1 COMMUNICATING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA: AN ANALYSIS OF THE FACEBOOK PAGES OF CSR INDEX TOP 50 COMPANIES By JINGYI HUANG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Jingyi Huang
3 To my beloved family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First of all, I would like to thank my advisor and committee chair, Dr. Mary Ann Ferguson. H er course in corporate social responsibility and public relations ethics inspired me to choose this topic as my thesis I deeply appreciate her for offering me valuable inspiration, knowledge and guidance, and for her dedicated efforts on reviewing my work in minute detail. I also want to thank my committee members, Dr. Sora Kim and Dr. Linda Hon. I am grateful to Dr. Kim for her valuable suggestions on my research questions, methodology and coding procedure. Without her profound knowledge and patience, I would never have completed my study. I would like to thank Dr. Linda Hon for her continuous support and inspirational guidance. I learned from her a true enthusiasm for research. Second, I would like to thank my amazing friends for their support and contribution to my study. Special thanks go to Jing Sun and Xiao Zhou. I am thankful to Jing Sun for being the second coder of my study. Without her help, I would never have completed all the coding in a limited time period. I want to thank Xiao Zhou for providing technical support and being there with me all along the way I also want to thank my sweet friend s, Angel Jang and Wanwei Tan, for their encouragement throughout my study. Most of all, I would like to thank my parents for their ever lasting love, caring and support throughout my life. I love them forever.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 11 2 LITERA TURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 16 Corporate Social Responsibility ................................ ................................ ............................ 16 CSR Communication ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 19 What and H ow to Communicate ................................ ................................ .................... 20 Where to Communicate ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23 CSR Communication via Web 2.0 ................................ ................................ ......................... 26 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 29 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 31 Sampling ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 31 Variables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 Coding ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 33 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 34 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 36 Descriptive Statistics of the Sample ................................ ................................ ...................... 36 RQ1: Dominant Corporate Communication Strategy ................................ ............................ 37 RQ2: The Most Frequently Used Indicator of CSR Strategy ................................ ................ 38 RQ3: Industry Type and the Adoption of Indicators of CSR and CAb st rategies ................. 40 RQ4: Interactivity Components ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 .................. 43 .................... 43 .................. 44 RQ8: Rel .................. 46 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................... 58 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 58 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 62 Limitations and Future Research ................................ ................................ ........................... 65
6 APPENDIX A CODER GUIDE ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 68 B CO DING SHEET ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 73 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 75 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 81
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Indicators of CAb and CSR corporate communication strategy ................................ ........ 35 4 1 Percent of CAb, Hybrid and CSR messages as a total for each company ......................... 47 4 2 Percent of CAb, Hybrid and CSR messages as a total for each industry ........................... 48 4 3 Results of difference in proportion tests: CSR strategy adoption by consumer discretionary and other industries ................................ ................................ ...................... 49 4 4 Results of difference in proportion tests: CSR strategy adopted by consumer staples and other industries ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 49 4 5 Results of difference in proportion tests: CSR strategy adoption by industrials and other industries ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 49 4 6 Six indicators of CSR strategy on cause focused and corporate Facebook pages ............. 50 4 7 Six indictors of CAb and CSR corporate communication strategy on corporate Facebook pages ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 51 4 8 One way ANOVA results: Levels of CSR and CAb strategy indicators usage by industry type ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 52 4 9 Homogeneous subsets of Scheffe post hoc tests: Means of CSR strategy indicator usage by industry type ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 52 4 10 Homogeneous subsets of Scheffe post hoc tests: Means of CAb strategy indicator usage by industry type ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 53 4 11 Six interactivity components on corporate FB pages and cause focused FB pages and their difference of proportions tests results ................................ ................................ ........ 54 4 12 Results of difference in proportions tests: Positive, neutral and negative comments to messages employing CSR and CAb strategies ................................ ................................ .. 55 4 13 Results of difference in proportions tests: Positive, neutral and negative comments to messages employing CSR and hybrid strategies ................................ ............................... 55 4 14 Results of difference in proportions tests: Positive, neutral and negative comments to messages employing CAb and hybrid strategies ................................ ............................... 55 4 15 Pearson correlations among frequencies of comment, like, share and six interactivity components ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 56
8 4 16 fans ............................. 57 4 17 Linear regression results for the frequency of fans' posting ................................ .............. 57
9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts COMMUNICATING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA : AN ANALYSIS OF THE FACEBOOK PAGE S OF CSR INDEX TOP 50 COMPANIES By Jingyi Huang August 2012 Chair: Mary Ann Ferguson Major: Mass Communication Few previous studies have focused on corporate social responsibility comm unication that demonstrates prominent interactivity through social media This thesis which replicates Kim, study (2011), examines the dominant corporate communication strategies (i.e. corporate ability [CAb] strategy, c orporate social responsibility [CSR] strategy and hybrid strategy) of CSR Index Top 50 companies on their corporate Facebook pages. The study also examines the interactivity components employed on official Facebook pages and their cause focused Facebook p ages. The results reveal that CSR Index Top 50 companies employ a CAb strategy more frequently than a CSR or a hybrid strategy, though they indeed make more effort in communicating CSR on Facebook compared with the results of Fortune 100 companies k pages in previous research. Besides, the results indicate significant differences among industry type for both CSR strategy and CAb strategy. The proportion of positive fan comments to corporate messages employing a CSR strategy is significantly ten perc ent greater than those employing a CAb strategy. Furthermore, interactivity components are analyzed with are more likely to engage fans in dialogue on Facebook. In addition the results show that the
10 frequency of dialogue participation by fans with companies was affected by the frequency of acebook wall posting s and the total number of Facebook page fans. Finally practical implications for communicating CSR thro ugh social media are provided.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUC TION As global ization progresses, accompanied by international economic growth and the loss of governmental control over the private sector, the debate about importance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been accelerated (Hamann & Acutt, 2003). On the othe r hand, globalization also bring s more various stakeholders and makes the needs of stakeholders intricate. As a result, more than ever, companies are engaging in various CSR initiatives, ranging from expectations. According to the academic research, almost 90% of the Fortune 500 companies have explicit CSR initiatives (Luo & Bhattacharya, 2006), and more than 250 companies across the world now have CSR policies to implement (Hollender, 2004). These unp recedented CSR endeavors are driven not only by ethical reasons, but also by the possible business returns that companies may reap from CSR ini tiatives. Some scholars believe that CSR will benefit corporations in the long run, in terms of improving compani es reputation s maintaining customer loyalty, building brand equity and enhancing employee recruitment (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2004; Etter & Fieseler, 2010; Kim & Park, 2011; Lin et al., 2009). For buying more products, seeking employment with the company and advocating such behaviors. Consistent with the academic findings, a Cone research study (2007) showed that 87% of American consumers tend to switch from one brand to another brand, which was associated with a good social cause, based on the equal price and quality; 66% of American consumers will s or service s because of its negative business practice s To reap these business benefit and accepted by its stakeholders.
12 However, many companies find the frustrating fact that most stakeholders are still unaware of their CSR activities According to a poll conducted by Ipsos Reid and Canadian Business for S ocial Responsibility (Ipsos, 2006), 75% of business leaders surveyed said their companies have created and implemented programs related to CSR, with 56% saying implementation is fully underway. In contrast, Canadian consumers remained considerably unaware practice s with only 38% having know ledge of companies who have created and implemented CSR activities (Ipsos, 2006). Hence h ow to communicate CSR more effectively seems to be an urgent task for corporations since vast resources and time has been devoted. To date, most studies (e.g. Golob & Bartlett, 2007; Idowu & Towler, 2004; Sweeney & Coughlan, 2008) regarding ways of communicating CSR focus on the social report publications that involve a holistic view of reporting companies wide rang e of responsibilities towards stakeholders (Birth et al., 2008), with little emphasis on the social media as communication tool s for CSR Social media, the product of Web 2.0, ha ve been witnessed building interactive online conversations through a wide range of online software applications including blogs, microblogs, social networking sites (e.g. Facebook), social bookmarking sites (e.g. Digg, del.icio.us), wikis and podcasts. Compared with the traditional tools in W eb 1.0 (e.g., web sites without RSS feed s ) social media demonstrate their prominent interacti vity which magnify their role s in two way communication. Due to social media s manifest advantages in facilitating two way communication, it is no wonder that so me companies shift more attention to implementing social media into external and internal corporate communications To give but one example, the UK
13 branch of Ben & Jerry s focused more on the 1.3 million fans they had on Facebook and Twitter even discontinuing their regular email marketing campaigns (Qualman, 2010) In addition, some companies also recognize the potential of social media in communicating CSR. K.C. Brown, Senior Vice President of Cision, believed that social media can be more h elpful in communicating CSR progress than annual meetings or CSR reports (Jacques, 2010) Others th ought social media provide d a platform for companies to have a picture of what stakeholders are saying. For example, Michelle Russo Senior Vice President of Discovery Communications, said Facebook, Twitter and the recently launched Discovery Blog provide additional platform for Discovery to raise awareness about its CSR efforts, to generate discussion among viewers and to provide a community for those who w ant to get involved p.12) In terms of raising awareness and e ngaging stakeholders, Procter & Gamble (P&G) to save energy. Through Facebook strategy, this online CSR initiative has attracted over 150,000 followers. In short, social media provide CSR communication the opportunities of inviting stakeholders to participate, listening to stakeholders and engaging with them in a real time way. Furthermore, stakeholders sho w sign s of comfort with CSR communication in social media. The 2010 consumer new media study ( Cone 2010) f ound that three quarters of social media users believe that it is an effective way to explore CSR and 47% think companies are transparent when disse minating CSR information through social media. On the other hand, corporate misbehavior is more easily monitored and spread via social media. Fifty eight percent of people will likely to spread their unsatisfied experience with the company via social media (Cone, 2010).
14 Although the impact of social media on CSR was highlighted little is discussed about CSR communication and social media in the academic field Kim, light into quantitative research on social media and corporate communication of CSR. They found that Fortune 100 corporations were more likely to emphasize a corporate ability strategy than a corporate social responsibility strategy when communicating with their fans on Facebook (Kim et al., 2011). The result means that the Fortune 100 companies emphasize more on on Facebook. Wou ld this be the same in corporations which are professionally recognized by their CSR efforts? Do they utilize Facebook to emphasize more CSR than CAb (i.e. corporate ability)? Do they interact with fans on Facebook effectively? This study tried to examine CSR Index Top 50 strategy (i.e. CAb strategy, CSR strategy and Hybrid strategy) and components of interactivity of their corporate Facebook pages and cause focused Facebook pages. The three communication strategies were de to deliver high quality product s or service s corporate social responsibility; and Hybrid strategy is the combination of CSR strate gy and CAb strategy. These three strategies will be illustrated in the literature review In addition this study participation on Facebook. Although this study ba (2011) study, it helped assess the communication strategies adopted by companies that are professionally recognized for their CSR efforts. It also attempted to explor e corporate the cause focused Facebook pages in te rms of employing CSR strategy indicators and interactivity
15 component. These findings will also provide insight for practitioners to engage stakeholders in social networking sites and to develop successful communication strategies in social media.
16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Corporate Social Responsibility The concept of c orporate social responsibility has become a popular notion among companies, organizations, governments and the media (Etter & Fieseler, 2010, Fieseler et al., 2010; Gomez & Chalmeta, 2011 ; Johnson, 2003; Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010) Many researchers have developed numerous approaches on CSR, but no single authoritative definition of the term has been agreed upon (Carroll 1979, 1991; Crane et al., 2008; Wood, 1991) Schwartz and Carroll (2003) argued that the definitions of CSR can be divided into two general categories: the minimalist view those believing that the only obligation of corporations is to maximize profits within the boundaries of the law and ethical m inimums and a more common contemporary view advocat ing that corporations have a wider range of obligations toward society. Friedman (as cited in Chen, 2009, p.524), the representative scholar of the minimalist view, social responsibility of business to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud T his appr oach emphasizes on profits and shareholders. Since the 1950s, the idea of CSR has evolved into the latter thought category, one that has prevailed in the past decade (Moreno & Capriotti, 2009). A s takeholder t heory approach on CSR fits into the latter ca tegory very well It emphasizes that the corporation ought to create value for its stakeholders its consumers community members policy makers, employees, and activists within the larger system (Evan & Freeman, 1988 ; Kim, Kim &Sung, 2011 ). Similarly, Carr oll (1979 p.500 ) offered the definition of CSR in combination with economic and other expectations he social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical
17 and discretionary expectations that society has of organizations at a given point in time on this perspective, Carroll (1991) also proposed a classical CSR Pyramid, encompassing economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) argued that CSR is corporate actions that go beyond comp liance and further social good beyond the interests of the firm. Overall, the latter view expected that corporations to go above and beyond profit maximization and have a wider set of responsibilities towards society. More recently, CSR has often been discussed in terms of corporate citizenship and corporate social performance, which is a more pragmatic way to address CSR. The idea of corporate citizenship, which is combined by globalization and the stakeholder theory approach of CSR, entails the corpor solve (Mattern &Crane, 2005). Mirvis and Googins (2006) proposed a normative five stage path in the development of corporate citizenship: elementary, engaged, innovative, integrated, an d transforming. For example, corporations in the elementary stage only respond to economic responsibility and legal pressure from stakeholders and society, where corporations in the transforming stage work with partners like NGO s and government to solve so cial problems. This five stage model of corporate citizenship suggested that the CSR debated has shifted from belief that such engagement is a duty of a corp oration as a citizen within society (Tang & Li, 2009). It comported responsibility will develop and mature in the forthcoming era. Nevertheless, other researchers believed that most corpo rations develop a reactive social responsibility agenda which is characterized by stakeholders and is used primarily as a public relations tool (Esrock & Leichty, 1998).
18 Although more and more corporations engage in CSR activities, one controversial proble m Hence, recent research regarding CSR practice has concentrated on the financial benefits generated by CSR activities (Johnson, 2003; Lin, Yang, & Liou, 2009; McWilliams & Siegel, 2000). Several studies have concluded that there is a positive correlation between CSR and financial performance (Johnson, 2003; Lin, Yang, & Liou, 2009). Since CSR can bring economic benefits, there is a strong incentive for corporati ons to engage in CSR practice. Apart from the tangible profits, CSR practice has been shown to positively affect some relevant intangibles. For instance, a study (Sims & Keon, 1997) suggested that CSR practice can cultivate an ethical work climate, leading more positive morale, and greater job satisfaction, which in turn enhance the productivity and profitability (Sims & Keon, 1997). In addition, CSR efforts can yield a sense of loyalty among customers (E tter & Fieseler, 2010), improve evaluation of corporation and product, and facilitate purchase behavior (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2004). Finally, CSR efforts can reduce conflict with he activists and the media in times of crisis (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2004; Etter & Fieseler, 2010; Fieseler, Fleck, & Meckel, 2010). Overall, the tangible and intangible benefits brought by CSR create strong incentives for corporations to successively enga ge in CSR practice. Furthermore, from a relationship management perspective, CSR can be regarded as a relationship building role (Bhattacharya, Korschun & Sen, 2009; Kim & Park, 2011). Extant research revealed that CSR activities are conducive to generating returns to companies in terms of cultivating strong and enduring relationships with stakeholders (Waddock & Smith, 2000). Scholars indicated that stakeholders form relationships with corporations in order to obtain
19 benefits, which may range from tangible t o intangible, and monetary to psychological (Bhattacharya, Korschun & Sen, 2009). CSR activities provide ample benefits to stakeholders. For instance, Bhattacharya and Sen (2004) found that CSR initiatives can positively affect well CSR initiatives, stakeholders develop CSR associations, which include beliefs, feelings and 2011). CSR associations belong to corporate associations, which also include corporate ability associations (Brown & Dacin, 1997). The two distinct corporate associations have different Hence, the two corporate associations will affect the relationships between organizations and publics (Kim &Rader, 2010). Notably Bhattacharya and Sen (2004) proposed that effective overall corporate communication strategy, especially the message s of CSR communication (e.g. CSR fit) would be one of the multipliers of CSR program. For instance, consumers will generate positive internal outcomes (e.g. with its overal l positioning (Bhattacharya & Sen 2004). How consumers perceive a companies advocate distinctive CSR initiatives that stand out among competitors, consu favorable attributions will be more likely to elicit (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2004). CSR Communication Bittner and Leimeister (2011) defined CSR communication as the way in which companies communicate their achievement or impact on the environmental, so cial and economic realm, and which message channels, and message contents they use. In order to realize the aforementioned benefits, corporations should communicate their CSR efforts to various stakeholders, including consumers, community members, policy makers
20 and activists (Fieseler, Fleck, & Meckel, 2010; Kim et al., 2010). Notwithstanding that many companies are committed to fulfilling their social responsibilities, they were found to fail to communicate with stakeholders actively enough (Lewis, 2003). For instance, Chaudhri and Wang (2007) found the number of top 100 information technology companies in India with CSR information on their corporate web sites was strikingly low. Also, Pomering and Dolnicar (2009) ss of CSR activities undertaken by Australian banks was quite low, despite the fact that the banks communicated their good deeds via advertising campaign. Dawkins (2004 p.109 ) communication often remains the missing link in the practice of corporate responsibility the environment surrounded by critical media and informed publics (Chaudhri & Wang, 2007). Hen ce, a need for transparent and effective communication on CSR is highlighted. What and How to Communicate s may have three corporate communication strategies based on distinct types of corporate associations (corporate ability association and CSR association): CAb (corporate ability) focused strategy; CSR (corporate social responsibility) focused st rategy and hybrid strategy. A CA b focused str abil ity to deliver high quality product s or service s to create corporate ability association, whereas a CSR contribution s to society in terms of social concerns to create corporate social responsibility associations (Kim & Rader, 2010). Moreno and Capriotti (2009) also found that the most common and vast information on corporate web sites is corporate profile and information about its product s and service s which was presented primarily from commercial rather than et hical focused strategy may include
21 commitments, employee involvement, public health commitments and sponsorship of cultural activities. All these components can be the content of CSR messages. Similarly, six components, quality control program, industry lead ership, market orientation, and innovation and R&D eff orts, were also developed for CA b focused strategy (Kim & Rader, 2010, p.67). These twelve indicators provide a quite comprehensive classification of information disseminated by corporations. According Fortune 100 companies focused more on a CAb strategy than a CSR strategy or hybrid strategy. Among the CAb strategy indicators, the one its product s or service s (Kim et al., 2011). T anthropic contribution was the most mentioned indic a tor among the CSR strategy indicators (Kim et al., 2011). Schultz (2006) developed t hree CSR communication strategies: the stakeholder information strategy (one way communication); the stakeholder response strategy (two way asymmetric communication) and the stakeholder involvement strategy (two way symmetric communication). The CSR focus is decided by top management in stakeholder information and stakeholder response strategy, while stakeholder involvement strategy invites stakeholders to negotiate the CSR focus with corporations concurrently (Morsing & Schultz, 2006). In terms of communic ation task, the stakeholder information strategy only focuses on informing stakeholders of corporate CSR actions, whereas the stakeholder response strategy needs to show stakeholders how the company integrates its concerns (Morsing & Schultz, 2006). In con trast,
22 the stakeholder involvement strategy is more proactive and interactive, characterized with establishing frequent and systematic dialogue with stakeholders (Morsing & Schultz, 2006). In addition, Du et al. (2010) concluded that CSR commitment, CSR im pact, CSR motives and CSR fit can be emphasized in CSR communication. CSR commitment focuses on a so forth. Moreover, longer term commitments were more likely to be judged as intrinsic CSR motives by publics (Du, Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010). CSR commitment focused on the input aspect, while CSR impact emphasized the output of CSR efforts. CSR impact was often demonstrated by actual benefits that have occurred to th e public. CSR fit expressed a logical For instance, it can be attributed to common association that a product dimension share with a cause. Scholars believed t positive reactions to a considerable evidence that this may backfire under certain conditions. Apart from basic strategies and content of CSR communication, industry is a strong predictor of CSR communication. Some studies showed that there is significant focus difference among annual social report s of organizations in different industries (Esrock & Leichty, 1998; S weeney & Coughlan, 2008; Tang & Li, 2009). For instance, Tang and Li (2009) concluded that companies targeting consumers were more likely to use an ad hoc or strategic philanthropy strategy, whereas companies targeting businesses were more likely to emphas ize the ethical conduct of business. Likewise, Sweeney and Coughlan (2008) found that automobile and oil industries almost always focus on environmental performance, while the companies in the telecommunications industry were more likely to focus on custom er acquisition and retention.
23 or stakeholders involve strategy both of which embrace the consistence between reporting on CSR and what key stakeholders expect. Also important cultural distinction s should be noted in CSR communication. Maigan (2001) found that U. S. consumers prefer corporate economic responsibilities most, while French and German consumers tend to value legal and ethical business conduct more. Similarly, a cross cultura l study (Hartman, Rubin, & Dhanda, 2007) found that U.S. based companies rely heavily on financial element s in justifying their CSR activities whereas EU based companies incorporate both financial and sustainability elements for CSR justification. Where t o Communicate These channels can be divided into channels controlled by external communicators, such as media, and channels that are controlled by companies (Du, Bh attacharya, & Sen, 2010). A company can have control over the content of CSR activities through its own communication Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010). Moreover, schol off between the that is to say, the more controllability the communication c hannel has, the less credible it is. For instance they received information from a neu t ral source rather than a corporate source (Yoon et al., 2006). In addition, it is also very important to note the importance of word of mouth by stakeholder s as credible CSR communicator s Customers and employees are valuable communicators (Du, Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010). In terms of customers, they can be
24 the real world and the Thanks for the shoes I love them. I also love the fact that a child in need also gets a pair. I am passing down the word at my school and trying to get our coll Admittedly, while customers demonstrate great power with word of mouth, Dawkins (2004) suggested that companies should not focus only on customers and underestimate the power of employees. Em ployees can serve as advocates by advising 2004). Furthermore, employees can serve as ambassadors to reach wide stakeholder relationship s through their social tie s (Dawkins, 2004). However, it is often difficult to get endorsement s from the third parties the media, customers and other stakeholders. Fortunately, a company can communicate CSR efforts through its own communication channels such as an annual social rep ort, advertisement and web sites (Du, Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010). Social reports are the main channel for communicating CSR. They were prevalent in the 1990s and nearly 80% of the largest 250 companies worldwide issued corporate responsibility reports in 2008 (KPMG International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting, 2008). Nonetheless companies are often accused of writing arbitrary reports with little quantifiable data. In addition to a corporate social report, companies also utilize traditional advertising channels and web sites (Du, Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010). For instance, Coca Cola runs TV commercials of its CSR practice of heart disease and women, and it also set up a web site in order to ause. CSR communication via web sites is increasingly emerging in recent decade. More than 80% of the Fortune 500 companies address their CSR issues on their official web sites (Bhattacharya
25 & Sen, 2004). Chaudhri and Wang (2007) argued that the web sites enable organizations to convey message s directly to stakeholders without the dictates of the gatekeepers of print and electro nic media, thereby influencing agenda setting. Moreno and Capritotti (2009) proposed that web sites provide a unidirectional way o f diffusing information to influence the image that stakeholders have. Web sites increase the velocity of corporation communication process, by Furthermore they indeed show com third party opinions (Esrock & Leichty, 1998). Nonetheless whether or not organizations are doing a good job of fully utilizing the web sites for CSR communication remains to be determin ed. The 2004 CSR Online Survey found that their CSR material is hidden in hard to reach places, or presented as huge PDF downloads (Coope, 2004, p.20). In addition, Chaudhri and Wang (2007) found that CSR information on the top 100 information technology companies in India is static and out of date. Likewise, Fieseler Internet, which enables companies to respond to concerns, questions and problems (Moreno & Capritotti, 2009). M ost corporate web sites were criticized for their top down information push communication, lacking design of facilitating two way interaction between corporations and stakeholders. Apart from the ineffectiveness of utilizing CSR communi cation channels, researchers proposed several other challenges for CSR communication. Dawkins (2004) emphasized that the organizations were struggling with two major challenges : one was skepticism toward company message and potential hostility from the med ia and others, the other lay in the diverse information requirements of different stakeholders. The global CSR study conducted by APCO
26 Worldwide (2004) attests to the criticism surrounding CSR progress, indicating that only four percent opinion of elites s ay companies have become much more responsible CSR Communication via Web 2.0 In contrast with static websites and social reports, the development of Web 2.0 has significant potential for increasing dialogue with stakeholders. The term Web 2.0, first co ined and added value for each participant by formalized and dynamic information sharing and Predominate applications of the Web 2.0 era are wikis, blogs, and social networks. These all belong to social software or social media which are defined as based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web2.0, allow ing the creation and exchange of user generated content (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, p.61). Pressley (2006) described four main benefits of social media for communication: inexpensive collaboration, efficient, real time communication, public relations and onli ne archiving. For example, the commentary function of blogs enables open discussion on every entry that is made, thus fostering dialogue between blog authors and readers ( Fieseler Fleck, & Meckel, 2010). Despite the demonstrated role of brand building, We b 2.0 is believed to provide collective wisdom toward CSR ( Fieseler Fleck, & Meckel, 2010) Moreno and Capriotti (2009) identified communicating CSR via applications of Web 2.0 as bidirectional, allowing dialogue and interactions between organization and its different stakeholders, whereas using websites of Web 1.0 is a unidirectional way to communicate CSR. The prominent interactivity of social media enables organization al communicators to interact in a direct, timely and personalized way with stakeholder s and to encourage them to participate in sharing ideas, supervising CSR progress and bringing about change. According to a 2009 Consumer New Media Study (Cone, 2009), two
27 thirds of American new media users feel they can influence business practices by voi cing opinion s online. (2011 p.10 ) study, six components of interactivity were developed : based participat ion (e.g. photo uploaded), (d) The result s showed that nearly half of the corporate Face component. Such interaction between the publics and the organizations greatly demonstrated the practice of two way symmetrical model, which is believed as the most effective model of public relations communication (Grunig & Hunt, 1984). The two way symmetrical model uses research to facilitate understanding and communication rather than to identify messages most likely to motivate or persuade publics (J. Grunig & L. Grunig, 1992, p.289) B eyond brand building and providing collective wisdom, social media are similar to web pages in that they offer the organization an opportunity to move from passive forms of self presentation to more active forms of agenda setting (Kent, 2008; Esrock & Leic hty, 1998). Given the ability of organizations using social media to provide information directly to audience s without passing through the gatekeepers, the channel can be used as the platform for expressing the organization s position on specific issues thereby gradually raising public s awareness toward CSR (Esrock & Leichty, 1998). Due to the advantages of social media, more and more companies have engaged in the virtual world to communicate corporate information and CSR efforts. For instance, more tha n half of the 100 leading U. S. retaile rs had established Facebook pages by September 2008 (Rosetta, 2009).
28 On the other hand, social media bring some challenges to CSR communication. The biggest advantage of Web 2.0 is that it is open and interactive. In the virtual world of Web 2.0, individuals can freely contribute information to the platform. However, corporations have little control over CSR information disseminated by other stakeholder groups online (Schneider, Stieglitz, & Lattemann, 2007). Therefore corporations need to engage with a variety of social media to monitor ongoing dialogue in Web 2.0 to measure public opinion and influence it and detect criticism as well (Bittner & Leimeister, 2011; Etter & Fieseler, 2010). Furthermore, some scholars a rgued that the style of communication in Web 2.0 communities is more informal, casual and sometimes humorous (Etter & Fieseler, 2010). Hence, it is important for companies to set an appropriate tone to communicate with stakeholders in Web 2.0 communities. Although the impact of social media on CSR was highlighted little is discussed about CSR communication and social media in the academic field. Most studies concerning social media and CSR to date take the qualitative approach. Fieseler et al. (2010) used social network analysis study showed the potential of Web 2.0 in recording CSR activities and engaging stakeholders. communication through a case study approach, comparing the case of Badische Anilin & Soda Fabrik and the case of BP. Sch neider et al. (2007) found that the usage of social software is more common on NGO web (2011) study, which revealed that only 27% of the top 50 American profitable corporations from the Fortune 500 displayed interactive characteristics including sharing tools, RSS news feeds and other interactive tools on CSR websites from the evaluation model. In addition, a recent
29 qualitative research study conducted by Kim et al. (2011) shed light into corporate communication strategies on Facebook. The results showed that companies rarely adopted a CSR Research Questions Based on the literature review, this study look ed at the following res earch questions: RQ1: Is CSR strategy more dominant than CAb or hybrid strategies on the corporate Facebook pages of CSR Index Top 50 companies ? RQ2 : Which indicator of CSR strategy is most frequently used on CSR Index Top 50 pages and cause focused Facebook pages respectively? RQ3 : Does industry type influence the adoption of indicators of CSR and CAb strategies? RQ4 : What components of interactivity are employed on CSR Index Top 50 corporate Facebook pages and caus e focused pages respectively? RQ5 that fans posted and corporate communication strategies on corporate Facebook pages? RQ6 : Is s across the messages adopting three corporate communication strategies on corporate Facebook pages? RQ7 that fans posted and interactivity components that companies employed o n Facebook pages? RQ8 on corporate Facebook walls wall posts and responsive comments, and the total number of corporate Facebook page fans? These research questions were basi (2011) study, which found CAb strategy was more dominant on Fortune was the most frequently used CSR strat egy indicator. The results also showed that Fortune on Facebook and half of the FB message sample employed an interactivity component of t there were no significant
30 wall posts. RQ 2 and RQ4 were modified to explore the difference of most frequently used indicators of CSR strategy an d interactivity components be tween cause focused (CSR orientated ) FB pages and corporate pages. RQ3 was originally designed to explore the influence of industry type on the adoption of indicators of CSR and CAb strategies. RQ6 was designed to add different
31 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study is to explore the communication strategy employed by the Given these objectives, content analysis was chosen as the research method According to Neuendorf (2002), content analysis is defined as, a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, intersubjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generaliz ability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the me ssages are created or presented (p. 10). Babbie (2007, p. 320) stated that content analysis was particularly appropriate to the study of communications when corporation communication strategy, which This study follow ed the basic procedures of content analysis: (1) selecting the sample; (2) developing the coding schem the units of analysis and testing for reliability and validity and (4) data analysis. Sampling The 2010 CSR Index Top50 c orporations were the census for this study. The CSR Index ranking was created by the data from Reputation Institut which is analyzed jointly by the Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship. Three dimensions including citizenship, governance and wo rkplace determined the CSR Index ranking. Thus o ne can arguably say that the CSR performance of corporations in this list is recognized by the professional realm. The 2010 CSR Index Top 50 list is appropriate for this study because
32 corporations on it sho uld have a higher possibility of emphasizing CSR via Facebook (FB) than corporations which are not so muc h engaged in CSR activities The official Facebook pages of the 2010 CSR I ndex Top 50 corporations were identified through the FB hyperlink in compani icial web sites and the keyword names on Facebook itself Out of the 50 companies, 47 companies were found to have official corporate FB pages in November 2011 ( General Mills and Coca Cola Bottlers official FB pages) This study also include d focused FB pages (e.g., Kraft Fight Hunger FB page) since one of the main interests here was CSR communication. The cause offic ial corporate FB pages or the hyperlink provided through official corporate web sites. Following the logic about a CSR focus the product brand based FB pages were excluded. In addition, four companies (i.e. Apple SC Johnson Medtronic Southern Company ) did not have any posts on their pages. As a result, a total of 43 official corporate FB pages and 9 cause focused FB pages served as the final pool of companies in the study Messages posted on these 52 FB pages were the units of analysis, including FB wa ll posts, FB event posts, FB note posts, photos, videos and other document s linked to FB posts. Time span was set as January, 2011 Variables The first several variables collected were related to the background information of the ng (a) the URL of its FB page, (b) industry, which was coded based and (c) the the corporate FB page (the number
33 The operational definitions of CAb and CSR strategy were given in order to examine the adoption of these three corporate communication strategies. According to Kim and Rader (2010), a CAb ( Corporate Ability) strat egy was attempted high quality product s or service s to create corporate ability association s whereas a CSR (Corporate Soci al Responsibility) strategy was focused on the society in terms of soci al concerns to create corporate social responsibility associations. The t welve indicators used in coding for the three corporate communication strategies were based on the studies of Kim and Rader ( 2010) and Kim, Kim and Sung (2011) and are shown in the Table 3 1. In addition, s (2011, p.10) study were adopted to investigate the components of interactivity employed on the official corporate FB pages and cause focused FB pages: s feedback/comments/opinions (e.g., how many donations did you contribute to the fight against hunger? etc.), (b) providing live chat opportunities (c) based participation (e.g., watch these amazing documentaries and cast your vote today for the Project Voice Scape Audience Award, then help us spread the word! etc.), (d) try, see, buy etc.) (e) posting holiday/weekend greetings and (f) ith personalized content (e.g., we hope everyone is getting their new year off to a great start! What education goals do you have for 2012? etc.). Coding Each unit of analysis was coded for these indicators based on whether the indicator was completely a bsent (0), or was stated (1). The overall communication strategy of a message was a true hybrid strategy was identified when both the CAb and CSR indic a tors were p resent and the
34 CAb indic a tors score equaled to the CSR indic a tors score. If the CAb indic a tors score was greater than the CSR indic a tors score, the message was identified as employing a CAb communication strategy. Otherwise, if the CSR indic a tors score was greater than the CAb indic a tors score, the message was identified as employing a CSR communication strategy. Coders were two graduate students at the University of Florida who are fluent at English. Each coder coded a random sample of 50% of the units. A detailed coder guide (Appendix A) was designed for facilitating content analysis of messages and documents. Also, a coding sheet (Appendix B) was used for recording data. Coders independently coded about 12% (n=165) of the sample to test the intercoder re appropriate minimum acceptable level and .80 or greater is very good and acceptable. The intercoder reliability in the pre acceptable. Data Analysis Data collected were analyz ed using the software Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) based on the research questions. To answer the six research q uestions, ANOVA, correlation, line a r regression and chi square analyses were performed.
35 Table 3 1. Indicators of CAb and CSR corporate communication strategy CAb Strategy CSR strategy 1 product or service stewardship 2 contribution 3 quality control program 4 A 5 commitments 6 efforts activities
36 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter covers descriptive statistics of the sample and answers to the eight research questions. Descriptive Statistics of the Sample in this study 30.2% (n=13) of the companies were from the consumer staples industry (e.g. industry that manufactures and sells food, beverages, drugs and household products; Publix Procter & Gamble Coca Cola etc.) 23.3% (n=10) were from the consumer discretionary industry ( Walt Disney JC Penny New Balance e tc.), 23.3% (n=10) were from the information technology industry ( Google Dell Microsoft etc.), 16.3% (n=7) were from the industrials industry ( Deere & Co ., 3M General Electrics etc.), 4.7% (n=2 ) were from the healt h care industry ( Johnson & Johnson and AmerisourceBergen ) and 2.3% (n=1) were from the financials industry ( Fidelity Investments ). There were no companies from energy, materials, telecommunication services or utilities sectors in this study. The forty thre e selected companies released a total of 1,340 Facebook message s during January 2012. On average, the companies in this census posted 31.2 Facebook messages during the one month period ( SD =24.6). Yahoo! posted the largest number of cor porate Facebook messages ( 9.7% n=130 ), followed by Pepsico ( 5.9% n=79 ), Microsoft ( 5.5% n=74 ), Texas Instruments ( 5.3% n=71 ) and Dell ( 4.5% n=60 ). Anheuser Busch InBev posted the smallest numbe r of messages on Facebook ( 0.1% n=1 ). About 33% (n=14) of the companies h ad more than a million fans on their corporate FB pages (i.e. Walt Disney Microsoft Hershey Google Intel JC Penny Dell Amazon Yahoo! Coca Cola Southwest Airlines Starbucks Hewlett Packard and eBay ), and AmerisourceBergen had the fewest fans on its FB page (n=161).
37 Among the nine cause focused FB pages, a total of 84 messages were posted during January, 2012. Of the total number of messages, eBay Giving Works posted the largest number of messages on a cause focused FB page ( 22.6% n=19 ), followed by P&G my GIVE ( 16.7% n=14 ) and General Mills Give ( 14.3% n=12 ). Brewing A Better World developed by Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Stamp Out Hunger developed by Campbell Soup Company posted the smallest number of messages respectively ( 4 .8% n=4 ). Kraft Fight Hunger had the largest number of fans among the nine cause focused pages (n=567,968), and there were other two cause focused pages with more than 100,000 fans ( Thank You Mom and P&G my GIVE both initiated by Procter &Gamble ). Genera l Mills Give had the smallest number of fans (n=3,084). RQ1: Dominant Corporate Communication Strategy RQ1 asks that whether CSR communication strategy is more dominant than CAb or hybrid strategies on CSR Index Top 50 companies 55.7 % (n=747) of the messages employed at least one indicator of a CAb or CSR communication strategy on CSR Index Top 50 pages. As Table 4 1 indicates, the CAb strategy was more dominant than the CSR and hybrid strategies on corpora te FB pages. Overall about 44.3 % (n=593) of the total messages employed a CAb strategy, while only about 9.9 % (n=133 ) used a CSR strategy. About 1.57 % (n=21) of the total messages used a true hybrid strategy adopting the same number of both CAb and CSR strategy indicators. Based on both of the CSR and CAb indic a the results showed that about 81.4% (n=35) of companies employed a CAb s trategy more often than a CSR strategy or a hybrid strategy, whereas only 14.0% (n=6) of companies ( Adobe Unilever Sarah Lee Procter &Gamble 3M and Anheuser Busch InBev ) employed a CSR strategy more frequently than a CAb strategy or a hybrid strategy. Johnson & Johnson was the only company where a hybrid strategy was more dominant than a CSR or CAb strategy. Finally messages
38 released by Yahoo! did not con tain any CSR or CAb indicators as a ll messages released by Yahoo! were about everyday news ranging from politics to entertainment. It seemed that the Yahoo! corporate FB page was dedicated to providing news to fans, though Yahoo Corp already had a Yahoo! News FB page with the same function. As shown in Table 4 2, all six industries in the sampl e employed a CAb strategy more frequently than a CSR strategy or a true hybrid strategy. Furthermore, the results of chi square tests among the industry type and adoption of three communication strategies indicated that the adoption of three corporate comm unication strategies varied by industries in this study ( 2 ( 10 N= 747 ) = 55.81 p <.001). Thus, tests for difference in proportions of CSR strategy by industry type were performed. With regard to the CSR strategy adoption, the consumer discretionary indus try adopted a significantly smaller proportion of CSR strategy than the consumer staples ( z = 3.87, p < .001), information technology ( z = 2.11, p < .001 ) and industrials sector ( z = 3.53, p < .001) (see Table 4 3) In addition, the consumer staples industry adopted a significantly larger proportion of CSR strategy than the financial industry ( z = 2.26, p < .05) and information technology industries ( z = 2.53, p <. 05) (see Table 4 4) Also, the industrials sector embr aced a significantly greater proportion of CSR strategy than the financial industry ( z = 2.21, p < .05) and information technology sectors ( z =2.10, p < .05) (see Table 4 5) RQ2: The Most Frequently Used Indicator of CSR Strategy RQ2 asks that which is the most frequently used CSR strategy indicator on corporate FB pages and the nine cause focused FB pages. The results revealed that a company's sponsorship of cultural/sports activities ( 4.6% of the total 1340 messages on corporate official FB pages n=62 ) ( As part of the new UK Brighter Mornings initiative, Tropicana has commissioned visual artist collective Greyworld to create a man Pepsico FB posting) nvironmental stewardship ( 2.9% n=39 appy to report that our
39 from Kellogg FB posting) were the most frequently used types of messages on corporate FB pages These types of messages were followed by and community involvement ( 2.0% n=27 UPS ilanthropic contribution ( 1.3% n=18 ). Among the nine caus e focused FB p age messages about 17.9% (n=15) of the total 84 messages on cause focused FB pages public health commitment We're excited to continue our support of Grounds for Health's work within coffee Green Mountain Coffee Roasters cause focused page posting ) and about 16.7% of the total 84 messages contributi from Thank you Mom by P&G FB posting). enge from General Mills Gives FB posting) accounted for 15.5% (n=13) and 11.9% (n=10) of the total 84 messages respect ively on cause focused FB page messages (see Tabl e 4 6 ). strategy indicato r on corporate FB pages ( 26.6% n=357 ) (e.g., Microsoft launched the Year of the Dragon mice to celebrate Chinese New Year). About 15% (n=202) of th e total 1340 messages the durability, reliability, deliciousness, and precision of products innovation and R&D efforts accounted for 9.1% (n=12 2) (see Table 4 7).
40 RQ3: Industry Type and the Adoption of Indicators of CSR and CAb strategies T o explore levels of CSR and CAb strategy indicators usages by different industry types, one way ANOVA tests were performed on the total number of communication strategy indicators by industry as the independent variable. The results showed that there were overall significant differences among industry types for both the indicators of CSR strategy ( F (5, 1334) = 5.89 p < .001) and the indicators of CAb strategy ( F (5, 1334) = 8.95 p < .001) (see Table 4 8 ). The health care (n=2) industry showed the highest levels of adopted CSR strategy indicators ( M = .39 ) whereas the financial industry (n=1) displayed the lowest levels of adopted CSR strategy ind icators ( M = .00) (see Table 4 8 ). This means every message posted by the he alth care industry employed .39 CSR indicators on average, but the financial industry in this study did not post any message s employing CSR indic a tors. The financial and health care industries revealed relatively higher levels of adopted CAb strategy indicators ( M = .95 and M = .87 respectively). It showed that health care industry displayed relatively higher levels of both CSR ( M = .39 ) and CAb strategy indicators ( M =.87 ). In other wo rds, companies in the health care industry are more likely to employ indicators of both CSR and CAb strategies when posting FB messages. Furthermore, Scheffe post hoc comparisons of the mean number of strategy indicators by industry indicated that the health care industry ( M =. 39) adopted a significantly higher level of indicators of CSR strategy than the financials industry ( M = .00), the information technology industry ( M = .10) and the consumer discretionary industry ( M = .06) at the .05 level (see Tab le 4 9 ) In addition, the industrials sector ( M = .25) adopted a significantly higher level of indicators of CSR strateg y than the financial sector ( M = .00, p < .05) (see Table 4 9 ). With regard to the indicators of CAb strategy, the homogeneous subsets o f means showed that the health care ( M =. 87) and the financial ( M = .95) sectors adopted a significantly higher level of CAb strategy indicators than the consumer staples sector ( M = .41, p < .05) (see Table 4 10 ).
41 Additionally, the results revealed that the adoption of five indicators of CSR strategy varied by industry type. 2 (5) =70.39, 2 (5) = 17.97, p < .05), employee and community involvement 2 2 (5) =107.95, p < .001) and sponsorship of 2 (5) = 15.38, p < .05) across industries More specifically, 51.3% (n=6) of the messages about e re from the ind ustrials se ctor Meanwhile, the proportion of messages adopting an environmental stewardship against total messages of industrials companies was about 12%, which was relatively larger than those of other industries. The second indicator, philanthropic contribution, was adopted by the consumer staples (40.0% n =7 ), industrial ( 33.3 % n= 6 ) consumer discretionary (22.2%, n=4) and health care sectors (5.6%, n=1) No significant differences in the proportions of adopting philanthropic contribution were found among these four industries. But i nformation technology and financial companies did not post any message s about philanthropic contribution. In addition 64.5% (n=40) of the messages about sponsoring cultural and sport s activities w ere posted by the i nformation technology sector. The proportion of messages about adopting sponsorship of cultural and sports activities against total messages of information technology companies was larger than those of other industries. Regarding messages about employee and community involvement, the industrials companies employed the largest number of employee and community involvement messages (33.3%, n=9) But the results of difference between proportions showed that the health care co mpanies employed a significantly larger proportion of employee and community involvement messages than the industrials companies ( z = 2.40, p < .05) Although both the health care and the consumer staples industries adopted almost the largest number of mes sages about public health commitment, the result of difference
42 between proportions test indicated that the health care sector adopted a significantly greater proportion of public health commitment than the consumer staples ( z = 4.97, p < .001) RQ4 : Inter activity Components Regarding RQ4 considering what interactivity components are employed on CSR Index Top 50 (n=1043) of the total message s employed at least one interactivity component. About 42.8% (n=574) of the total message s employed seeking fan and about 24% (n=322) of the total message s Use HERSHEY'S Baking Chocolate to a Hers hey posting. On the other hand, messages asking Google accounted for 10.9% (n=146). In addition, about 17% (n=226) of the total message sample personalized the message by addre and 3.3% (n=44) of the total messages were greetings for holida ys and weekends (see Table 4 11 ). The results also showed that about 11% (n=142) of the total corporate messages were combined component component For example, Pepsico let's hear it nsidered as a prediction of the outcome of the game Only four messages (0.3%) of the total message s provided live chat opportunities. On the other hand, every message of the cause focused pa ge message sample employed at least one interactivity component. The results showed that about a quarter of the cause focu sed page messages ( 25.0% n=21 ) asked Stamp Out Hunger by Campbell
43 had equal occurrence ( 23.8% n=20 ). In addition 21. 4% (n=18) of the total cause focused page messages addressed and 10.7% (n=7) greeted fans during holidays. There was no message employing interactivity component providing live chat oppo rtunities on cause focused FB pages. Next according to the six difference of proportion tests on each interactivity component adopted by corporate FB pages and the nine cause focused FB pages, the feedback/ opinions on the corporate FB pages embraced a significantly greater proportion than those on the cause focused FB pages (z = 3.426, p < .001). specific action based participation an d the messages about holidays /seasonal/weekends greetings had significantly smaller proportions than those on t he cause focused FB pages ( z = 3.896, z = 3.476, respectively, p < .001) (see Table 4 11 ). RQ 5 : RQ 5 asks clicks on the messages and corporation communication strategies on corporate F B pages. To answer this question, one way ANOVA test s were conducted by strategy type as the independent factor The results showed that among the three corporate strategies, no significant differences were found in the numbers of F ( 2,744) =1.365 p F (2,744) =1.527 p > .05 ) a =1.573 p > .05) that fans posted. positive, negative or neutral) was different across the three c orporate communication strategy type s (i.e. CSR, CAb and hybrid strategies), chi square test s were performed among the first message and three communication strategies. The results indicate d a significant difference in the
44 distribution 2 (4) = 22 19 p <.001 ). Next, tests for difference in proportions were conducted. The results showed that the proportion of positive comments to corporate messages employing a CSR stra tegy was significantly greater than th ose employing a CAb strategy ( z = 4.428, p < .001) (see Table 4 12). Also, the proportion of neutral comments to corporate messages employing a CSR strategy was significantly smaller than th ose employing a CAb strategy ( z = 3.620, p < .001) (see Table 4 12). Meanwhile, the proportion of negative comments to the messages in CSR strategy category was significantly smaller than th ose in the hybrid strategy category ( z = .2.215, p < 0.05) (see Table 4 13). No significant comments to the messages in the CAb strategy category and those in the hybrid strategy category (see Table 4 14). RQ 7 : Participation RQ 7 and the interactivity components. Correlation analyses were carried out. The results revealed that there were significant positive relationships between t of corporate mes ( r = .15, p < .001), and also positive holiday/ weekend greeting ( r = .09, p = .001 ). However, negative relationships were found (e.g., try, see, learn, etc.) ( r = .08 p < .05 ). Also, negative relationships were found between r = .08 p < 05
45 was more l ikely to decrease (see Table 4 15 ). But the correlations here were so small th ey hardly predict any of the variance. r = .11 p < .001). Also, r = .08, p < .05) However, significant negative relationships were found between r = .10 p < .001). Again, small correlations here basically predict less than 1% of the variance. A corporate r = .15 p < .001). But negative ( r = .09 p < .05 ) action (i.e., see, try, learn, etc.) as w ell ( r = .06 p < .05) very slightly slightly decrease. When companies t r fans were slightly or In addition when companies posted holiday greeting s But when corporate messages used the However all these correlations are relatively small and do not predict much of the variance.
46 RQ 8 : Relationships between participation. comments, the frequency of compani comments, and the total number of corporate FB page fans to answer RQ 8 The results indicated that there were significant and very strong positive relationships between the total number of corporat r = .77, p < .001) (see Table 4 16) posting comments. No significant relationships were found among the frequency of comp responsive comments wall posts comment s Furthermore, linear reg ression analyses were performed for the total numb er of corporate FB page fans, t posts responsive comments on the comments as the dependent variable. The number of corporate FB page fans ( = .77 t = 8.48 p FB wall posts ( = .31 t = 3.35 p < .05) (see Table 4 17) To summarize, when companies post more messages on FB walls, fans were more likely to participate in dialogue with companies on corp orate FB pages. Also, when the total number of corporate FB page fans increased, the chance of involving fans in dialogue tended to increase.
47 Table 4 1. Percent of CAb, Hybrid and CSR messages as a total for each company CSR Index Rank Company No strategies % CAb strategy % Hybrid Strategy % CSR Strategy % Total N 18 Anheuser Busch InBev 100.00 1 34 Sarah Lee 18.18 81.82 11 50 3M 33.33 66.67 3 31 Unilever 25.00 12.50 62.50 8 20 Adobe 20.83 35.42 2.08 41.67 48 39 Fedex 8.33 50.00 41.67 12 38 Procter &Gamble 20.69 34.48 3.45 41.38 29 11 Caterpillar 5.26 57.89 5.26 31.58 19 19 UPS 38.71 32.26 3.23 25.81 31 41 New Balance 37.50 31.25 6.25 25.00 16 3 Kraft Foods Inc. 23.53 41.18 11.76 23.53 17 9 Kellogg 80.00 20.00 5 10 Google 15.00 65.00 20.00 20 48 Hewlett Packard 32.14 50.00 1.79 16.07 56 1 Johnson & Johnson 14.29 14.29 57.14 14.29 7 42 The Coca Cola Company 68.18 18.18 13.64 22 26 Dell 26.67 58.33 1.67 13.33 60 13 Publix Super Markets Inc. 43.59 46.15 10.26 39 40 General Electrics 59.62 23.08 7.69 9.62 52 29 Lowe's Home Improvement 38.10 52.38 9.52 21 17 Marriott International 43.48 47.83 8.70 23 15 Green Mountain Coffee 62.96 29.63 7.41 27 12 Intel 46.43 39.29 7.14 7.14 28 47 Starbucks Coffee Company 50.00 42.86 7.14 14 21 AmerisourceBergen 25.00 68.75 6.25 16 44 Southwest Airlines 16.67 77.78 5.56 18 28 Avon Products 14.29 80.95 4.76 21 4 Microsoft 32.43 62.16 1.35 4.05 74 23 Clorox 52.00 44.00 4.00 25 49 eBay 55.56 40.74 3.70 27 37 Deere & Co. 22.58 74.19 3.23 31 45 Texas Instruments 36.62 60.56 2.82 71 24 Eastman Kodak 26.83 70.73 2.44 41 5 Pepsico 63.29 34.18 1.27 1.27 79 2 The Walt Disney company 31.82 68.18 22
48 Table 4 1. Continued CSR Index Rank Company No strategies % CAb strategy % Hybrid strategy % CSR strategy % Total N 7 Hershey Company 66.67 33 45 14 JC Penny 70.83 29.17 24 16 Campbell Soup Company 90.91 9.09 22 25 Fidelity Investments 25 75 20 27 Amazon.com 37.93 62.07 29 30 AMD 25.42 74.58 59 32 Goodyear 11.76 88.24 17 35 Yahoo! 100 130 Total 44.25 44.25 1.57 9.93 1340 Table 4 2. Percent o f CAb, Hybrid and CSR messages as a total for each industry Consumer discretionary Consumer staples Financials Health Care Information Technology Industrials Total % % % % % % % N CAb strategy 90.6 71.6 100 66.7 81.8 69.4 79.4 593 Hybrid strategy 0.7 2.5 0 22.2 2 5.4 2.8 21 CSR strategy 8.7 25.9 0 11.1 16.2 25.2 17.8 131 Total (N) 138 162 15 18 303 111 100 747
49 Table 4 3 Results of difference in proportion tests: CSR strategy adoption by consumer discretionary and other industries CSR strategy Industry CSR strategy z p Consumer discretionary 8.7% Consumer staples 25.9% 3.87 .001 Information technology 16.2% 2.11 .035 Industrials Financials Health care 25.2% 0.0% 11.1% 3.53 1.19 .34 .001 .234 .736 Table 4 4 Results of difference in proportion tests: CSR strategy adopted by consumer staples and other industries CSR strategy Industry CSR strategy z p Consumer staples 25.9% Financials Health care 0.0% 11.1% 2.26 1.39 .024 .165 Information technology Industrials 16.2% 25.2% 2.53 .13 .012 .896 Table 4 5 Results of difference in proportion tests: CSR strategy adoption by industrials and other industries CSR strategy Industry CSR strategy z p Industrials 25.2% Financials 0.0% 2.21 .027 Information technology 16.2% 2.10 .036
50 Table 4 6 Six indicators of CSR strategy on cause focused and corporate Facebook pages Cause page Corporate page N N Indicators of CSR Strategy 1. A company's environmental stewardship 2 2.4% 39 2.9% 2. A company's philanthropic contribution 14 16.7% 18 1.3% 3. A company's educational commitments 10 11.9% 16 1.2% involvement 8 9.5% 27 2.0% 5. A company's public health commitments 15 17.9% 14 1.0% 6. A company's sponsorship of cultural/sports activities 13 15.5% 62 4.6% No Indicator of CSR Strategy Messages 22 26.2% 1164 86.9% Total 84 100.0% 1340 100.0%
51 Table 4 7 Six indictors of CAb and CSR corporate communication strategy on corporate Facebook pages N Indicators of CAb strategy 1. A company's market orientation 357 26.6% 2.A company's expertise in product or service quality 202 15.1% 3.A company's innovation and R&D efforts 122 9.1% 4. A company's industry leadership 68 5.1% 5. A company's global success 17 1.3% 6. A company's implementation of quality control program 6 0.4% Indicators of CSR strategy 1. A company's sponsorship of cultural/sports activities 62 4.6% 2. A company's environmental stewardship 39 2.9% 27 2.0% 4. A company's philanthropic contribution 18 1.3% 5. A company's educational commitments 16 1.2% 6. A company's public health commitments 14 1.0% Messages With No Indicators 593 44.3% Total 1340 100%
52 Table 4 8 One way ANOVA results: Levels of CSR and CAb strategy indicators usage by industry type Indicators of Indicators of Messages CA b strategy CSR strategy Industry type Mean SD Mean SD N Consumer D iscretionary .61 .61 .06 .26 234 Consumer S taples 41 .57 .17 .45 324 Financials .95 .67 0 0 0 0 20 Health Care .87 .63 .39 .78 23 Information T echnology .61 .80 .10 .31 573 Industrials 63 .73 .25 .50 166 Total .57 .71 .13 .38 1340 F 5.89 8.95 df 5/1334 5/1334 p .001 .001 Table 4 9 H omogeneous subsets of Scheffe post hoc tests: M eans of CSR strategy indicator usage by industry type Messages Subset for alpha = 0.05 Industry type N 1 2 3 Financials 20 .00 Consumer Discretionary 234 .06 .06 Information Technology 573 .1 0 .1 0 Consumer Staples 324 .17 .17 .17 Industrials 166 .25 .25 Health Care 23 .39 Significance .36 .23 .08
53 Table 4 10 H omogeneous subsets of Scheffe p ost hoc tests: Means of CAb strategy indicator usage by industry type Messages Subset for alpha=0.05 Industry type N 1 2 Consumer Staples 324 .41 C onsumer Discretionary 234 .61 .61 Information Technology 573 .61 .61 Industrials 166 .63 .63 Health Care 23 .87 Financials 20 .95 Significance .75 .26
54 Table 4 11 Six interactivity components on corporate FB pages and cause focused FB pages and their difference of proportions tests results Corporate page Cause page N N z p 574 42.8% 20 23.8% 3.426 .001 2. Messages providing live chat opportunities 4 0.3% 0 0 .504 .614 specific action based participation 146 10.9% 21 25.0% 3.896 .001 4. Messages triggering public's general action 322 24.0% 20 23.8% .042 .967 5. Messages about seasonal/holiday/weekend greetings 44 3.3% 9 10.7% 3 476 001 6. Mess daily lives/personal lives 226 16.9% 18 21.4% 1.062 .288 Total 1340 100.0% 84 100.0%
55 Table 4 12. Results of difference in proportions tests: Positive, neutral and negative comments to messages employing CSR and CAb strategies CSR strategy CAb strategy N N z p Positive 275 64.86% 1270 53.25% 4.428 .001 Neutral 127 29.95% 935 39.20% 3.620 .001 Negative 22 5.19% 180 7.55% 1.732 .083 Total 424 100% 2385 100% Table 4 13. Results of difference in proportions tests: Positive, neutral and negative comments to messages employing CSR and h ybrid strategies CSR strategy Hybrid strategy N N z p Positive 275 64.86% 41 53.95% 1.816 .069 Neutral 127 29.95% 26 34.21% .742 .458 Negative 22 5.19% 9 11.84% 2.215 .027 Total 424 76 Table 4 14. Results of difference in proportions tests: Positive, neutral and negative comments to messages employing CAb and h ybrid strategies CAb strategy Hybrid strategy N N z p Positive 1270 53.25% 41 53.95% .120 .904 Neutral 935 39.20% 26 34.21% .878 .380 Negative 180 7.55% 9 11.84% 1.384 .166 Total 2385 76
56 Table 4 15 Pearson correlations among frequencies of comment, like, share and six interactivity components Comment Like Share Seeking feedback Providing live chat Seeking specific participation Triggering general action Posting holiday greeting Addressing fans' daily lives Comment 1 .50 ** .37 ** .11 ** .02 .02 .10 ** .03 .08 ** Like 1 .86 ** .08 ** .01 .02 .08 ** .09 ** .15 ** Share 1 .09 ** .01 .03 .06 .02 .15 ** Seeking feedback 1 .05 .09 ** .30 ** .01 .18 ** Providing live chat 1 .03 .03 .01 .03 Seeking specific participation 1 .20 ** .01 .09 ** Triggering general action 1 .09 ** .18 ** Posting holiday greeting 1 .06 Addressing fans' daily lives 1 Note: N=1340 and ** indicate variable significance at the 0.05 and 0.01 level (2 tailed).
57 Table 4 1 6 Frequency of companies' posting Frequency of corporate responses A total number of fans Frequency of fans' posting Frequency of companies' posting 1 0.18 0.04 .27 Frequency of corporate responses 1 0.12 0.07 A total number of fans 1 .77 ** Frequency of fans' posting 1 Note: N=43 and ** indicate variable significan ce at the 0.05 and 0.01 level (2 tailed). Table 4 17 Linear regression results for the frequency of fans' posting Predictor Variables B Std. Error Beta t p A total number of corporate FB page fans 132.168 39.173 .30 3.37 .002 The frequency of companies' wall posts .001 .000 .78 8.66 .001 Note: F (3, 39) = 27.50, p < .00 1
58 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION Discussion This study investigated the dominant corporate communication strategy (i.e. CAb, CSR and hybrid communication strategies) of CSR Index Top 50 their adoption of CSR indicators and interactivity components. It also examined the nine cause focused FB pages that belonged to these CSR Index Top 50 companies in terms of incorporating CSR indicators and interactivity components. The results showed that CSR Index Top 50 companies employed a CAb strategy more frequently than a CSR strategy or a hybrid strategy on corporate FB pages. This finding is consistent with previous research results that Fortune 100 corporations rarely adopted a CSR strategy on their corporate FB pages (Kim, Kim & Sung, 2011). But a previous study found a CSR strategy adoption was more prevalent than CAb or hybrid strategies adoption on Fortune 500 corporate websites (Kim & Rader, 2010). Since most of sample companies in this study were also listed in Fortune 500 (except Adobe Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and New Balance ), the potential difference of adopting CSR strategy on corporate websites and FB pages raises a question of whether the CSR Index Top 50 companies employ ed a consistent dominant corporate communication strategy across different media. If so, we need to be reminded of research showing that keeping consistent in delivering messages across different media is vital communication strategy may lead publics to be confused about the corporate image. With regard to the reason for this potential difference of dominant communication strategy between corporate websites and corporate FB pages, Kim et al. (2011) inferred that perhaps the personalizing attribute of Facebo ok induced companies to emphasize more a daily life related
59 CAb strategy, which included exploring and meeting customer needs, providing customer service, or market orientation. In addition, Vorvoreanu (2009), through focus groups, found that users of Face book believed that Facebook was a medium for personal interaction, and only organizations that were able to communicate in a personalized tone would be embraced in Facebook. On the other hand, participants agreed that discounts and coupons would motivate t hem to engage in dialogue with organizations (Vorvoreanu, 2009). It w as consistent with Kim, supposition. Hence the difference of the dominant communication strategy between corporate websites and corporate FB pages might be attributed to th e personalizing aspect of Facebook. This and other reasons such as the relative newness of corporate F acebook pages certainly need to be explored in future research. Although the general CSR strategy adoption was quite low, the percent of adopting CSR stra tegy was more prominent in CSR Index Top 50 the earlier study of Fortune (n=133) of the adopted communication strategies messages in this study employed a CSR strategy, wher eas only about 9% of the adopted communication strategies messages employ ed a CSR strategy in the study of Kim, Kim and Sung (2011). Similarly, about 14% of our sample companies (n=6) employed a CSR strategy more frequently than a CAb strategy or hybrid st rategy, whereas only 5% (n=2) of sample Fortune 100 companies employed a CSR strategy most often (Kim et al., 2011). Additionally, one company in this study ( Johnson & Johnson ) employed a true hybrid communication strategy, which was not found in the previ ous study (Kim et al., 2011). Although overall these CSR Index Top 50 companies, like Fortune 100 companies, focused more on CAb strategy than CSR strategy on corporate FB pages, the percent age adopting a CSR strategy was relatively higher than the companies which were not recognized for their CSR efforts. This
60 finding implies that CSR Index Top 50 companies indeed made above average effort in communicating CSR activities on Facebook, though it was still rare f Further more, this study revealed the disparity of adopting a CSR strategy amo ng different industry types. It indicated that health care sector companies showed the highest level of adopted CSR strategy indicators usage whereas the financial industry displayed th e lowest level. According to the 2010 corporate social responsibility perceptions survey (Burson Marsteller, 2010), consumers believed that CSR is very important for health care (88%) and financial companies (85%), while these industries scored relatively low on their CSR performance (35%, 27%, respectively). Therefore, it seems reasonable that the health care companies in this study adopt ed a CSR strategy more frequently than other industry sector companies. On the other hand financial companies in this s expectations shown in the Burson Marsteller survey. In addition, public relations practitioners in the consumer discretionary industry may want to also pay more attention to the adoption of CSR strategy indicators on FB messages since they likewise fell behind consumer staples, information technology and industrials sectors. sponsorship of cultural/sports activitie s. Perhaps this was largely due to the sam pling time span chosen, January 2 012, during which six companies ( Adobe Hewlett Packard Microsoft General Electrics Southwest Airlines and Yahoo! ) were sponsoring the Sundance film festival and releasing relate more emphasized on cause focused FB pages than corporate FB pages, owing to the fact that five
61 out of nine cause focused FB pages were promoting CSR programs related to giving and donati on. As mentioned in the literature review, industry type is a strong predictor in CSR communication and, these results showed that CSR Index Top 50 companies employed different CSR strategy indicators depending on industry type. For example, consumer staples companies posted a relatively larger number of messages about corporate philanthropic contribution (38.9%, n=7) while environmental stewardship was most frequently used by industrials sector companies. This finding was consistent with pre vious research which found that industries that had more direct contact with customers were more likely to focus on philanthropy and education, whereas industries that had less direct contact with customers and that relied on the exploitation of natural re sources or that might bring community harm were more likely to focus on environmental closer to the consumers in the value chain differed from industries further u p the value chain in terms of communicating CSR practices (Rowley & Berman, 2000). Hendry (2006) claimed that industries further up the value chain were more likely to be targeted by activists, and emphasizing environmental responsibility would appease or redirect activists. With regard to incorporating interactivity components on FB pages, the results found that was (2011) finding that behavioral action most frequently. However, the negative relationships between the number s of positive relationships between the numb er s ages w findings (2011). But the
62 correlations in this study were relatively smaller study (2011) and they may hardly predict much of the variance On the other hand the positive relationships between the number s daily lives found study (2011), suggest that personalized messages are more likely to engage fans in dialogue on Facebook. In addition, it also reflects the personalizing attribute of Facebook. frequency of comp which was found in Kim, Kim (2011) study, did not show significant positive relationships with the frequen cy of Implications Although Facebook was initially for personal interaction, the social networking among this medium gradually becomes complicated since more and more parties like activists, NGOs and media have joined in Facebook. As a result, interests of different stakeholder groups diversify. C ompanies need to emphasize their CSR practice more often and present themselves as good more Boycott BP, Boycot t Walmart and Boycott Avon ) were established indicates that stakeholders also utilize Facebook to push companies to focus more on corporate social responsibility. Although corporate websites emphasized CSR s trategy very often, a recent (Burson news feed list. This particular feature render s it easier for fans to get corporate information
63 CSR more often on corporate FB page will strengthen the corporate image rela The resu lts in this study also show that CSR strategy is more likely to Therefore, this study suggests that companies should adopt a CSR strategy more often on corporate FB pages, and perhaps establish more cause focused (CSR camp aign orientated) FB pages to keep consistent with corporate website communication strategy. Second, this study demonstrated that some companies focus on communicating different aspects of CSR practices depending on industry type. According to previous acad emic research ( ) companies further up in the value chain and companies that rely on the exploitation of natural resources or have the potential to cause community harm (i.e. companies in energy, utilities, m aterials sectors and some companies in industrials sector), may want to communicate their environmental stewardship more often. For example, General Electric often addressed its effort on controlling of greenhouse gas emissions and water use reduction on F acebook. Such communication might appease or redirect activists. On the other hand, companies closer to the consumers in the value chain may want to focus more on philanthropic contribution and education ( Rowley & Berman, 2000 ) In this study, five out of nine cause focused FB pages were related to giving and donation. All were initiated by companies from consumer discretionary and consumer staples sectors. Target another example, donated 5% of pre tax profits to local communit y education (Weeden, 2011). By doing so, Target underscores its concern for community education and keeps customer loyalty by jogging local education (Weeden, 2011). Furthermore, these kinds of companies may want to move beyond a sole focus on philanthropic contribution. For example, postings from Sarah Lee
64 corporate FB page render it a supporter for local cultural initiatives Apart from the fact that t he commitment of Sarah Lee and livable communities Sarah Lee also demonstrated long term commitment on workplace safety and environmental sustainability (Sarah Lee Corp, n. d.) Therefore, the diversified CSR portfolio of Sarah Lee meet s the interests of communities, employees and environmental activists in some degree. Hence b y diversifying its CSR activities, a company is more likely to with one caveat that a company should ensure long term commitment to each CSR activity Meanwhile, companies should keep CSR practices consistent The BP oil spill case made publics suspicious that such CSR communication does not s tand for Therefore, c ompanies should ensure themselves by being long on words and long on action as well. Third, this study suggests that public relations practitioners should try to personalize participation in dialogue. Since findings point out that publics are more likely to respond when a company release d personalized messages, practitioners are encouraged to post messages that make publics feel like they are talking with a real friend. For ex ample, General Electric eliminate it total which is like conversation betwee n friends that happens in every day life. In addition, practitioners are encourage d to incorporate personalization likes and "Words from Mom", you helped us reach our goal of a $100,000 donation to Special Thank you M o m by P& G postings. s
65 help spread the word Lastly, based on the findings of this study and of Kim, Kim and Sung (2011), public relations practiti oners are advised responsive example, General Electric released 1.7 messages on average every day an d responded to January, 2012). Limitations and Future Research This study has several limitations. First, the span is small. It only examined CSR Index Top 50 companie focused FB pages. Due to the immaturity of establishing CSR orientated or cause focused pages on Facebook, only nine cause focused FB pages were found out of fifty companies. Future research should examine a larger sam ple of companies such as Fortune 500 companies to reach more detailed results regarding industry differences of dominant corporate communication strategy and most frequently used CSR indicators. In addition, future research should also examine a larger sam ple of cause focused FB pages separately when such patterns of FB pages become more ordinary and mature in order to explore CSR communication on Facebook in a more detailed manner Second, the coding scheme is basi (20 11) study. After coding, we found that the interactivity component providing live chat opportunities was rarely used by these companies. Also, some messages were difficult to be classified into any current interactivity component category. For example, Wal t Disney often released messages
66 Dumbo Therefore, it would be more useful to develop customized interactivit y components through open coding purposely. Another limitation of this study is that it investigated only one type of social media outlet Future research would benefit greatly from exploring corporate communication strategies and interactivity components in other social media outlets such as Twitter and LinkedI n Regarding suggestions for future research, apart from those already mentioned, topics worth exploring include, but not limited to, (1) whether and why does a difference of dominant communication strategy exist between corporate websites and corporate FB pages (both quantitative and qualitative); (2) research examining implementation of CSR strategy on SNSs in other languages (such as Chinese) to compare differences of CSR communication in terms of dialogue, especially whether the frequency participation In spite of the limitations, this study provides an understanding of how companies that are professionally recognized for their CSR efforts discussed corporate communication strat egies on Facebook and how they interac ted with publics. Compared with previous research, the findings suggest that CSR Index Top 50 companies need to emphasize CSR more often on Facebook to strive f though they made more effort in communicating CSR on Facebook c ompared with Fortune 100 companies. In addition, it is a preliminary step for exploring corporate cause focused Facebook pages in terms of employing CSR strategy indicators and interactivity components. This study also reflects the importance of social med ia
67 change. Therefore, public relations practitioners need to monitor dialogue in social media outlet to measure public opinion and influence it, and detect criticism a s well. We believe that this study may provide several useful suggestions for practitioners to develop social media strategies.
68 APPE N DIX A CODER GUIDE V1 Coder Name : 1. Jingyi Huang, 2. Jing Sun V2 Corporate ID: pre entered by researcher V4 Posting Date: Enter the date of the post posted by corporation posted by corporations each message posted by corporations. posted by corporations. CAb Strategy Definition of CAb strategy : ability (Kim & Rader, 2010). Indicators of CAb strategy : There are six indicators of CAb strategy and they are not mutually exclusive. It means that one p ost posted by company can reflect more than one CAb indictor. But when you think that the post is not a CAb message, then we do not include it into any CAb indictor category. 1. Expertise in products or service ing high quality of product and/ or service (e.g. using imported technology expertise of employees emphasizing the durability, reliability, deliciousness precision of products, etc.) 2. Global success: overseas revenue market share in host countries, sales increase in the global/foreign market etc.
69 3. Implementation of quality control program: Quality control program emphasizes products inspection/testing to uncover defects before the product is sold into the external market. Note: This indictor emphasizes the required product/service quality that corporation promised to provide. Expertise in quality/service is more closely related to higher quality. 4. Industry leadership: A market share, sales, profits, revenue, reputation, industry ranking etc. It often compares it with the industry competitor or industry average. 5. Market orientation: identifying and meeting the needs or wants of customers, such as 1) developing different flavors ; 2) emphasizing the variety of product selection ; 3) customer survey preferences; 4) products/service tailored to a specific market, e.g. launch Year of the Dragon Mice for Chinese consumers. Examples: PepsiCo: In China, consumers expect their chips not only to be spi cy, but to mimic the full experience of a hot and spicy meal. That's why this Flavor Friday we bring you Lay's Numb & Spicy Hot Pot from Western China! 6. Innovation and R&D efforts: internal research and development and the resulti ng technological innovation (e.g. launching new products, wining international awards for patent technology improvement of existing products or service etc.) CSR strategy Definition of CSR strategy rate social responsibility associations that in terms of
70 Indicators of CSR strategy : There are six indicators of CSR strategy and they are not mutually exclusive. It means that one post posted by company can reflect more than one CAb indictor. But when you think that the post is not a CSR message, then we do not include it into any CSR indictor category. 1. Environmental stewardship environme ntal friendliness and environmental sustainability (e.g. environmental friendly products, hazardous waste management, animal testing, pollution control, recycling, use of ozone depleting chemicals, etc.) 2. Philanthropic contribution monetary and non monetary contribution for philanthropy (e.g. contribution to red cross organization) 3. Education commitment term support for the development of education (e.g. establishing scholarship foundation, Dell giving PCs to schools, etc.) 4. Employee involvement concern for safety job security diversity in hiring profit sharing, training program team building community service employee volunteerism etc. 5. Public health commitment term support for the public health development, such as carrying out public health initiatives in limited resource countries, training medical professionals and assigning them to places where experts needed, giving medical supplies, funding relevant healt h research, etc. 6. Sponsorship of cultural activities appreciating Chinese traditional architecture and culture.
71 Interactivity 1. Seeking feedback/opinions/comments : Encouraging publics to give their feedback, opinions and comments Examples: 1) Coke + ______ = :) 2) How many donations did you contribute to the fight against hunger? 3) If you were asked to come up with a slogan for Sierra Mist Natural, what would it be? 2. Providing Live Chat opportunities : Utilizing the chatting function of Facebook to invite fans talk with companies (e.g. Madewell to chat fall denim at 7 pm EST!) 3. based participation : Asking publics to be involved in specific participation. 2) Watch these amazi ng documentaries and cast your vote today for the Project Voice Scape Audience Award, then help us spread the word! 3) Today's the last day to enter to win a great 'Pepsi's Challenge' prize like a Mountain Dew Flip Cam signed by P Rod! Enter here for your chance to win 4) Send a message to Congress to protect the web by signing our petition against SOPA & PIPA 4. : Asking publics to take general action, to try, see or learn, check out the video etc. Examples : Use HERSHEY'S B aking Chocolate to create this classic chocolate cake! 5. Posting seasonal/ holiday/ weekend greeting : Greeting publics on special day (e.g. Happy Thanksgiving, Merry Christmas, we hope everyone is getting their new year off to a great start! What education goals do you have for 2012? etc.) 6. personalize.
72 Examples : 1) It's pizza night! This Flavor Friday we bring you pizza flavored Doritos from Mexico! 2) We've reached 3,000,000 fans, and its all because of YOU! Thank you from HERSHEY'S! it better. The posts are often combined indicator seeking comments with life. Eg: 1) Coca Cola: If you could share a Coke with anyone, who would it be? 2) Pepsico: Is it a Mocha, Vanilla or Coffee kind of morning? 3) Pepsico: Okay Giants and Pats fans, let's hear it who's going to go home with the glory this year? 4) Hershey 's: Who is the biggest chocolate fan in your life? Corporate Responsive Comment: post, if yes, code as 1(presence), if no, code as 0 (absence). The frequency indicates that how many times the company we need to examine the tone of first five comments towards companies below each corporate post. If the tone of comment towards company seems positive, code as 1; if it is negative, code as 3; if you can not tell or it is not obvious to be positive or negat ive, then code as 2.
73 APPENDIX B CODING SHEET 1. Coder ID ____________ 2. Corporate ID # ___________________________ 3. Posting Date__________________ 4. Number of Comments:_____________________ 5. Number of Likes:_______________ 6. Number of Shares:_________________ Corporate Communication Strategy 7. CAb Strategy Indicators Does this post contain Presence (Yes=1; No=0) 1 quality product and/or service 2 3 implementation of quality control programs 4 5 6 and R&D efforts Total 8. CSR Strategy Indicators Does this post contain Presence (Yes=1; No=0) 1 A 2 3 4 5 6 Total
74 Interactivity 9. Interactivity Components Does this post contain Presence (Yes=1; No=0) 1 2 Message providing live chat opportunities 3 Message seeking publics specific action based participation 4 5 Message posting seasonal/holiday/weekend/greeting 6 10. Corporate Responsive Comment: 0=Absence; 1=Presence. Frequency___________ 11. 1=Positive; 2=Neutral; 3=Negative; 99=N/A 12. 1=Positive; 2=Neutral; 3=Negative; 99=N/A 13. 1=Positive; 2=Neutral; 3=Negative; 99=N/A 14. 1=Positive; 2=Neutral; 3=Negative; 99=N/A 15. 1=Positive; 2=Neutral; 3=Negative; 99=N/A
75 LIST OF REFERENCES APCO Worldwide. (2004). The global CSR study communicating CSR: Talking to people who listen. Retrieved September 11 201 1 from http://www.apcoworldwide.com / content/ pdfs/Global_CSR_Study_Sept2004.pdf Babbie, E. R. (2007). The practice of social research Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Bhattacharya, C. B., & Sen, S. (2004). Doing better at doing good: W hen, why and how consumers respond to corporate social initiatives. California Management Review, 47, 9 24 Bhattacharya, C. B., Korschun, D., & Sen, S. (2009). Strengthening stakeholder company relationships through mutually beneficial corporate social responsibility initiatives. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2), 257 272. Birth, G., Illia, L., Lurati, F., & Zamparini, A. (2008). Communicating CSR: practice among Corporate Communicatins: An International Journal 13 (2), 182 196. Bittner, E., & Leime ister, J. M. (2011). Towards CSR 2.0 potentials and challenges of Web 2.0 for corporate social responsibility communication. In: Proceedings of the 11th Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Tallinn, Estonia. Brown, T.J. & Dacin, P.A. (1997). The company and the product: corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of Marketing 61 68 84. Burson Marsteller. (2010). The 2010 corporate social responsibility perceptions survey. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from http://www.burson marsteller.com/ Innovation_ and_insights/ blogs_and_podcasts/BM_Blog/Lists/Posts/Post.aspx?ID=170 Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review 4 (4), 497 505. Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corpo rate social responsibility: Towards the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons 34 (4), 39 48. Chaudhri, V., & Wang, J. (2007). Communicating c orporate s ocial r esponsibility on the i nternet: A c ase s tudy of the t op 100 i nformatio n t echnology c ompanies in India Management Communication Quarterly 21 (2), 232 247. Chen, S. (2009). Corporate responsibilities in Internet enabled social networks. Journal of Business Ethics 90 523 536. Cone. (2007). Cause evolution survey. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from: http://www.coneinc.com/content1091
76 Cone. (2009). 2009 Consumer new media study. Retrieved September 8 201 1 from http://www.coneinc.com/20 09 consumer new media study Cone. (2010). 2010 Consumer new media study. Retrieved October 30, 2011 from http://www.coneinc.com/2010 consumer new media study Coope, R. (2004). Seeing the Net potential of online CSR communications. Corporate Responsibility Management 1 (2), 20 25. Crane, A., McWilliams, A., Matten, D., Moon, J., & Siegel, D. S. ( Eds.). (2008 ). The oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Dawkins, J. (2004). Corporate responsibility: The communication challenge. Journal of Communication Management 9 (2), 108 119. Du, S., Bhattachary a, C. B., & Sen, S. (2010). Maximizing business returns to corporate social responsibility: The role of CSR communication. International Journal of Management Reviews 12 (1), 8 19. Esrock, S. L., & Leichty, G. B. (1998). Social responsibility and corporate web pages: Self presentation or agenda setting. Public Relations Review 24 (3), 305 319. Etter, M., & Fieseler, C. (2010). On relational capital in social media. Studies in Communication Science 10 (2), 167 189. Fieseler, C., Fleck, M., & Meckel, M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in t he blogsphere. Journal of Business Ethics, 91 (4), 599 614.
77 Jacques, A. (2010). Socially conscious : Companies share CSR best practices. Public Relations Tactics 17 (7), 12 13. Johnson, H.H. (2003). Does it pay to be go od? Social responsibility and financial performance. Business Horizons 46 (6), 34 40. Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons 53 (1), 59 68. Kent, M. (2008). Critical analysis of blogging in public relations. Public Relations Review, 34 (1), 32 40. Kim, S., Kim, S. Y., & Sung, K. H. (2011), How Fortune 100 companies are employing corporate communication strategies on Facebook: Corporate ability versus corporate social responsibility. International Communication Associations (ICA) Conference, Boston, MA.
78 Kim, S., & Rader, S. (2010). What they can do versus how much they care: Assessing corporate communication strategies on Fortune 500 web sites. Journal of Communication Management 14 (1), 59 80. Kim, S. Y., & Park, H. (2011). Corporate social responsibility as an organizational attractiveness for prospective public relations practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics 103 (4), 639 653. KPMG. (2008). KPMG International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from: http://www.kpmg.com/ SiteCollectionDocuments/International corporateresponsibility survey 2008_v2.pdf Lewis, S. (2003). Reputation and corporate responsibi lity. Journal of Communication Management 7 (4), 356 364. Lin, C. H., Yang H. L., & Liou D. Y. (2009). The impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance: Evidence from business in Taiwan Technology in Society 31 (1), 56 63. Luo, X., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction and market value. Journal of Marketing 70 (4), 1 18. cultural comparison. Journal of Business Ethics 20 (1), 57 72. McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2000). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: correlation or misspecification? Strategic Management Journal 21 (5), 603 609. Mirvis, P., & Googins, B. (2006). Stage of corporate citizenship. California Management Review 4 8 (2), 102 126. Moreno, A., & Capriotti, P. (2009). Communicating CSR, citizenship and sustainability on the web. Journal of Communication Management 13 (2), 157 175. Morsing, M., & Schultz, M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility communication: stakehol der information, response and involvement strategies. Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (4), 323 338. Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook London: Sage Publications. tutional level of analysis of corporate social responsibility communication. Management Communication Quarterly 24 (4), 529 551.
79 generation of software. Retrieved Septem ber 10, 2011 from http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what is web 20.html. Pomering, A., & Dolnicar, S. (2009). Assessing the prerequisite of successful CSR Implementation: Are consumers aware of CSR initiatives? Journal of Busine ss Ethics 85 (2), 285 301. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 5 16. Pressley, L. 2006. Using social software for business communication Unpublished Working Paper LIS 650. Retrieved September 11, 2011 from http://laurenpressley.com/papers/socialsoftware_business.pdf Qualman, E. (2010). k ills e mail in f lavor of s ocial m edia Retrieved December 4, 2010, from http://socialnomics.net/2010/07/19 /ben jerrys kills e mail in flavor of social media/ Rosetta. (2009). Social media study shows 59% of retailers now using Facebook. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from http://www.rosetta.com/WhoWeAre/News/Pages/ViewPress.aspx?itemid=162
81 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH public relations at th e University of Florida from 2010 to 2012, after completing her BA in journalism in Sha nghai, China. Her research interests focus on corporate social responsibility, corporate philanthropy and digital media communications.