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Heliotectonics

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044290/00001

Material Information

Title: Heliotectonics Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture through Building Form Optimization
Physical Description: 1 online resource (91 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Moore, Stirling E
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture -- energy -- heliotectonics -- solar -- technology
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As a result of the advancements in tool making during the industrial revolution, intensive development of human settlements has created vast areas of land occupied by buildings. Many of these buildings have access to an abundance of direct solar radiation, thus capable of harnessing the sun's energy and converting it into renewable solar-electric energy . These areas of developed land are highly concentrated in metropolitan zones where demand for electrical energy is considerable and will only continue to grow as population numbers increase. Heliotectonics is a type of high performance building definition that maximizes solar radiation capture through building form optimization. This type of research is ever more important as environmental concerns mount over the implications and use of fossil fuels; a finite global energy source. Solar-electric energy is an abundant renewable energy source that is already utilized in many developed and developing countries and is also the target of numerous research and development activities. Furthermore, there is already an established and growing global economy based on solar technologies. The purpose of this investigation was to establish environmentally conscious decision-making guidelines to optimize a building's form through use of the heliotectonic definition. For this investigation, traditional building geometries based on localized constraints were digitally modeled using 3D CAD software. Next, Solar Insolation (SI) levels were simulated and recorded on all exterior surfaces of subject geometries. Evaluation of resulting data concluded that significantly higher SI levels were present on the heliotectonic geometries compared to traditional geometries. These results were then used to develop an architectonic case study model based on heliotectonic geometries. In conclusion, the heliotectonic definition has the potential to lessen demands on power suppliers through a mixture of environmental accounting and autonomous energy production. The definition also has the power to produce locally available electricity by supplying solar-electric energy to the electrical grid during peak capture events. In theory, a network of heliotectonic buildings could essentially assume the role of a local power plant; passive, renewable, quiet and non-polluting. The associated economic and environmental implications suggest heliotectonic building models could become a viable development option for future building owners.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stirling E Moore.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Gold, Martin A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044290:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044290/00001

Material Information

Title: Heliotectonics Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture through Building Form Optimization
Physical Description: 1 online resource (91 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Moore, Stirling E
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture -- energy -- heliotectonics -- solar -- technology
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As a result of the advancements in tool making during the industrial revolution, intensive development of human settlements has created vast areas of land occupied by buildings. Many of these buildings have access to an abundance of direct solar radiation, thus capable of harnessing the sun's energy and converting it into renewable solar-electric energy . These areas of developed land are highly concentrated in metropolitan zones where demand for electrical energy is considerable and will only continue to grow as population numbers increase. Heliotectonics is a type of high performance building definition that maximizes solar radiation capture through building form optimization. This type of research is ever more important as environmental concerns mount over the implications and use of fossil fuels; a finite global energy source. Solar-electric energy is an abundant renewable energy source that is already utilized in many developed and developing countries and is also the target of numerous research and development activities. Furthermore, there is already an established and growing global economy based on solar technologies. The purpose of this investigation was to establish environmentally conscious decision-making guidelines to optimize a building's form through use of the heliotectonic definition. For this investigation, traditional building geometries based on localized constraints were digitally modeled using 3D CAD software. Next, Solar Insolation (SI) levels were simulated and recorded on all exterior surfaces of subject geometries. Evaluation of resulting data concluded that significantly higher SI levels were present on the heliotectonic geometries compared to traditional geometries. These results were then used to develop an architectonic case study model based on heliotectonic geometries. In conclusion, the heliotectonic definition has the potential to lessen demands on power suppliers through a mixture of environmental accounting and autonomous energy production. The definition also has the power to produce locally available electricity by supplying solar-electric energy to the electrical grid during peak capture events. In theory, a network of heliotectonic buildings could essentially assume the role of a local power plant; passive, renewable, quiet and non-polluting. The associated economic and environmental implications suggest heliotectonic building models could become a viable development option for future building owners.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stirling E Moore.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Gold, Martin A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044290:00001


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1 HELIOTECTONICS: MAXI MIZING SOLAR RADIATION CAPTURE THROUGH BUILDING FORM OPTIMI ZATION By STIRLING EDWARD MOORE A THESIS P RESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Stirling Edward Moore

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3 To three caryatids in my life who have supported the weight of my dreams and provided reason to reach for them

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I extend my gratitude toward the UF College of Design, Construction and Planning professors, particularly Martin Gold and Dr Ravi Srinivasan for their crucial guidance and valuable insights; the UF School of Architecture graduate suppor t staff for their assistance with scheduling and curriculum matters ; and the staff and members of the UF Libraries for their research and administrative support I thank my parents for their love as well as the time and effort spent building a strong foundation for their children without which this would not have been possible

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS pa ge ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 9 CHAPTER 1 HELIOTECTONICS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 1 1 Statement of Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 11 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 13 Heliotectonics and Emergy ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 1 5 2 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 2 5 Fundamentals of the Heliotectonic Modeling Process ................................ ........................... 25 Baseline Heliotectonic Modeling ................................ ................................ ........................... 26 Selection of Climate Zones ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 28 Selection of Model Cities ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 29 Selection of Subject Geometric Forms ................................ ................................ ................... 29 S election of Modeling Software ................................ ................................ ............................. 30 Collection and Analysis of Data ................................ ................................ ............................. 31 Baseline Testing Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 32 3 CASE STUDY ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 42 Selection of Project Site ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 42 Selection of Program ming Data ................................ ................................ ............................. 45 Heliotectonic Building Design and Processes ................................ ................................ ....... 45 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ........................... 63 Description of Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 63 Future o f the Heliotectonic Definition ................................ ................................ ................... 66 APPENDIX A SOLAR RADIATION AND SUN PATH DATA ................................ ......................... 69 B SELECTED SOLAR INSOLATION POINT INDEX DATA ................................ ............. 79 REFERENCE LIST ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 87 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 1

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table p age 1 1 ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 2 1 All Climate Zones solar insolation results ................................ ................................ ........... 40

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 1979 to 2007 polar ice cap comparison ................................ ................................ .................... 20 1 2 Environmental concerns over carbon dioxide emissions and warmer oceans ........................ 20 1 3 Heliotectonic geometries have distinct advantages over traditional geometries .................... 20 1 4 Energy flow through a heliotectonic building ................................ ................................ ......... 22 1 5 Wedge geometry at solstice and equinox ................................ ................................ ................. 23 1 6 Projection effect ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 24 2 1 Steps of the Heliotectonic Modeling Process ................................ ................................ .......... 35 2 2 U.S. climate zones ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 36 2 3 Map of cities used in this investigation ................................ ................................ .................... 3 7 2 4 Geometric typologies used for SI testing ................................ ................................ ................. 38 2 5 Climate Zone 2 S olar insolation testing ................................ ................................ ................. 39 2 6 All Climate Zones S olar insolation results ................................ ................................ ............ 41 3 1 Heliotectonic form generation ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 50 3 2 SPM 03 and SPM X solar insolation comparison ................................ ................................ ... 51 3 3 Case study s ite p lan ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 52 3 4 Heliotectonic energy transformity ................................ ................................ ............................ 53 3 5 Stormwater management strategy ................................ ................................ ............................ 54 3 6 Comic: the function of form (1) ................................ ................................ ............................... 55 3 7 Comic: the function of form (2) ................................ ................................ ............................... 56 3 8 Selected renderings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 57 3 9 Roof plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 58 3 10 1 st and 2 nd floor plans ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 59 3 11 3 rd and 4 th floor plans ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 60 3 12 5 th and 6 th floor plans ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 61 3 13 Structural bui lding section ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 62 4 1 Parametric subdivisions and fractal geometry ................................ ................................ ......... 68 A 1 Annual US Photovoltaic Solar Resource Map NREL ................................ ........................... 69 A 2 Annual US Concentrating Solar Power Resource Map NREL ................................ ............. 70 A 3 Climate Zone One: Miami, Florida ................................ ................................ ........................ 71

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8 A 4 Climate Zone Two: Los Angeles, California ................................ ................................ ......... 72 A 5 Climate Zone Three: Baltimore, Maryland ................................ ................................ ............ 73 A 6 Climate Zone Four: Albuquerque, New Mexico ................................ ................................ ... 74 A 7 Climate Zone Five: Seattle, Washington ................................ ................................ ............... 75 A 8 Climate Zone Six: Denver Colorado ................................ ................................ ...................... 76 A 9 Climate Zone Seven: Minneapolis, Minnesota ................................ ................................ ...... 77 A 10 [CASE STUDY] Climate Zone Two: Phoenix, Arizona ................................ ...................... 78 B 1 [CASE STUDY] Rectilinear P oint Index Data ................................ ................................ ... 79 B 2 [CASE STUDY] Ellipsoidal Point Index Data ................................ ................................ .... 80 B 3 [CASE STUDY] Wedge Point Index Data ................................ ................................ .......... 80 B 4 [CASE STUDY] SPM 01 Point Index Data ................................ ................................ ........ 82 B 5 [CASE STUDY] SPM 02 Point Index Data ................................ ................................ ........ 83 B 6 [CASE STUDY] SPM 03 Point Index Data ................................ ................................ ........ 84 B 7 [CASE STUDY] SPM X Point Index Data ................................ ................................ ......... 85 B 8 [CASE STUDY] SPM X with saw tooth Point Index Data ................................ ................ 86

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9 Abstract of Thesis P resented to the Graduate School of the University of Florid a in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies HELIOTECTONICS: MAX IMIZING SOLAR RADIAT ION CAPTURE THROUGH BUILDING FOR M OPTIMIZATION By Stirling Edward Moore May 2012 Chair: Martin Gold Major: Architecture As a resu lt of the advancements in tool making during the industrial revolution intensive development of human settlements has created vast areas of land occupied by build ings Many of these buildings hav e access to an abundance of direct solar radiation thus capable of harnessing and converting it into renewable solar electric energy 1 The se areas of developed land are highly concentrated in metropolitan zone s where demand for electrical energy is considerable and will only continue to grow as population number s increase Heliotectonics is a type of high performance building de finition that maxim ize s solar radiation capture through building form optimization This type of research is ever more important as environmental concerns mount over the implications and use of fossil fuels; a finite global energy source Solar electric energy is an abundant renewable energy source that is already utilized in many dev eloped and developing countries and is also the target of numerous research and development activities Furthermore, there is already an established and growing global economy based on solar technologies 1 Refers to energy created by photovoltaic or photoelectrochemical means

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10 The purpose of this investigation was to establi sh environmentally conscious decision use of the heliotectonic definition For this investigation, traditional building geometries based on localized constraints were digitally modeled using 3D CAD s oftware. Next, Solar Insolation (SI) levels were simulated and recorded on all exterior surfaces o f subject geometries. Evaluation of resulting data concluded that significantly higher SI levels were present on the heliotectonic geometries compared t o tr aditional geometries. These results were then used to develop an architectonic case study model based on heliotectonic geometries. In conclusion, the h eliotectonic definition has the potential to lessen demand s on power supplie r s through a mixture of environmental accounti ng and autonomous energy produc tion The definition also has the power to produce locally available electricity by suppl ying solar electric energy to the electrical grid during peak capture events In theory, a network of heliotectonic buildings could essentially assume the role of a local power plant; passive, renewable, quiet and non polluting The associated economic and environmental implications suggest heliotectonic building models could become a viable developmen t option for future building owners

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11 CHAPTER 1 HELIOTECTONICS Statement of the Problem Man ha s transcend ed intellectually compared to every other earthbound species through his innate ability to fashion and use tools This mastery and utilization of terrestrial materials has led to a n explosion of knowledge and thus greater and greater advancemen ts in tool making techniques, the tools themselves an d the products and services those tools create This investigation looks into some ways that intelligent tools and computer simulation coupled with the design process can lead to increases in building performance and systems efficiencies During the early newly developed tools were larger tha n ev er and powered by steam, fire and fossil fuels T he industrial revolution that ensued thereafter provided the initial momentum which eventually led to the environmental degradation we see today ; ever increasing fossil fuel consumption resulting in dan gerous levels of carbon in the atmosphere causing changes in climate patterns and larger volumes of sea ice melt [see Figure 1 1 ] There are three numbers that sum up the problem; 275, 390 and 350 These numbers define historical, present and targeted carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations in parts per million (ppm) in the atmosphere, respectively Over the past 300 years CO 2 levels have risen over 115 ppm to 390 ppm trapping more heat within the bios phere [see Figure 1 2] The following lists some of the major environmental concerns tied to increases in atmospheric carbon [1] Glaciers are melting depleting drinking water for hundreds of millions of people Sea levels are rising causing scientists to warn of possible increases in several meters this century alone, threatening the homes of hundreds of millions of people Weather is more severe ; storms and droughts are be coming more frequent

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12 Mosquitoes are s preading and thriving in new, places 1 bring ing malaria and dengue fever to places with inadequate healthcare B uildings are one of the largest contributors of CO 2 emissions on the planet Acc ording to the US Department of Energy (US DOE ) in 2008 buildings in the US were responsible for 39% of total CO 2 emissions [ 2] This number is significant considering current levels of atmospheric CO 2 measure a pproximately 390 ppm and rising The emission volumes are not only a problem, they are an environmental threat on a global scale ; one that Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industr y professionals cannot afford to ignore The primary energy source for commercial building operation s is electricity; of which lighting demands 21% of total use and HVAC systems 37% [3] High performance buildings offer the ability to t emper energy demands through more extensive design and evaluation processes such as environmental accounting of materials and services energy consumption analyse s L ife C ycle A ssessments (LCA) and emergy analyse s The l ast few decades have resulted in significant research and develop ment efforts geared toward building technology advancements Nevertheless, energy inefficient building designs still dominate land and city scape s remaining present and future source s o f concern Building inefficiencies are compounded by a lack of environmental account ability and control measures Although a building may use less energy to operate its material components may consist of higher levels of embod ied energy which may offset its emergy ba lance Emergy is defined as available energy of one kind that is used up in transformations directly and indirectly to make a product or service [4] It is essentially a ll the energy that goes into a product or service over the entire course of its life For buildings, its emergy relates to the cumulative energy used from the cosmic or geological forces 1 Due to warmer annual temperatures expanding the range of tropical, sub tropical and temperate climate zones

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13 that created the raw materials, including the extraction, manufacturing, and transportation, to maintenance and operation, and to its inevitable decommission or deconstruction including energy used for material reuse and waste disposal to landfill [5 ]. The notion of emergy becomes more significant when assuming the task of building design through the mindset of an environmentally conscious decision mak e r The involved processes can include definitions and indices that streamline the design and analysis of a high performance building One such definition is t he Net Zero Energy (NZE) definition ; a popular performance measure which assesses building efficiency levels through localized energy accounting NZE definitions are still relatively new and accordi ng to Srinivasan et al [ 6 ] consumption of resources before renewable systems are integrated to obtain an energy balance This leads us to believe that refinements need to be made to current design and decision making processes used to develop high performance buildings Purpose of the Study By understanding the nascent state of high performance building definitions w e can determine that there is still a need f or advance ments in tools ets and a continu ation of research in the performance and integrated technology realm s T hrough quality studies like those conducted by Dr Srinivasan and Dr Athienitis, concerning topics such as optimizing overall performance, renewable energy integration, or LCAs and emergy evaluations we have learned that achieving greater per formance is possible We have also learned that there is still room for buildings to become ever more efficient To acc omplish this effort it will require the formation of new building de sign and evaluation definitions; essentially novel ideation and realization processes that will push

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14 performance levels to new heights T h ese processes will result in the growth of the AEC industry thus translating in to quantifiable benefits realized through financial s avings dur in g the construction, maintenance and operation of a building greater emphasis placed on the health of interior and exterior environments and incre as ed levels of occupancy comfort and satisfaction This investigation focused primarily on a process for optimizing building form [see Figure 1 3] The application of this process result s in high er solar insolation levels incident on the exterior surfaces of heliotectonic geometries when compared to traditional building geometries ; it is intended that the process be viewed as one step in the overall requirements of heliotectonic NZE building design It is important to note that buildings will reduce their contribution of CO 2 emissions when they are designed to incorporate Building Integrated Solar Electric Components (BI S EC s ) and this is due to a number of reasons but the nature of this study necessitates the inclusion of BISEC s to achieve solar energy optimization Dr Athienitis, who is a member of The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers ( ASHRAE ) amongst others, has written extensively about the design and optimization of solar buildings ; and building form is one of the topics discussed in his papers [7] [8 ] focus primarily on strategies for fitting traditional geometries with renewable energy technologies this investigation emphasizes a much greater manipulation of building form that allow s for increases in the total area capable of maximizi ng the exposure to solar radiation thus resulting in a more energetic and potentially a self sufficient building in energy The reason for this i s that b y designing more energy generating surface area a heliotectonic building has a greater intrinsic ability to outperform traditional geometries regardless of the type of BISEC used in th is project As technology and efficiencies of BISEC s advance, so do es the overall performance of new

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15 heliotectonic building s The building form is designed to accommodate its function at the highest level; it is designed to exhibit a seamless integration with solar technologies. With such a strong focus on form the attributes of a building most affected will naturally be those engag ed directly with the interior exterior threshold s The building envelope is nothing more than a physical delineation between interior and exterior ; i t can be seen as an assemblage of plan es or a skin like element that can have a great deal of influence on efficiency and performance Building envelopes and exterior skin systems can quickly be come p erformance minded weak nesses in the overall design and composition of a building if the design team is not careful Poor design strat egies can result in excessive demands on HVAC systems due to envelope tightness issues and excessive air infiltration and / or exfiltration Also, i neffective daylighting strategies may increase the ne ed for artificial lighting Another performance limiting factor can be improper analysis of thermal mass properties inherent in the material specifications of the envelope which will affect HVAC functionality and performance High performance exterior en velopes provide an excellent opportunit y to reduce energy consumption and can also be optimized to receive BISEC s Heliotectonics and Emergy The processes and toolsets necessary to optimize a building using the heliotectonic definition with an understanding of emergy can come together synergistically to create a refined NZE building A lthough this investigation does not attempt to simulate or quantify emergy values, it does recognize the importance of emergy analyse s as a supporting exercise in the design process I mpli citly, it is assumed that upon successful completion of heliotectonic modelin g, emergy analysis would be a logical and progressive step in subsequent project phases

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16 The reason for any inclusion of th is information at all is due to the nature of emergy itself; if a building owner is intent on developing an energy conscious project, then they should take into account all the embodied energy inherent in the materials and construction processes required t o bring t hat building into existence Heliotectonic modeling is a performance definition that should be utilized at the conceptual design phase to assist in determining massing and geometry that will increase BISEC functionality and energy production A detailed emergy analysis would follow the heliotectonic modeling phase and would most likely be conducted during the schematic and design development phases of a project This analysis would allow building owners and designers to understand the realiti es of the energy flows associated with their project in a more holistic manner It is important t o make the distinction between generic NZE building definitions and NZE building definitions th at undergo some form of emergy analys i s This is also a poi nt where Srinivasan and Athienitis differ in their definitions of building performance and optimization strategies Whereas Athienitis lays out a definition based more on performance measures rather than a comprehensive way to track energy inputs and outp uts within the geobiosphere Srinivasan redefines the NZE development method by ad ding environmental accounting into the equation by way of emergy analyses The latter establishes the energy threshold prior to the inclusion of renewable energy systems into the design and the heliotectonic definition To understand this correlatio n we must first understand emergy and transformity according to Odum Emergy itself has a great deal to do with transformity (the solar emergy required to make one unit of available energy of a quantity) as it refers to the actual transformation of one f orm of energy into another [ 9 ] For instance, Odum utilizes one joule of sunlight as a standard unit of measurement to add emergy value s to various products

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17 and services transformity index [see Table 1 ] concerns consolidated fuels, essentially fossil fuels, which states that one joule of fossil fuel energy output is equivalent to 18,000 to 40,000 emjoules 2 of sunlight The reason for this seemingl y unbalanced ratio is due to the n umerous factors that go in to the creation of fossil fuels T hey include the initial sunlight needed to sustain life, thus grow ing and feed ing the plants and animals that will eventually die, forming the organic matter necessary for fuel production, as well as the geological forces that subsequently creat e the right combination of pressures and temperatures to transform the organics into the fossil fuel s we recognize today [see Figure 1 4] The case for h eliotectonics is made in the optimization of the building form itself It is plausible to assume that a building designed using both heliotectonic and generic NZE definitions could be energy positive; meaning that it will either create as much or more energy than it consumes This investigation discusses how a heliotectonic defini tion can receive significantly greater incident solar radiation levels on its exterior surfaces over some t raditional geometries Now, if the same heliotectonic building design were to undergo a thorough emergy analysis (heliotectonic + NZE + emergy) to r each an acceptable level of environmental accountability then it would attain a refined sense of sustainability by running checks and balances on the material selections to ensure minimal levels of embodied energy are present Heliotectonic definition s support the very nature of e nvironmental accounting because when th ey are employed to optimiz e geometries for the primary purpose of captur ing solar radiation, the emerg y yield ratio 3 of the BISEC materials increases [ 10 ] W hereas when traditional geometry is utilized for solar radiation capture the emergy yield ratio of the BISEC materials 2 All the embodied energy required to transform fossil fuel into one joule of energy available for use now 3 T he ratio of yield from a process to the costs of obtaining the yield where costs (inputs) and yields are evaluated in emergy terms

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18 cannot increase a t the same degree because the geometry does not e xhibit the same degree of sensitivity to annual solar movements It can also be determined that more emergy will be entropic when BISEC s are placed on surfaces ambiguous to solar optimization strategies For example, if a certain geometric form is partially optimized in the shape of a wedge and the sloped surface is perpendicular to the sun at solar noon on the equinoxes [see Figure 1 5 ] then it can be determined that the BISEC s on the sloped surface will only operate at optimum capacity nearest to the time of the equinoxes thus leaving th e BISEC s operating in an entropic state more time than not Heliotectonically designed geometries are optimized for annual solar radiation capture on all exterior surfaces, therefore decreasing entropic events and using the BISEC s t o a greate r potential resulting in increases in material use efficiency Increases in m aterial use efficiency support the re a soning behind establishing an energy threshold before any energy production calculations are ever made We recognize this support when maximizing the potential of the material s; in this case optimizing the placement of the BISEC s The limited effectiveness of improperly placed BISECs can be explained through the Projection Effect; which states that direct solar radiation falling on a surface perpendicular to the ground plane, distribute the same amount of solar radiation over a greater area thus lowering the per unit concentration of energy over the large r area [see figure 1 6 ]. If the goal of a project is to develop a building that attains a high er level of sustainability then it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the materials during the design process to ensure the materials are used in an optimal configuration. While some may note that it is sustainable to use BISEC s to offset carbon emissions; others may state that it is more sustainable to use BISEC s

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19 in an optimal orientation maximizing energy production and offsetting a greater amount of carbon emissions with the same amount of material The pr i m a r y goal of the heliotectonic definition is to combine optimize d geometries together with NZE definitions and a degree of environmental accounti ng s uch that BISEC s and other renewables will be considered as viable alternative s when evaluating how best to

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20 Figure 1 1 1979 to 2 007 polar ice cap comparison [11 ] Figure 1 2 Environmental concerns over carbon dioxide emissions and warmer oceans [12 ] Figure 1 3 Heliotectonic geometries have distinct advantages over traditional geometries [13 ]

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21 Table 1 1 Solar Transformities (solar emjoules per joule) [ 14 ] Item sej/J Sunlight 1 Wind / Kinetic energy 623 Unconsolidated organic matter 4,420 Geopotential energy in dispersed rain 8,888 Chemical energy in dispersed rain 15,423 Geopotential energy in rivers 23,564 Chemical energy in rivers 41,000 Mechanical energy in waves and tides 17,000 to 29,000 Consolidated fuels 18,000 to 40,000 Food, greens, grains, and staples 24,000 to 200,000 Protein foods 1,000,000 to 4,000,000 Human services 80,000 to 5,000,000,000 Information 10,000 to over 10,000,000,000,000

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22 Figure 1 4 Energy flow through a heliotectonic building [42]

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23 Figure 1 5. Wedge geometr y at solstice and equinox [15 ]

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24 Figure 1 6. Projection effect [16 ]

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25 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY Fundamentals of the Heliotectonic Modeling Process The processes and determinations needed to isolate optimal geometries that will increase solar radiation capture are based on two dominating factors; local sun path data and geographic coordinates of the project site In essence, the geometric solutions can be quite simple while being extremely effective but since architectural projects are anything but simple the heliotectonic modeling process needs to be well imbedded within traditional design process es Once a design team has determined the basic mas sing geometries that the building must adhere to, then the heliotectonic definition can be instituted Each site and program is different and the specific elements of the program combined with the zoning and land use regulations will have great er influenc e on the massing geometries The heliotectonic definition can be used to modify the entire exterior geometry or specific segments of the geometry; whichever is most beneficial to meet the energy production targets of the project The subsequent design process es aimed at isolating optimized geometries should include a series of simulations that can be derived manually or parametrically using any modern day CAD software It is not necessary to use parametric software to develop the forms, but it is possible that it may speed up the overall process es involved Concerning the approved geometries, it is important to note that the definition is not rigid rather it is flexibl e in nature It takes into account the fact that architecture, like art, is not always an exact science and there should be plenty of freedom to experiment with various forms to generate new ideas in the field of performance modeling and heliotectonics

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26 The first step in heliotectonic modeling is to identify the basic massing geometries [ see Figure 2 1 ] These can be simple geometries including rectilinear or curvilinear forms Secondly, climate zone data should be cross referenced with the geometries to rule out any thermal massing discrepancies that would create u nfavorable heat gains or losses ( depending on local c onditions) Next, a series of geometries will be created either manually or parametrically to begin the simulation process Each geometric form derived should account for the annual sun path at the site to determine SI responses This investigation also accounted for geometric responsiveness to solar altitude and azimuth. The fourth step is to begin the process of recording SI leve ls incident on the exterior surface areas of the geometry and collect ing the resulting solar insulation data which will be compared against the results of the other geometries. This comparison process will provide the insight needed to narrow down the to tal number of geometr ic form s to a singular geometry that exhibits the best overall performance The final step in isolating an optimized geometry is to perform a series of modifications, m anipulat ing th e geometry when the architectonic detail s of the project begin to evolve. An example of this w ould be includ ing a saw toothed detail to the north facing 1 roof and wall skins that would increase the SI levels incident on these surfaces. Baseline Heliotectonic Modeling This investigation t est ed a number of methods to verify the effectiveness of the heliotectonic definition versus traditional geometries for all major climate zones in the continental U S (excluding Alaska 2 ). To prove that the method could be a viable tool for designers it was neces sary to set up and test baseline geometries. Advanced Energy Design Guide for 1 North facing in the northern hemisphere and south facing in the southern hemisp here 2 Excluded due to lower solar altitudes providing insufficient solar insolation in Climate Zone 8

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27 Small to Medium Office Buildings provided much of the information governing the baseline controls use d in this investi gation [ 1 7 ] The manual was written as a guideline for buildings aimed at achieving 50% energy savings toward NZE standards. The massing geometrie s tested were based on a four stor y commercial building with approximately 4 0,000 square foot of total floor area Due to the varying shapes of the geometries not all floor plates w ere equal in total surface area. Another difference wa s the total height of the masses; for example, rectilinear forms will usually be shorter than wedge forms due to the specific nature of the ir geometry. The key indicat or that the heliotectonic modeling process is being performed successfully is when new geometries begin approaching 60% [ see Table 2 1 ] or greater annual cumulative SI levels when compared to the annual peak SI levels 3 So, if a specific geometry exhibits an annual peak SI level of 1200 kWh/m 2 and the total exterior surfa ce area has an annual cumulative SI level of 720 kWh/m 2 then the geometry is 60% optimized indicating an incr T esting con trols were based on the following specifications : Building t ype: Commercial Building h eight: 60 to 100 feet / 4 stories Climate zones t ested: One model city per 7 of the 8 US climate zones o Zone 1: Hot Humid o Zone 2: Hot Dry o Zone 3: Mild Humid o Zone 4: Mild Dry o Zone 5: Marine o Zone 6: Cold Dry o Zone 7: Cold Geogr aphic coordinates of sites used : per model city Geometries investigated per c limate: 3 The Peak SI level used to calculate cumulative efficiency is the highest Peak SI level found at the site; not per individual geometry because not all g eometries have optimized points

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28 o Rectilinear o Ellipsoidal o Wedge (minimal manipulation) o Sun Path Morphed 01 (minimal manipulation) o Sun Path Morphed 02 (moderate manipulation) o Sun Path Morphed 03 (maximized manipulation) SI simulation s oftware: Auto d esk Vasari 1.0 S urface area simulated : 100% Exterior Surface Area Simulation performed : Annual Peak and Annual Cumulative SI (kWh/m 2 ) Selection of Climate Zones All climate zones listed above excluding zone 8, were selected based on their recognition by ASHRAE 4 as categorically standardized zones [ 18 ] [see Figure 2 2] The seven zones used in the testing and simulation processes are all found in the continental US Z one 8 was ex cluded because of the extreme environments found within the zone and due to the fact that the effectiveness of the research herein could be proven without the need to include zone 8 US c limate zones range from cold to hot and dry to wet and t he weather, landscape, terrain and environments found in these climate zones run the full gamut of sensory experiences. A design team must also rely on local climate data to inform decision making during the earl iest stages of heliotectonic form modeling Geometric massing strategies utilized for baseline measurement are listed below: Zone 1: 1:4 proportions, reduce heat gains, cross ventilation, length East West Zone 2: 1:2 proportions, add mass, preserve int. conditions, length East West Zone 3: 1:3 proport ions, length oriented East West Zone 4: 1:3 proportions, length oriented East West Zone 5: 1:2 proportions, length oriented East West Zone 6: 1:1 proportions, add mass, preserve int. conditions Zone 7: 1:1 proportions, add mass, preserve int. conditions 4 Developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

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29 Selection of Model Cities One model city was selected from each of the climate zones based on a few variables that would support the investigation. The demographics of model cities we re the most crucial of variable s because th is data indicat e d viable locations where not only the building typologies being investigated we re already regularly found, but where the local econom y and population densities might support the development of high performan c e buildings Once the cities were selected the geographic coordinates of the city centers was recorded and used to perform all SI calculations [see Figure 2 3] Model cities and their geographic coordinates are listed below: Zone 1: Miami ; 25.78 Zone 2: Los Angeles ; 34 62 117 83 Zone 3: Baltimore ; 39 28 76 6 Zone 4: Albuquerque ; 35 10 106 60 Zone 5: Seattle ; 47 60 122 33 Zone 6: Denver ; 39 73 105 00 West Zone 7: Minneapolis ; 44 98 93 27 Selection of Subject Geometric Forms As previously stated, this investigation tested traditional geometries against geometries modified by application of the heliotectonic definition It is apparent to anyone who walks down a city street almost anywhere in the world that rectilinear geometries dominate the landscape. In fact, most buildings follow a simple pattern; a square or rectangle is pr ojected onto the ground plane and then extruded to a desired height. Another common building geometry found i n cities is ellipsoidal in form. In this type, e xterior walls either partially or completely follow a curved path projected onto the ground plane a nd are also extruded to a desired height like rectilinear forms The re are four other form types which are listed below that represent the progressive manipulation of

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30 traditional geometries that subsequently a l lowed this investigation to isolate a simple but optimiz ed heliotectonic geometry [see Figure 2 4] Geometric massing strategies utilized for baseline measurement are listed below: Rectilinear: dominant geometry, simple form s based loosely on climate and thermal mass of materials Ellipsoida l: 2 nd most common geometry, simple forms based on climate and thermal mass of materials Wedge (minimal manipulation): rectilinear geometry w/sloped roof facing into the sun path Sun Path Morphed 01 (minimal manipulation): based on sun path geometry Sun Path Morphed 02 (moderate manipulation): based on sun path geometry Sun Path Morphed 03 (maximized manipulation) : based on sun path geometry Selection of Modeling Software There were two primary and two secondary software programs that were used to create the various geometries and conduct the SI simulations necessary for the investigation. The first of the primary programs was Rhinoceros [1 9 ] ; this program was chosen because of its strong ability to model complex geometries including synclastic and anticlastic curvatures as well as NURBS 5 meshes. Rhinoceros was used to model the baseline geometries and to create the more detailed architectonic model portrayed in the case study. The second of the primary programs was Vasari, also known as Project V asari, which is a new program being developed by Autodesk [20 ] Its purpose is to evaluate massing models and perform environmental simulations to assist in building performance de sign and planning. The SI t esting engine access ed w hile working in Vasari is based on the Ecotect SI testing engine developed by Square Sof t 6 The secondary software programs used in this investigation were AutoCAD and Grass hopper [21 ] [2 2 ] AutoCAD was used to conceptualize the two dimensional groundwork 5 Non uniform rational B splines 6 Since acquired and now owned by Autodesk

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31 necessary to begin the design process of optimizing geometries. AutoCAD was also used to map out polyline templates that were later converted into three dimensional geometries using Rhinoceros. Grasshopper is a parametric modeling program that allows designers to manipulate a graphic interface that generates directive algorithms to create complex geometries. This program was used to fractaliz e surfaces to further increas e the efficiency of the geometries. Grasshopper, however, was not used in the modeling proces s of the traditional geometri es Chapter 4 references some future uses for parametric software to advance heliotectonic modeling processes and potentially boost SI level efficiencies. Collection and Analysis of Data The processes used to conduct, record and analyze the SI simu lations w ere conducted as follows. Each of the 42 baseline geom etric models was exported from Rhinoceros and imported individually into Vasari as an ACIS file type. The SI simulation results were grouped into seven batches o f six models ; each batch corresponding to their respective climate zones. After the SI simulation was completed for each of the models a CSV file was pro duced as well a TIFF image file [see Figure 2 5] The CSV files provided comprehensive point index data for the exterior surface area s This data represented SI values that were imported into Microsoft Excel for subsequent evaluat ions In total, there were 42 Excel files created and each file was analyzed to determine peak SI and cumulative SI levels incident on the exterior surface s of the various models. The annual cumulative SI levels were an assessment of the SI conditions found between 9am and 4pm from January 1 to December 31. The effectiveness of the he liotectonic definition is proven by compa ring the peak and cumulative data, first, against each other, and next model to model.

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32 In dicators that suggest modified geometri es have been optimized over traditional geometries com e in the form of high annual cumulative SI levels. Graphic representations of the resulting SI data w ere recorded for each of the models and compiled into a master table that allows visual as well as numerical data comparisons [ see Figure 2 6] The range of colors apparent on the TIFF images represents ar eas of high to low SI incident on exterior surfaces. An interesting discovery was that the wedge geometries appear to have the largest area of high level incident SI, but due to the angle of the recorded images the North faces of most of the models are hi dden from view. Although the wedge happen s to be the simplest of the modified geometries, the north, east and west faces are rather ineffective at capturing solar radiation and thus kept cumulative SI levels low Baseline Testing Results B aseline testing results positive ly support the use of heliotectonic definitions in conjunction with high performance or NZE building design s In all seven climate zones the sun path morphed 03 (SPM 03) geometries outperformed all other geometries by capturing the greatest volumes of solar radiation incident on exterior surfaces (SI simulations) [see Table 2 1 ] This was encouraging as the SPM 03 geometry had only undergone the initial manipulation of the form and there was still much room to modify further and re test SI levels. Certain observations were made concerning the various climate zones and the SI levels occurr ing on the tested surface areas. The first of these observations was the realization that closest to the equator, the SPM 03 geometry realized the largest margins in SI increases over the other models tested; from 6.0% to 12.2% greater solar radiation capturing efficiency The sampled SI levels that occurred in climate zone 7 were less in favor of the baseline heliotectonic geometry, although the SPM 03 geometry still outperformed the others; from 1.3% to 9.0% greater solar

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33 radiation capturing efficiency. Some of the most interesting information to come out of the investigation relates to the relative effectiveness of ellipsoidal or cylindrical geometries near 45 l at itude, north and south. The curvature of the form and the balanced distribution of solar radiation on roof and wall are factors that add ed to the overall effectiveness of the geometry. Due to the undeniable advantage that the SPM 03 geometry had in passively capturing increased levels of solar radiation it was only natural to investigat e the reason behind some of the g eometry specific discoveries. One such observation was that the rectilinear, wedge, SPM 01 and SPM 02 geometries resulted in the lowest SI levels. The reason for the lower numbers was due to the relative in ability of the north, east and west faces of the se geometries to generate substantial SI levels Th ese geometries are most effective during midday and lack proper surface orientation to receive adequate solar radiation levels during the morning and afternoon hours. Another observation relates to the specific geometric types that work best for the vario us climate zones. In lower latitudes it is sufficient to utilize the SPM 03 geometry without an overabundance of surface modification although some modification can certainly boost SI levels Building sites located at l at itudes greater than can undergo additional manipulation particularly the lower SI producing regions of the geometry, to increase the ability to capture solar radiation. These types of additional modifications are detailed more thoroughly in Chapter 3, which discusses the ca se study design and the architectonic refinements that were made to the SPM 03 geometry to drastically improve solar radiation efficiencies. One of the most effective m odifications that can be utilized on any project is a simpl e chang e to the orientation of the surface area s uch that i t face s 7 This can be accomplished by adding details such as BISEC louvers or saw tooth members to the necessary surface areas. Parametric 7 Reorientation can occur by subdividing a large surface area to repopulate with smaller optimized geometries

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34 modeling is also well suited to developing subdivided surface elements that can promote increased visual transmission shading and daylighting as well as solar electric energy production. The positive spin o n these types of modifications is that when they double as shading devices they help to mitigate the heat gains associated with the heliotectonic definition.

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35 Figure 2 1. Steps of the Heliotectonic Modeling Process [43]

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36 Figure 2 2. U.S. climate zones [2 3 ]

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37 Figure 2 3. Map of cities used in this investigation [2 4 ]

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38 Figure 2 4. Geometric typologies used for SI testing [2 5 ]

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39 Figure 2 5. Climate Zone 2 S olar insolation testing [2 6 ]

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40 Table 2 1 All Climate Zones (high/low solar insolation results) [2 7 ] Climate Zone Geometry Type Rank 1 Peak SI Cumulative SI Zone 1 SPM 02 2 nd 1232 588 Zone 1 Ellipsoidal Low 1161 563 Zone 1 SPM 03 High 1232 660 Z one 2 Ellipsoidal 2 nd 1090 614 Z one 2 SPM 01 Low 1202 492 Z one 2 SPM 03 High 1202 638 Z one 3 Ellipsoidal 2 nd 779 452 Z one 3 SPM 01 Low 885 408 Z one 3 SPM 03 High 885 467 Z one 4 Ellipsoidal 2 nd 1096 611 Z one 4 SPM 01 Low 1225 566 Z one 4 SPM 03 High 1225 639 Z one 5 Ellipsoidal 2 nd 666 405 Z one 5 SPM 01 Low 787 361 Z one 5 SPM 03 High 787 408 Z one 6 Wedge 2 nd 1039 523 Z one 6 SPM 01 Low 1050 470 Z one 6 SPM 03 / Ellipsoidal High 1050 540 Z one 7 Ellipsoidal 2 nd 703 428 Z one 7 SPM 01 Low 821 398 Z one 7 SPM 03 High 821 439 Case Study Zone 2 SPM X 2 nd overall 1210 818 Case Study Zone 2 SPM X with saw tooth 1 st overall 1210 855 1 Rankings are based on [cumulative SI] divided by [peak SI for the climate zone]

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41 Figure 2 6. All c limate z ones S olar insolation results [2 8 ]

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42 CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDY Selection of Project Site T he next step in the heliotectonic modeling and design process is to transform baseline geometr ies into more defined architectonic expression s For this investigation it was determined that a case study project would be the most efficient use of research time and would also provide valuable feedback concerning performance optimization strategies A survey of active architectural competitions was per formed to identify those that c o uld provide a solid foundation f o r the case study; it was also important to select a c ompetition that was focused on sustainability issues. The 2011 Drylands Design competition included regulatory guidelines that had the po tential to advance the research ; th is competition was selected because it provided an ideal test bed needed to complete the case study design. Drylands Design guidelines 1 pertinent to the investigation are listed below [ 2 9 ] : Design Innovation. To what extent does the proposal extend the intelligence of material applications? Building systems? Methods of assembly? Form and fabrication? Structural principles? Spatial experience? Civic Space. To what extent does the proposal promote public s pace? Civic engagement? Participatory decision making? Localized self management? To what extent does the proposal suggest, even celebrate, a renewed platform for public life? Adaptation. To what extent might the proposal catalyze adjustments in individual and cultural behaviors suited to water scarce environments? To what extent does the 1 These guidelines were made available to competitors to assist i n the design process

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43 proposal attempt to recalibrate public consciousness of resource use? Environmentally. To what extent does the proposal suggest reductions and efficiencies i n water and energy use? To what extent does design suggest or explicitly stimulate ecological succession? Scalability. To what extent does the proposal communicate its ability to be scaled up or scaled down to serve landscapes and communities of varyin g sizes, measured in terms of geographic area, water availability, or population density? Replicability. T o what extent is the design proposal regionally relevant and applicable? might the proposal be transferable between urban and rural environments? To deve loped nations as well as those developing? With what modifications? The following three paragraphs are a copy of the project narrative that was included on the competition boards and provides a synopsis of the case study design and manifestation process: Ideation. Historically design has been based on preconceived ideas, precedence or styles. Parametric design allows us to transcend this course toward something more harmonic. The concept for ARC is based on the idea that when environmental parametrics gu ide design processes solutions can be uncovered that respond directly to conditions found onsite. Rather than view ARC as a foreign object in the landscape that has little perceived relationship to its environment it should be seen as a locally grown bio morphic architecture having specific functions governed by nature. Evaluation. Modern cities are full of buildings that cover most of their respective sites and appear to be literal interpretations of land use regulations. That is part of the problem wi th building inefficiencies. If new rules and regulations were structured to include all health, safety and

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44 welfare measures but added environmental dictation based more on natural laws then our cities iving in artificial ecosystems that function in harmony with existing ecological processes and services. Manifestation. ARC is the archi tectonic representation of over a year's research concerning form optimization derived from environmental parametrics. The Dry Lands Competition just happened to be an ideal test bed for the optimization of a high performance building requiring maximum solar radiation and stormwater capture. The primary research building acts as the renewable resource center, laboratory, community complex and solar power station. The garage structure was manipulated to become a vegetated filtration slope and a mixed use building taking into account n ew u rbanism principl es. S ite specific criteria laid out in the competition rules required that the project site be located in the contiguous US west of the 100 th meridian line. This region of the US is largely made up of drylands where water is scarce and much of the time th e sun is relentless The site chosen for the case study, and subsequently the competition, was Downtown Phoenix, Arizona [see Figure 3 3] The reasoning behind this choice was due to the extremely high level of available solar radiation and the relatively low latitude of the site 2 Another reason for choosing Phoenix was due to the city ha ving minimal cloud cover compared to other locations [30 ] A common concern with BISECs and other renewable energy sources is the intermittency o f power production events Increasing power production by strategically locating heliotectonic buildings at sites with high levels of available solar radiation favors greater emergy balance through responsive material use. 2 This choice is based on high SI levels incident on heliotectonic geometry nearest the equator

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45 Selection of Programming Data The program for the case study building was conceived by, first, locating a properly sized site in the Downtown area and, second, correlating the baseline geometric study criteria with the broader case study goals. Two of the initial design elements were used to help create the program; mid rise building height and a commercial use. In this case the program was partially commercial and civic both functioning as a renewable energy center having mixed use retail and restaurant spaces at the street leve l The site and building house a wide range of activities including research and laboratory spaces, business and administrative components, a museum and renewable energy gallery, a public gathering areas as well as all of the necessary parking and services required to facilitate the project program. Being a renewable energy research facility means that this building typology is indicative of a few things such as special sustainable security and operations systems necessitat ing the inclusion of some key elements into the ideation process. This facility was also designed with the inten t to serve as a public beacon of heliotectonics, NZE definitions and high performance building desi gn. Some of these key ideation elements are listed below: Use of heliotectonic definition and principles to direct the design processes Typological of a n iconic headquarters design Exemplary on global, national and local scale s New urbanism approach to site design Inclusion of mass transit system into design while limiting automobile overuse Heliotectonic Building Design and Processes Baseline testing results support the use of heliotectonic modeling definitions but up to this point solar radiation cap ture occurring on the SPM 03 geometry w as not indicative of a fully

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46 optimized geometr y One of the major tasks of the case study was to t ake the SPM 03 geometry from its baseline status and transform it into a more advanced geometry that had a clear and undeniable advantage over traditional geometries The modification process was initiated by studying the SI results of the SPM 03 geometry N ot only was the surface area point index data reviewed but the color coded graphic image s w ere also scrutinized for clues The image allowed us to identify high and low capture areas quite easily thus demarcating th os e areas where the greatest increases in additional solar radiation capture could be made. The SPM 03 geometry was modified in fou r primary ways to increase effectiveness. These four major modifiers increased SI levels over the traditional geometries by the largest margins recorded in this investigation The additional geometric modifications were as follows [see Figure 3 1] : Separate form into five segments, all oriented in a north south direction Stretch form in the east west orientation, simultaneously lifting vertical ly Lift northern section of geometry to increase solar radiation exposure Replace smooth slope on northe rn s ection with saw tooth detail The modifications mentioned above were not the only ones considered. O ther variations of the SPM 03 geometry were developed and tested but most of them failed to perform adequately. Once the se more effective modifications were added the new geometry (referred to as SPM X) exhibited potential and was then tested to determine SI levels The SPM X geometry was determined to produce 20.1% 30.0% greater effectiveness in capturing solar radiation o v er the traditional geometries tested at the same coordinates ; it was 17.6% more effective over the SPM 03 geometry [see Figure 3 2] These numbers were some of the highest recorded in this investigation. Up to this point, the heliotectonic definition had prove n itself to be an effective strategy for passively captur ing substantial amounts of solar radiation, but it is important to note there are

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47 certain implications Among others, one of the consideration s associated with the definition is increased heat gains specifically for buildings in hot climates In such cases, the design team can choose a number of different ways to mitigate these heat gains such as adding adequate amounts of thermal mass or increasing insulation values (R values) providing cross ven tilation or air barriers, or finding a way to absorb the excess heat by using it for specific building operations [9 ] A coupled whole building energy and SI simulation may be used to weigh the cause and effects of the heliotectonic approach. Th is case stu dy design was based on the SPM X geometry and utilized a ventilated air barrier strategy to cool the exterior skin system One of the primary modifications to the geometry the segmentation of the base form, provided a n opportunity to introduce large ventilation grilles between the segments. The domed shape of the building allowed cooler outdoor air to be drawn in t hrough the intake ventilation grilles and passively displac e the hotter air located within the air barrier space. The hot air, by convecti on, circulates to the apex of the structure and i s dispelled to the exterior of the building [see Figure 3 4 ] This is another inherent benefit of the SPM X geometry. Whereas rectilinear and ellipsoidal geometries do not promote natural air flow, the flui dity of heliotectonic geometries allow for simplified passive ventilation techniques to be incorporated int o the design. During integration of the BISECs to the exterior skin two different conditions existed between the south ern and north ern reg ions of the massing. The southern reg ion of the building was optimally oriented to the sun path and therefore received a combination of high efficiency silicon cells and thin film glazing 3 The northern section received a set of grtzel cell 4 louvers that 3 Thin film glazing was located as necessary to accommodate window and daylighting requirements 4 A photoelectrochemical dye sensitized s olar cell developed by Michael Grtzel

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48 we re designed to be installed in a saw tooth orientation allowing them to achieve higher SI levels thus boost ing power production Some of the key architectonic details included in the design are listed below: Primary b uilding: o South ern BISECs: High Eff. silicon panels (black) and thin film (silver) glazing o North BISECs: grtzel cell louvers (saw tooth) cable suspension system o Integrated ventilation system ties into HVAC System o Radiant slab cooling and heating o Daylighting and shading strategies used th roughout o Systems control and operation center Mixed use garage building : o Vegetated filtration slope o Aeroponic and hydroponic greenhouse o Water treatment facility o Office, retail and restaurant spaces o Service and mechanical areas Site elements: o Stormwater retention area o Solar radiation stormwater treatment area o Public gathering and social spaces o Use of native landscaping The design of this case study building is only one example of an architectonic expression

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49 that can result from use of the heliotectonic definition. The resulting design drawings and renderings provide insight into a new style of architecture that is part parametric part sustainable and part high performance ; a style that alludes to the nature of the design itself through an ontological and metaphysical sense of being [see Figures 3 3 to 3 13 ] Although style is much less important a factor compared to performance the in trinsic attribute of having a discernible appearance can be a positive side effect for certain projects It is true that the heliotectonic definition may not b e the solution for all projects but when used in the proper setting the definition can help design teams create iconic architecture s that not only ha ve pre sence, but can be used for educational purposes concerning sustainability and renewable resource minded topics.

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50 Figure 3 1 H eliotectonic form generation [31 ]

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51 Figure 3 2 SPM 03 and SPM X solar insolation comparison [32 ]

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52 Figure 3 3 Case study s ite plan [33 ]

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53 Figure 3 4 Helio tectonic energy transformity [34 ]

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54 Figure 3 5 St ormwater management strategy [35 ]

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55 Figure 3 6 Com ic: the function of form (1) [36 ]

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56 Figure 3 7 Comic: the function of form (2) [37 ]

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57 Figure 3 8 Selected renderings [38 ]

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58 Figure 3 9 Roof plan [44 ]

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59 Figure 3 10 1 st and 2 nd floor plans [45 ]

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60 Figure 3 11 3 rd and 4 th floor plans [46 ]

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61 Figure 3 12 5 th and 6 th floor plans [47 ]

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62 Figure 3 13 Structural building section [48 ]

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63 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISSCUSSION Description of Findings Over the course of fifteen months, this investigation was successful in uncover ing some key findings to support the future use of the heliotectonic definition in conjunction with high performance and NZE building design s Although, t here are still unknowns concerning the study of heliotec tonics new investigations and additional research can provide more answers with even more data T h i s will expand the field of knowledge and ameliorate support for the use of the heliotectonic definition. T he resulting investigative data collected through geometr ic form creation and manipulation, SI testing and the develop ment of a case study model provided insight into t he greater mechanics of the heliotectonic definition. A sh ort description of each of the investigative observation s is spelled out below: CO 2 emissions reduction The heliotectonic definition provides building owners the opportunity to reduce CO 2 emissions by replacing the primary power source usually a fossil fuel or nuclear based source, for systems operations. BISECs are non polluting, quiet and efficient technologies that ar e the primary source of electricity in heliotectonic NZE buildings. Increased solar electric power production A comparison of heliotectonic geometries to traditional geometries proves that they are capable of capturing large amounts of solar radiation above and bey ond the most suited traditional forms. As explained through the projection effect, solar radiation is more dir thus generating more solar electric energy per BISEC unit.

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64 Efficiency of BISECs is increa sed are composed of various materials and all those materials have a certain amount of embodied energy. Mate rials that are used in optimal conditions and configurations can be operated near to their operational maximums thus maximizing potential and total work output. Less emergy is wasted. Flexibility with the type of BISEC specified A major strength of the definition is the fact that the geometry itself is what is being optimized, so there is great flexibility in the type of BISEC specified for a project The owner and design team can choose to specify a BISEC that has the highest efficiency or one that has the lowest cost, and regardless of the driving force behin d the decision the BISEC selected will be configured in an optimal orientation t hus allowing operat ional capacity to be maxim ized Heliotectonic buildings create ontological responses When a visitor explores a heliotectonic building that person might wonder why the geometry is so different. They might also wonder why there are so many BISECs on the exterior surfaces. That is how it will begin ; the existence of heliotectonic buildings will help to bring awareness to the definition and its strengths T his awareness of the heliotectonic design method will help create new architectonic and parametric responses to environmental constraints, thereby redesigning the world around us with a greater awareness of environmental accountabi lity. Heliotectonic definition s c ompliment NZE definitions It is common knowledge that a baseline NZE building can t r uly require no outside sources of energy and can meet the building s consumption demands. But when a NZE definition is joined together with a heliotectonic definition holistically within the overall design process es the resulting design will be more

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65 responsive to aspects of environmental accounting and more conscious of the embodied energy inh erent in the building s materials and processes. Heliotectonic geometries outperform other solar designs Many buildings that claim to be NZE and highly optimized for solar electric production are in truth 20% to 30% less effective than a similarly siz ed heliotectonic building. For instance, Dr. Athienitis describes certain techniques for optimizing solar buildings in a 2006 ASHRAE journal [39 ] but fails to mention any type of progressive geometric manipulation as a beneficial design approach If his st udy took into account advanced heliotectonic geometries the resulting designs would perform at much higher efficiencies. SPM 03 and SPM X geometries are more effective than traditional geometries This investigation included conducting over 250 individual SI simulations on over 60 individual geometric models. The results of those SI simulations tell us that the SPM 03 and SPM X geometries are superior at capturing solar radiation when compared to the traditional geometries tested. Ellipsoidal g An e llipsoidal geometr y is intrinsically a base form of heliotectonic geometry. Because ellipsoidals exhibit a vertically oriente d curvature that tracks the sun to a quantifiable degree, the fundament al principle s of ellipsoidal geometr ies overlap with fundamental heliotectonic principle s explaining the effectiveness of the form. of the walls and the horizontal surface of the roof receive adequate levels of direct radiation to increase solar radiation capture effectiveness. SPM X geometries are superior versus all o the rs tested The SPM X performed admirably by reaching 16 8 % t o 29 2 % greater efficiencies over all t he baseline geometries tested

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66 for Climate Zone 2 at the coordinates of the case study site This increase in optimization translates direct ly into increased power generation. Research suggests parametric subdivisions and fractal geometries may increase ef fectiveness By subdividing the solar capturing surface area of heliotectonic geometrie s it can provide opportunit ies to increas e power generation effectiveness proportionate to the number of subdivisions. Each subdivided segment can also be subdivided; and so on and so on. The smaller geometries can be dealt with on smaller scale s to increase the specific effectiveness at that range; the process continues t o the smallest scale possible that is capable of being manipulated Successively, e ach scalar leve l can increase the overall effectiveness of the whole structure [see Figure 4 1] Future of the Heliotectonic Definition Subsequent step s in the research and development of the heliotectonic d efinition will include test ing new geometric typologies, incorporating a more robust use of parametric modeling techniques into the design process, the generation of specific algorithms dedicated to the optimization of he liotectonic geometries, and a greater focus on subdividing surface areas into individual fra ctal geometries 1 New geometric typologies need to be investigated and tested to determine the effectiveness of the heliotectonic definition in new ways T he se new geometric typologies will be based on familiar building types such as high rise towers, mi d rise and low rise buildings, long buildings or terminals, groups of buildings in high density areas, and erratic or amalgamated groups of buildings. Once baseline SI simulations are p erformed on the new geometri es heliotectonic principles can be used to manipulate the form s to reveal even more optimized geometries 1 T h is can increase incident SI levels and boost solar electric energy production

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67 Another major step in the process of refining the definition will be to investigate s urface area subdivision s and document how this action affects SI efficiencies. If we look at the traditional geometries studied in this investigation, it can be said that they are all planar assemblies ; a conglomeration of facets So, if a surface area is subdivided a certain number of times then it can be assumed that there are th e same number of opportunities to optimize each of these individual facets. This idea generated an interest in understanding geometric optimization not only at the building scale but at four different scal es of optimization. This Factor 4 F ractalizatio n (F4F) process will be the focus of future research. The four fractal scales fall into the following categories : the building scale the human scale the molecular scale and the n a n o scale. The building scale is the first step in the process and much of this research has been completed within this investigation. The next three scales begin to undertake a much greater focus on the BISECs themselves. At these scales the replication of the helio tectonic process at successively smaller scales will each add a degree of effectiveness to the whole structure through a micro manipulation of each scalar surface area. As the sun passes overhead it will have numerous opportunities to synchronize direct solar radiation with optimized geometries. One of the most positive attribute s of the heliotectonic definition is the ability of resulting geometries to be continuously fitted and designed with new solar electric technologies 2 Because the geometry is always optimized to local solar conditions, it will always benefit overall effectiveness of the integrated technology it is being paired with. The heliotectonic definition should be viewed as an industry supporting design methodology that is beneficial to and supportive of the greater solar electric technologies industry 2 In real time as the technologies develop

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68 Figure 4 1 Parametric sub divisions and fractal geometry [40 ]

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69 APPENDIX A SOLAR RADIATION AND SUN PATH DATA Figure A 1. Annual US Photovoltaic Solar Resource Map NREL [41]

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70 Figure A 2. Annual US Concentrating Solar Power Resource Map NREL [41]

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71 Figure A 3. Climate Zone One: Miami, Florida [49 ]

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7 2 Figure A 4. Climate Zone Two: Los Angeles, California [49 ]

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73 Figure A 5. Climate Zone T hree : Baltimore Maryland [49 ]

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74 Figure A 6. Climate Zone Four : Al buquerque New Mexico [49 ]

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75 Figure A 7. Climate Zone Five : Seattle Washington [49 ]

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76 Figure A 8. Climate Zone Six : Denver C o lora do [49 ]

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77 Figure A 9. Climate Zone Seven : Minneapolis Minnesota [49 ]

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78 Figure A 10. [CASE STUDY] Climate Zone Two: Phoenix Arizo na [49 ]

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79 APPENDIX B SELECTED SOLAR INSOLATION POINT INDEX DATA Figure B 1. [CASE STUDY] Rectilinear Point Index Data [50 ]

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80 Figure B 2. [CASE STUDY] Ellipsoidal Point Index Data [50 ]

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81 Figure B 3. [CASE STUDY] Wedge Point Index Data [50 ]

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82 Figure B 4. [CASE STUDY] SPM 01 Point Index Data [50 ]

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83 Figure B 5. [CASE STUDY] SPM 02 Point Index Data [50 ]

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84 Figure B 6. [CASE STUDY] SPM 03 Point Index Data [50 ]

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85 Figure B 7. [CASE STUDY] SPM X Point Index Data [50 ]

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86 Figure B 8. [CASE STUDY] SPM X with saw tooth Point Index Data [50 ]

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87 REFERENCE LIST [1] 350 org The Basics of Climate Change Science Educational Resources, http://www 350 org/sites/all/files/science factsheet 2010 .p df ; 2010 [accessed 10 24 2011] [2] DOE Carbon Dioxide Emissions for U S Buildings, by Year (Million Metric Tons) Energy Information Administration of US Department of Energy, http://buildingsdatabook eren doe gov/docs/xls_pdf/1 4 1 pdf ; 2011 [accessed 11 15 2011] [3] DOE 2008 Commercial Energy End Use Splits, by Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu) Energy Information Administration of US Department of Energy, http://buildingsdatabook eren doe gov/docs/x ls_pdf/3 1 4 pdf ; 2011 [accessed 11 1 6 2011] [4] Odum HT 1996 Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Policy Making John Wiley and Sons, New York p370 [5] Srinivasan, et al. 2011. Energy Balance Framework for N et Zero Energy Buildings. 2011 Winter Simulation Conference. Phoenix, AZ. [6 ] Srinivasan R S et al 2011 Re(De)fining Net Zero Energy: Renewable Emergy Balance in environmental building design Building and Environment 2012; 47: 300 315 [7 ] Athienitis AK et al 2004 Development of Requirements for a Solar Building Conceptual Design Tool Canadian Solar Buildings Conference Refereed Paper Montreal [8 ] Athienitis AK 2006 Design and Optimization of Net Zero Energy Solar Homes ASH RAE Transactions 2006; 112(2): 285 295 [9 ] Odum HT. 1988. Self Organization, Transformity, and Information. Science, Vol. 242. p1132 1139 [10 ] Ulgiati S, Brown MT, Marchettini N. 1995. Emergy based Indices and Ratios to Evaluate the Sustainable Use of Resources. Ecological Engineering 5(1995): 519 531. [11 ] 350.org. The Basics of Climate Change Science. p 2. http://www.350.org/sites/all/files/science factsheet 2010.pdf ; 2012 [accessed 01.06.2012] [12 ] 350.org. The Basics of Climate Change Science. p2. http://www.350.org/sites/all/files/science factsheet 2010.pdf ; 2012.[accessed 01.06.2012] [13 ] Moore S. Heliotectonic geometries have distinct advantages over traditional geometries. 2012. [ Graphic illustrates geometric differences in appearance]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [14 ] Odum HT and Jan EA 1991. Emergy Analysis of Shrimp Mariculture in Ecuador Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL p100.

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88 [15 ] Moore S. Wedge geometry at solstice and equinox 2012 [ Graphic illustrates differen t sun conditions over Wedge geometry ]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [16 ] Moore S. Projection effect 2012. [ Graphic illustrates d ifferences in intensity based on solar altitudes ]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing So lar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [ 17 ] ASHRAE. 2011. Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings. http://www.ashrae.org/standards research -technology/advanced energy design guides/50 percent aedg free download [accessed 06.18.2011] [18 ] ASHRAE. 2011. Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings. p71 105 http://www.ashrae.org/standards research -technology/advanced energy design guides/50 percent aedg free download [accessed 06.18.2011] [19 ] McNeel North America. 2011. Rhinoceros (version 4.0) [computer software]. Available from http://www.rhino3d.com/ [20 ] Autodesk. Project Vasari (version 2 .5 ) [computer software]. Available from http://labs.autodesk.com/utilities/vasari/ [21 ] Autodesk. AutoCAD (version 2010) [computer software]. Available from http: //usa.autodesk.com/autocad/ [22 ] McNeel North America. Grasshopper (version 0.8) [computer software]. Available from http://www.grasshopper3d.com/ [23 ] ASHRAE. 2011. Advanced Energy Design Guide fo r Small to Medium Office Buildings. p79. http://www.ashrae.org/standards research -technology/advanced energy design guides/5 0 percent aedg free download [accessed 06.18.2011] [24 ] Moore S. Map of cities used in this investigation. 2012. [Graphic illustrates location of subject cities]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [25 ] Moore S. Geometric typologies used for SI testing. 2012. [Graphic illustrates subject g eometries]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [26 ] Moore S. Climate Zone 2 solar insolation testing. 2012. [Graphic illustrates subject geometries]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization.

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89 [27 ] Moore S. All Climate Zones. 2012. [Table lists SI results]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [28 ] Moore S. All Climate Zones solar insolation results. 2012. [Graphic illustrates Si results]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [29 ] Arid Lands Institute. 2011. Submission Guidelines + Requirements. p2 4. http://drylandscompetition.org/wp content/uploads/2011/04/submittal_guidelines.pdf. [ accessed 10 .23 .2011] [30 ] NOAA. 2011. Digital Datasets. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/rcsg/datasets.html [accessed 10.24.2012] [31 ] Moore S. Heliotectonic form generation 2012. [Graphic illustrates the heliotectonic modeling process]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [32 ] Moore S. SPM 03 and SPM X solar insolation comparison. 2012. [Graphic illustrates SI levels ]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [33 ] Moore S. Case study Site Plan. 2012. [Graphic illustrates competition site plan]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [ 34 ] Moore S. Heliotectonic energy transformity. 2012. [Graphic illustrates pa th of energy]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [35 ] Moore S. Stormwater management strategy. 2012. [Graphic illustrates stormwater mitigation]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [36 ] Moore S. Comic: the function of form (1). 2012. [Graphic illustrates building operations]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [37 ] Moore S. Comic: the funct ion of form (2). 2012. [Graphic illustrates building operations]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [38 ] Moore S. Selected renderings 2012. [Graphic illustrates site conditions and experience]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [39 ] Athienitis AK. 2006. Design and Optimization of Net Zero Energy Solar Homes. ASHRAE Transactions 2006; 112(2): 285 295 [40 ] Moore S. Parametric subdivisions and fractal geometry. 2012. [Graphic illustrates surface area subdivisions]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization.

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90 [41 ] NREL. 2011. U.S. Solar Resource Maps http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html. [ accessed 10.23.2011] [42] Moore S. Energy flow through a heliotectonic building. 2012. [Graphic illustrates energy Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form O ptimization. [43] Moore S. Steps of the Heliotectonic Modeling Process. 2012. [Graphic illustrates the steps involved in heliotectonic geometry formation]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [44] Mo ore S. Roof plan. 2012. [Graphic illustrates the steps involved in heliotectonic geometry formation]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [45] Moore S. 1st and 2nd floor plans. 2012. [Graphic illus trates the case study model floor plans]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [46] Moore S. 3rd and 4th floor plans. 2012. [Graphic illustrates the case study model floor plans]. Heliotectonics: Maxi mizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [47] Moore S. 5th and 6th floor plans. 2012. [Graphic illustrates the case study model floor plans]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimizati on. [48] Moore S. Structural building section. 2012. [Graphic illustrates the structural elements of the case study model]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization. [49] University of Oregon. Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory 2011. Sun Path Charts http://solardat.uoregon.edu/SunChartProgram.html [accessed 07.14 .2011] [50] Moore S. Case Study Point Index Data 201 1 [Graph ic s illustrate the solar insolation point index data o n the various study geometries ]. Heliotectonics: Maximizing Solar Radiation Capture Through Building Form Optimization.

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91 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCH "Ideation and collaboration processes are paramount in developing socially engaging, sensually sustainable and technologically efficient architectures." Stirling Edward Moore has worked professionally as a Project Architect, Manager and Designer since 2005 and is currently engaged in various projects in Florida and Washington, D.C. Mr. Moore also provides consulting services as a designer for EB Brands participat ing in product conceptualization and development Mr. Moore earned an Associate of Arts degree from Palm Beach State College and a Bachelor of Architecture from Florida Atlantic University ; graduating from both universities with academic honors in architectural design in architectural technology an d h eliotectonics he also has a robust interest in high performance building design parametric modeling, security design and planning, integrated building systems, sustainability practices urban agriculture practices and global food security. Mr. Moore is licensed in the State of Florida as a professiona l a rchitect, AR_95611, and he is also a member of the American Institute of Architects. ther professional certifications include NCARB, LEED AP, and CPTED Aside from his academic and architect ur al accomplishments, Mr. Moore is also a vetera n of the United States Army and served as a Paratrooper and Combat Medic in the 82nd Airborne Division While in service he parachuted into Ukraine as part of Operation Peace Shield and fought in Kosovo as p art of Operation Joint Guardian.