1 ACCULTURATION, FAMILIAL RELATIONSHIPS, AND ADOLESCENT WELL BEING By BINDI SHAH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIR EMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Bindi Shah
3 To my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my friend and mentor for her generosity, and guidance. I also thank my advisor, and my committee for all th eir help, support, and direction in developing and completing my thesis. Finally, I thank my family for their continued support and encouragement.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 6 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 9 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 13 Adolescent Development & Well Being ................................ ................................ .. 13 Latino American A dolescent Well Being ................................ ........................... 14 Mexican American Adolescent Well Being ................................ ....................... 14 Familial Relationships ................................ ................................ ............................. 16 Acculturation Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ 19 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 25 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 26 Add Health Surv ey ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 26 Alternative Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ 28 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 29 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 30 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 35 Importance of Results ................................ ................................ ............................. 36 Recommendations for Counselors and Counselor Educators ................................ 37 Limitations of Research ................................ ................................ .......................... 38 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 38 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 40 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 46
6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Parent child relationship questions ................................ ................................ ..... 30 4 2 evelopment and well being ................................ .......................... 30 4 3 Acculturation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 31 4 4 ................................ ......... 32 4 5 ............................ 3 2 4 6 ............................ 32 4 7 Case processing summary fr om the questions of parent child relationship ........ 32 4 8 Reliability statics from the questions of parent child relationship ........................ 33 4 9 and well being ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 33 4 10 wellbeing ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 33 4 11 Correlation between parent and well being ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 34
7 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requir ements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Education ACCULTURATION, FAMILIAL RELA TIONSHIPS, AND ADOLESCENT WELL BEING By Bindi Shah May 2012 Ch air: Cirecie West Olatunji Major: Mental Health Counseling In comparison to non Latino White adolescents, Latino adolescent s who make up almost 20% of the adolescent population in the United States experience more anxiety, depression, and daily stress that may lead to disruptive behaviors and poor mental health. D espite, the many needs of Latino adolescents, they have one of the lowest rates of utilization of counseling services, especially Mexican American adolescents. health, family relati onships, and acculturation in their respective famil ies However, minimal research exists where the relationship between acculturation, familial Acculturation theory and its associated concepts are us ed to conceptualize the purpose of this research thesis, which is to explore the factors related to Mexican need to be aware of the multiple challenges experienced by Latino students. The purpose of this thesis research is to explore how acculturation can affect family dynamics and the well being of Latino adolescents. The proposed research will attempt to answer the following three questions: a) What is the relationship bet ween
8 acculturation among Mexican American parents and adolescents and familial relationships? (b) What is the relationship between familial relationships and adolescent well be ing?
9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the U.S., Mexican American youth were found to have higher rates of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation (Aldridge & Roesch, 2008; Garcia, Skay, Sieving, Naughton, & Bearinger, 2008) than their White counterparts. The Latino populat ion makes up about 16.3% of the total U S population and continues to increase as more families migrate to the United States from their countries ("Pew Hispanic Cent er," 2011 ) Mexican Americans comprise 67% of the Latino population the largest ethnic minority group in the USA and one that has grown rapidly over the past two decades (Updegraff, Delgado, & Wheeler, 2009). Furthermore, Latino American adolescents aged 10 to 19 make up about 16% of the adolescent population in the United States (National Adolescent Health Information Center, 2003). In comparison to non Latino White adolescents, Latino adolescents experience more anxiety, depression, and daily stress that may lead to disruptive be haviors and poor mental health. Despite the many needs of Latino adolescents, they have one of the lowest rates of utilization of counseling services, especially Mexican American adolescents (Malott, Paone, Humphreys, & Martinez, 2010) Adolescence is already a stressful time for youth as they face issues such as puberty and social changes In addition to the se developmental transitions immigrant adolescents may experience further soci al stress related to acquiring a new language, establishing new peer relationships, and adjusting to cultural norms that differ from their Latino families and adolescents may also experience a variety of challenges while living in the United States, including systemic struggles, personal social struggles, and acculturative stress. Familial
10 relationships, including emotional support from parents, parental inv olvement, and parent child conflict have all been shown to affect adolescent adjustment and mental health (Caldwell, Silverman, Lefforge, & Silver, 2004; Crockett, Br own, Russell, & Shen, 2007; Dumka, Gonzales, Bonds, & Millsap, 2009) Research has shown that the acculturation process can affect family dynamics within Latino families such as parent child relationships, adolescent adjustment and mental health overal l (Crockett e t al., 2007; Dumka et al., 2009; Garcia & Saewyc, 2007) three largest Latino groups in the U.S are Mexicans (63%), Pu erto Ricans (9%), and Cuban American (4%) ( Healey, 2011 pp. 281 332) Cuban Americans began migrati ng to the U.S. in the late 1950 s. They were actually welcomed by the United States as political refugees, as they were fleeing from the C ommunist regime in Cuba. The majority of Cuban Americans settled in South Florida, where they were able to become an enclave minority. An ethnic enclave is a social, economic, and cultural sub society controlled by the group itself and located in a specific area. Group memb ers are able to avoid the discrimination and limitations imposed by larger societ ies During the late 19 th century, Puerto Rico became a territory of the United States and in 1917, Puerto Ricans became citizens of the United States. Therefore immigration had no restrictions, and movement was easier. Puerto Ricans migrated to the U.S. much later than Mexican Ameri cans, during the time when U.S. was more urbanized and industrialized, thus Puerto Ricans were able to obtain jobs in those fields.
11 Mexican Ameri cans originated as a colonized minority group. During the 19 th century, Mexican Americans were conquered and colonized by the United States, and used as a labor force. The colonization left many Mexican Americans powerless, isolated in rural areas, and lac king resources. The proximity of Mexico to U S allowed for constant migration between Mexico and U S, however patterns of immigration reflected economic conditions in the U S. Acculturation across groups varies depending on length of resident and genera tion. Colonized minority groups such as Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans were discouraged to integrate with the mainstream culture in the past due to discrimination, and racism. As for Cubans, their immigration history is recent, and due to their enclav e communities, acculturation process is a lot slower. Cubans are also more easily able to keep their language and traditions intact, due to their history of low discrimination and racism ( Healey, 2011 pp. 281 332). Acculturation issues may vary generationally, depending on if the individual is first generation (born in Mexico), second generation (born in U.S., but parents born in Mexico), and third generation (both parents and children are born in U.S.). There is a significant decrease in identif ication with Mexican American identity in second and third generation children than fir st generation children (Buriel, 1993). As youth and their families spend more time in the U.S., they may start to lose their connection to their ethnic identity. The st resses of acculturation and immigration undeniably affect the mental health of Mexican American adolescents in terms of depression, self esteem, self concept, social relationships, familial relationships, and suicidal ideation (Christenson, Zabriskie,
12 Eggett, & Freeman, 2006 ; Smokowski, Rose, & Bacallao, 2009) Using acculturation theory as the theoretical framework of this research thesis allows the researcher to explore the role of acculturation in Mexican American immigrant a dolesce nt development and well being and familial relationships. Numerous scholars have explore d and well being fa mily relationships and acculturation in these Latino immigrant families (Chung, Chen, Greenberger, & Heckhausen, 2009 ; Garcia & Saewyc, 2007). However, the relationshi p between acculturation, familial relationsh ips well being has not been sufficiently explored. The purpose of this study is to explore how acculturation can affect familial relationships and the well being of Latino adolescents.
13 CHAPTE R 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Adolescent Development & Well Being Accompanied by rapid physical, psychological, and social changes, adolescence represents a particularly vulnerable developmental phase (Chung et al., 2009) Along with experiencing pubertal developme nt, adolescents also go through significant cognitive changes. Their ability to organize and reflect on their thoughts, information processing strategies, and abstract thinking increases during adolescence (Wigfield, Lutz, & Wagner, 2005) However, even though their reasoning and decision making skills have increased, adolescents are still more likely to engage in risky behaviors showing that there are still limitations to their cognitive development (Wigfield et al., 2005) Adolescence is also marked by self formation, where individuals begin to form their identity, self esteem, and self concept (Rayle & Myers, 2004) This transitional life stage in between childhood and adulthood is filled with numerous challenges causing adolescence to be a population in need of much support to foster healthy overall development. All adolescents experience normative stress related to daily hassles, school transitions, and more (Choi, Meininger, & Roberts, 2006) These youth are coping with issues such as identity development, transition from childhood into adulthood, and physical cha nges (Collins & Collins, 1994) problems, peer relationships, self esteem, and school problems (Boehm, Schondel, Ivoska, Marlo we, & Manke Mitchell, 1998) Self concept is a major part of adolescent development, where individuals begin to form their identity through inclusion and
14 gender, sexua l orientation, and ethnicity also contribute to the development of an Latino American Adolescent Well Being Pahl and Way (2006) examined how gender, ethnicity, immigrant status, and experiences of discrimina tion affect identity exploration and affirmation in Latino adolescents. Their research found that by mid adolescence, ethnic identity exploration is at its highest and then it starts to decrease as adolescents begin to clarify the meanings of their ethnic group membership. Social support from same ethnic peers and living in neighborhoods where majority of individuals are of the same ethnicity may contribute to the resolution of their identity crisis, feelings of security, and high levels of affirmation (Pahl & Way, 2006 ; Snchez, 2009) In addition, higher racial and/or ethnic density in geographic areas contributes to higher personal self esteem, furthermore promoting the well being of Latino adolescents (Pahl & Way, 2006; Snchez, 2009) Mexican American Adolescent Well Being well being differ from their Whit e counterparts. For example, Mexican American adolescent immigrants experience different types of stressors in their environments related to cultural factors (Garcia & Saewyc; 2007). Such stressors often include work and family obligations, maintaining emp loyment, and acquiring English language skills (Martnez, 2009 ; Love & Buriel, 2007 ) It is important to understand the role of social al stress was conceptualized as general stress, that is normative sources of stress that all adolescents may experience, such as; (a) transition to a new school, (b) process
15 oriented stress (acculturative stress or adjusting to interactions with another cu lture), and (c) discrimination, which is also another form of sociocultural stress Traumatic stress refers to events that are experienced as negative, sudden, and and developmental level (Carson, 1997). Racial and/or ethnic discrimination may be traumatic to an individual because it is experienced as hostile, threatening, and sudden. It is an oppressive act that may be experienced as violent and as an assault on an indi and war (Flores, Tschann, Dimas, Pasch, & de Groat, 2010) Culturally m inority groups such as Mexican American immigrant adolesc ents are more likely to experience traumatic stress due to discrimination and hegemony, which is the dominance of one social group over another (Carlson, 1997; Carter, 2007; Goodman & West Olatunji, 2010). Mexican American adolescents may experience overt and subtle acts discrimination in their school and community environments, causing these places to be hostile for them. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of discrimination due to their developmental stage where they are establishing th eir sense of self and identity (Carlson, 1997; Flores et al., 2012; Pahl & Way, 2006; Romero & Roberts, 1998). Mexican American adolescents were found to more likely experience social stress including process oriented, and discrimination stress, leavin g them at higher risk for depression and suicidal ideation than White adolescents (Choi, Meininger & Roberts, 2006). It is evident that a positive relationship exists between social stress and mental
16 distress in ethnic youth groups, especially Mexican Amer ican adolescents (Choi et al., 2006; Garcia & Saewyc, 2007 ) Several factors have been found to affect the mental, social, and emotional health of Latino American adolescents, such as circumstances of immigration social economic status, levels of acculturation, levels of acculturative stress, familial acculturative gaps, previous education experiences, context of host culture, and the perception of community belonging (Blanco Vega, Castro Olivo, & Merrell, 2008) Cultural pressures, perceived discrimination, levels of parental involvement, and levels of acculturation all affect psychological well being of Latino adolescents (T apia, Kinnier, & MacKinnon, 2009) Furthermore, immigrant youth need the support of the host culture in order to maintain and enhance their cultural identity. However, despite all of the stress and hardship these immigrant Latino adolescents may experi ence, many of them are still able to succeed and persevere in life. Parental or familial involvement, positive community support, positive self concept, and biculturalism are all sources of social and emotional resiliency for Latino adolescents (Blanco Vega et al., 2008; Tapia et al., 2009) Familial Relationships Various studies have explore d how familial relationships are related to ( Caldwell, et al. 2004; Crockett, B rown, Russell, & Shen, 2007; Dumka, Gonzales, Bonds, & Millsap, 2009) Positive relationships were found between parental emotional support, parental involvement, and emotional adjustment in adolescence, and negative relationships were found between parent child conflict and adolescent mental health. In addition, adolescents psychological adjustment and behaviors depend greatly on the meaning they attribute to
17 parental behaviors and in turn, adolescent adjustment affects family functioning (Crockett et al., 2007) Caldwell et al. ( 2004) define d familial emotional support as family members. Familial emotional support has been negatively associated with delinquent behavior in Mexican American adoles cents and positively correlated to being. Gender In Mexican American families there are distinct differences between the role of the mother and father (Updegraff et al., 2009) Th e mother role is more involved, where she is caring nurturing, and accepting. Fathers tend to have a more distant relationship with their adolescent children, maintaining a hierarchical relationship and paternal authority which is prevalent in Mexican A merican families (Crockett et al., 2007) Parents tend to have different relationships with the male and female adolescent children also; fathers have stronger relationships with their adolescent sons than daught ers. One study explored connections between parenting practices, cultural and academic ou tcomes for only boys ( Dumka, Gonzales, Bonds, & Millsap, 2009) Even when both parents are highly involved, in Mexican American families, mothers were still found to be more involved in the ir lives ( Updegraff, Delgado, & Wheeler, 2009) Parent adolescent conflict has be en being and participati on in risky behaviors ( Updegraff e t al., 2009) A dolescents who reported significant parent child conflict were more aggressive than their peers with lesser
18 amounts of parent child conflict ( Sm okowski, Rose, & Bacallao, 2009 ) Additionally, parent child conflict greatly affects adolescent well being in terms of academics, behaviors, and emotional adjustment (Schofield, Parke, Kim, & Coltrane, 2008) How Mexican American adolescents view positive parent child relationships may be very different to their White counterparts. Familismo refers to the concept of family being an extension of self along with feelings of loyalty, reciprocity, and solidarity towards the family and preserving t hose close family ties (Crockett et al., 2007; Villalba, 2007) Respeto means maintaining respectful hierarchical relationships within the family and extended family which may be de termined by age, gender, and social status (Crockett et al., 2007). Additionally, a strong emphasis on family may influence a young being (Snchez, Esparza, Coln, & Davis, 2010) Crockett et al. (2007) found that cultural values such as those defined above perceptions of good familial relationships. The adolescents discussed co ncepts such as respect, viewing family positively, open communication, and parental control in regards to positive familial relationships. The researchers suggested that cultural influences operate at multiple levels, and that the Mexican American adoles cents views and practices in their own relationships were consistent with particular Latino cultural themes (Crockett et al., 2007 ; Villalba, 2007) R esearch sho wed high levels of parental warmth ( defined as closeness, nurture, and acceptance ) and parental emotio nal support in Latino families (Chung et al., 2009; Crockett et al., 2007; Updegraff et al., 2009) Contrary to other cultural groups, Latino American parents were perceived to provide continuous emotional support and warmth
19 regardless of adolescent T his may be indicative of the strong collectivistic cul ture and family orientation in Latino culture Individuals from a collectivist culture value interdependence and family reliability more and are expected to reach independence and autonomy later in life than persons from individualistic cultures (Chung et al., 2009) Furthermore, higher levels of pare ntal warmth and parental emotional support have been shown to be related to better positive adjustment such as higher school achievement, engaging in less risky beha viors, and less depressive symptoms in Mexican American adolescents than their counterparts ( Updegraff, Delgado, & Wheeler, 2009) Strong, positive parent child relationships, along with familial support, ar being. Consequently, parent being (Crockett et al., 2007) Acculturation plays a major role in fami well being (Pasch et al., 2006) Acculturation Issues come into continuous first hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original culture patterns of either or both groups (Berry, 2008 p. 330 ) Usually, the non dominant group is strongly influenced to take on cultural norms of the dominant group ( Smokowski, Rose, & Bacallao, 2008) Two major concepts involved with acculturation are assimilation and enculturation. Assimilation is associated with high levels of involvement with the dominant culture, basically wh en an individual completely adopts of origin norms. An integration of assimilation and enculturation is defined as biculturalism ( Smokowski et al., 2008) Finally, an acculturation gap is the difference
20 ( Sm okowski, Rose, & Bacallao, 2009 ) and acculturative stress results from the anxiety and distress of adapting to cultural differences (Aprahamian, Kaplan, Windham, Sutter, & Visser, 2011) Adapting to a new cultural environment and developin g ways to function in that new environment is a complex process (Chae & Foley, 2010) Initially, theorists studied acculturation through a unidimensional model, asserting that individuals were either acculturated or not acculturated (Abe Kim, Okazaki, & Goto, 2001; Chae & Foley, 2010) Recently, competing models discuss how acculturation is multidimensional and may cover many domains such as languag e/communication, customs, self identification, and preferences, attitudes, and values (Abe Kim et al., 2001; Newcomb, & Myers, 1995) Acculturation is a dynamic and complex process (Pasch et al., 2006) Sanchez (2009) discussed the concept of transnationalism and the positive implications for personal and familial attachments that are bicultural. Staying in touch to authenticate a positive Mexican identity in adolescent youth that aids in positive adjustment and acculturation to a new host culture. A positive Mexican identity in adolescent youth can help to maintain a cultural home and their ethnic language minimiz e the intergenerational gap between children and parents, and reduce acculturative stress (Snchez, 2009) Staying involved with with overall family adjustment. Biculturalism, where adolescents adopted American and Latino cultural practices, was associated with parental involvement, positive parenting and
21 family support and bicultural adolescents reported the most favorable percept ions of their families (Sullivan et al., 2007) Family leisure involvement in Mexican American families plays an important role in the acculturation process (Christenso n, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Freeman, 2006) Bicultural or less acculturated youth spent more time in core leisure activities with their families than high acculturated youth. Core family activities such as reading together, playing card games, gardening, an d eating together were also found to be related to increased feelings of closeness and family cohesion (Christenson et al., 2006) Less acculturated youth spent more time with family and have more respect for parental authority (Love & Buriel, 2007) This was related to increased family cohesion, better parent child relationships and less parent child conflict, and thus, better adolescent adjustment overall ( Christenson et al., 2006; Sm okowski, Rose, & Bacallao, 2009 ) Minimal research exists that discusses acculturation as a factor in parent child conflict. However research has shown that the acculturation process does affect family dynamics in Latino families (Crockett et al., 2007; Dumka et al., 2009) including parent child relationships, and adolescent adjustment overall. Families may experience conflicts due to differences from growing up in the United States versus growing up in Mexico (Crockett et al., 2007 ; Schofield et al., 2008) Research has also shown that acculturation gaps do function as a stressor in families. Contrastingly, Pasch et al., ( 2006) found that regardless of an acculturation gap and parent child conflict is related to adolescent adjustment. Parents and children who both ranked higher on the acculturation scale were more likely to experience conflict,
22 especially in father child relatio nships. A relationship was found between mothers who ( Dumka et al., 2009) behaviors in their adolescent children (Pasch et al., 2006) of acculturation was related to problem classroom behavior and problem peer association with their adolescent children Fur ther research that will focus on the development and well being of Mexican American adolescents and Mexican American family dynamics in the United States. Acculturation Theory Acculturation theory and its associated concepts are used to conceptualize the purpose of this research thesis, which is to explore the factors related to Mexican Amer within the context o being. Professional school and mental health counselors need to be aware of the multiple challenges experienced by Latino students; challenges such as language and cultural barriers, racism, dropout rates, acculturation and pressure to assimilate. family will help to de family conflict, school pressures, and more. Working within an acculturation framework deliver more effective, holistic services.
23 To summarize, the Mexican American population continues to increase in the United States. Mexican American adolescents experience more traum atic stress, social stress, and anxiety related to immigration and acculturation issues than non Latino White adolescents which often leads to h igher rates of depression and suicidal ideation. Acculturation issues, including acculturative stress and acculturation gaps may also fun ction as a stressor in Latino families Family involveme nt, positive community support, positive self concept, and biculturalism all function as sources of social and emotional resiliency for Latino youth. Parental emotional support and involvement is linked to better emotional adjustment in adolescence, while parent child conflict is linked to decreased adolescent mental health. Mexican American adolescents, who are bicultural and stay in touch with their own culture, tend to have a positive Mexican identity, which in turn helps with adjustment and acculturatio n. Additionally, less acculturated youth spend more time with family, have more respect for parental authority, and engaged in more activities with family. This leads to better parent child relationships, and better adolescent adjustment overall. Future research suggestions include exploring acculturation issues among recent immigrants, effects of acculturation on families, and multiple dimensions of family life is also suggested (Caldwell, et al., 2004 ; Christenson et al., 2006 ; Pasch et al., 2006) Minimal research explores the role of acculturation in adolescent development and well being, and Mexican American tionships with affect their relationships with their parents. The affect of parent child relationships on
24 adolescent well being also needs to be further explored among the Mexican American population. Lastly, how acculturation affects the development and well being of Mexican American adolescents needs to be investigated.
25 CHAPTER 3 M ETHODS As a child immigrant in the United States, and a history of immigration in my family; I have experienced many acculturation issues that have affected me and my family. The development of my cultural identity was very prominent for me, as I was growing up i n a culture very different to my ethnic culture. As my family and I adjusted to living in the United States, acculturation processes differed for me and my parents, often causing stress and change in family dynamics. My past experiences and education have helped me become aware of the similarities between my Indian Asian culture and the Latino culture, thus allowing me to feel more connected with the Latino culture. After reviewing the literature, the researcher poses th r e e research questions. The first q What is the relationship between acculturation and Mexican American level of acculturation and their relationships with their parents. The second question, their parents and adolescen well being ? which would lead to the f ollowing hypothesis: There will be a positive relationship between parent child relationships and adolescent well being. The third question, development and well being? which would lead to the following hypothesis: There is a development and well being.
26 Sample The target population is Mexican American adolescents, females and males aged 12 to 18. Th e sample of this study consists of Mexican origin adolescent children aged 12 to 18 years old who have been living in the United States for at least one year. A total of 415 adolescents reported being Mexican or Mexican American on the Add Health surveys. Among the 415 adolescents, a total of 1 51 participants were selected for the research study based on their accurate responses. Add Health Survey The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) (Harris & Udry, 2008) will be utilized to ai d in the collection of data. Add Health is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7 12 in the United States. Data from a total of 132 middle and high schools representative of schools in the United States with r espect to region of country, urbanicity, size, type, and ethnicity was collected during the 1994 95 school year. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data being with contextual data on th e family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships. Data sources include school questionnaires and adolescent and parent in home interviews. The adolescent and parent in home interviews covered topics such as pe er networks, decision making processes, family composition and dynamics, substance abuse, criminal activities, marriages, marriage like relationships, involvement in volunteer, civic, and school activities, parent adolescent communication and interaction, and health status. These issues closely address the constructs of interest that are adolescent well being, familial relationships, and acculturation. The
27 framework and con struction of the survey items; (a) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES D) (Radloff, 1977), (b) Cornell Parent Behavior Description (Ellis, Thomas, & Rollins, 1976) (c) Parent Behavior Inven tory (Schaeffer, 1965), and (d) Parent Child Interaction Scale (Heilbrun, 1964). Development and well being Adolescent well being is contextualized as depressive tendencies such as unhealthy behaviors, excessive stress, and distraught emotional states. Th e Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES D) (Radloff, 1977) addresses adolescent well being. The CES D scale was tested on an adolescent population, including Latino youth (Phillips et al., 2006) Parent child relationships Parent child relationships are measure by emotional support, communication and conflict among parents and children, and parental involvement. These items are addressed by the Cornell Parent Behavior Description (Ellis, Thomas, & Rollins, 1976) Parent Behavior Inventory (Schaeffer, 1965), and Parent Child Interaction Scale (Heilbrun, 1964). The Cornell Parent Behavior Description have implemented slightly different versions of the scale to be used with cross cultural populations (Growe, 1980) The Parent Behavior Inventory has been used with Latino, including Mexican American population in a study that investigated socialization, family an d mental health outcomes among children and adolescents (Knight & Others, 1994) The Parent Child Interaction Scale has been analyzed and tested for internal consistency reliability, and construct validity with the use of two data samples: (a) a purposive representative sample from Washington State University in 1970, and (b) Brigham Young University in 1973. The literature fails to mention demographic data representing race or ethnicity (Ellis, Thomas, & Rollins, 1976)
28 Acculturation Acculturation is measured by relationships with same ethnic peers, language, and family leisure involvement. Surprisingly, Add Health (Harris & Udry, 2008) did not include an instrument to address acculturation among adolescents. The Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II (ARSMA II) ( Cuellar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995) evaluates acculturation processes through a multidimensi onal approach. It would have been helpful to Add Health (Harris & Udry, 2008) as it assesses cultural orientation towards the Anglo culture and Mexican culture independently (Cuellar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995). Due to no representation of an instrument fo r acculturation, items in the Add Health questionnaires that were similar to the ARSMA II were selected to represent acculturation. However, the questions from Add Health mostly responded to demographic information and identified with only a limited sectio n of ARSMA II. Therefore, the construct of acculturation could not be used as a factor in the data analyses. Alternative Methods Multiple options were explored to conduct this research study before finalizing on Udry, 2008) data. The local population in Gainesville, Florida did not have a sufficient representation of Mexican American adolescents to effectively carry out the research. The Alachua county school system has demographic data on their students, however it would have been extremely labor intensive to obtain parent permission. Parents may have issues of trust, especially for undocumented students. Another option was to develop online surveys to administer to adolescents. Established instruments to measur e adolescent well being, parent child relationships, and acculturation were found, however many barriers still existed. Individuals must be 16 years of age or older to complete online surveys not every
29 household may own a computer with internet access, an d acquiring email addresses would have been labor intensive. Add Health (Harris & Udry, 2008), on the other hand has compiled comprehensive data including demographic information for a nationally representative group of adolescents. Procedures The followi ng protocols were used to complete the research thesis : 1. Three members of the research team independently select ed items from the Add Health surveys for each of the constructs (adolescent development and well being, parent child relationships and accult uration) reflective of the established instruments and the conceptualized definitions of the constructs as stated above. Then, the principal investigato r select ed survey items where consensus has been e content validity for construct items. 2. The Adolescent In School questionnaire was utilized to gather demographic information to iden tify Mexican American adolescents who: (a) culturally self identify as Latino, Latino American, Hispanic American, or Hispa nic, and (b) ethnically self identify as Chicano, Mexican, or Mexican American. 3. Data from 151 participants who met the above criteria was then collected and organized into SPSS. 4. A n exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine which items loaded with the constructs (adolescent development and well being and parent child relationships). 5. Reliability for each construct was measured using Cronbach alpha set at p values less than .01. 6. Next, Pearson product moment correlation tests were conducted t o determine correlations between the two constructs (adolescent development and well being and parent child relationships) The researcher look ed for p values less than 0.0 1 7. After thorough data analysis, the results allow ed the researcher to reject or fail to future research.
30 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS To confirm that the questions were appropriate to use for this research study, the researcher conducted three procedures: (a) content validity, (b) factor analysis, and (c) reliability. Table s 4 1 4 2, and 4 3 show the questions utilized for this research study after achieving content validity. Table 4 1. Parent child relationship questions Question 1 How much do you think she cares about you? 2 How much do you think he cares about you? 3 How close do you feel to your mother/etc? 4 How close do you feel to your father/etc? 5 Most of the time, your mother is warm and loving toward you. 6 When you do something wrong that is important, your mother talks about it with 7 You are satisfied with the way your mother and you communicate with each other. 8 Overall, you are satisfied with your relationship with your mother. 9 Most of the time, your father is warm and loving toward you. 10 You are satisfied with the way your father and you communicate with each other. 11 Overall, you are satisfied with your relationship with your father. Table 4 2 being Question 1 I feel close to people at this school. 2 I feel like I am part of this school. 3 I have a lot of good qualities. 4 I am happy to be at this school. 5 I have a lot to be proud of. 6 The teachers at this school treat students fairly. 7 I like myself just the way I am. 8 I feel like I am doing everything just right. 9 I feel socially accepted. 10 I feel loved and wanted. 11 I feel safe in my neighborhood. 12 I feel safe in my school. 13 You have a lot of energy 14 When you do get sick, you get better quickly. 15 You are well coordinated. 16 You are physically fit. 17 You have a lot to be proud of.
31 Table 4 3 Acculturation Question 1 Are you of Hispanic origin? 2 What is your background? 3 Were you born in the United States? 4 Are you of Hispanic or Latino origin? (parent question) 5 Is your current spouse/partner of Hispanic or Latino origin? (parent question) Next, factor analysis was completed to see how the items are categorized. Acculturation questions were ruled out because those five questions are categor ical variables which asked only demographic information. The results of factor analysis consisting of questions from parent child relationship s and well being yielded seven components. T he seven components were organized into two group s based on the results of analysis and the contents of questions. F actor analysi s was then completed by each group indicat ing one factor for each group. Factor analysis completed for the first group identified as parent chil d relationship yielded three components. The researcher merged those items into one component because the patterns of the numbers reflected one factor, and the contents of the questions were fit for the construct. Factor analysis completed for the second g being yielded four components. The researcher merged those items into one component because the patterns of the numbers reflected one factor, and the contents of the questions were fit for the construct. T hen reliability was evaluated for each construct (parent child relationships being). parent child relationship was .895, which means those 11 questions have a high level of reliabi being had a
32 Cronbach alpha value of .880, signifying that those 17 questions have a high level of reliability in measuring the construct. Table 4 4 demographic information (s ex and age) Table 4 5 Table 4 6 Table 4 7. Case processing summary from the questions of parent child relationship N % Cases Valid 127 84.2 Excluded 24 15.8 Total 151 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Age Total 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Sex Male 11 9 13 13 17 9 4 76 Female 4 11 17 22 11 7 3 75 Total 15 20 30 35 28 16 7 151 Background Total Mexican/ Mexican American Chicano/Chicana Sex Male 67 9 76 Female 64 11 75 Total 131 20 151 Age Total 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Background Mexican/ Mexican American 12 19 28 26 26 14 6 131 Chicano/ Chicana 3 1 2 9 2 2 1 20 Total 15 20 30 35 28 16 7 151
33 Table 4 8 Reliability statics from the questions of parent child relationship Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .895 11 Table 4 9 Case processing summary from the questions of a and well being N % Cases Valid 119 78.9 Excludeda 32 21.1 Total 151 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure Table 4 10 wellbeing Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .880 17 Th e three procedures : (a) content validity, (b) factor analysis, and (c) reliability tests showed that the constructs applied for this research study are appropriate Lastly, the researcher measured the correlation between parent child relationship s and being to test the hypothesis Results showed that the Pearson correlation value wa s .436 at the P value less than .01 two tailed level. Therefore, there is obvious positive correlation between parent child relationshi p s and being. Overall, the results showed that the questions items for each construct (parent child relationships and adolescent development and well being) were appropriate for one factor with a high level of reliabilit y. Finally, the Pearson correlation value resulted in .436 indicating a strong, positive correlation between parent child relationships and being among Mexican American adolescents
34 Table 4 11 Correlation between parent child relationship and adolescents development and well being RELATIONSHIP WELLBEING RELATIONSHIP Pearson Correlation 1 .436** Sig. (2 tailed) .000 N 128 104 WELLBEING Pearson Correlation .436** 1 Sig. (2 tailed) .000 N 104 120 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed).
35 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSIO N The first research question states: What is the relationship between acculturation, hypothesized that there will be a statistically significant negative correlation between the hypothesis was not tested due to a lack of representation of acculturation, therefore the researcher could not evaluate this hypothesis. The second research question states: What is the relationship between Mexican well being? T he researcher hypothesized that there will be a statistically significant posi tive relationship between parent child relationships and adolescent development and well being. This hypothesis was tested using the Pearson product moment correlation between parent child relationships and adolescent development and well being. The resea rcher failed to reject the hypothesis, as the results showed that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between parent child relationships and adolescent development and well being. The third research question states: What is the rel ationship between acculturation being? The researcher hypothesized that that there is a statistically significant negative relationship between acculturation and adolescent development and well being. This hypothesis was not tested due to a lack of representation of acculturation, therefore the researcher could not evaluate this hypothesis.
36 Importance of Results The results are important because they illustrate how parent child relationships and Mexican American adol escent development and well being are correlated. The results support the current literature that also states positive relationships exist between familial relationships and adolescent adjustment (Caldwell, et al., 2004; Crockett, Brown, Russell, & Shen, 2007; Dumka, Gonzales, Bonds, & Millsap, 2009) Stronger parent child relationships in terms of caring, closeness, and communication are positively correlated with esteem, physical health, feelings of safety, and school life. This implies that parent child relationships are important in the development and mental health of Mexican American adolescents. This research also highlights the lack of r esearch on cultural and acculturation issues which is also supported by current literature (Caldwell, et al., 2004; Christenson et al., 2006; Pasch et al., 2006) There is a lack of focus on culture as a factor of i nterest while conducting research. The results of this study can be generalized to other populations and developmental stages. Other Latino groups such as Puerto Rican American adolescents can benefit from this research as familis m o is also an impor tant concept in their culture (Villalba, 2007). Different cultural groups that identify with the collectivist orientation such as African American adolescents can also benefit from this research since family support and interdependence is also valued (Chung et al., 2009) The results of this study can also to apply to different developmental ages of individuals such as primary school or college age students.
37 Recommendations for Counselor s and Counselor Educators When working with Mexican American adolescent populations, counselors need to be more intentional in discussing and including parent child re lationship issues in their counseling sessions. Professional counselors can reach out to t his marginalized population by open ing communication with parents and families as well as adolescents. Counselors should become aware of the issues in the community by building relationships with key stakeholders in schools, communit ies, and families. By establish ing rapport with community members, counselors can increase their comfort level with this client population, and become a resource to the community. Counse lors are encouraged to bec ome agents of change for Mexican American adolescents and their families. Counselors can spread knowledge and aw areness about the mental health issu es Mexican American adolescents may experience by: (a) facilitating workshops or e ducation sessions for parents, teachers, administrators, and students and (b) implementing one on one sessions to consult, ask and answer questions, and discuss related issues. These activities can ensure that counselors are serving as advocates for thei r Mexican American adolescent clients by working with the individual, family, and community. Counselor educators are in a position to teach counselors in training about the value of family in Mexican American culture. As research has shown that high carin g, closeness, and communication among parent and adolescents is positively correlated with high self esteem, feeling of safety, and school life among Mexican American adolescents, counselor educators should encourage their students to inquire more
38 about f amilial relationships with their clients. By encouraging counselors in training to take familial relationships into consideration when working with Mexican American adolescents, counselor educators are helping future counselors achieve cultural sensitivity and cultural competence. Limitations of Research A major limitation to this research was the use of a secondary data source. T he survey questions were already formulated, t herefore the researcher was limited in the type of information received from the participants. The Add Health survey questions were formulated with pre existing intentions different from the researcher Secondly, acculturation and cultural factors were not reflected in the survey questions, despite the multicultural demographic of the participants. Statistically, the number of participants for the factor analysis procedure was lower than desired. Ideally, factor analysis procedures need more than 300 participants, only 151 participants were involved in this study. Future R esearch Future research should entail collecting raw data to assess acculturation and familial issues in regards to Mexican American adolescent well being. The AR S M A II ( Cuellar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995) could be used to collect information on a cculturation for both parents and adolescents in areas such as language, attitudes, and behaviors. By assessing acculturation levels for both parents and adolescents, researchers will be able to see how acculturation gaps also affect parent child relation ships and adolescent well being. This research will provide professional counselors, and counselor educators richer information about the contexuality of Mexican American adolescent mental health.
39 In summary, t he purpose of this research study was to deter mine the relationships between acculturation issues, relationships with their parents, and Mexican American adolescent well being. It was hypothesized that: (a) there is a n egative relationship ents (b) there is a p ositive relationship between relationships with parents and adolescent well being and (c) there is a n being A cculturation items could not be assessed due to insuffi cient representation. After completing various statistical analyses, the constructs of parent child relationships and being were applicable to the study. A positive correlation was found between parent child relationships and Mexican American being. The results illustrate that parent child esteem, feelings of safety, and school life. Counselors and counselor educ ators are recommended to increase their awareness of the contextuality of their Mexican American validated acculturation scales to gather information on acculturation issues among the Mexican American population.
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45 S ullivan, S., Schwartz, S. J., Prado, G., Huang, S., Pantin, H., & Szapocznik, J. (2007). A bidimensional model of acculturation for examining differences in family fu nctioning and behavior problems in Hispanic immigrant adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 27 (4), 405 430. Retrieved from https://search.ebscoho st.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a2h&AN=27345984&site =ehost live Tapia, H. A., Kinnier, R. T., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2009). A comparison between Mexican American youth who are in gangs and those who are not. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Developme nt, 37 (4), 229 239. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&A N=EJ867095&site =ehost live; http://www.counseling.org/Publications/Journals.aspx in Mexican immigrant families. Sex Roles, 60 (7 8), 559 574. doi:10.1007/s11199 008 9527 y Villalba, J. A., Jr. (2007). Culture specific assets to consider when counseling Latina/o children and adolescents. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 35 (1), 15. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ754867&site =ehost live; http://www .counseling.org Wigfield, A., Lutz, S. L., & Wagner, A. L. (2005). Early adolescents development across the middle school years: Implications for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 9 (2), 112 119.
46 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Bindi Shah has a Master of Arts in Education and Education Specialist degree from the Counselor Education program at the University of Florida. As an aspiring professional mental health counselor, her areas of concentration include pediatric and multicultu ral counseling issues. Bin multicultural issues among youth and family populations.