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1 STATUES IN EURIPIDES: STAGING, CHARACTER, STRUCTURE AND METAPHOR By LINDSAY JANE ROGERS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGR EE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Lindsay Jane Rogers
3 To my parents
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Without the generous support of my professors, colleagues, friends and family, this project would not have been possible. Fir st and foremost, I must acknowledge the tireless support and patience of Karelisa Hartigan. For all intents and purposes, Dr. Hartigan chaired this dissertation. It was in her classes on Aeschylus and Euripides that I really began to understand ancient G reek drama as performance. Via her encouragement, I applied to the American School summer session which led me to Modern Greek and the excavations in the Agora and a love of Greece both ancient and modern Dr. Hartigan read endless pages of first, second and third drafts and always steered me in t he right direction when I veered too far off course. Her knowledge and understanding of Greek drama in all its aspects was an invaluable resource to me and I am forever grateful I must also thank Gonda Van Steen for her constant encouragement and extrem ely useful advice. G onda directed me to the ARC NET summer course in Epidauros that broadened my understanding of Greek drama in ways I never expected. Her passion for all things Greek was a great inspiration to me. To Barbara Barletta I must give great thanks for joining the project and bringing her archaeological point of view into the discussion. Having an archaeologist on board helped to keep me grounded and her advice was invaluable. Finally, last, but definitely not least, many, many thanks to Ro this dissertation, Dr. Wagman has always supported the integration of philology and archaeology and this project owes a lot to his encouragement. Dr. Wagman always counseled me during times of anxiety or right.
5 In addition to those on my committee I want thank Tim Johnson for his encouragement throughout my PhD work. His courses pushed me in the languages and helped me learn to internalize scholarship. T ha nks also to Victoria Pagan for encouraging me in my teaching and to Jennifer Rea, Andrew Wolpert and David Young for the great courses that helped me develop as a scholar. Many thanks also to Charles Ahern, David Gill and Dia Philippi des at Boston College whose courses and encouragement made me want to pursue my PhD in Classics It was in Dia Phi courses on Sophocles and Euripides that I first found Greek drama and decided to forego the Romans. Finall y, thank you to T. Keith Dix and Naomi Norman who taught me Greek when I was a distracted undergraduate. I would have never thought in a million years I would one day be teaching those same classes. I must also thank my parents. T heir advocacy and encouragement throughout the entirety of my educat ion made this possible. The educations of all four of their children are a testament to their guidance. Also, my sincerest appreciation goes to James Lohmar, who was an everpresent sounding board for ideas throughout my PhD studies. Finally, many thanks to m y kind and understanding fianc Gene. During moments of stress and frustration he is always a bright spot.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 11 Overview of the Project ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 Chapter Summaries ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 Chapter 1: Divine Statues in the Staging and Structure of Hippolytus .............. 14 Chapter 2: The St atue of Thetis and Unity in Andromache .............................. 15 Chapter 3 : Artemis and Her Statue in Iphig eneia at Tauris .............................. 15 Chapte r 4: Statues and Staging in Alcestis ................................ ...................... 16 Chapter 5: Statues in Phoenissae, Ion, Trojan Women and Hecuba .............. 16 2 DIVINE STATUES IN THE STAGING AND STRUCTURE OF HIPPOLYTUS ........... 18 The Divine Statues and Staging the Central Scene ................................ ................ 20 Where Does Phaedra Hide? ................................ ................................ ................... 25 ................................ ................................ ... 28 Phae ................................ ................................ ......... 31 Silent Witnesses and Deadly Miscommunication ................................ .................... 36 The Final Scene as a Visual Tableau ................................ ................................ ..... 40 3 THE STATUE OF THETIS AND UNITY IN ANDROMACHE ................................ ...... 43 ................................ .................. 44 ................................ ................................ .... 49 The Second Episode as Mirror to the First ................................ .............................. 57 Thetis and t ................................ ................................ .................. 60 4 ARTEMIS AND HER STATUE IN IPHIGENEIA AT TAURIS ................................ ..... 64 Image in Staging and Structure ................................ ................................ 64 Images of Statues in the Play ................................ ................................ ................. 72 ................................ ................................ ............ 85 5 STAT UES AND STAGING IN ALCESTIS ................................ ................................ .. 95 The House of Admetus in Staging Alcestis ................................ ............................. 96 Alcestis as Statue of the House ................................ ................................ ............ 100
7 Alc estis as Liminal Figure and Statue ................................ ................................ ... 102 Staging the Death Scene ................................ ................................ ...................... 108 Staging Alc ................................ ................................ ........................ 112 6 STATUES IN PHOENISSAE ION HERACLES TROJAN WOMEN AND HECUBA ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 122 Apollo in Phoenissae ................................ ................................ ............................ 122 Athena and the Temple of Apollo at Delphi in the Ion ................................ ........... 127 Divine Statues and Protection ................................ ................................ ............... 129 Comparisons of Mortal Women to Statues ................................ ........................... 131 Heracle Heracles ................................ .......................... 133 7 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 137 Statues and Staging ................................ ................................ ............................. 138 Statues and Protection ................................ ................................ .......................... 140 Mortals as Statues ................................ ................................ ................................ 141 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 143 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 149
8 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S AJA American Journal of Archaeology AJP American Journal of Philology ClAnt Classical Antiquity CQ Classical Quarterly CR Classical Review G&R Greece and Rome GRBS Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies TAPA Transactions of the Proceedings of the American Philological Association
9 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy STATUES IN EURIPIDES: STAGING, CHARACTER, STRUCTURE AND METAPHOR B y Lindsay Jane Rogers August 2011 Chair: Robert Wagman Major: Classical Studies This study examines how Euripides features statues in his works and the visual, structural, and thematic implications of such statues While in some plays he places divine images on the stage sets ( Hippolytus, Andromache, Phoenissae, Ion ) or incorporates them as props ( Iphigeneia at Tauris ), in other pl ays Euripides uses the imagery of a statue in order to make a comparative comment on a particular character ( Alcestis, Troja n Women, Hecuba, Heracles ). When including statues on stage that represent deities, the playwright creates reminders of the gods in control. As d eities in statue form, the images stand as more than inanimate objects. Because of their divine nature, they take on an animated presence that allows them to act as quasi characters. behalf, they underscore the lack of protection that certain characters may receive. Finally, the statues that appear on stage offer a center around which the dramatic action can unfold. In this way, Euripides creates a visual representation of the centrality tha t the deity plays in the conflict and story.
10 In the context of mortals, Euripides often employs comparisons to inanimate statues in order to portray a character as helpless, defeated and submissive However, statue imagery can also mark a character as tr iumphant and noble in times of desperation or death Because men tend to hold positions of power in the plays, most comparisons to statues refer to female characters. This objectified presentation allows a woman to be eroticized and portrayed as a thing of beauty in her moment of submis sion or death While Euripides most often develops comparisons to statues in reference to female characters, on a few occasions he uses the technique to show a Orestes Heracles ).
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Ov erview of the Project Scholars have often noted that of the three tragedians, Euripides pays the most careful attention to the visual and artistic aspects of his plays. The level of artistry that appears in both his staging and narrative has even led to the rise of a tradition that the attention to the artistic potential of the stage generally focus on the Ion set at the carefully describe d temple of Apollo at Delphi. I of artistic detail plays an equally important role in the Hippolytus Andromache Iphigeneia at Tauris and Alcestis With a focus on these four plays, this study examines how Euripides features statues in his wor ks and the visual and thematic implications of such statues. Euripides incorporates statues into his plays in two different manners, depending on whether the image refers to a divine or mortal subject. In the divine context, he includes divine images as p art of the stage set in order to comment on the role of the gods in the conflict and story. With the statue of a god standing permanently fixed on supremacy and role divine images are divine objects, they take on an animated presence that ultimately leads them to be treated as quasi characters in the plays. As stage fixtures, moreover, the statues can o ffer an organizational tool around which the action of the play can visually unfold. Finally, by putting a divine image on the stage, Euripides gives a means of protection and refuge to characters conquered by war or overcome by force. Thus,
12 when a chara cter seeks protection at a statue (Phaedra, Andromache) or holds a divine image in her arms (Iphigeneia), Euripides underscores an alliance between a mortal and a god. In the mortal context, Euripides compares female characters to statues as a means of por traying them as trapped, helpless or submissive. In this way, he is able to evoke the objectified and dominated situation of the woman, while still depicting her in a noble, beautiful, and even erotic light. While these comparisons to statues sometimes o ccur simply via the use of a simile within a narrative (Polyxena), at other times Euripides displays a woman as a statue in a more nuanced manner (Alcestis). When depicting a woman as art, Euripides asks the other characters, as well as the audience, to s tep back and take a moment t situation. In doing so, the playwright calls for pity on behalf of a noble character near death or submission. Thus, in Hecuba we even find the Trojan queen begging Agamemnon to view her as if she were the subject of an artistic piece: (807 8) Take pity on me, and standing back as a painter, look at me and view closely the evils I have endured Since a person in full costume and ma sk would appear similar to a work of art, Euripides readily creates situations in which his characters take on aspects of a statue. depict them in both narrative and s tagi ng or a combination of the two In many ways, person inscriptions on funerary and
13 vot ive monuments that were common even in the archaic period 1 Thus, the relationship between statues and perfo rmative poetry would have been a familiar trope to fifth century Athenians. While Euripides outshines his counterparts in his focus on the visual and artistic potential of drama, many of the same techniques of incorporating art into tragedy were already wi Agamemnon when Iphigenia is referred to as a 8), an ornament of the house. Later in the same play, the chorus (416 7) The grace of beautifully sculpted statues is a thing of hatred for the husband attention to artistic elements in the Oresteia can also be found in his use of tapestries and cloth throughout the trilogy. T hus, Euripides appears an innovator within an artistic tradition already extant in the tragic genre. The presentation of the female figure in statuary terms was not a device invented by the tragic poets of fifth century Athens. In the Works and Days Hesiod describes the creation of the first woman, Pandora, as a creature sculpted by the god s from the mud of the earth: 1 er a single person or a group was reading a dedicatory inscription, especially in the archaic period, reception typically involved sounding out the text and hearing it. Reading epigrams, then, generated kleos commemorative poetic speech uttered in perfor mance before an
14 ( 60 63 ) And he commanded famous Hephaistos that he quickl y mix earth with water, and in it to put the voice and strength of mankind, and to liken the face to an immortal goddess giving her the beautiful and lovely form of a maiden. presenting the first woman as an artistic image. This representation of a woman as an object and a commodity for men sets the stage for the later depictions of females as statues in tragedy. 2 This project as a whole, looks primarily at four plays of Euripides: Hippolytus Andr omache Iphigeneia at Tauris and Alcestis In a final shorter chapter, I look at a few other plays that incorporate statues to a lesser degree. Chapter Summaries Chapter 2 : Divine Statues in t he Staging and Structure of Hippolytus In C hapter 2 I show that Euripides places the statues of Aphrodite and Artemis on opposite sides of the stage, each statue equidistant from the palace door. Such a staging creates a reflection of the structural and thematic symmetry that runs throughout all aspects of the w ork. These goddesses, moreover, function as silent witnesses to the e power of divine vengeance. I show that Phaedra 2 Erga 85) to mortals and is given her value through that
15 remains present on the ekkyklema corpse to function in a manner similar to the two statues standing on stage. With her presence, moreover, the complements the s to create a sense of closure with a final visual tableau. Chapter 3 : The S tatue of Thetis and Unity in Andromache In my third chapter, I argue that Thetis and her statue act as the unifying features of a play divided into three episodes. Since the goddess remains present via her statue throughout the entirety of the play, Thetis and her image provide the setting and create the three distinct episodes of action that unfold according to her will. The play first presents the struggles of the captive, yet noble, Andromache as she relives many of the however, the goddess has the pow Euripides contrasts the noble Andromache with the ignoble Hermione. T he play closes with a third, shorter section in which Thetis takes complete control of the action ex machina and immortalizes the ag ed and noble Peleus. Chapter 4: Artemis and Her Statue in Iphigeneia at Tauris In my fourth chapter, I discuss how Euripides, in Iphigeneia at Tauris employs a small image of Artemis as a prop in the second half of the action. Although the statue may n ot be on stage for the entirety of the play, I argue that it still acts as a unifying feature of the story context of statue imagery ; and iption of
16 the stage at 1156, I show that Iphigeneia and Orestes operate under the protective care t the end of the from the Tauric land. Chapter 5 : Sta tues and Staging in Alcestis In C hapter 5 I shift my focus from divine and staged statues and look to Alcestis For w hile an actual statue never appears on stage, Euripides repeatedly presents Alcestis as a living statue or work of art. Furthermore, I argue that the house of Admetus functions as a silent witness in the play and emerges as a quasi temple that form erly housed Apollo. As such, Euripides presents Alcestis in a manner that likens her to a votive object or statue within the house. By objectifying the woman, moreover, caught as she is between life and death throughout the entirety of the play. In my examination of the stage and her portrayal as a beautiful artistic object. Finally, I discuss the wo silent and veiled return to the stage after her rescue by Heracles. I argue that the s of his life. Chapter 6: Statues in Phoenissae, Ion, Trojan Women and Hecuba Chapter 6 playwright employs statues in a consistent manner t hroughout. First, I examine Phoenissae and a rgue that the play would be best served if a statue of Apollo Agyieus
17 was present on stage. Moreover, I show that Euripides uses the image of Athena in the statue at the temple door in Ion to create reminders of the ian origins. I then survey the protective role of statues throughout protection or lack thereof. Finally, I illustrate how the playwright uses comparisons to statues to depict a n oble woman as pitiable and submissive yet triumphant and defiant, in the Trojan Women and Hecuba Just as with Alcestis, Euripides portrays Polyxena on the altar as a beautiful work of art in her final moments.
18 CHAPTER 2 DIVINE STATUES IN TH E STAGIN G AND STRUCTURE OF T HE HIPPOLYTUS In Hippolytus Eu ripides includes two statues as permanent fixtures on the stage to help organize the play both visually and thematically. By developing the action around the statues of two complementary deities, the pla ywright creates a masterpiece of i ntricate structure and symmetry 1 Although scholars generally agree upon the ideas concerning the mechanics of the arrangement. A key poi nt of contention lies in a disputed utterance from an attendant of Hippolytus: 2 (101) The one who stands near to your gates, Kypris near the main doors of the palace at the center of the stage. S tage direction f rom the text is lacking in regards to t hypotheses have arisen that put her image off to one side of the stage in fron t of a forested scene painting or in the center axis of the orchestra in line with the central door and the statue of Aphrodite. Others have maintained, moreover, that the evidence is too thin to make a sound argument one way or another. However, given the size of the stage and the central location of the palace, it seems that almost any location coul d be referred to as 1 See Barrett (1 964) 154; Halleran (1995) 38. 2 Merkelbach (1967) 100 1; Halleran (1995) 159 n101.
19 far too literally, especially since placing a statue at the center of the stage would obstruct entrances and exits through the palace door. The o pposing argument for the placement of the statues relies primarily on the balanced symmetry of the framing goddesses throughout all other aspects of play. Placing the two statues on opposite sides of the stage, equidistant from the central door of the pal such an arrangement, the garlanding of the Artemis statue by Hippolytus at line 73 of Artemis on one side would make the stage appear asymmetrical and unbalanced in relation to the ungarlanded statue of Aphrodite on the other side. The symmetrical placement of the two statues around the central axis of the palace door, I argue, presents the bes tructure. The structure of Hippolytus acting as a c entral pivot between the two. In addition, the entrances and exits of the various characters occur in a sy mmetrical manner, with the timing and points of entry also be found in a number of dialogues that echo one another. The playwright, moreover, stages the bodies of dea d characters in a complementary manner and includes two dei ex machina scenes that frame the play in the beginning and end. Similarly, the two statues can offer a symmetrical organizing principle around which the reflective action of the play can unfold i n a unified and controlled manner. Through this arrangement, Euripides emphasizes the opposing, yet complementary, nature of the
20 end of the play would the placement of th e statues. With the statues on opposite sides s through his or her entrances and exits and positioning near a particular deity. The Divine Statues and Staging the Central Scene As t he primary organizational principle around which the action of Hippolytus unfolds, the two deity statues can offer clues for the intended staging of the heavily debated central scene (601 68). 3 At 565 Phaedra interrupts the chorus and demands Nurse and Hippolytus, and ultimately learn her fate. With the statues of the two goddesses placed equally on opposite sides of the palace door, the door becomes a n obvious focal point in the staging of the action. We know that Phaedra stationed herself at that very central location from the choral remark at 577 9: t o convey the fate within the house. at the center axis between the two statues awaiting her fate. This staging emphasizes the equal power and importance of the two deit ies, while the ungarlanded Aphrodite es 3 For a detailed discussion of the scholarly debate surrounding the stagi ng of the central scene, see Roisman (1999) 106 n54. See also Smith (1960) 162 3.
21 At 565 two statues visually expresses her helplessness before divine ju dgment. Alone on the stage with only the goddess statues, Phaedra begs for the chorus to join her (575 6): We are ruined. Stand next to these gates and listen to what resounds i n the house. Abandoned, fearful and helpless before the whims of the two goddesses who flank her on each side, 4 Phaedra seeks company and support from the chorus below. The chorus, however, knows that the judgment is not for them and they express this by redirecting and re focalizing the attention on Phaedra: (577 9). The members of the chorus have no desire to place themselves in the path of two vengeful deities 5 through the conventional boundaries that relegated their actio n to the orchestra reveals the extent of her fear and desperation. 6 Once Phaedra acknowledges and proclaims her fate at 599 600 7 the balance and suspense of the central judgment scene reaches its peak when Hippolytus and the Nurse burst through the pal ace door. Phaedra is forced out of the central space of the 4 Wiles (1997) 200 1 notes that in masked theatre the difference between an immobile actor and a statue is difficult to distinguish, leaving a strong sense of divine presenc e in the statues of the Hippolytus. This would add to the feelings of fear and anxiety over divine judgment with Phaedra outnumbered on the stage. 5 overly i 6 On the pushing of generic boundaries in this scene, see Arnott (1973) 53. 7 except one fact, that I must die as soon as possible, the only remedy for t he current ills)
22 stage just as the action turns toward the downfall and destruction of the main characters. The scanty evidence for the staging of the scene that follows (601 68) has led to generous scholarly de 600 as exit lines: 8 I know nothing except one thing, to die as soon as possible, the only cure for my now present grief. This interpretation, however, would force a reading contrary to Euripidean convention. When a character announces a desire for suicide, the ultimate outcome in all other extant Eur i pidean tragedies unfolds in one of three ways: 1) the character remains on stage and dies; 9 2) the character is dramatically talked out of suicide and escorted off stage by another consoling character; 10 3) in the most common type of suicide scene, the character leaves the stage and the death is carried out. 11 According to Eur i pi dean convention, once Phaedra has left the stage the audience can assume that she has ended her own life. 12 It seems unlikely that Euripides would have defied this practice just to create a surprise for the audience when Phaedra reappears at 680. Sophocle s creates a situation in at least two instances whereby he leaves the audience in a state 8 Scholars debate whether Phaedra would have exited the stage at 600. For the view that Phaedra did 68, see Drpfeld and Reisch (1896) 204; Matthaei (1918) 96; Grene and Lattimore (1955) 188; Smith (1960) 163. 9 Alcestis in Alc. 252 392 10 Heracles in H.F. 1240 1428; Hermione in And. 841 1008 11 Polyxena in Hec. 432 96; Iphigenia in I.A. 1505 9. For the same convention in Sophocles, see: Jocasta in O.T. 1071 5; Antigone in Ant. 937 43. 12 For detailed discussions of suicide in Greek tragedy, see: Garrison 1995 and Pathmanathan 1965: 5 10.
23 of suspense over the potential suicide of a character, only to have that character re enter later in the action. 13 In both cases, however, the character does not anno unce a desire for suicide, but instead silently leaves the stage with ambiguous intentions. Thus, it appears conventional in tragedy that a proclamation of suicidal intention seals The opposing side, moreov er, rightfully argues that, in addition to following power of the scene. 14 I argue, in addition, that the significance of the deity statues on the stage sheds light on the st age action during these lines. Some scholars simply have concluded that Phaedra would have huddled off to the side of the stage shamefully in an unspecified location, sometimes behind a column or on a couch. 15 While we cannot know for certain, the idea of her lying at the side of the stage on a couch seems unlikely as Phaedra certainly was not in view of Hippolytus and the Nurse, as evidenced by their lines at 601 4: 16 13 Eurydice in Ant. 1183 1256; Deianeira in Trach. 723 812. 14 For this view see Lattimore (1962) 8; Barrett (1964) 272; Sider (1977) 17 9; Luschnig ( 1 983) 117 n3; Luschnig (1988) 83; Hartigan (1991) 54 5 n54; Segal (1993) 254 n11; Porter (1994) 67; Halleran ( 1995 ) : 200 n601 8; Bain (1997) 19; Morwood (1997) 185 n565; Roisman (1999) 98 9; Willink ( 1999 ) 414; Parker (2001) because of the initial cries she heard at 565 600 (and which the audience did not hear) means attributing to her a level of irresponsible ma 15 Roisman (1999) 98 on the side in (1889) perhaps shrinks back to the right as they appear. If the palace door remained open, it may have ase the spectators still see her, and watch the effect upon 16 For arguments supporting her placement out of view of Hippolytus and the Nurse, see: Sider (1977) 17; Roisman (1999) 99; Willink (1999) 414. For the argument that Hi but refuses to address her, see: Wilamowitz Moellendorff (1901) 145 at line 665; Meridier (1931) 124.
24 : Hippolytus: Oh earth and mother and the wide expanse of the sun, how unspeaka ble are the words I have heard. Nurse: Silence, child, before someone hears your shout. Hippolytus: I am not able to be silent, as I have heard terrible things. If Phaedra was in view of Hippolytus and the Nurse during this scene, these lines would be inap propriate for the situation. While she may have hidden behind some scene or stage prop, like a column 17 in view of the audience while hidden from the Nurse and Hippolytus, we know that the statues were placed in front of the palace (101: ) where Phaedra had been eavesdropping and would offer a quick refuge following the sudden appearance of new characters on the stage. If o follow a convention that often occurs in Greek tragedy whereby a character uses a deity statue as a place of retreat and protection. If this is the case, which statue seems most 18 17 For this interpretation see Hourmouziades (1965) 28. 18 On her placement behind the Artemis statue, see Hartigan (1991) 54 5 n54. For her placement at the Aphrodite statue, see Sider (1977) 19; Luschnig (1983) 117 n3; Luschnig (1988) 83 Segal (1993) 254 Phaedra is onstage, perhaps against the skene or hiding behind one of the statues of the goddesse s
25 Where Does Phaedra Hide? For Phaedra to women. Those who support her placement behind the statue of Aphrodite note that Phaedra acts to give life and animation to the spurned deity while Hippolytus launches into his derogatory speech. 19 Phaedra and Aphrodite are envisioned as a team listening mirror the actions of Aphrod ite in the play. Both, disrespected and slandered by Hippolytus, seek to destroy him. 20 While arguments for the placement of Phaedra behind the statue of Aphrodite cannot be completely refuted, her location at the statue of Artemis seems the most likely st aging of the scene as it would offer the most meaningful and complex comment on the relationship with Artemis as well as her own standing with the two goddesses. 21 Furthermore, following the eavesdropping scene just prior to this, Phaedra now knows that Aphrodite will not offer her the protection she needs. 19 Luschnig (1983) 117 n3 the departure of the 20 Luschnig (1983) 117 n3 21 Hartig shows the blindness of the prince who must look to his deity at this time of crisis but does not see or
26 While Phaedra is huddled away from the Nurse and Hippolytus, yet in at least partial view of the audience, Hippolytus launches into his tirade against women at 615. 22 When discussing marriage, he makes the following statement about the pathetic plight of a husband at 630 33: And, in turn, the one taking the destructive creature into his home rejoices while he decks her out, putting beautiful ornamentation on the most evil statue, and covering it in cloth, the baneful creature, wasting away the wealth of his home. statue, as Hippolytus has even uttered the word The audience now recalls his garland that presumably still remains at this moment in the play. 23 If the tirade against women holds its greatest significance when att ention is drawn to Artemis, it begs the question whether there is much difference between his own relationship to Artemis and the plight of the husband he describes. This staging brings ore and casts doubt upon the legitimacy and depth of his relationship to Artemis. Does Hippolytus favor 22 Porter (1994) 67 notes that this s ituation recalls Ion 808 56 (the tirade of the old servant ) as well as the general treatment of Cassandra in the Agamemnon 23 If he scornfully speaks of the husband who is forced to adorn his vain agalma of a wife, we recall that Hippo names himself as the guard
27 Artemis or an inanimate statue? Does her statue stand as a substitute for both goddess ity in which he seemingly maintains complete control he surrounds himself with a band of like minded followers and worships a lifeless statue as both religious devotee and husband. As such, Hippolytus emerges as a Pygmalion character, yet he directs his self absorbed desire not to a statue of a mortal woman, but of a rival goddess. 24 His one sided relationship to Artemis takes on a new color when, in his ignorance, Hippolytus bemoans a clever wife (638 44): But it is easy for the one who has a nobody, although she is useless, clever woman. Let there never be in my house a woman who is more clever than she needs. For Kypr is implants more wrongdoing in the clever ones. The witless woman is kept away from folly because of her small mind. 24 Metamorphoses chose to weave the events of the Hippolytus int o a narrative about a descendant of Pygmalion (298 502).
28 Artemis is no such goddess and his rejection of Aphrodite will not go unpunished. ra, cowering behind the statue, as the exact opposite of what Hippolytus would ever want. Moreover, the audience comes to pity her helpless, alone, attacked without recourse and seeking protection from a goddess with whom she does not typically align he rself. Yet is Phaedra so unsuited to seek protection from Artemis? Even when struck by a mad love via Aphrodite herself, Phaedra has acted on nothing and prefers death to infidelity. In ms doubtful. While the statue would reinforce the split alignment that Phaedra and Hippolytus maintain to Aphrodite and Artemis respectively, the attention to the Artemis statue emphasizes these points as well, while also casting doubt upon the true natur that Aphrodite either cannot or will not offer her the protection s he desires. Scholars debate whether Phaedra remains concealed behind the statue for the 8 refer to women in the plural while Hippolytus is presumably spe aking only to the nurse: 25 25 For arguments against the authenticity of this line see Valckenaer (1768) 237 n664; Barrett (1964) 286 n664 8. Kovacs (1988) 125 adds that the awkwardness of lines 664 aying what they are intended to say, and though we must of course be prepared to be told that the illogicality of speech that has been as articulate as has 8 calls arguments against silence.
29 May you (plural) perish. I will never cease to hate women, not ev en if someone says that I am always talking about it. For always, somehow, those women are evil. Let someone now teach those women to be chaste, or always let me be the one to trample them. The primary question here concerns whether Hippolytus is usin g the plural in reference to womankind as a whole or whether he is specifically speaking to both Phaedra and the Nurse. 26 If he is directly addressing Phaedra at this moment, the lines raise an ng the tirade. If this is true, Hippolytus overtly chooses to ignore her up to this point. 27 Such a reading, however, does not take into account the frequent use of peroration in Euripides. As a summary and conclusion to the lengthy tirade that began wit h an imperative, these lines fit well into Euripidean convention. 28 conclusion, he generalizes about the female gender as a whole. 26 Barrett (1965) 286 n664 27 For this view see Wilamowitz Moellendorff (1901) 145 ad 665, "Mit einem Blick auf Phaidra and Lawall (1986) 49, 113 n662 is reference at the end of his 62), thrown in as though an afterthought, makes it clear for whom his scathing remarks are intended while being poignant insult as well. They show that he ignores Phaedra no out of respect or shame, but because of his deep contempt for her. 28 See also Hipp sophrosyne adds the final motivation for her pre emptive counter action
30 The overall sense of the lines can be justified and does not warrant their deletion. Moreover, the plural does not prove that Hippolytus is speaking directly to Phaedra. In contrast, the use of peroration adds to the hypocritical and ironic views of Hippolytus that the entire scene has brought to the fore. As an exceedingly f ierce misogynist, the young man who proclaims to be most happy hunting among nature appears wholly unnatural. 29 Furthermore, interpreting these lines as directed at Phaedra diminishes the importance of this play as a dialogue against the previous Hippolyto s Kalyptomenos. 30 In this version of the play, Hippolytus and Phaedra perish even though the two characters never meet face to face on stage. This underscores the role of divine direct address of Phaedra, Euripides would undermine t his most important innovation. In addition, as a broad, generalized statement, lines 664 8 create a conventional exit motif for Hippolytus. 31 orts the use statement in similar terms. 32 es from behind the statue and returns to her previous location in the center of the stage, equidistant from both statues (669 29 Roisman (1999) 176. 30 For a lengthy discussion of this point, see McDermott (2000) 243 44. For more general discussion on the relationship between the two plays, see Schan (1911) 105 51; Fauth (1959); Zintzen (1960); B arrett (1964) 1 45; Tschiedel (1969); Snell (1969); Herter (1975) 119 56; Zeitlin (1996) 219 24. 31 Smith (1960) 46 7; Barrett (1964) 286 n664 8. 32 Smith (1960) 170.
31 731). 33 especially when she asks at 675 7: Who of the gods could appear as a helper, or who of mortals sitting nearby or as an accomplice in unjust deeds? As Phaedra speaks these words locked between the silent deities, th goddess does anything to aid the terrified woman. Instead their statues silently watch as she announces her own death and exits the stage with a no d to Kypris (725 7): And for me, Kypris, the one who ruins me, I will delight by destroying my soul on this very day. Shortly after this statement, the audience, per Euripidean con vention, must assume that the absent Phaedra has acted upon her stated intentions. Following her exit, Phaedra does not return until Theseus appears for the first time and beckons the chorus to wheel her body out of the pala ce door at 806 810. Now Phaedra again takes center stage, but just as the goddess statues to either side of her body, she remains unmoving and inanimate while Theseus laments his fortune. This 33 For her return to center stage, see Halleran (1995) 206 n669 731.
32 scene carefully mirrors the entrance of Hippolytus at line 58 comparing Theseus to his son and the corpse of Phaedra to the statue Artemis. In the latter scene, however, the joyful prayers to Artemis are replaced with emotional laments for Phaedra. The symmetry of these two episodes supports the notion that Hippo can be seen as a secondary chorus at 58 71 as their actions mirror the true choral dirge that occurs at 811 16. Both episodes follow an exact pattern. In the first, the hero enters the stage under lively and joyous circumstance s. Hippolytus has returned from the hunt with his band of followers, as announced by Aphrodite (51 7): But I see, indeed, that child of Theseus approaching, having just left behind the labors of the hunt, Hippolytus, I will leave this place now. A gro up of many attendants is following him and shouting out in revelry, honoring the goddess Artemis with hyms. For he does not know that the gates of Hades are open, and he looks upon the light for the last time. Hippolytus takes the stage in merriment, i gnorant of the tragedy that will soon follow. Theseus similarly appears on the stage for the first time, wearing a garland and joyously
33 returning from the oracle, unaware of the devastation that awaits (790 96). While Hippolytus exhorts his pseudo chorus at lines 58 chorus breaks his joy as they reveal the suicide of Phaedra (797 805). At 810, the body of Phaedra is brought out on the ekkyklema and creates an 34 Euripides signals this inversion when Theseus questions the propriety of his garlands in light of the tragedy that has occurred in his absence (806 7): Ah, oh why is my head garlanded with plaited leaves if the oracle was unlucky? Presumably, experiences the inverted turn of events. 35 The episode continues with a short choral song at 811 16 that mirrors the song of the earlier pseudo chorus at 61 9. In the latter case, h owever, Euripides replaces the joyous prayer to the statue of Artemis with a bitter lament to the corpse of Phaedra. Both scenes culminate in a speech from their respective hero. In the beginning of the play, Hippolytus offers a prayer to the statue of A rtemis as he crowns her statue (84 6): 34 Wiles (2000) 118 in h is description of the ekkyklema dummy dressed as Phaedra lay upon it, with an incriminating letter displayed in the hand, and the costume doubtless disposed to suggest the victim of a rape. 35 Halleran (1995) 218 n806 7 cites the parallels between these lines and the garlanding scene at 73ff. Ag 1264ff and HF 523ff.
34 For this prize is for me alone of mortals, that I accompany you and I converse with you in word s listening to your voice, although I do not see your eyes. By echoing this act when Theseus finds the body of his dead wife, Euripides highlights heart wrenching lament view (836 9): 36 Under the earth I want to go, under the darkness of the earth to dwell in the shadows of death, wretched me, de prived of your most dear companionship. For you have destroyed more than yourself in perishing While Theseus laments a true and natural relationship, he inadvertently ridicules the is. By 36 initially address static female figures: Hippo lytus the statue of Artemis, Theseus the corpse of Phaedra
35 Sholars have heavily debated whether the ekkyklema was removed following the exits of Hippolytus and Thesesus at 1101. 37 Because the text itself never overtly calls for the withdrawal of the ekkyklema alongside the two goddess statues for the remainder of the play as a fellow silent witnes the two statues al ready standing on stage. H er lifeless body would become a silent witness and visual representation of the destructi ve force of mis communication. Furtherm creates a sort of visual suspense that is only resolved after the body of Hippolytus joins and lay his body opposite Phaedra, the stage returns to its familiar symmetry. 38 By placing each body near one of the divine images, Euripides creates a sense of visual closure that reflects the thematic closure of the scene. Moreover, when the attendants carry 37 Halleran (1995) 243 n1101 closes the agon scene by positing that Hippolytus would leave first through the eisodos following his speech at 1090 1101. Theseus would then exit through the palace door, and lastly, the ekkyklema would be returned through the palace door as well. Halleran disputes the plausibility of the ekkyklema the entire scene, cannot be left on display he may be carried off by the chorus, and so absorbed into a community of women; she may be carried off in the opposite direction from the chorus by male attendants, and so be isolated from both family and community; she may be left in a final tableau, as a silent image left to challenge the audience; the actor may have removed his mask immediately, disrupting the emotional responses of the audience. We do not know such way be created. 38 Halleran (1995) 269 n1460 1 argues that attendants would have carried Hippoly following Theseus, which would mirror his earlier staging of pulling in the ekkyklema through the palace door after Theseus.
36 as the statues of Aphrodite and Artemis oversaw the demise of Phaedra. Furthermore, the entrances of both Phaedra (198ff.) and Hippolytus (1347 88) closely resemble each other. Both are each undergoing great suffering and beg to be repositioned in a comfortable manner. Both ask for their faces to be covered (243 46; 1457 58), and both are dramatically mourned by Theseus as their bodies remain on stage. 39 Silent Witnesses and Deadly Miscommunication In Hippolytus Euripides develops a recurring motif in which a silent observer to the action stands by and chooses not to intervene. 40 For example, Phaedra eavesdrops and hides out of sight during the pivotal scene between Hippolytus and the Nurse (565 668), opting not to confront Hippolytus or offer a defense for he r actions. Hippolytus him, sealing his own fate (610 12). The chorus refuses to get involved on a number of occasions, neglecting to share what they know and acting as a second audience to the action (713 14; 804 5; 891 92). In all these instances the characters choose the path of non action and non of miscommunication. Euripides, moreover, mirrors th staging. Through the ever present statues of Artemis and Aphrodite the playwright creates permanent fixtures on the stage that witness the action, yet never intervene. Although they are only statues, the pl presence as the characters frequently interact with them on a conversational level. 39 For discussions on the relationship between the sickly entrances of both Hippolytus and Phae dra, see Frischer (1970) 92; Taplin (1978) 135 6; Halleran (1995) 261 n1342 6. 40 For the role of silent witnesses, see Taplin (1978) 115; Luschnig (1988) 3 15; Goff (1990) 25 6; Lloyd (1992) 46; Bushnell (2005) 208.
37 When characters speak to and garland the inanimate statues, Euripides offers examples of the unanswered lines of communicat ion that recur throughout the Hippolytus Furthermore, when the statues are treated as living characters, the divine images take on an animated presence that highlights the inseparable nature of a divinity and its statue. Thus, Aphrodite never truly leav es the stage. Instead, she witnesses the dramatic action in its entirety, coldly allowing the destruction to escalate. In view of this, the statue of Artemis had earlier stood as a silent spectator to her rival in the first deus ex machina scene, never i ntervening as Aphrodite laid out her plan of vengeance. 41 This exact image is revisited and reversed at the conclusion of the play, when Artemis takes the stage in a second deus ex machina with Aphrodite standing as witness through her statue. With these divine images, alongside the corpse and tablet of Phaedra, Euripides creates a pattern of absurdity whereby the live characters choose not to intervene or speak up at the most pivotal moments, while inanimate objects nd misleading lines of communication. On many occasions the named characters call upon the statues in conservation, further vivifying the presence of the deities. Hippolytus and his attendants address both divinities directly as fellow characters during t heir initial appearance at 58 120. Similarly, Phaedra, while in her sick bed, also calls out to the statue of Artemis. Her (228 31): 41 See Zeitlin (1996) 229 n25.
38 Mistress of the salt water lake, Artemis, and of the hippodrome that resounds with trampling horses, would that I could be on your plain s taming Enetic foals. In a similar manner, the Nurse later appeals directly to the image of Aphrodite for aid (522 23): 42 May only you, sea mistress Kypris, be a helper to me. In these instances the two w omen directly call out to the statues for assistance in a final words B efore he exits t he stage at the conclusion of the play Theseus bemoans the statue of Aphrodite and simultaneously, the goddess herself: , (1461). 43 For the mortals on stage, the deities are not mere representations of the gods, but are takes on many of the same characteristics as the statues of Artemis and Aphrodite The scene before her death prepares the audience for her corpse to take on this role later in the play. Just prior to her announcement of 42 Halleran (1995) 194 n522 4 supports Bain (1977) 28 9 and argues that the Nurse at this point would off contact and her words are, by convention, not heard by 43 Halleran (1995) 269 n1460
39 suicidal intentions Phaedra had stood silently hidden behind statue as a witness to the tirade against women She chose not to speak up during the argument betwe en Hippolytus and the Nurse. Later, when the second half of the play begins, the dead Phaedra is frozen in the same role she held at the closing of the first half. As Theseus and Hippolytus wrangle over the cause and meaning of her death, she, as before silently witnesses the action that unfolds around her. Furthermore, the corpse of Phaedra speaks through the tablet attached to her wrist, again creating an unnatural line o f communication and giving a vivified presence to her corpse 44 The tablet with a first person inscription. Theseus moreover, (972). Hippolytus later echoes this language when he calls Artemis and her statue as a witness (1451): I call to witness Artemis, subduing with the bow. Furthermore, the discov corpse sets off a chain of events in t he second half of the play that mirror s the destruction Aphrodite had initiated in the prologue 44 Both of these instances fit into the motif of giving voice to inanimate objects that repeatedly occurs in the play. Phaedra even calls out to both the statue of Aphrodite and the house at (415 18): How, sea mistress Kypris, can they ever look at the faces of their spouses and not bristle at that thought that the darkness, their helper, and the rooms of the house might at some point gain the power of speech?
40 While Aphrodite sets off a spiral of destruction and leaves her statue behind to watch, Phaedra unleash es the destruction in the second half and then silently remains as a corpse. The Final Scene as a Visual Tableau When a group of attendants carry in the dying Hippolytus at 1341, the staging come With the two statues mirroring the corpses of Phaedra and Hippolytus and Theseus standing amidst it all, the final scene visually projects the destruction tha t the goddesses have wrought. Here the audience sees, all at once, the avenging and unsym pathetic statues of Artemis and Aphrodite, the bodies of the two people des troyed, and Theseus, consumed in grief This display offers a final visual reflection of the thematic action. 45 The visual tableau also recalls the anxieties expressed by both Pha edra and Hippolytus over how they are perceived by others. When confiding in the Nurse and chorus and lamenting her plight, Phaedra had previously philosophized about the importance of perception and wrongdoing (428 30): 46 But time reveals the evils of mortals sooner or later, setting a mirror in front of them as before a young girl, 45 See Luschnig (1988) 3 15; Roisman (1999) 28 29 notes the relationship between sight and Aphroditean love. 46 ppolytus, Phaedra, and Theseus see themselves and what they of these lines see Barrett (1964) 238 39 n428 30; Avery (1968) 31 n26; Pigeaud (1976) 14 16 ; Zeitlin (1985) 95 100; Goff (1990) 23; Halleran (1995) 186 n428 30.
41 would that I never be seen among this crowd. Following her de stage throughout the rest of the action, recalling this wish as she lies in judgment before the characters and audience. In the end Phaedra experiences the exact opposi te of what she desired. Here, her body lies on disp lay for the characters and audience while the deceptive nature of comes to mock the futility of all her desperate actions in the play. A similar preoccupation with imag e stands before the corpse of Phaedra (1078 79): 47 Would that I could stand opposite myself and watch, in order to weep ov er these great evils that I have endured. Carried back on stage in his dying moments, Hippolytus finally sees the fulfillment of this wish, but in a more wretched manner than he could have ever imagined. In the closing moments of the play, Theseus stands amidst the ruin unleashed by Aphrodite and finds himself to be the spectator that Phaedra and Hippolytus had previously feared Theseus, like Phaedra and Hippolytus before him, again mentions the of Aphrodite. N ow, however, in his final lines, he has become the onlooker and bitterly laments this newfound role directly addressing the statue of the goddess (1460 61): 47 Barrett (1964) 363 n1078 himself; hence this rather odd wish that he could become another person to weep
42 , Oh I am wretched, how much, Kypris, will I remember these evils of yours. By creating an ending that lays out the destruction for the audience to see Euripides offers closure in which the themes an d staging reflect one another. By visually confronting the audience wit Euripides compels those watching to fully recognize the po wer of the slighted Aphrodite. Moreover, he allows them to take in the destructive effects of perception, inauthentic relationships and the ruinous potential of miscommunicati on.
43 CHAPTER 3 THE S TATUE OF THETIS AND UNITY IN ANDROMACHE Andromache has long presented problems to scholars as a work that lacks a defini tive main character as well as structural and thematic unity. Over time, scholars have considered Androma che, Hermione, Neoptolemus and even the House of Atreus 1 searches have met with varying degrees of success. 2 But there is another figure on the stage. Just as statues of Ar temis and Aphrodite stand witness in Hippolytus so the events of Andromache unfold around a divine statue that stands silently present during the entirety of the action. In this statue of Thetis, I argue, lies the true cohesivenes s of the play, for Andro mache is first and foremost centered around Thetis and the effects of her marriage. The play is set at the Thetideion in Phthia, a place named for the goddess and the locale where she formerly lived with her mortal husband, Peleus (16 20). Here, the stor y begins, and Thetis, through her statue, is the only character to stand present throughout the whole action. 3 In addition, her mortal husband, Peleus, Thetis can be viewed as a s ource of all events that occur in the play either directly on stage or 1 unifying feature, see Hartung (1844) 108 125. For the argument that we cannot understand the play because it only makes complete s ense as a sequel, see Verrall (1905) 21 22. Phillippo (1995) 355 371 finds unity in the pattern of patronymic reference. 2 42 for a concise and recent summary o f pertinent scholarship. 3 Allan (2000) 60 comes closest to this understanding of Thetis but he quickly retracts his argument by his is not actually intended as a serious pro
44 indirectly as a result of the Eris unleashed long ago at her wedding. In the end, Thetis ex machina 4 nd Structure When considered with a focus on the unbro ken presence of the goddess, Andromache emerges as a play in which Thetis provides the setting and creates three perceived tripartite structure. 5 When understood to unfold in three distinct movements, the play first presents the struggles of Andromache as a noble, yet captive, woman who re lives many of the same experiences from Troy in th ine. 6 In this version, however, Thetis has the power to effect change and save Andromache and her only surviving child. In the second part, Euripides contrasts the ignoble Hermione and her eventual downfall with the experiences of the noble Andromache In the end, the play closes with a third shorter section in which Thetis takes complete control of the action ex machina and immortalizes the aged and noble Peleus. The first two episodes of the play function as exempla showcasing the effects of noble a nd ignoble behavior on personal relationships, especially in times of hardship. The first exemplum portrays the enslaved, yet noble, Andromache besieged by Hermione and Menelaus and her ultimate return to safety through the help of Peleus. The second epi sode presents a series of contrasting ignoble characters, Hermione, 4 For a similar effect see also the statues of Artemis and Aph rodite in the Hippolytus and their complementary dei ex machina scenes. 5 There are indeed practically two plays, the first concerning the woes and deliverance of Andromache, the second the distr 6 For example, in both Troy and the Thetideion Andromache is besieged by Greeks; and in each, she losses an infant son.
45 Menelaus and Orestes who behave immorally and meet punishment. 7 Through Thetis, a divine mother and wife who is married to a mortal, Euripides sets off the divergent relationships navigat ed by Andromache and Hermione and their subseq uent downfall and redemption 8 As the only truly noble and just main characters, the mutual respect for upright relationships with both men and the gods binds together Andromache and Peleus as allies, regardl ess of their conflicting backgrounds. 9 her statue stands by as a silent witness within the bounds of her shrine. 10 For this emands the most careful attention. The shrine and statue of Thetis, I argue, must be placed at the thymele in the center of the orchestra in order to best express the true nature of the work. 11 While many scholars have sought and failed to find true unity in a play divided into distinct parts both structurally and thematically, this division, I argue, is mirrored in the actual staging of the origins of the characters and their repeated struggles to integrate themselves into relationships with those of foreign backgrounds. 12 Euripides continually highlights the 7 Contrary to Norwood (1906) lvi who laments the seeming lack of connection between the characters of Orestes and Menelaus. 8 Boulter (1 966) 51 58 comes closest to this understanding of the play and argues that true conflict in the play is between two opposing concepts of morality 9 Papadimitropoulos (2006) 149 argues that as an aristocratic couple that successfully bears children, 10 See above for my discussion of the role of silent witnesses in Hippolytus 11 For the view that the shrine of Thetis would be located in the orchestr a see Wiles (1999) 200 01. According to Wiles, the Andromache 12 Ley (2007) 57 notes that a similar separation of palace and sanctuary occurs in Helen
46 gulfs that exist between the characters male vs. female, Greek vs. Spartan vs. Trojan, slave vs. master, parent vs. child, divine vs. mortal. 13 The playwright creates visual echoes of all these divisions in the staging by creating two distinct acting areas. The constant presence of the mourning mother Thetis who struggled to negotiate the obstacles of a divine/mort al marriage also creates a fixed reminder of the dis unity that the play thematically navigates. 14 By staging the shrine of Thetis and her suppliant in the most powerful site in the Greek theatre, the center of the orchestra while the other characters a ppropriate the stage space in front of the skene two divided theatrical worlds emerge. 15 Scholars opting to locate her on stage, off to the side from the palace. 16 Accord ing to convention, however, the placement of a suppliant at an altar in the center of the orchestra is by no means unprecedented, and would make better use of the theatrical space. 17 This divided staging would also reinforce the role of the Thetideion as a place of refuge for a goddess seeking privacy for her untraditional marriage with a mortal. Thetis had sought description of the place during her opening monologue highlights this fact (16 23): 13 See Wiles (1997) 200 1. 14 Wiles (1999) 201 rema n the play as a whole, the presence of the statue helps to focus a series of polar oppositions. 15 the strongest acting area 16 For the placement of the shrine on stage, rat her than in the orchestra see: Norwood (1906) 45; Vellacott (1972) 145; Rutherford (1998) 8; Stewart and Smith (2001) 17. Poe (1989) 125 explores the If the skene had only one doo r, perhaps the te mple was repre sented by a painted canvas or panel on the wall, or even by a free standing screen. In that case the altar will not have stood centrally before the scene building but before the temple facade. 17 For similar staging see Rehm (1992) 99 and 123 Eumenides and Suppliant Women respectively.
47 I am now living on that plain that borders this place Phthia and the city of Pharsalia, where the sea goddess Thetis lived alongside Peleus, apart from men, fleeing the crowd, and the Thessalian men call it Thetideion in honor of the marriage of the goddess. location as a separate makes the most sense when Andromache herself speaks from within the temenos of the shrine, located down in the orchestra and separate from the palace of Neoptolemus. This staging also offers the first evidence for the somewhat ironic, yet close connection between Andromache and the goddess. her husband, Hector, Andromache and Thetis become allies in the p lay. Here, We know from the text that the statue of Thetis stood within a larger shrine to the deity that contained an altar ( 162, 260, 367, 411, 427, 565) and was surrounded by a temenos that was either real or imagined, but would work best if visually defined as much of the action in the first third of the play involves the struggle
48 over removing Andromache from the s temenos that can be imagined as a location for the refuge of the foreign Andromache. Sp ecifically, Euripides presents the shrine as a microcosmic Troy in which Andromache relives the siege and fall of the city however, the actions of the noble woman through out her toils are finally rewarded when her son Molossus is returned to her. 18 not forced to suffer as a grieving mother once more. While at first it seemed that the Trojan mother faced a replay of Astyanax she finally triumphs through redeems herself as she seeks to pu t an end to the tragedies and sufferings resulting from the Trojan War, and by implication, the destructive Eris that emerged from her own marriage. 19 18 followed suit. See Lloyd (1994) 133 n504. 19 Papadimitropoulos ( 2006) 149 concerning l ines 1186 ever, I believe reaches beyond the marriage of Hermione and Neoptolemus, recalling the original nuptials Peleus and Thetis and the outbreak of the Trojan War.
49 Although a play ostensibly exploring the relationships between char acters of diverse origins, the Andromache is just as much an exposition of the common threads that run through human relationships. Euripides conveys this idea most succinctly through the statue and character of Thetis and her close relationship and simil arity to Andromache, her suppliant. 20 At first glance these two women should be far from allies one a mortal, the other divine and indirectly responsible for the death of Hector, se closeness of these characters emerges in their shared role as grieving mothers and women mourning the heroic deaths of their loved ones while seeking to navigate relat ionships with men of divergent backgrounds. Furthermore, Andromache has given mortal husband and falle n son give her mourning a human quality that draws her even closer to Andromache. 21 Just as fate forced Andromache from Hector, so Thetis was turned away from Zeus and into her marriage with the mortal Peleus. As a comment on the effects of just and unjust actions on personal relationships, especially in times of deep pe rsonal struggles, Euripides presents two women at odds with one another as a means of exploring their differing reactions to times of hardship. As the noble wife who never let go of to the subject status of a co ncubine, Andromache emerges in the play as a paragon of 20 r elationships to the deities and statues of Artemis and Aphrodite, as discussed above. 21 Allan (2000) 259.
50 correct and just nobility. Euripides takes pains to show that such nobility has earned her more than the simp she has achieved a deeper connection to the goddess. Th etis is revealed not only to be an ally, but during the time that Andromache clings to the statue within the temenos of the shrine the two women become physically and visually fused to one another. 22 Euripides accentuates this connection by portraying eac h woman with characteristics of the other and while 8, Hermione depicts Andromache as a statue when she promises: For even if on all sides molten lead holds you there, I will pick you up before the one you trust, the son of Achilles, comes. By employing language technic al to a statue Euripides toys with the complementary natures of Andromache and Thetis. 23 Euripides further likens Andromache as she clings to Thetis in the shrine to a statue by comparing her to stone (115 6) 24 and recalling the myth of Niobe (532 4). 25 The playwright portrays Thetis as an ally of 22 feels herself almost one with the statue 23 See Allan (2000) 61 n92 and Golder (1996) 9. 24 25
51 Andromache by giving Thetis, whose son died at Troy, the opportunity to take control of the spiraling devastation of the war and rewrite the story so that she cannot only save Andromache and her single living son f rom complete destruction but also redeem endorsement of the triumph of a just life. 26 In the second movement of the play, Euripides employs the character of Hermione as a foil for exploring the outcomes of leading a life that is rash and unjust. When Hermione panics after Peleus intervenes on behalf of Andromache, the legitimate wife finds herself powerless before a slave woman, and the choice of the ignoble road has lef t her floundering and alone. Euripides illustrates the destructive nature of her unjust actions when she is deserted by both her father and husband and has no defense against the effects of her chronic immoral behavior. Ultimately, Hermione must beg Ores tes to offer her the same protection and refuge that Thetis offered Andromache. Thus Hermione must seek protection in the polluted house of Atreus and bind herself to a man guilty of matricide. Throughout the stage action it is significant that the sta tue of Thetis remains a of the girl as she did for Andromache, via Peleus. 27 Euripides makes a concerted effort 26 g behind the 668), as discussed above. 27 Wiles (1999) 21 rightly points out that the statue of Thetis acts as a visual focal point during the long description of Delphi and the murder of Neopto he immobility of the statue raises the question of whether god
52 to present Hermione as a figure in contrast to both Andr omache and Thetis. 28 While Andromache takes on the characteristics of the statue and divinity that protects her, Andromache. When Hermione first walks on stage, she comments on h er own wealth and appearance (147 53): The ornamentation of golden luxury around my head and this robe of embroidered cloth that covers my body are not from the home of Achilles or Peleus I have arrived here carrying them with me and they are inste ad from the Laconian land of Sparta and my father Menelaus gave these things to me with many dowry gifts, so I am freely speaking my mind. Bedecked in wealthy clothing and boasting of her dowry gifts, Hermione immediately presents a distinct contrast to the enslaved Andromache who sits huddled by the statue of Thetis in the attire of a servant. The visual contrast between the two women is immediately striking. 28 affection, and acts as
53 While Andromache and Thetis had taken on characteristics of each other throughout the first pa rt of the play, in the second section Euripides visually deconstructs the character of Hermione by presenting her reaction to the failure of her murder plot as a crazed panic that results in her physically tearing away at the ornamentation and robes that h ad earlier been material for her boasting (829 31): 29 Ahh Ahh! To the air and off of my head, finely woven cloth. Andromache, when previously faced with her own death or the death of her child, had bravely sacrificed herself and left the prot ection of the shrine with resolve. Now we see Hermione, faced with the failure of her plot against Andromache, act crazed both in her speech and the physical marring of her costume and body. Nothing could be less statuesque or antithetical to the charact er of Andromache. portraying her as so desperate and alarmed that she exposes her breast in a climactic scene of human emotions gone out of control (833 35): 30 29 30 anic courageous, even bullish, and in the face of pressing extinction; the danger facing Hermione, however, follows from her own wickedness and is exaggerat
54 Why is it necessary to hide my breast with my robes? The things I have done to my husband are clear and visible and unhidden. ad earli er been associated with statue related imagery such as molten lead (266 68) or the myth of Niobe (532 character appears beset by unbridled emotion through the shocking display of her breast. While Andromache had maintained her nobil ity even in the rags of a slave, shameless display of her breast. Furthermore, the baring of her breast in a time of eventual savior. Hermione emerges as an exemplum of a character of ignoble nature. Euripides, however, does not depict the woman as acting alone, but instead as a member of a tainted bloodline who carries powerful support fr om her similarly corrupt father, Menelaus. 31 As the Spartan daughter of a repulsive Menelaus and destructive Helen, Hermione appears as damaged goods tainted by a corrupt bloodline. The issue of inherited nobility and morality dominates the familial repre sentations in the play and creates two separate family lines which can never successfully intermingle, as the only attempt at a union between the two occurs in the relationship between Hermione and Neoptolemus, a union which ultimately cannot produce offsp ring and ends disastrously 31 For a discussion of inherited character in Andromache see Allen (2000) 99 102.
55 for both parties. In the end, Hermoine must take refuge in a character from similarly tainted stock, Orestes. From the start, Hermione does not appear to act alone T he dialogue moreover, repeatedly depicts her as a close all y to her father, Menelaus: (39 40) But I am not persuading her, and instead she is plotting to kill me, and her father Menelaus is acting as an ally to his daughter in thi s. (62 3) For Menelaus and his daughter are planning terrible acts against you, for which things you must be prepared. As partners working against Andromache and her child, Menelaus and Hermi one do not carry the support of the silent deity. Thetis, who protects Andromache within the temenos of her shrine and supports the continuation of her bloodline through Molossus, remains a figure antithetical to the brash, self serving nature of the Spar tan father and daughter pair. Furthermore, when Menelaus and Hermione besiege the shrine of Thetis in their attempt to remove Andromache from the protection of the goddess, they set themselves up as enemies to the goddess and ensure their own demise. The negative characterization of the Spartan pair culminates in their removal of
56 temple robbery. This impious outrage acts as a final wedge which makes it abundantly clea r that the Spartan bloodline maintains a nature wholly antithetical to that of Peleus, in the small temenos of the shrine, Euripides depicts the woman as equivalent to a vo tive offering that stands in the possession of the goddess. When Menelaus forces Andromache from the temenos he not only violates the rights afforded to suppliants, n g act of impiety present s definitive evidence for the corrupt nature of the Spartan. When Hermione first enters the stage bedecked with a grandiose display of wealth and hurling accusations at an enslaved Andromache who is clinging to the statue of Thetis it becomes immediately clear that Hermione lacks appropriate respect for the goddess and can not expect divine aid herself As Hermione accuses Andromache of actually be b infertility (157 8): I am hateful to my husband because of your poisons, and because of you, my womb is barren and destroyed. While Hermione repeatedly hurls similar accusations and insults at her riva l, Andromache speaks with reason and nobility and eventually steers the conversation back to Thetis She emphasizes the importance of respect for the goddess, even Do you see the statue of The tis looking at you? ). A few lines later, Andromache gives Hermione a warning (260):
57 Slaughter me! Stain the altar with blood! She will pursue you with vengeance! The power of the goddess and the importance of show ing her respect is not lost on the character of Andromache. seems to be divine justice at work. After Menelaus impiously forces Andromache from the shrine, the dialogue again returns to the power of the gods when the besieged woman asks (439): Do you not recognize that the gods are gods and that they maintain justice? Again, Menelaus and Hermione emerge not only as characters antithetical to Peleus and Andromache, but also as enemies of the goddess from an impious bloodline who get what they deserve. This gulf between families is again brought to the forefront when Orestes asks Hermione to explain how Menelaus was overcome by an old man such as Indeed, it was from his sense of respect. And he has left, leaving me behind deserted. ) In the world of the play, with Thetis in control, piety and respect have again prevailed over revenge and injustice. The Second Episode as Mirror to th e First As the two halves of the Hippolytus can be seen as inv erted mirrors of one another, similarly, the second section of the Andromache continues to offer exempla reaction to his arrival. While the baring of her breast for pity in a time of desperation had already likened Hermione to Clytemnestra, her eventual connection to the house of
58 Atreus is confirmed when Orestes enters and introduces himself as the child of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra (881 figure of contrast to the noble and aged Peleus who had earlier saved Andromache and Molossus. With the arrival of Orestes, the second section of the play sets up a scene in o 765). Both entrances are announced by the chorus leader in surprise (545 6; 879 80), and both men arrive in times of dire desperation. The justice, shame, and nobility that color Andr who had just plotted the murder of Neoptolemus on the steps of the Temple at Delphi. This reversal can be begging (891 5): You have appeared as a harbor to sailors in a storm child of Aga memnon, by your knees pity me whose fortune you look upon, I who am not doing well. No less than the wreaths of a suppliant, I throw my arms around your knees. When contrasted with the parallel supplication of Andromache, this scene acts to reflect the gulf in morality and nobility that runs between the two families of characters in the
59 play. In this second supplication the circumstances of both Hermione and Orestes present them as debased characters from polluted families. Hermione is trapped by the has deceived the Delphians and contrived the murder of Neoptolemus himself. By of Clytem nestra and instead portrays his character as debased by nature and doomed to repeat his corrupt actions. character and bloodline becomes shockingly clear when he desc ribes the importance of returning Hermione to her proper family and marriage, as had been arranged before the experiment in marriage outside of its proper boundaries (982 6): Now indeed, since you have had a sudden reversal of f ortune, and since you are helpless and have fallen into misfortune, I will take you home and I will bring you to the hand of your father. For kinship is a strange power, and in evils there is nothing more powerful than a friend of the family. Here Ore stes makes it clear that Hermione and Menelaus do not belong in the realm of Thetis and Peleus and intermingled with a noble and just family. By taking Hermione
60 away from the Thetideion, Orestes removes the girl from the sphere of the goddess, whose stat ue has been silently watching for the duration of the action. The character of Orestes also mirrors been portrayed by the same actor. Thus, the second movement of the play shows the lo t of the unjust and amoral life wherein personal relationships become weak and disposable and allies few, as the sense, the audience watches this movement of the play throug h the statue, who stands back as a spectator while the unjust characters in the play flounder and face demise. In the final movement the action culminates in the actual appearance of Thetis ex machina Just as in the dei ex machina scenes of the Hippolytus now the goddess who stood previously as a silent witness and only form to take active control of the play. Whether Andromache and Molossus would be present during the arrival of Thetis (1047 1288) is a subject of debate among scholars. 32 There are no lines attributed to Andromache following her exit at 765, making her a kophon prospon if s he is present on stage during the final 240 lines of the play. 33 The evidence for her presence on stage, I argue, is threefold. First, the text refers to the presence of Andromache and Molossus. Second, the mother and child must remain in 32 For a detailed discussion of this issue and a review of scholarship, see Golder (1983). 33 For a similar use of a kophon prospon see the deus ex machina o f Alcestis
61 the protection of Peleus until granted safety by Thetis. Finally, the silent presence of Andromache coupled with the entrance of the live deity acts as a mirror to the role reversals seen in the earlier presentation of Thetis and Andromache. The first clue to the prese arrival occurs at line 1041, as the chorus addresses an unnamed woman just when Peleus, Molossus, and Andromache would presumabl y be entering the stage (1037 41 ): Many laments in assemblies of Greeks were sung for wretched children and wives who left their homes for a foreign bed. Not on you alone did grievous misfortunes fall, nor on your loved ones alone. This passag e clearly refers to Andromache: she is a wife who left her home to share a foreign bed The use of the second person in would best accompany an 34 The presence of Andromache and Molossus is hinted at again at 1247 when Thetis proclaims (1243 49): 34 For this view, see Golder (1983) 124 27.
62 As for the enslaved woman, I say it is right for her to go and live in the land of M olossia, old man, married to Helenus joined in marriage, and this child, the only one left of the Aeaceans. It is right that from this child kings, one after another, will reign over the prosperous Molossia. While the lines could arguably refer to cha racters off stage, the direct naming of Andromache in the third person and the use of the pronoun make a compelling argument for the presence of the mother and child. 35 The entrance of Andromache and Molossus alongside Peleus at 1047 would also seem natural as they are technically under his protection following the events at the shrine. By bri nging them on stage, Euripides creates a situation whereby Andromache will of Hermione and Menelaus. As an ext shelters the mother and child once they are forced to abandon the shrine. When Peleus 35 For a dissenting view, see Steidle (1968) 118 31. Golder (1983) 128 points out that a kophon prospon is addressed by fellow mortal characters in the second person, and by divinities in epiphany in t he third, often by name. For example, at the end of the Orestes Orestes addresses the mute Pylades and Electra in the sec ond person, as Menelaos uses the second person address for Pylades, and for the mute Helen; but Apollo addresses in the second person only the two speaking characters, and refers to the mutes, Pylades, Electra, and Helen, indirectly.
63 re enters, mother and child in (1243 1249). T his continuous safeguarding underscores that Andromache was always in the close care of Thetis throughout the events of the play. By allowing for the re entrance of Andromache as a kophon prospon at 1047, Euripides further emphasizes the close connection bet ween the woman and the the same device. Now Andromache becomes the silent witness to the action and the goddess comes on the scene in live form. This mirrors the ending of the Hippolytus stage during the arrival Artemis. Furthermore, j ust as in the final scene of Hippolytus by bringing the characters on s tage alongside the corpse of Neoptolemus, Euripides creates a visual tableau of the play as a whole and paints a picture of the final outcome for the audience.
64 CHAPTER 4 ARTEMIS AND HER STAT UE IN IPHIGENEIA AT TAURIS A play of role reversals, deception a nd escape, Iphigeneia at Tauris offers my final In Iphigeneia Euripides presents a small statue of Artemis that only appears in the second half of the action. Although does not stand as a permanent fixture like the statues I have previously discussed, her image still plays a role similar to that of the statues we find in Hippolytus and Andromache In all three plays the divine statues function as more than m ere representative works of ar t: they not only stand in for divinities but they As divine objects, these statues hold the ability to grant protection to some characters, condemn others in silence and create constant reminders of the divine origins of t he licts. More than props, they are quasi characters in t heir own right. In Hippolytus and Andromache the statues are even joined on stage by the divinities they depict in dei ex machina scenes. Statue in Staging and Structure In Iphigeneia at T auris Euripides develops his story around a small statue of Artemis that stands under the care of her priestess, Iphigeneia. Here the playwright uses many of the same techniques as he employs in the plays previously discussed the blurring of lines betwe en animate and inanimate, the execution and display of divine will through a statue, the presentation of a statue as a quasi character, and the use of a statue as an organ izing principle for the play. In Iphigeneia creates a more thematic organization rather than the visual and physical organ ization of the statues that Hippolytus and Andromache offer. Because the statue of Artemis is not a permanent stage fixture but only appears in the second half it does not allow the
65 same ph ysical organization as an immovable prop Nevertheless, it still plays an integral role in the events of the play The statue, furthermore, creates the foundation holy image that Orestes first journeys to Tauris and, after the recognition scene, the statue becomes the key instrument in safely executing the escape plot. As the central instrument in the escape plans of the main characters, the image of Artemis fits i nto a larger tradition in Greek literature in which artistic objects, closely related to a divinity, become tools of protection and deception. The most obvious example of artistic deception in Greek literature occurs in the story of the Trojan horse, a ta le that stands ominously in the background of Iphigeneia as the play narrates aspects ftermath. 1 Overall, however, Iphigeneia most closely echoes the myth of the Palladium of Athena and its theft from the Trojan citadel. the Palladium myth in his construction of Iphigeneia can be demonstrated by examining the cyclic epic, the Little Iliad The Little Iliad tells of the siege and fall of Troy and includes the stories of the Trojan horse and the theft of the Palladium. Th e tale relates how two men, Odysseus and Diomedes, sneak into the citadel of Troy to steal the statue with the aid of Helen. 2 Palladium myth, he replaces Odysseus and Diomedes with Orestes and Pylades and 1 Bennett (1917), 9 when referring to Troades 523 5: Here, Euripides uses the same term, but in reference to the Trojan horse. 2 Helen refers to this story in Od 4. 242 64
66 they seek a statue of Artemis rather than one of Athena. Furthermore, now it is Iphigeneia aiding in the theft instead of Helen Furthermore, in his substitution of Orestes for Odysseus, Euripides attaches some of the cunning aspects of the Ithacan warrior to Orestes. Fin ally, by switching the divinity represented in the stolen statue from Athena to Artemis, Euripides creates a tension between the two goddesses the two female deities of the Iphigeneia at least one of whom the audience expects to appear ex machina In a l arger sense, Iphigeneia illustrates the relationship between artistic objects and scenes of recognition, trickery and escape that appears in many Euripidean plays. the Ion for exa mple, the recognition t okens consist of golden serpent necklaces and a weaving o f a 1436). In the same play, the messenger describes how the deception and attempted murder had taken place in an elaborate tent of tapestries with the po ison conveyed in finely wrought cups ( 1122 122 8). In Iphigeneia Euripides stages three key events in the play, all dependent on the statue. First, Orestes sets out ha ve an anagnorisis as he stumbles upon Iphigeneia and the siblings are reunited. Next, Iphigeneia uses the statue as a means of deceiving king Thoas in the turning Iph igeneia and Pylades proceed to the sea for the purification of the statue and ultimately make their escape. 3 3 Wolff (1992) t he play's fictional world as a human means of deception thought up by Iphigenia to effect an escape, the ri tual washing by the sea corresponds to actual cult practice familiar to the Athenian audience: the washing of the Palladium and perhaps the
67 The structure of Iphigeneia falls into two halves. In the first half of the play, Orestes arrives in Tauris where he accidently discovers his sist er. The episode concludes with a dramatic recognition scene that recalls earlier plays such as the Electras of both Sophocles and Euripides or the Oresteia Once the two siblings have come to know one another, the focus of the play shifts from a recognit ion tale to a st ory of deception and escape. an object of divine protection, allowing the priestess not only to deceive king Thoas Only at l ine 1157, after the brother and sister have been reunited, and the first half of the play has ended does the statue appear in view of the audience. In his construction of Iphigeneia Euripides appears to have relied heavily on not only the Palladium myth, but also in the story of Pelops and Hippodamia. By echoing an earlier Atreid myth, Euripides develops a framework for a series of comparisons between generations, while also recalling the cyclic nature of the events in the myth of Atreus. In fact, we se e the importance of recurring generations even in the opening lines of the prologue, as Iphigeneia gives a genealogy that selectively mentions the myth of Pelops: (1 5) Pelops, son of Tantalus, coming to Pisa
68 with swift horses, wed the daughter of Oenomaus, from whom Atreus was born. The children of Atreus were Menelaus a nd Agamemnon. From this one I was born, Iphigeneia, child of the daughter of Tyndareus. Iphigeneia only specifically mentions two generations i n the account of her lineage the marriage of Pelops and her own relationship to Menelaus and Agamemnon 4 In f act, by the myth of Pelops and his marriage into consideration when formulating their expectations of the present work. 5 Through these five lines of selective linea ge Euripides lays out the basic outline of the play: just as in the story of Pelops there will be a hero who is faced with death at the hands o f a barbaric and foreign king. T he hero will employ a beguiling trick through the aid of a divinity and he will ultimately escape with his female compan ion. However, the current generation will replay the events with Iphigeneia at the epicenter. The staging of Iphigeneia follows other plays set before temples, such as Heracleidae Suppliants or Ion The dramatic space is divided into two distinct areas, focal point of the sacrificial altar. The staging in the opening scenes of the play further creates a visual reflection of the overall situation that the characters navigate. Iphigeneia and Orestes each maintain their own separate acting spaces Iphigeneia on 4 For discussions on the importance of the Pelops myth to this play, see Sansone (1975) 288 90; O'Brien (1988) 98 115; Hartigan (1991) 90. 5 For a re view of the Pelops myth and its sources, see Gantz (1993), 540 45.
69 stage before the temple and Orestes in the orchestra until the two come face to face and the recognition scene begins. When the play opens, Iphigeneia delivers her monologue and describes the sacrifice she underwent at Aulis: (24 27) A nd through the wiles of Odysseus, they took me away from my mother for a marriage to Achilles. After coming to Aulis, I, wretched one, raised up high over the altar was sacrificed by the sword. As Iphigeneia narrates the story of her sacrifice at Aulis she is standing on stage before staging visually reflects the experiences that the priestess recalls. After her speech, Iphigeneia withdraws into the temple and Pylade s and Orestes enter the orchestra to examine the altar and discuss their plans. By placing Orestes in the orchestra rather than the stage, Euripides underscores the distance and separation that has defined the relationship between brother and sister. We c an infer from the texts of Iphigeneia and Ion that both plays unfold before highly decorative temple faades In both instances, the actors take time to point out features of the settings and draw attention to the artistic elements of the stage In Ion the words of the chorus in the first parados describe in detail the sculpture and
70 architecture of the temple of Apollo at Delphi (184 218) In a similar, albeit less detailed manner, Pylades and Orestes when they first come on stage, discuss the temple o f Artemis and its decoration. : : : : : : : (67 76) Orestes: Look out, be on guard le st anyone is on the path. Pylades: I am looking, bearing my eyes everywhere, looking around. Orestes: Pylades, does it seem to you that this hall is of the goddess
71 for whom we sailed our ship from Argos? Pylades: I think so, Orestes. You must think the s ame. Orestes: And the altar, does it drip with Greek blood? Pylades: It has dedications of hair covered in blood, at any rate. Orestes: Do you see the armor fastened to the topmost course of stones? Pylades: Trophies of the sacrificed foreigners. But I must keep my eyes moving and hold a good watch. In this passage Pylades and Orestes engage in a discussion of the physical elements of sight, Euripides draws the audi Later, when plotting their escape route, Pylades points out a specific triglyph through which t he two men could potentially lower themselves in order to break into the temple to fetch the statue ( 113) 6 The close relationship between artistic obje cts, theme, and structure in Iphigeneia and Ion is evident in the overall role of tapestry and art works in the two plays. In each story the recognition scene hinge s on tangible mementos Orestes convi nces Iphigeneia that they are siblings by mentioning the spear of Pelops that hung in her room and recalling a weaving the girl had made of the quarrel between Atreus and Thyestes (798 826). In Ion head and two gold serpent necklaces that she had left with the child when she 6 Beyond the similarities in the staging of the two plays, the Iphigeneia and the Ion also mirror each other in their stories of recognition, deception and escape. Both plays, moreover, mu tual ly emphasize the visual aspects of the performance and arti stic objects. Even the temples in both of the plays are related, as the Ion unfolds in front of the temple of Apollo at Delphi and the Iphigeneia sister, Artemis. I n each case the main character is in the service of a deity and has been translocated to the temple by a god, Ion transported to Delphi from the cave in which his mother had abandoned him and Iphigeneia to Tauris from the altar upon which her father had se nt her to die.
72 abandoned him (1395 1436). The story of deception in each play, too, hinges on an artistic artifact. Iphigeneia manipulates King Thoas by attesting to the pollution of the sta tue and sacrificial victim and the need for purification at the sea. In Ion Creusa golden bracelet from Athena (1029 38); the attendant later announces that the poison w as conveyed in a gilded cup within a tent of elaborate tapestries (1132 1200). Images of Statues in the Play relates a prophetic dream that she believes to indicate the death of Orestes. 7 This create s an ominous echo as Iphigeneia takes on a role similar to the hated Calchas, the prophet who announced the necessity of her own death. 8 In the dream, Iphigeneia is still in Argos and awakened by an earthquake. After escaping from the house, she watches the palace fall in complete ruin except for a single pillar topped with blond hair and possessing the power of speech: (50 53) Only one pil lar remained, it seemed to me, Of my paternal home, and from its capital blond hair hung down, and it took on the voice of a human. 7 78. Kyriakou disagrees with the importance placed on the Pelops myth, 12. 8 3).
73 While the statue of Artemis stands inside the temple and out of the view of the audience, we find Iphigeneia narrating a dream in which Orestes appears as a quasi statue. In the dream Iphigeneia sprinkles sacrificial water onto a humanized stone pillar. The priestess concludes that the sacrificial act indicates that the last pillar of her house, Orestes, is dead 9 However Euripides contradicts that life has been taken away from her brother by taking a lifeless object, a pillar, and vivifying it with human qualities. The animation of an inanimate stone pillar with hair and voice in turn points of slaughtered suitors on pillars around the palace in Elis Thus, Euripides creates a connection between the present play and the earlier myth by indicating that Orestes, like Pelops, will so on be placed in a life or death situation that will require divine aid and deception for a successful rescue and escape. By offering a misinterpretation of her own dream, Iphigeneia also calls into question the credibility of seers. 10 Furthermore, ju st a s Euripides had done in Hippolytus and the Andromache in Iphigeneia as well the playwright presents the main characters in a manner that recalls a statue. This depiction of Orestes as a stone pillar with hair allows Orestes to take on many of the same ch aracteristics as the object he is seeking in Tauris. The identification of Orestes with the pillar is further verified when Iphigeneia finishes her description of the dream and returns to the temple. At that very moment, Orestes takes the stage. 9 Cropp (2000), 177 n50 Euripides as markers on tombs of the archaic period (cf.McGowan (1995) 616 7), which adds emotive 10 Kyriakou (2006 ) 63 nlike virtually all other dreamers of symbolic dreams, Iphigeneia interprets her dream all by herself and never doubts the correctness of her interpretation. The dream is not reinterpreted when she lea
74 The li hero as he navigates the deadly Tauric land. Previously, we have seen how Euripides uses a similar device with Phaedra and Artemis in Hippolytus when Phaedra takes refuge behind the second half of the play along side the stone goddesses. Similarly, in Andromache molten lead (266 4). Likewise, just prior to the recognition scene, and after Iphigeneia reads her tablet to the two fugitives, Iphigeneia is treated in much the same way as the statue that she serves (798 802): : : Chorus: Stranger, unjustly you touch the a ttendant of the goddess, throwing your hands upon her robes that are not to be touched. Orestes: My own sister born of my father, Agamemnon, whom you never thought you would embrace again.
75 Here, Eur ipides presents Iphigeneia as isolated and untouchable, just as the image of Artemis. The language employed even creates a parallel to the treatment of the statue when it first appears on stage: 55) Thoas: Look! Why have you picked up this up from the pedestal that must not be moved, child of Agamemnon, why is this statue of the goddess in your arms? : : : (1163 65) Iphigeneia: The sacrificial victims you have captured for me are not pure, lord. Thoas: W ho told you this? Or are you just speaking a thought? Iphigeneia: The image of the goddess turned back from its place. In both scenes Euripides portrays Iphigeneia and the statue as separate from the rest of the Taurians. The language of the two scenes echo each other as well. While Orestes begs his sister, (801), Iphigeneia similarly tells Thoas:
76 (1165). Euripides takes this parallel a step further in the procession scene, when Iphigeneia leads Orestes to the sea in shared pollution with ge (1153 1202). hen Orestes and Pylades first enter the stage and discuss the te mple and altar, their words recall the ones that Iphigeneia had previously used in the description of her dream: (69 75) Orestes: Pylades, does it seem to you that these halls are of the goddess for whom we readied our ships to sail? Pylades: Definitely, Orestes; and it must be that you agree. Orestes: And the alta r, does it not drip with Hellene blood? Pylades: The hair, at any rate, is colored by blood. Orestes: Do you see the spoils fastened from the tops of the walls? Pylades: Trophies of murdered foreigners. Here the altar is described in language similar to th at which Iphigeneia had used to describe the vivified pillar from her dream Both are raised stone objects covered on top with blond hair. Taken together, the two objects can offer a glimpse into the before and
77 after of a Tauric sacrifice. 11 Iphigeneia d escribes the first image, the pillar, as a (52 3), while o n th e second structur e, the altar, the blond hair appears again but now covered in blood after the actual sa Moreover, the armor and weapons of dead foreigners that hang on the walls are anthropomorphic reminders of the potential fate of Orestes if he fails in his task This morbid dcor stands ominously in th e background of the stage for the entirety of the action, never allowing the audience to forget the bloody nature of the Tauri c cult. When compared with the descriptive narration of the sculptural frieze at the temple of emple appears as a similarly ornate monument to the goddess. In addition, the hanging armor also allows Euripides to play with the distinction s between humans and their artistic representations as the audience can visualize the foreigners who once wore th e spoils of arms 11 The two images are connected again later by the chorus at 399 406: Whoever are these men who left behind the Eurotas, abounding in water and green with reeds, or the revered waters of Dirce, and came here, came here to this inhospitable land, where, on account of the girl, mortal blood stains the altars and columned temples?
78 As a whole, this episode with Orestes and Pylades creates a visual tableau of the slaughter s that have previously occurred in Tauris Euripides signals this fact by including language of sight and seeing repeatedly throughout the scene: (67 68) Orestes: Look out, be on guard lest anyone should come into the path. Pylades: I am looking out, turning around and casting my eyes in every direction take in the scene on the stage. During this intense focus on the visual aspects of the stage, Orestes comes upon t he hair covered, bloody altar and addresses the arm or hanging from the walls of the temple. The visual focus on the stage set continues when the two point out this armor: (74 76) Orestes: Do you see the spoils hanging from this very wall? Pylades: The trophies of sacrificed foreigners. But I must look all around me and hold a careful watch. After taking in the sights outside the temple of Artemis, Orestes reveals for the first time that he has entered Tauris to steal the statue of the goddess and transport it to Athens in order to rid himself of pursuit by the Furies. The statue, however, is no typical divine
79 image and Orestes, when he calls out to Apollo, is sure to mention that it has fallen directly from heaven into the temple: (85 88) You told me to come here to the boundaries of the Tauric land, where Artemis, your sister has an altar, in order to take the statue of the goddess, which they say fell in to the temple at this location from heaven. This description of the statue as sent from heaven follows a tradition in Greek literature whereby a statue is marked as extrao rdinary and closely connected to the gods because it has fallen directly from the sky Orestes repeats this detail again at 977, when he refers to the statue as lationship to the divine, it often takes on powers and animation that can blur the lines between a stage prop and a character in the play We can find examples of t his motif as far back as and the xoanon of Athena housed in the Ere chtheum in Athens M ost similarly recalls t Palladium, an image of Athena that also fell from the sky, was stolen, and transported to a new location. According to the legend, the loss of the Palladium and its protective of Athena Euripides creates a tension between the two goddesses that comes to a head when Athena appears in the final deus ex machina scene, rather than the
80 expected Artemis. It also signals that the Tauric cult will end once Orestes removes the In the final lines of his speech at 77 92, O restes brings the audience back to the myths of Pelops, the Trojan horse and the Palladium when he openly admits that he will need luck and tricks in order to steal the statue and transport it to Athens successfully: (89 92) And taking it either by devices or some luck, completing the endeavor, to give it to the la nd of the Athenians whatever happens after that was not spoken about and doing these things I would have freedom from my punishments. In many versions of the myth of Pelops and Hippodamia, divine aid allows the hero to best king Oenomaus, escape deat h, and rescue the girl. 12 In Iphigeneia divine aid comes through the statue of Artemis. As with all divine a protective nature that help s Orestes to complete his task safely. Artemis plays the role of the protective, aid givin g divinity as Athena had acted in the stories of the Trojan horse and Palladium, and Hermes had acted (in some cases via Myrtilus) in the Pelops myth. Now, rather than a suitor, Pelops, carrying off his future wife, here, a brother, Orestes, carries off h is sister. 12 For an over view of the myth, see Grimal (1996) 214 15.
81 The transport of the statue to Athens further echoes the myth of the Palladium, which was brought to Greece after its removal from the citadel at the end of the Trojan War. In this parallel, Orestes and Pylades appear as foreign Greeks besieg ing the Tauric l and as if it were Troy. In Iphigeneia again the Greeks are on a mission of rescue. This comparison of Orestes and Pylades with the Greeks invading Troy recurs when the shepherd s describe their reaction to first stumbli ng upon the pair at the shore; the messenger describes their reaction upon seeing the two men in epic language and imagery: (323 27) But when we saw the double swords being brandished by our en emies, we took flight and filled up the rugged glens. But, while some of us would take flight, others stuck around and attacked them. If they forced them to retreat, the ones who had just withdrawn came back and pelted them with stones. In these li nes, Euripides heightens suspense as to emphasizes that his only concern is to take the statue in order to clear himself of blood guilt and the F uries. All other results of the play action occur at the will of the gods, and in the execution of this one task, Orestes unintentionally creates order in a world of
82 chaos and reversals. Overall be primarily a fusion of the Pelops an d Palladium myths, reworked for Iphigeneia and the stage and capped off with an aetiology of the cults at Brauron and Halae. At line 93 Orestes puts the audience on the lookout once again in language that emphasizes th e visual as well as the conceptual ide as of entrapment and escape: (96 8) For you see that the walls around us are raised high. Should we go up the steps that lead to the house? How are we t o escape notice? By pointing out possible escape routes, Orestes reminds the audience that he and Pylades are trapped foreigners while also drawing attention to what they can see on stage Here, Pylades directs the eyes of the audience to the temple faad e in much the themselves begin to understand themselves as foreigners in the dramatic world and take part in the fears that Orestes and Pylades experience. The focus on the visu al elements of the performance continues when Pylades laying out their plan and aims mentions artistic objects :
83 14) But whenever the eye of dark night arrives, It must be dared that we take the polished statue from the temple through every device. Do you see right there where there is an empty spot between the triglyphs to be let down? Here Pyla des fills his speech with descriptive details such as calling the statue of (111) While the statue has not yet been brought out of the temple and into the view of the audience, Pylades describes it as an artistic piece and the main objecti ve for which the two men have undertaken so much danger. Pylades also directs mentioning, and most likely pointing to, the architectural detail of a particular triglyph. In this way, Euripides again mixes language descriptive of art with that of deception and escape Both detailed references act as a means of illustrating the purpose of their journey, their plan of escape, and their need for deceit. 13 13 A similar emphasis on the architectural aspects of the temple occurs when the chorus addresses Iphigeneia in the ode that follows this scene: (128 131) To your court, the golden walls of your well pillared temple, as a servant of the divine key holder, I send forth my virgin foot
84 Throughout Iphigeneia moreover, the concepts of translocation and transfer of passed from one place to the next as an object of power that holds its origins in the divine. From its beginnings in the heavens among the gods, the statue fell to Tauris and later would carry its power to Halae. Furthermore, Iphigeneia herself acts as a transferable power when she first acts as the scapegoat that will allow the ships to sail from Aulis, then she is moved to Tauris where she oversees the sacrifices of foreigners, and later she will become priestess and honoree at Brauron. This idea of transference of power that colors the statue and its priestess in Iphigeneia recalls the earlier myth of the scepter that is traditionally passed through the generations of house of Atreus. The scepter was first cr eated by Hephaistos, then passe d to Zeus, Hermes, Pelops and through the generations of the Atreids. In an episode overseen closely by Athena, the scepter s tory appears in Il 2.100 108 as part of an introduction to Agamemnon. This passage from the Iliad shows the house of Atreus bestowing rule in a peaceful manner, even leading Aristarchos to believe Homer was ignorant of the curse of Atreus. 14 The same sce pter is mentioned in the Iphigeneia the chorus proclaims: (187). Furthermore, in the scene that follows, Iphigeneia describes Orestes as the (235). Much like the cyclical murders that plague the Atreids, the scepter story reinforces t he cyclical basis of the Atreus myth. In Iphigeneia Euripides plays with the traditional image of the Atreid 14 Gantz (1993) 540.
85 scepter and gives the true transfer of power over to the statue, as it stands ready to be taken up and passed on by Orestes. to another also give s an animated presence as the image, as it is able to move and change location either sua sponte or by willing humans to perform the task on its behalf. In order to arrive at the temple, the statue simply fell directly from heaven on i ts own accord. Now, the statue will move a second time after Apollo has instructed Orestes to bring the image to Athens. This ability to move on its own is reemphasized much later in the play when Iphigeneia is able to deceive the king by purporting that the statue physically turned 67) The scene recalls Andromache when Andromache asks Hermione: 15 deception and the ultimate escape with the statue. In this final episode of the play the ems to take on the role of a quasi character. While the statue has already acted to drive the events of the play throughout, once the characters agree to image becomes not only the object of their theft, but also the protective tool with which they are able to carry it out and stands in view of the audience as the siblings make their escape. 15 In both Hippolytus and the Iphigeneia Euripides uses a tablet or letter to reveal an important secret that forces a reaction and moves forward the dramatic action of the play. In both cases these letters, read aloud, are given the power to speak ou t to the other characters and the audience. Often, in the plays that center around divinity statues, such as Hippolytus Andromache and Iphigeneia similar instances of vivification of the inanimate appear.
86 Once Iphigeneia and the two fugitives agree upon their means of deception, Euripides takes a number of steps to build suspense in anticipation of the confrontation with Thoas. After convincing the chorus of women to be silent and assist in the escape plans (1056 74), Iphigeneia warns Orestes and Pylades that Thoas will soon arrive on sta ge to inquire about the sacrifice of the strangers. With a prayer to Artemis, Iphigeneia also reminds all present of the ultimate goal of the deception: to free Orestes of blood guilt by transferring the statue to Athens (1082 8). When all three main cha escape that emphasizes the dire circumstances of the three main characters. It also delays the moment when Thoas will take the stage and go up against the clever Iphigene ia (1089 1152). When the chorus finally finishes their song, Thoas enters just as Iphigeneia bursts from the temple with the statue in her arms Artemis, at last, has arrived. The chorus underscores the importance of this event in their introduction of t he priestess: (1156). While the statement surely introduces Iphigeneia, it also ambiguously can refer to the first appearance of the goddess onstage. The king, in search of details concerning the foreigners and their obligatory sacrifice, is du mbfounded at the sight of image, takes authoritative control of the play and confronts the king in a battle of wits in which he is obviously the inferior party. Whe n the priestess exits the temple carrying the image in her arms, Euripides highlights the close and protective relationship between Iphigeneia and the goddess.
87 decepti on of the king. By clinging to the statue as she undertakes a great risk, Earlier, we saw how Andromache gained protection from the attacks of Hermione and Menelaus by staying within the temenos image of the goddess. Likewise, the statue of Artemis plays a similar role in the Hippolytus when Phaedra hides behind the statue while the nurse reveals the truth behind her Iphigeneia Euripides uses a small statue which Iphigeneia can carry with her as she undertakes the escape. divine protecti on of her priestess will carry on throughout both the escape from the Taurians and the subsequent journey to Athens. overtly animated state. Her purported animation prompts Iphig eneia and Thoas to and turn itself away sua sponte w a procession to the sea for purification rituals. Here the image appears connected to Iphigeneia, who is her priestess and the one physically holding the statue before the audience. Euripides also subtly brings the audience back around to Orestes and t he initial aim of his journey, to free himself of blood pollution by removing the statue. When deliberating the potential beginning of the play (1165 67): 16 16 Trieschnigg ( 2008) its own accord, or did an earth th e dream
88 : Iphigeneia: The image of the goddess turned back from where it sits. Thoas: On its own accord, or did the shaking of the eart h turn it? Iphigeneia: On its own accord. It closed shut its eyes. In this exchange, Iphigeneia reiterates her speech at the prologue when she describes the house of Atreus as shaking and falling, leaving only a single pillar (46 52): But the back of the earth was shaken by a quake, and having fled outside I watched the top course of stones on the house fall down, and the entire roof thrown down and crash to the ground from its heights. Only one pillar remained, it seemed to me, of my pat ernal home, and from its capital blond hair hung down, and it took on the voice of a human.
89 In the exchange between Iphigeneia and Thoas (1165 67), the statue is reported to be animated and have the ability to move on its own. Similarly, Iphigeneia had described the pillar of Orestes as possessing the ability of human speech. Furthermore, Thoas, movement. In her description of the pillar, Iphigeneia explains that the remainder of the house fell down around the pillar due to an earthquake. Finally, both Orestes and the ating echoes of the dream in this pivotal exchange between Iphigeneia and Thoas, Euripides reminds the matricide. When Iphigeneia comes through the doors of the templ e with the statue in her and delegating instructions to the Taurian people. The priestess does this, moreover, y to Iphigeneia. The success of her deception is made clear when Thoas acquiesces to her ritual demands (1199 1202): : :
90 Iphigeneia: The divine image of the goddess must also be washed by me. Thoas: Indeed, as long as the pollution of matricide has touched it. Iphigeneia: For no other reason would I have taken it from the pedestal. Thoas: Your reverence is just and upright. Once she has convinced the king, Iphigeneia controls the behavior of not only Thoas, but also, of all the Taurian people. Here, Euripides inverts the traditional relationship once the statue has left the temple. With this command, the priestess co mpels the other characters in the play to go throu gh the isolated experience of a divine image. At the very moment that statue makes its appearance in broad daylight outside the temple, she commands the Taurian people to leave and go indoors. Furthermore when the statue comes out into the view of the audience carried by Iphigeneia, it purportedly boasts the amazing and unusual ability to take on human characteristics. Euripides creates a contrast that highlights the unique nature of the statue when he j uxtaposes its human abilities with the locking away, blinding, veiling, and silencing of the mortal characters on the stage throughout the rest of the episode (1203 33). When Iphigeneia begins the procession down to the sea, the human characters in the pl commands that chains be put around Orestes and Pylades (1203), even though Thoas sees no need for this as they have nowhere to run (1204). Beyond the chains, Iphigeneia al so asks that the two men be veiled with their robes (1207). 17 Throughout this episode, Orestes and Pylades have been inside the temple, while the goddess is in 17 deceive d bride.
91 the open air for the first time. When they finally exit the temple at 1222, the two men enter t he procession veiled, silent, and unable to move freely. In a manner parallel to of a vi sual tableau that recalls the familiar genre of processional art. The image would become even more striking if the processional tableau mirrored a frieze depicted on the temple of Artemis, standing in the background of the stage. As the characters, costu med and masked, stand according to the careful instructions of Iphigeneia, Euripides brings a familiar art form to life and commands the visual attention of his audience. As the procession passes, moreover, Iphigeneia orders Thoas to cover his eyes and th en enter the temple in order to purify it of pollution (1215 1221). 18 As Iphigeneia announces the entrance of Orestes and Pylades, Thoas now stands silent and with his eyes averted, waiting to enter the temple from which the image has just been removed. I phigeneia, furthermore, commands that the entire community stay indoors as well. At this point in the play, the statue, now in view for the first and only time, holds the stage. n her journey to Athens, every other member of the community, including the king, are asked to turn away before her power and shut themselves indoors. Thoas will not be seen on stage again until the messenger bangs on the doors of the temple to tell the k ing of 1310). By removing all witnesses from the ritual 18
92 procession, Euripides eliminates all community involvement from the ritual act and Thoas remai ns locked up and fooled until the messenger arrives and convinces immediately exhorts the Ta urians to overtake the ship and capture the fugitives. Moreover, he specifically promises the chorus punishment for their involvement in the deception. His plans are abruptly halted, however, when a goddess appears on stage ex machina Euripides, howeve r, foils expectations and chooses not to bring Artemis 6): Where, where are you taking this chase, L ord Thoas? Listen to the words of the one here, Athena. In her speech, Athena speaks for all the gods involved in the play, delegating duties and actions to the characters. She even addresses the three absent fugitives, calling upon Orestes in particular: (1447). Here, Athena appears as an authoritative yet impartial messenger who ensures the expected sanctioned by Apollo and the quest to free himself of bloodguilt by bringing the statue of Artemis to Athens, which she calls (1441). She notes that Poseidon has gulf. The goddess then gi ves the aiteology of the cults of Artemis at Brauron and Halae.
93 counted out the vot for the other gods and concludes the events of the play with a reminder of the initial Is this ap pearance of Athena, rather than Arte mis or Apollo, at the end of Iphigeneia in other plays when unexpected deities arrive ex machina. Euripides employs a similar device in Hippolytus when an unusual deus ex machin a by Aphrodite opens the play, and rather than having the slighted goddess return to close the action, he brings Iphigeneia also close ly mirrors the events of the similarly structured Ion in which it is unexpected arrival in the Ion can shed light on the events of the Iphigeneia since Athena justifies her appearance over the temple of Apollo at Delphi in the Ion (1555 58): 19 I have come from your land which is named after me, Pallas, hastened on my journey by Apollo who does not th ink it right to come before your eyes, 19 Ion and Iphigeneia in place of a guilty divinity, see Kyriakou (2006) 451.
94 lest blame for the things that have happened comes up in his presence. Here the goddess speaks for Apollo and explains his decision to avoid confrontation with the characters in the play. Apollo, not wishing to answ er for his morally ambiguous actions, sends Athena to speak on his behalf. Her speech ev en echoes her appearance in Iphigeneia when she refers to Athens as (1441). Apollo, in the Ion has only to answer for a potentially deadly false prophecy. In comparison to the appear fairly innocuous. Thus, in Iphigeneia Athena ex machina allows both Artemis and the playwright to avoid giving explanations for the morally ambiguous behavior of the divinity. Moreover, although Iphigeneia is a play that takes place in Tauris, is truly for and about Athenians and the ultimate establishment of Athenian cults. Athena, furthermore, overall aim of the play. As the action of the play shifts to the escape and flight of the fugitives, Eu ripides reminds the audi ence repeatedly of this goal. Iphigeneia even Artemis just before the deception scene takes place. Moreover, as a basis for the plot of the Iphigenei a Euripides follows the myth of the Palladium, a story about a statue of Athena, allowing that goddess to stand in the background of a play nominally concerned with Artemis. Finally, by choosing Athena as the closing deity of the play, Euripides emphasiz morally questionable role in a foreign land to her civilized and proper home of Athens, a translocation physically represented by her stolen statue.
95 CHAPTER 5 STATUES AND STAGING IN ALCESTIS Thus far, I have d iscussed how the statues of Hippolytus Andromache and Iphigeneia at Tauris help to organize the dramatic action of those play s in both a visual and thematic manner. The se divine statues also create visual reminders of the controlling deities and their silent presence in on stage affairs. Moreover, they serve as quasi characters in the plays, embodying the deities that they dep ict and can even be joined by the gods they represent in dei ex machina scenes. Euripidean characters often speak to the se statues as if they were animate beings, paying their respects (or not) and cl inging to them for protection. H ere I shift my focus from divine and staged statues and look to the title character, whom Euripides repeatedly presents as a living statue or work of art. Although no statues of mortals were ever part of the staging of an extant Euripidean play the similarity between a statue and a silent and unmoving, fully masked and costumed character was not lost on the playwright. In Alcestis Euripides cleverly and eagerly exploits the statue like presence of his characters on the stage. Scholars have lo ng recognized and discussed the relationship between the for a statue substitute of his wife, and its relationship (if any) to the unique ending of the play when Alcestis returns veiled and s ilent The ending has even led some scholars to conclude that Euripides staged the play with two actors and that a statue of Alcestis literally stood on stage during the closing scene 1 Other scholars have sought to explore the rel ationship between statues and death in the play, concluding that Euripides likens the silent Alcestis to a traditional funerary statue. While many of these 1 Stieber (1998) 92 n3.
96 arguments are convincing, in this chapter I demonstrate that the statue like presentations of Alces tis are all individual pieces of a larger focus on visual aesthetics woman as an artistic object pervades the play from beginning to end as a means of reflecting her them atic role as objectified wife and death substitute. Moreover, Euripides frames the work with artistic presentations of Alcestis. description of the dying woman at the beginning of the play creates an image that mirrors her statue like retur n at the end. By portraying the woman in this way, the playwright underscores the liminal state that the woman inhabits throughout the play, halfway between life and death. The House of Admetus in Staging the Alcestis While no tru e statue appears on st age in Alcestis the setting still holds many elements in common with the staging of the other plays I have discussed. In Hippolytus, for example, Euripides organizes the dramatic action around two permanent divine statues This allows the characters to reveal visually their divine allegiances in a The statues also function as silent witnesses to the action and stan d as reminders to the audience of the deities who are in control. Andromache similarly unfolds aroun d a statue of Thetis that stands in the center of the orchestra, the most powerful point in the theatre. As the presiding deity of Thetideon, who truly controls the e ven ts of the story. Likewise, Iphigeneia takes place before a temple of Artemis, and a sacrificial altar, stained with the blood of human victims stands Euripides allocat es the orchestra and area around the altar to Orestes and the space
97 half of the st ory, Iphigeneia leads to the sea a procession that is thematically and In all of these instances Euripides includes permanent, divinely sanctioned fixtures in the settings. This divine presence frames the perform ance of each play and is integral to a full understanding of the thematic points. Alcestis similarly includes statue based imagery and a permanent divine fixture. 2 In Alcestis however, Euripides uniquely gives the role of divine witness to the palace of Admetus, a house that as the play progresses, comes to resemble a quasi temple. 3 Just like the statues of Artemis, characters offer words and prayers. The palace ev en receives the first address in 4 (1 2) House of Admetus, into which I came to endure 2 2 satyric play with a review of literature, see Thorburn (2002) xvi xxx. 3 ambiguous play on life and death and the emphasis on hospitality. It is the latter which makes the palace of Admetus (which provides the total scenic background), and going sand comings which revolve around 4 al
98 With these first words th e god makes it clear that the palace is no ordinary home. It has housed a god as a servant and stands as a constant reminder of the divine origins of 5 Later, in the central scene of the play, the chorus even sings an ode to the house praising its virtue and connections to the gods: (568 77) House of a tirelessly hospitable and kind man, even Pythian Apollo with his beautiful lyre deemed it worthy to reside in you and took up the role of shepherd to your pastures, playing his flute song throughout the hillsides to your flocks, urging them to mate. The chorus, in their song, presents the house as a place that Apollo chose, dwelled in, and filled with divine song. As such, the palace takes on many of the characteristics of divine image, here the chorus describes the palace literally housing and protecting 5 Alcestis
99 Apollo. In this way, the house not only appears a quasi temple to Apollo, but it also acts as a divine fixture on the stage that silently witnesses the events as they unfo ld, much like the statues of Hippolytus and Andromache 6 In addition, the house organizes the action of the play in much the same way as the divine statues I have previously discussed. Only by means of carefully planned entrances and exits through the palace door c an Euripides stage the simultaneous mourning and revelry that occurs in the story. As a divinely inspired place analogous to is presented as a place of protection and refuge. This can also help explain the unusual nature of Alce s stage death. While most tragic characters withdraw into the house to meet their deaths, Alcestis only dies once she has left the divine and protective threshold of the house s up many of the larger themes that appear throughout the Alcestis examples of substitution, role reversals, hospitality and premature death: (1 6) House of Admetus, into which I came to endure 6 Conacher (1988) 156 commen play, indicating the impossibility in the traditional world of tragic myth (which the Chorus describes) of
100 Zeus was the reason, for he murdered my son Asclepius, hitting him with a lightning bolt to the chest. Provoked in anger by this I killed the son of Zeus who forged fire, the Cyclops. Framed as an address to the house, Apollo traces the true origins of the story to the prematu re death of his son Asclepius, for which he exacted revenge against Zeus by killing the Cyclops. These deaths and their overturning of familial stability foreshadow dis as well. Alcestis as Image of the House between life and death. In the first description of the woman, Alcestis is readying herself to die and bedecking her own body with ornamentation, a task typically carried out by family members after a loved one has passed. Alcestis then loses her life while lying in the central point of the orchestra in full view of the audience and her corpse later becomes the centerp iece of a visually compelling funerary procession. Finally, Heracles returns the wife to Admetus, alive, yet veiled and silent in the manner of a statue. By presenting the woman as a statue during criti cal moments of the play, Euripid es emphasizes the li minal state of Alcestis by comparing her to inanimate objects. While he always presents her in a highly visual manner, in three key instances Euripides portrays Alcestis in way that specifically compares her to a statue. In the beginning of the play, be fore Alcestis has even appeared on stage, the maid
101 scene from a work of art or describing a statue. Through intensely descriptive language, Euripides creates an image of a silent and pale woman bedecked with ornamentation at her family altar. The description recalls a votive statue or object and sets Alcestis up as a quasi divine image within the divine palace. Later, when Alcestis and Admetus agree upon the terms of her death and he promises never to take a wife, Admetus describes his desire to have a statue replica of Alcestis made in order to take her place in the marriage bed. Here, Eurip i des changes her presentation from that of a votive object to an object of e rotic longing. And finally, at the end of the play Alcestis re emerges alongside Heracles, but silent and statue like, much in the manner of a funerary monument. In presenting her as an artistic piece and inanimate object, Euripides is able reiterate her role as an objectified substitute and add to the liminal status of her character. Moreover, by presenting Alcestis as a quasi divine image within the palace and a woman of exceptional nobility, Euripides casts A lcestis as the centerpiece and heart of the household. While Admetus values the woman for her physical beauty and home is much more central than her husband realizes. As a result, the liminal status that Alc estis embodies ultimately throws the entire household into a state of limbo that reflects the plight of its mistress. We find the house in this state of confusion as early as the first parados as living
102 Admetus appears unable to bring order and stability to the household, as he shows in his melodramatic lamentation (935 61) Alcestis as Liminal Figure and Statue As we have already seen in Hippolytus Andromache and Iphigeneia the playwright stages critical scenes in ways that visually reflect thematic elements of the story. In much the same way, Euripides shows great concern for the relationship between the visual and thematic elements of the Alcestis A focus on aesthetics is clear even in the first moments of the play when Apollo delivers his monologue. We see the god standi ng alone before the palace which had previously housed and protected him resulting offer of a death substitute. Euripides, moreover, carries this close connection between staging and meaning over into the scene just following the prologue (28 76). Here the playwright creates a visually dynamic agon between two gods with starkly contr asting appearances. 7 Death, undoubtedly, would have arrived dressed entirely in black, as Admetus himself later refers to the god as (843). Set against the bright, golden image of the sun god Apollo, the disparate appearance and nature of Dea th creates a scene of vi sual and thematic opposition. The clash between the two gods also visually plays out one of the central conflicts (Death) and host (Apollo). This tableau is repeated i n the second half of the play when 7 Conacher (1988) 47 8 hypothesizes a staging in gold treated) as Death, black robed (or possibly black app roaches and, after his altercation with Apollo, enters the palace to begin his symbolic possession of
103 Admetus, dressed in black and hair shorn in mourning, is surprised to find the revelry loving Heracles at his doorstep. 8 Finally, in a third example, this scene is once again recalled when Heracles questions the mourning servant, clad in black, who confronts the hero over his inappropriate carousing. In opening Alcestis with such visually striking scenes, Euripides lays the foundation for the frequent use of artistically compelling staging and descriptive narratives tha t recur in the play. The visual aspects of the agon come to the fore when black robed Death draws attention to the appearance of Apollo, asking the god why he carries a bow and arrow exchan also the specific representation of Apollo that Euripides creates in the Alcestis (38 41) Apollo: Take courage, I come to you with justice and trustworthy words. Death: Then what is the purpose of your bow and arrows, if you bring justic e? 8
104 Apollo: It is customary for me to always carry these thing with me. Death: Yes, and also to assist this house unjustly. In the opening monologue Apollo had explained that he was formerly a servant and th bow and arrow, a weapon that seems comically useless when set against the god of Death personified. More importantly, however, Euripides draws attention to the t raditional iconographic costume, already familiar from the visual arts. Even in a context when a bow and arrow seem to have no use, Apollo carries them around because those items visually identify the god. Once the gods leave the stage, the chorus enters (77) in a state of confusion, unsure whether Alcestis is living or dead. (79 85) But no relatives are at the gates who would be able to say whet her she has died and it is necessary to lament the queen or whether she, still living, looks upon the light, the child of Peleus, this woman Alcestis, in my opinion, regarded as the best wife to her husband by everyone here.
105 This argument over Alcestis as dead or alive carries on for over 60 lines, building suspense through a song of prolonged confusion. 9 By creating a parados that discusses at length unusual liminal status of Alcesti parados also creates suspense and anxiety for the audience, who come to want some answers themselves. Finally, a maid servant comes from the house and the chorus (and the audience) is relieved t hat finally they may get some information. The chorus immediately questions the serving woman: , (138 140) Grieving is allowable, if anything has happened to your mistress. But if the woman is alive or whether she has died I would like to know. The servant, however, confounds the issue when she describes Alcestis as neither d dead nominally only applies to the character exists in this liminal state throughout the entirety of the play. Her liminal state, moreover, will eventually culminate in her presentation as a quasi funerary statue in the 9 ing anapaests and the first half of this ode introduce the ambiguity between life and death which, in one form or another, is to hover over the whole of the play,
106 closing scene. It is in the context of this ambiguity that Euripides develops his artistic portrayals of the woman in which he compares her to a statue or work of art. When the serving woman launches into a visually detaile d description of Alcestis, we find our first example of an objectified and artistically focused presentation of the woman: (158 62) For when she heard that the appointed day had arrived, washing her white skin with pure water, and taking clothing and ornamentation from her cedar closet she dressed herself in a beautiful manner and standing before altar 10 of the hearth she prayed: With this narration the servant paints a picture of the beautiful Alcestis ornamenting her body and praying as she readies herself for death. In addition to the artistic nature of the narrative langu (159) and her body washed and adorned as she stands before the pa calls to mind the ritual bathing and dressing of divine images that we have previously 10 Not all editors capitalize Hestia in the text, however,
107 seen in the garlanded statues of Hippolytus or the ritual cleansing that play s such an important role in Iphigeneia at Tauris corpse as a family prepares a loved one for burial. Thus, the term that the maidservant uses life/death state and her status as an object substitute in the play. By portraying the woman in a manner that recalls both a living corpse and a statue, Euripides way that recalls a divine the palace. ekkyklema and on the verge of death. In this state Alcestis launches into a description of Charon coming to ferry her to the underworld. She even includes an iconographic detail like (252 256b) I see the two oared boat, I see the boat in the lake. The ferryman of the dead,
108 h olding his hand on the boat pole, Charon, urging me to move quickly. This visually focused narrative complements the serving Alcestis. With the repet it ion s tis emphasizes the visual elements of her experience and indirectly asks the audience to imagine the scene she describes. Staging the Death Scene The special attention that Euripides paid to aesthetics is also evident in the staging The playwright arranges the characters who take in the household. Until this point, Alcestis has remained out of sight within the palace and was described like a beautiful statue standing before the altar or hearth. This presentation of her casts the woman as the centerpiece of the household and an object of praise. Furthermore, she dwells in a place that p reviously housed a god and now functions as a quasi takes place outside the palace and before the eyes of the audience, as death was strictly forbidden inside the temenos of a holy pl ace. When the servants carry the woman out of the palace door on the ekkyklema she arrives surrounded by the other members of the household. Once she is carried into the orchestra, we see the woman become the centerpiece of the dramatic space as the se rvants and family members surround her. With this staging, the audience identifies Alcestis as the central figure in the scene and the figurative heart of the household.
109 staging when the dying woman calls out: (244 45) Sun and light of day! Heavenly whirlpool of swiftly moving clouds! as a semi divine object. While earlier the servant described her as pale white and ornamented, standing before the altar, here she lies at the point in the orchestra wher e an altar would typically stand. s over the top promise of unending mourning and fidelity, Admetus again recalls the description of her as a noble statue at the palace altar, Admetus chooses to objectify the woman in a sexual manner and voices his desire for a statue replica of his wife to lay in his bed as a substitute :
110 ( 34 7 56) For you have taken the enjoyment out of my life. A likeness of your body, created by a skilled hand will be laid out upon my bed, upon which image I will fall enfolding arms and calling it by your name I will seem to have my own wife in my embra ce A cold enjoyment, I suppose, but nevertheless it will be a way to lighten the weight upon my soul. But approaching me in dreams perhaps you might cheer me up. For it is a sweet thing to look upon loved ones i n the night, for the time which they are present. desire seems not only selfish, but also short centrality to the stability of the hom e even as the audience watches her die at the altar point of the orchestra and surrounded by the members of her household. Admetus shows the true extent of his undervaluation of Alcestis when he vocalizes his wish for a statue substitute of the woman for his bed while she lies dying on the ekkyklema Through his for statue and the dying woman at the center of the dramatic space. 11 11 According to Steiner (2001) 206 emphasizes a quality that is common to both the future corpse of his wife and the statue creating a stark contrast between the living and dead Alcestis
111 Euripides again reveals his desired emphasis on the vi sual aspects of the play when he chooses to forgo a typical tragic death in which the woman would be brought back inside the palace to die, away from the eyes of the audience. Instead, we find the woman lying in her sickbed surrounded by the members of he r household and watch as her life slips away. Thus, the audience sees Alces tis, the centerpiece and heart of the household die away before their very eyes. In this way Euripides is able to reflect the true nature of the loss, juxtaposed against the self absorbed laments and desires of the 12 Finally, her corpse is carried into the house and the stage is set for the arrival of Heracles. character that pervades the play, her body is carried out of the house then, as part of a centerpiece. In staging an event that typically includes community participation, Euripides also invites the audience to take part in the mourning for the dead woman. We have already seen how Euripides con structs a similar tableau in Iphigeneia at Tauris when the pri Alcestis however, the procession bears the richly decorated body of Alcestis on her way to her tomb underscores the B ecause the mourners would undoubtedly be dressed entirely in black, the richly ornamented corpse of Alcestis 12 Segal (1993) 37 8, notes that Adme romanticism, almost an aestheti cism of grief, and the down to earth practicality of the dying woman, whose concern is for the future of her children, not self
112 would become the visual focus of the scene. This staging recalls the earlier death scene, in which the woman lay at the center of the orchestra, the most powerful point of the theatre. In the procession, however, Euripides gives a visual emphasis to the woman through the use of contrasts in color and dress, a technique that the playwright has employed thro ughout the work as a whole. When the procession finally exits at 747, the play undergoes a major visual shift as the dramatic space once full of family and mourners, now stands empty In a marked contrast, a single servant ente rs from the house to narrate a description of the events that have been occurring within the palace. In his speech, the servant, alone on stage, gives an inside: (756 60) Taking the ivy wood drinking bowl into his hands, he drank the unmixed wine of the black mother grap e until the warmth of the wine embraced his heart. He garlanded his head with branches of myrtle and sang rude songs.
113 Here, Euripides creates a series of stark contrasts by juxtaposing this narration against the prior tableau of the funeral procession During the procession the audience watched the stage fill completely with mourners dressed in the dark attire of lamentation. In the current scene, a single speaker recalls the festive dress and behavior of Heracles. By creating a scene that contras ts so completely with the earlier funeral procession, Euripides marks the beginning of the second half of th e play. From the opening prologue until the funerary sacrifice and death for her husband. When th e mourners finally carry her body away, they bring an end servant relating a tale of revelry, the overall focus of the play shifts, and Heracles and his eventual return of the woman become our primary story Euripides also signals that a new episode has begun when Heracles exits the house and addresses the grieving servant: (773). We know from the recent description that Heracles is dressed for r evelry and his temples are appearance recalls the prologue Euripides visually plays out the conflicting duties of hospitality and mourning that have beset the household. When Heracles leaves the stage after vowing to bring Alcestis Death exits the stage to take Alcestis to her death. He re, Heracles exits to restore the woman to life. When the funeral procession returns at 861, the grieving members of the household again fill the dramatic space However,
114 centerpiece of the procession has been lost Under these circumstances Admetus launches into a melodramatic and self absorbed lamentation that centers on the loss of his wife as a visual object. Before Admetus can even gather himself to speak, the chorus sets the tone for his speech when they con sole the man: (877) To never see the face of your dear wife before you is a grief. In his lamentation, Admetus echoes this sentiment and makes sight and seeing the key emotional triggers of his grief: (944 55) For the solitude inside the house will drive me out
115 when I see the bed of my wife empty and the chairs in which she sat and the floors in the house dusty, and the children falling at my knees and calling for their mother, and the servants lamenting what sort of a mistress they have lost from the house. On the one ha nd, this is the state of things inside the house. On the other hand, outside the house weddings of Thessalians and gatherings of women will drive me away. For I will not be able to stand looking at women who are the same age as my wife. And whoever is an enemy of mine will look at me and say, s from a variety of potential scenarios, all of which hinge on the sense of sight. First, the widower laments the thought of seeing ( ) Alce an d furniture with the woman absent. He also weeps at the thought of seeing ( ) reminders of Alcestis, like weddings or even any woman the same age as his wife Finally, Admetus turns himself into the object of sight and laments the gaze ( ) of those who will judge him a cowardly and shameless man. In all of these instances, Admetus emphasizes the power of sight over his emotional state. By centering the tis to an artistic work or statue valued for its aesthetic beauty. In doing so, the playwright not reminds the audience of the state she inhabits between life and death.
116 Finally, at 1006 the songs of lamentation are brought to a halt when Heracles takes the stage, leading a veiled and silent woman. So begins the recognition scene in which Admetus will be reunited with his wife. In their introduction of the hero, the ch orus calls out to Admetus: (1006 7) And here he is, as it seems, the son of Alcmene, Admetus, he is coming to your hearth. Rather than employing the expected term the chorus tells Admetus that Heracles is headed (1007). With the term the statement recalls the earlier description of Alcestis readying herself for death (162). By echoing ion of Alcestis as a statue, Euripides lays the foundations for the statue like role of the woman in the final scene. When Heracles speaks, the hero adds to the objectified valuation that Alcestis has undergone throughout the play when he describes her as a prize and profit won in an athletic competition: (1029 31) From there I won this woman as a victory prize.
117 For, to the ones who won l ight events horses were given, and to those, in turn, who won bigger events, like boxing and wrestling, they took a herd of oxen; and a woman went along in addition to these things. a list of victory prizes. The hero even describes her as a (1033) and commands Admetus to take her in: (1020). Here, we see Alcestis become, once again, a mere object of exchange valued for some profit, rather than as a human being. The characterization of Al cestis as an ob ject of exchange at the end of the play, moreover, (12 14) But the goddesses promised me that Admetus could flee an immedi ate death by giving over another corpse in exchange to the ones below. In the prologue, Apollo describes Admetus exchanging Alcestis to Death in order to win winnin g Alcestis as a prize in an athletic competition and attempts to give the woman back to Admetus. Here we see Alcestis variously passed between the hands of men as an object of value and profit. Admetus, however, does not accept the woman right
118 away. In s tead, he again returns to his grief and reiterates the pain he suffers at (1061 67) You, woman, whoever you are, recognize that you have the same shape as Alcestis and that your frame looks just like hers. Ah me. By the gods, take her away from my sight, one who is dead. For I think about my wife when I look at this woman. By lingering on the physical appearance of the veiled woman and noting her exact likeness to Alcestis, Admetus echoes his earlier wish for a statue replica of Alcestis to lay in his bed. As the woman stands silent and still, she takes on the likeness of the statue that Admetus had previously desired. Admetus again recalls the image of a stony statue when he reaches out to touch the veiled woman and exclaims : With a reference to the Gorgon Euripides recalls the ima ge of a person turning to stone, i.e., into a statue
119 Finally, at the moment when Heracles has convinced the timid Admetus to reach out and touch the w oman, the hero unveils Alcestis and commands the husband: (1121 2) Look at her, does she seem to look anything like your wife? Stop your grief as you are a fortunate man. At Admetus now exclaims that looking at the woman brings him wonderment and joy (1123 24). Yet, as the audience expects the woman to greet her husband and embrace him, she instea d stands silent and still, leading Admetus to posit: (1127). In choosing the term to describe the silent Alcestis, status as an objectified statue or work of art. This focus on her appearance continues when Admetus embraces his wife a second time and rejoices to once again behold her face and physical form (1133 devotion to his noble wife. some to conclude that the play must have been performed with only two actors. 13 It seems, however, that an actor in full costume wear ing a mask and remaining still and 13 Stieber (1998) 92 n3; Damen (1989).
12 0 silent would present the most striking image to the audience. 14 Through this presentation Euripides would liken the actual actor to a statue and echo the earlier language of substitution an appropriate image to recall i n the final moments of a pro satyric play While Alcestis previously substituted herself for her husband and a statue substituted her role as a wife, now an actor stands in substitution for a statue, and ultimately, for Alcestis. 15 By keeping a silent act or on stage in full costume and mask, Euripides once again underscores the liminal nature of Alcestis character in the closing moments of the play The staging also recalls other key moments in the play, all of which centered on Alcestis both visually a nd thematically. As a silent and unmoving character who repeatedly 14 Ibid. 85: Stieber takes no firm stance on whether an actual statue would have been brought out on the stage or whether an actor simply would have come on stage in silence 15 While Stieber has shown that the silent Alcestis at the end of the play is meant to recall the image of a funerary statue, Stieber does not attempt to explain why Euripides decided to include such a motif. Erna Trammell has pointed out that Alcestis may require a three day silence in order to be purified of the pollution of death, a po llution that Apollo mentions in the prologue of the play: ( 22 6 ) And I, lest pollu tion reach me in the house, I am leaving the beloved roof of this house. Already I see death nearby, the priest of the dead, who is preparing to take her down to the house of Hade s. While the number three may have held a mystic quality in ancient Greec e as Trammell (1968) 85 91 argues and to some extent this explanation may hold true, I think it overlooks the real impact of the silent Alcestis on the audience.
121 becomes an object of discussion and visual assessment, Alcestis once again become the centerpiece of the dramatic space. Her silence here recalls her death scene in which she lay at the c enter of the orchestra surrounded by the members of her household. procession to mind, again associating the living woman with a dead body. While Euripides consistently portrays the woman as navigating the borders between life/death and human/object, this scene acts as a culmination of all these depictions, rendering the woman unable to speak or act as a fully animated human. Thus, the liminal status that character throughout the play has become so consuming of her character that Alcestis will not even have the ability to speak for three days. By closing the play on this note, Euripides creates an ending that stages a summation of the thematic focus on Alc Furthermore, by presenting her character as a statue Euripides invites the audience to reflect on her situation and the sacrifice that she chose to make for her husband rather than simply rewinding her character to it s role p revious to death.
122 CHAPTER 6 STATUES IN PHOENISSAE, ION, HER ACLES, TROJAN WOMEN AND HECUBA In the course of this project I have focused primarily on four plays of Euripides: Hippolyt us Andromache Iphigeneia at Tauris and Alcestis I n thes e play s Euripides relies most heavily on statues and statue imagery when developing the staging and that his use of statues in these plays follows a pattern that carries t hrough the corpus as a whole. Specifically, I show that in placing statues of deities on stage, the playwright reminds the audience that t he gods are in control and stand as silent witnesses to the dramatic action. The statues, moreover, serve as a cente r around which the dramatic action can develop both visually and thematically. In the context of mortal characters, Euripides creates comparisons between women and statues in order to express their status as noble, yet helpless and pitiable individuals. At the same time, moreover, thi s objectified presentation allows the woman to be eroticized as a sex object and portrayed as a thing of beauty. Euripides tends to employ this sort of comparison in the context of female death and sacrifice, as these are t ypically the moments when a woman is the most submissive and dominated yet most valuable and triumphant Apollo in Phoenissae Because the texts of Hippolytus Andromache and Iphigeneia at Tauris all make direct references to divine images, we know that statues certainly appeared on stage. Here, I want to examine another instance of a statue in
123 Phoenissae 1 In Phoenissae it has been posited that a statue of Apollo Agyieus stood on stage near the palace door. Specifically, sc direct address to Apollo Agyieus in his farewell to Eteocles and Thebes may suggest that a statue, column, or altar to the god was present: (631 5) And you, Phoebus, lord of the streets, and my palace, farewell, and my fellow men, and statues of the gods, where sheep are sacrificed. For I do not know whether it will ever fall to me to address you again. But hopes are not yet sleeping, which leads me to trust that alongside the gods, after I have killed that man I will rule the land of Thebes. protection, scholars have read this passage as indicating that an image of Ap ollo may have stood as a permane nt stage fixture in the play. doorway image introduces an additional subject of debate, as the archaeological record pillar or altar. 2 As a pillar, Apollo Agyieus was typically portrayed by a column with a uniquely pointed 1 2 portrayed in tragedy I wonder whether there may not have been a prop of a real image rather than the
124 top, a detail that identifies it with the specif ic Agyieus version of Apollo. As the divine founder of Thebes and the god most closely associated wi th the Oedipal myths, I agree that a statue of Apollo Agyieus would make an effective stage prop for the story of Phoenissae 3 Apollo Agyieus, moreover, would especially recall the importance of the tle evidence to know for certain whether a statue or pillar depicted the god, I think any standing object that specifically specifically a divine image or not. While the pr direct address to the god does hold similarities to the a ddresses that characters in Hippolytus Phaedra, for example, employs similar language and content: (353 61) 3 Craik ( 1988
125 Oh my, what are you saying, child? You have destroyed me. alive. The day is an enemy; the li ght I look upon is an enemy. I will cast myself down and release my body; dying, I will let go of life. Farewell, I exist no longer. For those of sound mind, although not wanting it, nevertheless, love evils. Kypris is not a god, but whatever is bi gger than what a god is, she is this and has destroyed me and this household. Both the nurse and Polyneices express their helplessness in the face of a desperate situation and then bid farewell ( ) to their home and related gods. Just as Polyneices bids goodbye to Apollo, so does the nurse to Kypris moreover, we know that a statue of Aphrodite would have stood nearby while the nurse called out to the goddess. With these close parallels in language and content, it seems addressed to a statue of the god. his presence on stage via an Ag y would function in a manner Andromache As Cadmus founded Thebes according to the direction of the oracle at Delphi, so the foundation of the Thetideion held divine origins as it represented the place where Thetis and Peleus Andromache would signal to the audience that the god was in control. The audience knows that Thebes must fall according to the prophecy given to Laius, and Jocasta herself con
126 underscore the importance of div ine control in the fall of the Theba n house, in much the n vi a her image Euripides further signals the supremacy of Apollo in the play by depicting the chorus as a group of beautiful young girls completely devoted to the worship of the god. While the family of Oedipus expresses despair over the catastrophe t hat has befallen the house, the chorus maintains an air of celebratory devotion to the god that stands in des portrays the girls in a manner that recalls votive objects or statues: (214 21) Chosen from my city as the greatest beauty for Loxias, I came to the land of Cadmus, of the famous dece n dents of Agenor,
127 my kinsmen, sent here to the towers of Laius. And, just as statues made of gold, I became a servant to Phoebus. W hen the chorus describes themselves as equivalent to golden votive statues, they portray themselves as physi cal property of the god. We see Euripides use a similar technique in Andromache when he systematically presents Andromache in ways that recall a st 4 When Menelaus and Hermione force Andromache from the temenos for death before the altar of the house, Alcestis also takes on characteristics of a votive object or statue within a palace sacred to Apollo. Athena and the Temple of Apollo at Delphi in the Ion I would now like to draw attention to the sculptural frieze on the temple of Apollo at Delphi in the Ion and the significance of the deities it depicts In my analysis of Alcestis as a quasi temple and silent witness to the action. Scholars have often noted the addresses given to it by the characters on stage. Similarly, the temple of Apollo at Delphi functions as both a divinely sanctioned struct ure and silent witness to the action of the Ion In fact, Euripides takes pains to remind the audience that practically the throughout the parados (184 4 Swift (2009) 80 n67, notes the similar ity between the language of this passage and that of IT 18 21,
128 218), they point out the many deities who are watching the play alongside the audience. offered him protection and saf ety. The sculptural depiction on the temple frieze, moreover, allows Euripides to create Ion is set at Delphi n Athens make the journey to Delphi due to their inability to produce an heir back home. 5 As the turally (209 11) Do you see the goddess brandishing her gorgon eyed shield against Enkelados? I see her, Pallas, my goddess. ripides one more opportunity to bring a play ostensibly about Apollo back around to Athena, the goddess who will ultimately appear ex machina at the end of the play. Thus, when Athena takes the stage in person at the end of the play, she stands alongside a sculptural depiction of herself, much l ike Aphrodite and Artemis in Hippolytus or Thetis in the Andromache 5 33.
129 reference to Apollo Agyieus, as we just saw in the Phoeniss ae : (184 87) Not only in revered Athens are there beautifully columned halls of the gods, but there is also worship of Apollo Agyieus. In the opening lines of the first parados, we fin d the chorus sight seeing at temple at Delphi and pointing out the statues and sculptures that stood in the area. Because their mention of Apollo Agyieus occurs in this context, it can be posited with some certainty th at a statue of Apollo Agyieus was intended to stand on stage. The use of such a statue here would resemble the Apollo Agyieus that appears in the Phoenissae Finally, Euripides uses this common statue of Apollo as another means of attention back to the Athenian roots of the play, as the chorus is sure to mention that similar temples and statues stand back in their homeland. Divine Statues and Protection In positioning divine statues on stage Euripides exploits the protective aspe cts of divine images in ways that underscore the themes of each work The degree and that p articular play or scene. In Hippolytus, ection
130 via a statue is not guaranteed to a devotee when Artemis stands by and allows Aphrodite to destroy Hippolytus and Phaedra. While Hippolytus may have devoted cons equences of his hubristic attitude toward Aphrodite. The statue on stage, in reality, ends up underscoring the lack of protection that Artemis gives to Hippolytus as the image ultimately becomes a cold reminder of divine vengeance and the jealousy of the gods. We see a simil ar absence of protection in Phoenissae with the protective Apollo Agyieus statue that stands near the palace door. Rather than intervening in the the devastation unfold. By creating a celebratory chorus that is wholly devoted to the god, Euripides creates an exemplum of correct worship and respect for the god. Rather xpelling the cursed ruling family from his city. 6 6 s of the protective role of divine images also appears frequently in his narratives of off stage action and images. For example, in the dei ex machina scene of the Electra, the Dioskouroi specifically instruct Orestes to seek e: (1254 57) Go to Athens and embrace the revered divine image of Pallas. She will bar them, terrif ying with their dreadful serpents, so that they are unable to touch you, stretching out her gor gon eyed shield over your head.
131 Comparisons of Mortal Women to Statues object, in the Trojan Women Hecuba as a means of expressing her feeling of helple ssness and loss of control describes her situation in words recalling a statue : (190 96) Alas! Alas! Belonging to whom and in wh at place on earth will I become a slave in my old age, as a drone, a wretched thing, the outline of a corpse, feeble adornment to the dead, statue protection and refuge Iphigeneia eyed shield, moreover, portrays the statue as actively menacing and protective, animating i ts presence even further. Rois man and Luschnig (2011) ad loc.,
132 alas! Keeping watch as a guardian by the gates or an attendant to their children, I who once was royalty in Troy. and expresses her powerless state in terms of an artistic piece. By projecting herself as a beautiful statue, Hecuba also underscores her nobility and authority. The Troj an queen stands in a liminal state that forces her at once to be both alive and dead, queen and slave. By comparing her to a beautiful object, Euripides is able to simultaneously elicit pity on her behalf, while also maintaining her image of beauty and no bility. Similarly, Euripides compares Polyxena to a statue at the moment of her sacrifice in the Hecuba When Talthybios tomb he describes the girl in terms of a statue: (557 62) And when she heard the wor ds of her master, taking her robe from the top of the shoulder she pulled it open over her chest to the waist, before their eyes, and she showed her breast and chest,
133 most beautiful as a statue, and bending down upon her knee she delivered a speech mo re pitiable than all others. When the messenger depicts the girl getting on one knee and exposing her breast to Neoptolemus in a heroic acceptance of her fate, his comparison of her to a statue allows the girl to appear both an object of pity and erotic de sire. 7 Her depiction as a liminal state just moments before her death, Polyxena is portrayed in a manner that ltar. Both women appear as beautiful works of art when they accept their deaths and choose to die nobly. 8 Furthermore, the comparison of Polyxena to a statue just prior to her death also recalls t return at the end of her play. 9 Heracle Heracles to statues usually occur in the context of female characters. Because men tend to hold positions of power in tragedy as kings or generals, and comparisons to statues indicate submission, it seems natural that these portrayals would focus on females. In Heracles however, we find a male hero utterly dominated by the gods and forced into a state of 7 gesture, see Mossman(1999) 157 60. 8 beautiful woman, a painted sculpture, may have filled spectators with esp 9 reminiscent of the grave markers of the day, which served somewhat inconsistent functions: like a song, they denied the death throug h memory, but they also affirmed the death by marking the place of burial as erotic and pitiable, see Segal (1990) 112.
134 co mplete helplessness and submission. Thus, we also find one of the few examples in Euripides of a male character depicted in the manner of a statue. At b oth the beginning and end of Heracles the playwright port rays the hero as a stony object This depic tion ability to protect his family. Euripides takes this statue like presentation a step further, moreover, when the hero sits bound to a column of the house, restrained, helpless and fused to a stone pillar. When Amphitryon delivers his prologue (1 59), the family of Heracles sits in the center of the orchestra taking refuge at an altar of Zeus. Under siege from Lycus, they (44 50) But I for he left me at home to rear his children and watch over the house, while he goes into the black darkness of the earth, my child I, with their mother, lest the children of Heracles perish, I am seated here at this altar of Zeus the savior, whic h my well born child set up as a commemorative monument to his glorious victory after he overcame the Minyae.
135 Here, at the p a from an altar, a 10 Thus, the stone monument comes to represent the absent hero and highlight his lack of intervention. This motif of using a a stony substi tute of his dead wife. The staging of the scene, moreover, resembles that woman in a visual reflection of her central role in the family. Here we find a similar assembly, ye t the central figure in the family, Heracles, is absent and replaced instead with an At the end of Heracles Euripides mirrors the comparison to a statue that occurs in the prologue when Heracles, just prior to his exile from Thebes, expresses a wish to be turned to stone: : : Theseus: Stand up, wretched one, enough of your weeping. 10 Griffiths (2006) 48, agrees he opening tableau, then, shows us a family sheltering around a stone monument in place of Heracles himself.
136 Heracles: I am not able, for my limbs are held fast. Theseus: Indeed, fortune even takes down the mighty. Heracles: Alas, would that I become a rock, unmindful of evils. By desiring to be turned to stone, Heracles shows himself to be a helpless and pitiable object. Furthermore, his lack of movement and his desire t o lose the ability to (266 8) For even if on all sides molten lead holds you there, I will pick you up before the one you trust, the son of Achilles, comes. Both Theseus and Her characters. In both, moreover, Euripides employs language related to statues in order to express the defeated and helpless nature of the characters involved. By portraying a character as an i nanimate object, the playwright is able to express a sense of powerlessness and vulnerability. While such situations most often occur in connection with female characters, the Heracles has shown that men, too, can find themselves desperate and abandoned.
137 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION on the structure and meaning of his plays. While in some plays he places statues on the stage sets ( Hippolytus Andromache Phoenissae Ion ) o r incorporates them as props ( Iphigeneia at Tauris ), in other plays Euripides uses the image of a statue in order to make a comparative comment on a particular character ( Alcestis Trojan Women Hecuba Heracles ). When including statues that represent dei ties in the staging the playwright creates reminders of the gods in control. As deities in statue form, the images stand as more than mere inanimate objects. Because of their divine nature, they take on an animated presence that allows them to act as qu asi characters. As behalf, they underscore the lack of protection that certain charact ers may receive. Finally, the images that appear on stage offer a center around which the dramatic action conflict and story. In the context of mortals, Euripides e mploys comparisons to statues in order to portray a once noble character as helpless, defeated and submissive. Because men tend to hold positions of power in the plays, most comparisons to statues refer to female characters. This objectified presentation allows a woman to be eroticized and portrayed as a thing of beauty in her moment of submission and surrender. The comparison to an inanimate object, moreover, lends itself to the context of death and sacrifice as the characters involved can be portrayed as maintaining a liminal state between life and
138 death in their final moments ( Alcestis Polyxena ). While Euripides most often develops comparisons to statues in reference to female characters, on a few occasions he uses the technique to show a male charac Orestes Heracles ). Thus, when Orestes arrives in Tauris besieged by the Furies and risking death by sacrifice, Iphigeneia dreams of her brother in the form of a stone pillar. Likewise, when Heracles is driven mad and compelled to murder his family in the Heracles Euripides depicts the devastated hero as a stony object, analogous to a statue. Statues and Staging In this study, moreover, I have shown that careful attention to the role of statues can help illuminate the intended st aging of certain plays. In Hippolytus placing the statues of Aphrodite and Artemis equidistant from the palace door offers the best organizing principal around which the reflective action can unfold. When the goddesses are located on opposite sides of the stage, the arrangement emphasizes the opposing, yet complementary, nature of the two deities. The statues also allow the playwright to demonstrate vis Finally, I argue that o ekkyklema symmetry.
139 In Andromache I argue represented by placing her statue and shrine at the center of the orchestra. By placing the goddess and her suppliant in the location of the thymele while the other characters appropriate the stage space in front of the skene, two divided theatrical worlds emerge. and her mortal husband, Peleus. The shrine, moreover, would work best with a visually defined temenos surrounding it, as such a partition would underscore the sacrilegious shrine. In Iphigeneia at Tauris Euripides includes a small divine image of Artemis in the sec ond half of the action. Because the portable statue does not stand as a permanent stage fixt ure like the statue s of Hippolytus and Andromache offer the same level of visual organization. Euripides, however, still uses the divine image as a foundation around wh part structure: it is in search of the statue that Orestes first arrives in Tauris and, after the recognition scene, it becomes the key instrument in safely executing the escape plot. In my f inal chapter, I discussed two plays in which the textual evidence suggests a statue of Apollo Agyieus stood on stage. In Phoenissae Polyneices bids farewell to divinity most closely associated with the Theban myths, a statue of Apollo on the stage e crossroads in the downfall of Oedipus. A similar statue, moreover, appears in the
140 staging of the Ion conduct their tour of the temple at Delphi. Because they mention the presence of si mila s image here helps to remind the audience of the Statues and Protection Divine statues also as objects that convey divine protection. W hen a character clings to or hides behind a divine image in search of refuge, their actions reflect the thematic alliances downfall and offers no protection, the image serves to underscore the lack of protection offered to that character. For example, the two deit ies present on stage during Hippolytus mortal relationships. Furthermore, when Phae dra takes refuge b tirade against women, the woman shows that she no longer expects protection from Aphrodite. Similarly, the statue of Apollo Agyieus in Phoenissae silently his lack of intervention or protection from Apollo In Andromache Euripides visually expresses the thematic commonalities that exist between Andromache and Thetis by positioning temenos and clinging to her statue. When Andromache is forced from the confines of nd chooses not to intervene, betwee n Artemis and Iphigeneia in Iphigeneia at Tauris resembles the relationship
141 between Thetis and Andromache. Just as Andromache receive s continuous divine delivered into the hands of Peleus after leaving t he shrine, Iphigeneia carries an image of Artemis along with her. Mortals as Statues Euripides presents a mortal character in a manner that recalls a statue either as Iphigeneia) or as a means of portraying a character as nobly submissive or near death (Alcestis, Polyxena). For e xample, Hermione characterizes Andromache as a statue (266 8) For even if on all sides molten lead holds you there, I will pick you up before the one you trust, the son of Achilles, comes. underscores the alliance between the goddess and mortal. In other instances, Euripi des likens Andromache to a statue when he compares her to stone (115 6) or recalls the myth of Ni obe (532 4). Similarly, in Iphigeneia at Tauris Iphigeneia takes on characteristics of the image she serves. At 798 802, the woman is treated as isolated an
142 Euripides also compares mortal characters to statues in order to portray those characters as nobly submissive in times of desperation or death. The most obvious estis as a statue or work of art throughout her play. By depicting her as an attractive object, Euripides emphasizes her beauty and submission to her husband. This comparison to an inanimate statue, moreover, helps to express the liminal state between li fe and death that the woman navigates. aspects of her story and simultaneously portrays her as triumphant and strong. Similarly, Hecuba describes herself as in the Trojan Women By objectifying herself, the Trojan queen expresses her powerless state in terms of an artistic piece. Although a helpless slave, Hecuba is far from a mere weak and powerless slave. Finally, Talthybios chooses to describe Polyxena as a beautiful Hecuba Such a depiction allows the girl to appear both an object of pity and erotic desire in her final moments of life. This study has shown that Euripides employs statues in his plays in a consistent and significant manner. By placing divine statues on stage, the playwright is able to underscore the importance of divine influence in his works and visually define divine mortal allegiances. By creating comparisons between mortals and statues, moreover, Euripides depicts his characters as noble objects in times of death and desperation. By examining the role of statues in his plays, moreover, one can see the careful attention that Euripides paid to the visual and artistic elements of the stage.
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149 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lindsa y R ogers earned her B A. in 2003 with honors from the University of Georgia in History, Latin, and Classical Culture. In 2006, she completed an M.A. in Greek and Latin at Boston College. During her Ph D work at the University of Florida, she attended the A merican School of Classical Studies at Athens Summer Session I in 2008. During the 2009 and 2010 seasons she participated in the excavations in the Athenian Agora. She received her Ph.D. in Classical S tudies in 2011.