1 CONCEPTIONS OF AND INTENTIONS FOR THE TEACHING OF REFLECTION BY SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATORS IN UNIVERSITY BASED SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS By FREDERICK L. NELSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Frederick L. Nelson
3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the science education faculty at the University of Florida who have supported and guided my efforts to establish my scholarship in the area of reflective practice. Dr. Troy Sadler has been constantly available as a source of support and validation for my emerging ideas. Dr Rose Pringle has also provid ed critical encouragement for my work in science teacher education. I thank my colleagues at the University of North Florida for the many opportunities they have given to facilitate my growth as a teacher educator. Dr. Jeffrey Cornett has been a continual resource as both sounding board and crying towel. My best friend, Dr. John Wesley White, has always been available for critical evaluation of my writing. Dr. Marianne and Dr. Lehman Barnes have provided their very valuable perspectives on my ideas through out my development. I also thank the University of Florida Office of Graduate Minority Programs for their financial support through the Delores Auzenne Dissertation Award. Finally, I thank my wife Lori for always believing in me.
4 TABLE OF CONT ENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 1 0 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 14 Two Dimensions of Reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 16 Dimension 1: Orientations to Reflection ................................ ........................... 17 Technical reflection ................................ ................................ .................... 19 Reflection in and on action ................................ ................................ ........ 19 Deliberative reflection ................................ ................................ ................ 20 Personalistic reflection ................................ ................................ ............... 20 Critical re flection ................................ ................................ ........................ 20 Summarizing the orientations ................................ ................................ ..... 21 Dimension 2: Components of Reflection ................................ .......................... 21 Stimulus: What is causing you to reflect? ................................ .................. 22 Content: On what are you reflecting? ................................ ......................... 22 Process: How are you reflec ting? ................................ .............................. 23 Outcome: Why are you reflecting? ................................ ............................. 24 An example of the implemented components in a science methods course ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 24 A Heuristic for Describing Reflection ................................ ................................ ....... 25 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 27 Discussion of Research Questions ................................ ................................ ......... 27 Reflection ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 27 Research Question 2: Influences on Orientations ................................ ............ 27 Research Question 3: Manifestation of Orientations in Programs .................... 28 Research Question 4: Constraints and Limitations ................................ ........... 28 Boundaries of the Study ................................ ................................ ................... 29 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 30 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 31 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 36 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 36 Orientations to Reflection ................................ ................................ ........................ 37
5 Components of Reflection ................................ ................................ ....................... 41 Technical Reflection ................................ ................................ ......................... 44 Reflection in and on Action ................................ ................................ .............. 46 Deliberative Reflection ................................ ................................ ..................... 53 Personalistic Reflection ................................ ................................ .................... 58 Critical Reflection ................................ ................................ ............................. 62 Reflection in Science Teacher Education ................................ ............................... 67 Technical Reflection ................................ ................................ ......................... 68 Reflection In and On Action ................................ ................................ ............. 71 Deliberative Reflec tion ................................ ................................ ..................... 79 Personalistic Reflection ................................ ................................ .................... 85 Critical Reflection ................................ ................................ ............................. 94 3 METHOD OLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ 110 Methodological Framework ................................ ................................ ................... 111 Focus of the Inquiry ................................ ................................ .............................. 113 Nat uralistic Fit ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 114 Phases of the Inquiry ................................ ................................ ............................ 118 Sampling ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 119 Data Sourc es ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 123 Web Survey ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 125 Documents ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 126 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 128 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 130 The Method of Constant Comparison ................................ ............................. 131 Documents ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 134 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 135 Second Cycle Coding ................................ ................................ ..................... 136 Case Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ 137 Logistics of the Inquiry ................................ ................................ .......................... 138 Planning for Trustworthiness ................................ ................................ ................ 139 Credibility ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 139 Transferability ................................ ................................ ................................ 141 Dependability ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 142 Confirmability ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 143 Subjectivity Statement ................................ ................................ .......................... 144 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 147 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 155 Case 1: Bob ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 157 ................................ ...................... 158 ................................ .................... 158 ................................ ..................... 159 ................................ ............. 160 ................................ ........ 162
6 Case Two: Claire ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 164 eptions of Reflection ................................ ................... 164 ................................ ................. 165 ................................ .................. 165 ................................ ........... 166 ................................ ...... 168 Case Three: Dan ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 170 ................................ ..................... 170 onceptions ................................ .................... 170 ................................ ..................... 171 ................................ .............. 172 ................................ ......... 173 Case Four: Jeff ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 174 al Conceptions of Reflection ................................ ...................... 175 ................................ ..................... 175 ................................ ...................... 176 ................................ .................. 177 ................................ ............. 178 Case Five: Phil ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 180 ................................ ...................... 180 tions ................................ ..................... 181 ................................ ...................... 181 ................................ ............... 182 ................................ ......... 183 Case Six: Wanda ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 184 l Conceptions of Reflection ................................ ................. 184 ................................ ............... 185 ................................ ................ 185 ................................ ......... 186 ................................ ....... 188 Case Comparisons ................................ ................................ ............................... 189 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 227 Overview of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 227 Naturalistic Inquiry and a More Complex Model ................................ ................... 228 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 230 Developmental Aspects ................................ ................................ .................. 231 The Role of Personal and External Influences ................................ ............... 231 Curriculum ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 233 Policy ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 234 Professional Development ................................ ................................ .............. 236 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ............................... 238 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 239
7 APPENDIX A WEB BASED SURVEY: CONCEPTIONS OF REFLECTION IN SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION ................................ ................................ ....................... 243 B INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW B OARD PROTOCOL ................................ ................. 250 C DOCUMENT PROTOCOL ................................ ................................ .................... 253 D SEMI STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ................................ ................. 254 E TENTATIVE DOCUMENT MEMO ................................ ................................ ........ 255 F CODE DEFINITIONS ................................ ................................ ............................ 256 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 259 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 272
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 A heuristic describing orientations to and components of reflection in teacher education. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 35 2 1 Organization of literature on reflection in teacher education programs based on orientations to and components of reflection. ................................ .............. 103 2 2 Organization of science education literature based on orientations to and components of reflection. ................................ ................................ ................. 109 3 1 Fit of the naturalistic paradigm to the inquiry (Linco ln & Guba, 1985). ............. 148 3 2 Description of sampling modes in different phases of the inquiry. .................... 150 3 3 Tentative provisional codes fo r documents. ................................ ..................... 153 3 4 Procedures for establishing trustworthiness (Erlandson et al, 1993). ............... 154 4 1 and influences on those conceptions. ............. 195 4 2 .......... 197 4 3 Orientat ........ 198 4 4 .......... 199 4 5 .................... 201 4 6 ..... 202 4 7 ............. 203 4 8 ....................... 205 4 9 ........ 206 4 10 s on those conceptions. .............. 207 4 11 ........................ 209 4 12 Orientations to reflection ......... 210 4 13 .............. 211 4 14 ....................... 213
9 4 15 ......... 214 4 16 ........ 215 4 17 .................. 217 4 18 ... 218 4 19 Demographic information on participants. ................................ ........................ 219 4 20 ................................ ........ 219
10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 O rientations to reflection.. ................................ ................................ ................... 33 1 2 Components of reflection. ................................ ................................ ................... 34 2 1 Development of reflectivity in different orientations ................................ .......... 102 2 2 Components of technical reflection as operationalized in selected literature. ... 104 2 3 Components of reflection in and on action as operationalized in selected literature. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 105 2 4 Components of deliberative reflection as operationalized in selected literature. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 106 2 5 Components of personalistic reflection as operationalized in selected literature. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 107 2 6 Components of critical reflection as operationalized in selected literature. ....... 108 3 1 Phases of the inquiry. ................................ ................................ ....................... 149 3 2 Selection criteria for document solicitation and interviews. ............................... 151 3 3 Sequence of activity in the constant comparison method of data analysis. ...... 152 4 1 220 4 2 ................................ ......... 221 4 3 ................................ ........... 222 4 4 ................................ ............ 223 4 5 ................................ ............ 224 4 6 ................................ ....... 225 4 7 science educ ation programs. ................................ ................................ ............ 226 4 8 programs ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 226 5 1 Initial simple model of the orientations to and components of reflection in a science education program. ................................ ................................ ............. 241
11 5 2 conceptions of refl ection, personal and external influences on their conceptions, intended components and identified orientations in their science education curricula. ................................ ................................ .......................... 242
12 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the Un iversity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CONCEPTIONS OF AND INTENTIONS FOR THE TEACHING OF REFLECTION BY SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATORS IN UNIVERSITY BASED SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION P ROGRAMS By Frederick L. Nelson August 2012 Chair: Rose M. Pringle Major: Curriculum and Instruction While the importance of the development of reflection in science t eacher education programs is widely acknowledged, articulations of the frameworks and strategies guiding its development in pre service teachers are less clear. To facilitate understanding, I developed a heuristic framework to describe and interpret the construct in two dimensions: orientations to and components of reflection. The orient ation dimension considers the increasing complexity of reflective thought through five levels: technical, reflection in and on action, deliberative, personalistic, and critical. In contrast to these philosophical orientations, the components dimension de scribes how reflective practice is implemented in teacher education programs. Four components are considered: stimuli, content, process, and outcome. These two dimensions were organized into a heuristic that contains descriptors for each combination of com ponents and orientations. This heuristic was then applied as a conceptual framework to identify and understand the conceptions of and intentions for the development of reflection of six science educators at teacher education institutions across the country F indings highlight the need for science education faculty to have
13 deliberately constructed personal conceptions of reflection in order for it to be emphasized in their programs. The impact of external influences on their conceptions results in their inte ntions for reflection being modified in the course and program.
14 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Responding to the goal of ensuring that all American students achieve scientific literacy, in 1996 the National Science Education Standards called for new emphases in s policy documents echoed this appeal, including many focusing on the importance of ref lection as an important outcome in the preparation of science teachers (Interstate Teac her and Support Consortium, 2010 ; National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2002; National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2008; National Scien ce Teachers Association, 2004). The construct of reflection in relation to the profession of teaching has its roots in the writing s careful consideration of any belief or supposed f resolution, beginning with the observation of difficulty and culminating with an vasive influence in progressive education, reflection as an orientation to teacher education did not take hold until the The Reflective Practitioner (1983). inadequacy of contemporary professional knowledge to address the complexity, uncertainty, and value conflicts present in practice. Professional knowledge needed to develop beyond the prevalent model of technical rationality
15 21). The technical approach was characterized in teacher education by programs such Reflective Teaching (Cruickshank & Apple gate, 1981), designed for a step by step acquisition of specific pedagogical skills. Schn asserted that progress in the professions, including teaching, required a new approach focusing on the killful professional practice. particular, his rejection of the paradigm of technical rationality and his call for the development of professional artistry appealed to educator s on the defensive in response to negative attention from critiques such as A Nation at Risk ( National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) and Cultural Literacy (Hirsch, 1988). The notion of reflective teaching was present in education literature prior to this time but was primarily concerned with the development of thinking processes by students in schools, not with pre service teacher reflection (Hullfish, 1963; Metcalf, 1962; Trezise, 1964; Zechiel & McCutchen, 1938). Reflection in teacher educ ation appeared in the early 1980s and focused on the role of how field experiences contribute to the development of pre service teacher thinking about practice (Korthagen, 1985; Zeichner & Liston, 1987 ). Due to the growth of interest in reflection in teach er education the ame the standard of excellence to be achieved by members of the teaching profession (Anderson & Mitchener, 1994; Roychoudhury, Roth, & Ebbing, 1993; Watts & Lawson, 2009). Early s tudies of reflec tion in science education experiences (MacKinnon, 1987) and methods courses (Rosenthal, 1991), but did not
16 emphasize specific aspects of science teaching and learning. More recent studies have focused on the role of refle ction in the development of pre service science teaching and learning (Abell, George, & Martini, 2002; Barnett, 2008; Parsons & Summer, 2004), science inquiry (Blanchard, Southerland, & Granger, 2009; Dietz & Davis, 2005; Eick & Reid, 20 02; Wang & Lin, 2008), and the nature of science (Akerson, Abd El Khalick, & Lederman, 2000; Scharmann, Smith, & James, 2005). In this chapter, the issues and concepts relevant to the construct of reflection will be introduced focusing on different orien tations to reflection and different components of reflection as implemented in teacher education. A heuristic for the examination of reflection with respect to these two dimensions will be presented, leading to the problem statement of the study, follow ed by research questions The chapter concludes with a discussion of the significance of the study and its limitations. Two Dimensions of Reflection Reflection is a problematic construct in teacher education programs due to the differences in terms of how it is defined, how it is implemented, and how growth in reflection is measured (Calderhead, 1989; Hatton & Smith, 1994 ; Makinster, Barab, Harwood, & Andersen, 200 6 ; Sparks Langer & Colton, 1991). Tension exists between the need for some explicitness in the te aching of reflection (Korthagen & Kessels, 1999; Loughran & Gunstone 1997; Russell, 2005) and the preservation of its complexity (Jay & Johnson, 2002; Markham, 1999). Some researchers emphasize the solitary aspects of reflection (Larrivee, 2000) while ot hers suggest it functions best as a communal activity (Loughran, 1996; Lyons, 1998; Rodgers, 2002). Nearly all studies of reflection contain a distinct perspective on one or more of these aspects.
17 One strategy for addressing this complexity is through a sy stem for classifying different characteristics of reflection. Zeichner and Liston (1996) suggested five reconstructionist, and generic), based on the content of refl ection, which considers the experiences, ideas, or issues being reflected upon. Van Manen (1977) proposed that reflective thought occurs o n three developmental levels (technical, practical, and t of reflection. Other schemes describe the construct in terms of types of reflection (Valli, 1997); orientations to reflective practice (Wellington & Austin, 1996); forms and functions of teacher reflection (Danielowich, 2007): and sources, modes, and pur poses of reflection (Grimmett, Erickson, MacKinnon, & Riecken, 1990). To show how reflection is conceptualized and implemented in science teacher education programs, a heuristic was developed that characterizes the construct in terms of two dimensions: ori entations to reflection and components of reflection. Dimension 1: Orientations to R eflection The orientation dimension considers the increasing complexity of reflective thought. Van Manen (1977) described three levels of reflection and self evaluation (t echnical, practical or deliberative and critical). When the teacher recognizes the constraints of the present level, such as the rationale of efficiency embedded in the technical level, there is a need for a higher level of reflection. These levels functi on as pre service reflective thinking (Jay & Johnson, 2002; Larrivee, 2010; Pultorak, 1993 ). Valli (1997 in and on action and a personalistic mode
18 to this hierarchy, proposing that effective teacher education programs should help pre service teachers develop each of these five orientations: technical, reflection in and on action, d eliberative, personalistic, and critical. evaluation has as much of a disciplin ary or socializing effect as generative or innovative Pre service students should be encouraged to c hoose issues of importance related to the context of their Danielowich (2007) agreed with this view, suggesting teachers should position reflective thinking and learning across different orientations rather than aiming toward the most complex one as a final goal. Lyons (1998) viewed the development of reflection not as a simple progression from one mode to another, but as a process of integrating increasing complexity into e. Jay and Johnson (2002) also promoted the integration of T hese dimensions of reflection are not mutually exclusive. In Valli (1997) noted a pu rpose in the ordering of the five types of reflection (technical, reflection in and on action, deliberative, personalistic, and critical), basic grasp of technical know ledge and skill might be needed for deliberative reflection. This ordering also suggests that certain educational issues or questions might be more
19 reflection is represe nted in Figure 1 beginning with technical in the innermost circle and progressing through the other four lens, from the situation at hand to multiple perspectives on a situation to an appreciation and the dashed bou ndaries between the orientations portray the integrative aspect of the pre service teachers to develop reflective thinking through each of the different orientations. Technical reflection The development of teaching techniques is the essence of technical reflection. f the often focusing on the efficiency and Austin, 1996). Reflection in and on action eflection focuses on the two distinct facets of reflection in action and reflection on action. Reflection on action refers to retrospective or anticipatory thinking about an experience Problems of practice are considered through a cycle of problem setting reframing, and resolving, resulting in new points of view and employment of new expertise. Reflection in action builds a repertoire of professional practice by recognizing the tacit knowledge manifested in an act of
20 teaching. Schn asserts t he developmen t of reflection in and on action can be facilitated through a reflective practicum a situation that simulates professional practice, but with reduced complexity, such as a student teaching internship. Experiences in the reflective practicum provide opport unities for dialogue between pre service teachers and their supervisors, who are often cast in the role of coaches (Schn, 1987; Valli, 1997). Deliberative reflection In deliberative reflection, teachers consider multiple perspectives and sources of knowl edge in their decision making. While the sources of knowledge and organizational considerations, focused on student meaning all milieu) can serve as the sources of reflective thinking in the deliberative mode (Valli, 1997; Wellington & Austin, 1996). Personalistic reflection The personalistic orientat ion is focused on personal development and liberation. autobiography to examine attitudes, emotions, hopes, and concerns. Personalistic reflection attends to these as trust and care (Noddings, 1984). Reflection in this mode is typically introspective and personal (Valli, 1997; Wellington & Austin, 1996). Critical reflection The critical orientation positions reflection as instrumental in improving the quality of life for the disadvantaged in society. Schools and schooling are portrayed as political
21 constructs that function in hegemonic ways to reproduce the dominant culture. The moral and ethical consideration s in critical reflection extend more broadly into society than in personalistic reflection (Valli, 1997; Wellington & Austin, 1996). Summarizing the orientations This first dimension of reflection considers the intellectual complexity of each orientation. established standards in the technical orientation is less complex than making a decision based on multiple viewpoints considered by deliberative orientation. Valli (1997) recognized adva ntages and shortcomings in each orientation and advised that the different types should be used in combination to balance these inequalities. Some orientations have rigid externally imposed guidelines and some have personally determined guidelines. Valli c Dimension 2: Components of R eflection The formation of the different orientations into tasks within a teacher education program comprises the second dimension for classifying reflection, its components. One effort to characterize these components comes from Grimmett MacKinnon, Erickson, and Riecken (1990), who identified three questions essential for understanding and What is being reflected upon?,(2) How is the (p. 35) In a similar way, Calderhead (1989) categorized the variance in concepts of reflective teaching in terms of process, content, pr econditions (context), and product The need for detail in the explicit teaching of reflection was asserted by Jay and Johnson (2002): W e need to look closely at the processes that comprise reflective thought. a holistic
22 view of reflection is difficul For the purpose of describing reflection as it is implemented in teacher education programs, Grimmett et al s essential questions stimulus, content, process and outcome. This scheme provides a second dimension for examining the construct, as shown in Figure 1 2. Stimulus: What is causing you to reflect? The first component of reflection, stimulus, refers to the context of the initial problem that triggers a solution of a perplexity is the steadying and guiding factor in the entire process of surprise, an unforeseen event that is inconsistent with our tacit professional knowledge and thus leads to reflection Since such reflection occurs in response to this puzzling situation, the context of that situation needs to be carefully considered. While some pre service teachers may po ssess an inherent reflective manner, without an explicit recognition and 139). Va rious stimuli for reflection in science education have included field experiences (Posner, 2000), research experiences (Blanchard, Southerland, & Granger, 2009), and video editing (Yerrick, Ross, & Molebash, 2005). Content: On what are you reflecting? The reflection. While the initial response might suggest that teachers reflect on what they are doing, researchers have characterized the content of reflection in many ways. Diffe rent orientations to wards reflection specify different content (Danielowich, 2007). One
23 organization of the content of reflection occurs with Zeichner and Liston (1996) who list These traditio ns include the academic, social efficiency, developmentalist, social reconstructionist, and generic. While these varieties of reflective practice vary i n their purposes for reflection, they also emphasize different topics as the content of reflection, such as representations of subject matter (academic), research based teaching practices (social efficiency), student interests and patterns of development (developmentalist), and issues of inequality and injustice (social reconstructionist). Content provides t he text that is typically coded and classified in research studies to determine some measure of development of reflection in pre service teachers (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Sparks Langer, Simmons, Pasch, Colton, & Starko, 1990). Process: How are you reflecti ng? The process component is the system of thoughtful actions engaged in by pre service teachers when analyzing the problem being considered. Dewey conceived of reflection as a meaning making process, in which a learner moves from one experience to another with deeper understanding of relationships and connections. Central to this process are attitudes of open mindedness, responsibility, and whole heartedness, (Dewey, 1933). Schn also described a cycle of problem setting, reframing, and experimenting, wher discoveries which call for new reflection in in reflection. The effect of particular structures designed to facilitate pre service teacher reflection is influential on the nature and quality of those reflections (LaBoskey, 1994).
24 Loughran (2002) acknowledges the need for explicit attention to the ability of pre se rvice teacher s to relevant to the process component consider the time frame in which reflection occurs ( Hatton & Smith, 1995), reflection which occur s as a solitary or collaborative activity (Zeichner & Liston, 1996), and the types of activities that promote reflection such as reflective writing or supervisory conferences (Ross, 1990). Outcome: Why are you reflecting? The final component concerns how the different orientations characterize the larger purpose or outcome of the reflective process. Like the other components, the outcomes of reflection are varied. In one framework, reflection serves the goal of moral development (Valli, 1990). Many researchers propose a critical lens, deliberating on the relationships between schooling and the attainment of equity and justice for the disadvantaged in society (Dinkelman, 2000). LaBoskey (1994) asserts the transf ormation of pre service ultimate goal of reflection. An example of the implemented components in a science methods course Careful distinctions need to be made between the stimulus, content, proc ess, and outcome components in this conceptual framework. The example of pre service teachers in a science methods course with a personalistic orientation reflection (Abell, Bryan, & Anderson, 1998) illustrates these distinctions: 1. Stimulus: pre service tea chers reflect after viewing a video of an elementary science case of teaching science for conceptual change. 2. Content: pre service teachers reflect on their own ideas and personal theories about science teaching and learning.
25 3. Proces s: pre service teachers r espond in writing to tasks in which they uncover and examine their personal science histories and visions of science teaching 4. Outcome: pre service thinking clearly about science teaching and learnin g. A Heuristic for Describing Reflection The heuristic presented in Table 1 1 highlights the different levels of complexity in the orientations to reflection as originally described by Valli (1997), and aligns the different components adapted from Cald erhead (1989) and Grimmett et al (1990) with those orientations. Seminal writing representative of each orientation was carefully examined in order to identify key phrases that related to each component. For example, in Educating the Reflective Practitio ner, Schn (1987) deliberately describes the nature of the reflective practicums are reflective in that they aim at helping students learn to become proficient at a kind of reflection in action. they depend for their effectiveness on a reciprocally reflective dialogue of coach and In this orientation, t he activity of reciprocally reflective dialogue is central in learning how to reflect, and is identified as key to the process co mponent in the heuristic. In their description of reflective practice in teacher education, Wellington and Austin (1996) identified specific examples of each orientation in the literature, from which relevant descriptors were obtained for use in the heuris tic. This conceptual alignment can be used to identify different orientations related to reflection and also to interpret how th e se orientations are implemented in teacher education programs. Genor (2005) recognized the utility of this type of structure i n providing guidance to the pre service for reflection can be helpful in this process, but only when it provides an explicit
26 rationale that both articulates its definition and outlines what reflection might Problem Statement In the past three decades, reflection has become widely espoused as an essential part of university based teacher education (Danielowich, 2007; Larrivee, 2010; Smith, Yendol Hoppey, & Milam, 2010). Yet, the lack of empirical evidence regarding how reflection is conceived and implemented is a prevailing concern (Larrivee, 2010; Smith, Yendol Hoppey, & Milam, 2010). Science education research has used the reflections of pre service teachers to examine issu es such as co teaching (Eick, Ware, & Jones, 2004), use of probeware (Gado, Ferguson, & van ), and the dilemmas of practical work (Yoon & Kim, 2010). Despite t he apparent popularity of th is construct, Russell and Martin ttle public evidence that reflection is actually p. 1175). This degree of uncertainty, along with the issues of varying definitions and approaches points to its unclear status, particularly with respect to the frameworks science t eacher educators employ to teach their pre service science teachers to reflect Since researchers have posited that reflection is of vital importance to the development of accomplished science teachers, it is useful to characterize how science teacher educ ators conceive this construct, and how they translate those conceptions into intentions for the development of reflection by pre service teachers in teacher education programs. The purpose of this study is to ns of and intentions for the teaching of reflection in university based secondary science teacher education programs. More specifically, th e ideas of th ose teacher educators
27 who articulate some emphasis on reflection are scrutinized to address four researc h questions. Research Questions 1. What orientations to reflection do science teacher educators hold? 2. What influences have contributed to the development of these orientations? 3. How are the orientations of science teacher educators towards reflection manifeste d through the components of reflection provided in their intended curriculum? 4. What constraints and limitations do science teacher educators perceive on the enactment of their intentions for the teaching of reflection? Discussion of Research Questions Resea The first research question prescribes an examin ation of how science teacher educators conceive the construct of reflection as an orientation An orientation is an indication of the spe cific ways an individual views the world : beliefs of epistemology, axiology, and ontology. visible how each subject matter or knowledge area constitutes a way of making sense 7, p. 212). As science teacher educators articulate their orientations the notions of the truth, value, and reality of reflection in teacher education. the he uristic, other characterizations are not excluded. The most valuable component in addr essing this research question is whether the meaning and purpose of reflection is explicitly considered and clearly articulated by science teacher educators. Research Qu estion 2: Influences on Orientations orientations to reflection. U ncovering the influence of factors such as teachers, family
28 member s, or professional experiences provides insi ghts into how teacher educators come to value reflection The development of and engagement in their own reflective practice by s cience teacher educators contributes to an understanding of how their intentions for reflection may be realized for pre service teachers ( Russell, 2007; Russell & Martin, 2007). Research Question 3: Manifestation of Orientations in Programs The third research question examines how science teacher educators intend to put their orientations into practice in teacher education pr ograms. Specific components such as assignments and activities that are designed to function as stimuli for reflection, topics considered as the content of reflection, and methods of learning a process of reflection are important lenses into science teach er construct. The intentions of these faculty members are manifested in the kinds of opportunities they implement for pre service science teachers learning how to reflect (Houston & Clift, 1990). Research Question 4: Constra ints and Limitations The fourth research question addresses the difficulties perceived by science teacher educators regarding their intentions for the teaching of reflection. Barriers to the achievement of reflective practice could include definitions of the construct, preconceptions about the profession of teaching, and structural and ideological features of programs (Hatton & Smith, 1994). Insight into p articular difficulties may be gained by considering them through the heuristic as corresponding to par ticular components This examination orientations to reflection, particularly with respect to how reflection is valued and reified. Addressing this question contributes to what Tom (1985) describes as the development
29 of reflection in teacher education. Boundaries of the Study While some science teacher education programs have taken an explicit approa ch to reflection in the science methods course, (Abell & Bryan, 1997 ; Rosenthal, 1991 ), more often the focus is on the experience of the student teaching internship (Eick & Dias, 2005; MacKinnon & Erickson, 1983; Roychoudhury, Roth, & Ebbing, 1993 ; Yoon & Kim, 2010 ). Similarly, a large portion of the research examines the development of reflection in elementary pre service science teachers (Abell & Bryan, 1997; Britner & Finson, 2005; Rosenthal, 1991; Roychoudhury, Roth, & Ebbing, 1993; Van Zee & Roberts, 2 001; Yoon & Kim, 2010). It is therefore worthwhile in this study to examine how science teacher educators in secondary programs conceive reflection and intend it to develop in their pre service teachers. Acknowledging the call for opportunities and encoura gement to reflect earlier rather than later, this inquiry examines conceptions and intention s throughout the teacher preparation sequence, including methods courses, early field experience, and the student teaching internship ( Northfield & Gunstone, 1997; Roychoudhury, Roth & Ebbing, 1993). It is the intent of the inquiry to examine the ideas of those science teacher educators who emphasize reflection explicitly and intensely. It is therefore critical that those faculty members contacted are highly familia r with the secondary science teacher education programs at their institutions, and that those programs manifest the vision of the faculty involved. Science teacher educators need to have a significant degree of influence over the curriculum in these progra ms. Smaller programs often demonstrate this type of unified mission (Yost, Sentner, & Forlenza Bailey, 2000) This study is
30 confined to secondary science teacher education programs at regional institutions, specifically those colleges and universities who are accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and members of the Teacher Education Consortium of State Colleges and Universities (TECSCU). The NCATE standards call specifically for the development of reflection in te acher education candidates. TECSCU institutions typically have smaller program s with one or two science teacher education faculty but graduate a large proportion of the teachers in their states ( L. G. Daniels, personal communication, December 8, 2010). It is likely that the science teacher education faculty at these institutions would have familiar ity with the secondary science teacher education program and aware ness of deliberate effort s toward the development of reflection. Significance of the Study Thi (1985) approach to examining inquiry oriented teacher education: Such dimensions have at least two uses to a teacher educator. First, these dimensions can help a teacher educato r see the range of inquiry oriented alternatives. Second, the measuring of a particular approach to inquiry can help identify the strengths and weaknesses of an approach. Thus the dimensions are simultaneously used as descriptive and evaluative devices (p. 35). While it is not the explicit purpose of this study to make evaluative claims as to the soundness of individual programs, relationships between the orientations and components articulated by science teacher educators may reveal innovative approac hes, specific emphases, or areas of exclusion particular to science education. This exploration of reflection contributes to an important area in need of research, as Zeichner (2005) identified:
31 Very little work has documented the nature and quality of th e teacher education curriculum, the variety of requirements, the content of preparation programs at different levels and in different subject areas, and academic rigor of the preparation as assessed by such means as analysis of syllabi and assignments (p. 748). look specifically at science teacher education at the secondary level consider the science methods course and other program components, and examine program and co urse documents for evidence of alignment The heuristic used in this study also has practicality in other studies of reflection, such as a self study of the development of reflection by a teacher educator, or an exploration of reflective practices of teac hers engaged in National Board Certification. Utilizing these two dimensions of orientations to and components of reflection can provide a detailed view on the intentional alignment of th e se dimensions in practice. Limitations of the Study The present stud y will collect data from science education faculty engaged in university based science teacher education programs. The study is confined to programs for initial certification of secondary science teachers, and does not consider the orientations to and comp onents of reflective practice that may be explored in elementary certification, advanced professional degrees, or professional development programs. While many science teacher educators may be involved in both elementary and secondary levels, their influen ce on program design and curriculum choices will typically be greater in secondary programs. Additionally, it is not the purpose of this inquiry to portray how reflection is conceived by a representative sample of science teacher educators across the field Rather, the study focuses only on those educators who convey an intense emphasis on the development of reflection by pre service
32 secondary science teachers in their programs. Since faculty members are the principal sources for data on programs, any concl usions about the implementation of reflection will represent an intended curriculum, not necessarily an enacted one.
33 Figure 1 1. Orientations to reflection. This figure illustrates the five orientations to reflection in teacher education.
34 Figure 1 2. Components of reflection. This figure illustrates the components of reflection in teacher education.
35 Table 1 1. A heuristic describing orientations to and components of reflection in teacher education. Orientation Stimulus Content Process Outcom e Seminal Work Technical Episode of teaching performance Own teaching behaviors derived from research; external authority structures; comparison to list of competencies Retrospective, individual or supervision in writing or oral; behaviorist techniques E fficient instruction; faithful implementation of best practices Cruickshank & Applegate, 1981 Reflection in and on action A puzzling situation present in the reflective practicum Not specified Anticipatory or retrospective (on action); contemporaneous ( in action); framing or problem setting and reframing; making the tacit explicit; reciprocal dialogue with expert coach in the reflective practicum Professional artistry in practice; development of practical knowledge Schn, 1983, 1987; Loughran, 1996 Deli berative Interaction with any of commonplaces (subject matter, students, teachers, milieu) Own decisions about instruction, curriculum, students, school, context; consideration of multiple sources of knowledge Anticipatory, retrospective; individ ual or collaborative Relevant and meaningful student learning; effective communication; effective decision making & personal judgment Valli, 1993 Personalistic Varying contexts Own personal and professional beliefs, attitudes; self development ; internal s ource of knowledge Introspective, individual, autobiography, personal theorizing Personal development LaBoskey, 1994 Critical Any situation in schooling Schools as political structures; issues of power and injustice Outwardly directed Political liberatio n; improving situation of disadvantaged Van Manen, 1977
36 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction of reflection in teacher education that occurred in the late 1980s. The journal Reflective Practice appeared in 2000 emphasizing themes such as the purposes and practice of reflection and the ways it is meaningfully taught and learned. The American Educational Research Association has a special interest group dedic ated to reflection in teaching and teacher education. The Association of Teacher Educators recently published a volume summarizing the work of a national commission charged with investigating the ntion, student learning, and xv). Reflection is clearly a topic of high interest in teacher education. Scholarly writing on reflection in teacher education tends to be bas ed on one of three types. The first type emphasizes the explicit teaching of the process of reflection, engaging pre service teachers in specific individual or collaborative activities designed to foster reflection (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Jay & Johnson, 200 2; Pultorak, 1993; Sparks Langer, Simmons, Pasch, Colton, & Starko, 1990; Yost, Sentner, & Forlenza Bailey, 2000). The second type traces the development of pre service teacher reflection through levels or stages by examining some form of text, such as jou rnals, portfolios, or interviews, but without a deliberate focus on the structures of experiences that facilitate development (Alger, 2006; Dome, Prado Olmos, Ulanoff, Ramos, Vega Castaneda, & Quiocho, 2005; Fox & White, 2010; Nagle, 2009; Sumison, 2000). The final section of the literature is comprised of a large quantity of theoretical writing, focusing on the
37 historical and philosophical bases of reflection (Dewey 1933; Rodgers, 2002; Russell, 2005; Schn; 1983, 1987; Smyth, 1989; Van Manen, 1977). The two dimensional heuristic for describing and interpreting reflection in teacher education programs presented in Chapter One (Table 1 1) is used to organize the major part of this review of the literature. The two dimensions of orientations to and component s of reflection articulated in the heuristic do not consider every aspect of reflection or establish strict boundaries that confine interpretations to one row or column. The heuristic structure provide s a useful way of thinking about how specific practices and language are representative of specific orientations. Many studies that do not explicitly stake out a particular orientation can be classified implicitly based on how one or more of the various components are implemented. The review begins with semin al writing on how and why reflection is classified into different orientations, followed by articles that discuss the second dimension of components of reflection. Representative studies that focus on the function of the various components within each ori entation are then considered, organized by the heuristic. The chapter concludes with a comprehensive examination of studies addressing reflection in science teacher education. Orientations to Reflection Linking ways of knowing with ways o f being practical (1977) provides a seminal influence on the practice of applying a taxonomy to the construct of reflection. In this paper, he relates the three major traditions of social science (empirical analytic, hermeneutic phenomenological, and criti cal dialectical) as ways of knowing and modes of action, essentially connecting theory with action by means of reflection.
38 to approaches, content, and definitions nearly universally (Dinkelman, 2000; Genor, 2005; Larrivee, 2010; Pultorak, 1996; Sparks Langer et al, 1990; Valli, 1997; Wellington & Austin, 1996; Zeichner & Liston, 1987). From these three traditions of social science, van Manen describes three levels of refl ectivity, which correspond with descriptions of the practical. At the first level of technical reflection, the emphasis is on faithful application of established knowledge. Empirically derived educational research supplies theories, principles, and recomme ndations for implementation. Deliberation among alternatives is governed by standards of economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. Van Manen observes that the classroom is a much more complex environment and will need a higher level of deliberation beyond t hat offered by technical reflection. At this higher level of interpretive reflection, practical action is informed not by external authority but by analysis of multiple aspects of the educational experience. These facets may include individual and social e xperiences, preconceptions, perspectives, and prejudices. While this level aims to develop understanding of learning experiences, it does not deliberate on the value of those experiences. At the highest level of critical reflectivity, questions of the wort h of knowledge and how society is organized to consider what is worthy are examined. including technical rationality and practical action (Zeichner & Liston, 1987), technical and pract ical reflection (Genor, 2005) and descriptive and comparative reflection (Jay & Johnson, 2002). The third level is typically referred to in education literature as critical reflection (Larrivee, 2010).
39 Van Manen uses the concept of orientation to describe the nature of these different levels of reflectivity. An orientation includes specific ways of looking at the the uncanny quality of encapsulating the person who has lea Manen, 1977, p. 211). In some sense, the meaning of an orientation is akin to a paradigm, as characterized by Kuhn (1996). Van Manen observes that the transition (1977, p. 212). hierarchical and encompassing, with unanswerable questions at one level forcing the questioner to the higher level. Based on their researc h experience and review of the orientations. In addition to the technical, deliberative (practical), and dialectic (critical) orientations, Wellington and Austin sugge sted an immediate orientation and a transpersonal orientation Activities at the immediate level are focused on survival, basically non reflective or simple reporting of events. The immediate orientation is not connected to an underlying social science tra dition or professional knowledge base. The transpersonal orientation is influenced by Eastern thought, emphasizing personal liberation, resistance to established authority, and an individualized and holistic pedagogy. In a similar manner, Valli ( 1997) puts forth a hierarchy of five different types of reflection. Using content of reflection and quality of reflection as measures of distinction, she added reflection in and on action and personalistic reflection to the three familiar
40 levels of technic al, deliberative, and critical reflection. Reflection on action and reflection in action originate with Schn (1983), focusing on the development of Personalistic reflection is simil orientation, in its focus on personal growth. While Valli does acknowledge the hierarchical nature of these five types of reflection, she also recognizes the shortcomings of each type, with respect to bot h content and quality of reflection. Technical reflection and reflection in and on action both concentrate on problems originating from instructional and management situations. Personalistic and critical reflection tends to neglect pedagogical concerns, fo cusing on of their actions, since personal judgment is the criterion for instructional decisions. Because of the limitations of each type, Valli recommends that teacher education programs should encourage reflection in all types, relevant to the concern being considered, an approach adopted by many teacher educators (Genor, 2005; Jay & Johnson, 2002; Spalding & Wilson, 2002; Zeichner & Liston, 1996). While she not es that types of reflection may be hierarchical, with some levels prerequisite to others, she suggests that another consideration in a hierarchy of reflection is the kind of questions or issues that are addressed, arguing that chools more just and democratic, for example, might be more important than trying to maximize time the review of the literature. Figure 2 1 shows the relationship between the three models
41 discussed above. These three authors agree about the nature of reflection with respect to its increasing complexity moving from the technical to critical levels, as shown in the figure from left to right Arrows indicate the variance within which the critical or transpersonal orientation is placed at the highest level of the hierarchy. ) immediate orientation is essentially non reflective, it has limited value as an appro ach in teacher education, so it is not included in and on action I t is used to examine the various orientations to reflection. Table 2 1 shows the research on these different orienta tions to reflection, indicating teacher education studies that are relevant to specific components of reflection. Components of Reflection Reflection has been conceptualized in ways other additional adaptations that focus on epistemological foundations. Jay and Johnson (2002) acknowledged that a definition alone was highly inadequate for the purpose of describing pedagogy of reflection, and asserted the need to examine the processes and content of reflection. Calderhead (1989) agreed, noting the need for teacher education programs to consider the processes of reflection, what pre service teachers reflect upon, and the interaction of the kinds of tasks in which they are engaged and the context in which they work. The perspecti ve taken by Grimmett, Ericksen, MacKinnon, and Riecken (1990) considered the relationship between knowledge and reflection in terms of three distinctions: the source of knowledge for reflection, the mode of reflection, and the purpose of reflection. They d eveloped a heuristic that examined different epistemological perspectives (instrumental/technical, deliberative, and
42 reconstructive/critical) on the basis of these three foci. The source of knowledge is that which is reflected upon, such as propositional k nowledge derived from educational research in the instrumental perspective. Mode refers to the processes engaged in during an act of reflection, such as the reflective dialogue of a pre service teacher and university supervisor. The authors identified thre e purposes for reflection: directing or controlling, informing, or transforming practice. While they acknowledge that the distinctions represented by their heuristic are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive, they advance the utility of the heuristic a s one way of making sense of the literature of reflection. LaBoskey (1993) initially designed a framework for reflection that considered the conditions, process, and content of reflection. Conditions refer to those contextual factors relating to how pre service teachers interact with episodes of their own teaching. These factors include such artifactual and interactive components as discussions with supervisors and peers and written or video recorded records of instruction. Process includes not only step s in reflective thought of problem definition, means and ends analysis, and generalization taken from Dewey (1933), but also underpinning attitudes of open mindedness, responsibility and wholeheartedness. LaBoskey affirms the importance of explicitly recog programs should give attention to the nature and breadth of the topics requested and After a multi case study of pre service teachers, LaBoskey modified the initial framework to include direct attention to the impetus for and purpose of reflection. The study identified the need for emphasis on the motivation to reflect. She asserted that
43 since much of the reflection requested of pre service teach ers is externally motivated, the structural features of the task of reflection should be purposefully considered. Ultimately, the outcome of reflection should enable the development of new abilities, attitudes, beliefs, and emotions that result in the pre service teacher moving further along a continuum of pedagogical thinking. The current study uses a heuristic (Table 1 1) to explore approaches to reflection in science teacher education in terms of these two dimensions of orientations to and components of reflection. The heuristic represents a synthesis of ideas from Valli (1997 ), and Wellington and Austin (1996) in characterizing orientations to reflection, and the ideas of Calderhead (1989), Grimmett et al (1990), and LaBoskey (1993) related to the di mension of components of reflection. Grimmett et al (1990) identified heuristics like this one as effective tools for orienting the novice to the disorienting and even contradictory array of approaches to reflection. They noted that by identifying the key features of the prevalent modes, previously overlooked aspects may be revealed. clarification and advancement of the study of reflection. In this review of the literatur e on reflection in teacher education, the heuristic organizes important studies within each orientation, as shown in Table 2 1. While the heuristic is helpful in organizing studies of reflection, it does not function as an all inclusive set of criteria. As such, not every study is easily classified into a particular orientation, and some studies identified as belonging to an orientation do not manifest all components. Studies were selected for this section of the literature review that represented significa nt aspects of specific components within the various orientations.
44 Technical Reflection The teacher education model that is most frequently identified with the technical orientation of Reflective Teaching (1981). This program was designed as an on campus laboratory peer teaching experience. The objectives of the program emphasize efficiency and utility, providing an immediate measure of student learning and making use of simple and accessible materials. As a form o f peer teaching, the prepared reflective teaching lessons are designed to provide opportunities for reflection on accomplishment of specific behaviors such as describing or demonstrating. The content of reflective teaching lessons should be unfamiliar to learners, so that the focus is on analysis of the teaching process. After each lesson, an assessment is administered to measure learner achievement and satisfaction, followed by reflection in the form of small group and whole class discussion s of the lesso n. Discussions typically involve difficulty of lessons teacher thinking during preparation and instruction, and alternative teaching methods. Williams, Holton, & Fay, 1981) evaluatin g the outcomes of the reflective teaching program were mixed. The researchers examined three hypotheses regarding pre service teachers who had participated in the reflective teaching program: (1) these students would be better able to think and talk analyt ically about teaching and learning ; (2) these students would be better able to identify variables that influence d teaching ; and (3) these students would be more positively inclined toward teaching. Data was collected from several instruments, including a q uestionnaire about teaching and learning, a list of variables contributing to or detracting from a videotaped teaching
45 episode, Likert scale surveys addressing attitudes and beliefs about teaching, and a scale related to the concept of self as a teacher. A nalysis of these data provided partial support for the first hypothesis concerning the promotion of analytical thinking, but the other two hypotheses were not supported. The researchers suggest that the exposure of pre service teachers to the program ( whic h lasted six hours) was inadequate to produce an effect. Gore (1987) sternly critiqued this approach to reflective teaching, warning that the achieving pre specified goals, and in so doing, risks these means becoming ends in reflection in the teacher education process, which risks reducing the abstract and a behavior that is generalizable, observable, and s how the use of a positivist research paradigm represents a threat to the development of reflection in teacher education programs, asserting that research questions from su ch a paradigm focusing on measuring reflection will not provide answers that further reflective practice. This behaviorist nature of the technical orientation is evident in Freiberg and n program. The stimulus for reflection takes the form of an observation of an act of classroom teaching. Content of reflection consists of descriptions of the exemplary behaviors demonstrated: ific teaching skills observation and self assessment procedures facilitates the process of reflection.
46 Microteaching episodes provide another stimulus for reflection, and the pre service reflection, examining skills such as higher level questioning and nonverbal cues. The process of reflection on microteaching involves feedback from a supervisor while vie wing a videotape of the lesson. Other systematic assessments facilitate the process of reflection, including analysis of instruction al audiotapes for such behaviors as ts effectiveness as measured by systematic observation instruments. While many researchers suggest that such a technical orientation is an important one to include in a teache r education program (Genor, 2005; Hatton & Smith, 1995; Jay & Johnson, 2000; Richardson 1990; Valli, 1997; Wellington & Austin, 1996), very few examples of how this should be implemented are articulated. Other teacher educators assert technical reflection i s a stage to be moved through, most typically to reach the final stage of critical reflection (Larivee, 2010; Yost, Sentner, & Forlenza Bailey, 2000). The characteristics of the components of technical reflection are represented in Figure 2 2. Reflection in and on Action In his critique of the technical rationality approach to the development of professional practice, Schn identifies dichotomies inherent in the paradigm: the separation of means and ends, research and practice, and knowing and doing. These is a kind of research. I n their problem setting, practitioners frame the means and ends of their action interdependently; what they do in certain situations i n
47 those situations routine approach to practice, resulting in the knowledge of practitioner s becoming correction to overlearning T hrough reflection, [the practitioner] can surface and criticize the tacit understandings that have grown up around the repetitive experiences of a specialized practice, and can make new sense of the situations of uncertainty or In this orientation, the process of reflection in action is critical to the development of professional knowledge. MacKinnon (1987) examines how this process occurs in pre service sors. He notes that beginning teachers are typically focused on personal survival concerns, such as being liked by students, controlling the class, and getting a job. MacKinnon suggests these survival concerns may inhibit the application of educational the ory to their developing practice He draws in action, particularly the rejection of the dichotomy of thought and action, as a way for pre service teachers to link theory and practice. In the study, MacKinnon looked for ev idence of pre service in action on the basis of two aspects of a cycle of reflection problem setting and reframing. Problem setting is the initial naming of the puzzling event presented in practice, identifying the context and implica tions of the problem. Reframing is the uncovering of new aspects of the problematic situation that allow for new understandings and new possibilities for action. He used an analytical framework based on this cycle to identify instances of reflection in tra nscripts of teaching episodes and
48 supervision conferences. The main focus of the analysis was the transition of pre service teachers from teacher centered to learner centered perspectives. MacKinnon examined the teacher supervisor dialogue for evidence of (1) phases of the reflective cycle in the dialogue ; (2) change in perspective on the problem ; (3) change in conclusions about the problem ; and (4) use of personal experience to understand the problem. These clues correspond to aspects of reflection in act ion: problem setting, reframing, resolving, and repertoire. MacKinnon asserts reflection in a willingness to examine and reexamine teaching experience from a variety of perspectives and theoretical platforms; it is not the ca se that the practice of teaching can be informed by the clue structure for detecting reflection in supervision dialogue is an effective method of studying reflectio n in action. In addition to the aspects of problem setting and reframing, another characteristic the reflective practicum. A practicum is an environment constructed for the purpose of learning a practice Schn (1987) contends that the appropriate focus of a practicum should be not be on technical reflection in action through which practitioners sometimes make new sense of u ncertain While Schn refers to the profession of design in his description of the reflective practicum, he could be describing teaching:
49 The non routine situations of practice are at least partly indeterminate and somehow must be made coherent. Skillful practitioners learn to conduct frame experiments in which they impose a kind of coh erence on messy situations and thereby discover consequences and implications of their chosen frames. It is this ensemble of problem framing, on the spot experiment, direction of consequences and implications, back talk and response to back talk that c onstitutes a reflective conversation with the materials of a situation. (p. 157 8) study of microteaching in a teacher education program. They characterize the reflective prac ticum as being located between the university and the school, an intermediate space not designed to replicate the complexity of the real world but instead to reduce the complexity of the real world. They assert that the complexity of the school setting ge nerates undue stress on pre service teachers at an early stage of their education. Another problem lies in pre service teachers potentially conforming to identities and roles they witness in schools. The reflective practicum should serve as a safe place to entertain alternative pedagogies and explore diverse identities without the high stakes of an actual classroom. They implemented microteaching experiences to serve this purpose, engaging students in designing and teaching a short lesson that is videotape d. Following the lesson, the pre service teacher discusse s the lesson with the university tutor and school based teacher fellow. The next semester pre service teachers desig n and teach a sequence of lessons, followed by reflection in conference with the u niversity tutor and teacher fellow. The pre service teacher, supervisors, and peers view the video and participate in collaborative reflection, which functions to generate multiple perspectives on the microteaching episode. The authors suggest that this pr ocess can generate a new performative text providing further opportunities for reframing problems of practice.
50 This approach represents a fundamental contrast to the emphasis on technical performance advocated by Cruickshank and Applegate (1981) as discus sed above. university and school, Lee and Loughran (2000) describe a school based teaching program as the stimulus for reflection. In this program, pre service teachers s pend an entire term in a school, with coursework conducted in the setting of the school using the issues and concerns of experience as the motivation for study. While this experience does not embody the reflective practicum to the degree of the microteachi ng model described above, the deliberate extension of time and the reduction of student teaching load in the school based program does provide a lessening of complexity from actual practice. The authors agree with the conclusion of Russell and Munby (1991 ) on the importance of a rich source of experience as stimulus for reflection The school based program provides many puzzles of practice through the extended period of direct teaching experience and immersion in the school context. Lee and Loughran focuse d the study on the process of reflection occurring through a cycle of framing, reframing, and resolution. Framing, or problem setting is the stage in which an initial problem or puzzle is recognized. The initial frame sets a boundary around the problem an d determines strategies for possible solutions. Schn (1983) W hen a practitioner becomes aware of his frames, he also becomes aware of the possibility of alternative ways of fra Reframing involves the practitioner constructing a new understanding of the problem using a repertoire of theories, models, and techniques. Even though the
51 puzzling situation may be unique, it may be reframed an d seen as a familiar case with a new set of strategies. Resolution does not necessarily suggest a solution to the problem, but more a state of improved understanding and new appreciation. The authors identified three important aspects of the program that enabled reflection. The wide range of activities and interactions experienced in the context of a school facilitated pre service teacher thinking on their tacit beliefs about teaching and learning. The amount of experience, in terms of time, served as a cr itical stimulus for reflection, supplying a greater opportunity for repertoire building. Finally, the extended time and reduced load allowed exploration of and experimentation with a wider variety of frames. Russell and Munby (1991) examined the process of reflection in action through reframing in their study the use of language by two experienced teachers to describe puzzles of practice. When Diane, an experienced elementary teacher, was interviewed, She initially framed the puzzle as a management problem, applicable to her role in directing students. The next year, she reframed the issue as one of learning, which Diane can invoke what she knows recasting enabled her to interpret the puzzle in terms of a balance between theory and practice. The outcome of reflection in action thro ugh the process of reframing is the development of professional knowledge that is dynamic A new frame does not mean
52 authors see the process of reframing as part of a cycle of professional knowledge development, characterized by changes in the descriptive language of teachers They acknowledge that the experiences that drive these changes and the capabilities that facil understood, but suggest the need for consistency between theory and practice as a critical factor. The authors note the difficulty of researching reflection in action W e would not in promise in the strategy of interviewing teachers over time concerning changes in their teaching approaches and perspectives i n the classroom context, looking for variations in the metaphors and symbols used to describe classroom practice. Russell and Munby note the failure of teacher education approaches which focus on directly translating propositional knowledge into practice it cannot explain how the act of teaching is used by the beginning teacher to acquire in action as a way to improve the outcome of the development of professional knowledge in teachers. Another important aspect of the process of reflection in and on act ion is the presence in the reflective practicum of a coaching relationship. Schn (1987) carefully describes the nature of the conditions necessary for the continually evolving relationship: Building a relationship conducive to learning begins with the ex plicit or implicit establishment of a contract that sets expectations of the dialogue: What will coach and student give to and get from each other? How will they hold each other accountable? These questions are not answered once and for all at the beginnin g but are continually being raised and resolved in new ways throughout the life of the practicum (p. 167).
53 Schn (1991) states the primary concern of the coach is enabling pre service teachers derstandings already Wood (1991) described how this coaching relationship is operationalized in the actual student teaching practicum, emphasizing teamwork and partnership. Teac her educator r oles and responsibilities are shared between the cooperating teacher and university faculty. The unique background knowledge and experience the pre service teacher brings to the classroom becomes the starting point of the practicum, assessed personal benefits from the relationship through exposure to emerging pedagogy and t heory. Themes from the literature on reflection in and on action are summarized in Figure 2 3. Deliberative Reflection While the reflection in and on action orientation emphasizes the process of reflection, the deliberative orientation has a greater focus on the content of reflection. Valli (1997) characterized the deliberative orientation as one emphasizing teacher decision making from consideration of a variety of perspectives. Colton and Sparks ision maker intrinsically motivated to analyze a situation, set goals, plan and monitor actions, evaluate results, teacher
54 encourages the outcome of teachers developing and exercising judgment concerning th eir own practice. Through pre service attitudes of open mindedness, responsibility, and wholeheartedness, reflective teaching processes In this program, the authors recommend that content of reflection encompass all and ethical criteria in reflection. Reflection is stimulated through the encounters of pre service teachers with the milieu of learning. Pre ser vice teachers ( while still students) are prepared by the program to view the knowledge they are taught and that which they will be teaching as problematic and socially constructed, rather than certain. They should also view the role of the teacher as one o f a moral craftsperson instead of a technician. Curriculum is ill structured and broad in scope, with content negotiated by teachers and students. Knowledge should flow in both directions. The milieu of the program is characterized as inquiry oriented, val uing initiative and critical thought in students and teachers, and collaboration is augmented to facilitate the breakdown of traditional hierarchies of authority. Teachers are represented as moral crafts persons, whose knowledge and views should be consist
5 5 commonplaces are expedited through five curricular components: student teaching, inquiry projects, seminars, journals, and supervisory conferences. One study of the program (Tabachnick & Zeichner, 1 984) found that the experiences did not significantly change pre service th e se views were more skillfully articulated and implemented after completion. The authors note that while pre service teachers completing the prog ram did not view themselves as moral crafts persons the effects of the experiences may not be apparent at the end of student teaching. Another study (Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1982) examined the perspectives emphasized by supervisors with respect to level of reflection. This study found a small proportion of supervisors emphasizing a technical instrumental approach, with the majority focusing on issues of personal growth or moral and ethical concerns. Zeichner and Liston (1987) identified several factors und achievement of its goals of reflective teaching. Student teaching is traditionally viewed as an apprenticeship in which pre service teachers demonstrate acquired skills. Effort devoted to inquiry and reflective activities is perceive d as detract ing from time for teaching and planning. A second factor is the small part played by the student teaching experience in the socialization of pre service teachers in to the profession of teaching. Pre service teachers do not typically engage in p roblematizing practice in coursework on before most students are willing to accept the need for a more reflective approach to at oppor tunities for meaningful contact between university supervisor and pre service teachers are limited, and tension exists between
56 the roles of the supervisor and the cooperating teacher. Discussions of cooperating atening, and formal authority structures discourage alternative approaches. Finally, the role of cooperating teachers is made difficult due to the lack of explicit resources for their own reflection and inquiry. In general, the authors observe the lack of a unifying perspective on the program Instead, the program is characterized as containing a wide variance in ideology yet lacking integration They recognize a serious inconsistency existing between the dec ision maker weaknesses, the authors assert reflection as a critical component of an effective teacher education program. reflective decision making, examining how the social nature of deliberative reflection encouraged the consideration of multipl e perspectives on pre service of teaching and learning. The content of reflection in this study concerns the development of theories of learning and how those theories impact instruction. h and how but rather on why certain Content becomes a window into the thinking of pre service teachers about student learning rather than teaching performance. Collier characterizes the process of reflection as a communal one. This criterion
57 Rodgers identified reflection occurring in the community, with the benefits of affirming one positioned her study in a problem solving community of pre service teachers. She propose d dialogue, conceptualized not only as spoken conversation but also as written thought in the form of dialogue journals and electronic communication, as a key factor in the process. Collier found a marked difference between written individual reflection and collaborative reflection. Pre service teachers typically viewed written reflection as a task perceiving that their course instructors did not take journals seriously in facilitating learning. Collier structured reflective journal entries for the study with speci fic prompts after focus group interviews, with at least a week to respond, and found the resulting written reflections to be more valuable in their depth and detail. Despite this value associated with written reflection, pre service teachers in the study expressed a greater need for social reflection. They conceived this type of reflection as one that would be available during their own professional practice, anticipating peer observation and debriefing as a powerful form of collaboration. They characteriz ed reflective problem solving as a multi step process of (1) the teacher sharing a problem with the community, (2) the community sharing perspectives with the teacher, and (3) the teacher combining these multiple points of view with personal ideas to const Smith (1994) also found pre service
58 on tea peer group discussions. Collier asserts the outcome of this approach to reflection as the development of al choices relate to pre service teachers to consider connections between theory and practice, an effort in which they do not typically engage. The components of deliberative reflection as character ized in the literature are summarized in Figure 2 4. Personalistic Reflection While the previously described orientations are concerned primarily with professional practice, Valli (1997) characterizes the personalistic orientation as more concerned with pe rsonal growth and relational issues, connecting the personal with the professional. Teaching becomes a vehicle for achieving life goals, and the orientation influe reflection focuses on pre service beliefs (Yost, Sentner, & Forlenza Bailey, 2000). Wellington and Austin (1996) propose thought. Questions are often directed inward, addressing issues of personal and professional growth and responsibility. aligned with this outcome, valuing place, participation, conversation, and community. Yinger compares teaching to the practice of farming or poetry, with the goal being human interaction that
59 is moral and healthy. He rejects the narrow emphasis on teacher as manager, executive, or information processer, and asserts a broader and more personal image: The personalistic emphasis on values and beliefs in the content of reflection is and learning constructed from educational experiences. The critical incident strategy was used to examine pre service tive language and thinking, orientation toward growth and inquiry, and modes of reflective thinking. Critical incidents are rich and concrete narratives of experiences that are evocative in some way to the pre service teacher, with the meaning of the incid ent revealed through a detailed written reflection and analysis. Guidelines for writing the critical incident call for description of emotions raised and articulation of personally held beliefs. In the study, pre service teachers generated five critical in cidents from field experiences prior to student teaching. These reflections were classified using the seven level framework for reflective language and thinking developed by Sparks Langer et al thinking ( c oncrete thinker, alert novice, and pedagogical thinker) (technical, practical, and critical) While Griffin found no pattern of development in the use of reflective language, analysis using the framework show ed pre service and theory and consideration of context as time passed. Most critical incidents were written o n technical or practical levels. While very few reflections were written at the
60 critical level, there was an increase in writing at the practical level over the six weeks of the field experience. The most apparent development revealed by the study was the increased attention to personal growth and inquiry into practice, as measured on Griff in recognizes the limitation of relying on written reflections solely as evidence of growth. She also discovered that pre service teachers may not have placed much value o n written reflection, since the weighting of the assignment was low in the overall gr ading scheme. The autobiographical nature of personalistic reflection is present in Sparks Langer rom their own their awareness on their own thinking. Brown (1999) adopted the narrative approach in her study of how a literacy autobiography promoted reflection in pre service English/language arts teachers. Pre service teachers in the study responded to a series of prompts on their own literacy history, producing a narrative of their experiences with reading, writing, and language arts teaching. Brown characterizes the entire experience of the literacy autobiography, including the assignment form, process of writing, autobiography product, and other reflection on videotaped microteachin pre service teachers used their autobiographies in journal entries as a source for connecting theory examined in class to the practice of their own experience. These experiences
61 became content for reflection examined through the lens of their evolving notions of teaching and learning P rospective teachers should examine their past experiences in (p. 408). While Brown found ind ividual autobiographies contained little evidence of critical reflection, when presented with questions about common themes from the autobiographies, the whole class engaged in discussion that included issues of social justice. Tann (1991) also considered the powerful effect of pre service time experiences of the function and structure of education are likely to have contributed towards a definite conception of teaching roles and relationships to which pre service teachers need to b e encouraged to identify and examine their personal theories in order to consider alternative theories. Tann examined how personal theories of pre service teachers are revealed during lesson planning and evaluation activities. Lessons featuring health and safety concepts were planned collaboratively and taught to classes of approximately thirty elementary age students. The writings of p re service teachers in lesson plans (aims objectives, methods, resources, and rationale) and evaluations (what was learned, what was planned next) were analyzed for features of reflection. Tann found two major themes. The first was a shift in the perspective of pre service teachers from an initial retrospective, superficial, and descriptive evaluation to a
62 second stage of exp lanation involving reasons and connections within context. The third stage of exploration included consideration of alternative factors and more generalized issues of practice. Reflections changed in focus from self oriented aspects of performance to peer oriented observations. The second major feature detected was a shift in the reasoning processes of pre service teachers. By week four, a smaller proportion of pre service teachers remarks were characterized by unsubstantiated judgments or implicit reaso ns. The emphases o n lesson evaluations shifted from negative aspects (what went wrong) to consideration of modified instructional strategies and decisions about future learning. Tann concludes that teacher educators need to take a stronger role in enablin g pre service teachers to identify, articulate, and challenge their personal theories. One area of difficulty pre service teachers have with this process concerns what Tann calls a In the early part of their professional education t hey are unfamiliar T hey had difficulty in articulating their that this process of reflection would be facilitated through provid ing students with a professional vocabulary for sharing experiences of practice in initial teacher education courses. Themes from the literature on personalistic reflection are presented in Figure 2 5. Critical Reflection Many teacher educators portray crit ical reflection as the level to be reached, after progressing through the technical and practical levels (Larrivee, 2010; Nichols, Tippins, & Wieseman, 1997; Smyth, 1989). Others suggest that the critical type of reflection is one of several that pre servi ce teachers should encounter in their education (Jay & Johnson, 2002; Spalding & Wilson, 2002; Valli, 1997; Zeichner & Liston, 1996).
63 pre service social studies teachers provides an insightful representation of the de velopment of the critical orientation. He initially defines critical reflection broadly, consistent with the framework of other consideration of the moral and ethical aspect s of teaching. Critical reflection guides instructional practice, resulting in critically reflective teaching. Dinkelman makes an important point about his definition. He admits that since definitions of reflection are so diverse, researchers can put forth their own views, but asserts that any proposed definition of reflective teaching should contain an explicit description of good practice. f reflection (technical, practical, and critical) and reconstructionist tradition of reflective teaching, to produce a stricter definition. This and cultu between educational practice and the construction of a more equitable, just, and The importance of the component of stimulus for critical reflectio n was evident in the attention to contextual factors in the design of the teacher education curriculum. The study took place over two semesters, a semester long social studies methods course followed by a semester of student teaching, where the author ser ved as course instructor and practicum supervisor. Dinkelman used interviews, observation notes, and various written data sources to examine critically reflective teaching and the factors that influenced its development.
64 Dinkelman identified several speci fic stimuli as factors of influence. Both the methods course and practicum seminars made use of readings, assignments, and activities that incorporated a critical orientation. Pre service teachers and the supervisor gave explicit attention to critical refl ection, regularly using the phrase during observation conferences. Th e se pre service teachers who were part of the multi case study cited their participation as an important influence on their thinking. They also noted the impact of the supervision process particularly the presence of a trusting and supportive relationship, in confronting critical issues. The placement of student teachers in alternative high schools enabled them to have freedom to experiment with curriculum and incorporate topics that faci litated attention to critical issues. While the journals and observation conferences of the pre service teachers primarily concerned practical issues of the classroom, they also explicitly valued goals of equity and empowerment. Reflections also focused on lesson planning, such as a particular lesson that focused on the topic of obedience to authority and harmful gender stereotypes. Pre service students who had been harmed by their past experience in schools and with those in All three pre service teachers were clear about the outcome of the development of critical reflective practice. One saw as her goal how she might use her own practice to
65 objective to his high school students T his society does not have the answers that will 213). Each of them articul ated a message of commitment to education in the construction of a more equitable and democratic society. While the components of stimulus, content, and outcome showed up clearly in Pre servi ce teachers completed journals and took part in interviews, but the author gave no explicit attention to either how they were reflecting or why the process was important. Genor (2005) focused on the process of critical reflection by pre service teachers in volved in a semester social reconstructionist tradition to provide an orientation for pre service teachers that (197 7) notion of becoming rooted in an orientation if not compelled to move from it. While she recognizes the hierarchical nature of frameworks for reflection, she rejects l of climbing to the top rung and staying there. She asserts instead the importance of reflection at and growth within each level. pre service teachers question and critique issues of interest. Pre service teachers were engaged in a semester long study group during which they discussed topics of their own choosing. The framework does not analyze content, but rather prioritized the process of reflection by examining the kinds of discourse and in teractions that occur red during discussion.
66 Instances of reflection on teaching were classified as unproblematized, problematized, or critically problematized. Unproblematized reflection consists of generalized questions and descriptions of practice, with out examination of the underlying issues and assumptions. Genor gives the example of a pre service teacher concerned with classroom discipline. The unproblematized discussion consists of a general description and solicitation of new ideas. The pre service considered, and larger issues of school and community context are ignored. While unproblematized reflections are typically superficial, they may lead to deliberation about underlying beliefs and importan t contextual issues in the problematized level of reflection. Problematized reflection occurs when pre service teachers engage issues deliberately, work to build understanding of the issue in context, and then question and critique that understanding. The k ey to solving this problem is a situation of collaborative reflection, where multiple perspectives are generated and considered. Problematized reflection consists of careful questioning and recasting ideas in a way that demonstrates a new sense of unders tanding. Genor presents an example of problematized reflection where pre service teachers challeng ed each other to more clearly focus on the purpose of a classroom project. She notes that pre service teachers can problematize their own beliefs, but still n ot consider the larger ethical and moral aspects of practice. In the critically problematized level of reflection these social and political implications are not just considered, but are used to transform practice. This radically transformed practice res ults from fundamental changes that occur in problematizing
67 thinking about teaching. It involves expanding the context beyond the classroom to include social and political influences on schools. The consequence of critically problematized reflection is the development and implementation of curriculum, instruction, and policy that demonstrate the importance of these ethical and moral concerns. Genor found most of the pre service unproblematized category, and found no examp les of critically problematized reflection, possibly due to the limited time of the study. Genor acknowledges the need for support of pre service teachers involved in She proposes this framework as a model of the critical reflection process and as a tool upon the The components of critical reflection are represented in Figure 2 6. Reflection in Science Teacher Education Some studies of reflection in science teacher education are easily mapped onto the two dimensional heuristic of orientations to and components of reflection. Others focus on a specific component of reflection without an explicit statement of a theoretical framework that guides reflection, but still represent s a particular orientation based o n an emphasis on problem setting and reframing (reflection in and on action), multiple perspectives (deliberative), or personal beliefs (personalistic). Still others emphasize features that are particular to science education, such as scientific inquiry or the nature of science. The applied nature of these science education studies of reflection, as opposed to the more theoretical writing examined in the first part of this chapter, makes
68 classification into singular orientations less feasible. Table 2 2 sho ws the organization of this section of the literature review. Technical Reflection As examined in the first part of this chapter, the technical orientation to reflection externally derived standard of performance. Studies by Britner and Finson (2005) and Yung, et al. (2007) both provide insights into how components of the technical orientation are implemented in science teacher education. Fidelity to some external authori studies. Britne r and Finson examined pre service oriented science methods course. Requirements for conducting an inquiry investigation were carefully delineated. S tud ents in the methods course were required to follow a prescribed sequence of activities, including composing the research question, designing and conducting the experimental study to test the hypothesis, and reporting results and conclusions. The authors em with a focus on the use of specific process skills. After reporting their results, pre service teachers individu ally designed lesson plans based on the inquiry investigations, using the Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science (AIMS) format. The AIMS format provides a clear blueprint for the lesson plan T he format is useful to beginning teachers in that it p rovides specific elements which are important in developing lesson assessment, aligned with the lesson plan and with a similar level of specificity, was
69 another required component of the course. These emphases on externally (higher) imposed criteria indicate a technical orientation to reflection. Yung, Wong, Cheng, Hui, and Hodson (2007) used repeated viewing of a video representing exemplary science teaching as a stimulu s for reflection. While the study contains some references to Schn and the development of reflective practitioners, the authors made no explicit statement of the theoretical orientation to reflection taken in the study. However, the emphasis on essential features of good science teaching reveals a technical orientation to wards reflection. Pre service science teachers enrolled in a science methods course participated in the study, with the identified purpose of understanding and monitoring their changing conceptions of effective science teaching throughout the course. At the beginning of the course, they were prompted to evaluate the quality of their own science learning at different educational levels, and to describe what they considered good science tea ching. They were then given a CD ROM of two lessons demonstrating various reform oriented instruction including hands on activities, emphasis on science process skills, encouragement of student discussion, and infusion of the nature of science into lesson s. After viewing the lessons, they were to identify the instances of good science teaching and aspects that could be improved. From these initial reflections, the authors selected a group of pre service teachers for interviews on the major factors influenc ing their conceptions of good science teaching. The authors make a strong case for the use of video as a stimulus for reflection. some student teachers to question, reflect on and restructure their conceptions in
70 search of solutions to various complex situations they are likely to face in their future teaching d that repeated viewing of the same video with different emphases or perspectives enabled pr e service teachers to consider how effective teachers manage the complexity of classroom practice. While components of technical reflection are certainly present in these two studies, the previously noted overlap of orientations in science teacher educatio n is evident here. Britner and Finson reveal technical influences in the stimulus of and content of reflection. This influence is demonstrated via external criteria for performance and a Other features of their stu dy were of a more deliberative nature, particularly with in the broader context of the inquiry experience, which stimulated reflection on three of the commonplaces: teachers, students, and subject matter. Pre service teachers were cast into different roles as students learning about inquiry and as teachers making decisions about the science curriculum. The content of their reflections revealed struggles in their deliberations on the multiple aspects of scientific inquiry. While Britner and Finson were not explicit regarding their the learning of pre service teachers should progress through encounters with multiple types of reflection. The study of Yung, et al. ( 200 7 ) contains aspects of a reflection in and on action orientation with an emphasis on the development of practical knowledge. An important finding was the acknowledgment by the pre service teachers of the actual existence of accomplished teaching, which the y had previously considered purely theoretical W ith
71 250). This excerpt demonstr ated how the pre service teacher is situating theory (lesson planning) encountered in coursework into a practical context. The authors (Black & Atkin, 1996) the impor pre service teacher to value planning in a practical manner, rather than the theoretical one typically presented in methods courses. One interesting recommendation made by Yung et al concerns the use of e xemplary cases. They call for presentation of a range of models, demonstrating different levels of competence from novice to expert, designed (p. 254). Some exemplars should be at a level of competency accessible to novice teachers. They also advise that video lessons selected for viewing should represent diversity in teachers, students, and classrooms, to stimulate deeper reflection concerning situ ations of practice. Since the purpose of the video exercises is to promote change in pre service encouraged to not only identify instances of good teaching, but also to examine why they think it is g ood. The authors acknowledge that this examination of underlying attitudes and beliefs is an under researched area in science education. Reflection In and On Action A significant aspect of the process of reflection described by Sch n is the reflective pra cticum. This process component involves a coaching relationship between mentor and student, and includes structures to enable reframing and to make the tacit explicit.
72 MacKinnon and Erickson (1988) examined how a reflective practicum was operationalized a s a stimulus for reflection within the constraints of a secondary student teaching experience. They focused on the role of the cooperating teacher as coach in the reflective practicum, with particular attention to a reflective science teacher with a constr uctivist orientation. The authors used two of the models of a reflective coaching relationship described by Schn processes for engaging a pre service teacher in reflection. The authors clearly acknow ledge the influence of Schn in their approach, indicating an orientation towards reflection in and on action. Follow me! involves the coach explaining and demonstrating and the learner open mindedness are critical A ability to keep many possible meanings alive in her m experimentation, the coach works to establish and maintain a process of collaboration, a process made difficult with expertise in the problems of practice. Here the coach must resist the temptation to explain or demonstrate a soluti on. The coach and learner work together to construct thought experiments of problem setting and reframing. The authors presented three propositions about a reflective science teacher with a constructivist orientation. A reflective science teacher will : 1. R ecognize that learners are constantly constructing meaning from observed phenomena ; 2. ; and 3. Be better positioned to teach children about orthodox science.
73 Through an analysis of supervisory dialogu e, the authors found evidence that Mr. Kelly, the cooperating teacher, us ed the models of reflective coaching. MacKinnon and Erickson refer to the tendency proposed in (2) above, where the teacher thinks about classroom phenomena from the perspective of le arners, as Barry, the pre service D Mr. Kelly drew upon his repertoire of experience to explain to Barry th e typical difficulties that learners have with particular concepts. In other dialogue excerpts, Mr. Kelly modeled how intellectual empathy develops through interact ion with students. on action incorporated this approach, where he discussed with electronics in a demonstration. The authors identify this as a Follow me! type of coaching, where Barry is developing autonomy as a teacher based on the manner in which Mr. Kelly responds to his reflectio ns. Mr. Kelly and Barry later engaged in the model of joint experimentation when they had a hypothetical discussion about different mental models students might have for electrostatic properties. MacKinnon and Erickson conclude that certain conditions are necessary for this demonstrate a coherent perspective of teaching practice. supervisors must be able the constructivist features of student learning embodies this first condition. The second condition is the establishment of an environment of trust and safety for both parties
74 E that follow are encouraged, discussed, and Roychoudhury, Roth, and Ebbing (1993) examined the importance of the practicum experience as a stimulus for the development of reflection in action. Their study re cognizes that practical knowledge is often tacit, and requires the critical stimulus of experience expe riences thus serve s to provide authentic situations that engage pre service teachers in reflective practice. pre service elementary teacher involved in a year long field experience in a second grade classroom, concurren t with special methods courses. Embedded in the practicum was an action research component that focused the pre service teacher on problems of practice directly and personally experienced in the classroom. Journals, lesson plans, observation notes, and tra nscripts of discussions with the researchers comprised the data for the case study. In the first case presented in the study, the authors examined the specific process of reframing a problem encountered by Judy, the pre service teacher in the practicum. In her early journal reflections, she showed concern about the state of science teaching she encountered in the classroom. The expectations she developed as a student of a student centered, teacher as facilitator, active engagement oriented classroom were in compatible with her experiences in the practicum L ittle time was allowed for the students to engage in the interactions that took place in the classroom. The teacher was
75 teacher that while the classroom teacher was free to design instructional activities, Judy noted in her journal that a lang uage arts teacher she observed could benefit from integrating topics and activities from a spelling curriculum Through discussion with to be integrated for better us who taught science every day, and with some guidance, she reframed this problem into due to this reframing resulting in concerns focusing on thematic teaching rather than nection of theory to practice: Beginning teachers often feel that they have been shortchanged during their academic experiences. Wha t they have learned during various courses did not prepare them for their profession. We argue that the crux of real classroom situations lies in their complexity and in the problem of turning knowledge about practice into knowledge in practice. (p. 79). T he authors presented a second case of reflection in action, that of making the tacit explicit. Judy believed learning was enhanced through small group discussions and sharing, and implemented group activities in her practicum classroom. She did not indicat e why she felt these activities were effective, and her early reflections focused only on the affective features of cooperative learning. As she reflected in more detail on the merits of group work, aspects of her reflections revealed connections to resear ch on collaborative learning, such as development of social skills, support from peers, and elaborating an argument. In one of her reflections, Judy to unequal roles within the group. She then altered the activity based on her own
76 experience in laboratory collaboration, providing more structure and accountability. The authors contend that this explicit understanding of cooperative learning developed practice. The authors recognize the limitations of the traditional professional education sequence Pre service teachers learn to apply theory to clear cut problems. Most real actual practice benefit from the reflective processes of reframing and making the tacit explicit, the authors contend that the traditional teaching practicum will not provide sufficient time. Based on the results of their study, they recommend four featur es for an effective program: 1. Reflection should begin in methods courses ; 2. Collaborative reflection should be initiated during coursework ; 3. Practicum experiences should begin with an observation/reflection phase blending into a teaching/reflection phase ; and 4. Observation phase experiences should provide diverse milieu for developing knowledge of practice. content of pre service oard. Their deliberative orientation. Authentic puzzles of practice arising from personal experience formed the content of reflection, considered in collaboration. The a uthors assert that careful examination of the context of practice can facilitate the progress of pre service teachers from consideration of purely technical concerns such as management or questioning to more deliberative issues focusing on student learnin g and ethical aspects of schooling.
77 The co teaching science classes examined in the study employed a structured inquiry curriculum that used technology based kits and student/teacher guides on various topics. Structured inquiry consists of students engagi ng in many aspects of scientific inquiry while learning predetermined science concepts. Pre service teachers began their experience in a peripheral manner, mostly observing and assisting the cooperating teacher After a few weeks, more responsibility for teaching occur red Dialogue about the pre service addressing technical issues, but with a contextual perspective. Reflective narratives were posted to an electronic bulletin board each week, relating to i ssues of interest or need encountered in co teaching experiences. Each reflection concluded with a request for advice from the methods class community ( pre service teachers and the methods instructor). By not including the cooperating teacher in the electr onic reflection forum, the instructors believed a more critical perspective on classroom issues could be achieved. Pre service teachers were required to post a number of responses to colleagues, and the instructor also replied to each entry in a manner tha t focused more on the deliberative rather than the technical aspects of practice. One development revealed in the study was the transition undergone by pre service Early refle ctions dwelt on technical issues of classroom management and teaching as trial and error. While reflections on practice continued in a technical mode, many pre service teachers demonstrated an improv ed level of personal understanding towards their students T hey acquired an appreciation for the unique nature of their students
78 and felt positively about the challenge of reaching them, along with the excitement when appreci ation of the benefits of structured inquiry without concentrating on its difficulties. In early reflections on issues and difficulties with teaching inquiry in the co teaching classroom, pre service teachers typically made connections to learning from cou rsework. Responses to problems contained references to ideas from content reading, special education, or methods courses. Early advice often took the form of random suggestions or decontextualized generalities. Later, their reflective narratives and respon ses drew less from coursework and more from the experience of co teaching Suggestions now consisted of strategies employed by their cooperating teacher or the participants themselves, specific to the context of their own classrooms. Eventually, the focus of their reflection shifted from descriptions of what occurred in the classroom to analysis of how their thinking and experience guided their decision making. Online discussions transformed from an advice forum to a communal dialogue about the dilemmas of getting to know students, understand student difficulties, and the nature and goals of inquiry. The authors posit the use of the electronic discussion board as a vehicle for pre service teachers to mak e thinking explicit. By experiencing successful modeli ng of the use of structured inquiry, these pre service teachers were able to gain competence in their own technical abilities, enabling them to integrate formal learning from coursework with their experiences in the classroom. Practical knowledge, characte rized by understanding of learners, developed as pre service teachers began to examine issues from their own perspective of practice D ata from this study allude to this tacit
79 dimension of teaching that methods students articulated through reflections on knowing pre service by the co teaching situation, where they could gain technical profici ency and begin to develop practical knowledge. The authors also assert th at sharing practical knowledge through the electronic discussion board was a vital aspect of the practicum. Echoing the recommendations of Roychoudhury, Roth, and Ebbing (1993), the a uthors call for extensive practicum experience to develop practical knowledge, particularly with respect to the use of inquiry in science education. They acknowledge the value of program coursework in providing a foundation for teacher knowledge, but warn of the inadequacy of formal learning alon e. E ven with a modicum of technical competency, beginning science teachers will have less chance of success in implementing inquiry without the practical knowledge of understanding students and how best to teach an Deliberative Reflection Deliberative reflection emphasizes the development of effective instructional decision making through consideration of multiple sources of information. Reflection is stimulated through some encounter with c urriculum, learners, teachers (including the of reflection. The challenges of implementing inquiry in science classrooms provided the content of pre service reflection in the study by Melville, Fazio, Bartley, and Jones (2008). The authors posit opportunity for reflection as an essential aspect of the development of positive attitudes in pre service
80 (1994) framework for reflection was adopted for analysis of data in the study. This framework includes the components of content; process; attitudes of open mindedness, responsibility, and wholeheartedness; and the context of reflection. Pre service secondary science teachers in the study were classified on the basis of their inquiry experiences into the categories of limited, moderate, or extensive. Questionnaires and semi structured interviews led to a narrative analysis strategy. The authors found differences in the conten t of pre service based on their level of inquiry experience. With extensive inquiry experience, the group focused their reflections on guiding the development of students during the processes of scientific inquire. While pre service t eachers in the moderate experience group were supportive of inquiry, they expressed anxiety about a number of aspects, such as the familiarity with scientific inquiry in either education or employment, emphasized various implementation difficulties with inquiry, such as time, curriculum, and materials. This group also anticipated the reactions of students, parents, and colleagues as impediments to inquiry. The authors contend tha of the science education that these pre service 485). The authors characterize the process of reflection as an iterative operation of problem definition and deliberation on al ternatives. Requisite for this process is an appropriate knowledge base, enabling consideration of multiple perspectives and implications of decisions, indicating a deliberative orientation to reflection. The extensive inquiry cohort demonstrated a substan tial change in perceptions, questioning both their
81 own beliefs about science and their ideas about how to actualize those beliefs in the classroom. Some members of the moderate experience group, while struggling with typical inquiry issues of time and cur riculum, approached these issues by deliberately examining issue definitions and considering alternative solutions. The authors assert these modes constitute the capacity of the pre service teachers to engag e in the process of reflection. This capacity was not demonstrated by the members of the limited inquiry cohort, who failed to engage in this process of questioning, problem setting, and examining multiple viewpoints. The extensive inquiry experience group displayed the attitudes of open mindedness, resp onsibility, and wholeheartedness most clearly, expressing both a willingness to implement inquiry and dedication to the value of inquiry in their classrooms. Even though the attitudes of pre service teachers about inquiry were brought into question by thei r experiences in schools, cohort were more limited in their attitudes, expressing some concerns about implementing inquiry. The limited expe rience group did not question the lack of attention to inquiry that they witnessed in schools. They did not demonstrate any personal responsibility for teaching inquiry, instead associating the problems of inquiry with the reactions of students, teachers, parents, and schools. Pre service teachers in both the extensive and moderate inquiry experience groups described the importance of dialogue and reflection with colleagues in the schools and in the larger science education community. They expressed a sinc ere interest in connecting with science teachers in other schools, science education faculty,
82 and informal science groups. The authors assert this view of engagement with colleagues represents an important aspect of the context of reflection. They noted th e reluctance of the limited experience cohort to collaborate on issues of inquiry in the classroom, and for some members, an outright rejection of inquiry in their practice. The authors make a strong case for the interrelationship of inquiry experiences a appears to be crucial in providing the content for pre service Without content, the process and attitudes of reflection are undermined and the capac ity of pre service teachers to reflect identify two implications for science education research. First, they recognize that extensive subject matter coursework in the absence of inquiry experiences does not facilitate any problematizing of pre science. Second, they note the absence of any objective method of quantifying and situating those previous inquiry experiences. Yoon and Kim (2010) studied the collaborative re flection of five pre service teachers, one in service teacher, and one teacher educator stimulated by dilemmas of science practical work. Practical work include d hands on activities, experiments, and demonstrations, and the authors recommend ed explicit opp ortunities for science teachers to examine the role of practical work in teaching and learning science. As in other studies examined in this review, components of reflection spanned of reflection reveals the influences both of Schn and deliberative approaches. The use of dilemmas
83 puzzle of practice. They state the outcome of reflection as teach ers becoming development of practical knowledge. They also call for the deve goals of a deliberative orientation. The components of conte nt and process also extend across these two orientations. To examine the content of reflection, the researchers engaged teachers in writing dilemma cases. Guidelines for writing the dilemma cases encouraged reflection on personal background and experiences learning goals and conflicts. The most challenging situations and the decision making about the situations was the content of reflection in these cases, which were uploaded to a class webpage to be shared with the other participants. During two group dis cussions, participants presented their dilemma cases, considering which case was most problematic. The first set of findings from the study addressed the dilemmas of teaching practical work. Pre service teachers tended to reflect on their own teaching per formance (LaBoskey 1994), while the in service teacher and teacher educator reflected more on interactions with learners. Pre service teachers conveyed disappointment with the lack of institutional support for practical work, citing laboratory conditions a nd materials as hindering their efforts. Their reflections also revealed a tension between student engagement in laboratory activities and student safety, which they agreed was the most difficult dilemma, as communicated by this pre service P ract ical work is
84 in service teac her identified a different the interactions between teacher and students, particularly the routine nature of practical work S tudents rarely question why and what they are doing, and teachers seldom provide students with questions and time to think. Their bodies are busy doing The second set of findings concentrated on aspects of the collaborative reflection process. Through the sequences of sharing and discussion, pre service perceptions of success in practical work evolved O ur focus was on whether or not we could succeed [sic we looked at lessons with a narrow perspective. We could have had more interaction techniques for effective practical work. The content of the second reflective discussion moved to a more deliberative level focusing on the topic of inquiry learning. The pre service teachers struggled to construct a workable meaning of inquiry learning. Different p erspectives from the in service teacher who emphasized teacher mastery of science process skills and the teacher educator who communicated a more holistic vision of inquiry provided opportunities for reframing of the problem T heir ideas were opened up an
85 reflection, where the coach and learner trade roles, learning from each other: Inservice te pre service teachers to think about their own views in different ways The in service teacher also had a chance to reflect his own teaching during discussion and questioned how to improve his inquiry teaching f or all students. The teacher educator learned from pre service and in service perspectives on inquiry through practical work to debrief her own teaching. (p. 296). The researchers identified two major constraints to collaborative reflection. They detected among pre service teachers the belief that the purpose of the discussions was to arrive at a singular solution to the dilemma under consideration. The researchers also noted issues of authority in the community, with pre service teachers attributing greater authority to the in service teacher and the statements of the teacher educator during discussions. The authors caution that teacher educators need to devote attention to issues of power and authority in collaborative reflection recommending the study of the dynamics of group interaction as a significant area of further research. Personalistic Reflection The hallmark of the personalistic orientation to reflection is an emphasis on personal growth. The content of reflection in this orientation focuses on an examination Rosenthal (1991) presented a rationale for a reflective approach in an elementary science methods course that draws from research on the importance of pre service reflection as enhancing self learning, reducing anxiety about teaching science, transforming attitudes about teaching and learning science, and offsett ing views of
86 examination of personal beliefs is representative of a personalistic orientation to reflection. Rosenthal describes a series of reflective strategies to enable the process of reflection in an exploratory way in a science methods course. These activities include science education autobiographies, critical incidents (Griffin, 2003), reaction papers on provocative journal articles, and journals. Her descript ions of many of these activities center on pre service Encourage them to describe the feelings they recall in connection with their science education. Ask students to reflect on their science education and identify the one best and worst experiences they can recall. Ask them to imagine a classroom in which they feel comfortable teaching science (p. 4). While most proponents of reflection advocate for an infusion of the construct in a holistic manner throughout a teacher education program (Houston, & Clift, 1990; Korthagen & Kessels, 1999; Nagle, 2009; Yost, Senter, & Forlenza Bailey, 2000; who want to experiment with the reflective approach need not change their curriculum; time for reflection is the most problematic aspect of implementing reflective activiti es, so science educators need to make conscious decisions about their curricular choices. Abell and Bryan (1997) present an explicit case for reflection as an orientation to science teacher education. They describe orientations to teaching as using a teac knowledge and beliefs about the purposes for teaching to guide decisions about instruction. Different orientations are distinguished by goals, characteristics of instruction, and perspectives on subject matter. The authors note that science methods c ourses are frequently characterized by content addressed, such as misconceptions,
87 practical work, and assessment. Development of science process skills (Rezba, Sprague, McDonough, & Matkins, 2008) and scientific inquiry (Britner & Finson, 2005) are other o rientations in methods courses. The authors propose a reflection orientation for learning to teach science as analogous to the process of science itself, involving appr oach to reflection, pre service teachers identify and describe the attitudes, beliefs, and ideas that they have about science teaching and learning. Reflection on these notions is stimulated by experiences in different learning contexts that engage pre ser vice teachers in confronting and revising their personal theories. Their design for the elementary science methods course is unique in how the stimulus for reflection is introduced. The most typical stimulus for reflection is a field based experience in a school, where pre service teachers observe the planning and instruction of science teachers or engage in their own teaching o n a limited basis (Mackinster, Barab, Harwood & Andersen, 2006; Yerrick & Hoving, 2003). Other stimuli involve inquiry experience s (Blanchard, Southerland, & Granger, 2009) or viewing videotapes of exemplary science teaching (Yung, Wong, Cheng, Hui, & Hodson, 2007). Abell and Bryan present four separate stimuli for reflection: the teaching of others via media cases of conceptual cha nge science teaching; experiences ; expert opinions via course readings, and using themselves as science learners via involvement in science learning activities. While these four stimuli are presented as separate opportunities f or reflection, the authors assert weaving all four components together that we create an integrated fabric for helping pre service
88 The videocase stimulus focused pre servi ce teachers on articulating their own personal theories of science teaching and comparing them to the teaching observed in the specific videocase s. The purpose of this exercise was to enable pre service teachers to interact with their attitudes, beliefs, a nd ideas as the content of reflection and to recognize alternative theories of practice from the teachers in the videocase s. Reflective processes of autobiography, such as personal learning histories and visions of themselves as science teachers facilit ated their thinking. From these early reflections, the authors found pre service teachers held the ideas that science was difficult and first grade students were only capable of learning the most basic concepts. After viewing and reflecting on one videoca se Seeds and Eggs, these personal theories were reconsidered, as illustrated by this pre service My expectations for a first grade science lesson have really changed after viewing the seeds and eggs lesson. The first graders are abl e to handle hands on a lot better than I thought they would. I thought the teacher would mainly do all of the talking and experimenting. I saw these students, even though they are young, being able to conduct and observe experiments on their own. (p. 159). The field based stimulus consisted of several teaching experiences, including team teaching with the cooperating teacher and developing and delivering a short conceptual change unit. Pre service teachers engaged in anticipatory reflection prior to teachin g their own lessons, responding to prompts about their expectations, predictions, and concerns. After teaching, the content of reflection again focused on the development of their own ideas about teaching and learning science. The authors found these exper iences caused pre service teachers to rethink their visions of themselves as science teachers. These initial visions typically emerge d as reactions to personal experiences of learning science in a didactic, information oriented manner. Pre service
89 teachers often reject this approach in favor of engaging learners in enjoying science, with methods that are described as early notions are perturbed by the reflective stimulus of the field experience, and tensio ns develop between this ideal vision and the reality of classroom practice. The authors posit these puzzles as appropriate and necessary for meaningful reflection, drawing from Dewey (1933) A s long as our activity glides smoothly along from one thing to another, or as long as we permit our imagination to entertain fancies at Course readings and class discussions functioned as the third stimulus for reflection on pre service heories W hen students are assigned a course reading, they are also asked to write about what they read in order to fit the reading into their ever and post reading strategies focused on relatin g issues examined in the reading to what they encountered in the videocase s and field experiences. The authors assert that this approach presents science education researchers as only one of many sources of influence on personal theory development. One rea ding that occurred at the same time as the Seeds and Eggs videocase and early field observations concerned developmental characteristics and age appropriate science activities. Pre service teachers compared theory from the article with examples of effectiv e teaching and directly to individual children and that t he teacher has an important role to play in
90 The fourth stimulus o pre service teachers in a position of empathy with the students they will teach. The authors described the range of emotions experienced by methods students involved in a study of the phases of the moon T hey feel frustr ated when they fail to see the moon for days on end, elated when a sighting is finally made, and perplexed by the patterns they see In their struggle to understand moon phases, pre service teachers reevaluated science learning experiences that d id not result in constructing understanding. Once again, the content of reflection is their changing theories of science teaching. Abell and Bryan recommend these stimuli to science educators as ways to understand and perturb the thinking of pre service s cience teachers. They state this process of personal growth, through articulating and reevaluating personal theories, is a primary outcome of a reflective approach to teacher education, noting that reflective science teacher is a lifelong journ Van Zee and Roberts (2001) focused on pre service science learning experiences as the content of reflection. Van Zee, the instructor of an elementary science methods course, engaged her students, of which Roberts wa s one, revealed in these inquiries became the basis for learning in the course and in pre service on personal narrative and learning history reveals a personalistic orientation to reflection. The use of positive experiences as content for reflection draws from research on e 19 93/1994).
91 One purpose of the study involved examining what the long term effects of reflections were on positive science learning experiences in the development of practice. Van Zee deliberately approached the course design with an emphasis on minimizing t he negative experiences of many elementary education majors contexts within which the prospective teachers had learned science and had enjoyed a ty (Chambers, 1983; Mead & Metraux, 1957) to elicit pre service science learning experiences. They were asked to draw pictures of these experiences, write captions for the pictures, and identify factors that cultivated learning. Class me mbers generated a list of common themes across all experiences, which the instructor used to make connections to science policy documents, texts, and science education literature. In reflective journals throughout the semester, pre service teachers contin ued this kind of thinking with descriptions of science learning situations and analysis of the factors that contributed to learning in those situations. At the conclusion of the course, pre service teachers analyzed their own journals for common themes, to develop their personal frameworks for science teaching, which were then articulated in lesson plans. The positive approach to reflection explicit in the methods course carried through someone who has a view of positive situations as the content of reflection is aty pical in the literature on reflection. While both Dewey (1933) and Schn (1983, 1987) identify reflection as
92 focusing on problems, puzzles, difficulties chn, 1983, p. 40), van Zee and Roberts assert episodes of success can serve as effective puzzles for reflection. While the authors acknowledge the bias in an intentional focus on only positive science learning experiences, they contend this attention is i mportant in alleviating the apprehension pre service teachers have about teaching science. Wallace & Oliver (2003) studied the content of pre service secondary science based scienc e methods course prior to student teaching. The authors support the notion that pre service science teachers enter professional education courses with a carefully structured system of attitudes, beliefs, and understandings about teaching and learning scien ce, and th e instructional decisions (Sweeney, Bula, & Cornett, 2001). They further assert the need to provide experiences that enable pre service teachers to make these personal beliefs publ ic, so they may be interpreted in a meaningful way. As teacher educators become fit with learners needs. The authors adopted the recommendation for the use of personal n arratives and life histories (Carter & Doyle, 1996) as a way to identify and interpret pre service indicative of a personalistic orientation to reflection. The authors describe four catego ries of reflection: technical, personal, problematic, and emancipatory. Their definitions of the technical, problematic, and
93 (1997) personalistic type of reflection. sequencing of these categories represents relatively more and more sophisticated thinking about science education. they represent a progression towards the use of The authors found that the content of the journal entries did have some variety, but were typically focused on the teaching habits of the mentor teachers and the pre ser vice Only one of the four pre service teachers did not reflect instruction, and that of his peers. Four of the eight pre service teachers ref lected on d their learning styles. W hen these pre service teachers did reflect on students and student learning, they indicated superior insight into their own The interests displayed i n pre service experience, from an initial technical emphasis to greater attention to personal, problematic, and emancipatory issues. The authors suggest reflection in these more complex categories resulted when pre service teachers examined their own teaching, rather than their mentor teachers. A different group of pre service teachers also began reflection on technical interests, but included some personal and problematic elements. This group quickly discarded technical concerns and focused more specifically on the problematic and even emancipatory issues. The authors also found the cognitive level represented in the journals changed throughout the experience. Writing was coded into three levels, reporting, ana lysis/synthesis, and evaluation. The writing of pre service
94 teachers who began with a high level of reporting developed into a blend of reporting, analysis/synthesis, and some evaluation. Those whose initial writing contained small amounts of reporting mo ved quickly to the higher levels. The authors categorized the deepest reflection as that which analyzed specific interactions with high school students or new concepts from the methods course. Wallace and Oliver propose journaling as an effective vehicle f or pre service teachers to explore their science teacher identity. The matrix of teacher knowledge, affect, and action connecting with aspects of practice provided guidance in writing, and p. 171). The authors suggest that explicit instruction in different reflection interests (technical, personal, problematic, and emancipatory) could better enable pre service teachers to deliberate at higher levels. Critical Reflection The science teacher educator program studied by Yerrick and Hoving (2003) contains personalistic and critical features. The program placed pre service science teachers in a field based secondary methods course working with rural Black students in lower track classes. The auth ors used interviews, journals, focus groups, and teaching episodes as data sources to investigate the beliefs of pre service teachers, resulting in three themes: focus o n teaching and evaluations ; beliefs about good science teaching ; and experiences and so urces of pre service teacher knowledge. The authors drew from research on the role of pre service beliefs in the development of knowledge of practice (Feiman Nemser et al, 1989; Lortie, 1975; Richardson, 1996). They acknowledge tha t without a broad perspective beyond their own learning, pre service
95 interpretation and a singular vantage point to view the problem at hand [they] believe what they are able to see (from a few bright st udents) and see only what they essential element in fostering alternative views of science teaching. or reflection comprises aspects of both personalistic and critical orientations, as revealed by these course design considerations: components of a field experience that perturbs indiv idual beliefs, enables reflection on historical experiences, and supports the construction of revised teacher knowledge? What kinds of experience can best equip novice teachers for their future roles and what kinds of education theory can best guide needed change in classrooms? (p. 395). They took a purposeful strategy to address the propensity of middle class White teachers who have little experience with diversity to approach science teaching as a value free exercise. The authors caution that this tendenc y to teach as they were taught (or best learned) does not acknowledge the promotion of inequality inherent in these instructional choices. Rejecting an overemphasized technical approach to teacher social reconstructionist tradition, espousing an outcome of reflection focusing on issues such as the ingrained racial inequity in local schools. Data analysis produced two categories of pre service teachers: producers, whose reflections indicated meaning ful consideration and revision of their own personal theories of science teaching; and reproducers, whose reflections indicated open resistance to change in their personal theories. The authors characterized the goals of
96 (p. 399). Pre service teachers from both categories tended to reflect on their early lessons from an egocentric perspective, addressing teaching effectiveness from the basis of their own science learning experiences. This unproblematic approach to lesson design was evident in this pre service W or a curriculum to tell lessons was determined by assessing personal behaviors and appearance, such as walking around the room or mumbling. The authors found the reproducers structured their instructional decisions based on a transmission model of science learning. Even though the value of recipe type lab activities was strongly criticized in assigned methods course readings and class discussions, reproducers showed preference for teacher centered instruction and ri gidly structured verification labs throughout the semester. This group continued to focus the content of their reflections on their own performance, rarely referring to students. One pre service seven references to herself and only seven references to students. The authors characterized the attitudes about inquiry of such reproducers as insincere S tudents were able to profess one set of beliefs while their practices demonstrated quite another. they would not really be able to teach that way because it would be too time 405). This group of pre service teachers also attributed instructional difficulties to student ability or attitudes. Their observations of students were highly judgmental,
97 associating their need for strict management procedures students. The interaction with lower track students as a stimulus for reflection achieved a different outcome with the producers. This group del iberated on changes to their personal theories of science teaching and learning, viewing themselves as learners of a new realm of practical knowledge. The value of reflection is apparent in this pre service st of instruction: interviews shifted quickly away from personal actions to a concern for student learning. References to themselves were in relation to meeting the needs of their student something that will connect their experience t considered larger issues relevant to schooling when analyzing difficulty encountered in lessons. One pre service teacher problematized the difficulty of engaging diverse students as a function of their intelligence and knowledge about teaching as residing in their subject area coursework, the producers valued the special methods course highly, questi oning prior beliefs about learning. One producer clearly articulated this need for change: learned through beliefs and see that they might need to be changed. (p. 412).
98 The authors posit their results as a vital outcome of pre service on their attitudes and beliefs about science teaching. They acknowledge the influence of the often nave and egocentric understandings that pre service teachers bring into their professional education programs, but also assert the need for experiences to perturb that knowledge and present alternativ es J ust as misconceptions about science Danielowich (2007) calls f or a repositioning of reflection in teacher learning. He rejects the characterization of reflection as an individual cognitive tool for tracking any changes in teacher practice toward reform oriented ideals. In his study of pre service science teachers, he formulates reflection as an examination of the struggle between the a source of change in practice. (1977) three levels of reflection (tech nical, interpretive, and critical) with their different functions in teacher deliberations (the relationship between means and ends of teaching, context of reflection, content of reflection, and outcomes of reflection) on their practice. Contrary to many r esearchers (Valli, 1997; van Manen, 1977; Larrivee, 2010), Danielowich does not suggest these three levels represent a developmental hierarchy. He notes how widely varying contexts may produce interconnections between the different levels and their functio ns, such as an apparent technical goal (raising test scores) enabling a less discernible critical goal (redressing social inequities). He instead
99 order to interpret how reflection influences practice. He cautions against the promotion of critical reflection as an end: W hen teacher educators directly encourage critical reflection outside actual school contexts or in isolation from the other two forms of reflection, t hey may unintentionally promote it as a predefined tool teache r s carry into their classrooms to challenge oppressive conditions rather than as an intellectual endeavor where teachers help create, develop, and act on new knowledge about critical change in t heir own schools (p. 632). In his study of four practicing secondary science teachers, Danielowich examined how these teachers negotiated the conflicts between their own goals and practices. Using a descriptive case study approach, he focused on the proce ss of reflection in which pre service teachers first become aware of and then t ook action to come to terms with these conflicts. Despite his caveat regarding critical reflection, the orientation of the program he described contains some components of criti cal orientation. The content of reflection consisted of issues of reform, safe environments for learning, the role of the teacher, and consideration of the needs of all students. Interviews, group meetings, and observations comprised sources of data. The s guiding teaching toward reform oriented practice. While the teachers in the study did move in their reflections from technical to more interpretive and critical forms, they did not address how th e se more complex goals could be enacted in practice. One of the deliberations, but she did not enact those more student centered practices. The author convince d
100 647). Danielowich concludes that a mere shift in the level of reflection does not necessarily manifest a corresponding change in practice. Another finding inconsistent with current frameworks for reflection involved how these teachers used reflection in action to modify practice. Reflection in action is that spontaneous recognition of moments of uncertainty in practice coupled with the ability of as a natural goal of re trospective reflection (Hatton & Smith, 1995, Korthagen & Kessels, 1999). Danielowich suggests that the teachers who displayed reflection in action were more likely to use those episodes as stimulus for future reflection and continue to problematize their goals for instruction. Iris and Steve, two other teachers in the study, did not recognize any instances of impromptu modifications of their lessons based on some surprise or puzzle, but their goals for instruction were more well defined than those of Yvonn e and Rachel, who did identify cases of reflection in action. Danielowich asserts that the explicit choice of reflection in action driven by surprising or puzzling events in practice i s a stimulus for more complex and deliberate reflection on action, rat her than the result of it. the choices made by teachers about goals for their own learning. He noticed that the teachers who reflected in a more interpretive manner in itially were more prominent in : B y asking the teachers to identify and teach toward interpretive goals at the start of the second phase, I may have unintentionally honored the reflections of Yvonne and Steve in the group meetings as more advanced and thus
101 7 ). He recommends teacher educators recogniz e the effects of their own choices as facilitators of the context of reflecti on.
102 Figure 2 1. Development of reflectivity in different orientations
103 Table 2 1. Organization of l iterature on r eflection in t eacher e ducation p rograms based on o rientations to and c omponents of r eflection Component Orientation Stimulus Content Proc ess Outcome Technical Episode of teaching performance (Cruickshank & Applegate, 1981; Freiberg & Waxman, 1990) Own teaching behaviors derived from research; external authority structures; comparison to a list of competencies (Cruickshank & Applegate, 19 81; Freiberg & Waxman, 1990) Retrospective, individual or supervision in writing or oral; behaviorist techniques (Cruickshank & Applegate, 1981; Freiberg & Waxman, 1990) Efficient instruction; faithful implementation of best practices (Freiberg & Waxman, 1990) Reflection in and on action Some problem present in practice (Wilson & Lee & Loughran, 2000) Not specified Retrospective (on action) or contemporaneous (in action); problem setting or reframing; making the tacit explicit; coaching relationship (Lee & Loughran, 2000; MacKinnon, 1987; Russell & Munby, 1991; Wood, 1991) Professional artistry in practice; development of practical knowledge (Russell & Munby, 1991) Deliberative Interaction with any of commonplace s (subject matter, students, teachers, milieu) (Zeichner & Liston, 1987) Own decisions about instruction, curriculum, students, school, context; consideration of multiple sources of knowledge (Collier, 2010; Zeichner & Liston, 1987) Anticipatory, retrospective; co llaborative & social (Collier, 2010) Relevant and meaningful student learning; effective communication; effective decision making & personal judgment (Zeichner & Liston, 1987) Personalistic Varying contexts Own personal and professional beliefs, attitud es; self development; internal source of knowledge (Griffin, 2003) Introspective, individual, autobiograph ical personal theorizing (Brown, 1999; Tann, 1993) Personal development (Yinger, 1990) Critical Any situation in schooling (Dinkelman, 2000) Sc hools as political structures; issues of power and injustice (Dinkelman, 2000) Outwardly directed (Genor, 2005) Political liberation; improving situation of disadvantaged (Dinkelman, 2000)
104 Figure 2 2. Components of technical reflection as opera tionalized in selected literature.
105 Figure 2 3. Components of reflection in and on action as operationalized in selected literature.
106 Figure 2 4. Components of deliberative reflection as operationalized in selected literature.
107 Figure 2 5. Compo nents of personalistic reflection as operationalized in selected literature.
108 Figure 2 6. Components of critical reflection as operationalized in selected literature.
109 Table 2 2. Organization of science education literature based on orientations to and components of reflection. Component Orientation Stimulus Content Process Outcome Technical Britner & Finson, 2005; Yung et al, 2007 Britner & Finson, 2005 Reflection in and on Action MacKinnon & Erickson, 1983 ; Yoon & Kim, 2010 Eick & Dias, 2005 MacK innon & Erickson, 1983 ; Roychoudhury, Roth, & Ebbing 1993; Yoon & Kim, 2010 Yoon & Kim, 2010 Deliberative Britner & Finson, 2005 Britner & Finson, 2005; Eick & Dias, 2005 ; Melville, et al, 2008; Yoon & Kim, 2010 Yoon & Kim, 2010 Yoon & Kim, 2010 Personal istic Abell & Bryan, 1997; Wallace & Oliver, 2003; Yerrick & Hoving, 2003 Abell & Bryan, 1997; Rosenthal, 1991; Van Zee & Roberts, 2001; Wallace & Oliver, 2003; Yerrick & Hoving, 2003 Abell & Bryan, 1997 Abell & Bryan, 1997 Critical Yerrick & Hoving, 2 003 Yerrick & Hoving, 2003; Danielowich, 2007 Danielowich, 2007 Yerrick & Hoving, 2003
110 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study wa s to explore and describe conceptions of and intentions for the teaching of reflection in university based science teacher education programs. In sim pler terms, the inquiry examined the ideas about reflection that science teacher educators hold and their plans for putting th e se ideas into practice when teaching pre service secondary science te achers to reflect. The teacher education community accepts at a nearly universal level the notion that effective professional practice should include reflection, but there is less agreement on how that construct is operationalized within teacher preparati on programs. Reflection has been described variously in the literature as a skill in which to be trained (Cruickshank & Applegate, 1981) a disposition to be acquired (LaBoskey, 1994) a thinking process to be learned (Dewey, 1933) and integrations of the se and more (Valli, 1997) Opportunities for reflection include such activities as course readings (Abell & Bryan, 1997) student interactions (Genor, 2005) and instructional evaluations ( Yung, Wong, Cheng, Hui, & Hodson, 2007) Ideas considered within r eflection range from (Cruickshank & Applegate, 1981) to broad philosophical conceptions of teaching and learning (Yinger, 1990) The vehicles for recording reflection are similarly varied. The larger goa l of this st udy wa s to capture this variety of in definitions, goals and plans related to the development of reflection by pre service tea chers
111 In this chapter, the methodological framework for the stu dy is presented, followed by the research design including descriptions of the phases of the inquiry, sampling strategy, data collection and analysis, and procedures for establishing trustworthiness The chapter concludes with a subjectivity statement and summary. Th is research Methodological Framework A constructivist orientation to knowledge is highly relevant to a study of reflection. nstructivism asserts that (1) knowledge is not passively received, but rather is actively constructed by individuals ; and (2) knowledge is used to make sense of the world of experience, not to discover reality. Knowledge of the individual. Since individuals construct their own understanding of the world, constructivism denies the existence of an independent objective reality. In this paradigm, learning takes place not th rough the transmission of information from an Key to this construction is a collection of experiences that interact with existing ideas. New experiences can be integ rated into existing patterns of understanding through the process of assimilation. If new ideas cannot be assimilated into an existing framework, then a new framework must be constructed into which the new ideas make sense, a process known as accommodation This constructivist orientation is compatible with a naturalistic approach to research. Lincoln and Guba (1985) describe the naturalistic paradigm by juxtaposing it with the positivist paradigm in five axioms. The first axiom contrasts the positivist no tion of an objective reality, accessible through experimental methods of prediction and
112 control of variables, with the naturalistic assertion of multiple constructed realities to be examined holistically. While individuals may agree on common referents tha t provide some description of a construction, within those individuals different meanings and responses will reside. The second axiom rejects the positivist assertion of the independence of the scientific observer and the phenomenon under observation. In the naturalistic paradigm, the inquirer and the inquired about are intertwined. Just as Heisenberg p ostulated that the naturalistic inquirer interact with what is being invest igated. The third axiom concerns generalizing the outcomes of the inquiry. In the positivist paradigm, research aims to generate statements that are universally true, unhindered by connection to specific time and context. Similarly inappropriate are those idiographic statements that are so uniquely context bound that they have no utility in the field of study. The naturalistic view of generalization takes an intermediate position along this continuum, where a working hypothesis developed in the inquiry may be transferable from one context to another, based on the degree of similarity of the two contexts. The fourth axiom rejects the positivist idea of causality in favor of the concept of mutual simultaneous shaping The final axiom addresses the role of values in inquiry. Contrary to the positivist view of inquiry as value free as a function of its objective methodology, inquiry in the naturalistic paradigm is value bound due to the values of the in quirer, the guiding paradigm, the substantive theory, and the values inherent in the context of the study. These values may serve to either reinforce the inquiry or conflict with it.
113 While the naturalistic inquiry inherently avoids explicit identification of many typical aspects of design, certain elements of the design need to be considered. Description s of each of these elements in the context of the current study including the alignment of the axioms of the naturalistic paradigm to this study, comprise the remainder of this chapter. Focus of the Inquiry This study focused on how science teacher educators conceptualize and plan to incorporate reflection in science teacher education. Lincoln and Guba (1985) describe a research serving to accumulate knowledge leading to understanding. Currently, the ability of science teacher educators to conceive the notion of reflection and intend their orientations to be implemented as s pecific activities and opportunities for pre service secondary science teachers is not well understood. Teaching pre service secondary science teachers to r eflect is also not well described in science teacher education research. A detailed description of t his phenomenon can guide the preparation of science teachers as reflective practitioners. Based on this f ocus, these research questions we re considered in this study: 1. What orientations to reflection do science teacher educators hold? 2. What influences have contributed to the development of these orientations? 3. through components of reflection in the intended curriculum of secondary science teacher education programs? 4. How do science teach er educators perceive the constraints and limitations on the enactment of their intentions for the teaching of reflection?
114 I began the study with a tentative focus on these questions, and while there was some evolution to question 4 based on emerging under standing as data we re collected and analyzed, the overall emphasis remained relevant. Based on the responses of participants, it was evident that constraints and limitations was a limiting characterization of the many external influences on how science edu cators intended to operationalize reflection. The adaptive nature of a naturali stic inquiry provided for this dynamic approach to the development of understanding of the research questions. Naturalistic Fit The naturalistic paradigm needs to be compatible with the research focus. This paradigm with respect to the features of the present inquiry. This alignment is summarized in Table 3 1. The first axiom concerns the questi on of how the reality of a phenomenon is represented. In the naturalistic paradigm, individuals construct reality; therefore no single reality exists to be discovered through research. Descriptions of reality are meaningful based on the connections they ha ve to the everyday life of those individuals creating the descriptions. This orientation is particularly appropriate for the present study, since its purpose wa s to examine the many different ways in which reflection is defined and i ntended for implementat ion by various individual science teacher educators, not to arrive at a single meaning of the construct. The second axiom relates to the interaction and influence between the inquirer and the object of inquiry. One aspect of this axiom concerns the imposs ibility of measuring a phenomenon with ultimate precision referred to by Lincoln and Guba as this examination is not of the
115 response to our methods of inquiry. Ack nowledging this state of indeterminacy facilitates a collaborative approach to data nvestigator and respondent together create the data o ( p. 100). The direction of data collection depends on what has been collected. In this study, data sources consist ed of responses from a web based survey, interviews, and documents (see Data Sources section below). The survey served as a purposive sampling method for identifying those science teacher educators who articulate an intensiv e emphasis on reflection. The direction of interviews was informed by questions arising from survey responses and document examination. For example, one respondent supplied a description of the importance of context in providing experiences that stimulate reflection. This topic of context was then explored and elaborated on in the interview. This continuous unfolding of data collection is impossible without an acknowledgement and acceptance of the interaction between the inquirer and the inquired upon. Ano ther facet of this axiom refers to the interdependence of facts and theory. Multiple theories may be derived from one set of facts, but facts are meaningful only facts withou 101). The solution to this conundrum is for the researcher to exercise some degree of judgment upon the inquiry; to achieve a balance such that appropriate facts support the develo ping theory without specifying that theory so exclusively that it has no utility. This interaction between the inquirer and the inquiry facilitates the process of purposi ve sampling. In this study, it wa s critical to acknowledge the influence of the initia l heuristic
116 describing the orientations to and components of reflection in teacher education. This construction, derived from careful examination of theoretical and research based literature in the field, significantly informed the design of the inquiry. T his influence bei ng acknowledged, the heuristic wa s not a determinant, but rather one source of guidance when new information wa s encountered. I used the heuristic to develop initial semi structured interview questions, but additional questions based on su rvey responses and document examination emerged. Lincoln and Guba note the advantages of these ongoing interactions are only possible because the instrument of research is a human being, capable of developing cooperative relationships with the respondents in the investigation. The tension in the third axiom concerns the degree to which research findings are either bound to a unique context or context free and generalizable. The naturalistic paradigm works to achieve a position be tween these two poles, aimi ng for the development of working hypotheses that describe individual cases. These working hypotheses indicate the degree of similarity between the context of the research and another context to which they could be transferred. It wa s not the purpose of th is study the perspectives of science teacher educators who conceive reflection deliberately and intend their pre service teachers to learn it explicitly were ex ami ned to understand how reflection is defined and valued. It is also acknowledged that whil e there we re some similarities among the situations of the science educators surv eyed and interviewed, there we re significant differences in the contexts of their wor k. Interv iews and document
117 analyses enable d methodological triangulation (Lincoln & Guba, 1985), with three data collection techniques contributing to the establishment of the credibility of the inquiry. The fourth axiom addresses the need for the results of the inquiry to provide explanations. While the naturalistic paradigm argues against positivist notions of causality, the need to construct some understanding of the patterns of interactions recognizes that events are influenced by other events. Mutual simultaneous shaping is the construct that describes these interactions. What influences an outcome at one time may be different from another time. Understanding of events and influences is not a statement of causality, but rather one of plausibility. Sinc e the inquiry was a descriptive one, there wa s no need to establish causality in reflective practice. The interaction of the commonplaces (Schwab, 1973) emerged as an important interpretive framework for understanding the influences on the conceptions of r eflection of the participants. The broad nature of the study allowed for consideration of multiple influences on the development of reflection. The final axiom asserts the influence of values on the inquiry, including the values of the inquirer, the invest igation paradigm, the substantive theory guiding the research, and the context. The extent to which these values reinforce each other is defined by meaningful. My own personal values are highly consistent with the naturalistic paradigm and a constructivist approach to knowled ge. The investigation paradigm wa s a naturalistic one, and the inquiry made use of data collection and analysis methods that are congruent with that view. While no specific theory of reflection wa s employed in this study, the two dimensional heuristic (Table 1 1) describes and values multiple and
118 varied orientations to the const ruct. The context of the study wa s one of exploration and description, not evalua tion. Decisions regarding the direction o f data collection and analysis we re influenced by these values, providing for value resonance. Phases of the Inquiry The phases of the inquiry consist ed of purposive samp ling of secondary science teacher educators t hrough the use of a web based survey, examination of course documents, semi structured interviews, and follow up interviews, culminating in the development of a set of information rich cases. The sequence of phases is illustrated in Figure 3 1. The web bas ed survey (Appendix A) was developed from examination of the theoretical and research literature on reflection, and from preliminary interviews of a small number of science teacher educators. From these guiding sources, key issues regarding reflection were identified A variety of course and program documents were solicited and examined for emphases on reflection. By examining course documents such as course syllabi and assignment descriptions decisions were made regarding specific texts that can be most u seful in later stages of the inquiry. Analysis of these data sources, along with the heuristic describing the orientations to and components of reflection in teacher education, inform ed the development of questions for the web survey. An expert panel inclu ding science teacher educators and research methodologists r eview ed the survey content and design and the instrument and informed consent processes were approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board (Appendix B). The first phase of the study wa s the administration of the web based survey, designed for the wider audience of science teacher education faculty at regional
119 universities, as explained in the sampling s ection below. This survey served as a tool for selecting a purposive sampl e. The function of this sample wa s to identify those science teacher educators who articulate d an explicit approach to the teaching of reflection with their pre service secondary science teachers. T hese educators w ere selected for course document solicitation and interviews (see Sampling section below). Documents we re the first pieces of data solicited from participants, with solicitation occurring after all survey responses we re received. Each document w as analyzed as it wa s received, guiding the specific is sues discussed in initial interviews, which occurred shortly after document review. S ome participants were interviewed prior to the receipt of documents from other par ticipants. Follow up interviews clarif ied and elaborate d on previous interviews. Analysi s of survey responses and course documents guide d the semi structured interviews conducted with science teacher educators. Issues and ideas stated in survey responses or documents such as syllabi inform ed interview questions. Interviews w ere conducted via the phone or Skype up interviews allow ed for continued clarification of interpretations, exploration of emerging topics, and member checking (see Trustworthiness section below). Sampling The paradigm of naturalistic i nquiry calls for deliberate considerations of the sampling processes in a study. Lincoln and Guba (1985) recommend that plans for sampling should provide for (a) an identification of the initial elements of what is anticipated to be the final sample, (b) a process through which elements are logically and selected in an orderly fashion (c) a continuous refinement of the sample based on the emerging salient aspects of the inquiry, and (d) an attention to termination of
120 sampling. Since the study is aligned wi th the naturalistic paradigm, sampling w as completed with specific purposes in mind. At different stages of the inquiry, different sampling strategies w ere used, as summarized in Table 3 2. When the web survey wa s implemented, the group of potential respo ndents w as a criterion sample (Patton, 2002) of science educators. This sample consisted of science educators at institutions who satisfied two criteria: (a) the teacher education college, school, or department belonged to the Teacher Education Council of State Colleges and Universities (TECSCU), and (b) the teacher education program was accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). The sample w as compiled from the membership lists of both organizations, available on the ir respective websites. These two criteria are highly relevant to the inquiry for several reasons. TECSCU members are not research intensive universities where teacher education courses are taught by a number of different graduate students. TECSCU schools are regional institutions, publicly funded, and tend to have only one or two science education faculty members. These faculty members typically teach science methods courses and are heavily involved with the science teacher preparation program, including a ctivities such as field supervision and program design and evaluation. TECSCU institutions account for approximately 70% of the teachers prepared in the United States (L. G. Daniels, personal co mmunication, December 8, 2010). Accreditation in NCATE involve s documentation of compliance with six teacher education program standards. The first standard concerns pre service teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions, and contains extensive references to the
121 development of reflection. The third standard addresse s field experience and clinical practice and also emphasizes reflection (NCATE, 2008). These two criteria of TECSCU membership and NCATE accreditation provide d a population of approximately 1 00 science education faculty members. From the criterion of NCAT E accreditation, some emphasis on reflection should be present. From TECSCU membership, due to the nature of th e se institutions, science teacher education should be the responsibility of one or two faculty members. Th e se programs should therefore manifest the vision and ideas of the science educators who respond to the survey. Response rates from web based surveys var y widely. In 2000 Cook, Heath, and Thompson conducted a meta analysis of 49 electronic surveys and found a mean response rate of 39%. A more recent study comparing web based and paper based survey administration showed response rates of 52% for web surveys and 42% for mail surveys (Greenlaw & Brown Welty, 2009). A comparison of web surveys with different pre notification and follow up modes pro duced a response rate of 76% (Converse, Wolfe, Huang, & Oswald, 2008). Given this lack of c onsensus on response rates, I initially estimated a conservative response rate of 30% for the web survey I implemented the survey over a four week timeframe and sen t weekly reminders. Valid responses were rece ived from 42 science educators. Responses fro m this group of 42 science educators was carefully analyzed to provide a group of us eful informants; persons who communicate d the norms, attitud 258) of the ir ideas about reflection.
122 The first section of the survey described the informed consent process. The second section collect ed of experience and the characteristics of the secondary science education progr am. The third section identified program, specifically addressing the degree of influence the faculty member has over the design of curriculum for the overall program and the science methods course. The fourth section asked the respondent to identify specific stimuli, content, process, and outcome components intended for implementation in the program. For each co mponent, respondents we re asked to elaborate on their approaches in free response i tems. The final section provided informed consent for the document submission and interview portion of the study The process for selecting interviewees is illustrated in Figure 3 2. These survey responses comprise the first decision point: 1. NCATE report writers ; 2. Methods course instructors ; 3. Stud ent teaching intern supervisors; 4. ; 5. Top quartile of response Respondents who satisfied the majority of these five criteria were further considered through examination of responses to the questions addressing components of reflection. A secon d layer of criteri a identified informants for document solicitation and interviews: Respondents who indicate d the use of more than three specific stimuli for reflection in the science methods course ; Respondents who indicate d the use of more than three specific content topi cs ;
123 Respondents who indicate d the use of more than three specific processes for learning how to reflect ; Respondents who provide d e laborate d responses to any of the component items. Respondents who satisfied any of these four criteria (provided they agree d to submit do cuments and be interviewed) were solicited to participate in the document and interview phase of the study. Patton (2002) describes this mode as theory based sampling, where participants are selected based on likely representation of theoretic al constructs. Based on these criteria, documents were solicited from nineteen respondents. The purp ose of sampling this final group of science educators wa s to construct a set of information rich cases that provide a vivid portrayal of science educators conceptions of reflection. Given the criteria for document solicitation and interviews, selection of these participants took place after all surveys had been received. Lincoln and Guba (1985) describe the decision to terminate sampling as that which occu rs at redundancy, that point at which no new information appears from newly sampled informants. Recognizing the need for some degree of pragmatism in naturalistic design, re After analysis of survey responses, nineteen respondents were solicited to provide course and program documents. From this group, eight science educators submitted documents, and six agreed to be interviewed. Data Sources
124 instrumentation to improve as the study advan ces. One example of this capacity in the present inquiry is the refining of each data collection strategy incorporating the constructions of respondents from previous data collection. Lincoln and Guba describe this process as the development of instrument emerge from the data, rather than employing instruments that function only on the basis of a priori theory. Additionally, while particular data collection and analyses may inform (Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993, p. 85) of the construct under investigation. While some data sources m ay contribute a larger proportion of meaning to various questions than others, this holistic portrayal is developed from multiple data sources rather than one data source exclusively informing one research question. Th re e forms of data collection we re used in the inquiry : a web based survey followed by documents and interviews. The web based survey provide d 42 valid responses Its purpose wa s to identify science teacher educators who articulate d a clear conception of reflection and who convey ed explicit int entions for the teaching of reflection. The survey design used forced choice questions to recognize deliberate emphases on the different components of reflection, such as stimuli, content, and process. Other items focus ed on explicit orientations to reflec tion. Open ended questions provided more nuanced information, such as clarification of specific selections. Survey data w as used to identify useful informants for document solicitation and interviews.
125 Web Survey While surveys are frequently considered as a quantitative source of data and therefore more aligned with a positivistic paradigm, Erlandson Harris, Skipper, and Allen a quick picture of typical and atypical cases a nd a map of where the outliers may be found in order to facilitate further in depth investigation such as surveys can be used to locate sources that provide both typical and unusual characteristics. The critical consideratio n in the naturalistic paradigm is the expansion of multiple constructions of reality, rather than their reduction into a single reality. This characterizati on aligns well with the purpose of the survey in this study: identifying significant representations of reflection by science teacher educators Of paramount importance in effective survey design is the notion of salience. Dillman (2007) characterizes salience as a measure of the relevance to potential respondents of the issues examined in the survey. Qu estionnaires that ask about topics of importance to the respondent, addressing current behaviors or interests, are characterized as highly salient. In the present inquiry, the content of su rvey questions wa s motivated by notions considered not only in the heuristic for describing the components of and orientations to reflection which is informed by both theoretical and research literature expressed in preliminary interviews and document analys is. This direct relationship ns and questions asked provides salience in survey content.
126 Documents Lincoln and Guba (1985) l source of p. 276), due to the characteristi cs of availability, stability, and richness. Documents are available with minimal effort on the part of the investigator. They are stable in that they provide a record of previous actions or decisions, and do not undergo change from one occasion of analysi s to another. While t hey are rich as a source of information due to the contextual relevance and detail presented one limitation of documents examined in this study is that they are representative of an intended curriculum only The use of documents for the construction of understanding in a naturalistic inquiry is more nuanced than a simple examination of text. It is important to consider the context in which a document exists and the process of document creation (Altheide, 1996). The forces that influe nce the generation of a document may be significant to understanding the message it conveys. This is of particular importance in the present study, since one aspect of the sampling strategy involves an external influence, that of NCATE accreditation. Conce ptual frameworks for teacher education programs have emphases that may determine the content of a course syllabus. Other influences are important to consider, such as theorists cited in a syllabus rationale contributing to the objectives of a course. Anot her consideration in understanding the meaning of a document concerns the sequence through which meaning emerges over time. Emergence of meaning is a gradual development of understanding from interpretation of documents and from applying interpretations to activities. Descriptions of reflective activities in a course syllabus are understood by conceptualizing those descriptions as intended experiences.
127 Meaning further develops though comparison with other data sources such as interviews in which these int erpretations are discussed Altheide (1996) describes the purpose of ethnographic content analysis as concerned with understanding meaning. A high degree of interaction between the inquirer, concepts, data collection, and analysis characterizes this metho d. Clear descriptions and definitions based on concept development are sought rather than a verification of hypotheses. The process begins with the identification of the unit of analysis to be examined in pertinent documents. In the present study, specifi c sections within descriptions that portray ed reflection in science teacher education form ed this unit of analysis, and include d course descriptions, goals and objectives assignment descriptions, and other passages that communicate d the intent of the inst ructor. The inquirer needs to be familiar with the process and context of the relevant class of documents, and examine a small number of examples. In the preliminary work that informed survey development, a small number of science teacher educators were so licited for any course and program documents that would hel p to understand how reflection wa s implemented in their programs. The most relevant document that indicate d intentions for the teaching of reflection wa s the course syllabus. Although syllabi vary widely in construction, most include d a course description, goals and objectives, and assignment descri ptions. These units of analysis provide d insight into how the science teacher educator plans for the development of refle ction An other document that serve d
128 this purpose wa s an assignment grading rubric, which indicate d what is of value to the instructor, relevant information in examining orientations to reflection. The process also involves the construction of a tentative protocol. Altheide N aturalistic protocols employ narrative and description, with coding and meaning generation occurring after data collection. A document protocol for this inquiry is presented in Appendix C. The protocol examined specific sections of the course syllabus for references to reflection, including the course description, goals an d objectives, assignment descriptions, and bibliography. Assignment descriptions and grading rubrics we re also examined in the protocol, considering the explicitness of reflection components and evaluation of reflection. Interviews The everyday notion of an interview is one of an interviewer extracting information from an interviewee in a one way transaction. The naturalistic approach to the interview his or her per spective. Kvale and Brinkman n (2009) conceive this interaction not as a change of views between two persons conversing about a t p. 2), focusing on the construction of knowledge While the simplicity of this conversational approach may be appealing, effective interviewing in a naturalistic inquiry requires significant preparation and reflection. These conversational interviews typically occur without many pre structured or stand ardized procedures, and require the interviewer to make spontaneous decisions
129 during the interview. An interviewer therefore needs to bring to the situation a different skill set, making use of considerable familiarity with the interview topic and an under standing of knowledge construction through conversation. Kvale and Brinkman n identify seven stages of interview inquiry: thematizing, designing, interviewing, transcribing, analyzing, verifying, and reporting. The first three of these stages will be addre ssed in this section. Transcribing and analyzing will be considered in the data analysis section, and verifying in the trustworthiness section. Thematizing identifies the why and what of the inquiry the purpose of the study and background of the salient i ssues about the topic of investigation. These considerations are identified in the first two chapters of the present study. Since the study focuses on how reflection is portrayed in science teacher education through the vision and actions of that education interviewi ng wa s a particularly relevant instrument. Designing addresses the how of the study : the procedures and techniques of the data collection through interviewing. An important area of deliberation in the design stage is the temporal dimension. Kv ale and Brinkmann recognize the interdependence of decisions about method made at different stages of the inquiry, which may serve to 111) between stages, as informed by continuous reflective thematization of the topic. An example of this temporal deliberation is the spot analysis with the purpose of i mproving the original interview. Initial interviews occur red after receipt and analysis of course documents, and questions w ere generated from examination of survey responses and documents.
130 Statements in open ended survey responses about orientations w ere clarified and expanded upon. Aspects of the intended components of reflection identified in course syllabi w ere further explored including perceptions of constraints and limitations on implementation of specific components. The semi structured interview p rotocol is presented in Appendix D. This process of moving forward and backward through interview and analysis, while at the same time constructing understanding of the inquiry topic, influenced the design of the follow up interviews that occu rred in the final stage of data collection. Follow up interviews occur red after all initial interviews we re conducted and coded The issues addressed in these conversations we re informed by questions arising from previous interviews, documents supplied, and other info Topics that were not explored in depth in the initial interview were discussed in greater detail. Follow up interviews also provide d the opportunity for member checking giving participants the opportunity to respond to interpr etations of do cuments and previous interviews (see Trustworthiness section below). It is also relevant to consider the logistics of the interviews. Given the potential geographic range of informants (science teacher educators across the United States), it was not feasible to conduct multiple face to face interviews. To enable a more personal level of communication than is possible by telephone, interviews in this study w ere conducted using telephone and nternet video. These audio/video sessions w er e digitally recorded and transcribed. Data Analysis The point at which data analysis begins in a naturalistic study is not absolute. Because a naturalistic inquiry has a dynamic and emergent nature, data collection and
131 data analysis are intertwined proces ses. Patton (2002) points out that ideas for analysis occur during the course of fieldwork, as patterns and themes appear. Subsequent data collection is informed by working hypotheses from initial themes. The sequence of data collection and analysis moves from initial tendencies that are generative to later stages deepening insights these later stages of i nquiry, analysis is organized based on two sources: (1) the original research questions generated during t he design stage of the inquiry; and (2) analytic perceptions and interpretations that emerged from data collection. Data analysis wa s facilitated in t his inquiry through the use of the qualitative analysis software NVivo. The Method of Constant Comparison Analysis in this inquiry used the method of constant comparison developed by g incidents applicable to each category ; (2) integrating categories and their properties ; (3) delimiting the theory ; a significant purpose of this method is the derivation of theo ry, not merely a data where each stage informs the next stage throughout the entire investigation. Figure 3 3 illustrates the flow of analy sis steps in this method. Data w ere unitized according to the process described by Lincoln and Guba (1985). They describe unitizing as delimiting those pieces of information (incidents) to be categorized. Two qualities characterize the individual units. Un its should possess
132 heuristic value, providing understanding of the context or utility for further action in the inquiry. Second, units must be the smallest piece of independent information, 45). Units of data in this study consisted of survey response summaries, course and program documents, emails, and interview transcripts Each unit of data was imported into the NVivo project file and labeled with information such as the data source, respo ndent type, and data collection episode. The first stage involved comparing incidents applicable to each category. Lincoln and Guba note the problematic aspect of this stage is the source of the categories into which incidents are classified. Erlandson e t al (1993) suggest categories of ideas will these s highly relevant for this study, as the heuristic for describing orientations to and components of reflection (Table 1 1) is s trongly representative of the extant literature providing a starting point for categorization, but not a set of a priori hypotheses to be tested. Provisional codes ( Miles & Huberman, 1994 ) used in this study inclu de d the five orientations to reflection (technical, reflection in and on action, deliberative, personalistic, and critical) and the four components of reflection (stimuli, content, process, and outcome). This process of emergent category designation focus es further data collection, through the strategies of extending, bridging, and surfacing data (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Extending involves working from an emergent category as a base for new questions, with the goal of making the category more complete. In t his study, the extending strategy involved moving from the structural category of constraints and
133 limitations to the new category of external influences. Bridging begins with known but unrelated pieces of data in the same category. Data analysis in the bri dging strategy seeks to identify and understand the relationship. Bridging involved looking at note simply problems that science educators perceived with implementing reflective activities, but also considering opportunities for expansion due to external i nfluences. Surfacing involves the proposition of new information that should be found within the tentative boundaries defined by analysis. As the inquirer becomes more familiar with the area of inquiry, he or she becomes aware of potentially rich sources o f data that were previously unknown By reframing constraints and opportunities into external influences, (1973) commonplaces became relevant. Lincoln and Guba recommend four criteria to consider for termi nating the data collection and analysis process: ( 1) exhaustion of sources; ( 2) saturation of categories, when continued data collection does not provide significant new information; ( 3) emergence of regularities; and ( 4) overextension, when new informatio n is not relevant to or does not further understanding of the viable categories. After stopping data collection and processing, the entire category set was reviewed. In this study, information rich cases providing description and interpretation of individ reflection w ere constructed. It wa s therefore appropriate to examine all sources of data from individual educators as a set informing that case, rather than considering each ty pe of data from all educators.
134 Documents After participants we re selected based on responses to the web based survey, documents w ere solicited which generally consist ed of course syllabi, assignment descriptions and guidelines, and grading rubrics. A mem o w as written for each document, providing a paragraph or so of descriptive information about the document including identifying characteristics, a brief summary, and general impressions of its significance These memos wer e not written about specific det ails, but rather refer to the whole document. A format for document memos is illustrated in Appendix E. Given the variability of form and co ntent in these materials, it wa s useful to employ different coding methods. For the first round of coding, document s w ere coded using holistic coding and provisional coding (Saldaa, 2009). Holistic coding is an exploratory method, assigning a tentative label to a large unit of data to garner an impression of the overall contents. Shorter documents such as course sylla bi were read as a whole or in large chunks rather than line by line Each syllabus w as read for references to reflection in various sections such as course description, course rationale, goals and objectives, assignment descriptions, grading procedures, c ourse policies, and bibliography Assignment descriptions and guidelines w ere read for references to reflection as a whole and in sections such as prompts, examples, and procedures. Grading rubrics w ere read for references to reflection as a whole and in sections such as evaluation descriptors and levels of performance Each of these large chunks w as coded with a single descriptive code. These codes were informative during interviews, as they focused interview questions on significant themes in documents, such as the
135 The second method of initial coding of documents wa s provisional coding (Miles & Huberman, 1994) These initial codes ca me from the heuristic and research questions, influenced by the literatu re and are listed in Table 3 3. A ccompanying this list of provisional codes are code definitions developed initially from the literature review and preliminary work. This set of code definitions w as clarified as t he inquiry progressed An example of a co de definition is presented in Appendix F. In this round of coding, each document w as read line by line and coded simultaneously f or reference to these and other emergent codes. As new codes emerge and provisiona l codes were focused, code definitions we re r evised. New codes w ere named based on the concept described in the document. Rather than waiting until all documents were received, d ocument coding occur red as they we re obtained from individual participants. This ongoing process expose d sources of bias a nd incomplete data clarified in the interview rounds of data collection such as explanations of specific reflective assignments Interviews Interviews were conducted using telephone and nternet video, recorded, and imported into the NVivo qua litative analysis program. Each interview was coded as it wa s completed. Initial coding of interviews follow ed a structural method (Saldaa, 2009), where particular areas of the inquiry function ed to label and index data. Chunks of conversation from the in terview, including interview questions, probes, and follow up questions we re organized based on specific research questions Structural codes we re content based or conceptual phrases applied to these segments. Since questions i n the semi structured interviews we re gu ided by research questions, it wa s appropriate to organize the interview dialogue in this way. While this
136 method is similar to the holistic coding applied to the first round of document analysis, it is less explorato ry and guided by specific research questions. Since research questions and issues from initial interviews that require clarification guide follow up interviews, they w ere coded in the same way. In the initial semi structured interviews (see Appendix D), sp ecific questions correspond to specific research question s. The interview questions the ere chunked for structural coding relevant to research question 2, with codes representing the Second Cycle Coding The first cycle of coding (hol istic document, provisional document, and structural interview coding), summarize d segments of data After all data were initially coded, the se summaries we re grouped into a smaller number of themes using pattern coding (Miles & Huberman, 1994 ) Pattern co des move beyond identification of initial labels to provide explanatory or inferential analysis of the data. Pattern codes group initial codes into a smaller number of themes and focus the search for rules and explanations. Pattern coding w as conducted by collecting similarly initially coded passages from the data, using NVivo query functions. After determining some level of coherence from review of these fir st cycle codes, a pattern code wa s assigned to the group. This pattern code wa a statement that describes a major theme, a pattern of actio n, a network of relationships, o r a theoretical construct f r om the (Saldaa, 2009, p. 154). From this process, the tables summarizing data that represented
137 significant constructs were prepar ed, such as the tables summarizing individual participants conceptions of reflection and influences on conceptions. Case Analysis At the conclusion of pattern coding for the data constructed from a particular participant, a case analysis (Miles & Huberm an, 1994) w as conducted. This process involved a peer debriefing (Lincoln & Guba, 19 85) guided by questions about the following topics: 1. Main themes, impressions, summary statements ; 2. Explanations, speculations ; 3. Alternative interpretations, explanations, di sagreements ; 4. Next steps for data collection, follow up questions ; 5. Revision and updating of coding scheme (Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 76) Prior to the peer debriefing session, I prepare d a brief (one or two page) memo addressing the above topics and forwa rd ed this to the peer reviewer Documents and other data w ere available during the session. The peer debriefing process was important to the development of the influences on conceptions of reflection framework, veloped the graphic model that describes the relationships between conceptions, influences, components, and orientations as a result of peer debriefing. After each case description was completed, I compared the six cases to each other to determine pattern s between them. The first comparison examined demographic differences, such as years of experience. I analyzed demographic data from the initial web based survey, and then generated tables summarizing these comparisons Another comparison considered the in fluences on their personal conceptions of reflection. External influences of students, subject matter, and the milieu of learning were other patterns compared. These comparisons were informed by the tables and figures that
138 characterized individual cases s uch as the tables that represent the components of reflection for each science educator The presence of various components of reflection with the curricula of the six science educators was also examined, as well as the different orientations manifested. T ables and graphics representing these patterns were generated and interpreted. Logistics of the Inquiry Another important set of considerations in the design of a naturalistic inquiry involved the logistics of the study. These factors include d resources r elevant to time, personal effort, materials, and compliance. Survey development, deployment, and analysis were facilitated through the expertise of a knowledgeable colleague, who wa s familiar with the web based survey application Vovici Enterprise. This co lleague w as consulted during the construction of the survey, and also participate d in evaluation of the survey. He later provide d assistance with contact efforts and analysis of response data. I implement ed the other major aspects of the inquiry, including composing requests for documents and interviews. I conduct ed and electronically record ed all interviews myself, and the recorded interviews w ere full y transcribed. A colleague who wa s familiar with the inquiry and my own professional interests collaborate d in peer debriefing. The schedule for the inquiry plan ned for data collection efforts to occur in the fall of 2011 A list of potential survey participants was assembled in the spring of 2011. It wa s critical for contacts to be made with science educatio n faculty during the fall semester to arrange for document collection and interviews. After survey deployment, four weeks we re allowed for responses, with repeated contacts made through the web survey application. Data analysis continue d into the s pring o f 2012
139 Informed consent was Review Board. Since the inquiry offers no known risks associated with participation, expedited re view wa s appropriate. Planning for Trustworthiness Trustworthiness re fers to the methodological soundness of a naturalistic study. While efforts to establish trustworthiness may parallel criteria from the traditional paradigm, it is more important to recognize quality criteria that are inherent in the naturalistic paradigm. These concerns include the valuing of separate constructed realities the inquiry. Lincoln and Guba (1985) identified conventional questions of quality relate d to the truth value, applicability, consistency, and neutrality of an inquiry. The traditional paradigm considers these questions as the criteria of internal validity, external validity, reliability, and objectivity. While these terms may have some equivalence in the naturalistic paradigm, criteria that der ive from the naturalistic axioms are more appropriate as indicators of quality. The naturalistic criteria consist of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. This section contains a description of efforts to plan for each of these c riteria, and these p lans are summarized in Table 3 4 Credibility Since the first axiom of the naturalistic paradigm asserts the existence of multiple constructed realities, any assessment of the isomorphism (one to one relationship) of ngs to a single reality is inappropriate. Truth value in a naturalistic study constructed realities are credible to their original constructors. Lincoln and Guba describe credibil ity as a two fold task: (1) the inquiry is implemented so that the probability of credible
140 findings is enhanced, and (2) credibility is demonstrated through the approval of the individuals whose constructions are being examined. In the present inquiry, cr edibility w as established using three techniques: methodological triangulation, peer debriefing, and member checking. Methodological triangulation makes use of different research strategies (Erlandson et al, 1993) D ocuments and interviews are the differen t methods employed in this study. Peer knowledgeable professional outside the context of the study. Peer debriefing sessions enable candid discussions of emergent methodology, w orking hypotheses, and concerns. In this study, a one page written reflective paper summarizing issues, concerns, emerging hypotheses, and design w as prepared. This paper w as shared with my peer and discussed during debriefing sessions. The se sessions occ urr ed at the conclusion of survey completion, document submission, and interviews. Less formal discussions also took place to help me with processing difficulties and unanticipated issues as well as celebrating significant progress. As described earlier, t he graphic model representing conceptions, influences, components, and orientations emerged from one of these peer debriefing sessions. M ember checking consist ed of having those persons studied examine categories, interpretations, and conclusions for fidel ity with their own constructions. In this study, there were two opportunities for member checking : (1) at the conclusion of interviews by summarizing data and allowing respondent corrections ; (2) in follow up interviews by verifying interpretations from pr evious interviews (Erlandson et al, 1993). The protocol for initial semi s tructured interviews (Appendix D )
141 contains prompts for summarizing and verifying interpretations. For follow up interviews, a one page overview of the main ideas and interpretations from analysis of documents and previous interviews w as emailed to participants. The follow up interview began with discussion of these ideas, allowing opportunity for clarification and correction. All participants expressed agreement with the portrayals re presented in the summaries. Transferability The traditional criterion of applicability concerns the degree to which conclusions can be generalized to other contexts within the same population as that studied. In the naturalistic paradigm, the focus is not on generalizing to a larger set of contexts but rather on sufficiently identifying the characteristics of the studied context, so that other researcher s can make determinations regarding those new contexts into which findings could transfer. This delibera te description of the inquiry context is facilitated in this study through purposive sampling and a reflexive journal. Purposive sampling proceeds through attention to emerging perceptions of questions and ideas that are important in the study. A delibera te focus on typical and divergent data maximizes the range of information available, affording details of a broad set of multiple realities. Purposive sampling in this inquiry focused on identifying those s cience teacher educators who were likely to hold c lear orientations to reflection and intend ed to emphasize its development with their pre service secondary science teachers. The design of the survey and the criteria for selection of participants based on their responses was consistent with purposive samp ling. investigator on a daily basis, or as needed, records a variety of information about self and (p. 327). Information about the self provides data about the human
142 instrument, including insights, emotions, and values. Reflections on method communicate deliberations on methodological logistics, perspectives and choices. The reflexive journal in the present study contain ed three parts: (1) a daily log that described th e schedule and logistics of the study; (2) a personal diary providing opportunity for reflection, speculation, and examination of values and insights; and (3) a methodological log describing methodological decisions and rationales. Dependability The notio n of consistency underpins the conventional criterion of reliability, demonstrated through replication of the same study under similar conditions with similar findings. An assumption of replication is the static nature of the conditions under investigation The naturalistic paradigm asserts reality as dynamic and ephemeral, making the establishment of reliability unlikely. The naturalistic criterion of dependability seeks to account for the instability of the setting and dynamic factors due to inquiry desig n. Lincoln and Guba (1985) promote dependability through the technique of the inquiry audit, in which a careful record of the process of the inquiry is kept. Six categories of records are kept: (1) raw data ; (2) data reduction and analysis products ; (3) d ata recons truction and synthesis products; (4) process notes ; (5) materials related to intentions and dispositions; and (6) instrument development information. Raw data includes electronic recordings of interviews, survey responses, and original documents, as well as notes accompanying the collection of those data. Data reduction and analysis products in this study include d write ups clarifying data, summaries of notes, visual summaries of survey data, and other theoretical notes. Data reconstruction produc ts provide evidence of the process of the emergence of themes from raw data and data
143 reduction. These files include d notes on category structure, working hypotheses, visuals illustrating the relationship among categories, and findings and conclusions. Proc ess notes include d memos on methodology and the methodological log from the reflexive journal. Materials related to intentions and dispositions consist ed of the inquiry proposal, peer debriefing notes, and a daily log from the reflexive journal. Instrument development files include d schedules, interview guides, surveys, and correspondence. Confirmability In the naturalistic paradigm, the emphasis is not on the neutrality of the investigator, but rather on the confirmability of the data. The traditional cri terion of objectivity is inappropriate in this study due to its value laden nature and the entanglement of the inquirer and the inquired on. This rejection of objectivity also stems from the naturalistic axiom of reality existing in multiple individual con structions. Acknowledging this axiom, it is not possible for the inquiry to describe an isomorphism between its data and reality. Confirmability is established through the audit trail, which focuses on the products of the inquiry. Erlandson et al (1993) characterize the audit trail as a set of evidence that provides clearly traceable data as sources of reported assertions and conclusions. A determination of confirmability would be based on the extent to which findings are grounded in the data, inferences from data are logically constructed, the utility of category structure, the degree of investigator bias, and the effort made throughout the study to establish confirmability. The same set of carefully maintained audit records wa s used in establishing conf irmability as was used with dependability.
144 Subjectivity Statement In a naturalistic inquiry the fundamental instrument guiding the study is the human researcher. While the human instrument offers many advantages to the inquiry, including responsiveness, adaptability, holistic emphasis, and the opportunity for exploration of atypical responses, these advantages are of dubious value if trustworthiness is not present (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The construction of new knowledge by the human instrument is influen and beliefs. Important components of this tacit knowledge are those experiences and perspectives that operate throughout the entire research process, including inquiry design, data collection and analysis, and conclu sions (Peshkin, 1988). By acknowledging my own subjectivities, the trustworthiness of the inquiry is enhanced, and the potential utility of the study is strengthened through an improved understanding of my perceptions and deliberations. My own identity as an educator has been strongly shaped by reflective practice. Early in my career as a high school science teacher, I took a graduate action research course that served to stimulate reflection on my own goals and purposes in teaching science. Other coursewo rk in my m constructivism. At the same time I became involved in several physics teaching professional development programs, involving me in new roles as both a learner and a leader. These experiences generated intere st in alternative forms of assessment of which my learners were engaged in a beginning level of reflection on their own learning. I found I was deliberating over more tha n simply evaluation of my own performance as a
145 teacher, and was considering multiple influences on how I viewed my role in the school. As I embraced a larger vision of myself as a science teacher that included responsibilities to the profession, disseminat ion of my own ideas to a larger audience, and membership in a community of learners, I sought some validation for this expanded identity through the process of National Board Certification. With the National Board process, my focus on reflection became mor e explicit, as all aspects of my practice were viewed through the lens of the Core Propositions stating what a teacher should know and be able to do. These propositions ask teachers to (1) be committed to students and their learning ; (2) know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students ; (3) be responsible for managing and monitoring student learning ; (4) think systematically about their practice and learn from experience ; and (5) be members of learning communities (NBPTS, 2002). Prop osition 4 was of particular relevance to my development of reflection M y preparation of portfolio entries documenting my understanding of and commitment to all the propositions required substantial effort in problematizing my practice. These explorations of my practice resulted in the realization that my own professional goals were larger than the development of effective teaching behaviors in the classroom, and were instead focused on the ultimate outcome of my own personal growth. I now acknowledge this perception as an identification of what I characterize through the heuristic as a personalistic orientation to reflection. As a new university faculty member trying to transition from teacher to scholar, I was introduced by a c olleague to the process of teacher theorizing, in which the
146 decision making are uncovered and examined. Through the many conversations we had regarding my developing practice as a teacher educator we engaged in a type of another bias towards a particular orientation to reflection was established. When I was a high school science teacher, I vigorously embraced an approac h to instruction that incorporated scientific inquiry in the classroom. Th is preference has been enthusiastically implemented in the science methods courses I have taught. The evolving ideas about inquiry of pre service science teachers ha ve been a deliber ate content of reflection in those courses. Acknowledgement of these biases is particularly germane to a naturalistic inquiry. The fifth axiom of the naturalistic paradigm asserts the presence of values in the inquiry, especially the values of the inquire r. These values are expressed in the selection and articulation of the research problem and in the substantive theory that guides data collection and analysis. In accepting this framework, I recognize the influence of my experience, ideas, and beliefs on t he interpretations I have made Lincoln and Guba emphasize that her own values as well as the values of the content or situation values play ed a role in the inqu iry, but by taking th eir existence into account I recognize d their impact on the construction of my understanding and likewise made do not thereby exorcise my subject ivity. I do, rather, enable myself to manage it to preclude it from being unwittingly burdensome as I progress through collecting,
147 Summary This naturalistic inquiry s ought to explore and describe how scie nce teacher educators conceive the construct of reflection and how they intend their pre service science teachers to develop reflective practice. Through collection and analysis of data from science education faculty members a portrayal of th ese orientatio ns and intentions has been developed. The study involved purposive sampling of science teacher educators who we re likely to clearly articulate their conceptions of reflection and portray explicit intentions for the teaching of reflection to pre service se condary science teacher s. Purposive sampling wa s facilitated through a web based survey of secondary science teacher educators. Those educators who met specific criteria w ere solicited for submission of course documents and video interviews. Data analysis follow ed the method of constant comparison to generate descriptions of these science teacher educators conceptions of and intentions for reflection in science teacher education. Trustworthiness of the inquiry w as established using recommendations from Li ncoln and Guba (1985) and Erlandson et al (1993).
148 Table 3 1. Fit of the naturalistic paradigm to the inquiry (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Axiom of the naturalistic paradigm Alignment of the study with each axiom Is the phenomenon represented by multiple co mplex constructions? The purpose of the study wa s to examine the multiple characterizations of reflection held by science teacher educators not to arrive at a singular definition. What is the interaction and influence between the phenomenon and the inq uirer? Decisions about sampling and data collection w as informed by interaction between research questions and themes emerging from analysis. How time and context bound are the working hypotheses of the inquiry? The inquiry provide d contexts studied in order to establish some degree of transferability to other contexts. How do the elements of the inquiry engage in mutual simultaneous shaping? The descriptive focus of the study makes no assertions about causality; it is recognized that many circumstances influence but do not determine the development of reflection. How is the inquiry value bound? The personal values of the inquirer are consistent with the naturalistic paradigm. Data collection and analysis methods we r e naturalistic and support multiple conceptions of reality. The exploratory and descript ive nature of the study provided for value resonance.
149 Figure 3 1. Phases of the inquiry.
150 T able 3 2. Description of sampling modes in different phases of the inquiry. Inquiry Phase Sampling Mode Sample Rationale Web survey implementation Criterion sample Science teacher educators at TECSCU & NCATE schools (n = 1 00) Identify science teacher educators who are likely to articulate a clear conception of reflecti on Document analyses & Interviews Theory based sample Science teacher educators selected for interviews and document analyses; selection based on survey demographic and response criteria (n = 6 ) Development of information rich cases
151 Figure 3 2 Selection criteria for document solicitation and interviews.
152 Figure 3 3 Sequence of activity in the constant comparison method of data analysis.
153 Table 3 3. Tentative provisional codes for documents. General Inquiry Category Code Label Research Question Orientations Technical 1 Reflection in and on action 1 Deliberative 1 Personalistic 1 Critical 1 Influences Personal experiences 2 Professional experiences 2 Mentors 2 Education 2 Components Stimuli 3 Content 3 Proces s 3 Outcome 3 Constraints & Limitations Definitions 4 Preconceptions 4 Time 4 Setting 4
154 Table 3 4 Procedures for establishing trustworthiness (Erlandson et al, 1993). Criterion Conventional Term Naturalistic Term Naturalistic Techniques Ac tion taken in this inquiry Truth value Internal validity Credibility Methodological triangulation Three techniques: survey, documents, and interviews Peer debriefing The researcher and a knowledgeable second reviewer will analyze survey responses, do cument protocols, and interview s and accompanying summaries to determine the accuracy and adequacy of categorical descriptions A written reflection on each session will be prepared. Member checking These member checking opportunities will be taken: du ring interviews by summarizing data and allowing respondent corrections and verifying interpretations, by providing a one page overview of interpretations and conclusions prior to follow up interviews for discussion during follow up interviews. Applicabi lity External validity Transferability Purposive sampling Science educators in each stage of the study will be purposively sampled based upon the maximum likelihood of seeing clearly articulated orientations to reflection and the intent to emphasize reflec tion in the development of pre service secondary science teachers. Reflexive journal The reflexive journal will contain three parts a daily log that describes the schedule and logistics of the study; a personal diary providing opportunity for reflecti on, speculation, and examination of values and insights; and a methodological log describing methodological decisions and rationales. The reflexive journal also provides support for dependability and confirmability. Consistency Reliability Dependability A udit trail Detailed information will be maintained of the inquiry process and product in five categories: raw data, data reduction and analysis, data reconstruction and synthesis, process notes, materials relating to intentions and dispositions, and instru ment development. Neutrality Objectivity Confirmability
15 5 CHAPTE R 4 RESULTS In this chapter I present the findings of the study. I have organized these results for each participant, with each section addressing these four research questions: 1. What orie ntations (personal conceptions) to reflection do science teacher educators hold? 2. What influences have contributed to the development of these orientations? 3. components of refle ction in their intended curriculum? 4. How do science teacher educators perceive the constraints and limitations (external influences) on the enactment of their intentions for the teaching of reflection? troduction of the context in which they work as science teacher education faculty, followed by sections addressing the research questions. The first research question considers the personal ideas held by the science teacher about the meaning, purpose, and value of reflection. Personal conceptions of teaching and learning. These core beliefs are sometimes referred to as Personal Practical Theories (PPTs) of beliefs (theories) which guide the 409). In the second section of results, I explore the formative experiences that have contributed to the development of these pers onal conceptions. Eick and Reed suggest experience in that particular setting, so these personal beliefs are not yet influenced by external factors of the teaching setting. Faculty would hold these personal conceptions
156 about reflection in whatever setting, at that time. I do not, however, suggest that the personal conceptions of participants on reflection are static. Rather, they are subject to future influences from persona l or professional experiences. For the purposes of ab, 1973, p. 509). The remaining three commonplaces (students, subject matter, and the milieu) are ideal educational setting disconnected from these external influences, the science program. There are, however, external influences that result in some modification of the mponents of reflection in the program and course activities. As mentioned above, these external influences can be categorized based on the commonplaces of students, subject matter, and the milieu. Schwab (1973) characterizes the milieu as those settings in which learning occurs, including the physical settings of classroom and school, but also the social settings of community and family, as well as aspects of the environment such as relations and values. It is the intended components, those specific progra m and course experiences and components they have articulated using the heuristic developed in this study, I have identified the orientations represented in the cu rriculum of science teacher education
157 program s within the influence of the faculty member, typically the science methods course and associated field experiences. For each of these research questions, I present data from the study (quotes from documents an d interviews) in a series of tables for each participant. Quotes in tables are referenced to the original sources in this manner: BD1, 19 21 indicates participant Bob, Document 1, lines 19 21 of the document. DI1, 97 98 indicates participant Dan, Interview 1, lines 97 98 of the transcript. All participant names are pseudonyms. The chapter concludes with some comparisons of the more salient aspects of the six Case 1: Bob Bob is a faculty member in the Chemistry department of a mid sized, regional four year university in the Midwest; one of several serving the same geographical area. He has been involved in science education for eight years He teaches science education methods and supervises student teachers. Prior to teaching in hi gher education, he taught K the Teacher Performance Assessment (TPA), a performance based assessment of pre service teachers centered on student learning (American Associatio n of Colleges for Teacher Education, 2011). licensure in the science content areas of chemistry, earth science, life science, and physics, and averages ten graduates each year. Th e science methods course is common to all content areas, and is typically offered once a year. Three different faculty members have taught the course in the time Bob has been at the university.
158 Bob emphasizes refl ection as a way of thinking about the practice of teaching that takes place within an authentic context. The first section of Table 4 1 includes a quote from Bob that encapsulates this dominant idea about the importance of context. While Bob asserts that r eflection requires authentic experiences, he also recognizes that reflection does not necessarily result from every experience, and that Bob also characterizes reflection as a skill of thinking to be developed, taking time and effort. As the second quote in Table 4 1 highlights, effective reflection is an intrinsically motivated act, engaged in by the reflective practitioner. own experiences as a K 12 science teacher are the most significant influence on his ideas about reflection. He makes extensive use of personal anecdotes, drawing from a rich repertoire of professional knowledge, to provide meaningful examples of situation s in the science classroom that pre service teachers need to 4 1 suggests, pre service teachers will often have a limited awareness of certain aspects of teaching, due to th eir own background. Bob also cites his personal upbringing as a model refle ctive practice for his learners. Bob values these experiences as rich contributions to his repertoire of professional knowledge, due to their impact on his teaching practice.
159 The external influences section of T able 4 1 identifies aspects of the three for reflective experiences. He highlights the importance of addressing specific features of science, such as the teaching of con troversial issues and lab safety concerns, as critical ideas to be problematized through reflection. Bob also identifies students as an influence on how he approaches reflection in science methods and student teaching. While Bob places a high personal val ue on reflection as an intrinsic disposition, he acknowledges the need to begin the development of the skill by pre service teachers with an external stimulus of grading em phasized in his quote in Table 4 1, noting their tendency to think of effective teaching (BI1, 183 184). His students also possess limited awareness of the realities of schools, The milieu of learning also presents a significant influence on how Bob addresses the development of reflection. Accreditation procedures require specific at tention to detail to satisfy standards, resulting in the inclusion of assignments such as videocase Performance Assessment (TPA), a subject area specific evaluation mo del for pre service teachers. He feels TPA implementation provides an opportunity to enhance the quantity and quality of meaningful reflection throughout the program, as noted in the Milieu section of Table 4 niversity relates to
160 the availability of placements for pre service teachers, particularly when they are expected to deliver lessons in the methods course. These external influences all have an effect on how Bob organizes learning experiences that generat awareness of other socioeconomic and teaching and learning situations, he presents examples from his own personal and professional experience. Other external influences result in purposefully desi gned experiences, described in the next section addressing Curriculum students, subject matter, and the milieu, are operationalized into the intended curriculum of his science teacher education program particularly the science methods course Based on the heuristic I employ in this study to describe and understand reflection in science teach er education, his intentions are categorized into four components of reflection: stimuli, content, process, and outcome. Representative 4 2. limit his intentions for reflection to the curriculum of the science methods course and student teaching, it is inappropriate to extend his ideas to the program level. Bob identified specific stimuli for reflection occurring during both the science methods course and during student teachi ng. Within the methods course, case studies are the primary explicit stimulus. Bob uses both videocases demonstrating effective and ineffective science pedagogy and more informal cases of problematic situations, frequently drawn from his own experience, as pros (motivation, relevance) and cons (an assignment is a bad way to learn you might
161 be illegitimate, adopted) of doing a personal family tree for genetics purposes (BD1, 18 21)? As described above, securing teachi ng placements is a problem for Bob, so his methods students often deliver lessons in such nontraditional locations as the local Alternative Learning Center or less formal settings like the detention center. His pre service teachers also engage in reflectio n based on their experiences with two outreach events: science fair and science Olympiad. pre service teachers reflect upon are generally teaching situations, including the issues that are present in the typical questions of how the y would improve instruction based on feedback from observers. In the methods course, ideas problematized through reflection also emerge during class discussion from the concerns identified in individual lesson plans. While Bob does provide some reflective prompts after lesson delivery, he is more interested in the unique issues that present predetermined prompts, but those are very vague and probably less interesting than goin g over the specific issues that cam e 137). From the outreach activities (science fair and science Olympiad ), Bob focuses reflection on how those activities can be connected to content standards. Process is the component of re curriculum that is least articulated in explicit terms The mode of reflection is most frequently written, such as analysis of written lesson plans and reflective journals used during student teaching. The other identified process of ref course is the whole class discussion, engaged in after viewing videocases.
162 Bob is clearly focused on effective decision making as the outcome of reflection for his pre service ultiple 12 13). While accreditation does require careful organization of assignments that link to standards referencing reflection, his deeper goal emphasizes problemati zing teaching by developing a repertoire of practical knowledge, as he models frequently to provide them with some specific contexts to illustrate specific points on how 149 ). Curriculum By applying the heuristic to these different components of reflection, the orientations to reflection in curriculum can be identified, as shown in Table 4 3 methods course cannot be classified as exclusive to any one orientation, some consistent patterns are present. intended curriculum represents aspects of the technical and reflection in and on action orientations. Pre service teachers begin reflec tion by examining a lesson that has been delivered. The videocase lessons highlight positive or negative exemplars in science teaching, consistent with the technical orientation. Lessons the pre service teachers deliver occur in either the science methods course or during student teaching. The other major stimulus for reflection are the numerous personal examples and cases that Bob presents, which are consistent with the reflection in and on action orientation, featuring puzzling or unique situations of sci ence teaching. intentions lies primarily in the deliberative orientation. The focus of reflective writing deals with decisions about curriculum and
163 instruction in lesson planning and analysis, considering multiple persp ectives. Pre service teachers also consider situations unique to science teaching in their writing and class discussions, indicative of the reflection in and on action orientation. The process of reflection consists of descriptive journal writing and super visory conferences examining areas for improvement, typical of the technical orientation. Bob wants his pre service teachers to develop a rich repertoire of practical knowledge (Sch n, 1983), a goal of the reflection in and on action orientation. He also highlights the outcome of having them become effective decision makers, consistent with the deliberative orientation. Figure 4 reflection, the personal and external influences on those ideas, and the intentions for implementing those ideas through the components of reflection in the curriculum conceptions of and personal conceptions of reflection, and the milieu of learning is the major external influence. The process component is emphasized the least in his intentions while the three identified orientations have nearly equal emphasis. The graphic also represents a model for how ideas about reflection are developed by teacher educators, and how those ideas then translate into specific c ourse s and program curriculum experiences growing up and by his work as a classroom teacher. As he now teaches in higher education, the students, subject matter, and to a greater degree, the milieu of
164 lea rning have modified his original ideas, making them both more concrete and more sp ecific to his context. Different aspects of these concrete plans for course activities are categorized into the components of reflection and orientations to reflection, acco rding to the heuristic. Bob has eight years of experience in science teacher education, and while his ideas about reflection are clearly informed by his experience as a teacher and the context in which he now teaches, the complexity of reflection in his cu rriculum is limited. As Figure 4 1 illustrates, there is no predominant orientation to reflection manifest in the curriculum of his science methods course and associated experiences. Rather, his approach investigates aspects of three orientations, emphasiz ing the benefit of reflection on teaching practice. Case Two: Claire Claire teaches science methods and supervises science student teachers at a medium sized public university in the southeastern United States. Her institution offers both bachelo double majors in the undergraduate program, one in the content area (biology, chemistry, or physics) and a second major with a cognate in secondary education. In addition to overseeing the secondary science education program, Claire is also the teacher education department chair. The program graduates approximately ten science teachers per year. In addition to teaching the undergraduate science methods courses, level course on the history and nature of science. Claire views reflection as a process of thinking, with the specific purpose of personal understanding and improvement. While this may seem obvious as a meani ng
165 of reflection, her focuses on reflection as a process for personal growth provide insights into what goes on in her science teacher education program. In her quote in the first part of Table 4 4, she emphasizes that improvement is achieved from reflecti on not solely for better instructional choices, but also for better understanding of the self. Reflection becomes the key to personal development. 173). Influences Claire clearly recognizes the significant influence of her education on her ideas about reflection. She entered her teacher certification program with an undergraduate degree in botany and horticulture. In this program, sh e was involved in student teaching each day for an entire school year and engaged in reflective writing and discussion on a daily basis. In her graduate program, she worked on several grants that emphasized action research and reflective practice. During t his time she also became familiar with the seminal writing on reflection of Max van Manen, as described in the influences section of Table 4 4. Science subject matter is a significant influence on how Claire inte nds to implement reflection in her science education program. She highlights the need for her pre service teachers to have an understanding of such science topics from the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) including inq uiry, science and technology, science in personal and social perspectives, and the nature of science. She uses extensive readings from the foundation text Science for All Americans (Rutherford & Ahlgren, 1991) to provoke pre service personal beliefs of the students about
166 teaching and learning science. These beliefs are continually problematized in reflective writing and other specific course activities. Students are a secondary external influe nce on her plans for teaching and learning about reflection. Pre service teacher beliefs about teaching and learning science are central to many reflective activities, including concept mapping and the methods course final paper. Additionally, she sees pre service teacher motivation for reflection lacking, even though she cites anecdotal evidence of pre service teachers who are unsuccessful and does anything but reflect about reflection, even though accreditation does require quantifying reflective practice assignments. She instead feels approaches that use rubrics to examine reflection may t he best of reflections always have answers you 186). This attitude is consistent with her emphasis on reflection as a means to personal grow not an externally supplied set of standards. Curriculum Table 4 5 lists representative aspects of course and program experiences for the stimuli content, process, and outc ome components of reflection. Claire notes that field experiences occur for pre service teachers throughout their program and serve as a stimulus for reflection. Within the science methods course, more specific stimuli are present. Pre service teachers wri te an inquiry lesson plan using the 5E design (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate), and videotape delivery of this lesson in their practicum experience. As mentioned above, she uses course readings to provoke pre
167 service teachers int o think ing a bout their own beliefs on teaching and learning. A discussion notes. The content of refl pre service teachers emphasizes the complexity of science teaching, considering such topics as inquiry, lab experiences, and the nature of science. The predominant focus of pre service thinking, however, is their ow n ideas about science teaching and learning. This focus occurs in many assignments, from reflective journals to weekly discussions to concept maps. Claire provides many explicit and diverse activities as processes for reflection. The secondary science meth ods course syllabus prompts pre service teachers by providing weekly questions to ponder These questions are then addressed in written reflective journals. However, Claire does not review or grade these journals, which allow pre service teachers to be in trospective and candid in their writing. Included in the guidelines for analysis of the video of the inquiry lesson are multiple prompts for pre service teachers to consider as they analyze content, instruction, and assessment. The culminating paper in the class guides pre service teachers in an ethnographic study of self, in which they compile all of their reflective writing throughout the semester, problematizing the various ideas encountered with respect to their own beliefs about science teaching and le arning. methods course and field experi e nce highlight instructional decision making, but more significantly the
168 development of an understanding of the self. Claire feels reflection contributes to the understanding by pre service teachers of the art of teaching and the aspects of teaching uch an 59 ). She has designed specific assignments and experiences in her program to counter that student preconception, such as the questions used in analysis of the inqu iry lesson plan. Ultimately, she wants them to identify th eir own identity as individuals. 162). Table 4 curriculum Orientations to Reflection wit h Curriculum Claire manifests a deliberative orientation to reflection through many of the components in her science methods course and field experiences. She certainly emphasizes relevant and meaning ful student learning and effective decision making, equipping a pre service planning and instruction, su ch as the learning cycle lesson plan and video analysis. Science subject matter (inquiry, science and technology, nature of science) occupies a of reflective writ ing and discussion. The process of video analysis of inquiry instruction and the variety of pedagogy and learning activities present. Also significantly present in Clai curriculum is the personalistic orientation, emphasizing personal growth and development. Pre service teachers continually
169 examine their own personal beliefs about science teaching and learning. She employs a variety of processes, such as a concept m ap in which they represent their beliefs about the nature of science, related to themes from Science for All Americans. Weekly journals are deliberately introspective, serving the needs of the learner rather than satisfying a course requirement for the ins tructor. The ethnographic study of self beliefs. She makes this approach and its messiness clear in her instructions for the inquiry lesson plan, where she encourages h er pre service teachers to look at orientations to reflection are represented in Table 4 6. Figure 4 science education courses The sizes of various elements r epresent their different emphase s in her thinking about reflection, such as the larger impact of subject matter as an external influence on her conceptions. program have relatively equal emphasis, as shown by the explicit course and program experiences described by Claire T hey all function to support either the deliber ative or personalistic orientation. This mature articulation of reflection by Claire is facilitated by her two decades o f experience at her institution and her involvement as department chair in decisions about the curriculum in the science education progr am. In contrast to balanced approach to all four components of reflection supports a more specific focus on the deliberative and personalistic orientations, with each component providing explicit support for both of these complex orientations.
170 Case Three: Dan Dan teaches science methods at a regional, comprehensive public university in the northeast. His program offers a Master of Education degree with initial certification in a secondary science content area, and offer s dif ferent tracks with completion in one to two years. In addition to university based coursework, pre service teachers complete a pre practicum and practicum. Approximately twelve students complete the program each year. The program features a culminatin g performance assessment using the certification criteria. Dan has been at this institution for six years, and worked as a secondary science teacher in New York and Brazil. During his time as a teacher in Brazil, he completed the process of National Board Certification. Dan conceives reflection as a part of the practice of teaching in which the teacher considers their own actions and decisions and their impact on student learning. As noted in Table 4 7, Dan does not restrict reflective practice to an isolated experience involving only the practitioner, but looks for opportunities in which reflection is enabled through collaboration in a learning setting. Connected to this idea of collaborative needs to take place in an organized manner, leading to it becoming part of the routine of teaching. Dan also asserts that time is a critical resource that must be provided in order for meaningful reflection to occur, particularly collaborative reflection. was his exp erience going through the process of National Board Certification, as he articulates in Table 4 7. The
171 certification exercises consisted of a series of portfolio entries, each focused almost entirely on reflection. Different reflective entries addressed pl anning, instruction, and learning; small group inquiry; whole class discussion; and collaboration and contributions to the professional community. These emphases on reflection as an analytical process contribute d evelopment of reflection by his own learners. Another influence o s the Understanding by Design framework (Wiggins & McTighe, 2001). The framework is a model for organizing curriculum based on three levels: what is worthwhi le knowing ; what is important to know ; and what results in enduring understanding pre service teachers to apply learning about teaching in situations with their own students, then reflecting on the experience. conceptions of reflection. He discusses the emphasis on refl ection contained in the Teacher Performance Assessment pre service teacher evaluation model that his state has adopted. In preparing for the TPA, pre service teachers engage in reflection through analysis of planning, videos of lesson delivery, and student learning. As the process becomes more integrated into the teacher education program, reflection will become a larger part of all coursework. Another influence from the milieu that Dan references enthusiastically in Table 4 7 is the use of technology. He e nvisions emerging technologies as vehicles for meaningful individual and collaborative reflection. One example he suggests is a video platform that
172 would allow videos of lesson delivery to be uploaded and shared in a virtual environment. Components of Ref Curriculum course, as listed in Table 4 8. The first stimulus is a series of videos in which teachers model instructional practices in science teaching, fo llowed by a discussion of effective practices. The other two lesson planning activities Dan uses to generate reflection derive from two of the National Board Certification portfolio entries. One assignment is the planning, preparation, and implementation o f a scientific inquiry activity. This mini lesson is planned and delivered in collaboration with another pre service teacher, and is videotaped. The second collaborative lesson features learning through whole class discussion. Specific guidelines are provi ded in the course syllabus for both of these mini lessons. but somewhat narrow focusing primarily on the two mini lessons described above. The ideas addressed are the same for both min i lessons They consider successful and unsuccessful aspects of the lessons, evidence of student learning, pre service teacher learning about collaboration, and plans for improvement. pre service reflection are explicit. With the videos of other teachers, the class specifically looks at what the teachers do and do not do in modeling effective instruction. Discussions of course activities and readings occur both in class meetings and in an online fo rum. For the videos of the mini lessons, the partnering pre service teachers answer five questions directly in a written reflective analysis. Dan conceives the first video analysis of the
173 inquiry activity as a transformative experience for most of his lear ners. As a result, their analysis in the second whole class discussion video is more complex. Dan aims for his pre service teachers to be successful in questioning their own and that 74). He asserts that reflection can provide a mechanism for revealing the complexity of the science classroom. Dan hopes to give pre service teachers a good beginning in the process of reflective practice, having developed an appreciation for reflection. Curriculum The curricular choices Dan makes in his science education program emphasize the technical and deliberative orientations to r eflection. Table 4 9 represents how the different components of reflection align with these two orientations. Reflection in the technical orientation addresses questions of teaching effectiveness, determined by some external authority. Dan uses videos of teachers modeling effective teaching to introduce his pre service teachers to reflection on instruction. The content of reflection from these exemplary videos consists of evaluation of teaching behaviors. The other major reflective activities are aligned with the deliberative orientation. Both the inquiry and whole class discussion mini lessons allow for decision making on the part of pre service teachers, and while the reflective prompts are typical (what went well, what would you do different), the level of reflection is complex due to the use of evidence to substantiate learning claims. Instructional decisions are analyzed collaboratively based on the interactions of the learning context, not some externally imposed criteria.
174 conceptions and intentions are represented in Figure 4 and the milieu of learning is the only external influence. Stimuli and process of reflection are emphasized more ex plicitly in his curriculum than the content and outcome components. At first glance, Figure 4 3 reflection appears somewhat simple, with only one personal influence and one external influence This le ads to components emphasizing technical orientation and to a larger extent, the deliberative orientation. His ideas, however, are not necessarily simple, but rather explicit in his emphasis on the deliberative aspect of reflection. His design for the curri culum of the science methods course provides experiences in each component all supporting the deliberative orientation. This is indicative of his foundation ideas about reflection which emanat e from his National Board experience, highlighting video based stimuli and sophisticated collaborative and structured processes of reflection. Even professional experience with reflection have informed his more clearly purposed appro ach. Case Four: Jeff Jeff is a veteran science educator at a small public university in the northeast. He has been at this institution for twenty five years He teaches science methods and supervises science student teachers. He is also the program coordinator for the secondary science program, which is a fifth year program leading to certification with a In addition, Jeff also prepares the accreditation reports for the secondary science teacher education program. He has been an inte gral part of his
175 conceptual framework is reflective of his ideas. In contrast to Bob and Dan, whose deas are more pervasive in the institution, and his familiarity with the program is more comprehensive. at which he teaches is small, with an enrollment of around four thousand. Mos t of the students in the professional education program are residents of the state, with a significant proportion of those from the local area. The secondary science education program typically has less than twenty students enrolled. Jeff collaborates with a full time clinical faculty between teaching science education courses in the program and working as a liaison with the secondary school classroom teachers where pre servi ce teachers are placed. In Table 4 1 0, several references from Jeff exemplify his ideas about reflection. One important aspect of his personal conceptions is the relationship of reflection and lifelong learning. Jeff sees these two ideas as essential attributes of an effective teacher preparation program. The role of the reflective practitioner is clearly stated in the program, with a focus on instructional leadership. Jeff conceives reflective practitioners as ag ents of innovation and change in their schools and the profession. ideas about reflection are represented in the program witho ut much change due to external influences. This is largely due to his long tenure (twenty five years) at the university and his extensive involvement in program design, particularly with respect to
176 framework. That conceptual framework features a strong emphasis on reflective practice connected to lifelong learning. is a function of the deliberately modest size of the institution and teacher education program. This intentionally small enrollment enables pre service teachers to have a unique level of access to faculty. Jeff considers this an important factor in serving the teacher preparation needs of the region. Ex The milieu of learning represents a significant influence on the implementation of small and manageable size is a potent infl reflective practice, that small population also presents a constraint. In Table 4 10, Jeff describes the difficulties of developing and maintaining relationships with mentor teachers in the small local school di stricts. Schools have small numbers of science teachers, limiting the breadth of experiences for student teachers. Due to social, economic, and cultural issues, the concerns of the communities with which Jeff collaborates in the placing of student teachers present unique opportunities for involvement. the development of reflection, connected to the concerns of the communities. Science learning with an emphasis on science tec hnology society (STS) is a predominant theme in his program.
177 nature of science, a course emphasizing science technology society, a s cience methods course and accompanying field experience, and student teaching. Table 4 11 highlights the variety of stimuli, content, process, and outcome components of reflection Since Jeff has a comprehensive understanding of and exten sive influence over the secondary science education program, it is appropriate to view his intentions through a wide lens. The emphasis on the local community is prese nt in these assignments, including an STS lesson plan involving a local issue. Often these lesson plans feature investigation and evaluation of local environmental concerns such as agriculture and mining. In addition to more traditional 5E lesson plans in science teaching, reflective practice is engaged through the nature of the student teaching placement, frequently occurring in schools of the local Native American nation. behavi ors, but on pre service role in doing science. Consistent with the strong connection to the local community, analysis of lesson plans focuses on the relevance of learning approaches and topics. The structural methods employed as processes for learning how to reflect include common techniques such as student teaching journals and student case studies. An assignment more focused on self awareness is a self reflection paper connecting the pre service t history and nature of science seminar. Autobiography is also used to reveal the
178 personal beliefs of learners concerning the teaching and learning of science. An explicit approach pres ent in the field experience and student teaching segments of the program is the presence of collaboration. University science education faculty and clinical faculty work together to deliver coursework and supervise field experiences. Clinical faculty are a lso charged with developing and maintaining close relationships with local secondary science teachers. As Jeff recognized when discussing the constraints on the program, local teachers who are willing and capable of collaborating in the development of scie nce teachers are a valuable resource in the region. A strong network is present to enable a team approach throughout the sequence of field experiences. The outcomes of reflection in the program include emphases on understanding the complexity of the scien ce classroom and an appreciation of the importance of reflection, but also an engagement with concerns that extend beyond the classroom consistent with the program conceptual framework emphasizing lifelong learning Due to the connections of the universit y with the region it serves, issues of rural poverty, industrial development, and minority populations are present in the program With the emphasis on ideas and concerns that lead beyond traditional example s of curricular choices reveal a complex set of orientations to reflection. Different components of reflection in the courses and program experiences for which he is responsible align with the reflection in and on action, deliber ative, personalistic, and critical orientations as shown in Table 4 12 The approach taken i s a process of reflection that involves strong collaboration between university faculty, clinical faculty, and the mentor teacher and aligns with the reflection i n and on action orientation. Aspects of the deliberative orientation are
179 present in the case study assignment, focusing on the student commonplace as a lens on effective instructional decision making. development. Activities such as the reflective paper written in the history and nature of science seminar examine the pre service autobiographical sketch written prior to student teaching connects that ide ntity of science learner further into the role of science teacher. The internalizing of reflection as an essential component of personal development for lifelong learning is an explicit goal of the entire teacher education program. courses these ideas of reflection are taken to a higher level of complexity with pre service the situation of the disadvantaged. The teacher education program has a close partnership with the local Native American nation, and pre service teachers work with poverty and the environment are also central features of many reflective activities, such as the STS lesson. Fi gure 4 program. The graphic of reveals not a singularly purposed method aimed at the development of best practices, but rather a mosaic of ide as that interact with the context in which he teaches. These approaches provide pre service teacher s experiences in multiple orientations, with the most significant emphase s on the personalistic and critical orientations. The outcome component is featured
180 program, not as an added on characteristic exclusive to a methods course, but rather as a natural consequence of the philosophy of the entire institution. Case Five: Phil Phil is the science education faculty member at a mid sized state university in an urban area of the west. This university, with an enrollment of around twenty thousand students, is one campus of a large state university system. The system prepares approximately sixty percent of the teachers in the state. The secondary science teacher education program is a fifth year, credential only sequence, graduating around fifty teachers each year. Phil has worked in science education for thirty five years, and has been at this instituti on for twenty years. Prior to getting his doctorate and moving into higher education, he taught middle school science for fifteen years. He teaches the secondary science methods course, but does not supervise student teachers. He has also written two books for NSTA on the topics of integrating science and mathematics. Since his descriptions of reflective practice was limited to what happens in his scien c e methods course, it is inappropriate to discuss the entire science education program, as was done in Jef 4 13, are less formalized than some others represented in this study. He takes an approach to the development of reflection that is understated and not necessarily explicit. He asserts a close connection between the practices of science and reflection, in their bases in evidence and being reflective prac
181 enjoyable; practitioners should not view it as a task to be completed, but as a positive experience leading to a better understanding of themselves. al Conceptions professional experiences as a middle and high school science teacher and his formal education in completing his doctorate. As a science teacher, he developed a prac tical approach to reflection based on an approach to teaching that rejected traditional curriculum from textbooks. Reinforcing this method were efforts that promoted inquiry pedagogy in science teaching. While working on his doctorate, he encountered the c onstructivist philosophies of Piaget and Vygotsky, which caused him to further problematize his thinking about teaching and learning. Dewey and Freire were other formative influences during this time. Students and focuses on preparing teachers to serve in urban schools. The student population is highly divers e, with a high minority enrollment, greater than fifty percent Hispanic. A s he recognizes in his statements in Table 4 13, this population of learners may lack confidence in their own learning, and bring negative ideas about science teaching and learning t o the program. Consequently, a major aspect of his intentions for their learning concerns the development of positive attitudes and beliefs about science through reflective practice. Phil also brings recognition of the political realities of teaching to th e program, emphasizing awareness of the impact of policy and accountability pressures.
182 Curriculum The various methods course activities that serve as stimuli, content, process, and m are presented in Table 4 14. Stimuli for reflection in the methods course frequently present different curriculum influences to pre service teachers, such as state and national science frameworks and standards and trade books and journals focusing on sci ence activities. The central teaching activity used as a stimulus for reflection is an inquiry activity presentation and analysis. making about science curriculum. Questions of context are addressed in each occasion of reflection. In evaluating science activities from journals and trade books, pre service teachers are asked to consider the relevance and feasibility of curriculum for their intended students and context. Phil encourages his pre service teachers to make connections to the urban learning setting and minority learners. All stimuli, including state and national standards are examined through this lens of relevance and utility. w here he makes more extensive use of in class discussion than structured analyses. Phil models reflective practice by problematizing the good and bad in the standards and frameworks. This challenge to authority empowers his pre service teachers to feel comf ortable in raising their own questions about those official curriculum documents. The processes of emphasizing sharing and community. This emphasis on positive outco his students. With a different population of learners, his approach might be different. His recognition of the attitudes and beliefs his pre service teachers bring to the program
183 influences his methods c ourse with its focus on development of professional identity and enjoyment of reflection on practice. Curriculum methods course deals with decisions about curriculum. In T able 4 15, the different components of reflection are aligned with three orientations: reflection in and on action, deliberative, and personalistic. The process of reframing curriculum modeled by Phil follows the cycle of problem setting and reframing in S is also consistent with reflection in and on action. The deliberative orientation is closely matched with the approach taken in the program. Pre service teachers interactions with variou s subject matter influences lead to decision making about curriculum, based not on external criteria but on their understanding of their own learners and learning settings. Phil intends these experiences to enable his learners to develop confidence in thei r own personal judgment. The development of a professional identity and positive personal beliefs are aspects of the personalistic orientation. Phil notes that the process of reflective journaling is an introspective one, not a public one. Again, his under standing of the personal characteristics of his pre service teachers informs these orientations to curriculum are presented in Figure 5 5. The graphic illustrates the significance of tudes and beliefs intentions for reflection especially in his emphasis on the need for science teaching and learning to be an enjoyable experience. In a different context, his approach would not
185 development of reflection by pre service teachers is the ability to understand the reasons for their instructional decisions, as she articulates in the quotes in Table 4 16. experiences, both as school science teacher and univ ersity science teacher educator. These influences are highlighted in the second section of Table 4 16. Her experience as a school science teacher connects directly to her idea about decision making. Careful deliberation on instructional decisions, and unde rstand ing the reasons behind those decisions, were central to her practice, leading to more effective decision making in the futur e. The second major influence came from her involvement in science education professional associations, such as the Associatio n for Science Teacher Education (ASTE). Her interaction with other science educators provided reinforcement and enhancement for her notions of reflection. All three commonplaces of students, subject matter, and t he milieu of learning have some degree of influence on how Wanda operationalizes her ideas of reflection. Influences from subject matter are captured in her statement in Table 4 16 relating to changes in the national science standards. While she acknowledg es that changes in content emphases will occur through new common core standards, she is confident that the approach in place at her institution will manage that transition well. The milieu provides a significant influence through requirements for teacher education program design and approval from the state. An important state requirement is for secondary teacher education programs to have two methods courses addressing
186 int egrate literacy with subject area methods, resulting in the two methods courses. As noted above, the conceptual framework is a relevant authority for the secondary science teacher education program. The emphasis on reflection from that framework is present not only in science methods, but throughout the entire set of programs. When teacher education students begin the program, their capability for meaningful reflection is limited. Wanda recognizes this disposition, and feels the program of study needs to pr ovide explicit instruction for the development of reflection, addressing student anxiety about honest reflection. Her program provides opportunities to move beyond their typically descriptive reflection in their early teacher education coursework. Componen Curriculum number of experiences explicitly designed for the development o f reflective practice by pre service teachers. These different assignments aligned to the stimuli, content, process, and outcome components of reflection are presented in Table 4 17. Reflection is stimulated in the science/literacy methods courses through several specific assignments, which have concurrent field experiences. In the first course, pre service teachers plan and deliver a science lesson in their field assignment, which is also videotaped. This videotaped lesson becomes the impetus for an action research project, in which they formulate a research question, collect and analyze data, and interpret their findings. Reflection is also engaged through the design of a unit science lesson plan. In another assignment, students examine their own beliefs a bout science by writing a science autobiography.
187 The content of reflection in these reflective assignments addresses multiple ideas about science teaching and learning. Effectiveness in lesson design and delivery is examined, considering achievement of learning objectives, use of assessment, unanticipated outcomes, and areas for improvement. The action research project includes examination of instructional decisions with a focus on solutions to the problem identified through reflective analysis. In the s cience autobiography, pre service teachers problematize their own memories of meaningful science teaching and learning. Events occurring in field experiences are examined throughout the program. methods courses feature a series of explicit processe s for the development of reflection, beginning with the videotaped science lesson. Guidelines for this lesson development and analysis are detailed for pre service teachers, including the use of multiple resources for planning. Pre service teachers present a ten minute segment of the lesson to the methods class, including analysis of student work. A particular problem detected in the lesson becomes the question investigated in the action research project, for which explicit procedures are given. An addition al authentic reflective experience occurs when pre service teachers present their action research findings at a regional Professional Development Schools conference. The program includes both online and face to face discussions, in which pre service teache rs problematize aspects of course content and field experiences. Development of reflection is explicitly facilitated through the construction of a portfolio, an ongoing process throughout the program experiences. Analysis of portfolio artifacts focuses on three questions: What? So what? Now What? The portfolio serves as a culminating
188 assessment product demonstrating how pre service teachers understand their decision making. While there are multiple and varied activities in the stimuli, content, and process components, the outcome component has a more singular focus. The outcome of teachers who are independent thinkers who make effective decisions for student learning based on evidence. The orientations o n in and on action, deliberative, and personalistic orientations. Table 4 18 shows the alignment of the representative co mponents with these orientations. involvement in and familiarity with the entire science education program, it is appropriate to discuss these orientations in the program, not merely the curriculum of her methods course. pre service teachers make use of a problem they detect in their field experiences, which Schn characterizes as a reflective practicum. They then take this problem through the cycle of problem setting and reframing through the action research process. The res ult of this cycle of reflection in and on action is the development of practical knowledge. program, with its emphasis on decision making. Pre service teachers interact wit h the commonplaces of students, subject matter, and the milieu of learning through their field experiences. They continuously consider their decisions about curriculum and instruction, drawing from multiple sources of evidence. They engage in individual an d
189 collaborative reflection, analyzing decisions retrospectively and in anticipation of future events. The program focuses almost exclusively on the outcome of effective decision making, consistent with this orientation. There are some components that align with the personalistic orientation. These include the assignments that examine pre service science autobiography, which is a more introspective exercise, is personalistic in nature. Certain aspects of the portfolio are personalistic, particularly with the focus on to be included Figure 4 intentions for reflection. The explicit and detailed components of stimuli and process are highlighted in her program, as illustrated by the larger size of those elements in the graphic. Similar to the graphics presented for Claire and Jeff, Figure 4 6 for Wanda illustrates a mature program, with specific a ims for pre service development in the deliberative orientation. Each component contributes to meaningful decision making, conceptual framework is naturally consistent with Wan involvement in its construction. Case Comparisons While each participant has a unique approach to reflection within his or her respective science education program, there are some patterns that bear further examination. Comparison s were made between the six science educators based on demographic characteristics in addition to their ideas about reflection.
190 Looking at demographic information on the six science educators, presented in Table 4 19, two broad categories are discerned: y ears of experience and influence over the science education program. Bob and Dan both have less than ten years of experience in their respective programs, and they also exert less influence over the curriculum in their science methods courses and teacher e ducation programs. The four other faculty members, each with more than twenty years of experience, all consider themselves to have 100% influence over the curriculum in the ir science methods course, and in all but one case (Phil), they have 100% influence over the design of the science education program. When comparing these demographic patterns with Figure 4 8, which indicates the orientations to reflection emphasized it is noted that Bob and Dan do not promote the more complex personalistic or critical o rientations. The approaches they take in their science methods courses focus more on the technical and deliberative orientations. This connection of the science educator to the design of the program is an important one. Of the six faculty members examined three of them are not only highly familiar with the science education program, but control the curriculum for it. Their his careful selection and cultivation of mentor teachers in fi el d experiences. Due to their years of experience, Claire, Jeff, and Wanda participated in the development of the c o nceptual frameworks of their teacher education units, and have integrated their ideas about reflection into those documents Bob is an out of unit faculty member (chemistry department), and has not participated at that level, so the reach of his ideas about reflection is more limited to the methods course only
191 Another pattern worth considering is the set of influences on conceptions of reflection, presented in Table 4 20. The most significant personal influence comes from the experiences they have had as classroom science teachers. They cited examples of how reflection has impacted their understanding o f their own t eaching practice. Dan highlighted his involvement in the process of National Board Certification as central to his conceptions of reflection. That influence is clearly seen in his structuring of reflective assignments in the methods course tha t parallel the reflective analyses completed by National Board candidates. Wanda also described how her activities in science education professional associations have affirmed her emphasis on reflection. Only two participants, Claire and Phil, cited their own formal education as an influence on how they conceive reflection. They both identified specific features of their graduate pro grams that imprinted on their current approaches, such as to his own urban minority learne rs. By considering these formative experiences, the meaning, value, and purpose of reflection of these science educators are made clear, and connections to their own practice are demonstrated. T able 4 20 also identifies significant external influences on their conceptions of reflection. As noted earlier, these influenc es occur as a function of the interactions of the science educators with students, subject matter, and t he milieu of learning This is clearly exhibited in the case of Bob, who referred t o the deficit of awareness of his pre service teachers with respect to cultural and social diversity. From this student influence, Bob endeavors to provide experiences that generate reflection on this specific area. Several participants also acknowledged t he influence of science subject matter.
192 Wanda noted that common core standards would have an impact on how she approaches reflective assignments in the future. Every participant acknowledged the influence of the milieu of learning on their intentions for r eflection, most often with respect to accreditation requirements. While Claire noted that meaningful reflection might be inconsistent with compliance oriented rubrics, Dan saw opportunities for enhancing collaborative reflection as a result of an explicit process There is also a connection between experience and how external influences are manifested. Bob and Dan, the least experienced participants, describe accreditation requirements as significant influences on how they approach reflection in their curri cular decisions This can be seen, for example, in Assessment requirements into methods course assignments. Wanda, who has more experience than Bob and Dan, also acknowledged the influence of accreditation re quirements, but clearly described reflection as a focus in the department that exists independently. She noted 36). For the educators in this st udy experience is a factor that enables more flexibility in how they implement course activities that promote reflection. These influences do not act in isolation, exclusive to each other, but rather impact approaches to reflection in an interactive way An example of this interaction is evident in how technology society curriculum, a subject matter influence, is related to his recognition of the milieu in which his pre service teachers operate. Personal and external i nfluenc es are also not completely ab sent or present for
193 any science educator, but are identified in Table 4 20 based on the ir significance in interview dialogue In Figure 4 7, I present the emphases of the six participants on the different components of reflectio n. While each component was present in each case to varying degrees of importance, there were more prominent components for different participants. All six science educators clearly articulated the role of various course and program activities in stimulati ng reflection with pre service teachers. Content and process were strongly emphasized by three participants, Bob, Claire, and Phil. Process was strongly emphasized by Claire, Dan, and Wanda. Outcome was a significant approache s Claire was the only participant who articulated a significant emphasis in all four components of reflection. In Chapter 1 I mad e a case that science educators should consider each of these components as a way to understand and frame the reflective tasks in their curricula Although all six science educators do address each component, there is some risk in ignoring particular components at the expense of others. If content is neglected, the ideas considered in reflection may degenerate into simple teachin g behaviors, rather than the more complex ideas of beliefs and relationships and that can be examined with more explicit direction. Likewise, if the process component is neglected, the activities through which pre service teachers learn how to reflect may consist solely of journaling. Figure 4 8 illustrates the orientations to reflection within the science teacher education curricula of the six participants Just as the review of the science education literature revealed approaches in programs and courses t hat spanned across orientations, no science educator in this study manifested a singular orientation. Unlike
194 the identification of components, each of which was present to some degree in each intended curriculum the presence of particular orientations was more distinct and specific orientations were absent for each participant The deliberative orientation, focusing on effective decision making about curriculum and instruction, is the only common orientation curriculum The r eflection in and on action orientation and the personalistic orientation are identified in four programs. The technical orientation, focusing on effective instructional behaviors based on best practices, is present in only two programs, those of Bob and Da n Bob and Dan are also identified as the science educators with the least years of experience and the least influence over course and program curriculum. regional issues of the Native American nation and rural pover ty, is the only program with a critical orientation. Recognizing the orientations to reflection within these programs is critical in order to understand how reflection is conceived and intended by science educators. As Valli (1997) suggests, teacher educat ion programs should endeavor to provide meaningful experiences in reflection across all orientations, addressing questions ranging from teaching effectiveness based on best practices to issues of equity and oppression.
195 Table 4 eflection and influences on those conceptions. Personal conceptions of reflection Fred: How does your own experience influence your perspectives on the development of reflection? Bob: I guess one of the things practice] not attached to anything, to no context, I think it makes it very difficult or students to process. I guess do with them is to provide them with some very specific contexts to illustrate specific points on how teaching is maybe more complicated than they thought (BI1, 139 149). We sort of want to get them to internalize this reflective nature and not have to depend on an external regard. We want that intrinsic motivation in there. We want that to become part of them (BI1, 57 59). Influences on personal conceptions Fred: How do you engage your pre service science teachers in reflection? Bob: I use a lot of personal examples from when I t aught K 12, how I thought I had designed a very good activity and the kind of things that I obviously failed to take into consideration before handing it out, to give them an idea of the kind of thought that is needed before doing an activity, the kind of because of your background, because of your preparation (BI1, 4 18). I pull them [personal examples] from my own personal experience, I guess. obviously I reflected on them quite a bit after they happened, which is maybe why I then selected them to use as reflection in the methods course; because they had an impact on my teaching (BI1, 152 154). I grew up as a military brat. I lived in Tampa for three different 207). External influences on conceptions Subject matter Often these case studies do involve some interesting ethical issues like the teaching of evolution, the tradeoff of making an assignment authentic vs. violation of privacy (BD1, 19 21). [An experience] I had with my student teacher the other day: they were doing cheek cells you check in to any kind re commended for use anymore and sent that to them (BI1, 163 169).
196 Table 4 1. Continued Students How do you get students to do things like this reflective journaling? You have to grade them. You have to assign sufficient amount of points to them to ma ke it worth their while to provide that external stimulus (BI1, 54 47). think teaching the way we were taught, even if those methods are outdated, is best. Te (BI1, 181 184). them to become aware. There are a lot of our s tudents who have never been out of the state by the time they graduate (BI1, 195 201). Milieu [Students complete] a series of reflections after videocase studies/case study readings. Most of these are chosen to specifically address some aspect of the Bo ard of Teaching standards. Our accreditation has become exceedingly tedious and we must show a unique assignment in the syllabus for each standard (BD2, 13 16). Assessment lot of the instruction in the ed core to increase the amount of reflection (BI1, 33 35). The problem we have here a little bit is we have three reasonably large univers ities in the which then means with the amount of early field experience in the classroom, we have placement issues. So getting teachers to take students to teach one less formal setting (BI1, 123 128).
197 Table 4 Stimuli Content P rocess Outcome Methods Course Case studies Videocases Personal examples Alternative Learning Center lesson delivery teaching Central ideas of science teaching Discussion Written lesson plan analysis Lesson delivery conference Accred itation outcomes Effective decision making Intrinsic motivation Understanding the complicated nature of teaching Student Teaching Lesson planning and delivery Outreach events Lesson plans Issues arising from their own unique teaching episode Cha nges to instruction from feedback and own perceptions Relationship of activities to standards Weekly prompted journal writing Student teaching observation conference
198 Table 4 Component Stimulus Content Process Outcome Technical Lesson delivery Writing, Supervisory conference Reflection in and on action Case studies, Personal examples Unique situations Repertoire of knowledge Deliberative Multiple perspectives, Instr uctional decisions Decision making Personalistic Critical
199 Table 4 4 Personal conceptions of reflection Fred: Re flection is the way to the next paradigm? creative and critical in your thought processing (CI1, 174 176). plan] in practice, including when you use the model (CD3, 54 56). Influences on personal conceptions Fred: Where did your deliberate emphasis on reflection come from? Claire: Wow a lifetime. I guess even my own undergraduate teacher preparation. It was a very unique program because we did a summer set of coursework and then the next year we were in student teaching all day every day for really the whole year. So my program started me out and was involved with several grant projects [The grant director] was a huge proponent of reflective practice So nobody ever let up on me on the reflective practice. Then the whole action research movement came along which is really about causing people in the classroom to be reflective (CI1, 115 137). u should be reflecting on, how to reflect on it. That was one of the very early books that I was introduced to in my career (CI1, 154 156).
200 Table 4 4. Continued External influences on conceptions Subject matter When you think about science teachi ng, there certainly are standards and thoughts we have about doing science, how we do science, why we do it, and I guess I really do want you to know what the documents say. I want you to have an understanding, content wise, of what they mean and where the y came from (CI1, 26 29). Students Fred: Is there a common source of resistance [to reflecting]? understanding, even though most of them are very recently adolescents themselves, a nd some of them may still be adolescents themselves. Most of the students that get here have been raised in such an authoritarian, 59). Fred: What comes up that gives you trouble? Cl 140). Milieu Fred: How would you characterize the role of external forces such as NCATE in your program? Claire: NCATE may have caused us to put more rubrics around it [reflective practice assignment s]. Putting rubrics around things means that you have reflections always have answers you should be looking for. In fact, a lot of times you should be looking for a new answer t hat has a combination or 187).
201 Table 4 Stimuli Content Process Outcome Methods Course Inquiry lesson plan Videotaped lesson delivery Course readings Nature of science paper Learners Inquiry teaching and learning Lab experiences Collaboration Complexity of teaching Resonance/dissonance of own ideas about teaching Weekly questions to ponder journals unseen by Claire Video analy sis Concept mapping Ethnographic study of self Inquiry lesson self evaluation questions Analysis of instruction for planning Learning for all Understanding of own instructional decisions Understanding the art of teaching Understanding self in relat ion to learners Field Experiences Practicum experience Journaling
202 Table 4 Component Stimulus Content Process Outcome Technical Reflection in and on action Deliberative Subject matter Instruction, subject matter, learners Video analysis Instructional decision making Personalistic Teaching performance Personal beliefs about science teaching & learning Introspective journaling Concept mapping Ethnograph ic study of self Understanding self Critical
203 Table 4 Personal conceptions of reflection impact student learning (DI1, 97 98). I think reflective practice has a bad connotation of always being a singular, isolated, me and the student behind closed doors kind of activity the most pr oductive reflective practice takes place in a learning setting with colleagues (DI1, 153 156). pre service teachers] always having to examine what they do in light of what they want to do or in light of outcomes and identify and critique themselv es. So that, to me, is a spend enough time thinking about or self evaluating our work or the work of others in any kind of organized or constructive way and maki ng sure that reflective piece is part of the routine of teaching helps to embed it in what you do (DI1, 207 212). Influences on personal conceptions I think I learned about reflective practice when I became a national board candidate. Board certificatio n at that time was a grueling adventure, one that focused almost entirely on reflection. Reflection of planning, reflection of learning, reflection on practice, inquiry, discussion, reflection on collaboration, contributions to the community, the professio nal community (DI1, 94 97). Fred: Explain to me how the Wiggins and McTighe framework, the enduring understandings relate to this whole process of being a reflective practitioner. Dan: One of the ways to make t he study of teaching longer lasting, more mea ningful; you applying the knowledge to a situation with students, that is where the real learning takes place and then the opportunity to then further reflec t on that learning in a metacognitive manner adds to the quality of the experience, and because of that entire constellation of activities and learning, the students come away with a more profound understanding of what it means to tea world (DI2 61 68).
204 Table 4 7. Continued External influences on conceptions Milieu We have instituted a more robust teacher performance assessment based on the California model [Teacher Performance Assessment] and a major part of that exercise is to re flect on practice by looking at planning, videotapes of planned instruction, and reflecting on student learning, so reflection is throughout that process and each of those components becomes embedded in the coursework they do (DI1, 10 14). [An important a spect] is the role of emerging technologies in reflection. Both at the individual and at the collaborative level. There are technologies three years ago that make reflection not only more efficient but more seamle ss with practice. Anything from Twitter to computerized dictation to video cameras in your phone to social networks. It just goes on and on, the potential for reflection to become a more embedded part of practice and more transparent (DI1, 157 162).
205 Tab le 4 Stimuli Content Process Outcome Methods Course Videos of other science teachers modeling instruction Videotaped scientific inquiry mini lesson Videotaped whole class discussion mini lesson Successful & unsuccessful aspects of lessons Online discussion forum Prompted analysis of lesson planning and instruction in two different videos Question their own instructional decisions Understand complexity of the science classroom Appre ciation of the importance of reflection
206 Table 4 Component Stimulus Content Process Outcome Technical Video of exemplary lesson delivery Teaching behaviors Written answers to questions Reflection in and on action Deliberative Lesson delivery Decisions in lesson planning and delivery Retrospective analysis, individual and collaborative Effective decision making Personalistic Critical
207 Table 4 nceptions of reflection and influences on those conceptions. Personal conceptions of reflection We think of [reflection] as a fairly normal thing to be concerned about as far as preparing future teachers; that they be lifelong learners and as part of that process they need to be reflective practitioners (JI1, 25 27). Reflective Practitioner models inquiry, practice, and reflection effectively uses research based models of curriculum, instruction, and assessmen t meets the diverse learning needs of students applies knowledge of local, state, and national standards effectively uses instructional and assistive technology promotes inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving creates positive learning environ ments for all students prepared to become an instructional leader (JD2, 71 80) Reflection provides the foundation for innovation and change (JD2, 176 177) Influences on personal concepti ons Jeff: That concept existed here when I came here and so it seems to be pretty pervasive here. university we are somewhat unique in the system. We are one of the university colleges One of the reasons for that is kind of an emphasis on stud ents having access to faculty so the idea of reflective practice is kind of like part of the environment of not only our college considered important in this p articular region where we are (JI1, 291 313).
208 Table 4 10. Continued External influences on conceptions Milieu The main problem we have is because we are small and the school districts we are working with are small, is being able to sustain a consist ency in our arrangements with our mentor teachers and our students. In other words, the main constraints, for instance, when I mentioned the things that were dear to my heart, in any given semester. In secondary scie school districts you have a limited number of biology teachers, chemistry teachers, physics teachers to work with (JI1, 316 327). Many of the placements that we have in addition to having the [Native American] nation; w e also have a number of rural school settings. We have one local town that had mines and then the mines are closed. In each town there are issues that are significant to the local people and we consider that an important element for our students to become aware of and involved in (JI1, 140 145). Subject matter One of the directions is they need to try and identify a topic which is science technology society related that would be of interest to the population of working with when they do their student teaching. So in our area, for instance, we have [mining]. We have a lot of farming communities. You have to identify an issue that is not easily agree on the same outcome (JI1, 113 124).
209 Table 4 Stimuli Content Process Outcome History and Nature of Science Seminar History and nature of science course readings Own conception of science and role in doing science Self reflection paper of own experience related to seminar topics Science as fluid knowledge Understand complexity of the science classroom Appreciation of the importance of reflection Address Native American natio n educational goals Engage in issues related to rural poverty and minority issues Science Technology Society Course STS local interest lesson plan Relevance of lesson to local community Science Methods Course & Field Experience Local school activi ties science fair projects, website design, local investigations 5E lesson plan Mentor teacher collaborates with science education faculty throughout field experiences & student teaching Student Teaching Student teaching experience Student learning Management Instructional experiences Student teaching journal Autobiographical sketch Student case study
210 Table 4 Component Stimulus Content Process Outcome Technical Reflection in and on action Mentor teachers collaborating throughout program Deliberative Student case study Complexity of science teaching Personalistic History and nature of science issues conceptions of science and role in doing science Self reflection writing connecting own experience to curriculum Autobiography Appreciation of reflection for personal development Critical Lesson plans and school activities of interest to the local community Relevance of lessons to community Issues of rural poverty Minority educational issues
211 Table 4 Personal conceptions of reflection Fred: I get a sense that the real a pproach you have to reflection is understated rather than structured. But I like that 75 81). constructivists, who really pushed constr uctivism who really are the reflective practitioners. 179). matters as much as mine in the class (PI1, 207 208). Influences on personal conceptions I was a middle school teacher for fifteen years before I did this job. It [ref lection] was just part a grass roots thing here, the whole inquiry direction. You had to reflect to do that (PI1, 127 133). learn new things and maybe put some of it into practice. The whole push of Piagetian and Vygotskyan constructivism was a really huge factor to clarify all that, and of course reflection is a huge bit of that. Paulo Freire and that whole kind of reflective practice and just reading it, doing it, living it, and writing about it (PI1, 137 142).
212 Table 4 13. Continued External influences on conceptions Milieu Real life is reflective and t from textbooks when people are being reflective (PI1, 186 187). I pretty much lay it out d why, at face value, it looks good, and what evaluation means (PI1, 45 47). Students Fred: Is there a field component that goes with this? so many observations. I encourag e them to watch other people but so many of our students are parents and returning students and working two to leave this class with a really positive feeling (PI2, 18 25). value (PI1, 213 215).
213 Table 4 Stimuli Content Process Outcome Science methods Science activity presentation and summary NSTA books State and national standards Review of NSTA journal article How would act ivities work with my students in my setting How could standards be implemented or adjusted based on my context What is good and bad in the standards and frameworks Will this be useful to me and my students Small group discussion Sharing experiences an d insights with the whole class Modeling reflective practice; problematizing framework and standards Unprompted journaling Development of professional identity Positive attitude about science teaching and learning Enjoyment of reflection on practice Practical ideas for use in my classroom
214 Table 4 Component Stimulus Content Process Outcome Technical Reflection in and on action Reframing curriculum into my own setting Practical knowledge Deliberative Curriculum choices Decisions about curriculum Collaborative problematizing of curriculum Meaningful decisions and personal judgment Personalistic Introspective journaling Professional identity Personal dev elopment of positive beliefs Critical
215 Table 4 Personal conceptions of reflection We believe in teachers as decision makers. who are disposed to question and reflect continuously in pursuit of sound educational judgments (WD3, 150 153). n d decisions (WI1, 243 250). When I put those [action research] ex periences in I had a very specific goal in mind. I know what I wanted my students to think about and then when we bring it back together, we always talk about that stuff after they do it. me back together, I often start with the do (WI1, 285 289). Influences on personal conceptions One thing I realized when I was a public sch ool teacher is that when I took time to think about why I made they do them. eachers out in the field to s going to happen with the decisions they make (WI1, 26 29). have met a lot of people who basically do the same job that I do and we have these wonderful conversations at to teach teachers to think about wha t it is that they do in terms of practice (WI1, 45 49).
216 Table 4 16. Continued External influences on conceptions Milieu All of our content methods have an integrated literacy [component] with them because the state requires all seconda ry teachers to have two content reading methods courses and we decided to put them into our content methods so the students would know how to use the strategies to teach their specific content (WI1, 19 23). Our conceptual framework really is the document that we live by. We put a lot of time into writing it and reflection is such an integral part of that document and it runs throughout all the strands of the undergraduate and graduate programs and we really believe that it is one of the keys to success to our students (WI1, 70 73). Students Fred: Students are heavily influenced by the current emphasis on accountability and they tend to be very nervous about really candid reflection. Wanda: The reflective process can be very painful because often ti stuff is not very easy to look at them to do (WI2, 1 11). One of the things you have to do is teach your pre service teachers to be reflective. What they tend to do is just summarize whatever happened instead of giving you any of that deep thought about why they made the decisions they made or why they encountered the students to do that (WI1, 54 57). Subject matter Fred: With the cha nges that are coming with the common core standards and things like that, are you going to realign what goes on with the portfolio? ll. Common core will definitely have some influence. We 213).
217 Table 4 ience education program. Stimuli Content Process Outcome Science methods and literacy courses Science lesson taught in field experience and videotaped Action research project Science unit lesson plans Science autobiography Lesson delivery evaluation Interpretations of action research findings Memories of science learning, characteristics of meaningful science experiences, definition of science Events occurring in field experiences Analysis of videotaped lesson Action research plan based on vide otaped lesson Presentation of action research findings at regional professional development school conference Science autobiography prompts Online discussions Portfolio construction Philosophy of teaching statement Face to face discussions in field e xperience seminar Teachers who are independent thinkers Make decisions based on student learning Effective decision making based on evidence
218 Table 4 Component Stimulus Con tent Process Outcome Technical Reflection in and on action Problem present in field experience lesson Problem setting and reframing in action research Practical knowledge developed from action research Deliberative Interaction with students, subject matter, schools Decisions about curriculum and instruction Collaborative discussion Effective decision making Personalistic Own personal beliefs about science Autobiography Portfolio Critical
219 Table 4 19. Demographic information on pa rticipants. Bob Claire Dan Jeff Phil Wanda Years of experience 8 22 10 30 35 25 Years at institution 7 19 6 25 20 14 Methods course influence 50% 100% 75% 100% 100% 100% Program influence 25% 100% 50% 100% 50% 100% Table 4 20. Influences on par Participant Bob Claire D an Jeff Phil Wanda Personal experiences YES NO NO NO NO NO Professional experiences YES NO YES YES YES YES Education NO YES NO NO YES NO Milieu YES NO YES YES YES YES Subject matter YES YE S NO YES NO YES Students YES YES NO NO YES YES
220 Figure 4
221 Figure 4
222 Figure 4
223 Figure 4 4
224 Figure 4 tions for reflection.
225 Figure 4
226 Component Bob Claire Dan Jeff Phil Wanda Stimuli Content Process Outcome Figure 4 7. Components of reflection with the strongest emphas science education programs. Orientation Bob Claire Dan Jeff Phil Wanda Technical Reflection in and on action Deliberative Personalistic Critical Figure 4 8. Orientations to reflection within pa programs
227 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Overview of the Study Research based approaches encountered by pre service teachers in coursework are often not realized in the classroom (Zeichner, 2011). Schn (1983) recognized thi s characterized by the inadequacy of contemporary professional knowledge to address the complexity, uncertainty, and value c onflicts of practice. For progress to occur, Schn advocated moving beyond the step by step acquisition of specific skills and focusing on the notion of the reflective practitioner as a way to develop professional artistry. Even though the development of reflection by pre service teachers in their t eacher education programs has been advocated widely, there is no unified definition of the construct or its particular outcomes. While scholarly writing on reflection displays this lack of consensus, three categories of research are evident. The first disc usses the explicit teaching of reflection, engaging pre service teachers in specific activities to foster reflection (Hatton & Smith, 1995; Jay & Johnson, 2002; Pultorak, 1993; Sparks Langer, Simmons, Pasch, Colton, & Starko, 1990). The second examines pre service interviews; but without attention to the experiences that facilitate development (Alger, 2006; Sumison, 2000). The final type is comprised of theoretical writing on the historical and philosophical bases of reflection (Dewey 1933; Rodgers, 2002; Russell, 2005; Schn; 1983, 1987; Smyth, 1989; Van Manen, 1977). I assert what is lacking in existing approaches is a consideration of both the theoretical bases that prov ide purpose and value to reflection and the ways in which it is
228 operationalized and implemented. What is needed is a more comprehensive model that enables understanding of these two dimensions, addressing why reflection is important and how it is reified i n teacher education programs. The conceptions of and intentions for the teaching of reflection in university based science teacher education programs. In simpler terms, the inqui ry examined the ideas about reflection that science teacher educators hold and their plans for putting those ideas into practice in teaching pre service secondary science teachers to reflect. The larger goal of this study wa s to capture this variety of int erpretations through an examination of the development of reflection by pre service teachers I began the inquiry with the intention of examining how science teacher educators conceived ref lection and intended to operationalize and implement those ideas in teacher education programs. As the study progressed, the data collected portrayed a narrower view of their intentions focused within the curriculum of the science methods course and assoc iated field experiences. While some of the faculty interviewed did demonstrate awareness of the entire teacher education program (Claire Jeff and Wanda ), most did not elaborate on how reflection is featured outside of the areas of their direct contact. N aturalistic Inquiry and a More Complex Model The naturalistic methodology of the study facilitated several realizations about the notions of reflection held by these science educators. Initially, I conceived the inquiry as an examination of the direct conn ection between the orientation s to reflection and the implementation of th e se orientations within the components of reflection in course and
229 program curriculum s Figure 5 1 illustrates this simple model, where orientations are explicitly stated, with some general influences identified. These orientations are translated into course and program components, with some modifications due to constraints. Modifications are indicated in the graphic by an arrow which is bent due to external constraints. As I examine d documents and interview data, it became clear that the model was not that simple. The six science educators in the study did not exhibit a singular orientation, but rather discussed various ideas about the meaning and importance of reflection. They also indicated a set of influences on their personal conceptions, including personal, educational, and professional experiences (Sweeney, Bula, & Cornett, 2001) It was evident that they did not perceive aspects of the context of science teacher education as co nstraints and limitations, but simply as another set of influences on their curricular decision making. Through the process of peer debriefing, I external influences as r elevant to students, subject matter, and the milieu of learning. It was also clear that I needed to work in a different direction to identify how influences, conceptions, components, and orientations were related. Personal influences were formative in nat ure, shaping the initial conceptions of reflection that these teacher educators brought with them to their positions. External influences such as students, subject matter, and the milieu particular that of the context in which they taught impact ed furthe r curricular deliberations. After these considerations, decisions were made about specific course experiences that focused on the development of reflection by pre service science teachers. Using the heuristic, these experiences were
230 classified into compone nts, and then used to identify the orientations to reflection manifested by the intentions of these science educators. Figure 5 2 i llustrates these more complex relationships. In comparing these two models with those of the individual science educators (Fi gures 4 1 through 4 6), it is apparent that these six participants attach ed more importance to the various influences on their conceptions than I originally conceived although not every participant identified every influence. Rather, personal influences w External influences were also exclusive to hile each component of reflection was present in the intended curriculum, the emphasis given to the various component s varied ( as indicated by the different sizes of component elements), again due to the influences of students, subject matter, and the milieu of learning. These components manifest ed multiple orientations, some with greater emphasis and some with less but clearly indicate d multiple orientations Implications The results of this study support the notion that there are connections that can be f reflection and their intentions for engaging pre service teachers in learning how to reflect Zeichner advocated for the throughout all aspects of the teacher educatio n program, including coursework and field experiences (2011, p. 9). While my findings do not generalize to all aspects of teacher education programs, these science educators do provide explicit articulation of their
231 conceptions of reflection and the operat ionalization of those ideas into methods course curricula. Developmental Aspects Hatton and Smith (1995) suggested that the different orientations to reflection represented a developmental sequence, in which students move from the lower technical level to the higher critical one. Examination of the intended curricula of the six teacher educators in this study does not sup port that argument. There is no particular course experien pre service teachers engage in personalistic reflection early in the program of study through the science autobiography assignment, then apply those core beliefs in the process of action research, a deliberative process. This non l inear approach is more consistent with the recommendations of Danielowich (2007) and Valli (1997), who call for programs to encourage development of reflection across the hierarchy of orientations, rather than toward a goal of the most complex. Although ea ch science educator in the study intends their curriculum to represent multiple orientations, none of their intentions emphasized reflection across all. Only Bob and Dan (the teacher educators with the least years of professional experience) emphasized the program (taught by the educator with the greatest years of experience at his institution) had a critical focus. The Role of Personal and External Influences Research question four considers the perceived constraint s and limitations on constraints as deficits that attenuated their plans. I perceived external influences such as accreditation as hindrances to the expression of the ir orientations to reflection. Nagle
232 (2009) suggested that accountability pressures contribute to the reduction of reflection into mere identification and description of the technical aspects of teaching practice. In the course of the inquiry, it became cl ear that these teacher educators do not necessarily consider such influences as constraints. They instead look on them as opportunities for meaningful reconsideration of the purposes and practices of reflection. For example, Dan clearly looks at the emphas is on reflection provided by the Teacher Performance Assessment as a powerful enhancement of the process component. The concept of constraints evolved instead into a consideration of external (1973) commonplaces of teacher, students, subject matter, and the milieu of learning became a useful method of characterizing different influences. As Abell and Bryan (1997) recognized, learning to teach requires pre service teachers to identify, explain, analyze, and challenge their ideas and beliefs about science teaching and learning. In this study, the external influence of students is significant for four of the six teacher educators. Phil is insistent that his approach to reflect ive practice enabl es his students to find their voice as science teachers. revealed three major categories: personal experiences, professional experiences, and education. While only Bob acknowledged that contributed to his valuing reflection as a method for understanding social and cultural differences, that personal experience was a powerful influence on how he structures opportunities for his lea rners. Five of the participants identified their experiences as school science teachers as influential on their ideas about reflection. Formal education
233 focused on action rese arch and teacher reflective practice. These influences of the reflection, and occur prior to consi deration of how to implement the se ideas in course and program elements. E xternal influences, particular to the students, subject matter, and milieu of learning would transla te directly into components. That absence is really only theoretical as the influences of students, subject matter, and milieu are always present in any learning situation. These external influences, therefore, have modif ied the se teacher educators conce ptions into what can be realistically intended for curriculum in the ir courses The conceptions and these external influences. By applying the heuristic to descriptions of intended (or enacted, in a different study) components, the orientations to reflection within the curriculum are detected. Orientations are not exclusively a function of the outcomes of reflection. As Valli (1997) suggests, orientations represent consi derations of strategy, content, and quality of thinking as well. Curriculum Smyth (1989) argued against the notion that complex reflection was only possible for experienced teachers. Roychoudhury, Roth, and Ebbing (1993) also advocated for the development of reflection to begin long before student teaching. While some participants (Wanda and Jeff) describe experiences that occur throughout the program of study, this long term approach was not a common theme among the programs
234 examined. Likewise, few partic ipants articulated reflective experiences that spanned exception. Policy The most obvious policy implication relevant to reflective practice is the inclusion of evidence for its development in systems for the accreditatio n of teacher education programs. This requirement was acknowledged by the participants in the present study with varying perceptions. Bob and Dan view accreditation influences as an explicit set of r equir ements to be satisfied with concrete evidence from specific course assignments. Dan in particular sees these influences as opportunities for enhancing course experiences. Claire characterizes the typical program evidence of pre service teacher reflective p ractice s uch as rubrics as contrary to her notions of the purpose of reflection. course assignments and program experiences are not add ons, but essential features of teacher education at his institution. Ultimately clear conception s of the meaning, purpose, and value of reflection ha ve enabled these science educators to deal with the requirements of accreditation in a non cynical manner. As accountability forces become more p rominent in teacher education, reflective practice policy should be framed more in terms of opportunity rather than requirement s A second policy implication concerns reflection as a professional qualification of teacher educators. A recent study of teac her educators in the Netherlands found r was a necessary aspect of competence for a teacher educator (Koster, Brekelmans, Korthagen, & Wubbels, 2005) W hile U.S. teacher education policy documents enthusiastically endorse ref lection by pre service teachers,
235 reflection by teacher educators is either absent or obscure. Standards for accreditation of teacher education programs emphasize the development of reflection by teacher candidates in explicit detail, identifying stimuli, c ontent, and processes for reflection. Reflection by teacher educators themselves is not addressed in any complexity, but the suggestion is made p. 41). A study of teacher s preparation programs in the United States found a wide range of professionals making up teacher education faculty, including tenure track faculty, adjunct faculty, doctoral students, and practicing and retired K 12 teachers. V ery little was ascertained about the quali fications of teacher educators, and nothing about their attitudes and beliefs (National Research Council, 2010). Tom (1997) asserts that the ideas about teach ing and learning held by faculty are grounded in their personal lives, and these private and frequ ently tacit conceptions need to be made explicit through reflection. In the present study, the se teacher educators articulated clear connections between formative experiences and their ideas about reflection, which were then manifested in their curricular decisions. The impact of a qualified teacher on K 12 student learning has been established for some time (Darling Hammond, 1999), but the characteristics of effective teacher educators are less well defined. Being a good teacher may be an appealing qualifi cation for the role of teacher educator, but it is not entirely conceptions of reflection, including the formative influences on those ideas a nd intentions for operationalizing conceptions into the curriculum, sho uld be considered a critical qualification of a teacher educator. Reflection on the part of teacher educator s
236 should occupy a more conspicuous position in teacher education policy deliberations. The rich descriptions of reflection in the present study port ray not only explicit emphasis on reflection by pre service science teachers, but also distinct expressions of reflection on their own practice. Professional Development Just as conceptions of reflection should be considered in qualifications of teacher ed ucators in policy, the development of reflective practice by teacher educators should be prominent in the professional development of teacher education faculty. Research on the professional development of teacher educators is scarce, and specific education al preparation programs for teacher educators are nonexistent The knowledge base of teacher education has relied on practical experience (Koster, Dengerink, Korthagen, and Lunenberg, 2008). In their study of teacher education professional development in the Netherlands, Koster et al (2008) found participants engaged in combinations of activities, frequently with the goal of improving their knowledge and skills, as opposed to experiences that focused on attitudes and beliefs. Experiences that explicitly e ngaged participants in d eep reflection on their work experiences was uncommon. The researchers call ed for personal modes of reflection such as autobiography, considering their personal experiences as well as their professional ones. n practice through the process of self study of teacher education practices (Clarke & Erickson, 2004) has been put forth as the fifth commonplace This suggestion emphasizes both practical experien ce and inquiry into generated through reflection in this mode is
237 Professional development opportunities for teacher educators that promote the development and modeling of r eflective practice are needed. The heuristic employed in this study can serve as a framework for exercises in self awareness by teacher educators. Additionally, the model of relationships between personal conceptions of reflection, personal and external in fluences, intended components, and identified orientations (Figure 5 2) provides a meaning, purpose, and value of reflection, and how those notions are operationalized in teacher education curriculum s Limi tations The findings of this study, in addition to the implications that have emerged, are also a function of the constraints of the research process. The sample of participants is an appropriate example of these limitations. First, these science educators work primarily with pre service teachers in the secondary certification areas, so the issues related to reflection in elementary science education programs were not considered. Second, these faculty members work in particular institutions: state universit ies with enrollments ranging from a few thousand to twenty thousand. Faculty in programs at large, research intensive universities or at private institutions were not included in the sample. In order to have a more comprehensive view of the state of reflec tion in science education, a larger set of faculty at different categories of universities should be surveyed. Additionally, programs that provide alternative science teacher certification were not considered. Finally, the six participants in this study co mprise science
238 educators who responded to survey, document, and interview requests. It should not be assumed that the only science educators who have strongly held ideas about reflection are those who are willing to talk about them. The lack of a clear def inition for reflection presented another limitation. Some participants suggested that efforts toward the development of reflective practice may be occurring in science teacher education programs, even though that particular label was not attached. Science educators may not always identify course and program activities that result in the development of reflective practice as components of reflection. Providing survey respondents with a primer on the heuristic and its classification of orientations to and com ponents of reflection could provide a common language for identifying their ideas. curriculum. In order to genuinely understand how reflection develops in pre service teachers, t heir perspectives should be considered, in addition to the intentions of their instructors. Recommendations for Future Research The most significant area for future research is to apply the heuristic to the enacted curriculum in a science education prog ram. As acknowledged above, the present study does not examine what actually transpires for pre service teachers. Their are an important contribution to understand ing the importance of reflection. Russell (2005, p. 203). Some participants in this study recognized the lack of explicitness of their approaches to reflection.
239 Both Russell and Oliver (2007) and Larrivee (2010) question the actual reflective practice that occurs on the part of teacher educators. Larrivee advocates for teacher educators to deliberately examine their own practice, questioning the beliefs, values, and assumptions that inform their pedagogy. They need to serve as transparent models of reflective practice for their pre service teachers. The heuristic framework used in this study could be applied to examine the stimuli, content, process, and outcomes o f reflection by teacher educators. Examination of their own processes would reveal areas of consistency and inconsistency with their espoused orientations, and provide a process for acknowledging limitations and inappropriate expectations in their programs As Nagle (2009) and many of the study participants suggested, the external influence of accountability will result in change to approaches to reflection. How those changes occur, whether they are perceived as constraints or opportunities, and how that external influence triggers change in program components and orientations are questions relevant to the value of reflective practice in teacher education. Summary In this study, I have sought to further research in science teacher education by examining sc by their pre service teachers. The six science educators who participated espouse different ideas about influences, values, and strategies, but all of them articulated a significant e mphasis on the outcome of reflection in developing pre service teachers who are effective decision makers. Differences were also found related to the various course and program activities employed to stimulate students in reflection, the ideas considered a s the content of reflection, processes engaged in to learn how to reflect, and other outcomes such as understanding issues of personal growth and equity. The
240 role of the external influences of students, subject matter, and the milieu of learning was signif icant in how participants frame d the value of reflection and design ed curriculum for its development. To better understand how these conceptions and intentions are manifested in actual pre service teacher development of reflection, a case study examining s tudent perceptions should be completed. Additionally, the study is limited by the narrow sample of science educators involved. Other types of teacher education suggest sever al additional areas of study, including the aforementioned enacted curriculum, reflective practice of teacher educators and how that is modeled for their pre service teachers, and changes in components and orientations due to accountability influences.
241 Figure 5 1. Initial simple model of the orientations to and components of reflection in a science education program.
242 Figure 5 and exter nal influences on their conceptions, intended components and identified orientations in their science education curricula.
243 APPENDIX A WEB BASED SURVEY: CONCEP TIONS OF REFLECTION IN SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION
250 APPENDIX B INSTITUTIO NAL REVIEW BOARD PRO TOCOL UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing th is form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Reflection in Science Teacher Education Principal Investigator: Frederick L. Nelson UFID #: Degree / Title: M.S. Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): 7055 Deer Lodge Circle #106 Jacksonville, FL 32256 Email : email@example.com Department: School of Teaching and Learning Telephone #: Co Investigator(s): UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Troy D. Sadler UFID# : Degree / Title: Ph.D. Associate Processor Maili ng Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): 2403 Norman Hall PO Box 117048 Gainesville FL 32611 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Department: Telephone #: Date of Proposed Research: April 1, 2011 March 31, 2012 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved):
251 Scientific Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study is to ex plore and describe science teacher how pre service teachers are taught to reflect and to examine how those perspectives are implemented in program experiences such as methods courses Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the research participant. ) A web based survey will be administered to participants presenting them with forced choice questions relevant to the various aspects of reflection implemented in their teacher education programs. Free response questions will be u sed to provide clarification and detail. S emi structured interviews will be conducted to elicit more detailed perspectives of a smaller sample of approximately five teacher educators. Topics such as these will be examined: (a) Describe the specific acti vities you use to engage students in reflection ? (b) What ideas and topics do pre service teachers reflect upon? (c ) What processes and methods are employed to teach pre service teachers to reflect? (d ) What are the goals and purposes of pre service teache r reflection? In addition to the semi structured interviews, documents such as course syllabi and assignment descriptions and rubrics will be requested. Describe Potential Benefits: The study has the potential to inform and ultimately improve pre service science teacher education. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) There are no known risks associated with participating in this study. Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited : A letter describing the study and soliciting participation will be sent electronically to faculty involved in science teacher education from institutions identified as members of the Teacher Education Council of State Colleges and Universities ( http://www.tecscu.org/index.htm ) and holding NCATE accreditation. In this letter, the project will be briefly described and a link provided to access the web based survey. Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 300 Age Range of Participants: 18+ Amount of Compensation/ course credit: None Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document See http://irb.ufl.edu/irb02/samples.html for examples of consent.) Informed consent will be obtained electronically. The first page of the web based survey will contain the following informed consent information: This research exam ines how science teacher educators characterize the teaching of reflection to pre service secondary science teachers. There are no anticipated risks, compensation or other direct benefits to you as a participant in this survey. You are free to withdraw y our consent to participate and may discontinue your participation in the survey at any time without consequence.
252 Participation is voluntary and there is no obligation to participate. You must be at least 18 years of age. Survey results are anonymous. Th e survey should take 10 15 minutes to complete. If you wish to continue with the survey, please select the BEGIN SURVEY button and click NEXT. By selecting the BEGIN SURVEY button you agree that you are at least 18 years of age and are voluntarily partici pating in completing the survey. If you do not wish to participate in the survey please select the EXIT SURVEY button, click NEXT and close your web browser. Participation may be discontinued at any time by exiting your web browser. If you have any questio ns about this research, please contact Frederick Nelson at email@example.com, or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Troy D. Sadler, at (352) 273 4222. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611; (352) 392 0433. After the last page of survey questions, participants will be solicited for document submission and interviews, and presented with the following informed consent information: In addition to yo ur survey responses, please consider providing course documents and participating in a short telephone interview. Participation in interviews and submission of documents is entirely voluntary, and you are in no way obligated to participate. You are free t o decline to answer any question you do not wish to answer. You are free to withdraw your consent to participate and may discontinue your participation at any time without consequence. You must be at least 18 years of age. Interviews will be digitally reco rded and transcribed. Digital recordings will be erased after transcription. Institutional and personal identifiers will be removed from documents. You will be asked to choose a pseudonym at the beginning of the interview, which will be used throughout the study. If you agree to be interviewed and provide documents, please enter your name, email address, and telephone number below. By providing this information, you agree that you are at least 18 years of age and would like to provide this information. I f you do not wish to participate further, please exit your browser. Provision of this information indicates consent to submit documents and be interviewed. Respondents not wish to be (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: Co Investigator(s) Signature(s): Date: stude nt): Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:
253 APPENDIX C DOCUMENT PROTOCOL 1. Course Syllabus How are components of reflection specified or instantiated in the syllabus? a. Stimuli b. Content c. Process d. Outcome 2. Assignment guidelines/descriptions a. Are assignments e xplicitly stated as engaging the pre service teacher in reflection? b. Does the instructor explicitly determine the content of reflection? c. Is a process of reflecting detailed? d. What modes of reflection (written, electronic, individual, collaborative, etc.) ar e specified? 3. Grading rubrics a. Is reflection included as an evaluation criterion? b. What levels of performance are considered for reflective practice/writing? c. What descriptors are used to characterize levels of performance for reflection? d. How significant is re flection in the overall grading scheme?
254 APPENDIX D SEMI STRUCTURED INTERVIEW PROTOCOL Introduction My name is Fred Nelson, and I am a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida. My dissertati about reflection, and I would like you to share your ideas. This interview should take no more than 45 minutes. I would like to digitally record this interview. After the interview, I will personally transcribe the interview. After the study, the digital recordings will be deleted. Do I have your permission to record this interview? I would like you to choose a pseudonym, to which you will be referred throughout the study. Questions of this type In your survey response, you indicated _____________ as a significant experience you use to engage your pre service science teachers in reflection. Please share some details about how this works. Where did you get this idea from? In the course syl labus you sent, you describe _________________ assignment. What ideas do students focus on in their reflections from this activity? Describe how your use _______________ as a process or method to help your pre service science teachers learn to reflect ? What experiences have influenced how you view reflection? Important people, events, work? Your course syllabus includes _________ as a course objective. Could you elaborate on how this objective is representative of your orientation to reflection? Summary Have I missed any important ideas? Thank you for your participation. I would like to conduct a follow up interview at a later time and share my interpretations to make sure they are correct.
255 APPENDIX E TENTATIVE DOCUMENT M EMO Date received: Participant: Name of document: Brief summary of contents: Significance or importance of document: Other impress ions:
256 APPENDIX F CODE DEFINITIONS Components of Reflection Stimuli any experiences, assignments, activities in the program or course that are used to engage in the pre service teacher in an act of reflection. Content the ideas, beliefs, thoughts, or th emes that are considered in reflective writing, discussion, or analysis. Process the methods, structures, exercises, guidelines, or procedures that are used to enact reflective practice. Outcome the goals, objectives, desires, and purposes for which pre se rvice teaches engage in reflection. Influences on Personal Conceptions of Reflection Education experiences, ideas, learning, mentors, philosophies, or theories that result from formal education on the part of the teacher educator. These could include cours es, teachers in higher education, or readings that occurred prior to beginning the present position in science teacher education. Personal Experiences experiences, memories, attitudes, or beliefs that contribute to ideas about reflection that occurred pr ior to beginning the present position in science teacher education. These could include influence of family, previous jobs, or upbringing. Professional Experiences experiences, attitudes, beliefs, curricula, or theories that result from experiences as a t eacher, either as a K 12 science teacher or faculty member in science education prior to beginning the present position in science teacher education.
257 External Influences Milieu any influence from the setting in which science teacher education occurs, inc luding ideas from colleagues, school partnerships, accreditation procedures, state curricula, or department organization. Students any influence based on the nature, attitudes, beliefs, or thinking of the population of pre service science teachers in the program. Subject Matter any influence from the subject matter of science education, including content knowledge, pedagogy, or pedagogical content knowledge. Orientations Technical aimed at the development of proficiency in specific pedagogical skills su ch as questioning or time management The criteria for evaluating proficiency are established by an external higher authority. Problematiz a tion of the effectiveness of instructional practice is often limited to questions of what went well or not in a teach ing episode. Reflection in and on action aimed at the development of practical knowledge and professional artistry. Situates development of reflection within the reflective practicum, a setting that approaches the real world of practice but in which some o f the complexity is reduced. Role of a mentor or coach is important. Reflection emerges from some puzzling event in the reflective practicum. Deliberative aimed at the development of effective curricular and instructional decision making based on considera tion of multiple perspectives on any of the commonplaces of teachers, students, subject matter, or the milieu of learning.
258 Personalistic aimed at personal growth and development, using introspective methods that analyze the pre service al ideas about teaching, learning, thinking, and relationships. Critical aimed at recognition and improvement of issues of injustice in society, using analysis of oppression, empowerment, and questions about assumptions of roles in society.
259 LIST OF REFE RENCES Abell, S. K., & Bryan, L. A. (1997). Reconceptualizing the elementary science methods course using a reflection orientation. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 8 (3), 153 166. Abell, S. K., Bryan, L. A., & Anderson, M. A. (1998). Investigating pre service e lementary science teacher reflective t hinking using integrated media case b ased i nstruction in elementary science t eacher preparation. Science Education, 82 491 510. Abell, S. K., George, M., & Martini, M. (2002). The moon investigation: Instruc tional strategies for elementary science methods. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13 (2), 85 100. Akerson, V. L., Abd El Khalick, F., & Lederman, N. G. (2000). Influence of a reflective explicit activity based approach on elementary teachers' concepti ons of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37 (4), 295 317. Alger, C. (2006). 'What went well, what didn't go so well': Growth of reflection in pre service teachers. Reflective Practice, 7 (3), 287 301. Altheide, D. L. (1987). Ethnogr aphic content analysis. Qualitative Sociology, 10 (1), 65. Altheide, D. L. (1996). Qualitative media analysis Thousand Oaks, C A : Sage Publications. Anderson, R. D., & Mitchener, C. P. (1994). Research on science teacher education. In D. Gabel (Ed.), Handb ook of research on science teaching and learning (pp. 3 44). New York: Macmillan. Association of Teacher Educators (2010). The purposes, practices, and professionalism of teacher reflectivity: Insights for twenty first century teachers and students. E. G. Pultorak (Ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Barnett, M. (2008). Using authentic cases through a web based professional development system to support pre service teachers in examining classroom practice. Action in Teacher Education, 29 (4), 3 14. Bl ack, P., & Atkin, J. A. (1996). Changing the subject: Innovations in science, mathematics and technology education. London: Routledge. Blanchard, M. R., Southerland, S. A., & Granger, E. M. (2009). No silver bullet for inquiry: Making sense of teacher chan ge following an inquiry based research experience for teachers. Science Education, 93 (2), 322 360.
260 Britner, S. L., & Finson, K. D. (2005 ). Pre service teachers' reflections on their growth in an inquiry oriented science pedagogy course. Journal of Elementa ry Science Education, 17 (1), 39 54 Brown, D. (1999). Promoting reflective thinking: Pre service teachers' literacy autobiographies as a common text. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 42 (5), 402 410 Calderhead, J. (1989). Reflective teaching and tea cher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 5 (1), 43 51. Carter, K., & Doyle, W. (1996). Personal narrative and life history in learning to teach. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 120 142). New York NY : Macmillan. Cha mbers, D. W. (1983). Stereotypic images of the scientist: The draw a scientist test. Science Education, 67, 255 265. Clarke, A., & Erickson, G. (2004). Self study: The fifth commonplace. Australian Journal of Education, 48 (2), 199 211. Collier, S. T. (2010 ). Reflection as a social problem solving process. In E. G. Pultorak (Ed.), The purposes, practices, and professionalism of teacher reflectivity: Insights for twenty first century teachers and students (pp. 25 44 ). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Colton A. B., & Sparks Langer, G. M. (1993). A conceptual f ramework to g uide the development of teacher reflection and decision m aking Journal of Teacher Education, 44 (1), 45 54. Converse, P. D., Wolfe, E. W., Huang, X., & Osward, F. L. (2008). Response rates for mixed mode surveys using mail and e mail/web. American Journal of Evaluation, 29 99 107. Cook, C., Heath, F., & Thompson, R. L. (2000). A meta analysis of response rates in web or internet based surveys. Educational and Psychological Measurement,60 ( 6), 821 836. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Interstate teacher assessment and support consortium (InTASC) model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue (draft for public comment) Washington, DC: Author. Cruickshank, D. R., & Applegate, J. H. (1981). Reflective teaching as a strategy for teacher growth. Educational Leadership, 38 (7), 553 554
261 Cruickshank, D. R., Kennedy, J. J., Williams, E. J., Holton, J., & Fay, D. E. (1981). Evalu a tion of reflective teaching outcomes. Journ al of Educational Research, 75 (1) 26 32. Danielowich, R. (2007). Negotiating the conflicts: Reexamining the structure and function of reflection in science teacher learning. Science Education, 91 (4), 629 663. Darling Hammond, L. (1999). Teacher quality an d student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think; a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process Boston, London: Heath. Dietz, C. M., & D avis, E. A. (2009). Pre service elementary teachers' reflection on narrative images of inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20 (3), 219 243. Dillman, D. A. (2007). Mail and internet surveys : The tailored design method (2 nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ : Wiley Dinkelman, T. (2000). An inquiry into the development of critical reflection in secondary student teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16 (2), 195 222. Dome, N., Prado Olmos, P., & Ulanoff, S. H. (2005). "I don't like not knowing how the world works" : Examining pre service teachers' narrative reflections. Teacher Education Quarterly, 32 (2), 63 83. Eick, C. J., & Dias, M. (2005). Building the authority of experience in communities of practice: The development of pre service e through co teaching in inquiry classrooms. Science Education, 89 (3) 470 491. Eick, C. J., & Reed, C. J. (2002). What makes an inquiry oriented science teacher? the influence of learning histories on teacher role identity and practice. Science Education, 86 (3), 401 416. Eick, C. J., Ware, F. N., & Jones, M. T. (2004). Co teaching in a secondary science methods course: Learning through a co teaching model that supports early teacher practice. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 15 (3), 197 209. Erlandson, D. A., Harris, E. L., Skipper, B. L., & Allen, S. D. (1993). Doing naturalistic inquiry: A guide to methods Newbury Park, C A : Sage Publications Feiman Nemser, S., McDiarmid, G. W., Melnick, S. L., & Parker, M. (1989). Changing tions: A description of an introductory teacher education course (Research Report 89 1). East Lansing: Michigan State University, National Center for Research on Teacher Education.
262 Fendler, L. (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical inf luences and political reverberations. Educational Researcher, 32 (3), 16 25. Freiberg, H. J., & Waxman, H. C. (1990). Reflection and the acquisition of technical teaching skills. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective p ractice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 119 138). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Gado, I., Ferguson, R., & Van 't Hooft, M. (2006). Using handheld computers and probeware in a science methods course: Pre service teachers' attit udes and self efficacy. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14 (3), 501 529. Genor, M. (2005). A social reconstructionist framework for reflection: The "problematizing" of teaching. Issues in Teacher Education, 14 (2), 45 62 Gilbert, S., Pedersen, J. E., & Mason, C. Survey of changes in science teacher preparation programs responding to performance based science standards. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 9 (3). Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: S trateg ies for qualitative research Chicago IL : Aldine Pub lishing Co mpany Goodman, J. (1984). Reflection and teacher education. Interchange, 15 (3), 9 26. Gore, J. M. (1987). Reflecting on reflective teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 38 (2), 33 39. Greenla w, C., & Brown Welty, S. (2009). A comparison of web based and paper based survey methods: Testing assumptions of survey mode and response cost. Evaluation Review, 33 (5), 464 480. Griffin, M. L. ( 2003 ). Using critical incidents to promote and assess reflec tive thinking in pre service teachers. Reflective Practice, 4 (2), 207 220. Grimmett, O. O., MacKinnon, A. M., Erickson, G. L., & Riecken, T. J. (1990). Reflective practice in teacher education. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encoura ging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 20 38). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Hallam, R. A., Buell, M. J., & Ridgley, R. (2003). Preparing early childhood educators to serve children and families living in pov erty: A national survey of undergraduate programs. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 18 (2), 115 124. Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11 (1), 33 49.
263 Hauhart, R. C., & Grahe, J. E. (2010). The undergraduate capstone course in the social sciences: Results from a regional survey. Teaching Sociology, 38 (1), 4 17. Hirsch, E. D., Kett, J. F., & Trefil, J. S. (1987). Cultural literacy: What every A merica n needs to know Boston: Houghton Mifflin. H ouston, W. R., & Clift, R. T. (1990). The potential for research contributions to reflective practice. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analys is of issues and programs (pp. 208 224). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Hullfish, H. G. (1963). Reflective thinking as educational method. Educational Theory, 13 235 44 I'A nson, J., R odrigues S., & W ilson G. (2003). Mirrors, reflections and ref ractions: The contribution of microteaching to reflective practice. European Journal of Teacher Education, 26 (2), 189 199 Jay, J. K., & Johnson, K. L. (2002). Capturing complexity: A typology of reflective practice for teacher education. Teaching and Teac her Education, 18 (1), 73 85. cognitive and motivational variables in respect of cognitive conflict and conceptual change. International Journal of Science Education, 27 (9), 1 037 1058. Koster, B., Brekelmans, M., Korthagen, F., & Wubbels, T. (2005). Quality requirements for teacher educators. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21 157 176. Koster, B., Dengerink, J., Korthagen, F., & Lunenberg, M. (2008). Teacher educators working on their own professional development: Goals, activities and outcomes of a project for the professional development of teacher educators. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 14 (5 6), 567 587. Korthagen, F. A. J. (1985). Reflective teaching and pre service teacher education in the N etherlands. Journal of Teacher Education, 36 11 15. Korthagen, F. A. J., & Kessels, J. P. A. M. (1999). Linking theory and practice: Changing the pedagogy of teacher education. Educational Researcher, 28 (4), 4 17. Krippen dorff, K. (2004). Content analysis : An introduction to its methodology (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, C A : Sage Publications Kuhn, T. S. (1996). The structure of scientific revolutions (3 rd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
264 Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). InterViews : Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing (2 nd ed.). Los Angeles CA : Sage Publications. LaBoskey, V. K. (1993 ). A conceptual framework for reflection in pre service teacher education. In J. Calderhead & P. Gates (Eds .), Conceptualizing reflection in teacher development ( pp. 23 38). Bristol, PA: The Falmer Press LaBoskey, V. K. (1994). Development of reflective practice: A study of pre service teachers New York NY : Teachers College Press. Larrivee, B. (2000). Trans forming teaching practice: Becoming the critically reflective teacher. Reflective Practice, 1 (3), 293 307. Larrivee, B. (2010). What we know and The purposes, practices, and professionalism of te acher reflectivity: Insights for twenty first century teachers and students (pp. 137 162 ). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Lee, S. K. F., & Loughran, J. J. (2000). Facilitating pre through a school based teaching programme R eflective Practice, 1 (1), 69 89. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry Beverly Hills, C A : Sage Publications. Lortie, D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Loughran, J.J. (1996) Developi ng reflective practice: Learning about teaching and learning through modeling. New Yo rk, NY: Routledge Falmer. Loughran, J. J., & Gunstone, R. F. (1997). Professional development in residence: Developing reflection on science teaching and learning. Journal of Education for Teaching, 23 (2), 159 178. Loughran, J. J. (2002). Effective reflective practice: In search of meaning in learning about teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (1), 33 43. Loughran, J. J. (2006). Developing a pedagogy of teacher educati on: Understanding teaching and learning about teaching. New Yo rk, NY: Routledge Falmer. Lyons, N. (1998). Reflection in teaching: Can it be developmental? A portfolio perspective. Teacher Education Quarterly, 25 115 127. MacKinnon, A. M. (1987). Detecting reflection in action among pre service elementary science teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 3 (2), 135 145.
265 MacKinnon, A. M., & Erickson, G. L. (1988). Taking S chn's ideas to a science teaching practicum. In P. P. Grimmett, & G. L. Erickson (Eds.) Reflection in teacher education (pp. 113 137). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Makinster, J. G., Barab, S. A., Harwood, W., & Andersen, H. O. (2006). The effect of social context on the reflective practice of pre service science teachers: Incorpora ting a web supported community of teachers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14 (3), 543 579. Markham, M. (1999). Through the looking glass: Reflective teaching through a L acanian lens. Curriculum Inquiry, 29 (1), 55 76. Melville, W., Fazio, X., Bartley, A., & Jones, D. (2008). Experience and reflection: Pre service science teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 19 (5), 477 494. Mead, M., & Metraux, R. (1957). The image of the scientist among high school stud ents: A pilot study. Science, 126, 384 390. Metcalf, L. E. (1962). Reflective teacher. Phi Delta Kappan, 44 17 21. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Millbrandt, M. K., & Klein, S. R. (200 8). Survey of art educators: Qualifications, identity, and practice. Studies in Art Education, 49 (4), 343 357. F. Goldberg, & H. Niedderer (Eds.), Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies (pp. 110 128). Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education. Nagle, J. F. (2009). Becoming a reflective practitioner in the age of accountability. The Educa t ional Forum, 73 76 86. National Board for P rofessional Teaching Standards. (2002). What teachers should know and be able to do Arlington, VA: Author National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. (2008). Professional standards for the accreditation of teacher preparation institutions W ashington, DC: Author. National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards Washington, DC: The National Academ ies Press.
266 National Research Council. (2010). Preparing teachers: Building evidence for sound policy. Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States, Center for Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Science Teachers Association. (2004). Standards for science teacher preparation Arlington, VA: Author. Noddings, N. (1984). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Northfield, J., & Gunstone, R. (1997). Teacher education as a process of developing teacher k nowledge. In J. Loughran & T. Russell ( Eds. ), Teaching about teaching: Purpose, passion and pedagogy in teacher education (pp. 48 56). London: Falmer. Parsons, E. R. C., & Summer, G. (2004). Use of images as reflective discrepant events: Pathways for ele mentary teachers to reconsider practice in relation to their views of science teaching and learning. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 9 (1) Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3 rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, C A : Sage Publicati ons. Peshkin, A. (1988). In search of subjectivity : O ne's own. Educational Researcher, 17 (7), pp. 17 21. Posner, G. J. (2005). Field experience : A guide to reflective teaching (6 th ed.). Boston MA : Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. Pultorak, E. G. (1993). Facilit ating reflective thought in novice teacher s. Journal of Teacher Education, 44 (4), 288 295. Rezba, R. J., Sprague, C., McDonough, J. T., & Matkins, J. J. (2008). Learning and assessing science process skills (5 th ed.) Kendall/Hunt. Richardson, V. (1990). T he evolution of reflective teacher in and teacher education. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 3 19). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Richardson V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 102 119). New York, NY: Macmillan. Rodgers, C. R. (2002). Defini ng reflection: Another look at John D ewey and reflective thinking. Teachers College Record, 104 (4), 842 866.
267 Rosenthal, D. (1991). A reflective approach to science methods courses for pre service elementary teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 2 (1), 1 6. Ross, D. D. (1990). Programmatic structures fo r the preparation of reflective teachers. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 97 119). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Roychoudhury, A., Roth, W., & Ebbing, J. (1993). Becoming a reflective science teacher: An exemplary endeavor by a pre service elementary teacher. In P. A. Rubba, L. M. Campbell & T. M. Dana (Eds.), Excellence in educating teachers of science (pp. 91 110). Columbus, Ohio: ERIC. Russ ell, T. L. ( 2005 ). Can reflective practice be taught? Reflective Practice, 6 (2), 199 204 Russell, T. L. (2007). How experience changes my values as a teacher educator. In T. L. Russell & J. Loughran (Eds.), Enacting a pedagogy of teacher education: Values relationships and practice (pp. 182 191). London: Routledge. Russell, T. L., & Martin, A. K. (2007). Learning to teach science. In S. K. Abell, & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (pp. 1151 1178). Marwah, N J : Lawrence Erlba um Associates Russell, T. L., & Munby, H. (1991). Reframing: The role of experience in developing teachers' professional knowledge. In D. A. Schn (Ed.), The reflective turn: Case studies in and on educational practice (pp. 164 187). New York, NY: Teacher s College Press. Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. London: Sage. Scharmann, L. C., Smith, M. U., & James, M. C. (2005). Explicit reflective nature of science instruction: Evolution, intelligent design, and umbrellaology. Jo urnal of Science Teacher Education, 16 (1), 27 41. Schn, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action New York NY : Basic Books. Schn, D. A. (1987). Educat ing the reflective practitioner : Toward a new design for teaching a nd learning in the professions (1 st ed.). San Francisco CA : Jossey Bass. Schn, D. A. (1991). The reflective turn : Case studies in and on educational practice New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Schwab, J. J. (1973). The practical 3: Transla tion into curriculum. The School Review, 81 (4), 501 522.
268 Smith, J. J., Yendol Hoppey, D., & Milam, R. S. (2010). Reflectivity with the teacher In E. G. Pultorak (Ed.), The p urposes, practices, and professionalism of teacher reflectivity: Insights for twenty first century teachers and students (pp. 3 24). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Smith, J. P., diSessa, A., & Roschelle, J. (1993/1994). Misconceptions reconceived: A con structivist analysis of knowledge in transition. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3, 115 163. Smyth, J. (1989). Developing and sustaining critical reflection in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 40 (2), 2 9. Spalding, E., & Wilson, A. (2 002). Demystifying reflection: A study of pedagogical strategies that encourage reflective journal writing. Teachers College Record,104 (7), 1393. Sparks Langer, G. M., Simmons, J. M., Pasch, M., Colton, A. B., & Starko, A. (1990). Reflective pedagogical th inking: How can we promote and measure it? Journal of Teacher Education, 41 (4), 23 32. Sparks Langer, G., & Colton, A. B. (1991). Synthesis of research on teachers' re flective thinking Educational Leadership, 48 (6), 37. Sumison, J. (2000). Facilitating re flection: A cautionary account. Reflective Practice, 1 (2), 199 214. Sweeney, A. E., Bula, O. A., & Cornett, J. W. (2001). The role of personal practice theories in the professional development of a beginning high school chemistry teacher. Journal of Resear ch in Science Teaching, 38 (4), 408 441. Tabachnick, B. R., & Zeichner, K. M. (1984). The impact of the student teaching experience on the development of teacher perspectives Journal of Teacher Education, 35, 28 42. Tann, S. (1993). Eliciting student teac hers' personal theories. In J. Calderhead, & P. Gates (Eds.), Conceptualizing reflection in teacher development (pp. 53 69). Bristol, PA: The Falmer Press. Tom, A. R. (1985). Inquiring into inquiry oriented teacher educa ti on. Journal of Teacher Education, 36 35 44. Tom, A. R. (1992). Foreword. In L. Valli (Ed.). Reflective teacher education: Cases and critiques (pp. vii x). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Tom A. R. (1997). Redesigning teacher education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
269 Trezise, R. L. (1964). Reflective teaching. Michigan Education Journal and Moderator Topics, 41 18 19 United States National Commission on Excellence in Education, & United States Dept. of Education. (1983). A nation at risk : The imperative f or educational reform : A report to the nation and the S ecret ary of Education, United States D epartment of E ducation Washington, D.C.; The Commission; Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O: distributor. Valli, L. (199 0 ). Moral approaches to reflective practice. In R T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 39 56). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Valli, L. (1993). Reflective teacher education programs: An analysis of ca se studies. In J. Calderhead & P. Gates (Eds.), Conceptualizing reflection in teacher development (pp 11 22). Bristol, PA: The Falmer Press Valli, L. (1997). Listening to other voices: A descriptio n of teacher reflection in the United S tates. Peabody Jou rnal of Education, 72 67 88. Van Manen, M. (1977). Linking ways of knowing with ways of being practical. Curriculum Inquiry, 6 (3), 205 228. Van Zee, E. H., & Roberts, D. (2001). Using pedagogical inquiries as a basis for learning to teach: Prospective tea chers' reflections upon positive science learning experiences. Science Education, 85 (6), 733 757. von Glasersfeld, E. (1995). A constructivist approach to teaching. In L. Steffe, & J. Gale (Eds.), Constructivism in education (pp. 3 15). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawr ence Erlbaum Associates. Wallace, C. S., & Oliver, J. S. (2003). Journaling during a school based secondary methods course: Exploring a route to teaching reflection. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14 (3), 161 187. Wang, J., & Lin, S. (2008). Examinin g reflective thinking: A study of changes in methods students' conceptions and understandings of inquiry teaching. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 6 (3), 459 479. Watts, M., & Lawson, M. (2009). Using a meta analysis activity to make critical reflection explicit in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25 609 616. Wellington, B., & Austin, P. (1996). Orientations to reflective practice. Educational Research, 38 307 316.
270 Wildman, T. M., Niles, J. A., Magliaro, S. G., & McLaughlin, R. A. (1990). Promoting reflective practice among beginning and experienced teachers. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 139 162). New Y ork, NY: Teachers College Press. Wilson, G., & I'Anson, J. (2006). Reframing the practicum: Constructing performative space in initial teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22 (3), 353 361. Wood, P. O. (1991). The cooperating teacher's role in nurturing reflective teaching. In B. R. Tabachnick, & K. M. Zeichner (Eds.), Issues and practices in inquiry oriented teacher education (pp. 202 210). Bristol, PA: The Falmer Press. Yerrick, R. K., & Hoving, T. J. (2003). One foot on the dock and one foot on the boat: Differences among pre service based science methods in culturally diverse contexts. Science Education, 87 (3), 390 418. Yerrick, R. K., Ross, D., & Molebash, P. (2005). Too close for comfort: Real time science teaching reflections via digital video editing. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 16 (4), 351 375. Yinger, R. J. (1990). The conversation of practice. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in educ ation: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 73 96). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Yoon, H., & Kim, M. (2010). Collaborative reflection through dilemma cases of science practical work during practicum. International Journal of Science Education,3 2 (3), 283 301. Yost, D. S., Sentner, S. M., & Forlenza Bailey, A. (2000). An examination of the construct of critical reflection: Implications for teacher education programming in the 21st century. Journal of Teacher Education, 51 (1), 39 49. Yung, B. W. W. Wong, S. L., Cheng, M. W., H ui, C. S., & Hodson, D. (2007). Tracking pre service teachers' changing conceptions of good science teaching: The role of progressive reflection with the same video. Research in Science Education, 37 239 259. Zechiel, A. N., & McCutchen, S. P. (1938). Reflective thinking in social studies and in science. Progressive Education, 15 284 290. Zeichner, K. M. (2005). A research agenda for teacher education. In M. Cochran Smith & K. M. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education : T he report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education (pp. 737 759). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
271 Zeichner, K. M., & Liston, D. P. (1987). Teaching student teachers to reflect. Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1), 23 48. Zeichner, K. M., & Liston, D. P. (1996). Reflective teaching : An introduction Mahwah, NJ : L awrence Erlbaum Associates. Zeichner, K. M., & Tabachnick, B. R. (1982). The belief systems of university supervisors in an elementary student teaching program. Journal of Education for Teaching, 8, 34 54.
272 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Frederick Nelson became a science teacher later in life, after twenty years in the field of retail management. When he returned to school, he knew immediately he wanted to be a teacher. Teaching s cience was a natural fit for him, since he grew up on a farm surrounded by natural phenomena, with a curiosity that was constantly encouraged by his parents. He was fortunate to enter science teaching at a time of reform based on models of inquiry and conceptual lear ning, and became committed to a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. This approach was validated by his success as a science teacher with the achievement of National Board Certification. After teaching high school science for nine years Freder ick felt he had a story to tell to a different audience, so he found a position as a science education instructor at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville. Soon after beginning that work in higher education, he enrolled in the science education d octoral program at the University of Florida. While deliberating on ideas for his dissertation research, he came across a line in the Handbook of Research on Science Education (2007) that suggested that the teaching of reflection was not occurring in scie nce teacher education programs. Recalling his own immersion in reflection during National Board Certification, he found that this particular topic was the one that spoke most clearly to him. After six years in higher education, he is happy to report that he will be able to continue to tell his story to a new audience, this time as Assistant Professor of Science Education at California State University, Fresno in the fall of 2012.