1 ANALYSIS BY CALISHA D. OGLESBY ANDERSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVESITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Calisha D. Oglesby Anderson
3 To my daughter, Jolie. May this serve as proof that anything is po ssible. And to my husband, Stephen who reminded me again and again while writing this.
4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank my wonderful God who has brought me so far and continues to create new opportunities in this beautiful life. A special thank you to my chair, Dr. J. Robyn Goodman, who has provided confident leadership and reassuring faith since my first day of graduate school. I am even more indebted to her for stepping in at last minute when I had to unexpectedly reform my committee. I extend the same thanks to Dr John Sutherland and Dr. Lisa Duke, who agreed to come along this journey at To my parents, Robert Oglesby and Celeste Medley for instilling the value of education in me from t he very beginning. And last, but not least, I thank my husband Stephen for supporting me through some very difficult, although beautiful years, and never letting me lose sight of the finish line.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTI ON ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 10 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 10 Child Overweight ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 10 Food Adverti ................................ ................................ .. 11 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 Medical Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 13 Social Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 14 Economic Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 15 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 15 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 Understanding Overweight ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 18 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 20 Consum er Power ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 20 Media Exposure ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 21 Television Targeted to Black Children ................................ ................................ ............ 22 Regulation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 24 .............. 27 Food Products ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 28 The Evolution of Food Product Categories ................................ ................................ ..... 29 Nutritional Content ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 30 Effects of Advertising ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 32 Narrative Themes ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 34 ................................ ................................ ........................ 38 Children Are Influenced by Models ................................ ................................ ................ 38 Narrative Themes Tell Stories and Provide Models ................................ ........................ 40 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 41 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 50 Television ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 50 Content Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 51
6 Selection of Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 52 Collection of Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 55 Coders ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 56 Pretest ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 57 Final Coding ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 59 Reliability ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 59 Food Categories ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 59 Narrative Themes ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 60 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 62 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 63 Final Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 63 Food Advertisements ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 64 PSAs ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 64 RQ1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 65 RQ2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 68 Food Categories and Narr ative Themes ................................ ................................ .......... 73 Frequency of Narrative Themes ................................ ................................ ...................... 74 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ .................... 82 Goals of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 82 Food Adver tisements ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 82 Food Categories ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 83 Summary RQ1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 83 Convenience Foods ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 83 Food Categories Conclusion ................................ ................................ ............................ 85 Narrative Themes ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 87 Summary RQ 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 87 Magic ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 89 Overall Narrative ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 89 Implications and Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................ 91 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 91 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 92 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 94 APPENDIX A CODE BOOK ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 96 B CODE SHEET ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 101 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 111
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Narrative Themes ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 46 2 2 ................................ .............................. 49 4 1 Healthy Narrative Themes by Population ................................ ................................ .......... 76 4 2 ID of Advertisements ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 76 4 3 Categories and Brands by Population ................................ ................................ ................ 77 4 4 Advertisements during shows ................................ ................................ ............................ 77 4 5 Food Categories and percentage of total food a ds by episode and population (Gen Pop) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 78 4 6 Food Categories and percentage of total food ads by episode and population (Black Pop) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 78 4 7 Most Common Narrative Themes (Gen Pop) ................................ ................................ .... 79 4 8 Most Common Narrat ive Themes (Black Pop) ................................ ................................ 80 4 9 Narrative Themes ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 81
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 BMI Age growth chart for boys ................................ ................................ ....................... 43 2 2 BMI Age growth chart for girls. ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 2 3 Prevalence of Overweight* Among US Children and Adolescents ................................ .. 44 2 4 Advertising product types 1950s 1990s ................................ ................................ .......... 45
9 Abstract of Thesis Pr esented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising A CONTENT ANALYSIS By Calisha D. Oglesby Anderson D ecember 2012 Chair: J. Robyn Goodman Major: Advertising A content analysis was conducted of food advertisements th at aired during 4 popular American children, or a general audience of child viewers. The final sample yielded 46 food advertisements. The ads were analyzed to determine the food category (breakfast, snacks, artificial drinks, convenience, hea lthy) and then further analyzed to code for the narrative themes used in the advertisement. Findings revealed that food advertisements were not common narrative themes used during advertisements targeted to the respe ctive audiences were the same (m agic, humor/ h appiness, change in m ood).
10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Overview Child O verweight Medical experts agree that child overweight is a national epidemic Most recent studies indicate that nearly 34 % of children (age 2 5), adolescents (age 6 11) and teens (age 12 19) are overweight or at risk of being overweight (Ogden, Carroll, Curtain, McDowell, Tabak, & Flegal, 2006) This phenomenon is rather ne w to our society as significant changes have occurred in just one generation In 1971, 4% of adolescents were overweight T oday that statistic stands at 19 % overweight (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009) Asking how this happened returns multiple questions and few answers Most researchers (Dietz & Gortmaker, 1985, p. 810) notin geographic region, population density and season, and family characteristics such as parental obesity, parental age, marital status, socioeconomic class, (Dietz & Gortmaker, 1985, p. 810) A recent TIME magazine article supports these claims citing some of the contributing factors to overweight as diet, income, neighborhood and education (Walsh, 2008) However, in spite of these many layers of causes, researchers have been able to identify several common attributes of children who are overweight These commonalities have caused many to wonder if there are factors that predispose children to being overweight One such commonality is race A cross all age groups African American (black) children are disproportionately overweight compared to their white counterparts One study found that they were more than twice as likely to be overweight (Strauss & Pollack, 2001) When the lives
11 no surprise that they commonly weigh more than their young bodies are meant to hold Sociological studies reveal that black children are more likely to live in poverty stricken areas where access to healthy food and nutritional education are sparse, but fast food and unhealthy food options are abundant They are also more likely to come from single parent homes and have very few restrictions on how much television they watch which is an inherently sedentary act (Roberts, Foehr, Rideout, & Brodie, 1999) Food Advertising a Tracing back to the 1960s when children were first perceived as a viable audience segment with legitimate spending power (McNeal, 1969) programming Unfortunately, the majority of these advertisements represent high sugar food products with low nutritional value (Powell, Szczypka, Chaloupka, & Braunschweig, 2007) This is exemplified in the three food categories that dominate candy/snacks product s and fast food (Alexander, Benjamin, Hoerrner, & Roe, 1998) Recent studies estimate those categories comprise more than 72 % of advertisements featured during programming intended for a child audience (Alexander et al ., 1998) For the most part, healthy messages are relayed by public service announcements (PSAs) which are government funded messages developed by voluntary advertising services and aired during donated media time Since fruits and vegetables are not branded pr oducts (with the possible exception of the Chiquita Banana and Green Giant products) h ealthy foods are rarely advertised to children, comprising less than 5 % of all food advertisements (Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) To help provide a snapshot of what food influences children are seeing when they watch television, t his study will inspect the similarities and differ ences between food products that are advertised to an audience of black children versus the mainstream child popul ation This will be
12 accomplished by first, examining the categories of food products that appear on the respective types of programs, and second by recording and analyzing the narrative themes that dominate each advertisement Food advertising employs st rategies to increase effectiveness (narrative themes) The American Marketing Association defines marketing institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, (The American Marketing Association, 2007) Advertising is a critical function of marketing which assists the company in reaching a desired audience using various media channels includ ing television Advertising is o ften expensive; a s a result, companies typically spend time and resources ensuring that their advertising will be effective The effectiveness of an advertisement is measured by its ability to persuade and or influence an audience To increase effectiveness, marketers employ various strategies and tactics which determine how, to whom and when an advertisement will be delivered They also conduct and implement research (social, psychological, demographic, etc) to determi ne how the advertising message should be structured to best impact the desired a ffect on the target audience One such message strategy is the use of narrative themes which are groups of variables designed to deliver a single message (Williams, 2006, p. 14) The narrative theme represents a unif ied story that an advertisement tells (Williams, 2006) It presents the marketer with an opportunity to associate a food product with behavior, rewards and consequences To children, narrative themes imply, sometimes implicitly, what they have to do to obtain a food product, as well as what might happen once they consume a food product This could include the portrayal of popularity, as if to im ply that consuming a shown product will result in increased popularity Themes could also
13 include implication of family togetherness, a s if to say that the product will somehow have an impact on domestic relationships Due to the sophistication of advert ising research and development, it can be assumed that narrative themes are used differently when targeting different audiences This section of the study will examine narrative themes and how they are used in specifically, if th ey are used differently when the advertising message is intended for an audience of black children versus a mainstream child audience Significance of the S tudy The significance of this study is best illustrated by the medical implications overweight c an have on a child, the social consequences children will face as a result of being overweight, and the economic burden that affects the community at large Medical Implications The medical risks associated with overweight have been well documented. There are metabolic, digestive, respiratory, pulmonary, cardiovascular and skeletal functions that are severely affected by the body carrying too much fat (Da niels, 2006) Being overweight also challenges the cardiovascular system and increases the chances of heart disease. One study found that 60 % of overweight children have developed at least one cardiovascular risk factor and 20 % have two or more of t hese (Dietz & Gortmaker, 2001, p. 338) Such developments can also lead to Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and asthma Type 2 diabetes is a particularly dangerous form of diabetes which was once thought to be a di sease only applicable to adults (Wang & Dietz, 2002; Daniels, 2006) However, in the last two decades children have developed this illness as well Today, nearly 45 % of all newly diagnosed cases of diabetes in children are classified as Type 2 diabetes (Daniels, 2006)
14 Other diseases once thought to only be applicable exclusively to adults are : polycystic ovary disease, sleep apnea and gallbladder disease Recently, these diseases have been found in overweight children (Wa ng & Dietz, 2002; Daniels, 2006) Because children are developing these illnesses earlier in life, medical professionals hypothesize that this could be the first generation of children to die before their parents (Dietz 1998; Must & Strauss, 1999) How ever, the medical implications do not stop with childhood Overweight children are more likely to become overweight adults (Ogden et al ., 2006) carrying unhealthy nutritional habits into their adult years and passing them along to other generations So cial Implications The child obesity epidemic also challenges the psychosocial development of an entire generation In fact, the psychosocial affects of overweight are said to be more traumatic than the physical affects because they are not always as expli cit and often cannot be diagnosed or cured (Dietz, 1998) In a society preoccupied with thinness, overweight children are often identified as lazy or sloppy and are expected to perform at a level beyond their age because of their size This often leads to feelings of inadequacy, isolation and failure, which contribute to children carrying overweight into adulthood (Dietz, 1998) Studies show that overweight children are socially marginalized They are commonly viewed as less desirable friends which prevents them from being confident or comfortable enough to engage in activities known to build self esteem such as team sports (Strauss & Pollack, 2003) Overweight children are bullied in school They somet imes cannot fi nd clothes that fit them and are forced to shop in the adult section Even the parents of these children (Edmunds, 2008)
15 Ec onomic Implications In addition to the social and medical impact, the rise in childhood overweight also affects the national economy This is largely due to the strain that obesity related illnesses have placed on hospitals (Wang & Dietz, 2002) Between 1979 and 1999, children (defined as ages 6 17 by Wang and Dietz, authors of the cited study) have increased their frequency of hospital visits for obesity or obesity related illnesses dramatically, t he discharges of diabetes nearly doubled, (Wang & Dietz, 2002, p. 2) Not only are overweight children visiting hospitals more, and for more complicated reasons, they are also staying for longer periods obesity 32 days to 7 days (Wang & Di etz, 2002, p. 3) As a result, obesity associated hospital costs more than tripled from $35 million to $127 million (Wang & Dietz, 2002) adults, the dis eases associated with obesity and health care costs are likely to increase even (Wang & Dietz, 2002, p. 6) Purpose of the S tudy The purpose of this study is twofold First, this study examines the variance of food categories advertised to children of a mainstream audience versus black children The second goal of this study is to examine the variance of narrative themes used between the two audiences This study is not an attempt to reach a verdict as to whether these advertisements have caused the disparaging prevalence of overweight that exist in black children versus other children Nor is this study an attempt to infer that food advertising is a singular cause of increasing overweight in children
16 However, i t is important to examine the types of food advertisements to which children are exposed for several reasons Studies discussed in the forthcoming review of the literature reveal tionately high in sugar and contain little to no nutritional benefit According to t Cognitive T heory (1977 ), if these are the primary images of food children are exposed to it could be posited that they will believe these foods are what they should be eating This study programming versus the types of foods that are advertised during general audience programming By examining behavioral cues and how marketers employ them in advertisements directed to children of different audiences, it is hopeful that the results will lead to the second goal of this study which is to provide an understanding of the use of narrative themes Narrative themes are used in advertisements to convey a general idea (Williams, 2006) They are defined by behavioral cues that typically exhibit what happens as a result of consuming the prod uct, or what has to be done to obtain the product These behavioral cues associate the food product with actions or beliefs As children develop their social self and ideas of nutritional practices, narrative themes could possibly be used to associate ea ting healthy with positive outcomes Many researchers have identified television as a logical venue for intervention (Dietz & Gortmaker, 2001) because children are a captive audience by the millions and are influenced b y what they see on television It is the hope of the author that this body of this research will provide responsible marketers and policy makers with message and strategy recommendations to combat childhood overweight effectively with healthy food message Perhaps if PSAs and other televised healthy messages to children are able to use similar
17 strategies as the unhealthy messages that dominate the media space, children will receive them equally and be given a fair opportunity to learn about healthy lifestyles While many experts on the subjects of children, obesity and advertising have studied the effects food advertising on children the forthcoming research uniquely contributes to the current body of knowledge because there is no current, readily available study that examines the differences between food advertisements targeted to black children versus the general population, with an emphasis on narrative themes likely to end anyt ime soon, but perhaps policy makers and responsible marketers can be more aware of the implied messages that are being sent to children which impact their food choices and social development
18 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE As o ne of her first initiativ es as first l ady of the White House, Michelle Obama chose to take on child overweight cites its as to solve the epidemic of childh ood obesity within a generation (Hellmich, 2010) I ndeed this is a generational prob lem; i n just a few short decades child overweight and obesity have evolved from sporadic problem s to commonplace issue s affecti ng more than one in three children (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009) Medical professionals are unanimously concerned with the statistics that child overweight has been termed a national epidemic and some fear that it will cause the reversal of life expectancy for the first time in the recorded history of the U S (Dietz, 1998) Simply put, this means that many children are not expected to outlive their parents if this epidemic is not controlled stopped and r eversed Understanding Overweight To understand the implications and causes of child overweight it is first necessary to know how it is defined and measured Unlike adults, weight is not the best indicator because children grow very quickly and at dif ferent rates (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009) The U S Department of Health and Human Services Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined Body Mass Index ( BMI ) as an accurate measurement of whether an adult or child is overweight or obese 1 people and is used to screen for weight categ ories t hat may lead to health problems (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009) BMI is calculated as the weight of a person divided by the square of their height, or: 1 Many of the references cited refer to obesity and overweight differently. Some define overweight as above the 95 th percentile while others follow the CDC definition that children above the 95 th percentile are obese, while children between the 85 th and 94 th percentile are overweight. For the purpose of this research overweight and obese are used interchangeably since children who are obese are also overweight.
19 The re commended BMI range for a child between age s 2 19 is relative to their sex and age This controls for the variab les of rate of growth and gender T he benchmarks to determine the weight class of children are based on comparisons of other children in the United States of the same sex and age The 2000 CDC Growth Charts exhibit these guidelines ( F igures 2 1 and 2 2) As seen in F igures 2 1 and 2 2, children are defined as overweight if their BMI is between the 85 th and 95 th percentile They are classified as obese if their weight is above the 95 th percentile As previously mentioned, recent estimates find that one in three children are overweight or obese (Ogden CL, 2010) To obtain these statistics, a CDC subdivision, the National Center for He alth Statistics (NCHS) administered the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) These surveys used interviews and medical examinations of a large cross sectional sample of U S civilian, non institutionalized, population (Ogden et al ., 2006) The surveys began in 1971 and the most recent ones were conducted between 2007 and 2008 By comparing the percentage of overweight children during the first NHANES survey to that of the most recent, the alarming increases are clear The cultural variables previously identified by Dietz and Gortma ker (1998) and TIME magazine, could explain why black and Hispanic children are more likely to be overweight than white children (Strauss & Pollack, 2001) Black children have been shown to be uniquely affected by many of the factors speculated to be a cause of overweight (Walsh, It's not just genetics, 2008) They are more likely to fall below the poverty line, come from single parent homes and commonly have limited access to healthy foods in the ir neighborhoods (Walsh, 2008)
20 In fact, data from the NHANES studies reveal that black children are twice as likely to be overweight than their white counterparts (Strauss & Pollack, 2001) By 1998, overweight prevalence had increased by more than 120 % among African Americans and Hispanics, and by more than 50 % among whites By 1998, 21 5 % of African American children and 21 8 % of Hispanic children were overweight In contrast, 12 3 % of white children were overweight (Strauss & Pollack, 2001, p. 2846) It is important to note these dynamic causes of overweight because although this study focuses on advertising it is not intending to imply that advertising alone has caused child overweight nor that changing its content alone could reverse the obesity epidemic As previously mentioned, there have been several dynamic changes in the way children live in the last few decades that have contributed to their incremental weight gain Television is thought to play at least a minor role for many reasons, one of which being the content of advertisements children are exposed to while they are watching television (Barcus, 1977) Advertising is a persuasive business practice that very intently identifies a target audience for a product and strategically develops a message to make a product appealing to that audience (Adler, 1980) As television programming for child audiences developed, so did the understanding that children could be a powerful audience Consumer Power co (McNeal, 1969, p. 16) Sometime around the early 1970 s advertisers began to recognize that childr en possessed both of these qualities (McNeal, 1969) It was during this decade that c were being developed for their entertainment and offered additi onal space for products to be
21 advertised to children alone Food and toy companies were immediately drawn to the opportunity (McNeal, 1969) Before long, food advertising would account for 52 % of all particularly cereal, candy and restaurants (Barcus, 1977) By the late 1970s food companies were realizing significant profits estimated at $74 million specifically from children (Barcus, 1977) The economic power of the child consumer market was no longer a question; it was a buzzing topic with broad possibilities More recently c They not only control their own direct purchases, but they also have great influence on what their parents purchase In 2005 carry $28 billion (Gunter Oats, & Blades, 2005) w hile their influence on parent decisions was estimated to be $290 billion (McNeal, 1999, p. 92) While it is estimated that children influence various purchases their pare nts make including items as expensive as cars, 50 % of their influence is said to drive food product purchases (Gunter, Oats, & Blades, 2005) Media E xposure In the 1980s it was estimated that between 20,000 and 30,000 advertisements were seen each year by children watching television (Kunkel & Gantz, 1993) His subsequent study estimated that the number of ads children saw during the 1990s increased signi ficantly averaging 40,000 ads per year on television (Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) However, the dynamics of both advertising and television have changed dramatically since then, rendering his methodology difficult to replicate Advertisements now come in various shapes and sizes includ ing 15, 30 and 60 second spots making it difficult to generalize the number of ads that appear in a given time There is also product placement in programs as well as promotional partnerships tha t are not considered to be obvious forms of advertising Similarly, television can now be recorded and re watched, fast forwarding through commercials (Kunkel, 2001) The changes in these dynamics
22 explain why it is difficu lt to estimate how many advertisements children see in an average session of television watching In the last decade the Kaiser Family Foun dation (KFF) has conducted two major studies on children and their media use : Kids & Media at the New Millennium (1999), and Generation M: Media in the lives of 8 18 year olds (2005) Collective data from the two studies reveals that chi ldren from single parent homes and children of low socioeconomic status spend significantly more time watching television than chi ldren in counter circumstances These studies also reveal that less educated parents and lower income parents are more likely to have children with TVs in their rooms and are less likely to set restrictions on their television watching. Television Targ eted t o Black Children Black children are more likely to be in families of low socioeconomic status ; therefore, they are likely to have a different relationship with television (Roberts et al ., 1999) As a result, researchers have paid careful attention to some of the differences between black targeted d mainstream Tirodkar (2003) examined the difference in food messages on black prime time and general prime time He defined black shows according to Nielsen Med ia Research (1998) which stated that black people were more likely to watch shows where the characters were predominately black (Tirodkar & Jain, 2003) He found that black television shows were more likely to portray overweight characters in a positive manner overall (4 8 per half hour show versus 2 (Tirodkar & Jain, 2003, p. 440) Thirty percent of the black prime time advertisements were for candy or chocolate comp ared to 14 % on general prime time Also, general programming was twice as likely to have advertisements promoting healthy foods such as bread/ grains (Tirodkar & Jain 2003) While this study did not focus on between
23 different types of programming receiving nearly thr ee times as many advertisements for low nutrient foods such as candy and soda and more port rayals of overweight characters, s ignifying that television viewing for African (Tirodkar & Jain, 2003 p. 441) Henderson and Kelly found similar data in their 2005 study in which black television was compared to general population programming This study examined 101 5 hours of television programs (32 hours black targeted shows and 69 5 hours gen eral market) When the two were compared, food advertisements were more likely to appear during black television shows than general programming (24 % and 15 % respectively) (Henderson & Kelly, 2005) There was also a difference in the types of food that were shown, especially with fruits and vegetables which appeared in 8% of general population food a dvertisements compared to only 1% of black shows (Henderson & Kelly, 2005) More recently in 2007 Powell et al conducted a content analysis of 224,083 advertisements that aired over a 9 month period during 170 television shows determined by Nielsen Media Research to be heavily viewed by children ages 2 17 (Powell et al 2007) They examined the differences between child (2 11) and adolescent (12 17) programming, as well as the differences between black and white programs programs according to Nielsen Media Research, data which was un attainable for this study Powell et al (2007) revealed that young children were more likely to be exposed to advertisements for foods high in fat Regarding the differences between what the different race differences were found in the nutritional content of advertisements seen by black and white children 2 to 11 years old However, a slightly higher
24 proportion of food advertisements in general and across all food product categories seen by black versus whi te adolescents were for high (Powell et al ., 2007) As previously mentioned, black children have a different relationship with television due to their common f amily and socioeconomic status Researchers hypothesize that they are more lik (Berry, 1998) Regulation In the early 1970s, r esearchers and consumer rights groups began to critically examine advertising directed to child ren, questioning its fundamental fairness, and studying the content of the ads they were seeing (Barcus, 1977; Atkin, 1976; Winick, Williamson, Chuzmir, & Winick, 1973) The groups were concerned that children did not possess the cognitive development to distinguish the persuasive intent of an advertisement (Barcus, 1977) comprised of parents, teachers and physicians who were alarmed by the violence and (Barcus, 1977) they commission ed Dr Francis Earle Barcus, a Professor of Communication Research at Boston University who is cited as one of the firs t researchers to explore the social effects of television, to conduct a content analysis of the largest scale during its time (Barcus, 1977) The study included a breakdown of advertising themes, formats, incidents of violen ce, and descriptions of morning and after school programming (Barcus, 1977, p. Intro.) His findings, which will be discussed throughout this study, provided a broad understanding of what children were seeing on television On average, 62 % of ads children saw on television in 1977 were for food products or services The majority
25 of these ads fell into three areas: sugared cereals; candy bars/ packaged candy; and eating places (restaurants), while vegetables and fruits were nonexistent (Barcus, 1977) Overall, two thirds of the food advertisements targeted to children were for highly sugared products This study was the first ind ication that food advertisements targeted to children were disproportionately representative of non healthy foods This study is credited for sparking the interest of not only other activist groups, but also doctors and parents which helped to spark interest among the government sometime in the early 1970s (McNeal, 1987) Eventually, the appropriate governing bodies would take action while working with the advertising industry to establish loose stand ards for advertising intended for children. There are two main government agencies that have the ability to mandate regulations on advertising, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) The FCC has the responsibil regulate advertising deemed unfair or (Story & French, 2004, p. 12) However, as previously mentioned, the food industry is a vibrant piece of the American economy and the regulatory actions (or lack thereof) have often been speculated as having bias, not wanting to a ffect the food industry which captures 12 5 % of all consumer spending (Story & French, 2004) There are also influential groups within both advertising and broadcasting industries that Such groups include the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), the National Advertising all of which are divisions of the National Council of Better Business Bureaus (BBB) These industry groups do
26 not possess any legal authority; rather, they are in place to regulate practices so that the level of government involvement can stay at a minimum (Story & French, 2004; Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) CARU is the most active of these groups Together with Congr ess, this group develops the children (Adler, 1980) However, many believe these guidelines are not as strict as they should be Dale Kunkel (2001) for instance suggests that some are considered rather vague One of the the child for whom the product is intended While this mandate s pecifically targeted toy advertisements, it illustrates the concern behind the inherent fairness of advertising to children who are likely to believe whatever they see Other mandates leave room for interpretation, such (Kunkel, 2001, p. 388) It is also important to note that CARU is a small group of slightly more than 50 people, many of whom are employees of the food industry such as General Mills and Hershey (Kunkel, 2001) As previously mentioned, CARU has no legal authority Therefore, when an ad is submitted for review the verdict of their board is seen strictly as a recommendation Some have qu estioned how well this group can regulate the actions of their own peers when they have a vested interest (French, Story, & Jeffery, 2001) Ch This act repealed many of the deregulatory initiatives that were adopted in the era of President Reagan, and limited the number of minutes per day that (Kunkel, 2001) However, as this Act only restricted the amount of time and not the quantity of advertisements, marketers
27 have found ways around the mandate by shortening the length of commercials to accommodate more than one in a single time block With the attention first l ady Obama focused on child overweight, television advertising is back in the spotlight and is recognized as an area in need of change Mrs Obama has addressed the responsibility of food marketing in the Move campaign and has set a goal for when the standards should change The food and beverage industry should develop aggressive targets for increasing the proportion of advertisements for healthy foods and beverages Within three years, the majori ty of food and beverage ads directed to children should promote healthy foods (Hellmich, 2010) However, as seen in the timeline below, the small advancements that have been made to regulate sing have taken decades to move forward. Timeline of Key Events and Regulations t 1961 NAB adopts code of guidelines that included provisions about advertising to children that would later be completely eliminated in the 80s (Strasburger & Wilson, 2002) 1970 to educate the public on nutrition (Adler, 1980) 1970 ACT pet (Barcus, 1977) 1974 Business Bureau (BBB) is established by the advertising industry to self regulate advertising policies This group was created in response to legislation to restrict or ban advertising to children (Story & French, 2004) 1974 FCC adopts first federal policies restricting TV advertising including: (Strasburger & Wilson, 2002) min/ hour on weekdays and 9 5 min/hour on weekends) Clear separation between program content and co mmercial messages (no host selling) Clear delineation when a program is interrupted by a commercial
28 1976 NAB Code Authority reduces permitted number of non program material permitted per hour from 10 to 9 5 (Adler, 1 980) 1978 FTC formally proposes a rule that would ban or severely restrict all TV advertising to children FTC presents a review of the scientific evidence and argues that all advertising directed to children is inherently unfair and deceptive The proposal invokes intense opposition from the broadcasting, advertising, food and toy industries and an aggressive campaign to oppose the ban based on First Amendment protection (Story & French, 2004) 1980 In response t agencies authority to restrict advertising The Act prohibits any further action to adopt dvertising rules (Story & French, 2004) 1984 Deregulation of television occurs during the Reagan administration FCC deregulates all limits on the amount of advertising times, and the restriction on program length commercials (Story & French, 2004) 1990 Television Act which directed the FCC to require educational programming for children and to limit t he amount of commercial time to 10 5 min/hr on weekends and 12 min/hr on weekdays FCC reinstates the policy on program length commercials but redefines them (Story & French, 2004; Strasburger & Wilson, 2002) 2005 December Institute of Medicine ( IOM ) releases their report stating that food marketing is a significant contributor to childhood obesity (Stitt & Kunkel, 2008, p. 575) 2006 launched by the National Council of Better Business Bureau (BBB) Food Products ood products have dominated the advertising space (Barcus, 1977) Findings consistently show that food advertisements programming sometimes making up more than half of overall ads (Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) A considerable amount of food companies marketing budgets are s pent specifically targeting children In fact, it is estimated that one billion advertising budget is spent targeting children (Brownell, 2004, p. 99)
29 As previously mentioned, Barcu s ( 1977 ) found that on average, 62 % television were for food products or services, and the primary categories were cereal, snack foods and eating places These categories established by Barcus are prevalent and prominent throughout (A lexander et al ., 1998; Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) In the decades since the Barcus (1977) study several content analyses have been conducted In addition to the primary food categories established by Barcus (candy/ snacks, cereal, and eating places), two others have also emerged: drinks and fresh grocery/ all natural foods Together these five categories capture the majority of food advertisements that are targeted to children The Evolution o f Food Product Categories In the time before the Barcus (1977) study resear chers observed but only in the context of studying the quantity of ads, not the content To help provide perspective on how the content evo lved between the 1950s and 1990s, Alexander et al (1998) conducted a retro active co programming in the 1950s The team acquired t apings of 24 shows from that time and coded the advertisements in to five categories: toys, cereal, snacks, fast food and other The study compared advertisements aired during Saturday morning programming to general programming, and then compared those findings to similar studies conducted in the 1970s (Barcus, 1977) and 1990s (Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) Of the categories, t he other category was the most dominant (47 % programming and 56 % during general audience programming) primarily because the idea of children only programming was relatively new in the 1950s ( Alexander et al ., 1998) It was assumed that children were watching programs with their parents, therefore; much of the advertising was for adult products such as lau ndry detergent (Alexander et al ., 1998) During
30 both child targeted shows and general audience shows, cereal was the most popular food category capturing 23 and 20 % of the advertising space, respectively Candy and snacks came in second (22 % and 17 % ) whil e fast food was nonexistent ( had not yet tapped into the potential of child targeted advertising) (Alexander et al ., 1998) Over the next few decades there was certainly an evolution of marketers who realized the buying potential of children and began to advertise during child targeted programs with strategic advertising The Alexander (1998) study documents this by comparing the findings of commercials from the 1950s to what Barcus (1970) and Kunkel (1990) found in subsequent years T he findings reflect the rising popularity of fast food, the continued reign of cereal and the increasing popularity of snacks These trends are important to observe and understand how ( F igure 2 3 ) Nutritiona l Content R esearch shows that the foods advertised are not nutritiously sound, often being high in fat and sugar ( Powell et al ., 2007) McNeal (1987) content analyzed Saturday morning cartoons in November 1985 on the three major networks (ABC, CBS, NBC) and found that of the food goods, only two out of 45 were for non sugared items Warren et al (2008) note: Three content analyses (Harrison & Marske, 2005; Kotz & Story, 1994; Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) determined that fewer than 5 % of all food commercials were for healthy foods Byrd Bredbenner and Grasso (1999) found that fats, oils, and proportion of such foods in a healthy diet Dairy, fruit, and vegetab le products were 20 % of food commercials, though the USDA recommends that they comprise the majority of a healthy diet Harrison and Marske (2005) concluded that a diet composed of advertised foods would exceed recommended nutritional levels of sa turated fat, sodium, and sugar. T he same foods would provide less than 10 % of the recommended daily minimum of essential vitamins and minerals (Warren, et al ., 2008, p. 233) Moreover, f it regarding healthy messages to children (Powell et al ., 2007) A 2005 Brandweek article claimed
31 that between Burger King and alone, more than $1 4 billion was spent on media advertising (Hein, 2005) as much as 95 % of which is allocated to television (Gallo, 1999) being the industry leader for spending in this category is said to directly target children with 40 % of its advertisements (Brownell, 2004) was also the first (McNeal, 1987) Child activists argue that this encourages children to think that eating fast food always came with a reward Just recently in 2010, the state of California outlawed fast food companies giving children toys in their meals in hopes of reversing this trend (McKinley, 2010) It is noteworthy that in recent years some fast food companies have made an effort to offset the fat heavy nature of their menu with healthy snack options like apple sticks and yogurt (Warren et al ., 2008) Data is not available to demonstrate whether these efforts have gotten the atten tion of children and, or sold more than the typical fat Meanwhile, those in the food and advertising industries have begun to address their role on the issue, enacting self regulated measures such as the Advertising Initiative, launched in November 2006 by the National Council of Better Business Bureau (BBB), also the parent organization of CARU (Adler, 1980) to provide companies that advertise foods and beverages to children with a transparent and accountable advertising self (Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., 2009) To date, 13 of the largest food and beverage companies esti mated to represent more than two expenditures have joined the Initiative, making pledges that, when fully implemented, will significantly alter the landscape of food marketing to children Mos t of these companies have committed either not to advertise directly to children under 12 or to limit such advertising including television, radio, print, and the Internet nutritio nal standards, such as limitations on calories, fat, sugar, and sodium and/or providing certain nutritional benefits to children (Council o f Better Business Bureaus, Inc. 2009)
32 Unfortunately, f ruits and ve getables are rarely represented to children in advertising and when they are it is almost e xclusively in the context of a public service a nnouncement (PSA) Of the 1,065 product selling commercials observed by Kotz and Story (1994) only 68 were for PSAs and only four of them featured actual fruits an d vegetables Effects of Advertising As previously mentioned, t he increased presence of television in the lives of children is thought to contribute to childhood overweight Not only is watching television a sedentary act that keeps children from exerting energy, but while they are watching it, they are exposed to advertising for food products that do not promote healthy food behaviors (Gorn & Goldberg, 1982) This has caused concern about the effects of advertising among consumer advocate groups, health professionals, child development specialists, media researchers and government officials alike Researchers have responded with an overwhelming n umber of studies examining the effects that advertising has on food behaviors (brand preference and food choices), and purchase requests (Koon & Tucker, 2002) Studies on the effects that advertising has on food behaviors often measure the likelihood of a child to choose a product or brand based on advertising exposure (Gorn & Goldberg, 1982) Studies have shown that children are more likely to choose a product for which they have seen an adver tisement, even if only one exposure, as opposed to one for which they have not seen as advertisement (Gorn & Goldberg, 1982) As hypothesized by the Social C ogniti ve T heory (Bandura, 1977) of and desire to eat healthy foods such as vegetables that are not advertised as often as packaged foods (Koon & Tucker, 2002; Goldberg, Gorn, & Gibson, 1978) The most referenced experiment proving a p ositive relationship between advertising
33 Together, they have examined the effects of advertising on children in varying conditions since dvertising was a r elatively new concern Their work is considered to be the foundation of experimental research in this field and is often replicated For two weeks in 1982 their study used a sample of low income children at a summer camp and their dail during which children watched television, to subject them to four different treatments The first group of children had commercials for sugared products during their television time, the second group had commercials for fruits, vegetable s and juices, while the third group viewed public service announcements and the fourth control group had no commercials present during their viewing time After watching the television programs in their separate groups, the children were given the opportu nity to choose a snack The findings were significant The first group of children, who were exposed to commercials for sugared products, overall chose sugared products for their snack The other children from the control group, and the groups exposed t o commercials for fruits and vegetables or public service announcements, primarily chose fruit or juice for their snack, implying that children knew what they were supposed to choose, but advertising influenced the choices they made (Gorn & Goldberg, 1982) Numerous s have examine d the relationship between advertising exposure and the number of attempts children make to influence what their parents buy (Koon & Tuck er, 2002) and direct observation of mother (Koon & Tucker, 2002, p. 427) have been utilized categories of non food products (such as toys) vary by the age of the child, requests for cereals (Koon & Tucker, 2002, p. 428) Most he more commercial television (a child)
34 watched at home, the greater the number of purchase influencing attempts (were) directed at his or her mother a (Galst & White, 1976, p. 1089) Kunkel (2001) notes that advertisers deliberate and calculated development of commercial messages can have both, intentional and unintentional effects The intentiona l effects include behavioral actions stated previously: brand preference and purc hase intention W hile the unintended effects of advertising exposure are more attitudinal and psychological Kunkel (Kunkel, 2001, p. 383) including an increase in materialistic attitudes, an increase in parent child conflicts, antisocial behavior and (Kunkel, 2001; McNeal, 1987) Narrative Themes for the product, and depending on the age of the child either purchase influence attempts or (Kunkel, 2001, p. 382) Advertisers spend billions of dollars in research trying to perfect strategies that increase the effectiveness of an advertisement (Kunkel, 2001) They decide how and what to promote about the product by being well educated on the habits of their target market One such strategy with an audience is the use of narrative themes (Williams, 2006) Many t imes these themes are thought to imply something irrelevant to the product itself and in the case of advertising to children, to present misleading conclusions to them about what will happen once the advertised product is consumed (Gunter, Oats, & Blades, 2005) The term n arrative theme is relatively new and has been defined and referred to in several different ways over the years While the term is new, the study and examination of the content Barcus ( 1977 ) was the first to code for traits in an advertisement that were based on themes He
35 and focused (Barcus, 1977, p. 136) His stud y found that nearly 60 % of the time, the themes were represen ted in five subject areas: in terpersonal rivalry; the entertainment world; domestic topic (home, family); crime; and the supernatural Future studies would continue to observe these categories as themes while adding additional dimensions to expand the definition of a theme and examin e the associations relationships and implied affects of usin g a food product advertised to children ( Winick et al ., 1973 ; Williams, 2006 ; Rajecki, 1994 ; Roberts & Pettigrew, 2007) In a study that combined many of the coding definitions from previous content analyses, Williams (2006) ommercials typically tell one unified story, and this group of variables is meant to capture this narrative (Williams, 2006, p. 14) She identified five ge in (Williams, 2006, p. 14) Many content analyses have used similar dimensions when coding the content of However, other relevant dimensions including healthy/ well being magic/ fantasy, adult approval or disapproval improved appe arance, trickery and violence/conflict have also been examined ( T able 2 1 ) Rajecki et al (1994) defined themes a actions, or (Rajecki, 1994, p. 1689) Advertisements were coded for : dependence, enablement, mood alteration, achievement, conflict, trickery, and violence (1994) (62 % and 41 % respectively), while achievement (24 % ) and mood alteration (23 % ) were less
36 common Mood alteration was also found by Roberts and Pettigrew (2007) whose analysis of that implied the (Roberts & Pettigrew, 2007, p. 364) appearing in nearly 20 % of ads (Rajecki, 1994) trying to dupe the other out of the p (Rajecki, 1994, p. 1690) using costumes or camouflage Future research continued advertisin g ( Warren et al ., 2008; Page & Brewster, 2007) The th eme of family togetherness has gradually decreased in the last 30 years Winick and % of ads, while Roberts and Pettigrew (2007) found the portrayal of families actually eating together in less tha n 7% of ads observed They cited information from the American Dietetic Association which posits hared family meals have been found to result in the consumption of more fruits, vegetables, vitamins and fiber, and less fat and soft drinks d he heavy emphasis in advertisements on (Roberts & Pettigrew, 2007, p. 363) ess in less than 8% of ads observed (Williams, 2006) (Wicks et al ., 2009 p. 95) Winick and Williamson (1973) found that more than half of advertisements present fantasy or cartoon characters while Warren et al ( 2008) cited fantasy in more than 88 % of ads The use of healthy/ well being appeals has also declined in the last several decades Barcus (1977) found that this was the most common appeal used, while Warren et al (2008) found that
37 less than 30 % of ads relayed a message that the product would improve health Kunkel (1992) and Wi cks (2009) found this appeal in less than 1% of ads Wicks and Warren (2009) note that the use of the fun/happiness appeal rarely involves showing the food itself, rather focusing entirely on children having fun Kunkel (1992) notes the prevalence of th is theme, appearing in more than one fourth of all ads (26 6 % ) but more importantly, in nearly 72 % times may be more important than (Kunkel & Gantz, 1992, p. 146) This appeal was also the dominant approach to selling healthy food products (46 7 % alth/nutrition appeals were rarely employed (6 1 % ) even when (Kunkel & Gantz, 1992, p. 146) Schor (2007) paid particular attention to the dimension of popularity, examining the f symbolic appeal in their advertisements as posited by the Social Cognitive Theory advertisement directed to children not only sells products; it also sells such socio cultural (Bandura, 1989, p. xxi) ( Schor & Ford, 2007, p. 15) She found that symbolic marketing messages were present in at least 28 % advertisements not on the basis of their tastiness, or other benefits, but because of their place in a social matrix (Schor & Ford, 2007, p. 16) messages were also found to company) with the audience, and against adults
38 messages in which adults are portrayed as stupid, uncool, boring, nerdy, out of touch, (Schor & Ford, 2007, p. 17) Children Are Influenced b y Models formerly known as the Social Learning Theory) is the platform for this study an d has also provided theoretical support to several other studies about children and television. Researchers have applied this theory to explain how the presence of sex (O'Leary, 1992) smoking (Rinka Va n Zundert, 2009) violence (Bandura, 1989) and unhealthy food representation on television is affecting children (Williams, 2006) The broad concept of this theory posits that behaviors are learned by observing others (Bandura, 1977) Once observation of a behavior, belief, attitude or symbol begins (Bandura, 1977) a cognitive process leads to the development of a symbolic representation of reality based on available models. This development of symbolic representation influences our behavior, and the process is known as modeling (Bandura, 2 001) Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are formed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action (Bandura, 1977, p. 22) The cognitive process that leads to modeling is referred to as observational learning (Bandura, 1977) The likelihood of a child beginning the observational experience and modeling thei r behavior after a person or character depends on the characteristics of the model and the (Bettinghaus & Cody, 1994) If the model is a well known figure, perceive d to have high competence on the subject, or is physically similar to the child, the probability of modeling is increased. If the model receives an award of some kind as a result of the behavior, children are more likely to emulate the behavior
39 (Strasburger & Wilson, 2002) These are prevalent types of narrative themes that will be coded in this study, along with others. However, the type of information that a child observes and actively receives is also dependent upon indiv idual variables for each child. The type of environment the children experience daily, both social and familial, will have a great impact on what children retain (Bandura, 2001) These variables imply that although childre n from different backgrounds may be exposed to similar symbolic representations, their route to processing the information and the inherent potential for modeling is quite different, hence the comparison of mainstream and black targeted shows in this study Observational learning is broken up into four steps which determine and eventually lead to modeling. What children observe, what they retain, how they react and why are determined by who the child is and in what environment they live (Strasburger & Wilson, 2002) This explains Children selectively pay attention to different features of a modeled behavior, they bring forth different experiences to interpret and e valuate the models actions, and they store more emphasis on how children symbolically construe or make sense of a models behavior. Children selectively pay attention to different features of a models behavior, they bring forth different experiences to interpret and evaluate the models actions, and they store different information in memory (Strasburger & Wilson, 2002, p. 92) Modeling is not restricted to l earning behaviors; it can also influence beliefs and attitudes. as tutors, motivators, inhibitors, disinhibitors, (Bandura, 2001, p. 139) Therefore, children not only model people, but also they model attitudes and symbolic beliefs that are explicitly or implicitly implied in advertising. Narrative themes have
40 (Williams, 2006) to gain favor in the eyes of children. Bandura referred to these attitudes and symbolic behaviors (Bandura, 2001, p. 276) when the result of a behavior is obs erved as leading to positive or negative reception the observer internalizes the outcome to help form an attitude or opinion as favorable or unfavorable (Bandura, 2001) Narrative Themes Tell Stories a nd Provide Models As previously mentioned, the concept of a narrative theme has been studied by several researchers However, narrative themes have not always been defined the same way. For the purpose of this study, narrative themes are defined as behavioral cues shown by the available models that exhibit the process or result of consuming a product. This is very similar to the in a codeable pattern of thoughts, actions, or social (Rajecki, 1994, p. 1686) According to the tenants of the Social Learning Theory, by coding for the behavior shown by models and comparing what is seen by general audiences versus primarily ethnic audie nces, it may be possible to conclude if there is a pattern of how models are represented to children of various backgrounds Models are often represented in television and have greater symbolic meaning to children now more than ever, as television (and i nherently advertising) has become such a part of ( Roberts et al ., 1999) Not only is television watched more now than ever, but there are more options of what to watch (a nd inherently more models to observe) than ever. As a result, children are not limited to observing the behaviors of their own sub t for television (Bandura, 1977, p. 24)
41 On a symbolic level, researchers argue the increased exposure to media that modern day children have access to exposes them to inaccurate representations of nutrition and prov ides models that do not represent realistic or healthy eating behaviors (Bandura, 1977) While the (Gorn & Goldber g, 1982) many believe that the content of the advertisement has a great impact on the likelihood of modeling. Some of these implied content strategies which would help a child model a healthy lifestyle include narrative themes such as action, achievement, healthy or well being themes (Rajecki, 1994; Schor & Ford, 2007; Williams, 2006 ; Winick et al ., 1973) As mentioned above, narrative themes are prevalent throughout food advertising on evision. The goal of this study is to examine all relevant narrative themes that have been examined over time into one comprehensive study, in hopes of comparing their use when directed to the mainstream audience versus when they are directed to an audien ce of primarily narrative themes affect children of different backgrounds in various ways. sion fare. As a selling vehicle, television provides the young viewer with many of his or her first concepts of what foods to eat and what toys to own. An advertisement directed to children not only sells products; it also sells such socio cultural messa ges as how to gain peer acceptance and how to evaluate oneself. The advertiser tells children that owning something new is fun. He portrays sweetness as the most desirable quality (Barcus, 1977, p. xxii) R esearch Q uestion s RQ1: What are the most common food categories advertised during targeted to a general population versus those targeted to a black audience ? H1: As seen in previous studies, it is hypothesized that breakfast c ereals will be the most common food category across both populations. RQ2: What are the most common narrative themes used in food advertisements shown during to a black aud ience, and in what food categories do they appear most frequently? H2: The
42 encourage healthy lifestyles (action, competition/ achievement, healthy/ well being) more so
43 Figure 2 1 BMI Age growth chart for boys (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009) Figure 2 2 BMI Age growth chart for girls. (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009)
44 Figure 2 3 Prevalence of Overweight* Among US Children and Adolescents (aged 2 19 Years) *Data based on National Health and nutrition Examination Surveys (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007) **Data based on National Health and nutrition Examination Surveys as examined by : (Ogden CL, 2010) 0 5 10 15 20 25 Percent Year 2-5 y 6-11 y 12-19 y
45 Figure 2 4 Advertising product types 1950s 1990s (Alexander et al .,1998, p. 5) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Toys Cereals Candy/Snacks Fast Food Other Toys Cereals Candy/Snacks Fast Food Other 1950s 8.3 23.3 21.7 0 46.7 1970s 18.1 24.8 28.8 10.4 14.3 1990s 17 31.2 32.4 8.7 11.4
46 Table 2 1 Narrative Themes Theme Author Definition Finding Crime/ Violence Williams (2006) Coded for being present in ads, not specifically as a narrative theme. Found violence in almost a quarter of sample Action /Sports/ Performance Warren et al (2008) Product consumption will enhance physical performance or energy (e.g., sports performance, stamina). Found in 3% of advertisements shown during shows children are most likely to watch both child and adult programming Atkin, Heald (1977) Provides feeling of power. Only 2% of food ads displayed this theme. Williams (2006) Identified as one of the major recurring themes. Coded for being shown as a part of the plot (24%), promised to occur as a result of the product (4%) or both (10%). Popularity Williams (2006) Identified as one of the major recurring themes. Coded for being shown as a part of the plot (59%), promised to occur as a result of the product (1%) or both (3%). Warren et al (2008) Product consumption is associated with acceptance or being Found in 78% of child targeted advertisements containing animation and other attention getting production techniques. Atkin, Heald (1977) Product increases peer status. 34% of food ads displayed improved status or involved affiliation. Roberts and Pettigrew (2007) Identified as a promotional appeal used in advertisements Found in 35% (7 of 20) campaigns. Change in Mood Williams (2006) Identified as one of the major recurring themes. Coded for being shown as a part of the plot (8%), promised to occur as a res ult of the product (37%) or both (3%). Roberts and Pettigrew (2007) Identified as one of four major themes in children's food advertisements. Analyzed qualitatively. Warren et al (2008) Suggests that product will either create/enhance positive feelings (e.g., happiness, relief) or remove negative feelings (e.g., anxiety, anger over not having product). This does not refer to the enjoyment of the ad. Found mood alteration in 14% of ads shown during shows children are most likely to watch both child and adult programming. However this was more common in child targeted ads. Rajecki Consumption of the product causes the actor to experience a reaction indicating pleasure or psychological change. This could also be indicated by a n egative mood being changed as a result of the product. Found in 23% of a sample of 92 advertisements aimed at children that were coded for thematic and sub textual content.
47 Table 2 1. Continued Theme Author Definition Finding Competition / achieveme nt Williams (2006) Identified as one of the major recurring themes. Coded for being shown as a part of the plot (28%), promised to occur as a result of the product (>1%) or both (5%). Warren et al (2008) Product consumption is linked with being able to obtain a desired goal or achieving control over undesirable aspects of self or the environment. Found in 43% of child targeted advertisements containing animation and other attention getting production techniques. Rajecki Consumption of the product leads to achievement and overcoming obstacles. Enablement typically ends in achievement. Enablement was found in 18% of advertisements while achievement was found in 24% of ads. Family togetherne ss Roberts and Pettigrew (2007) Defined as the portrayal of famil ies actually eating together. Found in less than 7% of ads Williams (2006) Identified as one of the major recurring themes. Coded for being shown as a part of the plot (6%), promised to occur as a result of the product (2%) or both (0%). Healthy / well being Warren et al (2008) Product consumption is associated with a general improvement in overall health or well being as well as claims around weight management or dieting. More common in adult targeted advertisements appearing in 70% of advertisements containing animation and other attention getting production techniques and only 30% for child targeted advertisements. Kunkel (1992) Health or nutrition mentioned to promote the food product to children. 1% of ads mention health benefits as a product ap peal. Atkin, Heald (1977) Product refers to general nourishment, mentions number of vitamins, lists specific vitamins. 63% of food ads contained no nutritional information while 47% mentioned either general nourishment or vitamins. Magic /fantas y Warren et al (2008) Product is associated with producing effects by charms, spells, rituals, sleight of hand, or concealed apparatus. Found in 88% of child targeted advertisements containing animation and other attention getting production techniques. Roberts and Pettigrew (2007) Identified as a promotional appeal used in advertisements. Found in 85% (17 of 20) campaigns. Adult approval/ disapproval Warren et al (2008) Product consumption is (or other authority child, or getting away with something despite disapproval. Found in 100% of child targeted advertisements containing animation and other attention getting production techniques.
48 Table 2 1. Continued Theme Author Definition Finding Improved Appearanc e Warren et al (2008) Improved appearance as the main reason for having the product More common in adult targeted advertisements appearing in 82% of advertisements containing animation and other attention getting production techniques and only 18% for chil d targeted advertisements. Trickery Warren et al (2008) Denying, tricking, or deceiving others out of the product. Found in 97% of child targeted advertisements containing animation and other attention getting production techniques. Rajecki An attempt by one of the parties to dupe the other out of the product. Costumes, misrepresentations and manipulative communications can be involved. Found in 20% of a sample of 92 advertisements aimed at children that were coded for thematic and sub textual content. This usually occurs on conjunction with conflict. Conflict Rajecki Two parties in an ad want the same thing: usually the product. If one gains or keeps the prize, the other must remain without. Frustration is in evidence. Found in 41% of a sample of 92 ad vertisements aimed at children that were coded for thematic and sub textual content. Presence of rewards, premium offer Barcus The product is associated with a prize or special offer. Premiums offered in 19% of all children's ads. Williams (2006) An incentive for purchasing the product other than the product itself. One fourth of advertisements offered a reward. Warren et al (2008) Product has associated free gifts or material benefits. Found in 69% of child targeted advertisements containing animat ion and other attention getting production techniques. Roberts and Pettigrew (2007) Identified as a promotional appeal used in advertisements. Found in nearly 40% (8 of 20) campaigns Humor/ Happiness Barcus Children appear to be happy or having fun. Theme appears in 26.6% of ads on children's television, and 72% of all food advertisements Atkin, Heald Product is fun to eat or play with. Prevalent in 30% of ads.
49 Table 2 2 Categ Source Sampling Method Sample Size/ Time Frame Food ads, % of total advertising Cereal ads % of total food ads Snacks and sweets ads % of total food ads Fast Food ads % of total food ads Healthy ads % of total food ads Drinks ads % of total food ads Barcus 1977 25.5 hrs. children's weekend programming 614 food ads/April 1975 68 25 29 10 Kunkel and Gantz 1992 604 hrs. children's weekend programming 16,024 ads February March 1990 77 (Broadcast) 31 32 9 5 drinks were not coded Kotz and Story 52.5 hrs. children's weekend programming 1065 ads including 68 PSA/564 food ads 57 39 20 11 6 6 Harrison and Marske 2005 40 hrs. of shows most often viewed by children age 6 1 1 according to Nielsen (network Saturday network part time, syndication and cable) 1,424 ads, Spring 2003 30 15% childre n 4% general 44% children 30% general 34% children 57% general 7% children 8% general Drinks were coded with candy and sweets Williams 2006 309.5 hrs. children's programming targeted to children 7 or 8 years and younger on 6 broadcast and 3 cable networks 2,334 ads April 10 April 16, 2005 Data not given 33 Data not given 13 7 11 Folta et al 2006 31 hrs 987 ads (711 ads excluding promotions) 35 27 16 27 8 11 Powell et al ., 2007 Ad exposure based on Nielsen program ratings for children program ratings for children aged 2 11 y (6 broadcast 4 cable) 224,083 ads September 2003 through May 2004 29 (Broadcast) 28 30 12 7 9 Warren et al 2008 672 hrs. compiled from a composite week of programming aired on the most popular child/family programming according to Cable Advertising Bureau during 77 randomly selected days from January to May 2006 4,324 food ads (51% on child targeted channels 49% on general audience) 100% 13 16 24 12 4
50 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Television The intent of this study was to programming A more specific intent was to compare the advertisements that aired during shows designed to target a general or mainstream child audience versus shows that are intended for an audience compri sed mainly for black children The FCC defines s even different categories : TV Y (suitable for all children) TV Y7 (directed to older children), TVY7 FV (directed to older children fantasy violence), TV G (general audience), TV PG (parental guidance suggested), TV 14 (parents strongly cautioned), and T V MA (mature audience only). The FCC designates two ratings as being appropriate for children : TV Y and TV 7. According to the non profit watch group t he TV Parental Guidelines Monitoring Board (operators of www.tvguidelines.org ) a program with TV Y rating is: Designed to be appropriate for all children. Whether animated or live action, the themes and elements in this program are specifically designed for a very young audience, including children from ages 2 6. This program is not expected to frighten younger children. (TV Parental Guidelines Monitoring Board) A program with TV 7 rating is designed for children age 7 and above. It may be more appropriate for children who have acquired the developmental skills needed to distinguish between make believe and reality. Themes and e lements in this program may include mild fantasy violence or comedic violence, or may frighten children under the age of 7. Therefore, parents may wish to consider the suitability (TV P arental Guidelines Monitoring Board) This study focused on shows targeted to children over the age of seven years old because the NHANES studies have found this age group most likely to be overweight ( F igure 2 3) NHANES s tudies have also stated children are likely to develop the cognitive ability to distinguish advertisements from programming around this age (Williams, 2006) The ratings for each television show were obta ined on the TV Guide website ( www.tvguide.com ).
51 Content Analysis Various elements of the advertisemen ts were examined and compared using content analysis Babbie whom, why, (Babbie, 2007, p. 334) Therefore, content analysis was an appropriate method for this research Content analysis is defined as the study of recorded human communications (Babbie, 2007) and is commonly used by researchers to describe and quantify a phenomenon (Krippendorff, 1980) Analysis is achieved by carefully examining human interactions to (Neuendorf, 2002, p. 14) As seen throughout the literature review content analysis was the chosen methodology for many The universe of this st broadcast networks The shows were separately categorized as mainstream, or black targeted The individual units of analysis were the advertisements that aired during their com mercial breaks The advertisements were coded to determine the category of food which defines the advertised product, as well as the narrative themes that appear throughout the commercial A quantitative approach was applied to code the food product categories and narrative Food product categories were coded for manifest content while the narrative themes were coded by observing the sometimes more latent content Manifest content is rather obvious and explicit which made this approach ideal for defining and quantifying the category of the food product (Babbie, 2007) Latent content is more useful in (Babbie, 2007, p. 325) which is an ideal method to understand narrative themes that are sometimes implied, or implicit As latent
52 content is subjective and defined by the appearance of a dimension, not necessarily the frequency, Babbie states that examining both manifest and latent content are ideal for content analysis to ensure reliability (Babbie, 2007) Selection of Sample As previously mentioned, children today have unlimited access to television Children watch various programs throughout the day on any given channel ; t his makes the task of defining Based on previous research, several criteria were developed to define the sample The first criterion was television ratings which were based on FCC guidelines It was decided that the following sample would only include shows that were rated TV 7, or TV G TV 7 indicates that a show is mo st appropriate for a child age seven or older As previously mentioned, children under age seven are thought to confuse advertisements with programming (TV Parental Guidelines Monitoring Board) and they are also the age group least likely to be overweight ( F igure 2 3) Therefore, shows targeting children under seven were excluded TV G is a rating that indicates the program is ideal for a general audience that could include but is not limited to children under seven TV G shows are not necessarily limited to shows that target children, but sin ce there is typically no sexual content or violence, most children will have access to these programs on both network and cable television Since t he universe of shows that fit these criteria is extremely va st and impossible to examine, additional criteri a were required The second criteri on required that the shows be intended for This Nielsen cable ratings : Nickelodeon and the Disney C hannel Nickelodeon has been the top rated cable channel for 15 years in a row among all basic cable
53 channels (Nickelodeon, 2009) while the Disney C hannel usually follows closely behind somewhere in the top three (Alford, 2010) The third criterion required that the chosen television programs be popular among children achieved by using Nielsen Media data reports D ue to the cost of these reports, the selection of the forthcoming sample was first based on available secondary research which often included older Nielsen reports available on the I nternet In addition to Nielsen, other resources used to verify the popu larity of show included TV by the Numbers ( http://tvbythenumbers .com / ), TV com, the Emmy Awards TV by the N umbers is an independently published online journal and blog site that reports television statistics. The site posts daily and weekly updates including the audience size and share of individual shows. It should be noted that for this website, Nielsen ratings were ultimately the source. Certain websites have access to different reports, depending on their Nielsen subscription; therefore, the author was able to compile Nielsen data from this and other similar websites. The Emmy Awards began in 1949 and are considered the television equivalent of the Academy Awards. T he winners are determined by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences nonprofit organization devoted to the advancement of telecommunication arts and (Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, 1995 2010) A television show winning an Emmy Award does not necessarily mean it was the most popular in its group, but it does suggest overall excellence which qualified the Emmy Awards as a credible source The in 1988 are sponsored by Nickelodeon and air on that channel as well. Various categories are
54 honored including favorite movie, music act and television show. Nickelodeon viewers decide who the winners are by voting on the Nickelodeon website. The fourth criteri on required that half of the shows could be perceived as being intended for a black audience To compensate for the lack of access to Nielsen reports, which may have been useful in determining the act researcher determined that the only way to designate a show as being targeted to a specific demographic was to consider the perceived race of the main characters. This follows the tenants of Bandur (Bandura, 1977) and is a similar method that Tirodkar used to determine his sample (Tirodkar & Jain, 2003) Based on the aforementioned criteri a h (Disney ) were selected as popular mainstream programs. According to Nielsen data provided by TvByNumbers com, both were chart topping cable programs In the first week of August 2010, both shows premiered the first episodes of their fourth seas on and was ranked the number one cable program overall with 7 74 million viewers (Nickelodeon Press, 2011) Hannah (which, the final season is being referred to as Hannah Montana Forever ) ranked fifth with 5 7 million viewers (Seidman, Cable Top 25: iCarly Tops Hannah Montana; Snooki Edges Sookie) A dditional secondary research revealed these shows were deemed appropriate for the sample because of their awards and cultural popularity For example, 2009 and 2010 The Hannah enterprise is a combination o f the television show, a clothing line, video game, Billboard chart topping albums, merchandise, two movies and subsequent DVDs, all of which are most likely familiar to virtually every child in America In addition to being nominated and awarded several
55 Awards, one source claim ed that the show captured 200 million viewers worldwide in 2008 (Armstrong, 2009) again, legitimi zing it s popularity. The fifth and final criterion called for each of the mainstream shows to have a black targeted show that is similar in nature for the sake of comparison This resulted in the selection of (Nickelodeon) and (Disney ) appeared on Ni ckelodeon in 2008 and broke network records for viewers age 6 11 and tweens age 9 14 with 4 8 million viewers (Starr, 2008) It was deemed an appropriate comparison to because both shows are based on the premise of a young girl leading an adult life For the comparison to Hannah Montana was chosen Although is in syndication and no longer filming n ew episodes, it was the Disney C h highest rated series for several years and still garnered 2 million viewers per repeat (Seidman, 2009) Furthermore, was seen as an appropriate comparison to Hannah because it was an epi sode of Raven (Goin Hollywood) that inspired the creation of Hannah (Wikipedia) Unfortunately, the Disn ey channel is not an advertiser supported network Meaning, episodes of Hannah and Raven would only feature advertisements for other Disney products However, both shows are available on ABC Kids, the Saturday morning edition of the Disney channel that is on local television (ABC) and supported by adve rtisers Many researchers have examined Saturday morning programming because it is a time when many children are watching television (Barcus, 1977; Atkin, 1976; Kunkel & Gantz, 1992) Collection of Sample A census of one month of the television shows that met the qualifications for the study were recorded via DVR (digital video recorder) on Direct TV cable service for four weeks from O ctober 1 2010 to October 30, 2010 Due to lack of accessible data ci ting a specific time of
56 year when children watch television more, October was selected because it is not duri ng sweepstakes time when television producers run special programs to monitor audience statistics October was also selected because it is placed between the school year starting (when children schedules are regulated after the summer ) and the holidays when many shows feature specialized holiday programming and Hannah are the two shows in the sample that are Disney programmed and air ed Saturday morning cartoon time on ABC Unlike Hannah Montana airs on ABC at night as well Therefore, during this four week period, four episodes of Hannah were recorded and eight episodes of On Nickelodeon during this time period, aired and was reco rded six times and was recorded 45 times The total number of shows recoded was 65 With each show running 30 minutes, the total number of hours of television recoded equals 32 5 hours The researcher decided that the final sample would consist of four episodes of each show because within the selected timeframe, four was the lowest common denominator for each of the shows Then, a random sample of each of the shows was selected using www.randomizer.org T he shows were then coded for food category and narrative theme. Coders The researcher was designated as the primary coder and a male graduate student was used as the co coder Both coders were experi enced in research and trained in content analysis. At which were recorded via DVR by the researcher First, the researcher trained the second coder to understand which telev ision shows were classified as b lack targeted shows and which were cl assified as gener al audience programming While watching the episodes, the researcher instructed the second coder to
57 identify advertisements that were promoting food products These advertiseme nts were then analyzed according to category and content. Th e coders first analyzed the category and classified the food ad into its appropriate category and sub category. For example, if a Frosted Flakes ad was seen during a program in the sample, it would be coded in the breakfast category and the cereal sub cat egory C oders then identified which narratives theme(s) were present in the advertisement Often times, this meant watching the ad more than once. Since the episodes were recorded via DVR, coders were able to pause and rewind the show as many times as n eeded This ensured that the advertisement could be reviewed, and coded for the appropriate narrative themes. The coders count ed duplicates or, instances when the same advertisement aired during one program. The coders watched each television program and entered the data onto hard copies and later into an Excel spreadsheet, which was then exported into Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) for statistical comparisons Pretest A pretest was conducted shows outside of the sample using a Suite Life of Zac k and Cody which was recorded once a week, on Saturday mornings during September, 2010 The pretest provided coders the opportunity to develop an understanding of the cat egory definitions, narrative theme characteristics, and any additional attributes of an ad that might need to be considered Both coders found a tota l of 10 food advertisements during the four pilot shows Some questions did arise regarding the attributes of certain narrative themes The second coder questioned whether a Happy Meal commercial that showed a child eating apple sticks instead of French fries, and drinking milk instead of soda, could be categorized as fresh grocery/ all natural
58 as h ealthy It was decided that the category would still ultimately be c onvenience because the brand and the product were being promoted by a fast food chain It was also decided that merely showing healthier options would not qualify the ad as displaying a healthy narrative theme because the ad did not suggest that the healthier options were better, nor did it suggest to children that they choose these options The second coder also questioned whether promotional commercials for other programs should be counted in the total advertisements during each show For example, while watching The Suite Life of Zack and Cody several commercials for the new season of Extreme Home Maker ai red during the commercial break The researcher decided that these commercials were not product centered and therefore, not advertisements and should not be counted in the sample of ads There was one advertisement in the pretest that caused debate bet ween the coders whether it should be included in the final sample should it appear in the selected programming The advertiser was Dairy Queen and the product was a Blizzard Maker The advertisement was for an ice cream maker and it showed children eating ice cream, but an actual food product from Dairy Queen or any other manufacturer was never endorsed It was decided that if the ad were to appear it would be included because the children were in fact consuming a food produ ct. However, it did not appear in the final sample. The final debate pertained to how drinks would be categorized Originally, d rinks was a general category; however, after viewing the pretest advertisements and seeing an ad from Tropicana Orange juice, it was determined that the d rinks category should be renamed artificial d rinks This allowed for real fruit juice and water advertisements (should there be any in the final sample) to be coded in the fresh grocery/ all natural category
59 Final Coding The researcher coded the entire sample of 46 food advertisements that appeared during the 4 shows (with 4 recorded episodes each), while the co coder double coded a subsample of 50% 23 advertisements. The advertisements for the co coder were chosen randomly from all four recorded shows. To minimize human error, the coder reviewed the entries of the co coder and the co coder reviewed the entries of the primary coder before entering the data into Excel. Reliability ree to which members of a designated (Krippendorff, 1980, p. 212) In content analysis, reliability is calculated to asses s agreement between two coders (Krippendorff, 1980) Several methods are available to assess reliability F coders (Neuendorf, 2002) At the conclusion of coding, Kappa coefficients were calculated using SPSS and found to be .97. Coefficients above .75 are considered acceptable. This indicates a high leve l of agreement between coders. Food Categories Advertisements that aired during the recorded shows were coded by which food category and s ub category they were defined and which narrative theme(s) were present in the ad vertisement As a result of discoveries made during the pretest, the categories ch anged slightly on previous research, the adjustments made allowed the category organization to reflect the modernization of food. For example, as mentioned in the pretest, the d rinks category had to be slightly revised to artificial d rinks because all natural drinks such as water and 100% juice were
60 decided to be fresh grocery/ all natural options, not just drinks. The final categories and sub categories are li sted below. See Appendix A, the Code Book for complete definitions. Food Categories 1. Breakfast 1) Breakfast Pastry 2) Cereal 3) Cereal bar 2. Snacks 4) Candy/gum 5) Crackers/Cracker Snacks 6) Cookies 7) Potato/Corn Chips 8) Snack Cakes 9) Fruit Snacks 3. Artificial Drinks 10) Soda 11) D iet soda 12) Sports drink 13) Flavored water 14) Fruit drink 4. Convenience 15) Fast food restaurant 16) Frozen or prepackaged meal 17) Canned pasta/ soup 18) Dried pasta dinner 5. Fresh Grocery and All Natural 19) Dai ry 20) Water 21) 100% Fruit juice 22) Fruits or Vegetables (including if a salad or fruit s alad is the primary focus of a restaurant advertisement) 23) Meat 24) Bread 6. Other Narrative Themes As previously stated, the narrative themes used to code the advertisements in this study were adapted from previous research. However, there were slight changes applied to not only modernize the themes, but also consolidate some meanings. For example: family togetherness was coded as present if a character appearing to be a mother of father were present in the ad.
61 Whereas, the literature coded for family togethern ess only if members of the same family were seen eating together. Also, the magic/fantasy theme was taken rather literally in the literature, coding for behavior that was associated with wizardry or enchantment. This study applied a rather loose definitio n to the magic /fantasy theme, coding for characters in the advertisements that were cartoons ( i.e. fr om Disney movies), and also coding for an overall representation of a reality that was not realistic. Meaning, there did not have to be magical behavior f or this theme to be applied. One advertisement can di splay several narrative themes; therefore, they are not mutually exclusive. Narrative themes were coded to indicate their presence in an ad, but also at times, were coded to indicate how they were used in the ad. For example the narrative them e of opularity, could be shown as a part of the ad (children being surrounded by a group of friends), and/or as something that was promised to occur as a result of consuming the pr oduct (a child would infer that the product would make them cool). The narrative themes are listed below. See below for their origin, and Appendix A the Code Book for their full definitions. Narrative Themes 1. Crime or Violence 2. Action Strength, Speed, Power, Sports Performance 3. Popularity Making Friends, Being Cool 4. Change in Mood or Disposition 5. Competition or Achievement 6. Family Togetherness or Bonding 7. Well Being or Healthy Lifestyle 8. Magic Fantasy, Supernatural 9. Adult Approval or Disa pproval 10. Improved Appearance 11. Trickery 12. Conflict Interpersonal Rivalry 13. Reward or Premium Offer 14. Humor Fun, Happiness
62 Analysis The researcher attempted to use chi square tests to compare frequencies of the data between populations, categories and narrative themes. However, i nspections of the cross tabs indicated that there were many cells with counts less than five whi ch made the chi square invalid because, in most cases, the study was broken down too intricately. Therefore, Excel was used to calculate fre quency counts and percentages and chi squares were calculated to report the significance of percentage of food advertisements between populations C hapter F our provides additional d etails on these analyses.
63 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Final Sample Th Hannah Hannah Mo T able 4 4 ). The codebook provided specific directions for the coders to account for each advertisement that ran during each episode, but to only code advertisements that promoted food products. Ther e were 220 total ads, 21% of which (N =46) were food advertisements. Raven Hannah Montana reflect the target audience of the show that it aired during. General population shows (Gen Pop) lack population shows (Black Pop) included was then be coded for which net work it appeared Hannah episode name, date it was recorded, and time of recording were coded for each advertisement. Each food advertisement was also coded for the total number of ads that ran during each episode, and the total number of food ads that ran during each episode when the specific food advertisement aired. The final data included the name of the product that was advertised including a brief description ( T able 4 3 ) This was necessary to identify the specific advertisements because several advertisers had more than one campaign. For example, had five different
64 v ersions of advertisements for their Happy Meal TM Each advertisement was coded as Happy Mea l TM being the brand and primary advertiser, and the content was noted in the name to specify the ad campaign (Megamind TM Star Wars Space Helmet, Young Girl Clay, and Mr. Potato Head ). Food A dvertisements Considering that each show was 30 minutes in length, it was not surprising that they each had approximately the same number of advertisements ( T able 4 4 ). targeted to the general population had the highest percentage of food advertisements, 32% (N=19) and 21% (N =12) respectively. While shows targeted to the and 10%, respectively. The findings suggest that food advertisements are not disproportionately placed during black ch ( X = 8.883, df = 3; p= .03) ( T able 4 6 ) PSAs Only one public service announcement (PSA) was recorded in the sample. The PSA ( Magic of Healthy Living) featured First Lady Michelle Obama and several teenagers including one o f the Jonas Brothers, a member of a top selling pop group. The premise of the ad 60 minutes a da and eating better, meaning more fresh fruits and vegetabl es. The group of teens appear s to be in an outdoor setting and they are all eager and excited to talk about the active lifestyle. The call to action is telling children to go to a website (Disney.com/healthymagic) to learn ways that they can learn more and share their own ideas. At the end of the advertisement, the
65 RQ1 RQ1: targeted to a general population versus those ta rgeted to a black audience ? Overall, the most common food category to appear during general population shows c onvenience f oods, specifically, fast food. This category comprised 42% of the food advertisements that aired during shows targeted to the general population. The se cond most popular category was artificial d rinks (26%), followed by breakfast (23%), fresh grocery/ all natural (6 %) and s nacks (3%) ( T able 4 5 ) The primary advertiser of convenience foods to this population was which is within the f ast f ood subcategory With nine of the 13 convenience food ads promoting the Happy Meal was easily dominant ( T able 4 3 ) Of the nine ads, there were five different camp aigns promoting the Happy Meal The specific comm ercial that appeared most often was the Happy Me In this ad, a young girl, animated in clay, is seen skipping along in a make believe world. The jingle t hat plays while she is skipping says that she was making a list of things she wanted for her birthday, but then realized that that she had everything that she needed just by going to where her friends and family were eating At the end of the a this is the box it comes in and then the Happy Meal box appears. It The balance of convenience food ads consisted of one ad by an additional fast food company ( Burger King onve nience f oods. The ads for Burger King which is on the cable
66 channel, Nickelodeon The convenience foods that a which airs on the local ABC/ Disney affiliate, were entirely for Within the artificial d rinks category, 100% of the advertisements shown to the general population of children were for Capri Sun an artificially flavored fruit drink There was only one campaign, titled, by the researcher this advertise ment comprised 26% (N=8) of all the food advertisements that aired. I n the Capri Sun commercial, a boy and girl (assumed to be between the ages 9 12), are seen swinging together on a swi n g set. The girl has a Capri Sun and the boy has two water balloons. He asks the girl if she wants to trade and she does. Next, the boy is seen with a tricky smile on his face as he accepts the Capri Sun and the girl happily takes the two small water balloons. Almost immediately, as t he boy is sipping and enjoying the drink, the girl turns into a balloon figure herself and floats away, rising into the air above the swing set. A male narrator abruptly a black screen respectthepouch.com. Surprisingly, the third most prevalent category was b reakfast foods comprising only 23% As mentioned previously in the literature cereal has been found to dominate for several decades (Alexander et al ., 1998) ; therefore, as stated in H1, the researcher expected this category to be more prominent. There were four different advertis ers within this group : Fruit Loops Frosted Flakes Cinnamon Toast Crunch and Honey Nut Cheerios The Frost ed Flakes advertisement, titled appeared most often comprising 43% of the cereal ads. What comes as surprise is that all of these cereal ads appeared
67 on Nickelodeon airs on the local channel. The final two categories of advertisements aired to the general population were fresh grocery/ all natural and s nacks, each comprising 3% of the ads, respectively. no fresh grocery/ all natural advertisements and only one snack commercial (Goldfish). as the opposite, featuring one fresh grocery/ a ll natural advertisement (Michelle Obama PSA) and no snacks. Similar to the advertisements that aired during the general population shows, convenience f oods were found to be the most prevalent category during the black population shows as well. In fact, 60% (N=9) of the ads that were targeted to black children fell within this category ( Table 4 6 ) Three categories tied for second place, each comprising merely 13% of the food ads that ran during black population shows ( artificial drinks, fresh grocery/ all natural and s nacks). Surprisingly, there were zero ads for breakfast/cereal ( Table 4 6 ) Once again, the c onvenience category was dominated by the f ast f ood subcategory specifically, Of the eight fast food advertisements that were tar geted to this population, six were promoting the Happy Meal TM with five different campaigns. The campaign that appeared the most (N=3) was the Happy Meal TM advertisement title TM researcher. This ad was also a promotional campaign becau se it promoted the Dream W ork s movie, Megamind TM Surprisingly, this and all of the advertisements targeted ABC/Disney channel. The c from three different advertisers: Burger King Chef Boyardee The Chef Boyardee advertisement was somewhat of an anomaly in this group because it was the only convenience
68 food to be targeted to black children that was not classified as P izza was also a surprise because the ad appeared to be made for an older audience. During this 30 second ad, there were no children and no mention of specials for children. Three cat egories tied for second place: drinks, fresh grocery/ all natural and s nacks ( Table 4 6 ). The ads within the d rinks category (N=2) were for Capri Sun This was the same advertisement found in the general population sample. However, none of these ads a ppeared which airs on the cable channel, Nickelodeon The advertisements classified as fresh grocery/ all natural (N=2) that aired to this audien ce were also only found during and included Danimals (yogurt product) and the Disney PSA featuring Michelle Obama, the Magic of Healthy Living The advertisements that aired for the s nacks category (N=2) included Goldfish and Sour Patch candy and they ran exclusively This categ ory, along with the other two that tied for second place ( drinks, and fresh grocery/ all natural ) comprised 13% of the food advertisements that were targeted to black children. Surprisingly, there were zero advertisements for cereal airing during the sho ws that target ed black children. Thus, based on these findings, H ypothesis 1 (H1) was not supported. Breakfast cereals were not the most prominent category across both populations. RQ2 RQ2: What are the most common narrative themes used in food advertisements shown to a black audience, and in what food categories do they appear most frequently? When analyzing th e narrative themes (as defined in Appendix X) that appeared most often in food advertisements targeted to the general population, the most common were magic (71%) and humor ( 42 %) while change in mood and rewards were tied for third place, appearing in 26% of the advertisements ( Table 4 9 ) The healthy, adult and trickery narrative themes each appeared in only 7% of the advertisements, while family and popularity appeared in 5% and 4%
69 respectively The narrative themes that appeared the least were crime ( 3 %), and action ( 10 %), while change in appearance and conflict had zero occurrences in the food advertisements aired While the magic narrative theme appeared in 71% (N=22) of the ads, 50% (N=11) were observed in conve nience foods, specifically fast foods. The convenience ad shown the most often to the general population featuring a magic narrative theme were for a Happy Meal TM campaign titled by the researcher: Girl Clay The storyline of this ad was previously described. However, the magic narrative theme applies specifically to the setting and the characters. The setting can be described as a claymation fantasy meaning it is not set in reality. The characters are made from the same clay, cartoon like imaging, including small dragon figures and flying imaginary animals that gradually disappear just before they turn into stars. The narrative theme, humor, appeared in 26% (N=13) of the ads targeted to a general population. Of the 13 ads, 10 were for convenience foods including two ads for Burger King However, was the prominent advertiser here, running six commercials for its Happy Meal TM that featured a theme of humor or happiness. Of the six Happy Meal TM commercials the was the most prominent The storyline of this ad was previously described However, the happiness an d humor narrative theme applies specifically to the overall tone and the suggested outcome of consuming the product. The young girl in the ad seems to be very happy as soon as the commercial starts and the music and general tone suggest the same. The mu sic is a catchy jingle that is easy to remember and carries a light hearted tone throughout the commercial. The characters that appear at the end of the commercial are also in
70 high spirits. necessarily have full facial feature s ( eyes are covered by hair, or appear to be closed) but they are all very clearly smiling. The end of the ad also supports the suggestion that consuming the pr o duct will result in happiness. As previously mentioned, the song su ggests that the girl alrea dy had everything she needed because she had her friends and family, all of whom happen to be at The final (and most obvious) link that the ad tries to make between happiness and the product is at the end of the ad when the narrator says is a gift; this is the box it comes in as the Happy Meal TM box appears. Two narrative themes tied for third place: change in mood (N=8) and presence of rewards (N=8) Change in mood was found exclusively in foods of the convenience category, with six of the eight ads promoting Happy Meal TM and the ot her two promoting Spaghetti Again, the most prominent campaign featured with the change in mood narrati ve theme was As previously mentioned, the young girl in this ad appears to be happy at the beginning; however, her smile is somewhat reserved. At the end of the commercial and right as she is taking a sip of her drink from the Happy Meal TM her mood is absolute happiness, signified by a very toothy grin. This does exemplify a moderate change in mood because the girl went from happy to elated. It is, however, relevant because consumption of the product was what caused the shift. Th e presence of rewards was also found exclusively in advertisements for foods in the convenience category. The campaigns titled nd Strawberry Shortcake were the most prominent both promoting and their Happy Meal TM The Star Wars campaign offered a Star Wars Clone Wars TM fingerboard and the Strawberry Shortcake campaign offered ke TM It should be noted that the Happy Meal TM Star Wars campaign did not mention what a
71 fingerboard was or what a child could do with it. It was only mentioned that is was a Star Wars branded item that came included in Happy Meals TM targeted to a black audi ence were magic ( 80 %), humor ( 53 %) and change in mood ( 4 7%). Rewards were present in 40 % of the advertisements; adult approval/disapproval was observed in 33 %, and trickery only in 27 %. Eighty percent (N=12) of the ads that aired during shows targeted to an audience of black children displayed the magic narrative theme. Fifty eight percent of those (N=7) appeared in fast food advertisements ( Table 4 9 ) This category was very diverse with Happy Meal TM comprising five of the seven ads with fou r campaigns, and Burger King and Chef Boyardee being the other two in the category. There was a dominant campaign that appeared more than others, but not by much. The Happy Meal TM campaign for TM reas the other fast food campaigns appeared only once. The remaining food categories for advertisements with the magic narrative theme included snacks (N=2), drinks (N=2) and fresh grocery/ all natural (N=1) foods. The fresh grocery/ all natural ad was f or the advertiser Danimals researcher. In this ad which promotes a yogurt type snack (d airy), students begin sitting in a classroom looking rather bored. Their teacher, an older man, announces they are going on a field trip. The students get excited for a moment until he reveals that the field trip is to a toothpick factory. The entire class loo ks disappointed. T he teacher then rips off his face in a cartoon like fashion and reveals a young teenager who announces that the kids could be going to an amusement park instead on a VIP Field T rip featuring free rides, free food, and no line s The children are overwhelmed with excitement and next seen de boarding a school bus,
72 wearing sunglasses, walking toward an amusement park. The ad prompts them to look inside a specially marked package of Danimals to enter to win the trip. Magic was u sed as a narrative theme when the boring teacher ri pped of his face to become an exciting teen, and the students de boarded the cartoon like school bus that took them to the amusement park. The Megamind TM campaign, which was prominent in all three of the top narrative themes found most often during shows targeted to a black population was a promotion for the popular Dream W orks movi e Megamind TM The commercial begins with the cartoon like characters from the movie standing outside of a obser Happy Meal TM is causing children inside to have fun. Megamind TM decides he must disguise himself to enter the and interact with the children who were enjoying the Happy Meals TM He morphs into four different characters before settling on a disguise of a young boy (magic narrative theme). Next he is seen sitting at the table with the children, and his own Happy Meal TM The result is extreme happiness (humor/happiness narrative the me, also change in mood). The commercial goes on to promote the Megamind TM branded toys that are offered with the Happy Meal TM for a limited time. Megamind TM returns to himself and the children at the table laugh with him. The narrative theme humor /happ iness appeared in 53% (N=8) of the food advertisements shown during shows targeted to a black audience. The eight ads were spread among three categories : convenience (N=5), fresh grocery/ all natural (N=2), and s nacks (N=1). Once again, was the prominent advertiser, making up four of the five fast food advertisements. TM Happy Meal TM campaigns appeared once. TM
73 d escribed and the humor/happiness narrative theme was described. There was also a Burger King advertisement shown to this population that featured humor as a narrative theme. The third most common narrative theme a change in mood was found in 47% (N=7 ) of Of the seven ads five were found in the convenience category while the snack and fresh grocery/ all natural categories respectively featured one ad with a change i n mood narrative theme. Within the convenience category, was the most prominent advertiser with four of the five ads promoting its Happy Meal TM TM most frequently used, but just barely. Food Categories and Narrative Themes When examining the difference between the categories of food advertisements aired during general population shows and shows created to target a black audience and their narrative themes, the previous RQs provide ample data. Convenience foods were the most prominent category for both demographi cs comprising 42% ( Table 4 5 ) of the foods ads targeted to the general po pulation, and 60% ( Table 4 6 population. Within these convenience foods, the same narrative them es were found to be used prominently for each population. For example, the ads for convenience foods that were targeted to a general population showed the narrative themes magic, humor/happiness and rewards (tied with change of mood) the most. Similarly, t he ads for convenience foods that were targeted to a black population showed the narrative themes magic, humor/happiness and with change of mood the most. Besides the absence of the rewards theme in the black population shows, there was not much differe nce in the convenience category, which was the most prevalent to both audiences. Convenience was the most prominent category and showed similar behavior, but not all of the food categories showed similarities. The narrative themes for the breakfast catego ry cannot
74 be compared because 100% (N=7) of the breakfast ads appeared to the general population. Within the snacks category, the magic narrative theme was found in 100% of the sample, with 67% targeting black population shows ( Table 4 8 ) The drinks cate gory also incorporated the magic narrative theme most often. However, it was found most often targeted to the general audience (90%). Within the fresh grocery/ all natural category, the theme of humor/happiness was most common, appearing in 75% of the ad s th at were categorized as fresh grocery/ all natural The majority of these were targeted to a black audience ( Table 4 8 ). Frequency of Narrative Themes Between the two audiences, the greatest difference of frequency in appearance was found in 7 narrati ve themes : action, change in mood, competition, healthy, adult approval/disapproval presence of reward s and humor/happiness ( Table 4 9 ) The action theme was found in an ad for Frosted Flakes a breakfast cereal, which was not placed during black programming at all. A change in mood was found almost twice as frequent in ads targeted to the black population than general population shows (47% and 26%, respectively Table s 4 7 and 4 8 Competit ion was not found at all in the sample of ads targeted to black children, and only found in 13% of ads targeted to the general population. This narrative theme was found primarily in the same Frosted Flakes ad mentioned previously, which features childre n playing competitive sports and citing the cereal as the source of their energy The healthy narrative theme was seen less frequently in the black population shows than the general population shows, 13% and 23%, respectively. When targeted to black children, they wer e used in a PSA or in the convenience category, while general audience programming a featured healthy narrative theme in a PSA, convenience food, breakfast cereal or fresh grocery / all natural food product (Florida Orange Juice). Adult approval or disapproval was found more in the advertisements targeted to a
75 black audience versus general population 33% and 23%, respectively. Interestingly, nearly all of the adult approval/disapproval narrative themes were found in advertisements for foods in the convenience category. This is something both populations have in common. The only exception would be the Michelle Obama PSA, which aired once to each population. There was also a difference in the use of presence of rewards as a narrative theme. Forty percent of ads in the black population sample used this theme, while only 26% of ads in the general population sample utilized this th eme. The use of humor/ happiness is also notable, with 53% of the black population ads featuring this theme, while only 42% of the general population ads used happiness/humor in their storyline. Hypothesis 2 stated that : The narrative themes most prominen targeted to a general audience will encourage healthy lifestyles (action, competition/ achievement, healthy/ well shows targeted to a black audience However, H2 was no t supported (U = 15, z = 1.58, p = n. s.). While the a ction and competition narrative theme s were found only in advertisements targeted to the general audience they were not excessively prominent. Both populations were exposed to the healthy/well being t heme, however, it was more prominently used in children (N=2).
76 Table 4 1. Healthy Narrative Themes by Population Gen Pop Black Action N=3 N=0 Competition/ achievement N=0 N=4 Healthy/well being N=7 N=2 Table 4 2 ID of Advertisements Ad ID number Brand Campaign Name 01 Danimals Field Trip 02 Capri Sun Balloon Girl 03 Happy Meal TM Megamind TM 04 Happy Meal TM Star Wars 05 Happy Meal TM Young Girl Clay 06 Happy Meal TM Space Helmet 07 Happy Meal TM Mr. Potato Head 08 PSA Magic of Healthy Living 09 Florida Orange Juice OJ 10 Goldfish Dog in House 11 Fruit Loops Mummy 12 Happy Meal Strawberry Shortcake 13 Burger King Fashion Dream 14 Chef Boyardee Army Sergeant 15 25 th Anniversary 16 Frosted Flakes Athletes 17 Rock Star 18 Cinnamon Toast C runch 3 guys 19 Cruisin 20 Cowboy 21 Sour Patch Tunnel
77 Table 4 3 Categories and Brands by Population Category Brand Campaign Gen Pop Black Pop Breakfast/ Cereal Fruit Loops Mummy 1 0 Frosted Flakes Athletes 3 0 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 3 guys 2 0 Honey Nut Cheerios Cowboy 1 0 Snacks Goldfish Dog in House 1 1 Sour Patch Tunnel 0 1 Artificial Drinks Capri Sun Balloon Girl 7 2 Convenience Megamind TM 1 2 Star Wars 2 1 Young Girl Clay 3 1 Space Helmet 2 1 Mr. Potato Head 1 1 Strawberry Shortcake 1 0 Burger King Fashion Dream 2 1 25 th Anniversary 0 1 Chef Boyardee Army Sergeant 0 1 Rockstar 1 0 Cruisin 1 0 Healthy Danimals Field trip 0 1 Other Magic of Healthy Living 1 1 Florida Orange Juice OJ 1 0 Total Commercials Aired to Population 31 15 Table 4 4 Advertisements during shows General Pop Black Pop N % N % N % N % N % N % Total Ads in sample 53 24 57 26 59 27 51 24 116 104 Food Ads 10 19 12 21 19 32 5 10 31 27 15 14
78 Table 4 5 Food Categories and percentage of total food ads by episode and population (Gen Pop) Gen Pop N % Pop N % Pop N % Pop Breakfast 7 23 0 0 7 37 Snacks 1 3 0 0 1 5 Drinks 8 26 6 50 3 16 Convenience 13 42 5 42 8 42 Fresh grocery/ all natural 2 6 1 8 0 0 TOTAL 31 100 12 100 19 100 Table 4 6 Food Categories and percentage of total food ads by episode and population (Black Pop) Black Pop N % Pop N % Pop N % Pop Breakfast 0 0 0 0 0 0 Snacks 2 13 0 0 2 40 Drinks 2 13 2 20 0 0 Convenience 9 60 6 60 3 60 Fresh grocery/ all natural 2 13 2 20 0 0 TOTAL 15 100 10 100 5 100
79 Table 4 7 Most Common Narrative Themes (Gen Pop) Magic* Humor/Happiness* Reward Change in Mood* Gen Pop N 22 13 8 8 % Pop 71 42 26 26 % Theme 65 62 57 53 Breakfast N 1 0 0 0 % Theme 5 0 0 0 % Category 14 0 0 0 Snack N 1 0 0 0 % Theme 5 0 0 0 % Category 33 0 0 0 Artificial Drink N 9 2 0 0 % Theme 40 15 0 0 % Category 90 20 0 0 Convenience N 11 10 8 8 % Theme 50 77 100 100 % Category 50 45 36 36 Fresh grocery/ all natural N 0 1 0 0 % Theme 0 7 0 0 % Category 0 25 0 0 Coded to indicate whether the narrative theme was shown as a part of the plot/setting, or promised to occur as a result of using the product.
80 Table 4 8 Most Common Narrative Themes (Black Pop) Magic* Humor/Happiness* Change in Mood* Black Pop N 12 8 7 % Pop 80 53 47 % Theme 35 38 47 Breakfast N 0 0 0 % Theme 0 0 0 % Category 0 0 0 Snack N 2 1 1 % Theme 17 13 14 % Category 67 33 33 Artificial Drink N 1 0 0 % Theme 17 0 0 % Category 10 0 0 Convenience N 7 5 5 % Theme 58 63 71 % Category 32 23 23 Healthy N 1 2 1 % Theme 8 40 14 % Category 25 50 25 Coded to indicate whether the narrative theme was shown as a part of the plot/setting, or promised to occur as a result of using the product.
81 Table 4 9 Narrative Themes Black Pop Gen Pop N % N % Crime 1 7 1 3 Action 0 0 3 10 Popularity 2 13 3 10 Change in Mood 7 47 8 26 Competition 0 0 4 13 Family 2 13 5 16 Healthy 2 13 7 23 Magic 12 80 22 71 Adult 5 33 7 23 Appearance 1 7 0 0 Trickery 4 27 7 23 Conflict 1 7 0 0 Reward 6 40 8 26 Humor/Happiness 8 53 13 42
82 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Goals of the Study The intent of this study was to explore the categorical and narrative differences between those that target an audie nce of primarily black children. While previous literature suggested that (Barcus, 1977; Kunkel, 2001; Alexander et al ., 1998) and also suggests that programs targeted to black s (not specifically children) may inherently promote obesity due to a disproportionate number of messages for low nutrient foods (Tirodkar & Jain, 2003) there has not been extensive research comparing the presence of food categories to children of different demographics. Similarly, narrative themes have been studied before but to This study closely examined both food categories, and n arrative themes, and found that convenience foods are the of the 14 narrative themes, only a few displayed notable differences of frequency between general population and black programming. However, notable differences were found in how these narrative themes were used, or, in which category of food they were more likely to be found in, per demographic. Food Advertisements In contrast to the Henderson and Kelly study (2005), t his study found that food advertisements a re more likely to appear to the general population The reason is unknown and requires additional research. However, it is possible that the general population programs simply have more viewers. While se veral considerations were taken to ensure that the shows were
83 comparable, Nielsen data would be the only accurate way to measure. That being said, it was very surprising that only 10% were for food. Even though the show is not as popular as its Nickelodeon still assumed that a greater percentage of ad s would be for food products, just based on its popularity alone. Considering that a Nickelodeon press release touted 3.1 million viewers for a can be assumed that food advertisers follow the audience, regardless of color. program (Nickelodeon Press, 2011) this idea is further supported. When compared to the entire sample, this program featured the most food advertisements by far. Food Categories Summary RQ1 To summarize, convenience foods we re the most common category of food products rounded out second and third place. Within the convenience food category, fast food was the dominant sub category, with Happy Meal TM comprising 70% of the ads. primarily targeted to a black audience. Specifically, the fast food subcategory dominated this space, the vast majority of the ads promoted Happy Meal TM Art ificial drinks, fresh grocery/ all natural and snacks tied for second place, each category comprising a small percentage of the ads (13%). Convenience Foods Of the five categories (breakfast, snacks, artificial drinks, convenience, and fresh grocery/ all natural ), convenience was the most common among both audiences. When combined,
8 4 advertisements in the convenience category (fast food) comprised nearly 50% of the sample. The data is somewhat surprising considering that only Warren (2008) found convenien ce foods to be the top category of products advertised to children, while most other researchers found either cereal or snacks to be the prominent category ( Table 2 1). This is particularly puzzling when compared to the present study, because one televisi on show in the sample had zero cereal It is also peculiar that within the convenience (fast food) category, Happy Meal TM comprised 73% of the entire category. Surely, other quick service restaurant competitors Burger King Subway Sonic Taco Bell Dairy Queen and even KFC Burger King was the only other fast food rest aurant found in the sample. In fact, an advertisement for a Dairy Queen product was seen in the pretest, but this turned out to be an ice cream maker, not a food product from Dairy Queen Further research is needed to explore why has such m inimal competition in this field. It is conceivable that the recent economic recession has something to do with this shift in trends. Perhaps if additional research uncovered that was the top grossing company with children centered products, it could be posited that they are simply able to afford a high frequency of advertisements, capturing the market share. In 2006 spent $818.9 million on advertising in the United States, which is close to $2.5 million a day (Arndt, 2007) Forty percent of which was targeted to children (Brownell, 2004) Meanwhile, General Mills advertising budget is measly in comparison spending $107 million to market its 8 major cereal products directly marketed to children (Harris, Schwartz, & Brownell) Most likely, considering that is a global compa ny. However, a larger advertising budget is not a main predictor. The question remains why has such a dominant presence on the
85 specific medium of television. Perhaps generic brands from local grocery stores and wholesalers like Wal m art have f orced the large cereal makers to shift their advertising dollars to the internet and in The internet and in store marketing are most likely more affordable than tel evision; additional research is needed to verify this. To be more specific within the convenience food category, perhaps spends a greater percentage of their television advertising budget targeting children than they do adults. (As previously mentioned, spends 40% of their advertising budget targeting children. It is unknown how th is budget is allocated per medium .) Subway is advertising its $5 foot longs on television; it also ran a recent campaign about its new breakfast menu. H owever, reason, they are not targeting children. The same can be said for Taco Bell and KFC (owned by the same parent company) who have recently advertised a $5 value menu. Clearly, they are on television but not targeting children. Perhaps other qu ick service restaurants do not target children because they fear the stiff competition of Maybe they are not confident in cost. Further research is needed in this area. For Subway in particular, this could be an opportunity. G iven the recent attention that f irst lady Michelle Obama has applied to the obesity epidemic, Subway dvertising by promoting quick service foods that are healthy (at least, healthier) for children, because their meals offer low calorie and low fat options with fresh vegetables. Food Categories Conclusion Since the majority of this study was based on prev ious research in hopes of providing
86 that were found in the current sample compared to some of the previously cited research. For example, cereal has been a dom inant category in many studies ( Table 2 4). The Alexander study television between the 1950s and 1990s ( Alexander et al ., 1998) The present research shows only 3.2% of all advertisements aired during the recorded shows were for cereal. Interestingly channel, Nickelodeon There were also some notable characteristics about the convenience food category. W hen analyzed individually, both shows targeted to black children had a 60% occurrence of fast food ads while the general population shows featured convenience foods as only 42% of th e ads It is also notable that the fast food category has shown some positive improvement in messaging. As previously noted, Warren et al (2008) found that fast food companies were substituting fries for apples in their commercials. The present study fo und this to be true as well. Particularly in the case of which showed apples with caramel dip and milk (as opposed to soda), in two of the five ads in the sample. Additional research is required to determine if simply showing these healthier Previous research has coded between 5 12% of commercials as healthy or fresh grocery/ all natural ( Table 2 4). Similarly, the present study found that 9% of the total ads aired to children during this period would qualify as advertising a healthy lifestyle or product as the main focus. In previous years and in the current study, these ads were primarily PSAs. However, the present study did include an advertisement for Florida or ange juice. As previously mentioned, not many fruits and vegetables are branded products, Florida orange juice is an exception, and it fresh grocery/ all natural ads that
87 aired during general popu note that while fresh grocery/ all natural was a main category, the healthy narrative theme used to code these advertisements was quite similar The distinction is that the researcher d id not feel qualified to define healthy versus not healthy foods for children because research is unclear regarding the standards for this definition. However, it is not so unclear when referring to the plied. The narrative themes will be discussed in depth as well. researchers defined drinks differently, sometimes including 100% juice and sometimes coding drinks with candy and sweets. The current study defined drinks as artificial drinks, and surprisingly, this category comprised 22% of the total sample. It should be noted that 100% of these ads for drinks were for the same advertiser and same campaign, Capri Sun studies categorized only 5 12% of advertisements as snacks. In the current study, snacks included candy, crackers, cookies and chips. In total, t his category only appeared in 6.5% of the advertisements. However, it is noteworthy that that 67% of those appeared during programs targeted to black children. Narrative Themes Summary RQ 2 Children watching television shows that are targeted to a gener al population are more likely to see a narrative theme of magic more than any other theme. This theme provides a correlation between the advertised product and charms, spells, rituals, or imaginary settings ( Table 2 1). For this audience, magic was used primarily to create a dream like association between the primary advertisement ( Happy Meal TM
88 consumption. This inferred relationship infers that the product could lead to the consumer developing the same fantasy lik e emotions and experiences which include pure joy and the love and support from family and friends. The humor/happiness narrative theme was found in second place while a change in mood, and presence of rewards were tied for third. Each of these narrative themes were found most often in adverti sements for convenience foods. Children watching television shows which are generally targeted to black kids are more likely to be subjected to the magic narrative theme than any other. As previously mentioned, this theme provides a correlation between the advertised product and charms, spells, rituals, or imaginary settings ( Table 2 1). For this audience, the magic theme was used to convey a diverse set of emotions and conjectures, the most common being the use of magic to obtain the product (as see n TM Happy Meal TM ). The second and third place narrative themes (humor, change in mood) were also found most often in advertisements of convenience foods. Overall, there were not many narrative themes that were used more frequently from one population to another. When analyzing both general audience programming and programming targeted to a black audience, magic is the most common narrative theme and is found most often in conven ience foods. However, when conveyed to the general audience, this narrative theme is more likely to suggest that the magical product will lead to their ultimate happiness; whereas, its use to the black population suggests that the product actually enables one to have magical powers. Moreover, that the product is worth using magic or any stretch of the imagination to obtain. This data suggests that the way narrative themes are used varies, but the frequency is not significantly different in many places.
89 Mag ic As previously mentioned, the frequency of narrative themes does not vary much between the two audiences. The data in this study suggest that the two demographics are receiving different messages when it comes to specific types of food. For example m agic was the narrative theme used most often to both demographics and it was found most often in convenience foods for both general ad black audiences program ming. However, a qualitative observation reveals that children watching the black programs might conclude that the product gives them magical powers, mostly to obtain the product, while children watching the general audience programs might correlate the association of the product (Happy Meal TM ) and magic to achieving pure bliss, including happiness, friends and family. This conclusion is supported by Clearly, utilizing a magic /fantasy narrative theme is thought to imagination. Additional research could explore why this seems to be a preferred method for fast food advertisers, and if this theme works well across all categories. For example, how effective is the Michelle Obama PSA, which is grounded in realism? Could PSAs and ot her health positive messages benefit from using more imaginative approaches in their communication? It is also possible that the use of this theme takes advantage of the limited cognitive ability of children to distinguish reality from fantasy. Perhaps i strict regulation that was actually enforced it would be a requirement to actually talk about the product attributes rather than just appealing to the undistinguishing minds of children. Overall Narrative Willia ms (2006) indicated that narra tive themes are used to help advertiser s make their product resonate with an audience. Therefore, an understanding of narrative themes relative to this study would not be complete without examining the ones that are most commo n during both
90 general audience programming and black programming, and what type of message their unified presence might represent. Chapter 4 discussed the frequency of narrative themes specifically that there were seven narratives that showed the greatest difference in occurrence between the two demographics: action, change in mood, competition, healthy, adult approval/disapproval, presence o f rewards, and humor/happiness To the general audience, the themes action, competition, and healthy were displaye d at a greater frequency than when compared to shows targeted to a black audience. In fact, action and competition were not found at all in the sample of ads promoted to the minority audienc e. Therefore, it could be deduced that children watching shows t argeted to a general audience are more likely to absorb the advantages of being competitive and active in life from the latent messages delivered via narrative themes. In contrast, the themes change in mood, adult approval/disapproval presence of rewards, and humor/happiness were more frequently used during shows that were targeted to a black audience. These themes appear to be less goal oriented and could be interpreted as conveying the message that the products will make them experi ence happiness, receive material possessions, and the respect of adults. The Social Learning Theory posits that we learn behaviors based on the observation of models. These models teach us what rewards an d consequences to expect as a result of actions. Both Schor (2007) and Bandura (1989) note that these behaviors are often applied to social development. children not only sells products; it also sells such socio cultural mes sages as how to gain peer (Bandura, 1989, p. xxi) Therefore, the dissimilar messages found between the two audiences of children could have significance.
91 Implications and R ecommendations time soon. Although regulators have attempted to develop standards and rules to limit unfair promotion of harmful products to children (such as alcoh ol, cigarettes, and host selling), when applying the tenants of the Social Learning Theory, this study indicates that the latent content conveyed in advertising could unfairly be targeting children with messages that will affect their social development. Therefore, t he data uncovered in this study could provide great value to parents government regulators, and responsible marketers alike This study affirms what several other studies have asserted, that children are not receiving adequate information about living healthy (Barcus, 1977; Goldberg et al 1978; Winick et al ., 1973) This could be easily changed with additional regulations requiri ng more of a balance in the types of products to which children are exposed However, monitoring the narrative themes could be more difficult since they are often implicit. One possible way for the government to control this influence would be to apply s omething similar to what is happening in the restaurant industry where calorie counts are required to be posted next to food options. Not to suggest that children would understand the consequence of calories, but there are other actual attributes of food s (caloric content, or how the food relates to the recommended food consumption per day) that could be required to mention in commercials that would let children know that consumption the government feels that adults are entitled to know the truth about what they are eating, then why not children? Limitations the sample may evision viewing experience for a number of reasons. For example, children do not only watch programming targeted to their age group. As exemplified
92 by Tirodkar (2003), children also watch prime time television which is targeted to families. Acquiring Nie lsen data regarding the overall popularity of shows pertaining to a child audience could provide a more valid sample. Second, and most importantly, the final sample was based on a series of criteria that were greatly influenced by the lack of Nielsen data. The shows were chosen according to measurements that the researcher deemed relevant because they suggested overall popularity. This overall popularity only indicates that children in general watch the program, it does not indicate whether or not the shows actually attempt to target (or succeed ) children of different racial backgrounds. It was assumed, similarly to Tirodkar (2003) that just because the main character(s) w as a specific race, that children of the same race would be most attracted to the show. Unfortunately, due to the lack of Nielsen data, this was the best measurement the researcher could apply. Finally the coders who were assigned to identify narrative themes were not children, and therefore, may not have perceived messages the way a child would. Williams (2006) noted a similar handicap. Future R esearch discovery and enlightenment. Although the basic foundation of this study was founded on uncovering some of the basic fundamental s regarding the relationships of children and food advertising there is still much to learn. Future research could supplement this study by avoiding the same limitations that the researcher experienced. For example shows and who is their audience? television could provide a more v audience size and demographic s
93 beyond programs shown exclusively or during Saturday morning programming, to include family centered prime time shows, which capture a child audience as well. In the Kaiser Family Foundation Study, Roberts et al ., explored how the changing multi media landscape has impacted the lives of children (Roberts, Foehr, Rideout, & Brodie, 1999) This study, like many others, was limited to television. However, television is no longer the only online several hours of the day ( Roberts et al ., 1999) How have these companies captur ed an online child audience? Where do they spend their advertising dollars and who is their target audience? More importantly, i s their message online different than what is conveyed on television? These questions could be explored in a multi media study to determine if food categories and narrative themes are represented differently on television than they are on the internet. Another approach that could be taken to expand on this study would be to do an experiment wit h children. It would be worthwhile to see if they perceive the latent messages of narrative themes. The experiment by Gorn and Goldberg was able to provide evidence that (Gor n & Goldberg, 1982) However, Gorn and Goldberg did not answer the question that this study attempted to explore which was why? Why were children attracted to certain food products? Did they think they would gain something from the product? Were the y simply attracted to the production techniques using bright colors and action? To validate the e ffect of narrative themes, it would be valuable to conduct an experiment with children and explore how, if at all, narrative themes are perceived.
94 Finally, s ince PSAs have been shown to affect the food choices children make, it would be interesting to explore the use of the most popular narrative themes makes an impact on their affect. For example, the magic theme was found to be the most common across both d emographic samples in this study. However, it was not used in the Michelle Obama PSA that promoted a healthy lifestyle and sensible eating. Why not, and would it make a difference? If fast food companies and many others are appealing to the imaginations of children with fantasy appeals, co u ld PSAs help to balance some of the negative food images children see on television, simply by speaking the same language? A PSA could be developed, incorporating the magic narrative theme, and tested on a child audien ce for recall and impact. Perhaps this would be an important step to understanding the true potential of narrative themes, which could be used to encourage healthy eating to children. Conclusion of view of two different demographics: the general audience, and a black audience. While both of these groups have seen a dramatic increase in the number of overweight children, the minority group has suffered the worse. It is feared that this epidemic w ill reverse the lifecycle for the first time in history, causing parents to outlive their children. T here are several environmental contributors to overweight including diet, income, on continues to e volve, the impact of food advertising is undeniable. Several researchers have shown that advertising (Gorn & Goldberg, 1982) but there has not been ext ensive research to understand why children are attracted to these ads, and if advertising has unfairly targeted certain groups who are shown to be more vulnerable to weight gain
95 It is possible to slow down the obesity epidemic and possibly even reverse i t. Although parents are ultimately responsible for controlling the environmental causes of weight gain, responsible advertisers and government officials should take responsibility and moderate the messages that children see when they watch television. Un derstanding narrative themes is one recommended first step that could save a generation.
96 APPENDIX A CODE BOOK Identifying a food commercial Determine if the ad is for a food intended for consumption. Name of television program Enter the name of the program that was airing at the time the ad played. Population of the television program Determine if the show is primarily targeting a black audience or a general population audience. Network Enter the network for which the sho w airs. Episode Name Enter the name of the episode of the show being coded. Recorded Date of episode Enter the date that the episode was recorded. Recorded Time of episode Enter the time the episode aired in military tie. For example, 6:00 PM would be 1800. Unique Ad Number Assign unique ad number by combining: First letter of the show the ad aired during The date the episode was recoded The time the episode was recorded The number of the ad provided below 1 Danimals Field Trip 2 Capri Sun Balloon Girl 3 Megamind TM 4 Happy Meal TM Star Wars 5 Happy Meal TM Young girl clay 6 Happy Meal TM Space Helmet 7 Happy Meal TM Mr Potato Head 8 PSA Magic of Healthy living 9 Florida Orange Juice 10 Goldfish dog in house 11 Fruit Loops Mummy 12 Strawberry shortcake 13 Burger King Fashion Dream 14 Chef Boyardee Army Seargent 15 Cici's Pizza 25 Anniversary 16 Frosted Flakes Athletes 17 Spaghettio's Rockstar 18 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 3 guys 19 Spaghettio's Cruisin
97 20 Honey Nut Cheerios Cowboy 21 Sour Patch Tunnel For example: Raven on October 6 at 3 PM would be given the unique id: R1006150016 Total number of ads airing during program (write in last) Enter the total number of advertisements that aired during the episode. Start counting when the credits begin and stop counting when the credits end. Total number of food ads aired during program Enter the total number of FOOD advertisements that aired during the episode. Start counting when the credits begin and stop counting when the credits end. Name of product advertised Enter the name of the product advertised. Food category/subcategory Breakfast o Breakfast Pastry Such as Pop Tarts or Toaster Strudel o Cereal or General Mills Cheerios o Cereal bar Such as Special K granola bars. Snacks o Candy/gum Such as candy bars (Snickers ) or sweet or sour candy (Skittles ). o Crackers Such as Goldfish o Cookies o Potato/ corn chips Such as Pringles or tortilla chips. o Snack cakes Suc h as Little Debbie brand o Fruit snacks Such as Fruit Roll Ups Artificial Drinks o Soda regular Such as Coca Cola or Pepsi o Soda diet Such as Diet Cok e or Diet Pepsi o Sports drink Such as Gatorade o Flavored water This includes any water with natural flavors. o Fruit flavored drink Such as Capri Sun Convenience o Fast food restaurant Such as Burger King or o Frozen/ packaged meal o Canned pasta/soup Such as Chef Boyardee o Dried pasta dinner Such as Kraft Macaroni and Cheese. Fresh grocery/ all natural o Dairy Such as milk or cheese. o Water o 100% fruit juice Orange, Apple, o Fruits or vegetables Including if a salad or a fruit salad is the primary focus of a restaurant advertisement. o Meat Including lunchmeat.
98 o Bread Sliced, bagels or sandwich buns. o Other PSAs Narrative Themes Is crime or violence present? No (There is no physical restraint, hitting, falling, flung bodies, explosions, property damage, or dangerous physical act shown) Yes (There is either physical restraint, hitting, falling, flung bodies, explosions, property damage, or dangerous physical act shown) Are action, strength, speed, power or sports performance present? Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad. (e.g. are children shown running in the background of the ad, are the characters playing sports?) Promised to occur as a result of the product? (Would a child infer that the product will increase their physical performance? E.g. playing sports? Are children shown running faster after they eat the product?) Are popularity, making friends, fitting in or being 'cool' present? Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad. (e.g. are children shown playing with peers? Are children s urrounded by a group of friends? Typically, this will be coded when more than one child is shown interacting.) Promised to occur as a result of the product? (Would a child infer that the product will make them cool or make friends? E.g. are children shown surrounded by peers eager to be their friends because they have the product?) Is a change in mood or disposition present ? Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad? (During the course of the ad does the mood change NOT as a result of the pro duct? E.G. are children shown sad then begin to laugh as a joke is told?) Promised to occur as a result of the product? (Would a child infer that the product will change their mood or make them happy? E.g. are children shown laughing ot smiling after they eat the product? Chose this code if children are not smiling, but hten smile after taking a bite. Also, mood change does not have to be happiness. Could be surprise.) Are competition or achievement present? Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad? (E.g. are children shown racing each other or playing tug of war? Do characters fight/ tug of war/ chase each other for the product? Do children try to 'get' the product away from other characters?) Promised to occur as a result of the product? (Would a child infer that the product will give them a competitive edge? E.g. are children shown being better able to play a sport against their peers as a result of the product?)
99 Is family togetherness or bonding present? Shown as part of the s etting or plot of the ad? (E.g. are children shown eating with their parents? Is a family shown participating in activities together?) Promised to occur as a result of the product? (Would a child infer that the product will increase their level of family togetherness? E.g. is the family happy only after they've eaten at ?) Is well being or a healthy lifest yle associated with the product? No (The product is not associated with vitamins, or a nutritional benefit such as being low fat.) Yes (Woul d a child infer that consumption of the product would lead to health benefits? E.g. The product is associated with vitamins or nutritional benefits such as being low fat. ) Is magic, fantasy, or anything supernatural portrayed: Shown as part of the settin g or plot of the ad? (E.g. does the plot include charms, spells, magic?) Promised to occur as a result of the product? (Would a child infer that the product will produce an supernatural effect such as flying or disappearing?) Is adult approval or disappr oval: Not present Yes (e.g. Product consumption is linked to adult's approval of child, or getting away with something despite disapproval.) Does the advertisement feature improved appearance: As part of the setting or plot of the ad? (E.g. does a appearance improve without consuming the product?) Promised to occur as a result of the product? (Does a character's appearance improve as a result of consuming the product?) Is trickery used in the advertisement: Shown as part of the settin g or plot of the ad? (E.g. are characters shown denying, tricking, or deceiving others out of the product? Are characters seen deceiving others in the process of getting the product?) Are conflict or Interpersonal rivalry used: Shown as part of the settin g or plot of the ad? (E.g. are characters shown arguing or debating before, after, during or in order to obtain the product?) Is the product associated with a reward or premium offer?
100 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad? (E.g. are children shown eating with their parents? Is a family shown participating in activities together?) Are humor, fun, or happiness Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad? (E.g. is the general mood of the ad happy?) Promised to occur as a result of the produc t? (Would a child infer that consumption of the product will make them happier or provide good times?)
101 APPENDIX B CODE SHEET Name of television program 1 2 Hannah Montana 3 iCarly 4 True Jackson Population of the television program 1 General population 2 Black population Network 1 Nickelodeon 2 Disney/ ABC Episode Name Recorded Date of episode Recorded Time of episode Unique Ad Number Total number of ads airing during program (write in last) Total number of food ads aired during program Nam e of product advertised Food category/subcategory 1 Breakfast Pastry 2 Cereal 3 Cereal bar 4 Candy/gum 5 Crackers 6 Cookies 7 Potato/ corn chips 8 Snack cakes 9 Fruit snacks 10 Soda regular 11 Soda diet 12 Sports drink 13 Flavored water 14 Fruit flavored drink 15 Fast food restaurant
102 16 Frozen or prepackaged meal 17 Canned soup/ pasta 18 Dried pasta dinner 19 Dairy 20 Water 21 100% fruit juice 22 Fruits or vegetables 23 Meat 24 Bread 25 PSA Narrative Themes Is crime or violence present? 0 No 5 Yes 99 Can t tell Are action, strength, speed, power or sports performance present? 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99 Are popularity, making friends, fitting in or being 'cool' present? 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99
103 Is a change in mood or disposition present ? 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99 Are competition or achievement present? 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99 Is family togetherness or bonding present? 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99 Is well being or a healthy lifestyle associated with the product? 0 No 1 Yes 99 Is magic, fantasy, or anything supernatural present? 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99 Is adult approval or disapproval present? 0 No 1 Yes 99 Does the advertisement feature improved appearance: 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99 Is trickery used in the advertisement?
104 0 No 1 Yes 99 Are co nflict or i nterpersonal rivalry used: 0 No 1 Yes 99 Is the product associated with a reward or premium offer? 0 No 1 Yes 99 tell Are humor, fun, or happiness 0 No 1 Shown as part of the setting or plot of the ad 2 Promised to occur as a result of the product? 3 Both 99
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111 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Prior to attending the University of Florida to pursue a Master of Advertising, Calisha (Oglesby) Anderson worked in the related fields of media and marketing for several years. As a veteran in the industry, her career has provided a well rounded depth of experience. Beginning in New York conglomerate, where she managed promotional endeavors including a speaking engagement with Rachael Ray as well as official promotions for the New York Yankees. Moving to Orlando, Florida in 20 06, she started The Guest List magazine, acting as the Director of Strategy and workers as a special target audience, and delivered a magazine dedicated to supporting th eir industry. In less than a year, the magazine obtained nationally known brands such as Budweiser strategic partners included the Orlando Chamber of Commerce, the Orange County Convention Center and Vi sitors Bureau. Her next professional endeavor while living in Orlando was as a Marketing Manager for Compass Knowledge Group (CKG), where she managed national marketing, advertising and branding campaigns for top tier university clients including Boston Un iversity and Hofstra. The experience at CKG inspired Calisha to learn more about the industry, which then led to the decision to pursue a in the field. After moving to Gainesville and completing the required courses for the degree, she move d to South Florida where an opportunity th largest advertising agency. There, she Furniture Atlantis resorts White Castle and Boston Market She provided key strategic direction based on consumer research and industry intelligence.
112 The next opportunity that presented itself to her was managing the marketing and development of Creative City Collaborative (CCC) a nonprofit, government funded entity charged with enhancing the artistic culture of Delray Beach, Florida, a popular vacation and cultural center in Palm Beach County. She developed the brand of the CCC while conceiving and launching the marketing plan for the incubator project that is now known as the Arts Garage. The Arts Garage, a now wildly popular venue, hosts several arts and entertainment programs throughout the year and Mrs. Anderson is largely responsible for its successful launch into the marke t which included regional press coverage and several sold out events. L iving in Lake Worth, Florida, Calisha Anderson is now the Vice President of Business Development at James Ross Advertising. Calisha and her husband, Stephen, who is also a Flori da Gator have one daughter, Jolie Celeste Anderson