1 PLACE BONDING : OBSERVATIONS ABOUT RED SOX NATION By DANIEL SARGEANT A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Daniel Sargeant
3 To my sister Lisa, without whom this would not have been possible
4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank the chair and members of my supervisory committee for their assistance: my chair Heather Gibson, and committee members Stephen Holland, Jeffery Adler, and Kyriaki Kaplanidou. I also thank the staff in the TRSM department at the University of Florida parti cularly Julie McGarth and Donna Walker, as well as the participants in my survey for their honest participation. I thank my family and friends for their support and assistance in completing this project.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIO N ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 19 Conceptual Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 25 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 25 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 26 Historical Context ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 26 Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 27 Stadiums as Urban Identity ................................ ................................ ..................... 29 Sports Fans ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 32 Psychological Motives ................................ ................................ ............................. 40 Social Belonging Motives ................................ ................................ ........................ 41 Place Attachment/Bonding ................................ ................................ ...................... 43 Nostalgia ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 57 Baseball, Place Bonding, and Fan Loyalty ................................ .............................. 62 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 68 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 68 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 70 Sample Description ................................ ................................ ................................ 73 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 74 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 79 Level of Fan Identification ................................ ................................ ....................... 79 Attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ .... 79 Nostalgia Levels ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 81 Level of Attachment to Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ...... 82 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 86
6 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 112 Attitudes toward Future Modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ......... 112 F an Identification ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 113 Nostalgia Level in Regards to Fenway Park ................................ ......................... 116 Place Bonding ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 121 Implications of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 124 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ............................... 128 Delimitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 129 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 131 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 132 APPENDIX A SURVEY PARTICIPANT LETTER ................................ ................................ ........ 133 B SURVEY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 135 C SUMMARY OF CHANGES MADE TO FENWAY PARK SINCE 1945 .................. 140 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 142 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 157
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Socio Demographic Characteristics of the Partic ipants (N=409) ........................ 78 4 1 Attitudes towards Future Modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ..... 88 4 2 Descriptive statistics for fan identification ................................ ........................... 89 4 3 Attitudes toward Future Modifications of Fenway Park by level of Fan Identification ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 90 4 4 ANOVA of Attitudes towards Fenway Park Fan ID ................................ ............ 90 4 5 Post hoc analysis of fan identification by attitudes toward Fenway modifications ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 91 4 6 Descriptive statistics for the nostalgia scale (NOST) ................................ .......... 93 4 7 Attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park by nostalgia level ............ 94 4 8 ANOVA Omnibus res ults (attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway nostalgia) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 94 4 9 Post hoc attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park by nostalgia level ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 95 4 10 Descriptive statistics for place bonding by dimensions ................................ ....... 97 4 11 MANOVA results for place bonding and attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 98 4 12 Place bonding scores by attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 99 4 13 Post hoc analysis for place familiarity by attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ................................ 101 4 14 Post hoc analysis for place belongingness by attitude toward future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ........... 103 4 15 Post Hoc Analysis for Place Identity by Attitudes toward Future Modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ................................ 105 4 16. Post hoc analysis for place dependence by attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ........... 107
8 4 17 Post hoc analysis for place rootedness by attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ........... 109 4 18 Place bonding differences between attitude toward future modifications of Fenway Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 111
9 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PLACE BONDING : OBSERVATIONS ABOUT RED SOX NATION By Daniel Sargeant Aug ust 2012 Chair: Heather Gibson Major: Health and Human Performance Fenway Park celebrate d its one hundredth birthday at the start of the 2012 baseball season. It has hosted many historic moments and holds a special place in the hearts of avid baseball f ans but it cannot go on forever serving the needs of the Red Sox organization A t some point it will need to be refurbished, rebuilt or replaced. Nostalgia, place bonding, and fan identification with the t eam are all potential factors affecting what indi viduals believe should be the future of the stadium We live in nostalgic times which may be due to our aging population in the United States or the unsettling times in which we live. Regardless of the cause nostalgia is something that businesses consid er when making decisions for example, companies marketing retro versions of their products Fan identification is strong among Red Sox fans perhaps as strong if not stronger than for any other team in professional sports. Boston residents often hold buil dings and places in high regard. However, few researchers have empirically examined the connection between fan identification, nostalgia, and place bonding with a professional sports stadium. Thus, this study set out to empirically examine the levels of fa n identification, nostalgia, and place bonding
10 potential future modifications of Fenway Park. Data were co llected using an on line survey via a link pos ted o n the websites of t wo major Bosto n newspapers yielding 409 respondents. The results generated by the use of frequencies, ANOVAs and MANOVA, provide a more in depth understanding o f the relationship between attitude s toward future modifications of Fenway Park and fan identif ication, nos talgia, and place bonding Overall, a majority of respondents were in favor of retaining the current structure with modifications and updates. This attitude corresponded with certain levels of fan identification, nostalgia, and place bonding. T he findings support the supposition that significant relation ships exist between how an individual feels about future modifications of Fenway Park and each of these factors In addition, results indicated high levels of fan identification, nostal gia, and p lace bonding amo ng most respondents It is suggested that future research should attempt to gain access to a more diverse sampling of Greater Boston residents and/or Red Sox Nation fans in addition to replicating this study with other sporting facilities t o aid in determining the generalizability of the results.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Historically, the city of Boston has been a hotbed of professional sports activity In fact, Boston Red Sox fans have been labeled as some of the most obsessive in all of M a jor L eague B aseball (Smith, 2011). Not only do the Red Sox sellout their home games at a record level, but they also lead the league in road game attendance (Patton, 2007). The media coverage of the team dwarfs the coverage of any other professional sports franchise in the United States (Mnookn, 2006). Fenway Park, the home stadium of the Red Sox, is consistently listed as the number one tourist attraction in Boston many tourists are motivated to visit the city because of the Red Sox. The Red Sox had such a demand from fans wanting to travel to away games that they became the first professional sports franchise in the United States to launch their own travel agency. The im pact of the Red Sox Nation (RSN) on the Boston tourism industry is undeniable as well as the region, is the social impact of the RSN. There is no firm date on when the RSN formed. Some w ill argue that it began in followed the Boston Pilgrims to Pittsburgh for the first modern World Series. Since then, otion of the Boston baseball fans ebbed and flowed until 1967. Even though Boston baseball fans were devoted to their team since the very beginning, the phenomenon known as the dedicated Red Sox Nation was not born until the summer of 1967 during the cl osest pennant race in baseball history. Regardless of when the phenomenon began, its impact on New
12 England merits further examination to obtain a deeper understanding of the relationship between a devoted fan base and a sports facility. At the heart of R SN sits Fenway Park, the oldest baseball facility in major league baseball. The revered old ballpark is both venerated and despised by some members of the RSN. Prior attempts to tear down the ballpark have almost succeeded, but it still stands as a histo ric landmark and well made Fenway Park more modern, but its small seating capacity affects tourists, local businesses and the team alike by limiting revenue streams as well as ticket availability. Fenway Park, built in 1912, has hosted some of the most memorable moments in baseball history, cementing its place as a revered site among baseball fans. Although the franchise began as the first dynasty in major league baseball by winning four of the first six World Series, the avidly loyal fan base was eventually lost after decades of mediocre play and mismanagement by team owners (Gutlon, 2009). Through the late fifties and ea rly sixties, the Red Sox annually finished at the bottom of attendance ended the poor attendance, but also led to the rebirth of the RSN. For those who have never been to Fenway P ark or lived in New England, it is difficult to convey just how dedicated current members of the RSN are and how much the team and Fenway Park mean to the region. Certainly, there are many teams that have devoted fan bases, but one would be hard pressed to be able to demonstrate that other teams fans are more devoted or passionate than members of the RSN. There are many examples of just how devoted members of the RSN are to their team, but overall it comes down to the fact that there is
13 no denying the imp ortance of the RSN to the region on a number of levels. Therefore, the RSN provides an excellent forum for studying a highly devoted fan base. According to Borer (2008), the intense allure of the Red Sox team pervades and permeates the boundaries between politics, religion, sports, and popular culture in Boston and much of New England He refers to Fenway Park as nothing short of a national icon among baseball fans but suggests that even its storied history may not be enough to save it from being replaced by a more modern facility. In January of 2004, the New England Patriots won their second Super Bowl in three years. Moments after the game ended thousands of fans filled the streets around Fenway Park to celebrate. Days later as the championship winning Patriots paraded through the streets of Boston in front of a crowd estimated at over 1.5 million people they were repeatedly serenaded This provides another example that other Boston teams might win championsh ips, but the Red Sox Rick Reilly, writing for Sports Illustrated speculated that many of the newer ballparks are using Fenway Park as their muse in an attempt to capture some of posits that Fenway Park is an subset of Boston society. He further suggests that Red Sox fans are more than an economic force in the Boston area, they are an important pa rt of the regional culture as positing that one must consider much more than economic impact when assessing the importance o f the Red Sox team to the New England region as they are an important subset of the local society and a part of
14 its culture. Schudson (1989 p.27 allows present day visitors to be a part of history each time they enter the ballpark. Although the RSN may appear from the outside to be a homogeneous organization united by their love of all things relating to the Red Sox, in a ctuality the nation is divided along several key variables, including what the future of Fenway Park should be as well as the usual debates regarding te am decisions. Some view the stadium ; for others it is view ed as a community. In addition, there are those that view Fenway Park as being outdated and in need of replacing. This issue may not seem very important to those outside of the sports world, but it has important implications for the entire New England region, especially the city of Boston, due to the multiple roles the facility plays on a variety of levels. In addition, the impact of the RSN on sport s related tourism can b e traced to the origins of professional baseball in Boston. Beginning with the first modern World Series in 1903, Red Sox fans have had a long history of both traveling to watch their team play, as well as traveling great distances to view a game at Fenway Park. Fans travel from all over the New England region to visit Fenway Park, often staying for several days and visiting other city attractions (Abrams, 2003). Some Red Sox fans travel from all over the country and even from other countries to watch the R ed Sox play at Fenway Park. People come to Boston not only to watch games at Fenway Park, but also to visit and tour Fenway Park. This dissertation presents a study designed to gain a better
15 understanding of the impact of RSN as a social and cultural force in the Boston region. Particular attention is paid to the importance of team identification nostalgia and place bonding consequence on the city of Boston is not limited to tourism A s anyone who has spent enough time in the Boston area can tell you, locals spend substantial sums of money related to their membership in the RSN. When examining the sports psyche of the Boston area particular atten tion should be paid to the time peri od between 1974 and 1978, as these were pivotal years in the development of the RSN as a national curiosity Recent research concurs that this time period was critical to both the development of the city of Boston as well as the Red ryant, 2002; Reynolds, 2009). Tager (2001) suggests the unrest in Boston during this time period was nothing new but part of a long standing tradition of social unrest in Boston. In regards to baseball, this period is circumscribed by two of the greatest games in the history of baseball. Both games have been credited with impacting baseball in ways that are still felt today (Reynolds, 2009). The 1978 season also signified one of the most fundamental changes in the history of baseball, the birth of free age ncy, a change that significantly altered the very framework of baseball. As most researchers tend to view organizations such as the RSN as homogeneous entities, it would be helpful to examine the differences that exist i n such an organization These develo pments are covered in the literature review, to assist the focus of this study. Many view Fenway Park as the foundation of the RSN, but its continued existence is not assured. Another example of the divisions within the RSN is that it is divided by
16 differ ing views as to what to do with Fenway Park. Most members of RSN appear to understand the importance of Fenway as a historical landmark and a symbol of th e city of Boston. There are six as suggested by local spor ts talk show hosts Media reports and fan chatter imply that m any fans want to ke ep Fenway as it has always been not wanting any changes to be made to the facility. Others want to update the facility while paying careful attention to maintaining the integr ity and character of the original design. Still others want an exact replica of Fenway built with more seating and modern comforts. A fourth segment reportedly wants to see Fenway knocked down and a new ballpark built outside of the congested Kenmore Squar e area. Others believe this new ballpark should be not a replica of Fenway; it should have unique characteristics dictated by its plot of land as Fenway did when it was built. Lastly, others seem to believe the current structure should be mostly retained w ith only minor upgrades or renovations (Ryan, 2005). The current ownership has to date sided with the second group, improving the current stadium while remaining true to the original park design. The fact that this is the current approach by no means sugg ests that this is the long term solution. Even while spending millions on renovations, the current ownership has said it will listen to public and professional suggestions for the future of Fenway Park. Currently, the team owners are walking a tightrope be tween the various factions. They understand the historical and cultural values of Fenway Park but they are businesspersons who purchased the team and the facility to make a profit. Fenway Park is not just a place where the Red Sox play baseball. It has cultural and symbolic value to the city of Boston. The facility is often used as a symbol on
17 television and printed materials to represent Boston. It is familiar not only to baseball fans worldwide but to m any tourist s who ha ve researched visiting Boston for a vacation. In addition, it has a number of cultural meanings for those living in the city. Recent research suggests that baseball fulfills many of the same functions that religion used to in our society (Erickson, 2001; Newman, 2001). Specifically, th e studies allude may be a stretch in some cities, b ut not in Boston Given the decline of churches in the New England region over the last three or four decades (McKi nney and Hoge, 1983) it might be suggested that many ex church goers have transferred their loyalties to the religion of baseball (Chidester, 1996) Perhaps fans want to hold onto Fenway Park as a means of connecting to their past. Some who have inquired about the importance of Fenway Park have talked about its importance to the city of Boston, but most have also pointed out that it is part of their personal history. Fenway Park satisfies a number of functions for both baseball fans as well as Boston re also serves as an image and representation of the city. In addition, Fenway Park is a part of the urban community and civic culture of the city, as well the collective memory of residents. The facility serves an important sense of place function for fans. Perhaps most importantly, it is an important place in terms of social interactions and practices (Young, 1999). Recognizing the importance of Fenway Park to the community, r ecent Red Sox team owners ha ve made the facility much more accessible to the public. Fenway Park no longer has an off season. The field might be covered for the off season, but the rest
18 of the stadium does not close its doors. Since the most recent owners took over in 2002, the stadium has hosted charity events, political rallies, concerts, holiday celebrations and tours. In January 2010, ice hockey was played before sellout crowds on the infield of Fenway Park. The frequency of non baseball events held at Fenway Park has increased dramatically since 2002 and the current team owners decided to add on to the existing structure instead of replacing the facility. Their apparent goal is to make the facility more a part of the community, year round, and of cour se, to increase revenue ( Bost on Red Sox, 2010). The concept of authenticity is likely related to how many people feel about that the facility is historically signific ant However, it appears there are a number of differing views on what constitutes that causes debate among the various interest groups (Cohen, 2002). Debates about the commodification of culture often presume that authenticity must lie some where outside of and be untouched by the marketplace (Taylor, 1991). This leads to the assumption that authenticity is the inherent property of things or people, ignoring the social conditions, which can influence hentic experiences. Tourism theorists like MacCannell (1976) have suggested that others have focused too heavily on the institutional production of culture and he advocated paying more attention to the experience of authenticity. He sees no need to assume that authentic experiences only exist outside of or away from everyday life. Bruner (2005) adds that no longer is authenticity a property inherent in an object, instead, it is a social process, which is not fixed in time. In the case of the RSN and their t emple, Fenway Park, the extensive
19 social interactions and meanings introduced earlier, may be construed as a socially constructed reality. Problem Statement The RSN is a powerful force not only economically, but also both socially and culturally (Borer 2008; Demos, 200 0) It is an economic force in terms of tourism as well as spending by residents on local businesses. It is a social force and an educational force. It has historical and political significance (Nowlin & Ross, 2000). It influences a lar ge number of people on a number of levels, but the attitudes of its members and their implications for the Boston region have not been empirically investigated. The central problem is to gain a better understanding of how variables such as fan identific ation, nostalgia, and place bonding are related to attitudes towards the future of Fenway Park More needs to be explained regarding how Fenway Park influences RSN participation and how a sense of place has developed through this organization. U nderstandin g these relationships has value to researchers as well as team management, and potentially future regional planners The aim of this study is to better identify and understand the relationship between strength of fan identification, nostalgia, place bo nding and attitudes about Fenway around Boston concerning the fate of Fenway Park. Debates concerning the future of Fenway Park are nothing new in the Boston area, as the idea of replacing the facility has been considered seriously off and on since the late 1960s. Tom Yawkey, who owned the Red Sox from 1933 until his death in 1976, wanted a new stadium to improve revenue and provide more funding to purchase better players (Shaughnessy, 1999).
20 The building has value on many levels but in the end, it might be economic considerations which lead to its demise. Of course, the building will need replacing someday, but when and how it is replaced are not decisions that should be taken lightly because decisions will affect the citizens of the Boston region and beyond in many people feel about this issue and why they feel the way they do is an import ant step in the process of making informed decisions for the city and team ownership as they move forward in this process These findings will also contribute to the body o f knowledge by examining place bonding as it relates to a sporting facility, a topic rarely explored. marketing department, team owners, and Boston tourism m arketers to better understand the feelings of RSN members and to make better informed decisio ns regarding Fenway Park and how it might be better managed an d marketed The results will contribute to the overall body of literature through a unique examination of the interaction between place attachment /bonding, fan identification and nostalgia at a n iconic sport site. Much of the existing literature on sports fans in the United States has focused predominantly on college sports, as opposed to professional sports (Branscombe & Wann, 1991; Hocking, 1992; Madrigal, 1995; Wann & Dolan, 1994; Wann, Ro yalty & Roberts, 2000). Sport research needs to be expanded to include professional sports fans. In executing this expansion one needs to make certain that the difference should revolve around the concept of perceived interest, as well as the personal
21 importance of sports to the individual (Shank & Beasley, 1998). Jones (1997) adds that for a fan, the affiliation will have a great deal of emotional significance value ass ociated with group membership. For clarification purposes, members of the RSN will be classified as fans, not spectators, as they tend to place a high importance on sports and make considerable emotional investment s in the team. Conceptual F ramework Re lph (1976) posited that attachment to place grows through the accumulation of experiences associated with a location. Jorgensen and Stedman (2001) added to the definition of place attachment by defining it as a strong emotional tie between person and setti ng that may include meanings, values, symbols, beliefs, or the feelings one associates with a setting. According to Stedman (2002), a more recent school of thought in research involving place attachment posits that when considering attachment to place, one should not presuppose that interactions between social actors are necessary for creating attachment. Attachment can be created through interaction with a physical environment even without the presence of other persons. The theoretical frameworks used in this research to examine the relationship between the Boston Red Sox and the fans of the RSN are identity theory, nostalgia, and fan identification. After a review of identity theory, fan identity literature is reviewed to define one of the key variable s to be measured in this study, after which the nostalgia literature is reviewed. There are no hard numbers to gauge just how many members of the RSN exist but much anecdotal evidence suggests that membership is huge likely over one million (with appr oximately 4.5 million peo ple living in Greater Boston ). In all likelihood the identity associated with being a member of the RSN is important to
22 citizens This identity has implications for many Boston ians, such as the future of Fenw ay Park, regional tourism, and historical preservation, to mention a few. Therefore, a more complete understanding of this identity is crucial to moving forward in a more informed manner. A social identity is the portion of an individual's self concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group (Burke, 1991) Social identity th eory introduced the concept of social identity as a way in which to explain intergroup behavior (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). While identity theory is principally a sociological theory that attempts to explain an more of a social psychological theory, which attempts to explain inter group relations. Identity manifests itself on many levels, one of which is place. Many factors including social, cultural, and When attachment to place grows, we begin to identify ourselves with these places. This process results in self concepts that are in part based on place (Giuliani, 2003). Identity theory defines identity as a set of meanings applied to the self in a social role or situation that defines what it means to be who one is (Burke, 1991). Furthermore, commitment influences identity salience, which affect s role choice (Borgatta & Borgatta, 1992). Stryker (1968) laid the foundation for how social identity should be understood by positing that identity is based on categorizations that others of the categorizations. Furthermore, on a personal level, these identities exist only insofar as the individual participates in social interactions. More recently, Burke (1991) suggested that identities are tied to roles or positions in organized social relationships. Given the hierarchical
23 organization of identities, the salience of identities will vary in terms of which are most salient at a given point in time. Consequently, self identity is organized on a salience hierarchy, meaning choices are based on the salience of an identity, which one then positions within an identity hierarchy. Identification of people and just as importantly things in the social world and the subsequent definition of their meanings, is a key component of symbolic interac tionism (McCall & Simmons, 1966). Furthermore, identification requires an organized link to others, either in a formal or a symbolic sense. Social identity theory suggests identities are tied to group memberships (Hogg, Terry, & White, 1995). In addition, upon joining a group an individual will often think of that group as superior to any other group, enhancing their own self image (Tajifel, 1981). Although much of this earlier research dealt with how one related with other people s self, more recent research has focused on the bonds that people form with places where they participate in active recreation (Brown & Raymond, 2007). This study examines if these feelings of attachment are transferable to places where people engage in pa ssive recreation and uses this concept of bonding with a place as a measure of attachment to a place, in this case Fenway Park Given the importance of Fenway Park to the RSN and the Boston region an understanding of the place bonding that is associated with the facility is crucial to understanding why people react the way they do to it and what the future might hold for the stadium. Further underscoring the importance of this relationship is the supposition that this place bonding also contributes to the nostalgic feelings that people often have for places. In turn these nostalgic feelings towards a specific
24 place and the identity that this place holds for them. Snyder (1991) suggested that the visitation of nostalgic ven ues, such as halls of fame and museums, could be viewed as a form of socialization in which artifacts and the memories people attach to them symbolically convey the values and norms of a society. Segrave (2001) added to this train of thought by positing th at these so called cathedrals of sport s allow people to connect with a more social sense of who they are both as individuals and as members of a society. He further noted that sports do not just take place anywhere and that these sites become culturally significant places that are celebrated as repositories of history, folklore and sentiment research indicates social and psychological elements are often encompassed by nostalgia. In the case of Fenway Park, it is beneficial to understand ho w nostalgia and place bonding are related to beliefs as to what the future of Fenway Park should be but one must be careful not to overlook the fan identification variable, also Given the obsessive nature of many RSN fans to ignore fan identification w ould call into question findings based only on place bonding and nostalgia. Wann (1997) defines sport s fan team identification as a fan's psychological connection with and attachment to a team. Fans normally report highly consistent levels of identificatio n from season to season. It remains relatively stable from season to season (Wann 2001; Wann & Schrader 1996). The social/psychological nature of this connection and its continuity from year to year make sport s team identification an excellent variable to explore how it interact s with nostalgia, a psychologically base d variable, and place bonding which deals with feelings established over time.
25 Purpose of th e S tudy Th e purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Greater Boston residents towards the future of Fenway Park. Specifically, this study examined how varying level s of fan identification, place bonding and nostalgia affected perceptions of future op tions for modifying Fenway Park. Research Questions hat are the attitudes of Greater Boston residents toward future modifications of Fenway Park? This is followed by a three two part questions. Research qu What are the levels of fan identification among Greater Boston residents Greater Boston residents towards future modifications of Fenway Park and level of fan What is the level of nostalgia among Greater Boston residents with regards to Fenway Park ? differences in the attitudes of Greater Boston residents towards future modifications of Fenway Park and the level of nostalg ia ? the level of place bonding to Fenway Park among Greater Boston residents ? Greater Boston residents towards future modifications of Fenway Park and the five
26 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The following chapter provides a review of literature that is relevant to the current research. It begins by placing the propo sed research in a more in depth historical context than the brief o verview in the Chapter 1 Fan identity literature is reviewed to define one of the key variables. Fan loyalty literature is used to link the concepts of fan identification to baseball. The history and importance of Fenway Park is reviewed to provi de an in depth understanding of the sense of community that links the Boston area with its beloved baseball team. Lastly, the literature concerning nostalgia sport s tourism is reviewed to associate nostalgia with attitudes regarding future modifications of Fenway P ark and place bonding Historical Context Boston as a city is somewhat of a paradox. It is home to a number of innovative research facilities but it is also a city that holds a deep attachment to its history. Boston not only respects its history but also frequently fights hard to e nsure its preservation (Holleran, 1998). This dynamic city, which embraces its past while simultaneously striving to be a leader in the modern technologies industry and desiring to present itself as a modern city, is the bac kdrop for this research. For all of its forward looking ambitions, the city of Boston cannot escape its past, nor would it want to. The people of the Boston region are also very proud of their past. Boston is known for many things in regards to its sport c ity image. To some it is known as the Athens of America (Hardy, 2003). To some it is known as a racist city that does not like its star athletes to be black (Bryant, 2002). To others it is known for the arrogance of its fans (Vaccaro, 2005). To truly un derstand the passion that Boston sports fans feel for their teams and pride that
27 they take in the success of these teams one should understand what motivates members of the RSN. Fenway Park Fenway Park, located in the Kenmore Square area of Boston, was b uilt in 1912, and is now the oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball. The first M ajor L eague game took place at the ballpark April 20, 1912 with the Red Sox defeating the New York Highlanders. The event would have made front page news had it not been for the sinking of the Titanic a few days before. Despite numerous renovations, several historic pieces of the park remain intact. For example, the Green Monster wall with its famous hand operated scoreboard was added to the facility in 1934. This manually op erated scoreboard is used to post the score by innings, as well as out of town scores, one of the few in baseball that are still changed manually. A few years later, 1940, bullpens were constructed in right field to bring the fence 23 feet closer to home p late, to benefit the Ted Williams. The new bullpens appropriately became known as Williamsburg (Dame, 1994). The ball club installed sky view seats at Fenway Park in 1946. Lights followed in 1947, and Fenway's first message b oard was added over the centerfield bleachers in 1976. In 1988 89, stadium club seats were constructed above the grandstand behind home plate where the former press box was located. Before the 2003 season, a seating section was constructed on top of the Green Monster. Besides the Green Monster and the manual scoreboard, Fenway features many other unique elements that red seat in deep right field, and the infamous t riangle in center field. Other than those additions, Fenway Park for the most part is unchanged. With its manually operated
28 scoreboard, its geometrically peculiar shape (including the only ladder in play in the majors), Fenway remains a link to baseball's past. However, it also remains an summary of changes made to Fenway Park since 1946 see Appendix C. At its core, Fenway Park is very much the same facility that opened its doors in 1912. Its architectural idiosyncrasies and the crowd s close proximity to the field are part that the facility is outdated and uncomfortable while its supporters contend that its familiarity is a part of its charm. Fenway Park opened in April 1912, with the Red Sox winning the World Series their first year playing in Fenway Park. The Red Sox also won the World Series in 1915, 1916, and 1918 before falling into a long period of mediocrity. It woul d be 86 years before they won another World Series in 2004. Despite this prolonged championship drought, the Red Sox managed to build one of the most dedicated fan bases in professional sports. According to Nowlin and Desrochers (2007) air with the Red Sox arguably began in 1967 during the impossible dream season, but the period from 1974 as hallowed ground. During the 1970s the hockey team, the Bruins and the basketball team, the Celtics also achieved much notoriety and won their respective top sport awards and championships several times. Yet, in the short span of three years, Fenway Park hosted two of the most memorable baseball games ever played. On October 21, 1975, Fenway Park hosted game six of the 1975 World Series between the Boston Red Sox and the Cincinnati Reds and won the game Many baseball fans and historians consider this the greatest World Series game ever played if not the greatest baseball
29 game ever played. This World Series was so pivotal for M ajor L eague B aseball that a baseball and saving the sport from continuing its downward slide in pop ularity among American sports fans (Nowlin, 2005). On October 4, 1978, Fenway Park hosted a one game play off between the Boston Red Sox and their hated rivals the New York Yankees Many baseball experts contend that this second game was the greatest bas eball game ever played (Bradley, 2008). Regardless of which one should be considered the greatest baseball game ever played, the fact that Fenway Park hosted both games within a three year span suggests that during that time period, Fenway Park and the Bos Since the epic games played in the late seventies, the Red Sox have managed to maintain one of the most knowledgeable and devoted fan bases in any professional sport (Burke, 2010). The Red Sox played in only one World Series between the 1975 appearance and 2004, yet their fans remained devoted. It is possible that the sense of place that they fe lt for Fenway Park or the nostalgia that they fe lt for the facility and the sense of community th at these great games inspired are part of what kept the fan base loyal and rabid. The team made the play offs every couple of years between 1975 and 2004 but was never considered a serious contender to win the World Series (Golenbock, 2005). Despite this their fan base remained loyal, much more loyal than loss record merited. Stadiums as Urban Identity Historians have found the linkage between baseball and the development of American urban centers to be a strong one. Hardy (2003) posit ed that baseball was instrumental in shaping how American cities developed as their populations surged in
30 the late 19th century. Hard understanding the development of Boston in particular. To over look historical implications on the relationship between nostalgia and baseball would be an error Many professional sports teams have enthusiastic fans, but among many people working in professional baseball, Red Sox fans are considered the most knowledg eable and passionate (Frost, 2009). The media coverage in Boston is considered the most intense in all of baseball by the players (Gorman, 2005). Burke (2010) concluded, based on empirical findings, that the RSN were the most dedicated and loyal sports fa ns in any professional sports league in America. Something about the Fenway Park experience has managed to trump the usual main draw for fans, the winning of championships. According to h all of fame journalist Peter Gammons ( 2010), out of all fine sporting traditions in the city of Boston, it is a city that reveres baseball above all other sports. Many literary giants including John Updike, Dave Halberstam, and Stephen King have chronicled the experience at Fenway Park. One can argue that the main reason Fenway Park is still in operation is the significance that so many people place on it as participation at Fenway Park involved private or shared experiences, the y have given the meanings of Fen way Park an almost objective reality, a presence outside of the hearts and minds of a given individual. This meaning attributed to Fenway Park has become what Emile Durkeim would call a social fact (Thompson, 2002). Fenway Park is as much a symbol of Bosto n as t he Old North Church or Faneuil Hall. While economics plays a role in determining
31 value the site is accorded by Red Sox fans and New Englanders alike. There are many sh areholders with a stake in the Fenway Park debate, as the economic impact of the facility is far reaching in the region. Sport tourism is an the past is seen as superior t o experiencing the present by many tourists. Fenway Park and similar historic ball fields (e.g. Wrigley Field, Lambeau Field, etc.) offer sport s fans the opportunity to travel back in time. Despite some renovations, the main features have remained unchang ed throughout its history. Having been featured on television for a number of historic games, its characteristics are famous even to sport s fans who have never attended a game there B ut in addition to being famous among baseball fans, it is a famous landm ark in Boston. Participants on Fenway Park tours are told that the stadium is the most visited tourist attraction in Boston. As a result of this unique history, a strong sense of community has developed between the RSN and the Boston Red Sox, and Fenway Pa rk sits at the middle of this relationship. Thus, understanding the role that Fenway Park plays in this complex relationship is vital to gaining a better understanding of the role of the fan sense of place and urban identity. Part of what make Fenway P ark and Wrigley Field so unique is the changing trend in baseball facility design that began in the late 1960s, with a trend towards larger bowl shaped facilities that were often designed for multiple uses. A number of stadiums constructed during the 1970s were designed to support both baseball and football teams. Due to the need for the stadiums to host football games the seating capacity was often much larger th a n what was needed for baseball games (John, Sheard, &
32 Vickery, 2007) Many of these facilitie s were round in shape and referred to as donut stadiums and most were not easily distinguishable from each other due to the similar designs. Since the 1990s, the trend has been to build smaller single use facilities for baseball teams, with Camden Yards in Baltimore and Jacobs Field in Cleveland being prime examples of this trend. The newer more intimate ballparks often cite a desire to be more like Fenway Park and Wrigley Field (John, Sheard, & Vickery, 2007). Further trends in facility design include as many luxury boxes as possible, improved concession areas, improved handicap access, and wider concourses. Fenway has upgraded existing facilities but there is no room at Fenway Park for designers to incorporate any of these trends. Sport s Fans Wann (2 001) suggests that in order to understand the behaviors of spectators in a society, one must understand the relationship between sport s fandom and that society. According to Wann, sport s fandom can potentially be linked to a number of functionalist impera tives in society including but not limited to: producing social capital, contributing to the socialization process, enhancing integration at all levels, assisting in social control, and serving as a form of religion. Sport s fan team identification is de fined as a fan's psychological connection with and attachment to a team (Wann, 1997). Despite the "identification" label, the concept of "team identification" does not necessarily imply that fans take on the identity of the group. Emotional attachment to a team is better explained as a one sided para social interaction with the team than as strictly defined "identification" with the whole group. The extent to which people are interested in and follow sport s teams varies greatly, ranging from occasionally wa tching a televised game or attending a live event,
33 to owning season tickets or watching as many games as possible. One possible result of a strong connection to a sport s team is that one might feel a sense of personal success when the team wins and a sense of loss when the team loses (Cialdini et al 1976). The growth and interest in research on sport s spectators and fans has been grounded in a multi disciplinary approach drawing theoretically from sociology, psychology, consumer behavior and marketing (F unk, & James, 2001). Understanding the relationship between spectators or fans and sport s teams continues to be a relevant research topic for numerous reasons including economics, marketing and community building. Wann (1997) differentiates between sport s fans and sport s spectators by classifying a fan as somebody who is interested in and follows a sport, team, or athlete, while a spectator is an individual who actively witnesses sporting events. Witnessing may be in person or through some form of media. He further posits that viewing a game does not necessarily indicate that the person is attached to either team in any way. In the case of Boston Red Sox followers, one must be cautious not to place too much emphasis on watching games in person when consid ering level of fanship, as tickets are expensive and hard to acquire (Klein, 2009). Luckily, for researchers who are interested in studying fan identification, research recent game (Lieberman, 1991). Instead, fans normally report highly consistent levels of identification from game to game, even from season to season. It appears that an ely
34 stable from game to game and from season to season (Wann 2000; Wann & Schrader 1996). Fans with lower levels of team identification tend to view their role as a follower of the team as a peripheral component of their self concept (Wann, 2001) w hile highly identified fans often view the team as a reflection of themselves, in some cases viewing the team as an extension of themselves as an individual (Tajfel, 1981). These highly identified fans are likely to readily present themselves as a fan of thei r team to others (Wann, Royalty, & Roberts, 2000). As highly identified fans place increased importance become more extreme (Wann & Schrader, 1997). One of the most popular means of measuring this aforementioned attachment is an attempt to measure team identification by Wann and Branscombe (1993), who developed the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS). This scale has been used successfully worldwide in team ide ntification research (Gayton, Coffin, & Hearns, 1998). The SSIS contains seven items with response options ranging from one to eight the higher the number the greater the level of team identification. Respondents answer the seven questions and their s co res are summed. According to Wann, ( 1997) scores less than 18 indicate a low level of identification, while scores greater than 35 suggest a high level of identification. Scores falling in the 18 to 35 range are considered moderately identified. In additi on to this research involving the SSIS, other research has suggested that there are many reasons a fan may initially identify with a particular team but a few of the reasons are more prominent than others. Wann, Tucker, and Schrader (1996)
35 found one of t talent and characteristics of the players was also an important factor. Geographical for ide ntifying with a particular team. Interestingly, the success of the team was only the fifth most mentioned reason for originally identifying with a team but it ranked as the number one reason for continued support of a team. Conversely, lack of success was commitment to a sports team affects their postgame attributions. Wann and his colleagues have p osited that highly identified fans exhibit more extreme behaviors in identification (Wann, Melnick, Russell, & Pease, 2001). Focusing on locus of causality, Wann and Dolan (1994) reported that highly identified fans were more apt to attribute a support, and a losing effort to external causes such as poor referees or fate. This research lends cred ence to the notion of a self serving bias, but suggests that such an effect is most pronounced for those who are most highly identified with the team. These findings on locus of control were replicated in a later study by Wann and Schrader (2000). In this study, the authors also examined the extent to which the attributions of controllability and stability were moderated by team identification. Consistent with a self serving bias, they reported that highly identified fans were more likely to attribute a win to controllable and stable causes than were low er identified fans.
36 These findings by Wann and Schrader (2000) were disputed by more recent research. End, et al (2003) examined how game outcome affects the type of attributions that fans and rival fans gen erate in a computer mediated medium. They controllability, and stability. Counter to Wann a victories to external, stable, and uncontrollable factors, and losses to internal, unstable, and controllable attributions. E nd et al. concluded that the pattern of effects found in their study implies that self attributions. Yet, data from rival fans were more consistent with a self serving bias than were the data from fan s. Thus, their results are not only counter to those reported by Wann and Schrader but it also appears that they might be internally inconsistent. Research by Cialdini, et al (1976) supports the suggestion that many sports fans link their self esteem to success or failure of their favorite teams. Two important concepts relating to this practice are: b asking in reflected glory (BIRGing) and satisfaction with team performance. Consistent with balance theory (Heider, 1958), fans enhance their own esteem in the eyes of others by communicating their affiliation with a team whose actions they consider praiseworthy. Cialdini et al. suggest that fans may demonstrate BIRGing behavior in a variety of ways using the first n referring to their team, and wearing clothing displaying the judged to be blameworthy will employ an image protection technique referred to as
37 cutting off reflected failure or CORFing. In a similar vein, social identity theory posits that individuals strive for a positive self concept, with social behavior varying along a continuum between interpersonal behavior and intergroup behavior. In group favoritism is an effe ct where people give preferential treatment to others when they are perceived to be in the same in group. Social identity attributes the cause of in group favoritism to a psychological need for a positive self concept (Tajfel, 1981). This concept is very s imilar to the concept of BIR G ing. Continuing the efforts of these researchers to explain the motivations of sports fans, Trail and James (2001) developed the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSCC) to measure the motivations behind sport s spectator consumption behavior. They felt that previous efforts to develop scales to measure spectator motives demonstrated weaknesses in content, criterion and construct validity. Specifically, they argued that the SFMS scale presented by Wann et al. (1999) had problems in the areas of content validity, discriminant validity, criterion validity and to some extent convergent validity. Although their results showed that the MSCC demonstrated the best psychometric properties overall to accurately and reliably meas ure motivations of sport s spectator consumption behavior, the scale is not specifically designed to measure sport s fan identity. Funk and James (2001) present a model that categorized the different levels of fan connection to a team. The Psychological Co ntinuum Model (PCM) specified the general parameters in which a relationship between an individual, sport or athlete is mediated. Within the PCM framework, the object related connection (e.g., a sport or team) was considered interchangeable. Much of the di scussion, however, was devoted to college
38 athletic teams. Four general stages operating along a vertical continuum were conceptualized to characterize the various psychological connections that sport s spectators and fans may form with specific sports and t eams. They were presented as follows : the initial level, awareness denotes when an individual first learns that certain sports, and/or teams exist, but does not have a specific favorite. The second level, attraction indicates when an individual acknowled ges having a favorite team or favorite sport based on various social psychological and demographic based motives. On the third level, attachment a psychological connection forms creating various degrees of association between the individual and the sport object (e.g., a favorite team). Attachment represents the degree or strength of association based on the perceived importance attached to physical and psychological features associated with a team or sport. Finally, on the fourth level, allegiance an indi vidual has become a loyal (or committed) fan of the sport or team. Allegiance results in influential attitudes that produce consistent and durable behaviors. These four stages represent the degree to which a person is attached to a team. Additionally, ther e are many reasons why individuals may feel the need to be a part of a group in order to be recognized for their support. Individuals may derive strength and a sense of identity from their connections to social groups (Fisher & Wakefield, 1998). The degree to which a membership or affiliation affects self identity is defined by the s group identification, with stronger identification leading the individual to attribute desirable characteristics of the group to the self, and to ass ume a greater similarity with other group members (Fishe r & Wakefield, 1998; Tajfel, 1981). The key term here is similar characteristics. The need to feel a connection with a social
39 group that has like characteristics is the attraction that brings individu als to join fan bases. Although one must be cautious when generalizing about demographics and personality traits of sports fans, research has suggested some very broad parameters rooted in this similar characteristic approach. Numerous studies have found t hat sport fans are disproportionately likely to be male (Lieberman 1991; Wann 1998; Zuckerman 1984). Pan and Baker (1999) found sport s fandom to be positively correlated with socioeconomic status. Wann (1998) found that neither tobacco nor alcohol usage wa s associated with any level of fanship. Much of the research dealing with the motivations of sports fans is complicated by the possibility that the motivations may differ by sport or type of sport. Wann, Grieve, Zapalac, and Pease (2008) found differing m otivations for team identification for different sports as well as for different types of sports. They classified sports into three different dichotomies: individual (e.g., figure skating, golf) versus team (e.g., professional baseball, college basketball ); aggressive (e.g., professional wrestling, professional football) versus nonaggressive (e.g., professional baseball, figure skating); and stylistic (e.g., figure skating, gymnastics) versus non stylistic (e.g., professional hockey, tennis). They found th at aesthetic motivation was particularly prominent in individual sports, while scores were greater for team sports in eustress, self esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, and family. Aesthetic motivation scores were also high in nonaggressive sports, while economic, eustress, group affiliation, and entertainment were higher for team sports. Finally, aesthetic motivation was quite high for stylistic
40 sports, while economic, eustress, self esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, and family motivation sc ores were higher for non stylistic sports. Wann et al (2008) posited that understanding motivations was a critical part of understanding the strength of and reasoning behind why fans identified with teams the way they did. This research was a continua tion of his earlier work, as it was based on which highlights eight motivations, including eustress (positive stress or arousal, stress release), escapism (diversion from daily life), entertainment, aestheti c pleasure (the beauty of sport performances), group affiliation, family needs (spending time with family), potential economic gain (gambling), and self esteem (personal enhancement). The current study is concerned with two of the underpinning dimensions, based in social identity theory, proposed by Wann for fan motivations: psychological and social belonging (Wann, 1997). Psychological Motives Wann (2008), suggests an understanding of psychological motives may assist a researcher in being able to examine such psychologically related concepts as sense of place and nostalgia. Sport s fans seek fulfillment of various emotional and intellectual needs through the consumption of sport, on which basis researchers classify diff erent fan types and their level of ide ntification based on psy chological motives Psychological motives can also be defined as those factors concerned with the individual interest and enjoyment extracted from an activity (Wann, Schrader, & Wilson, 1999). Identified motives include : Eustress: The human need for positive stress and psychological arousal is often referred to as eustress ( Wann, 1995). Wann et al (1999) suggest that the high levels of action played out in team competition provide a high degree of stimulation for
41 spectators. At a more complex level, the stimulation sport s offer provides a departure from the concerns of daily life. Escape: The stimulation and arousal provided by sport s also acts as an antidote to the routine ordinariness of everyday life in highly organized, but u nexciting societies (El ias & Dunning, 1970). Some researchers go as far as to s uggest that for many fans, watching sports is the ultimate escape experience (Cohen & Taylor, 1992; Fink, Trail, & Ander son, 2002) Aesthetic pleasure: Sport s watching can o ffer aesthetic pleasure to fans. For many fans, one of the main attractions of sport is its ability to constantly provide memorable moments that are stored in the collective memory Using a developed Gaze, Urry (2002) sugg ested that the tourist gaze is constantly reinterpreted ; often being driven by the sheer novelty of the visual space a tourist encounter s (Carrier, 1986). In this sense, the sporting gaze can deliver ongoing aesthetic pleasure for the avid observer de spite apparent repetition. Drama and entertainment: Sport s watching may also provide entertainment and drama (Fink et al., 2002; Sloan, 1979; Stewart & Nicholson, 2003; W ilson, 1999) An attractive blend of performance, theatre, emblems, and noise allows c onsumers to capture an intense experience of drama and enterta inment (Crawford, 2004) In their study of college football fans in the United States, Gibson, Willming, and Holdnak (2003) drew attention to the importance of tailgating, ent ertainment for sport s fans need not be co nfined to the sporting arena Social Belonging Motives While psychological and socio cultural motives help describe why a fan is attracted to a sport object, it is clear that not all fans experience the same degree or strength of
42 identification. The degree to which a fan identifies with a team is an important issue, since it may predict their loyalty and their subsequent travel behavior (Fink et al., 2002). Fans with stronger identification have sport s more deeply e mbedded in their self concept, and are more likely to attend games and travel greater distances to do so, purchase merchandise, spend more on tickets and products, and remain loyal (Fink et al. ; Murrel & Dietz, 1992; Wann & Branscombe, 1993). Motives that contribute to social belonging are likely to be the most salient to team identification (Fink et al. ). The more closely an individual associates their sense of self with a team, and the more self r their degree of emotional attachment, and the more committed they will be to engaging with the team wherever they play. Emotional attachment to a group is a commonly accepted concept in many branches of science. One form of social belonging used to re li ve or capture ancient ceremonies and primitive social practices is t ribal connections which is also manifested in sport s fandom. For example, Morris (1981) argued that contemporary sport s are the modern counterpart of ancient hunting patterns. Rituals may include pre game activities costumes in team colors and the location of team related signs. The players are the tribal heroes, cheered and lauded as they perform on the field of play. Central to the tribal practices are the fans, or tribal followers who accentuate inter tribal rivalries through the purchase of memorabilia or dressing in club colors. They also construct tribal chants and team songs, which are used not only to assert their identity, but also to intimidate rival tribes and declare their affi liations long before arrival at the site of the sport contest (Morris, 1981).
43 Vicarious achievement and self esteem: The other dimension of belonging comes through the opportunity fans have to associate with a successful team in order to pretend that they too are success ful (Cialdini et al., 1976). The depth and intensity of the identification can vary significantly. At one end of the intensity continuum are the fair weather fans whose identity is directly linked to team victories and whose attendance these fair weather fans are referred to derisively as pink hats. At the other end are the passionate supporters whose lifestyle and values are tightly aligned to their favorite teams even when success is infrequent (Sutton, Sutton, McDonald, Milne, & Cimperman, 1997). Through their association with a successful team, individual fans can extract a sense of social status and self esteem (Trail, Anderson, & Fink, 2000). The vicarious achievement m otiv e parallels the self esteem motive popularized by Wann (1995), which referred to the desire to preserve a positive self concept through a Place Attachment/Bonding Among the members of the RSN, there exists a strong social connectedne ss to place as well as a high level of fan identification with the team. What is not known i s the role that place bonding, as it relates to Fenway Park plays among Bostonians. The regard to Fenway Park and the Boston Red Sox is an important part of un derstanding how place bonding factors into the equation. Place attachment has been defined and interpreted by various fields; consequently, the definition and interpretations have varie d according to the practical applications and subject matter of each field. For a number of years, leisure research
44 considered places as commodities. A place was considered to be the sum of its functional attributes (Williams & Vaske, 2003). The current p revailing view of place among social s cientists is more complex, and has been expanded to take into consideration individualized and unique qualities, including relationships that people have formed with places. These relationships may be deeply meaningfu l to the user of the place and hold great value in their lives (Moore & Scott, 2003). Currently, resource managers and researchers view sense of place as an important concept in understanding how to provide better recreational experiences as well as when trying to Williams and Vaske (2003) suggest that a lthough some studies have shown that the most frequently used measures of place identity and place dependence correlate very h ighly, there is suffi cient evidence to retain them as separate constructs. Place identity is most commonly defined in terms of how one views one self in relation to an environment while place dependence normally refers to connections built specifically on activities that ta ke place in a recreational setting. Kyle and Manning (2005) concluded that most standardized measures used to assess place attachment in both recreation and tourism are composed of place dependence and place attachment scales. Despite the many subtle diff erences in the existing definitions of place attachment, the vast majority agrees that it is multifaceted in nature and comprised of both internal and external factors. Altman and Low (1992) posited that there is a biological component, which influences t he attachment of people to places. Kaltenborn and Bjerke (2002) found support for a biological predisposition to developing attachment to
45 certain types of scenery. Herzog and Herbert (2000) offer support for some place preferences being innate, as their f indings showed more similarities than differences when comparing landscape preferences across cultures. Even with these findings suggesting support for innate responses to certain environmental features, it appears place attachment is a much more complex concept than these innate responses can explain. Other research suggests a complex interaction between causes, an interaction between personal and sociocultural factors (Hunt 1975; Gartner 1989; Echtner & Ritchie 1993 t he consensus being that place attac hment can form from individual as well as shared social processes. Place attachment studies in recreation and tourism tend to approach the research on the level of the individual in terms of cognition, affect, and behavior (Backlund & Williams, 2003). Sted man (2003) posits that this focus on the individual is justified if one accepts that personal experiences mold the meaning of place. He points to a long tradition in the place attachment literature, which supports the contention that over the life course, repeated experience s lead to a strengthening of attachment to a particular place. This includes the tendency to develop emotional ties as a result of this process. S ense of place research supports the contention that place attachment is determined by mor e than innate preferences alone as factors such as geographic proximity and number of visits are also contributing factors (Long & Perkins, 2007). This diversity within and among place variables has been recognized in earlier place research (Altman & Lo w 1992; Bonnes & Secchiaroli 1995; Giulaini & Feldman 1993). This earlier research identified the diversity of place attachment definitions as an
46 important challenge to further progress in the field. Altman and Low posit that it would be useful to strength en the definition of place attachment while considering it within the broad framework of the multiple affective, cognitive, and behavioral relationships between people and socio physical environment s Giuliani and Feldman identified the diversity of place attachment definitions as an important challenge to further progress in the field. Similarly, Low and Altman considered the range of place attachment definitions in the literature and noted that one consistently defining aspect of the concept was its emoti onal quality. However, they did not overemphasize this quality, but rather they pointed to a general trend in the field that argued that place attachment also includes cognition and behaviors. They concluded that place attachment involves an interplay of a ffect and emotions, knowledge and beliefs, and behaviors and actions in reference to a given place. When place attachment researchers want to identify links between place attachment and particular behaviors, it is important that they highlight the cognitiv e (beliefs and perceptions), affective (emotions and feelings), and cognitive (behavioral intentions and commitments) domains (Millar & Tesser, 1992). They further emphasize that attitude research should distinguish between instrumental and consummatory be haviors. The former are driven by attitudes that have a strong cognitive basis and refer to behaviors that are a means to an end. The latter, consummatory behaviors are motivated by attitudes that are predominantly emotional in content and are performed fo r their own sake, enjoyment or interest (Wilson, Dunn, Kraft, & Lisle, 1989). In general, Millar and Tesser (1989) concluded that attitudes toward some objects may be
47 based more on cognition, while attitudes toward other objects such as consumer purchase s may be more affect based. Informed by these multidimensional views, Jorgensen and Stedman (2001) examined the cognitive, affective and conative structure of place attachment in their survey of shoreline property owners in northern Wisconsin. Their find ings were consistent with previous findings which posited that place identity was partly conceived as representing beliefs that the self was defined in relation to one's lakeshore property. Their findings suggested that place attachment was defined in term s of positive feelings about one's property, while place dependence concerned the behavioral advantage of one's lake property relative to other settings. Their results supported multidimensionality in place attachment, but also provided strong evidence for a considerable amount of variation across measured place constructs. They found that while some variation was unique to each place construct, there was a large degree of overlap among the constructs at the empirical level. In addition, their empirical evi dence suggested that place attachment, when defined as a general attitude toward a place, was marginally more affect based than either conative or cognitive based. Their findings are generally consistent with research in social psychology that has demonstr ated some discriminant validity among the cognitive, affective, and conative components of attitude (Breckler, 1984). Moore and Scott (2003) found place attachment to sites is higher among those living close to the site. They posited that these findings w ere the result of higher levels of direct site experiences. Williams and Vaske (2003) offer support for the contention that place attachments strengthen as visitation increases.
48 Despite evidence suggesting that individual characteristics and personal ex periences play a key role in the development of place attachment, the impact of social influences on place attachment should not be ignored. Kyle and Manning (2005) posit that place attachment is often thought to have developed as a function of social rela tionships which take place in a given location. Many studies in the sociological tradition place the emphasis for place attachment on the shared nature of the experience. Much of the focus has been on the social processes by which meanings come to be crea ted and shared, or even imposed (Gieryn, 2000). This sociological perspective tends to define place in terms of shared meanings and symbols (Yung, Freimund, & Belsky, 2003). This emphasis on the shared aspects of sense of place is especially strong among researchers influenced by social interactionism (Stokowski, 2002). There is disagreement among tourism researchers about the need for direct experience with a place to occur for place attachment to form. Researchers with a geography background advocate th at direct experience is critical, perhaps even essential, for place attachment to form (Clark & Stein, 2003). Stedman (2003) concurs, positing that personal experience is the key element that transforms space into a place. Proponents of the sociocultural p erspective, however, contend that a direct experience with a place is not required for an attachment to develop. Blake (2002) posits that a place can have cultural, symbolic meanings which can be shared by groups regardless of direct experience with the pl ace. Similarly, Schroeder (2007) found that people place. His findings suggest that people were attached to imagined places or idealized
49 versions of a place. These findin of a psychological process than a physical interaction. There is empirical evidence supporting this psychologically based place attachment. The evidence does not discount the importance of direct exp erience with a place, but it does call into question how much of an impact direct contact has in the formulation of attachment to a place. Stedman (2002) found that direct experience with a place accounts for a mere 5% to 10% of the variance in place meani ngs. Empirical evidence suggests that strong place attachment can develop for places one has visited frequently, but there is also empirical evidence suggesting strong bonds can be formed towards places one has never experienced in person. Thus, place atta chment appears to be a complex concept, as it may be both generalized and specific; it seems to vary as a function of context, as well as cultural and individual factors. One reason place attachment is considered so important to the tourism industry is t he contention that different users/nonusers will differ in their levels of place attachment. Knowing about and understanding such differences are beneficial to managers in anticipating and avoiding use conflicts (Cheng, Kruger, & Daniels, 2003). Consequent ly, it is very helpful to compare different types of users in terms of their place attachments, particularly local versus non local attachments. Research suggests that locals have more complex understandings and attachments to specific places, as well as m ore intense place attachments than non locals (Bonaiuto, Carrus, Martorella, & Bonnes, 2002). Gross and Brown (2008) found that a combination of involvement and place attachment is applicable to tourism research. They further posited that this combination
50 allowed for the application of concepts originally developed in leisure and recreation contexts in tourism contexts. another factor that needs to be considered when investigating place attachment. Wann (2000) posits that involvement is an indicator of attachment to an activity or a team. Therefore, it makes intuitive sense that increased levels of involvement would lead to increased attachment with a sporting facility, but due to the complex, often site specific nature of the sense of place, researchers have not yet been able to declare that an increase in involvement leads to stronger place attachment. Moore and Scott (2003) found that the level of involvement was positively relat ed to place attachment, but the predictive value of their model was not strong. Kyle, Absher, and Graefe (2003) found a similar relationship between level of involvement and place attachment, but it was also a weak relationship. How place attachment affec Obvious factors that come to mind include destination image, distance, accessibility, type of activities provided, and social influences (Williams, Patterson, Roggenbuck, & Watson, 1992; Kyle & Chick, 2002 ; Yoon & Uysal, 2005). These factors may not accurately explain destination choice unless place attachment is considered with them. According to Xiang and Gretzel (2010), the impact of social networks and the media must be taken into account when consider ing the importance of place attachment as it relates to destination choice. In addition, social networks and the media help shape a media fueled conceptions encourage vi sitors to arrive at the destination with
51 preconceived ideas regarding what their experience should be like. In tourism literature, influenced by their images of both the ev ent and the destination (Chalip & Costa, 2005). decision to visit a destination for the first time. Xing and Chalip (2006) found destination image to be a factor in a c visit a destination. Hay (1998) posits that the development of place attachment is strongly influenced as strong of an attachment to a place as insiders who are raised in or near a given place attachment is subject to the soci society. Hay contends that periodic physical contact with a place is necessary to maintain place attachment with it. If this periodic physical contact does not occur, Hay asserts that the place attachment wi ll become more nostalgic in character. Hay maintains that this physical proximity is a well documented requirement as far back as the work of Proshansky, Fabian, and Kaminoff (1983). Using a qualitative longitudinal study, Hay suggests that attachment th at is not reinforced by physical contact will weaken. This has implications for a study on attachments to an iconic ball park. Hammitt, Backlund, and Bixler (2006) suggest that the bond formed between people and places is of a more personal nature, but the y concur with Hay (1998) that a strong familiarity is essential for the bonding to occur. They also concur that the process of humans bonding with places is a complex interaction that involves multiple
52 factors, but emphasize their belief that a strong emo tional tie is critical to the bonding process. Guiliani (2003) posits that this strong emotional tie is dynamic in nature and researchers need to take into account that the relationship is not static. This line of thinking agrees with Hammitt, et al. that psychological factors are the key to span as all psychological factors are. Their research suggests place bonding is a multi dimensional construct and needs to be examine d accordingly, with a focus on the psychological explanations of the developmental process of bonding with recreational or e, Fenway Park. Jorgensen and Stedman (2001) defined place attachment broadly as being the bond between person and a setting and more expansively as encompassing the meaning individuals ascribe to these settings. The definition of place attachment has exp anded to include symbols, values, beliefs, meanings, and feelings associated with a setting (Stedman, 2003). Much of the development and expansion of the definition is a result of research in the field of sociology, with sociologists identifying place as a n attachment defined by dependence, as well as identity (Williams & Vaske, 2003). Beckley (2003) posits that if attachment to place is based on social relationships more than physical characteristics, physical changes should not cause changes in sentiment. Jorgenson and Stedman (2001) point out an important difference between place attachment and place dependence, noting that with place dependence, the strength of the association does not necessarily have to be positive. In fact, the association can be nega tive. They suggest that the recreational or leisure option chosen by an individual
53 might be the best choice among a number of poor options. They define place dependence as involving how well a setting provides goal achievement given the range of alternativ es one has to choose from. According to their definitions, place attachment and place dependence differ in two critical ways. First, place dependence can be negative if it limits the achievements of valued customers. Second, the degree of connection betwee n an individual and a place may be based on a specific behavior instead of being based on a general affect towards that place. Kyle and Chick (2007) concur, positing that place identity focuses on symbolic and emotional meanings that people ascribe to a s etting, often a recreational setting, while place dependence is more related to the functional utility of a setting as a result of its ability to facilitate a desired leisure experience. The suggestion that place meanings are in part socially constructed i to the general phenomena of people bonding with places. They advocated that while affect and emotion are critica l to the concept, they also stressed that the emotional elements are normally accompanied by both practice and cognition. Jorgenson and Stedman (2001) expanded upon the line of research by positing that place attachment is one of the components of the br oader concept of sense of place. Drawing on attitude theory, they conceptualized sense of place as consisting of affective, cognitive, and conative components. They used a conceptualization of sense of place that focused on describing the affective relati onship between people and a given landscape. Kyle and Chick (2007) suggest that despite the tendency of researchers to divide the elements of place bonding into several components, research
54 has suggested the components are tightly interwoven. Although the strength of different components varies in different contexts, the strong emotional ties between people and places, remains key to understanding attachment to places. They concluded by positing that the emotions that are central components of sense of pla ce are normally the product of repeated experiences and interactions with a place. Hays (1998), adds to this the suggestion that most meaningful place experiences occur in the presence of people that are significant in their lives. Much leisure research f ocuses on meanings people associate with particular leisure experiences. Kyle and Chick examined articles published in major leisure journals relating to human place relationships and identified three issues for concern. They suggested that the field of le isure studies in general used a narrow conceptualization of human place bonding, focusing mainly on the place dependence/place identity dichotomy. They further concluded that the phenomena of human place bonding was examined almost exclusively in the natur al resources context and neglected other areas in which human place bonding takes place in leisure settings. Lastly, they noted a limited amount of work had been conducted examining the process underlying the social construction of place bonding. Places play an important role in developing and maintaining self identity and group identity. Proshansky et al. (1983) assert that place attachment is important to a person's well h belonging and purpose may be fulfilled by the sense of community that accompanies membership and through the social bonding with the team that membership promotes.
55 Relp h (1976) contends that every person experiences a strong connection with the 43). Psychologists and some social psychologists have drawn on identity theory to examine the influence of places in individual and group identity development, including of the studied across vastly different scales of place (Cuba & Hummon; Hidalgo & Hernandez 2001). Past research also demonstrates a relationship between place attachment and attitudes, e.g., attitudes towards Fenway Park (Warzecha & Lime, 2000). attachment but also with the meanings that one attributes to places or the beliefs one has about a spa place as a lived experience. Further research supports the concept of place attachment being shaped by lived experience. Hammitt, et al. (2006), posit that these places may come to be depended on not only for their functional purposes, but also for their identification for a specific social group. This is referred to as place dependence and identity. The multidimensionality of place attachment has been demonstrated by findings that show that theoretically important descriptions of the concept show a significant degree of independence. For example, Jorgenson and Stedman (2002) demonstrated that identity based beliefs about a place, positive emotions associated with a place, and
56 behavi oral commitments toward a place, were not completely interchangeable variables. This highlights the need to investigate similarities and differences in their relationships with predictor variables. It is possible that multidimensionality will be further un derstood by observing variations in the relationships between each place dimension and relevant predictor variables. While most of the place attachment literature has focused on outdoor natural settings and general regions, there has been some application of the concept to sports settings (Bale 1991, 1993; Faulk 2006; Trujillo, 1992, 1994). Research has supported a relationship between visitor benefits and future visitation behavior (Mechinda, Serrirat, & Guild, 2009). More precisely, Mechinda, et al. fou nd novelty to be an important predictor of behavioral loyalty, while Yoon and Uysal (2005) found family cohesion to be an important predictor of behavioral loyalty. In addition, place attachment has been found to play a significant role in predicting behav ioral outcomes, such as behavioral loyalty (Lee, Graefe, & Burns, 2007; Mechinda et al.). Although place attachment to a setting can be either positive, negative, or both (Stedman, 2002), the positive aspects of place attachment have been emphasized more frequently than the negative aspects in the place attachment literature (Trentelman, concep t that reflects positive, negative, or mixed feelings about places in human place interactions. Specifically, this study will use the term place bonding to refer to an
57 Nostalgia The special meaning that peo ple attach to specific places can be a result of a connection they make to some past time. Holak and Havlena (1998) suggest that in a world of increasing change and instability, people often look to this past to escape the present or questionable future. S ocial and cultural norms are also experiencing change, leaving us anxious and lost amongst what was once familiar (Davis, 1979). The term nostalgia is often used to describe this yearning for an either real or imaginary past. Aden (1995) posits that nostal control over their lives in an uncertain time. Historically, the word nostalgia has been used as a medical term to explain the symptoms associated with homesickness. In more recent research, the term n ostalgia has been defined in a more sociological manner. From this sociological perspective, nostalgia is defined as allowing human beings to maintain their identity in the face of major transitions, which serve as discontinuities in the life cycle (Havlen a & Holak, 1991). Davis (1979) further posits that what causes people to feel nostalgia must also reside in the present, regardless of how much the ensuing nostalgic experience may draw its meaning from their memory of the past. Davis suggests nostalgia is one of the means employ ed in the continuous process of constructing, maintaining, and reconstructing identities. Wilson (1999) suggests that in order to maintain these identities there is often a need to actively reconstruct the past. Although not essent ial, active reconstruction often involves travel to a destination that evokes certain memories. team or favorite sport.
58 In order to measure potential nostalgic f eelings, Pascal Sprott, and Muehling (2002) developed a ten item evoked nostalgia scale (NOST). The conceptualization of nostalgia presented by Holbrook and Schindler (1991) was used to determine the items used in constructing this scale. Participants fi lled out a questionnaire containing these items after viewing a group of advertisements. The results suggested that evoked nostalgia was a significant predictor of a more positive attitude toward advertisements. The results also suggested that the more nos talgia was evoked by an advertisement, the greater the brand purchase likelihood In applying the nostalgia concept to sport tourism, Redmond (1991) recognized that, in addition to event spectators and active sport participants, visitors to famous sport at tractions such as museums, halls of fame and famous stadiums also constituted sport related attractions, Gibson (1998b) identified those sport tourists who were interested in visiting sports halls of fame or famous stadiums as nostalgia sport tourists. According to Gammon (2002), sport is a good indicator of change, and when combined with a nostalgically driven media, it can also be a strong reminder of the past and the way tourist behavior that Gibson (1998b) termed nostalgia sport tourism (p. 49). Gibson suggested that an examination of theoretical approaches from anthropological and soc iological understandings of pilgrimage could reveal some insight into this phenomenon One idea that has emerged is that sport is a new religion and stadiums as well as sport museums have become sacred sites within our culture ( Chidester, 1996; Gammon, 2 002).
59 Ramshaw and Gammon (2005) claim that the term nostalgia is not adequate to encompass the phenomena of traveling to visit sport s related venues. They posit that nostalgia fails to encompass the holistic aspect that the term heritage provides for. The y situate nostalgia sport tourism within a heritage context and contend that heritage is a more fitting categorization but the term heritage is difficult to define. Nostalgia, on the other hand, is more easily defined. What causes it and how it impacts to urists might be open to debate but the term itself has a generally accepted definition yet understanding its impacts for sport tourism is complicated. Aden (1995) examined the linkage between baseball and nostalgia by examining the text of several baseba ll documentaries to discover what particular uncertainties baseball nostalgia addresses. Identity is influenced by participation in a community (Healy, 1991). It follows t hat posited that baseball and the memories associated with the game are influential forces in identity formation. Likewise, work provides individuals with a sense of who they are. Conrad (1988) implies that both of these communities develop and become stronger in response to work conditions, which dehumanize s the individual. He points to the development of unions in both communities as evidence of their shared mindset. Ad en concludes that nostalgic communication provides individuals with a means of symbolically escaping cultural conditions that they find depressing and/or disorienting. Using communication to move through time allows individuals to situate themselves in a s anctuary of meaning, a place where they feel safe from oppressive cultural conditions.
60 Much like tourism, two journeys are often made in nostalgically driven sport tourism including the journey made to the attraction or event and the imagined journey tha t takes place once there. Fairley (2003) offers the interpretation that it may be the social experience that nostalgia sport tourists are seeking to relive what motivates them to travel. She suggests the temptation to consider nostalgia tourism as cultural heritage is based on thinking of nostalgia as only relating to physical entities. This ignores the consideration that sport consumption is a fundamentally social experience. Fairley further posits that the source of nostalgia may well be the memories deri ved from sport s based social experiences, especially those that involve groups traveling together. Holak and Havlena (1998) suggested that individuals may yearn to relive a particular experience in order to obtain feelings which were associated with it. I t is be relevant in a nostalgia sense. Holbrook and Schindler (1991) disagree arguing that if an event or object is embedded in a culture, then it can be a focus fo r nostalgia. He allows for the development of nostalgia based on learning that has taken place through socialization or the media. Regardless of their source, Healey (1991) found memories of ey often include the group relationships with which they are associated. Again, the importance of the social aspect can be seen. Aden (1995) continues this train of thought by suggesting liminal and liminoid states that individuals have experienced may be stored as memories and used as sources of comfort during times of disenchantment. He suggests that the main causes of this disenchantment would be overly structured and mundane lives.
61 Snyder (1991) posits that the visitation of nostalgic venues, such as h alls of fame and museums, can be viewed as a form of socialization in which artifacts and the memories people attach to them symbolically convey the values and norms of a society. Segrave (2001) adds that these so called cathedrals of sport allow us to c onnect with a more social sense of who we are both as individuals and as members of a society, noting that sports do not just take place anywhere and that these sites become culturally significant places that are celebrated as repositories of history, folk lore and sentiment. When the object of nostalgia appears to be a historic site, one cannot make the assumption that nostalgia is the primary reason for travel to the site. Wilson (2004) surveyed tourists visiting Wrigley F ield in Chicago to determine if p eople taking the ballpark tour were motivated by nostalgia. Her results revealed that nostalgia was not the main factor in the decision of participants to take a tour of Wrigley Field. Novelty, enhancement of kinship relationships, prestige, facilitation o f social interaction and relaxation were all more important motives tourists had fo r taking the tour A gender comparison of motivations revealed that men were more likely to report that the tour took them back to their childhood while women were more lik ely to feel that spending time with family/friends was more important than nostalgia. These findings offer support for the contention that what is being labeled nostalgia sport tourism may well be nostalgia for a past social experience that one wants to re live. Mason, Duquette, and Scherer (2005) examine the relationship between sport tourism and Canadian junior hockey and found a similar longing for past social experiences that had been shared Dann (1994) advocated that the quest to capture the past was seen as superior to experiencing the present by many tourists. Fenway Park and historic ball fields like it
62 offer sport fans the opportunity to travel back in time (Smith, 2003). Despite some changes the main features of the park have remained the same th roughout its history. Having been featured on television for a number of historic games, its features are famous even to sport fans that have never attended a game there but in addition to being famous among baseball fans, it is a famous landmark in t he c ity of Boston. The debate now taking place about whether nostalgia sport tourism is in fact heritage tourism or a search for a social experience has helped the body of knowledge in sport tourism has promoted further thinking and discussion on the topic. The research that has been done since has greatly enhanced our understanding of nostalgia sport tourism. We now know that nostalgia may not be a primary motivation but it can be a significant factor, depending upon the type of site being examined or type of trip being taken. The process of examining small travel groups was a valuable advancement in research in this area. Researchers seeking to understand sport tourism behaviors on a society wide scale will benefit from first understanding behaviors on individual and group levels. Baseball, Place Bonding and Fan Loyalty Baseball is steeped in nostalgia and mythology about long ago games and times (Erickson, 2001; Ward & Burns, to past generations and places. What makes Fenway Park unique is that it not only reminds people of the past but it is actually from that past. The values and beliefs represented by Fenway Park have c ome to symbolically constitute the aura that many associate with it. Over time, this aura has gained strength to the point that it no longer merely represents tradition but has become part of the tradition itself. At the same time,
63 Fenway Park has become important to Boston and even surrounding states Both Hardy (2003) and Reiss (1999) posit that to understand sport historiography after 1917, one must understand the relationship between the city and the sport. Wann, Bayens, and Driver (2004) suggest that the likelihood of attending a sporting event increases as the perception of ticket scarcity increases. In Boston, available Red Sox tickets are scarce; however the demand to attend games at Fenway Park cannot be based solely on the availability of ticket s. As any Bostonian knows, there is a certain status that comes with having tickets to a big game at Fenway Park but th ere is much more to the draw tha n that. Depkin (2000) posits that while fan loyalty is extremely difficult to measure it is perhaps the most important factor influencing a s that fan loyalty influences decisions that fans make regarding the team in every area of interaction, from attendance and merchandise purchases to support for public fun ding for stadiums. Hunt, Bristol, and Bashaw (1999) suggest that using attendance figures to measure fan loyalty limits our understanding of a more complicated process. They further posit that relying on team performance as the primary determinant of fan behavior is too narrow of a focus. They suggest categorizing fans into five types: temporary, local, devoted, fanatical, and dysfunctional One important addition to future rese arch suggested by their study is the importance of dividing fans into more than a simple two category model. Simply differentiating between serious and non serious concludes that it is vital to understand fan loyalty if a franchise is to be success ful. He
64 cites a lack of fan loyalty as the primary reason for the relocation of professional sports franchises, not strictly economic factors. Wakefield (1995) posited that social influences were a major contributing factor influencing sporting event att endance. His research indicated that friends, family, and Among his more interesting findings was the suggestion that if an individual perceives that their family and or friends approve of going to the game, everything else related to the game experience is perceived in a more favorable light. This finding suggests the importance of social factors not being underestimated when evaluating fans motivations and satisfacti on related to attending a sporting event. He found significant support intentions. He also noted the importance of the popularity of the team owners and the players as contributi understand the relationship between the RSN and the Boston Red Sox organization one must take in to account these factors. Even before the introduction of the term nostalgia sport tourism int o the literature, the sites at which sp orting action was played out were considered significant. Bale (1989) outlined that in terms of baseball, the playing field itself has been viewed as a vestige of the American frontier. While Ross (1973) further expl ained the symbolic comparison of the sports sites to an America of the past, separating the diamond as the urban core, infield as the supporting hinterland and outfield as the frontier. Additionally he posited that the physical environment of a baseball s tadium can bring back memories of a lost pastoral world and at the same time be related to the day to day
65 work of an individual with division of labor, specialization of roles and limited independence. There has been a growing interest among researchers t o examine the relationship between sports facilities and place (Tangen, 2004). Tangen posits that not enough research has been conducted to attempt to explain how certain facilities elicit either a love of place or a sense of place. In addition, he notes t hat the definition of place has been very fluid in the research. Bale (1995) posits that there does appear to be a connection between the actual sport and its facility, which has been overlooked in the research. Tangen adds that except for economic based r esearch sports facilities have largely been neglected as a topic of research. Carter (2002) advocates strongly for an anthropological approach to studying sport. He based this assertion on his claim that until very recently, sport has been perceived by r esearchers as either not a viable subject for study or unworthy of serious contemplation because it involved play rather than work. He contends that this view of sport as being somehow removed from the seriousness of everyday life and therefore not socia lly relevant, continues as mos t academics that study sport do so after beginning their academic careers studying another aspect of society. Since this claim by Cart er, the academic focus on sport as an important topic of inquiry has increased, especially i n the fields of sociology and history. Perhaps researchers have finally moved therefore not serious (p. 27). However, the fact remains that more research is needed t o help explain the relationship between sports facilities and the sense of place that they create. Sports facilities may help satisfy intrinsic needs such as the push factors
66 suggested by Dann (1977) and Crompton (1979). The sense of place provided by a such as sense of belonging and the search for nostalgic comfort. According to Zillman, Bryant, and Sapolsky (1989), in addition to sharing these varying levels of curiosity, sport fanship ca n unite and create feelings of belonging, which are beneficial to individuals, as well as the social setting in which they live. The Red Sox N ation as an example of sport fanship provides an excellent medium in which to investigate the interaction between fanship and both the physical and social settings where social comparison theory, which suggests that individuals will strive to attach themselves to other individuals who are s imilar or slightly better. Social identity theory focuses on the ways in which individuals perceive and categorize themselves, emphasizing group processes and inter group relations. A better understanding of the perceptions of sport fans may help researche rs gain a better un derstanding of why sport fans do what they do. If concepts such as place attachment, nostalgia, and fan identification are to be researched in conjunction with loyalty to a sports facility Boston provides the ideal setting to do so. Th e RSN provides a highly identified fan base to examine, the Boston area hosts a milieu where even non the area, and Fenway Park provides an ideal setting to explore sense of place as it relates to a sport s facility. If any major league ballpark is capable of generating a sense of place based on a long and storied history the only two that are likely to be able to do
67 provides an opportunity to examine how nostalgia, place atta chment, and fan identity fit in to a potential business decision Boston provides a rare opportunity to examine multiple variables of interest in one iconic setting.
68 CHAPTER 3 METHODS The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of fan identification, place bonding nostalgia for Fenway Park and attitudes towards the future of Fenway Park. Individuals, mostly from the Boston region, accessing two Boston newspaper website s were the unit of analysis for this research. A n on line survey was used to measure the variables of interest. This chapter presents the instrumentation data collection procedures, participant description, and details on the data analyses used. Instrume ntation The questionnaire (Appendix B) consisted of four parts. The first part asked respondents about their degree of fanship. This section determined the strength of the relationship the respondent felt towards the Red Sox, or level of fan identification It contained the six item Team Identification Scale developed by Wann (1997). This scale was used to categorize respondents into groupings based on their level of fanship. This scale is atypical in that it uses an eight point scale, from 1= not very imp ortant to 8= very important, rather than the more common five point Likert type scale but it was found to be both reliable and valid by Wann and has been used frequently by other researchers (Wann, 2006). Summated scores on the scale range between a possib le low of 6 and a possible high of 48. The internal consistency for the scale wa s tested questions were indexed and a mean score for team identification was calculated. To
69 measuring degree of fan identification were summed together. Items measured by the scale included how closely respondents follow the Red Sox in the media and how strongly res pondents dislike the Yankees. bonding towards Fenway Park. Place bonding was measured using a f ive dimensional scale developed by Hammitt, Kyle and Oh (2009). Place bonding items were assessed through a five point Likert scale ranging from 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Hammit, et al., established the overall scale reliability for meas uring place bonding, with and five composite scores representing the place bonding dimensions were computed for analysis: Place Familiarity, Place Belongingness, Place Identity, Place Dependence, and Place Rootedness. The construction of the five dimension score replicated (2006) found the following Cronbach alpha scores for the five dimensions: Place 4, Place
70 attitudes towards the future of Fenway Park. Respondents were asked to select one option from a list of potential scenario s compiled from possible futures suggested for and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway of the questionnaire asked respondents to complete the ten item Evoked Nostalgia Scale (NOST) developed by Pascal, et al. (2002). T he scale was tested for internal extent to which the respondents felt nostalgia towards Fenway Park. This scale measures feelings of nostalgia towards an object or event by asking respondents to rank their nostalgic feelings on a five point Likert scale ranging from 1= strongly Red Sox team and Fenway Park. Respondents were asked if they are Red Sox fans, as well as question s concerning their Fenway Park attendance patterns using items age, gender, annual household income, and education. Data Collection A web based survey was the data collectio n technique employed (Henderson & Bialeschki, 2010). Contact with the Boston Red Sox organization began in June 2009 to
71 secure their cooperation. Both the Boston Glob e and the Boston Herald agreed to post a link to the survey instrument on th eir respective web sites. The most recent data available concerning the online readership of these papers shows that Boston.com site attracted 2.8 million unique v isitors in April 2012 compared to 1.2 million for BostonHerald.com Once advisory committee r eviewed and approved the survey, a pilot study was conducted to ensure that the questionnaire was easy t o comprehend and follow. Pilot study participants reported no significant issues with und erstanding the questions. Content and face validity was established by ten individuals that hold graduate degrees in the social sciences familiar with survey research. Each indi vi dual read the survey and t he only problem that arose was that two individuals found the print was too small for one of the scales. That problem was addressed in the online version and formatted in a larger font. No other issues were reported by any of the ten individuals. After the questionnaire was reviewed and approved by UF IRB, a survey link was forwarded to both the Boston Globe and Boston Herald newspapers as per prior arrangement Initially, the Red Sox management had agreed to post the survey on th e team website, however, a copy was not forwarded to the Red Sox management organization, as the project academic advisors and the principal investigator decided that it would be better to not post on a site that was more likely to capture mostly very stro ngly identified fans and that the newspaper sites would be more likely to capture a more varied sample. Adjacent to the link on each web site, a brief explanation of the study and a request for participation was posted. This link emphasized that participat ion was voluntary. By posting on the front pages of
72 The Boston Herald and The Boston Globe data were collected from readers of both papers to capture participation from Red Sox fans as well as non Red Sox fans. The i nstructions posted with the link invited non fans to participate in the survey. Dillman (2007) details both the strengths and weaknesses of using online surveys to gather data. The use of an online survey reduces the time required for survey implementat ion as well as controlling the cost of data collection associated with other approaches. In addition to reducing both costs and time needed to gather data, an online survey provides for real time coding of answers to closed ended and quantitative items. O nline surveys also provide for a more dynamic presentation appearance than paper surveys, both in terms of formatting and interaction. Dillman also warns researchers not to overlook potential problem areas when surveying online. He warns researchers to kee p in mind that one cannot assume respondents have previous experience with online surveys. On one level, this appeared to not be an issue in this case as all respondents filled out the questionnaire completely. It appears that if a respondent was computer literate enough to find it and open the survey they had no problem with completing it. If an online survey is too complicated for respondents, one runs the risk of increased survey error. This concern did not appear to have posed a problem due to the sur vey format and the nature of the question structure and wording Dillman (2007) also emphasizes that a large number of respondents online does not necessarily mean it is a representative sample of a larger population. This potential weakness is acknowledge d as a delimitation of this study. Due to the logistics of attempting to reach a geographically dispersed sample of Boston area residents a non random sampling procedure was used t o recruit
73 participants. The nature of the data collection using an online survey through two newspapers necessitated the need for purposive sampling Data were collected by posting the survey link on front pages of both the Boston Globe and Boston Herald newspaper websites for a period of four days. The survey was posted from Fr iday to Monday, December 16 to December 19, 2011 to capture participants from both weekdays and weekend days. The survey link was posted on both websites simultaneously. The posted link connected participants to a Survey Monkey website where an online i nformed consent form and questionnaire were located. After being posted for a four day peri od, 409 questionnaires were completed. S ince this was above the targeted number of respondents and the results appeared to contain significant variance on several ke y variables, the survey was not posted for a longer duration or on any other websites, as a sample size of 385 or larger was the minim um goal and both newspapers would only agree to a four day posting Sample Description The sample was comprised of n= 40 9 individuals (Table 3 1). More than half of the respondents (64.1%, n=262) were male and (35.9%, n= 147) were female. The largest segment of participants were aged between 41 45 years old (23.7 % n=97 ). When the respondents were asked to describe thei r h ighest level of education, 0.2% (n=1 ) reported they had less than a high school degre e, 15.6% (n=64 ) reported having a high school degree 43.5% (n=178 ) reported they had a bachelor s degree, and 27.6% (n=113 In terms of annual household income the modal category was an annual household income between $50,001 and $75,000 (20.5%, n=84 ). When asked about their racial or ethnic background, the vast major ity of respondents (95.6%, n=391) were Caucasian, 2.9% (n=12 ) identi fied themselves as
74 other, 1.2% (n=5 ) ident ified themselves as Hispanic, 0.2% (n=1 ) identified themselves as Asian, and no respondents reported being African American or Native American. When asked how far in minutes they traveled to get to Fenway Park, the largest segment of respondents (23.2%, n=95 ) indicated that they traveled between 41 and 60 minutes to get to Fenway Park, 19.1% (n=78 ) reported traveling between 21 and 40 minutes. When asked which newspaper th ey read most often, the largest segment of r espondents 44.3% (n=181 ) reported reading The Boston Globe most often, while 11.7% (n=48 ) reported reading both The Boston Globe and The Boston Herald d aily. Data Analysis Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistical Software, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chica go, IL). For the first research question identifying the attitudes of RSN fans toward the future of Fenway Park, frequencies were generated For research question 2a what are the levels of fan identification among Greater Boston residents frequencie s were generated for all six indicators of fan identification. To measure degree of fanship with a single metric, individual questionnaire items measuring degree of fan identification were summed together to create an index The six items were measured with the same response scale (1 to 8) and higher scores represent ed increasing levels of fan identification; as such, summing the individual items into an index is conceptua lly appropriate. s of Greater Boston residents univariate ANOVA was used to examine the relationship between level of fan identification and attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park Analysis of
75 variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique to assess significant differences between mean scores among groups (Tabachnick, 20 01) In the current study, the groups created for analysis purposes are related to ure modifications of Fenway Park. This is a single independent variable with six levels (attitude toward future modifications of Fenway Park) and is appropriate for employing one way ANOVA. The mean scores under investigation (level of fan identification ) were assessed in relation to attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park. The goal of the analysis was to determine across groups if any significant differences were detectable on the dependent variables fan identification, nostalgia, and place bonding. Given that levels of attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park groupings were unequal (there were highly variable numbers of respondents per group); the ANOVA technique employed was the type III sum of squares, which is the technique suitable for analysis when the sample sizes across attitude levels are unbalanced (i.e., do not have the same number of people in each attitude category), using the SPSS statistical software program. Contingent on the data meet ing the required assumptions for an alysis, the ANOVA procedure required production of omnibus and multiple comparisons results (Norusis, 2003). The former is a general test to determine if any group differences exist and the latter a test to determine where group differences exist. Once it was determined that group differences did exist post hoc analysis was conducted. The post hoc analysis capitalize s on chance error and therefore the test is carried out with a Bonferroni correct ion to control for type I error.
76 For research questio n 3a what is the level of nostalgia among Greater Boston residents similar to degree of fan identification, requiring summing individual nos talgia items into one aggregate score. Items were measured using a five point Likert scale with the increasing values along the scale representing greater levels of nostalgia; as such, summing items into an index was conceptually appropriate. There was one respondent whose responses to the NOST were excluded from the composite score computation, for this scale only. attitudes of Greater Boston residents univariate analysis ANOVA was used to examine the relationship between level of nostalgia and attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park Analysis was conducted in the same manner as the ANOVA detailed for research question 2b with the grouping variable (attitude toward future modifications of Fenway Park) tested in relation to level of nostalgia. he level of place bonding to Fenway Park among Greater Boston residents measured to answer this question. The researcher relied upon the previously defined items for each dimension as determined by Hammitt, et al. (2009). According to Floyd (1995), this is a standard and acceptable statistical procedur e for developing a score for use in further analys e s. As previously noted, each questionnaire item was measured on the same scale (Likert scale values of 1 = strongly agree to 5 = strongly disagree ) as
77 such, no additional adjustments were required prior to summing the item scores. In cases w h ere data points were missing, no missing imputation procedure was used and the dimensions were computed to represent the sum of a vailable items. Greater Boston residents toward future modifications of Fenway Park and the five dimensions of place Simila r to ANOVA, multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA is a statistical procedure used to assess differences in mean scores across groups. H owever, in MANOVA the goal is to determine if statistical differences occur across multiple dependent variables where the dependent variables are assessed simultan eously. The value of MANOVA over the use of separate ANOVA tests is a method which inherently controls for Type I error and accounts for the highly probable correlation between each dependent variable mean s cor e. The post hoc analysis capitalize s on chance error and therefore the test is carried out with a Bonferroni correct ion to control for type I error (Tabachnick, & Fidell, 2006).
78 Table 3 1. Socio Demographic Characteristics of the Participants (N=409) Demographic N % Xxx Gender Male 262 64.10 Female 147 35.91 Race and Ethnicity White 391 95.59 Hispanic/Latino 00 5 1.22 Native American 00 0 0.0 Asian 00 1 0 0.24 Black 00 0 0 0.0 Other 0 12 0 2.93 Education Less than high school 00 1 0 0.2 4 High school graduate 0 64 15.64 Associate or technical degree 0 32 0 7.82 178 43.52 113 27.62 Doctoral degree 0 21 0 5.13 Annual Household Income $25,000 or less 55 13.44 $25,001 $50,000 38 0 9.29 $50,001 $75,00 0 84 20.53 $75,001 $100,000 80 19.55 $100,001 $125,000 45 11.00 $125,001 $150,000 34 0 8.31 $150,001 or more 73 17.84 Age 18 25 74 18.09 26 30 32 0 7.82 31 35 33 0 8.06 36 40 36 0 8.80 41 45 97 23.71 46 55 80 19.55 56 65 47 11.49 66 75 0 8 0 1.95 75 or older 0 2 0 0.48
79 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The research questions were answered by assessing levels of fan identification, place bonding nostalgia among the participants, and testing the relationship between these three variables and attitudes towa rds future modifications of Fenway Park. Level of Fan Identification Attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park Research question 1 : What are the attitudes of Greater Boston residents toward future modifications of Fenway Park? Respondents were asked to indicate what they thought the future plans for Fenway Park should be by choosing between six options. M ost respondents (55.8%) believe Fenway Park should remain as is and the best decision would be to upgrade and/or renovate the existing st ructure. Among the other options, res ponses are design (11.7%), the current structure should be expanded (11.0%), no change be made (8.8%), leave Fenway as a museum and buil d a new stadium (9.1%), or a completely new stadium be constructed (3.7%). (T able 4 1 ). Research question 2a : What are the levels of fan identification among Greater Boston residents ? Across the six individu al items of the fan identification scale, means ranged from M= 5.8 in response to how much of a Red Sox fan are you to M= 3.8 for frequency of displaying the Red Sox insignia (on a 1 8 importance scale) (Table 4 2). The lowest summed score reported was a 6, while the highest summed score reported was 48 (M=31.3, SD=2.29 ). Research question 2b: Are there differences in the attitudes of Greater Boston residents towards future modifications of Fenway Park and level of fan identification?
80 The mean scores across fan identificat ion items by attitudes towards p otential Fenway P ark modifications are reported (Table 4 3). As was previously indicated, a be retained with minor (55.75%) This group has one of the higher scores for fan identity seen across groups (M=5.5, SD=2.0). T he group that desires to the see the Finally, the group indicating the park should be a museum and a new stadium built a lso have relatively high fan identity scores (M=5.5, SD=2.3). As would be expected, those respondents with less favorable attitudes toward the current park demonstrate lower fan identification scores. T he omnibus results from the ANOVA model as indicated by t he F ratio results F (5,408) = 8.90, p<.01 show a signific ant difference among the different attitude groups in relation to fan identification levels and the significance level is sufficient ly robust to assess where the differences are occurr ing (Table 4 4) Post hoc analysis was implemented. T he full results from the post hoc analysis where a Bonferroni correction is applied to results to correct for multiple comparisons is reported in Table 4 5 There are a total of five unique instances ide ntified by the post hoc analysis where group differences are sufficiently robust to be considered to be reliab ly different (that is, all p values are at or below 0.01). The group believing no changes should be made to Fenway levels of fan identification than the group suggesting minor upgrades and the group suggesting the current structure should be expanded The group who believe the park should be demolished and a new one built has a fan identification mean score that is significantly
81 lower than t hree other groups, including those believing the current structure should be retained with minor upgrades the current s Fenway should be a museum and another stadium built Nostalgia Leve ls Research question 3a : What is the level of nostalgia among Greater Boston residents with regards to Fenway Park ? 3.5, SD= 1.1), (Table 4 6). The summed scores for the NOST scale ranged from 20 to 42 with a mean of (M=36.7, SD=1.9). Research question 3b: Ar e there differences in the attitudes of Greater Boston residents towards future modifications of Fenway Park and level of nostalgia? The mean scores for overall nostalgia by attitudes towards potential Fenway Park modifications are reported Table 4 7. Tho score (M=2.4, SD=1.3). Table 4 8 displays the omnibus results for the ANOVA The F ratio F (5,40 7 ) = 17 30, p=0.01 indicates a significant difference has been detected among the Fenway attitude groups on nostalgia level and the level of significance is robust enough to perform an post hoc analysis The post hoc analysis revealed a total of seven unique group wise differences of average level of nostalgia among respondents wi th varying levels of Fenway Park
82 attitude s (Table 4 9). Each differ ence was significant at the p<.01 alpha level and will be had statistically significant lower levels of aggregate nostalgi 0.7) Next, groups of respondents that were open f d higher levels of nostalgia tha n th e two groups open to demolishing the park. F inally, the group who felt it is best to leave levels of nostalgia sta respondents whose attitude was that Fenway should be expanded, upgraded, or held as a historical treasure report higher levels of nostalgia for the park than groups who are open to demolishing the park Level of Attachment to Fenway Park Research question 4a : Wha t is the level of place bonding to Fenway Park among Greater Boston residents ? Across the five dimensions, Place Familiarity and Place Belongingness have the highes t average scores (M=3.5, SD=1.2 and M=3.5, SD=1.2, respectively) and,
83 therefore, suggest these dimensions represent the strongest attachment characteristics for the respondents (Table 4 10). Place Identify and Dependence had similar mean scores (M=3.3, SD =1.2 and M=3.2, SD=1.3, respectively) and were just slightly lower attachments to Fenway are still fairly moderate (considering scores can range between 1 to 5). Place Rootedness yielded the smallest mean (M=2.8, SD=1.0) The summed scores for Place Familiarity ranged from 6 to 14 (M=10.4, SD 3.7). The summed scores for Place Belonging ranged from 4 to 9 (M=6.9, SD 2.4). The summed scores for Place Identity ranged from 5 to 13 (M=9 .7, SD 3.7). Summed scores for Place Dependence ranged from 5 to 14 (M=9.5, SD 3.9) and summed scores for Place Rootedness ranged from 7 to 18 (M=6.9, SD 4.0). Research question 4b : Are there differences in the attitudes of Greater Boston residents toward future modifications of Fenway Park and the five dimensions of place bonding? MANOVA was used to investigate the relationship between the five dimensions of place bonding and differences among the attitudes of Greater Boston residents towards future modi fications of Fenway Park. The Box test results suggest the data do not meet 2 = 138.53, df = 75, p < .00 1 ). Given this, the log determinants are review ed to observe if values are similar across groups. Log determinant values at the group level were generally similar the attitude was sufficiently different from the remaining levels. There is no immediate remedy for violating this statistical assumption and as such the results will be less robust than if this assumption were met.
84 Omnibus results for the MANOVA indicate there is evidence that there are differences amo ng these groups, The F r atio F (25, 1476) =9.82, p<.001 indicates a significant difference has been detected among the Fenway attitude groups on place bonding levels and the level of significance is robust enough to perform the post hoc analysis, (Table 4 11). Analysis of the rel ationship between place bonding scores and attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park suggests that a general conclusion can be drawn that, from a multiva riate perspective, place bonding dimensions do differ across Fenway attitude groups (Table 4 12) In Table 4 13, the p ost hoc results assessing Place F amiliarity across each attitude toward Fenway group are presented. Overall, no changes should be made to Fenway Park which demonstrates t he lowest mean score for Place Familiarity ( M =2.53, SD = 1.28) is statistically different from a new stad ium P ost ho c results are reported for the Place B elongingness dimension per attitude group (Table 4 14) Here many group level differ ences are observe d in mean scores for Place Belongingness. The no change attitude gr oup has statistically lower mean s core s for place belongingness ( M =2.71, SD =1.43) than that reported by the current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations group ( M =3.73, SD =1.06) and the current stru ( M =3.93, SD =1.02). The latter two groups also have statistically higher mean scores on Place Belongingness than the demolish the stadium attitude groups. Finally, the group
85 leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium ( M =3.27, SD =1.19) has a statistically higher mean sco re on Place Belongingness than the demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark group ( M =1.83, SD =1.08). P ost hoc results are reported for the P lace Identity dimension per attitude group (Table 4 15). Here, we note that the two group s wanting to retain the current structure urrent structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations he current structure should be expanded Identity than all other attitude groups. (M=2.53, SD=1.28) emolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark (M= 1 .5 9 SD= 0 90 ) where the former statistically higher. Po st hoc results are reported for the P lace Dependence dimension in Table 4 16 emolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark has a mean score for place dependence (M= 1 36 SD= 0 67 ) that is statistically lower than all other groups with t he exception of emolish existing stadium and build a new statistically diff emolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design (M= 1 98 SD= 0 96 ) eave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium (M= 2 59 SD= 1 30 ) P ost hoc results are reported for the P lace Rootedness di mension in Table 4 17 groups have statistically higher mean scores for Place Rootedness than both the
86 es on Place ( M = 2 43 SD = 1 17 ) urrent structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations ( M = 3 05 SD = 0 92 ) emolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark ( M = 1 30 SD = 0.50). Summary Most respondents believe Fenway Park should remain with upgrade s and/or completely new with the least support In terms of level of fan identification among Great er Boston residents s ummed scores ranged from 6 to 48 with a mean of M= 31.3. In terms of the relationship between level of fan identification and attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park, a s would be expected, those respondents with less favo rable attitudes toward the park demonstrate d lower fan identification scores. Respondent s with attitudes relating to performing some level of expansion of the current stadium or converting the stadium to a museum prior to replacement show the highest levels of nostalgia scores, while those with an indifferent attitude towards future modificat ions of Fenway Park (those preferring a new ballpark) had the lowest nostalgia scores. Across the five dimensions, Place Bonding, Place Familiarity, and Place Belongingness had the highest average scores, suggesting that these dimensions represent the stro ngest attachment characteristics for the respondents. Place Rootedness had the lowest average score A general conclusion c an be drawn that the
87 Place Bonding dimensions do differ across Fenway attitude groups. It can be noted that the two groups wanting to retain the current stadium structure had statistically higher mean scores for place identity than all other attitude groups, while groups wishing to replace the current stadium structure had lower average scores across the Place Bonding dimensions. Specif ic relationships between the variables are illustrated in Table 4 18.
88 Table 4 1 Attitude s toward s Future Modifications of Fenway Park Item N % Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 228 55. 75 Demolish existing stadi um and build a new stadium inspired b y 0 48 11.74 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 11.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 3 37 7 9 9 .05 No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0 36 0 8.80 Demolish existing st adium and build a new, but different bal lpark 0 15 0 3.67 Total 409 100
89 Table 4 2. Descriptive statistics for fan identif ication Dimension / item M SD % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fan Identity Overall 31.3 2.29 1 How important is it to you that the Red Sox win 5.6 0 2.57 16.1 3 0 3.17 0 4.88 0 4 .15 0 8.3 1 13.2 0 15.4 0 34.7 1 2 How much of a Red Sox fan are you 5.8 0 2.55 12.46 0 3.66 0 7.8 2 0 4.6 4 0 8.3 1 0 8.3 1 11.2 4 43.58 3 During the season, how closely do you follow the Red Sox 5.5 4 2.61 13. 2 0 0 7.57 0 5.37 0 5.86 10.5 1 0 8.8 0 0 8.06 40.58 4 How important is being a Red Sox fan to you 5.18 2.7 3 20.78 0 4.88 0 5.37 0 3.66 10.5 1 11.0 0 11.7 3 32.0 2 5 How much do you dislike the Yankees 5.4 2 2.8 0 18.58 0 5.13 0 7.57 0 4.6 4 0 5.6 2 0 7.57 0 8.55 42.29 6 How often do you display the Red Sox name or insignia 3.8 2 2.67 33.25 0 9.77 0 8.06 10.26 0 9.0 4 0 6.6 0 0 4.6 4 18.3 3 Note Item scale values as follows: Item 1 & Item 4, 1=Not Important, 8=Very Important; Item 2, 1=Not at All a Fan, 8=Very Much a Fan; Item 3 1=Never, 8=Almost Every Day; Item 5, 1=Do Not Dislike, 8=Dislike Very Much; Item 6, 1=Never, 8=Always.
90 Table 4 3. Attitude s toward Future Modifications of Fenway Park by level of Fan Identification Item N M SD No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0 36 4.0 2 2.77 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 228 5.5 1 2.0 0 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 6.0 2 2.1 0 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium 0 48 4.6 3 2.4 3 Dem olish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0 15 2.7 1 2.27 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0 37 5.47 2.3 4 Items measured on an 8 point Likert type scale, 1=Strongly Disagree, 8= Strongly Agree Table 4 4. ANOVA of Attitudes towards Fenway Park Fan ID S S df MS F P Between Groups 0 212.7 5 42. 6 8.9 0.00 Within Groups 1927.5 403 0 4. 8 Total 2140.2 408
91 Table 4 5. Post hoc analysis of fan identification by attitu de s toward Fenway modifications (I) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) P No changes should be made to Fenway Park Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.48 0.00* The current stru cture should be expanded 2.00 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.61 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.32 0.76 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new st adium 1.45 0.07 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.48 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.52 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium in spired by Fenway's design 0.87 0.19 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 2.80 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.03 1.00 The current structure should be expanded No changes should be made to Fenway Park 2.00 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.52 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 1.39 0.04 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but differen t ballpark 3.32 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.55 1.00
92 Table 4 5. Continued (I) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) P Demolish existin g stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.61 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.87 0.19 The current structure should be expanded 1.39 0.04 D emolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.93 0.05 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.84 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.32 0.76 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 2.80 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 3.32 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 1.93 0.05 Leave Fenwa y Park as a museum and build a new stadium 2.77 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.45 0.07 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.03 1.00 Th e current structure should be expanded 0.55 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.84 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 2.77 0.00* Indicates significant at p<.01
93 Tab le 4 6 Descriptive statistics for the nostal gia scale (NOST) Item N M SD % 1 2 3 4 5 1 Nostalgia Scale Overall 408 36.7 1.97 It reminds me of the past 407 3.9 0 .96 4.6 4 0 3.17 14.18 52.8 1 24.69 It helps me recall pleasant memories 408 3.7 1 1.08 5.6 2 0 7.09 21.04 41.8 0 23.96 It makes me feel nostalgic 407 3.68 1.11 6.35 0 8.06 20.0 4 41.3 2 23.7 1 It makes me reminisce about a previous time 408 3.6 2 1.1 0 5.86 0 9.77 22.0 0 40.8 3 21.27 It makes me think about when I was younger 407 3.5 0 1.17 7.57 12.95 20.5 3 38.38 20.0 4 It evokes fond memories 405 3.75 1.08 6.35 0 5.86 18.3 3 44.0 0 24.4 4 It is a pleasant reminder of the past 403 3.7 4 1.06 5.86 0 5.6 2 18.8 2 45.47 22.7 3 It brings back memories of good times from the past 403 3.7 0 1.08 6.1 1 0 6.3 5 20.29 43.27 22.49 It reminds me of the good old days 407 3.49 1.09 6.6 0 0 9.5 3 29. 58 35.69 18.09 It reminds me of good times in the past 407 3.6 2 1.06 6.1 1 0 6.6 0 25.9 1 41.07 19.8 0 Note 1 Scale values as follows, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agr ee.
94 Table 4 7. Attitude s toward future modifications of Fenway Park by nostalgia level Attitude N M SD No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0 36 2.98 1 45 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 228 3 92 0 75 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 3.98 0 73 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium 0 48 3 26 0 87 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0 15 2. 41 1 27 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0 3 6 3 .5 4 99 Scale 1=Strongly Disagree to 5= Strongly Agree (For the NOST Scale) Table 4 8. ANOVA Omnibus results ( attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway nostalgia ) S S df MS F p Between groups 0 68 5 5 13 7 17 3 0. 00 Within groups 317 9 40 2 0 0 8 Total 386 4 40 7
95 Table 4 9. Post hoc attitude s toward s future modifications of Fenway Park by nostalgia level (I) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Me an Difference (I J) P No changes should be made to Fenway Park Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.94 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 1.01 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.28 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.57 0.57 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.57 0.11 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renov ations No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.94 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.07 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.66 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but dif ferent ballpark 1.51 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.38 0.29 The current structure should be expanded No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.01 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or r enovations 0.07 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.73 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.58 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.44 0.41
96 Table 4 9. Continued (I) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) P Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design No changes should be mad e to Fenway Park 0.28 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.66 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.73 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.85 0.02 Leave F enway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.29 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.57 0.57 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.5 1 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 1.58 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.85 0.02 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 1.14 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.57 0.11 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.38 0.29 The current structure should be expanded 0.44 0.41 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.29 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.14 0.00* Indicates significant at p<.01
97 Table 4 10. Descriptive statistics for place bonding by dimensions Dimensions N M SD % 1 2 3 4 5 1 Place Familiarity 409 3.48 1.23 I could sketch a rough layout of Fenway Park 408 3.62 1.33 12.71 9.29 10.26 37.89 29.58 I have visited Fenway Park many times and I am quite familiar with it 407 3.50 1.30 10.75 12.95 17.11 32.2 7 26.40 I know Fenway Park's layout very well 409 3.33 1.32 11.73 17.60 19.80 27.1 23.71 Place Belongingness 408 3.46 1.25 When at Fenway Park, I feel a part of it 406 3.60 1.25 10.75 7.82 17.35 36.91 26.40 I feel like I belong at Fenway Park 407 3.32 1.27 12.22 13.20 23.71 30.80 19.55 Place Identity 409 3.27 1.24 Fenway Park means a great deal to me 408 3.37 1.29 12.46 11.98 23.71 29.33 22.24 I am very attached to Fenway Park 407 3.29 1.30 12.71 15.15 22.98 27.38 21.27 I identify strongl y with Fenway Park 405 3.14 1.29 15.40 13.44 28.60 24.44 17.11 Place Dependence 408 3.20 1.30 I get more satisfaction out of visiting Fenway Park than from visiting any other baseball stadium 406 3.26 1.36 15.40 12.46 25.18 22.49 23.71 No other bas eball stadium compares to Fenway Park for attending a game 404 3.16 1.39 17.11 15.64 22.24 21.76 22.00 I wouldn't substitute any other stadium for Fenway for attending a baseball game 406 3.16 1.41 18.33 13.93 22.49 21.51 22.98
98 Table 4 10. Continued Dim ensions N M SD % 1 2 3 4 5 1 Place Rootedness 408 2.78 0.99 I would consider visiting any stadium as long as the Red Sox were playing 406 3.25 1.40 17.84 12.22 18.33 28.36 22.49 I rarely attend a home game at any other major league b aseball stadium other than Fenway Park 407 3.14 1.35 16.62 15.15 24.69 23.22 19.80 When I am planning to attend a MLB game, I consider only Fenway Park 408 2.47 1.29 29.82 24.93 22.00 13.93 9.04 Fenway Park is the only stadium I want to attend a baseball game in 408 2.27 1.18 34.22 25.91 21.76 13.69 4.15 Note 1 Scale values as follows, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree. Table 4 11. MANOVA results for place bonding and attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park Between Subjects Affects Multivariate Place Familiarity Place Belongingne ss Place Identity Place Dependence Place Rootedness Variable F (25, 1476) F (5, 401) F (5, 401) F (5, 401) F (5, 401) F (5, 401) Attitude toward Fenway 9.82** 5.31** 15.03** 23.58** 31.24** 16.62** **p<.001
99 Table 4 12. Place bonding scores by attitude s toward future modifications of Fenway Park Attitudes toward Fenway n M SD Place Familiarity No changes should be made to Fenway 0 36 2.53 1.28 Current structure should be retained, w ith minor upgrades or renovations 228 3.56 1.18 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 3.86 0 .96 0 48 3.46 1.33 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different b allpark 0 15 3.38 1.45 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0 37 3.64 1.23 Place Belongingness No changes should be made to Fenway 0 35 2.71 1.43 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 228 3.73 1.06 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 3.93 1.02 0 48 3.03 1.25 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0 15 1.83 1.08 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0 37 3.27 1.19 Place Identity No changes should be made to Fenway 0 36 2.65 1.36 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 228 3.66 1.05 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 3.67 1.11 Demoli 0 48 2.42 1.12 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0 15 1.58 0 .90 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0 37 2.27 1.20 Place Dependence N o changes should be made to Fenway 0 36 2.95 1.36 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 228 3.68 1.07 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 3.41 1.22 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by 0 48 1.98 0 .96 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0 15 1.36 0 .67 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0 37 2.59 1.30
100 Table 4 12. Continued Attitudes toward Fenway n M SD Place Rootedness No changes should be made to Fenway 0 36 2.43 1.17 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 227 3.05 0 .92 The current structure should be expanded 0 45 2.94 0 .97 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fe 0 48 2.26 0 .80 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0 15 1.30 0 .50 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0 37 2.60 0 .83 Scale measured on 1= strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree
101 Table 4 13. Po st hoc analysis for place familiarity by attitude s toward future modifications of Fenway Park (I) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p No changes should be made to Fen way Park Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.99 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 1.29 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.89 0.01* Demolish exis ting stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.81 0.44 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 1.07 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.99 0.00 The current structure should be expanded 0.30 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.10 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.18 1.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.08 1.00 The current structure should be expanded No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.29 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.30 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a ne w stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.40 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.48 1.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.22 1.00
102 T able 4 13. Continued (I) Attitudes Future Modifications o f Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.89 0.01* Current structure should be reta ined, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.10 1.00 The current structure should be expanded 0.40 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.08 1.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.18 1.00 Demo lish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.81 0.44 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.18 1.00 The current structure should be expanded 0.48 1.00 D emolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.08 1.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.26 1.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.07 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.08 1.00 The current structure should be expanded 0.22 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.18 1.00 Demolish existing s tadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.26 1.00 Note : p <.01 indicate statistical significance.
103 Table 4 14 Post hoc analysis for place belongingness by attitude toward future modifications of Fenway Park (I) Attitudes Future Modificatio ns of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p No changes should be made to Fenway Park Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.01 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 1.22 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.32 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.88 0.18 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.56 0.56 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.01 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.21 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's de sign 0.70 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.89 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.46 0.34 The current structure should be expanded No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.22 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.21 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.90 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 2.10 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.66 0.13
104 Table 4 14 Continued (I) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.32 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.70 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.90 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.20 0.01* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.24 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.88 0.18 Current s tructure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.89 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 2.10 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 1.20 0.01* Leave Fenway Park as a museum a nd build a new stadium 1.44 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.56 0.56 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.46 0.34 The current structure shoul d be expanded 0.66 0.13 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.24 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.44 0.00* Note : p <.01 indicate statistical significance.
105 Table 4 15. Post Hoc Analysis for Place Identity by Attitudes toward Future Modifications of Fenway Park (I) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) P No changes should be made to Fenway Park Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.03 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 1.04 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.21 1.00 Demolish exi sting stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.06 0.03 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.13 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.03 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.01 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 1.24 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 2.09 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.90 0.00* The current structure should be expanded No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.04 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.01 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a n ew stadium inspired by Fenway's design 1.25 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 2.10 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.91 0.00*
106 Table 4 15. Continued (I) Attitudes Future Modific ations of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) P Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.21 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.24 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 1.25 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.85 0.15 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.34 1.0 0 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.06 0.03 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 2.09 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 2.10 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.85 0.15 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 1.19 0.01* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.13 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.90 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.91 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.34 1.00 Demoli sh existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.19 0.01* Note : p <.01 indicate statistical significance.
107 Table 4 16. Post hoc analysis for place dependence by attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park (I) Attitudes Future M odifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modification of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p No changes should be made to Fenway Park Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.73 0.01* The current structure should be expanded 0.46 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.98 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.60 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.36 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.73 0.01* The current structure should be expanded 0.28 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fen way's design 1.71 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 2.33 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 1.09 0.00* The current structure should be expanded No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.4 6 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.28 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 1.43 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 2.05 0.00* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.82 0.02
108 Table 4 16. Post hoc analysis for place dependence by attitudes toward future modifications of Fenway Park (I) Attitudes Future M odifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitudes Future Modification of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.98 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.71 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 1.43 0.00* Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.62 0.91 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.61 0.18 Demolish exi sting stadium and build a new, but different ballpark No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.60 0.00* Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 2.33 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 2.05 0.00* Demol ish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.62 0.91 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 1.23 0.01* Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.36 1. 00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.09 0.00* The current structure should be expanded 0.82 0.02 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.61 0.18 Demolish existing st adium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.23 0.01* Note : p <.01 indicate statistical significance.
1 09 Table 4 17. Post hoc analysi s for place rootedness by attitude s toward future modifications of Fenway Park (I) Attitude s F uture Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitude s F uture Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p No changes should be made to Fenway Park Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.64 0.00 The current structure should be e xpanded 0.52 0.18 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.15 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.11 0.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.19 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.64 0.00 The current structure should be expanded 0.12 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's desig n 0.79 0.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.75 0.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.45 0.08 The current structure should be expanded No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.52 0.18 Cur rent structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.12 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.68 0.01 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 1.64 0.00 Lea ve Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.34 1.00
110 Table 4 17. C ontinued (I) Attitude s F uture Modifications of Fenway Park (J) Attitude s F uture Modifications of Fenway Park Mean Difference (I J) p Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.15 1.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or r enovations 0.79 0.00 The current structure should be expanded 0.68 0.01 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 0.96 0.01 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 0.34 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and b uild a new, but different ballpark No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1.11 0.00 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 1.75 0.00 The current structure should be expanded 1.64 0.00 Demolish existing stadiu m and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.96 0.01 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 1.30 0.00 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium No changes should be made to Fenway Park 0.19 1.00 Current struct ure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 0.45 0.08 The current structure should be expanded 0.34 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design 0.34 1.00 Demolish existing stadium and build a ne w, but different ballpark 1.30 0.00 Note : p <.01 indicate statistical significance
111 Table 4 18. Place bonding differences between attitude toward future modifications of Fenway Park Attitude Toward Fenway Park Modifications Dependent Variable No changes should be made to Fenway Park (N = 36) Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations (N = 228) The current structure should be expanded (N = 45) Demolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's d esign (N = 48) Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark (N = 15) Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium (N = 37) Place Familiarity 2.57 b,c,d,f 3.56 d,e 3.86 d,e 3.46 a 3.38 3.64 a Place Belongingness 2.71 b,c 3.73 d,e 3. 93 d,e 3.03 a,d,e 1.83 f 3.27 a,d,e Place Identity 2.64 b,c,e 3.67 d,e,f 3.67 d,e,f 2.42 d 1.58 f 2.77 b Place Dependence 2.95 b,d,e 3.68 d,e 3.41 d,e 1.98 f 1.36 f 2.59 a,b Place Rootedness 2.41 b,e 3.05 d,e 2.94 d,e 2.26 e 1.30 f 2.60 b Note: Means with a different supers cripted letter (a, b, c, d, e, f) are significantly different at the .01 level. Items were measured on a 5 point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
112 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This study was design ed to enhance understanding of the relationships between attitudes toward future potential modifications of Fenway Park and measures of place bonding nostalgia, and fan identification. The results not only empirically verified a relationship between the variables of interest, b ut also suggest future avenues f or research, which are discussed in this chapter. Attitudes t oward Future Modifications of Fenway Park This study showed more respondents favored retaining the current structure of Fenway Park with minor upgrades or renovations The option favored by the least number of respondents was to demolish the existing stadium and build a n ew, but different ballpark The second most popular option (but by a much smaller number of respondents than the most po pular option) was to demolish the existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway Park This substantial difference in numbers of those supporting the most popular response and the second most popular response indicates that a moderate majori ty of people are happy with the current approach team management is taking towards Fenway Park, which is to upgrade and renovate but not make major changes to the stadium. The third most popular response was that no changes should be made to Fenway Park, which is not something that team management would likely be very receptive to as most renovations tend to increase seating capacity and increase revenues. Two responses tied for fourth with a low number of votes Each of these responses would likely have significant issues if team management attempted to carry them out. The first of these, t
113 and availability of real estate in downtown Boston. Tours o f Fenway Park are well attended but they are not going to generate enough revenue to pay for maintenance of a stadium museum. In addition, the current team owners also own the stadium and it is reason able that they would want the revenue from the land that the stadium sits on to help finance a new stadium. The second of the least popular options, the as Fenway Park is built in a very ll four sides. Many season s, management attempts to squeeze in a few more seats but if there was room available to expand the footprint of the ballpark, they would have most likely attempted to do so by now. These results support the findings of previous research (Lee, et al., 2007; & Williams & Vaske, 2003) which suggests that people tend to bond with recreational facilities. It appears that many residents of Greater Boston have bonded with Fenway Park and do not want to see it replaced, but if it is to b e replaced, they want it to be replaced with a replica of Fenway Park. This suggests that Fenway Park has features that many but not all Greater Boston residents do not want to lose. Fan Identification Resul ts show that the majority of respondents reporte d being highly identified with the Boston Red Sox team. Surp risingly, more respondents reported low identification with the Boston Red Sox than reported a medi um level of identification based on 0) This may be the result of there not being much middle ground in the region regarding the Red Sox. It is worth asking how fans come to identify with a particular sport or team. Wann, et al. (1996) found a variety of reasons for original interest in a team, including (in order
114 of importance) parental interest in a team, talent of the team players, geography, the influence of friends, and the success of the team. Comparably, Jones, ( 1997) found similar reasons for identifying with a particular team, a lthough not necessarily in the same order as Wann, et al For example, Jones found that geographical location was the predominant reason given for being a fan of a team. End, et al. (2002) found that the success of a team was the primary reason for team id entification. identification with the Red Sox, but rather to measure it as a dependent variable in tions of Fenway Park. Regardless of the reason s for initial identification with a team, this study using ANOVA and MANOVA testing, found that fan identification was the strongest variable when it came to predicting attitude s towards future modifications o f Fenway Park. This study suggests that fan identification was the most important variable in predicting attitudes towards Fenway Park but did not suggest what led to higher levels of fan identification. These results might be indicating that many but no t all residents of Greater Boston consider all things related to the team important, especially the stadium in which the team plays. If some residents of Greater Boston view Fenway park as something that makes their team and city special and different from other teams and cities. The results indicate that a majority of highly identified fans wish to keep Fenway Park as it is. This might be related to the large amount of advertising the team does, which is aimed at members of RSN and features Fenway Park. The moderate sized
115 numbers that desire to the see the the highest mean fan iden tification score, suggesting that the most strongly identified f ans understand that even though they love Fenway Park, it is not adequate to meet the Finally, the group indicating the park should be a museum a nd a new stadium built also had relati vely high fan identification scores, suggesting that some highly identified fans understand the need for a new stadium, but do not want to give up their attachment to the old ballpark. As would be expected, those respondents with less favorable attitudes toward the park demonstrate lower fan identification scores consistent with previous findings suggesting sense of loyalty is tied to level of fan identification (Gwinner & Swanson, 2003) There are a total of five unique instances identified by the post hoc analysis where group differences are sufficiently robu st to be considered as significantly different, statistically. Contrary to expectations, t he group believing that no changes should be made to Fenway had statistically lower levels of fan identification than the group suggesting minor upgrades and the group suggesting the current structure should be expanded. This may result from the fact that this group has used Fenway Park less than other groups. Based on previous research relating to fan identification levels, it was anticipated that the group believing th at no changes should be made to Fenway Park would have the highest levels of fan identification. As expected, based on previous research (Fink et al., 2002; Murrel & Deitz, 2002; Wann & Branscombe, 1983), t he segment who believe the park should be de molish ed and a new one built had significantly lower fan identification mean score s than three other groups, including respondents believing the current structure should be retained with minor upgrades, the
116 current structure should be expanded, and Fenway should be a museum and another stadium built. identification is, the less likely they are to support the idea of getting rid of Fenway Park without retaining it as a museum, if it becomes to o outdated to continue using as a major league stadium. Identity theory defines identity as a set of meanings applied to the self in a social role or situation that defines what it means to be who one is (Burke, 1991). This study suggests that the identit y of the Red Sox fan and the strength of that identity may influence how individuals feel about their surroundings, Fenway Park in particular. Burke further posits that these identities are tied to roles such as being a member of the RSN and that identity are organized in a salience hierarchy, meaning that choices are based on the salience of the identity. This line of thinking fits with the results of this seems to influence that individua modifications of Fenway Park. Nostalgia Level in Regards to Fenway Park This study sought to determine if nostalgia was a m ajor factor in determining attitude s toward future modifications of Fenway Park, or if other factors were important. The results indicate that attitudes towards Fenway Park were not an influential factor that influenced how they felt about future modifications of Fenway Park was the strength of their identification with the Boston Red Sox team followed by their level of plac e bonding to attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park, results indi cated that none of the nostalgia statements yielded results where the disagree and strongly disagree
117 responses equaled or outnumbered the agree and strongly agree responses. This sugg ests that while nostalgia attitudes towards Fenway Park were not a major factor in determining levels of nostalgia towards Fenway Park a majority of respondents felt very nostalgic towards Fenway Park. Similar to Wilson (2004), participants indicated strongly that they felt the ball park reminded them of the past and evoked fo nd memories. Since both Wrigley Field and Fenway Park, the two oldest facilities in use by Major League Baseball teams, have not seen many championships in the time frame being referenced, it stands to reason that the fond memories have to do with the soci al aspects of past experiences, as well as the ballpark itself. Fairley (2003) found group based nostalgia can play a significant role in fan travel behavior as well as repeat purchases related to the team. In both cases, Wrigley Field and Fenway Park, the stadium has become a venerated part of the community without having the luxury of championship seasons to attract and keep fans. It may be that loyal fan bases came to care more about other aspects of the shared experience than about supporting only winni among participants. This might be due to the fact that neither stadium has had many hap py memories to reflect back on. Normally, a winning team is needed to fill a ballpark on a regular basis. Winning traditionally increases fan interest and increases ticket sales but in the case of both Wrigley Field and Fenway Park, fans have remained loya l field failures. Jones (2000) found that fans will continue to support a team that is not successful if they are highly identified with the team or if their association with the team provides them with a strong social identi ty.
118 While some might believe that younger people are not old enough to reflect on their past and feel nostalgic, Gammon (2002) posited that nostalgia is not a concept reserved for the middle aged and older. Continuing developme nts in technology, which have le d to less human interaction and more economic upheaval have changed society and le d to even young people re different time. Davis (1979) posited that a nostalgic perspective could serve to minimize the shocks of rap id historical changes such as war s economic recession s and natural catastrophes all of which have been prominent in the news in recent years. The influence of nostalgia might also serve as a forced downtime or chance to escape from reality during uncer tain times (Wilson, 1999). This theme suggests that current nostalgic feelings should be relatively high among participants due to recent uncertain economic times, and this was the case. Dann (1994) posits that businesses, especially the tourism industry, have targeted people who are seeking a nostalgic experience. He further suggests that in some cases, sites have spent large sums of money to create a nostalgic atm osphere. Fenway Park is considered a historic ball field and celebrated its 100 th anniversary in 2012. No attempts have been made to create a n i nauthentic nostalgic atmosphere since such an atmosphere exists naturally at the s tadium In fact most renovations have attempted to modernize the facility (Appe ndix D). The recent successful advent of en tire television channels or webcasts devoted to showing re runs of time honored sports classics from different eras suggest a strong linkage between sports fans and nostalgia (Gammon, 2002) Classic Red Sox games are frequently shown on the New England Spo rts Network (NESN) Pascal et al (2002) posit that the use of nostalgia can have a positive
119 effect on brand image, but Holak and Havlena (1998) caution that nostalgia is a difficult emotion for a business market to predict. The frequent use of classic fo otage in Red Sox advertisements suggests that the Red Sox organization believes that nostalgia is a strong selling point for their organization. Sharing special places that have special meaning is consistent with studies about Cooperstown, home of the Nat ional Baseball Hall of Fame, where a large proportion of visitors are fathers and grandfathers sharing the nostalgia of the sport with their sons and grandsons (Newman, 2001; Snyder, 1991). Given the 86 year period between championships that the Red Sox ex perienced, it seems likely that a devotion to Red Sox and Fenway Park was passed down from generation to generation and was based on factors besides championships teams. Those with the highest levels of nostalgia scores showed attitudes relating to per forming minor or some level of expansion of the current stadium or converting the stadium to a museum prior to replacement. This suggests that the more nostalgic one feels about the stadium, the less likely one is to support making changes to it. Responde nts reporting an indifference to the current stadium (i.e., preferring a new ballpark) had the lowest nostalgia scores, perhaps suggesting that these participants were more practical in nature, seeing functionality and comforts as more important than senti ment. A nalysis revealed a total of seven unique group wise differences in level s of nostalgia among respondents with varying levels of Fenway P ar k attitudes First, lower levels of a ggregate nostalgia scores than respondents with the following attitudes:
120 current structure sho nearly identical levels of nosta l gia, perhaps indicating that some other variable is influencing their decision, as one would expect to see that the more nostalgic an individual is towards Fenway Park, the less likely they are to support it being modified. Next, groups of respondents that stadium inspired by but dif lower levels of nostalgia than respondents feeling the rent structure should be retained, with minor upgrades This makes sense, as one would expect to find more support for demolishing the stadium among those that held less nostalgic feelings towards it. Similarly c urrent structure sho also had higher levels of nostalgia th a n the two groups open to demolishing the park. Finally, the group whose attitude is that it is best had higher levels th an but dif In sum, essentially respondents whose attitude that Fenway should be expanded, upgraded, or held as a historical tre asure, clearly report high er levels of nostalgia for the park than groups who are open to demolishing the park even for the group wanting a Fenway redesign. This makes sense on an intuitive level that the more nostalgic an individual is towards something, the less likely they woul d be support demolishing it or replacing it with something different. Holbrook and Schindler (2003) found support for this trend when their research suggested that intangible practices and feelings strengthen the bond that people form with tangible objects such
121 as professional sport facilities. Acharya, Paudel, and Hatch (2009) and Hendee, Stankey, and Lucas (1990) found similar results in a recreational setting. Their findings suggest that the nostalgia effect played a role in determining demand for and fe elings towards a wilderness attraction, offering support for the premise that nostalgia is related to recreational settings. Place Bonding Research has suggested that users of recreational sites o r facilities may form bonds based on their satisfaction with the location as a means to achieve their recreational objectives or based on social experiences that take place there (Lee, 2009). Stedman (2003) concluded that place attachment can be predicted by various constructs including physical environment. Drive r (2008) suggests that by gaining a better understanding of the benefits visitors attain from a site and how they develop their attachment t o that site, management can better plan for positive experiences for visitors and facilitate the develop ment of bond s Across the five dimensions of place bonding, results from this study, suggested that place familiarity and place belongingness had the strongest attachment characteristics among the respondents. A general conclusion can be drawn that, from a multivaria te perspective, place bonding dimensions do differ across Fenway attitude groups. no changes should be made to the lowest dimension scor e across all five dimensions, is statistically different from all other group sc or es with the exception of the demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark attitude group. Post hoc analyses reveal that there are differences on the place belongingness dimension per attitude group offering support for previous fi ndings that individuals form deeply meaningful relationships with places and these relationships hold value in their
122 lives and how they view their surroundings (Moore & Scott, 2003) In general, the less likely a respondent is to support demolishing the st adium, the higher their place belonging score is, with the exception of t he no change attitude gr oup having a s core current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations and the current structure should be expan ded group s. This may be explained by the mediating factor of the reality of the situation, as even those that love Fenway Park might be realistic enough to support the idea that it needs renovations and perhaps expansion. The latter two groups also have s tatistically higher scores than the demolish the stadium attitude groups. Finally, the group leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium has a stati demolish existing stadium and build a new, but d ifferent ball an individual with a strong sense of place belonging supports the building of a new stadium, they want the old structure preserved as a museum. Bale (2003) posits that it might be the architecture of an older sport faci lity that evokes a strong sense of structural nostalgia, perhaps explaining why people would want to retain Fenway Park as a museum, so that its unique architecture might be enjoyed by future generations. In research on recreational settings, Hammitt, Back lund, and Bixler (2006), found strong significant support for place bonding with recreational settings. Their findings support recreational setting do not need to be extr eme for a bond to form. For the place identity dimension per attitude toward modification group it can be urrent structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations he current structure
123 should be expanded that individuals who are more likely to favor retaining the present structure are more highly identified with Fenway Park. It can also be obser ved the no change group had a emolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark again, suggesting that individuals with higher pl ace identification scores are less likely to support demolishing the stadium. In a related finding, Williams and Patterson (1996) and Bricker and Kerstetter (2000) found support for the identity and symbolic bonding that recreationists develop with outdoor settings. For the place emolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark other groups, with t he exception of emolish existing stadium and build a n ew stadium favor demolishing the stadium have a lower place dependence score. The two groups wanting to retain the current structure again have similar scores and are stat istically emolish existing stadium and build a new stadium inspired by Fenway's design eave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium According to Williams et al. (1992), place dependence relies on the functionality of a recreational setting; as a result, bonding with recreational settings in terms of place dependence may be infrequent in occurrence but very strong in intensity. For the place rootedness dimension, as has been observed in other dimensions,
124 urrent structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovation s emolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark groups. These results suggest that even though a pattern exists of individuals being in favor of retaining the current structure reporting higher place rootedness scores, difference s exist between how participants with higher scores wish to retain the current structure. Milligan (1998) posits that to acquire a sense of place rootedness in a recreational context, one may need only to recreate in a particular place used or spoken about greater significance than the present situation might offer, as its psychological bonds and meanings are based in the past. Research suggests a complex interaction betwee n personal and sociocultural factors (Gartner 1889, Echtner & Ritchie 1983) and these findings support the complexity of the relationship between persons and places. Overall, the findings support the contention that the stronger one bonds with place, in th is case Fenway Park, the that places become important to people for complex reasons, which may cause people to advocate positions that do not make sense on a practical level. Similar to Jorgenson and Stedman (2001), the current findings support the multidimensional nature of place bonding as a number of the dimensions tested impacted participants attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park. Implications of the Study Not enough is known regarding what residents of Greater Boston or the RSN think s about certain key i ssues like future potential modifications of Fenway Park. In a more specific sense, little is known about how the interaction of certain variable s such
125 as nostalgia, fan identification, and pl ace bonding affects feelings towards a sports facility and key behaviors such as ticket purchases and game attendance. Linking fan identification to a sports facility is beneficial in helping to determine why people visit the facility. If they are coming to enjoy the facility and do not have much identification with the home team, then team management does not need to be as concerned with fielding a winning team. If the fans feel little or no attachment to a facility but have a high identification with the team, then team management needs to concentrate its resources on fielding a competitive team rather than improving its facility. In the case of Fenway Park, for some fans (perhaps even the majority), it According to Davis (1979 ), in a time particularly riddled with uncertainty, change and instability, many people are looking to escape back to a childhood that seemed simpler and less intim idating. The combination of sport and nostalgia, two well known escape mechanisms, offers an escape to the past that some people are looking for and the relationship between the two needs to be bett er understood. This study focused on an authentic nostal gic sport venue which has the ability to attract visitors based on historic value alone. Gammon (2002) posits that many recreations of the past have been successful at marketing a nostalgic feel ing without being authentic, but Redfoot (1984) cautions that some individuals are not satisfied with this staged authenticity and seek out a more realistic traditional experience. Venues such as Fenway Park have the potential to create revenue, by marketing a nostalgic experience as well as selling nostalgic item s, but also offer authentic nostalgic experiences at an affordable price without investing large sums of money to recreate the past. Wilson (2004) found that
126 nostalgia was associated with families wanting to take stadium tours of Wrigley Field, a stadium s imilar to Fenway Park. There is little known about the relationship between place attachment /bonding and sport s settings has suggested that time and experiences in a place are important for deepening the emotional ties central to person place relationship s (Low & Altman, 1992, Moore & Graefe, 1994, & Relph, 1976). Little research has dealt with sport facilities. Smaldone, Harris, and Sanyal (2008) posit that little in depth research has studied time and experience factors and the role they play in the place attachment equation. By simultaneously, this research offers a unique but important perspecti ve on the relationship between place attachment /bonding and a n iconic sport facility. If time is a key variable in establishing a strong sense of attachment to a place, it would behoove team management to attempt to ensure that children have positive and m emorable experiences at their stadium T his might lay a potential foundation for a future experience s play a significant role in forming lifelong attachments and determining brand favorites (James, 1997; Karastamatis, 2009; Schindler & Holbrook, 2003). Such studies imply that understanding place attachment/bonding may enable teams to help insure a long term strong fan base if they can facilitate children and young adults bondi ng with their sport facility. The implications of these findings for the future of stadiums suggest that stadium owners should consider that winning championships might lead to short term bumps in
127 attendance, but it takes more than that to build a strong l ong term relationship with a fan base. This study suggests that building fan identification is a key component to building loyalty toward a stadium. The results further suggest that the more an individual identifies with the Red Sox as a team, the more imp ortant preserving Fenway Park is to them, perhaps indicating that many fans view the ballpark and the team as a single entity. In addition, finding ways to encourage fans to bond with the stadium and make the stadium a part of the community are good ways t o build a loyal fan base. It takes time for nostalgic feelings to develop, but insightful stadium managers can encourage the development of these nostalgic feelings by hosting family oriented activities. It might also help if the stadium is unique and a pa rt of a downtown community. The theoretical implications of this study for social identity theory are that further support is provided for the contention that social interactions are important factors in the decision making processes of sports fans. In tur that to understand sports fan behavior, one must understand sports fans on a psychological level which includes why they interact socially as they do. Specifically, findings that suggest fans interact on a psychologica l level with sport facilities should encourage further investigation of this relationship. Similarly, findings suggesting that the formation of feelings towards active recreational facilities may be similar to the process that passive participation in spec tator sports generate, should encourage sport researchers to make use of recreational research related to attachment to place when studying the relationship between sports fans and sporting venues. The finding, similar to Wilson (2004), that nostalgia did attitudes towards future modifications of Fenway Park reemphasizes the thinking that
128 either nostalgia is not an important variable in such decisions or nostalgia is not as well understood as we think and th erefore researchers are not correctly measuring and analyzing its properties. Further examination of the cohort of respondents between 41 and 55 years old may provide a better understanding of the nostalgia concept, as this cohort was exposed to unique his torical and social forces. Recommendation s for Future Research One of the goals of this study was to contribute to the limited empirical understanding of historic sports stadiums in the academic literature. Because the focus was Fenway Park and the reside nts of Greater Boston and potentially members of the RSN, the sample was drawn from Boston and surrounding areas. It is suggested that comparisons be made with similar stadiums and for different sports in other parts of the country. Due to the tendency to build newer bigger stadiums (and demolish older ones), there are not many stadiums that can match Fenway Park in terms of age, highly devoted fan base, and historical significance. In baseball, Wrigley Field is probably the only other stadium that has the longevity and highly identified fans similar to the situation in Boston. Future research should compare levels of nostalgia/place bonding at Fenway Park and Wrigley Field to determine if both stadiums evoke similar levels. Another future potential rese arch project would be to interview people taking the daytime Fenway Park tour and measure their level s of nostalgia, place bonding and fan identification to see how the levels of these variables compare to the results of this study. Further research might also include examining the social aspects of Fenway Park in more detail to better unde rstand the role that socialization plays in variables such as place attachment /bonding and fan identification.
129 Another avenue that should be explored further is in dept role in the relationships explored in this study. It merits exploring if age was related to level of nostalgia for the respondents in this study. Perhaps the fact that a large number (43%) of respondents were between the ages of 41 a nd 55 suggests these respondents came of age during the pivotal decade of the 1970s. Respondents in this age range merit closer examination to attempt to better understand the potential impacts that 5 and 1978 had on these respondents. In addition, studies have found that age has a significant effect on meanings ascribed to a place (e.g., Hidalgo & Hernand ez, 2001; Kaltenborn, 1997), while socio demographic variables such as gender, income, and educat ion have been found to have an inconsistent relationship with place attachment across previous studies ( Hidalgo & Her nandez, 2001; Kyle & Manning, 2005 ). It is worth exploring the data gathered by this study (and other future related studies) to see if the se relationships are supported by the data. In addition, future research should segment the low fan identity respo ndents and see what percent call them selves fans, co mpared to the percent with high fan identity respondents. Lastly, future research should consider select ing out the low fan identity respondents and then do a freq uency table on distance from Fenway Park to determine if this was an explanatory variable for the low fan identity respondents and compare the results to Jones finding that geographical location was the predominant reason given for being a fan of a team Delimitations The link to participate in this study was posted on the websites of two Boston based newspapers, The Boston Globe and The Boston Herald This may affect the
130 ge neralizability of the findings in several ways. As all of the respondents were residents of greater Boston area, based on reported zip codes, these results should be generalized only to Boston area fans or populations with similar characteristics to Boston survey due to potential limitations such as internet access might have affected the composition of the sample, as people of certain socio demographic characteristics might be more or less likely to use the I nternet. The higher education levels of the sample may be due to both increased computer access and readership of the online versions of the two newspapers. In any given Internet community, there are undoubtedly some individuals who are more likely than others to complete an online survey about a specialized topi c. These sampling issues limit researcher abilities to make generalizations about study findi ngs. This, in turn, limits the ability to estimate population paramet ers. A nother issue for the current study was a likelihood that respondents would tend to b e more strongly identified fans. In an attempt to limit this co ncern, the survey was posted as a link on the front page s and not in the sports section s This ap proach may have facilitated attract ing less strongly identified fans, which provided for a more representative sample. Another de limitation involved the composition of the sample. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (95.6%) and very well educated with high income levels. The high education level is likely due to respondents being online newspaper readers and historical analysis suggests that Red Sox fans are predominantly white. Although this limits the generalizability the survey was posted where th e target sample had access to it. It may be that the RSN is comprised of mostly members that are Caucasian, well
131 educated, and have high income levels. As no published data exists regard the demographic composition of RSN, it is impossible to know if this sample is representative of the wider RSN However, based on the United States 2010 Boston census, it appears that the respondents to this survey did substantially over represent Caucasians and under represent African Americans, Hispanics and Asians who r eside in the Boston area but it might still accurately reflect the composition of more committed RSN members Limitations To reduce the possible limitations of this study, face validity and content validity of the questionnaire were established before po sti ng the link on the newspaper websites. Establishing face validity is an important step as it requires that the instrument is usable and makes sense at face value Es tablishing content validity help ed ens ure that the instrument measured the actual cont ent domain which it was designed to measure. The historic collapse of the Red Sox baseball team at the end of the 2011 season is a further limitation to this study. The Red Sox team set a new record for poor play in the month of September, failing to mak e the play offs after being one of the best teams in all of baseball for much of the season. This collapse dominated the local media for much of last two months of the season and into the early part of winter when data were collected for this survey. As a result of this collapse and the intense media coverage, many potential respondents might have ignored the posted survey links out of anger or emotional exhaustion with the Red Sox team. In addition disappointment with the Red ave influenced responses especially in regards to ticket purchasing plans.
132 In an attempt to control for this intervening variable, data were not collected until at the way the season ended. Conclusions The present study emphasized the need to better understand the relat i onships between place bonding nostalgi a, fan identification, and attitude s towards potential renovations of a sports stadium. The results of this study suggest that both fan ident ity and place bonding significantly affect how individuals feel about a s tad ium. Although it was not the main focus of this research, t his study also compiled a more thorough accounting of the characteristics of Greater Boston area fans and what their lev els of nostalgia, place bonding, and fan identification are. The results do suggest several things about the Red Sox fans (though as noted earlier, these may not be representative findings) They tend to be Caucasian, well educated, have high levels of income, and are fairly evenly spread through the age categories. They tend to be strongly attached to Fenway Park and have nostalgic feeling s towards it. These findings will aid future researchers in understanding the utility of these variables as they relate to an older but iconic stadium. Fenway Park is part of the Boston communit y, a relationship that has been strengthened by recent multipurpose events held at the stadium. However, it is likely that the stadium cannot be used indefinitely. At some point the owners will need to decide what to do when the structure becomes obsolete. Knowing what the members of the RSN want and why they want what they do will aid team ownership in being prepared to make educated decisions. Moore and Scott (2003) found that levels of attachment were positively related to levels of involvement in recrea tional settings. The results of this study suggest that place bonding may be
133 positively related to involvement with a team or stadium. Owners would be wise to consider the importance of place bonding when making decisions regarding Fenway changes. As much as this study revealed about toward future modifications of Fenway Park there is much that still needs to be investigated if a fuller understanding of these fans is to be learned Aside from the drama and entertainment that fans experience at Fenway Park, results indicate that they might also be experiencing escape through nostalgic feelings and aesthetic pleasure from the stadium itself and important social experiences. There are many mo re studies to do before the relationship between these variables of interest and feelings towards a sports stadium are more fully understood but this study provides a stepping stone towards better understanding th ese complex relationship s Boston is one o f the few cities where one can study the relationship between a highly identified fan base and a historically significant sports stadium, consequently further research involving Fenway Park may lead to a better understanding of this relationship. Once this complex relationship has been more thoroughly examined in Boston the findings can be compared to other cities and sporting stadiums. APPENDIX A SURVEY PARTICIPANT L ETTER Red Sox Survey Dear Participant: The purpose of this survey is t by Dan Sargeant, a doctoral student in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport
134 Management at the Unive rsity of Florida, and a longtime Boston resident. The questionnaire will take 10 15 minutes to complete. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer, and you are free to discontinue participation at any time without consequence. No compensation for your participation is available. All information, which you provide, is completely anonymous and confidential to the extent provided by the law. If you have, questions about this study please contact Dan Sargeant, University of Florida, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at email@example.com or my supervisor Dr. Heather Gibson at firstname.lastname@example.org 352 392 4042x1249. If you have concerns about your rights as a research participant in the study, please contact the UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; ph (352) 392 0433. Your time and assistance is greatly appreciated. Thank you for your input and opinions By I Accept
135 APPENDIX B SURVEY Part A: Please click on the number representing your degree of fanship associated with the Red Sox when answering the next set of questions. Please answer each of the following questions by indicating the most accurate number (i.e., response) to each item. 1. How important is it to you that the Red Sox win ? Not Important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Very Important 2. How much of a Red Sox fan are you ? Not at All a Fan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Very Much a Fan 3. During the season, how closely do you follow the Red Sox via any of the following: in person, on television, on the radio, televised news, online or a newspaper? Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Almost Every Day 4. How important is being a Red Sox fan to you? Not Important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Very Important 5. How much do you dislike the Yankees? Do Not Dislike 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dislike Very Much 6. How often do you dis play the Red Sox name or insignia at your place of work, where you live, on your car, or on your clothing? Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Always
136 Part B: The next set of questions seeks to understand your experience and beliefs about Fenway Park 2. Please rate each statement on the following scale: where 1= strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I could sketch a rough layout of Fenway Park 1 2 3 4 5 I have visited Fenway Park many times an d I am quite familiar with it 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 When at Fenway Park, I feel a part of it 1 2 3 4 5 I feel like I belong at Fenway Park 1 2 3 4 5 I am very attached to Fenway Park 1 2 3 4 5 Fenway Park means a great deal to me 1 2 3 4 5 I identify strongly with Fenway Park 1 2 3 4 5 No other baseball stadium compares to Fenway Park for attending a game 1 2 3 4 5 Fenway for attending a baseball game 1 2 3 4 5 I ge t more satisfaction out of visiting Fenway Park than from visiting any other baseball stadium 1 2 3 4 5 Fenway Park is the only stadium I want to attend a baseball game in 1 2 3 4 5 I rarely attend a home game at any other major league baseball stadium o ther than Fenway Park 1 2 3 4 5 When I am planning to attend a MLB game, I consider only Fenway Park 1 2 3 4 5 I would consider visiting any stadium as long as the Red Sox were playing 1 2 3 4 5 3. Below are five options that have been discussed regard ing the future of Fenway Park. Please choose the one option that best reflects your opinion (choose only one). No changes should be made to Fenway Park 1 Current structure should be retained, with minor upgrades or renovations 2 The current structu re should be expanded 3 4 Demolish existing stadium and build a new, but different ballpark 5 Leave Fenway Park as a museum and build a new stadium 6
137 4. Please rate the following statements in relation to your feelings about Fenway Park. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutra l Agree Strongly Agree It reminds me of the past 1 2 3 4 5 It helps me recall pleasant memories 1 2 3 4 5 It makes me feel nostalgic 1 2 3 4 5 It makes me reminisce about a previous time 1 2 3 4 5 It makes me think about when I was younger 1 2 3 4 5 It evokes fond memories 1 2 3 4 5 It is a pleasant reminder of the past 1 2 3 4 5 It brings back memories of go od times from the past 1 2 3 4 5 It reminds me of the good old days 1 2 3 4 5 It reminds me of good times in the past 1 2 3 4 5
138 Part C: This section asks you about your interactions with the Red Sox and Fenway Park. 5. Are you a Red Sox fan? Ye s No How many years have you have been a Red Sox fan? 1 3 Years 4 6 years 7 9 years 10 or more years I am not a Red Sox fan 6. Have you been to a game at Fenway Park? Yes No If you answered NO please go to question 7. If you answered YES to questi on 6, in what year did you last attend a game at Fenway Park? ________ If you answered YES to question 6, please indicate how many games you have attended at Fenway Park in your lifetime 1 5 6 10 11 15 16 30 31 50 More than 50 7. Which of the fol lowing best represents your purchase of Red Sox tickets for the 2011 season? 1. Season ticket holder 3. Purchase individual game tickets 2. Mini plan purchase 4. I do not plan to purchase Red Sox tickets 8. How often do you visit Fenway Park to a ttend a Red Sox game during a typical season? 1. Once a year 3. 2 10 times a year 2. 11 20 times a year 4. More than 20 times a year Part D: Background Information: A few questions about you to help us understand your responses. 9 What is your current zip code (if you live in the USA) _________________ 10. What country (if outside of the USA) do you live______________________ 11. Which Boston papers do you read most often either online or in print version? (Choose only one answer) 1. The Boston Glo be 2. The Boston Herald 3. Both The Globe and The Herald 4. Neither 5. Other 12. What country (if outside of the USA) do you live? ______________________ 13. What is your age? _______________ 1. 18 25 2. 26 30 3. 31 35 4. 36 40 5. 41 45 6. 46 55 7. 56 65 8. 66 75 9. 76 or older 14. Are you Male Female 15. Which best describes your racial background? 1. Native American 4. Caucasian 2. Asian 5. Hispanic 3. African American 6. Other __________________
139 16. Which category best represents your TOTAL 2010 annual household income? (in US dollars) (Please circle ONE ) 1. $25,000 or less 5. $100,001 125,000 2. $25,001 50,000 6. $125,001 150,000 3. $50,001 75,000 7. $150,001 or more 4. $75,001 100, 000 17. What is the highest level of education you have obtained? (Please circle ONE) 1. Less than high school degree 2. High school graduate 3. Associate or technical degree 6. Doct oral degree 18. How far in minutes do you travel to get to Fenway Park? 1. 1 20 2. 21 40 3. 41 60 4. 61 90 5. More than 90 minutes 6. I do not travel to Fenway Park 19. If you would like to add anything else about the Red Sox or Fenway please use the space provided below. Thank you for participating
140 APPENDIX C SUMMARY OF CHANGES M ADE TO FENWAY PARK S INCE 1945 Year Change 1946 Upper deck seats installed, making Fenway the first double tiered park in Boston since the South End Grounds 1947 Arc lights installed 1976 Metric distances added; one of the very few ballparks to have them posted 1999 Auxiliary press boxes added 2003 Seats added to the Green Monster 2004 Seats added to the right field roof (Budweiser Right Field Roof) 2005 New drain age system 2005 Completed plans for the .406 Club area to become the EMC club 2006 Renovations of the luxury boxes; addition of new food concourse area; renovated bathrooms behind third base 2008 Temporary luxury boxes from the 1999 All Star Game are re moved and replaced with permanent ones at State Street Pavilion level
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157 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dan Sargeant attended Bishop Hendricken High School in Warwick Rhode Island. After gr aduation, he attended P rovidence College, majoring in political s cience. Following his graduation from Providence College, he continued his education by earning a m p olitical s cience from the University of R hode Island. While earning his m he also earned his teaching certificate to teach at the high school level. After teaching high school for several years, he taught at a program for incarcerated youth offenders. After several years of teaching incarcerated youth offende rs, he returned to school, at Castleton State College, to obtain a m but before he could complete this degree the program was terminated. He transferred some of the credits from this program towards a m in criminology at the University of Florida. After completing t his m he entered the Tourism, Recreation, and Sport M anagement graduate program at the University of Florida. While studying at the University of Florida, his academic papers f ocused on dark tourism, as well as sport tourism. He received his Doctor of Philosophy from the Uni versity of Florida in the summer of 2012.