1 MUSICAL IDENTITY IN TAIWANESE INSTRUMENTAL THEATER: TEN SIDE AMBUSH AND THE JOURNEY OF MONKEY KING BY HUANG CHEN MING By CHIA JUI CHIANG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FU LFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER O F M U S I C UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Chia Jui Chiang
3 To all who helped me travel this road
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis would not have been done without the following people wh o supported and encouraged me to go through this journey. I want to thank my advisor Dr. Welson Tremura. He always encouraged me with his past experiences. Moreover, he and Dr. Larry Crook both gave me a lot of ideas that helped and inspired me to think di fferently. really broadened my horizon of researching music. I also want to thank my peers including, classmates and friends here in America who encouraged, helped and accompanied me go through any tough time within my two years graduate life. I am grateful to my parents who supported me in many ways to finish this degree. Without them, I would not have the chance to pursue my dream. Without them, I would not have the opportunity to study in American. I also want to thank many friends and relatives in Taiwan whose encouragement and support.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF EXAMPLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 9 LIST OF TERM S ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 I NTR O D U CT IO N ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 Th eoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 17 Semiotic Framework ................................ ................................ ......................... 17 Musical Nationalism ................................ ................................ ......................... 20 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 21 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 24 Aboriginal Music, Nanguan Beiguan Taiwanese Opera Music and Chinese Music ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 26 2 THE BACKGROUND OF TAIWANESE MUSIC ................................ ..................... 30 The Taiwanese Musical History ................................ ................................ .............. 31 Japanese Colonization (1895 1945) ................................ ................................ 31 Republic of China under Two Chiang Presidencies: World War II (1937 1986) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 38 The Recent Period of Multi Party Democracy (1980 present) .......................... 42 ................................ ................................ 46 The Understanding of Taiwanese Music ................................ .......................... 46 ............... 48 3 THE CHAI FOUND WORKSHOP AND ITS MUSICIANS ................................ ....... 53 Chai Found Workshop ................................ ................................ ............................ 53 The Musicians and Their Connection to Taiwanese Music ................................ ..... 62 Chai Found Workshop: Creating and Presenting Taiwanese Music ....................... 64 The Chai Found Worksh op Rediscovering Taiwanese Music .............................. 68 4 THE CASES STUDIES OF SEMIOTIC PRESENTATION AND NATIONAL IDENTITY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 70
6 The Idea of Creating Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King ............. 70 The Storylines and their Settings ................................ ................................ ............ 74 The Words in the Program Notes ................................ ................................ ........... 76 The Stage Set Up Showing the Taiwanese Musical Identity ................................ ... 80 Musical Characteristics ................................ ................................ ........................... 89 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 101 APPENDIX A THE INTERVIE W QUESTIONS FOR THE DIRECTOR OF CHAI FOUND WORKSHOP HUANG CHEN MING ................................ ................................ ..... 107 B THE INTERVIEW QU ESTIONS FOR THE MUSICAL DIRECTOR OF CHAI FOUND WORKSHOP WU TSUNG HSIEN ................................ .......................... 108 W ORK C I TED ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 109 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 114
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 The Funding Survey from National Cultural and Arts Foundation ....................... 52 4 1 The Comparison of Traditional Chinese and Simple Chinese .......................... 100
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 The Journey of Monke y King ................................ ........... 82 4 2 From The Journey of Monkey King ................................ ................................ .... 86 4 3 Ten side Ambush The Rehearsal. ................................ ................................ .... 86 4 4 Auditorium Building, Chicago. Au ditorium interior from balcony. ....................... 87 4 5 Bungon Nanguan Musical Group ................................ ................................ ....... 87 4 6 Beiguan ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 88 4 7 Ten side Ambush ................................ .............. 96 4 8 f Ten side Ambush ................... 100
9 LIST OF EXAMPLES Examples page 4 1 Ten side Ambush measure 106 ............................... 90 4 2 The X injiang Musical Scale from the A rticle of Li Li Sa.. ................................ .... 91 4 3 The Journey of Monkey King ................................ ............ 91 4 4 Erhu ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 92 4 5 Pipa ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 92 4 6 The Journey of Monkey King ................................ .............. 93 4 7 Overture: Ten side Ambush ................................ ................................ ............... 94 4 8 The Journey of Monkey King ................................ .................. 94 4 9 ................................ ................................ ............... 94 4 10 Pipa tuning. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 96 4 11 Sheng Performing style. ................................ ................................ ................... 96
10 LIST OF TERM S A BORIGIANL MUSIC The music of the local Taiwanese aboriginal tribes, dividing into two major groups, one group is from mountains, and the other one is from the plains region. B EIGUAN The music from northern Mainland China a nd has developed in Taiwan since 17 th century. Mostly the music serves for religious function. C HINESE B ROADCAST O RCHESTRA (COB) T his orchestra was originally founded in Nanjing, China in 1935 but came to Taiwan in 1949 with the R.O.C. gover nment. Their musical performances are primarily Chinese music from Mainland China. C HINESE M USIC This term means the music from the Mainland China. D EMOCRATIC P ROGRASSIVE P ARTY (DPP) The second political party in Taiwan founded in 1986. D I A Chinese wind instrument similar like Western flutes The sizes and pitches are different in diversity of theatrical productions. E RHU It is a two stringed bowed instrument commonly found in Mainland China and in Taiwan. G UZHENG It is Chinese plucked zither instrument from Mainland China and it is seldom used in Taiwanese music, such as nanguan and beiguan I NSTRUMENTAL T HEATER A genre of musical expression for which musicians are trained to become performers in multiple expression fields: music, drama, and dance movement, created by Huang Cheng Ming in 2005. K UOMINTANG (KMT) The first political party founded in 1894 in Mainland China and re established in Taiwan in 1949. M ATERIAL L AW O RDER A law announced by R.O.C. government in 1949. This law repressed democracy and curtailed cultural development N ANGUAN This term describes the music came from Fujiang, southern China, and imported in Taiwan around 1650s. The musical style mostly follows one major melody and ornaments in diversity way. P ENTATONIC S CALE A musica l scale divided octave into five steps. In Chinese music, the basic scale is 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. If 1=C. then the scale would be C, D, E, G, A.
11 P EOPLE S R EPUBLIC OF C HINA (P.R.C.) It is a n official name of Mainland China. P IPA A four stringed plucked instrument with pear shaped body made by wood over one meter long commonly performed in Mainland China and Taiwan. R EPUBLIC OF C HINA (R.O.C.) It is an official name of Taiwan. R UAN There are two different types of ruan mentioned in this thesis: one is a four stringed instrument with round belly came from mainland China; other is two stringed instrument from Taiwan. S ILK AND B AMBOO M USIC It is a genre of music that popularizes in southern China. It contains stringed and wind instruments. S HA NG A Chines e wind instrument, which is also the only wind instrument that can produce harmony. S UONA It is a wind instrument commonly used in various theatrical productions in China and Taiwan T AIKO It refers to Japanese drum and also the performance T AIWANESE O PERA M USIC It is the only musical genre that originated in Taiwan, which combined with Taiwanese indigenous music performing styles, lyric settings, aesthetic expression, and spoken language. X INJIANG M USICAL S CALE Musical scale from Xinjiang music, normally is a heptatonic. In this thesis the scale is C, D, E, F G, A B. Y ANGQIN This term is a Chinese hammered dulcimer originally came from Middle East Turkey
12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School O f the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for th e Degree of Master of Music MUSICAL IDENTITY IN TAIWANESE INSTRUMENTAL THEATER: TEN SIDE AMBUSH AND THE JOURNEY OF MONKEY KING BY HUANG CHEN MING By Chai Jui Chiang December 2012 Chair: Larry Crook Major: Music This thesis focuses on two theatrical wo rks Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King composed by Huang Chen Ming in the context of different artistic ideas, educational systems, and Taiwanese historical background. Huang and the Chai Found Workshop intended to present their perspective of Taiwanese traditional music through these two works. However, the elements of the works can be perceived in many different ways. Governmental policies during several Taiwanese historical periods affected musical choices among the population and led to div erse interpretations of the meaning of Taiwanese national identity during the twentieth century. There are three different historical periods Ja panese colonization, two Chiang Presidents period, and the recent period of multi party of democracy that were particularly important. During these periods, political policies and educational systems, which created a multilayered national identity within the present Taiwanese society. T his situation affected not only politics but also the Taiwanese traditional music. Taiwanese performance groups of traditional music were
13 influenced by governmental standards set for the funding and support of artistic activities. The founding of the Chai Found Workshop and the creation of two instrumental theatrical pieces Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King serve as examples of this influence. The analysis of selected staging materials from these two works reveals that the understanding and in terpretation of the links of music and national identity in Taiwan layers elements of Japanese, Chinese, and present Taiwanese identity together. In this thesis, I analyze four elements from these works, 1) program description by Huang, 2) stage setup, 3) musical elements of the work, and 4) written language presented as part of the stage setting, in order to demonstrate that Taiwanese traditional musical performance can be perceived from different
14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Taiwanese Instrumental Theater i s a new genre of musical expression for which musicians are trained to become performers in multiple expressive fields: music, drama, and dance movement. Created by Huang Cheng Ming 1 in 2005, this type of theatrical training differentiates the Instrumental Theater from other westernized theatrical genres found in Taiwan that create specialized roles for musicians, dancers, and actors. of traditional Taiwanese musical perfor mance. According to Lin Hui Kuan (2009) 2 the new instrumental theater promotes the position of traditional Taiwanese music in the area of theater production. Moreover, Huang believes that this musical genre can best present his idea of traditional Taiwane se music to modern audiences. However, in what ways does this new type of Taiwanese theater present traditional Taiwanese music and how is this related to Taiwanese national identity? The main focus in this thesis is to examine the two specific theatrical works Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King in order to present the different understanding and interpretation of the links to music of national identity in the context of international flows of artistic ideas, educational systems, and Taiwanese h istorical background. The thesis uses a semiotic framework to analyze selected artistic elements from the two works, such as music, costumes, stage setting, dance gesture, and 1 Huang is the composer of Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King and also the director of Chai Found Workshop. 2 Hui Kuan Lin. The Discovery of Interdisciplinary Performance in Traditional Music. Master Thesis. Taiwan: Fo Guang University, Graduate Institution of Arts Studies, 2009.
15 Chapter 1 contains the outlines of two main theoretical frameworks (semiotics and national identity), research methodology, and the literature reviews. I apply semioti c 3 semiotic model of sign and object relationships, which includes symbol, icon, and index. Under this framework, I show how musical and theatrical signs link to Taiwanese national identity in the later chapters. For the theory of national identity, I mostly focus 4 In addition, I also apply the definition of Taiwanese identity from Taiwanese political scholars. Those theorie s of musical nationalism and Taiwanese national identity inform my interpretation of identity issues and link to questions of Taiwanese cultural and musical identity. To achieve this goal, I first introduce methods of data collection. Second, I analyze the data in order to understand the cultural meanings of various stage elements. Finally, I present a literature review of the books, articles, and dissertations consulted in this thesis. Chapter 2 describes Taiwanese political and musical history and discus ses the closely linked concepts of Taiwanese music and Chinese music in contemporary Taiwan. For understanding the musical culture in Taiwan, the discussion is framed within the context of Taiwanese political history. This historical development affected t he interpretation and perception of different kinds of music in Taiwan and their links to Taiwanese national identity. Therefore, the first section is a brief description of Taiwanese history explaining how the shifting political powers in Taiwan influence d the 3 i ence: A Peircian Semiotic Theory for Musi Ethnomusicology 43, No.2 (Spring Summer, 1999): 221 25. 4 Latin American Music Review 24, No. 2 (Autumn Winter, 2003): 169 209.
16 musical and cultural expressions on the island. I then address the differences of Taiwanese and Chinese music using the information from different politicians and political scholars, and the evidence from official documents from the government instit utions Based on an analysis of those data, I interpret how the idea of Taiwanese music has been constructed. After the description of Taiwanese political and musical cultural development, the design of the Chai raining background are also considered as important factors that influence their musical expression of Taiwanese national identity. In chapter 3, I present the Chai Found Musical Workshop in 19 90s. I also incorporate their idea of Taiwanese music and on their performance techniques. Moreover, I reveal the development of Chai Found Workshop in order to illustrate their transition from Chinese music to a focus on constructing a Taiwanese musical identity that informs the two instrumental theater works discussed in the next chapter. Chapter 4 presents the content of Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King and the examination of semiotic presentations using the selected elements from these two works to illustrate links between staging material and Taiwanese national these tw o works and the storylines of them. Then, the following part shows the analysis of different staging materials from the different acts. This includes musical national ide
17 written symbols in Ten side Ambush that shows the identification of Taiwanese and Chinese. Through these four examples I present a diversity of perceptions and interpretations of the works between different people, such as composers, creators, and audiences. Theoretical Framework Semiotic Framework Every visual and aural element of staging contains the potential to convey meaning to audiences. Meanings might be intentionally or unin tentionally prescribed by presenters, such as composers, creators, choreographers, and directors. Presenters communicate with their audiences through the artistic signs they perform. The way of ence and his or her own perspectives. The audiences also interpret the signs through their own life experiences, educational backgrounds, generational affiliation, and other aspects of their own history. Therefore, one particular element of staging may be interpreted differently by different can be anything that is perceived by an observer which stands for or calls to mind something else and by doing so creates an effect Peirce distinguished three basic ways or categories in which signs and their objects are related to each other: symbol icon and index Symbols involve primarily linguistic definitions and propositions. Symbolic communication is estab lished through social agreement. In iconic and indexical communication on the other hand, linguistic definitions and social agreement are not needed. In artistic communication, it is the indexical and iconic realms that are most important. Therefore, in th is thesis, I focus primarily on the iconic and indexical levels to understand how aspects of staging and
18 presentation are perceived by the presenters and audiences. A symbol is a sign whose meaning is primarily established through linguistic definition an d socially agreement. That is, the symbol sign usually refers to language or a system of graphic notations like a musical score. The meaning behind the words and notes of a musical scores accounts for its symbolic meaning but does not reveal the full meani ng of utterances and musical performances because iconic and indexical processes are also present. Moreover, in order to successfully communicate the meaning between presenters and receivers (audiences), the definition of words and scores has to be agreed by their society. For example, for an audience member who does not understand Mandarin, a Mandarin character displayed in the back scene of Ten Side Ambush might be interpreted merely as an icon of a generic Chinese writing system. However, for a Taiwanese or Chinese person, the characters evoke not only their iconic daily reading of such characters, but also hold rich indexical meanings. An icon is a way that people connect an object to a sign through some sort of perceived quality of resemblance or simil arity. If a specific melodic sequence is familiar to an audience member, this melody may act in an iconic way allowing for him to recognize it, and relate this melody to a particular song or piece that he has previously heard. Also, individual listeners mi ght link a melody to a general category of melodies (genre or style) because of shared melodic qualities (such as similar sequences of intervals). An instrument can also be an icon for audiences to distinguish where the music is from, Western or Eastern, o r even to pinpoint a particular country. Although
19 affect the interpretation o f a sign that presented intentionally by presenter. This is how Thomas Turino (2008) 5 own life experience. A traditional example of a Chinese written lyric might operate for Taiwanese as an iconic sign of the Taiwanese writing system, but for most Americans or Europeans, Chinese writing characters are not part of their life experience and do not communicate to them as icons of Taiwanese writing. People who have no Chinese educational backgrou nd likely would not recognize the difference between traditional Chinese characters and simple Chinese characters. Therefore, the perception of this icon would be different between people who lived in China and Taiwan and the people who lived outside of th ese areas. An index is also a type of sign that is interpreted by people according to their own experiences of linking specific signs and objects together. The meaning of indexical signs arises from the fact that the sign and object are experienced togeth er. That is, the sign is linked to its object through co occurrence. A fire truck siren (sign) might remind people about fire, because in the actual life, every time when the siren rings, there is a fire. An example given by Turino is that if a song was br oadcasted in a commercial advertisement again and again, the song will be an indexical sign for the advertisement. People will link the song to the product because they co occur in an advertisement. Another example is a national anthem. When people hear a particular melody when standing to salute the flag of a nation or when being told to stand and honor their country, as the melody can serve as an indexical sign for people to link the song to a f interpretation of indexical 5 Turino Thomas, Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation Chicago: The Chicago University Press, 2008.
20 signs, because, as Turino mentions, the perception of this type of sign is based on actual experiences. Indexes are somewhat unpredictable in that no two individuals have identical life experiences. However, groups of people d o share common experiences and this leads to the powerful nature of indexes to create common meanings among people with common experiences. Artists can use a staging material or a musical melody to serve as indexical sign for general common sign for audien ces within a particular space, environment, or time period. To sum up, in this thesis, I apply semiotic theory, including the symbols, indexical, and iconic aspects, to the analysis of staging materials presented in this two instrumental theater works. I further study how those signs and objects relationships links to the shifting aspects of national identity in Taiwan. Musical Nationalism The theatrical works present the signs on the stage that has the message of national identity is a main focus in this thesis. By national identity, Thomas Turino (2003) 6 describes that nation is an identity unit whose members define themselves as a nation in relation to having or aspiring to their own state by legal sanction. That is, people regarded themselves in a part icular region and related themselves to the culture, language, and life within this region, living with those characteristics to identify themselves from other people of other space, also they have the legally right to agree concept of their territory is t heir nation. Within this framework, cultural activities are frequently interpreted as expression of the nation, and people use such signs to distinguish themselves from the other nations. 6
21 This is cultural nationalism and when the cultural expressions invo lve music, one can refer to this as musical nationalism. Both artists and non artists are involved in the policies and artistic production of musical nationalism. The non artists include the governmental officials and non governmental authorities that have the power to influence artistic production. They affect changes in national identity through policy and appropriate the certain cultural activities to create the emblems of the nation. For instance during the Japanese colonial period, the Japanese colonia l government in Taiwan implemented policies that inserted Japanese musical elements into Taiwan. They wanted the musical life of Taiwan to include Japanese musical styles and elements. Artists frequently use their works to present their identity by manipu lating the artistic materials in their work. This can lead to a change in life experiences and hence, the cultural formation of identities changes. In the two theatrical works that are analyzed later in this thesis, the pentatonic scale and use of local fa consciously intended by Huang Chen Ming to convey a sense of traditional Taiwanese musical identity. 7 Those were elements selected by Huang so that Taiwanese audiences would recognize and indexically link this to their life experience o f Taiwanese identity. Methodology This thesis presents the understanding of the way musical and theatrical signs in the two instrumental theatrical pieces have been employed to create a sense of Taiwanese national identity, relating music to the context of historical development, social context, and the semiotic functions within Taiwanese society. In order to approach 7 Hung Min, Hung, The Inherited of Traditional Music in China from Geographic View Taiwan : Tainan National University of the Arts, Graduate School of Ethnomusicology, 2003.
22 this research, I went through three major processes: data collection, personal interviews, and analysis of performance practices of these t wo instrumental Theater works, Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King I then cross analyzed the data information from the content of the interviews program notes, and historical accounts and the musical and theatrical analyses. I gathered the dat a from a variety of different sources. First, I researched information about the Chai Found Workshop, including their news, website, and other publications. I also collected information from dissertations and articles written by the musicians who participa ted in the workshop. These data reveal the interpretation of Taiwanese music from the composers and performers perspectives. Second, I collected data from other scholars, which also include articles, dissertations, concert reviews, newspaper clippings, and press conferences that related to traditional Taiwanese music and more specifically to these two instrumental theater works. This information presents diverse perspectives of traditional Taiwanese music and the perceptions differ from those composers and musicians. In other words, those data represent one part of audiences view about Chai Found and their music. This information accounts for a broader view of the Chai Found Workshop and perspective on the definition and interpretation of Taiwanese music. T he last part of this source of data comes from my readings of historical textbooks and other scholarship. I draw on these sources of information to reveal the shifting concepts and roles of traditional music within the context of Taiwanese political histor y. I focus on three different historical periods, 1) Japanese colonization (1895 1945), 2) Republic of China under two Chiang presidencies (1946 1986), and 3) the recent period
23 of multi party democracy (1987 present). This analysis allows me to explore how politics musical identity. Formal interviews are the second method of collecting information in this research. I employ a structured set of questions to ask of the informants in personal interviews. I interviewed the composer Huang Chen Ming and one of the musicians, Wu Tsung Hsien, from Chai Found Workshop. Second, I conducted question response questionnaires through email. Most of these questions are about their pe rspectives of Taiwanese musical theater and how individuals interpret music, acting, and dancing in relation to Taiwanese national identity. Furthermore, I draw on the interviews to gain information eatrical works and how they present their idea of traditional Taiwanese music. In the analysis of these two theatrical works, I utilized the DVDs, CDs and scores. The former two products were published by Chai Found Workshop but the later one, scores, is unpublished. I was able to secure the score for five acts of Ten side Ambush and first part of The Journey of Monkey King from the composer, Huang Chen Ming. In order to combine the signs of staging materials with the Peircian semiotic theory, I separate t he elements into musical and theatrical components. In the musical part, my analysis includes melody, intervals, harmony, and timbre. From the theatrical elements, I include stage settings, back scenes, and costumes. With the information described above, I cross analyzed the information and present the relationship between the semiotic presentation in these two theatrical works and historical matters.
24 Literature Review Understanding the complexity of theatrical presentation explored in these two instrumen tal theatrical works requires information and knowledge from different disciplines of scholarly writing. I consulted works on Taiwanese political history as well as those more specifically on musical history in the island. I also consulted works explaining semiotic theory in relation to musical nationalism. Analyzing historical sources helps to explain the complex combination of Taiwanese, Chinese, and Japanese musical heritage in Taiwan. Historical sources can also help clarify the colonial situation that affected Taiwanese musical development and the complicated issues of national identity. Moreover, it also helps to understand the historical relationship between Chinese culture and Taiwanese culture. The main Hi story of Taiwanese Music Chieh Ying Colonial Imagination and Cultural Writing of the Postwar Taiwanese Popular Songs 1950 1970, Colonization Period: The Critique and Inspiration from the Japanization Education A Short History of Taiwan: The Case for Independence. These sources describe the political and musical history of the island that were key to the development national musical culture. This histo rical context helps to understand the meaning of the particular signs presented in the two theatrical works and the way these elements link to Taiwanese, Chinese, and Japanese heritage on the island. Linking to the political historical development is the emergence of a Taiwanese national identity. The knowledge of musical nationalism can help to understand the
25 na: Musical Representation The Reception and Rejection of Japanese Cultural to Taiwanese: Colonization, Modernization, and Cultural Identity Taiwan and Chinese Nationalism: Nationa l Identity and Status in International Society his book Ethnicity, Identity, and Music: The Musical Constructi on of Place From these sources, I apply issues of political identity to issues to the musical and cultural interpretation. Those resources enable me to describe and analyze the notion of colonialism and political power that influenced the artistic express ion. In addition, I examine books and articles about semiotics of art (music, theater and edited book East of West: Cross Cultural Performance and the St aging of Difference, Music as Social Life were all consulted The understanding of semiotic theory through these resources allows me to correlate hi storical data with the generation of meaning through the interpretation of signs presented in the two instrumental theater works. Moreover, I also used that theoretical framework to analyze the different perception between presenter and receiver, using the semiotic theory to link the signs with the idea of national identity. Finally, the source of Chai Found Workshop and the studies of Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King play a major role of examining the subject matter. Therefore, the biograph y, articles, and the dissertation by Huang Chen Ming are
26 The Modernity of Traditional Instruments Using an Ensemble of Silk and Bamboo Music as an Example ; Huang Tien Yin, The Contemporary Discovery of Traditional Music: Chair Found Workshop, Silk Music Ten Side Ambush of Chai Found Workshop Kuan, The Exploration of Traditional Instrumental Music. Aboriginal Music, Nanguan Beiguan Taiwanese Opera Music and Chinese Music Aboriginal music refers to the music of the local Taiwanese aboriginal tribes. Their language and culture are part of the larger Austronesian world, which refers to the native peoples in Oceania and Southeast Asia. 8 There are two groups of aborigines in Taiwan, one group is from mountains, and the other one is from the plains region. They mostly ar e small scale societies with musical cultures of primarily vocal repertoires as they use only a few musical instruments, sometimes only in particular ceremonies. Their singing styles feature call and response organization 9 and they frequently combine music with dancing and social action, such as working or sending messages to other people. Nanguan music originated from Fujiang, southern China. Lu Yu Hsiu asserts that there is no specific evidence to prove when Nanguan immigrated to Taiwan. However, accord ing to P hi K i, the Nanguan were already in Taiwan at least from the late 8 Ching Ming, Chen, Huang Chao Jen, and Shih Chih Hui, Knowledge of Taiwan Taiwan: Li Ming Cultural Enterprise Co. Ltd. 1996. 9 Chang Hui, Hsu, The First Edition of Taiw an Music History Taiwan: Quan Yin Musical Score Publication 1996.
27 1650s. Nanguan musical ensembles contain four to ten musicians who perform in the clubs, 10 tea houses, and temple during celebrations and ceremonial events. Naguan instruments ca n be divided into five instruments, and paiban 11 The former two are plucked instruments; the third one is an aerophone; rxin is a bowed instrument, and the last one is percussion. Nanguan pipa is different with the Chines e pipa The former one usually is played in horizontal position, but the latter one is usually played in vertically position. The shape of sanxian is similar in different places, but the size of nanguan sanxian is relatively small than the Beijing sanxian. The pitch is also higher. is also similar in diverse areas, even to the Japanese shakuhachi Musicians play it in vertical position. derived from the same erhu family, and has two strings and made of wood. The performing style of nanguan music mostly consists of a m ain melody and ornaments. It seldom contains obvious harmony between different melodic lines. Beigaun music came from northern China. It has a very long history and probably dates to around the middle of 17 th century. 12 Similar to nanguan there is no so lid evidence to prove when beigaun music first arrived in Taiwan but it thrived around the early 20 th century throughout the island. It features many different musical genres and performance ensembles. It could be played by a small ensemble with silk and b amboo instruments; it could be a big band that comprises percussions and winds; it also could 10 The nanguan club is similar to the club of Jiangnan Sizhu music club where the musicians play music in it. Those musicians mostly are members in the clubs but sometimes not depend on th e rules of each club. 11 Asian Music 19, No.2 (Spring Summer, 1988): 31 70. 12 Journal of Wuhan Cons ervatory of Music China, (1:93): 42 49.
28 be a performing group that contains both instrumental music and singing. Therefore, the number of musicians used to perform beigaun music ranges from two to fifte en. Beigaun music is usually performed in or around religious temples because the music almost always serves a religious function. The Gongche notation system for this music is similar to nanguan but the melodic qualities are slightly different. The major instruments in b eiguan contain percussion, bowed string instruments, and aerophone instruments. The musical sounds of these instruments are louder than nanguan Taiwanese opera, according to Hsu Chang Hui,(1996) 13 is the only musical type that originated in Taiwan. However, Lu Yu Hisu (2009) 14 also mentions that it was actually inherited from southern China. Because the opera came to Taiwan a very long time ago (according to Lu Yu Hsiu, it probably thrived in Taiwan around late 19 th century), it was combine d with Taiwanese indigenous music performing styles, lyric settings, Taiwanese opera originated in Taiwan. In addition, Taiwanese opera contains acting, moving, and singin g together with the instrumental music accompaniment. There are two different performing styles in Taiwanese opera, one is performed inside and the other one is an out door performance style. The inside performance style served religious and entertainment functions; the later one normally functions only as entertainment. In Taiwan, professional conservatories instruct mainly Chinese music rather than Taiwanese music and the musicians in Chai Found Workshop play Chinese instruments: 13 Chang Hui, Hsu, The First Edition of Taiwan Music History 14 Lu Yu,Hsiu, History of Taiwan Music Taiwan: Wu Nan Cultural Enterprise, 2009.
29 the erhu, pipa, yangqin guzheng etc. Those Chinese instruments and Chinese teachers came to Taiwan from Mainland China with the Republic of China (R.O.C.) government after 1949. The musical aesthetic, style, and performance practices were all imported directly from Mainland China Chu Tuen Ning (2008) 15 describes that this music is now regarded as part of Taiwanese music heritage, but the more acceptable category is and culture from Chinese heritage. They are not calling themselves Chinese people, but were Chinese descendants. For example, the people from Singapore, or elsewhere in the world rather than in Mainland China. Do the musical works Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King count as his idea of Taiwanese music. But for some audiences, the inclusions of elements such as Japanese taiko drums make the works less Taiwanese. In chapter 2, I present historical a nd political background that created a multilayered Taiwanese musical identity including Chinese, Japanese, and other foreign element into Taiwanese national identity. 15 Yuen Ning, Chu, The Discussion of Contemporary Chinese Musical Orchestr a Little Giant Chinese Chamber Orchestra as Example Taiwan: National Taiwan Normal University, 2008.
30 CHAPTER 2 THE BACKGROUND OF TA IWANESE MUSIC Taiwanese political history affects the national identity and their interpretation of artistic elements presented in traditional musical performances. In this chapter, I describe how political power has been used actively to shape the musical components of national identity in traditional Taiwanese music. This is the context in which the two instrumental theater works, Ten Side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King were created. Within the last one hundred years, Taiwan has experienced three major periods of political rule, 1) Japanese colonization (1895 1945), 2) Republic of China under two Chiang presidencies (1946 1986), 1 and 3) the recent period of multi party democracy (1987 present). 2 Each government has used political power to control what genres of music on the island were taught in schools and conservatories were performed and broadcast in the media, and how the history of Taiwanese music would be represented. These policies affected the way Taiwanese musical heritage was perceived by the Taiwanese people. Government officials used legal restrictions to manipulate musical style, aesthetics, lyrical content, and the music education. Their attempt was to mold Taiwanese music according to their political agenda. This impacted traditional music and popul ar music. 1 Makeham, John, and A chin Hsiau ed. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua New York: Palgrave Maccmillan, 2005. John defines this period from 1946 1980s, the two Chiang Presidents, were the first and second president in Taiwan after the Japanese colonization. They came from mainland China, and their governments and political behaviors were directly inherited from o ld government of Republic of China back to mainland China. 2 Makeham, John people more freedom and power to control their own life. The government at this period transformed from a monocracy two presidents Chiangs to a more democratic government.
31 Taiwan has a long history of close interaction with China and Japan because of its geographical position and historical events. Before 1895, the island of Taiwan was a province of China and its political, cultural, and musical identities were cl osely linked to the Mainland. However, this changed when Japan occupied Taiwan in 1895. The following fifty years of Japanese colonial rule transformed Taiwanese to include Japanese elements into an already complex and layered set of national elements. Thi s understanding of Taiwanese national identity found in traditional Taiwanese musical performing practice. The Taiwanese Musical History Japanese Colonization (1895 1945) I n the late 19th century, the Japanese extended their territories and started to occupy the surrounding countries, including Taiwan. In 1894, Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China, was defeated by the Japanese as a result of the First Sino Japanese War. 3 This was a war between Japan and China over the control of the Korean peninsula. The result of losing the war for the Qing Dynasty was to surrender the possession of many of its territories. The Treaty of Shimonoseki 4 ( ) was signed at the hall on April 17, 1895, for which Taiwan was officially ceded to the Japanese who would control the island for the next fifty years. 5 3 t time designated, a sexagenarian cycle of naming the year. The 1895 was the first sino year. 4 The punishment for Japanese in this treaty was to surrender and gave Taiwan back to Mainland China. 5 Gary Marvin, Davison, A Short History of Taiwan: The Cas e for Independence London: Praeger, 2003.
32 During the early period of Japanese colonial rule, many Taiwanese refused to obey the Japanese led government and resisted assimilation into the Japanese culture being imported into Taiwan. In response, the Japanese acted to quell the local Taiwanese resistance and moved to restrict elements of Chinese cultural heritage in the island. The Japanese also used their political power to suppress Taiwanese indigenous cultures and assimilate the indigenous population into Japanese life styles. This kind of strat egy that the Japanese used to dominate the various colonial territories they occupied and to assimilate local populations into the dominant culture. This was not the first time that Japanese had annexed surrounding countries; Hokkai do and Okinawa are two o ther examples. Before these territories became part of Japan, they were independent countries, but their aboriginal languages 6 and customs were virtually wiped out by the Japanese after 1879. In 1889, Japan intended to repeat the same action with Taiwan af ter signing the Treaty of Shimonoseki. There were many announcements from different Japanese governmental departments. First, the Ministry of Education promulgated a new policy on the usage of language that mandated the use of Japanese language for officia l business and in all educational contexts. During this period, Chinese Mandarin and indigenous Taiwanese languages, such as Ti un Hakka dialect (two indigenous Taiwanese languages), were forbidden. Furthermore, in the area of religion, the Taiwan ese had to follow the rules of which is an amalgamation of Kami and Buddhas. Kami is a word of spirit and faith; 7 Buddhas is a 6 Hokkaido original language is Aninu and Okinawa is Ryukyuan 7 Unknown, The Kami Way; an introduction to Shrine Shinto, Tokyo, International Institute for the Study of Religions 1959. Kami is a word that represe nts the Japanese religious spiritual faith.
33 religion and philosophy of belief and practice. 8 Another example of Japanization is that the Chinese traditional Shidian Ceremony ( ), a ceremony that celebrates teachers was replaced by the Japanese Shrine c eremony ( ). From such religious and ceremonial changes, Taiwanese traditional ritual music also changed to include Japanese elements. The Japanese govern ment controlled Taiwanese and Chinese cultural activities in order to prevent pro Taiwanese patriotic sentiment. Lin Zheng Wen and Wu Mi Cha (2004) 9 describe how the Japanese movie policy (put into practice around 1930s 1940s) restricted the type of movies shown to Taiwanese audiences. Although Taiwanese and Chinese movies were not totally prohibited during this period, Japanese colonial administrators frequently cancelled non Japanese movies that became too popular. This indicates that the Japanese understo od that movies and other forms of cultural expression had the potential to inculcate national sentiments among the population and they wanted to control Taiwanese sentiment because the Japanese were afraid that the Taiwanese would rise in revolt against Ja panese colonial control. The restrictions imposed by the Japanese in the area of musical and theatrical performances were even more rigid. Lu Yu Hsiu (2009) 10 mentions that all Taiwanese and Chinese opera, drama, and music were abandoned in the early period of Japanese colonization. Many of the Taiwanese musical and theatrical genres stagnated because 8 W. Mitchell, Donald, Buddhism: Introducing the Buddhist Experience, New York: Oxford imported in Taiwan, it s tarted to spread all over the island and became one of the most important religions in Taiwan. 9 Jo Lin Cheng Wen, and Wu Mi Cha ed., Transcending the Boundary of Taiwanese History: Dialogue with East Asian History Taipei: Sower Cultural Company, 2004. 10 Lu Yu, Hsiu, History of Taiwanese Music
34 of the legal restrictions imposed by the Japanese. Performance groups were required to However, not all traditional performance genres disappeared during this colonial period. In many locations outside of the capital cities, local artists continued to compose and to perform secretly, keeping the Taiwanese and Chinese performance practic es thriving in this island. Wang Ying Fen (2004) 11 mentions that local musicians and buskers still performed on the streets and alleys in the early Japanese colonization period, but as mentioned before, many of artists were compelled to change their style o f performance to conform to the Japanese musical aesthetics. This was how they survived as professional artists during the Japanese period. Deng Yu Xian was a composer whose music was affected by the Japanese in both explicit and implicit ways. Deng was b orn in 1906, which was during the time the 12 mentions that during this period, music education required singing and learning Japanese music. The teaching and singing of enka (a type of Japanese popular music based on Japanese traditional musical style) w as an example of how the Japanese infused their culture through musical education in Taiwan. Moreover, according to Huang Yu Yuan (2007), 13 the Japanese government forced the Taiwanese to listen to Japanese music on the radio, on television, and in school. Such policies brought 11 Taiwan National University Humanity Taiwanica 61, (11, 2004): 1 24. 12 Song, 2001 http://www.taiwan123.com.tw/musicface/face03 2.htm (accessed online 1/26/201 2) 13 Yu Yuan, Huang, The Development of Taiwanese Popular Music from 1945 1971 Master Thesis of Graduate School of History of National Central University, 2000.
35 Japanese music into the everyday listening experiences of the Taiwanese, people, which consequently affected how the Taiwanese music was listened to and composed in this period and for later generations. These were implicit ways that Japanese government sought to transform Taiwanese musical culture to conform to the Japanese models. musi cal culture by mandating that Taiwanese composers write music in the Japanese musical style. They demanded that composers add Japanese lyrics and certain musical elements into the preexisting written Taiwanese musical repertoires. For instance, Deng Yu Xia and to change their titles to Japanese. After originally composing them in Ti un song, but when Japanese lyrics were added, it became a song that about Japanese was composed by Japanese composer, Masao Koga, and the Taiwanese lyric was composed by Chang Yun Shan sung by Taiwanese singer, Chun Chun. Besides the changes i n language of song lyrics during this period, the Japanese also forced composers to compose music in Japanese musical style. Two examples are the songs Taiwanese who lived during th at period now accept those songs with the Japanese lyrics and other Japanese stylistic elements as Taiwanese. If this is correct, one should ask why these songs with the Japanese elements were accepted as Taiwanese and not rejected as foreign? Clearly, thi s question is linked to the indexical associations that the
36 Taiwanese of that generation make in relating Japanese culture to a modern and progressive lifestyle. The Japanese spread its musical culture by bringing new educational approaches, economic deve lopment, and modern forms of communication to Taiwan. This served to link Japanese culture to modernized and internationalized life in the minds of the Taiwanese population. The strategy and policies of the Japanese government were effective and led the Ta iwanese to believe that Japanese culture and lifestyles were superior to that of the Taiwanese. The Japanese also brought progressive medical techniques and technology into Taiwan and improved the infrastructures of cities. Those actions had two important effects. Japanese made the Taiwanese middle class believe that Japanese education was the way to improve their life. Moreover, Taiwanese internalized the idea that to become Japanese was to make the Taiwanese more progressive and advanced. Secondly, the Ja panese colonial government reforms did in fact improved the living conditions for many Taiwanese. Japanese rule, according to Wen Ching, made the general population in Taiwan accept Japanese culture as a positive element of their life. The complex issue of this circumstance. The Taiwanese were also struggling between these positive feelings and emotional patriotic sentiments that rejected the Japanese as foreign. Liu Ya Fang (2003) 14 mentions that Taiwanese popular musi c from this period display this conflict 14 : Cultural Studies Monthly 23. (January, 2003) http://www.cc.ncu.edu.tw/~csa/oldjournal/23/journal_park155.htm (accessed online 2/15/2012)
37 for contemporary Taiwanese audiences of later generations, who did not experience Japanese colonization, such songs do not evoke the same memories. When s uch pieces are performed on the stage today, the songs carry different meanings, which was revived as a Taiwanese old popular music by present popular singers. The Western style Taiwanese orchestra Evergreen Symphony Orchestra 15 recorded this song with its original Taiwanese lyrics sung by a choir, which was released on the album titled World Folk Music 16 This recorded version has been used by Eva Airways on their flights to and from Taiwan. As stated in the liner notes of this album, the company wanted the Taiwanese customers to hear a song to make them feel at home. Also, the orchestra performed the song in a cultural exchange concert named Exposition 2010 in Shanghai, China Taiwanese popular music by excluding Japanese associations and any link of Chinese performances. The song is mentioned in the program notes of Taiwanese Spirit Music where it states that composers edited the song in order to include Taiwanese musical melodies both in traditional Chinese orchestra and Western Orchestra. These examples suggest that the policies of the Japanese government to explicitly and implicitly control the music in Taiwan during the Japanese colonization 15 16 Taiwanese Folk Song Suite of World Folk Music 2004. Eva Airline Boarding Music Collectable. CD ROM. Chang Yung Fa Foundation.
38 period had a long lasting impact on Taiwanese musical identities. This further affected subsequent interpretations of songs, musicals, and even elements presented in theatrical productions. For example, the Japanese taiko drum performance used in the theatrical work Ten side Ambush could be interpreted by a younger generation as a distinct form of Japanese music, but for older audiences who lived during the Japanese colonization period, it might be interpreted as Taiwanese music because Japan is part of their national constructed identity. For the older generations, Japanese taiko performance does not just evoke a sense of Japanese music, it is also reminds them of the music they heard and experienced as part of the Taiwan that they experienced in their youth. Republic of China under Two Chiang Presidencies: World War II (1937 1986) In 1937, at the beginning of the War, most Taiwanese art performances were not permitted. According to the Hsu Chang Hui (1996) 17 during the war, the Japanese g was considered of importance. As a result, the development of Taiwanese traditional music was in stagnation. After the eight years of World War II ended, Taiwanese cultural activities were transformed as the laws began to change to allow local indigenous and Chinese related art forms to be performed once again. Taiwan was in an ambiguous position during the war. On one side, many Taiwanese had to fight for the Japanese and against the Taiwanese and Chinese who opposed Japanese rule. The Taiwanese army was forced to treat the pro Chinese 17 Chan g Hui, Hsu, The First Edition of Taiwan Music History
39 opposition movement on the island as their enemy. In addition, the Japanese government repressed any local culture that related to Chinese or Taiwanese heritage. As a result, a struggle to define national because they had to fight their own neighbors for Japanese, but at the same time Japanese also denied older forms of Taiwanese national identity by suppressing local and Chinese heritage culture. This struggle a lso involved musical preservation. According to Wang Ying Fen (2004), 18 after the Japanese rule ended, there was a dilemma that the new Taiwanese government faced: should they preserve the Japanese influenced culture or seek to revive older Taiwanese and Ch inese musical heritage? In 1945, the Japanese surrendered Taiwan to the Republic of China (R.O.C.) and the old Japanese law, which forbade the playing of Chinese and Taiwanese music, was rescinded. However, a complex set of local, Chinese, and now Japanes e elements comprised the culture of Taiwanese. In 1949, the R.O.C. officials and its military personnel fled from the communist takeover of the mainland and established the R.O.C. government in Taiwan. Because those higher governmental officials came from Mainland China, they tended to protect their old heritages. Lu Yu Hsiu (2009) 19 mentions that Chinese artists and Chinese style arts were supported by during this time. The R.O.C. government in Taiwan funded the music, drama, and theater from Mainland China, and developed national forms in Taiwan that derived from Chinese artistic this period. Moreover, the government also founded new Chinese musical schools and 18 19 Lu Yu, Hsiu, History of Taiwanese Music
40 clubs to ma intain their traditions. While the R.O.C. government supported Chinese cultural heritage, it simultaneously suppressed the local indigenous Taiwanese cultural heritage. It also announced an anti communist propaganda, which prohibited any connection to co communist sentiments, and called for the reunification of China as a requirement in all Taiwanese schools. Therefore, confusion regarding national id entity appeared among the Taiwanese population, mainly because the R.O.C. government put two policies into practice. First, it suppressed the local Taiwanese culture while simultaneously supporting Chinese cultural and identical heritage and secondly, it f orbade any Chinese in Taiwan to have relationships with mainland communist China. Chu Chien Ying (2011) 20 describes that the pre communist Chinese popular music of mainland China also came with the R.O.C. government to Taiwan, and because the first presiden t, Chiang Kai shek, also came from Mainland China, the popular folksong Moreover, the R.O.C. made Mandarin Chinese the official language of Taiwan. The Encyclopedia of Taiwan (2009) 21 language forbidden, but also Taiwanese and Hakka, two other Chinese dialects considered indigenous langua ges of Taiwan. According to the Encyclopedia: 20 Chien Ying,Chu, Colonial Imagination and Cultural Writing of the Pos t War Taiwanese Popular Songs 1950 1970 Master Thesis of Graduate School of Advertising, National Chengchi University, 2011. 21 Encyclopedia of Taiwan Taipei: Council for Cultural Affairs, Executive Yuan, 2009.
41 The government aimed to instill Mandarin through the educational system along with the use of administrative resources, social education and the mass media as well as by restricting and forbidding the use and ethnic groups. 22 In line with language restrictions, during the early period after World War II the R.O.C. government also imposed strict policies to repress the in digenous Taiwanese musical and theatrical performances. For example, Taiwanese folksongs, opera with local Taiwanese elements and instrumental music were prohibited. The R.O.C. he effect of the policy was to associate Chinese songs and musical forms as the Taiwanese new musical heritage. This was similar to the policies put in place during the Japanese colonization. However, not all the Taiwanese conformed to the new Chinese form of Taiwanese national identity supported by the R.O.C. government. 23 In this early period (around 1950 1970), Taiwanese identity was layered and manifested different orientations. Some of people still regarded the Japanese element to be part of their Taiw anese identity. Other Taiwanese were dominated by the ideas of Taiwanese determined by the government policy and educational system. Fu Chang Wang (1994) 24 explains that the R.O .C. government in Taiwan retains the idea of a Taiwanese had to learn about Mainland China, including geography, history, culture, 22 Ibid. 23 Chen Feng, Shih, Taiwanese National Identity Taipei: Avantgarde, 2000. 24 The first Taiwanese Political Science Annul Dissertation Conference 1994.
42 25 Taiwanese students of the time internalized the idea of Taiwan as part of China. Although government officials from mainland were in the minority, they dominated an military forces stationed in Taiwan. For some Taiwanese, the island was experiencing a second colonial period, now by the new R.O.C. government. Material Law Order was put into practice by Taiwanese R.O.C. government, which repressed democracy and curt ailed cultural development. Chang and Chen (2009) 26 mention that the R.O.C. government prohibited the Taiwanese from forming cultural groups that were not approved by the government during this period. Also the Taiwanese government authorized its military t o control social order in Taiwanese, and to support the repression of any anti government forces and imprisoned political dissidents. In this political context, Taiwanese indigenous and traditional musics were olicy of supporting Chinese heritage, local culture and life styles were forced to conform to an old, pre communist Chinese model. This not only changed the musical style but also the perception of Taiwanese musical identity. Chinese musical heritage becam e the only officially supported music allowed to be performed publicity in Taiwan. The Recent Period of Multi Party Democracy (1980 present) The issue of national identity spread out in Taiwanese people, following a series of 25 Makeham John, Cultural, Ethnic 26 Yen Hsien, Chang, and C hen Mei Jung ed., The Collection Thesis of The White Terror and Transition of Justice during Material Law Order Taiwan: Wu San Lian Taiwanese Historical Data Fundamental Association, 2009.
43 political incidents 27 that hap pened around 1980 that isolated Taiwan from the 28 Before these incidents, Taiwan had been treated as a legitimate country recognized by the United Nations and most of the other countries i n the world. But now, according to United Nations, the only legitimate representative of China was the communist controlled citizens still regarded themselves as a nation disti nct from Mainland China. Two other important political events occurred, the end of the Material Law Order and the founding of the Democratic Progressive Party. These two events meant that the government did away with policies mandating Chinese cultural her itage in Taiwan and allowed citizens the freedom to form cultural and political groups that were not supported by the R.O.C. government. As a result, Taiwanese began to revisit and reconstruct their national identity and cultural identity. As Taiwanese sch olars, politicians, and educators announced their own interpretations of Taiwanese identity, the idea of Taiwanese Music changed. Taiwan national identity was further enhanced through the direct presidential lection Taiwanese president Lee Teng Hui. Interesting enough, President Lee had experienced Japanese colonization and had a Japanese name which he kept for the rest of his life. Shih Chen Feng quotes President Lee Teng 27 28 Lu Yu, Hsiu, History of Taiwanese Music
44 29 Applying this nationali stic concept to the artistic performances, those arts that are performed in Taiwan, continue to be performed by Taiwanese, and that use Taiwanese instrument, are Taiwanese. In this sense, does Japanese music count as Taiwanese music? According to Cai Zhon g De (1990) 30 Japanese music had a very closer connection to the Chinese music extending back to Tang Dynasty 618 907. The central components of Chinese music spread out from this dynasty because at that time, the Tang was the dominant power in the area. T oday, the Japanese lyrics even contain the notation, aesthetics, and is based on a similar theoretical system. Therefore, applying ex sic was once performed in Taiwan and now still has some musicians performing it, Japanese music could be part of Taiwanese music. However, from the founding documents, Taiwanese government did not count ic. Many official government departments, organizations, and institutions put policies in place that defined traditional Taiwanese culture, art, and performance. In1982, the executive branch announced the Cultural Heritage Conservation Law 31 in order to re vive 29 Chen Feng, Shih, Taiwanese National Identity In this book, Shih mentions that these words announced by ex presidents, Lee Teng Huias, which content wa in a semi public speech in 1998. 30 Zhong De, Cai, The Explanation of the Information of Chinese Musical Aesthetic Beijing: 31 Council of Cultural Affair, The preservation law of Cultural Heritage Taiwan: Council of Cultural Affair, 2005.
45 popular folk music (singing folksongs and old popular music), aboriginal music (music from aboriginal tribes, such as Ami, Atayal, Paiwan, Puyuma etc.), nanguan, beiguan, and Taiwanese opera music. Then in 1985, the Ministry of Education held the first year of its National Heritage Awards comprising five different categories of awards: traditional craft, traditional music, traditional drama, traditional acrobatics, and traditional dance. Moreover, in 1989, the Ministry of Education selected several important artists of front of the different domains of arts to emphasize their intention to revive local forms of Taiwanese music. From the government funding of music colleges, the classification also reveals the idea of their definition of traditional Taiwanese music. Arou nd 1985 to 1995, there were drama department founded in Taiwan National College of Performing Arts (1994) specialized in Taiwanese Opera, which featured indigenou s colloquial Taiwanese language and music. The second one followed the same idea, in Taipei National University of the Arts, the department of traditional music was created with divisions in nanguan, beiguan 32 pipa As the evidence shows, those institution s helped developed standard of Taiwanese traditional music. Japanese music, Beijing Opera, and Western classical music were not considered part of traditional Taiwanese perfo rmance and were not included in any of the newly founded schools. The political historical data and the relationship to the traditional Taiwanese music 32 The categorization is from the department of Traditional Music of Taipei National University of the Arts, http://trd music.tnua.edu.t w/en/about/a.html (accessed online 1/16/2012).
46 interpretation and perce ption of musical identity. These effects did not end with the minds and influenced their understanding of what Taiwanese music is. Taiwanese music contains multiple layers, combined with those definitions from former political periods and the present government. Therefore, what can be understood as Taiwanese music reaches to many different explanations. The next section will present those explanations from some of Taiwanese p oliticians and political scholars in order to see how their The Understanding of Taiwanese Music To se t an understanding of traditional Taiwanese music one has to consider the make up of Taiwanese society. Taiwan is an immigrant society because the colonization and transformation of different governments. Therefore, in terms of Taiwanese society, it can be perceived as a combination of cultures, citizens, and even the life styles from former dominant countries and political governments. Traditional Taiwanese music has includes many different music styles, aesthetics, and genres that have developed on this island that could be defined as Taiwanese music. Therefore, I first explain what Taiwanese music is in terms of the history of the different musical genres that have developed in T aiwan. Second, I consider the ways that political scholars have defined Taiwanese music and apply those ideas to further understanding of Taiwanese music. Prior to the 17 th century, Taiwan did not have many written records on which to
47 understand the devel opment of Taiwanese music. 33 Mostly Taiwanese musical historical scholars associate Taiwanese music with its oral history and political written documents. Generally, Taiwanese music can be separated into four different types: Han music, aboriginal music, po pular folk music, and contemporary art music. According to Robert Blust (1999), 34 Taiwanese aboriginal people came to the island from Mainland China before the 17 th century. Their music is often considered the authentic and original Taiwanese music. The cat minds. Most of pieces considered popular folk music have been popular within the Taiwanese society for a long time. Even though people intended to question whether they are Taiwanese music or not aesthetics. The musical styles were not in herited from the Chinese, any other aboriginals, or others of Asian heritages; therefore, most Taiwanese scholars exclude contemporary music from traditional Taiwanese music. While most Taiwanese consider aboriginal and popular folk music from the island to be authentically Taiwanese, the status the Han music is controversial. Han music is prevalent in southern China. It is the most prominent music style in China. In Taiwan, Han music is typically divided into two historical periods, music imported to Taiw an before the 20 th century, such as nanguan and beiguan and the music that came from China after 1949 with R.O.C. government, including Beijing opera music, Kunqu and 33 Lu Yu, Hsiu, History of Taiwanese Music 34 In Selected papers fr om the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics Taipei: Academia Sinica, (1999): 31 94.
48 Qinqiang 35 Older forms of Han music are treated somewhat like aboriginal music, because they have been present on the island long enough for people to regard it as genuinely Taiwanese. However, the music brought from the Mainland with the R.O.C. government after 1949 is hotly debated in relation to Taiwanese national identity. Japanese musi c used to be taught, sung, and performed in Taiwan, but since the end of World War II it has not been regarded as part of Taiwanese music by the government. The government tried to get rid of the vestiges of Japanese colonization even tho ugh the elder generation loved to listen, and to sing Japanese music. The musical style, aesthetics, and even the performing characteristic are similar to Taiwanese music, but for the political reason, it has been excluded from the Taiwanese musical system The debates of the definition of a Taiwanese citizen are similar to those surrounding the definition of Taiwanese music. Whether we should include the former that we should not include the history of R.O.C. government in Mainland China, because that is the Chinese government. Applying this concept to music will create a similar issue. For some music al scholars, Taiwanese music should include the former Chinese music, regardless of the fact that it came from Mainland China. This section for Taiwanese. I apply tho se ideas from the political point views to musical aspect to 35 Mei, Wu, and Feng Tong Yi, The Introduction of Chinese Drama China: China Renmin University Press. Co., LTD, 2011. Kungu is the oldest Chinese op era wide spread in whole China. Qingiang is a folk Chinese opera popular in northern China.
49 define the Taiwanese music. He categorizes the narrowest view of the Taiwanese as the Holo people who came from Fuji ang, south of China, before World War II But this term has been challenged by aboriginal inhabitants and the Hakka people, who came from Guangdong, a province next to Fujiang. Second, he defines Taiwanese as people who were born and grew up in Taiwan. But this definition excludes those who came to the island from Mainland China after 1949. Finally, he mentioned that after 1990, many people have re defined their ideas about who is authentically Taiwanese to include a broader segment of the population. For example, former president Lee Teng Hui maintains that anyone who lives in Taiwan, whose heart is with Taiwan, and who is willing to fight for Taiwan is Taiwanese. This kind of broad definition includes practically anyone on the island, pote ntially. s and scholars of Taiwanese music often employ such distinctions in their own definitions. According to Lu Yu Hsiu (2003), 36 music made or played by people who came to Taiwan a long time ago. In Lin Chu article (2010), 37 the evidences shows that at least around 1660s, when the Chinese people came to Taiwan, there were already native people on the island. This 36 Lu Yu, Hsiu, History of Taiwanese Music. 37 Lin Chu Cheng, The Study of Luik Tui Chungi Temple and Luik Tui Hakka Social and Cultural Development Taiwan: Nationa l Taitung University, Graduate school of Hakka Cultural Study, 2010.
50 means that they were in Taiwan before 1660s. For that reason, there is no controversy over whethe r aboriginal music counts as Taiwanese music among scholars. Nanguan and Beiguan were imported around the time that Chinese people first came to Taiwan, around 1660s. These two musical genres have been in Taiwan for over four hundred years. From this point aboriginal, Nanguan, and Beiguan music all count as Taiwanese and with less skeptic. Taiwanese opera is another musical genre that is often regarded as authentic Taiwanese music. Although it derives from Beijing opera, it incorporated Taiwanese indigen ous musical elements. For example, Wan Lin Chang (2010) 38 describes that Taiwanese opera music absorbed many elements of indigenous music of Yilan (north east Taiwan) and some popular music from the period of 1945 1965. They even incorporated nanguan and be iguan music into Taiwanese opera. As a result, Taiwanese opera music is also frequently categorized as Taiwanese music. Governmental funding documents show what kind of Taiwanese music they The form Table 2 1 se parates the music in two categories; one is classified as Taiwanese and the other one names Chinese music nanguan, beiguan and Taiwanese opera would be put in this section. other hand, Chinese music that includes the music and instruments that came after 1949 is put in the section of Chinese music. Furthermore, this category also has the 38 Wan Lin, Cheng The Exploration of Taiwanese opera musicians', Tong Su, Chiu Lin Chen and Guan Hua Chen, Taiwanese Popular Songs in Japanese colonial period Taiwan: National Hsinchu Un iversity of Education, 2010.
51 but also the supportive preference of the government. It is evident from Table 2 1, that music put in the Taiwanese category received more f unding than the Chinese category. This chapter has presented the political history that affects the Taiwanese The understanding of Taiwanese musical identity can be perceived in many different ways based on those political periods. However, it is not a separate single identity, but a combination of all former identities, including Japanese, Chinese, and present can be interpreted as both Japanese and Taiwanese because this song has been shaped and the content and lyric setting modified, which affects the meaning of musical identity in this two political periods. Therefore, if a co mposer wants to use a musical component to present Taiwanese music or Japanese music, he has to consider a range of perceptions by the audiences who might have different life experiences and therefore different interpretations of the music. Based on this c oncept, the main instrumental theater works I intend to discuss, Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King contain many of staging and musical elements that could be received as Taiwanese, Chinese, or even Japanese music. While the composer intended to present his own interpretation of traditional Taiwanese music, the staging materials and musical elements can be perceived by different people. It does not mean that there is only one way to interpret Taiwanese music, but all the historical effects will influence the meaning of musical identity.
52 Table 2 1. The Funding survey from National Cultural and Arts Foundation http://www.ncafroc.org.tw/Content/support doc.asp ( accessed online 1/16/20 12). The numbers are the actual numbers of groups that this institution funded. Years Taiwanese Chinese 86 8 4 87 12 2 88 14 8 89 11 5 90 12 6
53 CHAPTER 3 THE CHAI FOUND WORKSHOP AND I TS MUSICIANS In this chapter, I describe t he Chai Found Workshop and discuss how it developed in the context of a changing Taiwanese society. I also present the musical and educational backgrounds of the original six musicians of the group and show how their backgrounds influenced the direction of Chai Found Workshop, the development of their performing style, and the compositional characteristics of the group. The chapter will to the recent period, presenting the opinions of the members about Taiwanese music and showing how they created these two instrumental theatrical works to be further analyzed in chapter 4. Chai Found Workshop The Chai Found Workshop was founded in 1991 among a group of professional musicians in Taiwan who specialized in traditional Taiwanese and Chinese instrumental ensemble music. The aim of the workshop was to revive not only traditional Taiwanese heritage. 1 The six musicians of the group performed on a variety of instruments derived from Chinese musical heritage: Huang Chen Ming (erhu), Lin Jui Kuan (pipa), Wu Tsung Hsien (di), Yeh Chuan Jeng (guzheng), Li Shu Fen (ruan), and Liang Yen Ping (yangqin). On the grou Chai Found workshop encompasses six instruments, which are the most representative of Chinese music, including bowed, plucked, bass, and wind instruments. This organization is able not only to preserve the plentiful 1 Chai Found Workshop website, http://www.cfmw.com.tw/ (accessed online 2/1/2012)
54 characteristics of the traditional music of both Taiwanese and Chinese, but also to extend the possibility of creating a new style of traditional music. 2 This statement makes it clear that the group was interested in not only preserving the ven erable traditions from Taiwan and China but also in creating a new and modern style of traditional music. Their choice of instruments reflected their desire to draw on Chinese music traditions that have influenced Taiwanese music. The erhu is a bowed instr ument with two strings. It contains a long vertical wooden neck with two pegs on the top, connecting to a cylindrical sound box covered with snakeskin. The bow is made of a reed and the strands comprise horsehair running between two strings. This basic typ e of erhu is commonly found in Mainland China and in Taiwan. In addition to being used as an accompaniment instrument in theater productions and in traditional ensembles like nanguan rxian the erhu has also developed into solo instrument since the mid tw entieth century. 3 Contemporary composers frequently base their erhu music compositions on Chinese musical structures and styles, such as pentatonic scale, but also incorporate elements from Western violin music (such as extending the performance practice f rom the traditional 1 st or 2 nd positions into 3 rd and 4 th position. 4 The di is a transverse flute similar to a Western flute, but is made of bamboo. It has six finger holes on top, an embouchure hole, and an additional hole covered by a thin membrane which vibrates to produce a characteristic buzzing sound. 5 Each di 2 Ibid. 3 The Galpin Society Journa l 46 (Mar, 1993): 83 113. 4 I Fang, Chen, Thesis, Taiwan: Tainan National University of the Arts, 2005. 5 Witzieben, J. Lawrence, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: Vol.7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea New York: Routledge, 2001.
55 contains approximately two and half octaves and comes in a diversity of sizes and pitch ranges according to the theatrical context in which it is used. In northern theater music, 6 the di used is a short one and the pitch range is similar to the western piccolo, which is fourth or fifth higher than the di flute used in kunqu. 7 However, the di used by Wu in the Chai Found Workshop is rare in Taiwanese music. The wind instruments used primarily in nangaun and beiguan are known as or suona 8 which musicians play in vertical positions in contrast to the transverse di Pipa is a four stringed plucked instrument with a pear shaped body made of wood and is mo re than one meter in length. The front soundboard is flat while the back soundboard is curved. The instrument contains four tuning pegs at the top of the neck. The instrument used by the Chai Found group is a Chinese pipa This instrument is different from the nanguan pipa in several ways. First, the Chinese pipa that Lin plays has 30 frets, while the nanguan pipa mostly contains 13 to 15 frets. Therefore, the pitch range of Chinese pipa (three and half octaves from A to e3) is greater than the nanguan tch range (normally one and a half to two octaves). Second, musicians play the Chinese pipa in a vertical position in contrast to the nanguan which they play in a horizontal position. The ruan that Li plays in Chai Found group comes from Mainland China a nd is a 6 theater, is a folk opera popular in northeast of China. The style contains many northern musical styles, such as disjunction melody and percussion sound. 7 Asian Theatre Journal 5, No. 1 ( Spring, 1968): 38 48. Kunqu is an oldest Chinese opera spread out from the Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. 8 Witzieben, J. Lawrence, The Garland Encyclopedia Two wind instruments commonly used in China and Taiwan. They both performed in vertical and with out membrane. is produced the sound by blowing the wind into the tube and the suona is produced the sound by vibrating the reeds as same as oboe.
56 four stringed instrument with round belly and a neck with four pegs on the top came. It is different than the ruan found in Taiwanese folk music, which contains only two strings and a fewer number of frets. In Taiwan, the Chinese style ruan is used in the Chinese orchestra and also as a solo instrument, but the Taiwanese ruan is mostly played as an accompaniment to singing. 9 In addition, the professional conservatories in Taiwan primarily teach the Chinese ruan rather than the Taiwanese ruan Guzheng is Chinese plucked box zither with either a curved or flat bottom and an arched top. The number of strings range from 13 to 25 and is set on movable bridges, which are adjusted according to the melody being performed. The instrument was developed f rom the ancient Chinese se a relative of other Asian zithers such as Japanese koto and Korean gayageum The musical style before the 19 th century featured the pentatonic scale, but in the 20 th century, experimental music elements expanded the possibilitie s of guzheng Guzhen g is not used in nangaun or beigaun music nor in Taiwanese opera music. Yangqin is Chinese hammered dulcimer originally believed to have originated in Turkey. It was introduced to China in the 14 th century, where it developed i nto a distinct Chinese instrument. In an interview, Chang Ya Chun (2011), 10 called the yangqin by its yangqin instead and she people, the name yangqin links the instrument to the ancient influence of the West. It 9 Yu Jing, Tsai, Ruan Music Master Thesis, Taiwan: Tainan National University of the Arts, 2010. 10 Chang Ya Chun, Informal Interview from Facebook by author, 12/06/2011.
57 contains a trapezoidal wooden sound box and the strings are set on i mmovable bridges. Two to four strings are tuned together to produce each note on the instrument and the pitch range is from two to four octaves. This instrument is also not used in Taiwanese nanguan and beiguan music. As with the ruan the yangqin is taugh t primarily in professional conservatories in Taiwan. The Chai Found Workshop occasionally uses Chinese percussion in its performances including luo (Chinese gong), ba (Chinese cymbal), and gu (Chinese drum) Usually those percussions are played by the yangqin musician, because in Taiwan, if you learn yangqin in a conservatory, you also have to learn to play percussion. When Chai Found Workshop to presents big musical productions such as the Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King they typically add Chinese percussion into performance. Huang also uses Japanese taiko drums. The six instruments main instruments and most of the percussion are Chinese instruments that were brought to Taiwan with the old R.O.C. government after 1949. The variety of in struments allows the workshop to combine elements from contemporary Western art music with traditional Taiwanese and Chinese music. Why are members of the Chai Found Workshop experts in Chinese instead of Taiwanese musical instruments? And why did they re ceive state funding in order to establish this workshop? The answers to these questions are connected to the political situation of Taiwan during the time they founded this workshop. Around 1991, Taiwanese society was not as open as it is today. Before 1 987, the Taiwanese were not allowed to organize political or even private cultural and artistic
58 ending the Materials Law Order (1987), not only allowed but also encouraged t he creation of private performance groups in Taiwan and subsequently many local performance groups and arts organizations were founded. New groups representing a variety of traditions and performing styles within Taiwanese society were established. For ins tance, the Contemporary Legend Theater (1986), a group of dancers and actors that focuses on Beijing opera performance and maintains traditional Chinese theatrical aesthetics was founded as was and the Taipei Silk Bamboo Ensemble (1988), the first silk bam boo ensemble established in Taiwan. Chai Found Workshop was part of this new wave of performing arts groups established at this time. However, the Chai Found group and others of the time did not focus on Taiwanese traditions; instead, Chinese artistic her itage was a central concern of many of these new performance groups. I argue that there were two primary reasons that the groups founded at this time were connected primarily to art performance traditions from Mainland China. The first reason was that the R.O.C. government had a long history of supporting Chinese artistic heritage in Taiwan and many professional Taiwanese musicians had been trained in these privileged traditions. The new Contemporary Legend Theater and Taipei Silk Bamboo Ensemble were likel y a result of this. The musicians that were in the Chai Found Workshop were also professional performers of important Chinese musical instruments: erhu pipa and guzheng among others. The second was that those performers had been forced to separate thems elves from the art of Mainland China for a long time because of the Materials Law Orders. As a result, contemporary Chinese performing arts, including new developments in music and theater, were not well represented in Taiwan before the 1987 repeal of the Materials
59 Law Orders. Also because of this, new trends in Chinese traditional arts from the mainland were not widely understood by Taiwanese artists of the time. The dilemma for Taiwanese artists was that they wanted to study and gain greater knowledge of contemporary trends in Chinese musical traditions but had been restricted from traveling to Mainland China. This restriction was significant because the center of Chinese traditional music was in Mainland China. But according to Huang Tien Yen (2008), 11 it was illegal to learn Chinese music from teacher in Mainland China prior to the lifting of the restrictions in 1987. With new artistic freedom and the ability to travel to the mainland, musicians of Chai Found went to China to study traditional Chinese musi c. Between the years of 1986 and 1991, Huang Chen Ming, the main force behind the Chai Fund Workshop traveled to China several times to learn the traditional Chinese erhu music and the art of conducting. In his dissertation, Huang mentions the reasons for going to China during this period. 12 First, because his musical training focused on Chinese musical heritage he felt that he should go to the origin of the music in order to learn from Chinese musicians. Moreover, he recognized that th e real virtuosos of Chinese music were in mainland China. Traveling to China, he studied with two teachers, Liu Ming Yuan ( erhu ) and Peng Xiu Wen (conducting). During this period, he worked hard to refine his performing skills in the traditional Chinese mu sical style and instrumental technique and in understanding the aesthetics of the music. Before returned to Taiwan, he wanted to be as competent as the musicians in China. 11 Tien Yin, Huang, The Contemporary Discovery of Traditional Music: Chai Found Workshop Master Thesis, National Taiwan Normal University: Graduate School of Ethnomusicology, 2008. 12 Chen Ming, Huang. The Modernity of Traditional Instruments Using an Ensemble of Silk and Bamboo Music as an Example Master Thesis, Taipei: Graduate Institute of Art Studies, Fo Guang Univer sity, 2008.
60 However, while pursuing his goals of acquiring the knowledge and musical training of traditional Chinese music, his own identity as a Taiwan musician was called into question. Recalling the words of his conducting teacher in China, Huang writes: I went to China for a study tour, and conductor Peng Xiu Wen, asked me: can you play a little Taiwanese music for me? I was shocked and felt shame. Back in college, I was not trying to learn local Taiwanese music because I lazy or I was affected by all of the society. 13 This quote explains the reason why this trip was a turning point for Huang in a journey to rethink his role as a performing artist and his relationship to local Taiwanese musical heritage. Taiwanese musicians who perform Chinese musical heritage of th e island always seek the further study of traditional music in Mainland China, but often Huang not been interested in learning local Taiwanese music early in their ca reers? And why did professional Taiwanese musicians not have the knowledge to perform traditional Taiwanese music? To answer this question, we need to understand how external forces influenced traditional musical performance in Taiwan. Martin Stokes argue s that music can be used as a political force in establishing a 14 Taiwan is an example that illustrates the 1980, the R.O.C. government in Taiwan supported Chinese musical heritage and suppressed local forms of Taiwanese music. The government did this through policies that prohibited the founding of many non Chinese oriented performance groups, and by 13 Chen Ming, Huang, Chai Found Workshop Anniversary, Concert Repertoire, Taiwan: National Concert Hall, 2001.6.26. 14 Ethnicity, Identity, and Music: The Musical Construction of P lace Oxford: Berg, 1994.
61 supporting professional con servatories that taught Chinese music. Consequently, few professional musicians including those trained in the conservatory, performed and understood Taiwanese indigenous music. Taiwanese musicians who still performed local traditions of music operated on their own without government support. Especially in the ranks of professional urban musicians, this situation privileged and gave value to Chinese related performing arts. Thus, Chinese musical heritage itself was linked to the dominant cultural values sup ported by policies of the R.O.C. government, which affected the life experiences of professional musicians in Taiwan by exposing them to Chinese artistic heritage. Huang and the musicians from the Chai Found Workshop were urban professionals, trained at th e conservatory and hence, trained in Chinese music, not in local Taiwanese music. When the Chinese conductor Peng Xiu Wen asked Huang to play Taiwanese music for him, it not only made Huang feel shame, it also motivated him to think about his own Taiwanese musical identity. In 1991, the year he returned to Taiwan from China, Huang had the initial idea of founding a musical ensemble that would perform Taiwanese indigenous music for their audiences. Lin (2009) 15 points out that Huang was concerned with local T aiwanese musical identity after his Chinese study tour, and then decided to focus his efforts on creating a new type of Taiwanese ensemble that would incorporate local music into its performances. Huang decided to create a chamber ensemble rather than a l arge orchestra already present in Taiwan and China that uses Chinese instruments in a large orchestra 15 Hui Kuan, Lin, The Discovery of Interdisciplinary Performance
62 setting influenced by the model of a Western symphony orchestra. In Chai Found Workshop would present local Taiwanese music in a smaller ensemble format that was closer to the aesthetics of local Taiwanese traditions. The Musicians and Their Connection to Taiwanese Music Except for the director Huang Chen Ming and Wu Tsung Hsien, the other musicians of the workshop had little connection to local Taiwanese music. Members Wu and Liang had graduated from the Chinese music department of Chinese Culture University. Li and Yeh completed their training from C hinese music department of had not attended a professional conservatory. She graduated from the Communications Department of Shih Hsin University. But Lin had learned the pipa while in high school and joined a Chinese music club before she went to the University. This shows that the policies put in place by the R.O.C. government to support Chinese cultural heritage impacted a generation of profession musicians in Taiwan. apprentice of beiguan music the style. Rather Huang maintains that he preferred to learn the Chinese erhu as a child. 16 Huang also joined a Chinese musical club in high school and then attended the department of Chinese music at the Chinese Cultural University in 1982. After he graduated in 1986, he went to China to study Chinese music more actively and focused on Beijing opera, Guangdong music (music popular in Guangdong, a province of South China Sea coast), and Silk and Bamboo music (music widespread in the area that lower 16 Cheng Ming, Huang, The Modernity of Traditional Instruments
63 the Yangtze River located in southern China). All of his musical education shows that he favored Chinese m usic rather than learning beiguan from his father. course in college. He utilized Taiwanese local music in his graduation piece call 17 ( Hengchun, a southern town in Taiwan. The lyrics are full of nostalgic feelings for people that came from Mainland China to settle in Hengchun. Every time they sing this s ong, er, our ancestor came to Taiwan song as a compositional element to incorporate Western musical technique. In order to understand the meaning of the piece, he went to Hengchun to record the folk singer that sang this song, and moreover, he collected the story and background data on the s ong to enhance his interpretation of the song. He intended to connect Taiwanese local music in his composition, but due the political policy and the working environment (CBO), he could not continue composing Taiwanese music. Chinese music teachers dominat school clubs, and governmental departments even after the end of the Material Laws Act. After graduating from college, Huang, Lin, Wu, and Li worked in the Chinese 17 Yen Ting, Lin, The Studies of Folksong: Sih Siang Ci ( ) Master Thesis, Taiwan: Taitung University, Chinese Educational Department, 2008.
64 Broadcast Orchestra (CBO ). This orchestr a was originally founded in Nanjing, China in 1935 but came to Taiwan in 1949 with the R.O.C. government. Until 2002, the musical style of the orchestra comprised Chinese music from the Mainland and featured some sixty musicians. The orchestra was reduced to fifteen musicians in 2002 and changed its repertoire to include both Chinese and Taiwanese music. Performing in this orchestra allowed the future members of the Chai Found Workshop to earn their living as professional musicians and inspired them to thin k about founding a new ensemble. Huang mentions that the musical programs of CBO (determined by the R.OC. government) did not challenge the musicians technically. This was given as the reason they quit the orchestra and founded the Chai Found Workshop. The other two future Chai Found Workshop musicians also worked in Chinese Orchestras. Liang was a member of the Affiliated Chinese Orchestra of National Taiwan Symphony Orchestra ( ). The repertoire of the orchestra focused on contemporary Chinese music compositions. Yeh was a specialist in Chinese Guzheng performance and she was not affiliated with any specific orchestra or ensemble before she joined the Chai Found group. As we can see from their previous musical experiences, these musicians were much more familiar with Chinese music that with local Taiwanese music before joining the Chai Found Workshop. Chai Found Workshop: Creating and Presenting Taiwanese Music Six musicians with a common goal of reviving traditional Taiwanese music for Taiwane se society created the Chai Found Workshop According to Yang Chun Wei and
65 Tseng Chung Hui (2011), 18 Huang and Lin were the main founders. Later, they sought additional musicians from the Chinese Broadcast Orchestra (CBO) where they were employed as profess ional musicians. Finally, when they had six musicians with skills in performing on a variety of instruments, the workshop was officially founded as a group in 1991. The principal direction of the group was to perform Taiwanese music. Nonetheless, accordi ng to their website, they do not limit themselves to local aboriginal Taiwanese music only; they also want to present Chinese music to their audiences. This makes backgrounds an d training emphasized Chinese musical heritage. In the first two years of its existence, 1991 1993, although the workshops repertoires contained Chinese music, the members of the group started incorporating traditional Taiwanese music into their repertoire These early years focused on learning, even though they already had begun performing local Taiwanese music. However, because they were not yet confident in their ability to perform Taiwanese music, in public performances they focused on traditional Chine se music when they played for international audiences. In 1994, the direction of Chai Found Workshop changed after the group performed in Holland. In an interview, I asked Wu Tsung Hsien, player of the di in the group, about his recollections of their chan ge of the repertoires. He said he remembers that when they performed in Holland, they face the situation that was the key turning point for them. Below is the quote of his answer to my question. 18 Music Ten side Ambush of Chai Journal of Cul tural Enterprise and Management 6 (January 2011 ): 131 68.
66 The host met with us to make sure of the repertoires, and we offered the as the groups we hired before, is there any music different from that? Are 19 Wu continued and explained: Actually, we ha d thought of this question before, but because we wanted to find musicians who know local Taiwanese music and was able to teach us. That was why we always performed Chinese center musi c. However, that question was a wakeup call. After this performance in Holland, we started right away to learn Taiwanese indigenous music. Taiwanese opera music and b eiguan music were our first choice. 20 se indigenous music as comprising Taiwanese opera and beiguan music. At the beginning, they did not really know what Taiwanese music was, but they knew that their performances had to be different from just Chinese music, because for foreigners, Chinese mus ic is not Taiwanese music. At this period, nanguan, beigaun and Taiwanese opera music were officially supported by the government as Taiwanese music. Performance groups that featured this music were founded and developed, especially after 1987 (end of the Materials Laws Order). Therefore, the governmental policies gave Chai Found Workshop musicians a clear indication of the official idea of Taiwanese music. After returning to Taiwan, the musicians of the Chai Found Workshop started researching the local Ta iwanese performing styles, such as music used in ritual ceremonies, folk festivals and various celebrations and learning the music that related to those activities. Moreover, they attempted to use their own compositions to present traditional Taiwanese mus ic. However, the lack of knowledge and musical performance experience motivated them to 19 Wu Tsung Hsien, interview by author, July 25, 2010. 20 Ibid.
67 learn indigenous music. Finding the local musicians that knew indigenous music was the first step. One teacher was Chiu Huo Jung, who is a specialist in Beiguan drama a nd its music. Another teacher was Liao Chiung Chih, a specialist in Taiwanese opera. traditional Taiwanese music. According to their website, from 1995 to 2002, their repertoi res mostly focused on the music they learned from the local Taiwanese artists and musicians. They even invited some of their teachers to perform with Chair Found Workshop. In 1995, the CD Traditional Silk and Bamboo Music presented four pieces of beiguan m usic and two Taiwanese folksongs edited by Wu Tsung Hsien. Two additional pieces are drawn from Chinese musical heritage. The next year, 1996, the group performed with artists from local temples while touring around Taiwan. In 2001, they even performed bei guan music in a concert at the National Concert Hall with their teacher Chiu Huo Jung. Their intention of learning and performing the Taiwanese music had been given incentive by funding from government and from other institutions, such as Council for Cult ural Affair, National Palace Museum, Taipei Chinese Orchestra, and other state entities. 21 These incentives led them to perform more and more traditional Taiwanese music. After 2001, the workshop started to change its repertory to include folksongs that were popular within Taiwanese society and other songs from aboriginal groups in order to connect more closely to the Taiwanese people. 22 They also wanted to make their 21 Chai Found Workshop website 22 Ibid.
68 performances and recordings more interesting for their audiences and distinguish themselv es from other performing groups in Taiwan. From 2001 to 2003, they Di Tai Lang Yu Kuang Kuang Mei ) in 2003 in order to attract children to listen to traditional Taiwanese m usic. These attempts of creating new performing manner led them to create the piece Ten side Ambush in 2005. The Chai Found Workshop Rediscovering Taiwanese Music As professional musicians trained primarily in Chinese related musical traditions, the Cha i Found musicians began learning traditional Taiwanese music from folk musicians in the country and tried to explore traditional indigenous Taiwanese music as much as possible. These professional musicians began as students to learn about the music and pla yed with local musicians in the temples, clubs, and their performing stages. To reciprocate, Chai Found also invited those of their local teachers to play in National Concert Hall with them, which attracted more audiences and increased numbers of people wh o understood indigenous music. Musicians of Chai Found Workshop did not want to compete with local musicians. Mentioning the group motivations, Lin Hui Kuan states: We are not trying to compete with those folk musicians. We learned from those teachers two or three times a week, but they probably have played that music for twenty or thirty years. However, the most important thing to learn about the traditional music is the spiritual aspect and style of that musical genre, and to absorb the roots of playing that music. 23 The Chai Found musicians wanted to use the indigenous Taiwanese music forms as the core of their performances and to expose it to their audiences in order to prevent that 23 Ten Yin, Huang, Modern Exploration of Traditional Instrumental Music
69 music from becoming extinct. However, in doing this, the Chai Found mus icians did not abandon their original Chinese instruments, nor did they stop performing Chinese music. Instead, they used Chinese instrument to perform Taiwanese music and drew from their musical backgrounds to learn local music, including the style, aesth etic, and performing practice. These musicians also learned Western music, international popular music, and the other artistic performance styles and combined the Taiwanese music with this wide variety of contemporary performing styles to present Taiwanese music and cultural aesthetics to their audiences. This is the background to the development of two new instrumental works: Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King In chapter 4 I will show how these two works combined traditional Taiwanese, Chinese traditions and elements of Japanese music with contemporary experimental theater setting to present a contemporary Taiwanese musical identity.
70 CHAPTER 4 THE CASES STUDIES OF SEMIOTIC PRESENTATIO N AND NATIONAL IDENTITY Chapter 4 exp lores Taiwanese musical nationalism. First, I describe the idea of Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King and present the story of each work as an orientation to the pieces. I then analyze four elements f relation to Taiwanese nationalism. The first example is the words Huang put in the program. The meanings of those words lead the audiences to perceive the idea of national id entity and link the pieces speci fically to Taiwanese national identity. Second, I consider basic form of the stage set up, which was affected by the Western style stage. traditional Taiwanese mus ic. Next, I analyze the musical elements of the works, which Huang intentionally used to present his concept of Taiwanese music. Analysis reveals that some musical elements are actually similar to the music of Xinjiang, the northwest of China. The final ar ea of investigation is the use of written Chinese language characters in the back scene, which illustrates the difference between Taiwan and the Mainland China. The Idea of Creating Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King Ten side Ambush and The Jo urney of Monkey King are two instrumental programmatic musical works that Huang composed for performance by the Chai Found Workshop. The first work is based on a historical event that happened around 200 BC and the second sets a fictional story from the no vel Journey to the West by Wu the Chai Found Workshop to explore and present different characteristics of the
71 of instrumental music set with theatrical elements was a new experiment within the traditional Taiwanese performance practice. In an interview, I asked why he wanted to set up this kind of performance that was totally different from what they had done befo re. Huang explained his main reasons for creating these pieces. 1 He wanted to present traditional Taiwanese musical genres on the stage and in different contexts than they are normally performed. Traditionally, nanguan is performed in a teahouse or at a cl ub (an informal gathering of musicians); beiguan is part of a temple ceremony or celebration; and Taiwanese opera is performed like Western opera with a clear separation singers and instrumental musicians. Huang wanted to compose for a different style of p resentation. He changed not only the music per se, but also the scope of the performances. He hired many other musicians to join them to accomplish these two works, including additional musicians to perform erhu pipa ruan and percussion. Therefore, these two instrumental theater works are bigger than other former Chai Found Workshop performances. Huang wanted to create a new style of instrumental theater that could transform and elevate traditional instrumental music from mere accompaniment to a leading role in stage presentations. Lin Hui Kuan describes that Huang believed that instrumental music had been relegated to accompaniment in the theater resulting in a lack of audiences understanding the artistic merits of instrumental technique and the importan ce of the interpretation of the musicians. In his view, audiences had only focused their attention on the actors and singers that were represented on the stage. Th e refore, he wanted to present the unique artistic possibilities of traditional instruments 1 Huang Chen Ming, Inte rview by author, 07/25/2011.
72 by giving them lead roles on the stage. This idea was not really new 2 but rather reflected his experience with and awareness of international trends in the performing arts. Huang intended an interdisciplinary performance similar to the musicals Chicago Cats Notre Dame de Paris, and the well known crossover performance Cirque du Soleil, which had given equal importance to the instrumentalists, acrobats, and other performers in theatrical works imported in Taiwan. John Martin (2003) 3 describes that more and m ore composers and creators are using interdisciplinary methodology to create equivalent roles for different artistic expression simultaneously performed together. This type of theatrical work stimulated Huang to think about different ways elevate tradition al music in a theatrical work. In order to prevent the instruments from being reduced to mere accompaniment roles during theatrical instrumentalists to assume acting and choreographed movement responsibi lities as well. He started to work with dance and acting instructors to train his musicians. The musicians were required to participate in physical training in order to present demanding acrabatics and dancing. And rather than locating the instrumentalists off stage in an orchestra pit, he put them on the stage. All of this transform ed the musicians into multi roled performance artists. This also transformed the notion that instrumental performance is an abstract art form without concrete narrative ability. Based on this 2 Company 2006 Broadway revival by John Doyle is another example where instrumentalists had been trained to be actors while playing the music. In the original Company composed in 1970, with a Broadway musical style, the act ors sing, dance, and act on the stage, but musicians remain in the orchestra pit. The reason that John Doyle created this instrumental version of Company was due to a budget cut, it was not as the same reason as Huang that he want to evaluate the position of instrumental music. But the way that John Doyle presents musicians on the stage was similar like the Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King 3 Martin, John, The Intercultural Performance Handbook New York: Routledge, 2003.
73 concept, Huang began to present Taiwanese traditional music in this new context so that audiences would rediscover their Taiwanese heritage 4 Preserving traditional Taiwanese music and saving it from extinction due to the impact of global t echnology were motivating reasons he wanted to present this new style of performance to audiences. In an interview, Huang states that the negative impact of global technology had affected Taiwanese knowledge of their local culture and increased its disappe arance. For a long time, the dominant cultures have invaded the subcultures, and accelerated the speed of fading out local indigenous culture. That is the issue that traditional Taiwanese music is going through in the present day. 5 Clearly, Huang was moti vated to restore Taiwanese traditional music in the context of what he perceived as an art form in danger of dying out due to the influence of global culture. The primary approach used by Huang was to present a narrative storyline through instrumental perf ormance. From the 2006 Ten side Ambush to the 2009 The Journey of the Monkey King he applied this method to traditional music to display the characteristics of the figures in the theater text. Another important production technique was to add all possible elements to the subjects to express his theatrical intentions. Without written words and speech, the characteristics of instrumental music and the body performing could not fully present the meaning of the storylines of the texts, so the performers had to receive special training. 4 Hui Kuan, Lin, The Discovery. Traditionally, the actors of Taiwanese Opera all have to learn four skills: speech, song, dance and combat. It is already an interdisciplinary performance; then Ming wants to revive the traditional, so that it does not represent a completely ne w performance style to traditional Taiwanese music. 5 Ibid.
74 The Storylines and their Settings but only selected parts of the stories, separating them into several different acts. Without spoken and sung dialogue to present the storylines, Huang uses various staging materials, musical elements, facial expressions, and costumes as important objects to convey the meaning of the texts to the audiences. Ten side Ambush was the first theatrical work from Chai Found Workshop in 2005. around 206 202 BC. This period was the post Qin Dynasty interregnum period in Chinese history. At that time, Qin was almost corrupted and was d ivided into many small countries. Liu Bang and Xiang Yu both led their countries to attack the central country of Chu Liu led the first assault on Chu therefore, properly speaking, Liu should have been the new king But Xiang Yu was recalcitrant. He proc laimed himself as king of the Western country Chu. Therefore, Liu altered the name of his country to Han Later, Liu expanded the territory. As a result, the country of Chu w as abolished and Liu started the Han Dynasty. work Ten side Ambush This work is ninety minutes long and his intention was to use the characteristics of traditional instrumental music to present the human emotions and feeling that went beyond the historical events of the story, in order to explore the cruel girlfriend, Yu Ji. He separated the story in to ten different acts. Each act focuses on one specific emotion that is linked to the characteristics of one musical instrument. For
75 example, pipa is used to represent Yu Ji in the second act. Huang used pipa because it is always be used to depict the beau ty of woman in Chinese and Taiwanese culture. Also the music he composed is conjunct and its slow melodic lines are used to portray the elegant, personable of Yu Ji. Another example is the last second act The battlefield: Ambush from the ten sides. Huang set many drums, taikos and metal percussions to present the battle scene and the sounds of the war. Those sounds of drums have the iconic links to the sound of artilleries, and the metal percussion was also an iconic to the sound of knifes and swords in battle for audiences. Many of these signs set in Ten side Ambush can link to the meaning because those image and sounds elements were familiar (indexical) to audiences both in Taiwan and China. The Journey of Monkey King was edited from the original fictio nal novel The Journey to the West Huang set this piece to run about ninety five minutes long. Considered one of the greatest Chinese classical novels, it was likely written by Wu th century. 6 It presents the story of a monkey Sun Wukang, and his journey with him to the West in order to obtain the text of Buddhist. According to the Chai Found website, the performance of The Journey of Monkey King reveals not only the basic storyline, but also the spiritual experiences of the protagonists. There are two scrutiny d makes him examine his own behavior during the journey including his rude deeds. The second 6 Shih, Hu, The Textual Research of The Journey to the West Taiwan: Yuan Liou Publishing Co., Ltd, 1923.
76 mostly presents the positive emotion of life. Huang uses it as a way to conn ect to the Huang used these two stories to present his idea of Taiwanese music. In the next part of this chapter I will explore how Huang presented his works to the audience through written program notes. The Words in th e Program Notes The words Huang put in the program of Ten side Ambush implies how he interpreted Taiwanese national identity through this theatrical work. Below is one part of the quote from the program notes. After the fall of the corrupt Qin Dynasty in 206 BC, an immensely cruel 5 year war broke out between several kings, rebels, and warlords. Soon there were only two rivals left: Chu under their leader Xiang Yu, and the Han After h is total victory, he founded the Han Dynasty and became its first she performed for her lover. Although he still had a chance to flee, Xiang Yu, the fallen hero, held himself liab le and committed suicide. 7 The program notes mainly describe the event of the story and provide information into the inner emotions of the three major characters. As mentioned above, this story is about the two countries, Chu and Han, and their fight other over the territory of central country Chu. Normally, historical textbooks about Chinese history describe the battle objectively and do not mention anything about the battle being about the unification of China. 8 od. The country that combined the 7 From the program note of Ten side Ambush 2006. 8 See for instance Wang Jia Fan, Ge neral History of China Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 2005 or Human Thesaurus Publishing Group Editor Department, Illustrate of Chinese History Taipei: Human Thesaurus Publishing Group, 2011.
77 program notes to Ten side Ambush Huang highlights the issue of unification of Chinese territories in the introduction of the story when h Ten side Ambush the program notes to The Journey of Monkey King directly present the story and the part that Huang wants to convey to the aud iences. Below is the quote from the program note of The Journey of Monkey King the spiritual experiences of Sun Wukong, the monkey king, and his journey to the West with the mon k Tripitaka. A juggler working with a glass ball performance is directed by renowned Chinese opera director Hsiao Pin Lee. 9 The first part of the program notes presents the basic inform ation of the story and describes how Huang presents the story to the audience. The later part presents the two themes of The Journey of Monkey King This story depicts the events in the area of they both describe the events before China came into existence. Therefore, the word Ten side Ambush is important and worth analytical attention. The issue of unification in the context of Taiwanese politics is a key point for understanding the from two major parties to explain why this word is so con troversial. Two political parties in Taiwan hold different opinions of what constitutes the y 9 From the program note of The Journey of Monke y King 2009.
78 even though this no longer refers to Mainland China. The KMT is the party that originally came from Mainland China when communists took over the Mainland, and their earlier the people from mainland. From their perspective, Taiwan and China were only temporarily separated when the PRC government occupied central China. The KMT want to Chiang pres idents, the educational system in Taiwan was based on old Chinese written script. The KMT rule emphasized Taiwan as being part of a larger pre communist China people to ide ntify with Chinese heritage. Although from their website, 10 the former program was not there anymore, still, many contemporary policies contain the idea of peaceful communication between Taiwan and China. For the other political party in still has a tendency toward unification with China. 11 unification in the Ten side Ambush program might be interpreted as pro KMT in advocating that Taiwan be u nified with China. The DPP is more persistent about the autonomy and independence of Taiwan. Anything that is connected to China, such as economic and trade cooperation or that acknowledges the Chinese academic degree, is against the policies of the DPP a nd 10 Chinese Kuoming Tang, http://www.kmt.org.tw/ (accessed online 2/10/2011) 11 The Presidential Debating, 12/04/2011. (accessed online 2/12/2011) The Presidential Candidate Ma Ying Jeou announced his suppo 1992 Consensus, Taiwan and China. However, the other candidate Tsai Ing Wen opposed this consensus, because she e Taiwan implies that KMT is admitting that Taiwan wa s part of China.
79 disapproved of by its political leaders. The DPP website 12 13 an outsider, their government came from China, therefore, if we want Taiwan to be our Taiwanese are the people whose ancestors came to Taiwan before 1949, and have lived in Taiwan lo since China surrendered it t o Japan. In the Ten side Ambush the situation between the countries of Chu and Han is similar to and an analogy of the relationship between present day Taiwan and China. The original Qing Dynasty possessed the largest territory in Chinese history. After i t was divided into many separate countries, Chu and Han stayed at opposite positions. However, after the Chu Han Contention, these two countries were united once again. Later, Taiwan and China were separated because of the First Sino Japanese War and the J apanese occupation of Taiwan for fifty years. Following this, from the communist Chinese perspective, Taiwan was unified back with China after World War II However, independence from Chinese rule and a strong nationalist identity emerged on the island. In contemporary Taiwan, the issue of national identity plays a major role in 12 Democratic Progressive Party, http://www.dpp.org.tw/index.php (accessed online 2/10/2011) 13 The first Taiwanese Political S cience Annul Dissertation Conference 1994.
80 interpreting the issue of unity in story presented in the Ten side Ambush In most histori cal textbooks there is no mention of the unification of China in relation to Chu Han Contention. If there was no such evidence to indicate that the goal of this historical certainly used his theatrical work to present an idea of Taiwanese music. There is no y indicates that he might want to imply that Taiwan and China will or should be united in the same way that Chu and Han were. This interpretation is reinforced by the fact that theatrical work presents the idea that eventually Taiwan will be the same as Chu backing to Han. Therefore, for DPP, this story cannot be a proper representation of the Taiwanese situation right now; and neither can it represent true Taiwanese music. An investigation of the stage setting and then the musical characteristics used b y Huang will further strengthen this idea. The Stage Set Up Showing the Taiwanese Musical Identity The scenic design and mise en scene (style of the design) 14 of theatrical works hese two theatrical terminologies are mostly used to describe the design of stage style and the staging materials arrangement. 14 Yi Wei, K en, The Theater Terminology
81 Scenic design refers to stage design itself. The stage presents visual signs that allow the audiences to connect to the thea ter performance, such as the stage style, apron (the front of the stage), acting area, shape, color, the depth of stage, and the stage space. In addition, since the stage is the first visual contact when audiences walk into the theater or concert hall, the messages from its appearance contain the pre understanding or the context in which a particular theatrical work is interpreted. At this moment, various iconic signs appear, audiences start to locate the resemblance of the stage in relation to other simila r stages, whether they have ever seen this type of stage setting before or not. Afterward, they connect various elements of staging through indexical means to their past experiences. They begin to recall their memory in order to connect to the former plays or concerts and their range of meanings with the same stage. The next step, the audiences link their former experience to the stage and those storylines, scenes and actors. Finally, they project former experiences into the present theatrical work. Th e mise en scene holds the same process of interpreting staging objects as the signs of messages. It is a French term and means that the director used the stage design to tell a story to the audiences. Theoretically, each stage set produces a stage picture that presents what director wants to tell to the audience, highlighting his perspective and logical thinking. This theatrical technique involves iconic and indexical connections for audiences to link their personal experience to the stage. For example, in the crystal ball scene in The Journey of Monkey King (Figure 4 1), the director darkens the stage, and puts a big white flower shape prominently in the middle of the stage.
82 Figure 4 1 Act 2 The Journey of Monkey King T here is a searchlight behind the flower while a dancer is dancing in the front. This makes the scene emphasize a small person within a larger dark shadow. At a press conference, 15 Huang described that this scene is meant to reveal the people in the reality that the small real person has always been constrained by the larger dark shadow. Therefore, this mise en scene becomes an indexical sign for audiences to link the stage image to their actual world. The dancer can be interpreted as members of the audience themselves struggling in the shadow of the real life society (the big real shadow). From these two theatrical terms and examples, it is shown that that the combination of scenic design and mise en scene plays an important role in conveying the meaning to t he audiences. The use of Chinese traditional instruments as Taiwanese while in the context of a 15 Press Conference for The Journey of Monkey King Video from official website of Chai Found Workshop http://www.wretch.cc/blog/twoproject/20581587 (accessed online 11/20/2011)
83 idea of creating these two instrumental pieces is to present the traditio nal Taiwanese music. He used only Chinese instruments to play the music, and set them in the privileged stage position in order to guide the audiences to appreciate the beauty of the traditional instrumental musical melodic lines and timbres. However, a co nfusion here is in interpreting Chinese instruments playing authentic Taiwanese music. Yet, the musicians can use the Taiwanese musical instruments because they learned the music from local Taiwanese musicians. But they choose to use the Chinese instrument s because they are expert in Chinese instruments not Taiwanese instruments. This musical training background was emphasizing on Chinese musical heritage rather than Taiwan ese because they are not as competent on Taiwanese instruments, a situation reflecting the political policies in the period around 1980s. The government restrained the Taiwanese local culture at that time and supported the culture from Chinese heritage. Wh at the musicians were able to learn from the conservatories at that time was Chinese music and Chinese musical instruments. Therefore, the musicians choose to present the Taiwanese music through their Chinese instruments. That is to say, the stage images w ould be confused because the music they play did not match to the instruments. In addition, the first contact for the audience is a western performance stage, and practice. It is a Proscenium Arch (See Figure 4 2, 4 3, and 4 4) originated from Farnese Theater, Parma, Italy around the late 17 th century. 16 The features of the stage are large 16 Kun Liang, Chiu, The Information and Working Methodology of Taiwanese Theater: Space of Theater Taipei: Council for Cultural Affairs, 1998.
84 frame or arch, and audiences are sitting in front of the stage instead of surrounding i t. There is a distance between audiences and performance. In Taiwan, the first Proscenium Arch stage was built in 1980 for The National Theater Concert Hall. Before this, traditional music commonly did not have this kind of performing stage. In the past, t environment. For example, nanguan 17 which is usually located in a temple. Nanguan serves for not only the routine performances, but al so the ceremonial presentations (Figure 4 5). The performing space and music are closely connected to each other. The performers are typically educated in the club or in the temple, and share religious bonding with residents every day in the environment. T and memories abound. If there is no temple, there is no nanguan music. When people hear the music outside of the temple setting, they still have indexical connectio ns to the temple, to the musicians, and to the ceremony. That is, when they hear nanguan music in a formal theatre, they indexically link it to their experiences in the temple setting. Beiguan music also serves a similar situation as nanguan It has been u sed in many performing styles. The major place it is performed is also in clubs, temples or near temples. Therefore, the beiguan performance is normally related to the activities of a temple, such as ceremonies or celebrations (see Figure 4 6). Taiwanese o pera music is different from those two musical styles, but it also has its own place to practice and perform. Lu (2003) 18 mentions that Taiwanese opera functioned as popular 17 Ibid. 18 Yu Hsiu, Lu, The History of Taiwanese Music
85 entertainment in Taiwanese society from the 1950s to the 1980s. A Taiwanese opera gr oup has their own building, including a rehearsal room, living space, and also a members of the group and other Taiwanese opera groups or any other musical styles ca nnot be performed there. There are still many traditional performance groups performing in conventional places, and playing in the traditional musical styles. However, as the Taiwanese society changed, from an agrarian society to an industrial society, t became less centered on activities occurring at the temples or in clubs. Moreover, the invention and wide spread use of radios, televisions, and computers had great effects born after 1980 spend a smaller proportion of their life in and around temples than earlier generations. For Taiwanese audiences, the setting of a westernized stage with a Proscenium Arch indexically links to the Western dominant circumstances. It is a n example of Western influence in Taiwanese society. Many things in Taiwan are already influenced by the West, such as daily life entertainment, architectures, and even the music. In architectures aspect, Proscenium Arch is built based on the Western acous tic idea of a performance place and the Taiwanese just followed the standard. That is why even the traditional Taiwanese music always performs in such a Westernized stage. In music aspect, 19 the numbers of public W estern orchestras out number Chinese orchestras in Taiwan. However, Huang wants to present a Taiwanese music to the audiences but to perform in proscenium Arch stage, which 19 Lu Yu, Hsiu, History of Taiwanese Music
86 does ntation of his two theatrical works on a westernized stage emphasize that the tradition of Taiwanese music can be interpreted differently by people who familiar with the old musical style. Figure 4 2 From The Journey of Monkey King Figure 4 3 Ten side Ambush The Rehearsal.
87 Figure 4 4 Auditorium Building, Chicago. Auditorium interior from balcony. 1980. From Library of Congress, Historic American Buildings Survey HABS held in Roosevelt University Archive s, Chicago. Figure 4 5 Bungon Nanguan Musical Group, photo from Leh Cherng Temple official website. http://www.lech.org.tw/Volunteer%20Corner.htm (access online 10/08/2011)
88 Figure 4 6 Beiguan, photo from http://mypaper.pchome.com.tw/leo821006/post/1308949941 (accessed online 11/04/2011) In these two works, there is another stage selement that causes confusion over Taiwanese national identity: taiko drum. Normally the taiko drum refers to a specific Japanese drum or its musical performance. This term can be identified as Japanese music, found in many Japanese musical articles and textbooks, but it can not be found as Chinese or Taiwanese music in their musical books. That is to say, most Asian musical scholars would consider the taiko drum as Japanese, not Chinese or Taiwanese. However, Figures 4 2 and 4 3 illustrate that both musical works have taiko d rums in the performance either as part of percussion ensemble or as a solo instrument. If the taiko drums were purposely set by Huang as a Japanese musical element in order to diversify the musical performance, it would not be an issue of confusing the mus ical identity. But form the information in interviews, articles, concert program notes,
89 Taiwanese music and to display his idea of Taiwanese music by presenting these two musical works. Yet, he did not mention why taiko drum would be on the stage as part of complicated during the Japanese colonization period because of Japanese policies that require d Taiwanese people to regard themselves as Japanese. Therefore, the taiko drum in these two musical works might be an example t that Japanese identity is discuss anything about the fact that the Japanese taiko drum is present in both of these works that are supposed to present his idea of Taiwanese music. Musical Characteristics The musical characteristics employed in Ten Side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King reflect Turino (2007) 20 describes that the choice of certain musical sounds reflects the awareness or intention. That is, musical elements can unconsciously reflect the music background involved experience in both indigenous Taiwanese and Chinese musical traditions. The erhu he plays comes from Beijing opera of Mainland China and is not the same as the erhu typically used in Taiwanese nanguan tixian, 21 or in b eiguan music. 20 Turino, Thomas. Music as Social Life. 21 This instrument is made of coconut, not wood. The timbre and playing style is similar like Erhu.
90 Analysis of the musical elements from Ten Side Ambu sh and The Journey of Monkey King reveals that many of musical elements Huang uses are not from nanguan, beiguan aboriginal music, or even from music of Taiwanese opera. The choice of musical scale erhu training affected his com positional style toward Chinese music. Mostly when I analyzed Taiwanese music, such as nanguan and beigaun music, they normally followed the pentatonic scale 22 as root, although they do have some ornament notes. However, the musical scales used in these two works by Huang indicate that the music is closer to Chinese music (Xinjiang music) instead of traditional Taiwanese music. Example 4 Ten side Ambush measure 106 The eight measures of music in Example 4 1, played by two di musicians, are iconic to similar musical characters of Xinjiang music. Xinjiang is an autonomous region of northwest China whose society and culture have been influenced by the neighboring countries of the Middle East. The music is different than th e music in southern China and Taiwan. Li Li Sa (2007) 23 describes that many of Xinjiang musical scales contain a similar structure. 22 According to the New Grove Online Dictionary, the Pentatonic Scale means the musical scale divided octave into five steps. In Chinese music, the basic scale is 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. If 1=C. then the scale would be C, D, E, G, A. The pitch intervals presents as follow: tone, tone, 3 rd tone, 3 rd 23 Journal of Fuyang Teachers College (Social Science) No. 4 (2007):114 16.
91 Example 4 2 The Xinjiang Musical Scale from the article of Li Li Sa. The musical scale of Ten side Ambush is similar to th e Xinjiang scale and is not found in Taiwanese music. First, it is not a pentatonic scale but rather a heptatonic scale C, D E, F G, A B. Second, the F and A within the scale make this musical scale like Xinjiang musical scale. Although the re are D s in this music, they are placed mostly on the weak beats (see Example 4 1, measure 109 and 114, the sixteen note in second half of first beat) and used as passing tones (see Example 4 1, measure 114, the last note). The Xinjiang musical character istic also appears in The Journey of Monkey King (See Example 4 3). It also contains a scale similar to the one in example 4 2, C, D, E, F G. A. Example 4 3 The Journey of Monkey King The Xinjiang musical characteristics in Hua of his Chinese center musical training. Many standard erhu compositions are based on erhu musicians and heard by many people. Huang learned many of these pieces and used similar musical elements in his compositions. The type of intervals used is additio nal evidence that in both Ten side Ambush and
92 The Journey of Monkey King, the music contains many characteristics that are derived from Chinese music. Taiwanese music, such as nanguan and beiguan normally do not have obvious intervals between melodies of d ifferent instruments. Lu Chui Kuan (2007) 24 describes the characteristics of melodic performing styles in n anguan and b eiguan music. They mostly use melodies in a major scale and all instruments play the same major notes but embellished them in various ways For example, the melody in Example 4 4 is played by the erhu and the similar melody in the Example 4 5 by the pipa If the erhu melody presents the major notes, then the pipa player would playing a more ornamented version of the melody to differentiate between them, but he would not adding a parallel note above the major note in order to create a interval between different instruments. Example 4 4 Erhu Example 4 5 Pipa Similar musical arrangements are also found in both works. The example 4 6 below is from The Journey of Monkey King. The marimba plays the first phrase and the di follows the similar note but cuts down the first C in the second measure. At the fourth measure, di presents a series notes that go up to high C with a trill and the ma rimba follows this pattern but adds a G under the melody. However, the next two examples contain many 24 Chui Kuan, Lu, Taiwanese Traditional Music: Instrumental Music Taiwan: Wu Nan C ultural Enterprise, 2007.
93 different intervals, which make them distinct from Taiwanese traditional music. Example 4 7 is played by two suona 25 musicians as they walk onto the stage. If we separate the different lines, they mostly employ a pentatonic scale from the first measure to measure 25. Measure 26 contains the characteristics, F# and Bb, drawn from another Xinjiang musical scale. Example 4 F# and Bb appear frequently in this Xinjiang musical piece. Example 4 6 The Journey of Monkey King 25 This is a Chinese wind instrument with loud and high pitch sound. It is often used in different theater production and Chinese orchestra.
94 Example 4 7 Overture: Ten side Ambush Example 4 8 The Journey of Monkey King Example 4 9 v ersion was for violin, but he later edit for erhu. T hese four measures is the beginning of the presto part of this piece. However, except for these two notes, the rest of notes in example 4 6 can be analyzed as a pentatonic scale. The upper line uses the notes F, G, A, D, C; the lower line uses C, D, E G, A, F natural. Therefore, if we only look at the single melody, each one is not distinguishable enough to establish a difference between Taiwanese and Chinese music, because mostly, the music in these two areas are pentatonic. Southern China and Taiwan share similar musical characteristics (the use of pentatonic is an example) but have a slightly different set of instruments and musical repertories. Second, if we only look that the pitch intervals within a single melody we cannot identify
95 where this mus ic is from. Hung Hung Min (2003) 26 describes the geographical effects on the musical style. He mentions that in the north of China, the climate is harsh, and the range of temperature difference is drastic. This affects the tone of language, of which the ran ge is also big, and consequently influences the musical melody. If this melody contains disjunctive intervals, this would be evidence to link this music to northern of China. However, this melody remains primarily conjunct. The consistency of the interva l of a forth is critical in identifying the examples as Taiwanese or Chinese music. The characteristic of Chinese instrumental music makes this melodic line more indicative of Chinese musical style. Take the pipa as example, the tuning of the notes of the four strings are based on two intervals of a forth, A d e a (Example 4 10). In performance, this instrument uses a technique called sao which involves rapidly strumming the four strings with four fingers. When a musician plays sao performs the main melodic line and the other three strings are used as background drone in order to strengthen the harmonic texture. That means the music will commonly include the interval of a forth in the lowest two strings (A and d). Another Chinese in strument used is the sheng the only traditional wind instrument that can play harmony in Chinese musical system. There are two notational ways that are used to indicate harmony on the sheng The first one is to notate down every note performed, and second is to write the main melody and indicate that it should be of a forth and a sixth below the main melody as in Example 4 11. Therefore, Examples 4 7 and 4 8 show t hat both theater works contain the music with a continued interval of 26 Hung Min, Hung, The Inherited of Traditional
96 a fourth in the musical composition. This musical element would have a strongly iconic connection to the Xinjiang music of Mainland China, not to the Taiwanese traditional pentatonic mus ic. Example 4 10 Pipa tuning. E xample 4 11 Sheng Performing styl e, The left part is the notation style, the right part is the actual playing content. The Use of C hinese Characters in Ten side Ambush The written text in traditional Chinese characters, in the back scene of Ten Side Ambush reveal that this instrumental theater work was composed by a Taiwanese composer, not a Chinese composer. Those characters present the title and names of the major sections of the work (Figure 4 7) Figure 4 7 Act I Ten side Ambush
97 From the right of the scene to the left (Act 1, Overture: Desolation) (Act 2, Yu Ji: Cheri shing Spring) ( B Wng, When Xiang Yu lost the battle of Chu Han Contention, he dominated the west side of Chu, then people called him which means the King of the west side) (Liu Bang, one of the three main people, the King of Han ) (The name of the instrumental theater work and it is also the name of Act 9: The Battle Field: Ambush from Ten Sides) Because the writing system is dif contemporary communist China, where the use of simple Chinese characters is required by policy. The text also indica main education were in Taiwan. Before 1956, Taiwan and China used the same writing system, but communist China simplified the Chinese characters in order to reduce illiteracy in the country. Dynasty and have not been simplified in any way or that do not contain newly created characters. Today, the only country that still uses traditional Chinese as its official system of writing is Taiwan. The Taiwanese decided to maintain this old pre communist entire world, and adopted in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore, American, Europe, and elsewhere. 27 27 The Chinese character referred in th is thesis only concern in Mandarin speaking area mentioned above. In the early 20 th century, Mainland China still used the traditional Chinese as their official language. t be too difficult, finally established by the government
98 Taiwan is different. Both the educational system and governmental documents still use the traditional Chinese as its official writing system. One reason, which was announced by the Taiwanese Ministry of Education, is that the Taiwanese government insiste d on using traditional Chinese because it is originally from the Chinese ancestors, and they assert that there is no reason to change the characters. The other reason is that Taiwanese want to separate themselves from Mainland China. Based on these two rea sons, simple Chinese is prohibited in official documents from the Taiwanese forbidden from using simple Chinese, but it is a clearly issue of national identity that the T aiwanese government supports the use of traditional Chinese. Even advertising slogans in Taiwan do not use simple Chinese. This is unique that Taiwan is the only country that still uses the traditional Chinese as an official language and it becomes a clear aspect to distinguish the difference between Taiwan and China. The back scene of Ten side Ambush is an example that it provides semiotic links (iconic, indexical, and symbolic) to a Taiwanese national identity distinct from contemporary communist China In this theater production, there is no a dialogue or text that could distinguish the work by the accent of speaking or vernacular phrase of speaking content. Therefore, Huang put the written characters in the back scene, which is used like a billboard, to tell the audiences about the story and the main protagonists. At the symbolic level, the story and names are well known in Taiwan as well as in China. Audiences can identify those characters and link the meaning of those words, because decrease the number of strokes and to shape the Chinese characters based on the cursive style and phonetic pronunciation from traditional Chinese. In Mainland China, only the people who live in rur al area still use traditional Chinese written system. Others followed the official simple Chinese written system.
99 they appear commo nly in the Taiwanese educational system and throughout the culture, such as in TV series, textbooks, and even in modern video games. At the iconic level, newspapers, b ooks, magazines, and textbooks. Even if audience members do not pay attention to the specific meaning of the Chinese characters; they still can recognize that characters belong to traditional Chinese written system, not to simple Chinese. At the indexical level, from the Chinese characters, audiences connect not only the story presented through the Chinese characters but also link this to the context of their education and experiences of their daily life. For instance, the use of traditional Chinese serves as indexical sign that Ten side Ambush was most likely composed by a Taiwanese composer, who was educated and grew up in Taiwan. If he were educated in China, the Chinese characters used in this instrumental theater might be simple Chinese. Below is the co mparison of this word between the traditional one and the simple one. The first example is from the figure 4 8, the word on the right corner above side of figure 4 8. This is a traditional Chinese character. Another example is from the left side above and these two words could prove that the symbolism of language used in this work shows the Taiwanese national identity by using the traditional Chinese instead of using simple Chinese.
100 Table 4 1. Comparison of traditional and simple Chinese. Figure 4 8 Ten side Ambush Traditio nal Chinese Simple C h inese
101 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION As this research has revealed, these two instrumental theater works Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King illustrate the semiotic presentation in traditional Taiwanese music and link the meanings of musical and theatrical signs to the Taiwanese national identity. Furthermore, it also has shown that not everyone, including presenters and audience s, has the same understanding of the staging materials presented on the stage. Different presenters and audiences with varied backgrounds contain diverse interpretations and perceptions to the meaning of staging materials. Therefore, I presented the semiot ic analysis of these two theatrical works to display the meaning of signs and the interpretation in Taiwanese traditional music in the context of international flows, educational system and development of political historical background. There are three d national identity of musical elements. Each of those different governments used their political power to control how music was performed, perceived, and taught. In the Japanese colonization p to the Taiwanese society for fifty years. This law suppressed the Taiwanese not only in the aspect of daily life and language, but also the aspect of artistic activities. They mandated that T aiwanese composers add Japanese lyrics into preexisting local indigenous folksong and combine Japanese musical characteristics with the Taiwanese musical compositions. This action implicitly and explicitly affected the Taiwanese musical identity toward Jap an. As revealed in this thesis, the Taiwanese people who lived in this period do not repel the Japanese national and cultural identities, but they
102 actually regarded these Japanese identities as their own. After the Japanese colonization, Taiwanese histor y separated into two political periods directly came from Mainland China, which brought their political behavior and cultural artistic performances to Taiwan, because the government still regarded Taiwan as a temporary settlement before they reunited the China. Therefore, they forced the Taiwanese people to accept Chinese politics and cultures as t heir own national culture. For example, the government restricted the usage of language, only allowing Mandarin Chinese in the official documents and in the education system. Moreover, government suppressed the local indigenous Taiwanese music and supporte d forms of music that came from the Mainland. These policies and actions caused confusion of Taiwanese national identity, because the Taiwanese people did not know whether they were Taiwanese or Chinese, both in politics and artistic performances. During t he 1980s, The government rescinded the law suppressing local indigenous Taiwanese artistic performance. In addition, because the government intended to revive local performance styles, they gave funding to the groups, clubs, and school that have the performances or education programs of Taiwanese traditional music, such as nanguan beigaun Taiwanese aboriginal music, and Taiwanese opera music. Chai Found Workshop was one example of this.
103 Chai Found Workshop was founded after the End of the Material Laws Order. Th e purpose of founding this performance group was to present their idea of Taiwanese musical training was initially based on Chinese music, but after they had been asked to perf orm Taiwanese music from a Chinese conductor and foreigners, they began to learn and to present Taiwanese local indigenous music. Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King were two instrumental theater works that attempted to present their ideas of Ta iwanese musical identity to audiences. In chapter 4 I presented four examples to illustrate the idea of musical national identity displayed in these two instrumental theater works Ten side Ambush and The Journey of Monkey King I first address the words in the program of Ten side Ambush Han Contention can be interpreted as linking with the notion of unification of China and Taiwan and reveals the national identity of composers and creators. Second, the stage set up also implies that Taiwanese musical identity had been influenced by both Chinese and Japanese heritages as well as the Western elements. The instruments they play are Chinese instruments. It reveals the former Chinese po litical power effects. The taiko drum in these two works is also the same circumstance that former countries ee before the performance. In these two instrumental theater works both are performed in Proscenium Arch, which was not a usual stage for Taiwanese traditional music. Hence, the indexical connection to traditional Taiwanese musical heritage was questioned. Third, I reveal the Taiwanese
104 musical characteristic that contains the Chinese style more than the Taiwanese. The intervals and musical scales in Ten side Ambush disclose the effect from the Chinese musical heritage. The interval fourth is not common in T aiwanese musical interval setting. Mostly, Taiwanese music is played with the same melody and embellished based on the main notes, not an interval above or below the main note. The final one is e create an indexical connection to the Taiwanese national identity in performance. Because communist connection. The Taiwanese musical identity combined the former Japanese, Chinese, and Taiwanese all together. Performing groups or governmental departments tended to use their own perspective to interpret their idea of Taiwanese music. The governments nor mally built their identity based on their own ideas of nationalism while forbidding selected elements of previous national identity. For performing groups and artists, they usually follow the governmental standard in order to get funding or support. Howeve r, in the political aspect, it can be clearer to say whether you are Japanese or you are Taiwanese based on your last generation or even your ancestor. But in the musical aspect, it is more ambiguous, once music has been performed or been listened to, it w ill Therefore, when people listen to or compose music, former musical experiences come out and are recognized. Normally we can not separate the former and present musical ex Today, the governmental standard reveals that Taiwanese music is exclusive from
105 the music of Japanese and Mainland China, such as Beijing opera music or Guangdong music. As revealed in this thesis, the Taiwanese government funds those performing groups that contain nangaun, beigaun and Taiwanese opera music because they regard these styles as Taiwanese. The rest of music such as Beijing opera music, Japanese Shinto music, and even Weste rnized music are excluded from funding. However, all those styles of music are important to the formulation of traditional Taiwanese music. From the time line of different historical periods, Chinese, Japanese, and even the Western musical identity all co ntributed to the formation and construction of national identity of traditional Taiwanese music. The examples, which are given in chapter 2, show that for Taiwanese people who lived in the Japanese colonization period, Japanese taiko performance present in the two instrumental theatrical works of Huang meaning for them to link to their life back before 1945. For those people who came from Mainland China, Beijing opera mu sic is their homeland music. Those musical identities are more like accumulation, but not clearly separation layers. To conclude, different people from different backgrounds can interpret the meaning of signs on the stage differently. In Taiwan, because o f the complicity of historical reasons, the local indigenous music as well as Japanese and Chinese music all can possibly connect to diverse Taiwanese people. As I present the analysis of musical characteristics, program notes, and the stage set up, it sho ws that the audiences can interpret the meaning of musical signs differently. These interpretations cannot actually be divided into each different unity identity, such as excluding the Japanese taiko drum
106 out of Taiwanese music. But those former and presen t identities are to be gathered as formation of Taiwanese musical identity as whole in the present day.
107 APPENDIX A THE INTERVIEW QUESTI ONS FOR THE DIR ECTOR OF CHAI FOUND WORKSHOP HUANG CHEN MING 1. What is your positi on in Chai Found Workshop? And what is the major work of you? 2. Can you tell me a little bit about your musical training? For example, when you started to learn music? Did you learn Western music first or Chinese music? And why you choose erhu as a major? 3. Wh at is your purpose of funding Chai Found Workshop? 4. What is the special key pint of Chai Found Workshop than the other Chinese orchestra? 5. Did you think that the music of Chai Found is totally different than the music of Chinese Broadcast Orchestra (CBO )? 6. Can you tell me why you leaved CBO? 7. Can you musical development and musical style of Chai Found Workshop? 8. Did you trying to find something that different from other Chinese musical groups? 9. What is the motivation of creating the instrumental theater? 10. Wh y you want to create such a different musical work than other Chai Found musical work? 11. What you want the audience to see from these two works? 12. I saw many advertisements and news said that you want to promote the traditional music through these instrumental theaters, how you make it work? 13. Does these works comprise traditional Taiwanese music? 14. What is your idea of Taiwanese music? Does erhu music count as Taiwanese music? 15. What perspective you expect your audiences to see in these two works? Chinese music? Tai wanese music? Or modern musical performance? 16. Lin Hui Kuan mentions that your father is a beiguan musician; does that affect your musical training process? 17. Does the past musical training affect the composition of these two instrumental theaters? 18. Can you tel l me what is the different between these two works and the rest of former musical performance of Chai Found? 19. Do you thing that the dance and acting affected the musical expression? Or affected what you want to present to audience? 20. Do you think that these t wo works have any drawback? 21. What is the possible musical work you will create for next performance?
108 APPENDIX B THE INTERVIEW QUESTI ONS F OR THE MUSICAL DIREC TOR OF CHAI FOUND WORKSHOP WU TSUNG HSIEN 1. What is your position in Chai Found Workshop? A nd what is the major work of you? 2. Can you tell me about your musical training? When you started to learn music? Did you learn Western music first or Chinese music? And why you choose di as a major? 3. Do you have any reason to join the Chai Found Workshop? 4. Wh y did you leave Chinese Broadcast Orchestra (CBO )? 5. Did you think that the music of Chai Found is totally different than the music of CBO? 6. What do think about the music of Chai Found and the other Chinese orchestra or ensemble music? 7. Can you musical de velopment and musical style of Chai Found Workshop? 8. Do you think that the music of Chai Found change over time? Is there any different periods of that? 9. Did you know what is the reason that causing the change of musical direction or performance repertoire o f Chai Found? 10. Do you think that the music of Chai Found is Taiwanese music? 11. What kind of music you would count as Taiwanese music? 12. What was your feeling about performed these two instrumental theater works? 13. Did you feeling anything different about these tw o works than other repertoires you performed before? 14. As a performer, what kind of the information you got when the director asked you to perform these two works? 15. From your perspective, what did you think about the music of these two works? Do you think tha t is Taiwanese music or Chinese music? 16. Does the former musical training affects your concept or performing style of music in these two works? 17. What do you think about the music after these two works? Will change to other direction? Or will combine more othe r elements? 18. Do you think that combine theatrical elements into musical work will affect
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114 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Chi a Jui, Chiang, is a T aiwanese who is very interest ed in the presentation of interdisciplinary performance and the study of the Asian music with their social context. He holds his B achelor of Chinese Musical Performance from National Tainan University of th e Arts in Taiwan, majored in Chinese bowed instrument Erhu. He was also a Drill training courses and training soldiers. Chiang is actively erhu performer in Taiwan and also pe rformed many concerts around world. Beside the music, he also attended many other types of performance, such as dance and film. With a master s degree of ethnomusicology from the University of Florida, he wants to pursue deeper and broader knowledge of Asi an performance with their historical and social background that links their national and cultural identity.