1 THE DISPUTA IN DISPUTE JOURNEY OF THE MIND TO GOD DISPUTATION OF THE SACRAMENT FRESCO By ALYSSA A. ABRAHAM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Alyssa A. Abraham
3 To my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project began in November 2007 with a term paper at the Studio Art Centers International in Florence, Italy. While there, I fell in love with High Renaissance Art History and the influences, politics, and theology surrounding it. Ther efore, I would like to thank Jules Maidoff, the founder of SACI and a personal friend, for his support and special place my heart for her inspiration and vast wealth of kno wledge. I owe many thanks to Carolyn Hudson, who first introduced me to art history at Carthage College; Diane Levesque, for never doubting my abilities; John and Anne Hambrock, for their friendship; Christian Von Dehsen, for instilling within me a will to succeed; Sandie Bisciglia, for her undying love and support; Edwin C. Kalke, for inspiring my love of teaching through his example; Alane Spinney, for reminding me to have fun while I work; and all of my undergraduate professors and advisors who helped me flourish while at Carthage College. My successes would not have been possible without them. At the University of Florida I would like to thank Robert Westin, Elizabeth Ross, and Joyce Tsai for their support in all of my endeavors A very special mention i s due here to my dearest friend Jennifer L Paul, who has painstakingly edited my many academic papers and provided me with constant support and encouragement. Finally, t hese acknowledgements would not be complete without many thanks offered to my father, Richard Abraham; my mother, Janness Abraham; and my brot her, Robert Abraham whose never ending support and pride have encouraged me to dive ever deeper into my discipline. Words cannot express the gratitude I feel for their love.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 DISPUTATION OF THE SACRAMENT ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 9 A Cursory Mention of Saint Bonaventure ................................ ................................ 10 Zur Ikonologie der Fresken Raffaels in der Stanza della Segnatura ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 12 Meaning and Invention : Christiane L. Joost ........... 16 Renovatio Urbis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19 Depth and Nuance ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 24 2 THE FRANCISCAN DELLA ROVERES, THE STA NZA DELLA SEGNATURA, ITINERARIUM MENTIS IN DEUM ...................... 26 The Della Rovere Papacies ................................ ................................ .................... 27 Dedication to Francis ................................ ................................ ........................ 30 The Papal Nephew ................................ ................................ ........................... 31 Julius II and the Stanza della Segnat ura ................................ ................................ 33 La Disputa ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 36 Itinerarium Mentis in Deum : The Journey of the Mind to God ......... 40 3 TRANSIRE : BEGINNING THE JOURNEY IN THE VESTIGES .............................. 46 Sensi ble Vestiges in the Disputa ................................ ................................ ............ 47 The School of Athens ................................ ................................ .............................. 50 4 INTRARE : FINDING TRINITARIAN SIGNS WITHIN THE MIND ............................ 57 Standing Between the F rescoes: The Consideration of God through His Image Imprinted on our Natural Powers ................................ ................................ ......... 57 Contemplation of the Trinity and the Consid eration of God in His Image Reformed through the Gifts of Grace ................................ ................................ ... 62 5 TRANSCENDERE : THE FINAL STEPS TOWARD GOD ................................ ....... 66 Contemplating the Divine Unity through its Primary Name which is Being ............. 66 Consideration of the Most Blessed Trinity in its Name which is The Good .......... 69
6 6 ASCENSIO : THE SEVENTH STEP OR METAPHORICAL SUNDAY .................... 73 Immaterial and Incommensurable: The Final Ascension ................................ ........ 73 Connecting the Stages ................................ ................................ ............................ 74 APPENDIX A FIGURE CITATIONS ................................ ................................ .............................. 77 B ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ................................ ................................ ................ 80 De Reductione Artium ad Theolog iam or On Retracing the Arts to Theology ......... 8 0 Attributes of the Holy Trinity ................................ ................................ .................... 82 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 83 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 89
7 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts THE DISPUTA IN DISPUTE JOURNEY OF THE MIND TO GOD DISPUTATION OF THE SACRAMENT FRESCO By Alyssa A. Abraham May 2012 Chair: Robert Westin Cochair: Elizabeth Ross Major: Art History The question of influence on the Stanza della Segnatura has kept scholars busy for many years. Harry B. Gutman proposed that the theme came from St. Bonaventure s Journey of the Mind to God which John Pope Hennessy later restated. Christiane L. Joost Gaugier denied this idea entirely, and advanced her own explanation of the iconology. More recently, Nicholas Temple examined the Stanza in relation to Pope r Renaissance Rome, and briefly discussed a Bonaventurean interpretation of the Stanza Despite these studies, the field lacks an Journey of the Mind to God can be use d to interpret the Disputa fresco. Therefore, I seek to expand upon this scholarship by providing my own interpretation of St. Bonaventure and the Disputa ; hopefully bring ing to light the many intricate forces at work in the Stanza della Segnatura Chapter one presents an analysis of the current arguments and theories regarding the Seraphic Doct Disputa fresco. Chapter two offers
8 background on the Franciscan della Rovere papacies, the commission of the Stanza Journey of the Mind to God Chapter three applies Disputa and the School of Athens ; chapter four continues into the second stage of the journey; chapter five culminates the journey with transcendence to the heig ht of illumination; and examined in chapter six the final ascension conclud es this study as a metaphorical Sun day
9 CHAPTER 1 SAINT BONAVENTURE IN DISPUTATION OF THE SACRAMENT [The Disputa ] succeeds sublimely in achieving the purpose, invention, and lofty conceptions of a divine poem raising viewers to those arcane visions, to the highest de gree that corporeal forms of vision and mind are capable 1 (fig. 1 1) illustrates a divine poem that describes the human attainment of enlightenment, it should be a priority to identify the poem that inspired its creation. While there has been ted 2 Much of this research gives little attention to St. Bonaventure (The Seraphic Doctor of the Catholic Church) and the Franciscan ideology that united Pope Julius II and his uncle Sixtus IV. This intr oductory Stanza della Segnatura and the Disputa fresco. Subsequent chapters elaborate on the Franciscan Order as a un ifying factor between Julius II, Sixtus IV, and their theological a nd political goals and suggest that a study of writings would provide a more complete understanding of the Disputa In 1958 Harry B. Gutman used St. Itinerarium Mentis in Deum ( The Journey of the Mind to God ) to explain the message of this fresco in an article largely 1 Giovanni Pietro Bellori, Descrizzione (Rome: Giacomo Komarek, 1695), 13. Translation from Christian Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael (University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 2011), 40. 2 This study discusses only those sources examining both St. Bonaventure and the Disputation of the Sacrament and/or the Stanza della Segnatura. For a recent list of sources on the Disputa and other works by Raphael, see bibliographic information in Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael ; and Cathleen Hoeniger, The Afterlife of Raphael's Paintings (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011). In addition, it should be noted that Giovanni Reale makes note of in his book o con la prima presentazione analitica dei singoli personaggi e dei particolari simbolici e allegorici emblematici (Milan: Rusconi Libri, 1998), esp. 25.
10 ignored by contemporary scholars. This article entitled Zur Ikonologie der Fresken Raphael: The Wrightsman Lectures in 19 70. 3 Pope Hennessy accepted Gutman's theory, but in 2002 this idea was discounted in Christiane L. Joost The Stanza della Segnatura: Meaning and Invention. 4 After 2002, scholars gave little Renovatio Urbis picked up on the relationship between Pope Julius II and his uncle Pope Sixtus IV in his larger study of the Julian Golden Age. 5 By tying together theological ideas of the vertical nature of spirituality to the horiz ontal nature of terrestrial understanding of the fresco within the context of the Stanza della Segnatura and Rome. e Disputa this chapter illuminates the oversights in contemporary scholarship and demonstrates the need for further analysis; thus examining the chain of scholarship that first suggested, but failed to expand upon, the influence of St. Bonaventure on the Disputa fresco and introducing the current state of research. A Cursory Mention of Saint Bonaventure In 1970 John Pope Hennessy published a collection of lectures given at New York University with the support of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Wrightsman, appropr iately titled 3 John Pope Hennessy, Raphael: The Wrightsman Lectures (New York: New Y ork University Press, 1970), 5 9, 139. 4 Christiane L. Joost Gaugier, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer s i ty Press, 2002), 200 n2. 5 For more on the relationship between Pope Julius II and his uncle Sixtus IV, see Christine Shaw, Julius II: The Warrior Pope (Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1993), 9 51.
11 Raphael: The Wrightsman Lectures. In his first mention of the Disputa as key to comes from St. Bonaventure, and depicts in panoramic form the efforts of human 6 At this point in his book, however, Pope Hennessy offers no evidence for his statement; such s upport comes later in the text on page 139: The programme of the wall frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura seems to have been devised by a Franciscan, and is based mainly upon St. sciences accounts in the School of Athens for the separation of the mathematicians, physicists, and metaphysicians from the grammarians, logicians, and rhetoricians, and though the reconciliation of Plato and Aristotle was a common Neo Platonic exercise, it is Bonaventure who describes how they w Reductio Artium ed Theologiam would explain likewise the presence of Evangelists in the School of Athens (if they were really there) and the iconography of the Disputa 7 This later statement expands the reach of Bonaventurean influence from the Disputa to the entire body of frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura, but Pope Hennessy goes no further, nor does he provide a statement of the importance of the 6 Pope Hennessy, Raphael 59. 7 Ibid., 139. Pope Zeitschrift fr Kunstgeshichte De Reductione artium ad theologiam (note Pope On Retracing the Arts to Theology resembles the Journey of the Mind to God by making use of analogies of th ree, divided further into six, and including a seventh stage of rest. Instead of using the six wings of a the light of sense perception, the light of the mechanical arts, the light of discursive philosophy, the light of natural philosophy, and the light of moral philosophy. Hence, there are six lights in the present life, but they have their sunset, for knowledge will be destroyed. Therefore, they ar e followed by a seventh On Retracing the Arts to Theology 6, ed. de Vinck, 20. See Appendix B for more on Retracing the Arts.
12 8 This brief explanation and cursory footnote led to criticism for Pope e L. Jo ost Gaugier in her text The Stanza della Segnatura: Meaning and Invention. 9 Zur Ikonologie der Fresken Raffaels in der Stanza della Segnatura influence on the Stanza by referring to uncle, the Franciscan Sixtus IV, who canonized St. Bonaventure in 1482. The four canonizing the Seraphic Doctor in which Pope Lux, Via, Vita, Veritas motifs drawn from the Gospel of St. John. 10 Gutman claims that dividing the Stanza della Segnatura into these four themes explains many details, 8 Pope Hennessy, Raphael 279n 27. 9 Joost Gaugier, 200. 10 Superna Caelestis: Our most holy Lord Pope Sixtus IV's Diploma By which Bl. Bonaventure, Cardinal Bishop of Alba Is registered in the Canon of the Saints 1.5. For having been illuminated by Him, who illumines every sense, who is Light, Way, Truth and even Life, he obtained in the space of a few years incredible knowledge ( scientia ), and he did not bind up the talent entrusted to him by the Lord in a handkerchief, nor did he bury it in the earth, but as a most wise dispensor he converted it for the common usefulness. For in the crowded lecture halls of Paris he reigned from a chair, where explaining in detail the hidden things of the Scriptures, not only did he by his own voice benefit many, but he eve n left very many of the best books, both in sacred letters and in the primary scien c es, as monuments, which would be for the benefit of all time afterwards. and the Gospel of St. John can be fou nd in the following passages: John 1:4, through him was life, and this life was the light of the human race; John 1:14, The Word became flesh and made his dwelling th; John 10:9, I am the gate; whoever enters through me will be saved, and will come in and go out and find pasture;
13 11 Thus, according to Gutman, the iconography of the room groups justice, knowledge, and grace into a tetrad with wisdom, a scheme inspi Journey of the Mind to God in which a person is reformed by grace ( gratia reformans), purified by justice ( justitia purificans), enlightened by knowledge ( illuminans scientia ), and perfec ted by wisdom ( sapientia perficiens) 12 Gutman e s decorating the four walls of the Stanza. He begins with an introduction that broadly describes St. s influence on its overall design, claiming that the characterization of Plato and Aristotle with the sciences in the School of Athens and the descent of light and representation of the Trinity in the Disputa writings. 13 ses of each fresco. Lux The Disputa, refers to light and grace in the Disputa (fig. 1 2) ; Via The Parnassus sapientia perficiens in the Parnassus fresco (fig. 1 3) ; Vita School of Athens, refers to Life and illuminans scientia i n the School of Athens (fig. 1 4) ; and Veritas Jurisprudence explains Truth and justitia purificans within the Jurisprudence fresco (fig. 1 5) Beginning with Light in Lux The Disputa, Gutman interprets the fresco with a description of the iconograph y and its relation to St. Bonaventure: In our painting, the rays of golden light stream from above through the angel s and fill the empyrean. In the central axis of the fresco, surrounded 11 Zeitsch rift fr Kunstgeschichte 21 (1958), 30. 12 13 Ibid.
14 by this light, we see God the Father, and under him; Christ, the foc us of the overall presentation; and under this, the dove of the Holy Spirit. The presentation of the Trinity in the order given here contradicts all the usual visual and theological traditions, with the sole exception of Bonaventure's. Under the Trinity Gr oup is a golden monstrance on a pedestal on which the name of the reigning pope, Julius II is inscribed. This representation in conjunction with the above version of the Trinity is taken from the writings of y Spirit for the salvation of (The Son) sent fire to inflame the Holy Spirit to he sent the Holy Spirit to build the earthly Jerusalem when the Holy Spirit descended His fullness of charismata poured out to perfect the Mystical Bo 14 Gutman follows this statement with a discussion of the figures in the clouds, their arrangement, and interactions with one another, associating each figure with clouds to eit her side of Christ, the Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist engage in conversations with one another. Old Testament figures engage with those from the New Testament and an additional figure in red robes (fig. 1 6) that Gutman mistakenly identifies as St. Francis. 15 14 My translation. In unserem Gem lde stromen die Strahlen goldenen Lich ts von ob en durch das engelserfllte Empy reum. In der Zentralachse des Freskos, von diesem Licht umflossen, erblicken wir Gott Vater, unter ihm, im Mittelpunkt der Gesamtdarstellung, Christus, und unter die sem die Taube des Heiligen Gei stes. Die Darstellung der Dre ieinigkeit in der hier wiedergegebenen O rdnung widerspricht aller Bild tradition und auch den blichen theologischen Traditionen, mit alleiniger Ausnahm e der Tradition Bonaventura's Unter der Dreifaltigkeitsgruppe steht eine goldene Monstranz auf einem Pos tament, auf welchem der Name des regierenden Papstes, Julius II., eingeschrieben steht. Auch diese Darstellung in Verbindung mit der obigen Fassung des Dreifaltigkeitsthemas ist d en Schriften Bonaventura's ent nommen: ,, (Deus) misit Filium et Spiritum S anct (Filius) misit ignem Spritus San cti ut inflammaret misit Spiritum Sanctum ad ae cum descendit Spiritus Sanctus effusa est plentitudo charismatum ad Corpus Christi mysticum consumman dum Gutman cites Bonaventure Beviloquium Holy 15 This figure has been identified as St. Stephen by Giovanni Reale, Una interpretazione fllosoflca e teologica dell'affresco con la prima presentazione analitica dei singoli personaggi e dei particolari simbolici e allegorici emblematici (Milan: Rusconi Libri, 1998) 45 46, 84., and as St. Lawrence by Christiane L. Joost Gaugier, The Stanza della Segnatura 60. The figure in gray robes to the right of the altar was identified as St. Francis by Giovanni Reale ; see esp. 65, 85
15 Gutman interprets the placement of Pope Sixtus IV and St. Bonaventure as they are depicted in the earthly level of the fresco as an additional sign pointing to a Bonaventurean influence. st and, St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure, the latter represented in full form carrying greater weight in the fresco than St. Thomas (fig. 1 7) 16 Pope Sixtus IV further supports the Franciscan influence for which Gutman argues. Pop when entering the room from the facing door. 17 This is one of the stronger points made by Gutman, as Ingrid Rowland asserted the significance of associated figures under The Culture of the High Renaissance stating that certain immediately recognizable figures from c lassic al that during the papacy of Julius II, these figures often took on added meanings that were highly specific to and promot ed particular ideas through their visual arrangements 18 Though fraught with the misidentification of St. Francis ( subsequently identified as St. Lawrence), and based primarily on his close interpretation of the Disputa through St. Bonaventure, Gutman opens a discussion for the Franciscan authorship of the Stanza della Segnatura. At the same time, he admits that the authorship of the program will not be resolved without the discovery of direct sources. His evidence, therefore, rests 16 17 Ibid 18 Ingrid D Rowland, The Culture of the High Renaissance: Ancients and Moderns in Sixteenth Century Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998) 167.
16 heavily on the Franciscan leanings of Pope Julius II and his uncle Pope Sixtus IV, a re lation ship that will be examined in Chapter 2 of this study. Meaning and Invention : Christiane L. Joost C ase for Authorship Christiane L. Joost Gaugier mentions the possible importance of Bonaventure in her text, Meaning and Invention, only in a footnote: Hennessy declared, without providing supporting reasons, that the 19 Her assessment is not entirely correct, as we have already seen from the passage quoted from Pope examin Joost Gaugier notably downplays the importance of Bonaventure as she proposes an altogether different explanation for the inspiration of the fresco. Although she dismisses John Pope H Bonaventure, Joost Gaugier presents insight into the identification of the author in the Stanza della Segnatura 20 His early theatrical displays, which Joost Gaugier claims inspired the arrangement of the Disputa fresco. 21 In 1483, he passed into della Rovere protection when he moved to Rome and became a papal librarian 22 Inghirami was appointed head librarian in 1505 and was 19 Joost Gaugier, 200n2. Joost Gaugier offers the names of other scholars who give explanations for the design of the Disputa. 20 Ibid., 22. 21 Ibid., 71. 22 Ibid., 24.
17 later named prefect. 23 Joost under the influence of Pico della Mirandola, St. Thomas Aquinas, and distinguished Humanists whom he frequently quoted in his orations. His tie with contemporary humanists support s Joost the decoration of the Stanza nd work in the Papal libraries, Joost Gaugier discusses each element of the room as it fits her theory. Disputa documents the contemporary view of the Christian faith as modeled after the universal ity of the Roman Empire. 24 A noted orator, Inghirami pushed for a worldview of Christianity concerned with ministering to new civilizations and bringing peace to the globe, goals that required a reform of Roman ideals. 25 Unity, concord, prestige, and harmony characterized Gaugier claims were incorporated into the iconography of the Disputa. 26 Joost Gaugier indicates the Trinity as the primary method of interpreting cosmological issues and mysteries enabling theologians to fully incorporate these humanist ideals into Christianity. 27 The Trinity is a De Trinitate, on which Richard of St. Victor, St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas Aquinas elaborated, developing it beyond doctrine and determining that only through the Trinity (prominently depicted in the center of the 23 Joost Gaugier, 23. 24 Ibid., 67. 25 Ibid., 68. 26 Ibid., 69. 27 Ibid
18 fresco), could the diversity of a newly expanded world be incorporated into universal harmony. 28 Joost Gaugier works to reconcile the unity of the Trinity wit h the terrestrial and celestial realms depicted in the fresco, as well as the hierarchy of angels with the arrangement of terrestrial figures below. To do so, she cites Dionysius the Areopagite, Dante Alighieri, and St. Thomas Aquinas, notably igno ring St. which made many references to the Trinity and the hierarchy of angels. Bonaventure found inspiration in St. Augustine and Dionysius the Areopagite, and was a contemporary of St. Thomas Aquinas, a fact that Joost Gaugier admits whil e still 29 derived from St. Thomas Aquinas, as indicated by his inclusion in the fresco. Howev er, as Gutman noted, the Dominican is placed in a secondary position to the Franciscan St. Bonaventure, who stands near the Pope who canonized him, Sixtus IV. 30 position in the fresco is also mentioned, both for his contribution to the arrangement o f angels, and for his identification of the two medieval saints in his Divine Comedy. 31 The Trinitarian theme featured so prominently in Joost is also a major overtone 28 Joost Gaugier, 69. 29 Ibid.; Bonaventure clearly and frequently cites Dionysius the Areopagite and St. Augustine within his text. 30 31 Joost Gaugier, 71.
19 course of this study 32 should indicate some level of importance to the author(s) of the program. Joost the Seraphic Doctor throughout her long career of scholarship on the Stanza della Segnatura leaves her argument incomplete. R ole in the Refashioning of Julian Rome: Renovatio Urbis Renovatio Urbi s: Architecture, Urbanism and Ceremony in the Rome of Julius II presents a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Pope Julius II reinterpreted Rome to reflect his reign as Pope. Covering alterations of the streets, prominent architectural structu res, Vati can refashioning and the frescoes of the Stanza della Segnatura Temple weaves together a history of della Rovere succession and their use of the Roman landscape to assert their ideologies. The Julian Golden Age sought to make Rome the spiritual and ideological axis around which the rest of the world should rotate, a notion which Joost Gaugier also mentions in her text. 33 With great attention paid to siting, the cardinal directions, and the relationship of ancient Rome to Christian Rome, Julius II built upon the legacy of his uncle Sixtus IV. 34 The connection between these two pontiffs is made ever clearer Disputa fresco and the room in which it resides. Placed within the 32 Etienne Gilson, et al, The Philosophy of St. Bonaventure (Paterson, N.J.: St. Anthony Guild Press, Itinerarium Mentis in Deum (The Journey of the Mind to God) te and explain the journey. 33 Joost Gaugier, 69 34 Nicholas Temple, Renovatio Urbis: Architecture, Urbanism, and Ceremony in the Rome of Julius II (London: Routledge, 2011), 47.
20 actual locations, geographical destinations and idealized settings, which in turn gave credence to the belief that the Golden Age was an actual possibi lity, rather than simply 35 The connection between the content and orientation of the frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura indicates the functions and meanings of the buildings beyond its walls, further suggesting th Stanza was ambitious programme of Renovatio 36 Drawing from Joost Renaissance Rome by Manfredo Tafuri within the larger political goals of Pope Julius II, a point also noted by Ingrid D. Rowland. 37 He builds this discussion from the foundation of vertical and horizontal cues that enlarge the room from its four w alls to the greater landscape of Rome. These directional clues are tied to ideas of sensus (our temporal experience of the natural world) and spiritus (eternity of the soul), both themes dominating the Disputa fresco. 38 The vertical axis begins in the vault of the Stanza della Segnatura 35 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 214. 36 Ibid 37 Tafuri, Manfredo Interpreting the Renaissance: princes, cities, architects (New Haven: Yale University Press ) 2006. and continuing through to Charles V. There is n ding the Stanza della Segnatura. See also: Ingrid D. R n The Cambridge Companion to Raphael ed. Marcia B. Hall (New York i mportant place to begin an account of the Julian Papacy suite; their decoration accordingly expressed the meaning of his papacy in a more immediate, personal 38 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 218.
21 ettings 39 Temple insists that these axes function dependently upon one another inextricably uniting the terrestrial realm of the ascension to Go d ; basing his understanding of how the horizontal and vertical axes interrelate on his study of St. Itinerarium Mentis in Deum. 40 Itinerarium, Temple lays a foundation for the theology behind the interpretation of the Disputa fresco. Citing St. Augustine, he draws connections to the goal of making Rome a New Jerusalem, a city of God established by the Julian Golden Age. 41 From there he asserts that St. ve architectural dimension that bridges the 42 In order to provide weight to this Bonaventurean influ ence, Temple reiterates the In the Golden that opens the soul to divine grace through prayerful meditation Therefore, as Temple explains, the Journey a fusion between the fullness of time, which Giles and o thers made synonymous with the 39 Temple, Reno vatio Urbis 217. 40 Ibid., 218. 41 Ibid., 243. 42 Ibid., 249.
22 immortality. 43 This assertion connects Bonaventure to the Golden Age of Julius, demonstrating the probability of a strong Bonaventurean influence on the fresco. To offer a greater understanding of how degrees of spiritual contemplation relate to the Disputa It is possible to contemplate God not only outside us and within us but also above us: outside, through vestiges of Him; within, through His image; and above, through the light that shines upon our mind. This is the light of Those who have becom e practiced in the first way of contemplation have already entered the atrium before the Tabernacle; those who have become practiced in the second have entered into the Holy Places; and those who are practiced in the third, enter with the High Priest into the Holy of Holies, where the Cherubim of Glory stand over the Ark, overshadowing the Seat of Mercy. By these Cherubim we understand the two kinds or degrees of contemplating the invisible and eternal things of God: the first considers the essential attrib utes of God; the second, the proper attributes of persons. 44 with the figures in the terrestrial level of the fresco, the eye travels to the Eucharist in the center and up ward through the Holy Spirit, Jesus, and finally God the Father in his spiritual passage: ascensio, above oneself and into God. 45 After our mind has beheld God outside itself through his vestiges and in his vestiges, within itself through his image and in his image, and above itself through the similitude of the divine Light shining above us and in the Light itself Our mind reaches that point where it contemplates in the First and 43 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 250 44 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.1, ed. Brown, 28. 45 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 250.
23 46 divided his journey into three principle stages that Temple identi fies as transire (traces of God in bodily natures), intrare (into the mind, which is the Image of God), and transcendere (to pass to God himself). 47 He associates these three stages to the motifs of the primordial tent or cave and the mountain peak; setting s he believes provide the backdrop for the Disputa 48 Referencing Harry B. Gutman, Temple constructs a short, but convincing he way. 49 Concluding his short section on Bonaventure with the reassertion of a della Rovere connection to the Franciscan Order and between method of interpreting the icon ography of the Disputa and the Stanza in the context of consists of only two pages within his 272 page volume, it serves his argument by tying together the vertical and h orizontal axes of the Stanza refashion Rome. 46 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 7.1, ed. Brown, 37. 47 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 250. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid. 251.
24 Depth and Nuance While there has been no definitive word on the matter of s authorship, Christiane L. Joost She does not, however, give adequate attention to St. Bonaventure and the Franciscan ideology that united Pope Julius II and his uncle Sixtus IV. She pays at tention to the overall goals of the Julian papacy, but a further study of Bonaventure as a possible unifying factor between the theological and political goals would provide greater understanding of the complete message of the Disputa gument picks up on these threads admirably in his larger study of the Julian Golden Age. Harry B. Gutman and John Pope Hennessy both present valuable introductions to the idea of Bonaventure as a source of inspiration and method of interpretation, but neit her expands his theory into the broader study of Pope Julius II and his intentions as Vicar of Christ. The methodologies applied thus far have proven themselves to be problematic with significant focus given to finding the man who authored the fre sco. Gutman admits information, however later scholars have striven to ex ecute such a study without it. Nevertheless, t he methods with which Gutman and Temple apply the Itiner arium to the Stanza resound with a certain amount of plausibility for connecting the saint to the program of the Disputa and the larger program of the room While unlikely to prove a direct influence on the Disputa fresco by St. Bonaventure, the Seraphic D awareness of the depth and nuances of religious experience contained within his treatise can shed light on the nuances and deep meanings inherent in the Disputa
25 my sticism provide insight into the meaning of a fresco program that combines the same three elements into a major theme. Though the scholarship referenced in this chapter supports a clear direction toward uncovering the mysteries of the fresco program, it al so reveals a lack of research in the field warranting further discussion on the Seraphic b etween both della Rovere Popes; factors to be elaborate up on in the chapters that follow.
26 CHAPTER 2 THE FRANCISCAN DELLA ROVERES, THE STANZA DELLA SEGNATURA, AND ITINERARIUM MENTIS I N DEUM The first The Disputation over the Sacrament, or La Disputa (fig. 1 2) has been largely interpreted as a represent ation of the concept of Theology 1 transformation of the concepts in the School of Athens (fig. 1 4) 2 Placed opposite the famous fresco of Plato and Aristotle among other ph ilosophers, the iconography ties closely with della Rovere Franciscan leanings especially as a demonstration of the Itin erarium Mentis in Deum as it resolves medieval theology with high Renaissance ideologies and art istic styles. Concerned prima rily with the Disputation of the Sacrament, or Disputa this study argues that although integrated into a program rich with philosophical, theological, and artistic meaning, the iconographical program of the Disputa guide s a viewer from philosophy and the rational understanding of earthly symbols toward spiritual union with God With the arguments of Harry B. Itinerarium Mentis in Deum or The J ourney of the Mind to God, will be used to interpret this fresco program. The Disputa suggests an understanding of this thirteenth century work, reconcili ng the upper and lower spheres allowing it to function as a religious image within a room dedicated to learning; thus providing the understanding necessary to contemplate God. 1 James Beck, Raphael: The Stanza Della Segnatura, Rome (New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1993), 20. 2 George L. Hersey, High Renaissance Art in St. Peter's and the Vatican, an In terpretive Guide (Chicago: The Univ ersity of Chicago Press, 1993), 135.
27 examination of the rel ationship between Julius II, Sixtus IV, and the Franciscan Order. will be summarized before dividing the discussion of the fresco into the three main stages of the journey, transire intrare and transcendere in the chapters that f ollow. The Della Rovere Papacies While the Julian papacy began in 1503 after a history of schism, division, and contention in Rome, arguably the impetus of the Stanza della Segnatura may be traced to the first della Rovere papacy, that of Sixtus IV (France sco della Rovere, 1471 1484). As a patron of the arts, Sixtus IV commissioned public works to refurbish Rome and advertise his role as secular and sacred leader. 3 The refurbishment of Rome has a long history tracing back to the reign of the first Emperors; indeed, Raffaello Maffei (1451 4 Recapturing the glory of ancient Rome was paired with the promotion of a new Christian Rome. Sixtus built churches, paved streets, established the papal libraries, founded the famous Capitoline museum as the first public collection of Antiquities in Europe, and reopened the Roman Academy an act demonstrating his political approval of humanis m. 5 This new Rome depended on infrastructure improvements set 3 Urbis Restaurator The Catholic Historical Review 91.1 (2005), 1. 4 Ian F. Verstegen, introduction to P atronage and Dynasty: The Rise of the Della Rovere in Renaissance Italy ed. by Ian F. Verstegen (Kirksville: Truman State University Press, 2007), xvi. 5
28 forth by Sixtus IV including widened and repaved streets and the creation of the Via to Santa Maria del Popolo. 6 France sco Albertini lauded the se accomplishments of Opusculum de Mirabilibus Novae Urbis Romae : Sixtus IV, the highest and greatest pontiff, began to restore the city. F irst, namely, he destroyed the dark porticoes and also extended the streets and squares of the city and covered them with brick, and brought back many completely destroyed churches to their original form. To be sure, his successors a ttempted to copy the ma indeed the structures themselves demonstrate the truth of the matt er plainly, so that the city is able deservedly to be called new. 7 These words of praise indicate the importance placed on the renovation of the sacred city, which continued duri ng the reign of Julius II. As an acclaimed theologian and scholar, Sixtus issued a charter in June 1475 officially founding the Vatican library initially established by Nicholas V but neglected after his death. 8 In the decade following the charter, the li brary expanded by approximately one thousand volumes, rivaling the collections of Medici and other Italian leaders. 9 Perhaps more importantly, the library was a juxtaposition of antiquity with modern theology and scholarship, a reconciliation illustrated b y Domenico and Davide Ghirlandiao in eight painted lunettes in the original library. 10 These decorations 6 7 Ibid., 13; France sco Albertini O pus c ulum de Mirabilibus Novae Urbis Romae ed. Schmarsow, 1. 8 Ibid., 20. 9 Ibid., 21. 10 For images of these frescoes see Jean K. Cadogan, Domenico Ghirlandaio: Artist and Artisan (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 45 46. Because of their poor condition, they have not received
29 prominently feature s ix Greek philosophers, the four Church Doctors, and Saints Bonaventure and Thomas Aquinas holding banderoles and leaning over the painted balustrade in four groin vaulted bays. 11 Large oak leaves and acorns decorate the arches, alluding to the della Rovere coat of arms. 12 Jill Blondin attributes the frescoes where the likenesses of philosophers and prominent saints serve library 13 Her article concludes by remi nding her readers that Sixtus attempted to renovate Rome through the revival of antiquity specifically to represent him as civic and spiritual command er of the city Indeed, the reuse of ancient archetypes allowed the pontiff to utilize the history of Roma 14 Thus it is important to remember that what may appear as a celebration of antiquity and philosophy is actually to be taken in the context of Christianity and the goals of t he papacy. This concept remains relevant in the discussion of the Stanza della Segnatura where the journey from antique philosophy and worldly vestiges to Christian enlightenment is depicted in The School of Athens and facing it, The Disputation of the Sac rament. much scholarly attention, although their preservation does allow for interpretation of the images and identification of the depicted figures. 11 Cadog an, Domenico Ghirlandaio 45. 12 Ibid., 46. 13 14 Ibid., 25.
30 Dedication to Francis His Franciscan beginnings can be traced to his childhood when his parents prayed to Saint Francis to intercede during an illness, and after his r ecovery dedicated him to the Franciscan Order. 15 A Friars Minor by age ten, Francesco della Rovere became minister general of the Franciscans in 1464, was made cardinal of San Pietro in Vincoli, and was eventually elected pope in 1471. 16 He demonstrated his Franciscan dedication by the Franciscan St. Bonaventure in 1482, and constructing part of the Friary of St. Francis at Assisi. 17 Sixtus also demonstrated Marian devot ion during his papacy another hallmark of the Franciscan tradition by building and restoring several churches dedicated to the Virgin including Santa Maria della Pace and Santa Maria del Popolo 18 Contributing to his ambition to make the Franciscan view on the feast of the Immaculate Conception the generally accepted position of the Catholic Church, in 1476 he issued a papal bull recognizing the Immaculate Conception as a feast; reinforcing the idea of succession and continuity in papal rule and the status o f the Franciscan Order as guardians of the Church. 19 15 Patronage and Dynasty: The Rise of the Della Rovere in R enaissance Italy ed. by Ian F. Verstegen (Kirksville: Truman State University Press, 2007), 4. 16 Verstegen, introduction, xiv. 17 Ibid., xv; During and before his reign as pope, he contributed to the construction of St. Francis at Assisi. 18 Ibid., xvi. 19 Ibid., xv; and Temple, Renovatio Urbis 181. The Immaculate Conception remained a recognized feast until the nineteenth century when it became part of the official doctrine of the Catholic Church.
31 The Papal Nephew Almost immediately upon his election as pope, Sixtus elevated Giuliano della Rovere to the college of cardinals on December 15, 1471 along with his cousin and rival Pietro Riario. Neither man had much claim over the title of cardinal besides their status as nipoti to Pope Sixtus IV. 20 Through their election, the della Rovere papal ties to the Franciscans strengthened; as the head of the Franciscan Order prior to his papacy, Sixtus supported studied civil and Roman Law and eventually took his holy orders. 21 Soon after his San Pietro in Vincoli (St. Peter i career as cardinal and labeling him as a particular favorite of the pope. 22 In 1471, Pietro Riario was made cardinal protector of the Franciscan Order, an honor later granted to Giuliano a 23 Sixtus IV Appoints Platina Vatican Librarian (fig. 2 1) a commission for the north wall of the Biblioteca Latina, nipote inence The painting commemorates the appointment of Platina as papal librarian and features Sixtus seated with his nephews Riario and Giuliano standing nearby and engaging with him in a 20 Christine Shaw, Julius I I: The Warrior Pope (Cambridg e: Blackwell Publishers, 1993), 9. 21 Ibid., 10. Notable because it was not necessary to be a priest in order to be elected cardinal or pope. 22 Ibid. 11. 23 Verstegen, introduction, xv.
32 classical basilica 24 In addition to electing Platina as the librarian, Sixtus assigned Giuliano the role of promoting the institution of the library a role admittedly surmised only from this fresco and another in the Ospidale di Santo Spirito by an unknown artist in which Giu liano and Platina stand together with the pope in his new library (fig. 2 2) 25 ered and facing his uncle, in relation to that of Sixtus indicates his dynastic ambitions by illustrating existing importance and future prospects. 26 A green wall with two arched windows highlights the background and a vertical column placed behind Giuliano, a juxtaposition of human figure and pillar that Ingri d Rowland identifies with a familiar Renaissance iconographic device which used here, identifies the significant supporter of the papal library. 27 Temple highlights the providing the future della Rovere pope with a backdrop appropriately symbolic of the future of the Church and the della Rovere dynasty. 28 The other figures in the p ainting exhibit vacant facial expressions indicating secondary importance while the brightly lit 24 Sixtus as an imperial ruler and certainly calls to mind the lost portrait of Augustus that dominated the Palatine Library. However, the garments worn by Sixtus, the camauro and mozzetta make it clear that the pope, as a religious leader, is using imperial language to showcase the superiority of his Christian 25 Rowland, The Culture of the High Renaissance 156; and for more on the works of Sixtus IV see 18. 26 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 171. 27 Intellectual Background in Hall (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1997) 135. 28 Ibid., 171.
33 intervention in the restoration of Rome. 29 Julius II and the Stanza de lla Segnatura Elected to the papacy in 1503 after self imposed exile, Julius picked up where his revered uncle left off. Nicknamed Il Papa Terribile, for his warring to unite the Papal States ed at uniting ed continuity 30 Concerned with the architectural legacy of his uncle, Julius embarked on urban projects that were intended to continue the reverence of Sixtus IV. For example, the Via Giulia connects the Ponte Sisto i n the south to the Ospidale di Santo Spirito in the north two important monuments of 31 Two years after his election as pope, and n o longer desiring to gaze at the gilded portrait of Alexander VI in pious prayer Julius decided to move out of the Borgia apartments in to the rooms directly above after his first military campaign. 32 His Master of Ceremonies, Paris de Grassis, details this move: Today, November 26, 1507, the pope began to reside in the upper apartments of the palace, the rea son being, he has told me, having to have before his eyes at all hours the image of his predecessor and enemy 29 30 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 36. 31 Ibid. 47. 32 Rowland, The Culture of the High Renaissance 164.
34 an d crests of Pope Alexander from wherever they were painted on the wall s; he responded that that would not be appropriate, and that he did not want to live there in the presence of that wicked and criminal memory. 33 Soon after, Julius hired a team of artists to begin decorating his new papal suite. In 1508, Raphael arrived in Rome at the urging of his friend Bramante, and on January 13, 1509, was paid for work on the Disputa indicating that he won the commission. 34 The Stanza is a unified program of frescoes combining floor, ceiling and all four walls. Though the examination of each individual element is beyond the scope of this study, it is important to note their overall connections some of which will be discussed in coordination with the relationship between the School of Athens and the Disputa. A brief description of the uni fying properties of the vault (fig. 2 3) will suffice to offer an understanding of how the iconography of the Stanza ties together A central octagonal oculus unites four roundels illustrating enthroned female personifications of theology, philosophy, poetry, and law. The crest of Nicholas V is preserved in the oculus while the spaces between each of the roundels and their corresponding rectangular scenes are filled with della Rovere oaks. Above the oculu s are eleven putti contrasted against the sky while a frieze of floriate grotteschi surrounds this central composition Other filler motifs occupy the remaining spaces between the main elements, uniting the entire vault thematically and geometrically. 35 Each corner rectangular scene corresponds to the roundel to its left, illustrating the concept 33 d iss., Temple University, 1998), 45. 34 Ibid., 217n715. This date comes from a document stating that Raphael was paid for work in the 35 Ibid., 219.
35 contained within the personification and on the wall below. T he personification of philosophia roundel identifies the School of Athens with an image of Wisdom (S ophia) Observing the Cosmos ; Parnassus is defined by the poesia roundel and the Punishment of Marsyas scene (fig. 2 4); f or the Disputa ( theologia ) the rectangular scene illustrates The Fall ; and Jurisprudence features the Judgment of Solomon and a rounde l with iustitia personified (fig. 2 5) 36 Because the frescoes integrate so closely with the vault, the room presents a unification and collaboration of the forms knowledge that Renaissance scholars and theologians would have been concerned with. According to Nicholas Temple, the School of Athens and the Disputa are the two principle frescoes, oriented east and west, respectively. Oriented roughly toward St. Disputa stands as emblematic of the Basilica of Rome. The Parnassus f resco is oriented toward the Cortile de Belvedere and the Villa Belvedere to the north; Jurisprudence and the School of Athens celebrates human knowledge and commemorates the Vatican library (fig. 2 6) 37 s goals for a unified world under Christianity, with Rome at its center. The relationship between the vaulted space of the chamber an d the projective terrain represented in the wall frescoes below, forms a matrix of symbolic and spatial alignments. As both witness to and agent of the new Golden Age, Julius II would probably have construed the Stanza as his own personal point of referenc e, from which to contemplate the destiny of papal Rome. 38 36 Joost Gaugier, 48 51. 37 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 216. 38 Ibid. 220.
36 In addition to connecting the layout of the room to the topography of Rome, Temple identifies the iconography of the frescoes as indicative of a spiritual journey 39 In other words, the School of Athens acts as a preparation of things to come, as revealed in the Disputa. The connection of the School of Athens to the Disputa will be explored further in Chapter 3, as it supp Journey of the Mind to God. La Disputa A s a representa tion of the concept of Theology the Disputa illustrates the unification of the Three Persons of the Trinity with the Eucharist on earth. 40 Placed in the horizontal center of the fresco and contained within a golden monstrance, the Eucharist traces its path from God the Father, Christ the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a verti cal line 41 The vanishing point of the architectural perspective and th e gestures, poses and glances of the surrounding figures direct the viewer to follow this chain of divine substance, a compositional technique that Raphael is especially well known for. 42 resco building upon the gestures and actions of prominent figures to draw the composition to the center 39 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 220. 40 Beck, Raphael: The Stanza Della Segnatura 20; and George L. Hersey, High Renaissance Art in St. Peter's and t he Vatican, an Interpretive Guide (Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, 1993), 135. 41 Frede rick Hartt and David G. Wilkins, History of Italian Renaissance Art (London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2003), 544. 42 Hersey, High Renaissance Art in St. Peter's and the Vatican, an Interpretive Guide 136 ; and Beck, Raphael: The Stanza Della Segnatura 50.
37 43 Additionally, meaning; originating from heaven, the rich golden light bathes the figures with warm tones, a technique used during the High Renaissance to indicate theological and spiritual ideals of a work of art. 44 The four Church Fathers frame the altar, emphasizing t he presence of the Eucharist: Saints Gregory the Great and Jerome sit on the left, and Saints Ambrose and Aug ustine sit to the right (fig. 2 7) shaven likeness is ascertained in the face of St. Gregory, 45 and other recognizable figu res include Sixtus IV (identified by the book at his feet, De Sanguine Christi) and Dante Alighiari. 46 T wo Doctors of the medieval church, St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure, stand beh ind the Church Fathers with Bonaventure represented in full form, an artisti c device used to give greater weight to the Seraphic Doctor than to St. Thomas (fig. 1 7) 47 Pope Sixtus IV further supports a Franciscan influence on the design of the program g the saint in his 1482 bull. As noted earlier, Pope Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere) was the head of the Franciscan order before becoming Vicar of Christ in 1471. 48 43 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael (University Park : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2011), 39. 44 Beck, Raphael: The Stanza Della Segnatura 78. 45 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 52. 46 Ibid., 54. 47 31. 48 Shaw, Julius II: The Warrior Pope 10.
38 admiration for his uncle places the two figures in a eyes toward them first when entering the room from the facing door. 49 Surrounded by four putti holding open the Gospels, a golden mandorla encircles the Holy Spirit as it ho vers over the Eucharist As if the mouth of a di vine funnel, the into the monstrance, connecting the presence of Christ on earth to the Trinity in heaven. The prominent placement of the Trinity in the Disputa fresco serves as an exposition of the Eucharist in the center of the painting, referenced by the prominent Church Fathers. The three golden mandorlas anchored into the composition by the Persons of the Trinity unite the celestial world to the terrestrial, forming a la dder to the mind of God (fig. 2 8) In the center of the Trinity, Jesus sits with Mary as intercessor and St. John the Baptist in his animal skins as precursor. The youthful, beardless Christ raises his hands to display his wounds, but his demeanor i s one of tenderness and grace, not judgment. Biblical and early Church figures sit on the bank of clouds as it arcs away from Jesus. Six figures from the Old Testament, whom Gutman identifies as representatives of justice, alternate in order with six Chris tian witnesses, who represent grace. 50 On the left, Old Testament figures converse with those from the Gospels, identified as St. Peter, Adam, St. John the Evangelist, King David, St. Lawrence (Gutman identifies him as S t. Francis), and Isaiah (fig. 2 9) On the right, closest to Christ is Judah Maccabees, 49 ( Guiliano della Rovere) served his uncle for many years. F or more on Julius nephew s ee Shaw, Julius II: The Warrior Pope 9 51. 50 Ibid., 30.
39 St. Stephen, Moses, St. Matthew Abraham, and St. Paul (fig. 2 10) 51 These men to the right do not converse with one another, but are involved in their own contemplation. Supporting the entire arc of clou d, angels make up the base of the cloudbank, keeping it afloat. Fully formed angels hover above the seated figures, three on either side of God in the largest of golden mandorlas. Cloud substance angels trim the border of His empyrean, and golden Seraphim float among the rays of light inside, emphasized by n his Descrizzione delle imagini dipinte da Raffaello (1695). 52 Emphasizing the spiritual substance gold leaf highlight s the rays of light while gold colored paint render s the seraphim surrounding God According to Chri stian Kleinbub, le could be interpreted as following the contemporary Roman taste for opulence, as Julius was not opposed to splendor 53 By in tegrating traditional and contemporary styles of visionary imagery Raphael reitera ted the Eucharistic dialectic of presence and accident through the interplay of abstract and naturalistic visionary forms. In other words, the pigment renders the accidental structure of the angels, while the gold leaf accents indicate their otherworldly s ubstance Similarly, the rendered bread substance of the Eucharist indicates its earthly nature, while the monstrance and rays of golden light 51 Reale, Disputa 84. I support Christiane L. Joost of the saint as St. Lawrence, due to his iconographical props and attire. St. Lawrence was grilled to death, and is often depicted in red with a flame on his garment. Though it is unclear whether the determination can be proven, for these reasons I will re fer to him as St. Lawrence. 52 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 31. 53 Ibid., 32.
40 allude to the physical presence of Christ. Th is transitional relationship of terrestrial and celestial initiates our discussion of Journey of the Mind to God; indeed, finding God in earthly objects and vestige s resound quite strongly with recognizing God in the Eucharist. Itinerarium Mentis i n Deum : The Journey o f t he Mind t o God Two years before composing the Itinerarium Mentis in Deum in 1259 Saint Bonaventure of Balneoregio (b.1217 d.1274) became Minister General of the Franciscan Order 54 Master of Theology at the University of Paris and Cardinal, Bonaventure be came known as the Seraphic Doctor of the Catholic Church, marking his religious conviction by endeavoring to integrate faith and reason. Bonaventure considered Christ the one true master who could offer mankind the knowledge developed through rational unde rstanding and perfected by a mystical union with God. hrist in the guise of a Seraph the Itinerarium mentis in Deum or Journey of the Mind to God, details the journey of spiritua l enlightenment through Christ as seen thr ough a Franciscan point of view. Allegorically interpreting the six wings of the crucified Seraph as stages on the ideal approach to God, this symbol serves as the driving force and backbone of eeing of God through footprints in the visible world. Pointing toward God and creation, these footprints are reminders of him that appear in the sub human world, and in the relationships people have with objects and creatures on Earth. Bonaventure posited 54 Stephen F. Brown, introduction to The Journey of the Mind to God ed. by Stephen F. Brown ( Indianapolis: Hacket t Publishing Company, 1993 ) ix.
41 true vision of sensible reality by revealing that these objects of our own experience do 55 Looking at the origin of the ves tiges, their greatness, 56 theory of knowledge, Bonaventure believed that the first thing we know is God, present in things. Therefore, the first pair of wings covers the feet of the Seraph allegorizing C hapters One and Two, where man focuses on the earthly realm to find the footprints of God. 57 It is by first analyzing things on earth with our sense knowledge 58 The m iddle pair of wings relates to C hapters Three and Four ; level to man, the Seraph uses them to hover, activating its presence within the material world. 59 Here, the soul turns to itself through the faculties of memory, intelligence, and will, recognizing their analogous relationship to the three persons of God. After this realization, God restores the soul from the human, bent over form into His likeness; u nfolding the soul through faith, hope and love, purifying, enlightening and perfecting it. 60 Note here that his Itinerarium 55 Brown, introduction, ix. 56 Ibid. 57 Jos de Vinck, The Work of Saint Bonaventure, Cardi nal, Seraphic Doctor, and Saint (Paterson : St. Anthon y Guild Press, 1960 63), vol. 1 3. 58 Brown, i ntroduction, xvii. 59 de Vinck. The Work of Saint Bonaventure 4. 60 Bonaven ture The Journey of the Mind to God 3.5, ed. Brown, 21.
42 The upper pair of wings represents seeing through reason t hat God possesses one divine nature and seeing God in the Holy Trinity through faith. Covering the face of the Seraph, this pair of wings symbolizes that which is above man, the symbol for C hapter s Five and Six 61 Building on the previous step s, man becomes aware of the perfect Being 62 Finally, the realization of God as The Good brings the mind to its highest perfection in union with God. Bonaventure like ns t hese three main stages of perception It is like the threefold enlightenment of each day: the first is like evening; the second like morning; and the third l ike noonday it reflects the threefold substance in Christ, Who is our ladder: His corporeal substance, His spiritual substance, and His divine substance. 63 The threefold enlightenment of each day corresponds with the placement of each pair of wings. The su n is below the horizon in the evening, and is therefore analogous to aligns with the middle wings. Finally, at noon the sun reaches its highest point corresponding with the highest enlightenment of the mind, allegorized in the top pair of wings. principle ways of perception: In the first way it looks at the corporeal things outside itself, and so act ing, it is called animality or sensibility. In the second, it looks within itself and into 61 de Vinck. The Work of Saint Bonaventure 4. 62 Brown, i ntroduction xviii. 63 Bonaventure, The Journey of the Mind to God 1.3, ed. Brown, 6.
43 itself, and is then called spirit. In the third, it looks above itself, and is then called mind. 64 Thus, corresponding to the three pairs of wings are the three princ ipal stages of the journey. Transire where man perceives exterior material objects, classified as animal or sensual; i ntrare, in which man perceives that which is within, recognized as the spirit and the image of God; and t ranscendere the perception of t hat which is above oneself, finally 65 With these stages Bonaventure with the whole heart, and with the whole soul, and with the whole mind. H erein lies the 66 Bonaventure then divide s these three principle ways of seeing into six stages for completing th just as God created the wo rld in six days and on the seventh day rested, so man, the microcosm, is led in a most ordered way, 67 Thus, the three pairs of wings are br oken down into six unique steps, from the lowest things to the highest things, from the things outside us to those that are 68 The transire steps are found in the lowest wings, considering God through His vestiges in the univ erse, 69 and in His vestiges in 64 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.4, ed. Brown, 6. 65 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 250. 66 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.4, ed. Brown, 6. 67 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.5, ed. Brown, 6. 68 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.6, ed. Brown, 6 7. 69 Bonavent ure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.2, ed. Brown, 5 6.
4 4 this visible world. 70 The intrare steps found in the middle wings require the consideration of God through His image within our natural powers, 71 and in His image reformed by the gifts of grace. 72 Finally, the top pair of wings i ndicate the transcendere steps, when a person considers that which is above himself: contemplating the Divine Unity through its primary name which is Being 73 and the most blessed Trinity in its name which is The Good 74 of the mirror; to be seen through the mirror means that the mind comes to God through understanding the objects or vestiges investigated. Being seen in the mirror means that the mind perceives God acting and present in the objects investigated. 75 In the end, The soul has climbed the six story mountain. The mind has reached the high point of its being. The intellect has done all that it can do to bring itself to the fullest possible understanding of God, the object of The mind not only yearns to understand God; it yearns to be united with the Crucified He came to Saint Francis and transformed him to His image. Upon the Crucified now the soul must fix its gaze and wait, full of confidence in Christ, expecting from His grace the ultimate union with God. 76 T his journey toward an ultimate union with God i s a major theme depicted in the Disputa fresco. Raphael depicted the steps inheren Renaissance techniques, gestures and color schemes. That the message is depicted in 70 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 2.1, ed. Brown, 11. 71 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.1, ed. Brown, 18. 72 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 4.1 3, ed. Brown, 23 24. 73 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.2, ed. Brown, 28. 74 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 6.1, ed. Brown, 33. 75 de Vinck, The Work of Saint Bonaventure 3. 76 Brown, Introduction xviii.
45 a room dedicated to learning should also resound with the overall intention of the journey. Using knowledge and wisdom found in the priva te library of Pope Julius II, the journey of the mind to God culminates in the contemplation of God the Father in the golden light of heaven, presiding over His Son, the Holy Spirit, and the men depicted in the fresco. The many Trinitarian divisions influ ence the structure of this study just as they influence the program of the frescoes. Therefore, beginning with transire in the chapter that follows, each of the three main stage s of the journey will be applied to the Disputa U sing the School of Athens to provide further connections between the material, sensible world and the next stage the traveller enter s the mind ( intrare) and find s the inside himself After discussing transcendere visionary techniques, I will conclude with a metaphorical Sunday, the final ascent to the mind of God.
46 CHAPTER 3 TRANSIRE : BEGINNING THE JOUR NEY IN THE VESTIGES descend it, let us place our first step in the ascent at the bottom, setting the whole visible world before us as a mirror through which we may pass over to God, the Supreme Creator. 1 of vestiges of God in the visible world. The first step the consideration of God through his vestiges in the universe acknowledges that God created visible objects according to His purposes; to lead men to God through the objects by contemplating their ori gin, beauty, and greatness. s forth 2 In the Disputa, the reading St. Jerome St. Augustine dictating interpretations of s cripture (fig. 2 7) and St. Bonaventure standing immersed in a volume of text (fig. 1 7) illustrate these acts of earthly investigation. The many books on the terrestrial level of the fresc o correspond to the men nearby and their acts of investigati on and interpretation. Step two the consideration of God in His vestiges in this visible world focuses on the physical presence of God in objects. Sense knowledge and judgment developed in the previous sible realm. This chapter examines the ways in which Raphael indicated these vestiges within the Disputa and the School of Athens ultimately leading the traveler toward the mind of God. 1 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1. 9, ed. Brown, 8. 2 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.10, ed. Brown, 8.
47 Sensible Vestiges in the Disputa As a physical object of meditation, the Eucharist visualized inside a golden monstrance on the altar of the Disputa serves as the most perfect vestige of God on earth. According to Catholic doctrine, upon Transubstantiation the bread of the Host becomes th e flesh of Christ. Thomas Aquinas writes that Christ in the Eucharist cannot the beatific soul and the angels. 3 Raphael illustrated this spiritual vision with the inversely proportional size of the golden mandorlas containing the Holy Spirit, Christ, and God the Father rising vertically above the altar, granting spiritual access to the substance of the Host. 4 By placing the Host at the vanishing point of the fresco, the radiates out from this focal ition, 5 Placing the Eucharist on the earthly level where it exists in reality emphasizes its role as a guide for men to contemplate God in His vestiges on earth. This divine body of Christ on earth symbolizes the attainment of human p erfection, thus creating a springboard to the next steps on the Journey of the Mind to God 3 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 36 4 Ibid., 37. 5 Ingrid n The Cambridge Companion to Raphae l e d. Marcia B. Hall (New York : Cambridge University Press, 2005), 99.
48 from terrestrial to celestial; 6 an essential step describe d in the Itinerarium : In order to arrive at the consideration of the First Principle, which is the most spiritual being and eternal and above us, we must pass through vestiges which are corporeal and temporal and outside us. This is what is mean by being l ed in the way of God. 7 In his text, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael Christian K. Kleinbub asserts that t he architectural setting of the terrestrial level of the fresco also serve s as a connection to the divine; stating, sides of the pavement emblematize 8 d traces of God through objects in the sense world, a Linking man to the physical body of the church and thus the spiritual essence emphasi s of the idea that the church is made of p eople rather than archit ecture is posited by Matthias Winner who quoted Hugh of St. Victor, who in his Speculum de Mysteriis Ecclesiae, stated: The church in which the people assemble in order to praise God represents the Holy Catholic Church, which is built in heaven from living stones. The foundations of the apostles and prophets rest. Upon this base are built the walls consisting of Jews and Gentiles who come to Christ from the four corners of the world. The columns represent the Doctors of the Church, 6 Kleinbub. Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 39. 7 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.2, ed. Brown, 6. 8 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 40.
49 who support the Temple of God through their teaching, just as the evangelists support the throne of God spiritually. 9 Disputa ; t he Doctors of the church stand like statues against columns, and the theologians are seated on overturned building blocks. 10 The clouds on which the heavenly entourage sits in the completed fresco were originally imagined a s an entablature of a colonnade and b eneath the Son of God, Ss. Paul and Peter were positioned as if part of the supporting architecture. 11 Furthering his idea of architectural allegory, Winner posits that the position of Sixtus IV and Bonaventure in front of two pilasters protruding fr om a cornerstone can be interpreted as the living stone described in the New Testament. This connection is found specifically in the Epistles of Paul (1 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Corinthians 3:16), and St. Peter (1 Peter 2:3 7) urging Christians to serve as livi ng stones in the construction of the living church, of which Christ is the living cornerstone. 12 This idea of spiritual life within a sensible object reiterates assertion that through rational understanding and spiritual enlightenment we can c ome to find God in the natural world. Analyzing the gestures of prominent figures in the fresco, Rudolf Kuhn also reconciles the terrestrial and heavenly realms in his article, Disputa e la Scuola di Atene Storie o No? Proposte per la Lettura del Compo 9 Raphael in the Apartments of Julius II and Leo X ed. by Roberto Caravaggi (Milan: Electa, 1993), 257. He cites Hugh of St. Victor, Speculum de Mysteriis Ecclesiae ed. J.P. Migne vol. 177, 335 337. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid.
50 To the right, the man closest to the altar (identified as Justin Martyr by Giovanni Reale) gestures toward the sky. Next to him, St. Ambrose looks in awe while contemplating the Trinity, and St. Augustine dictates to a secre tary (fig. 2 7) 13 arm establishes continuity between heaven and earth, a thematic point of view inspired by an immediate understanding of the Sacrament on the altar as a promise presence on earth 14 His gesture aids us on our journey toward the mind of God; seeking the vestiges of God on earth through the men surrounding the altar and in the Eucharist, the mind is now ready to ascend above earthly footprints into the realm of intellectual and spiritu al contemplation. Additionally, Kuhn speaks of the man in blue standing in the left foreground of the fresco gestur ing toward the ground, linking his gesture to that of Aristotle in the School of Athens and further connecting the earthly realm to the heave nly through the repetition of gestures between frescoes. 15 The School of Athens Although this study primarily focuses on the Disputa influence on its iconography, t he School of Athens (fig. 1 4) provides an additional terrestrial b asis for the journey by initiating the reconciliation of Plato and Aristotle. With the idea of earth, we gather a sense of the reconciliation between spirit and sense striven for by Neoplatonists. Ideas of s piritus and s ensus are further emphasized by the 13 Disputa e la Scuola di Atene Storie o No? Proposte per la Lettura del Com ponimento n Raffaello e l'Europa, Atti del IV Corso Internazionale di Alta Cultura , a cura di Marcell o Fagiolo e Maria Luisa Madonna (Roma: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Libreria dello Stato 1990), 74. 14 Ibid 15 Ibid.
51 Timaeus vertically and Aristotle balances his Nichomachean Ethics horizontally on his leg (fig. 3 1) 16 Th e gestures of Plato and Aristotle replicate the symbolic juxtaposition of heaven and earth. 17 Indeed, the harmony of Plato ( in divinus ) and Aristotle ( in naturalibus ) is an important way to unify two dominant ph ilosophers, thereby uniting them as a hypostatic union, paralleling the unification of spiritual and material in the person of Christ, developed further in the Disputa 18 Drawing additional connections between the School of Athens to the Disputa, Winner describes the bald Plato with the l ong beard as res embling the archetypal St. Paul and Aristotle as resembling the archetypal St. Peter and suggesting that t he only two columns in the School of Athens therefore provide a vestigial reference to Saints Peter and Paul. 19 Used to divide the on ly window in the fresco into three smaller windows, one might conclude that these pillars are an intentional allusion to the Trinity, thus connecting the overall program of the facing frescoes. 20 The blues, off whites, and cooler shades of red are part of a color palette used during the High Renaissance as a way to emphasize the logical and rational ethics that are present in the School of Athens 21 The horizontal nature of the composition serves 16 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 221. 17 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 58. 18 Ibid., 61. 19 20 Ibid. 21 Beck, Raphael: The Stanza Della Segnatura, Rome 78.
52 to accentuate philosophical, natural, and physical values grou nded in the realistic nature of earth, which is first principle way of see ing called sensibility: In the first way of seeing, the observer considers things in themselves and sees them in weight, number, and measure: weight in respect to the p lace toward which things incline; number, by which things are distinguished; and measure, by which things are determined. Hence he sees them in their mode, species, and order, as well as substance, power, and activity. From all these considerations the obs erver can rise, as from a vestige, to the knowledge of the immense power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator. 22 School of Athens, it should certainly be understood that the men in the fresco are acting out various scientific methods. Diogenes sprawls out upon the steps examining a pamphlet, Pythagoras concentrates on writing in a large volume, Euclid demonstrates a theorem on a chalk tablet, and a group of men refer engage in animated discussion. 23 The arrangement of philosophers and mathematicians not only serves as an assemblage of the great minds of history, but also as a representation of pupils and instructors communicating knowledge over the span of several periods of history. This contemplation of philosophy and knowledge embodies Bonaventur in which Bonaventure begins to expound on the methods of observation, concluding that these activities in themsel 24 Indeed, the principal vestige leading to Wisdom. And since number is most evident to all and very close to God, it leads us very close to Him; it makes Him known in all bodily and visible things when we apprehend numerical things, 22 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.11, ed. Brown, 8. 23 Marcia Hall, introduction to Press: Cambridge, 1997), esp. fig. 9, 15, 17, 18. 24 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 2.7, ed. Brown, 13.
53 when we delight in numerical proportions, and when we judge irrefutably by the laws of numerical proportions. 25 Therefore, the mathematical examinat ions and theorems set forth by Euclid and Pythagoras define quite accurately the pr incipal exemplar of the Creator according to the Seraphic Doctor. Depicting these men with their counterparts engaged in philosophical study of the natural world leads the t raveler to these earthly vestiges and prepares him to continue his journey. The examination of vestiges would not be complete without an appropriately symbolic setting. A series of three mighty vaults rises above the philosophers creating an illusion of l ooking into the nave of a great basilica. These three barrel vaults recede veduta 26 Othogonals launch the veduta in the foreground, traced in squares of red and white s along another vault, ducking through a triumphal arch to arrive on a view of the sky [indicating] the ultimate, transcendental object of the whole horizontal construction. While the perspectival veduta thus stands for a physicalist idea, designed according to rule and built of hewn stone, it is also a conduit of observation. It captures our attention and then directs it. In the context of philosophy, the perspectival veduta serves as a figure for a condition or model of thinking, but thinking directed to the specific purpose of understanding the spiritual world by means of its evidences in the physical one. 27 The last sentence of the above quote embodies quite succinctly the first stage of Itinerarium. Philosophy here becomes a tool for understanding the divine through the mundane, and therefore coming to see God in the natural world. 25 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 2.10, ed. Brown, 15. 26 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 50 27 Ibid.
54 Indeed, the gestures of Plato and Aristotle discussed above therefore tie to this method of understanding the divine. In particular, t he vaulting of the great nave helps to emphasize the gesture of Plato; if the curve of the arch were completed to form a circle, t he bottom of it would underline his gesture toward heaven. 28 Kleinbub emphasizes that veduta there 29 move ments and meets them at the same intellectual destination, with our minds rising to the veduta facing the Disputa. 30 Therefore, the humanists concern with bel ief that every human quest for wisdom is inspired by God, the Universal Father who through the Spirit of Truth, and often across centuries of slow cultural evolution, was thus illustrated by Raphael as om of personified. 31 The motion of east to west in the Stanza della Segnatura further illustrates this journey from sense to spirit. Raphael depicted Plato and Aristotle walking toward the viewer and into the facing fresco; l arger in scale and arranged toward the outside of the frame, t h e men in the foreground leave a division for the two philosophers to walk through defining the path from philosophy to theology The frescoes on the north and south walls also indicate this motion from the School of Ath ens to the Disputa ; Timothy 28 Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, Raphael ( New Ha ven: Yale University Press, 198 3), 77 29 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 53. 30 Ibid. 31 Pagans in the Church, University Press: Cambridge, 1997), 127.
55 Verdon explains that the south oriented Jurisprudence features Pope Julius II as Gregory IX angled toward the Disputa indicating progression to theology (fig. 3 2) 32 To the north, Parnassus (fig. 1 3) features transitory levels from the assembly in the School of Athens as they exist in the lower half of the composition, to the natural hillside over the window where higher placed figures draw the eyes upward, concluding the rising composition with the mu lti leveled Disputa 33 Intellectually, this movement progresses from philosophy, behind the visitor, the Sacred S criptures, and in the Eucharist: all shown clearly in the Disputa 34 Therefore, the iconological program was meant to situate the contemporary visitor within a grand procession of human thought, leading from philosophy and earthly studies to a union with Go d. As Christian Kleinbub so eloquently stated: Clearly Raphael understood the epistemological pathway between visible things and the divine, for he attempted to articulate this in his paintings by School of Athens re f lects the idea that the study of the commensurable world, as in philosophy, points to the transcendence of the incommensurable one. The eye engaged here is thus an extrapolating organ that attempts to embrace the d ivine through its evidences, or vestiges, in the visible world 35 32 theme of the frescoes, particularly because he is looking directly toward the Disputa. Gregory IX supported St. Francis during his papacy, and supported th e creation of the Franciscan Order. See Temple, Renovatio Urbis 319n125. 33 Pagans in the Church, 34 Ibid. 35 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 63.
56 Following the flow of the room from the School of Athens to Parnassus to the Disputa seems a natural development of interpretation for the visitor to the Stanza della Segnatura. In this way, we are led to contemplate the philosophical foundations of Christian teaching, journey through the arts, into ourselves, and finally continue our ascent to God. Together with the figures represented, the layout of the room and the architectural backdrop the frescoes provide a narrative of the beginning of the journey. From here, we continue to the second st age, intrare 36 36 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.1, ed. Brown, 18.
57 CHAPTER 4 INTRARE : FINDING TRINITARIAN SIGNS WITHIN THE MIND After acknowledging God through the objects investigated on earth and His presence in the m, the soul mo ves to step three the consideration of God through His image i mprinted on our natural powers turning to itself through memory, intelligence, and will. These three attributes of the soul are analogous to the three Persons of God; thus, the traveler discov Trinity. 1 Step four the consideration of God in His image reform ed through the gifts of grace sin) by means of t he gifts of faith, hope and charity, resulting in the hierarchical, purified soul; a necessary condition for the final ascent to the mind of God. The School of Athens and the Disputa both provide examples for the inward contemplation of the Trinity, and th e layout of the room places the viewer on a sort of stage between rational knowledge and spiritual knowledge; physically and metaphorically positioning the viewer to complete the second stage, steps three and four, Journey of the Mind to G od. Contemplation of the Trinity is essential to this process ; in the Disputa, Ss. Gregory and Ambrose turn their faces toward the Trinity, illustrating this spiritual contemplation as it takes place on earth Standing B etween the F rescoes: The Consideration of God through His Image Imprinted on our Natural Powers reenter into ourselves, that is, into our mind, where the divine image shines forth. Now it is, on a third step, that entering into ourselves and, as it were, forsaking the outer court, we ought to strive to see God 1 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.5, ed. Brown, 21.
58 2 A prominent example of this step exists in the figure of Michelangelo in the School of Athens (fig. 4 1) Matthias Winner posited that the block of stone in the School of Athens corpus solidum facing and corresponding to the Host in the Disputa a similar way to the square of light b Disputa providing additional visual continuity between the frescoes. 3 Additionally, the heavy square block resounds with the square altar upon which the golden monstrance displays the Eucharist. Kleinbub identifies the figure leaning against the block as Heraclitus in the guise of Michelang elo, wit h his eyes closed in thought. 4 Ficino described t his Gr eek philosopher from Ephesus in Platonic Theology saying that the philosopher looked 5 Kleinbub then associates the figure of Heraclitus with the necessary rejection of the physical eyes in order to reach an and based on portrayal of Heraclitus he is 6 Here we 2 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.1, ed. Brown, 18. 3 4 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 64. 5 Italianishe Studien 208, who was the Platonic Theo logy XIII.II.2, 4:122 23, quoted from Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 162n63. 6 Ibid., 65.
59 can draw a connection from the empirical studies of philosophy in the S chool of Athens to the more spiritual contemplation found in the Disputa Taken literally, the viewer may also experience this third step by standing between the School of Athens and the Disputa. With the worldly vestiges of God in the first stage depicte d in the School of Athens and the third stage depicted in the transcendence and upward motion of the higher registers of the Disputa, it is plausible that the act of standing between the fresco e s in contemplation represent s the first part of this second st age. Meditatively, the traveler can contemplate the meaning of the fresco es apply the vestiges represented there to his understanding of God seen through the universe, and then apply them to himself. Then, the traveler can contemplate the Trinity, finding its likeness within his soul through intellect, memory, and will; thus understanding God as if through a mirror 7 Bonaventure expands upon each of these faculties, explaining 8 Truth that teaches [him]; 9 a nd will as the elective faculty, all owing a person to move toward that which he loves most, through his desire for the highe st Good. 10 See, therefore, how close the soul is to God, and how, through their activity, memory leads us to Eternity, intelligence to Truth, and the elective faculty to the highest Good. 11 7 See Appendix B for a table that delineates the attributes of the Holy Trinity. 8 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.2, ed. Brown, 19. 9 B onaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.3, ed. Brown, 20. 10 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.4, ed. Brown, 21. 11 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.4, ed. Brown, 21.
60 Moreover, if one considers the order, the origin, and the relation ship of these faculties to one another, he is led up to the most blessed Trinity itself. For, from memory comes fort From the memory and the intelligence is breathed forth love, as the bond of both. These three the generatin g mind, the word, and love exist in the soul as memory, intelligence, and will, which are consubstantial, coequal, equally everlasting and mutually inclusive. 12 Encouraging the move to within the soul, the Renaissance viewer registered the frescoes with their eyes, and read them with their hearts and minds in a poetic process differing considerably from that of modern art historians. 13 Therefore, the stage of entering the mind exists in the center of the extrapolation, conditioned by familiarity with the decorated rooms where the imagery on 14 Indicating the consistent perspective on both walls and the uniform figure techniques, Verdon argues that the frescoes create a powerful visual impression of a single scene. 15 The virtually life natural movements, and the great number of contemporary portraits throughout the room must have made sixteenth century visitors feel that the space at the center of the stage that stretched from the School of Athens to the Disputa opening to right and left in the Parnassus and Jurisprudence images. 16 12 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.5, ed. Brown, 21 Note here the Trinitarian language, 13 14 I bid. Verdon attributes the misalignment of the vanishing points in the School of Athens and the Disputa to a symbolic device used to allude to the divide between the natural and spiritual worlds. 15 Ibid., 118. 16 Ibid.
61 treatise is played out in the center of room, in addition to key figur al examples in the accomplish this stage while depicting the result transcendence to the mind of God awaiting in the third stage. Verdon continues his discussion of viewer participation, noting that the figures in the School of Athens seem to move toward the Disputa, whose figures appear to move into the depth of the scene, closer to the altar. 17 Additionall y, the normal traffic flow through the Stanze introduce s visitors through the eastern wall (the wall depicting the School of Athens ), so that upon entering they are immediately faced with the Disputa, and thus mimicking the traffic of the two frescoes: 18 Standing in the middle of the stanza, a Renaissance cleric or layman could believe himself a living component in the movement of history out of pagan antiquity, through the present, and toward the eternity of Christ, an eternity already glimpsed in the sac ramental bread displayed on the altar, believed to render really present those higher mysteries that Raphael shows above the altar: the Holy Trinity and the Communion of Saints. 19 Entering himself, the viewer can therefore complete the third step of the jou rney by identifying the vestiges of the Trinity within his soul and thus understanding: If God, therefore, is a perfect spirit, then He has memory, intelligence, and will. He also has a Word begotten and a Love breathed forth, which are necessarily distinc t, since one is produced by the other The mind, then, when it considers itself by looking into itself as through a mirror, rises to the speculation of the Blessed Trinity, the Father, the Word, and Love, Three 17 9. 18 Ibid., 120. 19 Ibid., 121.
62 Persons coeternal, coequal and consubstantial so that whatever is in any one is in the others, but one is not the other, but all three are one God. 20 Contemplation of the Trinity and t he Consideration of God in His Image Reformed t hrough the Gifts of Grace The Trinity rises above the Eucharist in a s eries of golden mandorlas increasing in size as they make their vertical ascent. Residing in the largest of these is God the Father holding a celestial sphere and making a sign of blessing. Directly beneath him sits Christ displaying h is wounds, and the Ho ly Spirit sends forth rays of light d irectly Revisiting the passage quoted in Chapter 1, Gutman offers a succinct description of the arrangement, uniting it to the work of St. Bonaventure: In our painting, the rays of golden light st ream from above through the angel and fill the empyrean. In the central axis of the fresco, surrounded by this light, we see God the Father, and under him; Christ, the focus of the Under th e Trinity Group is a golden monstrance on a pedestal on which the name of the reigning pope, Julius II is inscribed. This representation in conjunction with the above version of the Trinity is taken from the writings of St. and the Holy Spirit for the salvation of the human race (The Son) sent fire to inflame the Holy Spirit to charity he sent the Holy Spirit to build the earthly Jerusalem when the Holy Spirit descended His fullness of charismata poured out to perfect th e Mystical 21 adds weight to his proposal that these writings can help us understand the fresco. St. Augustine initiated the doctrine o f the Trinity in his De Trinitate, which Richard of St. Victor and Ss. Bonaventure and Tho mas Aquinas later elaborated on, encouraging the use of the Trinity as a key to interpreting mysteries such as creation and redemption. 22 20 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.5, ed. Brown, 21 22. 21 22 Joost Gaugier, Raphael's Stanza Della Segnatura 69.
63 The Disputa relationship to the School of Athens provides additional relevance to the Trinitarian theme as Joost fold scheme of 23 This triple classifica tion has Pyt hagorean overtones and ethics, harmonizing the material world with natural forces. 24 In addition, the inclusion of Abraham in the Disputa provide s further allusions to the Trinitarian theme, as he was met with three angels, a commonly referenced prefiguration of the Trinity. 25 Additional elaboration of the Trinitarian theme in the Disputa comes from Pico della Mirandola who described three worlds in his Heptaplus. These worlds consist of the angelic, the heavenly, and the earthly; all bound toget her spreading rays of warmth over the universe. 26 Joost Gaugier posits that the imagery in the fresco combines these three worlds, united by the Trinity whose rays of light unite the supercelestial world (presided over by angels under the direction of God), the elemental or earthly world (interpreted by the Church fathers), and the celestial world in the middle (made up of saints and Biblical figures in the cloud register surrounding Christ). 27 While Pico della contra dict a Bonaventurean interpretation of the Disputa. Etienne Gilson reiterates this Trinitarian theme in his Philosophy of St. Bonaventure 23 Joost Gaugier, Raphael's Stanza Della Segnatura 69. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid 26 Ibid., 74. 27 Ibid.
64 every subject breaks down into threes, a nd the final subdivision or final three is always explained as representing the Power of the Father, Wisdom of the Son, and the Goodness of the Holy Spirit. 28 This threefold interpretation is moral, allegorical and mystical, Now this threefold interpretatio n corresponds to a threefold hierarchal action: purgation, illumination, and perfective union. Purgation leads to peace, illumination to truth, and perfective union to love. As soon as the soul has mastered these three, it becomes holy know also that ther e are three approaches to this triple way: reading with meditation; prayer; contemplation. 29 The moral interpretation refers to our deeds, the allegorical to our beliefs, and the mystical to our search for a union with God; 30 all necessarily implemented in t he Journey of the Mind to God and in the Disputa fresco. Starting with our search for a union with God, we use our belief in and understanding of the Trinity to find God on contem plation. Identifying the attributes of the Trinity in the soul brings the traveler to step four, it. The twelve Biblical and early Church figures surrounding Christ e mbody purified, enlightened and perfected souls. Expounding the theme of heavenly grace, Gutman identifies three particular figures (fig. 2 10) account of grace St. Stephen in a green habit looks up to the sky re presenting Acts s of sin 28 Gilson, Philosophy of St. Bonaventure 3. 29 de Vinc k, The Work of Saint Bonaventure vol. 1 63. 30 Ibid.
65 purification St. James (St. Matthew according to Giovanni Reale) gazes upon the bustle representing the fullness of justice perfection of the soul. Finally, St. Paul with his the attainment of eternal happi ness enlightenment. 31 By comparing th e heavenly completed in the earthly realm and those completed with the aid of the Holy Spirit, whose image found to be analogous to the structure of the mind brings the soul closer to God. With Heraclitus providing us with an example of inward contemplation in the School of Athens the arrangement of room necessarily including the visitor at its center, and Saints St eph en, James and Paul illustrating the soul reformed by grace in the Disputa we are now prepared to step outside the mind and into the divine light, where the traveler moves on to stage three, transcendere, joining the saints seated around Christ and the angels accompanying God the Father in his golden empyrean Indeed, It is possible to contemplate God not only outside us and within us but also above us: outside, through vestiges of Him; within, through His image; and above; through the light that shines upon our mind. This is the light of Eternal Truth 32 31 31. 32 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.1, ed. Brown, 28.
66 CHAPTER 5 TRANSCENDERE : THE FINAL STEPS TOWARD GOD Transcendere refers to the final two steps on the Journey of the Mind to God in which we move above the mind to find the essential and personal attributes of God. Here, man builds upon observations made along other stages of the journey coming to a consideration of the pure and simple being of God. Step five considers the Divine Unity through its primary name which is Being, and step six considers the most Blessed Trinity in its name which is The Good. 1 To reach this highest perfection, the mind contemplates Christ, who is the perfect image of the invisible G od. Contemplating the Divine Unity through its Primary Name which is Being principally on Being Itself, declaring that the first name of God is He Who is. primarily to th e figures of the Old Testament, divine essence. Hence it was said to Moses, I am Who I am, the viewer finds that the Being 2 Bo naventure doe s not dwell immediately on this; instead he explain s the means by which we come to understand the concept of being, or rather Being To quote one of his more concise explanations, But just as the eye, intent on the various differences of colo r, does not see the light through which it sees other things, or if it does see, does not notice notice that Being which is beyond all categories, even though it comes first to the mind, and through it, all other things. 3 1 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.1, ed. Brown, 28; and 6.1, ed. Brown, 33. 2 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.2, ed. Brown, 28. 3 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.4, ed. Brown, 29.
67 Here we understand Being through an analogy of the material world as light, which we cannot see yet enables us to see that which surrounds us. In the same way, Being provides all other things with being, and so we do not see the Being behind the that is first, eternal, most simple, most actual, and most perfect, such a being cannot be thought not to be, nor can it be thought to be other than one. Hear, therefore, O Israel, the Lord our God is One Lord. es 4 The Disputa succeeds in illustrating the contemplation of unity and transcendence significance of circles in the hierarchy of geometric shapes, representing ideals of geometric order and ha rmony sanctioned by both philosophy and theology. 5 With this circular scheme, Raphael represents the hierarchy of divinity by contrasting the materiality of the wafer with the increasingly large circles of the Holy Spirit, Christ, and God the Father. While nature of the four mandorlas, the accessibility of each to our physical sense is defined by the order and nature of their presentation in spiritual perspective; 6 of which the relationship betw een the Eucharist on earth and the increasingly dominant golden a vertical journey toward the mind of the God. Beginning on earth with the Eucharist, a perfect image of Christ, man becomes 4 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.6, ed. Brown, 30. 5 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 33. 6 Ibid., 36.
68 bodily presence in the wafer only through the beatific vision provided above in the three heavenly circles. 7 The Eucharist is therefore united with the Persons of the Trinity by means of the repetition of the golden circle, that of the Eucharistic wafer an d the golden monstrance, the mandorlas of the Holy Spirit, Christ, and the While the circle represents heaven, the square represents earthly imperfections and materiality, a contrast bearing significance i n the Disputa. The alignment of circular mandorlas with the rectangular altarpiece plays out this relationship between the circle and square, representing the transition from earth to heaven geometrically while maintaining the Eucharistic connection to th e Trinity 8 The differing stages of materialization found in the angels as they ascend the heavenly levels also indicate this transition from earth to heaven. The angels depicted nearer the terrestrial level consist of human flesh while the angels above a ppear as if part of the clouds; finally the Seraphim at the top consist of pure light, modeled from the 9 The sequence from material to immaterial or vision to visionary can not be ignored, especially when considering that Bon similarly begins with a rational understanding of earthly surroundings and culminates in writes : Furthermore, you have here something to lift you up in a dmiration. For being itself is both the first and last; it is eternal and yet most present; it is 7 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 36. 8 Ibid., 34. 9 Ibid.
69 most simple and yet the greatest; it is most actual and still most changeless; it is most perfect and nonetheless immense; it is supremely one and yet pervade s all things. Admiring all these considerations with a pure mind, you will be flooded with a still greater light when you behold further that pure being is precisely the last because it is the first. For since it is the first, it does all things for itself and thus the first being is of necessity the ultimate end; it is the beginning and the fulfillment, the Alpha and the Omega. 10 One could surmise that Bonaventure is writing this with the geometrical perfection of the circle in mind. Indeed, as Kleinbub st ated, the circle represented ideals of harmony and order in both philosophy and theology, a shape that Raphael chose to represent the mandorlas of all three persons of the Trinity. He did not use the almond shaped full body halo of tradition; he used a ser ies of perfect circles, unending, co mplete, changeless, and simple to illustrate the perfect unity of the Trinity, its endless Being permeating all things. U se of Visionary Elements to Define the Heavenly Realm in C onsideration of the M ost Blessed Trinity in its N ame which is The Good The empyrean surrounding God is likened to the highest ranking of angels and divine beings described by Dante in his Paradiso, Dionysius the Areopagite, St. Thomas Aquinas, and even St. Bonaventure. 11 In the ambiguously as either a vertical circle or as a dome cut off by the border of the fresco. were, at one and the same time as their center a 12 The angels bordering it can either continue along the circumference of the vertical circle, or follow 10 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.7 ed. Brown, 30 31. 11 See Dante Alighieri P aradiso ; Dionysius the Areopagite The Celestial Hierarchy ; St. Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica ; and St. Bonaventure Breviloquium and Intinerarium Mentis in Deum 12 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.8, ed. Brown, 31.
70 the outward curving direction of the cloudbank below. 13 If that were the case, the golden rays emanating from within this paradis e would originate from the oculus of a golden dome, encompassing all of Christendom. This would at once bathe us in the Eternal Light Bonaventure uses to describe Being: t he most intelligible sphere, whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is n As most actual and changeless, it is that which, remaining unmoved itself Further, because it is most perfect and immense, it is within all things without being contained by them; it is outside all things without b eing excluded by them; it is above all things without being aloof; it is below all things without being dependent on them. Finally it is supremely one and yet pervasive, it is all in all, even from him and through him and unto him are all things, for He is all powerful, all knowing, and all good. 14 The immensity of this hypothetical golden dome is suggested by its unavoidably abbreviated depiction. Indeed, it does not fit within the confines of the f resco ; instead, it expands outward giving the illusion of an all encompassing dome that extends indefinitely. T his paradise under a heavenly dome is that which we strive to reach at the end of the journey through unification of all things previous ly encountered and contemplated on the journey. After understanding the consubstantial Being that is God, Bonaventure turns to step six, the consideration of the most blessed Trinity in its name which is The Good. Bonaventure discusses this step in direct relation to step five after understanding the name through which the others become known, so the Good itself is the principal 13 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 33. 14 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.8, ed. Brown, 31 32.
71 foundation of the contemplation of th 15 Here, Bonaventure speaks of diffusion, without which the highest good cannot exist, therefore the diffusion of good through the Father, Son and Holy Spirit is found parallel to the diffusion of Being in the creation of the world. T his diffusion of consubstantial Being is what defines The Good : If, therefore, there is supreme communication and true diffusion, then there is also true origin and true distinction. And, since the whole is communicated and not a part merely, then whateve r is had is given, and given completely. As a result, He who proceeds and He who produces are distinguished by their properties and yet are one and the same in essence. 16 Bonaventure evokes here the Platonic discussion of the one and the many or what Verdon philosophers understood God in plurality because they did not yet know Christ. 17 five and six resound quite forcefully with the pagan concepts of unity and multiplicity, also discussed by Leonard J. 18 In this vein of multiplicity and unification, the unificati on of the three persons of the Trinity Disputa and the School of Athens, perspectival veduta leading to the sky. From this terrestrial realm, the traveler is led into 15 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 6.1, ed. Brown, 33. 16 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 6.3, ed. Brown, 34. 17 18 Cosmic The Journal of Religion 55.2 (1975), 193.
72 his mind to find the image of God, reformed by the gifts of grace, and finally upward into a visionary realm un in the Disputa provide clues to its ro le as a beatific vision, as has been so thoroughly examined by Christian Kleinbub in Vision and the Visionary in Raphael. The contrast of Stanza della Segnatura and provides a Journey of the Mind to God. Indeed, after finally arriving at the visionary, immaterial Being that is God in his golden empyrean, the human mind has naught to do but enjoy its perfect illumination: In this contemplatio n consists the perfect illumination of our mind, when, as when our mind contemplates in Christ the Son of God, Who is by nature the ime it sees united the first and the last, the highest and the lowest, the circumference and the the perfection of its illuminations on the sixth step, as God did on the sixth day And now nothing further remains but the day of rest on which through transports of mind the penetrating power of the human mind rests from all the work that it has done. 19 The journey now concludes with a scensio the ascension of the mind to God, and rest on the seventh day, as we have traveled from mundane to heavenly, terrestrial to celestial and supercelestial; having completed the Journey of the Mind to God in 19 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 6.7, ed. Brown, 36.
73 CHAPTER 6 ASCENSIO : THE SEVENTH STEP O R METAPHORICAL SUNDAY Immaterial and Incommensurable: The Final Ascension Finally, with Ascensio the mind unites with God after completing the six stages of of the mind in whic h rest is given to our understanding and our affection passes over Here, as elsewhere, the beatific vision of God, though almost accessible through contemplation of the figure of Christ, ultimately requires leaving behind the state of th experienced after death. 1 Indeed, as Christian Kleinbub stated above, the end of the journey cannot exist on Man shall not see me and live. 2 of the heav enly realm using visionary techniques is not an illustration depicting the wayfarer as he is finally unified with God; rather, it is one in which a viewer must place himself metaphorically in order to move toward his final objective. 3 The ultimate, immater ial situation remains unreachable unless the traveler relinquish intellectual activities, devote himself to unction and interior joy, transport his loftiest affections to God, and attribute everything to the Creative Essence, thereby finally addressing the Triune God. Indeed, this final intention is decidedly not imagined by Raphael, for it is the 4 1 Kleinbub, Vision and the Visionary in Raphael 142 2 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 7.6, ed. Brown, 39. 3 I have purposefully chosen to avoid using terms here that imply a physical location. This stage is and ab The Journey of the Mind to God 7.5, ed. Brown, 39. 4 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 7.5, ed. Brown, 38.
74 Thus, the Disputa functions only as a guide to reaching this height; after adh ering to the intellectual activities, and all visible and invisible things everything that is not and everything that is and, oblivious to [himself], let [himself] be brought back, in so far as 5 Let us, then, die and enter into this darkness. Let us silence all our car es, our desires, and our imaginings. With Christ crucified, let us pass out of this world to the Father so that, when the Father is shown to us, we may say with Philip: It is enough for us. Let us hear with Paul: May grace is sufficient for you, and rejoi ce with David, saying: My flesh and my heart have fainted away: You are the God of my heart, and the God that is my portion forever. Blessed be the Lord forever, and let all people say: so be it, so be it. Amen. 6 Connecting the Stages transition from earth to heaven in the frescoes illustrate s an essential part of journey as a visionary connection between celestial and terrestrial realms The first steps on the Journey of the Mind to God involve considering God through His vestiges in the universe, 7 and in His vestiges in this visible world. 8 After that, the soul considers God through His image within our natural powers, 9 and in His image reformed by the gifts of grace. 10 The image within our natural powers refers to the inward journey of identifying Trinitarian vestiges within our souls ; illustrated by 5 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 7.5, ed. Brown, 38. 6 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 7.6, ed. Brown, 39. 7 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 1.2, ed. Brown, 5. 8 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 2.1, ed. Brown, 11. 9 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.1, ed. Brown, 18. 10 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 4.1 3, ed. Brown, 23 24.
75 Heraclitus in the School of Athens and intermediary position while standing in the Stanza T he men on the right arm of the cloudbank embody purification, e nlightenment and perfection as suggested by Harry Gutman The four putti holding the gospels and hovering to either side of the Holy Spirit indicate the way in which we come to understand the Trinity; through i nterpretation and contemplation Finally we c onsider that which is above, contemplating the Divine Unity through its primary name, Being 11 and the most blessed Trinity in its name, which is The Good 12 Ascending to the ranks of Biblical and early Church figures seated on the divine cloudbank, addition al gestures guide us to the Divine Unity; St. Lawrence points toward the earthly realm of investigation with his right hand while gesturing toward Christ with the other, uniting the stages of the journey. Saints Peter and Paul look inward toward Christ and identify H im as the primary name, Being Christ makes eye contact with the viewer inviting him to begin the Journey of the Mind to God his Father who resides behind and slightly above the Son, a position clarifying the intercessor role of Christ; indeed, Stanza, Itinerarium Mentis in Deum, and the history of the della Rovere papacy, it becomes clear that while proof of a Bonaventurean influence on the Disputa may not be available, the possibility does exist. Scholars have yet to delve deeply into this topic; thus, it has been my hope to prov ide an introduction to a branch of study that deserves more 11 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 5.2, ed. Brown, 28. 12 Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 6.1, ed. Brown, 33.
76 canonization by Sixtus IV and his placement in the Disputa fresco provides visual contemplating the iconographical and iconological likelihood of a Bonaventurean influence in the Stanza della Segnatura, though his work has not been fully developed. Promising new scholarship by Chr istian Kleinbub explores the visionary elements of the Disputa and the School of Athens, without applying the Itinerarium to either fresco. His examination of the iconography and visionary elements within the frescoes, however, resound s profoundly with the text by Bonaventure. Certainly, the scope of this project had to be somewhat limited; nonetheless, by providing a deeper understanding of the Franciscan background of Pope Julius II della ators in the fresco, I hope to della Segnatura. Though documentary proof of his influence on the Disputa lacks in the historical record, by finding the vestiges of Bonav conventions, compositional elements, and the figures depicted, we come to see how The Journey of the Mind to God can serve as an approach to understanding how the Disputa functions as a devotional religious image gui ding the viewer toward an ultimate union with God.
77 APPENDIX A FIGURE CITATION S Figure 1 1 Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura 1508 1511 general view. Vatican Palace, Rome. 1 Figure 1 2. Raphael, Disputation of the Sacrament ( Disputa ) 1509, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 2 Figure 1 3. Raphael, Parnassus 1510 Stanza della S egnatura Vatican Palace, Rome 3 Figure 1 4. Raphael, School of Athens 1511 Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 4 Figure 1 5. Raphael, Jurisprudence 1511 Stanza della S egnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 5 Figure 1 6 Detail of Disputa (fig. 1 2) St. Lawrence 6 Figure 1 7. Detail of Disputa (fig. 1 2) St. Bonaventure and Sixtus IV. 7 Figure 2 1 Melozzo da Forl, Sixtus IV Appoints Bartolomeo Platina Prefect of the Vatican Library ca. 1477. Fresco removed and transferred to canvas, 14 ft. 7 in. by 10 ft. 4 in., Pinacoteca, Vatican Museum. Inv. 40270 8 Figure 2 2. Unknown artist, Sixtus and Platina in the Vatican Library, 1477 78. Scene from the cy cle depicting the life of Sixtus IV Rome, Ospedale di Santo Spirito. 9 1 Kliema nn, Julian, and Michael Rohlman, Italian Frescoes: High Renaissanc e and Mannerism 1510 1600 ( New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2004 ), 147 plate 24. 2 3 Ibid., 258. 4 Ibid., 255. 5 Ibid., 259. 6 Ibid., 254. For each of the details of the Disputa scanned, enlarged, and cropped the same image from page 254. 7 Ibid. Digitally enlarged and cropped. 8 Kliemann, Italian Frescoes 133, plate 17. 9 Blume,
78 Figure 2 3. Raphael and Sodoma, Vault 1508 1511 Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 10 Figure 2 4. Raphael, top from left: Philosophia Poesia Bottom from left: Observing the Cosmos The Punishment of Marsyas Detail of Vault, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 11 Figure 2 5. Raphael, top from left: Theologia Iustitia Bottom from left: The Fall The Judgment of Solomon 12 Figure 2 6. Plan of the Basilica (as originally designed by Bramante), indicating the location of the Stanza della Segnatura and the approximate cardinal axes of the frescoes. 13 Figure 2 7. Raphael, Detail of Chur ch Fathers, Saints Gregory and Jerome on the left seated on thrones with books and named halos. On the right, the seated Saint Ambrose looks skyward and next to him, Saint Augustine points to his left and looks down. Disputation of the Sacrament ( Dispu ta ), 1509, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 14 Figure 2 8. Raphael, Detail of Trinity, Disputation of the Sacrament ( Disputa ), 1509, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 15 Figure 2 9. Raphael, Detail of Saints and Figures in the Clouds left of Christ; from the left they are identified as St. Peter, Adam, St. John the Evangelist, David, St. Lawrence, Isaiah. Disputation of the Sacrament ( Disputa ), 1509, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 16 Figure 2 10. Raphael, De tail of Saints and Figures in the Clouds to the right of Christ; from the left they are Judah Maccabees, St. Stephen, Moses, St. Matthew, Abraham, and St. Paul. Disputation of the Sacrament ( Disputa ), 1509, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 17 10 11 Kliemann, Italian Fres coes 148, plate 25. 12 Kliemann, Italian Frescoes 149, plate 26. 13 Temple, Renovatio Urbis 219, figure 6.3. 14 15 Ibid. Digitally enlarged and cropped. 16 Ibid. Digitally enlarged and cropped. 17 Ibid. Digitally enlarged and cropped.
79 Figure 3 1. Raphael, Detail of Plato and Aristotle, School of Athens 1510, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 18 Figure 3 2. Raphael, Detail of Julius II as Pope Gregory IX, Jurisprudence 1511, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, R ome. 19 Figure 4 1. Raphael, Detail of Michelangelo in the guise of Heraclitus, School of Athens ,1510, Stanza della S egnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome. 20 18 255. Digitally enlarged and cropped. 19 Ibid., 259. Digitally enlarged and cropped. 20 Ibid., 255. Digitally enlarged and cropped.
80 APPENDIX B ADDITIONAL INFORMATI ON De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam or On Retracing the Arts to Theology Parallels between the Journey and On Retracing the Arts exist in several ways. First, Bonaventure repeats the division of steps, or stages, into six active stages and a seventh restful stage of illumination. Second, the p urpose of both text s is to lead toward a union with God, in this case by using the arts to find the vestiges of God in the necessar il y, but to skill as a result of learning or practice Therefore, the text examines the ways in which earthly skills can be traced to God. Bonaventure speaks of six types of light: the light of Sacred Scripture, the light of sense perception, the light of the mechanical arts, the light of discur sive philosophy, the light of natural philosophy, and the light of moral philosophy. Hence, there are six lights in the present life, but they have their sunset, for knowledge will be destroyed. Therefore, they are followed by a seventh illumination, a day of rest which has no setting, that is, the light of glory. 1 He retraces the latter five lights to the first, that of Sacred Scripture. The following I. The Light of Sense Perception: The medium points to the Word begotten and incarnate. The exercise points to the norm of life The pleasure points to the union with God II. The Light of Mechanical Arts The method points to the Word begotten and incarnate. The product points to the norm of life. The fruit points to the union with God. III. The Light of Discursive Philosophy The speaker points to the Word begotten and incarnate. The spoken word points to the norm of life. The purpose of speech points to the union with God. 1 Bonaventure On Retracing the Arts to Th eology 6, ed. de Vinck, 20.
81 IV. The Light of Natura l Philosophy The proportion points to the Word begotten and incarnate. The cause points to the norm of life. The medium points to the union with God. V. The Light of Moral Philosophy Righteousness points to the Word begotten and incarnate. Rectit ude points to the norm of life. Uprightness points to the union with God. 2 The Word begotten and incarnate refers to Christ and concerns faith, the norm of 3 Sense perception refers to the kn owledge of perceptible things; m echanical arts refers to the production of artifacts; discursive philosophy is verbal expression; natural philosophy consists of the formal principles as they exist in matter, soul, and divine wisdom; and mor al philosophy is concerned with matters of uprightness. The short treatise therefore deals with using the skills and products of those skills to become one with God, thus echoing Journey. 2 Bonaventure On Retracing the Arts to Theology 8, ed. de Vinck, 21n. 3 Bonaventure On Retracing the Arts to Theology 5, ed. de Vinck, 20.
82 Attributes of the Holy Trinity Divine Person Father Son Holy Spirit Divine Function Creator Word Love Divine Causality Efficient Exemplary Final Metaphysical Attribute Oneness Truth Goodness Corresponding Faculty Memory Intellect Will Table 1. Triads of faculties associated with the Three Persons of the Trinity as 1 1 Adapted from Bonaventure On Retracing the Arts to Theology 17, ed. de Vinck, 26n. I changed the which originally was ordered as Father Intellect, Son Will, Holy Spirit Memory. I disagree with those identifications based on my reading of Bonaventure The Journey of the Mind to God 3.4 See, therefore, how close the soul is to God, and how, through their activity, memory leads us to Eternity, intelligence to Truth, and the elective faculty to the highest Good. Moreo ver, if one considers the order, the origin, and the relationship of these faculties to one another, he is led up to the most blessed Trinity itself. For, from memory comes forth From the memory and the intelligence is breath ed forth love, as the bond of both. These three the gene rating mind, the word, and love exist in the soul as memory, intelligence, and will, which are consubstantial, coequal, equally eve rlasting and
83 LIST OF REFERENCES Rome in the Renaissance: The City of Myth 3 18. Edited by P.A. Ramsey. New York: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1982. The Burlington Magazine 143.1182 (2001): 544 553. Beck, James. Raphael: The Stanza Della Segnatura Rome New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1993. Bell, Daniel Orth. "New Identifications in Raphael's School of Athens." Art Bulletin 77.4 (1995): 639 46. of Sixtus Patronage and Dynasty: The Rise of the della Rovere in Renaissance Italy 3 18. Edited by Ian F. Verstegen. Kirksville: Truman State University Press, 2007. Bonaventure. The Journey of the Mind to God Edited by Stephen F. Brown. Indianapolis : Hackett Publishing Company, 1993. Bonaventure. On Retracing the Arts to Theology. The Work of Saint Bonaventure, Cardinal, Seraphic Doctor, and Saint Volume 3, 13 32. Edited by Jos de Vinck Paterson: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1960 63. Bowma The Journal of Religion 55.2 (1975): 181 198. Buck, S tephanie, and Peter Hohenstatt. Raphael Koln: Konemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1998. Cassirer, Ernst. The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy New York: Barnes & Noble, 1964. Collins, Roger. Keepe rs of the Keys of Heaven: A History of the Papacy New York: Basic Books, 2009. Dady, Mary Rachael. The Theory of Knowledge of Saint Bonaventure Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1939. de Vinck, Jos. The Work of Saint Bonaven ture, Cardinal, Seraphic Doctor, and Saint 6 V olumes. Paterson: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1960 63.
84 Dougherty, M. V. Pico Della Mirandola: New Essays Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Ettlinger, Leopold D., and Helen S. Ettlinger. Raphael Oxford: Phaidon, 1987. Zeitschrift fr Kunstgeschichte 46 (1983): 176 186. Fischer, Oskar. Raphael Volume 1. Translated by Bernard Rackham. London: K egan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co., 1948. Fleming, John V. From Bonaventure to Bellini: An Essay in Franciscan Exegesis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982. Gilson, Etienne, Illtyd Trethowan, and F. J. Sheed. The Philosophy of St. Bonaventure Paterson: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1965. Gazette des Beaux Arts 118 (1991): 171 82. Journal of the Histo ry of Ideas 2.4 (1941): 420 429. Zeitschrift fr Kunstgeschichte 21 (1958): 27 39. Hartt, Frederick, and David G. Wilkins. History of Italian Renaissance Art London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2003. Hersey, George L. High Renaissance Art in St. Peter's and the Vatican, an Interpretive Guide. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993. Hoeniger, Cathleen Sara. The Afterlife of Raphael's Paintings New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Joost Gazette des Beaux Arts 6. 122 (1993): 123 34. Artibus et Historiae 15.29 (1994): 85 98. Gazette des Beaux Arts 6.127 (1996): 63 80.
85 nd Protogenes: Renaissance Quarterly 51.3 (1998): 761 787. Gazette des Beaux Arts 138.1593 (2001): 149 64 ______. Raphael's Stanza Della Segnatura: Meaning and Invention Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Jones, Roger and Nicholas Penny. Raphael New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1983. Keck, David. Angels & Angelology in the Midd le Ages New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Kleinbub, Christian K. Vision and the Visionary in Raphael University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2011. Kliemann, Julian, and Michael Rohlman. Italian Frescoes: High Renaissance and Mannerism 1510 1600 New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2004. 2008. Klitenic Wear, Sarah and John Dillon Dionysius the Areopagite and the Neoplatonist Tradition: Despoiling the Hellenes. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2007. Lettura del Compo nimento Ordinato in Raffaello. In Raffaello e l'Europa. Atti del IV Corso Internazionale di Alta Cultura , a cura di Marcello Fagiolo e Maria Luisa Madonna 71 83. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Libreria dello Stato, 1990. Moh Journal of the History of Ideas 65. 4 (2004): 559 582. Critical Inquiry 23.1 (1996 ): 145 182. Nagel, Alexander and Christopher S. Wood. Anachronic Renaissance New York: Zone Books, 2010.
86 O'Malley, John W. Praise and Blame in Renaissance Rome: Rhetoric, Doctrine, and Reform in the Sacred Orators of the Papal Court, c. 1450 1521. Durham: Duke University Press, 1979. ______. Catholicism in Early Modern History: A Guide to Research St. Louis: Center for Reformation Research, 1988. Traditio: Studies in Ancient and Medieval History, Thought, and Religion XXV, 265 338. New York: Fordham University Press, 1969. The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 7.2. (1977): 271 287. O'Malley, John W., Kathleen M. Comerford, and Hilmar M. Pabel. Early Modern Catholicism: Essays in Honour of John W. O'Malley, S.J Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2 001. Pope Hennessy, John. Raphael: The Wr ightsman Lectures New York: New York University, 1970. Quinn, John Francis. The Historical Constitution of St. Bonaventure's Philosophy Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1973. Rabil, Alber t. Renaissance Humanism: Foundations, Forms, and Legacy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988. Reale, Giovanni dell'affresco con la prima presentazione analitica dei si ngoli personaggi e dei particolari simbolici e allegorici emblematici Milan: Rusconi Libri, 1998. Rolt, C. E. Dionysius the Areopagite, On the Divine Names and Mystical Theology. London: Society for promoting Christian knowledge, 1920. Rowland, Ingr The Cambridge Companion to Raphael 95 199. Edited by Marcia Hall. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ______ The Culture of the High Renaissance: Ancients and Moderns in Sixteenth Century Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Schfer, Christian. Philosophy of Dionysius the Areopagite: An Introduction to the Structure and the Content of the Treatise On the Divine Names Leiden: Brill, 2006.
87 Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104.4 (1960): 371 390. Shaw, Christine. Julius II: The Warrior Pope Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1993. Art and Politics i n Renaissance Italy: British Academy Lectures, 185 40. Edited by George Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. ______ Raphael in Early Modern Sources 1483 1602 2 Volumes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. Spargo, Emma Jane Marie. The Category of the Aesthetic in the Philosophy of Saint Bonaventure. New York : Franciscan Institute, 1953. Stinger, Charles L. The Renaissance in Rome Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998. Tafuri, Manfredo. Interpreting the Renaissance: princ es, cities, architects New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. Temple, Nicholas. Renovatio Urbis: Architecture, Urbanism, and Ceremony in the Rome of Julius II. London: Routledge, 2011. Vasari, Georgio. The Life of Raphael 1568 Revised Edition. London: Pallas Athene, 2004. Verdon, Timothy, and John Henderson. Christianity and the Renaissance: Image and Religious Imagination in the Quattrocento. Sy racuse: Syracuse University Press, 1990. Verstegen, Ian F. Introduct ion to Patronage and Dynasty: The Rise of the della Rovere in Renaissance Italy xiii xxviii. Edited by Ian F. Verstegen. Kirksville: Truman State University Press, 2007. Frescoes in the Stanze and the Problem of Composition in the Tapestries and The Art Bulletin 40.4 (1958): 299 323. Journal of the Warburg Institute 1.1 (1937): 69 70. Journal of the Warburg Institute 2.1 (1938): 75 79.
88 Raphael in the Apartments of Julius II and Leo Christ 247 291 ed. by Roberto Caravaggi. Milan: Electa, 1993.
89 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Alyssa A. Abraham earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in s tudio a rt at Carthage College in 2008 Ms. Abraham studied art history in Florence, Italy in the fall semester of her senior year and has pursued art historical research ever since Primarily concerned with issues of visionary influence of m edieval Franciscan theology on Renaissance art. Ms. Abraham graduated with her Master of Ar ts degree in Italian Renaissance art history in May 2012 and is pursuing a Ph.D. in art history