1 PERSPECTIVES AND PRACTICES OF GRADUATES OF AN URBAN TEACHER RESIDENCY PROGRAM By KATIE M. TRICARICO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS F OR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Katie M. Tricarico
3 To all of the Aquilino women, especially my great grandmother, Giu seppina Aquilino, and my grandma, Mary Agosta
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost I thank Ms. Grace, Ms. Rigsbee, and Ms. Winslow for opening their classrooms to me now and over the past six years. I also thank all of the members of the ir residency cohort for allowing me the opportunity to learn and grow from them as they learne d and gr e w as teachers. Their perseverance and dedication to their students and their profession inspires me to do better in my own work Over the past seven years and two degrees at UF, each member of my committee has supported me in more ways than I could list. First, I th ank Dorene, for being the perfect mix of insistent yet supportive exactly what I needed I thank Sevan, for the knowledge, guidance, and trust that he shared with me during all of our semesters working together in Social Foundati ons. My passion for Foundations and for teaching undergraduates has grown tremendously under his tutelage. I thank Buffy for and for her continued encouragement and caring I thank Jean for listening to my concerns and struggles, and for insisting that my decisions make me happy. That lesson may have been one of the most important of my graduate program. I thank Nancy Dana for providing me with years of valuable profession al opportunities and Diane Yendol Hoppey, without whom I would not be writing a dissertation. I thank Susan Turner, my first principal, mentor, and now, friend. Her support over the past 12 years h as truly been invaluable and she is a tremendous inspiratio n. I thank Kate, for showing me the ropes of academia. I thank Lissa, for helping me find my voice. I thank my Gainesville friends, who have quickly become my family. Between beach days and dinner nights, I cannot imagine a b etter
5 group of people to be my cheerleaders, support system, and distractions from the stress and tedium of writing They have all made me a better person by knowing them. Finally, I thank my family for all of the usual reasons. More specifically, I tha nk my mom Sylvia, for being someone to whom I have always looked for inspiration. I thank my dad Anthony, for always thinking that I should dream bigger I thank my brother Thomas, for the comic relief and for showing me that stressing out about anythin g, ever is wholly unnecessary. A nd lastly, I thank Jennifer, for being the best friend a girl could ever have
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIS T OF TERMS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 13 Purpose of Study and Research Questions ................................ ............................ 16 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 17 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 18 Organization of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 19 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 21 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy ................................ ................................ ............ 21 Challenging Beliefs ................................ ................................ ........................... 23 Building Relationships with Stakeholders ................................ ......................... 26 Relationships with students ................................ ................................ ........ 26 Ensuring equitable and reciprocal relationships ................................ ......... 27 Relationships with parents and families ................................ ..................... 28 Relationships extend to the community ................................ ..................... 29 School and Classroom Culture ................................ ................................ ......... 30 Instruction ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 32 Hold high and explicit expectations ................................ ............................ 32 Incorporate instruction ................................ ................................ ............................... 33 their own learning ................................ ................................ ................... 34 Encourage students to work in groups ................................ ....................... 35 Curriculum ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 Empowerment, Transformation, and Emancip ation ................................ .......... 38 Practices and Perspectives of Novice Urban Teachers ................................ .......... 41 Teacher Education Programs ................................ ................................ ........... 41 Novice Teachers ................................ ................................ .............................. 46 Limitations in the Literature ................................ ................................ ..................... 52 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 54 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 54 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 54
7 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 55 Participant Selection ................................ ................................ ............................... 58 The School Setting as Situated in History ................................ ............................... 60 The Modern day School Se tting ................................ ................................ ............. 61 Individual Participants ................................ ................................ ............................. 62 Ms. Grace ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 63 Ms. Rigsbee ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 63 Ms. Winslow ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 64 Data Collection Methods ................................ ................................ ......................... 66 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 67 Observations ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 68 Field Notes ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 71 Challenges to Data Collection Methods ................................ ........................... 72 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 73 Trustworthiness ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 77 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 78 Role of Researcher ................................ ................................ ................................ 79 Presentation of Findings ................................ ................................ ......................... 82 4 THE CASE OF VIVIAN GRACE ................................ ................................ ............. 83 ................................ ................................ ......................... 83 ................................ ................................ ........................... 84 Providing a Caring Learning Environment ................................ ........................ 88 Praising students ................................ ................................ ....................... 88 Acting and speaking in a caring manner ................................ .................... 90 Giving fair and consistent consequences (positive and negative) .............. 92 Giving students the opportunity to praise and correct each other .............. 94 Ensuring Success for All Students ................................ ................................ ... 96 Giving clear directions ................................ ................................ ................ 97 Using varied yet predicta ble lesson structures ................................ ........... 98 Holding high expectations ................................ ................................ ........ 105 Analysis in Terms of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Pr otocol 106 Elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol Documented Through the Observations ................................ ..................... 107 Elemen ts of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol with Little or No Evidence ................................ ................................ ................... 111 Interpretation and Analysis: Culture in the Classroom ................................ .......... 114 5 THE CASE OF NATALIE RIGSBEE ................................ ................................ ..... 118 ................................ ................................ ................... 118 ................................ ................................ ..................... 119 Developing Positive Relationships with Students ................................ ........... 123 individual needs ................................ ................................ .................... 124
8 Using endearing nicknames, encouraging students, and thanking them for their hard work ................................ ................................ ................. 127 Sharing her personal life with stu dents ................................ .................... 129 ................................ .............. 131 Preparing All Students to Pass the Statewide Standardized Reading Test s .. 133 academics ................................ ................................ ............................. 134 Implementing tightly focused, scaffolded, and task driven lessons .......... 136 Analysis in Terms of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol 140 Elements of the Cul turally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol Documented Through the Observations ................................ ..................... 140 Elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol with Little or No Evidence ................................ ................................ ................... 144 Interpretation and Analysis: A School in Constant Transition ............................... 146 6 CROSS DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS ................................ ... 148 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 148 Discussion of the Research Questions ................................ ................................ 148 Cross Disclosure A nalysis ................................ ................................ .................... 150 Challenging Beliefs ................................ ................................ ......................... 152 Building Relationships with Stakeholders ................................ ....................... 154 Relationships with students ................................ ................................ ...... 154 Relationships with parents and families ................................ ................... 156 Relationships extend to the communi ty ................................ ................... 158 School and Classroom Culture ................................ ................................ ....... 158 Instruction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 162 Hold hig h and explicit expectations ................................ .......................... 163 instruction ................................ ................................ ............................. 164 Promote critical their own learning ................................ ................................ ................. 165 Encourage students to work in groups ................................ ..................... 166 Curriculu m ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 166 Empowerment, Transformation, and Emancipation ................................ ........ 168 Cross Case Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................ 169 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 170 For Teacher Educators and Educational Leaders ................................ .......... 171 For Researchers ................................ ................................ ............................. 178 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 185 APPENDIX A CHART OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES ................................ ................................ ....... 186 B INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ .................... 191
9 Interview 1: Rapport Building ................................ ................................ ................ 191 Interview 2: Talking About Your Classroom ................................ .......................... 192 Interview 3: Talking About Learning to Teach ................................ ....................... 193 Possible Questions for Informal Post Observation Interviews .............................. 194 C CRIOP OBSERVATION PROTOCOL ................................ ................................ ... 196 D CRIOP OBSERVATION PROTOCOL MS. GRACE ................................ ............ 212 E CRIOP OBSERVATION PROTOCOL MS. RIGSBEE ................................ ......... 226 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 240 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 248
10 LIST OF TERMS The terms and definitions p rovided below provide a foundation for the langu age used in this dissertation and indicate how each term has been used throughout. Culturally responsive pedagogy As described in this research, culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) includes the established p ractices that effective teachers use in order to best meet the needs of their students in environments with a high number of African American children who are living in poverty. It focuses on the following six components that teachers should incorporate in to their routines: 1) strive to challenge their own beliefs about teaching and culture; 2) build relationships with students and parents; 3) create a classroom culture that is a learning community, including the use of specific classroom management techniq ues; 4) use specific strategies for selecting curricula and classroom materials; 5) use specific instructional techniques; 6) and strive to make the learning experience one that empowers students. Educational Criticism A methodology grounded in ethnography The describe the essential qualities of phenomenon studied, to interpret the meanings of and relationships among those qualities, and to provide reasoned judgments about the significance and value of the Predominantly children of color In the context of this research, a school population is considered to be predominantly children of color when it is comprised of a majority of students who identify with a race or ethnic ity other than Caucasian. High poverty school A school that receives federal Title I funding to provide students with supplemental materials and programs; additionally, at least 40% of the students attending these schools come from low income families, def ined by the receipt of free or reduced cost lunch. For the purpose of this study, a high poverty school is one in which at least 70% of the students receive free or reduced cost lunch. ( htt p://www2.ed.gov/programs/titleiparta/index.html ).
11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PERSPECTIVES AND PRACTICES OF GRADUATES OF AN URBAN TEACHER RESIDENCY PROGRAM By Katie M. Tricarico August 2012 Chair: Dorene Ross Major: Curriculum and Instruction Many traditional university based and alternative route teacher preparation programs have been developed to prepare new teachers to wor k in urban high minority, and high poverty classrooms. T he re is little literature that documents the outcomes of these programs designed specifically for urban environments or the practices of teachers who completed such prog rams W e need to explore the outcomes of these teacher education programs, traditional and alternative in order to meet the need for teachers in these environments and guarantee that urban students are taught by the most qualified teachers possible This study contributes to the sparse body of literature focused on the outcomes of such programs by examining the practices and perspectives of three teachers who completed one such program five years ago The following question guided the study: What are the p erspectives and practices of graduates of a yearlong urban teacher residency who are teaching in schools with a student population that is predominantly low income and/or children of color ? Sub questions include d : 1) How do the teachers define effective te aching? 2) What practices do these teachers use that they believe are highly effective and why do they believe those practices are effective? 3) What factors
12 do these teachers identify as influential in the development of their perspectives and practices? Data were collected through interviews and observations. T he findings of this study are presented as an educational criticism. Grounded in culturally responsive pedagogy literature, this study identified several aspects of culturally responsive pedagogy th at two of the three teachers incorporate d into their practice These two teachers developed a core set of practices that are culturally responsive, and b oth set similar goals for their teaching: to develop positive and caring relationships with their stude nts and to help their students experience academic success. These teachers demonstrated clear and high expectations for student learning, tightly planned lessons in order to model and scaffold ress, used caring language when talking with students, and got to know students and their families in order to learn how to best meet their needs. One teacher made a concerted effort to of chants, music, Moreover, two teachers demonstrated a moderate power. However, the remaining two goals of CRP, transformation and emancipa tion were not evidenced. Implications of this research for teacher educators, practicing educational leaders and professional developers, and researchers are discussed.
13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem The National Council for Accreditatio n of Teacher Education (NCATE) has issued a call for teacher certification programs to combine extended student teaching experiences with courses aligned with certification requirements (Blue Ribbon Panel, 2010). The principles for program design suggested by the NCATE panel argue for partnership between a university teacher education program and a school district, often in an urban, low income area (Blue Ribbon Panel, 2010). The purpose of these programs is for teacher candidates to learn from classroom ex periences that are interwoven with academic content and standards related to best practices for the profession (Blue Ribbon Panel, 2010). Their recommendation is that the novice teacher is not the teacher of record, but works alongside an experienced mento r teacher for an entire school year (The Aspen Institute and the Center for Teaching Quality, 2008). As a number of these programs have already begun in urban districts, there is a critical need to assess the nature and impact of programs designed to fost er success for teachers working with students who are living in poverty (Darling Hammond, 2008). This assessments conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation a nd Development. Out of 40 developed countries tested in science, the US scored 29 th H above the OECD average in each subject area, but African American and Hispanic students sc ore so much lower that the national average plummets to the bottom tier of Hammond, 2010). These data show that a subset of our
14 population is not adequately learning the material, perhaps because we are not meeting their educational needs. Because so many African American and Hispanic students attend urban and high poverty schools, it is in our best interest to take a close look at how we educate students in these settings in order to meet the needs of every child. Recommended teachin g practices for teachers working in schools with high populations of African American students and students living in poverty are collectively referred to as culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP). Ladson Billings (2009) describes a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and prior experiences, cultural norms, and strengths in curriculum, instruction, and the classroom community in order to help children to be successful learners and empowered citizens (Gay, 2000). Much research has already been conducted that addresses what culturally responsiv e te aching looks like in classrooms and the degree to which teachers implement culturally responsive pedagogy (Bergeron, 2008; Bondy, Ross, Gallingane & Hambacher, 2007; Brown, 2003, 2004; Conrad, Gong, Sipp & Wright, 2004; Georges, 2009; Hermes, 2005; Iri zarry, 2007; Ladson Billings, 1995; Patrick, Turner, Meyer, & Midgley, 2003; Phuntsog, 20 01; Poplin et al., 2011; Powell et al. 1990; Sampson & Garrison Wade, 2010; Scott et al. 2009; Souto Manning, 2009; Ware, 2006; Williamson et al. 2005). A revi ew of the literature related to teaching in these enviro nments indicated that there is a set of established practices that enable s teachers to best meet the needs of their students. S cholar s writing about CRP use slightly different
15 framework s to describe its co mponents, however, common elements exist across the frameworks. T his study is guided by the synthesis framework suggested by Powell and Rightmyer (2011). According to Powell and Rightmyer (2011), research rela ted to successful teaching in schools with a h igh population of African American children who are living in poverty suggests that teachers in these settings focus on the following elements: Teacher Care, Classroom Climate, Family Collaboration, Assessment, Curriculum, Instruction/Pedagogy, Discourse/I nstructional Conversation, and Sociopolitical Consciousness Although not reflected as independent component s of Powell and learning (Gay, 2000; Howard, 2010) and culturally responsive classroom management (Weinstein, Curran & Tomlinson Clarke, 2003) are also considered to be part of successful teaching in this context. For the purpose of this study, beliefs will be discussed independent of other elements and classroom management will be discussed as a part of classroom climate. Each of these components is integral to culturally responsive pedagogy. Many programs, including traditional university based teacher education programs and alternative route programs designed for those who hold degrees in fields outside of education, have been developed to prepare new teachers to work specifically in urban classrooms. However, because such programs are relatively new, there is little empirical research that examines th e impact of teacher education programs designed specifically for urban environments (Castro, Kelly, & Shih, 2010; Freedman & Appleman, 2009; Ross, Dodman & Vescio, 2010; Ross, Halsall, Howie, & Vescio, 2007;
16 Watson, 2011). Other related research either des cribes the experiences of preservice teachers in both urban and non urban specific teacher education programs (Conway, Browning & Purdum Cassidy, 2007; Olmedo, 1997; Wiggins & Follo, 1999; Wiggins, Follo & Eberly, 2007) or focuses on the experiences and p erspectives of novice teachers working in urban settings (Achinstein & Aguirre, 2008; Grace, 2003; Worthy, 2005). H owever, not all of the teachers who participated in these studies completed teacher preparation programs designed specifically for teaching i n urban schools. Because programs such as these are so young, little research has been done to document the ir outcomes. It is important that we assess the nature and impact of programs designed to foster success for teachers working with students who are living in poverty (Darling Hammond, 2008). The current research is a beginning in addressing this need for research concerning teachers who are prepar ed to work in urban schools with a high percentage of minority students who are living in poverty Finding s from the study will help teacher educators and administrators to better understand and meet the needs of the novice teachers who are working in these settings. Purpose of Study and Research Questions Th e purposes of this study are 1) to understand the perspectives about effective teaching practice held by three teachers who graduated from a year long residency and 2) to examine the relationship between their perspectives and practices. It will address the following research question: What are the perspe ctives and practices of graduates of a yearlong urban teacher residency who are teaching in schools with a student population that is predominantly low income and/or children of color ? Sub questions guiding the study include: 1) How do the teachers define effective teaching? 2) What practices do these teachers use that they believe are highly effective and why do they
17 believe those practices are effective? 3) What factors do these teachers identify as influential in the development of perspectives and pract ices? Significance single most important act that can be done to reverse disparities of educational ievement Hammond, 2010, p. 40). Darling Hammond explains, The practice of lowering or waiving credentialing standards to fill classrooms in high minority, low many U.S. states [beginning in the 1990s], especially in states with large minority and immigrant populations, such as California, Texas, Florida, and New York, which a llocated such teachers almost exclusively to these students. (2010, p. 41) Howard (2010) agrees: minority students, English language learners, and those living in under qu alified teachers, inconsistent school leadership and administration, and overall As discussed previously, research suggests the effectiveness of a set of culturally responsive p edagogical approaches for teaching minority students and students who are living in poverty Many traditional, university based teacher education programs are structured to provide preservice teachers the opportunity to learn about and practice the skills needed to be successful culturally responsive, urban teachers. There is a limited body of evidence documenting the impact of these traditional programs. Findings from these studies suggest the impact is mixed. However, teachers
18 for these schools are also p repared in non traditional programs which provide abbreviated coursework but extensive field experience that is connected to that coursework. There is even less empirical work documenting the impact of such programs. In order to meet the need for teacher s in urban, high minority, and high poverty schools while guaranteeing that the attending students are taught by the most qualified teachers possible, we need to explore the outcomes of all teacher education programs, traditional or alternative that seek to prepare highly qualified teachers for these schools. This study seeks to address these needs by studying graduates of a non traditional urban teacher education program who are teaching in urban schools five years after program completion in order to lea rn abou t how they teach their students and what perceptions guide their teaching. Conclusion In speaking about education, Howard (2010) states that, the United States than in any ot her nation in the world; it is seen as the commodity that helps to transform life chances, improve economic prospects, change dire outlooks to promising possibilities, and reduce the gap between the haves and the have nots (p. 9). However, education does n students of color or those living in poverty. This achievement gap is persistent and, as yet, we have been unsuccessful in decreasing it. As previously noted African American and Hispanic students i n the U.S. score lower than their national and international peers on assessments conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Additionally, as documented by more than 550 scholars who signed an amicus brief, there are persistent inequ alities in segregated schools:
19 M ore often than not, segregated minority schools offer profoundly unequal qualified, experienced teachers [and] greater instability cause d by rapid tur nover of faculty. (Darling Hammond, 2010, p. 36) Work must be done to improve the education for all of our students, providing them with qualified teach ers who remain teaching in high minority and high poverty schools. The teachers who were involved in this study each completed a non traditional teacher education program designed to prepare them to work in urban settings. Each requirement of teaching in a Title I school with in the same district for three years. One indicator of positive impact from the program is that t hey are currently still teaching within the district in high poverty, Title I schools where at least 50% of the student population is a minority race (identifi ed as Black, Hispanic, or Mixed Race) and do not plan to transfer. Each of these teachers has met the challenge o f teaching in poverty settings and received high student standardized test scores. The perspectives that these teachers provide in relation to their experiences as novice urban teachers are important to our understanding of how we, as teacher educators, can help ready preservice and novice teachers to work in urban, hi gh poverty classrooms with a high minority student population successfully and with longevity. Organization of the Study In order to increase our understanding about whether and how the perspectives and practices of program graduates connect to recommendations for best practice in teaching high poverty, minority youth, the finding s of this study are presented as an educational criticism. Chapter Two includes a review of the current literature related to culturally responsive pedagogy and the experiences of prospective teachers and
20 novice s teachers working in predominantly minority or high poverty school settings. Chapter Three describes the theoretical perspective grounding this study, as well as provides a description of the context of the study and the data collection and analysis methods that were utilized. Chapters Four and Five present the disclosures from each perspectives and practices. Examples are provi ded to help illustrate each discussion. Chapter Six present s a cross case analysi s as well as a summary of the findings and implications of this study.
21 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE This study focused on the perspectives and practices of novice tea chers working in predominantly minority high poverty schools. This review of literature provides an overview of recommended practices considered to be effective for teaching in these environments, as well as a discussion of extant literature related to pr actices and perspectives of preservice teachers in urban teacher education programs and novice teachers who are working in urban schools. Although not exhaustive, this review makes a case for the importance of the study as it situates the study in existing literature related to the core elements of successful teaching practices and the experiences and perspectives of novice urban teachers. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Many articles, both conceptual and empirical, address teaching practices recommended fo r students attending high need, urban schools. A review of literature related to teaching in these environments indicated that there are several common practices that teachers use in order to best meet the needs of their students. Collectively, these pract ices are known as culturally responsive or culturally re levant pedagogy (CRP) CRP is also referenced in the literature as culturally congruent pedagogy, culturally responsive instruction, or culturally relevant teaching, but the distinction between these terms is not clear in the literature Throughout this research, I because of the meaning that each word in the phrase conveys it describes the action; a teacher actively
22 takes when mak background. Culturally responsive pedagogy is a set of recommended practices that emerge from this body of research, the majority of which is descriptive. The research typically studies teachers who were nominated by others familiar with their practice and from both researc h based and theoretical writings. Of the articles and books reviewed for this synthesis, 19 are empirical studies. In the empirical studies, the participants ranged from 1 to 33 teachers, a single classroom of students to 13,054 students, and 121 mothers. Although data collection methods were not described in all of the articles, thirteen studies included participant interview data, nine included classroom observation data, three included quantitative analysis of student learning, and two used mixed methods Unless otherwise specified, the literature cited provides empirical support for the practice described. According to Ladson that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and po litically by using reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning more relevant and effective for them. It teaches to and through the strengths of these 1991 writings to tructional situations
23 where teachers use teaching approaches and strategies that recognize and build on resent both opportunities and challenges for teachers. To maximize learning opportunities, teachers must gain knowledge of the cultures represented in their classrooms, then translate this T his review is org anized using a framework that incorporates the suggested practices found in the collective body of literature. This corpus of research related to successful teaching in a predominantly African American and high poverty context suggests that teachers in the se settings focus on the following six components: 1) strive to challenge their own beliefs about teaching and culture; 2) build relationships with students and parents; 3) create a classroom culture that is a learning community including the use of appro priate classroom management techniques ; 4) use learner and culture centered strategies for selecting curricula and classroom materials; 5) use learner and culture centered instructional techniques; 6) and strive to make the learning experience one that emp owers transforms, and emancipates students. Each of these components is integral to culturally responsive pedagogy. Several of these components are tightly related; thus, at times it is difficult to discuss one in isolation from another. Challenging Belie fs Research suggests that successful teachers of students living in poverty have reflected upon and challenged their beliefs about teaching and about the students they teach. Doing this helps them avoid deficit thinking and instead view their students as c apable learners who they, in turn, can learn from (Bartolome, 1994). Deficit thinking
24 1991, p. 2); in other words, those who subscribe to this belief think that ther e must be something wrong with a child or his family that explains why that child is not doing well academically. Villegas (1991) argues that there are two main theories of deficit: IQ or culture. The IQ deficit theory compares the IQ test scores of minori ty or low socio economic status (SES) students with majority or middle class peers; the fact that minority or low SES students score lower is due to their inferior intelligence (Villegas, iencies in the home r than taking responsibility for finding solutions and strategies to help children learn, deficit thinkers pass the blame to the children and their familie s. T hey believe that all school ife or genetic disposition (Villegas, 1991). When teachers hold this view, they tend to lower expectations for student behavior and academic success, believing that students have a limited capacity to do well. Teachers who have looked critically at their own beliefs and assumptions are better able to recognize that cultural discontinuities might exist between their own culture and those of their students and families (Howard, 2010). Bergeron (2008) refers ibes not only the cultural mismatch that may occur between teachers and their students but also the sense of imbalance or confusion that can result when an individual attempts to grapple with situations or experiences for which he or she is not fully prepa
25 teachers who work in high poverty schools have never experienced poverty themselves. O a home and food, and I mean discontinuities may relate directly to different personal experiences, but should also be considered broadly to include an examination of the historical and systemic oppression that may impact some groups (Hermes, 2005). The White elementary school teacher in As a child, whenever I attended an assembly or program I was told to sit Indian style. Without thinking about it, I asked the children to sit Indian style. realized what I had said to them. I was rather frustrated because I realized that this comment may have been poten tially offensive to the children. I never encountered this in the part of the country where I am from originally. (p. 13) own cultural backgrounds guide their values, b (p. 56 ) and work to meet the needs of their students, rather than the needs they themselves had as children. beliefs (Phuntsog, 2001), Howard (2010) 114). Sometimes, this type of reflection can lead teachers to broaden their ideas of differences to include ethnicity and langu age, as well as socioeconomic circumstances (Hermes, 2005). Teachers often teach in ways that they found to be successful for their own learning as students (Ware, 2002) In contrast, culturally responsive teachers look
26 critically at their beliefs, assumpt ions, and teaching methods to determine whether they are in fact helping their particular students become successful learners (Howard, 2010). Building Relationships with Stakeholders It is important for a culturally responsive teacher to build relationshi ps with all stakeholders. Relationships with students, families, and the neighboring community benefit students as they serve to support their learning Relationships with students Building relationships with students should b egin on the first day of schoo l. I t is important for a teacher to help her students get to know her as a person, not just as an authority figure (Bergeron, 2008; Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2004; Ladson Billings, 1995; Patrick et al. 2003; Ware, 2006). Helping students get to know a te acher as an family and life outside of school, attending school functions such as sporting events, clubs, or dances after hours, and using language or slang that students u se (Bondy et al., 2007; Irizarry, 2007; Sampson & Garrison Wade, 2010). This knowledge enables teachers to build better relationships with students and their families in a genuine way. When students get to know their teacher on a personal level, they begin to trust that their teacher cares about them and holds personal interest in their success (Irizarry, Care is one of the most important tenets of relationship building in a culturally responsive classroom. When students know that their teacher cares about them in a genuine way, they are able to connect with them emotionally and academically and
27 strive to meet the high expectations set for them (Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2003; Scott 279) through instruction or with curriculum. While care is a significant contributor to academic success, it is also important to building a classroom community. One teacher for one another as if our very survival Billings, 1995, p. 481). One way that a every so often that [she has] said something Ensuring equitable and reciprocal relationships Billings, 1995, p. 480) teacher student and student student respect is paramount in classrooms such as these (Brown, 2003, 2 004; Patrick et al., 2003; Poplin et al., 2011). Researchers and theorists agree that one of the most important ways for the teacher to show that she respects her students is through attentive listening (Brown, 2003; Irizarry, 2007; Rightmyer, 2011). In th eir interviews and observations with 31 teachers, Poplin and colleagues (2011) found that effective teachers respected their students for who they are now as well as for the through never giving up, doing excellent work, trying their best, being hopeful, thinking critically, rvations of what they however, want to feel that their teachers love them as expl ained by a high school aged
28 African American girl in Sampson and Garrison (p. 295 ). Relationships with parents and families Teachers working with high numbers of minority students who are living in poverty educate and socialize children for productive ci (2011) notes that there are 10 facets to a successful home school partnership, which include shared responsibility among all stakeholders with a recognition that these partnerships are vital at all grade levels, the importance of reaching out to all family members, including those in hard to reach families, and an effort to link student learning and curriculum to the important, though, to take into ac partners. For example, one study of Mexican and Mexican preferences for workshops and meetings found that some mothers preferred group workshops, while others preferred individual home v isits (Powell et al. 1990). The same study found that some mothers preferred that their extended families participate in any workshops, while others requested that their spouses attend w ith them (Powell et al. 1990). This shows that teachers cannot count same ways and that they need to be flexible so they can build meaningful relationships families, building c ultural literacy (Phuntsog, 2001) by learning about their respective cultures and individual experiences (Bergeron, 2008; Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2004;
29 McKinney et al., 2008; Scott et al. 2009; War e, 2006). For example, Bergeron, seeking to understand the challenges faced by novices in creating culturally responsive classrooms, studied a novice teacher who worked in a largely Hispanic elementary school. This White teacher used Spanish in class to help her communicate with her Spanish speaking students e ven though she was not a fluent speaker, and held joint parent student conferences so students could both help her communicate clearly with their parents and take the lead on showing their parents what progress they have made during the year (Bergeron ). Th is effort allows for the involvement of several stakeholders in student learning and also gives students control over sharing their own goals and accomplishments. Relationships extend to the community In order to be as beneficial as possible, this stakehol der partnership should also include the local community. Hermes (2005) suggests that when a teacher collaborates with members of the community, the teacher removes herself from being the sole ection, and self from the support provided by those in and out of school. Gehrke (2005) suggests that this means not only learning about the characteristics and needs of individual families, but also how poverty affects students, the particular administrative issues that arise in large, urban school districts, and the available resources the school and local community have to offer. For example, in her research of teac hers working in tribal schools on Native American reservations, Hermes (2005) suggests that teachers also socioeconomic status and a myriad of related issues 16 ).
30 School and C lassroom Culture The role of a successful teacher includes developing relationships with all stakeholders, but equally important to culturally responsive pedagogy is what takes place inside the classroom. The classroom culture, which includes the classroom environment and classroom management strategies, contributes to a successful culturally responsive classroom. can either be one that welcomes diversity and portrays a mult icultural community of learners, or one that largely ignores diversity, thereby dismissing the unique ell, 2011, p. 37). Powell students it serves with artwork, posters, books, maps and other displays that resemble the ways that students look, communicate, and play. If teachers are not conscious of lege by marginalizing achievem p. 36) rather than encouraging students to believe in themselves and their abilities. In a conceptual piece in wh ich Weinstein, Curran, and Tomlinson Clarke (2003) introduce the concept of culturally responsive classroom management, they state that effective culturally responsive classroom management requires a teacher to create a physical setting that supports stude nt learning, establish expectations for behavior, backgrounds 272 ), show students that she cares for them as individuals, work with families and encourage them to share ins ights about their children and families, and use
31 appropriate interventions when behavior problems arise. Teache rs interviewed in 2004) studies of culturally responsive classroom management similarly noted that the learning atmosphere in a cu lturally responsive classroom should be business like, where students know there is serious work to be done. One teacher ral of the teachers in this study make it clear to their students that their behavior affects the le arning of everyone in the class and if behavior is not meeting expectations, then they will be asked to leave (Brown, 2004). Other teachers believe that a k ey to successful classroom management with at all times (Poplin et al., 2011). According to Lawrence (2004) in her memoir about her tenure as principal in a high pover In order for a business like environment to occur, teachers need to establish clear expectations for student behavior and insist that students meet these expectations (Bondy et al., 2007). This can be done starting on the first day of school by teaching rules and procedures that are based on mutual respect, communicating the belief that students will meet these expectations, being consistent in enfor cing rules, calmly delivering consequences, and contacting parents when necessary (Bergeron, 2008; Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2003; Patrick et al., 2003; Ware, 2006). When misbehavior ld be non punitive, relying on trusting relationships rather than fear of punishment to address disruptions.
3 2 Instruction & Wheeler, 2011, p. 154), there are several recommendations for effective culturally responsive instruction. These knowledge and experiences into lessons, explicitly teach ing critical thinking and allowing and encouraging students to work in group s. B y incorporating these approaches, teachers are able to embrace the diversity of their c lassrooms while teaching relevant and meaningful lessons that meet the needs of their students on an individual level (Cantrell & Wheeler). Hold high and explicit expectations Effective teachers of students living in poverty have high expectations for th eir own responsible for finding solutions that help students develop skills to overcome the challenges they face (Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2004; Hermes, 2005; Ladson Bi llings, 1995; Patrick et al., 2003; Poplin et al., 2011; Ware, 2006). Gehrke (2005) theorizes that factors 17 ). Effective teachers expect their students to learn rega rdless of those one another respectfully and that they complete the academic tasks necessary for p. 55 ). In promoting high exp ectations for students, teachers should be both clear and consistent, insisting that students meet their requests but calmly and authoritatively delivering stated consequences if
33 expectations are not met (Bondy et al., 2007; Brown 200 3 ). Knapp, Turnbull, and Shields (1990) theorize that expectations should be appropriate for the specific work being done at a given time, while falling within the set guidelines for overall classroom behavior. In a study of 31 Los Angeles County elementary and secondary teach ers, researchers found that the teachers they interviewed had expectations that required students to not only behave appropriately but also to meet academic expectations, for et al., 2011, p 41 ). It is important for teachers to make their expectations explicit through explanation as well as by modeling, as students should be able to hear and see what they are expected to do (Knapp et al., 1990). After working with preservice teachers in th e Urban Teacher Preparation Program at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Tidwell and Thompson (2008) concluded that if teachers incorporate concepts of multicultural studen (p. 86 ), then they will be able maintain high expectations for their students despite their potenti ally very different backgrounds nd experiences into instruction An effective teacher does not as sume that students have prior knowledge of class content (Chenoweth, 2009). Instead researchers and theorists agree that effective background experiences, beginning inst ruction where students are and with what they can already do rather than where standards for learning assume students should be (Bennet t, 2008; Chenoweth, 2009; Knapp et al., 1990; McKinney et al., 2008; Scott et al., 2009). In their study of a third and f ifth grade teache r, Williamson et al. (2005) found
34 strategies t hat helped their students learn. I n other words, these teachers were explicit, used what is familiar to students to teach what is unfamiliar, broke large concepts into smaller parts, and provided multiple exposures to new ideas. Such teachers are flexible (Hermes, 2005) and teach towards a variety of learning styles, knowing that not all students learn in the same w ays (Bondy et al., 2007). Assessment and class activities should de differentiated and multi Billings, (2009) study of literacy teachers sums up these characteristics ne atly: in order for students to be successful learners, their (p. 339) while taking into motivating, focused, and differen tiated to meet their needs sibility for their own learning Effective teachers who work with students living in poverty structure their lessons in ways that promote critical thinking and increase learning. Teachers may begin a lesson with direct instruction using strategies such as modeling, guided and independent practice, and review, incorporating demonstrations and whole class discussions into their lessons (Poplin et al., 2011) in order to present content explicitly and help students become familiar with new material (Williamson et al., 2005). Additionally, some educational theorists suggest that teachers explicitly state and model their thinking processes when solving problems or thinking through literature, helping students learn how to make connections and move process es into long term memory (Knapp et al., 1990).
35 In one quantitative study of mathematics instruction with 13,054 kindergarteners living in poverty, Georges (2009) found that students benefited from classrooms where teachers emphasized analytical, problem solving and reasoning skills, geared lessons toward individual student needs, and required active student engagement where students applied mathematical concepts. As students expand their ability to think critically and independently, teachers should slowly begin to give students contr ol of their own learning (Knapp et al., 1990). In her study of teachers on Native American reservations, Herm students to be responsible for retrieving and completing any work missed due to absences. Another teacher required students to have a buddy with whom they could work on assignments, quiz before assessments, and call to catch up on assignments if their buddy missed school one day (Ladson Billings, 1995). By encouraging students to be responsible for their learning, they will turn to each other and to their own thinking rather than relying solely on the teacher for guidance. Students learn that the role of the teacher is not an all are capable of excellence and [assumes] responsibility for ensuring that [her] students achieve that e Billings, 2009, p. 26). Encourage students to work in groups Finally, research on culturally responsive pedagogy suggests that teachers allow students to interact as a learning community. In doing so, the teacher creates opportunities fo r students to hone their social and interpersonal skills, as well as skills in working collaboratively to accomplish tasks (Brown, 2004; Ladson Billings, 1995). In black people and other stude nts of color, who often prefer cooperation over competition as a modality of
36 dictates that they make connections with others in the group before getting started on a task would be beneficial to allow them the opportunity to chat with each other or as a whole group for a moment before getting started. in heterogeneous groups is one characteristic of effective teaching in high poverty schools (Bartolome, 1994; Haberman, 2010). Sampson and Garrison Wade (2010) note that students in their study appreciated being able to select their own group members, as t hey enjoyed working with their friends. Students working in groups may benefit academically as well as after students worked in collaborative groups, their scores on the a ddition and subtraction subtest for students in high poverty classrooms improved significantly. In a true classroom community, students should feel responsible for their own success and emotional well being, as well as for that of their classmates (Brown, 2004; Ladson Billings, 1995). Curriculum What is taught in a culturally responsive classroom is just as important as how it relate better to schooling and improve comprehensive demographic, social, cultural, and linguistic realities of U.S. society and the world 232 233; italics in o instruction is insufficient for many children if the texts and tasks are not relevant to their
37 ways for st Billings, 2009, p. 20). Others agree that an academic program should be dynamic rather than fixed (Cox, 2011), encouraging students to draw from and build upon their experiences and knowledge while exposing them to new experiences and ways of t hinking (Bartolome, 1994; Knapp et al., 1990). Rather than relying on prepackaged and impersonal curricula, successful culturally responsive teach music, video, books, and other nontraditional texts, into their teaching (Irizarry, 2007; Ware, 2006). One way to do this is for teachers to fill their libraries with books that include characters from a variety of ethnic and socio economic groups or tell the same story from different perspectives (Souto Manning, 2009). However, care should be taken so that this is done in a manner that provides deep cultural context, rather than through the superficial addition of things like food, folktales, or artwork that exacerbate stereotypes (Hermes, 2005).Incorporating thes e elements into the curriculum can form a bridge that eventually leads students to examine relevant social issues that affect t heir lives (Irizarry, 2007). In order to help build these bridges, teachers should model ways for students to think critically about texts and other resources, questioning point of view, accuracy, balance, and stereotyping found in words and images (Cox, 2 011). Bartolome (1994) suggests that teachers should not blindly adopt methods or instructional programs that claim to be effective for all students; instead, teachers should create classroom environments that are informed by deliberate action and reflecti on.
38 explained that standardized tests should be considered neither unimportant nor the sole reason for instruction. R ather, standardized test results should be considered a r esource for helping teachers teach better. Teachers are required to teach certain standards on which students will be tested, but these standards should be taught using h istory students concurs: state standards should be considered a support for learning, rather than being the first and only piece. Empowerment, Transformation, and Emancipation Empowerment, transformation, and emancipation are three end goals of culturally responsive pedagogy. In working toward each of these goals, students become more independent and confident learners who strive to accomplish positive changes in their own academic work, as well as that of their classmates, and in their communities. It is important for teachers and students to strive to meet these goals in (Howard, 2010) Minority student enrollments are increasing annually and as noted in Chapter 1, some minority groups are not scori ng as well as their White counterparts on international tests of student achievement (Darling achievement gaps continue over the next several decades, an increasing proportion of severely uneducated and ill prepared to compete in a global transformation, and emancipation are potential avenues to help students increase their achievement.
39 The first of these goals is student empowerment. According to Gay (2000), learner s Empowerment translates into academic competence, personal confidence, 2). Empowerment comes through making available to students curriculum that is connected to their lives and experiences outside of school, as well as presenting them with lessons and activities that allow them to interact with each other, their communitie s, and the curriculum (Gay ). Through scaffolding and support as well as by celebrating accomplishments, empowering teachers can help students gain confidence in their ability to learn and succeed (Gay). Transformation is a second end goal of culturally respo ns ive pedagogy. Transformative teaching those skills further; one example is using verbal storytelling common in many Black communities as a means to teach writing (Gay, 2000). As stated by Gay (200 0 ), and values needed to become social critics who can make reflective decisions and implement their decisions in effective personal, social, political, and economic ac tion 131 ) Gay ethnic individuals and groups, have zero tolerance for these, and become change agents committed to promoting greater equality, justice, and power balances am ong Finally, the emancipatory goal of culturally responsive pedagogy means that total and permanent. Nor should it be allowed to exist uncont ested (Gay, 2000, p. 35).
40 Teachers can help students meet these goals by modeling how to be critical consumers of texts and other classroom materials, as well as by being purposeful in instruction that points out and challenges stereotypes, one sided info rmation, and other hegemonic structures that serve to reproduce the status quo (Carter, 2011; Gay). By taking part in this type of instruction, students are able to view many perspectives and make their own interpretations about what they learn, thus helpi ng them become active and engaged participants in their learning. In the research of real classrooms, the end result of meeting these goals may present itself differently. For Native American students, empowerment begins with students taking responsibilit y for gathering their own missing work; here, the teacher has put a system of files in place, but it is up to the student to collect the assignments (Hermes, 2005). Several of the teachers in Ladson American teachers str essed the need for students to view their class as a collective of learners who worked for the success of all, rather than working for individual success. their opinion s through speech and writing, often using music, specifically rap, to make their points about social issues at school and in their community. Their teacher allowed them leeway in using vernacular as well as distinct handwriting styles that other teachers f rowned upon (Irizarry, 2007). A final example is found in Sampson and Garrison the researchers designed to integrate with a local history lesson; upon their return, students fel t more connected to their neighborhood. Whether or not a student takes action on what they have learned may depend on whether they feel that their teacher
41 cares about them. For example, her students thr oughout the year as a way to model the care she wanted them to exhibit Practices and P erspectives of Novice Urban Teachers A search of literature related to the practices and perspectives of novice teachers working in urban schools revealed that there is little extant literature on this topic. Twelve empirical studies were found that addres sed teacher candidate or novice teacher ex periences in urban schools ( Appendix A). Of these studies, six focused on participants in urban preservice teacher education programs. The remaining six studies focused on the experiences and perspectives of novice teachers working in urban settings but not all of the teachers who participated in these studies completed teacher preparation programs designed specifically for teaching in urban schools. The number of participants in these studies ranged from 10 to 218 preservice teachers and from one to 26 novice teachers. Although data collection methods were not described in all of the articles, seven studies included participant interview data, two included classroom observation data, three used textual analysis, tw o included quantitative analysis of teacher perceptions, and two used mixed methods. Teacher Education Programs All six of the studies of preservice teachers looked at the field experience or internship component of teacher education programs and the exte nt to which the field experience affected the views or behaviors of preservice teachers. Each of the studies focused on preservice teachers who were enrolled in a teacher preparation program that placed students in urban school settings. Two of these studi es were quantitative in
42 nature (Wiggins & Follo, 1999; Wiggins, Follo, & Eberly, 2007); three were qualitative (Conaway, Browning, & Purdum Cassidy, 2007; Olmedo, 1997; Ross, Halsall, Howie, & Vescio, 2007), and one used mixed methodology (Ross, Dodman, & Vescio, 2010). Several of these studies centered on the early field experiences that took place during the first years of the program (Olmedo, 1997; Wiggins & Follo, 1999; Wiggins, Follo, & Eberly, 2007). These field experiences included approximately 30 h ours of observation and limited teaching responsibility over the course of one semester. Concurrent with the field placement, preservice teachers were enrolled in courses that incorporated information about cultural diversity and strategies for working in diverse settings into the required readings and class discussions (Wiggins & Follo, 1999; Wiggins et al., 2007). Preservice teachers in Ol where they debriefed their experiences, learned new strategies, and described their fi eld experiences and reactions to their placements through the use of journaling. Wiggins and Follo (1999) provided 123 undergraduate teacher education students placed in both urban and suburban field placements with a survey that asked them to describe th eir feelings about teaching diverse student populations, their perceived readiness to do so, and ways that their program could be improved to strengthen their preparation for teaching in diverse settings. Researchers used quantitative analysis to analyze t he responses from the questionnaire. Results showed that increased lity to teach in these settings but this experience did not affect their desire or commitment to do so, nor did the experience guarante e that new teachers would feel comfortable interacting with their students, parents, or colleagues (significance level of experience: p=0.0000;
43 significance level of readiness: p=0.0078) (Wiggins & Follo, 1999). The authors recommended that teacher educati on programs should include a combination of multicultural coursework, field experience, and modeling by practicing teachers that lead to deep rather than superficial understanding of the students and community. In a later study, Wiggins et al. (2007) surv eyed 44 preservice teachers, along with a comparison group of 15 substitute teachers working in urban settings. The purpose of culturally diverse urban classrooms change experience that was designed specifically to address the complexities of teaching in such a setting. Findings suggest that internships that included extensive time on school campuses, either through extended internship experiences, having their classes and seminars on campus, or participating in extra curricular activities, allowed preservice teachers to make more personal connections with students and families (significance level of time: p< 0.01 ) (Wiggins, Follo, & Ebe rly, 2007). Although also examining the early field experiences of preservice teachers, Olmedo (1997) used qualitative methods to focus on a smaller sample of 16 undergraduates, all of whom were White As previously stated, part of their internship semin ar required undergraduates to journal about their classroom experiences. Through content analysis of these journals, Olmedo uncovered the ways that course readings experienc es took place. Olmedo noted that the interactions with diverse students
44 multicultural education; these were no longer just buzzwords mentioned in class, but concerns that a ffected real students. In contrast to these three studies that focused on the early field experiences in teacher education programs, three studies examined the internship experience of preservice teachers. Internships la sted between one semester (Ross et al., 2007; Ross et al., 2010) and one year (Conaway, Browning, & Purdum Cassidy, 2007). In each of these studies, internships took place in urban classrooms. Conaway, Browning, and Purdum Cassidy (2007) began their study by questioning 218 preservice teach ers at the start of their freshman year, semester long field experience about their perceptions of teaching in urban schools. This field experience consisted of tutoring first and second graders in an urban school. Students were queried again at the end of the semester to see if their perceptions had changed. During the next two years of the program, preservice t eachers participated in similar short field experiences but were not surveyed. Preservice teachers completed a one year internship during their sen ior year i n the teacher education program and their classroom responsibilities increased as the year progressed. At the conclusion of this internship, the 114 preservice teachers who remained in the program were provided with a nother questionnaire. A t this time, perspectives about urban teaching had changed over the four years of their program. Findings showed that change in attitudes did occur; students developed more accurate unde rstandings of the characteristics of th ose living in urban communities and felt more comfortable tea ching in urban schools (Conaway et al., 2007).
45 Similar ly, Ross et al. (2010) sought to understand the extent to which a one semester internship affected th e job acceptance decisions and effectiveness of new of their teacher education program. Of these 93 preservice teachers, 50 interned in a high need school and 43 interned in a heterogeneous school. The pre survey was given to interns after the first three weeks of their placements, once they had worked with students for a significant amount of time, and focused on their perceptions of self efficacy and intent to teach in u rban schools. A post survey was administered to 53 total graduates of the teacher education program, 34 of who completed the i nternship in a high need school. T he remaining 19 graduates completed the internship at a non high need school. Results of the qu estionnaires were compared and analyzed quantitatively. Findings from the quantitative part of this study suggest that students who had an internship experience in a poverty school were more likely to accept a teaching position in a school with a moderate or high poverty level as compared to novices who had not had such an experience. The qualitative portion of this study, related to novice teachers, will be discussed further below. Ross, Halsall, Howie, and Vescio (2007) studied the experiences of 10 pros pective teachers who had completed an internship and corresponding seminar that was for student success. After completing their internship, prospective teachers participate d in a retrospective interview and gave permission for their online course postings to be examined during inductive analysis. The researchers determined that 3 of the 10
46 wo rking to solve classroom problems rather than placing blame on students, their families, the curriculum, or testing. Five other participants were considered to have me on students or other factors or sometimes questioned whether they could reach every student. H owever, these students also posed classroom questions as solvable problems. Data related to the remaining two prospective teachers were not reported. Findings showed that a ll 10 of th e interns were willing to teach in high poverty schools, though five qualified their responses by stating a need to teach elsewhere first or that the school would need to have a supportive professional climate (Ross et al., 2007). Findings from these stud ies suggest that teacher education programs should include multicultural coursework that connects tightly, and not superficial ly, to the fieldwork experience and should provide students with opportunities and guidance to be self reflective and make connect ions between what they read about and what they see in classrooms (Olmedo, 1997; Wiggins & Follo, 1999). One major finding common to these studies is that field experiences in urban, high need settings contribute to and self efficacy in teaching in these environments (Conaway e t al., 2007; Olmedo, 1997; Ross et al., 2010; Ross et al., 2007; Wiggins & Follo, 1 999; Wiggins et al., 2007). Novice Teachers The studies reviewed below focused on the experiences of novice te achers working in urban settings. Two of these studies, Watson (2011) and Cross (2003), addressed the ways that novice teachers thought about the urban settings in which they taught. Four studies (Achinstein & Aguirre, 2008; Castro, Kelly, & Shih, 2010; Fr eedman & Appleman, 2009; Worthy, 2005) concerned the challenges faced by and the resilience
47 of novice teachers working in urban schools. Finally, altho ugh the study conducted by Ross et al. (2010) was discussed above as a teacher education study, the quali tative component of the study concerns novice teachers and will be discussed further below. In addition to the quantitative component of Ross et al. were conducted with six teachers, three graduates each from high need and non h igh need internships, all of whom were teaching in high need schools after graduation. teaching in one of the following contexts: rural with a high White student population, u rban with a high African American student population, or urban with a high student population of English Language Learners. Interviews were qualitatively analyzed in this mixed methods study, and findings showed that the greatest challenge to teaching in h igh poverty schools is confronting the assumptions that preservice teachers held about with children from poverty felt less frustrated during their first year of teaching in a increases efficacy, validating the importance of internships in high need schools n p). Cross (2003) and Watson (2011) also used teacher interviews as the source of qua litative data; Cross interviewed 12 graduates of an urban focused teacher education program, while Watson interviewed 16. Although both addressed the perceptions novice urban teachers held about the environment in which they taught, the research questions guiding these studies were different. Cross used interviews to uncover whether the reflections about their readiness to teach in multiracial classrooms. Each teacher was
48 i nterviewed one time, and each interview lasted approximately one hour. Watson reference to their students and schools. Each teacher in this study was interviewed three times over the course of one year; each of these interviews lasted approximately one hour. The transcripts from each set of interviews were analyzed prior to the next previous int erviews. From the interviews, Cross (2003) determined that the teachers who graduated from this urban teacher education program were able to explicate several of the tenets erse literature, recognizing cultural diversity, and acknowledging backgr ound knowledge and experiences). H owever, these teachers had difficulty implementing these practices in even with preparation designed for teachers entering urban settings, novice teachers avoided hen they spoke about their own W hiteness. These teachers were willing and wanted to teach in schools that were diverse, but only diverse to a certain extent; schools with higher levels of racial diversity or poverty were avoided by many of the teachers due to perceived challenges inherent to those environments. Three of the studies related to the challenges faced by and the resilience of novice teachers working in urban schools focused on the experiences of White teachers working in urban and culturally diverse schools (Castro, Kelly, & Shih, 2010; Freedman
49 & Appleman, 2009; Worthy, 2005). Achinstein and Aguirre (2 008) examined the experiences of teachers of color in schools with high minority student populations. The majority of research concerning urban education focuses on the experiences of White teachers in a high minority classroom setting. Conversely, Achins tein and experiences of teachers of color with their minority students. The purpose of the study was to understand the challenges they faced, how teachers responded to those challenges, and what induction support these minority teachers felt would have helped them deal with those challenges. Each of 15 teachers participated in three semi structured interviews during each of three years of the study, six classroom observations during the first two years of the study, as well as focus groups to allow participants to member check the analysis. Analysis included three levels of coding: preliminary coding of socio cultural challenges, pattern coding of responses to challenges, and cross case analysis. Findings suggested that minority teachers face questions from students regarding their language, skin color, class, gender roles, and country of origin, and are sometimes accused of intercultural racism. However, teachers in this study generally did not feel that the questions a nd chal lenges were meant to be hurtful. I nstead, they were considered to be attempts by students to make connections with them. In order to cope with these challenges, these minority teachers often reflected upon and reframed the challenges to turn them in understandings of culture, strengthen their relationships with students, and connect the issue to course content. T hese t eachers argued that helping to problematize culture helps minority students learn ho w to navigate dominant culture.
50 The remaining three studies focused on the challenges and resilience of White teachers working in urban, high minority and high need schools. Two of these were 5 year longitudinal studies that focused on the same teacher o r teachers throughout the course of the study (Freedman & Appleman, 2009; Worthy, 2005). Worthy used interviews, classroom observations, and field notes to document the journey of one male teacher who completed a traditional university teacher education pr ogram as he navigated the first years of teaching in an urban elementary school. The purpose of this received while teaching, in addition to his opinion as to whether his te acher education program adequately prepare d him for the job Worthy found that there were three main experienced teacher: becoming a teacher versus being a manager; overcoming challenges in finding support systems; and criticisms of and suggestions for preservice preparation and induction programs. Freedman and Appleman (2009) studied 26 secondary English teachers during their first five years teaching in urban schools. Each o f these teachers completed a teacher education program designed specifically to prepare teachers to work in urban environments. The research question that guided data collection and analysis was, ). In order to answer this question, the mixed methods study consisted of a collection of demographic data that was collected during all five years and a survey of all participants, followed by individual interviews with eight teachers duri ng year four of data collection. F ive of those eight teachers were interviewed again during the fifth year of the study. Not all of the teachers
51 remained teaching in urban schools for the duration of the study. Freedman and Appleman found that teachers generally stayed in challenging urban environments for reasons that included a sense of mission, a disposition for hard work, the receipt of appropriate and adequate teacher preparation and support from members of their cohort and other members of the professional community Castro, Kelly, and Shih (2010) studied 15 elementary and secondary teachers working in hard to staff schools. Five were special education teachers who completed a traditional teacher education program; the majority of the remaining 10 teachers were eith er working towards completion or had completed the requirements of alternative teacher certification programs. Five of those teachers taught in urban schools and five taught in rural schools. This study focused on the perspectives of these teachers related to two research questions: First, what strategies do new teachers employ in response to adverse situations? And second, what resources do beginning teachers rely on to overcome challenges and obstacles to teaching? Interviews were the sole data source. Fi of paperwork, grading, meetings, parents, classroom management, and the myriad others faced by teachers working in high needs schools. These strategies included help seek ing, problem solving, managing difficult relationships, and seeking rejuvenation and renewal. However, Castro et al. also found that developing these expend energy from beg novices.
52 In all three of these studies, support systems were crucial to the success of a novice teacher, though support may not be easy to find (Castro et al., 2010; Freedman & Applem an, 20 09; Worthy, 2005). Castro et al. note that veteran teachers often do not volunteer to help novices, so novices may have to seek help when needed. Worthy (2 005) sta tes that learning how to communicate with colleagues for any reason is a learned, although ne cessary, skill. Additionally, a key characteristic common to the teachers who remained working in challenging envi ronments is persistence (Castro et al.; Freedman & Appleman; Worthy). As part of problem solving, trial and error and researching alternative ommon coping mechanisms (Castro et al.; Worthy). Limitations in the Literature Based on this review of relevant lite rature, it is clear that we already know a great deal about recommended practices for teaching in high poverty environments. Teachers successful at working in these environments reflect upon and challenge their own beliefs about teaching and students, reco gnize and act upon the needs of their students, and learn about and work with members of the school and neighboring communities. However, although several scholars known for their work in culturally responsive pedagogy (Banks, 1991; Gay, 2000; Ladson Billi ngs, 1995; Howard, 2010) stress the need for this type of pedagogy to have an end goal of empowerment, little of this goal. Of the 19 empirical studies synthesized for thi s review, less than one fourth (Hermes, 2005; Irizarry, 2007; Ladson Billings, 1995; Sampson & Garrison Wade, 2010) discuss ways that the study reflects an emancipatory or empowering outcome.
53 Several of the studies discussed wha t preservice teachers are l earning related to cultural ly responsive pedagogy (Conaway et al., 2007; Olmedo, 1997; Ross et al., 2010; Ross et al., 2007; Wiggins & Follo, 1999; Wiggins et al., 2007), as well as indicate what is challenging for novice teachers in diverse settings in re lation to implementing CRP (Castro et al., 2010; Freedman & Appleman, 2009; Ross et al., 2010; Worthy, 2005). programs endorse and adopt these perspectives and practices or wheth er they are able to do so over time. Further research is needed that helps us understand whether new teachers who completed urban teacher education programs believe that culturally responsive pedagogy is effective and valuable in their own classrooms, whe ther they use culturally responsive pedagogy in their classrooms, and their perspectives about what promotes and inhibits the implementation of strategies recommended for use in classr ooms with a large population of children of color who are living in pove rty
54 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction The purposes of this study were: 1) to understand the perspectives about effective teaching practice held by teachers who graduated from a year long residency and 2) to examine the relationship between their perspe ctives and practices. Because year long, alternative certification, clinical teacher preparation programs are relatively new, it is important for us to learn more about how program graduates conceptualize and enact their roles as teachers of low income, ch ildren of color, and how we, as teacher educators, can improve our practice to help them become more effective educators in urban and high poverty environments. In order to increase our understanding about whether and how the perspectives and practices of program graduates connect to recommendations for best practice for teaching in predominantly minority high poverty schools, the findings of this study are presented as an educational criticism. The cribe the essential qualities of phenomenon studied, to interpret the meanings of and relationships among those qualities, and to provide reasoned judgments about the significance and value of the rstand the perspectives and teaching practices of graduates of an urban residency, as well as to compare their experiences with existing literature about recommended practices for teaching in similar, high poverty environments with a large African American student population. Research Questions The purpose of this study was to investigate and document the perspectives and practices regarding effective teaching held by teachers who completed a year long,
55 alternative certification, urban residency program an d are currently working in Title I elementary schools. The research question guiding this study was: What are the perspectives and practices of graduates of a yearlong urban residency who are teaching in schools with a student population that is primarily low income and minority ? Sub questions include: 1) How do these teachers define effective teaching? 2) What practices do these teachers use that they believe are highly effective? Why do they believe those practices are effective? 3) What factors do these teachers identify as influential in the development of their perspectives and practices? Theoretical Framework This study is qualitative in nature, with a theoretical foundation in constructivism. s to understand and interpret 5). Constructivism ptions of the world, that no one a constructivist perspective; while the inte rview portion and the feedback component of the observation portion are considered constructivist methods, the cross case analysis and criticism are not. These methods will be described individually and in detail below. The study is grounded in ethnographi c methods as it sought to understand the behavior patterns and perspectives of three teachers who completed an urban residency program and are currently teaching in Title I schools (Patton, 2002). As previously stated, the findings are presented in the for m of an educational criticism which includes
56 goes beyond these perspectives using interpretation and critique. researcher] experienc with the end goal of improving the educational process for those involved (Eisner, 2002). This study sought to improve the educational process for the participating teachers as well as for n ovice teacher residents who proceed through the program in the future. By discussing their perspectives and practices during interviews, the participants may have become more aware of and reflective about their own practice. Additionally, by learning how these teachers taught and why they made certain instructional decisions, those involved with the residency program may gain key understandings about how they could inform their practice as teacher educators. Educational criticism has its roots in social an thropology and aesthetic criticism critic, then, is to create an image of the situa attention to its most significant features (Eisner, 2002). Eisner explained that the features considered significant depend on the critic, the purpose of the study, and the theories or models being used for comparison (2002). In this study, features that were considered significant we practice as well as those features related to effective culturally responsive practices as illustrated by a review of the existing literature.
57 In turn, an educational criticism is descriptive, interpretive, evaluative, and thematic. The purpose of the description is to make most clear the features of each case that are most significant. E does not necessarily focus on the same aspects. The interpretative part of a criticism answers kno and actions. During the evaluative stage, the critic uses educational criteria to determine value: Is this practice improving the educational process for this teacher or these children? Finally, the thematic stage is a place for garnering the major ideas or conclusions derived from the experience. The identification of themes helps showcase the larger lessons that can be learned from this experience and allows the reader t o understand the essential point of the work (Eisner, 2002). This educational criticism includes three overlapping components. A description of by side with a discussion of the perspectives the teacher shared duri ng interviews. This coupling of practice and perspective lends description is also provided that compares the data to understandings culled from the existing literature on recommended practices f or teaching in high minority, high poverty environments. Essentially, this criticism seeks to understand the perspectives through which these teachers view teaching in their context, which practices these teachers are able to do easily, which practices they find challenging, and determine whether these
58 teachers hold perspectives and are enacting practices considered by existing literature to be effective in environments similar to those in which they teach. Participant Selection school d istrict and a nearby university. After the 2012 school year, t he program wil l no longer be in operation for a variety of reasons, including the fact that the teacher shortages the program was designed to address have subsided. The residency was a one education. Participants worked side by side with experienced mentor teachers four full days each week, gradually taking on more responsibility for planning and teaching lessons. During the fifth day, participants attended courses such as educational psycho logy, reading and mathematics methods, classroom management, and other topics that are important to effective teaching and that will be addressed on certification tests. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy was woven into the subject matter for each of the five course s and was not offered as stand alone content. All coursework was practical and designed to connect theory to classroom practice. Upon program Title I schools for three years as repayment for tuition costs. After the contractual three year period, teachers were free to transfer to any within district school, or leave the district entirely. Of the 15 participants who began the residency during its inaugural year (2006 2007), eleven completed it and were hired for teaching positions at schools within the district. During the contractual three year period, two teachers were released from their
59 contracts. One of those two teachers was hired to work in a within distr ict charter school. After the contractual period ended, one teacher was not reappointed but is currently teaching in a Title I school in a different district. Another is still active within the district but on maternity leave, while a third teacher was tra nsferred to a within district, non Title I magnet school. Currently, six of the participants who completed the program are employed at within district, non charter elementary schools. Each of these teachers was asked to participate in this study Three teac hers were purposefully selected to participate in the study and represent a homogenous group meeting specified criteria (Patton, 2002). Selection criteria included the following: e ach participant 1) residency program d uring t he 2006 2007 school year; 2) completed the contractual three year teaching requirem ent in an urban, Title I school, and; 3) still teaches in an urban, Title I elementary school within the district. Of the six teachers who completed the program, three met a ll of these criteria. Each of these three teachers was invited to participate in the study and was provided with an informed consent form that explained the purpose and procedures that would be followed during the study. The teachers were informed that pa rticipation was voluntary and that they could terminate their participation at any time. All three teachers agreed to participate in the study. However, after data collection and analysis were completed I determined that one of these teachers would not be an appropriate case for to protect the privacy of individuals studied during this research, pseudonyms were
60 given to all participants and their students and schoo ls, and specific programs are not referenced by name. All identifying information was altered to protect anonymity. The School Setting as Situated in History largest school districts. Historically, this district has faced long standing challenges to integrate its schools. In general, Florida was hesitant to end segregation in its schools, instead encouraging schools to equalize funding, transportation needs, and staff racial ratios in order to preserve segregation (Tomberlin, 1974). Even after the passing of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954, Florida maintained its segregated school systems by passing 21 bills into law that were designed to protect the dual Black White education system that was in place (Tomberlin). T he first Black students to enroll in an all White Florida public school did not d o so until 1959 (Tomberlin ). Historically, desegregation efforts in the district in which this study tak es place were no different from those in other parts of the state. In 1960, one quarter of the badly supplied, understaffed, poorly constructed, inadequately ventilated, underfinanced, and sometimes so great that the district used Greyhound buses (Bartley, 2001, p. 33 7). Through the 1960s, the district implemented two integration policies. The first was to integrate one grade level each year in neighborhood schools, starting with first and second grades, until all grade levels integrated in 1974. The second plan was to allow school choice, meaning that Black families could choose to send their children to White
61 schools within the district (Bart ley ). The district did not expect that either of these plans would lead to widespr ead desegregation (Bartley ). In fact, both of these policies failed. Neighborhoods were often segregated due to discriminatory housing and redlining policies so the integration of neighborhood schools was ineffectual (Ware, 2005). Although many Black students lived closer to White schools than to the Black school they had been attending, very few Black students transferred to White schools (Bartley ). ntegrated schools (Bartley p. 340). Although the district made gains in integrating its schools by the mid seventies, the designation as a dual African American and White syst em by the Federal Circuit Court (Bartley, 2001). A school is considered an African American school when it has a population of at least 75% African American students (Bartley, 2001). This shift in status rather than integration, and the retur n to neighborhood schools. Presently, consistent with resegregation a cross the south, of 101 elementary schools within the district, 26 are predominantly African American, according to 2008 09 Florida School Indicators reports (http://www.fldoe.org/eias/ei aspubs/0809fsir.asp). Of those predominantly African American elementary schools, half have enrollments of over 90% African American students. Middle and high schools, while integrated, often segregate students through tracking. The Modern day School Sett ing Ms. Rigsbee, are employed at Turner Elementary, a Foreign Language, Art, and Music Enrichment Magnet School.
62 Ninety six percent of the 436 students enrolled at Turner Elementary identify as Black. Nearly 87% of the students attending Turner Elementary receive free or reduced price lunch. In comparison, the statewide average percentage of students who receive free or reduced price lunch is 49.57%. Twelve percent of the teachers working at Turner do not mee t the federal criteria for highly qualified teachers, compared to the state average of four year college or university, full certification by the state, and the demonstrat ion of competence in each core academic area in which the teacher teaches. In addition, Turner Elementary lacks stabilit y regarding faculty assignments. D uring the course of this study, the principal was released and the assistant principal took over, a re tired principal came out of retirement to take on assistant principal duties, a fifth grade teacher was reassigned to third grade (the third grade teacher was moved to fifth grade), and Ms. Winslow, one of the participants, was reassigned from first grade to a fourth/fifth grade combined class. Ms. Grace School, which houses an Autism Center. At Oceanside, 37% of the students identify as Black, 16% identify as either Hispanic, Asian, or mi xed race, and 47% identify as White Approximately 76% of the 336 students receive free or reduced cost lunch. Seven percent of the teachers working at Oceanside do not meet the federal criteria for h ighly qualified teachers. is new t o the school this year; mid year faculty reassignments are not typical. Individual Participants As stated, three teachers met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in this study. Each of these teachers is described below.
63 Ms. Grace Ms. Grace a White teacher from an educated, middle class background, taught first grade at Oceanside Elementary during the course of this study Prior to becoming a teacher, Ms. Grace worked in constru ction, completing a m architecture. Soon after finishing her graduate studies, Ms. Grace began to question her choice of profession, believing that it was no longer right for her. After praying for guidance for a new direction, Ms. Grace received an answer: she should teach poor children. Though at fi rst uncertain, Ms. Grace discovered this residency program, interviewed, and was granted a spot in the program. Ms. Grace was hired at Oceanside as a primary teacher and has taught first and second grades. Ms. Grace achievement data has consisten tly improved during her tenure at Oceanside; since district. Ms. Rigsbee Ms. Rigsbee, a Black teacher with roots in Haiti, taught fifth grade at Turner Elementary. Wh en she was a young girl, Ms. Rigsbee and her parents emigrated from Haiti. She later became a United States citizen, living in Brooklyn, N.Y. until health problems and a troubled economy led her family to relocate to Florida. Like Ms. Grace Ms. Rigsbee di d not intend to become a teacher; her earlier career path was in law. Ms. Rigsbee taught second and third grades for three years before moving to fifth grade in the 2010 placed her i scores placed her in the bottom third of teachers in her district. During the past two school years, Ms. Rigsbee served as the sole reading teacher for all three classes of
64 fifth graders at Turner Elementary. Fifth grade reading scores for 2011 indicate d that 66% of stud ents scored a level 3 or higher Ms. Winslow Ms. Winslow is a Black teacher who grew up in a neighborhood very similar to the one in which the majority of her st udents live. Prior to beginning the residency a career in child welfare. In child welfare, she often felt helpless to protect children from t he abuse that she witnessed. S he believed that, as a teacher, she would be able to 15). Ms. Winslow taught first and second grades until this year, wh en she was reassigned midway through the first nine weeks to teach a combined class of fourth and fifth graders. consistently improved More specifically, she was ranked at 279 out of 322 first grade teachers in 2007 08 (top 86.6%); 287 out of 566 second grade teachers in 2008 09 (top 50.7%); and 249 out of 264 first grade teachers in 2009 2010 (top 44.1%) Students Taking Acad emic Responsibility) class, was designed to be an elementary level dropout prevention program, serving students who are overage due to retention. Students in Ms. were between the ages of 11 and 14 years old. According to district criteria, students who are eligible for placement in STAR have had academi c but not behavioral challenges. P rior to and during enrollment in STAR, students must maintain a C average or better in conduct.
65 This assignment was particularly challenging for Ms. Winslow for several reasons. First, Ms. Winslow did not have previous experience teaching at the intermediate level. Her residency and all subsequent teaching assignments were at the primary level. Second, this reassignment happened without notice in late Septembe r, about one month into the school year T hus, Ms. Winslow did not have the opportunity to enroll in summer professional development offerings, review grade level standards and texts, or pre plan with grade level teachers prior to her first day with the st udents. In addition, as a combined class, Ms. Winslow often felt isolated from both the fourth and fifth grade teams of teachers. Finally, all of the students in STAR faced significant academic challenges. Because they all had been retained more than once, many were achieving far below grade level expectations in both reading and math. Additionally she felt that teaching a combined 4th/5th grade class was especially challenging and found it difficult to meet the needs of all 15 students. Though an aide was assigned to assist with STAR classes, this person was not a cer tified teacher and also performed other duties around the school during much of the school day, such as monitoring the cafeteria during lunches. Each of these hurdles contributed to the diffic ulty Ms. Winslow faced this year. During informal interviews, Ms. Winslow frequently communicated dissatisfaction with her placement and described a variety of professional and personal stressors that made this year especially difficult for her. Perhaps as a result of her stresses, she had difficulty maintaining her classroom as a productive learning environment. There were times when Ms. Winslow joked with her students, used encouraging and endearing language and asked her students to interact with each o ther during lessons. Students
66 often responded to her in a positive manner. However, there were also times when less desirable teaching behaviors occurred. For example, there were several instances when Ms. Winslow left the room, leaving students in the cha rge of an unprepared aide or in my care for periods as long as 20 minutes. She sometimes seemed unprepared to teach, appearing unsure of content and occasionally presenting factually incorrect information to students. During most observations the re was a g reat deal of downtime where students were not engaged in any sort of learning task. Though copious interview data were collected through previous studies of this residency program, there is no ent practice in the STAR setting to her practice in previous years. H owever, because this was such a stressful year for Ms. Winslow and because there was a low proportion of task focused learning time in this classroom, it did not seem productive to includ e a negative case here. Data Collection Methods As a qualitative study designed to provide understanding of the perspectives and practices of three teachers in relation to effective teaching practice, data collection focused on each teacher in her natura l setting, the classroom (Sherman & Webb, 1988). experience is shaped in (Sherman & Webb, 1988, p. 5). Beca use this study is groun ded in ethnographic methodology as a whole experience, interviews, observations, and field notes were the selected data collection methods.
67 Interviews In gener al, i that was, is, will be, or should be; how respondents think or feel about something; and understanding the perspectives of each teacher concerning effective teaching in high poverty, predominantly minority urban schools, both formal and informal interviews were conducted. Three formal interviews were conducted with each teacher to understand her views rela ted to her understandings of effective teaching and the development of those perspectives. Each interview was designed t o last approximately 45 minutes transcribed verbatim and in the ir entirety. All three of the formal interviews were semi structured. Although there was a general direction and a set of beginning questions for the interviews, questions were ssed, conducted before observations began and included questions about teaching in general (such as, In what ways is teaching different from what you expected it to be lik e?) and were designed to build rapport with each teacher. This interview was important as it helped to build a relationship between researcher and participant that nurtured [ed] 1979, p. 78). perspectives regarding how she teaches (such as, Think of a lesson you taught recently where you finished feeling like you had done a really great job. What did you do?). The third and final formal interview was conducted at th e end of the observation period and
68 addressed the ways in which each teacher learned to teach (such as, What experiences do you think have been most influential in teaching you how to teach ?). During this 2002, p. 91), several informal interviews were conducted with each t eacher as part of (Hatch, 2002, p. 92). These informal interviews were designed to help clarify what was observed during a particular observation and were very short and to the point, in the hallway or on the way to lunch, and served either to quickly clarif y a question I had ab out the observation or address patterns I saw over the course of several observations. Questions asked during these interviews were designed to help me understand why a teacher acted in a certain way during the observation (such as, I noticed you have students sit in rows when they write Why do you want them to sit tha t way ?). These informal interviews also allowed me to understand the connections (or lack thereof) between what the teachers stated they believed to be true during their interviews, and what I saw during the observations. Protocols for the formal and infor mal interviews are located in Appendix B. Observations Ethnographic observations were a main source of data. Although observations are challenging in that the researcher may first try to see and take note of every occurrence, the purpose of observation is not to see and attend to everything. R ather, the purpose is
69 patterns in behavior that help to uncover the practices of those involved in the study. This can only be accomplished through frequent, repeated observation (Spradley, behavior suggestive of underl concern with the use of observations in research is that participants will put on a display, acting in the manner that they think the researcher wants to see. Wolcott (1999) acknowledges this possibil With the aim of understanding the practices of each teacher, full day and half day observations were conducted with each teache r. First, three full day observations were conducted in order to get a thorough understanding of general classroom procedures. The remaining observations were typically half day observations, depending on the scheduling needs of the teacher, and focused on Practices I focused on included classroom management, how each teacher conveyed academic and behavioral expectations, assessment procedures, how students interacted with the t eacher and with each other, and the procedures and content of academic teaching. The use of specific observation protocols was min imal, as Eisner (2002) suggested that observation tools can cause researchers to miss a particular activity or statement becau se they have the tendency to get too focused on the tool rather than on the experience at hand. Although no observation protocol was used to structure the observations, one relevant observation tool was considered a resource that inform ed the observations.
70 This observation protocol was co developed by Center for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy at Georgetown College, Kentucky and the Collaborative Center for Literacy Development at the University of Kentucky for use with observing culturally responsive pedagogy The instrument, the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP), was developed from a synthesis of literature related to culturally responsive teaching and literacy instruction. It consists of eight, research based elements that are ce ntral to culturally responsive pedagogy: Teacher Care, Classroom Climate, Family Collaboration, Assessment, Curriculum, Instruction/Pedagogy, Discourse/Instructional Conversation, and Sociopolitical Consciousness. For each of these elements, several observ able indicators are provided to assist with and focus the observation. The CRIOP can be found in Appendix C. As stated, the use of this protocol was limited. The CRIOP was reviewed prior to some observations as a reminder of the aforementioned indicators. After all of the observations were completed, I reviewed the transcribed field notes and interview transcripts for each teacher and filled out the CRIOP, taking into account all of the information gleaned through the full set of data. The completed protoc ol then became practice. participa neither are they able fully to avail themselves of the potential afforded by participant olcott, 1999, p. 48). Spradley
71 In the case of this research, there were a few ti mes with each teacher where I was asked to take a supervisory role with students. Because I have had a professional relationship with these teachers over the course of five years, I did what was asked of m e. In most instances, I simply supervised students for a few moments while the teacher stepped out of the room to speak with a parent or administrator. In one instance, I read books to a class of students for about 30 minutes while the teacher dealt with s everal students who had gotten sick in class. In another instance, the teacher and her class were in science lab when the assistant p rincipal, also serving as science lab instructor, was called out of the room and the teacher was left without instru ctions for the science activity. In this case, she asked me to help her improvise the computer based lesson. On most occasions, I sat silent in the background while taking notes as described below, only speaking to students or the teacher if spoken to first. If s tudents requested assistance, I first referred them to a peer or to their teacher, depending on the nature of the request and the nature of the classroom. Field Notes During each observation, raw, descriptive field notes were taken in order to assist wit h recall of the observation as well as to allow me to make note of questions, hypotheses, possible interpretations, and ideas that arose during the observation (Hatch, 2002). one is abl e to attend (Hatch, p. 78). Fi eld notes were taken by hand. As suggested by Hatch th e first set of notes included a detailed description of the classroom context in
72 contextual life as possible, includin g verbatim accounts (Hatch ; Spradley, 1980) realizing that it is virtually impossible to capture everything that was observed in a classroom setting (Ha tch) Additionally, these field notes allowed me to refer to specific events when speaking to the teacher during informal interviews. Directly after each observation, the raw field notes were transcribed. During the transcription I filled the notes with m ore complete descriptions of events and conversations. These complete descriptions were typed each night following an observation. Field notes from each observation were used to help me determine on what specific classroom events to focus subsequent obser vations as well as to help me Challenges to Data Collection Methods Although there are challenges to using interviews and observations as methods of data collection, I believe that the amount of time I s pent with t hese teachers during this study as well as the history we have shared together minimized these challenges. The teachers were aware that the purpose of the study was to understand their perspectives and practices so it was possible that they pre sented lessons that they fe lt showcase d what they thought was best practice. In order to minimize this issue, I spent a considerable amount of time in each classroom so the teacher was accustomed to my presence. Additionally, because the teachers and I hav e worked together for several years for several different purposes, none of which were evaluative, I expect that they were already accustomed to talking with me and providing honest feedback about their experiences.
73 Data Analysis The data collection meth ods were used to create a whole picture of each about teaching and their practic es, and then to interpret those descriptions (Eisner, ive approaches to data analysis. T he inductive approach is general statements about phenome p. 161), while the interpretive approach continues where the inductive approach leaves off, with the researcher refining understandings, draw patterns found in the data (Hatch, 2002, p. 180). Essentially, this process included the following steps, detailed further below: 1) read the data for a sense of the whole; 2) identify a preliminary set of domains based on relationships found in the data; 3) reread data to make early interpretations; 4) study data for examples that support those interpretations; 5) analyze codes; 6) look a cross codes for common themes; 7) write a draft summary of interpr etations; 8) review interpretations with participants; 9) write a revised summary and identify excerpts that support interpretations (Hatch, 2002, p. 162 and 181). The first step of the data analysis process was to read through the entire data set of all t hree teachers This read through was separate and different from reading the interview transcripts in order to revise the protocol for the next interview. Here, the goal was to understand what was included in the data set and to consider and decide how to
74 163), for continued analysis Hatch suggested that these frames would shift throughou t analysis. T he goal, however, wa was app roached (Hatch, p. 164). Example frame s from this original step of analysis included nt identify preliminary frames to look for across teachers After a complete read through of the full data set, the next step was to return to the each teacher et to begin creating categories. These categories reflected relationships found in the data and are referred to as domains (Hatch, 2002). Hatch explain ed organize their understand domains include d ways to integrate own culture into the classroom how to teach I organized these domains by pulling them from the data and listing the m, along with example s that reflected each, including specific line numbers that referred back to transcripts or observation protocols. Domains were considered dynamic and were revised throughout the analysis process. The next steps of analysis were rereading the data set and domain sheets in search of new impressions that developed into interpretations, and then finding examples and quotations within the data that supported those interpretations (Hatch, 2002). The goal was to understand what was happening in the data, and ques tions
75 For both teachers who re mained a part of the study, these interpretations were nearly identical: building caring relationships with students and providing academic support to help students attain success. The examples and quotations found at this point in analysis were not necess arily th ose included in the final draft. H owever, these examples provided evidence that an interpretation was significant to consider in continued analysis. At this time s ome early codes classroom procedure were dropped altogether or combined w ith others. Once data was reread and evidence garnered, steps five and six in this process were to review notes and interpretations to determine which were relevant to answering the research questions, and then to look a cross th e codes for common themes, w hich were the focus of t he remaining steps of analysis. Examples of Once interpretations were decided upon, step seven was to write a draft that summarized the findings for each case thus far. This part of the process serve s as a test for whether the interpretations are logical, as well as whether there are any gaps in t he argument (Hatch, 2002 ). Once main themes I emailed each participant the interpretations relevant to her case to be sure that they were aligned with her experiences. This served as a member check to make sure that I Both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee were in agreement with my interpretations, although a few further clarification emails were exchanged during later steps in analysis and writing.
76 Once the participants reviewed the interpretation of their case, the final step of the process was to return to the data to find excerpts that supported the interpretations that would be included in the final draft. Several of these excerpts were located during earlier step s in the process, but this step allowed for a final check to be sure the best examples were located and also served as a check to be sure that there was enough support for the interpretations. For this reason, the reader should be confident that the interpretations are well founded and supported fully by the data. These steps summarize the descriptive and interpretive parts of data analysis. Educational criticism, however, is incomplete without a third level of analysis, thematic majo r function of the critic here is to apply educational criteria so that judgments about such events are grounded in some view of what counts within an educational to th e literature in order to ground the perspectives and practices of the teachers in the applicable literature related to teaching in high minority and high poverty contexts. In the following chapters, first a disclosure of each teacher is presented, includin g an appraisal teacher), and then the theoretical analysis is presented which makes explicit iterature. In sum, d ata analysis began following the first formal interviews with a review of the interview transcripts and continued after each set of observations, informal interviews, and formal interviews T hat preliminary analysis shaped subsequent ob servations (Hatch, 202 ). Each piece of data was read and re read with the intention of
77 understanding the significance of each event (Eisner, 2002). Data was coded for the major patterns and themes that arose in the findings as they app lied to the research questions. These codes were related to types of learning activities, the classroom environment, and teacher student and student student interactions (for example, use of terms of endearment, chant, and type of disciplinary action ). Any questions or discrep ancies that arose during analysis were discussed with the teacher for clarification, via email or in person. Trustworthiness Glesne (2006) recommends eight procedures that can be used to address trustworthiness. I attempted to attend to several of these recommendations in this study, as described below. To begin, prolonged engagement and persistent observation allowed me to build trusting relationships with each teacher, learn each classroom environment, and test hypotheses that develop ed during observati ons and interviews. The use of multiple data sources (observations, interviews, field notes, and completed CRIOP notes) contribute d to trustworthiness through triangulation. I checked my ghout the course of the study by sharing with each participant (verbally or via email) the themes from analysis to ask for clarification and/or verification. Another way I attempted to increase credibility was through peer review and debriefing the process and information I learned with my academic advisor, which provided me with input and reflection upon my work that, as the principal investigator, I was often unable to see for myself. Finally, the use of rich, thick description allows the reader to perfor m a final check on trustworthiness by entering the research context through the written account of the study.
78 Specific to educational criticism, Eisner cites two considerations that may help address trustworthiness: structural corroboration and referenti al adequacy. Structural 238). Providing sufficient evidence for each point addres ses this consideration. Referential adequacy concerns the degree to which the criticism relates to its subject. In the object, event, or situation what the cues [in t 239). The reader should be able to expe and the connections between the classrooms in a new and more complete way. Limitations A major limitation to this study is the fact that teach er perspectives are only one of many influences on practice. A teacher may have certain perspectives related to what practices are most effective for student learning in the classroom, but feel that it is impossible to carry them out. Constraints may inclu control, for example, money, administrative requirements, or state or district mandates. grade level and the availability of professiona l development to help a teacher lear n effective teaching strategies, for in this study unless identified by a participant as a constraint or facilitator. Because one teacher was ultimately not inc luded in analysis, a further limitation is showed that students in her class were achieving and her interview data did not indicate problematic teaching, it is impossible to
79 have changed due to the perceived challenge of her current placement or if the lack of task driven instruction is the norm. Also limiting the findings of this study is the lack of student interviews. Interview ing students would have richened our understanding of the ways that these teachers were perceived by their students. One important component of care is that the students feel cared for (Noddings, 1988). T he behaviors that a teacher considers to be caring b ehaviors may not feel caring to a student, which means that she is not effectively caring for her students. Without the student perspective, this element is unknown. We can only assume that care is present when the teacher is acting in a way that typically portrays care. Role of Researcher According to Eisner (2002), an important characteristic of someone attempting an classroom practice to be able to distinguish what is si gnificant about one set of practices I have almost six years of experience teaching grades four, five, and six. I worked in a rural middle school, an International Baccalaureate magnet elementary school, and a suburban elementary scho ol with a high minority and high completed coursework towards a PhD in Curriculum and I nstruction. Although I was never a teacher of record in a classroom context similar to that in which some of the participants work, my experiences as an elementary school teacher provide me with a context from which I can relate to their experiences. Addit ionally, I have spent the past five years of my graduate studies learning about and working in urban, high poverty and high minority contexts. I have taken
80 coursework, including Critical Pedagogy and Teacher Learning and Socialization in Poverty Schools, which focused on developing an understanding of the challenges faced by teachers and students in contexts such as these Each of these courses encouraged me to challenge my own assumptions about race, poverty, learning, and teaching. I have also been prepa r ed to use two observation protocols (Instructional Practices Inventory and the Classroom Assessment Scoring System ) in environments similar to those in which the participants work. Eisner recommends that a researcher embarking on an educational criticism also be well versed in different theories in education and the history of education, as this knowledge is an essential tool in understanding the context in which one is working (Eisner, 2002). To this end, I have taken several undergraduate and graduate le vel courses related to history and philosophies of education in the United States. Additionally, I have taught six semesters of Social and Historical Foundations of Educa tion at the undergraduate level and one semester of Education and American Culture at the graduate level. Additionally, it is important to note my own relationship with the participants in this program. During that year and a half, I worked closely with the res idency program in several ways. First, I attended several of their course sessions, eventually planning for and implementing sessions about culturally responsive pedagogy for one of my own graduate classes. I also planned and implemented a series of three sessions related to differentiating instruction. This component of their program included lesson planning and implementation in the classrooms in which they completed their residency. I provided feedback on the lessons, observed their teaching, and held po st observation
81 conferences with several of these teacher residents. I also conducted my thesis research with the group, working most closely with 3 teacher residents, two of whom were also involved in the present study. My thesis work included analysis of interviews, reflections, and lesson plans. After the residency ended, a fellow doctoral student and I worked together to create an induction program to meet the needs of this cohort of teachers as they embarked on their first teaching assignment. Our pro gram, Mentoring and Online Support for Teachers (MOST), allowed them to continue working as a cohort as they met the challenges of being first year teachers. Eight of the eleven teachers who completed the residency participated in the year long induction p rogram, which we designed to include face to face and online components. Both Ms. Grace and Ms. program. During this year, I also worked closely with two of the teachers for an assignment for another one of my own graduate courses. More recently, I worked with a faculty member of an unrelated university on a study that evaluated the outcomes of the residency program. This work involved interviewing each of the tea chers who participated in the inaugural year of the residency who are still working as teachers. It is important to note this continued involvement because it shows the degree to which these teachers and I have developed lasting and trusting relationships They have allowed me into their classrooms and discussed their teaching with me on numerous occasions over the course of several years. I still feel personally invested in their success, perhaps more than they realize. It is for this reason that I wanted to go full circle and finish my doctoral studies by studying them now, as experienced
82 teachers. Although not a stated goal of this study, it is my hope that our relationsh ip has been mutually beneficial and that the teachers who participated in this study came away with a heightened understanding of their own perspectives and teaching practices. Presentation of Findings style of an educational criticism, each of these disclosu res will include a description, provided to help illustrate each discussion. Chapter 6 will present a cross case analysis with the major themes garnered from the experi ence, as well as a summary of the findings and implications of this study.
83 CHAPTER 4 THE CASE OF VIVIAN GRACE Ms. Grace Ms. Grace is a White teacher from an educated, middle class family. As t he daughter of a university professor, learning a nd reading were constants in her life. She everything we did, the way we lived, what our amusements an 1 (1.2.17 ). Ms. Grace grew up in a college t own, vastly different from the much larger and more industrial city in which she now resides and teaches. The neighborhoods in the college town in which she lived were not integrated; instead, Ms. Grace remembers that As a child, Ms. Grace When I was a little kid I remember thinking to myself that all the little African aliens. We community, so we d (1.1.24 ) Ms. Grace did remember a few, limited instances where she encountered people living in poverty. At age 16 she recall ed playing with the child of a man with whom Ms. Grace boyfriend worked. Ms. Grace recalled thinking that (1.6.10 ). Although she admitted that this was nave thinking, at the time Ms. Grace felt that this was one way 1 Q uotes are drawn from interviews and as is common when speaking, teachers sometimes deviate from standard gram mar. The quotes in this chapter use the exact language used by the teacher.
84 Ms. Grace began to question her choic e of profession. Ms. Grace that I was proud to be a part of, where I was proud of the product we produced to ). After praying for guidance for a new direction, Ms. Grace received an answer: she should teach poor children. Though at first uncertain, Ms. Grace pointed upwards to the ve to make it ). A fortunate series of phone calls to personal connections, some well timed meetings, and the launch of a brand new program led her to the urban re sidency program. During the course of this study, Ms. Grace taught first grade at Oceanside Elemen tary, a Title I school, where 79 % of the 336 students receive d free or reduced cost lunch. Of the 336 students at Oceanside Ele mentary, 55% identified as Bla ck, Hispanic, Asian, or Mixed R ace and 45% identified as White Ms. Grace Through interviews with Ms. Grace and observations of her classroom, two abiding concerns c a me across as important to this teacher: providing a caring learning environm ent and ensuring success for all students. These concerns were intertwined; her love for her students stemmed from wanting them to succeed and her desire for their success was due t o her love for them. As she put do, is lo 5). For Ms. Grace p roviding a caring environment mea nt praising students using caring language and actions, giving consistent consequences (posit ive and negative) and giving students the opportunity to praise and correct each
85 other using appropriate voices and actions Ensuring success meant being clear with directions using need s, and having high expectations for students. The vignette that follows describes a typical whole group teacher led science lesson in this first grade classroom and highlights these qualities of Ms. Grace Ms. Grace stands at the front of the ro om and orients her students to the next activity: Ms. Grace : scienti senses, all five of them. What are they? Students raise their hands and she calls on several of them to name the senses. Ms. Grace : Most of you did your homework where you observed outside at night and d down. Where will you look? Ms. Grace points up and down. Isaiah: Up and down. Ms. Grace : Why? What will you see? Students answer some things they expect to see. Ms. Grace : Several students make guesses, and then Ms. Grace calls on In reinforcing his answer, Ms. Grace uses a recurrent strategy in her classroom that enables students to be active, communicates her pride in their accomplishment, and reinforces the correct answer for everyone in the classroom. She also encourages the class to reinforce him. Ms. Grace : Jonathan stands up, smiling, and says it louder:
86 Ms. Grace : back. Your shadow! Why can you see your shadow in daylight? Several students respond that it is from the sun. One says that s ometimes you can see it at night with the moon. Ms. Grace : You may get your science notebook and your pencil. Your science journal has an S on it. When we go outside, you are to write or draw the things you see. Write down everything you see. Students are clearly excited to go outside to observe. Demonstrating his knowledge of well learned procedures in the classroom, one student asks if they should write the date on the page. Ms. Grace : Absolutely, you should write the date. Who would like to tell me the date? Many students put their hands up. She calls on one who says, Ms. Grace : Who would like to tell me how we write it? Several more hands go up. She dash, 9 dash, Students write t he date on their papers; several are saying the numbers aloud as they write. As Ms. Grace calls students to line up and they walk through the hall to go outside she reminds them of classroom procedures gently but firmly. Ms. Grace : I will time you out Once they get outside, she walks them over to the fence next to a retention pond. Ms. Grace : Look at the sky, look at the clouds, look at the ground, look at the colors, lo The students lean against the fence and write. A few draw pictures. After several minutes, Ms. Grace calls students to go back inside. One student, Sara, start s crying because she got a burr stuck in her foot. Ms. Grace tries to get it out, but it has splintered in. She calls me over and I try, unsuccessfully, to remove it. Another teacher comes over and is able to pull
87 it out. Meanwhile, the other students are lined up noisily by the door. Once we get the splinter out, Ms. Grace refocuses her attention to the rest of the group and re orients them to her expectations. Ms. Grace : me outs. As students walk down the hall, Ms. Grace quickly addresses minor violations of her expectations, using a penalty if necessary: Audrey receives a time out for leaving the line without permission. Marcus is reminded not to open the classroom do or with a question While the students are still standing in line just outside the classroom door, she orients them to their next academic task and establishes her expectations. Notice again that she institutes a consequence to rein force her expectations. Ms. Grace : Now, when you were outside, you saw lots of things. white paper. Draw what you saw [ names several things the students saw] you to draw what you saw. The stud ents return to their seats. Isaiah starts talking. Jonathan [to Isaiah]: Me and Ashley are trying to work. Ms. Grace [to Isaiah]: I was very clear that when you came in to the classroom, it was going to be silent. [She gives Isaiah a time out] Ms. Grace hands out white paper and students draw quietly, with no talking. As they work she orients them to the signal that will tell them work time has ended and communicates the importance of their work by tellin g them when they will share it with her and their peers. Ms. Grace : Ok, when the timer goes off, we are going to stop. As illustrated in this vignette, the two main concerns for Ms. Grac e were providing a caring learning environment and ensuring the success of all students. The remainder of this chapter will include an examination of these two organizing principles of Ms.
88 Grace trategies that she uses to support each one. Providing a Caring Learning Environment For Ms. Grace caring c lassroom environment where all members feel cared for and respected, Ms. Grace emphasized several behaviors: praising students, acting and speaking in a caring manner giving fair and consistent consequences (positive and negative) and giving students th e opportunity to praise and correct each other using appropriate voices and actions Each of these qualities encapsulating care is highlighted in the above vignette and will be described in detail below. Praising students Ms. Grace regularly praised stud For example, this praise ca me in the form of commending students for the way they looking good! Stephan, looki ng goo ). Or it might have mean t reinforcing positive interactions among peers as illustra ted by the following comment: (observation 5.1.18 ). Ms. Grace also mad e sure that other adults hear d the praise she bestowed upon her students. During one observation, students were lined up in the hallway after lunch, waiting to use the bathroom. Ms. Grace called Marcus and Stephan over to me as she told me how proud she wa s that they were behaving so well and have shown tremendous improvement since my last visit. She patted them on the back and they
89 smiled, clearly happy that she was giving them this personal attention (observation 4.1.11 ). Ms. Grace regularly shared studen Isaiah showed Ms. Grace Ms. Grace a returning to his work (observati on 2.6.16 ). In Ms. Grace could be nonverbal as well as verbal, and sometimes included a reward. In one instance as Ms. Grace circulated during independent work she found that all students at the red table had completed the assignment. She complimented their efforts, leaning in and touching one boy on the shoulder as she looked over his work (observation 1.3.4 Ms. Grace touched George on the shoulder as she gave praise and leaned in to the students sitting at the table. Ms. Grace often pair ed verbal praise, such as when Audrey was able to sound out a word on the first try and Ms. Grace respond thumbs up (observation 2.3.9 ). Finally, Ms. Grace directed praise toward individuals as well as towards the whole class. For example, when Ronnie was reading aloud, he began to sound out a word on Ms. Gr ace after a student shared with the class the story retell he had written, Ms. Grace all the way, marching throu Ms. Grace could often be heard ).
90 Acting and speaking in a car ing manner In addition to offering praise, Ms. Grace frequently told and showed students that she care d about them. For her, this was a first step in creating a classroom where students saw each other as family. In order to develop these traits in students Ms. Grace said that she supports students as they build their social skills. For example, Ronnie is a student who struggles with soci al boundaries. A fter much reflection, Ms. Grace began to work on this in a manner similar to addressing the needs of a st ruggling reader. She explained I look at Ronnie as being on a level dash [in reference to the lowest Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) level] with social skills and part ye what part of the reading proce teach him what his boundaries are and know that the first way to do that is through teachin g him that I love him and that he ca n trust me. (interview 2.20.5 ) For Ms. Grace developing a trusting and loving relationship with each student is the first step to creating a learning community that supports all of her students. Ms. Grace could often b e heard telling her students that she loves them. For example when a student approached her and whispered something into Ms. Grace ear while giving her a hug. Ms. Grace oo, ). Another t ime Ms. Grace explained to Bridgette that she had Ms. Grace closed the conversat ion with a hug (observation 5.2.8 ).
91 Ms. Grace told students that she care d about them. One morning, Kayla approached Ms. Grace and whispered something to her; Ms. Grace mighty special! Mighty student announced to her that he would be moving, a visibly saddened Ms. Grace Ms. Grace gave Marcus extra attention throughout the day; though many students make announcements such as these that do not come to fruition, Ms. Grace later said that something about his demeanor s uggested he was telling the truth and that she was truly sad to see him go. Ms. Grace was frequently heard using terms of endearment wi th her students. W ords such as were commonplace in her classroom. Nonverbal care w as also evident. Physical contact with students is often rocky terrain as it can be considered inappropriate. However, as seen in the above examples, Ms. Grace did at times hug her students and pat them on the shoulder In addition, Ms. Grace ten shower ed her with hugs upon their arrival at and departure from school each day. Ms. Grace also made a point of making eye contact with each student during lessons and other whole group activities. For example at the end of nine weeks award assembly M s. Grace congratulated each student by name, looking squarely in other teachers who rushed through their lists of awards. Ms. Grace made a point of making sure that every child heard his or her specific congra tulations (observation 5.5.10 ).
92 G iving fair and consistent consequences (positive and negative) True to her emphasis on care, Ms. Grace was conscientious about implementing consequenc es consistently and fairly. Students in Ms. Grace w that there were consequences when they behave d inappropriately, as well as when they behave d appropriately. As Ms. Grace put consequences a nd rew ). For her, being fair and consistent helped to both prevent behavior issues and build a caring classroom environment based on trust: I expect the same out of everybody in the class behavior wise, or I try to. And then that keeps pe ople from getting mad at each other because they let the m get hurt. (interview 2. 19.1 ) Ms. Grace believes that this disposition stems from her childhood. She explained I come ou t of a family of engineers and that kind of analytical kind of feely, but I will tell you that my parents were very fair minded and that influences, that informs my teaching that I try to make sure everythin g is fair. (interview 2.18.25 ). Negative consequences include having to stand at the door to gather oneself, a strike, and a time out. Ms. Grace explain ed the difference between these consequences: Standing at the door is immediate. I d that do it, they stand so often, they wou ld n be a consequence anymore. [Standing at the door] is immediate and brings them right back down. A time strikes is one time If these consequences did not wor k, a student may be sent to another classroom or to the office for a brief time out or for a longer period of time in which the student completes an assignment or has a conference with the principal.
93 Ms. Grace habitually informed students of what the app ropriate behavior should be for a given a ctivity before the activity bega n. As Ms. Grace lined st udents up for lunch, she reminded you if you are talking at the front of on 1.7.21 ). Sometimes, Ms. Grace offered students a reminder of how they sh ould behave once an activity had begun: This is silent work time. You have just under 12 minutes. You need to get ou t for talking. (Observation 4.5.15 ) By giving reminders, Ms. Grace was able to help students monitor and correct their behavior before she gave a consequence. A similar reminder sometimes came before students had the chance to act inappropriately and rece ive a consequence: My number one job is to keep you safe, so if I see you being unsafe, gentlemen, with horseplay, I will pull you from the movie. (observation 5.6.1 ) There are times when Ms. Grace gave a consequence in order to maintain consistency, eve n if she may have overlooked the behavior at a particular time. For example, Mariah called out to Kayla from across the room, only moments after George called across two tables to ask Jamal a question about an assignment. This incident is described in fiel d notes: George asks Jamal a task related question across the tables. Jamal answers him. Ms. Grace watches the exchange but does not react. Mariah calls to Kayla from across the room. Ms. Grace gives her a time out. Mariah explains that Kayla, who was at h er cubby, forgot the papers she needed to put in her agenda. Ms. Grace George and Jamal, Ms. Grace out, too, e thi ng. )
94 In this instance, Ms. Grace demonstrated that rules do not have exceptions; procedures were reinforced and students were encouraged to think of ways to get their needs met without breaking classroom rules. Positive co nsequences, such as eating lunch in the classroom, getting to be bathroom monitor, or getting a positive note, email, or phone call home, were also given liberally to students demonstrating good effort in terms of behavior and academics. Another positive c onsequence given to Ronnie, a student who regularly struggled with his behavior, was an afternoon check in with the guidance counselor who reward ed good behavior with a comic strip and a lollipop (observation 5.7.11 ). G iving students the opportunity to pra i se and correct each other Students in Ms. Grace were taught the social skills they need ed to support were given regular opportunities to put those skills into practice, as demonstrated in the vignette at the start of this section. According to Ms. Grace classroom that kids can learn in, then people ne ed to like each other and Several times each day, groups of three or four students were sent on a bathroom break to the bathroom down the hall. On a rotating basis, one student in each group was assigned the role of monitor. This person was responsible for watching the rest of Ms. Grace any infractions, such as running or talking in the hall. When students reenter ed the classroom after their ba throom break, Ms. Grace check ed with the monitor and ma de a note of any misbehavior on the time out clipboard. All students were given the opportunity to monitor, even if they sometimes
95 struggle d with their own behavior. In these instances, Ms. Grace help e d students remember what it should look like to be a monitor. Two such examples are described below: Ms. Grace : Ms. Grace : what will t Ms. Grace and they talk for a moment and then the tabl es leave. (observation 5.1.22 ) Ms. Grace : leading by ) Ms. Gra ce was for all students to develop the social skills they need ed to function in a school setting and beyond, and if some students need ed reminders to help them develop those skills, Ms. Grace consider ed it her job to provide them. In addition to m onitoring each other in the hallway, Ms. Grace learn ed skills needed to be productive students in the classroom, such as how to deal with disruptive or distracting classmates. To begin, one poster that Ms. Grace h ung in plain view was a lis t of no bullying rules. These were written as non examples so students kn e w exactly what not to do; examples include d Ms. Grace and her students refer red to these rules when they saw students engaged in bullying behaviors. I n one instance, Ms. Grace refer red student approache d After lunch, students are in line for the bathroom. Students who have already finished are seated, without talking, against the wal l in the hallway. One boy stands up from the line and comes over to the teacher. He says that another child is trying to play with him. Ms. Grace : to me in the hall? And two, are you tattling? Do you need a time out? (Student says no) What should you do if someone is trying to play with Ms. Grace : returns to his seat against the wall. (observation 2.8.27 )
96 In another instance, students had just finished playing an addition BING O game as part of a math lesson. Ms. Grace asked them to clean up and get ready for lunch: Several students complain that they have to put the games away and that Ms. Grace states Ms. Grace Ms. Grace Conve rsely, students were and Ms. Grace taught them effective ways to do so. Applause was one way that students learned to show each other praise. During observations students applauded everal times, for example following successful completion of math problems, words, and when a student observed a patter n in the math problems they were assigned. Ms. Grace also worked to teach students how to applaud quietly: Ms. Grace : On a fancy golf course, they do a golf clap, like this [ demonstrates lightly tapping her fingers aga inst the palm of her other hand] Quiet, like this. Isaiah claps loudly Ms. Grace : That o (observation 3.6.17) Ensuring Success for All Students Care is but one of the principles that guide d Ms. Grace Ms. Grace was similarly concerned with ensuring student success. For Ms. Grace e nsuring success for all students mean t giving clear directions, using varied yet predictable lesson structures to guide instruction, and holding high expectations for students. The vignette at the beginning of the chapter demonstrates this concern for stud ent success in several ways. First, Ms. Grace provided clear directions regarding what students should do
97 during the observation activity, and then gave another set of directions once students arrived back at the classroom door. There was no question that students should use their senses to observe, draw or write their observations, and then sit without talking as they worked on their drawings. Students who did not follow directions were quickly brought to task. Ms. Grace group observation activity was a deliberate choice, one that was more exciting and engaging than simply reading a science textbook. Finally, Ms. Grace were evi dent in the way that she demanded that they follow the rules. Other examples bel ow illustrate each component of her strategies for ensuring the success of all. Giving clear directions Following directions was important in Ms. Grace f being a good ). As she emphasize d direction following, she also communicate d her long term expectations for nd not following d ). In order for students to follow directions, however, their teacher needs to be clear and concise when presenting them, and Ms. Grace frequently was For example: Ms. Grace : ing. Carlos, how are you and class that he will read first and then Stephan will read after him. Ms. Grace has Stephan stand up next to her to demonstrate what that will look li ke: Ms. Grace reads first, finger along the words as she goes. Then Stephan reads the same page, with fingers along as he goes. Ms. Grace asks Sara and Mariah to repeat the directions. They do so Ms. Grace read your own
98 notebook. If you finish early, retell the story or draw your favorite animal and rget to look at spelling of the animals at the end of t he ) In this example, Ms. Grace model ed one way that students could choose to partner read, and ha d several students repeat the instructions to be sure that students underst oo d what to do. Ms. Grace often g ave students directions in the hallway, before they reenter ed the classroom after lunch or specials classes as in the following example: Students are lined up outside the classroom door. Ms. Grace speaks to her students: When we go into the room, put your book in your bag. Then go to She opens the door and students go inside. Ms. Grace ) At this time, she ha d their full attention and was able to tell them what they should do upon classroom reentry; there was no confusion and students could get right to work. Giving directions in this manner help ed students behave appropriately because they kn e w what they should be doing now and what they should get ready to do next; there were no surprises. Using varied yet predictable lesson structures Ms. Grace was organized to incorporate several different lesson structures: teacher led, peer work, and independent work. Within these lesson structures, several different types of activities took place. From her teacher preparation program and professional development, Ms. Grace learned the value of teaching in different ways to meet d ifferent needs, and she explained that she was terview 1.7.27). Ms. Grace stated that her use of diffe rent strategies and activities wa s deliberate: I try to keep school fun and interesting so I try
99 to include as many different types of lear ning as I can. I also pay close attention to 2012). Ms. Grace base d her instructional decisions on the copious notes that she took related t o student learning. S he explained t hat documenting student progress was what help ed her decide where to go next with her teaching in order to meet all of her In her words, Academically, the most important thing I do hands down in the first grade is RTI [Response to Interve ntion]. I have figured, I have broken the code. I can analyze a child down to letter sounds, whether they can blend, whether they can segment, whether they can do rhyming words, alliteration, know their letters, know their uppercase letters, know their low ercase, to the point know. (intervie w 1.11.6 18.23 26). Splitting students into varied instructional groupings is one way to everybody and i 5) Teacher led lessons. Teacher led lessons use three different activity structures: whole group, small group, and one on one. Ms. Grace group instruction was common whe n she was introducing new concepts or giving instructions for an activity. Small group instruction was most frequent when Ms. Grace was working with guided reading groups. One on one instruction was least common, but could be seen when Ms. Grace was conferencing with a student, circulating around to several students, or testing students individually. During whole group instruction, students were typically seated on the carpet in one ents sat along three edges of the carpet; Ms. Grace sat on the floor at the
100 fourth edge, facing the students. From here, she use d a small dry erase board to teach a skill or with the help of student volunteers, model the way a game should be played When sat on a square made by the grid lines in the carpet, facing the front of the room. Ms. Grace sat on a wooden chair, angled toward both the board and the students so she was able to write on the board while still facing them. Her use of these positions was to maximize the carpet space while making was focused on the lesson. During whole group teacher led lessons Ms. Grace explain ed I teach up to my high group as whole group instruction and then small group, RT I [ Response to Intervention] or FCIM [Florida Continuous Improvement Model] the students who need help. This seems to help pull all the students up She use d a variety of strategies to get and keep their attention ; these strategies include d Ms. Grace learned from professional literature where the teacher make s sure that struggling students answer the question even if another student answers it correctly first), unison/choral response, illustrating/singing/ using attention getters, providing specific learning strat egies related to lesson content praise, guiding students to an answer, elaborating on or repeating student responses, making connections to othe r information or background knowledge, and building/modeling respectful relationships. During one spelling lesson, Ms. Grace used several of these strategies to help students decode words: Ms. Grace read the word. She calls on Wednesday to read the word. She is unable to read it. Ms. Grace Ms. Grace calls on two other students who are able to read it, and then calls on Wednesday and Simon to have them read the word successfully. Ms. Grace
101 Ms. Grace Ms. Grace responds song I used to sing when I was little word did you Ms. Grace students raise their hands) It comes f ) In this example, Ms. Grace practice d the strategy sh e learned from a professional d questioning, learn and learn about their spelling words. During small group, guided reading lessons, small groups of four or five students sat with Ms. Grace at a kidney table in a back corner of the classroom. From her own experiences as a student, Ms. Grace saw the benefit of a teacher meeting with a small group of students. When speaking about her own intermediate grades teacher, she explained, I know she was outstanding because she was essentially doing not only small groups but she was doing RTI. She pulled me when I was struggling on something in math one time I vividly remember I was having a hard time with it she pulled me off to the side and she worked with me and I actually got ahead of the other kids in the class and when I look back on it now she was outstanding because she was doing that. (interview 3. 1.16 ) In these groups, Ms. Grace relie d on teaching strategies such as questioning, using specific content related strategies (such as reminding students to look at the vowel chart or stretch their words), praise, and unison or choral reading. One on one t eacher led activities were least common, but it was clear that Ms. Grace found them important. Often, Ms. Grace stop ped to talk individually with students
102 in order to determine their needs and provide scaffolding to help them succeed. One example of this w as a discussion she had with Bridgette about non fiction books: Bridgette tells Ms. Grace that her book is non fiction. Ms. Grace talks with fiction is when they tell you what? It st Ms. Grace fiction because it is not a real diary, it only looks like one. It is a fictio n s tory. (observation 5.2.28 ) A second example occurred with Sara, who was struggling with how to write the date in her reading log: Sara and Ms. Grace go over the calendar: Ms. Grace Sara Ms. Grace does not know how to read the number 16, so they start with 10 and count up from there, and Ms. Grace points to each number on the calendar as they say it together. Ms. Grace asks what number month is November. Sara is unable to answer, so Ms. Grace helps her count through the months until they get to November as 11. Ms. Grace able to answer. They spend about 15 minutes going through the calendar, with Ms. Grace explaining how to read and write the month and date Ms. Grace turns to the class and asks them what month it is, and then what number month it is. She asks what month will be the twelfth month, and how you would write it using numbers. After they finish, Ms. Grace asks Sara how to write the date, and Sara tells her. She sits back down and writes the date on her paper. (observation 5.3.7 ) Another opportunity Ms. Grace use d for one on one teaching was during FAIR testing (Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading). As she administer ed the tests, she was able to see the specific skills that students were struggling with. After she record ed incorrect answers she spen t a few seconds helping each student wit h the missed skill. She stressed that the answer on the test was still wrong, but taking the moment to help them on an individual level benefit ted them then and there, and help ed them learn how to avoid the same mistakes in the future (informal interview). Peer work. Ms. Grace often structure d peer activities such as math games, partner reading, and workin g with a partner to complete an assignment. Peer work was
103 important in Ms. Grace was something that she trie d to include every (interview 2.6.28). Ms. Grace w ould partner a strong child with a weak one in order to make sure each child learns the required skills they need to accomplish the Ms. Grace admit ted that having the rest of the class engag ed in peer work d id allow her the opportunity to work with a guided reading group with minimal distraction (interview 2.6.28) Ms. Grace ir ). Partner reading was a common way for students to work together. Ms. Grace taught them several ways that students c ould choose to partner read in order for each reader to have his or her individual reading needs met, as illustrated below: They sit with shoulder partners, right next to each other with one book and person reads one pag high reads a sentence and then he reads the sentence r ight after him. And then the other boy, the high one reads the sentence and then the lower 2.6.16 ) Ms. Grace to the class and Stephan do outs reader. (observation 6.7.181) Giving students so many options to partner read allow ed them to meet their reading needs without feeling excluded or singled out by having to buddy in a particular way. Math games and other partner work were often structured so students could work in groups of three or four. In addition to building their academic proficiency in
104 mathematics, students were also learning how to work as a team and play a fair game, including how to be a good winner or loser. The following excerpt details the conversation Ms. Grace had with several students after ending an addition card game: One group of two boys playing against two girls begins to have a conflict when the girls complain that the boys are bragging about their win. Ms. Grace tells them to be good sports, and then lines them up for recess. Natalie is crying because she feels that the boys are rubbing it in that they won. Ms. Grace has a conversation with the four involved (2 boys 2 girls) about being good sports versus bad sports, that it is ok to brag a little there is a winner and that we need little, but then we students apologize to each other; the boys apologize for rubbing in their victory too much and Natalie apologizes for being a p oor sport. (observation 4.7.2 ) Ms. Grace commented that being a first grade teacher is about more than teaching academics; students at this age are also learning how to get along with each other, and teaching them social skills is part of her commitment to the profession (informal interview). Independent work. Students in Ms. Gr ace d in independent work. These tasks most frequently include d spe lling, writing, and mathematics. S tudents generally complete d independent tasks while Ms. Grace was engaged with a guided reading group. Before students g o t started on a task, Ms. Grace call ed them to the carpet, review ed the instructions for what they should do, and model ed an example. For Ms. Grace and charted responses to literature so they co 1.11.28). Ms. Grace consider ed students learning to work independently to be one of the most important skills th ey would learn in her classroom and it was something she beg an to teach on the first day of school. As she explained Part of
105 having fun in the classroom is you learning to work independently and get your work Holding high expectations Ms. Grace consistently held high expectations for all of her students. The langu age she use d when speaking to her students convey ed that she expect ed them to be successful. Often, Ms. Grace use d sophisticated language when she taught Ms. Grace explain ed And everything I do, I use sophisticated language then I try to drop back and e vocabulary of math and of science and so all of those things combine to try to make a more rigoro us classroom. (interview 2.5.1 ) In the vignette at the beginning of the chapter, Ms. Grace with her explanation that it is a clue is one example of her use of sophisticated language. During another observation, Ms. Grace was preparing to read a story aloud to the class. She prefaced the story by saying: We have a few m the same author and illustrator. That means that the same person wrote and drew the pictures. (observation 1.6.31 ) A further example was seen when Ms. Grace was talking to her class about the resu lts of one of their weekly assessments: You guys did very well on your test this week. I could tell that you were looking at the vowel chart. It was obvious, it was apparent; I could see that you were paying attention and using the chart to help you sound out your words. (observation 3.4.3 ) Aside from using sophisticated language, Ms. Grace also convey ed high expectations by communicating to students that they would be going to college. She explain ed t the importance of going
106 During observations, this was seen most frequently when Ms. Grace was working with some of her more behavio rally challenging students as a w ay to remind them that their behavior was not college (observation 1.6.3). Ms. Grace would also mention college to students who were smart; you are definitely going to college if you keep working t ). When addressing her class as a whole, Ms. Grace communicate d the expectation that students would do well. She regularly encourage d addition, Ms. Grace state d that she use d questioning techniques that stress higher p, demonstrate d to students that she expect ed them to learn, even if learning took time. Ms. Grace ha d two main goals for herself as a teacher: to create a learning env ironment where students felt cared for and care d about each other, and to ensure that each student found success. In order to meet these goals, Ms. Grace relie d heavily on praise, consistency, and a specific way of speaking and acting that communicate d car e. She was clear with directions and cho se activity structures that ga ve students the opportunity to meet her high expectations. Though she admit ted that not all students were held to exactly th e same standard at all times, (interview 2.19.15), and she was committed to helping them reach it. Analysis in T erms of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol The Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) is a tool designed to help an observer
107 culturally responsive, meeting the needs of all members of the classroom community. After all observations were completed, the transcripts were reviewed against each category of the CRIOP, and this re view will guide the interpretation and analysis of Ms. Grace based elements that are central to culturally responsive pedagogy: Teacher Care, Classroom Climate, Family Collabor ation, Assessment, Curriculum, Instruction/Pedagogy, Discourse/Instructional Conversation, and Sociopolitical Consciousness. Each of these pillars will be discussed in relation to Ms. Grace perspectives about teaching and her teaching practice. Elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol Documented Through the Observations As guided by the CRIOP, Ms. Grace lie in five of the eight domains assessed in the protocol: Teacher Care, Classroom Climate, Family Collaboratio n, Assessment, and Pedagogy/Instructional Practices ( Appendix D) She consistently demonstrate d an ethic of care, differentiating her classroom management techniques to meet the needs of her students and using caring language in all of her interactions. As discussed in the above sections, she ask ed some students to stand at the door to gather themselves prior to disciplining them with a strike or time out. With other students, she talk ed with them quietly to help them remember what behaviors she expect ed to see, such as her conversation with several students about being a good sport. In another incident that Ms. Grace shared during an informal interview, she met with a student at the end of the school day to talk with him about his behavior, which had become exceedingly angry after she decided he would stay back from a field trip. Ms. Grace apologized to him for making him angry, telling him that they needed to work
108 together for their relationship to work. She asked for his forgiveness, which he gave her. Ms. Grace explained that, although he still misbehaved often, the anger of his earlier interactions with her had all but disappeared. Students in Ms. Grace were taught by someone who nearly always spoke in a calm and patient voice, and they nearly al ways spoke to each other in the same tone. They celebrate d struggle d Ms. Grace believe d that it was her responsibili ty to teach her students the skills they need ed to get along with each other, and she ha d no tolerance for bullying. Her students kn e w the class rules against bullying and h e ld each other to these rules. Peer collaboration or buddy work happen ed nearly eve ry day in Ms. Grace in many instances, students ch ose between working together at round tables or on the floor. These first graders often ha d the opportunity to practice the social skills they were building. While family interactions were not apparent in daily classroom activities they were a key element in her practice Early on, Ms. Grace establishe d open communication on and also to collaborate with them on how to b est teach their child. Ms. Grace was readily able to ew whose parents were divorcing, whose mother was in college, whose family was homeless and living with friends, and who was being raised with h elp from grandparents. She was able to know all of these things by communicating regularly with parents and by listening to her students when they talk ed with her about what was happening at home. Because there
109 were so many different circumstances at home, Ms. Grace created different lines of communication to stay in touch with each family: email, phone, and agenda were all regular means of contact. In addition, Ms. Grace explained that she has also gone on home visits. She related the case of a previous st udent who was frequently absent. She explained, Nobody had taken him to school for almost two weeks and I went [to his they all thought I was probably a DCP worker because it was like eve rybody was staring at me and going in their house and stuff like that, and when I out and asked me what I was doing and I told him I was looking for him [the student]. And about at that ti me he came, they pulled up in the driveway Ms. Grace one of a twin. They were in school the next day. (interview 1.15.1 8) In part, this excerpt shows Ms. Grace e visit if the regular routes were not sufficient means to make contact with a parent. This excerpt also alludes to cultural differences, which will be discussed later. A fourth strength of Ms. Grace was her assessment practices. Ms. Grace inders were filled with evidence from formative assessments that provide d information to guide her next teaching move. Through these formative assessments, most frequently administered during guided reading sessions Ms. Grace assesse d ility through running records, listening to the strategies they use d during read alouds, asking them to communicate how they solved a problem, and scaffolding their efforts when necessary. Students often dr e w pictures to accompany their written retellings and their story cartoons g a ve them the opportunity to use words and pictures to explain their thinking, often before verbally explaining to each other or to their teacher what they had written. In addition, Ms. Grace was teaching her students how to use a rubric to evaluate their own work. Their first rubric looked like a checklist,
110 where students read one or two words, searched their work, and checked off whether they had included the criteria in their work: When you finish your cartoon and your retell, g o to your checklist and think, (observation 2.6.29 31) Ms. Grace w ere generally aligned with recommended culturally responsive practices. Students regularly collaborate d with each other, working in pairs and small groups as they read, play ed math games, and complete d other assignments together. Ms. Grace often specifie d which students would work together, as a way to help struggling students make progress by working with more advanced learners. They were encouraged to ask each other questions rather than relying on Ms. Grace especially when she was engaged with small gro ups during guided reading. Ms. Grace develop ed activities that g o t students out of their seats and moving, as in the science observations outside the classroom. With her own teaching, Ms. Grace consistently model ed explain ed and demonstrate d new skills f or students, providing appropriate scaffolding to students when they struggle d As described above, Ms. Grace consider ed academic and content area vocabulary of prime importance and she expect ed student s to use these words in context. T he word wall on one dry erase board was ever growing, and include d sight words along with content area vocabulary. Students learned how to read these and many other words through targeted reading instruction geared towards teaching students how to decode and analyze words ind ependently.
111 Elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol with Little or No Evidence Though there was a great deal of evidence about the ways in which Ms. Grace structured a caring environment, there are elements of this domain f or which there was little evidence. Additionally, there was little evidence of several other areas of the CRIOP, including Curriculum, Classroom Discourse, and Sociopolitical Consciousness. To begin, as part of a caring teacher disposition, the CRIOP sug gests that students share the decision making process with their teacher. In the case of Ms. Grace she generally dominate d decision making in the classroom, determining the schedule and what types of books students would read (usually leveled readers). Th ough students sometimes had the chance to make a decision, the options were Ms. Grace typically select ed the groups in which stude nts work ed though there were times when she let students choose their partners. Though she did strive to involve parents in instructional and behavioral decisions regarding their child, parents were otherwise absent from Ms. Grace explai helping like in the class like they do in kindergarten, which is fine, but they bring treats 10). This statement suggests that Ms. Grace define d expertise and funds of knowledge were also not utilized in the classroom. Instead, she relie d on her own experiences and background as a source of exam ples to pr esent to her students. T his can be seen as problematic according to the principles of culturally
112 responsive teaching because it allow ed for the experiences of her own, dominant White culture to remain dominant, effectively silencing the experiences and cul tures of her non White students. Though Ms. Grace were collaborative, engaging, meaningful, and need based, they also lack ed were predominantly teacher selected and teacher driven. Admittedly, Ms. Gr ace tend ed to incorporate her own life experiences into her classroom: because I do integrate the importanc e of learning, where learning can take you, the importance of responsibility. I teach independence. I understand teaching my culture to them. (interview 1.2.30) 4) By connecting course content to her own experiences rather than those of her students, Ms Grace was was considered the authority in the classroom, rather than co learner, her White middle class dominant paradigm was also the authoritative way of being. Though these quotes also su ggest that Ms. Grace further evidence that corroborates such a perspective. culture would be a significant weakness in M s. Grace and was apparent in her curriculum, classroom discourse, and lack of sociopolitical consciousness. In fact c ulture was largely absent in Ms. Grace the curriculum in a culturally responsive classr oom would contain many real life examples
113 include characters from diverse backgrounds and present ideas from multiple perspectives, with opportunities for students to di scuss and counter those ideas. Though in some instances, Ms. Grace use d generally use d an adopted text for reading and social studies assignments. Issues in the school or greater community guide d few and perhaps non e of her curricular choices, as real world issues were not discussed with students. Ms. Grace were not consistently aligned with the recommendations for culturally responsive teaching. Although Ms. Grace did ask her students open ended questions, listening and responding authentically to their responses, there was little opportunity for genuine discussions that stretch ed ed them to explain their thinking, as in answeri ng a mathematics question, Ms. Grace ha d one correct answer in mind. Though Ms. Grace explicates the importance of higher order questioning, her use of these questions was developing and often inconsistent. During whole group work, students spoke when they were called on and took turns to speak. Ms. Grace use d techniques such as wait increase student participation; all students had the opportunity to speak, yet some students were called on with higher frequency than others which allow ed some students to dominate the activity. The area of the CRIOP in which Ms. Grace scored the lowest was that of sociopolitical consciousness. This category includes behaviors such as allowing students to question the way things ar e, taking action on real world problems, fostering
114 an understanding of different points of view, and actively deconstructing negative stereotypes in instructional materials and texts. The CRIOP suggests that all of these would be present in a culturally re sponsive classroom. In the case of Ms. Grace classroom, none were present. Instead, Ms. Grace use d standard texts, presenting the ideas within as neutral and factual. Though she did not actively discourage the discussion of real life problems, they simpl y did not come up in class discussions. Ms. Grace never ma de stereotypical comments or prejudicial statements and did not allow her students to speak in this way, but also did not promote conversation about the harm in such statements. There is a great de al of evidence that Ms. Grace is an effective teacher. Her students appear ed to feel loved and cared for and she did all she could to help them learn and succeed, including helping them learn how to communicate in ways that enable them to get their needs m et. In terms of culturally responsive instruction, however, Ms. Grace may fall short. However, it is important to consider the degree to which culture was a factor for Ms. Grace as she ma de pedagogical decisions. Interpretation and Analysis: Culture in t he Classroom The cultural thing is hard because, se to make a really big effort to step outside of your culture to even begin to get, even begin to smudge the window, the fogged up window, to be able to look into anothe White family that is going to be all the same as everybo dy else in their culture that diversity, some of my children, I find much more, stronger structures that are more similar to my family structure that I relate to over and above maybe even a White child because they come from a really radically different family structure. So it becomes so confusing that I just really try to keep my eyes open and love my kids. (intervie w 2.15.19 )
115 As discussed, Ms. Grace was guided by two concerns: ensuring the success of all students and creating a caring learning environment. She str ove to do her best for her students in order for them to do well academically and socially, ye t culture was strikingly absent from her classroom. As explained in the above quote t o Ms. Grace culture is a muddy, unclear window that is difficult to understand. For this reason, Ms. Grace did not intentionally include in her classroom or instructiona l practices anything closely connected t though as discussed previously, her own c ulture was This year, a new principal was work ing at Ms. Grace lack, and has begun t alking with the predominantly White faculty ab out issues related to teaching B lack children. Though she claim ed (interv iew 2.15.7 ), Ms. Grace seem ed to struggle with this information because, she sa id ). Her understanding of this information was sur face level, as she hone d speak to African American children: She brings up you have to be sweet and talk sweetie pie to the students, is for a fact sweetie pie talking to the students who are African American probably truth )
116 Ms. Grace ed her ability to think about the larger issue of culture and how it intersects with sch ooling and education, including family dynamics and ways of learning and communicating. There is no doubt that Ms. Grace cares about h er students and wants to connect with them. However, this idea of connecting is incomplete. There is a difference between connecting with students, as Ms. Grace did and connecting to students, as is suggested by the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy This difference is subtle, yet significant. One way of connecting with students is personal and includes things like knowing who they live with, what they like to do for fun, and what their life outside of school is like. These things are important, and Ms. Grace has a firm understanding of the need for this type of connection. However, Ms. Grace did not use what she kn ew about students to connect to them by linking what they learn ed in school to their lives outside of school. In addition to the exclusion of diverse backgrounds and perspectives in reading and other curricular materials, Ms. Grace did not regularly build on the experiences that students brought with them to school; instead, she incorporate d her own culture into lessons, singing songs and re ading stories that she learned as a child. This is misaligned with her ide as related to t eaching students. For instance, in the following excerpt, Ms. Grace discusse d how students learn to be better writers: When you have to teach the kids how to do a nar rative story for instance, their own experiences, reading to them, and the places, things, and stuff e seen in the world, all the connections, and the more connections they have, the more ideas they have, and the more ideas they have the better they can talk and writ e and stuff. (interview 3.4.3 )
117 From this excerpt, it would seem that Ms. Grace would inte ntionally incorporate and observed in her classroom. Although she attempt ed to connect with her students on an emotional level, in many ways Ms. Grace felt disconnected fro m them due to their different upbringings. As she explain ed she trie d to connect her own life experienc es with those of her students, e seen other ways of living so that has helped me be more empathetic and understanding of my students because they come from a very different background than what I came from. (interview 3.5.15 ) In the end, however, there was still a lack of understanding of and perhaps a degree of discomfort with the disparity between her culture and that of her students. Ms. Grace explain ed It gets too gobbly goopy for me to worry about, frankly, it does. It gets too gobbly goopy for me to spend a lot of time with. My c oncern is what is happening, the actions in my classroom, and maybe I should take the 17.17) This lack of understan ding may be a driving factor in her lack of incorporation of culture and diversity in her classroom. In sum, provided her students with an academically driven environment that stre ssed the need for all community members to care for each other and be respectful.
118 CHAPTER 5 THE CASE OF NATALIE RIGSBEE Originally from Port au Prince, Haiti, Natalie Rigsbee is a Black teacher working at Turner Elementary School. in Brooklyn, New York. Though they were considered affluent in Haiti they lost their wealth upon coming to America Ms. Rigsbee explained that their Brooklyn home was art, where you had to be afraid to come to my house, where you 1.1.6 9). She believes that growing up in such a neighborhood provided her with the opportunity to: adapt and u with African American children or Caribbean African American children descent, so I think I kind of understand them, where th 2 (interview 1.1.20 27) Ms. Rigsbee often discusse d her childhood with her students, weaving connections between their lives and her own in an effort to help students relate to her and see her as someone whom they could aspire to be (interview 1.2.17 18; interview 1.5.8 9). Coming from a career in law, Ms. Rigsbee never thought she would become a teacher. However, circumstances related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on declining economy, Ms. Rigsbee and her husband struggled to find jobs. Left with no 2 Q uotes are drawn from interviews and as is common when speaking, teachers sometimes deviate from standard grammar. The quotes in this chapter use the exact language used by the t eacher.
119 choice but to f she become a reading teacher. Ms. Rigsbee explain ed English, I felt that I was going to go and teach children how to read; that was the passion. (interview 1.3.25 28) Ms. Rigsbee taught reading to all of the fifth graders at Turner Elementary School, which means that she taught thre e reading blocks each day. In previous years, Ms. Rigsbee taught second and third grades; some of the students whom she taught as fifth graders were also her students as second or third graders. Turner Elementary is a Title I school where 96% of the 436 st udents identify as Black. Eighty eight percent of the students at Turner Elementary School receive free or reduced cost lunch. Ms. Rigsbee acknowledged that being a teacher require d that she fill many different roles but for her, th e most important was that of a role model: You are a social worker, you are a police person, you are a guidance counselor, you are a priest sometime, you are a nurse, you are the warden, you are everything to those kids, and you even become their parents because they expect you to tell them what not to do or what to do and role model to those kids, being somebody they could imitate, being 5.12) For Ms. Rigsbee, being a role model was based on establishing a positive relationship with her students. To her, this was more impo rtant than acade mic instruction. S he 1.7.19 21). Her experiences as a young student contributed to this stance; her own
120 troubled childhood was positively affected by the guidance and care of her high school French teacher. Also highly visible in her classroom practice was preparing students to pass d test through the use of tightly focused and task driven lessons. Many of her students read well below a fifth grade reading level (for example, the majority of students in one reading block are reading on a second or third grade level, according to their scores on a lexile test), and preparing students so they would demonstrate mastery on the fifth grade reading test was the ed getting them to do exactly what I wanted them to do. (interview 3.6.27 ) Though her students enter ed her classroom achieving at levels far below their district peers, Ms. Rigsbee had set a personal goal for a 100 % pass rate. As seen in test was complemented by the cultivation of a positive teacher student relationship, as she work ed to help them succeed by connecting with them as individual learners while insisting upon excellence. were developing positive relationships with students and preparing all students to pass the state standardized test. She was able to merge these concerns i n her fast paced, task driven approach to teaching. The vignette that follows describes a typical whole group teacher led lesson in
121 nto the classroom and immediately begins singing the first of two chants: 12 Powerful Words. In unison, they sing about analyzing, inferring, and ten other reading strategies. If they forget, the powerful words and their meanings which make up the lyrics o f the chant are posted on the wall. Ms. Rigsbee dances around the room while students chant, preparing her lesson notes and PowerPoint for the afternoon session. There are moments in the chant where students trail off ngly, bringing all students back to task. Immediately after this song, students lead themselves into the Prefixes and Suffixes chant, set to the words of the popular song by DJ become more interested in the beats than the chanting, and Ms. Rigsbee As the students finish their chants, Ms. Rigsbee is standing at the front of the room, her hands folded in front of her as she waits. Ms. Rigsbee: song I want you to sing this week. Ms. Rigsbee plays a YouTube v ideo for a Figurative Language song. The song is closed captioned, and students begin singing along immediately. Once it finishes, Ms. Rigsbee plays it a second time. Some students have trouble with the words on one particular section of the song. Janae: they could hear what they are trying to say so they could learn the words. Ms. Rigsbee: to learn the words. Ms. Rigsbee pulls the s There is a procedure in place for how students are to behave during mini lessons, and there are times when Ms. Rigsbee has to remin d students of her expectations. Her use of endearing nicknames when speaking to students is also noted. down and not loo king at me. Once you are finished, please place A student gets up to use the bathroom, and Ms. Rigsbee reminds lesson, Booloo. You need to wait
122 until it is your time. You are the mighty Falcons. You need He returns to his seat, pencil in hand. Ms. Rigsbee gives the class an example of what she did that morning, what she ate for breakfast, what she listened to on the radio in the car, using very few descriptive words. She tells the story again this time using what she Students call out answers, some raise their hands, others do not. The varied response style does not affect Ms. Rigsbee, who calls on student s whether they volunteer a response or not. beside h strategies in her classroom: humor and deflection. In this manner, she made light of a be havior that could have escalated into a greater upset, while acknowledging the fact that both girls knew the answer to her question. Ms. Rigsbee moves through the slides showing definitions and examples of similes, metaphors, and personification. At perso nification, Ms. Rigsbee Shrek Shrek ? What about Puss on. When something acts like it is The mention of a beloved movie causes students to talk about their favorite parts, but Ms. Rigsbee uses a common strategy to bring them back to the focus of the lesson. She stands silent, face to the groun d and hands folded in front of her, calmly stating two small attention to her.
123 Ms. Rigsbee brings their attention to a folder that she placed on their desks during the daily chants. She introduces them to the tightly structured group task that will follow, making clear her expectations for group work behavior. ize your literary devices. One person should not dominate. You need to As she frequently does, Ms. Rigsbee sets a timer for 3 minutes and interrupt, but uses this ti me to circulate and observe their thinking before reviewing the task with them once the timer beeps, signaling the end of group work. Ms. Rigsbee often uses a timer to keep her lessons moving on track. As illustrated in this vignette, the two main concerns for Ms. Rigsbee were developing positive relationships with students and preparing all students to pass the state standardized test. The way she develop ed positive relationships with students w as specifically demonstrated in many ways: using humor and deflection when she spoke to Booloo, when reminding a student of procedures, sharing details about her personal life clear and high expectations for academics and behavior, as well as her tightly focused, task driven, and scaffolded lesson about figurative language demonstrate her de dication to making sure that all students have the opportunity to learn and practice necessary skills. The remainder of this chapter will include an examination of these two expl anation of the strategies that she uses to support each one. Developing Positive Relationships with Students For Ms. Rigsbee, the relationships that she built with students were the most important part of her job as teacher. In her opinion, the best kind of teacher is one who
124 view 3.2.23 ). Ms. Rigsbee foster ed this type of relationship with her students in several ways: using a variety of classroom management techniques to mee needs, speaking to students in a particular manner, sharing her personal life with encapsulating the development of positive relationships with stu dents is highlighted in the above vignette and will be described in detail below. individual needs Though the room hummed with energy and chatter, disciplinary action was uncommon in this classroom. were rarely given referrals, asked to leave the room due to misbehavior, or even marked down for behavior infractions on the clipboard that is passed from teacher to teacher. Ms. Rigsbee save d these consequences for the most serious examples of disrespect or misbehavior, instead selecting her management approach to meet the needs of a particular student at a particular time. These approaches include d but were not limited to reminding students of how they should be acting, giving students the space they need to correct their own behavior, or redirecting students through the use of humor. This indicates that Ms. Rigsbee was attuned to the personalities of her students and was able to adjust her style to meet their di sciplinary needs. Her actions impl ied that she would rather have students in the classroom and learning than out of the room, losing valuable learning time waiting to be di sciplined by an administrator.
125 The excerpts that follow provide a sample of the tec hniques that Ms. Rigsbee use d to manage her classroom. In the first example, Ms. Rigsbee respond ed with humor to a student who was making animal sounds in class: A few students laugh at her respon noises. (observation 6.6.6 8) With this response, Ms. Rigsbee attend ed to the mis behavior while making light of it in order to keep students from getting too distracted from their classwork. In the following instance, Ms. Rigsbee addresse d need ed to gather himself: Martin enters the room, clearly angry. He untucks his shirt and slams his books on his desk before throwing himself into his chair. Ms. Martin gets up from his seat and walks over to the bathroom but does not go in. Although awa re that he did not leave the room, Ms. Rigsbee ignores him. He stands near the bathroom for a moment, facing the wall, before returning to his desk, tucking his shirt back in. He sits back down and does not chant with the class, but appears to have calmed down and Ms. Rigsbee does not ask him to lea ve again. (observation 3.7.22 ) By giving Martin the opportunity to collect himself before insisting that he leave the room, Ms. Rigsbee diffused his anger and kept him in the classroom, enabling him to get settle d and join the class for instruction. was that of reminding students of the value of education and that she tolerate wasted time because none of them ha d time to waste. She state d firmly that she di d not have time for
126 misbehavior and that students should take their time in the classroom seriously. The following examples illustrate this strategy: stops playing around with his pretend basketball and returns his attention to her lesson. (observ ation 6.8.27 ) your education seriously. Both of your parents ation 3.8.27 ) Each of these examples shows Ms. Rigsbee putting students in control of their own behavior, while telling them clearly what her expectations are for their behavior during instruction or work time. A final example of Ms. gement techniques was from Literacy Day, when students traveled to different classrooms around the school to hear stories read by other members of the faculty. In this instance, students were seated on the floor, listening to the guidance counselor read a book about being respectful: Janae is distracting other students, trying to talk to them and moving around in her seat. Ms. Rigsbee, seated at a table in the back of the room, notices across the room to sit on the floor beside her Janae stops playing around and turns her body to face the guidance counselor. After a few minutes, Janae watches as Ms. Rigsbee stands up, walks to the back of the room, places her finger to her eye and points to her, indicating that she is watching her. Janae nods and Ms. Rigsbee returns to her chair. Janae is well behaved for the remainder of this reading session. (observation 2.9.14 ) using proximity and nonverbal comm unication. In addition to the techniques that have been highlighted, Ms. Rigsbee also called or texted parents, such as the time when ssignment (observation 7.4.13 ), and sometimes ignore d mis behavior, such as the time when Shanise grumbled under her breath, yet loud enough to be heard, about directions Ms. Rigsbee had given her
127 (observation 4.4.26 ). Ms. Rigsbee also remind ed students when they need ed to check d that she heard her teacher and she would correc t herself (observation 8.2.30 ). Her knowledge and understanding of her students and her comf ort with asserting her own authority allow ed her to adjust her use of management strategies to meet the needs of a student and situation. Ms. Rigsbee agreed that classroom management is a particular strength of hers, and that, by knowing her kids, she was able to manage her classroom effectively: mean, that means my classroom would not be the way I want it to run. I will want for you to get and tha ) For her, being str ict and firm was a positive attribute, and she expect ed students to meet her expectations for their behavior. If they struggle d to do so, she ha d at her fingertips a variety of ways, as illuminated above, to help them get back on track. Using endearing ni cknames, encouraging students, and thanking them for their hard work The way that Ms. Rigsbee spoke to her students was almost always firm yet was not angry. She thank ed students f or their hard work and encouraged their efforts while push ing them to work h arder. She used nicknames and other terms of endearment when speaking to them. This manner of speaking communicate d her care as well as her high expectations for their achievement. Students often hear d encouraging words when they were clas sroom. For example, when a student and her twin sister both responded to one of
128 from the same mommy and daddy? Yes. So ). Sometimes this encourag ement came in the form of a thank you when students were doing the right thing, such as when all members of a group were for being offer ed with a t humbs ), or when she addressed the whole class as they lined up Ms. Rigsbee thank ed because and was rewarding their actions. More often than not, Ms. Rigsbee addresse d her students usi ng a nickname or other term of endearment. Sometimes these nicknames were shortened versions of times the words were (observation 3.2.28). Ms. Rigsbee also use d
129 told students that she love d endearment were sprinkled generously throughout the day, and though students sometim es roll ed their eyes or laugh ed at her terminology, it was clear from their smiles and laughter that they did not nicknames. Sharing her personal life with students As discussed in the introduction to this ch apter, Ms. Rigsbee fe lt that her upbringing was very similar to that of many of her students. Asked how she show ed them that she relates to them, she responded, assume that you d conversation, twice a week I do have a meeting with the kids and twice a week I do talk about my life. Lessons of course, but I do talk about my life t than their own; we just sound different and look different and come from different places, but my life is just as similar to them as any other thing. (interview 1.2.3 ) Ms. Rigsbee often talk ed about her own life, sometimes at length, in an effort to get students to understand that their childhood does not have to determine their future. One morning, when students were being particularly hostile to one another, Ms. Rigsbee spoke about coming to the United States as a child and the challenges her family fac ed in starting over: mommy and my daddy had to leave. My mommy dressed me in yellow. e bad friends. I know
130 (observation 2.1.23 4. 1) was (interview 1.2.17 ). In addition, Ms. Rigsbee use d what she told students a bout her own life as a jumping off point in reading lessons. After she finished telling students about her two questions you have for me. How can questioning he lp us evaluate information and (observation 2.6. 8). From there, Ms. Rigsbee asked students about her use of figurative language in her story and asked them to determine whether her purpose was to persuade, inform, explain, o r entertain (obs ervation 2.5.24; observation 2. 6.12). Another example also focuses on developing questioning skills: have questions about what ) By sharing her own life experiences with students, Ms. Rigsbee ke pt them engaged in discussions about reading and show ed them that they already did many of th e things that would help them become better readers, such as questioning. Important to note is the fact that when invited Ms. Rigsbee has also spent
131 invitations. She explain 1.7.4 ). She has attended weddings, religious celebrations, and birthdays, bringing her family along intimately than is possible simply standing in front of a classroom. In order to get to know her students and teach them in the best way s possible, Ms. Rigsbee researche d them, looking them up and checking their cumulative folders even before the first day of school: a fire in their house and lost everything, I know who got married, I know who got baptized, who got saved. I know whose parents been in jail, whose parent just got released, who never talk to the ir parents. (interview 1.2.11 ) You could know your content a rea, you could know your subject, but if you better communication with parents, with students, and build a bridge in order to help you because just knowing it is not going to cut it (interview 3.4.28 5.10) After purchasing a class set of a book of motivational stories, Ms. Rigsbee told students that there was one in particular that she wanted to share with them, and that i t might was considered the dummy of his fifth grade class. But do you know, he is now a surgeon. He was raised by his single mother only, and now he is ). Though the sharing of this story was not observed, even this brief reference to motivational to some students. This year, Ms. Rigsbee noticed that her students were not internalizing the chants as they had in previous years; she felt they struggled to understand why they were
132 singing them. However, Ms. R I find it more, they get mor ). For this reason, Ms. Rigsbee often play ed YouTube videos so students could sing along, read the lyrics, and see images that support ed An example was the Figurative Language video described in the vignette. In creating chants Ms. Rigsbee use d the tune s of songs students already kn e Similarly, when the y discuss ed their reading selections, Ms. Rigsbee connect ed their vocabulary to things they were familiar with, nearly always music, as shown in the following excerpt where Ms. Rigsbee g a ve an example to illustrate a vocabulary word, tory about ice skater Michele Kwan : ) lives show ed them that Ms. Rigsbee recognize d validate d and m ade use of the knowledge they ha d outside of class. By linking new knowledge to their background knowledge she increase d their access to the content she was trying to teach them This show ed students that she value d them enough to use what they know and love to support their learning. Ms. Rigsbee also ma de a point of exposing students to things they may not have underst oo d when they read a story in order to increase their comprehension of wh at
133 s in which the crowd went wild over the singer, cheering and dancing along (observation 3.2.7). She also brought to class a record of Michael Jackson hits so they would understand what a record is and what would happen if it skipped (observation 3.2.21). I n this way, Ms. Rigsbee was increasing the chances that they would make personal connections to what they were reading. Preparing All Students to Pass the Statewide Standardized Reading Tests One of Ms was to be the best reading and writing teacher. In order to meet this goal, she need ed to prepare her students to meet her other goal of importance of stu score: It is not just fine to teach lessons and not teach student s how to be great test takers. As for myself, I'm not a great test ta ker. I know that some of us t est well and some of us don't. I feel that is also imperative to te ach students how to take test[s]. Passing each test has become a primary focus because passing means mastery and mastery means you have done well. Those are the keys to motivation and self esteem. (personal co mmunication, 5/30/12) Her expectations for the way students should behave during mini lessons and student led work were clear, as were her expectations for the work they would produce. Ms. were thorough, organized, and include d PowerPoint and video to ed her goal for her own and stakes test.
134 Turner E lementary School use d the CHAMPs behavior model (C Conversation Level, H Help, A Activity, M Movement/Materials, P Participation) as a system to manage student behavior. Prior to nearly every teacher led mini lesson or group activity, Ms. Rigsbee review ed the expectations for behavior verbally and by including a CHAMPs slide at the start of her lesson PowerPoint; she typically introduce d the Help, raise your hand. Movement i (observation 1.4.5 ). From these instructions, students kn e w how they should act and if they forg o t, Ms. Rigsbee remind ed other times of the day when students have not been directed to follow CHAMPs, Ms. Rigsbee is likely to explicitly state her expectations. For instance, she said you are not raising 2.1.8 your pencils down and I will know. Do not ca ). In these cases, Ms. Rigsbee was still stating her expectations in a way that was easy for students to understand and follow. Academi cally, Ms. Rigsbee was equally clear with her expectations and show ed students that she expect ed excellence. There were no excuses for not putting forth excellence: I l or failing them because my expectation is too high for them, but at the same winning at this moment until all scores come out, but I
135 In order to meet the goal she set for herself and her students, Ms. Rigsbee was constantly reminding students to check the ir work, fix their spelling or punctuation, write more detailed paragraphs, and to use sophisticated language. The following excerpts illustrate these expectations: got (observation 3.4.20) ink of my dog. I want you guys to use different words. She is not doing magic. What are other 1.11.28) Each of these examples demonstrates the way Ms. Rigsbee gave feedback to students; using clear and specific language, she told them what was wrong or missing and how they could improve their work. Ms. Rigsbee also always move d back around to the students she correct ed to check their work again. Ms. Rigsbee ma de clear to students that the work they did in school should come first, and that there were student tried to explain to Ms. Rigsbee w sometimes ga ve students an extension for
136 getting work turned in, the expectation was cl ear that students were to do what she ask ed them to do. While the school frequently held fund raiser dances during what would be instructional time, Ms. Rigsbee ma de clear that they must finish her lesson before they were (observation 5.3.27). This convey ed to students that she value d academics, that school work was most important, and that she expect ed it to be completed before leisure activities. Implementing tightly focused, scaffolde d, and task driven lessons Ms. Rigsbee believe d that one of her strengths is researching researching her students as well as researching her craft. This means that every lesson was carefully considered and well planned before she walk ed in the door: Ever ything I do in this classroom is not by coincidence. I plan it. I plan what I am going to say in the morning, I plan what I am going to do in the T he reason for such detailed planning is clear: her students. She explained, children, you cannot repair that day; you cannot bring it back. (interview 3.7.26) For her, it was crucial that she not lose any teaching time with students; she taught with intensity and believe d her children could not afford to waste one instructional minute because learning is importa nt. were fast paced and well planned. She explained together, and then after we do it, you do it by yourself. After that we close it, yes we
137 Rigsbee was able to scaffold students, drawing them in to the content and modeling her thinking before asking them to work with their team or independently (int erview 2.5.6). Her PowerPoint presentations were labeled with each part of the lesson at the top of each slide. In this way students kn e w whether the example was typical mini lesson, Ms. Rigsbee spen t several days modeling and doing a task with students before she sen t students off to work without her guidance, first with a partner or their group, and then on their own. During this time, she constantly circ le d the room, listening to their thinking and checking their work. She explained that, with this type of (interview 2.6.15). Ms. Rigsbee taught three classes of reading; the classes were generally organized by reading level and homeroom classes were not grouped together. While the school on, Ms. Rigsbee coordinated the change to the lessons to meet the needs of the group. I do more hands on things with the earlier [lower] group to help them with vocabul nformal interview 11/ 10 /11 ). Knowing that many of her students struggle d Ms. Rigsbee ma de a point of not moving on until everyone kn ew what to do and was If one student did not understand, Ms. Rigsbee challenge d d
138 nearly the same instruction, wi th slight modifications based on need, driven by chants, posters, unison call and response, repetition, and a well used timer. Students beg a n their chants the moment they walk ed in the door. As discussed previously, there were two that they sa ng daily. As ked how she learned this skill, she (interview 1.10.6). Ms. Rigsbee has had a lot of success with the chants in the past; she said that she could see students singin g them to themselves while they took tests. Along with giving students verbal cues they can memorize, Ms. Rigsbee ha d helpful instructional posters hung on every wall. These posters include d lists of reading were constantly referred to these posters when they were stuck or if Ms. Rigsbee was trategy are they referring to? Look up at the ed When you take the FCAT, look at the w Here, Ms. Rigsbee was using multiple senses to help students solidify their learning. Ms. Rigsbee rarely require d students to raise their hands to parti cipate in class because she expect ed that all students be engaged at all times. Instead, lessons were driv en by unison call and response and repetition, where students answer ed together and repeat ed answers after Ms. Rigsbee. This technique is illustrated below: Students read the caption aloud.
139 Ms. Rigsbee: Why did the author include them? You have to take it from the Ms. Rigsb tion. Cap (observation 6.2.21) Ms. Rigsbee and her students frequently repeat ed words, circling them or making notes beside them in their journals or on reading handouts. She use d this technique in nearly all teacher led, whole group lessons. In doing so, Ms. Rigsbee was able to hear all of oices, checking for understanding in a way that allow ed her to hear potential problems if a student d id not answer with the class. Each block of students was with Ms. Rigsbee for about 90 minutes; however, this schedule shift ed almost daily, with dances, early dismissals every other Wednesday, and other school functions creating obstacles to an uninterrupted class session. Because time was led the flow of her lessons with the use of a timer. Almost ever y activity in the classroom was timed, even increments as short as 30 seconds. Ms. Rigsbee frequently ha d students turn to a neighbor for a quick partner pair share or join with their table groups to decide on a strategy, and because she was circulating ar conversations, she use d the timer to keep her on track. were developing positive relationships with students and helping her students master the state standardized test.
1 40 I n order to meet these goals, Ms. Rigsbee use d a variety of techniques to meet d them and uses endearing nicknames, share d her personal life with her students, and connect ed her lessons to their lives outside of school. She create d tightly focused and task driven lessons, ke pt students attention in a variety of ways, and set high and clear expectations for their success, which she help ed them achieve through careful and intention al scaffolding. When students were not around, she ad mit ted that the job was not easy and that there were 2.6.24), she also believe d that this was have a wil success for all students was only a matter of time. Analysis in T erms of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol As explained in Chapter 4, t he Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) is a tool designed to help an observer understand the degree to which classroom community. In the following section, the eight pillars of this protocol (Teacher Care, Classroom Climate, Family Collaboration, Assessment, Curriculum, Instruction/Pedagogy, Discourse/Instructional Conversation, and Sociopolitical Consciousness ) will be discussed in relation to Ms. Rigsbee perspectives about teaching and her teaching practice. Elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol Documented Through the Observations assessed in the protocol: Teacher Care, Classroom Climate, Family Collaboration,
141 Assessment, Pedagogy/Instructional Practices, and Discourse/Instructional Conversation ( Appendix E ) to Family Collaboration a nd Teacher Care. As evident in the sections above, Ms. Rigsbee put forth great effort in getting to know all of her students and their families. She reference d these connections in class, talking with students about their lives outside of the classroom. Th ough parents were not involved in the classroom on a daily basis, the lines of communication were always open and Ms. Rigsbee made herself available to students and parents at nearly all times of the day. In interviews, Ms. Rigsbee discussed the ways that she had been able to bring parents into the classroom during previous school years to share their experiences : I make sure that I embrace their own skill, although they are not [traditionally] educated, I embrace whatever they could bring to the classroom. For example, I have a parent who does the yard, so I bring that and killing the bugs. Another parent I have is a grandparent that talks about babies. I will bring that grandmot her in just to help me out as a volunteer in the classroom. I believe in not just having mom in the classroom. (summer interview 6.25) Ms. Rigsbee consistently look ed to families and expect ed their support in learning, and she accept ed no thin g less. She explain ed that parents had to be on her side if children were going to be successful in her class, even though her style can be off putting at first: I want everybody on board, parents going to be on board by the time I teach my child, so which one would you prefer? Would you prefer I teach your child or would you prefer your child come here (interview 1.10.21)
142 According to Ms. Rigsbee, some parents move d their kids from Turner they don't understand my pra ctices and rules. Most likely is that, they simply don't get their ways or they relocated communication 5/30/12). During the course of my classroom observations, one student was removed from Turner. Ms. Rigsbee claimed that this may happen a cou ple of times a year. However, the opinions of some families did not bother her; she will teach the ones who are left and they will pass. Ms. Rigsbee demonstrate d an ethic of care by referring to students by their names or by endearing nicknames and othe r personalized language. She praise d ed them for their hard work. She also set high expectations for students, both in terms of academics and behavior, requiring that all students participate d appropriately and actively. Ms. Rigs bee insist ed that students get their work done and did not accept excuses. Students were encouraged to treat each other with (observation 6.3.10), and to help each other i f a classmate d id not know an answer, and Ms. Rigsbee model ed these behaviors daily. Similarly, the physical classroom environment was designed to promote active learning. Desks were arranged in groups of five or six, and students move d from one seat to a nother on a daily basis. As discussed in the previous sections, students work ed together on a regular basis, sharing their thinking as they learn ed how to apply reading strategies and decode text. The walls of the classroom were covered with instructional posters, nearly all of which were handmade by Ms. Rigsbee to provide the information she consider ed most meaningful to students.
143 Other strengths Ms. Rigsbee demonstrate d in terms of the CRIOP were her assessment practices, instructional practices, and cla ssroom discourse. Ms. Rigsbee relie d heavily on formative assessments, most of which were informal and part of the lesson or its closing. During these times, Ms. Rigsbee was able to observe every For example, during an independent activity where students wrote down their responses to a question, Ms. Rigsbee was able to spot several students who had trouble with then made a note in her plan book to return to punc tuation at a later date. Her careful ed her to clarify misconceptions, scaffold their learning, and assess their understanding. Instructional Practices and Instructional Discourse are very closely related. In general these pillars are often characterized by culturally responsive features in Ms. d the use of engaging and collaborative activities that allow ed student s to talk to each other in ways that match ed their home environment. This include d group work, call and response, chants, and responding in unison. As noted in previous sections, these techniques were Additionall y, instruction was rigorous and engaging, and expectations for student achievement were standardized reading test). In order for students to meet those expectations, however,
144 they were prov ided with clear instructions for what they need ed to do, such as Ms. 1.10.19). Ms. R igsbee also emphasize d the use of academic language, constantly working to help her students use more sophisticated language in meaningful contexts, such as in the following example: 5 th grade. preparing all students to pass the standardized test) were cle arly reflected in these categories of the CRIOP. Her caring disposition, connectedness with students and their families, and her focus on meaningful instruction and assessment have created a classroom environment where success was not only expected, but al so possible. Elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol with Little or No Evidence Though there is a great deal of evidence about the ways in which Ms. Rigsbee has structured a classroom that is consistently characterized by t he features discussed above, there are elements within those criteria for which there was little evidence. Additionally, there was little evidence of two other areas of the CRIOP, Curriculum and Sociopolitical Consciousness. The greatest challenge to a car ing classroom environment was the fact that the students did not treat each other in a respectful manner. Ms. Rigsbee model ed and set a tone for respectful interactions, but students often bicker ed bull ied and tr ied to out
145 perform one another, sometimes 2.2.19) to one another. Although somewhat inconsistent in this regard, Ms. Rigsbee show ed very little tolerance for this type of behavior in her classroom reminding work to change A lthough she was able to foster positive one on one relationships with each student, these relationships were not consistently demonstrated across the class as a whole. The two areas in whi ch the least number of indicators were observed were Curriculum and Sociopolitical Consciousness. These areas are similar in that they require the teacher to hand over to students more control over what is learned and how this information should be present ed. Ms. Rigsbee did make an effort to include real was done in these areas to move students beyond basic connections to investigate or challenge the content of their books or other sign ificant issues within their own school. As such, the textbook and test preparation worksheets form ed the bulk of the instruction al materials used by Ms. Rigsbee and her students. Though she often help ed students connect to those materials to their own live s, there was little evidence of other efforts to use more engaging, most tasks and activities assigned were teacher directed, in that Ms. Rigsbee select ed and initiate d the work. These lessons did require active engagement, but it is no observed instances where Ms. Rigsbee facilitated student advocacy or challenged the status quo in any way with the exception of her suggestion that students write a
146 letter to the principal regarding a delayed lunch time (observation 1.6.6); however this issue was not further addressed and the suggestion was not taken seriously by students. Data from observa tions and interviews indicate that Ms. Rigsbee has many attributes of a culturally responsive fifth grade teacher. She has developed positive relationships with her students, even though they may not always demonstrate similarly respectful relationships wi th each other. She plan ned and implement ed engaging, focused, and task driven lessons that scaffold ed students so they were able to succeed classroom consistently demonstrate d attributes of a culturally responsive learning environment. However, her school context was riddled with challenges that may not facilitate culturally responsive practices; therefore, it is important to consider the degree to which the environment at Turn er Elementary create d barriers that prevent ed Ms. Rigsbee from fully embracing culturally responsive practices in her classroom. Interpretation and Analysis: A School in Constant Transition Over the course of 10 observations, there were many interruption s. Although each instance can be seen as important or appropriate, the cumulative effect was the constant interruption of instructional time. During the period I observed some or most of the fifth graders at Turner Elementary participated in a field trip to the symphony, Literacy/Pajama Day, two dances, an awards ceremony, and one day where at least half of the students were out of class for performances in their magnet area (dance or band); there were also two days when Ms. Rigsbee administered district w ide or school
147 class. On these days Ms. Rigsbee either did not have all of her st udents present or was not able to use the full class tim e for instruction. The schedules for these days, informing teachers of revised lunch and special subjects times, tended to be either incorrect or were not provided to teachers in a timely manner. In a ddition, during this same period of 10 observations, the principal was removed and replaced by the principal who agreed to return to the district temporarily. Addit ionally, the fifth grade math teacher was moved out of fifth grade and into third grade; the third grade teacher was then moved into the fifth grade math position. Each of these instances on its own required transitions and adjustments by both faculty and students; taken together, they suggest that the average day at Turner Elementary is one of constant transition and adjustment. As explained by Ms. Rigsbee, the majority of her students were reading below a fifth grade reading level and in 2011, nearly one third of students did not pass the was a great deal of pressure for her to bring up her and district, and internal, because it was i mportant to her that the children learn and be successful. In sum, Ms. Rigsbee taught in a test driven environment working with children who struggle d and one third of who were at risk of failure and she provide d them with a motivating, fast paced, cultu rally connected classroom
148 CHAPTER 6 CROSS DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS Introduction The purposes of this study were 1) to understand the perspectives about effective teaching practice held by teachers who graduated from a year long residency and 2 ) to examine the relationship between their perspectives and practices. It address ed the following research question: What are the perspectives and practices of graduates of a yearlong urban teacher residency who are teaching in schools with a student popu lation that is predominantly low income and/or children of color? Sub questions guiding the study include d : 1) How do the teachers define effective teaching? 2) What practices do these teachers use that they believe are highly effective and why do they bel ieve those practices are effective? 3) What factors do these teachers identify as influential in the development of perspectives and practices? In this chapter I answer these questions, ctives and practices in terms of the recommendations for effective teaching that are encapsulated in the literature on culturally responsive pedagogy. Following this discussion, I explore the implications of these findings for educational leaders, teacher educators, and researchers. Discussion of the Research Questions Both of the teachers who participated in this study felt that effective teaching meant that they did whatever was necessary to help their students to be successful. For Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigs bee, this included building relationships with students and making sure that students felt cared for, as well as implementing instruction that was designed to help students learn and experience academic success. As discussed, both
149 teachers emphasized care as a crucial component of their teaching though care manifested in different ways in each classroom. Ms. Rigsbee focused on developing strong relationships with students and their families, while Ms. Grace strove to create a loving classroom environment wh ere students treated their peers with respect. Though instruction, there is no question that Ms. Grace also knew her students well. Academically, both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee st ressed the use of formative group instruction and small lass. These formative assessments were one way that these teachers could tell whether their teaching was effective. Listening to students as they circulated from table to table during instruction, results of summative assessments, often mandated by the district, were other ways that the teachers determined the effectiveness of their instruction. Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace alike talked about the influence that their own childhood teachers had on thei memories of their own teachers who had challenged them influenced their later teaching. For Ms. Rigsbee, her mos t memorable teacher was a high school French teacher. This teacher did not stand out to her because of her content area; coming from Haiti, Ms. Rigsbee already spoke fluent French. Instead, this teacher was important to Ms. Rigsbee because she showed care:
150 school, talked with her on a personal level, and made sure that she had what she needed in o rder to be successful at school exemplified the caring and relationship buil ding attributes of a culturally responsive teacher. Ms. Rigsbee use d this relationship as a baseline for what she wants to who used one on one and small group instructi on to make sure that Ms. Grace learned the math with which she struggled. Ms. Grace credit ed her teacher with showing her the can help those areas of difficulty becom e strengths. In practice, small group and one on Ms. Grace stated that their teacher residency program was helpful, neither teacher referred to the program when she talked abo ut where she learned certain skills. Instead, each looked to her own teachers, her own research, or found mentors as the source of her knowledge about teaching. Cross Disclosure Analysis As explored in Chapters 4 and 5 Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee had much i n common. Specifically, the goal of helping students grow academically while developing caring relationships with them was a common thread. Both of these big ideas are noted in the literature related to culturally responsive instruction. As discussed in Ch apter 2, several different definitions and frameworks detail culturally responsive pedagogy. In sum, this type of teaching maximizes student learning through the use of approaches rning styles, as well as empowers students to be critical thinkers and change agents.
151 According to Powell and Rightmyer (2011), research related to successful teaching in schools with a high population of African American children who are living in povert y suggests that teachers in these settings focus on the following elements: Teacher Care, Classroom Climate, Family Collaboration, Assessment, Curriculum, Instruction/Pedagogy, Discourse/Instructional Conversation, and Sociopolitical Consciousness. Althoug h not reflected as independent component s of Powell and learning (Gay, 2000; Howard, 2010) and culturally responsive classroom management (Weinstein et al. 2003) are also co nsidered to be part of successful teaching in this context. Throughout was discussed independent of the other elements and classroom management was considered a part of classroom climate. Using the Powell and Rightmyer framework, the observed teaching practices of Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee were compared. Several similarities and differences related to their instructional patterns emerged. These similarities and differences and the way their patterns of instruction conne cted to extant literature on culturally responsive teaching are discussed in the sections that follow. They are organized according to the literature reviewed in Chapter 2 rather than according to the framework suggested by the CRIOP. T he CRIOP does not in beliefs or classroom management, yet these are included in much of the literature related to culturally responsive pedagogy Therefore organizing this analysis in this manner seemed most appropriate. The re ar e many similarities between the cases of Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee. Though they come from vastly different backgrounds, they set strikingly similar goals for
152 their teaching: to develop positive and caring relationships with their students and to help their students experience academic success. In both cases, the teachers set clear and high expectations for learning, tightly planned lessons in order to model and caring languag e when talking with students, and got to know students and their families empowerment throu CRP, transformation and emancipation were not evidenced. Chapters 4 and 5 characteristics are examined in terms of existing literature related to culturally responsive pedagogy. Challenging Beliefs Literature suggests that culturally responsive teachers look critically at their own beliefs, assumptions, and experiences in order to identify the ways in which their Howard, 2010; Phuntsog, 2001; Rightmyer, 2011). These teachers move d beyond simply notin g differences, but also understoo d how those differences help them learn from and teach their students (Bartolome, 1994). Both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee upbringing did not fully prepare them to work with students like theirs. However, Ms. Rigsbee was ways that Ms. Grace was not. By finding threads in her childhood that connected with
153 crucial in develop ing relationships with students. When she talked about her experiences growing up in Brooklyn, Ms. Rigsbee admitted to students that she lived with both of her parents, but also highlighted the fact that she knew what it was like to be offered drugs and to have to come to school no matter what happened at home. In this way, Ms. Rigsbee was honest with students, showing them that they had different experiences while still expressing that she, too, had challenges to overcome. Ms. Rigsbee was able to recognize those differences while using them to help her Ms. Grace, on the other hand, expressed in interviews that she did not understand she did not know first hand the challenges faced by minorities. Rather than thinking use their experiences to shape her instruction, Ms. Grace inserted her own culture into her lessons. By intentionally including the stories that she loved as a child and singing songs that she learned growing up, Ms. Grace privileged her upbringing over her s. Grace blamed her students for any lack of success or believed that her students did not have the experiences they needed to succeed academically (Tileston & Darling, 2009; Villegas, 1991), Ms. Grace did seem to believe that her students needed access to certain types of content, such as Beatrix Potter stories, which arguably stem from the hegemonic White middle class. By focusing on these parts of her childhood rather than finding commonalities or by presenting stories that more closely relate to her stu own experiences, Ms. Grace demonstrated that she had not challenged her own beliefs
154 and assumptions about what her students needed in order to be successful learners (Bartolome, 1994; Bondy & Ross, 2008; Gay, 2000; Howard, 2010). Building Relations hips with Stakeholders Building relationships with all stakeholders is necessary for a culturally responsive teacher to do her job well. Relationships with students, families, and the neighboring community should be cultivated in order to maximize student learning. Relationships with students Both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee believed that the relationships they built with their students were a central part of their job as teachers. The literature cites several elements to relationship building between teac her and students: presenting oneself as a person rather than just an authority figure, demonstrating care, and promoting equitable and respectful relationships (Bergeron, 2008; Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2004; Irvine, 2003; Ladson Billings, 1995; Patrick e t al., 2003; Toliver, 1993; Ware, 2006). Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace displayed these elements to varying degrees. Care is one of the most significant builders of a classroom community. When students feel cared for, they are able to connect emotionally and a cademically (Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2003; Irvine, 2003; Noddings, 1988; Scott et al., 2009; Toliver, 2003; Ware, 2002, 2006). Both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee believed that their classes were like family, and as such, they were determined to build relati onships that showed care and love. Both teachers acted in ways that seemed to be perceived by students to be caring, although the ways in which they built this familial community differed (Irvine, 2003). In speaking with students, Ms. Grace consistently u sed a soft voice, sprinkled with
155 similarly showed students that she cared for them, as she gave them hugs, made eye contact with them and listened closely when they spo ke to each other (Brown, 2003; Irizarry, 2007; Rightmyer, 2011), spoke to students about their personal lives, and also treated them respectfully by allowing them to take responsibility for their own actions and by giving them the opportunity to praise and congratulate each other on their efforts, such as after sharing a story retell. Her focus on respect, hard work, and trying Billings, 1995, p. 480). She expected her students to communicate with her and each other in the same manner that she communicated with them: calmly and respectfully. Although students sometimes argued and got upset, Ms. Grace made a point of ta lking with students to sort things out and also taught them how to talk with each other in a calm and productive manner, as she did in the example provided in Chapter 4 when a student got upset about losing a math game. Ms. Rigsbee also demonstrated care in her classroom by using caring language that their behaviors and attitude would affect them in the future. Ms. Rigsbee strove to help students understand what it would ta ke in order for them to be successful and she also stated her expectation that they would become professionals (Poplin et al., 2011). She was motivated by her desire for students to succeed in school and in life, but was not worried about how they perceive d her (Irvine, 2003; Ware, 2006). Students at Turner Elementary voted monthly for the teacher who demonstrates certain character traits, and this was sometimes considered a sort of popularity contest. Ms. Rigsbee
156 explained that she was not concerned with w hether or not students voted for her each month. It was not her job for them to like her but it was her job t o make sure that they learned (P more important than her care for he rself and she was motivated more by their successes than by their opinion of her (Ware, 2006). Though Ms. Rigsbee communicated care and respect to her students, they often struggled with treating each other respectfully. As mentioned in Chapter 5 Ms. Rig other teachers. At times, she was inconsistent with her responses to these and other disrespectful student student interactions. Therefore, although Ms. Rigsbee made an attem pt to forge equitable and reciprocal relationships with her students, these relationships did not tend to extend from student to student. This signifies an area of concern because classroom environments where students do not treat each other respectfully m ay be indicative of an ambiguous, rather than supportive, atmosphere (Patrick et al., 2003). Ambiguous environments may lead students to avoidance behaviors where students actively avoid academic engagement by withdrawing effort, not asking for help even i f they know they need it, being disruptive, or being academically dishonest (Patrick et al., 2003). undermine her end goal of student success and achievement. Relationships with parents and families Literature relat ed to culturally responsive teaching suggests that teachers who succeed in predominantly low income and/or high minority schools build partnerships Cooper, 2002; Howard, 2010; McKinney et al., 2008; Scott et al., 2009; Powell et al.,
157 1990; Seitz, 2011; Ware, 2002, 2006). As noted previously, these partnerships should take into account the needs of each family, reaching out to families that are hesitant to collaborate, hold ing meetings at times convenient to families, meeting in locations that families can contribute to the classroom. Both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee expressed that pare nts were not highly involved in their classrooms on a volunteer basis experiences and expertise whe n planning lessons, class activities, or guest speakers. In interviews, however, Ms. Rigsbee discussed the ways that she brought parents into the classroom during previous school years to share their experiences. It is possible that grade classroom where she was teaching multiple subjects. Additionally, the pressure from the state standardized test may have served to limit the amount of time she could dedicate to guest speak ers, regardless of their potential benefit. However, Ms. Rigsbee created partnerships with families in other ways. As illustrated in Chapter 5 Ms. Rigsbee regularly shared information about her life with her students. Examples showed her talking about h er childhood, her husband, her morning routine, and sharing photographs of her children. She also made a point of attending all events to which her students and their families invited her, including holidays, weddings, and baptisms. She dressed up for spir it days, such as School Color Day, Pajama Day, and Dress for Success Day. As noted in the research, these behaviors help a teacher form genuine bonds with students, where students feel that their teacher cares for them
158 and is interested in their success (B ondy et al., 2007; Irizarry, 2007; Sampson & Garrison Wade, 2010). Relationships extend to the community Culturally responsive teachers should extend their classroom family partnerships into the community (Cooper, 2002; Hermes, 2005; Howard, 2010; Ware, 2002). In doing so, teachers develop an understanding of the context of the school and neighboring community, including the ways that poverty and location affect the degree to which resources are available. Neither Ms. Rigsbee nor Ms. Grace discussed any c ollaboration within the neighborhood. School and Classroom Culture of the school. Although both teachers indicated that their principals generally did not limit or dictate classrooms did indeed reflect the perceived school climate. The principal at Oceanside Elementary, where Ms. Grace taught, was new to the school during the observation period. A Black woman, she had begun discussing culture differences with teachers and suggested ways for teachers to respond to their students in a culturally appropriate way. When Ms. Grace sent one particular student to the office repeatedly, the principal came back to the classr oom with the student and observed him for about an hour, after which she met with Ms. Grace to discuss strategies she might try to help him improve his an atmosphere whe re she expected thoughtful teaching where teachers took into
159 Ms. Grace showed that she wanted her teachers to take responsibility for finding solutions to instructional dilemmas, reflectively considering the ways in which they could implement strategies that may positively impact student behavior. This approach to calm and reflectiv e administrative leadership complements the classroom leadership in physical evidence of culture. On the hallway walls hung motivational pos ters related to testing and state standards, and student work decorated the bulletin boards outside of teacher created and centered on academics. As such, very few contained pictures of every other classroom at Oceanside Elementary, was fully equipped with pull down maps, sets of books for reading groups, and a classroom library that was a ccessible to students. Though Ms. Grace stated that she had to be persistent when asking for supplies, it appeared that she had what she needed to teach as she saw fit. The atmosphere at Turner Elementary can be described as in transition. A s described in Chapter 5 the administration changed in late November when the principal took a district position and the assistant principal took over the principalship. Additional staffing changes moved faculty across grade levels mid year. The high numb er of extra curricular activities, such as dances, taking place during the school day also served to disrupt any attempted instructional continuity. Because teachers were not informed of schedule changes often until the last minute, Ms. Rigsbee noted that it was difficult to plan appropriately. This may have contributed to
160 the sometimes harried pace of instruction, as well as the frequent interruptions from the other fifth grade teachers as they tried to adjust their schedules for switching students from on e subject to the next. Beyond the posters of famous African Americans hung on the walls near the culture into the school culture. Although student artwork was present in the hallways at Turner Elementary, classroom libraries and world maps were virtually nonexistent. There was tead, culture decorated with teacher made and academically focused posters, did not have world maps or a classroom library that was accessible to the students. However, as desc ribed in Chapter 5 Ms. Rigsbee showed students that what they had to offer was valuable and that she believed in them (Irizarry, 2007; Ladson Billings, 2009; Powell, 2011; Ware, 2006). Both teachers took on several responsibilities in their schools in addition to those required of a classroom teacher, including faculty union representative, gra de level chair or School Advisory Committee. In addition, Ms. Rigsbee also served as faculty care program. In taking on these roles, both Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace had the opportunity to learn first hand about matters that affected their schools and their students. Gehrke (2005) explained that knowledge
161 about these types of administrative issues enable s teachers to more effectively support their students. al component of classroom culture is classroom management. The literature related to culturally responsive classroom management suggests that teachers create a classroom environment that encourages student learning, establish and uphold expectations for be havior, communicate with students in culturally congruent ways, act et al., 2007; Cooper, 2002; Toliver, 1993; Ware, 2006; Weinstein et al., 2003). In addition, a busine ss like atmosphere should prevail, where learning is the priority (Brown, 2004). To varying degrees, both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee employed these (Bondy et al., 2007; Irv ine, 2003; Patrick et al., 2003; Ware, 2002) and students in both classrooms were given fair consequences if they behaved inappropriately (Bergeron, 2008; Bondy et al., 2007; Brown, 2004; Patrick et al., 2003; Ware, 2006). Examples of consequences included a phone call or email to a parent or asking a student to take a moment to gather him or herself before rejoining the class. Without fail, Ms. Grace a more consistently respectful and supportive environment. As noted previously, Ms. Rigsbee was less consistent in addressing inappropriate student to student misbehavior and so misbehavior, especially talking, walking around the room, and being disrespectful to classmates, occurred more frequently in her class. Her inconsistency in addressing
162 these behaviors contributes to the possibility that students viewed her classroom as an ambiguous rather than supportive environment (Patrick et al., 2003). Similar to what was described by other research, Ms. R igsbee did not spend a great deal of time disciplining students (Patrick et al., 2003; Toliver, 1993; Ware, 2002). Since procedures were established early in the year, Ms. Rigsbee focused on maintaining instructional momentum rather than reminding students how to behave. As students to learn. If their behavior suggested that students were not interested in learning, or acted in ways that prevented their classmates from learni ng, both Ms. case, her fifth graders typically corrected their behavior and remained in the classroom. or to talk with the principal. In both classrooms, consequences were non punitive. Even in the case of instruction rather than punishment. Students were asked to expla in their troublesome behavior, why it was problematic, and what they could do differently next time (observation 2.14.1). Instruction experiences into lessons, explicitly teaching p roblem solving and critical thinking skills opportunities for students to collaborate are all elements of culturally responsive instruction ( Brown, 2004; Cantrell & Wheeler, 20 11; Georges, 2009; Irvine, 2003;
163 Ladson Billings, 1995 ; Ware, 2002). Both Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace successfully incorporated many of these elements into their teaching. Hold high and explicit expectations Both Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace held high expectat ions for their own teaching as themselves responsible for finding solutions to challenges that arose, whether a student struggled to read or just to sit still (Bondy et al., 20 07; Brown, 2004; Hermes, 2005; Ladson Billings, 1995; Patrick et al., 2003; Poplin et al., 2011; Ware, 2006). If a student continued to struggle, Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace tried new strategies and sought advice from colleagues in order to find a strategy t hat would work. These teachers were clear and consistent and modeled for students what was expected so students would know just what to do and how to act (Bondy et al., 2007; Gehrke, 2005; Hermes, 2005; Knapp et al., 1990; Weinstein et al., 2003 ). Addition ally, as they circulated to check improve, such as the addition of a capital letter or an adjustment to letter spacing. In doing so, these teachers reiterated for students in the moment what was expected and what they should look for in their work to be sure it was on target. Ms. Rigsbee regularly stated the behavioral expectations for each new activity using the CHAMPs model. Ms. Grace, although not using CHAMPs, also commun icated her expectations for a task prior to students getting started. Students in both classes were aware of how they should behave, and in both classrooms, consequences were fairly given for any infractions. It was clear that both teachers knew their stud ents well. For this reason, the consequences were often specific to the student and the issue.
164 Effective teachers of students living in poverty build their instruction upon what st experiences and expertise are used to determine and guide further instruction (Bennett, 2008; Chenoweth, 2009; Knapp et al., 1990; McKinney et al., 2008; Scott et al., 2009; Toliver 1993). Though both Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace used formative assessments delivere d instruction. Using a strategy described by Williamson et al. (2005), Ms. Rigsbee frequently used the familiar to teach students what was unfamiliar and consistently provided multiple exposures to content over several days of instruction. As discussed pre viously, she also included songs in her teaching in an attempt to help students who may not be successful with other forms of instruction. Differentiation is another characteristic of culturally responsive instruction (Tileston & Darling, 2009). Ms. Rigsbe e used principles of differentiation when she grouped the entire fifth grade class based on their reading achievement so she could best meet their needs. In day to day practice, however, her instruction from class to class varied little. Essentially, Ms. R igsbee differentiated by grouping students based on a global assessment of read ing achievement but did not make small group or individual adjustments Therefore, Ms. classroom Conversely, Ms. Grace differentiated much of her reading instruction. Students were placed in reading groups based on their reading achievement needs. In addition, her assessments were ge nerally flexible as she provided multiple
165 opportunities for students to demonstrate their learning including oral, writt en, and pictorial assessments (Toliver, 1993) lear ning Students can be taught how to think critically when their teachers explicitly state and model their thinking processes, eventually expecting students to do the thinking on their own (Knapp et al., 1990; Poplin et al., 2011). This can be done by begi nning a lesson with explicit teaching, modeling how a problem can be solved, and then moving into guided practice, independent practice, and review (Gay, 2000; Patrick et al., 2003; Poplin et al., 2011; Williamson et al., 2005). These techniques were commo n in Ms. labeled her PowerPoint slides with a heading that led students through this process, letting them know when she would model, when they would work together as a class, whe n they would work with a partner, and when they would work independently. Ms. Grace used a similar approach, though she did not provide guiding headings. Her system was to sit with students at the carpet, working through examples on the whiteboard and spe aking aloud as she solved math problems or thought about vocabulary, asking students questions as she worked. Ms. Grace frequently helped students make connections between the words that they knew, helping them find similarities in spelling, pronunciation, and meaning. In either case, students were privy guiding students through her process of thinking and problem solving. However, although both teachers used a guided pr oblem solving approach and model ed their problem solving thinking neither consistently taught using a critical approach or asked
166 students questions that required critical thought. Therefore, the degree to which students were thinking critically in order t o synthesize or analyze information was minimal. Encourage students to work in groups Research suggests that students benefit socially and academically from cooperative learning (Georges, 2009; Irvine, 2003; Ware, 2002). Both Ms. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace en couraged students to collaborate with their classmates on a daily basis. In separate interviews, they emphasized the fact that partner or group work was often a more effective learning strategy than a teacher led lesson because students could often explain things to each other in ways a teacher could not. Ms. Grace, in her effort to teach social skills, also expressed that allowing students to work together helped them learn how to collaborate to get work done in a timely and efficient manner, an idea affir med by the literature (Brown, 2004; Georges, 2009; Irvine, 2003; Ladson Billings, a classroom environment where flexible student groups allowed students to exercise choi ce about where and with whom they wanted to work. Curriculum Culturally responsive pedagogy literature suggests that the curricular decisions a teacher makes are as important as the manner in which she teaches. Even if a teacher has high expectations for instruction, promotes critical thinking, and encourages group work, students may still struggle to identify with the curriculum. As described in Chapter 2 theorists and researchers suggest that in order to be most conducive to student learning, the
167 2000; Ladson Billings, 2009). In addition, teachers should not rely solely on textbooks, worksheets, and other generi c materials. Rather, teachers should consider their videos, books, and other resources that provide a cultural context closely related to to Manning, 2009; Toliver, 1993; Ware, 2006). Neither Ms. Grace nor Ms. Rigsbee was adept at building or enriching their curriculum in this manner. produced textbook selected for use by the district. The readings in these books were typically 7 10 pages in length. Ms. Rigsbee and her students read them together aloud and often in features and used spec ific reading strategies as called for by the state standards. To supplement this text and to help her students build non fiction reading skills, Ms. Rigsbee used worksheets, procured from an internet teacher assistance website. The worksheets included brie f passages of about 5 paragraphs, followed by short answer assessment scores, rather than their interests, to help her organize and plan future lessons. Important to note, however, is that Ms. Rigsbee considered teaching students test taking strategies to be a necessary and relevant part of her instruction because not every student is a born test taker and students had to know how to take tests in order to show mastery on them. Ms.
168 she used them to determine which skills would guide her lessons. However, reading groups and v ocabulary lessons were based on basal readers; students read their own books only during free reading time. Though worksheets were absent from her classroom, students worked out of workbooks that accompanied the social studies textbook. As she acknowledged culture was not a consideration for her as she planned her lessons. Thus, like Ms. Rigsbee her curricular choices did not represent her Empowerment, Transformation, and Emancipation Though empowerment, t ransformation, and emancipation are the three end goals of culturally responsive pedagogy, these were the characteristics of culturally classrooms, empowerment was the most observed goal of the three. According to Gay scaffolding they needed to become able readers as well as the confidence needed to being followed. Ms. Rigsbee made a committed attempt to help students gain academic competence through her focused lessons that connect lives. However, as mentioned, students read all of their stories from the basal reader or from non fiction test practice worksheets. Ms. Rigsbee used her lessons to connect those texts to students, but students rarely interac ted with the content or made community connections (Gay, 2000). Both teachers expressed a desire to help students become skilled and confident learners, traits that Gay (2000) deems necessary for empowerment, but in practice, neither Ms. Rigsbee nor Ms. Gr ace were observed
169 implementing lessons that inspired students to take action in their schools or communities. The goal of empowerment and the ways that it may manifest in classroom instruction will be further discussed later in this chapter. Transformatio n and emancipation, the remaining end goals of CRP, were not teaching students to be critical thinkers who reflect upon inequities faced by themselves and others and then take a stand for change, disrupting the power balances that reinforce the status quo (Gay, 2000; Howard, 2010; Sampson & Garrison Wade, 2010; Ware, 2002). In order to teach these skills, teachers must model how to be a critical consumer of classroom materials, p roviding students with texts that portray multiple perspectives and challenging stereotypes. Though both teachers held students an effect on the way they were perceive d by others, including future employers, neither was observed promoting the types of critical thinking that could be considered transformative or emancipating. One might question whether transformation and emancipation are realistic goals within elementary classrooms but examples in extant literature show that this can be accomplished even with young children (Cowhey, 2006; Peterson, 2003; Toliver, 1993). Cross Case Conclusions In sum, there were many similarities between the teaching styles of Ms. Grace a nd Ms. Rigsbee. Interestingly, both set nearly the same goals for their teaching: to develop positive and caring relationships with their students and to help their students experience academic success. Both teachers set clear and high expectations for lea
170 responsibility for their own learning, used caring language when talking with students, and got to know students and their families in order to learn how to best meet thei r minimal evidence related to sociopolitical consciousness or a focus on helping students become more critical consumers of their education. There were also some signifi cant differences between Ms. Grace and Ms. flexible grouping to partner students, students were sometimes able to sit where they liked when working together, and Ms. Grace provided multiple ways for students to show what they learned. In contrast, Ms. Rigsbee more frequently incorporated her communication style, providing students with exposure to content, and through the between these teachers is the aforementioned consistency that Ms. Grace showed in in this area. A discussion of the implications of these similarities and differences with regard to teacher educators, administrators, and researchers follows. Implications Based on analysis of the findings and rela ted bodies of research, this study suggests several implications for teacher educators, for educational leaders working in high poverty schools or with populations that are predominantly children of color and for researchers.
171 For Teacher Educators and Edu cational Leaders As recommended by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, university teacher education programs and school districts should work in partnership to prepare new teachers for the profession (Blue Ribbon Panel, 2010). Work ing in partnership means that teacher educators and school leaders work together to develop criteria for teacher preparation coursework, cooperating teacher mentorships, and professional development that widens the knowledge base of preservice, novice, and in urban schools, the development of a cohesive faculty is imperative. Therefore, preservice teacher education cannot be considered a separate entity from staff devel opment. Because of this need for more collaboration between teacher educators and school leaders, implications for these areas are presented together. As introduced in Chapter 1, urban teacher residency programs are a comparatively new approach to prepari ng teachers specifically for urban, high poverty, and high minority school settings. To date, little literature addresses the impact of such programs. This study is a beginning step in addressing this gap by examining the practices and perspectives of thre e teachers who completed one such program five years ago (Darling Hammond, 2008). As described previously, this particular urban teacher residency program included five courses over a three semester period and a year long mentored apprentice ship. One onlin e course was held during the summer prior to the residency, and four face to face classes were held on site at one of the residency schools one day each week during the residency year Student teaching experiences in general and cooperating teachers specif Hammond & Hammerness, 2005, p. 409) on preservice teachers
172 (Nilssen, 2010). In this program, t he strength of the veteran teacher mentors assume d major importance because most residents were with their assigned me ntor full time, four days each week for a full school year. In the case of this study, two of the three participating teachers developed a core set of practices that are culturally responsive. However, these two teachers, Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee, did no t incorporate other key elements related to curriculum or the three end goals of CRP: empowerment, transformation, and emancipation. While many attributes of culturally responsive pedagogy pervade their classrooms, the components of culturally responsive p edagogy related to the development of capacity for critical thought is not apparent. Two issues that may lead to this outcome are the context of the schools in which they taught, discussed in the previous section, and the residency program itself Because mentors were so fundamental in the preparation of the teacher residents, it is important to understand their role. Mentors were selected based on a combination of input from the principal, teaching experience and requisite professional developme nt experience as well as the desire to commit to a full year of mentoring. Further professional development related to coaching was provided once a teacher was selected to be a mentor. Although most of the mentorships lasted for the entire year, Ms. Grace was assigned a second mentor because her first mentor left the profession after the first month of school. None of the teachers who participated in this study mentioned their mentors as having a profound effect on their teaching practice. Instead, both Ms Grace and Ms. Rigsbee mentioned that it was their childhood teachers who gave them the picture of what they wanted their own teaching to look like. Neither Ms.
173 and neit her teacher demonstrated actions designed to transform the curriculum in their own classrooms into one that was more empowering and, perhaps, more meaningful for students. Thus, the study suggests that teacher educators and school administrators may need to focus more on this aspect of CRP and be more selective in recruiting mentors who embody culturally responsive practice to work with preservice teachers, especially in high minority and high poverty settings. Not all veteran teachers who are willing to s erve as cooperating teachers may be the most effective mentors. Thus, it is up to school administrators and teacher educators to determine which teachers would be most effective at mentoring preservice teachers in order to help them develop reflective and culturally responsive practices (Haberman & Post, 1998). Mentor selection should be a collaborative process, where clear selection criteria are developed by teacher educators in partnership with the school leaders. Another possibility for improving mentor ships is that mentors be provided with professional development focused on CRP so they have the opportunity to learn or relearn some of what the ir preservice teachers are learning about this type of teaching. The professional development opportunities prov ided to the mentors in this particular residency program emphasized coaching; although valuable, coaching skills alone cannot assist a teacher with developing, cultivating, and modeling culturally responsive practice. Professional development for mentor te achers should promote habits of reflection so mentors can become more reflective about their own practice, leading them to develop reflection in their preservice teachers. Having effective mentors model
174 these skills for new teachers may help to impart thos e practices and states of mind to novices (Anderson, 2007; Haberman & Post, 1998; Nilssen, 2010). However, mentorships are not enough. Coursework focused on understanding ers to fully grasp the importance of culture in the classroom as it pertains to teaching and learning (Darling Hammond & Hammerness, 2005; Howard, 2010; Irvine, 2003). Darling Hammond and Hammerness (2005) suggest that the content of learning experiences i educators to provide opportunities for preservice teachers to try a variety of culturally respons ive practices and then discuss in class the outcomes of those attempts. In the case of this residency, the coursework provided to the teacher residents incorporated culturally responsive pedagogy into the various content areas but there was no specific foc us on identity or culture and residents did not engage in a reflective analysis of their belief systems. In other words, the teachers were not taught explicitly or over an extended period about CRP and what it means or how to take on a culturally responsiv e stance. Thus, it is not surprising that the teachers who participated in this study did not talk openly about race or culture All three teachers referred to race and culture in to themselves or to their students or talked candidly about issues surrounding race and culture In order to help novice teachers become more comfortable talking about issues of race and culture, teacher educators need to model these desired behaviors by r eflecting upon their own identities (Howard, 2010). In creating teacher preparation
175 programs, teacher educators should consider the balance of time and content. By limiting the course load to five courses, it is possible that the program was limited in its ability to suppor t the development of strong professional knowledge related to culturally responsive teaching. The third teacher who volunteered to participate in this study, Ms. Winslow, completed the same teacher residency program as Ms. Grace and Ms. R igsbee and was introduced to CRP in the same manner. However, observations in her classroom did not demonstrate that she was able to maintain a positive and productive learning environment. Because the analyzed data documented a classroom with limited task focus and engagement, her case was not presented in this document. Observation data with maintain ing order or providing task driven instruction (Tricarico, 2007), but with out observations from teaching assignments after completing the residency, it is difficult to environment stemmed from her present teaching assignment or personal challenges, or if these behaviors were typical of her practice. However, the role of context is relevant Elementary may experience more than typical changes in leadership and grade level assi gnments, curriculum mandates, and state or district intervention. The case of Ms. Winslow suggests that the turmoil inherent to working in this context may have an impact on teachers and their pedagogy. As mentioned previously in this chapter, while the l iterature cites a few examples of teachers who do engage their students in critical and empowering instruction and
176 curricular approaches (Hermes, 2005; Irizarry, 2007; Ladson Billings, 1995; Sampson & Garrison Wade, 2010), most teachers do not. Administrat ors, professional developers, and teacher leaders in high poverty and high minority schools could benefit from an examination of the culture at their schools in order to consider ways that their schools could encourage practices that would serve to meet th ose goals of CRP. developers may want to engage faculty in a discussion of the ways that culture affects how both teachers and students act and learn, including an examination own cultures and assumptions (Bartolome, 1994; Bondy & Ross, 2008; Howard, 2010; awareness -the recognition and enhancement of the cultural self -must become part of the professional developm ent agenda of preservice and inservice teachers if issues of tolerance and sensitivity toward are different from White families, her statements showed that she was considering the ideas that planted a seed and although Ms. Grace and other teachers at Oceanside may not change their practices immediately, small changes may become a larger, school wide movement. Resources such as Can We Talk about Race? And Other Conversations in an Era of School Resegregation (Tatum, 2008) or Courageous Conversations About Race: A Fie ld Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools (Singleton & Linton, 2005) may help school leaders facilitate these conversations with faculty and staff.
177 In the interest of cultivating habits of reflection, school leaders might consider implementing teacher inqu iry as an option for teacher professional development (Caro Bruce & Klehr, 2007). Reflective conversations about culture and learning paired with inquiry would help teachers become more aware of their own teaching while challenging them to solve instructio nal dilemmas with intention (Dana & Yendol Hoppey, 2009; Irvine, 2003; Zeichner & Liston, 1996). This could be done with the specific goal of addressing and increasing culturally responsive teaching behaviors while developing a learning community of teache teaching practice is likely to lead teachers to a more thorough understanding of how to findings with the rest of th e school faculty may lead teachers to consider practices they had not thought of before as they see their peers trying new things in their classrooms. Few models exist that detail how to accomplish this type of teaching in elementary classrooms, especially about the ways that he incorporates a more critical approach could serve as a starting point to help teachers think more broadly about the ways they can expand their gh some readers may doubt the practicality of the curriculum and instructional practices that Mary Cowhey uses with her primary aged students, a book such as her Black Ants and Buddhists (2006) showcases the ways that she empowers her young students to cha llenge the stereotypes, single perspectives, and misinformation found in texts and reading materials found on any classroom shelf. Gloria Ladson The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children is another example of a tex t that illustrates what culturally responsive
178 teaching looks like in practice. Administrators, teacher leaders, professional developers might consider using a text such as these as a selection for a learning community in order to help teachers consider wa ys to incorporate a more critical and empowering pedagogy. Similarly, teacher educators could use those or similar texts with preservice teachers to parallel what veteran teachers are studying in their learning communities. In this way, veteran and preserv ice teachers will have common content to discuss together thereby increasing their opportunities to learn from each other. with instructional or behavioral challenges and t here are times when their pedagogy is administrators and other educational leaders to help a struggling teacher overcome her challenges in order to meet the needs of the students. One possibility for addressing this issue is through the use of non evaluative peer coaching, where teachers work together to improve their practice (Slater & Simmons, 2001; Swafford, 1998). Swafford (1998) discusses several types of coaching, t he difference being the goal of the collaboration, which may be used to help a teacher improve her practice in order to may be hesitant to open their classroom doors to t heir fellow teachers. Thus, administrators should also be prepared to address and overcome issues of reluctance, perhaps through the use of school wide coaching teams (Slate & Simmons, 2001) so struggling teachers do not feel singled out for mentoring. Fo r Researchers Though a small sample, this study identified several aspects of culturally responsive pedagogy that two of the three teachers incorporate d into their practice As
179 discussed, the most prevalent theme in terms of what motivated the teachers was their desire to create positive and caring relationships with their students while helping them succeed academically. The teachers shared a disposition for creating a caring classroom climate that incorporated a variety of instructional approaches. As co practice incorporated highly significant elements of CRP Both teachers exemplify many of the characteristics of a warm demander a term used to describe teachers who use culturally responsi ve practices and are successful working with minority students (Bondy et al., 2007; Ware, 2006). Their relentless work to help students meet and s. Rigsbee and Ms. Grace show ed their students that their contributions to class were valued. Paired with positive attitudes towards students, these behaviors help ed students maintain intellectual engagement in classroom activities (Gay, 2000). Additiona lly, the way that Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee built and nurtured their caring classrooms is noteworthy in terms of student achievement because when teacher student relationships are supportive and caring, the classroom climate is more conducive to learning ( teachers as creating a caring, well structured learning environment in which well as have better attend ance rates and higher test scores (Klem & Connell, 2004, p. 270). Thus, the environments that Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee sought to provide their
180 overall achievement, whic h is no small feat (Baker, 1999; Jennings & Greenberg, 2009; Klem & Connell, 2004). Absent in both classrooms, though, were curricular practices that encouraged students to question and challenge their course materials, provided students with multiple vie wpoints on a course topics, or opened a dialogue that promoted transformation or empowerment. It would be beneficial to examine more closely those aspects of CRP in an effort to understand why these parts of a culturally responsive stance are not visible. What holds teachers back from achieving the goals of CRP? In the case of this study, several factors came to light. As discussed previously, CRP was not stressed during the residency program that these teachers completed. Therefore, the components of CRP t hat were areas of strength for these teachers are such because they believed them to be elements of effective teaching, not because they are elements of CRP. It is likely that a further examination will show that issues such as the culture of high stakes testing, district or state interventions, the pervasive use of pacing guides that in some cases time instruction down to the minute, and the mandates related to curricular materials will arise as detrimental to a widespread implementation of culturally res ponsive teaching. Each of these factors affects the freedom that a teacher has to teach in the manner she thinks best, as well as the amount of pressure placed on teachers and students to teach and learn in specified ways. Specifically in Florida, students ultimately can impact the professional careers of both administrators and teachers.
181 For exam around school which means that there is ongoing district and state intervention. There is considerable pressure to follow mandated instructional schedules. At the same time, resources are an issue. As supplies, such as maps. Though she sought out and used many free resources to meet their below gr ade level reading achievement so they could demonstrate mastery on the state standardized test. For her, the desire to get her students thinking critically may have conflicted with the focus on getting students to pass the state reading test. This begs the question: What is the role of the state? Is a push for all students to pass a grade level test getting in the way of students learning how to think beyond basic levels? Is it possible for a teacher to promote the end goals of CRP while helping students wh o are 3 years behind in terms of their reading level? Can we expect teachers to do all of this when they do not have all the supplies they need to do so? It is clear that both Ms. Grace and Ms. Rigsbee are creative, determined, and committed to their jobs as educators, yet they do not demonstrate instruction that empowers, transforms, or emancipates their students academically or politically. In Ms. to the principal in o rder to protest the consistently late lunch start time. When students complained that they were delayed for lunch, again, she jokingly suggested that they write the principal a letter. Students did not take her seriously and the letters were not written. T his example illustrates a missed opportunity that had the potential to be empowering and transformative for students, as they would have been practicing
182 academic writing skills in order to affect change in their daily lives. However, it is possible that th e principal, faced with the pressures of running a turn around school, written. This leads to more questions that can be addressed in further research. What role does school leadership have in promoting a culture that expects and nurtures this ability to teach students in these ways? Is the structure of schools designed to place thes disincentives at school, community, and state levels that are designed to keep teachers from teaching students to think critically and take action? Is this intentional or a matt er of chance? Further, curricular materials provided by most school districts are often problematic in terms of culture s. Over the past few years, this highly politicized issue has come to light in several states as districts select textbooks and course Mexican American Studies program removing from classrooms books related to Mexican American contributions that had been used previously (Bigelow, 2012; Biggers, 2012). This type of curricular controversy, downplaying or misrepresenting the contributions of minority groups and exaggerating the contributions of Whites, further challenges the potential for support and implementation of culturally responsive pedagogy. Agai n, what role does the state have in determining the direction that education in general and teachers specifically have in what and how students are taught?
183 In some instances, it may appear that culturally responsive practices are becoming less rather than more visible. In this age of school reform efforts that tend to represent a strengths of schools, teachers, and students, we need to critically examine reform effo rts designed to address the achievement gap that lack a focus on culture and critical consciousness Research in this vein will shed light on whether efforts that ignore or minimize culture undermine the capacity to solve the problem they were designed to address. Although it may be difficult to find widespread school movements that incorporate tenets of CRP, we need to study the impact on achievement when culture and critical consciousness are a stronger part of the school or classroom curriculum (Cammarot a, 2007; Ladson Billings, 1997). In addition, it is important to examine the types of practices that comprise c ulturally responsive pedagogy. Many of these practices have been described, such as tionships with students and families; creating a classroom community; using learner and culture centered strategies for instruction, assessment, and choosing the curriculum; and striving to make the learning experience one that is empowering, emancipatory, and transformative. A question that comes to mind when examining these elements is the degree to which each is an essential component of culturally responsive pedagogy. In other words, can a teacher be one who is culturally responsive if she practices som e or most, but not all, of the recommended practices? Which practices are more important than others? For teaching students how to take action, was dedicated to making sur e that every student
184 was able to read on or above grade level by the end of the year. Her effort to empower students through literacy is an important first step in becoming a truly culturally responsive teacher. Is this enough? Becoming stronger academica lly is not the same as becoming empowered. Yet we might wonder, given the challenges inherent to the first years of teaching whether novice teachers can take up the challenge of truly empowering instruction. With all that preservice and novice teachers ar e trying to learn, should empowering pedagogy be a goal for teacher education programs to pursue? Or instead, is this a more likely goal to achieve with practicing teachers through professional development or wider school reform? If we do not expect preser vice teachers to graduate their teacher preparation program with the skills to take on a full culturally responsive stance, what should we teach them and what should our expectations be in regard to CRP? Conversely, if CRP is a mindset, should teacher educ ators be working to help preservice teachers develop that mindset early on in the program, so that conflicting behaviors and attitudes do not have time to become habits? Lastly, if teacher educators and school leaders embark on collaborative efforts relate d to preservice teacher and staff development as recommended by the Blue Ribbon Panel (2010), what is the potential impact on school reform? Will empowerment and transformation within these structures lead to more empowering and transformational classrooms for teachers and students? Each of these questions present opportunities for future research. Finally, the use of the CRIOP itself presents opportunities for future research. This and culturally responsive pedagogy methods into account. As such, it provides a significant
185 contribution to the field. During the course of this study, several challenges arose that were associated with the protocol, most significantly the absence of two w idely classroom management. Though these elements may be found to a certain extent in other components of the protocol, their importance in the literature base related to cultu rally responsive pedagogy suggests that they should have a more visible position in the CRIOP. Conclusions In sum, the three cases of this study show that, although an alternative certification urban teacher residency can support the growth of teachers wi th commitments and practices consistent with CRP, this type of program does not ensure that these dispositions will be visible in all program graduates. In addition, it raises questions related to the role of coursework and mentors in a teacher preparation program, what preservice and novice teachers should be able to do in terms of culturally responsive practice, the influence of school culture as well as state expectations practice, and the challenges of working under testing and accountabi lity pressures.
186 APPENDIX A CHART OF EMPIRICAL S TUDIES Citation Data Collection and Analysis Results/Findings Achinstein, B., & Aguirre, J. (2008). Cultural match or culturally suspect: How new teachers of color negotiate sociocultural challenges in the classroom. Teachers College Record, 110 (8), 1505 1540. Sample: Fifteen new teachers of color working in urban high minority secondary schools Purpose: examine the induction experiences of new teachers of color in urban high minority schools as they negotiate challenges about cultural identifications Research ?: How, if at all, do new teachers of color experience socio cultural challenges from students? If they do experience such challenges, how do the teachers respond to them in practi ce? Data: teacher interviews, classroom observations, and focus groups, over 3 years Analysis: coded the data on three levels: preliminary coding of socio cultural challenges, pattern coding of responses to challenges, and Grace case analysis Students que stioned language, skin color, class, gender, and origin, as well as accused teachers of intercultural racism. Teachers cope with these challenges in the following ways: (1) reflecting on and framing the challenges in ways that went beyond control or management responses; and (2) taking up the challenges as teachable moments and opportunities to describe their experiences and understandings of culture, to strengthen relationships with content learning. Helping to problematize culture and what is expected with students helps students to learn how to navigate dominant culture. Castro, A.J., Kelly, J., & Shih, M. (2010). Resilience strategies for new teachers in high needs areas. Teachin g and Teacher Education, 26 (), 622 629. Sample: 15 first year elementary and secondary teachers in various high needs areas Purpose: to report on a qualitative study of fifteen beginning teachers who taught in high needs areas and who practiced resilience strategies Research ?: What strategies do new teachers employ in response to adverse situations? What resources do beginning teachers rely on to overcome challenges and obstacles to teaching? Data: interview Analysis: qualitative, constant comparat ive method Urban and rural teachers were challenged by bureaucracy such as paperwork, grading, meetings, non instructional activities, curriculum delivery, parent communication, classroom management. Special ed. teachers felt isolated and had trouble neg otiating relationships with colleagues and parents. Resilience strategies included help seeking, problem solving, managing difficult relationships, and seeking rejuvenation/renewal 2 main findings: 1 fundamental role of political and social organization of the school in the experience of beginning teachers 2 resilience strategies, such as advocating for resources, seeking allies and buffers, and forming teacher peer groups, create new resources but also require energy from beginning teachers
187 Citation Data Collection and Analysis Results/Findings Conaway, B.J., Browning, L.J., & Purdum Cassidy, B. (2007). perceptions of urban schools: results of a 4 year study. Action in Teacher Education, 29 (1), 20 31. Sample: 218 teache r candidates, 114 interns (same people, 3 years later) Purpose: to investigate changes in teacher candidates' perceptions of teaching in urban schools as they completed a 4 year teacher education program Research ?: would perceptions be different after participating in a freshmen level one semester field experience tutoring a first or second grade student in an urban school? How would perceptions of these teacher candidates change after a 1 year internship in an urban school at the end of the 4 year teacher education program? Data: survey Analysis: quantitative Student teachers felt more comfortable in the school neighborhoods at the end of the internship experiences. After the internship, only 1% of students had concerns about academic ach ievement (down from 8% before tutoring and 25% after tutoring). 2% had concerns about cultural differences (down from 14% before the tutoring session) with urban students Over time, partic ipants developed more accurate understandings of the characteristics of those who live in urban communities. More than half (54%) of the interns in this study reported that teaching in an urban school was a way to make a positive contribution. Cross B.E (2003). Learning or unlearning racism: Transferring teacher education curriculum to classroom practices. Theory Into Practice, 42 (3), 203 209. Sample: 12 graduates of a teacher ed. program teaching in Milwaukee public schools Purpose: to describe the r eflections of teachers graduating from a teacher ed. program about their readiness to teach in multiracial classrooms Research ?: Did the teacher education curriculum lead to learning or unlearning racism? Data: interviews Analysis: constant comparative inductive analysis Teachers spoke of 4 things they learned about multicultural recognize cultural diversity, acknowledge background knowledge and experiences However, this knowledge did not t ransfer to any active behaviors or strategies related to implementing these ideas These teachers learned about problems rather than to build relationships. Freedman, S.H. & Appleman, D. (2009). can contribute to teacher retention in high poverty, urban schools. Journal of Teacher Education 60 (3), 323 337. Sample: 26 novice English teachers for five yrs who worked in urban schools after completing a program for urban teacher preparation Purpose: Research ?: urban teaching? Data: collection of demographic data, survey of all participants; interviews with 8 teachers during year 4 of data collection; interviews wit h 5 teachers during year 5 Analysis: mixed methods teachers stayed for these reasons: (a) a sense of mission, which was reinforced and developed by the teacher education program; (b) a disposition for hard work and persistence, which was reinforced and de veloped by the teacher education program; (c) substantive preparation that included both the practical and the academic and harmony between the two; (d) training in assuming the reflective stance of a teacher researcher through teacher inquiry; (e) the opportunity, given the high demand for teachers in high poverty schools, to be able to change schools or districts yet still remain in their chosen profession; and (f) ongoing support from members of the cohort and ot her professional networks in the ea rly years of teaching.
188 Citation Data Collection and Analysis Results/Findings Olmedo, I.M. (1997). Challenging old assumptions: Preparing teachers for inner city schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13 (3), 245 258. Sample: 16 White undergraduates i n their first elem. ed. fieldwork course Purpose: to explore in what ways the fieldwork and related readings affected their views about teaching in an inner city school with a culturally, ethnically, and racially diverse student population Research ?: Da ta: journal writings and essays in which preservice teachers describe their experiences and reactions to doing their fieldwork in urban schools Analysis: qualitative content analysis Themes from journals: discipline the unmotivated, pity the victim, be colorblind, the system is the problem; children want to learn, good teaching can happen even in inner city schools, there is diversity within diverse groups, being colorblind is not good pedagogy As a result of their interaction with studen ts of color and diverse language backgrounds in the classroom, these prospective teachers became aware of the fact that issues related to multicultural education were not just "politically correct" doctrines to be discussed in the university, but were real concerns to be addressed by teachers in the schools, including decisions about the curriculum, the selection of materials, and classroom language. Ross, D., Dodman, S., & Vescio, V. (2010). The Impact of Teacher Preparation for High Need Schools. In Sta irs, A.J., & Donnell, K. (Eds). Research on Urban Teacher Learning: The Role of Contextual Factors A cross the Professional Continuum Charlotte NC: Information Age Publishing. Sample: survey, completed by 94 interns; follow up survey, completed by 34 HNIP students who graduated in 2005, 2006, and 2007 and 19 IP students who graduated in 2006 and 2007; interview, three graduates from the IP program and 3 graduates of the High Need IP Purpose: to describe the impact of a one semester internship experience de signed to prepare preservice teachers for teaching in low income, majority minority elementary schools Research ?: 1. Are there differenc es in reported self efficacy, intent to teach in high need schools? 2. Are there differences in reported openness to te ach in high need schools? 3. Are there differences in rates of acceptance of jobs in high need schools? their preparedness for and the challenges of teaching in high need schools? Data: surveys, interviews Analysis: mixed methods HNIP became slightly more inclined to report that they would teach in poverty contexts, whereas IP interns became less inclined. The data indicate that HNIP graduates were more likely than IP graduates to teach in settings with high poverty (47% -HNIP; 42% -IP) and moderate poverty settings. Conversely, IP graduates were more likely to teach in low poverty settings than HNIP graduates. Findings related to minority populations showed similar differences. HNIP graduates were most likely to teach in high minority schools and IP graduates were most likely to teach in low minority schools. Students who experience a coordinated internship in poverty schools are more likely to accept initial teaching positions in schools with high and moderate poverty levels than those who do not.
189 Citation Data Collection and Analysis Results/Findings Ross, D., Halsell, S., Howie, S., & Vescio, V. (2007). No excuses: Preparing novice teachers for poverty schools. Teacher Education and Practice 20 ( 4), 395 408. Sample: 10 prospective teachers, post internship Purpose: to examine the perspectives about teaching expressed by preservice teachers during an internship in low income, majority minority classrooms Research ?: Data: one retrospective interv iew, and all postings to the web discussion and observation notes collected by university supervisors Analysis: qualitative, inductive approach Clear no excuses philosophy: 3 interns they were uncertain about what action to take or were not satisfied with the actions they had taken Emerging no excuses philosophy: 5 interns struggled more and each made more than one statement that blamed the home context, or expressed doubt that every child could be reached. Despite these statements, the interns never quit trying to solve the learning puzzles All ten of the interns stated that they would be willing to teach in high poverty schools, though five qualified their responses (need to teach elsewhere first; the school needs to have a supportive professional climate) urban students. Journal of Teacher Education, 62 (1), 23 34. Sample: 16 graduates of an ur ban teacher education program Purpose: to consider how and when these teachers use the words urban and suburban and what values, interpretations, and/or conflicts, if any, they attach to these terms and to teaching in these contexts. Research ?: How do the se teachers make sense of their training experiences in an urban focused teacher preparation program, and what do they anticipate and think about their future jobs? Data: interviews Analysis: coding, constant comparative method nd etic code s Many of the teachers in this study are content to teach in schools that have a degree of racial diversity, but minimal challenges with their perceptions of behaviors, values, and beliefs that are usually associated with schools with higher levels of poverty or greater diversity Teachers in this study avoided the use of race words, especially in talking about their own Whiteness any mention showed White middle means that a greater emphasis on reflectio n on identity needs to happen from the start of a teacher ed. program.
190 Citation Data Collection and Analysis Results/Findings Wiggins, R.A., & Follo, E.J. (1999). Development of knowledge, attitudes, and commitment to teach diverse student popu lations. Journal of Teacher Education, 50 (2), 94 105. Sample: 123 undergraduate teacher ed. students comparably distributed in urban and suburban field placements Purpose: Research ?: 1) Which aspect of the elementary education program has the most impact on diverse student populations? 2) Why were some aspects of the program more of less effective than others? 3) What could be done to strengthen the program to better prepare students to teach in diverse cl assrooms? Data: questionnaire Analysis: quantitative Quantitative results increased experience in diverse settings does not affect their desire or commitment to do so. A placement in a diver se classroom setting does not guarantee that students will gain an understanding of or appreciation for the culture of the school or community. It also does not ensure that new teachers will be comfortable interacting with parents, students, or colleagues. Wiggins, R.A., Follo, E.J., & Eberly, M.B. (2007). The impact of a field immersion program on pre service attitudes toward teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23 (5), 653 663. Sample: 62 pre service or s ubstitute teachers. The 15 substitute teachers were a comparison group. Purpose: to examine the multicultural readiness of elementary education students in a teacher education program using 3 dimensions: factors that foster, factors that constrain, a nd experiences that contribute to successfully teaching culturally diverse groups of students Research ?: Data: questionnaire Analysis: quantitative The more the students reported having experience, the more they perceived themselves as bein g able to provide a positive classroom experience in a culturally diverse setting PRETEST results: The substitute teacher group felt the most confidence in teaching and dealing with parent interactions. Students who had 2 semesters of experience teaching i n a diverse setting felt the least comfortable and the least desire to do so. POSTTEST results: substitute and 2 semester groups felt more comfortable to teach in diverse environment than 1 semester interns, believed students had more assets, understood m ulticultural education better, were able to identify bias in teaching, curricula, and tests, and felt able to engage in discussion on adapting teaching to meet learning styles. years of teachin g in an urban school. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 18 (3), 379 398. Sample: 1 novice teacher working in an urban elementary school Purpose: teaching, teacher preparation and support Research ?: Data: observations, field notes, interviews over 5 years Analysis: qualitative. interpretive analysis struggling first year teacher to an effective, confident fifth year teacher. They were: (a) Becoming a teacher versus a manager; (b) Challenges in finding support systems; (c) Criticisms of and suggestions for preservice teacher preparation and early induction experiences Learning how to communicate and network with colleagues is a necessar y, yet learned, skill
191 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Interview 1: Rapport B uilding 1. In what community were you born? Where were you raised? In what ways was that community similar to or different from the community in which you are teaching? a. Probe: Do y ou think those differences (or similarities) have affected your teaching? How? 2. At what point did you make the definite decision to enter teaching? What were the circumstances at that time? 3. Think back to the time when you were deciding whether to enter the teaching profession. What personal qualities did you feel would fit well with teaching as a line of work? 4. In what ways is teaching different from what you expected it to be like? a. How is it better than expected? b. How is it worse than expected? 5. Of the variou s things you do as a teacher, which do you consider to be the most important? a. To what extent are you able to do teach in the ways that you think are best? Probe for examples. 6. What are the really important satisfactions which you receive in your work as a teacher? a. Probe for examples. b. Which of those satisfactions do you feel is the most important one?
192 c. when you began teaching? 7. What are your major strengths as a teacher? What are the thing best as a teacher? Probe for examples. Interview 2: Talking About Your C lassroom 1. The next several questions are going to be about your classroom and your arrange the st Why or how? 2. Think of a lesson you taught recently where you finished feeling like you had done a really great job. What did you do? [Probe for as many specifics as the teacher can remember e.g. ho w children were grouped, how any management does it all come together like this for you? 3. Think for a minute about your classroom. What are some examples of your expectations and how d o you teach them? How do you know if they have been learned? a. Are there any behavioral expectations that you emphasize? How? b. Are there any academic expectations that you emphasize? How? How 4. Describe a time in your classroom when students were interacting w ith each other. [probe for specifics about lesson structure, nature of interaction, length of time in the lesson when students interacted} How often do you teach lessons like this in a typical week?
193 5. Describe a time in your classroom when students are inter acting primarily with you [probe for specifics as above] How often do interactions like this happen in a typical week? 6. Tell me about a time when a student fell behind the rest of the class academically. What did you do? 7. Think about some activities or strat egies that work really well for one/some of your students. What does that activity or strategy look like? How do you know it has worked? 8. Think about a time when you had an idea for a strategy that you wanted to use but you decided not to use it. Tell me a bout it. a. b. Probe: What are some other examples? Why? 9. What else should I know about your teaching to understand who you are as a teacher? Interview 3: Talking About Learning to T each 1. Of the teachers you had a s a student in your own K 12 schooling which do you consider to be outstanding teachers? Please describe one of your outstanding teachers. What made that teacher outstanding? 2. Of the teachers you know who are working today, are there any you would consider outstanding? Please describe that teacher. 3. What kind of knowledge do you think a teacher must possess to be able to do a good job of teaching? What else? What else? [Keep probing here until the these things what would you say is most important and why?
194 4. What experiences do you think have been most influential in teaching you how to teach? a. ment? Tell me about it. b. Probe: Does anything stand out to you that has very directly impacted what you do or how you think as a teacher? 5. How can you tell whether you are doing the kind of job you want to do? (What do you watch as indicators of your effect iveness?) 6. In what ways, if any, do you think you have really improved as a teacher? What has helped you improve? 7. What are things you are still working on? What are some things you are doing to improve in these areas? 8. What are some of the occasions in which parents or other community members are involved in your class? For what reasons might you communicate directly with a parent? 9. Tell me about a time when you collaborated with a colleague. a. Probe: What did you do? b. Was that experience something you would lik e to repeat? c. Or Probe: Would you like to work more closely with other teachers? How? Possible Questions for Informal Post O bservation Interviews 1. 2. I noticed that student --did -. What c aused you to react in the way that you did? 3. Why did you group students the way that you did?
195 4. How do you think your lesson about --went? What do you think went well? What might you change for next time? 5. I noticed that you --. Why did you make that decisi on? 6. Students took a test/quiz on --today. What will you do with the results of that assessment? 7. I noticed that your homework policy is --. Can you tell me about that? Other possible questions would relate to specific instances that occurred during the cl ass observation, or would probe more deeply into answers to the above questions.
196 APPENDIX C CRIOP OBSERVATION PR OTOCOL Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol Revised Edition (Used with Permission.) Developed by: R. Powell, S. Cantrell, Y. Gallardo Carter, A. Cox, S. Powers, E. C. Rightmyer, K. Seitz, and T. Wheeler Language Acquisition School (use assigned number) :___________________________ Teacher (assigned number): Observer: Date of Observation: __________ # of Students in Classroom: Academic Subject: ______________________________ Grade Level(s): _________________________ Start Time of Observation: _______ End Time of Observation: Total Time of Obs: DIRECTIONS Responsive Instruction. If an example of the following descriptors was observed, place the field notes the line number on which that non example is found. Then, make an overall/holistic judgment of the implementation of the concept, according to the following rating scale: 4 = The classroom was CONSISTENTLY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 3 = The classroom was OFTEN CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 2 = The classroom was OCCASIONALLY CHARACTERIZED by cul turally responsive features 1 = The classroom was RARELY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 0 = The classroom was NEVER CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features Transfer the holistic scores from pp. 2 through 9 to the table below. CRI Pillar Holistic Score CRI Pillar Holistic Score I. CARE V. CURR II. CLIM VI. INSTR III. FAM VII. DISC IV. ASMT VIII. PERSP
197 I. CARE CLASSROOM CARING AND Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 TEACHER DISPOSITIONS CRI Indicator For example, in a responsive classroom: For example, in a non responsive classroom: Field notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. The teacher demonstrates an ethic of care (e.g., equitable relationships, bond ing) Teacher differentiates management techniques (e.g., using a more direct interactive style with students who require it) Teacher refers to students by name, uses personalized language with students Teacher uses the same management techniques and inter active style with all students when it is clear that they do not work for some Teacher promotes negativity in the classroom, e.g., frequent criticisms, negative comments, sarcasm, etc. 2. The teacher communicates high expectations for all students Teach er provides scaffolds to assure student learning, recognizing background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests, etc. Teacher advocates for all students Teacher expects every student to participate actively and establishes structures (e.g., frequent checks for understanding) Teacher consistently demonstrates high expectations for all achievement through insisting that they complete assignments, by providing challenging work, etc. (not letting their home life is difficult) Teacher has low expectations (consistently gives work that is not challenging) student participation, allowing some students to rem ain unengaged Teacher does not call on all students consistently Teacher ignores some students; e.g., never asks them to respond to questions, allows them to sleep, places them in the does not bring them into the instructional co nversation, etc. Teacher tends to blame students and families for lack of student achievement and motivation 3. The teacher creates a learning atmosphere in which students and teachers feel respect toward one another Teacher sets a tone for respectful cl assroom interaction Teacher and students achievements Teacher and students work to understand each Students do not hesitate to ask questions that further their learning Teacher shows impatience and intoleranc e for student behavior Teacher establishes a competitive environment whereby students try to out perform one another Students are not encouraged to assist their peers Teacher dominates the decision making and does
198 Students are encouraged to provide peer sup port and assistance Students are encouraged to respond to one another positively Students are invested in Teacher consistently demonstrates high expectations for student social interactions not allow for student voice Teacher does not encourage student questions or ridicules students when they ask for clarification Teacher stays behind desk or a cross table from students; s/he does not get Teacher does not address negative comments of one student towards another Teac her demonstrates low expectations for student social interactions 4. The teacher encourages student empathy and care toward one another Teacher encourages students to respect a diversity of ideas, perspectives and experiences Teacher encourages students to share their stories with one another and to show compassion for the struggles of their peers and their families Biases and discrimination are addressed through the formal and informal curricula Teacher suppresses diversity of opinion and primarily pre sents content, ideas and experiences that are representative of dominant groups Teacher does not allow students to share personal stories; instruction remains de personalized open expression of prejudicial acts and statements towa rd others in the classroom community; biases and discrimination are not addressed
199 II. CLIM CLASSROOM CLIMATE/ Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT CRI Indicator For example, in a responsive classroom: For example, in a non res ponsive classroom: Field notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. The physical surroundings of the classroom reflect an appreciation for diversity There are books, posters, and other artifacts reflecting studen There are positive and affirming messages and racial identities Classroom library and curriculum materials contain multicultural content that reflect the perspectives and experiences of diverse groups There are no or few multicultural texts Posters and displays do not show an acknowledgement and cultural and racial identities Classroom library and curriculum materials promote ethnocentric positions or ignore human diversity 2. Peer collaboration is the norm Students are continuously viewed as resources for one another and assist one another in learning new concepts The emphasis is on group achievement environment in the classroom There is no or very little peer collaboration The emphasis is on individual achievement 3. The physical space supports collaborative work The seating arrangement is flexible and supports student collaboration and equal participation between teachers and students Chairs/desks are arranged to facilitate group work The seating arrangement is designed for individual work, with the teacher Classroom is arranged for quiet, solitary work only Teacher discourages student interaction 4. Students work together prod uctively The teacher implements practices that teach collaboration and respect, e.g., class meetings, modeling effective discussion, etc. Students interact in respectful ways and know how to work together effectively The students primarily work individu ally and are not expected to work collaboratively; and/or students have a difficult time collaborating Lack of respectful interaction amongst students may be an issue
200 III FAM FAMILY COLLABORATION Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 NOTE: When scor ing this component of the CRIOP, the XXX survey or teacher interview should be used in addition to field observations. Observations alone will not provide adequate information for scoring. CRI Indicator For example, in a responsive classroom: For exa mple, in a non responsive classroom: Field notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. The teacher establishes genuine partnerships (equitable relationships) with parents/ caregivers are solicited on how best to instruct the child There is evidence of conversations with parents/caregivers where viewed as partners in educating the student There is evidence that the teacher has made the effort ole background, family culture, outside of school activities) by getting to know his/her parents/caregivers suggestions are not incorporated in instruction No effort made to establish relationships with caregivers Th ere is evidence of a which families and caregivers are viewed as inferior and/or as having limited resources that can be leveraged for instruction 2. The teacher uses parent expertise to support student learning and welcomes paren ts/caregive rs in the classroom Parents/caregivers are invited into the classroom to share experiences and areas of expertise utilized in the instructional program Teacher makes reference careers, backgrounds, daily activities during instruction Parents/caregivers are never involved in instructional program never utilized There is no evidence of home/family connections in the classroom 3. Th e teacher reaches out to meet parents in positive, non traditional ways Teacher conducts home visit conferences Teacher plans parent/family activities at locations outside of school Teacher meets parents in parking lot or other Teacher Communication with parents/caregivers is through newsletters, where they are asked to respond passively (e.g., signing the newsletter, versus become actively involved in their Teacher conducts phone calls, co nferences, personal notes to parents for negative reports only (e.g., discipline)
201 IV. ASMT ASSESSMENT PRACTICES Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 CRI Indicator For example, in a responsive classroom: For example, in a non responsive classroom: Fiel d notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. Formative assessment practices are used that provide information throughout the lesson on specified learning targets; students are evaluated within the context of scaf folded instruction to determine their potential for learning Teacher frequently understanding throughout instruction Students may have reviewing information during the lesson Students are able to voice their learni ng throughout the lesson Teacher assesses with appropriate support Teacher may implement texts or require students to solve problems at a higher level than might indicate Teacher use s observation capabilities, listening carefully to students and learning from their attempts to make meaning Assessment occurs at the end of the lesson Assessment is not embedded throughout instruction Assessment is regarded as a se t of evaluation determine what students have learned (e.g., exit slips, quizzes, etc. that are administered after instruction has occurred versus examining processing during instruction) Assessment is solely use d to determine what students already know or can do Teacher does not evaluate student understanding while engaged in challenging work 2. Students are able to demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways Students with limited English proficiency and/o r limited literacy can show their conceptual learning through visual or other forms of representation Multiple assessments are used so students have various ways to demonstrate competence Most or all tests are written and require reading/writing proficienc y in English Teacher expects students Students have a narrow range of options for demonstrating competence (e.g., multiple choice tests, matching, etc.) 3. Formative assessment practices are used that provide information on the lear ning of every student ; no student Teacher uses formative assessments that determine individual learning Teacher uses information from formative assessments to scaffold student learning and to clarify misconceptions of individual students when needed during instruction Formative assessments are too general to capture individual student understanding (e.g. class discussions where only a few students participate) Teacher uses assessment data only to assign grades; data not used for matively to provide explicit instruction when
202 needed Teacher relies on summative assessments to inform instruction 4. Authentic assessments are used as the primary means for assessing written and oral language development oral langu age proficiency is assessed while they are actively engaged in reading, writing, speaking extended discourse competence is evaluated while they are actually using language in purposeful ways Assessments measure discrete, isolated skill s and/or use short, disconnected passages competence is evaluated solely through standardized measures 5. Teacher sets high standards and students understand the criteria by which they are being assessed Teacher bases feedback on est ablished high standards and provides students with specific information on how they can meet those standards Criteria for particular assignments are displayed and teacher refers to criteria as students develop their products Teacher feedback is subjective and is not tied to targeted learning outcomes and standards Students do not know the criteria upon which they are being assessed Standards are not rigorous Teacher responds to student work with short evaluative comments 6. Stud ents have opportunities for self assessment Students are involved in analyzing their work and in setting their own goals for learning Students are involved in developing the criteria for their finished products (e.g., scoring rubrics) Students are encourag ed to evaluate their own products based upon a pre determined set of criteria Assessment is always teacher controlled 7. Assessment practices promote the achievement of the group, and not just individuals Teacher encourages students to work together to l earn difficult concepts, and assesses the work of the group Teacher emphasizes individual achievement; working together is
203 V. CURR CURRICULUM/ Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 PLANNED EXPERIENCES CRI Indicator For example, in a re sponsive classroom: For example, in a non responsive classroom: Field notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. The curriculum and planned learning experiences use the knowledge and experience of students Re al w orld examples that are included in the curriculum Learning experiences build on prior student learning and invite students to make connections Examples of mainstream and non mainstream beliefs, attitudes, and activities are inclu ded experiences are used to demonstrate skills and concepts N o attempt is made to link is being studied Learning experiences are disconnected from experiences Skills and content a re presented in isolation (never in application to authentic contexts) called upon during learning experiences Teacher follows the script of the adopted curriculum even when it conflicts wit h her own or the experiences 2. The curriculum and planned experiences integrate and provide opportunities for the expression of diverse perspectives Texts include protagonists from diverse backgrounds and present ideas from multiple persp ectives Texts are available that represent diverse protagonists or multiple perspectives O pportunities are plentiful for students to present diverse perspectives through class discussions S tudents are encouraged to challenge the ideas in a text The conven tional, dominant point of view is predominating Few texts are available to represent diverse protagonists or multiple perspectives B iased units of study that show only the conventional point of view (e.g., Columbus discovered America) are presented N o or v ery few texts are available with protagonists from diverse cultural, linguistic, and/or socioeconomic backgrounds N o opportunities are provided for students to present diverse views 3. The curriculum and planned learning experiences involve students in u sing written The language and experiences of the students and the activity of the classroom are used to teach written and oral language skills and conventions Written and oral language skills are taught outside the context of meaningful literate activity An adopted or pre made curriculum is used exclusively to teach skills
204 and oral language for real purposes and audiences a variety of print ma terials are used to develop literacy skills Curriculum experiences include inquiry based reading, writing, and learning Authentic learning tasks are an integral part of the curriculum (e.g., developing proposals, presenting information to real audiences, etc.) and concepts W orksheets and/or workbook assignments predominate Students read fro m textbooks exclusively and responses to reading consist of prefabricated end of chapter questions 4. The curriculum and planned learning experiences provide opportunities for the inclusion of issues important to the classroom, school and community Stude nts are engaged in experiences that develop awareness and provide opportunities to contribute, inform, persuade and have a voice in the classroom, school and beyond Oral and written language and academic concepts are used to explore real world issues C ommu nity based issues and projects are included in the planned program and new skills and concepts are linked to real world problems and events The curriculum and learning experiences present written and oral socio political context in which language and literacy are used Learning experiences are derived almost exclusively from published textbooks and other materials that do not relate to the classroom community or the larger community being served The focus of liter acy and content instruction is to teach the skills and information required to
205 VI. INSTR PEDAGOGY/ Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES CRI Indicator For example, in a responsive classroom: For example, in a non resp onsive classroom: Field notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. Instruction is contextualized lives and experiences Learning tasks and texts lives outside of school Cl assroom interaction patterns and communication structures match those found in communities The teacher builds on knowledge in lessons and activities Learning tasks and texts reflect the values and experienc es of dominant ethnic and cultural groups Only interaction patterns and communication structures of the dominant group are deemed acceptable 2. The teacher learns with students The teacher learns about diverse perspectives along with students The teache r engages students in the inquiry process and learns from The teacher is the authority Students are not encouraged to challenge or question ideas presented or to engage in further inquiry 3. The teacher allows students to collabo rate with one another Students work in pairs and small groups to read, write and discuss texts or to solve problems The teacher works to equalize existing status differences among students Teacher arranges shared experiences that build a sense of communi ty (e.g. choral reading, partner reading, drama, working together to solve challenging problems or to create a new product) Students read, write and solve problems in isolation Students are not permitted to help one another or to work together in pairs or groups 4. Students engage in active, hands on learning tasks Learning tasks allow students to be physically active Teacher uses learning activities that promote a high level of student engagement Exploratory learning is encouraged Students work passivel y at their seats on teacher directed tasks Passive student learning is the norm (e.g., listening to direct instruction and taking notes, reading the textbook, seatwork, worksheets, etc.) Exploratory learning is discouraged 5. The teacher gives students c hoices based Students have multiple opportunities to choose texts, writing topics, and modes of expression The teacher selects reading texts, writing topics, and modes of expression for students
206 on their experiences, values, needs and strengths based on preferences and personal relevance Students have some choice in assignments Teacher allow s students some choice in the topic of study and ownership in what they are learning (e.g., student generated questions that will guide the study, research on a selected topic) All assignments are teacher initiated Students have no choice in topic of study or in the questions that will be addressed throughout the study 6. The teacher balances instruction using both explicit teaching and meaningful application Instru ction is rigorous and cognitively challenging for students from all ethnic, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds The teacher models, explains and demonstrates skills and concepts and provides appropriate scaffolding for students Students apply skills and new concepts in the context of meaningful and personally relevant learning activities Instruction focuses on low level skills Students engage in isolated and repetitive tasks that are disconnected from each other The teacher does not always model, e xplain and demonstrate new skills and concepts prior to asking students to apply them The teacher does not provide appropriate scaffolding for students as they learn new skills and concepts Students practice skills and reinforce new concepts in ways that a re not meaningful or personally relevant to them 7. The teacher focuses on developing academic vocabularies There is an emphasis on learning academic vocabulary in the particular content area The teacher provides explicit instruction in the mea ning of words and students practice using new words in a variety of meaningful contexts Students learn independent word learning strategies such as morphology, contextual analysis, and cognates Little attention is paid to academic vocabulary instruction in the content area New words are taught outside of meaningful contexts Students are not taught independent word learning strategies
207 VII. DIS DISCOURSE/ Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 INSTRUCTIONAL CONVERSATION CRI Indicator For example, in a respon sive classroom: For example, in a non responsive classroom: Field notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. The teacher encourages and responds positively to home/native language/dialect and cu lturally specific discourse styles There is peer conversation in the home language or dialect during both free and academic time Students share stories in their home language/dialect ELL students communicate together in their native language The teacher ac cepts languages and dialects, while also teaching the standard vernacular Students are supported in their use of culturally specific ways of communicating, such as topic associative discourse, topic chaining discourse, and overlapping discou rse patterns Students are discouraged from using their home language or dialect ELL students are discouraged from using their native language outside of school The teacher views topic associative discourse, topic chaining discourse, and overlapping disco urse patterns as rambling talk The teacher attempts to control and change student communication styles to match mainstream classroom discourse patterns 2. The teacher shares control of classroom discourse with students and builds upon and expands upon s tudent talk in an authentic way Students engage in genuine discussions The teacher uses open ended questions and various discourse protocols to elicit extended student talk The teacher demonstrates active list ening and responds in authentic ways to student comments; s/he encourages the same active listening from students There are strict boundaries between personal conversation and instructional conversation Students rarely have opportunities for genuine discus sions There are few or no opportunities for extended student talk; rather, talk is dominated by the teacher 3. The teacher promotes student engagement through culturally responsive discourse practices The teacher employs a variety of culturally appropri ate discourse protocols to promote student participation and engagement (e.g., call and response, talking circle) Discourse practices of various cultural groups are not used during instruction
208 4. The teacher promotes equitable discourse practices Student s use collaborative, overlapping conversation and participate actively, supporting the speaker during the creation of story talk or discussion and commenting/expanding upon the ideas of others The teacher uses techniques to support equitable participatio n, such as wait time, feedback, turn taking, and scaffolding of ideas All students have the opportunity to participate in classroom discussions There is a sense of congeniality and consensus building; students build on one respectful w ay The teacher controls classroom discourse by assigning speaking rights to students Students follow traditional norms in turn taking Not all students have the opportunity to participate in classroom discussions Some students are allowed to dominate discus sions 5. The teacher provides structures that promote student collaborative talk Structures are used that promote student talk, such as think/pair/share, small group work, and partner work Students collaborate and work together to solve problems The teac her encourages structure to allow children to produce responses collaboratively Students are discouraged from talking together Collaborating with other students is discouraged and may be regarded as The teacher does not allow students to collaborate in producing answers 6. The teacher provides opportunities for students to develop linguistic competence The teacher articulates expectations for want you to reply using complet e sentences. I want you to use these vocabulary words in The teacher develops language objectives in addition to content objectives, having specific goals in mind performance Students are engaged in authentic use s of language, (e.g., drama, discussion, purposeful writing and communication) The teacher does not articulate expectations for language use The teacher does not have language objectives for students; rather, only content objectives are evident language is limited and they do not use language in authentic ways Stu dents are not taught how to vary their language use in different social contexts and for different purposes.
209 Students are taught appropriate registers of language use for a variety of social contexts, and they are provided with opportunities to practice those registers in authentic way s
210 VIII. PERSP SOCIOPOLITICAL Holistic score 4 3 2 1 0 CONSCIOUSNESS/MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES CRI Indicator For example, in a respons ive classroom: For example, in a non responsive classroom: Field notes: time of example Field notes: time of non example Field notes: No example ( ) 1. Students are allowed to question the way things are Teacher helps students identify important social iss ues and facilitates the status quo and how to challenge it Students may identify issues within their own school or texts to investigate and question Teacher teaches to the standard textbooks and curriculum and pr esenting information and ideas as neutral Teacher discourages critical thought or questioning of instructional materials or social issues Teacher engages in mystification in which students are not given the avoid controversy 2. Students take action on real world problems Teacher and students identify and discuss issues within the community that are of relevance to their lives Teacher facilitates student advocacy for their communities Teacher encourages students to investigate r eal world issues related to a topic being studied Teacher encourages students to become actively involved in solving problems at the local, state, national, and global levels Teacher does not bring community and social issues into the classroom Learning o ccurs only as it relates to the standard curriculum Teacher does not encourage application to real world issues; accepts or endorses the status quo by ignoring or dismissing real life problems related to the topic being studied 3. The teacher fosters an u nderstand ing of differing points of view Teacher helps students frame differing viewpoints about accepted roles (race, gender, age, ethnicity, class, etc.) depicted in instructional materials Teacher encourages students to challenge statements in written and oral texts and to engage in dialogue that would present alternative views Teacher uses materials in class that perpetuate the status quo without presenting diverse perspectives Teacher accepts information in written texts as factual 4. The teacher ac tively deconstruc ts negative stereotype s in instruction al Teacher facilitates stereotypes and their function in society Teacher discusses biases in popular culture that students encounter in their daily lives (e.g., TV shows, advertising, popular songs, Teacher does not encourage students to examine biases in instructional materials or popular texts Teacher makes prejudicia l statements to students (e.g., girls are emotional;
211 materials and other texts toys) Teacher helps students to think about biases in texts perspectives are represented in the text? Whose perspectives are missing? Who benefits from the be liefs and practices represented in this text?) Teacher challenges students to deconstruct their own cultural assumptions and biases here; etc.) that indicate that s/he is not consciously aware of stereotypes and how they are perpetuated
212 APPENDIX D CRIOP OBSERVATION PR OTOCOL MS. GRACE Culturally Respons ive Instruction Observation Protocol Revised Edition (Used with Permission.) Developed by: R. Powell, S. Cantrell, Y. Gallardo Carter, A. Cox, S. Powers, E. C. Rightmyer, K. Seitz, and T. Wheeler evelopment and the U.S. Department of Education Office of English Language Acquisition Teacher : Vivian Grace # of Students in Classroom: 18 Grade Level(s): ____ 1 ______ DIRECTIONS After the classroom observation, review the field notes for evidence Responsive Instruction. If an example of the following descriptors was observed, place the field notes the line number on which that non example is found. Then, make an overall/holistic judgment of the implementation of the concept, according to the following rating scale: 4 = The classroom was CONSISTENTLY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 3 = The classroom was OFTEN CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 2 = The classroom was OCCASIONALLY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 1 = The classroom was RARELY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 0 = The classroom was NEVER CHARACTE RIZED by culturally responsive features Transfer the holistic scores from pp. 2 through 9 to the table below. CRI Pillar Holistic Score CRI Pillar Holistic Score I. CARE 4 V. CURR 2 II. CLIM 4 VI. INSTR 3 III. FAM 3 VII. DISC 2 IV. ASMT 4 VIII. PERSP 0
226 APPENDIX E CRIOP OBSERVATION PR OTOCOL MS. RIGSBEE Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol Revised Edition (Used with Permission.) Developed by: R. Powell, S. Cantrell, Y. Gallardo Carter, A. Cox, S. Powers, E. C. Rightmyer, K. Seitz, and T. Wheeler Language Acquisition Teacher : Natalie Rigsbee # of Students in Clas sroom: approximately 25 30, depending on class Academic Subject: ___ reading __________ Grade Level(s): _____ 5________ DIRECTIONS Responsive Instruction If an example of the following descriptors was observed, place the field notes the line number on which that non example is found. Then, make an over all/holistic judgment of the implementation of the concept, according to the following rating scale: 4 = The classroom was CONSISTENTLY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 3 = The classroom was OFTEN CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive feat ures 2 = The classroom was OCCASIONALLY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 1 = The classroom was RARELY CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features 0 = The classroom was NEVER CHARACTERIZED by culturally responsive features Transfer the holistic scores from pp. 2 through 9 to the table below. CRI Pillar Holistic Score CRI Pillar Holistic Score I. CARE 3.5 V. CURR 1 II. CLIM 3 VI. INSTR 3 III. FAM 4 VII. DISC 3 IV. ASMT 3 VIII. PERSP 0
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248 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Katie Tricarico completed her undergraduate degree in elementary education at the Unive rsity of South Florida in 2000. During the next 6 years, she taught 6 th grade in Goochland, VA and 4 th and 5 th grades in Tampa, FL, earning her endorsement in gifted degree in curriculum and instruction in 2007 and continuing her education towards a doctoral degree Over the next led her to teach several sections of Social and Historical Foundations of American Educatio n, which led her to realize a new passion: teaching students at the undergraduate level. She earned her doctorate from the University of Florida in 2012 include connect ing the foundations of education to modern practice, high poverty education, and teacher preparation in traditional and alternative contexts.