also suggested a close feeding scheme evidence of human consumption and management, i ndicating that the dietary regime of Ban Pong Manao people contained a certain portion of sympatric species. As for faunal species that were likely to be obtained by hunting and/or an incipient level of domestication, skeletal remains of cervids and bovins are most plentiful in Ban Pong Manao. The cervids were further divided into small and large bodied groups based on skeletal remains. The small bodied cervids are dominated by barking deer. The isotopic signals from these barking deer unequivocally pointed to a C 3 oriented food source (both protein and total diet) with some mixture of C 4 carbohydrates, which is very distinctive from those of the Ban Pong Manao people. This orest edges. Ban Pong Manao is situated i n highland central Thailand where its general climate is closer to a temperate than tropical setting. Deciduous forest (C 3 based) and sig nals and feeding behavior suggested that these deer were not sympatric to humans or inhabiting areas in immediate vicinity to Ban Pong Manao settlement. The fact that their skeletal remains were deposited within Ban Pong Manao stratigraphy and bore evidenc e of food processing marks indicated the Ban Pong Manao people had hunted or lured the barking deer closer to the settlement, likely for the purpose of consumption. Isotopic signals of the large bodied deer, however, exhibited a mixture of C 3 C 4 feeding

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382 p attern. The deer were traditionally categorized into grazers and browsers who consumed different types of parts of the plants. The large bodied cervids were likely to roam the landscape and consumed the diverse plant species. Although their isotopic signal actively managing (by feeding, for example) the large bodied deer. It is more probable that deer were being hunted and brought back to the settlement for human consumption. Ske letal remains of the bovines (water buffalos and cattle combined), were frequently encountered in Ban Pong Manao deposit. Isotopic signals from both microstructures (collagen and apatite) strongly indicated the bovines were present in a C 4 based open field grazing habitat. Overall, using Ban Pong Manao faunal isotope regime as an ecological baseline, it is reasonable to profile that the immediate vicinity and Ban Pong Manao settlement itself were a C 4 prevalent open field, whereas the nearby deciduous fores ts were constituted of a C 3 based floral ecosystem. Having a wide range of faunal skeletal remains in Ban Pong Manao deposit indicated that the people practiced a combination of animal management and hunting to obtain their major protein resources. The mai n C 4 plants in the field at Ban Pong Manao, based on ecological and archaeological contexts The distribution of these faunal and floral species dictated the dietary resources available to Ban Pong Manao people in the highlands and beyond. The isotopic signals of the few faunal samples from Promtin Tai and Ban Mai Chaimongkol largely contoured to the expected species specific isotopic distribution, with some variations reflecting site specific diversity.

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383 Human Dietary Behavior Building upon the ecological baseline derived from faunal skeletal remains, human dietary behavior of Metal Age central Thailand is reconstructed in conjuncture with archaeological data. This sect ion will first approach paleodiet on a regional level a rough chronological order. After a regional synthesis, stable isotopic data from each site will be discussed wit hin its own demographic context and finer temporal sequence when applicable. The data used in this section are presented in Chapter 8. The aim is to thoroughly interpret the skeletal chemistry data in a way that best highlight the changes of social complex ity and human diet (if any). Inter site Dietary Variation vicinity to the coast. The inland sites include Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Non Mak La, Promtin Tai, Kao Sai On Noen Din, a nd Ban Pong Manao. Among them, Ban Mai Chaimongkol belongs to the Chao Phraya River drainage, whereas Non Mak La, Promtin Tai, and Kao Sai On Noen Din are situated in a general area of the Khao Wong Prachan Valley. Ban Pong Manao is located on highland cen tral Thailand, at the western edge of the Khorat Plateau. Khok Phanom Di is the only site in the coastal group. In terms of chronological sequence, Khok Phanom Di is the earliest, followed by Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, and Promtin Tai. Ban Pong Manao and Kao Sai On Noen Din are similar in time occupied (see Chapter 3). It needs to be emphasized that this sequence is a rough order and is only relevant for the purpose of the comparison to be discussed below. Most of the sites have multiple temporal

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384 comp onents with distinctly different cultural remains and overlapping temporal periods among sites are not uncommon. While a general assumption in held that sites occupied later in time may have had a finer social differentiation thus increased social complexi ty, the intrinsic cultural diversity among the sites cannot be neglected and will be addressed in the later part of this chapter. Regional dietary diversity Among the inland sites, Promtin Tai and Kao Sai On Noen Din did not yield any valid isotopic signal scenarios were thus only revealed by tooth enamel apatite. As shown in Chapter 8, people from all sites utilized an admixture of C 3 and C 4 dietary resources of both protein and carbohydrates, with varying degree of emphasis on C 3 or C 4 sources. Highland site 13 C signals from collagen and bone apatite fractions than all other sites analyzed, indicating a higher C 4 reliant dietary regime. Despite the distance, the distrib ution of collagen and bone apatite 13 C signals derived from Ban Mai C haimongkol and Non Mak La are fairly similar, both clustering toward s 13 C spectrum. This in turn signifies a higher mixture of C 3 derived nutrients in peopl 13 C from bone collagen falls 13 C from bone apatite is much further negative than others With the availability of ecological baseline from faunal skeletal remains and archaeological context, human diet ary choices of Ban Pong Manao are on par with what was expected. The positive 13 13 C ap coll portray a human dieta ry strategy of C 4 reliant carbohydrates and C 3 feeding animal protein sources.

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385 Cultivated or managed millet was the most likely the main carbohydrate source. Millet is a good protein source as a benefit of its higher protein content compared to other cerea l plants common in Southeast Asia (USDA, 2012). If Ban Pong Manao people did use 13 C bone coll between C 3 and C 4 protein lines (Figure 8 5) could be a result of protein contribution from a C 4 plant like millet. Central T hailand has a long history of millet distribution (Foxtail millet, in particular), traceable to the 3 rd millennium B.C. (Weber et al., 2010). Millet also requires less water and grows well in higher more arid altitude contexts (Weber et al., 2010). Ban Po location, long dry season, and later date range in chronological sequence all support the possibility that millet was in existence and consumed. Based on the isotopic signals from forest dwelling/feeding species such as the cervids, a C 3 based deciduous forest was most likely to be in the vicinity of the Ban Pong Manao settlement. Terrestrial animals browsing in/near the forest (e.g., barking deer, larger bodied deer), those feeding on C 4 based plants (e.g., the bovines), and those forag ing on a mix of C 3 C 4 food sources. The scenario of a wide array of animals and their habitats fits well with the plot shown in Figure 8 5, where all but one Ban Pong Manao da ta points fell within the range between the C 3 and C 4 protein lines. Small fish and shellfish from nearby creeks found among the deposits of living floors. However, despi te the selection, lower trophic 15 N values, of Ban Pong Manao people suggest that animal protein

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386 13 C signals from enamel apatite, unlike the clear separation of Ban Pong M anao bone collagen and apatite from other sites, have a much wider distribution than their bone counterparts. The data points in fact scatter between the two ends of the 13 C en ap distribution of the lowland sites Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Non Mak La (Figure 8 13 C en ap falls in between those of the two lowland sites. Since tooth enamel is formed during early childhood to early teenage years, the 13 C en ap signals can be inferred to have resulted f rom change of diet and/or residency between earlier and later lifetime. Individuals who were buried at Ban Pong Manao may have utilized different dietary resources between the time of enamel formation and later in life. This further indicate s that these pe ople may not have originally been born and/or raised in situ and therefore having different sources of dietary protein and carbohydrates. While the motivations for people movement may be difficult to deduce, the locales where the people moved from are rev ealed in part 18 O en ap The stable oxygen isotope ratios from Ban Pong Manao teeth sampled show a narrow range of distribution and the pattern is very similar to that of Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Non Mak La 18 O is reflective o f the geologic waters an individual consumed during tissue formation (in this case, the enamel), it is possible that some of those buried at Ban Pong Manao came from places ity, altitude, and precipitation (White et al., 1998, 2000; Katzenberg, 2000 ). The interplay of these natural characteristics makes the deduction of where the Ban Pong Manao people had migrated from a difficult, if not an impossible, task. However, the sim ilarity of 18 O en ap signals from Ban Pong Manao with the other two lowland sites does not

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387 necessarily suggest any direct migratory relationship among these sites. In short, people buried at Ban Pong Manao subsisted on a very different dietary regime (much higher C 4 oriented carbohydrates, in particular) from that of the lowland and coastal sites, as will be discussed in the following paragraphs. 13 C values of bone collagen and bone apatite from the lowland skeletal assemblages share several similar characteristics. Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Non Mak La samples have essentially indistinguishable distribution of collagen and apatite data. The two sites yielded very 13 C bone coll a 13 C bone ap The values are indicative of a mixed C 3 C 4 diet with slight ly more reliance on C 3 based animals and plants, when compared ti Ban Pong Manao (greater reliance on C 4 based carbohydrates ) The difference of 13 C values from bone collag en and apatite between the lowland sites and highland Ban Pong Manao is significant as documented by statistical analysis (see Chapter 8). It is worth noting that there are only three valid data points from Ban Mai Chaimongkol human bone samples due to poo r preservation, despite the attempt to mitigate this problem by sampling much more specimens. While there is limited faunal based isotopic baseline available for Ban Mai Chaimongkol and none for Non Mak La, the ecological context of each site largely suppo rts this human bone based dietary inference. As detailed in Onsuwan (2000) and Eyre (2006), modern surroundings of the Ban Mai Chaimongkol by the time of excavation (mid 1990s) were covered by corn (a C 4 plant) and rice field (a C 3 plant). This mixture of plant distribution suggests an ecological profile that prehistoric Ban Mai Chaimongkol area saw the coexisting of C 3 and C 4 plants. The long history of the existence of millet in central Thailand and its

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388 t al., 2010). As part of the Chao Phraya River drainage whose modern rice agriculture supplies the vast population of Bangkok and nearby locales, Ban Mai Chaimongkol area would have also been suitable for rice agriculture. While the scale and techniques fo r ri ce agriculture remain unclear, ri ce incorporated into the diet of past people and sympatric animals is not an unreasonable inference in central Thailand Conforming to its geographic location, Ban Mai Chaimongkol area would have been surrounded by fore st and/or ever green plants as a common scene in a tropical setting where C 3 plants thrive (e.g., Krigbaum, 200 3 ). All of the above evidence and analogies fit well with the dietary scenario derived from human stable carbon isotopic ratio signals. Beyond st able carbon isotopic signals, Ban Mai Chaimongkol bone samples 15 N value among all other sites studies here, indicating a high trophic level and more animal protein consumption. As for the categories of animal incorporated in p bovines, pigs, and deer were present. Since Ban Mai Chaimongkol is an inland site, other animal protein sources would have to derive from the riverine settings. The site was indeed surrounde d by creeks and had a noteworthy amount of shell deposit. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that people did incorporate riverine protein resources into diet. The organisms lived on the nutrients in the riverine setting sometimes carry the isotopic signa ture of the nearby land, although it can be altered greatly by the uptak e of the dissolved carbonates from rocks, soils, and organic matters ( Katzenberg 1989) If

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389 were add to the C 3 C 4 mixed food web. 13 C en ap to the reconstruction (Figure 8 6), Ban Mai Chaimongkol people do show a consistent tendency of having a C 3 C 4 mixture total diet, even during childhood and early teenage years, with a slightly heavier reliance on C 3 food sources. The peop 22). Overall, Ban Mai Chaimongkol isotopic signals portrayed a relatively local and narrow range of food procurement. C 3 carbohydrate and protein sources contributed to th eir diet, while clear ly incorporati ng some C 4 food sources. Also located in lowland central Thailand, stable carbon isotope signals from Non Mak La human bones suggest a very similar dietary regime to Ban Mai Chaimongkol. The distribution and aver 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap from Non Mak La bones again indicate a C 3 C 4 mixed foodway with a slight lean toward s C 3 resources. Located at the Khao Wong Prachan Valley, Non Mak La and its nearby sites shared similar environmental characteristics s uch as a seasonal monsoon ( if failed, draught occurred) and soil with poor water retention qualities (Pigott et al., 2006). With these ecological parameters and soil types only suitable for dry crop cultivation, the main staple of Non Mak La (and the Khao Wong Prachan Valley in general) was likely to have derived from C 4 plants (e.g., maize, millet; Pigott et al., 2006). The stable carbon isotopic data, however, strongly indicate a C 3 leaning diet. It is likely that an area covered by C 3 based deciduous for ests and/or shrubs, in which terrestrial animals dwelled and fed, would resemble the surroundings of the prehistoric Non Mak La landscape. In addition, Weber and colleagues (2010) analysis of grain remains recovered from Non Mak La

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390 and two nearby sites (N on Pa Wai and Nil Kham Haeng) demonstrate that millet predated the existence of rice f or approximately two millennia In fact, rice did not appear in the site contexts until 1 st millennium B.C. It is clear that the coexistent of millet (C 4 ) and C 3 based ve getation sustained the Non Mak La people for at least the duration of occupation. While millet was long available in the landscape, it does not necessarily suggest a systematic millet management and/or dietary incorporation was in place. Therefore, a mixtu re of C 3 and C 4 The diet/food related similarities between the lowland central Thai sites of Non Mak La and Ban Mai Chaimongkol are limited to stable carbon isotope signals. As previously discussed, Ban Mai 15 N than all other La people have a slightly lower trophic level than Ban Mai Chaimon g kol. While the 15 N here is not particularly low and is on par with that of Ban Pong Manao, it suggests Non Mak La people may have had a smaller portion of dietary protein coming from animal sources. Another major difference between the two lowland i 13 C en ap signal. It is in fact the most positive among all sites analyzed for this tissue fraction (except Kao Sai On lone tooth enamel data). It is well within the range of what would be expected for a C 3 C 4 mixed diet, but its obvi ous lean toward s the C 4 13 C spectrum for total diet 13 C en ap 13 C bone c oll / 13 C bone ap are not the exact same cohort. Detailed provenience analysis on the individuals samp led and their chronological grouping within Non Mak La revealed a clear explanation when combined with the seed analysis by Weber and colleagues

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391 (2010). This will be discussed in the intra site dietary variation section. In terms of the carbon isotope cate gory (C 3 or C 4 ) of carbohydrate and protein of people consumed, Non Mak La diet is the most monoisotopic (Figure 8 4), meaning sources of carbohydrate and protein are similar in isotopic composition. Since a true monoisotopic diet wou 13 C ap coll 13 C ap coll being more C 3 protein and C 4 carbohydrate s However, it is difficult to delineate the exact proportion of C 3 vs. C 4 resource distribution due to the highly heterog eneous C 3 C 4 landscape (Ambrose et al., 2003). In short, Non Mak La foodways did share some characteristics in terms of admixture of resources with similarly lowland Ban Mai Chaimongkol. But the proportion of animal protein consumption and/or the isotopic compositions themselves is different between the two sites. There is one more site that situates in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley, Promtin Tai. This site is ~6 km northwes t to Non Mak La sharing similar ecological characteristics. Stable isotopic ratios derived from Promtin Tai teeth, however, revealed a dramatic departure from both Ban Mai Chaimongkol and Non Mak La with respect to skeletal/dental bone 13 C en ap is negative among all the inland centr al Thai sites studied. While it is within the isotopic range expected for a mixed C 3 C 4 total diet, its heavier lean toward s the C 3 end of the 13 C spectrum is obvious and different from other three sites discussed thus far. The 13 C en ap v alues is also narrow, as all but one tooth sampled falls outside the range between 11.6 and 13.5 3 reliant overall diet was shared by the Promtin Tai people. The environmental characteristics of Promtin Tai suggest that while dry season can be long and somewhat unpredictable, when the rainy

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392 s eason arrives its low lying location is often prone to annual flood. The site is also surrounded by a moat that could have been used for irrigation and water retention purposes in the past (Le 010) analysis of carbonized seed s from Khao Wong Prachan lead to a conclusion that rice was present in this region since the 1 st Metal Age Thailand and ecology, incorporating rice in diet or even using rice as staple was probable. Terrestrial and aquatic animal resources from nearby forests and creeks were also likely parts of Promtin Tai diet 18 O signal here is significantly different from all other central Thai sites. In the other three central Thai sites discussed above, despite their geographic distances from one another and potential geologic variations, the aver 18 O en ap from each site is extremely similar to one another (Figure 8 6). It is unfortunate that no bone data are available from Promtin Tai to facilitate a more nuanced inference of its diet. However, 13 C a 18 O from tooth enamel samples illustrate a highly locale specific dietary approach of the past people. While the range of food source species (plants and animals) could have been wide, the geographic/geologic origins and photosynthetic pathway categori es of the food sources were likely to be fairly similar. There was only one tooth enamel from Kao Sai On Noen Din suitable for isotopic 13 C ( 18 O ( 13 C signal suggested the individual obtained its dietary carbon almost entirely from C 4 sources. Kao Sai On Noen Din is < 30 km southeast of Promtin Tai. But samples from the two sites occupy the two extrem 13 C en ap 18 O

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393 signatures. Without more ecological/faunal information and substantially more human data from Kao Sai On tooth sample were to be considered as representative of Kao Sai On Noen Din, it would again underscore a locale specific dietary regime as seen in other sites. The obvious bias of interpreting one data point, nevertheless, precludes the incorporation of Kao Sai On Noen Din from f urther regional, temporal, and intra site dietary assessments. Khok Phanom Di, a well studied site that experienced fluctuation of coastal and riverine ecological settings during its 500 years of occupation (Higham and Thosarat, 1994), is an ideal comparis on site when discussing dietary changes. The average 13 C bone c oll is 3 marine mixed collagen source spectrum. This value is not far away from that of the inland Non Mak La and Ban Mai 13 C bone ap is mos t negative ( although it is not a far departure from others except in the case on Ban Pong Manao. The stable carbon isotope ratios from Khok Phanom Di bones suggest the people had a slightly more C 3 overall food sources 13 C en ap data from Bentley et 13 C bone ap of 3 based 13 C bone c o ll 13 C bone ap again supports this general observation. In fact, Khok Phanom Di people had the most monoisotopic diet than the inland sites. It is interesting to observe 13 C bone c oll 13 C ap coll It is especially p 13 C bone ap coll distribution shows the two groups are at either 13 C ap coll =4.4 line, an indicator for a monoisotopic diet (Ambrose and Norr, 1993). The demographic composition of the individuals in each group will be explored in

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394 the Khok Phanom Di intra site dietary variation section. Among the potential candidates of major food sources, rice is again the top possibility. In fact, rice was present and cultivated in situ in Khok Phanom Di at least during and after mortuary phas es 3 and 4 (after ~1,900 1,750 B.C.), if not earlier (Higham and Thosarat, 2004). This was supported by the inclusion of rice cultivation tools in human burial assemblages. Human consumption of rice of domesticated variety was confirmed by analyzing the mo rphology of rice chaff fragments preserved in human excrement (Thompson, 1996). Khok Phanom Di experienced a drastic ecological change from having direct access to the estuary/sea/mangrove to being a freshwater riverine/lacustrine site during mortuary phas es 3 and 4. Rice remains, however, became less frequent during the later mortuary phases (Higham and Thosarat, 2004). people consuming large amount of marine mammals and/or fish species on the higher position of a food chain. The light reliance on non shellfish animal protein in Khok Phanom Di (possibly from near shore), as suggested by faunal analysis (Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 2004), was supported by the moderately low trophic level inferred from 15 N bone c oll signals. There was indeed evidence of sea faring activities on human skeletons (Tayles, 1999) and the accumulation of shell (Higham and Thosarat, 1994) indicated the acquisition of shellfish most likely for con sumption purpose. However, there was no evidence of animal domestication and the individual counts of faunal skeletal remains were consistently low throughout the entire Khok Phanom Di occupation (Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 2004). The appearance of small b odied deer and water buffalo skeletal remains during mortuary phases 3 and 4 corresponded with

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395 remained supplementary. When the inland sites are considered collectively, there are more differences than similarities when human dietary scenarios inferred from stable isotopic signals are concerned. The lowland sites (Non Mak La, Ban Mai Chaimongkol, Promtin Tai) do not always display similar categories of dietary regime, whi le the highland one (Ban Pong Manao) had largely its own separate dietary system. Site oriented data clustering for most of the stable isotopic signals from bones and teeth clearly indicated a highly localized sourcing for food and water. Despite the proxi mity between some sites, the diverse ecology and geology. The foodways of people were tightly intertwined with what their immediate environment had to offer. When comparing the inland sites to the coastal one in Khok Phanom Di, the latter stands out as a unique group for all the stable carbon isotopi 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap 13 C en ap ). A heavier C 3 reliant dietary system supplemented by smaller amount of terrestrial animal proteins was likely the case. The outgroup role of Khok Phanom Di in this study is well dietary signature is distinct from the inland ones, due to its differed ecological and temporal contexts. Temporal dietary diversity As mortuary evidence for a higher degree of social status differentiation increased over time in central Thailand, it is useful to examine if this social change had any impact, if so, what kind of impact, on human dietary choices and human land interaction. Here, the sites are evaluated by their chronological sequence on the inter site level. To control for geographic and ecological f actors, Khok Phanom Di is excluded

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396 from this temporal comparison due to its distinct ecological setting as a coastal site. For the inland sites, Non Mak La contains the oldest phases (ranging from the late Neolithic to the Metal Age, Voelker and Pigott, 20 12 personal communication), followed by Ban Mai Chaimongol that covered the entire Metal Age sequence (Onsuwan, 2000; Eyre, 2006), the Iron Age Promtin Tai (Lertcharnrit, 2006), and the late Iron Age Ban Pong Manao. As shown in Tables 8 1 to 8 2 and Figure s 8 2, 8 3, and 8 6, there is no apparent trend on the stable isotopic values derived from either bone or tooth enamel. Not only 13 C bone c oll 15 N bone c oll 13 C bone ap 13 C en ap from the sites fluctuate across the spectra of each stable isotope, the distributions (i.e., variation) of these isotopic values also show no obvious temporal patterns. For the stable carbon isotopic ratios derived from bones, while Non Mak La and Ban Mai Chaimongkol have 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap Ban Pong Manao data cover a 13 C spectrum. Conversely, Ban Pong Manao has the most 13 N bone c olla variation in bone carbon isotopic ratios among 13 C en ap 13 C en ap compared to the bone fractions. These data translate as people in Non Mak La and Ban Mai Chaimongkol had a similar dietary regime within its own respective context. The wider scattering of Ban Pong Manao isotopic data suggests its people may have had differential access to food categories, either by choice, by origin of residence, or by structure. Among all the chemically derived dietary indica 18 O signals from bone and enamel apatite are consistently narrowly distributed in all inland sites, even in the

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397 18 O from teeth is significantly different from all others. The lack of any temporal trend in all d ietary parameters among the inland central Thai sites prompts three possible scenarios. First, despite social change being evident in material culture, human dietary practice was either not involved or the impact on diet was not prominent enough to registe r difference on skeletal and dental tissues. It is material accumulation (in life and/or in burial) or power structure negotiation. C ollective ly people living during the l ater part of Thai prehistoric period (presumably having a more stratified social structure) did not seem to have had significant departure of dietary choices from sites occupying the earlier periods. This is echoed by the lack of an apparent trend over tim e in pathology prevalence as discussed in the first part of this chapter. The second scenario suggests that the diverse local landscape of central Thailand was the determining factor when it came to food choices and resource exploitation. The small dietary variation among most of the inland sites signifies people in each site consumed similar categories of food and shared similar water sources. This in turn portrays a dietary practice that was highly reliant on its immediate environment and locale specific. While wide spectrum in nature (in the sense of having mixed categories of food sources), it is plausible that people acquired these food sources from nearby surroundings as suggested by limited variation in stable oxygen isotopic signals (e.g., Budd et al ., 2004). As discussed in depth by various researchers (e.g., Kealhofer, 1997; Higham, 2002; White, 2011), the inherent geological and ecological diversity of

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398 and cultur al landscape (White, 2011). The combined effects of scenarios one and two on central Thai human biological diversity, which form the third scenario, cannot be ruled out. This scenario posits that if the increasing social stratification over time indeed occ dietary behavior and daily activity patterns (or in a way that was too subtle to register on heir diet (either by choice or by accessibility to resources), the strong landscape diversity among these sites seem s to have trumped any dietary discrepancies observed at the inter site level of analysis Intra site Dietary Variation When isotopic signals from each of the sites sampled are considered against demographic parameters and chronological groupings within its own context, the dietary variation becomes less pronounced on the intra site basis. Again, due to the lack of sufficient valid isotopic sig nals from Kao Sai On Noen Din samples (valid sample=1), this site is eliminated from the discussion of intra site dietary changes. Non Mak La When all the valid samples are combined regardless of time periods, there is no apparent difference in diet betwe en sexes in Non Mak La (Figures 8 7, 8 8, 8 13). Aside from one subadult bone collagen (Figure 8 7), the extent of variation (data scattering) is 13 C bone coll 13 C bone ap spectra, indicating a narrow difference in carbohydrate and protein source s between male and female individuals. The trophic level (suggested by 15 N bone coll range) and water source (suggested by 1 8 O bone ap range) variation are similarly small among the Non Mak La people, all within a range. As for early life total d iet (suggested by 1 3 C en ap ), despite a much wider

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399 scattering of data there is no significant difference between sexes. In terms of water sources, Non Mak L a females do have a very tight distribution (<1 ), suggesting their water sources may have been loc ated within close proximity or the geological characteristics where these females grew up were similar. The average values of 1 8 O en ap however, do not distinguish significant early life water source difference among males, females, and subadults. The lac k of internal variation by sex indicates that both sexes of Non Mak La people had similar access to dietary and water sources. Another possibility is that the relatively small valid sample size obstructs the detection of such variation if existed. Among a ll the individual s sampled from Non Mak La, seven (three males, two females, and two subadults) yielded valid stable isotopic ratios from the hydroxyapatite embedded in bones and tooth enamel. Bone stores dietary signals acquired during the last decade of a lifetime and tooth enamel preserves those signals acquired during early life. The stable isotopic ratios from these tissues are capable of portraying a history of dietary pattern throughout an individual s lifetime. Despite the small sample size, life hi stories from the seven Non M ak La individuals (Figures 8 15 to 8 17) suggest a relatively narrow difference of total diet and water sources between early life and the time of death, regardless of sex and age. Females seem to have had a more 1 3 C enriched to tal diet during early life than within a few years of death. Two out of the three males, conversely, appear to have a reversed dietary history from that of the females. The subadult data did not display a clear life history pattern. W ater source history, r eflected by the difference between 1 8 O en ap and 1 8 O bone ap remains largely unchanged in all seven individuals. Overall, Non Mak La people did not appear to have had

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400 migrated or changed their dietary practice/category drastically throughout lifetime. While cultural factors, such as exchan ge of societal members (e.g., marriage) and post marital residency (e.g., matrilocal vs. patrilocal), would have played a role in determining who ended up living and being buried in Non Mak La, these factors cannot be confidently addressed here based on th e available stable isotopic data. The Non Mak La burials are roughly divided into two temporal groups of Earlier and Later p preliminary chronology. When stable isotopic data are eval uated by time periods, the distribution and average of the signals derived from bone samples did not demonstrate significant dietary and water source difference s for individuals buried during the two time periods. Although there is a slight pattern of the stable carbon isotopic spectra where Earlier period individuals display more C 4 reliant protein and total diet signals than the Later Period people, the overall distribution of 1 3 C from bones is well within the range expected for a C 3 C 4 mixed diet. Dental enamel signals, on the other hand display a much clear trend of dietary difference over time Earlier p 1 3 C from tooth enamel are significantly more positive than the L ater period suggesting more C 4 contribution to total diet. This matches well with Weber and colleagues (2010) observation that millet had a much longer presence in central Thailan d and that rice was not present in site deposits until 1 st millennium B.C. While the development of Non Mak La chronological sequence is ongoing, at its present state the process of floral landscape change is properly reflected by human dietary shift. Nonetheless, the 1 3 C en ap signals do show significant C 3 plant contribution, indicating the presence and exploitation of other C 3 resources in Non Mak La landscape even prior to the

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401 introduction of rice. As demonstrated by 1 8 O signals from tooth enamel, the lack of fluct uation over time leads to the inference that people s water sources remained unchanged with the transition from Early to Late periods. With 1 3 C en ap and 1 8 O en ap signals combined, it is likely that Non Mak La witnessed a long period of in situ occupation during which people gradually incorporated newly available food sources, such as rice, into their diet while maintaining the tradition of acquiring food and water from nearby locales. Under the assumptions that central Thai social complexity, reflected in mortuary context, increased over time and that the discrepancies in social status impact ed dietary behavior it was expected that people in the Later period would have a wider variation in dietary signals, signifying differential access to and/or choices of food resources. By examining the Non Mak La data, while the distribution of 1 3 C and 1 5 N from bone samples may seem to be inconclusive, the distribution pattern of 1 3 C en ap data does not appear to meet the above expectation (Figure 8 14). Tooth enamel isotopic signals from the Earlier period people have a wider range of both 1 3 C and 1 8 O than the Later period. This in turn suggests a wider difference on diet among individuals during Earlier period, possibly due to a wider range (in the sense of either species diversity, geographic range, or the combine effect of both ) of resource procurement. The narrower dietary variation among the Later period people, on the other hand, could be a result of a more sedentary lifestyle that exploited food sources in cl ose proximity to the site. In short, while the photosynthetic category of food sources for total diet consumed during early life had a noticeable shift from more C 4 heavy to slightly C 3

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402 reliant over time in Non Mak La, indicator (dietary variation) of the impacts brought about by increased social status differentiation does not support the existence of any detectable influence of the latter to the former. As discussed previously, it is also plausible that s dietar y behavior. B an Mai Chaimongkol Due to poor preservation and high proportion of fossilized bones, only three bone samples from Ban Mai Chaimongkol yielded valid stable isotopic signals. They represent one male, female, and s 1 3 C signals from bone collagen and apatite are distributed in close ranges, indicating similar sources of protein and total diet shared by these individuals. There is also no marked difference in terms of trophic level and water sources. Base d on these limited representations, Ban Mai Chaimongkol people did not seem to have practiced an apparent dietary segregation toward s sex or age groups. The small sample size from bones prevents a more in depth understanding diet during the later portion of their lives. Fortunately, isotopic data from a total of 23 tooth enamel samples shed light on early lifetime dietary and water source for people who were inte rred in Ban Mai Chaimongkol As shown in Figure 8 20, most of th 1 3 C 18 O spectra with no significant difference in average among sexes and maturity stages. The tightly clustered data points from these individuals support the interpretation that Ban Mai Chaimongkol people had narrow and homogeneous diet and water sources both during childhood/early teenage years and during the last years of their lives. This lack of noticeable change in diet and water source is also evident in individual life history (Figure 8 22). The most marked dietary discrepancy between early and late

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403 1 3 C spectrum, a range that does not constitute to distinct shift of dietary sources. Onsuwan (2000) and Eyre (2006) divide Ban Mai Chaimongkol chronology into to Onsuwan and periods are distinguished to best categorize the relationship among the burials and their associated material culture. To increase the statistical power and better delineate the potenti al impact of increased social stratification on human diet, these sub periods are combined and only the groupings of the Bronze and the Iron Age are used when interpreting the isotopic data derived from tooth enamel. Shown in Figure 8 21, there is again no statistically significant difference in terms of dietary and water sources between individuals from the Bronze Age and those from 1 3 C spectrum seems to be wider than those derived from the Br suggests that the wider range of data distribution is caused by a few outliers that clearly do not belong to the main cluster. When the outliers are excluded from the analysis, the majority of the Ban Mai Chaimon 1 3 C 18 O axes with no clear division of data by time period. Toward s the later period of Ban Mai Chaimongkol occupation, the diversity of ceramic tradition in the region did appear to be elevated based on archaeological survey. However, the demarcation of ceramic subregions remained largely unchanged, despite increasing regional integration, enlarged trade network, and the possibility of population movement from upland to lowland (Eyre, 2006: vii). This signifies the strong inertia of site/subregion

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404 specific characteristics over time Very similar to Non Mak La the socio cultural change over time as reflected in site deposit and material remains, was not manifest on the aspect of human biology (both pat hology and diet). Also similar to other central Thai sites, a highly locale specific dietary regime was shared by people throughout the entire occupation of the site regardless of time sequence. This then prompts the inference that Ban Mai Chaimongkol peop le largely utilized resources available in close proximity to the settlement. Promtin Tai With repeated efforts, it is unfortunate that valid stable isotopic ratios from bone collagen and apatite could not be retrieved from Promtin Tai bone samples. As com pensation, it was ensured that each burial with dental elements preserved was sampled in order to maintain population representation of the Promtin Tai people. Figure 8 23 a nd summary statistics (Table 8 13 ) (excluding Burial #2 due to provenience and its a pparent outlier role) demonstrate that the photosynthetic category of total diet food sources and water sources did not differ significantly between sexes. 1 3 C en ap distribution compared to the males the difference does not constitute a realistic dietary discrepancy 1 3 C distribution is well within the data range of narrow ran 18 1 8 O signals is either well under or sources by the Promtin Tai people as a whole and/or if some form of residency movement did occur, those eventually buried in Promtin Tai migrated from areas where 18 O profiles to the Promtin Tai

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405 ones. The fact that subadult data fall in the midst of adult data distribution indicates that th ose who died young in Promtin Tai consumed similar food and water sources to those who lived until adulthood. This further complicates the attempt to delineate whether a subgroup (by sex, for example) of people buried at Promtin Tai was a result of factors such as post marital change of residency (e.g., Bentley et al., 2005, 2007) or postmortem movement of bodies. As an Iron Age site, Promtin Tai is divided into Early and Late periods based on ceramic typology and overall stratigraphy (see Chapter 3). Possi bly due to small sample size for the 1 3 18 O signals is much smaller 8 24). When the Early Iron Age period is considered as a group (N=9), the variation of 1 3 1 3 C signals from both time periods signifies that people buried at Promtin Tai shared a similarly C 3 C 4 mixed total diet during ename l formation period and that there is no significant departure of dietary variation over time as the non biological aspect of their lives may have been subjected to socio cultural changes associated with social complexity increase. As of possible water sour ces, there is again a narrow range of 18 O en ap the Late Iron Age individuals. This is in keeping with what has been the case in previously discussed sites that Promtin Tai individuals present a strong site oriented clustering of data in dicating a shared dietary regime and perhaps 18 O distribution of Promtin Tai people, however, does not necessary conclude to the lack of population movement across the landscape. It simply suggests the water bodies from which the people found

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406 at Promtin Tai consumed share similar geological characteristics that resulted in low amount of variation in stable oxygen isotopic ratios. Ban Pong Manao Ban Pong Manao is a large late Iron Age site with an occupa tion spanning for about 200 years (see site overview in Chapter 3). While the material goods are abundant, there is no distinct separation in either material feature or stratigraphy that warrants further division of subgroups. Although the potential dietar y change over time and along the process of social status differentiation may not be assessed at this site, its superb preservation of biological remains granted a wealth of stable isotopic data that are invaluable in understanding intra site dietary varia tion with respect to demographic parameters. As shown in Figure 8 25 and Table s 8 14 to 8 16 while all individuals appear to have had consumed a mixture of C 3 C 4 protein resources, there seems to be a division 1 3 C bone coll distribution between males and females. Data from males (excluding the 1 3 C signals) aggregate toward s the more 1 3 C spectrum, indicating a slightly higher reliance on C 4 protein. Conversely, data from females (other than one being in the midst of male data cluster) 1 3 C bone c oll The female data suggest a slightly higher reliance on C 3 protein sources and that most females from Ban Pong Manao shared very similar category of dietary protein. The difference between average 1 3 C bone c oll signals, however, is not statistically significant (p= 0.07). While approachin g statistical significance, it remains difficult to confidently posit whether a rigid sexually divided differential access to dietary protein indeed existed or it is a result of random sampling. When trophic level is considered, there is a three tiered

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407 div is 15 N bone c oll signals. The two males who yielded the most C 3 leaning protein signals also have the highest trophic level among all other Ban Pong Manao 15 N bone c oll cluster seems to represent the trophic level fo r the majority of Ban Pong Manao population. Individuals in this group share essentially 15 N bone c oll signals and the demography is consisted of both sexes. The lowest 15 N bone c oll includes 50% of the females sampled from Ban Pong Manao (N=6) and one male. Despite the visual patterning, there is no significant difference between sexes on trophic position. The fact that 72% (18/25) of the Ban Pong Manao samples wise similarity of faunal protein consumption regime. As discussed in the section of inter site variation, the hydro x yapatite from Ban Pong Manao bone samples collectively portrays a C 4 heavy total diet while mixed with some amount of C 3 food sources. The amount of variation, however, is higher on the 13 C bone ap 18 O bone ap distribution. The Ban Pong Manao total diet at the last years of their lifetime varied greatly from a distinct and almost solely C 4 diet to a heavy mixture of C 3 an d C 4 food sources. Again, likely due to 13 C bone ap data. The wide 13 C bone ap indicates a wide spec trum dietary regime shared by Ban Pong Manao people with no restricted access against either sex. The wide variation among 13 C bone ap 18 O bone ap The majority of Ban Pong Manao 18 O bone ap signals th

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408 consumption of either same water sources or waters with similar geologic characteristics. When sex difference of Ban Pong Manao diet is examined in light of photosynthetic pathway categories between protein and non protein foods (Figure 8 27), males have a more monoisotopic diet than females. While the difference between sexes is not significant, females collectively may have had a mixture of heavier C 3 oriented animal protein and C 4 based total diet. This interpretation is partially supported 13 C bone c oll (Figure 8 3 C 4 mixture 3 leaning protein regime. s the C 3 end of the spectrum while still possessed a highly C 3 C 4 mixed energy characteristics. The nergy sources derived from bone apatite (2007) model may be attributed to the influence of the lipid content associated with the C 3 protein sources. While carbohydrates do supply the majority of energy and lip ids are usually biased against from contributing to collagen synthesis (Ambrose and Norr, 1993; Post et al., 2007), lipids do act as back up energy sources and can be converted into energy to maintain body metabolism. The stable isotopic ratios derived fro m Ban Pong Manao tooth enamel apatite display a similar variation pattern to those from bone apatite samples (Figure 8 29). When excluding the 13 C en ap 18 O en ap signals are outside of the 13 C en ap 13 O en

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409 ap 13 C en ap data also indicates a C 3 C 4 mixed diet with a slightly higher reliance on C 4 food sources. The photosynthetic categories of Ban Pong consumed during later life time. While the categorical similarity does not imply same food s ources and mixture, it does imply a limited selection of food sources from which 13 C bone ap signals, suggesting unrestricted access to similar food sources. As 18 O en ap 18 O bone ap Again, Ban Pong Manao males and females show no significant difference in their water source geologic composition. While cultural factors affecting demographic paramete rs such as post marital residence and postmortem return of the remains to natal group are currently unknown for Ban Pong Manao, the origins where the relocation (into Ban Pong Manao) took place may not be geographically distant and/or geologically distinct It further implies that a relatively narrow range of population exchange, if existed, was the case. This inference is strongly supported by the lack of noticeable change on isotopic life history (Figure 8 30). It is worth noting that despite having a hig h intrasite variation of total diet, Ban Pong Manao individuals collectively display a very different food source profile compared to other sites studied in this research (Figures 8 2 and 8 3). It is particularly important to stress that the high intrasite variation as evident in Ban Pong Manao still did not surpass the strong site specific clustering pattern consistent throughout all the sites studied.

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410 Khok Phanom Di As an outgroup for the purpose of this study, Khok Phanom Di provides distinct temporal a nd geographic contexts from those of the Metal Age central Thai sites. Spanning for about 400 years, Khok Phanom Di occupation experienced drastic environmental and ecological fluctuation which was reflected by change of faunal/floral remains, human burial groupings, ceramic stylistics, and skeletal markers, among others (Higham and Thosarat, 1994, 2004). Before the potential impact of environmental change on human dietary pattern is discussed, it is important to evaluate the stable isotopic ratio data betw een sex groups to understand if cultural factors played Khok Phanom Di has yielded direct evidence of rice (a C 3 plant) consumption by human at least during parts of its occupation (Higham and Thosarat 2004). Its coastally located geography and shellfish remains prompt the assumption that people would have incorporated marine resources into their diet. C 4 plants, on the other hand, have not been documented to be common at Khok Phanom Di proper (tempora l and geographical) (Mudar, 1995; Bentley et al., 2007). Following the reference ecological baseline cited in a previous study on Khok Phanom Di human tooth enamel by Bentley et al. (2007, more details below), it is estimated that a pure C 3 diet would have 13 C at 13 C on modern rice in northeast Thailand by King, 2006 and the food 13 C bone c oll at (based on the marine baseline at the Marianas Archipelago reported in Amrbose et al., 1997).

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411 13 C bone c oll signals as a whole indicate a C 3 13 C data (F igure 8 31), one aggregates toward s a more positive end and other clusters more 13 C spectrum. Upon detailed examination of the demographic distribution of these groups, there are slightly more females in the more C 3 leaning group than males. The majority of males sampled (12/14), on the other hand, group tightly around the more highly C 3 13 C spectrum. The difference in sex 13 C between ma les and females. It remains unclear as of why Khok Phanom Di females had slightly higher reliance on C 3 inference that some females may have migrated into Khok Phanom Di from other locales during the m iddle part of the occupation was the case, it could explain some of bone samples that constantly remodeled, depending on the duration between migration and death of these 13 C signals may not have been preserved. In terms of trophic level, if the faunal baseline from Mariana Archipelago (Ambrose et al., 1997: 352, Figure 1) is to be referred again here an d one trophic level roughly equates to a 3 15 N 15 Di individuals indicates that land plants and mammals may have been their major protein sources. Larger marine a 15

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412 Phanom Di people may not ha ve had consumed a high proportion of large marine animal protein. The step 13 15 13 C increase per trophic level (Fry and Sherr, 1984; Schoeninger, 1985) may not have impacted 13 C distribution much si nce the trophic level is not particularly high. Site 15 15 N signals than the females, although the sexual 15 N is not significant. The overall dietary protein sources for Khok Phanom Di people seem to adhere to the pattern of a C 3 marine mixed regime. Unlike the presence of sexually differentiated protein sources, Khok Phanom Di 13 C bone ap has a compacted and pattern less nature (Figure 8 13 C by sex. Using the same references mentioned abov e, Bentley and colleagues (2007) estimate a pure C 3 13 C signal from enamel and bone carbonate at 13 C apatite at 3 marine mixed total diet re gime, with a very slight lean on C 3 food categories. Similar to diet, the people seem to 18 O bone ap ) or consumed water with similar geologic characteristics. egories, the sexually 13 C bone c oll distribution is illustrated in Figure 8 33 when the spacing between total diet and protein is analyzed. Although not significant, females do have an average 13 C ap coll

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413 3 carbohydrates and marine proteins (Ambrose et al., 1997), Khok Phanom Di m characterized in this manner. It needs to be stressed that the distance between either the female or male average 13 C ap c oll 13 C bone c oll 13 C bone ap signals have suggested a clear C 3 marine mixed diet, any shift of the C 3 marine combination could have influenced 13 C ap coll Therefore, while a slightly different dietary pattern may have existed between males and females, the diet of the Khok Phanom Di people remains wide spectrum and fairly similar. The highly C 3 marine mixed diet in both energy and protein categories is again demonstrated when Khok Pha (2007) model (Figure 8 34). As discussed previously, despite its coastally located geography, Khok Phanom Di collectively does not have a particularly high tro ph ic level compared to other inland central T hai sites. The aggregation of Khok Phanom Di data recovery of terrestrial faunal bones in Khok Phanom Di deposits (Higham and Thosarat, 1994) both point to the possibilit near shore and/or mangrove settings where small fish and shellfish were the most likely food items when the accessibility to the sea was unobstructed and freshwater shellfish during the freshwater phase (see below). Since the ecological change during Khok Phanom Di occupation is well documented (Higham and Thosarat, 2004), the effects of sea level fluctuation and changing accessibility to different resources on human diet are of particular interest.

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414 The s even mort uary phases are grouped into two major ecological categories, estuarine coastal/mangrove and freshwater lacustrine conditions (terms after Bentley et 13 C bone c oll between the two ecological phases do not vary significantl y, the distribution of the data does differ bet ween phases. Figures 8 35 36 clearly show that people buried during the relatively brief freshwater lacustrine phase had a wider protein and total diet variation than those buried during the estuarine coastal/ mangrove phase. This could be explained that with easier access to the interior terrestrial resources during the freshwater lacustrine phase, the range of food available to the Khok Phanom Di people increased. The shift from a more estuarine/coastal enviro nment to a more freshwater setting does not necessarily mean absolute obstruction of accessibility to marine/mangrove resources, albeit more difficult and requiring higher energy and time investment. The expansion of dietary selection indicated by stable i s otopic signals is supported by the changing species distribution of faunal remains found within the freshwater lacustrine phase stratigraphy. Among them, freshwater shellfish remains increased while the mangrove shellfish species decreased both in diversit y and quantity (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). The isotopic categories of terrestrial plants and animals could vary depending on their photosynthetic pathways The heigh tened variation of dietary protein sources is accompanied by the wider range 13 C bone ap ) in general for the freshwater lacustrine phase people. The inference of a wide spectrum dietary pattern for the freshwater lacustrine phase people is s upported by the distribution of 13 C ap coll about the monoisotopic line of 37). Data from those buried during the freshwater lacustrine phase

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415 fluctuated wider on the 13 C ap coll spectrum at either side of the monoisotopic threshold, indicati ng an increased array of C 3 marine mixture for protein and carbohydrate sources. For the majority of people lived during the estuarine coastal/mangrove phase, conversely, their 13 C ap coll pe 3 carbohydrate and marine protein diet. This observation suggests a narrower range of mixture in terms of the isotopic categories of food sources. The accessibility to marine food resources, es pecially protein sources, indeed was not entirely diminished during the freshwater lacustrine phase as people from both environmental settings show similar distribution of 13 C bone c oll data near the marine protein line and some leaning toward s the C 3 prot ein 38). However, despite archaeological record demonstrated the presence and consumption of rice during the freshwater lacustrine phase (Higham and Thosarat, 1994), Khok Phanom Di people who lived du ring this phase did not display a particularly C 3 leaning diet for energy. In fact, the two ecological phases have similar isotopic distributions for energy sources. This is particularly intriguing since phytolith and entomological analyses on biological r emains from Khok Phanom Di, combined with typological studies on the recovered agricultural tools, indicate that rice was not only being cultivated in situ it was also stored in large quantities (Higham and Thosarat, 1994). The relationship between rice a As a large late Neolithic site in coastal central Thailand, tooth enamel of Khok Phanom Di individuals has been sampled by Bentley and colleagues (2007) in order to investigate the socio cul tural aspects, such as post marital residency and human

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416 mobility, of the Khok Phanom Di people via heavy and light stable isotope analyses. In their study, stable carbon and oxygen isotopic data are reported. To expand the understanding of Khok Phanom Di p aleodiet and dietary life history in current study, 18 O (rationale and method des cribed in Chapter 7) (Table 8 22 Figures 8 39 and 8 40). Very similar to bone apatite data, there is no statistically significant difference on 13 C en ap between males and females. Bentley and colleagues (2007) do notice that there might have been a subtle difference in diet between sexes during mortuary phas e 4. They associate the dietary difference with differential burial treatment between sexes during and after this period. Using the same estimates for a pure C 3 13 C = distribution to the C 3 13 C spectrum compared to bone apatite, while still demonstrate an small extent of marine resource mixture. Considering tooth enamel is migrated into Khok Phanom Di from other locales where they consumed rice products during childhood and/or early teenage years. Or, if the individuals were raised at Khok Phanom Di (i.e., local to the site), rice products may have been incorporated into bo th 18 O from males 18 O map of the Gulf of Thailand and central Thailand, it is not easy to identify the origins of the people who were buried at Khok Phanom Di, as waves of sexually distinct immigration were recognized in

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417 13 18 O from tooth enamel are plotted by ecological conditions (or grouped mortuary phases), there is again no clear pattern of difference between 13 18 O, and strontium isotopic signatures ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) are extracted from Khok Phanom Di tooth enamel. They demonstrate a very distinct change of female tooth enamel chemistry. Dur ing mortuary phases (MP) 1 3, 87 Sr/ 86 18 O signals of the females show a non local signature, indicating a possible patrilocal post marital residency system. This practice changed drastically as soon as it entered MP 4 and persisted until the end of Khok Phanom Di occupation. Females buried during these later mortuary phases all signature, suggesting a possible shift from a patrilocal to matrilocal po st marital residency system. The shift of cultural practice was suggested previously by Higham and Thosarat (1994) based on changing ceramic stylistics and differential mortuary practice by sex. Several hypotheses regarding the change of this kinship/post marital practice are discussed by Bentley et al. (2007), although it is yet to be clarified on the origins of the immigrants from elsewhere and on the factors prompting the society change in association with the development of agriculture. With Bentley and marital residency system starting in MP4, the results of life history analysis are particularly interesting (Figures 8 41 and 8 42). Almost all individuals (N = 22) with bone and tooth sampled have more n 13 18 O signals during early life lime 18 O between earlier 18 O bone ap 18 O en ap

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418 variation. This pattern has not been observed previously in other sites discussed thus 18 O in a life time is an artifact of reference standard conversion from SMOW used in Bentley et al. (2007) to PDB used throughout current stu dy. With this in mind, there is no significant difference between sexes regarding the average and distribution of the life long isotopic change. When isotope life history is evaluated by mortuary phases and ecological conditions, there are two patterns tha t warrant further discussion. First, the wider dietary variation for people buried during the freshwater lacustrine ecological phase as noted previously is again apparent in life history analysis. These people not only had varied diet among individuals, th ey each also experienced a more pronounced dietary change between earlier and later life time. It seems to be the case that they had a more C 3 oriented total diet during enamel formation period and switched to a higher portion of marine food sources later in life. This could be explained that as one became older and more mobile, the wide range of terrestrial food resources available due to the fluctuation of sea level and change of Bang Pakong River route diet from another. Second, based on strontium range), a drastic change of pattern compared to p revious phases. To explain local to local at this juncture, aside from changing structure of kinship and/or post marital residency, the possibility that the females had always been migrating into Khok Phan om Di from other locales was discussed. They postulate that the females might have always been the group to move

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419 to Khok Phanom Di and that it was the locales from which the females migrated that changed. The females could have moved from inland central Th ailand during MP 1 to 3, producing detectable isotopic variation due to difference of the distance between the locale and the coast. Starting from MP 4 and onward, the geographical origins of immigrant females might have changed from inland locales to coas tal ones. Since the sea water has an averaging effect on strontium signature, the locale difference became difficult, if not impossible, to detect isotopically. The difference between earl ier and later life time for MP4 MP6 people as a whole is m uch wider than those during MP1 3. For MP4 6 females, it is clear that they have as wide a difference between earlier and later life time as the males. It is highly likely that females could indeed come from other coastal places with slightly different diet. If the lifelong shift of stable oxygen isotope signal is indeed valid, then it would serve as an indicator of locale change between earlier and later life. Of course, it is certainly possible that the dietary change for these females during later life time was a result of self determined dietary choice to prefer a more marine based diet. Biological and Cultural Diversity in Central Thailand This chapter presents a discussion focused on the results of paleopathological observation and stable isotopic analyses in co njunction with archaeological and ecological contexts to assess the biological implication of socio cultural change over time and space across the region of central Thailand. To briefly summarize, as the extent of social stratification increased over time during the Metal Age in central Thailand, the impact of perceived social change, if any, did not manifest on human skeletal remains as pathological conditions or change of growth patterns. The hypothesis that heightened social stratification over time woul d increase the variation of

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420 pathological prevalence within a site and among sites in chronological order is not supported by the current data analyzed in this dissertation. Nonetheless, human skeletal remains from all inland central Thai sites share one co mmon characteristic -prevalence of skeletal pathological conditions is extremely low, compared to other Mainland Southeast Asian sites, both by area and by temporal sequence. This finding is consistent with the prevailing results from other prehistoric ske letal remains in Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam (e.g., Oxenham and Tayles, 2006). Furthermore, while prehistoric Mainland Southeast Asian populations in general tend to have low prevalence of pathology, this is particularly pronounced among the central Th ai sites studied here. This finding suggests that these central Thai people during the Metal Age had a baseline of good health with minimal fluctuation around the baseline over time The process of social change did not impact human skeletal health in any detectable form. Although the demonstration of wealth in some later period burials observed at central Thai sites is considered an indicator of social status difference, the inclusion of these individuals into the analyzed sample did not result in signific ant change of pathology prevalence and variability. Social change may not have had a direct biological impact on the human skeleton in this central Thai Metal Age context. The fact that human skeletal remains from all inland central Thai sites studied exhi bited very low prevalence of pathologies with slight fluctuation over time deserves closer inspection. As demonstrated in numerous New World examples, human skeletal health experienced marked changes during transitional periods such as the adoption of stap le crops (e.g., maize), agriculture intensification, population growth, increased social complexity, urbanization, and contact and colonization (e.g., Cohen and Armelagos,

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421 1984; Steckle and Rose, 2002). These processes played a transformative role shaping and changing not only the socio cultural context at different stages but also the biological aspect of human lifeways. One common characteristic of these processes is their adverse impact on human health. For example, large scale maize cultivation and depe ndence on this resource as a staple crop led to severe deterioration of dental and skeletal health. A limited range of dietary options (a narrow dietary spectrum) compared to a broad spectrum hunting gathering subsistence, and the imbalanced nutritional in take with maize as a staple crop are well articulated explanations to large scale health deterioration in certain contexts (Cohen and Armelagos, 1984; Larsen, 2002). While intensified maize agriculture and food surplus/accumulation facilitated a suite of c ultural advancements in the Americas, the consequences were not all favorable. Population growth and increased population density led to settlement expansion and possibly conflicts with neighboring groups in competition for territory and resources. People experienced poor skeletal health not only due to activity pattern and dietary change, but also due to increased interpersonal violence, reflected by elevated trauma prevalence on skeletal remains. Increased sedentism tends to adversely impact settlement hy giene and can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases. Reduced lifespan, heightened infant mortality, and shorter stature are often associated with transition from broader spectrum diet to a narrower, grain based regime (Cohen and Armelagos, 1984; Lar sen, 2002). Human skeletal health in the Americas seems to have followed an increasingly deteriorative path in the course of its prehistory. The lack of marked changes in skeletal health, be it deterioration or improvement, during a transitional period suc h as the Metal Age in Thailand is in stark

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422 contrast with patterns of transition in the Americas (e.g., Cohen and Armelagos, 1984; Steckel and Rose, 2002). Prior to the compilation of the Bioarchaeology of Southeast Asia volume (Oxenham and Tayles, 2006), r esults from the few large scale bioarchaeological studies in Mainland Southeast Asia had suggested that human biological change did not follow the deteriorative path similar to the Western experience though time, especially with respect to associated agric ultural intensification (e.g., Tayles, 1992; Oxenham, 2000; Domett, 2001; Pietrusewsky and Douglas, 2002 a ). While prevalence of infectious diseases did increase over time (Tayles and Buckley, 2004; Oxenham et al., 2005), overall health did not appear to ha ve declined significantly (Tayles and Oxenham, 2006:20). Tayles and Oxenham (2006: 21) suggest that the tropical environment within which most of the Mainland Southeast Asian sites are situated provided a wide array of rapidly growing/replenishing nutrient rich foods readily available to the people. While the introduction and intensification of rice agriculture indeed took place in the region, rice does not seem to have been heavily relied upon. Continuous hunting/fishing and gathering was likely the means to maintain a balance diet. The diverse environment across Mainland Southeast Asia and the maintenance of a broad spectrum patterned subsistence were likely the key factors contributing to the stability of population well being. The contexts of the bioarch aeological studies complied in the 2006 volume (Oxenham and Tayles, 2006) and those published thus far on prehistoric Mainland Quebral, 2010; Oxenham et al., 2011) range greatly in time, locat ion/region, subsistence, and social complexity. Albeit some paleohealth changes are visible such as the particularly high

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423 prevalence of dental pathology and infectious diseases in early northern Vietnam (Oxenham et al., 2011) and the sexually differentiate d health trends observed at Non Nok Tha in northeast Thailand (Douglas, 2006), the scenario of relatively good and stable overall paleohealth is a recurrent observation. However, the lack of sizable change or easily delineated pattern in skeletal health am ong prehistoric Southeast Asian populations does not diminish the ability of skeletal remains in recording prominent transitions in subsistence and social structure. Human skeletal pathologies reflect the composite effects of multiple aspects of human envi ronment interaction. The impact of the introduction and intensification of rice agriculture on human skeletal health in prehistoric Thailand may be subtle. But the overarching and inherent influence of the environment cannot be discounted. The results of t he current study lend further support to this pattern of human paleohea lth observed f or Mainland Southeast Asia. The demographic structure of the central Thai people suggests a broadly comparable life expectancy and mortality rate. The low prevalence of in fectious disease, trauma, developmental arrests, and dental disease all point to good overall health of the populations in Metal Age central Thailand. The possibility of the reconstructed prehistoric central Thai population health falling within the osteol ogical paradox (Wood et al., 1992) may be ruled out since multiple health indicators and demographic structures were assessed and the biocultural contexts were thoroughly considered (Goodma n, 1993). The Metal Age in Thailand was transformative, linking the Neolithic and the historic periods, th at witnessed marked social change towards its later part. It is possible that social status, inferred from associated mortuary wealth, did not impact biological aspects of most individuals during

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424 the Metal Age. The la ck of variation and pattern in skeletal health could indicate that the presumed status difference did not greatly influence the daily activities of individuals and/or alter their risk of exposure to pathogens, physiological stressors, or other insults. Goo d overall was likely maintained by the availability of a wide array of food sources characteristic of the tropical area (Tayles and Oxenham, 2006). The wealth of dietary resources in th e region and the especially diverse environments in central Thailand se em to have transcended or mitigated the impact, if any, of social complexity change during Metal Age. In terms of dietary behavior as inferred from stable isotopic analysis a similar phenome non is observed in w hich no significant dietary change over time both during a site) and among sites in chronological sequence (inter site). When the scattering (variation) of the isotop ic data was evaluated, the degree of intra site variation is much smaller than inter site variation. Bo ne chemistry data do not support the hypothesis that dietary variation within a site would increas e in the context of changing (increased) social complexity. The se results are consistent with paleopathological observation s that social complexity change s in central Thailand did not direct ly impact dietary choice and dietary related patterns that might have differed by social positi on. The lack of dietary change over time within a site indicates either the accessibility to food resources were not restricted t o certain social groups or if the food resources were indeed allocated by differential access to high quality food (e.g., cut of meat, first harvest, food processing techniques, food with symbolic meaning), the isotopic categories of local food resources r emained very similar. S ince the inter site variation is clearly observed and consistent, this suggests th at the Metal Age central

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425 Thai people had a dietary regime specific to each occupation locale. The strong locale specific dietary pattern is best explai ned by the inherent biological ( and cultural ) diversity of central Thailand that is ultimately associated with its ecological diversity (Higham, 2002; White, 2011). T here are currently two major views explaining the cultural diversity of Mainland Southeast Asia. One holds that the diverse cultural landscape is a recent phenomenon brought about by the introduction of rice cultivation and its associated Neolithic cultural suite (e.g., Bellwood, 2005; Higham et al., 2011). An alternative view, recently present ed by White (2011), posits that Mainland Southeast Asia has deep rooted cultural diversity traceable back to the first modern humans in the region during the late Pleistocene. Following th is latter view, the inherent and distinct regional diversity would h ave had a stronger inertia when faced with myriad pressures associated with the introduction /adoption of rice based patterns of food production Therefore, Mainland throu gh the process of subsistence transition from hunting and gathering to predominantly agriculture (White, 2011: 10). While White centers her discussion mainly on the time periods prior to the Metal Age, she also addresses the technological diversity, most l ikely associated with ecological and cultural diversity, observed across Mainland Southeast Asia and particularly, within central Thailand during the Metal Age. r the Metal Age (2,000 B.C. A.D. 500 ; e.g., White and Hamilton, 2009; White, 2011) contrasts with Higham and date (~1,050 B.C. A.D. 500; e.g., Higham and Higham, 2009). Central Thailand, especially east of the Chao Phraya River basin, harbored several ceramic subregions

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426 (Eyre, 2006, 20 10) during the s and technology settlements. Interestingly, some decoration treatment (in cised and impressed) on the ceramics was shared by these technologically diverse ceramic subgroups. White (2011) further explores the diversity of subsistence during the early Metal Age in the northeast (rice agriculture at Ban Chiang, White, 1995b), inlan d central (millet cultivation, Non Pa Wai, Weber et al., 2010), and coastal central Thailand (marine adaptation, Khok Phanom Di, Higham and Thosarat, 2004). She argues that the co existence of these subsistence systems during the early Metal Age is reflect ive of the inherent ecological variation in Thailand (and Mainland Southeast Asia as a whole) and that the introduction and spread of rice cultivation was intercepted by local ecological variation, resulting in differential distribution of (wet) rice prese nce on the landscape. While some of the sites included in the current study are from later chronological context, the stable isotop e data reported in this study suggest that people within a site shared a site s dietary isotopic composition is distinct from one another. The observation of similar aspects of the complexity indicates that people represented by these sites had degrees of contact and perhaps a continuous site specific pattern over time. F ood and water sources were undoubtedly

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427 (2011) proposition that the heterogeneity of ecological characteristics among sites fluence of rice cultivation certainly became prominent as the temporal sequence shifted from early to l ate Metal Age, as evident in the presence of rice harvesting tools in mortuary context, human diet d oes not seem to have change d drastically over time. T he mixture of C 3 and C 4 foods and a maintained broad spectrum diet in central Thai land over time is consistent across the varied landscape of the region Socio cultural change, increased social complexity and social status differentiation in this case, do not seem to have alter ed human dietary choice as inferred from stable isotopic analysis The equally unchanged prevalence of paleopathologies within each inland central Thai site over time further supports the possibility of a strong biological inertia tha t facilitated in maintaining the well being of the central Thai people while their communities were undergoin g the process of social change.

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428 CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION This dissertation aims to understand the impact of social change on human skeletal health an d dietary behavior during the Metal Age in central Thailand. Social status differentiation did not become apparent in mortuary context until the beginning of the Iron Age (~500 B.C. or later), although status symbols such as bronze ornaments have been foun d associated with Bronze Age burials (Higham, 2002; Higham and Thosarat, 2012). Human skeletal remains document most directly markers of health and dietary behavior change. It was hypothesized that through time the impact of social change would result in h eightened variability in skeletal pathology and dietary behavior, based on the notion that people of different social status would participate in daily tasks and use dietary resources differently (Goodman, 1998). To operationalize hypothesis testing, chang e of skeletal and dental pathology prevalence was assessed chronologically at both intra and inter site levels of analysis. Variation of dietary behavior, inferred from bone collagen, bone apatite, and tooth enamel apatite, was evaluated in the same manne r. Human skeletal remains from six archaeological sites ranging from the late Neolithic to early historic pe riod from central Thailand were incorporated. Among them, Khok Phanom Di, a large scale Neolithic coastal site, served as an outgroup to the inland central Thai sites. Human skeletal remains from all inland central Thai sites exhibited consistently low prevalence of skeletal and dental pathologies with little fluctuation through time. The demographic structures and healthy appearance of skeletal rema ins are on par with other contemporary sites in Mainland Southeast Asia. In fact, skeletons from the five inland central Thai sites studied here are among the least pathological assemblages in

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429 the region. Insignificant amount of intra and inter site chang e in stature and pathology prevalence through time among the inland central Thai sites indicates a strong inertia of skeletal health, which in turn does not support the hypothesis that increasing social stratification during the later part of the Metal Age would impact human skeletal health. In terms of diet, stable isotopic signals from all inland central Thai sites indicated people consumed varied degrees of C 3 and C 4 mixed foodstuffs. The tendency to have a slightly heavier C 3 or C 4 dietary composition g enerally matche d the expectations inferred from local ecology and faunal baseline. There was no significant shift in the overall C 3 and C 4 mixed dietary pattern and the variability of individual diet chronologically. Instead, skeletal samples from each inl and site exhibited consistently strong locale specific dietary signatures that clustered d istinctively from one another. The hypothesis that heightened dietary variability would be associated with higher level of social differentiation in central Thailand was not supported by the stable isotopic data. explain the consistently good overall skeletal health, locale specific dietary signals, and the lack of patterns of paleohealth and dietary behavior along the process of increasing social complexity in the Metal Age. Tropical regions often sustain a rapidly growing and diverse ecosystem that widens the spectrum of human food sources (Tayles and Oxenham, 2006). The availability of n utritious foods and high level of food diversity were most likely the leading causes of lower prevalence of growth arrest and nutritional defects observed in central Thailand. As human health is significantly affected by diet, the well balanced diet availa ble in across the central Thai tropical environment provided a solid base for good skeletal health.

PAGE 430

430 On the other hand, the landscape of central Thailand encompasses flat and flood prone areas in the west and dryer and higher undulating terrain in the east. Covered by dense tropical vegetation in prehistory, the waterways weaved through these areas could serve as arteries for interaction or could sometimes become geographic barriers. While a certain extent of trade network was established by the Metal Age, t he degree and intensity of interaction remains unclear. While absolute isolation was unlikely, the existence of the ceramic subregions in central Thailand (Eyre, 2006) points to the possibility that the settlements maintained some extent of identity, which in turn suggests that inter site interaction likely occurred in a reserved manner. If this was the case, the controlled/limited interaction with other groups would reduce the exposure to infectious diseases/pathogens and the risk of conflict, thus account ing for the low prevalence of infectious diseases and trauma observed on skeletal remains from the central Thai skeletal assemblages. Furthermore, Metal Age central Thai sites tend to be small in scale, although population growth became evident towards th e later part of the Iron Age (Higham, 2002; Eyre, 2006). Small scale settlements could indicate the presence of areas among sites with few human dwellings. These areas could act as buffer zones that further reduced the risk of territorial and/or resource c ompetition (i.e., conflicts). On the site level, the presence of small scale sites with buffer zones to spare could also indicate that overcrowding was not a concern impeding site hygiene. The combined results of a balanced diet and limited exposure to ris k factors are likely to have contributed to the satisfactory skeletal health among Metal Age central Thai sites.

PAGE 431

431 In addition to skeletal health, ecological and geological diversity of central Thai also provided a basis for the highly locale specific human dietary signals detected in this study. Metal Age central Thai people largely limited their food sources to their immediate surroundings. Therefore, the dietary signal from each site was distinctively different from one another. However, the range of food items/species was generally diverse with respect to individual diet, despite the establishment of grain (rice or millet) cultivation. The locale specific yet broad spectrum human dietary behavior is consistent with the inference of small scale inter site interaction and the good skeletal health due to a diverse and balanced diet. Social status differentiation, as a cultural process, was likely a phenomenon being gradually transmitted among and assimilated into communities in the central Thai region through time. Again, the diverse physical landscape may have acted as an uneven filter resulting in the less prominent display of social status differentiation in many small scale sites. If social status differentiation in central Thailand did have consequences i n differential assess to food and division of labor, it is possible that the good baseline health and the benefits of a broad spectrum diet precluded potential impacts of the socio cultural process on human biology. In short, environmental diversity in cen tral Thailand during the Metal Age had a sustained influence on human behavior and diet that made skeletally visible changes minimal. Mainland Southeast Asian prehistory, in terms of culture history, has been largely built upon the excavations conducted at sites in Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia. With more excavations and analyses being conducted in previously less explored areas such as Laos and Myanmar, in vestigations and syntheses on issues related to

PAGE 432

432 horticulture/agriculture, social complexity, populat ion movement, and exchange will complement what is currently known. How human biology responded to socio cultural changes brought about by more frequent and different patterns of contact against a dynamic ecological and cultural landscape warrants further research. While this study attempts a biological synthesis for the region of central Thailand, incorporating data from a wider array of sites from varied geographic are as and temporal spans on Mainland Southeast Asia is required to better understand the ra nge of complexity in this diverse region of the world. The co mbined analytical power of paleopathological data and stable isotopic analysis in the future should contribute to more refined models of past human behavior and an understanding of the more nuanc ed but fundamental aspects of prehistoric human lifeways.

PAGE 433

433 APPENDIX A LIST OF FAUNAL BONE SAMPLES AND DATA Table A 1. Faunal samples and data included in analyse s Site Species Provenience Bone Lab ID (C 10 ) C/N 13 C 15 N Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O PMN Sus scrofa 2001, SQ1, B10 Metapodial 2133 3.5 12.88 7.34 913 5.07 6.41 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2001, SQ1, B10 R. distal tibia 2134 3.4 21.70 5.44 914 8.47 4.81 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2003, SQ4, SEQ, F6, L5 L. scapula 2135 3.4 21.38 5.27 915 8.79 5.85 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2001, SQ1, NEQ, F5, L3, B3 Femur 2137 3.4 21.37 4.92 917 9.05 5.61 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, SQ12, NEQ, L4 L. 4th metatarsa l 2138 3.4 13.71 5.91 918 6.82 7.06 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, SQ12, SWQ, L4 R. distal radius 2139 3.4 21.00 4.84 919 12.29 3.92 PMN Canis sp. 2006, SQ13, SEQ, L5 L. scapula 2140 3.3 11.60 8.12 920 3.74 6.6 3 PMN Gallus gallus 2006, SQ12, NWQ, L6 R. distal tibiotarsa 2141 3.4 15.72 9.14 921 6.88 5.79 PMN Gallus gallus 2006, SQ12, SEQ, L5 R. distal humerus 2142 3.4 18.00 6.90 922 7.44 6.31 PMN Gallus gallus 2006, SQ12, NEQ, L5 L. dist al tibiotarsa 2143 3.4 11.78 7.75 923 6.04 4.30 PMN Bos sp. 2006, SQ13, NWQ, L2 Talus 2144 3.4 19.58 5.94 924 8.72 4.53 PMN Bos sp. 2006, SQ14, NEQ, L4 Tibia 2145 3.3 9.87 5.04 925 4.12 4.48 PM N Muntiacus muntjak 2006, SQ14, SEQ, L4 L. distal humerus 2147 3.4 15.44 10.27 927

PAGE 434

434 Table A 1. Continued Site Species Provenience Bone Lab ID (C 10 ) C/N 13 C 15 N Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O PMN G allus gallus 2006, SQ14, NWQ, L5 Tarsometatarsal 2148 3.4 11.49 9.04 928 5.53 5.67 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, SQ14, SEQ, L5 R. proximal femur 2149 3.4 22.02 5.01 929 9.79 5.35 PMN Rottus sp. 2006, SQ14, SEQ, L5 R. femur 2150 3.4 7.16 8.13 930 4.82 5.61 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, SQ14, SWQ, L5 Metatarsal 2151 3.3 21.43 4.58 931 6.59 5.10 PMN Canis sp. 2006, SQ14, SWQ, L5 R. distal tibia 2152 3.4 9.70 8.16 932 4.38 6.61 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L4 Metacarpal 2154 3.4 21.64 5.22 934 10.26 4.32 PMN Sus scrofa 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L4 L. scapula 2155 3.3 10.6 6.79 935 4.41 6.74 PMN Sus scrofa 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L5 L. distal femur 2156 3.3 11.81 7.29 936 5.10 7.06 PMN Sus scrofa 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L4 R. calcaneus 2157 3.4 21.54 5.15 937 8.99 4.77 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L4 Medial phalanx 2158 3.5 22.56 4.29 938 7.87 4.82 PM N Cervidae 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L5 R. scapula 2159 3.3 5.98 3.16 939 5.77 4.93 PMN Sus scrofa 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L5 R. distal humerus 2160 3.3 9.32 8.74 940 6.18 6.68 PMN Cervidae 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L6 Distal femur 2161 3.3 17.44 3.42 941 8.39 4.21 PMN Bos sp. 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L7 Rib 2162 3.3 4.81 8.81 942 3.85 3.59

PAGE 435

435 Table A 1. Continued Bone Collagen Lab ID Bone Apatite Lab ID Site Species Provenience Bone C 10 C/N 13 C 15 N (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O PMN Canis sp. 2007, SQ18, SEQ, L5 3rd metatarsal 2163 3.3 7.76 7.91 943 5.85 5.55 PMN Canis sp. 2007, SQ18, B6 R. proximal ulna 2164 3.3 13.22 8.38 944 5.68 6.62 PMN Gallus gallus 2007, SQ18, SEQ L5 R. tibia 2165 3.3 4.96 7.84 945 3.67 5.43 PMN Canis sp. 2006, T16: G6, S1L3 L. distal humerus 2166 3.3 18.23 11.26 946 10.29 4.77 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, T16: G4, S1L3 R. distal tibia 2167 3.3 18.40 5. 52 947 7.13 5.16 PMN Canis sp. 2006, T16: G9, L2 L. calcaneus 2168 3.3 10.90 8.30 948 5.16 6.44 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, T16: G3, L4 R. distal tibia 2169 3.3 18.21 4.17 949 12.41 4.95 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, T16: G 7, L5 Metapodial 2170 3.3 13.05 6.57 950 9.54 5.02 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, T16: G6, S1L3 R. radius 2171 3.3 9.20 7.19 951 7.93 6.04 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, T16: G7, L4 Phalanx 2172 3.3 18. 01 4.60 952 4.41 7.68 PMN Bos sp. 2006, T17: GR1, L4 Rib 2173 3.3 11.69 7.93 953 8.80 5.20 PMN Canis sp. 2006, T17: GR9, L4 R. proximal ulna 2174 3.3 7.28 8.03 954 4.97 5.73 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, T17: GR2, L3 5th metapodial 2175 3.3 14.78 12.00 955 8.92 4.03 PMN Cervidae 2006, T17: GR1, L1 R. distal humerus 2176 3.3 17.34 4.38 956 10.74 4.69 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, T17: G8 L. calcaneus 2177 3.3 7.71 7.64 957 4.63 5.32

PAGE 436

436 Table A 2. Faunal samples excluded from analyses Site Species Provenience Bone Bone Collagen Bone Apatite Lab ID (C 10 ) C/N Lab ID (A 10 ) PTT Bos sp. B2 R. tibia 2057 low yield 885 PTT Sus scrofa B15 L. femur 2058 low yield 886 BMC Bos sp. S17/18W22, F26 L. 1st phalanx 2069 low yield 897 BMC Bos sp. S18W24, B8 L. ulna 2131 low yield 911 BMC Sus scrofa S18W24, B8 R. ulna 2132 low yield 912 PMN Bos sp. 2006, SQ13, SWQ, L3 L. ulna 2136 low yield 91 6 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, SQ14, NWQ, L5 Metatarsal 2146 low yield 926 PMN Lotra sp. 2006, SQ14, SWQ, L5 Tibia 2153 low yield 933

PAGE 437

437 APPENDIX B LIST OF FAUNAL ENAMEL SAMPLES AND DATA Table B 1. Faunal enamel samples and data included in analyses Site Species Provenience Tooth Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O PTT Sus scrofa B17, E, 220 230 cm ULM2 1105 12.37 6.91 BMC Bos sp. S17W22, B1 M 1106 0.72 1.38 PMN Sus scrofa 2002/2, SQ3, SEQ, L4, F 7 M2/M3 1107 4.42 7.75 PMN Sus scrofa 200?, SQ3, B3 LLM1 1108 2.58 5.87 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, SQ13, NWQ, L2 LI2 1109 8.25 6.79 PMN Bos sp. 2006, SQ13, NEQ, L2 M 1110 2.22 2.67 PMN Bos sp. 2006, SQ13, NEQ, L4 I 1111 1.63 0.08 PMN Muntiacus mun tjak 2006, SQ13, NEQ, L4 ULP2 1112 12.72 1.97 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, SQ13, NEQ, L5 I3 1113 10.10 7.06 PMN Cervidae 2006, T16:G5, L5 LLM 1114 13.09 1.01 PMN Bos sp. 2006, T16:G7, L4 UM1 1115 4.64 3.31 PMN Hystricidae 2006, T16:G7, L4 M 1116 14.54 7.90 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, T16:G7, L4 M1 1117 9.88 4.13 PMN Cervidae 2006, T16:G9, L4 LM2 1118 10.46 0.64 PMN Bos sp. 2006, T16:G10, L3 dLP1 1119 3.66 3.43 PMN Cervidae 2006, T16:G10, L3 LM3 1120 3.19 4.08 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2006, T17:GR?, L4 LRM1 1121 13.20 1.82 PMN Sus scrofa 2006, T17:GR3, L5 M 1122 7.34 7.09 PMN Canis sp. 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L4 ULM1 1123 6.68 6.20 PMN Bovidae 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L4 LLP1 1124 1.91 2.88 PMN Bovidae 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L4 URP2 1125 2.88 0.06 PMN B ovidae 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L5 ULM 1126 2.88 0.40

PAGE 438

438 Table B 1. Continued Site Species Provenience Tooth Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O PMN Cervidae 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L6 LLM 1127 4.57 2.97 PMN Canis sp. 2007, SQ18, NEQ, L6 URP4 1128 1.94 7.00 PMN Sus scrofa 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L3 UI 1129 6.10 5.73 PMN Bovidae 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L5 Molar 1130 0.46 2.77 PMN Canis sp. 2007, SQ18, NWQ, L5 LRI3 1131 12.74 3.27 PMN Muntiacus muntjak 2007, SQ18, SEQ, L4 UM 1132 13.20 1.97 PMN Sus s crofa 2007, SQ18, SEQ, L5 LLP4 1133 6.08 6.57

PAGE 439

439 APPENDIX C LIST OF HUMAN BONE SAMPLES AND DATA Table C 1. Human bone samples included in analyses Site Provenience Sex Age Age Group Bone Lab ID (C 10 ) Lab ID (A 10 ) BMC S16W23, B1 F 36 50 OA R. tib ia 2062 890 BMC S16W23, B5 UID 5.5 6.5 SA L. fibula 2065 893 BMC S16W23, B6 M 16 18 SA Rib 2066 894 NML OP1, T 19789, B1 M 16 20 SA R. fibula 1983 811 NML OP3, T 18378, B1 F ~17 19 SA L. scapula 1984 812 NML OP3, T 31350, B2 M 25 30 YA L. femur 1985 813 NML OP3, T 19191, B3 M 15 17 SA L. fubula 1986 814 NML OP3, T 20890, B5 F 25 30 YA R. metatarsal 1987 815 NML OP3, T 31550, B7 UID ~15 SA R. fibula 1989 817 NML OP4, T 32276, B11 UID 5.5 6.5 SA L. fibula 199 3 821 NML OP7, T 31369, B1 UID 4 5 SA L. femur 2005 833 PMN 200?, SQ1, NWQ, in situ 1 F 28 40 YA R. 3rd metatarsal 2010 838 PMN 200?, SQ1,4, in situ 2, B20 M 28 40 YA R. fibula 2011 839 PMN 200?, SQ1,4, in situ 3, B16 M 30 40 YA L. fibula 2012 840 PMN 200?, SQ1,4, in situ 4, B27 M 28 40 YA R. radius 2013 841 PMN 200?, SQ4, in situ 5, B32 F 21+ A R. radius 2014 842 PMN 200?, SQ4, in situ 6 M 25 30 YA R. ulna 2015 843 PMN 200?, SQ2,3, in situ 7, B1 M 21+ A L.10th rib 2016 844 PMN 2006, SQ12, in situ 8, B3 F 21+ A R. ulna 2017 845 PMN 2006, SQ2, in situ 9, B3 M 30 40 YA R. fibula 2018 846 PMN 2001, SQ1, SWQ, B9 M 21 35 YA Rib 2020 848 PMN 2001, SQ1, B10 M 21+ A L. femur 2021 849 PMN 2001, SQ1, SEQ, B11(6) M 21 25 YA R. tibia 2022 850 PMN 2001, SQ1, F20, B15 F 21 35 YA Rib 2023 851 PMN 2002, SQ1, SEQ, B11 M 21+ A R. fibula 2024 852

PAGE 440

440 Table C 1. Continued Site Provenience Sex Age Age Group Bone Lab ID (C 10 ) Lab ID (A 10 ) PM N 2002/2, SQ3, B1 UID 1~2 SA Rib 2025 853 PMN 2002/2, SQ3, B2 M 25 35 YA Rib 2026 854 PMN 2002/2, SQ3, B9 UID 21+ A R. femur 2027 855 PMN 2003, SQ3, B3 M 25 30 YA Rib 2028 856 PMN 2003, SQ4, SWQ, L5, B3 M 30 40 YA Rib 2029 857 PMN 2 007, SQ1, 4, F4 M 36+ MA Rib 2030 858 PMN 2007, SQ18, B1 UID 5.5 6.5 SA R. tibia 2031 859 PMN 2007, SQ18, B2 M 19 27 YA R. fibula 2033 861 PMN 2007, SQ18, B4 F 30 40 YA Rib 2035 863 PMN 2007, SQ18, B6 M 30 35 YA R. femur 2036 864 PM N 2007, SQ18, B7 F 17 19 SA R. femur 2037 865 KPD B8 M 15 SA R. radius 2178 958 KPD B22 M 21 YA Rib 2180 960 KPD B23 M 30 YA Rib 2181 961 KPD B24 M 25 YA Rib 2182 962 KPD B28 M 21 YA L. fibula 2183 963 KPD B30 M 34 YA Rib 2185 965 KPD B38 M 33 YA Rib 2186 966 KPD B42 M 32 YA Rib 2187 967 KPD B44 M 18 SA Rib 2189 969 KPD B67 M 35 YA Rib 2191 973 KPD B76 M 34 YA L. ulna 2194 976 KPD B91 M 45 MA L. radius 2197 979 KPD B92 M 18 SA Rib 2198 980 KPD B152 M 37 MA Rib 2209 991 KPD B15 F 35 YA Radi us 2212 994 KPD B18 F 42 MA R. rib 2213 995

PAGE 441

441 Table C 1. Continued Site Provenience Sex Age Age Group Bone Lab ID (C 10 ) Lab ID (A 10 ) KPD B26 F 35 YA Rib 2215 997 KPD B27 F 40 MA Rib 2216 998 KPD B36 F 21 YA Rib 2218 1000 KPD B39 F 25 YA R. fibul a 2219 1001 KPD B40 F 37 MA L. radius 2220 1002 KPD B45 F 45 MA Rib 2221 1003 KPD B47 F 22 YA Rib 2222 1004 KPD B58 F 35 YA Rib 2223 1005 KPD B64 F 21 YA Rib 2225 1007 KPD B79 F 47 MA L. rib 2228 1010

PAGE 442

442 Table C 2. Human bone isotopic data included i n analyses Apatite Collagen Lab ID (C 10 ) 13 C 15 N Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O 13 C ap co ll 2062 16.31 12.24 890 9.16 6.25 7.15 2065 15.55 11.69 893 9.75 6.62 5.80 2066 16.89 11.66 8 94 9.57 7.37 7.32 1983 15.43 9.64 811 8.67 6.65 6.76 1984 15.74 10.67 812 10.78 7.57 4.96 1985 14.64 10.33 813 9.47 6.66 5.17 1986 16.06 9.55 814 9.97 7.11 6.09 1987 14.22 10.10 815 8.78 6.78 5.44 1989 18.28 10.02 817 11.11 6. 65 7.17 1993 14.03 9.10 821 8.74 6.79 5.29 2005 15.88 9.97 833 10.37 7.21 5.51 2010 14.31 7.51 838 6.99 6.97 7.32 2011 11.31 7.81 839 6.43 6.99 4.88 2012 10.16 9.39 840 4.84 6.58 5.32 2013 10.49 9.41 841 3.61 6.61 6.88 2014 11.80 9.19 842 5.25 7.01 6.55 2015 13.68 9.50 843 9.29 7.03 4.39 2016 11.04 9.59 844 6.27 6.76 4.77 2017 14.65 7.41 845 7.92 6.24 6.73 2018 11.76 9.36 846 7.10 6.05 4.66 2020 10.93 8.97 848 5.12 6.94 5.81 2021 18.33 11.20 849 7.57 6.07 10.76 2022 12.32 9.45 850 4.58 6.67 7.74 2023 13.67 7.03 851 6.84 6.96 6.83 2024 12.25 9.35 852 4.99 6.72 7.26 2025 15.98 11.29 853 8.82 6.46 7.16

PAGE 443

443 Table C 2. Continued Apatite Collagen Spacing ( Lab ID (C 10 ) 13 C 15 N Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O 13 C ap coll 2026 11.81 9.79 854 6.34 6.90 5.47 2027 11.81 9.47 855 7.31 6.53 4.50 2028 12.26 9.75 856 7.41 6.54 4.85 2029 13.93 9.77 857 9.43 6.94 4.50 2030 12.10 9.58 858 4.28 7.2 7 7.82 2031 14.95 9.88 859 9.36 6.31 5.59 2033 16.62 11.44 861 8.56 6.14 8.06 2035 15.11 9.45 863 9.10 6.92 6.01 2036 14.13 9.34 864 8.91 6.75 5.22 2037 15.46 9.32 865 7.18 6.60 8.28 2178 14.40 9.98 958 10.85 6.94 3.55 2180 17.26 9.66 960 9.82 6.86 7.44 2181 14.03 11.55 961 11.11 7.17 2.92 2182 13.82 11.35 962 11.23 7.35 2.59 2183 14.39 11.00 963 11.28 6.33 3.10 2185 14.58 11.03 965 10.49 6.77 4.08 2186 17.61 11.07 966 10.94 7.40 6.67 2187 14.31 11.80 967 9 .78 7.23 4.54 2189 13.01 10.82 969 10.18 6.83 2.83 2191 14.65 11.15 973 11.47 6.50 3.18 2194 14.75 11.58 976 10.95 6.54 3.80 2197 14.30 11.03 979 10.59 6.05 3.71 2198 15.30 11.10 980 10.94 6.34 4.35 2209 14.02 12.06 991 11.51 5.64 2.51 2212 15.09 10.37 994 9.72 7.51 5.37 2213 14.30 10.84 995 10.11 7.12 4.19 2215 14.32 11.21 997 11.09 7.02 3.23

PAGE 444

444 Table C 2. Continued Apatite collagen Lab ID (C 10 ) 13 C 15 N Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O 13 C ap coll 2216 14.71 10.90 998 10.15 7.61 4.56 2218 18.38 9.99 1000 11.24 6.92 2219 14.86 10.68 1001 12.08 5.90 2.78 2220 15.09 9.65 1002 11.43 6.27 3.66 2221 14.40 11.52 1003 10.09 7.06 4.31 222 2 14.44 11.35 1004 10.70 5.88 3.73 2223 17.98 11.34 1005 11.54 7.62 6.45 2225 18.01 10.54 1007 12.00 7.28 6.01 2228 17.96 11.76 1010 11.43 6.94 6.54

PAGE 445

445 Table C 3. Human bone samples excluded from analyses Site Provenience Bone Bone Collagen Bone Apatite Lab ID R eason Lab ID PTT B2 R. radius 2038 bad C/N 866 PTT B5 R. fibula 2039 bad C/N 867 PTT B7 R. fibula 2040 bad C/N 868 PTT B8 R. rib 2041 bad C/N 869 PTT B8 R. radius 2042 bad C/N 870 PTT B10 R. tibia 2043 bad C/N 871 PTT B12 R fibula 2044 bad C/N 872 PTT B13 R. parietal 2045 bad C/N 873 PTT B15 Rib 2046 bad C/N 874 PTT B16 L. ulna 2047 low yield 875 PTT B17 R. ulna 2048 low yield 876 PTT B18 R. tibia 2049 bad C/N 877 PTT B18 L. fibula 2050 bad C/N 878 PTT B19 L. ulna 20 51 low yield 879 PTT B20 R. fibula 2052 bad C/N 880 PTT B21 L. fibula 2053 low yield 881 PTT B23 R.ulna 2054 bad C/N 882 PTT B24 hand phalanx 2055 low yield 883 PTT B33 R. ulna 2056 low yield 884 BMC S15W24, B3 R. fibula 2059 low yield 887 BMC S15W 24, B4 L. fibula 2060 low yield 888 BMC S15W24, B7 L. radius 2061 bad C/N 889 BMC S16W23, B2 Rib 2063 low yield 891 BMC S16W23, B3 L. radius 2064 low yield 892 BMC S17W24, B3 R. fibula 2067 low yield 895 BMC S17/18W22, F26, B1 L. tibia 2068 bad C/N 89 6 BMC S17/18W24, B13 Femur 2070 bad C/N 898

PAGE 446

446 Table C 3. Continued Site Provenience Bone Bone Collagen Bone Apatite Lab ID reason Lab ID BMC S18W22, B2 L. fibula 2071 low yield 899 BMC S18W22, B4 L. fibula 2072 bad C/N 900 BMC S18W22, B6 Rib 2073 bad C/N 901 BMC S18W22, B8 Rib 2074 bad C/N 902 BMC S18W24, B1 Cranial frag. 2075 low yield 903 BMC S18W24, B2 L. fibula 2076 low yield 904 BMC S18W24, B4 L. fibula 2077 low yield 905 BMC S18W24, B6 Cranial frag. 2078 low yield 906 BMC S18W24, B8 Rib 2127 low yield 907 BMC S18W24, B9 Rib 2128 low yield 908 BMC S18W24, B11 R. femur 2129 low yield 909 BMC S18W24, B12 Rib 2130 low yield 910 NML OP3, T 31531, B6 R. ulna 1988 low yield 816 NML OP3, T 32428, B9 R. radius 1990 low yield 818 NML OP4, T 30848, B3 R. fibula 1991 bad C/N 819 NML OP4, T 32258, B6 R. femur 1992 bad C/N 820 NML OP4, T 31842, B12 R. tibia 1994 bad C/N 822 NML OP4, T 32279, 32284, B15 L. radius 1995 bad C/N 823 NML OP5, T 31594, B5 R. humerus 1996 low yield 824 NML OP5, T 31282, B7 Femur 1997 bad C/N 825 NML OP5, T 32105, B9 R. femur 1998 bad C/N 826 NML OP5, T 31296, B10 R. ulna 1999 bad C/N 827 NML OP5, T 32109, B11 L. femur 2000 bad C/N 828 NML OP5, T 32032, B12 L. fibula 2001 bad C/N 829 NML OP5, T 32031, B14 L. fe mur 2002 bad C/N 830 NML OP6, T 30518, B4 R. femur 2003 low yield 831

PAGE 447

447 Table C 3. Continued Site Provenience Bone Bone Collagen Bone Apatite Lab ID reason Lab ID NML OP6, T 30519, B7 R. ulna 2004 bad C/N 832 NML OP7, T 32170, B3 R. fibula 2006 bad C/N 834 NML OP7, T 32398, B7 R. femur 2007 low yield 835 NML OP4B, T 20275, B2 L. tibia 2008 bad C/N 836 NML OP4B, T 31485, B5 L. tibia 2009 low yield 837 PMN 2001, SQ1, SWQ, B7 L. femur 2019 low yield 847 PMN 2007, SQ18, B1 Rib 2032 duplicate d 860 PMN 2007, SQ18, B3 R. tibia 2034 bad C/N 862 KPD B9 Rib 2179 low yield 959 KPD B29 R. ulna 2184 low yield 964 KPD B43 R. femur 2188 low yield 968 KPD B57 Fibula 2190 low yield 970 KPD B72 Rib 2192 low yield 974 KPD B74 R. rib 2193 low yield 975 KPD B86 Rib 2195 low yield 977 KPD B90 Rib 2196 low yield 978 KPD B93 Rib 2199 low yield 981 KPD B100 R. rib 2200 low yield 982 KPD B103 Rib 2201 low yield 983 KPD B115 Rib 2202 low yield 984 KPD B117 Radius 2203 low yield 985 KPD B120 Rib 2204 low yiel d 986 KPD B129 Rib 2205 low yield 987 KPD B131 Rib 2206 low yield 988 KPD B132 Rib 2207 low yield 989 KPD B147 L. radius 2208 low yield 990

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448 Table C 3. Continued Site Provenience Bone Bone Collagen Bone Apatite Lab ID reason Lab ID KPD B4 Radius 2210 low yield 992 KPD B13 Fibula 2211 low yield 993 KPD B25 L. rib 2214 low yield 996 KPD B35 R. fibula 2217 low yield 999 KPD B61 R. radius 2224 low yield 1006 KPD B73 L. radius 2226 low yield 1008 KPD B77 Rib 2227 low yield 1009 KPD B83 L. rib 2 229 low yield 1011 KPD B87 R. rib 2230 low yield 1012 KPD B94 Rib 2231 low yield 1013 KPD B102 Rib 2232 low yield 1014 KPD B107 R. ulna 2233 low yield 1015 KPD B109 R. radius 2234 low yield 1016 KPD B110 L. rib 2235 low yield 1017 KPD B112 R. fibula 2236 low yield 1018 KPD B140 R. rib 2237 low yield 1019 KSO ND T12600, Subunit 10, B3 L. clavicle 2238 bad C/N 1135 KSO ND T12592, Subunit 8, B4 R. femur 2239 bad C/N 1136 KSO ND T12592, Subunit 8, B4 L. humerus 2240 bad C/N 1137 KSO ND T13008, Subu nit 8, B5 R. tibia 2241 bad C/N 1138

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449 APPENDIX D LIST OF HUMAN ENAMEL SAMPLES AND DATA Table D 1. Human enamel samples and data included in analyses Site Provenience Sex Age Age Group Tooth Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O PTT B2 M 40 50 MA LLM1 1090 8.64 6.09 PTT B5 F 20 25 YA LLM3 1091 11.97 5.12 PTT B6 UID 1 2 SA dURm1 1092 12.32 5.45 PTT B7 F 25 30 YA LRM3 1093 13.14 4.76 PTT B8 M 35 40 MA LRM3 1094 11.64 5.44 PTT B12 M 18 22 YA LRM3 1096 12.96 4.48 PTT B13 UID 20+ A URM3 1097 12.00 5.05 PTT B16 F 20 22 YA LLM2 1098 13.45 3.74 PTT B18 UID 3.5 4.5 SA URM1 1100 12.19 3.66 PTT B19 UID 9.5 11 SA URM1 1101 12.33 3.38 PTT B20 F 20 25 YA URM2 1102 13.47 4.12 PTT B23 UID 3.5 4.5 SA ULM1 1103 12.89 5.00 PT T B24 M 37 50 MA ULP3 1104 12.59 4.69 BMC S15W24, B2 M 18 21 SA ULM3 1063 11.22 6.29 BMC S15W24, B3 M 28 32 YA LLM3 1064 4.77 6.61 BMC S15W24, B4 F 21 35 YA URM1 1065 11.32 6.25 BMC S16W23, B1 F 36 50 OA LLP4 1066 11.30 6.41 BMC S16W23, B2 F 18 22 SA ULM2 1067 9.93 6.48 BMC S16W23, B5 UID 5.5 6.5 SA URM1 1069 8.93 5.49 BMC S16W23, B6 M 1 6 18 SA LRM2 1070 8.87 6.36 BMC S17W24, B3 UID 6 7 SA URM2 1072 9.93 6.70 BMC S17/18W22, F26, B1 M 40 50 MA ULM3 1073 8.37 6.10 BMC S17/18W22, B2 F 36 50 MA ULM1 1074 10.25 6.11 BMC S17/18W22, B2 F 36 50 MA URI1 1075 9.48 5.93 BMC S17/18W24, B13 F 40+ MA LM3 1076 9.20 5.15

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450 Table D 1. Continued Site Provenience Sex Age Age Group Tooth Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O BMC S18W22, B4 M 33 37 YA ULM3 1077 9.34 4.41 BMC S18W22, B6 F 22 32 YA LRM3 1078 8.70 6.49 BMC S18W22, B8 M 45+ OA URM1 1079 4.65 6.72 BMC S18W24, B1 UID ~15 SA U LM3 1080 12.58 4.91 BMC S18W24, B2 F 35 40 MA URM1 1081 10.25 6.07 BMC S18W24, B4 M 21 35 YA URM3 1082 8.64 5.96 BMC S18W24, B6 UID 1.5 2 SA dULm2 1083 10.90 6.2 7 BMC S18W24, B8 F 21 35 YA ULM2 1085 10.52 5.37 BMC S18W24, B9 UID 2 3 SA dULm1 1086 6.95 5.42 BMC S18W24, B12 M 35 50 MA ULM3 1087 11.55 5.62 BMC Baulk W22, B2 F 21+ A ULM3 1089 8.76 6.48 NML OP1, T 19789, B1 M 16 20 SA ULP3 1020 10.57 6.55 NML OP3, T 18378, B1 F ~17 19 SA ULM3 1021 8.31 6.78 NML OP3, T 31350, B2 M 25 30 YA LRI2 1022 8.78 6.58 NML OP3, T 19191, B3 M 15 17 SA URM1 102 3 10.81 6.31 NML OP3, T 20890, B5 F 25 30 YA LLM3 1024 6.69 6.19 NML OP3, T 32428, B9 UID ~3.5 4.5 SA ULM1 1025 5.96 5.88 NML OP3, T 32317, B11 UID ~1.5 SA dULc 1026 8.33 5.08 NML OP4, T 32258, B6 F 40 45 MA ULM1 1027 8.41 5.81 NML OP4, T 32276, B11 UID 5.5 6.5 SA ULM1 1028 10.29 6.23 NML OP5, T 31594, B5 M 40+ MA LRM3 1031 7.22 6.46 NML OP5, T 31282, B7 UID ~3 SA ULM1 1032 7.13 6.25 NML OP5, T 32105, B9 UID 3 4 SA dRm1 1033 7. 05 4.67 NML OP5, T 31296, B10 M 35 40 YA ULP3 1034 8.75 6.93 NML OP5, T 32109, B11 M 40+ MA LRI2 1035 6.47 6.19 NML OP5, T 32032, B12 F 45+ OA LLM3 1036 6.32 6.28 NML OP5, T 32133, B13 UID ~6.5 7.5 SA LLM2 1037 7.51 6.33 NML OP5, T 32031, B14 F 25 35 YA URM3 1038 7.20 5.79

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451 Table D 1. Continued Site Provenience Sex Age Age Group Tooth Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O NML OP6, T 30518, B4 F 35 45 MA URM2 1039 7.33 6.25 NML OP6, T 30519, B7 M ~42 MA URP4 1040 11.09 4.67 NML OP7, T 31369, B1 UID 4 5 SA dLRm1 1041 9.01 5.72 NML OP7, T 32170, B3 UID ~3 4 SA URM1 1042 9.37 6.16 NML OP7, T 32200, B5 UID 1 1.25 SA dULc 1043 5.86 5.95 NML OP7, T 32398, B7 M ~50 54 OA LRP4 1044 5 .53 5.59 NML OP4B, T 20275, B2 UID 0 0.5 SA dUm1 1029 6.95 5.56 NML OP4B, T 31485, B5 UID 0.5 1.5 SA dULi2 1030 7.19 5.73 PMN 200?, SQ1, NWQ, in situ 1 F 28 40 YA ULM3 1045 6.89 6.23 PMN 200?, SQ4, in situ 5, B32 F 21+ A LLC 1046 4. 58 6.00 PMN 2006, SQ13, NWQ, L3 UID 4 5.5 SA LRM1 1052 7.33 5.83 PMN 2001, SQ1, F0, B15 F 21 35 YA LLM3 1047 6.68 6.41 PMN 2002/2, SQ3, B1 UID 1~2 SA dULm2 1048 9.54 5.83 PMN 2002/2, SQ3, B2 M 25 35 YA LLP4 1049 4.63 6.61 PMN 20 03, SQ3, B3 M 25 30 YA LRM3 1050 8.14 6.66 PMN 2003, SQ4, SWQ, L5, B3 M 30 40 YA LRM3 1051 10.47 6.44 PMN 2007, SQ1, 4, B3 M 21+ A LLM2 1054 12.91 3.32 PMN 2007, SQ1, 4, B7 M 25 30 YA LLP3 1055 6.40 6.23 PMN 2007, SQ1, 4, F4 M 36+ MA ULM2 1056 12.74 3.11 PMN 2007, SQ18, B1 UID 5.5 6.5 SA dULm2 1057 10.46 5.46 PMN 2007, SQ18, B2 M 19 27 YA ULP4 1058 8.64 6.66 PMN 2007, SQ18, B4 F 30 40 YA ULM3 1059 7.32 5.98 PMN 2007, SQ18, B6 M 30 35 YA URM3 1060 8.23 6 .66 PMN 2007, SQ18, B7 F 17 19 SA URM3 1061 9.59 6.99 KSO ND T12600, Subunit 10, B3 M 21 35 YA ULM3 1134 5.86 6.38

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452 Table D 2. Human enamel samples excluded from analyses Site Provenience Tooth Lab ID (A 10 ) 13 C 18 O Reason PMN 2006, SQ13, NWQ, L3 dLRm2 1053 7.11 5.92 duplicated PTT B18 dLLm1 1099 13.31 2.77 duplicated PTT B8 ULM1 1095 11.78 6.62 duplicated BMC S15W24, B2 LLM3 1062 8.85 6.77 duplicate d BMC S16W23, B2 ULC 1068 10.23 6.00 duplicated BMC S17W24, B3 URM1 1071 10.26 6.38 duplicated BMC Baulk W22, B2 ULM2 1088 9.04 6.32 duplicated BMC S18W24, B6 dLLm2 1084 10.52 5.83 duplicated

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478 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETC H Chin hsin Liu was born and raised in Pingtung, the south most county in Taiwan. After graduating from Pingtung Girl hsin joined the Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan Un iversity. Since teenage years, she has be en deeply intrigued by human skeletons and their shroude d secrets from deep history. Chin a solid foundation in theoretically and practical anthropology. D uring final years of college, Chin research interests ce ntering on the biological changes and variations of human skeletal remains were solidified by the participation of archaeological fieldwork, various courses in biological anthropology, and post excavation laboratory work. In preparation for an ac ademic car eer in anthropology, Chin hsin elected to study in the Ea rth Systems Program, in which she was able to expand her understandings in the principles of geology, geography, oceanography, and atmospheric science s. She also has a minor in political sciences, sp ecialized in international r elations. In 2002, Chin hsin enrolled in the Department of Anthropology in the Un iversity of Florida to pursue her graduate degrees. Under the mento rship of Dr. John Krigbaum and her c ommitte e members, Chin hsin conducted her m childhood growth and health of an Iron Age population from northern Taiwan. After receiving a Master of Arts degree in 2005, Chin hsin extended her research areas to Mainland Southe ast Asia, currently Thailand. She also expanded on the scope of research and varieties of bioarchaeological methodology in order to extract more detailed information of past human lifeways. Chin hsin is currently an adjunct assistant professor at Appalac hian State Un iversity She is honored t o have the op portunity to put her expertises into educating a

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479 new g eneration of budding scholars. She look s forward to starting a new chapter of her acad emic career