1 DEFINING THE PROTOTYPE: ANALYSIS OF LUXURY BRAND ADVERTISING MESSAGE AND CREATIVE STRATEGY By EUN SOO RHEE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREM ENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Eun Soo Rhee
3 To my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I appreciate every person who helped me while I was completing this doctoral program and dissertation. It would have b een nearly impossible to finish this dissertation without my dissertation committees, my friends, and my family. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor Dr. Goodman for being a wonderful mentor and giving me tremendous insights and conf idence as I worked through my doctoral studies. I would like to thank Dr. Sutherland for encouraging me to open my eyes to a bigger and wider field of teaching and research. I also would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. Elias and Dr. Colling s for participating on my dissertation committee. Special thanks go to Dr. Treise, Dr. Roberts, and Dr. Griffin for their support throughout the whole doctoral program. I also would like to thank my family: my father, Gwang Ju Rhee, who has given me the st rength to go through hard times in my life; my step mother, Eunice Kim, who has given me confidence through her warm words; my husband, Wan Jung, my soul mate and research partner, who has made my life wonderful; and my son, Keithan Jung, who has made me r ealize that my life is full of joy and bliss. Last but not least, I would like to thank my mother, Juhyun Yoon, and my sister, EJ Rhee, for their spiritual support from heaven.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 9 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 14 Conceptualizing Luxury Brands ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 Studies of Luxu ry Brand ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 17 Social Identity Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 23 Supporting Theories ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 26 Mes sage Strategy and Creative Strategy ................................ ................................ ................ 30 Creative Strategy: How it is Said ................................ ................................ ............................ 31 Message Strategy: What is Said ................................ ................................ ............................. 34 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 40 Content Analysis Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 40 Strength of Content Analyses ................................ ................................ ................................ 4 2 Why Content Analysis for this Study ................................ ................................ ..................... 43 Sampling ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 44 Why magazines? ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 45 Time frame ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 48 Brand selection ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 49 Coding Scheme ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 53 The Pre Coding Process and Intercoder Reliability ................................ ............................... 53 Coding Process ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 57 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 66 Descriptive Statistics of Sample Ads ................................ ................................ ...................... 66 Creative Strategies ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 67 M essage Strategies ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 71 Colors ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 77 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 96 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 96 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 96
6 Creative Strategies and Message Strategies ................................ ................................ .... 96 Colors ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 102 Implication ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 103 Prototypes: Redefining the Luxury Brand ................................ ................................ ..... 103 Theoretical Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ 105 Advertising as a Social and Cultural Mirror ................................ ................................ .. 107 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 108 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 109 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 110 APPENDIX A CODEBOOK ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 112 B CODING SHEET ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 115 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 117 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 126
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 List of Magazines ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 61 3 2 List of Brands ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 61 3 3 Intercoder Reliability Check ................................ ................................ .............................. 65 4 1 Number of Ads by Product Category (after deleting 40 duplicates) ................................ 81 4 2 Number of Brand Analyzed ................................ ................................ ............................... 81 4 3 List of Brands Analyzed ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 82 4 4 Creative Strategies ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 87 4 5 Luxury brand vs. Non luxury brand and Creative Strategy ................................ ............... 87 4 6 Creative Strategy within Product Category ................................ ................................ ....... 88 4 7 Message Strategies ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 88 4 8 Luxury brand vs. Non luxury brand and Message Strategy ................................ .............. 89 4 10 Message Strategy and Creative Strategy ................................ ................................ ............ 90 4 11 Use of Colors: Predominant Color ................................ ................................ ..................... 90 4 12 Use of Colors: Background Color ................................ ................................ ...................... 91 4 13 Use of Color s : Logo Color ................................ ................................ ................................ 92 4 14 Use of Color s : Headline ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 93 4 15 Use of Color s : Slogan ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 94 4 16 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Predominant Color ................................ .............. 94 4 17 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Background Color ................................ ............... 94 4 18 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Logo Color ................................ .......................... 95 4 19 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Headline Color ................................ .................... 95 4 20 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Slogan Color ................................ ....................... 95
8 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Parti al Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy DEFINING THE PROTOTYPE: ANALYSIS OF LUXURY BRAND ADVERTISING MESSAGE AND CREATIVE STRATEGY By Eun Soo Rhee December 2011 Chair: J. Robyn Goodman Cochair: John Sutherland Major: M ass Communication The current study aimed to understand the characteristics of luxury brand and consumers aspiration through analyzing advertising. Through the analysis of magazine advertisements of luxury brand, the prototypes of luxury brand advertisin gs were found. Luxury brand ads aim to actualization by showing images of users of the brand. The luxury brand ads primarily express beauty, wealth, and authority to inspire in consumers the need to assi milate. The findings of the current study support social identity theory in that advertising often serves as a prototype especially a positive and salient prototype that motivates consumers to conform to the prototype. F inding s also can be linked to the fa ct that materialistic achievement plays a major value in achieving the state of good life. The results of this study will provide significant insight not only into the field of luxury goods marketing and advertising, but also into our general understandin g of society.
9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Over the past 20 years, the global luxury brand market has been growing rapidly and continuously. In spite of the recent economic recession, the luxury market grew 8% in 2009 (Bain & Co., 2010). In 2010, the global luxury market was estimated to be worth $240 billion (Boston Consulting Group, 2010). This growth trend in the luxury market is largely driven by several changes in global consumers. First, there are socioeconomic changes. Specifically, consumption power has grown due to increased property values and extended consumer credit that became more available. Also, the continuous increase of the number of working women in global market has contributed to the luxury market growth since they are the main target of the luxury market (BCG, 2010). Second, demographic changes in consumers affected the growth of the luxury market since the increase in household incomes brought a constant influx of new luxury brand consumers (BCG, 2010). Finally, as a result of increased consumers of luxury brands, there have been cultural changes that have thrust the expansion of luxury brand market. More specifically, the increased social acceptance of ostentation and overstatement has allowed guilt free conspicuous consumption of luxu ry brands and status products (Phau, Ian, Prendergast, and Gerard, 1998). Consequently, these changes result in more consumers who have a greater desire for an affluent appearance and are more likely to embrace materialism (Powderly and MacNulty, 1990; Vig neron and Johnson, 1999). However, the increase in new luxury brand consumers also coincides with an increase in counterfeit products, making the marketing of luxury goods even more complex. Counterfeit products bear the identical trademark of a luxury brand and infringe on the rights of the luxury brand. As a result, counterfeits threaten the market since they dest r oy the uniqueness of a brand (Bian and Veloutsou, 2007). Thus, to achieve or maintain high market share and positive brand
10 image, luxury ma rketers must make consumers acknowledge the sufficient value of a luxury product over a counterfeit so that they are willing to pay the high price to acquire the product (Tynan, McKechnie, and Chhuon, 2010). Therefore, the need for understanding luxury br ands and their value to consumers is high, and both marketers and researchers are eager to understand how luxury brands sell. Due to the importance of the luxury market in terms of the size and growth rate, the luxury market has been an important research topic in a variety of fields, including economics, history, sociology, and marketing over the past 100 years (Tynan et al. 2010). It was as early as 1899 when economist Thorstein Veblen (1899) proposed a theory that explained the use of price as a cue in market has been accompanied a great deal of studies dealing with various topics of luxury goods, such as the concept, structure, segmentation, and consumer behav iors (Tynan et al., 2010). Despite the large volume of research in the area of the luxury brand, only a few studies have analyzed luxury brands in the context of advertising. Since the analysis of luxury brand advertising can provide much insight for mark eters and researchers, the current study will investigate the content of luxury brand advertising. Specifically, by comparing luxury and non luxury brand advertising, this study aimed to reveal how luxury brands advertising presents aspirations and motivat ions for purchasing these luxury brands. The current study aimed to understand the characteristics of luxury brands through analyzing its advertising. Advertising is often studied in order to understand culture and society (Milgram, 1976). Although debate over whether advertising reflects or distorts reality continues, the current study follows the perspective of advertising as a social mirror, and thus reflecting reality.
11 In this perspective, critics have argued that advertising has an impact on shaping ov erall social reality by presenting unrealistic and biased visuals to its audiences (e.g., Peterson, 1983; Pollay, 1986), while advertising supporters have argued that advertising merely mirrors social reality (e.g., Kuhns, 1970; Williamson, 1978). Research ers who have sought to understand Sontag, 1973). And thus, a number of researchers have conducted longitudinal studies and analyzed advertising to see the c Kassarjian, 1969; Courtney and Lockeretz, 1971). Whether the images recorded in advertising are a selective, ideal representation or an accurate depiction of reality, those images can be viewed as b and Pollay, 1985), and an expression of their prototypical expectations or desires (Lantos, 1987; (Belk and Pollay, 1985, p. 888; Berger, Blomberg, Fox, Dibb, and Hollis, 1972). Therefore, Another argument for the usefulness of analyzing adverti sing is because ads reflect culturally accepted and expected images. There are two competing mechanisms in terms of how advertising influences consumers. Traditionally, researchers have considered advertising as an information transfer mechanism that allow s consumers to decode the information encoded in the knowledge about a product (White, 1959). In contrast, the competing viewpoint regards advertising as a meaning based model where, instead of decoding the encoded information, advertising lets consumers decode the encoded symbols themselves (McCracken, 1987). By interpreting the decoded signs in advertising,
12 consumers tend to follow the predictable way of viewing and fee ling about a product, which leads to building a brand image (White, 1959). The current study follows the perspective of advertising as a meaning based mechanism instead of as an information transfer function. When regarding the meaning based mechanism of advertising, advertising employs a widely accepted image of a product, which is created based on the social values of the culture (White, 1959). For instance, when viewing a sports car, its users necessarily consider it to be masculine, powerful, and fast, so the ads play on this image. Therefore, advertisers tend to show the culturally expected value of a product in ads rather than showing a contradictory image. This perspective also converges with the idea that advertising reflects reality. In this line of thinking, what we see in advertising can be a mirror of what we perceive and expect in our culture. As White (1959) suggested, c ulturall y the function of advertising is to understand, to reflect, and in most instances to accept the value structur e of society before it can go about its creative task of helping to organize in a consistent, gratifying manner the numerous stimulations a product contains for the potential consumer. (p. 10) Therefore, it can be said that analyzing the advertising of lux ury brands creates great opportunity to capture the reality of how consumers view luxury brands and what motivates their consumption. In conclusion, the current study will analyze how the reality of aspirations and perceived social values is reflected a nd targeted in luxury brand advertising, particularly focusing on the difference in advertising message and creative strategies between luxury brands and non luxury brands. Although the luxury market has had spectacular growth over the past 15 years (Vicke rs and Renand, 2003), and competition within the luxury market has increased, researchers have claimed that luxury market analyses are limited in both the business and academic fields (e.g.,
13 Vickers and Renand, 2003; Dubois, Czellar, and Laurent, 2005). Mo reover, due to the lack of attention (Nueno and Quelch, 1998; Vickers and Renand, 2003). Thus, it is crucial to research the current position of luxury brand adv ertising in order to understand the characteristics and roles of luxury brands in our society, as well as to understand the mechanism by which advertising motivates consumers to purchase luxury brands. Since luxury products are argued to be highly associat ed with social classes (e.g., Veblen, 1899; Alleres, 1990; Renand, 1993), the results of this study will provide significant insight not only into the field of luxury goods marketing and advertising but also into our general understanding of society. The remainder of this dissertation is as follows. Chapter 2 examines the relevant literature to conceptualize what a luxury brand is and how its consumption can be explained by social identity theory. It also presents the details of advertising messages and c reative strategies and other creative elements. These processes are followed by research questions and hypothesis generation. Chapter 3 outlines the research method used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses. It emphasizes the details of us ing the selected research method such as materials, scales, procedures, reliability, etc. Chapter 4 presents the result of the study, focusing on the answers to the research questions and the test results of the hypotheses. Chapter 5 includes the conclusio ns and limitations of the study, as well as suggestions for possible future research.
14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Conceptualizing Luxury Brands luxus which means excess and extravagance (Oxford dictiona ry, Merriam Webster, and www.dictionary.com). When applied to the concept of a material good, it becomes more complicated to explain (Renand, 1993; Dubois, 1993, Laurent and Dubois, 1996; Vickers and Renand, 2003). For instance, Nueno and Quelch (1998) hav distinction between luxury and other goods, Grossman and Shapiro (1988) defined luxury goods (2000) summarized the definition of luxury known brand identity, (enjoy high) brand awareness and perceived quality, and retain sales levels and ing low cost, high tried to conceptualize luxury brands as involving widely varying concepts, from holistic to multisensory experience (e.g., Batra and Ahtola, 1990; Dhar and Wertenbroch, 2000; Hir schman and Holbrook, 1982; Mano and Oliver, 1993), consensus has not been reached because the concept has so many diverse facets (Phau and Prendergast, 2000). Furthermore, it is often argued that differentiating between luxury and non luxury brands cannot to take socioeconomic environment into account since the product is not consumed just for daily living needs (Veblen, 1899). When emphasizing the socioeconomic contex t, luxury goods are
15 2010). Thus, luxury good can be In investigating the characteristics of luxury goods in a social class context, Alleres (1990) proposed that high price and exclusivity of luxury goods determine the level of luxury good classification, luxury goods are categorized as inaccessible luxury, intermediate luxury, and accessible luxury. It was argued that inacc essible luxury goods are consumed by the elite class and are sold at an extremely high price (e.g., tailor made Valentino evening dress). The consumption of inaccessible goods is the expression of exceptional social prestige since these goods cannot be eas ily consumed by other social classes. Intermediate luxury goods (e.g., Hermes, Chanel, and Gucci) are purchased by the professional social class, and accessible luxury goods (e.g., Max Mara and Coach) are consumed by the middle class who are eager to obtai n a higher social status by showing their purchasing power (Alleres, 1990). Although there is no clear of luxury goods allow both researchers and marketers to understand that different laye rs of luxury goods should be treated differently in the marketplace, especially with regard to marketing communication (Vickers and Renand, 2003). As shown in these various definitions of the luxury concept, the key characteristics are often pointed out as very limited supply, high price, and value that can be recognized by others. Therefore, this dissertation defines luxury goods as a product that is uncommon, expensive, and brings prestige to a user.
16 Besides defining luxury brands, it is also important to Brand is the identifier of a corporate asset that adds value to the product (Styles and Ambler, 1995). Wood (2000) has summarized various approaches to brand definition and suggested a multi disciplinary concept of brand tha firms, through differentiation (purpose). The attributes that differentiate a brand provide the 2000, p. 666). Furthermore, conceptualizing luxury brands include several other aspects, especially regarding its scope. It was observed in the market that luxury brands are creating brand extensions as the luxury market becomes more competitive (Allen, 2007). Th ese brand consistent, which is referred to as brand adjacency (Reddy, Terblanche, Pitt and Parent, 2009). For instance, Cartier, originally a jewelry brand, has ext ended their brand name into adjacent product categories such as watches, fashion accessories, and perfumes (Reddy et al., 2009). This brand extension can be easily found in luxury brands since their positively established brand image can easily transferred into new products that are close to the main product in terms of perceived brand value (Keller and Sood, 2003). Thus, the current study will regard not only the oth share the same core symbolism. However, only adjacent luxury brand extensions will be considered a luxury brand because brand luxury does not permeate into non adjacent product categories (Dubois and Laurent, 1996). For instance, Rolls Royce may be a luxury brand in the automobile market but not in
17 airplane engines. Thus, non adjacent product categories are not automatically considered part of the luxury brand. Studies of Luxury Brand There has been a widespread interest in luxury markets in various f ields of academia -from history (e.g., Berry, 1994) and anthropology (e.g., Malinowski, 1922) to economics (e.g., Veblen, 1899). Mostly, it has been studied in economics and marketing fields in which the focus was on understanding what luxury is, includin g defining and conceptualizing luxury (Nueno and Quelch, 1998; Vigneron and Johnson, 1999, 2004; Vickers and Renand, 2003, Veblen, 1899), as well as how luxury marketing motivates consumers to purchase (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999; Truong, Simmons, McColl, and Kitchen, 2008; Phau et al., 2000). Among recent studies that have attempted to define the characteristics of luxury brands that cross layers and degrees of luxury, Vigneron and Johnson (2004) have articulated five characteristics of luxury brands and luxury brands. These factors include both nonpersonal oriented and personal oriented perspectives. Nonpersonal o riented perceptions include the dimensions of perceived conspicuousness, perceived uniqueness, and perceived quality (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004). These dimensions explain the motivation for purchasing luxury brands as being primarily influenced by interpe rsonal concerns (Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel, 1989). Perceived conspicuousness shows the influence of reference groups on luxury brand consumption. Thorstein Veblen (1899) s wealth, power, and status to others through luxury products. Luxury products consumed in public, rather than in private, were especially more likely to be considered conspicuous due to their high
18 visibility to others (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). Users, the n, gain their satisfaction from the reactions of audiences, not from the value in using the product itself (Mason, 1984). satisfaction when purchasing a brand that seems to be in limited supply. This is because each relative to others achieved through the acquisition, utilization and disposition of consumer goods for the pu tendency of some people (snobs) to prefer consuming a product that is not ad opted by the general mass of people (Mason, 1981). Therefore, status sensitive consumers are more likely to reject products that are popular among general consumers (Mason, 1981). Moreover, due to exclusivity and rarity, the price of the product usually is extremely high, thereby making the product more valuable and desirable (Verhallen and Robben, 1994). In other words, exclusivity and rarity of a brand and its high price would attract consumers who seek to enhance their self image by purchasing these prod ucts. performance, quality, and reassurance in luxury brands (Garfein, 1989). Researchers, therefore, often highlight that obtaining this perception cannot be done without con sistently maintaining a high quality standard (Quelch, 1987). Moreover, the high price of a luxury brand can also be an more desirable among consumers (Groth and M cDaniel, 1993). On the other hand, personal
19 Vigneron and Johnson (1999) conceptualized perceived hedonism and perce ived extended self as the personal effects that characterize brand luxury. Perceived hedonism explains luxury products that have predominantly hedonistic characteristics (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982). Most of these luxury products are associated with per sonal and emotional benefits, such as sensory experience or aesthetic pleasure, rather Compared to non luxury necessity goods that focus more on alleviating discomfort by the consumption of the product, luxury goods provide emotional and sensual pleasure (Berry, 1994). The concept of extended self explains that the product one possesses works as an indicator oncept can be further explained by the bandwagon effect. Opposite to the snob effect, the bandwagon effect explains that people affiliation by purchasing status goods in order to enhance their self concept (Dubois and Duquesne, 1993b). Therefore, the consumption of luxury goods can be used as a personal symbol to distinguish oneself from non prestigious reference groups (Holt, 1995) and to conform to the affluent group (McCracken, 1986; Mick, 1986). because some categories are not distinctive when utilized in different cultures (Christodoulides, Michaelidou, and Li, 2009). Christodou lides and his colleagues (2009) tested the Brand Luxury Index in the Taiwanese market and found the conspicuousness and uniqueness categories were correlated to each other. Given that the Brand Luxury Index scale was developed and validated in Australia,
20 cultural differences, specifically individualism and collectivism culture of context (Christodoulides et al., 2009). In individualistic cultures, perceived uniqueness is emphasized in brand luxury perception, while in collectivistic cultures such as Taiwan, they highlight perceived conspicuousness more in determining brand luxury (Christodoulides et al., 2009). This study supported that culture affects the perception of brand luxury (Dubois and Duquesne, 1993b). Although it is susceptible cultural context, the BLI is acknowledged to be meaningful in both research and marketing fie ld for defining the concept of luxury that includes both personal and non personal aspects (e.g., Sangkhawasi and Fohri, 2007; Truong et al., 2008; Christodoulides et al., 2009; Wiedmann, Hennigs, and Siebels, 2009). In addition to the research on luxury brands, researchers have also investigated the counterfeit luxury brand market. Although counterfeit goods are illegal, traffic in the goods is big business not only in the USA (Albers Miller, 1999) but in the global market (Freedman, 1999). Several studie s (e.g., Albers Miller, 1999; Gentry, Putrevu, and Shultz II, 2006; Grossman and Shapiro, 1988) have tried to find the reasons why consumers are involved in the traffic of illegal goods and their findings have contributed to conceptualizing the meaning of society. For example, Albers willingness to purchase counterfeit brands: product type, buying situation, and price. If the consumers regard counterfeit items similar to st olen products, they are less likely to be purchase counterfeit goods. On the other hand, if there is peer pressure and a price advantage exists, consumers are more motivated to purchase counterfeits (Albers Miller, 1999). Wilcox, Kim, and Sen (2009) focus ed on psychological reasons for the purchase of counterfeit goods. They found that consumers often purchase counterfeit luxury brands to
21 purchase counterfeit luxury brands for conspicuous consumption, their experiment showed that consumers are more likely to reject counterfeit products when exposed to a negative image of counterfeit usage (e.g., becoming embarrassed in front of others for using a counterfeit), (Wilcox et al., 2009). Furthermore, counterfeit luxury brand consumption has been analyzed globally. Gentry, Putrevu, and Schultz (2006) interviewed 102 international students in Australia to understand how consumers discern whether the product is genuine or cou nterfeit. The results showed that sales outlet, price, and quality/performance were the major cues to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit product. In other words, informal retail setting, low quality and performance, and incredibly low price were f ound to be cues to identifying counterfeits. However, due to the advance technology in counterfeiting luxury brands, identifying counterfeits is more complicated to determine. Based on the studies of counterfeit luxury goods, it was commonly mentioned that price, quality, and distribution channel are the factors that differentiate it from the non luxury goods, and the consumption of luxury goods are motivated by social motivations. Besides studies on counterfeit luxury products, a few researchers have studi ed the marketing strategies of luxury brands (Gutsatz, 2001, Vigneron and Johnson, 1999) to find a better marketing strategy since the luxury market reached maturity (King, 2001). To this end, several marketing strategies have been suggested. One such str ategy is the creation of a star brand and its extension (e.g., Wetlaufer, 2001; Phau and Prendergast, 2000). A star brand is a strong incentive to attract consumers and increase the brand value. To create a star brand, Wetlaufer (2001) argued that luxury b rands should dedicate themselves to product quality, details, strategic movement in pricing, and creating
22 market awareness through marketing strategies. Moreover, Phau and Prendergast (2000) insisted that luxury brands should maintain high levels of awaren ess as well as exclusivity of the brand to keep it as a star brand. In addition, Atwal and Williams (2009) argued that luxury brands should execute more experience marketing to achieve long essence of a product and amplifying it into a set of tangible, physical and interactive experience regarded to be a new marketing strategy, the authors have suggested how luxury brands can fit well in using this approach. They highlighted that the experience marketing for luxury brands should be entertaining, educational, aesthetically pleasing, and highlight escapist activities (allowing consumer to create new identities for themselves) (Atwal and Williams, 2009). They also argued that luxury brand advertising should move toward involving the use of online media Recently, a stud y was conducted to understand the current state of luxury brand marketing perceptions of luxury brand websites. By interviewing five luxury brand professionals and collec ting survey data from 29 consumers, they found that both professionals and consumers did not find luxury brand websites as comfortable as visiting off line stores. Professionals preferred off line stores to communicate with consumers, and consumers also pr eferred the same because The researchers also content analyzed 54 luxury brand websites and found that almost three quarters of them highly relied on visuals (Ri ley and Laroix, 2003). Moreover, half of luxury brand websites were slow due to the presence of many high quality visuals. They also found that
23 way communication with their consumers (Riley and Laroix, 2003). Although luxury brand studies were conducted on their various a spects, there has rarely been an attempt to analyze luxury brand advertising. Therefore, the current study investigates luxury brand advertising to show its strategic differences from non luxury brand advertising. Social Identity Theory As noted above, the consumption of a luxury brand cannot simply be explained by economic factors such as supply and demand. To define the driving factors for making purchase decisions about luxury goods, symbolic and social values should be emphasized, including ociocultural environments and rituals (e.g., Veblen, 1899; Liebenstein, 1950; Dubois and Duquesne, 1993b), as well as motivations to express the ideal self (Lichtenstein, Ridgway, and Netemeyer, 1993). Specifically, Dubois and Duquesne (1993b) have found t hat cultural identity triggers consumers to buy luxury goods, either to differentiate themselves (e.g., the snob effect) from others or to be affiliated with their social group by expressing themselves through the purchase of luxury goods (e.g., the bandwa gon effect). That is, social values play a key role in explaining consumer attitudes and behavior toward luxury brands. This tendency of identifying oneself with specific social groups can be explained by social identity theory. Social identity theory expl concept by being affiliated in several social groups (Tajfel, 1978; Hogg, Terry, and White, 1995). Self concept refers to the hypothetical cognitive structure that regulates social behavior in different situ ations (Turner, 1982). Self concept has two distinctive aspects -personal identity and social identity (Tajfel, 1974). Personal identity refers to the self that is defined as unique and its corresponding
24 logical characteristics, ways of relating to others, ideas, goals, and personal values are all examples of personal identity (Turner, 1982). In contrast, social identity refers to people defining themselves based on a self inclusive social category (Tajfel 1981). It can be derived from a variety of group memberships such as gender, race, occupation, and so on. appropriate in a certain situation. That is, in diff erent situations, different self concepts are concepts (Turner, 1982). When there are group memberships that individuals perceive to be salient, individuals are most l ikely to show the prototypical behavior, attitude, and/or feelings that are intergroup behavior; that is, interactions between two or more individuals are fully ba sed on the membership of their group and excludes the individual relationships between the people involved (Tajfel, 1974). The group membership salience further depends on the situation that the individual faces, and the particular identity chosen for the se situations becomes more responsive to immediate situational cues. This can be seen in interpersonal behavior, which is defined as the interaction between two or more individuals based on their individual characteristics that are not affected by the memb ership of their groups (Tajfel, 1974). However, there are cases when the group membership is not salient. This happens because there is either no salient collective identity or the collective identity is too large and amorphous for the particular situation expected to be in accord with their own personal identity rather than group norms.
25 is bound to t he characteristics of the social groups to which they belong (Abrams and Hogg, be members of the same social category, share some emotional involvement in this c ommon definition of themselves, and achieve some degree of social consensus about the evaluation of what the expected attitudes and behaviors are within their so cial group through shared group norm or group prototypes so that they can feel affiliated to their membership (Tajfel, 1978) or generate positive self distinctiveness (Abrams and Hogg, 1990). These memberships are called social identity (Tajfel, 1978). To achieve and maintain positive self esteem, people differentiate their in group from out groups by making a positive and distinctive differentiation (Tajfel and Turner, 1986; Abrams and Hogg, 1990). Specifically, individuals favor those factors that allow positive evaluations of their in group as well as factors that allow negative evaluations of out groups, making it possible to maximize the positive distinctiveness of their in group (Jackson, Brown, Williams, Torres, Sellers, and Brown, 1996). For instanc e, conspicuous consumption of luxury goods can be explained by the motivation of individuals to maximize the distinctiveness of their group from other groups. Affluent consumers purchase and use luxury goods as a social signifier to differentiate their gro up from other groups (Michman and Mazze, 2006). And for those non affluent who desires to become a member of a superior class, acquiring luxury goods makes them fulfill their aspirations (Kapferer and Bastien, 2008). These comparisons among social categori es can be processed not only in our real life but also in ideological beliefs. For instance, studies of intercultural interactions have found significant social influence of the establishment
26 and sustainment of racial and ethnic identity (Coover and Murphy 2000). Moreover, this can also happen in gender or religion based groups. On the other hand, comparison within social categories sometimes does not need to be based on reality (Mastro, 2003). Rather, the comparison happens with artificial categories. M edia have often been blamed for creating ideal images and promoting intergroup comparisons among viewers. These ideal images include visible criteria (e.g., attractiveness), social status (e.g., academic accomplishment), material possessions (e.g., wealth) or lifestyles (e.g., consumption habits) (Kruglanski and Mayseless, 1990; Belk, 1988; Dittmar, 1992; Rassuli and Hollander, 1986). When marketing luxury goods, Kapferer and Bastain (2008) insisted that marketing communication should be used in order to c images created by the luxury brand advertising could be used as a source of comparison. aspirations to achieve pos itive self esteem by making comparisons with others, both to make oneself similar to his/her elite in out group members. As presented in Vigneron and Johnson (2004), luxury brand characteristics personally oriented, overlap with the notion of social identity and its supporting theories (e.g., social categorization, social comparison, and distinctiveness). Su pporting Theories In addition to social identity theory, social comparison theory is helpful in explaining the luxury brand phenomenon because the antecedent of luxury brand consumption is the achievement of a positive self concept and comparison to other s accomplishes this achievement. According to social comparison theory, people who are motivated by the quest for self knowledge or self evaluation compare themselves with each other to obtain objective
27 information about whether their behavior or opinions are correct (Festinger, 1954). This comparison motivates individuals to improve their ability or change their opinions (Festinger, 1954; Wood, 1989). The comparison can occur at both the interpersonal and intergroup level. When making a comparison with a prototype member, categorization occurs and defines the in group and out group. This is explained by social categorization theory, which proposes that when comparisons are made, individuals tend to categorize themselves by emphasizing similarities within g roups and dissimilarities between groups (Turner, 1985 and 1991). Moreover, even when a comparison highly attractive, then individuals are more likely to redu ce the dissimilarities to attain group membership (Festinger, 1954; Hogg, 1992). For instance, the consumption of counterfeit luxury group (Wilcox, Kim, and Sen, 2009). Distinctiveness theory further emphasizes the interpersonal and intergroup differentiation process that leads one to be different from others (Breakwell, 1986a). To show the distinctiveness of identity, individuals will highlight their distinctive ness or act in ways to show their distinctiveness (Breakwell, 1988; Brewer, 1991). As mentioned in social identity theory, individuals have needs for acknowledging both similarities and uniqueness of individuation from others. Brewer (1991) argued that soc ial identity is a compromise between assimilation and differentiation from others. The need for assimilation should be satisfied with in group members, while the need for differentiation should be satisfied by intergroup comparisons (Brewer, 1991). This t endency can be explained by luxury goods purchasing behavior. People buy luxury goods to achieve similarities with the group they are in, or willing to be included in, while
28 differentiating themselves from others who do not have luxury goods. Because of th e group identities, individuals can be both similar and different at the same time depending on the level of inclusiveness. When it is high, self categorization becomes more depersonalized, and therefore, individuals are more likely to aspire to the intens ified individual identity. On the other hand, when there is low inclusiveness, self categorization becomes more personalized, and thus, the need for group identity becomes stronger (Brewer, 1991). When individuals are placed in one of these two extremes of inclusion levels, their sense of security might be threatened. By being too distinctive, individuals might feel vulnerable to isolation. By being too indistinctive, individuals might have no basis for self definition (Brewer, 1991). Thus, optimal distinct iveness explains that social identity forms when the need for differentiation and assimilation are exactly equal and, consequently, make individuals more satisfied by achieving maximized similarity within group and difference between groups (Brewer, 1991). This optimal distinctiveness leads to strong social identity and intense group loyalty (Brewer, 1991) especially when in group members satisfy not only their need for belonging and assimilation, but sharpen the boundary that makes their group distinctive from others. Consuming luxury brands due to the peer pressure can be understood as an action to achieve As social identity theory is closely linked to luxury br and purchasing behavior, it can also conspicuousness dimension, which suggests that consumers are using luxury products to give clues as to their reference group, the resu lt of the comparison reinforces their group membership and fits to the idea of social identity theory. In other words, when using the luxury brand in
29 public, users expect that they will be viewed as wealthy, upper class, or powerful at either the individua l or group level (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004), distinctive from the reference group. Perceived uniqueness could also be explained by social identity theory, especially by distinctiveness theory. Individuals consume luxury brands in public to show their un iqueness by the acquisition and utilization of limited supply products (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004). The pursuit of uniqueness is not limited to the individual level, but the literature on consumer uniqueness explains that the pursuit of differences is mor e focused on developing and enhancing an individual level of social identity (Tian, Bearden, and Hunter, 2001). The perceived quality dimension is similar to the perceived uniqueness dimension. Compared to uniqueness, perceived quality explains the motiva tion to be seen as a perfectionist acquiring a high quality product (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004). Moreover, high quality products are regarded to be priced higher since consumers tend to regard the product with higher price as having higher quality (Vigner on and Johnson, 1999). Therefore, the consumption of luxury For the personal oriented perceptions, perceived hedonism cannot be explained by any social values since it is related to personal emotion and sensory experience. Extended self could be regarded the same way since it does not need to involve any interpersonal action. However, although no direct interpersonal impact occurs to achieve extended self value, it c an be explained by social identity theory since it relates to the motivation to consume luxury brands in order to fit into a group membership (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004). Purchasing a luxury brand could result in reducing the differences from and enhancin g the similarities to the comparison group. In conclusion, studies have found that social identity theory is meaningful for explaining the perceptions and behaviors of individuals, especially in analyses of race/ethnicity behaviors
30 (e.g., Mastro, 2003; Co oper and Murphy, 2002). However, social identity theory has generally been underutilized in consumer research, and no studies have yet been conducted in luxury brand advertising, even though researchers agree that the motivation of luxury brand consumption can be explained by social identity theory (Reed, 2002). The current study, therefore, will analyze how luxury brand advertising employs the strategy and tactics of the social identity theory perspective. Message Strategy and Creative Strategy Although ma ny researchers have analyzed message strategy and creative strategy in advertising, including those of different product categories, there have been no attempts to investigate either message strategy or creative strategy in luxury brand advertising. To pro vide the framework for this study, a detailed description of message strategy and creative strategy is provided here. interchangeably; however, there has been a vigorous attempt to distinguish between them. general nature and character of messages to be designed. Strategy states the means selected to Among researchers who regard message strategy and creative strategy separa tely, some argue that both message and creative strategy can be dichotomized based on whether the appeal aims to present the product attributes and benefits or to create the brand image (e.g., Vaughn,
31 1980; Aaker and Norris, 1982; Puto and Wells, 1984). Aa ker and Norris (1982) proposed that dichotomize the advertising message types. Puto and Wells (1984, p. 683) divided messages into Informational advertisin g: provides consumers with factual (i.e., presumably verifiable), relevant brand data in a clear and logical manner such that they have greater confidence in their ability to assess the merits of buying the brand after having seen the advertisement. Transf ormational advertising: associates the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics which would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the adve rtisement. cognitive types of elements, while transformational advertising utilizes experiential elements that could be transformed into the experience of using the bran d. They have noted in their study that, although information and transformation is exhaustive, they are not mutually exclusive. Creative Strategy: How it is Said Laskey, Day, and Crask (1989) have developed a typology for methods of presentation, or Fraser (1983) identified seven creative strategies: Generic, Preemptive, Unique Selling Proposition, Brand Image, Positioning, Resonance, and Affective. While using F typology, Laskey, Day, and Crask (1989) found difficulties in coding television commercials, which led to low agreement among coders. They found that most confusion occurred when distinguishing between the Unique Selling Proposition and Pree mptive strategies, and between the Brand Image and Resonance strategies (Laskey, Day, and Crask, 1989). Thus they have
32 proposed a revised version of the typology based on dividing creative strategies into Puto and Under the informational strategy, Laskey, Day, and Crask (1989) identified five categories including Comparative, Unique Selling Proposition, Preemptive, Hyperbole, and Generic Information. Comparative advertising explicitly mentions a competing brand and makes a comparison. This strategy only refers to those advertisements that make comparisons on informational components. In Unique Selling Proposition advertising, the main focus of the advertising message is on the uniqueness of the br and. This strategy explicitly states objectively verifiable and provable product attributes or benefit in use. Similarly, Preemptive advertising also claims an objectively verified and proven factual message. The difference between Unique Selling Propositi on and Preemptive ads, however, is that Preemptive ads do not present the uniqueness of the brand. Although Preemptive ads provides product attribute and benefit in use information as well, the claims are not focused on the uniqueness of the product, and t hus, the claims could also be used in competitor brand advertising. When the claims are not objectively verified or proven and are based on exaggeration or extravagance, they are categorized as Hyperbole advertising. Generic Informational advertising focuses on the product class rather than on a specific brand or its attribute. Under the transformational strategy, Laskey, Day, and Crask (1989) identified four categorie s including User Image, Brand Image, Use Occasion, and Generic Transformation. In User Image advertising, the ad mainly shows the person who uses the brand and their lifestyles rather than focusing on the brand itself. This type of strategy can easily be s een in commercials for personal care products that provide a focus on the user and their joy or lifestyle. In
33 comparison, Brand Image advertising focuses on the image of the brand rather than the user. It ality, prestige, status, and so on. The Use Occasion type of advertising presents the experience of brand usage or the situations of appropriate usage of the brand. Rather than focusing on the brand user tie, it focuses on the tie between the brand and a p articular situation. Finally, a Generic Transformational ad is a transformational ad that focuses mainly on a product class rather than on a particular product. The current study analyzed the usage of each creative strategy in both luxury and non luxury b rand advertising in general: RQ1: How were creative strategies used in luxury brand advertising? RQ2: How were creative strategies used in non luxury brand advertising? RQ3: What are the differences in creative strategies within product categories between luxury and non luxury brand advertising? Moreover, regarding the fact that luxury brands rely more on symbolic and social values than on the functional attributes of a product (e.g., Veblen, 1899; Liebenstein, 1955; Dubois and Duquesne, 1993b), it is assu med that luxury brand advertising uses the transformational creative strategy more frequently than non luxury brand advertising. As mentioned in Vigneron and personal oriented perceptions of luxury brand and social identity theory cons umers mostly purchase luxury brands to express themselves to others (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004). When regarding the social identity theory, it is a prototypical image shown in y seek assimilation to the perceived salient group. This results from the need for enhanced self esteem assimilation. In other words, con sumers who purchase l uxury brand are expecting their self
34 image to be the wealthy, powerful, and high status image shown in the advertising. Thus, it is assumed that among transformational strategies, User Image and Brand Image will be mostly used in luxury brand advertising b y showing potential consumers the expected self image of themselves with the product (perceived conspicuousness, perceived unique value) or the image of the brand itself (perceived quality). Therefore, the current study tested the following hypothesis: H1: Luxury brand advertising is associated with transformational creative strategy. H2: Among creative strategies, User Image and Brand Image is associated with luxury brand advertising. Message Strategy: What is Said Taylor (1999) has developed a Six Segme nt Message Strategy Wheel after revisiting the literature of the fields of communication, marketing, and social science. This model starts from Carey (1975), which (1999) has divided each transmission and ritual view into three subcategories. For the transmission view, the three categories are Routine, Acute Need, and Ration. The Routine segmen reactions to the advertising as a stimulus response process. Once the advertising provides the f the brand, and once consumers establish the habit, advertising plays the role of reminding consumers to repetitively purchase the brand. Examples of products for which the Routine strategy can be used include breakfast cereals, coffee, and other househol d products. The Acute Need segment is product information, time can limit the information being gathered. Thus, time pressure can lead
35 consumers to choose the product t hat is available, familiar, or lowest in price. Advertising plays a role in building brand familiarity and recognition so that consumers can choose the brand when they have an acute need for the product. Examples of products for which the Acute Need strate gy can be used include tires and batteries. The Ration segment is characterized by the Marshallian economic model, which explains that consumers are rational, deliberative, conscious, and calculating individuals, and making purchasing decisions is based on a conscious economic motivation. It explains the role of advertising as a tool for providing detailed product, price, and benefit information to the consumer to help their economic calculus. Examples of products for which the Ration strategy can be used i nclude cars and computers. For the ritual view, the three categories are Ego, Social, and Sensory. The Ego segment is characterized by the Freudian psychoanalytic model. It explains that purchasing decisions are made to fulfill emotional needs such as be ing able to state to themselves who they are. In this understanding of who they are. Examples of products for which the ego strategy can be used include luxury brands, cars, or business news magazines such as The Economist The Social segment is characterized by the Veblenian social psychological model, which explains that products are noticed and approved by others. Thus, in this segment, advertising shows appropriate social situations that bring social approval from consumption of the product. Examples of products for which the social strategy can be used include jewelry, holiday g ifts, and greeting cards. The Sensory segment is characterized by the Cyrenaics philosophy that considers pleasure to be a key aspect of life. Thus, in this segment, advertising shows the sensory system, including
36 touch, smell, sight, hearing, and taste. Therefore, beverages, desserts, and household products are examples using this strategy. as a val people in making their purchase decisions (Kim, McMillan, and Hwang, 2005). Moreover, this model gives the same attention to both informational and transformational eleme nts, making it applicable for understanding both types of advertising (Kim et al. 2005). Going beyond just identifying the dichotomous informational and transformational approaches, with the subcategories under the two dimensions, allows more sophisticate d analysis of advertising luxury brand advertising. RQ4: How were message strategies used in luxu ry brand advertising? RQ5: How were message strategies used in non luxury brand advertising? RQ6: What are the differences in message strategies within product categories between luxury and non luxury brand advertising? Similar to Hypothesis 1, the curre nt study also tested whether luxury brand advertising uses more of the transformational than informational type of message strategy (Ego, Social, and to assume th at Ego, Social, and Sensory will dominate luxury brand advertising compared to Routine, Acute Need and Ration. Ego strategy appeals to self actualization and can be explained by perceived conspicuousness and extended self. Social strategy mostly shows user s in a social situation to motivate consumers by exhibiting group difference situations. Perceived uniqueness or extended self concept of luxury brand can be expressed in this type of strategy. Perceived
37 hedonism can be exhibited in the Sensory strategy by showing pleasurable moments in luxury brand usage. Therefore, the following hypothesis was tested. H3: Luxury brand advertising is associated with the ritual view of message strategy. Kim, McMillan, and Hwang (2005) analyzed Super Bowl advertisements b y applying segment message strategy wheel. They content analyzed a total of 55 ads from 2003 along with 40 related websites during the Super Bowl season, focusing on their integration of message and creative strategies. The result showed that message strategies were used more consistently regardless of the media type when compared to the creative strategies. Among message strategies, Routine and Ego were the most frequently used strategies in both media. Based on the study findings of Kim, Mc Millan, and Hwang (2005), the current study also tested whether luxury brand advertising dominantly uses the Ego message strategy. When considering that message strategies were consistently used among two different media (i.e. web and TV), the current stud y assumed that analysis of magazine ads will show the same result. Moreover, given that Taylor (1999) mentioned luxury brands as an example for using ego in the ads, the current study decided to actually test this. However, since luxury brands are far from routinely consumed products in daily living (Veblen, 1899), the current study will not test whether Routine is the most frequently used message strategy for luxury brands. Moreover, given that Ego style ads appeal to self actualization, this is also suppo rted by social identity theory in that consumers are highly motivated by prototypical images of luxury brand advertising (Mastro, 2003). According to optimal distinctiveness theory, consumers who regard prototypical ad imagery as fitting their desires may seek both assimilation with the prototype and differentiation from others (Brewer, 1991). Therefore, the following hypothesis was generated.
38 H4: Luxury brand advertising is associated with Ego than the other message strategies. When regarding the message strategy and creative strategy together, it has been argued that there should be an association between the two (Frazer, 1983; Laskey et al., 1989; Taylor, st rategy is fixed, the creative strategy tries to effectively execute the message strategy. In other words, the informational message strategy will lead the informational creative strategy, and the transformational message strategy will lead the transformati onal creative strategy. When tested strategies are associated with each other. That is, ads that used an informational type of creative strategy were more likely to use an informational type of message strategy and vice versa for the transformational strategies (Kim, McMillan, and Hwang, 2005). Therefore, the current study also tested whether the message strategy and creative strategy used are related to each other in luxury brand advertising and non luxury brand advertising. H5: In both luxury and non luxury brand advertising, informational creative strategies are associated with informational message strategies and transformational creative strategies are associate d with transformational message strategies. Additionally, color was examined in a luxury brand advertising context. It is known that For example, the color red is perceived as exciting and romantic, yellow as cheerful, purple as dignified, and blue as comforting and secure (Ballast, 2002). When regarding the colors used in luxury brand advertising, it is assumed that the colors black, purple and gold will be most fr equently used as the main color since they are known as wealthy colors (Madden, Hewett, and
39 Roth, 2000; Kaya and Epps, 2004; Proteus Design Studio, 2010). Therefore, the current study tested the following hypothesis: RQ7: What are the differences in the co lors used in luxury and non luxury brand advertising? H6: Colors associated with the wealth (black, purple and gold) are more likely used in luxury brand advertising. In summary, the current study analyzed the magazine advertising of luxury brands compare d to non luxury counterparts. To analyze how luxury brand advertising reflects the creative strategies, message strategies, and color.
40 CHAPTER 3 ME THOD Based on the literature review, research questions and hypotheses were generated to analyze luxury brand in advertising perspective. To examine the protypical luxury brand advertising in comparison to non luxury advertising, the current study content analyzed magazine advertising. The details of study method are explained hereafter. Content Analysis Method Content analysis is a study of the message itself (Kassarjian, 1977). It allows researchers to examine all types of recorded communications, includ ing words, visuals, symbols, themes, items, and space and time measures (Kassarjian, 1977). These contents are given numeric values through systematic and predetermined categories (Riffe, Lacy, and Fico, 1998). Since the collected data can be used for nume ric description and statistical inferences, using content analysis allows one to test and expand theories (Kolbe and Burnett, 1991). It has been frequently applied in advertising, marketing, gender, and media studies (Abernethy and Franke, 1996). Conten t analysis can be defined as the objective, systematic, and quantitative analysis of a message (Berelson, 1952; Kassarjian, 1977; Nuendorf, 2002). Kassarjian was the first to make content analysis a methodological benchmark in the consumer research field ( Kolbe and Burnett, Journal of Consumer Research he presented new criteria for content analysis by emphasizing systemization, objectivity, sampling, quantification, and reliabi lity issues to give content analysis a formal methodology. there had been agreement regarding the basic characteristics of content analysis, as seen in the following q uotations:
41 Content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication (Berelson, 1952, p. 55); and Content analysis is a phase of information processing in which communications content is transformed, through objective and systematic application of categorization rules, into data that can be summarized and compar ed (Paisley, 1969, p. 133) As seen in the aforementioned definitions of content analysis, Kassarjian (1977) articulated its main chara cteristics: objective, systematic, and quantitative. Objectivity is achieved through the precise definition of the coding categories and criteria. Thus, each step of the analysis should follow the formulated criteria and rules (Kassarjian, 1977). When est ablishing the coding categories, researchers should define and operationalize the categories based on theoretical constructs, and then, the rules for coding should be established so that the coders understand the defined and operationalized categories in t he same way (Kassarjian, 1977). Objectivity should be emphasized in content analysis because it aims to minimize the subjective predisposition of the researcher reflected in the study results (Holsti, 1968). Furthermore, achieving high objectivity establis standing in the research field (Kassarjian, 1977). Therefore, researchers should aim for high objectivity, which is often interchangeably referred to as reliability or replicability, and high reliability/objectivit y means that the same results should be obtained if the same data set is analyzed following the same procedure (Berelson, 1952). The way to measure and quantify the reliability is explained later in this chapter. By following the established rules, content analysis can also achieve systematization, meaning that consistent rules are applied when including and excluding the content and categories analyzed for the study (Holsti, 1969). Systemization eliminates or minimizes biased analysis in the sample and cat egory selection. Without systemization, there is a possibility that
42 the researcher might select only those examples that would support the research questions and hypotheses (Kassarjian, 1977). Another meaning for systematization is that the results shoul d be theoretically relevant to a scientific hypothesis or research question and should be generalizable (Berelson, 1952; Kassarjian, 1977). Kassarjian holds that studies using content analysis that only report descriptive information cannot represent a con tent analysis study. He argues that the data should be able to be used to draw a comparison or a conclusion that is relevant to a theoretical perspective (Kassarjian, 1977). Finally, the quantification requirement is the most distinctive feature of content analysis. Content analysis can create numerical data based on data that is non numerical such as words, signs, symbols, characters, themes, and items (Kassarjian, 1977). Moreover, content analysis allows the quantifying of words such as more, often, alway s, and seldom (Kassarjian, 1977). The quantification of content analysis enables the use of statistical methods to create a precise and parsimonious summary of the study results that can be generalizable (Kassarjian, 1977). The characteristics of the quant ification of content analysis are becoming more salient since computer driven investigation has become possible, especially in analyzing text based content (Neuendorf, 2002). Strength of Content Analyses The strength of the content analysis is that it can be applied to a wide range of studies from measuring environmental variables (regulation, cultural values) to message content (tone, appeals, and strategies) (Kolbe and Burnett 1991). Holsti (1969) mentioned that content analysis provides a useful tool whe n there is difficulty in data accessibility, for instance, when analyzing the readership of a magazine that does not exist anymore.
43 As mentioned above, the fact that content analysis allows researchers to record non numeric variables (e.g., text, theme, c oncept, and phrase) into numeric forms is a major strength of content analysis. This makes statistical inference and numeric descriptions possible (Riffe, Lacy, and Fico, 1998). Therefore, content analysis provides an unobtrusive way of data collection tha t can be used to empirically test theory (Kolbe and Burnett, 1991). The study of content analysis also provides further research evidence about specific communication aspects. Moreover, content analysis can serve as a supplementary source of data such as t he study that interviewed the luxury brand managers about their marketing perspective However, the weakness of content analysis is that it cannot be used to determ ine whether the advertising claim is truthful or not and its limits the creativity of researchers (Kassarjian, 1977). Because of a possible lack of objectivity, it could also result in increase of error of the findings (Kassarjian, 1977). Why Content Ana lysis for this Study The research questions and hypotheses are generated based on studies of advertising creative and message strategies as well as color elements. Variables subjected to be analyzed in the current study are mostly text and visual images of advertising. Moreover, the research questions include determining, in general, how luxury brand advertising is produced in the market. Therefore, a research method that can record variables into numeric form and that can unobtrusively analyze the content was needed. Furthermore, content analysis was used for the current study because it allowed the researcher to look directly at the various forms of communication and examine trends and cultural insights (Berelson, 1952). Given that content analysis can of fer insights into the complex phenomena of human thoughts and their communication (Berelson, 1952), it was found to be suitable for the current study to detect the
44 underlying motivations reflected in luxury brand ads. Moreover, since the goal of the study is to analyze instead of examining the advertising audience interaction (Kassarjian, 1977), a content analysis is the most suitable method for addressing the specific research questions and hypotheses. Sampling In most content analysis studies, the first t ask for the researcher is to draw a sample. Among the sample population, the research sample should be drawn based on the research questions and hypotheses (Kassarjian, 1977). If the research problem is related to regional or geographical differences, diff erences over time, or differences between seasons, the sample samples from right sample frame. When selecting a subsample, researchers can use simple random samp ling, cluster sampling, stratified sampling, or interval sampling to draw a sample that is random and of a manageable size and thus a representative subset (Kassarjian, 1977; Neuendorf, 2002). When drawing a random sample is not an option, researchers can use non random sampling, but it cannot be generalized to the population (Neuendorf, 2002). Non random sampling includes convenient sampling, purposive sampling, and quota sampling (Neuendorf, 2002). The current study analyzed luxury brand advertising publi shed in magazines. Sample ads were extracted from Report. Because the current study does not focus on whether the ad represents the magazine, magazines were not randomly selected. Instead, it was brands that were randomly selected and thus, magazine was used simply as a source to find the ad for the randomly selected brands.
45 Why magazines? This study used magazine advertisements rather than other types of ads for several reasons. First, mag azine advertisements are associated with high consumer engagement and generate a more positive experience than other types of media (Arens, Weigold, and Arens, 2010). In fact, according to The Association of Magazine Media consumers are more likely to pa y attention to magazine advertisements, and magazine ads tend to be more influential compared to television or online advertising in increasing the brand favorability and purchase intention (MPA, 2010). In addition, consumers believe magazine advertising t o have high believability, prestige, and authority (Arens et al. 2010). Ad samples were drawn from, Magazine, and Robb Report for several reasons. First, to maximize the sample collection, magazines th at have more than average ad pages were selected. For the advertising pages of the first quarter of 2011, People had 793.65 ad pages, Vogue had 621.13, GQ had 202.71, ESPN the Magazine had 231.57, and Robb Report had 251.95 (Publisher Information Bureau, 2 011). All of these selected magazines had more ad pages than the average number of ad pages (168.66) of all published magazines in the U.S (Publisher Information Bureau, 2011). Second, because more than half of the brands were related to fashion and groom ing, the researcher needed to choose at least one magazine that focused on fashion and beauty. However, since fashion brands often use different ads based on their target audience, the researcher needed to select both a male and female targeted fashion ma gazine. Therefore, Vogue was chosen as the female targeted fashion magazine and served as the male targeted fashion magazine. Vogue and style and is mostly read by femal e (87.7%). Vogue is one of the top five magazines in terms of advertising revenue and advertising pages (Publisher Information Bureau, 2011). According to
46 Informati on Bureau, 2011), Vogue ranked in the top five in terms of advertising revenue ($96,303,773) and top four in ad pages (621.13). Readers of Vogue have a median age of 35.8, and their median household income is $68,659, which is ranked in the top seven (MRI +, 2011). Total circulation for Vogue averages 1,286,355 over 6 months (Vogue media kit, 2011), which GQ nes. It also covers who are 33.4 in median age and has $81,214 for median household income, which is in the top GQ media kit, 2011; MRI+, 2011). Average grooming magazine category (MRI+, 2011). It has earned $31,138.411 in advertising revenue in the first quarter of 2011 (Publisher Information Bureau, 2011). Next, the researcher needed a large circulation, high advertising revenue, and high advertising pages general interest magazine in order to search for ads that cover a variety of product categories and not just fashio n and beauty. People magazine, a weekly issued general interest magazine published by Time Inc., met these criteria the best. Because it is categorized as read ers, it was assumed to have not only a large amount of ads but also a wide variety of ads. According to the data from Publisher Information Bureau, People magazine made $236,332,270 in advertising revenue during the first quarter of 2011. Its 793.65 advert ising pages earned it a top two rank of all magazines (Publisher Information Bureau, 2011). It is a weekly magazine that covers issues of people in our culture (Standard Rates and Data Service, 2011) that is read by
47 3,602,006 people over a six month period Readers are 71% women and 28.5% men with a median age of 41.3 and a $68,882 median household income (MRI, 2010). It is ranked in the top ten in terms of circulation and the top seven in terms of median household income among general interest magazine cat egory (MRI+, 2011). Additionally, a sports magazine was selected to find automobile and liquor/spirit ads because, based on a Mintel report (2011), automobile and alcoholic beverage brands are both ranked in the top five advertisers of sports events such as NBA, NFL, MLB, and NCAA (Mintel Report, 2011). Therefore, sports magazine were expected to have the greatest variety of automobile and liquor/spirit ads. ESPN the Magazine was selected because it has one of the highest advertising revenue for a sports m agazine. It ranked in the top 16 for advertising revenue in first quarter of 2011 among all magazines published in the U.S. by earning $53,767,407 (Publisher Information Bureau, 2011). When regarding only sports magazines, it ranked as top two following Sp orts Illustrated (MRI+, 2011). ESPN the Magazine was selected over Sports Illustrated because researcher decided to select magazine that is read by those of lesser median household income (ESPN the Magazine : $63,725, Sports Illustrated: $71,417). It was be cause fashion and grooming magazine that they are mostly read by men, and thus, there was a possibility that ads of sports magazine could be similar to those of men magazines. Therefore selecting the magazine that targets variety of consumers in terms of median household income was needed to attain variety of ad samples. For this bi weekly publication that covers stories related to sports (ESPN the Magazine media kit, 2011), its circulation for an average six months reaches about 2,065,208 and is mostly read by men
48 (78.6%) who have a median age of 33 (MRI+, 2011). Within the sports magazine category, it is ranked as a top two magazine for both circulation and median household income (MRI+, 2011). To attain as many luxury brand ads as possible, Robb Report magazine was also included in the sample frame since it is a well known luxury brands advertising outlet among luxury marketers and affluent consumers (Robb Report Media Kit, 2011). Robb Report www.robbreport.com ), and also was called in USA Today unabashed lifestyle guide to the rich, some of whom are also published monthly by Curtco Robb Media, LLC., and geared toward affluent consumers with a median household income of $207,691 (Robb Report Media Kit, 2011), the highest median household income among affluent magazine catego ry (MRI+, 2011). It covers topics related to upscale fashion, watch, jewelry, automobiles and other luxurious products (Robb Report Media Kit, 2011) and has developed a reputation as an authority on luxury lifestyle (Standard Rate and Data Service, 2011) by publishing both digital and print publications that provide information on luxury goods. Its average circulation for 6 months is about 102,613, and it is mostly read by males (78%) who are 46.2 in median age (Robb Report Media Kit, 2011). It is ranked i n the top 27 in circulation among affluent magazine categories which includes business and finance magazines (MRI+, 2011). The ad revenue for the Robb Report was $8,446,300 for the first quarter of 2011 (Publisher Information Bureau, 2011). According to it s media kit, their advertisers are luxury brands from various product categories including aviation, automobile, wine, tobacco, fashion, jewelry, marine, watch and travel. Time frame Since the focus of the current study is not on chronological differences in advertising, the sample was selected from magazines published over one year, from Summer 2010 to Spring 2011, to keep the data recent. Moreover, because there are geographical differences in perception
49 of luxury brands (Dubois and Duquesne, 1993b), only magazines that are published in and targeted to U.S audiences were selected. Therefore, Vogue and GQ international versions were not included. To maximize the variety of ads, four editions that represented each season were selected for each magazine. Th is was necessary because advertising, especially fashion brands, runs on a seasonal schedule so ads often change from season to season (e.g., Moore and Birtwistle, 2004). Based on Publisher Information Bureau (2011), February to April are the spring editio ns, May to July are the summer editions, August to October are the fall editions, and November to January are the winter editions. Therefore, within selected magazines, issues from each of the four om summer 2010 to spring 2011. Table 3 1 shows the magazines and issues used as a sample frame in this study. Brand selection A total of 190 brands were selected including 140 luxury brands and 50 non luxury brands. Luxury and non luxury brands were only found for automobile, fashion, and cosmetic/perfume categories; thus, there was an uneven number of luxury and non luxury brands analyzed. Brand inclusion and exclusion criteria are listed hereafter. Since the current study only regards the brand extensi on to the adjacent product category to be part of the luxury brand (e.g., Hermes Perfume, Hermes Watch), extension brands were not excluded. Therefore, all sub brands under the same parent brands were subjected to analysis. For instance, when coding ads of Toyota, all ads of its sub brand such as Camry, Corolla, and Prius were also coded. To select the brands for this study, the researcher created a comprehensive list of luxury brands based on the luxury brand lists from various sources. First, research ar ticles in academic fields (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004; Reddy, Terblanche, Pitt, and Parent, 2008; Truong et al.,
50 2008) were used because these lists have been validated in the research field through the peer review process. To include the brands that are a cknowledged as luxury brands in the market, the researcher also used marketing research institute sources which included Market Research (2010) and BCG (2010). Both sources are regarded as prestigious source in marketing consulting (EContent, 2008). Final ly, online luxury brand data centers (i.e., www.robbreport.com www.luxuryinstitute.com ) were used. The Robb Report was chosen because it is a luxury information website a nd magazine that provides detailed reviews and recommendations of luxury products. It provides information about the brands who advertise on its webpage and in its monthly magazine as well. Luxury Institute data were used because it is a research institute that covers comprehensive topics related to luxury brands and affluent consumers (www.luxuryinstitute.com). The master list was then sorted by product categories based on categorizations listed on robbreport.com ( www.robbreport.com/robb recommends ) that included automobile, fashion, travel (hotel, cruise, destinations), private transportation (private jets, yachts), jewelry/watch, liquor /spirit, cigar, and electronics. Two brands cannot be categori zed following the robbreport.com categorization, which were pen (Montblanc), chocolate (Godiva), and water (Evian). To maintain an adequate quantity of brands included in the study, product categories that did not have more than ten luxury brands (pen, cho colate, water, and electronics) in the list were dropped. Although robbreport.com did not mention cosmetic/perfume as a separate category and included it in the fashion category, the researcher separated cosmetic/perfume from the fashion category since it is the second most advertised product category in magazine (PBI, 2009). To verify that a luxury brand from the master list the researcher created was indeed considered a luxury brand, it was crosschecked with the list of luxury brand
51 categori es ( www.robbreport.com/robb recommends ). The remaining eight product categories were comprised of automobile, fashion, cosmetic/perfume, travel, private transportation, jewelry/watch, liquor /spirit, a nd cigar. The next step was to select the non luxury counterparts for each of the eight product categories. Non luxury brand counterparts were selected by creating a list of brands for each product category that were found in the magazines included in t he sample. The researcher created the list this way because she wanted to select brands that actually advertise in the sample magazines and thus maximize the non luxury sample ads. When selecting the non luxury brands, price and product positioning were ge nerally the criteria used. The researcher compared the product price with luxury brands and selected brands whose prices were lower than luxury brand prices. Moreover, to maximize the objectivity, the list was verified by three advertising professionals. F or automobiles, the researcher used the list provided by the Mintel Report (2003), which included both luxury and non luxury automobiles. Non luxury brands were selected by comparing the robbreport.com list of luxury automobiles ( www.robbreport.com/robbrecommends ). For non luxury fashion ads, the researcher selected the brands that were sold online at mid end department stores such as Dillards and Belk (Mintel Reports, 2009). Non luxury cosmetic/perfume products were based on those sold in Walmart, which is targeted toward working and middle class consumers (Mintel Reports, 2008). Among the brand categories, non luxury brands of travel, watch/ jewelry, liquor /spirit, cigar, and private transportation cat egories were not widely available in the magazines. The non luxury brands for travel categories were more likely to be found in electronic media such as television, and only a few brands were advertised in the magazine. Non luxury brands for
52 liquor /spirit, watch/jewelry and cigar categories also were difficult to indentify in magazines because they were mostly positioned as luxury even though they were non luxury brands. Regarding the private transportation category (i.e., yachts, private jets), a non luxur y market simply does not exist. Therefore, the researcher included the aforementioned categories in the sample for basic descriptive statistics only, but these categories were excluded from statistical comparison between luxury and non luxury products sinc e their sample size was too low for statistical analysis. With the e limination of the travel, watch /jewelry, liquor /spirit, cigar, and private transportation categories, the luxury and non luxury comparisons were made for the following categories: automob ile, fashion, and cosmetic/perfume categories. Regarding the number of brands used to compare luxury and non luxury advertising, the researcher chose 20 brands for luxury and non luxury brands for each category (when non luxury was applicable) with the ex ception of two categories. Brands for the automobile category were cut down to 10 brands of luxury automobiles and 10 non luxury automobiles because the numbers of brands for the non luxury automobile that advertise in magazines were more likely to advert brands such as Corolla, Camry for Toyota brand. Moreover, the cigar category was also cut down to 10 brands since, according to the Robb Report ( www.robbreport.com ), there are not many cigar b rands that advertise. In sum, a total of 190 brands were selected for the analysis -20 automobile brands (10 luxury, 10 non luxury), 40 fashion (20 luxury, 20 non luxury), 40 cosmetic /perfume (20 luxury, 20 non luxury), 20 watch / jewelry brands (20 non lu xury), 20 private transportation (20 luxury), 20 travel (20 luxury), 20 liquor/ spirit (20 luxury), and 10 cigar (10 luxury) for a total of 140 luxury brands and 50 non luxury brands. Table 3 2 shows the list of all brands that were selected to be analyzed in the current study.
53 Coding Scheme In content analysis, codebooks and coding sheets are important for minimizing or eliminating individual differences among coders, thereby increasing reliability (i.e., objectivity). A codebook is a list that contains al its variables. It is used to set out the guidelines that address even the most mundane details of the coding categories (Neuendorf, 2002) including how to treat duplicates in the sample and cons istent ways to determine coding any variable that might be confusing (e.g., coding ethnicity of a model). The researcher created a comprehensive and unambiguous codebook that detailed Appendix B for Codebook). categories. For this study, the coding sheet and the codebook definitions were based on the creative strategy typology developed by Laskey, Day and Crask (1989) and the message strategy segment wheel as discussed in the literature review. Details of the coding schemes are mentioned in the section entitled coding process. (See Appendix A for Coding Sheet) The Pre Coding P rocess and Intercoder Reliability After developing the coding scheme, the researcher gathered the ads of selected brands from the magazines selected for the sampling frame. Ads had to cover more than one third of the page and gatefolds were also included. While reviewing ads from the different magazine categories, it was found that brands advertise their products in several magazine categories during the same season so, duplicate ads were frequently found. Duplicates were coded but not included in data anal ysis since this study is emphasizing the occurrence of advertising rather than the frequency. Because there was a possibility that multiple coders were not able to track all the duplicates, and to track an ad for sample description, duplicates were all cod ed and, before the
54 data analysis process, the researcher re examined the sample and eliminated duplicates from the data set. Two coders coded the sample advertisements for the current study. One female and one male coder who were both familiar with advert ising creative strategy and message strategy were recruited. The coders analyzed the samples using the same codebook and code sheet after the researcher provided a coding training session. During this training session, coders discussed the coding categorie s with the researcher and disagreement between two coders was resolved by discussion. Any detailed coding rules were updated to the codebook during this training session. For instance, when determining creative strategy between preemptive and unique sellin g proposition, the two coders disagreed when coding automobile ads. If the ad of a truck displayed and presented the strength of towing power as its own unique product attribute, one coder regarded it as unique selling proposition. However, because of basi c knowledge of automobiles, the other coder regarded this as a function of a truck that is not unique compared to other coders and the researcher discussed this problem and decided to code it as unique selling proposition because it was advertised with the intention to sell this function as unique from other competitors. During the coder training process, intercoder reliability was checked. Intercoder reliabili ty refers to the percentage of agreement among coders coding the same material (Kassarjian, 1977; Kolbe and Burnett, 1991). It is important for content analysis studies because it validates objectivity (Kassarjian, 1977; Kolbe and Burnett, 1991) and assess es the accuracy of the content analysis method (Kang et al., 1993). However, Lombard, Snyder study found that only 69% of studies mention intercoder reliability. The most frequently used
55 intercoder reliability measure is a simp le percentage of agreement (Kang et al., 1993). Among the articles published in the Journal of Advertising from 1981 to 1990, about 78% of the studies used a simple percentage of agreement, while 18% used intercoder reliability that adjusts for change agre ement among judges (Kang et al., 1993). The simple percentage of agreement involves the rate of responses in agreement among the coders (Neuendorf, 2002). It ranges from .00 (no agreement) to 1.00 (perfect agreement). The strength of percentage agreement i s that it is simple and easy to calculate. This also can be used when there are multiple coders. However, its major weakness is that it does not account for the agreement that occurred simply by chance. For instance, when two coders coding presence or abse nce of the model in magazine advertising, there is 50% chance that they will code the same even if they coded without viewing the sample advertising. This problem becomes more critical when only few categories are measured. Another intercoder reliability m calculate the agreement between two coders only. It is similar to simple percentage agreement, but it also can be applied when coders evaluated different units. However, similar to percentage agreem ent, it does not account for chance agreement and is, therefore, less reliable. When encountering these chance components that may impact the overall agreement among coders, researchers often prefer to use intercoder reliability coefficients that account for variables between two coders. Although it calculates the chance agreement, it is regarded to be overly conservative because this index takes not only the number of categories but also the
56 distribution of values into account. Moreover, it does not account for the differences in coders in terms of how they distributed th eir evaluations across coding categories (Scott, 1955). distribution into account. It also measures nominal level data. Although it is reported to be the most widely use d reliability coefficient (Perrault and Leigh, 1989), it was argued that, like pi, it is overly conservative because it only gives credit to agreement beyond chance. it can be measured for different level of variables from nominal to ratio. However, due to its difficulty of calculation, especially when calculated by hand, alpha has rarely been used. iate index to measure nominal level variables and also applicable for when multiple coder is present. Although it is regarded to be conservative, applying strict rules only strengthens the reliability of the study. Moreover, due to its popularity among res Intercoder reliability was first evaluated at the end of the coder training session. When there was low intercoder reliability, the researcher and the coder discussed and solved the discrepancies, as mentioned in previous section, which in turn meant specification and clarification in the codebook. Before starting the coding, intercoder reliability was checked using the study samples. Fifteen percent of the actual study sample (n = 4 9) was randomly selected to calculate the intercoder reliability coefficient. Although there is no strict rule for sample size for an intercoder reliability check, the agreed threshold among researchers is using no lesser than 10% of total sample (Neuendor f, 2002), and therefore, the selected sample size of the current study was regarded to be reasonable.
57 There is no established standard for an acceptable intercoder reliability level. Generally, Kappa ranging from .40 to .59 are regarded as moderate, .60 t o .79 are substantial, and over .80 01) to .865 ( 01) and was overall .788 ( 01). The predominant color in the ad had the least agreement among coders (.709), alt hough it still was considered a good level of agreement (Landis and Koch, 1977). Intercoder reliability for each coding category is listed in Table 3 3. Coding Process After the disagreements between two coders were solved, the codebook was updated, and i ntercoder reliability was established, the two coders started to code the selected ads. The answers were collected through Qualtrics, an online survey software ( www.qualtrics.com ). The coding categories on the code sh eet were divided into three sections. The first part included the descriptive information of the sample advertisement. Coded items included: brand name, product category, magazine title, issue month, and the size of the advertisement (1/3 page, half page, one page, two page, and other) along with whether the ad was for a general brand or sub brand. For instance, when coding Toyota Camry advertising, it was coded as sub brand. If it was a general ad campaign for Toyota and did not identify a specific name o f a product line, it was coded as general. In addition, this section included an identification number that corresponded to the ad each ad to its corresponding coding sheet. The second part of the coding sheet consisted of the advertising strategies. As discussed in the literature review, the coding categories included nine creative strategies (i.e., Comparative, Unique Selling Proposition, Preemptive, Hyperbol e, Generic Information, User Image, Brand study, and six message strategies (i.e., Ration, Acute need, Routine, Ego, Social, and Sensory)
58 The details of the coding categories as well as the coding process message strategy, the researcher asked coders to code only the dominant ones based on whether the str ategy was supported by the visuals and/or texts including headline and slogan (Kim et al., 2005). brand name was shown implicitly, it was not considered Comparative. An example of a Unique Selling Proposition (USP) had to state verified cla im(s) related to the product attribute or user benefit to show the product as unique. USP type ads might highlight their advanced technology as bringing more benefit to consumers. When coding Preemptive strategy, which can be similar to USP, ads had to sta te a verified claim, but the claim could not be unique. In other words, other competitors in the product category could also make the claim. For instance, if a Preempt ive. If ad expressed the message with exaggeration or extravagant arguments that were generally talked about the characteristics of product category as opposed to a specific brand, it was coded as Image was coded when the ad showed the brand, it was coded as Brand Image. For instance, a fashion brand ad highlighting a model is
59 regarded as User Image wh ile an ad highlighting the product is regarded as Brand Image. Ad as Use Occasion. If the focus was on the product and user relationship, it was coded as User I Transformational ads that generally talked about the characteristics of product category rather than specific brand were coded as Generic Transformation (Kim et al., 2005). An ad message When coding message strategy, an ad was coded as Ego when it exhibited self personal value through others or showing a social situation, it was example. Ads emphasizing the five senses and pleasurable moments were coded as Sensory. For instanc when the ad showed habitual purchases that did not need deliberation. An example might be, eminder, it was that exhibited a message that required high levels of deliberation were coded as Ration. These that differentiated the product from its The last part of the coding sheet was the colors in the advertising. The colors were coded based on Kaya and Epps (2004). They chos e 10 colors from the Munsell Color System, which is a standardized system of color notation (Hemphill, 1996), and three achromatic colors. Thus, the final list of colors included five principle hues (red, yellow, green, blue, purple), five
60 intermediate hue s (yellow red, green yellow, blue green, purple blue, red purple), and three achromatic colors (white, gray, black). Gold was also added by the researcher since it is found in literature that is related to the luxury colors (Madden, Hewett, and Roth, 2000; Kaya and Epps, 2004). Each ad was coded for predominant color used, logo color, background color, headline the predominant one was coded. If the coder was u nable to decide on a predominant color, it was coded as multiple colors. Text that showed the largest type on the page was regarded as Headline. The main brand message, which focused on the brand rather than the advertising theme, was coded as slogan (Aren s et al., 2010). An example of a headline and slogan also was shown in the code book. If no slogan or no headline was present in advertising, it was unable to The collected data from Qualtrics was exported into M icrosoft Excel. Data was processed through SPSS 13.0 for frequencies, cross tabulations, and chi square tests to address the research questions and hypotheses.
61 Table 3 1 List of Magazines Summer Fall Winter Spring Robb Report Jun 10 Aug 10 Nov 1 0 Apr 11 Vogue May 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Mar 11 GQ Jun 10 Sep 10 Jan 11 Mar 11 People May 10 Sep 10 Nov 10 Mar 11 ESPN Magazine May 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Feb 11 Table 3 2. List of Brands Luxury Non luxury Automobile Aston Martin Chevrolet Audi Ford Bent ley GM Ferrari Honda Infiniti Hyundai Jaguar Kia Lexus Mazda Lincoln Nissan Mercedes Benz Subaru Porsche Toyota Fashion Ascot Chang Aldo Bottega Veneta Bebe Canali Buckle Cesare Attolini Cache Diane von Furstenberg DKNY Jeans Dolce and Gabbana Express Eres GAP Ermenegildo Zenga H&M Fendi Hollister Givenchy J Crew Isaia Liz Claiborne Lacoste Lucky Brand Jeans Max Mara Miss Me Nina Ricci Old Navy Prada The Limited Roberto Cavalli Timberland St John Tyler Rod an Tom Ford Wrangler Zilli Zigi
62 Table 3 2. Continued Perfume / Cosmetics Acqua di Parma Almay Bvlgary Aveeno Dolce & Gabanna Axe Elizabeth Arden Covergirl Escada Ed Hardy Fragrance Estee Lauder Faith Hill True Fendi Perfumes Fancy Ni ghts Jessica Simpson Fresh Garnier Guerlain Guess Seductive Hermes Lollipop Bling Mariah Carey Kenzo Parfums L'oreal Paris Lancome Maybelline Laura Mercier Neutrogena Make Up For Ever Olay Parfums Christian Dior Pure Nautica Parfums Givenchy Revlon Perfumes Loewe Rimmel Versace Roc Viktor&Rolf Tease Paris Hilton Private Jet/Yacht Avantair Azimut Benetti Bombardier Christensen Citation Air DeBirs Fairline Yachts Feaship Flexjet Fraser Yachts HondaJet MarquisJet Netjets Ocean Alexander Oceanco Pilatus Sanlorenzo Vicem
63 Table 3 2. Continued Cigar Arturo Fuente Casa Magna Cohiba E. P. Carrillo Graycliff Montecristo Classic Pardon Quesada Rocky Patel Zino Travel Bellagio Bermuda Mandarin Oriental St. Regis Trump Cayman Islands MGM Grand The Palazzo The Plaza hotel Venetian Wynn Caesars Palace Four Seasons Hotel Sonora Resort Grand del mar Montage Bev erly Hills Talisker Club The Greenbrier The Surrey Casa de Campo
64 Table 3 2. Continued Jewelry / Watch Audemars Piguet Bulgari Cartier Chopard Damiani David Yurman De Beers Ebel Glashutte Hermes Jacob & Co. Jaeger Molina Moncblanc Patek Philippe Richard Mille Tiffany & Co. Van Cleef & Arpels Wellendorf Zenith Liquor / Spirit Appleton Estate Casa Noble Elit Far Niente Wine Ferrari Carano Glenfiddich Glenmora ngie Gran Patron Platinum Hendrick's Gin Hennessy Johnnie Walker Blue Krug Louis XIII de Remy Martin Montecristo Milagro Silver Oak Stolichnaya The Balvenie Single Malt The Glenlivet Single Malt Ultimat e Vodka
65 Table 3 3 Intercoder Reliability Check Category Cohen's Kappa Creative Strategy 0.764 Message Strategy 0.829 Predominant Color 0.709 Background Color 0.751 Headline Color 0.815 Logo Color 0.865 Overall 0.788
66 CHAPTER 4 R ESULTS This chapter presents the descriptive and inferential statistics to address the research questions and hypotheses of luxury and non exclusion criteria for the statistical analysis will be presente d. Descriptive Statistics of Sample Ads A total of 323 ads were initially coded for the current study. After eliminating a total of 40 duplicates and three ads that were ambiguous in regards to whether they were luxury or non luxury brands, only data for 283 ads were analyzed including 173 (61.1%) luxury brands and 110 (38.9%) non luxury brands 1 (Table 4 1). Out of eight product categories, ads in the cosmetic/perfume category were found most among both luxury and non luxury brand advertising, consisting of 32.5% of the total ads analyzed (n = 92). The second most collected product category was fashion (n = 61, 21.6%), followed by automobile (n = 41, 14.5%), jewelry/watch (n = 39, 13.8%), private jet/yacht (n = 24, 8.5%), liquor/spirit (n = 10, 3.5%), hote l (n = 9, 3.2%), and cigar (n = 7, 2.5%). For the luxury brands, ads for fashion brands were most frequently found (n = 40, 23.1%), followed by jewelry/watch (n = 39, 22.5%), cosmetic/perfume (n = 35, 20.2%), private jet/yacht (n = 24, 13.9%), liquor/spiri t (n = 10, 5.8%), hotel (n = 9, 5.2%), automobile (n = 9, 5.2%), and cigar (n = 7, 4.1%). For non luxury brands, about half of the ads (n = 57, 51.8%) were from the cosmetic/perfume category followed by automobile (n = 32, 29.1%) and fashion (n = 21, 19.1% ) (Table 4 2). Ads analyzed for the current study came from a total of 194 brands (Table 4 3). For automobile, 30 brands 8 luxury and 22 non luxury were found in 41 ads. For cosmetics, a 1 The am biguous ads were for the GMC Acadia Denali (automobile), Hyundai Equus (automobile), and Olay Pro X (cosmetic/perfume).
6 7 total of 92 ads were analyzed for 70 different brands, of whic h 26 were luxury brand ads and 44 non luxury brand ads. Among the 61 ads coded in the fashion category, 26 brands were found -19 luxury and 7 non luxury. Creative Strategies RQ1: How were creative strategies used in luxury brand advertising? RQ2: How were creative strategies used in non luxury brand advertising? These research questions investigate the usage of creative strategies in both luxury and non luxury brands. The results are shown in Table 4 4 and explained hereafter. Due to lower cell counts than expected, statistical tests were conducted after combining cells with lower counts. Therefore, creative strategies were recoded into Brand Image, Preemptive, Unique Selling Proposition, User Image, and other, which is a combined cell for Comparative, Generic Information, Generic Transformation, Hyperbole, and Use Occasion. It was found that there is statistically significant difference in creative strategy between luxury and non luxury brand ads 2 Image (n=73, 42.2%) and Brand Image (n = 43, 24.9%) were predominant creative strategies, followed by Unique Selling Proposition (n = 35, 20.2%). Although few in number, some luxury brand ads employed Preemptive (n = 9, 5.2%). Hyperbole, Generic Informatio n, Comparative, and Use Occasion combined were also found from the sample (n = 13, 7.5%). On the other hand, the predominant non luxury brand creative strategies were Unique Selling Proposition (n = 41, 38.3%), User Image (n = 28, 26.2%), and Preemptive (n = 20, 18.7%). Brand Image (n = 11, 10.3%), and other creative strategies (Generic Transformation, Comparative, Generic Information, Hyperbole, and Use Occasion) were also used to lesser extents (n = 7, 6.5%). H1: Luxury brand advertising is associated w ith the transformational creative strategy.
68 Based on studies of luxury brands, hypothesis 1 examined whether luxury brand ads are associated with the transformational creative strategy. To test the hypothesis, creative strategy data was recoded into eith er Informational or Transformational. It was found that luxury and non luxury brands are associated with transformational and informational creative strategies (Table 4 5). For luxury brands, transformational types of creative strategies (n = 120, 69.4%) were predominantly used, while non luxury brand used more informational types of creative strategies (n = 68, 61.3%). Moreover, chi 2 H2: Among creative strategies, User Image and Brand Image is associated with luxury brand advertising. Based on social identity theory and previous studies related to creative strategies, it was assumed that User Image and Brand Image would be more pred ominant in luxury, rather than non luxury, brand ads. To test the hypothesis, creative strategies were recoded into either User Image/Brand Image or Other Creative Strategies (Table 4 5). It was found that luxury brand ads were more likely to use Brand Ima ge and User Image (n = 116, 67.1%) than other creative strategies (n = 57, 32.9%), while those of non luxury brands used Brand Image and User Image (n = 39, 36.4%) less than they did other creative strategies (n = 68, 63.6%). Therefore, Hypothesis 2 was su pported ( 5 055, df = 1 ). RQ3: What are the differences in creative strategies within product categories between luxury and non luxury brand advertising? Research question 3 examined the luxury and non str ategies within their respective product categories. The results are listed in Table 4 6 and explained hereafter. For luxury brands, when regarding the product categories, automobile
69 (77.8%), private jet/yacht (66.7%), and liquor/spirit (60%) more frequentl y used informational rather than transformational creative strategies. On the other hand, luxury ads for cosmetic/perfume (74.3%), fashion (97.5%), cigar (57.1%), hotel (77.8%), and jewelry/watch (76.9%) used more transformational than informational creati ve strategies. For non luxury brands, ads for automobiles (83.3%) and cosmetic/perfume (69.6%) were found to use more informational than transformational creative strategies, while fashion (95.2%) brands favored transformational over informational creative strategies. However, only the cosmetic/perfume category showed a statistically significant difference ( 16.676, df = 1 01 ) between luxury and non luxury brands for general creative strategy (i.e., informational vs. transformational). Other than cosmetic/perfume category, statistical tests were all insignificant and cells lesser than expected coun t were present. Luxury cosmetic/perfume brands used significantly more transformational creative strategies (74.3%), while non luxury brands used significantly more informational creative strategies (69.6%) in their ads. Specific use of creative strategy w ithin cosmetic/perfume category was not able to be tested because some cell counts were below than minimum expected count. When regarding its frequency only, more than half of the ads showed User Image (54.3%) followed by Unique Selling Proposition (22.9%) and Brand Image (20%). For the ads of non luxury cosmetic/perfume brands, more than half (53.6%) of the ads used Unique Selling Proposition followed by User Image (17.9%) and Preemptive (14.3%). When comparing ads for luxury and non luxury brand automob ile ads, both luxury (77.8%) and non luxury (83.3%) brands focused on creative strategies that were more informational; thus, there was not a statistically significant difference between them ( 0 14 5 df = 1 5, 25% of cells have less than expected counts). Specific use of creative strategy
70 within automobile category was not able to be tested because some cell counts were below than minimum expected count. When only regarding the frequ encies, more than half (55.6%) of luxury automobile ads used Unique Selling Proposition to highlight their brand differentiation. For non luxury automobiles, ads displayed Unique Selling Proposition (36.7%) and Preemptive (36.7%) more than other types of c reative strategy by showing brand differentiation and general product benefit, respectively. For the fashion category, which was not showing statistically significant result ( 0 222, df = 1 5, 50% of cells have less than expected counts), ads for both luxury (97.5%) and non luxury brands (95.2%) predominantly relied on transformational creative strategies. In particular, User Image was found to be dominant in both lu xury (85.0%) and non luxury (85.7%) ads that presented the model(s) in either outdoor, preferably metropolitan streets, or indoor studio setting. In luxury fashion brand ads, use of Brand Image (12.5%) was also found by presenting the image of the product without any image of the user. Due to the cell counts that were below than minimum expected count, this was not able to be tested. Following section describes the creative strategy usage of private jet/yacht, liquor/spirit, cigar, hotel, and jewelry/watch categories those are all luxury brands. Due to the cell counts that were below than minimum expected count, following result only shows the descriptive statistics. For private jet/yacht ads, Unique Selling Proposition (37.5%) was the most often used creati ve strategy. This type of advertising highlighted the main brand differentiation such as speed. Brand Image (25%) was also frequently employed, focusing mostly on the visuals of the exterior of a jet on a runway or a yacht on the ocean. Hyperbole (30%) a nd Brand Image (20%) were the most found creative strategies in liquor/spirit luxury ads. Hyperbolic liquor/spirit ads often focused on its extraordinary quality by
71 y showing the product in mostly achromatic background. Cigar ads most frequently employed the User Image (42.9%) creative strategy by showing a person using a cigar with others in social situation, followed by Unique Selling Proposition (28.6%), which foc used on the brand differentiation message that explained the superiority of their brand compared to others. One cigar ad even displayed the image of a trophy to state that they have been awarded best of the best. Hotel ads most frequently used User Image ( 44.4%) and Brand Image (22.2%) creative strategies. A series of ads were detected in the hotel category using User Image creative strategy the image of a celebrit y to the brand. Ads that used Brand Image were simply displaying the symbolic image of their brand such as their golden colored building or fountain in front of the hotel. Except for one ad showing a Hyperbole creative strategy (11.1%), use of other inform ational types of creative strategies were not found in hotel ads. For jewelry/watch ads, almost half (48.7%) of those used a Brand Image creative strategy that focused on the product itself. The ad simply displayed a single watch or piece of jewelry in a mostly achromatic background. For these ads using Brand Image, the visuals were focused on the details of their product. User Image (25.6%) was also found frequently in this category, and these types of ads mostly focused on celebrity endorsement of the br and (e.g., Rafael Nadal for Richard Mille watches). Message Strategies RQ4: How were message strategies used in luxury brand advertising? RQ5: How were message strategies used in non luxury brand advertising?
72 These research questions investigated the usa ge of message strategies in both luxury and non luxury brands. The results are shown in Table 4 7 and explained hereafter. Due to lower cell counts than expected, statistical test were conducted after eliminating the cells that have lower than 5 cases. The refore, message strategy was recoded into Ego, Ration, Sensory, and Social. It was found that there is statistically significant difference in message strategy between luxury and non luxury brand ads ( 2 found most often among luxury brand advertising (n = 58, 33.9%). Ration (n = 47, 27.5%) and Sensory (n = 46, 26.9%) were also found frequently in luxury brand advertisements. Though infr equent, Social (n = 20, 11.7%) was also found from luxury brand advertising. For non luxury ads, Ration (n = 70, 65.4%) was the most frequently used message strategy. It was followed by Ego (n = 21, 19.6%) Social (n = 9, 8.4%), and Sensory (n = 7, 6.5%). A cute Need was not found in non luxury brand advertising. H3: Luxury brand advertising is associated with the ritual view of message strategy. Based on previous studies of luxury brand, it was assumed that ritual view message strategy would found most fr om luxury brand advertising. To test the hypothesis, message strategy data was recoded into either Transmission or Ritual. It was found that luxury and non luxury brands are associated with ritual and transmission message strategies (Table 4 8). For luxury brands, ritual types of message strategies (n = 124, 71.7%) were predominantly used, while non luxury brand used more transmission types of message strategies (n = 70, 65.4%). Moreover, chi square testing revealed high statistical significance ( 2 and therefore supported Hypothesis 3. H4: Luxury brand advertising is associated with Ego more than all other message strategies.
73 Regarding message strategy, it was assumed that Ego would be more predominantly used in luxury than non luxury brand advertising. To test the hypothesis, message strategy data was recoded into either Ego or Other Message Strategies. Based on the statistical testing, it was found that luxury brand ads were more likely to use Ego (n = 58, 33.5%) than non luxury brand ads were (n = 21, 19.6%). Therefore, Hypothesis 4 was also supported ( (Table 4 8). RQ6: What are the differences in message strategies within product categories between luxury and non luxury brand advertising? Research question 6 examines to see the luxury and non strategies regarding their product categories. The result is listed in Table 4 9 and explained hereafter. Regarding the product categories, luxury automobile ads (66.7%), private jet/yacht (66.7%), and liquor/spirit (60%) more frequently used the transmis sion view rather than the ritual view message strategies. On the other hand, luxury ads for cosmetic/perfume (74.3%), fashion (97.5%), cigar (57.1%), hotel (88.9%), jewelry/watch (76.9%), and liquor/spirit (60%) used more ritual than transmission message s trategies. For non luxury brands, ads for automobiles (86.7%) and cosmetic/perfume (76.8%) were found to use more transmission than ritual message strategies, while fashion (95.2%) brands favored ritual over transmission message strategies. Similar to the comparison of creative strategy within the product categories, only the cosmetic/perfume category showed a statistically significant difference ( 6 360, df = 1 .0 01). Other than cosmetic/perfume category, statistical tests were all insignificant and cells lesser than expected count were present. Luxury cosmetic/perfume brands usually used ritual view message strategies (74.3%), while non luxury brands most commonly used transmission
74 view message strategies (76.8%) in their ads. Specific use of message strategy within cosmetic/perfume category was not able to be tested because some cell counts were below than minimum expected count. When on ly regarding the frequencies, luxury brands cosmetic/perfume ads used Sensory (34.3%) and Ego (28.6%) more than Ration (22.9%) and Social (11.4%). For the ads of non luxury cosmetic/perfume brands, more than half (76.8%) of the ads used Ration followed by Sensory (12.5%) and Ego (8.9%). When comparing ads of automobiles, both luxury (66.7%) and non luxury (86.7%) brands focused on more transmission message strategies. However, it was not statistically significant ( = 1 880, df = 1 5, 25% of cells have less than expected counts).When regarding only the occurrence, about two thirds of luxury automobile ads used Ration to make consumers deliberate about the brand message. These type of ads provided factual information to highlight the strength of thei r brand such as application of space technology to make it weigh less, and how quickly their automobile could reach certain speed. However, Ration was not the only messages strategy found in luxury automobile ads; Ego (11.1%), Sensory (11.1%), and Social ( 11.1%) message strategies were also found. One ad of luxury automobile used an Ego type of message strategy by showing a celebrity standing next to the automobile so that audiences can make the connection between the celebrity and themselves into the ad. S ensory types of luxury automobile ads highlighted their sleek and stylish design that can smooth out the driving experience because it deflects the wind. A luxury automobile that used a Social type of message strategy in its ad highlighted that itscar is a four door sports car that provides an exhilarating experience to the entire family. The visual of ad was not only emphasizing the exterior of the automobile but also showing the family happily loading their luggage into the car for a trip.
75 For non luxur y automobiles, ads predominantly displayed Ration (86.7%), followed by Ego (10%), then Social (3.3%). Similar to luxury brand automobile ads, Ration type of ads focused on the brand differentiation message. However, compared to the luxury brand automobiles non luxury brand automobiles highlighted their price or fuel efficiency instead of speed or high technology function. Ego type of automobile ad told the function of the product and drew a link that it makes you have more control and power. Only one non l uxury automobile responsibility campaign of its general brand and highlighted that their company is making the world a better place. For the fashion category, bot h luxury (97.5%) and non luxury brands (95.2%) predominantly relied on ritual view message strategies. Specific use of message strategy within fashion category was not able to be tested because some cell counts were below than minimum expected count. When only regarding the frequencies, Ego and Social comprised both luxury (75%, 15%) and non luxury (61.9%, 33.3%) ads. However, when comparing the percentages between luxury and non luxury usage of Ego (75% vs. 61.9%) and Social (15% vs. 33.3%), luxury ads use d a larger percentage of Ego than non luxury while non luxury used a larger percentage of Social. Both luxury and non luxury brand as that used Ego as the main message s vanity. For instance, images of this type of ad showed an unusual image of (a) model(s) with almost no facial expression and mostly wearing make up that highlighted either the lips or the eyes. Social type ads focused on images of situations in which th e product was used with others. For non luxury fashion brand that used the Social type of message strategy, they mostly displayed several models together in an outdoor setting, either on an old street with brick walls
76 or in nature setting such as beach, oc ean, or park. For luxury fashion brand that used the Social type of message strategy, they focused on creating a romantic mood by showing both male and female models together in indoor setting and flowers. In luxury fashion brand ads, use of Sensory (7.5%) the product. Following section describes the message strategy usage of private jet/yacht, liquor/spirit, cigar, hotel, and jewelry/watch categories those are all luxury bran ds. Due to the cell counts that were below than minimum expected count, following result only shows the descriptive statistics. For private jet/yacht ads, Ration (62.5%) was predominant. These ads focused on the brand differentiation message and competitiv design, and testing. Sensory (16.7%) and Ego (12.5%) were also employed in privet jet/yacht ads. Sensory strategy was used to highlight the elegant and impeccable design of the jet and yacht by showing images of its exterior or interior. Ads for private jet and yachts showing the Ego type of message strategy highlighted the exterior of jet and yacht and used a headline or slogan to explain how this brand helps make a successful life. Either Sensory (50% ) or Ration (40%) was predominantly found in liquor/spirit ads. Sensory type of liquor/spirit ads focused on the taste of the product by saying things such as excellence, or delight, while Ration Cigar ads, predominantly used two strategies: Social (42.9%) and Ration (42.9%). Social strategies showed an image of a person using a cigar in the company of others. On the other hand, Ration highlight ed the quality of the product by stating that they have been awarded as the best of the best from Robb Report.
77 The luxury brand hotel ads mainly used Sensory (44.4%) and Ego (33.3%) message strategies. These strategies were expressed as either showing a pl easurable moment during the stay (Sensory) or showing their brand is for someone special (Ego). For jewelry/watch ads, 43.7% used a Sensory message strategy that focused on the aesthetics of the product. When accompanied by headlines or slogans, it highli ghted the pleasurable moment of getting the jewelry. Ego (23.1%) and Ration (23.1%) were also found in this category. Ego type of jewelry/watch ads displayed an image of a model wearing jewelry or a watch in a mostly achromatic background with almost no fa cial expression. H5: In both luxury and non luxury brand advertising, informational creative strategies are associated with informational message strategies, and transformational creative strategies are associated with transformational message strategies. Based on previous studies of advertising message strategies and creative strategies, it was assumed that there exists a relationship between informational creative strategies and informational message strategies, and transformational creative strategies and transformational message strategies. Table 4 10 shows the result of this hypothesis testing. The test for the current study also indicated strong association between creative strategy and message strategy 2 = informational (transmission) message strategy (n = 114), while 96.6% of ads using transformational creative strategy used transformational (ritual) message strategy (n = 157). Therefore, Hypo thesis 5 was supported (Table 4 9). Colors RQ7: What are the differences in the colors used in luxury and non luxury brand advertising? Research Question 7 aimed to see whether there were any differences in color choices between luxury and non luxury brand advertising in terms of predominant color, background,
78 logo, headline, and slogan. Due to the large number of cells that did not exceed the minimum expected cell counts, statistical testing for each color could not be done. Ther efore, only the frequencies are listed below. As shown in Table 4 11, luxury brand ads mostly used black (n = 37, 21.5%) and gray (17.3%) followed by gold (n = 19, 11.0%). Ads also used multi color (n = 20, 11.6%), red (n = 16, 9.2%), blue (n = 15, 8.7%), and white (n = 14, 8.1%). In non luxury brand ads, black (n = 21, 19.6), gray (n = 15, 14.0%), and red (n = 15, 14.0%) were mostly used followed by white (n = 11, 10.3%), purple (n = 8, 7.5%), blue (n = 7, 6.5%), gold (n = 7, 6.5%), and green (n = 7, 6.5%) Thus, both luxury and non luxury brands favoured black and gray most; however, luxury ads were more likely to use gold and non luxury ads were more likely to use red. For background colors, as listed in Table 4 12, luxury brand ads mostly used, black (n = 55, 31.8%), gray (n = 27, 15.6%), and white (n = 30, 17.3%). Multi color (n = 18, 10.4%), and blue (n = 15, 8.7) was also used in background of luxury brand ads. Non luxury brand ads showed a similar pattern by using mostly black (n = 27, 25.2%), white ( n = 22, 20.6%), gray (n = 18, 16.8%), and multi color (n = 15, 14.0%). Colors used in logos are listed in Table 4 logo was a brand symbol only (i.e., icon) as a brand identifier. While excluding those 29 cases of icon only logos, since those were not a stand counted. For luxury brand ads, white (n = 77, 49.7%) and black (n = 38, 24.5%) were favored followed by gold (n = 12, 7.7%) and blue (n = 10, 6.5%). For non luxu ry brand ads, other than white (n = 45, 46.4%) and black (n = 17, 17.5%), red (n = 12, 12.4%) was favored. A total of 209 out of 280 ads used a headline as mentioned in Table 4 14. White (n = 57, 47.9%), black (n = 26, 21.8%), and gray (n = 13, 10.9%) wer e favored by luxury brand ads
79 followed by gold (n = 6, 5.0%), blue (n = 6, 5.0%), and red (n = 5, 4.2%). For non luxury brand ads, white (n = 38, 42.2%), and black (n = 22, 24.4%) were also favored followed by gray (n = 6, 6.7%), green (n = 5, 5.6%), and r ed (n = 5, 5.6%). The use of color gold and blue for luxury brand ads and green for non luxury brand ads were found to be interesting since achromatic colors are mostly favored by the designers due to its maximized readability. A slogan was found in 209 ad s. As listed in Table 4 15, luxury brand favored white (n = 50, 54.9%), and black (n = 22, 24.2%), followed by gray (n = 8, 8.8%) and gold (n = 5, 5.5%). For non luxury brand, ads also favored white (n = 39, 49.4%) and black (n = 19, 24.1%). Six ads were f ound using red (6.3%) for slogan. When regarding the color of texts (logo, headline, and slogan) in ads, finding the use of color gold and blue for luxury brand ads and red for non luxury brand ads were found to be interesting since achromatic colors are mostly favored by the designers due to its maximized contrast and readability. H6: Colors associated with wealth (black, purple and gold) are more likely to be used in luxury brand advertising. Hypothesis 6 assumed that wealthy colors (black, purple, and gold) are more often used in luxury than non luxury brand advertising. To test the hypothesis, categories were recoded into two group; one for wealthy color (black, purple, and gold) and non wealthy color (all other than wealthy colors). A relationship bet ween brand luxuriousness and use of wealthy colors (black, gold, purple) was not found And mentioned through Table 4 16 to 4 20, it was not statistically 2 = .004, df = 1, 2 = .442, df = 1, 2 = .970, df = 1, 2 = .018, df = 1, p 5), and 2 = .055 df = 1, 5). Although luxury brands often used wealthy colors, it
80 was found that the use of wealthy colors were not significant in any part of ads in general, background, logo, headline, and slogan compared to those of non wealthy colors. Therefore, Hypothesis 6 was rejected.
81 Table 4 1. Number of Ads by Product Category (after deleting 40 duplicates) Luxury Brand (%) Non luxury Brand (%) Total Automobile 9 (5.2) 32 (29.1) 41 (14.5) Cosm etic / Perfumes 35 (20.2) 57 (51.8) 92 (32.5) Fashion 40 (23.1) 21 (19.1) 61 (21.6) Private Jet / Yacht 24 (13.9) 0 24 (8.5) Cigar 7 (4.1) 0 7 (2.5) Hotel 9 (5.2) 0 9 (3.2) Jewelry / Watch 39 (22.5) 0 39 (13.8) Liquor / Spirit 10 (5.8) 0 10 (3.5) To tal 173 (61.1) 110 (38.9) 283 (100) Table 4 2. Number of Brand Analyzed Luxury Brand Non luxury Brand Automobile 8 22 Cosmetic / Perfumes 26 44 Fashion 19 7 Private Jet / Yacht 16 0 Cigar 5 0 Hotel 7 0 Jewelry / Watch 30 0 Liquor / Spirit 10 0 Total 121 73
82 Table 4 3. List of Brands Analyzed Luxury Non luxury Brand Sub Brand Sub Auto Aston Martin Rapide Chevrolet Malibu Infiniti M Chevrolet Equinox Jaguar General Chevrolet Cruze Jaguar XJ Chevrolet Traverse Lexus General C hevrolet Camaro Mercedes Benz SLS AMG Chevrolet Silverado Mercedes Benz Cabriolet Ford Super duty Mercedes Benz CLS Ford Edge Ford Fiesta Ford Taurus Ford Mustang Ford F 150 GMC Sierra GMC Terrain GMC Acadia denali* Ho nda Ridgeline Honda Odyssey Hyundai Equus* Mazda 3 Nissan Altima Toyota Highlander Toyota General Cosmetic / Perfume Diane von Furstenberg General Aveeno Elastic Discovery Dior Jadore Aveeno General Dolce & Gabbana The One Covergirl Outlast Lipstain Dolce & Gabbana General Covergirl Lashblast Mascara Elizabeth Arden Prevage Eye Covergirl Simply Ageless
83 Table 4 3. Continued Estee Lauder Pleasures Bloom Covergirl Lashblastfusion Estee Lauder Blue dahlia Coverg irl Shineblast Lipgloss Estee Lauder Tom Pecheux Covergirl Natureluxe Estee Lauder Sensuous Covergirl Liquiline Blast Estee Lauder Sumptuous Extreme Covergirl Smoky Shadowblast Estee Lauder Beautiful Garnier Ultra lift Anti Wrinkle Firming Moistur izer Estee Lauder General Garnier Moisture Rescue Givenchy Play Garnier Ultra lift Pro Lancome Tresor Garnier Ultra lift Targeted Wrinkle Treatment Lancome Teint Miracle Guess Seductive Lancome Definicils Loreal Colour Riche Lancome Genifique Loreal Voluminous Million Lashes Lancome Labsolu rouge Loreal Hip Studio Secrets Lancome French Coquettes Loreal Color Smokes Lancome Hypnose Drama Mascara Loreal Studio Secrets Lancome Ultra Lavande Loreal Youth Code Lancome General Loreal General Laura Mercier General Maybelline Volum Express Versace Bright Crystal Maybelline The Eraser Treatment Makeup Versace Versus Maybelline Shine Sensational Viktor & Rolf Flowerbomb Maybelline Great Lash Maybelline Eyestudio Maybelline Dream Matte Mousse Maybelline Dream Smooth Mousse Maybelline General Neutrogena Clinical Skincare Olay Bodywash Olay Pro X* Olay Regenerist Olay General
84 Table 4 3. Continued Revlon Photoready Revlon Luxurious Col or Eyeshadow Revlon Fabulash Revlon Grow Luscious Revlon Colorburst Lipstick Revlon General Roc Deep Wrinkle Cream S by Shakira General Tease General Fashion Ascot Chang Collection Bebe General Ascot Chang General Cac he General Bottega Veneta General Express General Canali General Gap General Cesare Attolini General J Crew General Diane von Furstenberg General Loft General Dolce & Gabbana MDG Wrangler General Dolce & Gabbana General Ermenegildo Zegna Ge neral Fendi General Isaia General Lacoste General Max Mara General Prada Shoes Prada General Roberto Cavalli General Roberto Cavalli Eyewear St John General Zilli General Private Jet / Yacht Avantair Gener al Benetti General Bombardier Challenger850 Bombardier General
85 Table 4 3. Continued Private Jet / Yacht Christensen Custom Series Citation Air General Fraser Yachts General HondaJet General MarquisJet General Ne tjets General Ocean Alexander 83 Oceanco Y708 Oceanco General Pilatus PC 12NG Sanlorenzo General Vicem 54 Cigar Arturo Fuente General Casa Magna General Cohiba General Montecristo Classic General Rocky Pat el General Travel Bellagio General Mandarin Oriental General St Regis General Talisker General The Plaza Hotel General The Surrey General Trump International General Jewelry / Watch Audemars Piguet The 57th Street (Limited ed.) Audemars Piguet Julius Audemars Extra Thin Audemars Piguet The Montauk Highway (Limited ed) Bulgari Endurer Chronosprint Cartier Santos 100 Cartier Evasions Joaillieres Collection Cartier Calibre de Cartier Cart ier General
86 Table 4 3. Continued Jewelry / Watch Chopard General David Yurman The Classic David Yurman General Debeers Reverie Collection Debeers General Debeers Atea Collection Ebel Beluga Glashutte Panolnverse XL Her mes General Jaeger Lecoultre Grande Reverso Moncblanc General Patek Philippe General Richard Mille Caliber rm 028 (Limited Ed) Richard Mille Rm 027 Tourbillon Rafael Nadal Richard Mille Diamond Cruncher Richard Mille Caliber rm 011 (Limited ed) Tiffany & Co Tiffany Keys Tiffany & Co Rhapsody Diamond Tiffany & Co General Van cleef & Arpels Charms Watch Van cleef & Arpels Collection Perlee Van cleef & Arpels The Potery of Time Liquor / Spirit Appl eton Estate General Casa Noble General Elit Stolichnayo Ferrari Carano General Glenfiddich General Glenmorangie 18 years old Hendrick's Gin General Hennessy Richard Hennessy Krug General Milagro General
87 Table 4 4. Creative Strategies Luxury (%) Non luxury (%) Total (%) Creative strategy (predominant) Brand Image 43 (24.9) 11 (10.3) 54 (19.3) Comparative 2 (1.2) 2 (1.9) 4 (1.4) Generic Information 3 (1.7) 1 (0.9) 4 (1.4) Generic Transformation 2 (1.2) 3 (2.8) 5 (1.8) Hyperbole 4 (2.3) 1 (0.9) 5 (1.8) Preemptive 9 (5.2) 20 (18.7) 29 (10.4) Unique Selling Proposition 35 (20.2) 41 (38.3) 76 (27.1) Use Occasion 2 (1.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.7) User Image 73 (42.2) 28 (26.2) 101 (36.1) Total 173 (100) 107 ( 100) 280 (100) Table 4 5. Luxury brand vs. Non luxury brand and Creative Strategy Luxury Brand (%) Non luxury Brand (%) Creative Strategy Informational* 53 (30.6%) 65 (60.7%) Transformational* 120 (69.4%) 42 (39.3%) Brand Image & User Imag e** 116 (67.1%) 39 (36.4%) Other Creative Strategies** 57 (32.9%) 68 (63.6%)
88 Table 4 6. Creative Strategy wi thin Product Category Creative Strategy Total (%) Informational (%) Transformational (%) Automobile Luxury 7 (77.8) 2 (22.2) 9 (100) Non luxury 25 (83.3) 5 (16.7) 30 (100) Total 32 (82.1) 7 (17.9) 39 (100) Cosmetic / Perfumes Luxury 9 ( 25.7) 26 (74.3) 35 (100) Non luxury 39 (69.6) 17 (30.4) 56 (100) Total 48 (52.7) 43 (47.3) 91 (100) Fashion Luxury 1 (2.5) 39 (97.5) 40 (100) Non luxury 1 (4.8) 20 (95.2) 21 (100) Total 2 (3.3) 59 (96.7) 61 (100) Private Jet / Yacht L uxury 16 (66.7) 8 (33.3) 24 (100) Cigar Luxury 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) 7 (100) Hotel Luxury 2 (22.2) 7 (77.8) 9 (100) Jewelry / Watch Luxury 9 (23.1) 30 (76.9) 39 (100) Liquor / Spirit Luxury 6 (60) 4 (40) 10 (100) Total 118 162 280 Table 4 7. Message Str ategies Luxury (%) Non luxury (%) Total (%) Message strategy (predominant) Acute Need 2 (1.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.7) Ego 58 (33.5) 21 (19.6) 79 (28.2) Ration 47 (27.2) 70 (65.4) 117 (41.8) Sensory 46 (26.6) 7 (6.5) 53 (18.9) Social 20 (11.6) 9 (8.4) 29 (10.4) Total 173 (100) 107 (100) 280 (100)
89 Table 4 8. Luxury brand vs. Non luxury brand and Message Strategy Luxury Brand (%) Non luxury Brand (%) Message Strategy Informational* 49 (28.3%) 70 (65.4%) Transformational* 124 (71.7%) 37 (34.6%) Ego** 58 (33.5%) 21 (19.6%) Other Message Strategies** 115 (66.5%) 86 (80.4%) Table 4 9. Message Strategy within Product Category Message Strategy Total (%) Informational (%) Transformational (%) Automobile Luxury 6 (66.7) 3 (33.3) 9 (100) Non luxury 26 (86.7) 4 (13.3) 30 (100) Total 32 (82.1) 7 (17.9) 39 (100) Cosmetic / Perfumes Luxury 9 (25.7) 26 (74.3) 35 (100) Non luxury 43 (76.8) 13 (23.2) 56 (100) Total 52 (57.1) 39 (42.9) 91 (100) Fashion Luxury 1 (2.5) 39 (97.5) 40 (100) No n luxury 1 (4.8) 20 (95.2) 21 (100) Total 2 (3.3) 59 (96.7) 61 (100) Private Jet / Yacht Luxury 16 (66.7) 8 (33.3) 24 (100) Cigar Luxury 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) 7 (100) Hotel Luxury 1 (11.1) 8 (88.9) 9 (100) Jewelry / Watch Luxury 9 (23.1) 30 (76.9) 39 (100) Liquor / Spirit Luxury 4 (40) 6 (60) 10 (100) Total 119 161 280
90 Table 4 10. Message Strategy and Creative Strategy Message Strategy Informational (%) Transformational (%) Total (%) Creative Strategy Informational* 114 (96.6%) 4 (3.4 %) 118 (100%) Transformational* 5 (3.1%) 157 (96.9%) 162 (100%) Total 119 (100%) 161 (100%) N = 280 Table 4 11. Use of Colors: Predominant Color Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Black 37 (21.4) 21 (19.6) 58 (20.7) Blue 15 (8.7) 7 (6.5) 22 (7.9) Gold 19 (11.0) 7 (6.5) 26 (9.3) Gray 30 (17.3) 15 (14.0) 45 (16.1) Green 2 (1.2) 7 (6.5) 9 (3.2) Green Yellow 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.4) Purple 6 (3.5) 8 (7.5) 14 (5.0) Purple Blue 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.4) Purple Red 2 (1.2) 3 (2.8) 5 (1.8) Red 16 (9.2) 15 (14.0) 31 (11.1) Silver 3 (1.7) 0 (0) 3 (1.1) White 14 (8.1) 11 (1 0.3) 25 (8.9) Yellow 3 (1.7) 1 (0.9) 4 (1.4) Yellow Red 6 (3.4) 5 (4.6) 11 (3.9) Multi color 20 (11.6) 5 (4.6) 25 (9.0) Total 173 (100) 107 (100) 280 (100)
91 Table 4 12 Use of Colors: Background Color Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Black 55 ( 31.8) 27 (25.2) 81 (29.3) Blue 15 (8.7) 6 (5.6) 21 (7.5) Blue Green 2 (1.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.7) Gold 6 (3.5) 5 (4.7) 11 (3.9) Gray 27 (15.6) 18 (16.8) 45 (16.1) Green 2 (1.2) 3 (2.8) 5 (1.8) Green Yellow 0 (0) 4 (3.7) 4 (1.4) Purple 3 (1.7) 1 (0.9) 3 (1.1 ) Purple Red 1 (0.6) 3 (2.8) 4 (1.4) Red 6 (3.5) 1 (0.9) 7 (2.5) White 30 (17.3) 22 (20.6) 52 (18.6) Yellow 5 (2.9) 1 (0.9) 6 (2.1) Yellow Red 3 (1.7) 0 (0) 2 (1.1) Multi color 18 (10.4) 15 (14.0) 33 (11.8) Total 173 (100) 107 (100) 280 (100)
92 Table 4 13. Use of Color s : Logo Color Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Black 38 (24.5) 17 (17.5) 55 (21.8) Blue 10 (6.5) 2 (2.1) 12 (4.8) Gold 12 (7.7) 5 (5.2) 17 (6.7) Gray 6 (3.9) 2 (2.1) 8 (3.2) Green 1 (0.6) 2 (2.1) 3 (1.2) Purple 1 (0.6) 3 (3.1) 4 (1.6) Purple Red 3 (1.9) 3 (3.1) 6 (2.4) Red 6 (3.9) 12 (12.4) 18 (7.1) White 77 (49.7) 45 (46.4) 122 (48.4) Yellow 0 (0) 3 (3.1) 3 (1.2) Yellow Red 1 (0.6) 2 (2.1) 3 (1.2) Multi color 0 (0) 1 (1.0) 1 (0.4) Total 155 (100) 97 (100) 252 (100 )
93 Table 4 14. Use of Color s : Headline Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Black 26 (21.8) 22 (24.4) 48 (23.0) Blue 6 (5.0) 2 (2.2) 8 (3.8) Blue Green 0 (0) 3 (3.3) 3 (1.4) Gold 6 (5.0) 2 (2.2) 8 (3.8) Gray 13 (10.9) 6 (6.7) 19 (9.1) Gr een 1 (0.8) 5 (5.6) 6 (2.9) Purple 3 (2.5) 1 (1.1) 4 (1.9) Purple Red 1 (0.8) 3 (3.3) 4 (1.0) Red 5 (4.2) 5 (5.6) 10 (4.8) White 57 (47.9) 38 (42.2) 95 (45.5) Yellow Red 0 (0) 2 (2.2) 2 (1.0) Multi color 1 (0.8) 1 (1.1) 2 (1.0) Total 119 (100) 90 (1 00) 209 (100)
94 Table 4 15 Use of Color s : Slogan Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Black 22 (24.2) 19 (24.1) 41 (24.1) Blue 2 (2.2) 3 (3.8) 5 (2.9) Blue Green 0 (0) 1 (1.3) 1 (0.6) Gold 5 (5.5) 0 (0) 5 (2.9) Gray 8 (8.8) 3 (3.8) 11 (6.5) Green 0 (0) 2 (2.5) 2 (1.2) Purple 0 (0) 3 (3.8) 3 (1.8) Purple Red 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 2 (1.2) Red 2 (2.2) 6 (6.3) 7 (4.1) White 50 (54.9) 39 (49.4) 89 (52.4) Yellow Red 1 (1.1) 2 (2.5) 3 (1.8) Total 119 (100) 90 (100) 209 (100) Table 4 16 We althy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Predominant Color Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Wealthy Color ( Black Gold Purple ) 64 (37) 40 (37.4) 104 (37.1) Non wealthy Color 109 (63) 67 (62.6) 176 (62.9) Table 4 17 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Ba ckground Color Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Wealthy Color (Black Gold Purple) 65 (37.6) 36 (33.6) 101 (36.1) Non wealthy Color 108 (62.4) 71 (66.4) 179 (63.9)
95 Table 4 18 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Logo Color Luxury (%) Non Luxur y (%) Total (%) Wealthy Color (Black Gold Purple) 54 (34.8) 28 (28.9) 82 (32.5) Non wealthy Color 101 (65.2) 69 (71.1) 170 (65.75) Table 4 19 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Headline Color Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Wealthy Color (Bla ck Gold Purple) 36 (30.3) 28 (31.1) 64 (30.6) Non wealthy Color 83 (69.7) 62 (68.9) 145 (69.4) Table 4 20 Wealthy Color vs. Non wealthy Color: Slogan Color Luxury (%) Non Luxury (%) Total (%) Wealthy Color (Black Gold Purple) 28 (30.8) 23 (29.1) 51 (30.0) Non wealthy Color 63 (69.2) 56 (70.9) 119 (70.0)
96 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Conclusion The current research aimed to reveal what makes luxury brand advertising different from non luxury brand advertising. This research is important, since a ttempts to understand luxury brands from an advertising perspective are relatively new. To understand what a luxury brand 4) typology, as well as social identity theory and optimal distinctiveness theory. Research questions were explored for creative strategy and message strategy use in both luxury and non luxury advertising. To test the differences between luxury and non lux ury brand advertising, hypotheses were generated to assess the relationship between luxury brands and the use of creative/message strategies and color. To find answers to the research questions and hypotheses, this study included a content analysis of luxu ry and non luxury brand advertising. By analyzing 280 magazine ads for 194 brands, the current study tried Segment Mes sage Strategy Wheel. This chapter discusses the findings and provides links to the academic and managerial implications of the study, and then concludes by discussing the limitations of the study while providing suggestions for future research. Summary of Findings Creative Strategies and Message Strategies Hypotheses in the current study questioned whether there was an association between luxury brands and the use of creative and message strategies. When compared to the ads of non luxury brands, it was fou nd statistically significant that luxury brand ads favored
97 transformational (ritual) creative and message strategies, thus supporting the hypotheses. When regarding the definition of transformational (ritual) creative and message strategies, this result in dicates that luxury brand ads highlight the experience or the psychological characteristics associated with using the brand (Puto & Wells, 1984). For the non luxury brands, on the other hand, it can be understood that, as Puto and Wells (1984) mentioned, t he emphasis of the ads is to provide consumers factual information in a logical manner to assist consumers in confidently choosing the advertised brand over others. These findings coincide with the fact that luxury goods, compared to non luxury goods, appe al to consumers for their intangible, symbolic, and situational utility rather than their functionality (Veblen, 1899; Grossman & Shapiro, 1988; Nueno & Quelch, 1998), and thus the advertising messages should preferably be delivered using transformational (ritual view) strategies. Within creative strategy, it was statistically significant that User Image and Brand Image were favored more by luxury brand ads than non luxury brand ads. The hypothesis testing supported that luxury brand ads are focused on sho wing audiences a positive and expected self image of themselves. The ads for luxury brands tended to emphasize an image of the user as elegant, wealthy, and high status. If focused on the product itself, the ads for luxury brands highlighted the superiorit compare. Unique Selling Proposition was less favored in luxury brand ads compared to non luxury brand ads. Given this finding, non luxury ads relied more on factual information to diffe rentiate their brand from competitors. For luxury brand ads, the results indicated that images to providing factual claims. This finding can be explained by social identity theory.
98 Social identity theory explains how individuals monitor the self and others, and thus learn how to regulate their social behavior in a way that is appropriate for particular situations (Tajfel, 1981). To get the approval of the gr individuals tend to follow shared norms and prototypes (e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and feelings) within their group (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). Given that the group norm can be learned not only from reali ty but also from artificial categories, such as the media (Mastro, 2003), the images in the luxury brand ads serve as criteria for the expected attitudes, behaviors, and appearance of affluent people. Therefore, it can be said that the User Image and Brand Image shown in luxury brand ads can stimulate motivation to purchase luxury brand products by providing criteria for making comparisons. Regarding message strategy, statistical tests found that the Ego message strategy was favored more in luxury brand ad s than non luxury brand ads, as assumed by Taylor (1999). As Segment Message Strategy Wheel (1999), ads using the Ego strategy Therefore, si milar to the association found between luxury brand advertising and the use of creative strategy, luxury brand ads try to provide a positive and expected self image, which actualization (Taylor, 1999). This supports one of the reasons why a non affluent consumer would purchase luxury products: to fulfill a desire to be affiliated with a superior class (Kapferer & Bastien, 2008). Other than the Ego strategy, the Ration and Sensory strategies were also favored by luxury b rand ads. Ego and Ration were also favored by non luxury brand ads, both comprising 85% of non luxury ads. Use of Ego and Ration found in both luxury and non luxury brand ads can be understood because those are top two major message strategies used in adve rtising (Taylor,
99 2005; Golan and Zaidner, 2008), and thus, assuming that products focusing on informational aspects tend to prefer using Ration and those focusing on transformational aspects tend to prefer using Ego as their advertising message strategy. However, the use of the Social strategy did not comprise a significant portion of the message strategies used in luxury brand ads. Taylor (1999) assumed that the use of the Social message strategy in advertising motivates consumers to purchase an advertise d brand in order to gain the social approval of others. He argued that ads using Social strategy would highlight the appropriate social situations for product consumption (Taylor, 1999). In regard to Vigneron and nd, which emphasizes the interpersonal influences of luxury brand consumption, it would be assumed that luxury brand ads would favor the Social message strategy. However, while results found that about 10% of luxury brand ads used the Social strategy, it w as not a commonly used message strategy in these types of ads. This finding, however, can be explained with the optimal distinctiveness theory. The optimal distinctiveness theory explains that individuals seek to achieve both distinctiveness and similarity with others (Brewer, 1991). Brewer (1991) argues that the need for distinctiveness can be satisfied with intergroup comparisons, while the need for similarity can be satisfied with in group comparisons. When applied to purchasing behavior, luxury goods al low consumers to fulfill their need for assimilation through a connection with these wealthier groups while also fulfilling their need for distinctiveness by separating themselves from those people who do not have luxury goods. Based on optimal distinctive ness theory, Ego and Social strategies are used in luxury brand ads to trigger both the need for distinction and the need for similarity, via the prototypical image shown in the ads. The Ego message strategy highlights self actualization, while the Social message strategy highlights images of luxury goods shared with
100 others (Taylor, 1999). Considering the results of the current study, which found that luxury brand ads prefer the Ego strategy over the Social strategy, it can be inferred that such ads focus m ore on the distinctiveness of the prototype than on the similarity of group members. Moreover, when findings also suggest that the Ego strategy highlights the inac cessible and exclusive nature of a luxury brand, due to its focus on the distinctiveness of the user image. On the other hand, Social strategy luxury brand ads focus on images of people sharing luxury goods together, thus highlighting affordability. Althou gh the current study did not test whether the Ego strategy was favored for inaccessible luxury goods, this could be an avenue for future research, testing the association between luxury brand accessibility and the use of message strategy. When comparing l uxury and non luxury brand advertising within product categories, it was found that only cosmetic products show a statistically significant difference in the use of creative and message strategies. Ads for cosmetic/perfume products showed a pattern based o n brand luxury level. Luxury brands were more reliant on transformational (ritual) creative and message strategies, while non luxury brands focused more on informational (transmission) creative and message strategies. For example, luxury cosmetic/perfume b rands highlighted visual images of the product, while the non luxury brands were more focused on explaining the product functionality that made their brand different from other brands. These results support the idea that luxury brands emphasize product ima ge and symbolism rather than factual information (Grossman & Shapiro, 1988; Nueno & Quelch, 1998). Moreover, this can also be explained by the nature of the product categories. In general, cosmetics and perfumes are intended to be applied to the skin for b eauty and grooming purposes. The U.S.
101 rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human Act, sec. 201[i]). Based on this definition, which highlights the impact on the human body and the enhancement of beauty, purchasing cosmetic products has both a rational and an emotional compo luxury ads focus more on function Automobile and fashion brands did not show any d ifferences in the use of creative or nature of the product categories. Generally, automobile brands focus on product functionality, since the purchase decision needs deliberation and, therefore, the ads tend to focus on delivering generally focus more on image than functionality, since its products are regarded as largel y automobile brands tend to use the informational (transmission) type of advertising, while fashion brands tend to use the transformational (ritual) type of adv ertising. This finding contradicts the assumption that luxury brands are mostly regarded as high involvement products, regardless of the product category (e.g., Taylor, 1999; Vigneron & Johnson, 2004). Furthermore, associations between creative strategies and message strategies were found. As mentioned in previous studies (Frazer, 1983; Laskey et al., 1989; Taylor, 1999), the hypothesis testing of the current research supported the idea that what is said (message strategy) is closely associated with how it is said (creative strategy). With few exceptions, ads that used an informational creative strategy also used an informational (transmission) message strategy, and
102 most of the ads that used a transformational creative strategy also used a transformational (ritual) message strategy. This finding is congruent with the study of Kim et al. (2005), which also found a relationship between creative and message strategies. Colors Color choice in luxury brand ads was found to be similar to the choices for non luxury brand ads. Overall, achromatic colors (black, gray, and white) are dominantly used in the visuals, texts, and backgrounds of ads for both luxury and non luxury brands. This finding was not surprising, considering that achromatic colors are favored by adve rtisers for their versatility, ability to establish contrast, and readability (Huang, 2010). Other than achromatic colors, gold and blue were frequently used in luxury brand ads, while red and green were favored in non luxury brand ads. This difference can be understood according to the meaning of colors. Design involves understanding the meaning of colors, and communicates this through the media (Morton, 2000). Therefore, colors used in the ads are mostly chosen strategically. The color gold is related to luxury (Madden et al., 2000; Kaya & Epps, 2004), and it is preferred by luxury brand ads. The color blue is associated with comfort, serenity, security, and authority (Ballast, 2002; Wexner, 1982; Huang, 2010). Therefore, the use of these colors in luxury brand ads can be explained by the desire of the luxury brands to connect images of the brand, or the user, to high status and authority that can be assured. In non luxury ads, the color red was favored, which is associated with excitement and energy (Bal last, 2002; Wexner, 1982). Given that the color red is an opposite color to blue in terms of the mood that invokes (Huang, 2010), this color preference in ads could imply opposite characteristics in luxury and non luxury brands. Moreover, the use of the co lor green by non luxury brands could be more of a market trend. Although green is related to relaxation, refreshment, quietness, and tiredness (Davey, 1998; Mahnke, 1996; Saito, 1996), it has
103 increasingly been favored in ads, corporate identities, and Webs ites following the growth of environmentalism as a global trend (Huang, 2010). Green has been favored by advertisers and marketers since the early 90s (Morton, 2000), and this trend has continued, though with some degree of variation (e.g., avocado green, lime green, yellow green, etc.). Based on the findings of the current study, although the green color trend has penetrated into non luxury brand ads, the lack of penetration in luxury brand ads may indicate that luxury brands are less likely to follow mark eting color trends. Moreover, when regarding the colors favored by luxury and non luxury brand ads, and given that luxury brand ads favor transformational and non luxury brand ads favor informational type of advertising, it can be understood that colors us ed in luxury brand ads served to support creating the mood and emotion of the advertising, while those of non luxury brand ads were used to grab eyes of consumers so that they can engage in processing the informational advertising messages. Implication Pro totypes: Redefining the Luxury Brand Based on the findings of the luxury brand ads analyzed, the prototype of luxury brand ads seems to be created by combining the predominant characteristics of the coded categories. The luxury brand ad prototype focuses o n User Image as a creative strategy and Ego as a message strategy. Most of the colors used in the ads were monochromic, but the focal points utilized gold and blue. The non luxury brand ads were found to differ from the luxury brand ads in terms of their c reativity and message strategy. The findings of the non luxury brand ads demonstrate that prototypical non luxury brand ads tend to use the Unique Selling Proposition type creative strategy along with the Ration type message strategy in monochromic colors with red and green highlights.
104 When comparing the prototypes of the luxury and non luxury brand ads, what makes the luxury brands distinctive is the motivation that the ads intended to stimulate. Luxury brand ads distinctive self actualization by showing images of users of the brand. The luxury brand ads primarily express beauty, wealth, and authority to inspire in consumers the need to assimilate. The current study applied the definition and concept of luxury bra nd from Vigneron and type luxury brand ads (e.g., fashion) reflected perceived uniqueness especially when highlighting the distinctiveness of satisfy their need to be different from others by acquiring luxury goods. The Ration type luxury brand ads r eflected the perceived quality dimension. Specifically, quality and superior performance in a logical manner. As noted from Vigneron and Johnson (2004), this type of ad will attract luxury brand consumers who regard themselves as perfectionists. The Social type luxury brand ads reflected perceived conspicuousness and extended self dimensions. This is because this type of ad mainly focused on the use of luxury goods in social situations (e.g., cigars and wine). Moreover, the Social type ads often highlighted assimilating and getting the approval of the members of an aspirational group (e.g., fashion). Therefore, it was reflected in the luxury brand ads that luxury br
105 Finally, the Sensory type ads (e.g., perfume) reflected the perceived hedonism dimension, since this type of ad focused on the sensory a nd aesthetic pleasures related to the brand usage. The ads often highlighted the multi sensory pleasure of using the brand. For instance, the luxury brand perfume ads highlighted the elegance of the product packaging through images, the emotional pleasure related to the product usage, and olfactory pleasure by presenting the sample using the gatefold test strips. Although the current study did not analyzed the entire product categories of luxury brands, what it found in the luxury brand ads supported the l uxury brand definition of Vigneron and Johnson (2004), both personal and interpersonal perceptions. Moreover, since Ego and Ration were the two dominant message strategies of luxury brands, perceived uniqueness and perceived quality play a significant role Theoretical Implications The findings of the current study support social identity theory in that advertising often serves as a prototype especially a positive and salient prototype that motivates consumers to conform to the prototype. By being exposed to luxury brand advertising, latent consumers of luxury brands would find the image of the user or the brand attractive and regard this image as closely resembling their aspirations; thus, they would experience a desire to be similar to the salient image. When regarding the perspective that advertising can be viewed as an expression of their prototypical expectations or desires (Lantos, 1987; Hirschman & Thompson, 1997), what consumers seek to achieve through ac quiring luxury brands is to reach self achievement. The findings also help support social comparison theory. Festinger (1954) hypothesized that people who are motivated by the quest for self knowledge or self evaluation compare themselves with each other to obtain objective information about whether their behavior or opinions are correct (Festinger, 1954). Especially, when regarding upward comparison that
106 compares individual with someone better, social comparison provides an inspirational model or image to meet the desired state (Helgeson and Taylor, 1993; Wood, 1989). People tend to compare themselves with other groups of people who are similar to themselves (Festinger, 1954). This tendency is motivated by the need to obtain accurate and stable self apprai sals (Radloff, 1966; Wilson, 1973). For instance, lower middle class people would not compare quest for enhanced self esteem. Thus, the comparison on the basis o f similarity motivates individuals to feel satisfied with the group membership or it motivates them to improve their abilities or change their opinions to meet what they deem to be a satisfactory level (Festinger, 1954; Wood, 1989). Therefore, the prototyp ical image reflected in the luxury brand ads can be individuals by presenting a guideline to reach certain lifestyle. By making comparisons with the prototyp ical image shown in the ad, an individual either seeks to strengthen the similarity with the group members by achieving the state that is shown in the prototypical image or tries to move to another group that has a similar prototype to the image shown in t he ad (Richins, 1991). In either case, luxury brand ads serve as prototypes that motivate individuals to reduce the discrepancy generated by the comparison and, therefore, improve their lives such that they are closer to fulfilling their aspirations. The f indings also add to the optimal distinctiveness theory. differentiation and assimilation are equal. Based on the findings of the message strategy used in the luxury brand ad s, those that highlighted differentiation were more numerous than those that highlighted assimilation. From this, it can be inferred that prototypes are used more to demonstrate differentiation, thereby motivating people to assimilate. Therefore, it could be
107 implied that differentiation needs may precede assimilation needs. Although it was mentioned that social identity forms when the needs for differentiation and assimilation are equal, the current study argues that with regard to drawing comparisons with the media provided prototypical images, it is distinctiveness that first impacts the audience, and this, in turn, inspires the need for assimilation. Advertising as a Social and Cultural Mirror Regarding the prototypical image found in the current study, the perspective that advertising serves as a social and cultural mirror is supported. Especially, given that the prototypical images show the image of what is desired but still in the range of reality, the findings supported the perspective that advertisin role in this society can be understood as presenting an upsca le lifestyle, manner, or style, and, thus, encouraging individuals to fulfill their aspirations (Fox, 1984; Mead, 1957). Moreover, when applying this advertising role, the prototypical image of luxury brands found in the current study could be regarded as the way the target audiences of the luxury brands would like to see themselves, that is, the ability to express distinctiveness, status, and prestige through the consumption of a luxury brand. And for those who regard the image portrayed in the ad to be th eir aspired self image, these images will serve as an instruction to achieve their goal, and in general, may facilitate social mobility. This finding also can be linked to the fact that materialistic achievement plays a major value in achieving the state
108 society emphasize material rather than spiritual pleasures, these aspirations are reflected in the advertising by showing how the consumption can help reach the goal (Belk and Pollay, 1985). Therefore, what is shown in luxury brand advertising may be reve aling the cross section of Limitations The current study has several limitations that should be addressed in future research. Most issues arose from the scarcity of previous research in luxury brand advertising, and a lack o inclusion faced several limitations. First of all, due to the difficulties to find a definitive list of luxury brands, the current study had to create a list of luxur y brands to make a random selection of brands to be analyzed. Due to the multi agreed criteria among previous studies of what makes a brand luxury or non luxury. List of lu xury brands for the current study were created by gathering information from various sources ranging from academic to industrial research. To maximize the validity of the study, however, the current study tried to verify the list of luxury brand by referri ng to Robb Report list of luxury brands and their luxury brand advertisers; also in addition, the list was double checked with advertising professionals to reduce the subjectivity. However, if there were additional sources to compare and validate the list of luxury brand, other than Robb Report the current study would have had better validity in analyzing luxury brand ads. Similar limitations applied while creating the list of non luxury brands. Since there was an ambiguity in luxury brand definition, set ting up the counterpart list of non luxury brands was also a difficult task. Moreover, it was not easy to find definitive lists of non luxury brands from any source. This was because non luxury brands, in general, are commonly regarded as brands
109 list of luxury brands, the researcher had to create a list of non luxury brands using those brands that advertise in magazines. Although the list was verified through discussion with advertising professionals, brands that do not advertise in magazines were included in the sample. Therefore, for future study of luxury brand advertising, there should be a more objective list of luxury brands to increase the validity of th e study. Although the current study found insights into luxury brand advertising prototypes, it could not be described in detail since the analysis was coded based on limited numbers of predetermined coding schemes (creative strategy and message strategy). Moreover, due to the lack of cell counts, some findings were not able to be statistically tested. For in depth understanding of luxury brand advertising prototypes, there should be more in depth categorization of luxury brands. Future Research The current study, as an exploratory study, creates possibilities for further research in luxury brand advertising. Most importantly, this study provides the characteristics of luxury brand advertising and, thus, suggests a luxury brand advertising prototype. By illu strating luxury brand ads prototypes, the current study hopes to contribute to informing future research. First of all, as mentioned in the previous section, the current study would suggest characteristics could give implications as well as supporting those of the current study. Second, this study could be extended into i nternational studies. Due to the fact that perceptions of brand luxury differ within societies and cultures (Christodoulides et al., 2009), making comparisons of different countries could reveal other aspects of luxury brand ads.
110 Adding a longer time frame as well as a wider geographical range of samples could also improve the depth of luxury brand ad study by monitoring advertising trends. Third, this study can be conducted qualitatively. Given the fact that luxury brand advertising relies heavily on visu als rather than verbal messages, conducting qualitative analysis will add more in depth insight into what makes luxury brand ads different. In particular, given level of sexism, and pose/gestures could be useful. When regarding those non luxury brands that try to position itself as a luxury (e.g., Hyundai Equus), analyzing non a fruitful area for fut ure study. Regarding the fact that modern ads tend to reflect the image of good life and luxury (Belk and Pollay, 1985), it would be interesting to analyze how the word by defining what (makes) luxury appeal in advertising could also contribute to the field of advertising research. Future research should attempt to resolve methodological limitations that current study faced into consideration. In particular, sample select ion should be done with caution to enhance the validity of study. To make the clear sample selection, effort should be made to verify the list of luxury brand. Conclusion With the growth of the size and significance of luxury brand market, researchers an d marketers interest in understanding luxury brands is high. However, due to the ambiguity of the concept of luxury, research of luxury brands has been facing challenges to reach an in depth understanding of what makes luxury brands sell. In marketing comm unication, it was crucial to research the current stance of luxury brand characteristics to make better strategies to reach
111 target consumers. Therefore, the current study attempted to analyze luxury brand advertising to provide better understanding of luxu ry brands and their advertising. The current study defined the prototypes of luxury brand advertising. This finding is aimed at helping both researchers and marketers understand the mechanisms by which advertising motivates consumers to purchase luxury bra nds. The findings of the current exploratory study, therefore, contribute significantly to the field of luxury brands. Additionally, the current study also contributes to the field of advertising research, especially in advertising creative and message str ategy. The hypothesis testing results of creative and message strategies of luxury and non message strategy characteristics, reconfirming these in light of recent trends in advertising. In addition to the contribution to the luxury brand and advertising field, the current study makes a contribution in the overall application of the method of content analysis. The current study attempted to build a pathway in researching lu xury brand in advertising field. The methods used to draw samples were applied from different sources and methods, from collecting brand lists from different sources to validating lists with advertising professionals. Therefore, the sample frame could also be used for future research on luxury brands. There should be more studies of luxury brands and their advertising methods stemming from the current study. This would help researchers and marketers better understand the complicated concept of luxury brand and its mechanism for appealing to the consumer. Furthermore, this would provide more in depth insight into how product or utility can fulfill the needs and aspirations of consumers.
112 APPENDIX A CODEBOOK General Approach (Kim, McMillan & Hwang, 2005, p. 59) Transformational Associates the experience of using a brand with a set of psychological characteristic Focuses on the users of a brand and their lifestyle, focuses on developing a brand image. Informational Provides with factual product information abo ut a brand or a company Provides with relevant brand data in a clear and logical manner Show competing brands, focuses on claims of uniqueness and proves nature of brands Creative Strategy Informational Strategy Comparative: Must show or mention competing brand explicitly. If the Comparative ads. Unique Selling Proposition: Should explicitly state objectively proven or verified claims such as product attribute or benefit in use that sho w the uniqueness of the product. If the claim is implied or subjective, it cannot be Unique Selling Proposition. Preemptive: Similar to USP advertising, it should also explicitly state objectively proven or verified claims. However, the product attribute o r benefit in use is not unique that competitor brand advertising could easily have similar characteristics. If the ad talks about the claims that are unique for their advertised product, it should be coded as USP; if not, code as Preemptive. Hyperbole: Whe n the ad message uses exaggeration or extravagant assertions which are not objectively verifiable, it can be coded as Hyperbole. Ad messages Generic Informational: If the ad generally focuses on product class rather than one particular brand, code as Generic Informational. Transformational Strategy User Image: If the ad focuses on the user of the brand or their lifestyle they enjoy rather than the brand itself, it should be c oded as User Image.
113 Brand Image: It shows the imagery of brand which conveys a brand personality. When advertising simply display or demonstrate the product, it can be coded as Brand Image. Use Occasion: When the ad shows the appropriate usage or experie nce of using the product, it should be coded as Use Occasion. If the ad focuses on brand and user relationship, it should be coded as User Image, not Use Occasion. The focus for the Use Occasion should be brand situation relationship. Generic Transformatio nal: Transformational ad that focuses on the product class rather than the particular brand should be coded as Generic Transformational. Message Strategy (Kim, McMillan & Hwang, 2005, p. 59) Ego Appeal to van ity, self actualization Emotional needs relating to self are fulfilled Image based executions (visual dominance) with little or no factual information Unstructured and ambiguous enough so each person can fit him/herself into the ad Usual strategy: user im age, brand image Social Stating to others, not to self Showing social situation motivating consumers (group differentiation) Showing target market member as social ly important to others Usual strategy: user image (in a social situation), use occasion Sensory Five senses emphasized Sensory gratification Pleasurable moments Usual strategy: moment of pleasure Routine Serving a cue or a reminder (brand name and package emphasized) Appeal to convenience and trivial interests
114 Usual strategy: hyperbole, preempt ive, brand familiarity Acute need Limited time to make decision (timely decision) Serving a cue or a reminder in an urgent situation Requiring immediate action Usual strategy: brand familiarity Exa Ration Rational consumers assumed Needs a large amount of deliberation Problem solving offered Emphasizing the differences or competitive advantages Usual strategy: comparative, USP, generic Examp Color Select only the predominant color Headline / slogan (tagline): from Arens, Weigold, & Arens, 2010 o Headline: contains the largest type on the page o Slogan (tagline): mo
115 APPENDIX B CODING SHEET Identification Number #_____ Coder Initial ______ Brand ____________ Product Category _______________ Magazine ___________ Issue Month _____________ Size of the ad: 1/3page ____ 1/2page ____ 1 page ____ 2 page ____ other ____ 1. Creative Strategy (Code only the predominant strategy): Informational ______ Transformational ______ Comparative ______ Unique Selling Pro position _______ Preemptive ______ Hyperbole ______ Generic Information ______ User Image _______ Brand Image ______ Use Occasion _______ Generic Transformation _______ 2. Message Strategy (Code only the predominant strategy): Informational ______ Trans formational ______ Ration ______ Acute Need ______ Routine _______ Ego ______ Social _______ Sensory _______ 3. Predominant Color used: Red ____ Yellow/Gold____ Green____ Blue____ Purple____ Yellow Red____ Green Yellow____ Blue Green____ Purpl e Blue____ Purple Red_____ White____ Gray____ Black____ Cannot Code _____ Background Color: Red ____ Yellow/Gold____ Green____ Blue____ Purple____ Yellow Red____ Green Yellow____ Blue Green____ Purple Blue____ Purple Red_____ White____ Gray____ Black____ Cannot Code _____
116 Headline Color: Red ____ Yellow/Gold____ Green____ Blue____ Purple____ Yellow Red____ Green Yellow____ Blue Green____ Purple Blue____ Purple Red_____ White____ Gray____ Black____ Cannot Code _____ S logan Color: Red ____ Yellow/Gold____ Green____ Blue____ Purple____ Yellow Red____ Green Yellow____ Blue Green____ Purple Blue____ Purple Red_____ White____ Gray____ Black____ Cannot Code _____
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126 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Eun Soo Rhee was born and raised in Seoul, Korea. After receiving a Bachelor of Art s in Advertising, she came to the University of Florida and earned a Master of Advertising in 2008. Upon completion of her Ph. D in m ass c ommunication, she joined the faculty of the University of Wiscons in Eau Claire.