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Exploring Marketing Insight

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Title:
Exploring Marketing Insight A Content Analysis of Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence 2003-2010
Creator:
Jarvinen,Vilma J
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
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University of Florida
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english
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1 online resource (70 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.Adv.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Advertising
Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
Sutherland, John C
Committee Co-Chair:
Duke, Lisa L
Committee Members:
Morris, Jon D
Graduation Date:
8/6/2011

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Subjects / Keywords:
Advertising research ( jstor )
Awards ( jstor )
Brands ( jstor )
Consumer advertising ( jstor )
Consumer behavior ( jstor )
Consumer research ( jstor )
Financial risk ( jstor )
Insight ( jstor )
Marketing ( jstor )
Popular culture ( jstor )
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
advertising -- insight -- marketing -- planning -- strategy
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Advertising thesis, M.Adv.

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Abstract:
This content analysis of 31 gold-winning Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence provides operational definitions of marketing insights, where to find and what to do with them, how insights changed over time, what research methods are used to discover them, and other trends that emerged from the data. The understanding of insights will help marketers to better use brands to create solutions and new tools that people will want to seek out in order to better their lives. A consumer insight is a shared and unobvious characteristic like an attitude or behavior of a consumer segment that stems from a latent unmet need often characterized by an emotion, while a brand insight is an asset of a brand that can position it as a solution to the consumer?s underlying need. A category insight is an opportunity or threat based on a category?s structure and competitors, which influences the positioning of the brand as a solution to the consumer?s unmet need. Other insights can come from consumer stories, current events, popular culture and so forth, which aid in creating the emotional connection between the consumer and brand. ( en )
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local:
Adviser: Sutherland, John C.
Local:
Co-adviser: Duke, Lisa L.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-08-31
Statement of Responsibility:
by Vilma J Jarvinen.

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Copyright Jarvinen,Vilma J. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
8/31/2012
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1 EXPLORING MARKETING INSIGHT: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF JAY CHIAT AWARDS FOR STRATEGIC EXCELLENCE 2003 2010 By VILMA JARVINEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Vilma Jarvinen

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3 To my parents and grandparents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. John Sutherland for his guidance throughout writing this the sis He taught me to be more critical of what I read and encouraged challenging the norm. I could not have asked for a better advisor. Also, I thank Dr. Lisa Duke and Dr. Jon Morris for their support as my committee members and professors. I would also li ke to thank my roommates Jennifer and Mary for letting me take over the ta ble with my papers and books, as well as Gabe for teaching me t echniques for analyzing data. I especially thank Quinn for undertaking the time consuming task as the outside coder for this study. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents and grandparents for believing in me. They shaped who I am today.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Why Study Insight? ................................ ................................ ................................ 10 Insight in Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence ................................ .............. 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 14 Insight ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 14 General Definition ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 Ma rketing Insights ................................ ................................ ............................ 14 Negative View of Insight ................................ ................................ ................... 15 Warning ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 16 Account Pla nning ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 History of Account Planning ................................ ................................ ............. 17 Role of Account Planners Today ................................ ................................ ...... 18 Planning Processes ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 22 Content Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 22 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 22 Coding Categories ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 24 Consumer ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 24 Brand and Category ................................ ................................ ......................... 25 Other Trends and Agency Research Methods ................................ ................. 25 Coding Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 25 Inter coder Reliability ................................ ................................ .............................. 26 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ .................... 27 Three Main Categories of Insight ................................ ................................ ............ 27 Cons umer Insight ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 28 Consumer Insights that Emerged ................................ ................................ ..... 28 Consumer Insights from Literature ................................ ................................ ... 29

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6 Needs ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 30 Emotions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 32 Risks/Barriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 34 Brand and Cate gory Insights ................................ ................................ .................. 35 Brand ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 35 Category ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 36 Other Measures ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 37 Permission ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 37 Popular Culture ................................ ................................ ................................ 38 Personalization ................................ ................................ ................................ 39 Research Type ................................ ................................ ................................ 40 Trends that Emerged ................................ ................................ .............................. 41 Agency Versus Consumer Control ................................ ................................ ... 41 Brand=Verb ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 41 Changing the Company's Mantra ................................ ................................ ..... 42 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 43 RQ1: Definitions of Insight ................................ ................................ ...................... 43 RQ2: Finding and Using Insights ................................ ................................ ............ 44 RQ3: What to Do ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 46 RQ4: Change Over Time ................................ ................................ ........................ 47 RQ5: Research Type ................................ ................................ .............................. 47 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 48 7 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH ................................ ............................ 49 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 51 B TRAINING GUIDE ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 56 C POSTCODES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 63 D INTER CODER RELIABLITY ................................ ................................ .................. 64 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 66 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 70

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Number of awards per year ................................ ................................ ................ 23 3 2 Product category of winning entries ................................ ................................ .... 23 4 1 Consumer, brand and category insights ................................ ............................. 27 4 2 Emerg ed characteristics of consumer insight ................................ ..................... 29 4 3 Needs, emotions, barriers/risks ................................ ................................ .......... 30 4 4 Needs post coded into Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs ................................ ........ 31 4 5 Emotional valence/intensity ................................ ................................ ................ 32 4 6 Emotional shroud paired with needs ................................ ................................ ... 34 4 7 Risks and barriers ................................ ................................ ............................... 35 4 8 Needs tied to barriers ................................ ................................ ......................... 35 4 9 Brand insights ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 36 4 10 Category insights ................................ ................................ ................................ 37 4 11 Time bound: pop culture/current events ................................ ............................. 38 4 12 Personalization ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 39 4 13 Research type ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 40

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 5 1 Where insights are found. ................................ ................................ ................... 45

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising EXPLORING MARKETING INSIGHT: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF JAY CHIAT AWARDS FOR STRATEGIC EXCELL ENCE 2003 2010 By Vilma Jarvinen August 2011 Chair: John Sutherland Cochair: Lisa Duke Major: Advertising This content analysis of 31 gold winning Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence provides operational definitions of marketi ng insights where to find and what to do with them how insights changed over time, what research methods are used to discover them, and other trends that emerged from the data. The understanding of insights will help marketers to better use brands to cre ate solutions and new tools that people will want to seek out in order to better their lives. A consumer insight is a shared and unobvious characteristic like an attitude or behavior of a consumer segment that stems from a latent unmet need ofte n characte rized by an emotion, while a brand insight is an asset of a brand that can position it as a solution to the consumer's underlying need. A category insight is an opportunity or threat based on a category's structure and competitors, which influences the pos itioning of the brand as a solution to the consumer's unmet need. Other insights can come from consumer stories, current events, popular culture and so forth, which aid in creating the emotional connection between the consumer and brand.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTROD UCTION Verbatim judgments, linearly observed consumer be havior, or simply aphorisms for life are often passed off as insights. However, to get insights, you need deeper thinking. Vivek Sharma Insight abuse" in Bus inessWorld Why Study Insight? There is no universally agreed upon definition of a m arketing insight. For example, Proctor & Gamble calls it "learning about hidde n motives" (Durgee 2005, p.15). Avery (2010) says an insight is the "connection, sometimes called an intersection, between the brand and the people you want to use the brand (p. 167) and Durgee (2005) defines it as "highly condensed bits of learning" based on needs ( p.15 ) that are "about finding patterns and making connections (p. 207) Similarly, Feig (2006) describes a "hot button as an emotional pull that addresses a consumer's needs in terms of purchase motivation [I nsights] can be based on the product, on an observation about the consumer, or ev en an attribute of the category (Steel 1998, p.169) and Weichselbaum (2008) asserts that insight can come from these areas: consumer, client's culture, marketplace/category, competition, brand values, product qualities, and advertising and communication conventions of the category. This study derive s definitions of marketing insights from a content analysis of Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence (2003 2010) because a ma jor part of an account planner's job is to discover these currently elusive insights (Meyers 1986; West and Ford 2001; Hackley 2003 a ) that lead to successful advertising campaigns, brand messaging and even the creation of new products (Durgee 2005). Durgee (2005) says, "For years, marketers have used terms like hot button' and sweet spot' as though there was one special lock on the consumer side and one special key on the marketer side

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11 that, when opened, would reveal the great branding or new product oppo rtunity of the universe" (p. 200). This concept even predates the creation of acc ount planning Stephen King and Stanley Pollitt in the 1960s. In the 1950s, Bernbach scorned the marketers' obsession with discovering a ny point of difference from a competitor or "unique selling p roposition," which often lead communicators far away from what consumers would actually want from a product (Steel 1998). He argued the importance of understanding human nature as the basis of a campaign in his 1980 paper, "The Facts are Not Enough" and famously asserted, At the heart of an effective creative philosophy is the belief that nothing is so powerful as an insight into human nature, what compulsions drive a man, what instincts dominate his actions, even though his language s o often camouflages what really motivates him. For if you know these things about a man you can touch him at the core of his being Bernbach (Steel 1998, p. xiii) Chris Cowpe, former account director of BMP, summarize s how this sentiment evolved into the job of account planning: "To be truly effective, advertising must be both distinctive and relevant, and planning helps on both counts (Steel 1998 p. 36). This is why one of the most important skills of a planner is deriving valuable insights from research Baskin and Pickton (2003) echo Cowpe: At the core of the task is the need to understand customers and consumers and the brand to unearth a key insight for the communications solution (create relevance) and in doing so, in a crowded media environment, cu t through the cynicism to connect with the audience (create distinctiveness) in an effective and efficient way" ( p. 3). However, researchers do not agree on what are and where to find these useful insights Many may agree that insights are the building bl ocks of a creative concept, but m ost conce ntrate only on consumer insight (Meyers 1986; Thompson1997; West and

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12 Ford 2001; Hackley 2003 b ; Southgate 2003; Durgee 2005; Feldwick 2007). Others focus on the importance of linking consumer and brand insights ( For tini Campbell 2001; Sharma 2004; Avery 2010) and still others on finding insights in consumer, brand, and category research (Steel 1998; Baskin and Pickton 2003 ; Weichselbaum 2008 ). This study seeks to clarify the role of insights within all three of these identified groups of insight. Hackley (2003 b ) points out the lack of definition of insight as well as research on how to train account planners to find these insights as major problem s since account planning was created in part to formalize the incorporat ion of insights into campaigns Additionally, insights benefit other marketing decisions, media planning, promotions, and packaging ( Morrison and Haley 2003 ). Lastly, this research would also benefit the evaluation of planners' work, which Morrison and Hal ey (2003) explored in a national survey of U.S. account planners. Insight in Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence In the midst of this controversy, this exploratory study aims to derive definitions of marketing "insight" both from existing literature and an exploratory content analysis of Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence (2003 2010) Chiat imported account planning to New York after noticing its success in the UK in 1981 and their success caused its spread to other US agencies (Hackley 2003a) According to the 4A's website, the awards are presented in recognition of planners who have developed strong and innovative insights and seen their work evolve through creative that affects both the consumer and the business." The awards were initially called AAAA Awards for Account Planning, then changed to Jay Chiat Awards for Account Planning and finally Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence.

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13 These award books are appropriate for analyzing the term "insight" since the judges wei gh "planning insigh t" 33% in the judging process. Creative and effectiveness are also sc ored with a weight of 33% each. The aim of this study is to start the conversation on what an insight is and what account planners should look for in order to find them. It is not to anal yze the strategy evolution to a creative "big idea" or how the campaign execution unfolds. The research questions are as follows: RQ1: What are insights? What do they contain or represent? RQ2: What should we look for in order to recognize an insight from data? RQ3: What should we do with insights? RQ4 : How, if at all, has the term "insight" changed over time (2003 2010)? Is there a difference between high and low involvement products? RQ5: What research methods are used most often by agencies that win Jay Chiat awards in order to identify insights?

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14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Insight General Definition Acc ording to Merriam Webster ¨ (2003) insight is "the act or result of apprehending the inner nature of things or of seeing intuitively." It st ems from th e Greek word noesis, which means the psychological result of percep tion and learning and reasoning. Psychology literature on insight lists four main characteristics: suddenness ease, positive affect, and the feeling of being right" ( Topolinski and Reb er 2010 p.1 ). Additionally, the concept of confluence, the flowing together of two or more streams . ." (Webster's Ninth Collegiate Dictionary 1983 ) seemingly parallels how marketing insights often flow together as the basis of a creative concept or "bi g idea." Marketing Insights Though consumer behavior researchers concentrate on consumer insights, most account planning researchers focus on connecting brand proposition insights to these consumer insights (Fortini Campbell 2001; Sharma 2004; Durgee 20 05; Avery 2010). For example, Durgee (2005) identifies "home run" insights (a holistic insight the campaign can revolve around) while others are "base hit" ( realizations about details like how people use a product and ways to improve it) insights (p. 214). Home run hits are rare, so advertisers typically address several "base hit" insights so the consumer feels as if the produ ct was made especially for them matching several needs point for point. He calls this successful consumer experience "FLAG" or "Fi ts Like a Glove (p. 215) ."

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15 Avery (2010) says an insight is the "connection, sometimes called an intersection, between the brand and the people you want to use the brand (p. 167), yet most others imply this intersection is actually the merging of two ins ights (consumer and brand) to form the creative concept (Steel 1998; Fortini Campbell 2001). For example, Fortini Campbell (2001) writes, "Consumer Insig ht + Brand Insight = Sweet Spot (p. 15). She gives the example of how Marlboro cigarettes connect the consumer's dreams of freedom and independence (consumer insight) to the rugged and independent brand (brand insight) by introducing the cowboy spokesperson as the creative concept However, several researchers recognize more areas to find insights, which can be grouped into consume r, product and category (Steel 1998; Baskin and Pickton 2003 ; Weichselbaum 2008 ). The following is the basis for this study's coding structure: What is this one idea? It can be based on the product, on an observation about the consumer, or ev en an attribute of the category (Steel 1998, p.169) Baskin and Pickton (2003 ) and Weichselbaum (2008) have more examples of where to find insights, but all of these can be categorized into the above three. For example, the areas that Weic hselbaum (2008) mentions can be collapsed into the three main types for the purpose of this study: consumer, brand (client's culture, brand values, product qualities), and category (marketplace/category, competition, advertising and communication conventio ns of the category). Negative View of Insight Yet there are many industry experts who feel "insights" are overrated and even a waste of money to try to find. Jaffe (2003) argues, "Enlightened trial and error beats the planning of flawless individuals eve ry time we fail faster to succeed sooner" (p.223)

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16 and John Bartle of Bartle Bogle Hegarty claim that the "great' ideas of creative specialists are far more important to effective and distinctive advertising than the consumer insights of account planners (Hackley 2003 a p. 235). And with the current rising trend of boutique small agencies ( Owyang 2010) more account planners just do not have access to a budget necessary for extensive research Additionally, there are some account planners that forget t o use their common sense in conjunction with research. For example, an anonymous creative recount ed the story of a young account planner explaining that his research lead to one conclusion (basically a meaningless insight): T he number one reason people bu y ketchup is the taste" to which the creative yelled, "For crying out loud! You just spent $40,000 to tell me that? (Morrison et al. 2002 p. 105) Warning Warning against the above scenario both Steel (1998) and Fortini Campbell (2001) state that resea rch alone should not guide a campaign since it may make an advertiser blind to common sense and instinct. It is also important not be disillusioned and think that consumer segments easily fall into shallow stereotypes (Fortini Campbell 2001). Researchers s hould talk to people unassumingly and understand each consumer on the individual level, while also keeping in mind people may behave differently or incorrectly rationalize a behavior in the presence of researchers (Fisher and Smith 2010). Steel (1998) als o assures the accoun t planner not to worry about fai ling to find an insight if competitors are saying everything there is to say already it happens. Similarly, Dusenberry (2005) asks and answers, How do you go from an idea that might make a good ad to a n insight that reshapes a business for a gen eration? Let your

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17 gut guide you (p.81 82). Never losing sight of the bigger picture while mining for insights is an important skill for a planner (Weichselbaum 2008). Account Planning History of Account Planning Stephen King of JWT and Stanley Pollitt of BMP from London are the undisputed forefathers of account planning in the 1960s (Baskin and Pickton 2003; Feldwick 2007 ; Zambardino and Goodfellow 2003) Even though they spawned different schools of account plan ning thought, they both understood the importance of insight. For example, in 1964 King developed the process of the Thompson T Plan or Target Plan, "which concentrated on combining consumer research and insights to create more effective, c r eative adverti sing" (Baskin and Pickton 2003, p.4). In 1968, Pollitt believed "the voice of the consumer was of paramount importance and created an account planner role to be the account man's conscience (Baskin and Pickton 2003, p.4). According to Weichselbaum (2008 ), i n the mid 1960s, "advertising intellectuals like Stephen King of JWT London observed that the single universal model of persuasion would not work anymore. The post war boom led to diversification of products which then led to consumers making active choices on which products to buy. Thus, a model of advertising based on consumer involvement was born. Advertising attached important consumer values to brands to make consumers predisposed to consider purchasing it. So instead of arguing that a brand "wor ks better," involvement based adverti sing makes the brand "mean more (Weichselbaum 2008, p.60 61 ). In addition to Bernbach, another advertising luminary David Ogilvy also believed in the value of research: "You don't stand a tinker's chance of producing successful advertising unless you start by doing your homework" (Ogilvy 1985, p. 11).

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18 Parente (2006) sums up the marketing concept era as developing a consumer orientation in the 1950s (Bernbach), market segmentation in 1960s 1970s (when account planning began), niche marketing in 1980 s 1990s, and mass customization and personalization in the 2000s. As marketing evolves the different sch ools of account planning evolve through various trends to meet passing consumer and client needs and will continue to d o so For example, there was a brief trend in early 2000 of "coolhunters." They talked to trendsetters, or initial diffusers of innovations, for insights. The campaign would bring what these people thought was "cool" to the masses through a brand's campaig n. Coolhunting sought to replace the exaggerated "depth men" role, made famous by the book The Hidden Persuaders (Packard 1960), in which "agencies aimed to sell to us by harnessing impulses we were entirely unaware of and would never consciously or sponta neously voice" (Southgate 2003, p. 455). Role of Account Planners Today Successful a gencies have a sincere interest in the quality of life of their target consumers and don't just push products just for the sake of selling. "Marketers and m arketing exist to serve people I f we don't have a visceral sense of what this life' consists of, we will not be i n a good position to enhance it (Durgee 2005, p.226). Agencies can do this, for example, by creating new technology to make a consumer's life easier in som e aspect. An instance of this was when the advertising agency Modea discovered Graco Baby brand consumers would benefit from having a smartphone application that allowed for an on demand comparison of two baby products side by side: New mothers often report feeling frustrated, helpless and overwhelmed. And that's just trying to figure out whi ch high chair to buy. Overcrowded shelves, endless options and indifferent big box retail employees lead to

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19 confusion and aggravation when trying to learn about the product in the aisle. And yet, for something as personal and important as a stroller or car seat, online shopping can't replace seeing and touching the product in real life. After analyzing trends in both the audience's shopping behavior and the way they use mobile technology, we saw an opportunity to use smartphones as a way to bring the best o f in sto re and online shopping together (Modea 2010, online portfolio ). Account pl an ners are involved and represent the consumer voice throughout the ent ire account process (Steel 1998 ; Hackley 2003 a ; Feldwick 2007). For example, Steel (1998 ) states "the planner's role was basically to embrace consumers as partners in the process of developing advertising, to use their input at every stage of the process to inform and sometimes even inspire creative ideas, and to guide and validate the re sulting advertisi ng campaigns (p. xv). This is validated in Hackley 's (2003 a ) interviews of account planners, in which roles varied from doing some to all of these jobs: collection of research, interpretation of research, strate gy creation, creative brief, creative ideas and evaluation of advertising One interviewed planner "claimed that he l ived with the product to find out everything about the categ ory, the competition, consumers. . I like to write the first ad, the bad ad. . '" (p. 238). Because of the move from differentiation using product features and benefits to current emphasizing of symbolism and meanings, planners look for insights that help tell engaging stories that a consumer can relate to and interpret in his/her own life story. Since people and what's popular constantly change (Southgate 2003; Durgee 2005; Fisher and Smith 2010) planners most likely can't ever rely on a bank of insights, which means they must "constantly rearm, reengineer, and create new insights based on the dynamic relationship betw een companies and consumers" (Fisher and Smith 2010, p. 65).

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20 Whatever the roles, account planners are generally responsible for recognizing the relationships between consumer, brand, and category in order to inspire advertising to shift or align consumers perceptions and behavior. The account planner needs to deeply understand the way consumers "think, feel, and behave" while piecing together brand and product category information in order to 1) be relevant to and develop a relationship/meaning with the c onsumer and 2) differentiate from competitor products (Steel 1998). Planning Process es There are several proposed campaign planning processes, such as Sutherland's (2010) suggested method : (1) Identify Challenge ; (2) Situation Analysis (product, company, c urrent marketing efforts, compe titors' marketing efforts, social/cultural, legal ) ; (3) Identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats ; (4) Set objectives; (4) Choose target market and identify relevant audiences; (5) Develop a brand concept; (6 ) Plan marketing strategies ( product, price, distribution ); (7) Set integrated marketing communication objectives for each audience; (8) Allocate objectives to strategies; (9) Develop a plan of evaluation ; (10) Prepare budget. However, these should just se rve as guidelines since consumer insight just doesn't come by following a recipe. There really is no perfec t template or well worn pathway. . You have to explore the depths that exist in the seemin g trivialities of everyday life" (Fisher and Smith 2010, p. 69). Since people often don't say what they actually do, true insights are more likely to occur while observing the interviewee in a natural environment. For example, if your client is marketing golf clubs, figuring out how the existing consumer feels and what motivates them is easiest by simply asking to play golf with them.

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21 According to Fisher and Smith's (2010) insight discovery training, they'll have their students conduct recorded interviews, transcribe the interviews and interactions and then beg in the intensive process of analysis Students are encouraged to mull over the data for a while before picking out themes however faint they may be, and creating metaphors for the way in which interviewee views an issue. Durgee (2005) advises to look for bits in the transcription that seem out of context, like a metaphor or a problem, and if it causes the marketer a "shock of recognition" (p. 202) then it's probably an insight. A laddering interview or those that start with general questions and progress t o more in depth questions, is one way to interview consumers. For example, upon first asking why a consumer buys a product, they'd say something like "because it's low in fat ," which is an a ttribute of the product. In depth questioning leads to issues of health concern ( consequence ) and then to whether the root value is family related or related to self esteem (Wansink 2000; Wansink 2003). Fisher and Smith's students then support these themes and metaphors with verbatim supporting evidence and then finally d evelop specific a pplications for their insights. "Translating insight into action is another requisite skill of a good marketer" ( Fisher and Smith 2010 p. 69 ). Bullmore (2006) describes a successfully t ranslated insight as one that reflects a consumer a ttitude or behavior in simple and specific language, and it excites the creative team through a form like a metaphor or joke.

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22 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Content Analysis Krippendorff (2004) defines content analysis as "a research technique for making replicable an d valid inferences from texts (or other meaningful matter) to the contexts of their use" (p. 18). This study uses a mixed method content analysis, in which the qualitative data from the award entries is "quantized" (Tashakkori and Teddlie 1998, p. 126) usi ng both existing measures and those that emerged from the Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence Quantitizing refers to a process in which the researcher must first reduce verbal or vi sual data (e.g. from interviews, observations, arti facts, or docume nts) i nto items, constructs, or vari ables that are intended to mean only one thing and that can, theref ore, be represented numerically" ( Sandelowski 2000 p. 253). The Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence are particularly appropriate for analyzing t he term "insight" since the judg es weigh "planning insight" 33% in the judging process. "C reative and effectiveness are also sc ored with a weight of 33% each. Sample The study's purposive sample is the 31 gold winners across all award categories of the Jay Chiat Account Planning Awards books (2003 2010) that 1) gave permission to publish their submissions and 2) were a campaign and not a research tool. Those labeled "grand prix" are the top w inning gold winner of each year; however, some years did not a ward such a winner. Eight gold winning entries o ne entry from 2004, o ne from 2009, and six from 2010 were excluded from the sample because they did not give permission to publish their entry submissions or were a research tool. Either TBWA/Chiat/Day or Nextel

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23 Communications ¨ did not give permission to publish their 2004 entry, MotiveQuest ¨ /Toyota Prius ¨ did not publish for 2009, TBWA Chiat Day did not publish their three 2010 winning entries, JWT/New York and Crispin Porter + Bogusky included the mult imedia but not the actual entries, and BrainJuicer's winning entry describes a research data mining tool. Table 3 1 Number of awards per year Year of Award Number of Awards % 2003 4 12.90 2004 2 6.45 2005 2 6.45 2006 3 9.68 2007 3 9.68 2008 3 9.68 2009 9 29.03 2010 5 16.13 Total 31 100 Table 3 1 shows almost half (14 entries) of the sample are 2009 2010 entries, so the data and results are skewed toward more current perspectives of insight. Publishing the awards online, introducing new aw ard categories and discontinuing hard copies also occurred during these two years. There were an overall higher number of awards given out, but gold winners were proportionately similar to previous years. Table 3 2. Product category of winning entries Yea r of Award Number of Awards % NPO (not for profit org) 5 16.13 Household Products 4 12.90 Entertainment and Media 4 12.90 Websites ("Other" category) 4 12.90 Food and Beverage (not alcohol) 3 9.68 Automotive 3 9.68 Alcohol and Tobacco 2 6.45 Fashion 2 6.45 Travel 1 3.23 Electronic and Communications 1 3.23 Pharmaceuticals 1 3.23 Banking 1 3.23

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24 Table 3 2 shows the most popular gold winning entry is for a Non Profit organization (five entries) followed by a three way tie (four entries) bet ween Household Products, Entertainment/Media, and Websites. Future research with a larger sample can study whether category and purpose seem to affect winning an award in addition to the three judging criteria. Food/Beverage and Automotive tied at three en tries each, while Alcohol/Tobacco and Fashion tied at two entries. The categories of Travel, Electronic/Communications, Pharmaceuticals, and Banking each had one winning entry. Coding Categories The coding categories were either descriptive of the produ ct, based on consumer, brand, and ca tegory insights, other trends (permission, popular culture/current events, personalization ) and research methods used to discover the insights. For all 30 questions, see the code sheet ( Appendix A ) and the training guide ( Appendix B ). The descriptive details separated the data into comparison points and were award category, product category, involvement, and advertising campaign function. The next sections measure all three potential groups of insight (consumer, brand, an d category) found in the literature ( Steel 1998; Baskin and Pickton 2003 ; Weichselbaum 2008 ) Consumer Advocated by Pollitt in the 1960s, the classic role of account planner is to bring the consumer voice to the advertising boardroom, so it is no surpris e that consumer insight is the most researched and that useful brand and category insights usually depend on these consumer insights Thus, the consumer section of this study is the most extensive. Based on Hoyer and MacInnis (2007) textbook on consumer be havior, it asks both open ended and close ended questions regarding needs, emotions, and

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25 barriers, while leaving room for other emergent categories. Also, Durgee (2005) describes consumer insights revolving around overt and latent needs, so the consumer pa rt of this study focuses on needs and its manifestations (i.e. shroud of emotion, barriers to purchase, behavior, goals, etc). Brand and Category Based on positionin g research by Ries and Trout (1979 ), b rand and category chara cteristics are defined as an attribute (characteristic), performance (i.e. keeps tarter away), or then other aspect s that emerged from the data. Noted a spects that were specific to a company's product were labeled a brand insight while aspects affecting both the brand and its competit ors were category insights. Other Trends and Agency Research Methods Several "base hit" insights (Durgee 2005) occur in how consumers relate to the concepts of p ermission, popular culture/current events and personalization. Avery (2010) defines "permissio n to believe" as a "'reason why' the Brand should be purchased" (Avery 2010, p.167). Parente (2006) points out that mass customization/personalization is the trend in the 2000s in the course of communication history Thirdly, Southgate (2003) mentions the importance of account planners keeping up with popular culture, which was the seemingly only good aspect of the trend of agency "coolhunters." The last questions ask whether the agency conducted qualitative, quantitative or mixed research and with what res earch methods under these umbrellas. Coding Procedure First, t he researcher and a trained outside coder separately conducted a quantitative analysis of the 31 entries based on a code sheet developed by the researcher after coding half the sample and an i nter coder reliability score was

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26 calculated. The codes were based on both prior literature and concepts that emerged from the books. See A ppendix A and B for the code sheet and training guide. The researcher and outside coder then sat down to discuss the entries and created a master list of codes together for the analysis Lastly, the researcher post coded the open ended responses regarding needs and emotions into exist ing measures in the literature (Appendix C ) Inter c oder Reliability The study used Hol sti's (1969) inter coder reliability method: Reliability = 2A/N1+N2 A = the number of agreements between coders N = the number of units coded by each coder Both researcher and trained outside coder answered 30 questions based on each of the 31 award sub missions. Inter code r reliability ranged from 48.39 to 100 % with overal l reliability at 75.4 8% (Appendix D ). Microsoft Excel ¨ and SPSS ¨ were used for data analysis.

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27 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Three Main Categories of Insight There are several comm ents regarding insight and planning within the Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence gold winning entries. Similar to Steel's (1998 ) view of the existence of consumer, brand and category insights, the 2004 Harley Davidson ¨ entry affirms the marketer's need to "understand the link betwe en product, brand, public ( p. 36 ). Table 4 1 Consumer, brand and category insights Type of Insight Number that Have % Consumer Only 10 32.26 Brand Only 0 0 Category Only 0 0 Consumer and Brand 3 9.68 Consumer and Category 8 25.81 Brand and Category 0 0 Consumer, Brand, Category 10 32.26 Total 31 100 All 31 entries contained a consumer insight, while 18 (58.06 % ) had a category insight and 13 (41.94 % ) had a brand insight. Table 4 1 shows that the majority eithe r had just a consumer insight or had all three types Most of the 31 winners had a consumer insight paired with a unique brand proposition relevant to the consumer (Sharma 2004) ; however, a brand insight for this study was defined as discovered in the res earch process Many brand insights were gathered from the initial client briefing instead of being discovered in the research process. The Rolling Rock (Anheuser Busch ) 2008 entry warns that triangulating insights between these three categories of insight is "not always sunshine and puppy dogs" (p. 33):

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28 Often, the truth of the brand might be unsavory, the needs of the consumer might be banal, and the competitive context might be so daunting as to make the client's unwaveringly optimistic goals and meager budget seem absurd. In spite of this, we are expected to crea te magic We find the treasures hidden in ground that has been trod so man y times before a nd then string them together to create a coherent nar rative for the brand's strategy (p. 34). The Dixons.uk.com 2010 entry echoes Steel (1998) warning of the possibly of not finding positive insights Instead, Dixons used their competitors' strengths ( a type of category insight) to work for them. They admitted to their own bad customer service and encouraged potential consumers to use their brick and mortar competitors during their information seeking phase but ultim ately to buy the product cheaper at Dixons Consumer Insigh t Consumer Insights that Emerged In addition to needs, emotions, and barriers of consumer behavior, t he following descriptors of consumer insight appeared within the awards (grouped together by si milarity) : Behavior/Ritual/Lifestyle, Experience/Situation /Lifestage/Occasion Emotion, Values, Motivation, Attitudes/Opinions/Thoughts /Values/Self concept Desires/Aspirations/Goals /Dreams Wan t/Need, Problem/Loss, Solution and Cultural Norms. These were agreed upon during the creation of the master list by the researcher and outside coder for the open ended question regarding insights. For example, the 2003 MINI entry's insight s of prospects were a similar way of thinking, similar approac h to life and similar values. These types of insights were discovered through a variety of consumer research methods, and a few of the award entries mentioned that understanding what makes their consumers tick helps build a stronger relationship with their customer base.

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2 9 Table 4 2 Emerged characteristics of consumer insight Characteristic Need/Want Emotion # % # % Need/Want 31 100 22 100 Emotion 22 71 22 100 Attitude/Value 17 55 13 59 Behavior/Lifestyle 15 48 8 36 Experience 8 26 7 32 Problem 5 16 3 14 Motivation 3 10 1 5 Goals/Dreams 2 6 2 9 The most popular characteristics of an insight were needs/wants and emotions, which were commonly paired together. These unmet needs or wants formed the underlying reasons for the rest of the characteristics reported: attitudes, values, behaviors, lifestyles, experiences, problems, motivations, goals and dreams (Table 4 2). Consumer Insights from Literature The next consumer ques tions were close ended and derived from existing consumer behavior literatur e indicating the importance of understanding needs, emotions, and risks/barriers (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007) Durgee (2005) support s the study's conclusion t hat understanding needs r equires understanding of its manifestations through characteristics like barriers and emotion s surrounding consumer behavior In the following quote, Durgee (2005) categorizes feelings separate from insight and some descriptors of "hidden motives and reaso ns" are barriers : These insights and feelings are obtained by asking respondent feelings about the taste of the potato chip, the chip occasion, typical users, the chip eating ritual, and fee lings about competitor chips Hidden motives and reasons include a ll of the anxieties, subconscious memories, and special meanings consumers attach to products and services over time (Durgee 2005, p. 10 ) All 31 entries discovered consumer need s while a majority, 22 and 17 respectively, revealed emotions and barriers/ris ks as insights through consumer research.

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30 Table 4 3 shows that identifying the trio combination of needs, emotions, and barriers was most popular, followed closely by needs paired with emotion. This supports the idea of needs commonly occurring with an im portant emotion relevant to the campaign. One could argue that every entry had a need paired with a distinct emotional tone in the campaign execution, but the award entry writers did not emphasize a major emotional discovery in the research process. Table 4 3 Needs, emotions, barriers/risks Characteristic Number that Have % Needs Only 4 12.90 Emotions Only 0 0 Barriers Only 0 0 Needs and Emotion 10 32.26 Needs and Barriers 5 16.13 Emotion and Barriers 0 0 Needs, Emotions, Barriers 12 38.71 Tota l 31 100 Needs A need is an internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal or desire d state" (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 p. 56 ). The base of a consumer realization was an unmet need, mostly having to do with belonging and self expressi on, and insights were found as several manifestations of that need. The insights helped the account planner identify and articulat e the extent and psychology of the unmet consumer need. The question about the type of need was open ended and responses comin g from the award entries themselves. The researcher post coded these answers into the Maslow (1943) categorization of needs: physiological (food, water warmth, rest), safety (security, safety), belongingness and love (intimate relationships, friends), este em (prestige and feeling of accomplishment), and self actualization (achieving one's full

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31 potential including creative activities). There are 41 needs because 10 of the campaigns addressed two important needs in the advertising execution. Notably, "do good / make a difference" is five of the 14 in self actualization needs. Needs are also categorized as functional, symbolic, and hedonic, and within each of those categories it can be categorized as either social or nonsocial Functional needs solve problems and /or provide benefits to consumers, symbolic ones enh ance self image, belonging, aid in ego identification, and experiential/hedonic needs provide sensory or cognitive stimulation (Park Jaworski and MacInnis 1986). Social needs are external and relate to ot hers while nonsocial ones are not ba sed on other people (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ). The training guide (Appendix B ) provides examples. Belonging n eeds are social and include assurance/permission, support, acceptance/belonging. Self Actualization includes exhilaration/sensory stimulation, intellectual stimulation, independence, do good/make a difference. All are nonsocial needs except for "do good/make a difference." Esteem is nonsocial and includes self expression/individuality, self affirmation, personal choice, confidence, status/social standing. Physiological/Safety is both nonsocial and social and includes health, sleep, nutrition, exercise, safety, primal, play/sex. Table 4 4 Needs post coded into Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Needs Number that Have % Belonging 15 48.39 Self Actualization 14 45.16 Physiological/Safety 7 22.58 Esteem 5 16.13 Table 4 4 shows that Belonging ( assurance/permission, support, acceptance/belonging) and Self Actualization needs (exhilaration/sensory stimulation, intellectual stimulation, independence, do good/make a difference) appeared nearly half

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32 the time. In thi s small sample, social needs were more important especially since the social "do good/make a difference" need is five of the 14 Self Actualization needs. Planners should first look for social needs, particularly the ones in belonging and self actualization. All four groups of needs are compared with emotional occurrence in the next section (Heller 1993; Schmidt an d Trainor 2001) Durgee (2005) supports the idea that consumer insights revolve around needs. He separates needs into overt and latent explaining that latent or unobvious, needs are the key to valuable insights for a successful campaign. The consumer is either unwilling (embarrassed) or unable to express these latent truths without projective techniques. Durgee (2005) say s, "C onsumer needs and meanings are shaped by the product itself, the consumer's sense of self, the usage ritual, and the co nsumer's hi story of consumption ( p. 1). Emotions Emo t ions were also open endedly identified as they were mentioned in the award entries but the researcher provided suggestions in the training guide from prior literature. According to appraisal theory, emotions ar e linked to goals. "E motions are based on an individual's assessment of a situation or an outcome and its relevance to his or her goals" (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 p. 56 ). Table 4 5 Emotional valence/intensity Valence/Intensity Number that Have % Unpleas ant/Calm 8 25.81 Unpleasant/Intense 11 35.48 Pleasant/Calm 0 0 Pleasant/Intense 3 9.68 No Emotion 9 29.03 Total 31 100

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33 Table 4 5 shows the results of emotional insights after the researcher post coded the emotions by valence (unpleasant/pleasant) a nd intensity (calm/intense) (Heller 1993; Schmidt and Trainor 2001). The unpleasant/intense emotions are fear, anxiety, frustration envy, anger and regret/guilt. Unpleasant calm are u nease, sadness, discontent/s ubmission, discomfort, longing disappointmen t vulnerability and skepticism. Pleasant/intense are e xhilaration, excitement, hope/pride No instances of pleasant/calm appeared but an example would be contentedness. Unpleasant feelings, especially the intense, were the most popular emotional insights by far. This makes sense since account planners are looking for the negative, or a problem the brand can be positioned as a solution for. Durgee (2005) gives the example of a consumer saying plaque feels like walls around her teeth and how the creative ba sed the entire campaign on that negative metaphor. Planners should look for uncovering a fear, anxiety, or vulnerability that the product can solve. The example codes of emotions came from Rossiter and Percy (1991 ) who identified these important consumer emotions in advertising strategy : Anger (associated with problem removal solution provides relief), Fear (associated with problem avoidance solution provides relaxation), Disappointment (incomplete satisfaction solution provides optimism), Guilt (mi xed approach avoidance solution provides peace of mind), Mild annoyance (normal depletion solution provides convenience), Dull/Bored (sensory gratification and intellectual stimulation elated/excited), and Apprehensive (social approval flattered). Emotional shroud characterizing n eeds The most common characterization of need by a feeling was a belonging need ( assurance/permission, support,

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34 acceptance/belonging) by an unpleasant/intense feeling like fear. Planners can begin discovery of consumer pro blems and how to solve them by searching for these types of social needs characterized by a sort of unpleasant/intense feeling. Self actualization needs were not reported with an emotional insight a few times since those needs manifested more by attitude or behavior. Also, since 10 entries out of the 31 discovered two essential needs, there are 41 total pairings of need to emotion as shown above in Table 4 6. Table 4 6 Emotional shroud paired with n eeds Emotional Valence Needs N/A Unpleasant Calm Unpleas ant Intense Pleasant Calm Pleasant Intense Physiological 3 2 1 0 1 Belonging 1 3 10 0 1 Esteem 0 2 2 0 1 Self actualization 6 4 2 0 2 Total 10 11 15 0 5 Risks/Barrie rs Perceived risk is the "extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the perso nal consequences of buying, using, or disposing of an o ffering" (Hoyer and Macinnis 2007, p. 62 ). If perceived risk is high, the consumer is more likely to pay attention and evaluate a product's marketing. This study codes for the six types of risks that J acoby and Kaplan (1972) identified: performance, financial, physical (or safety), social, psychological, and time risks. See training guide for definitions ( Appendix B ). Table 4 7 reveals the most common risks to buying a product were psychological and p erformance risks. Psychological risks differ from social ones because there's an inner struggle within the consumer instead of with others. Within this sample, advertising attempted to solve people's inner struggles 32.26 % (10 campaigns) of the time.

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35 Table 4 7 Risks and barriers Risks/Barriers Number that Have % Psychological 10 32.26 Performance 7 22.58 Social 5 16.13 Time 5 16.13 Financial 3 9.68 Physical (Safety) 3 9.68 Risks/ barriers characterizing n eeds Belonging needs had the most barrier s, especially psychological ones, to purchase associated with it, so planners identifying these needs could benefit from looking for barriers as well. For example, potential Harley Davidson ¨ owners wanted a motorcycle and to be part of the Harley culture, but they didn't believe they'd have time to maintain the motorcycle, thought the products were too expensive, their families thought it was unsafe, etc. Marketing dispelled these barriers. Table 4 8 shows that psychological barriers occur the most in conju nction with belonging needs. Table 4 8 Needs tied to b arriers Risks/Barriers Needs N/A Performance Financial Physical Social Psych. Time Physiological 4 1 0 2 0 1 1 Belonging 7 3 2 1 3 7 3 Esteem 2 0 0 0 3 2 0 Self Actual. 8 4 1 0 1 2 1 Total 21 8 3 3 7 12 5 Brand and Category Insights Brand and category characteristics are defined as either an attribute (characteristic), performance (i.e. keeps tarter away) (Ries and Trout 1979 ) or some other aspect that emerged from the data. Brand Brand insig hts that emerged were : a change of the process of communication development (AXE now creates the campaign first before naming their line extension)

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36 and what Pepsis ¨ realization of their brand concept after reviewing archives of communication and interviewing historians. Weichselbaum (2008) and Baskin and Pickton (2003) mention the occurrence of these types of insights. For example, Baskin and Pickton (2003) define the first one as "a market or competitive analysis which led one to recognize alternative communications" (p. 14) and the second one as "sensitive communications knowledge which improves or alters the creative execution" (p. 14). Table 4 9 also shows that insights regarding performance and attribute s were found about the same amount of the time Table 4 9 Brand insights Brand Aspect Number that Have % Performance (i.e keeps tarter away) 6 1 9.35 Attribute (characteristic like price, packaging, speed, etc.) 5 16.13 Other (change comm. dev. and past advertising ) 2 6.45 Category ClichŽ category advertising, how social norms affect the whole category, and commoditizat ion emerged as other category insights. A ttribute of the product (19.35% ) and clichŽ advertising (12.90 % ) are the top two c ategor y insights identified (Table 4 10 ), so planners may want to pay more attention to these areas. MINI USA and De Beers ¨ Right Hand Ring both had two category insights MINI USA took notes on the category's clichŽ advertising and also researched characteristics of i cons and how to apply it to MINI De Beers ¨ identified that diamonds are lacking in interesting design as well as the cultural norm of men buying women diamond rings.

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37 Most low involvement products like Kellogg's Nutri Grain ¨ (2003), AXE (2006 2007), and Pepsi ¨ (2009) focused on these brand and category insights to position and recreate distance fr om the competition within a commoditized category. As MacLeod (2011) from gapingvoid.com says on his blog, "W e are no t in the advertising business. W e are in the decommodification business. Table 4 10 Category insights Category Aspect Number that Have % Attribute (characteristic like price, packaging, speed, etc.) 6 19.35 ClichŽ Advertising 4 12.90 Commoditization 3 9.68 Norms Affect Category 3 9.68 Performance (i.e. keeps tarter away) 2 6.45 Other insights: viral crazes and icons 2 6.45 *Right H and Ring and MINI USA had two types of category insights. Other Measures Permission When risks/barriers a re identified within campaigns ( like in Harley Davidson ¨ Diamond Trading Company : Right Hand Ring, and Times of India ) the idea of the campaign "g iving permission" to the consumer emerges. Avery (2010) calls this "permission to believe" and defines it as a "'reason why' the Brand should be purchased" (Avery 2010, p.167). In the Right Hang Ring 2004 entry executive worldwide marketing director of th e Diamond Trading Company Stephen C. Lussier said "The agency has succeeded in broadening the way women think about diamond rings, by giving permission to a behavior that existed already bu t had no cultural legitimacy (p. 1).

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38 Popular Culture The JetBlue ¨ 2010 entry illustrates the importance of popular culture, which is prevalent in all but one of the 2009 and 2010 campaigns (almost half the sample): Planning isn't always about unearthing a deep consumer or brand truth. Once in a while if you're lucky planning is about reco gnizing and seizing upon a moment in popular cultur e when your brand is perfectly poised as the answer (p. 2). The number of campaigns with relevance to popular culture increase d in time ( Table 4 11 ). Integrating a campaign with current events and trends helped the sample's campaigns with consumer relevance and entertainment. For example, the 2009 Pepsi ¨ entry solved their need to infuse the brand with a greater cultural significance" (p. 2) by creating a calendar of cultural events, while the 2009 Haagen Dazs ¨ entry linked their all natural ice cream to a story and made a difference in helping bees reverse their decline to extinction. The 2008 De Beers ¨ Group Wedding P rogram entry identified a woman's latent desire for independence in India and created a c ampaign that became the catal yst to this social change. Table 4 11 Time bound: pop culture/current events Year Number that Have % 2003 0 0 2004 0 0 2005 0 0 2006 2 67 2007 2 67 2008 2 67 2009 8 89 2010 5 100 T he 2007 AXE Game Killers entry d escribes linking their brand idea to the consumer through a popular MTV television show and comedy tour. The 2006 Audi A3 entry described taking advantage of games like Half Life and movies like Bourne Identity and AXE Snake Peel (2006) played off th e popular culture interest in cults

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39 as witnessed in DaVinci Code and various celebrities revealing their affiliation with the scientology cult. From prior literature Thompson (1997) derives insights from linking narratives of consumer culture to the bran d and MacLeod ( 2010 ) creates what he calls "social objects" or pieces of pop culture that consumers talk about as part of marketing campaigns. Personalization Another theme that emerged, especially in the last two years, is consumer personalization. This i s in line with Parente's (2006) idea of increasing personalization in the 2000s. Planners should pay attention to ways consumers would like the product tailored to their needs. Table 4 12 shows personalization occurred more in the recent 2009 2010 entries. Table 4 12 Personalization Year Number that Have % 2003 2 50 2004 1 50 2005 0 0 2006 0 0 2007 0 0 2008 0 0 2009 4 44 2010 3 60 The 2006 Audi entry reported creating different access points to purchase for consumers with different levels of involvement with the product These access points were Traditional Media, Microsite, Story Sites, Live Events, and an involved online mystery story game. L astly, the 2009 Vaseline ¨ entry "created access points to allow [their] sociable consumer t o communicate in sociable media (p. 9).

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40 Research Type The most popular way to reveal insights was through q ualitative research which involves emerging questions and procedures, data typically collected in the participant's setting, data analysis inductively building from particulars to general themes, and the researcher making interpretations of the meaning of the data" (Creswell 2009, p. 37) Nineteen out of 31 used only qualitative while four used a mix of qualitative and quantitative ( Table 4 13). Most campaigns, even though sometimes using creative techniques like debates and mood boards, conducted focus groups, interviews, and qualitatively observed consume rs. Researchers used diaries, toured important towns, used photo montages, mood boards, category archeology, semiotics, friendship triads, and tested different product forms and concepts. They also used secondary research, surveys, industry statistics, seg mentation studies audit s of messaging, trend analysis, and site data mining. Table 4 13 Research type Type of Research Number that Have % Qualitative 19 61.29 Quantitative 4 12.90 Both 4 12.90 Not reported 4 12.90 However, the 2003 MINI USA ent ry encourages getting to know consumers in their natural environments: Meaningful consumer insights will never harve st if you don't get into their minds in natural environments and by using creative tools. Buy them dinner, get a tour of their home, have a drink with them, hang out at events, ask them to write a recipe for your product,' ask them to write a personal ad (p. 1)

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41 Trends t hat Emerged Oth er trends appeared in the award entries like the concepts of control, making brands into verbs and changing the client company's mantra. These were not measured by the questionnaire. Agency Versus Consumer Control This earlier ideology of permission counters the idea of marketing agencies having lost control over consumers. This latter perspective is identifie d in many of the most recent winn ing entries like the Vaseline ¨ and U.S. Army campaigns The 2009 Vaseline ¨ entry states We recognized that sources of trust had changed. Brands and institutions no longer hold sway. The power has swung to the consumer (p 7). They "empowered [the consumer] with the information and tools to prescribe Vaseline ¨ Clinical Ther apy for herself and her friends" (p. 9). The 2009 U.S. Army entry says, "Y oung people no longer believe what the establishment tells them but prefer to seek out the opinions of peers who ha ve experienced things firsthand" (p. 1). Brand=Verb Sullivan (2008) quotes Dan Wieden as describing brands as verbs: "Nike ¨ exhorts, IBM ¨ solves, and Sony ¨ dreams" (p. 26). The Haagen Dazs ¨ Vas eline ¨ and Times of In dia entries all recognized their need to become more verb like. For example, the 2009 Haagen Dazs ¨ entry says they wanted to make their "brand behave more like a verb and less like a noun (p. 2), the 2009 Vaseline ¨ entry states that they went from a bran d that says to a brand that does (p. 8), and the 2009 Times of India entry says they "propelled [their consumers] to vanquish their inert ia and become dynamos of action (p. 6).

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42 Changing the Company's Mantra The 2009 entries of CNN, The Atlantic, and Pep si ¨ all noted their campaigns changing their client's company culture. For example, CNN successfully recreated The CNN Grill in its Atlanta office. Also, The Atlantic's tagline h as become the company's mantra and is the brief now given to every writer. Fin ally, Pepsi ¨ "refreshed its operating principles and internal culture and, eventually, transform[ed] employees into brand ambassado rs (p. 8).

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43 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION RQ1: Definition s of Insight There were several definitions of marketing insig ht in p rior literature and this study's sample of award entries that lead to the following definitions of insights. C onsumer insight : A co nsumer insight is a shared and unobvious characteristic such as an attitude, value, behavior, lifestyle, experience, problem motivation, goal or dream, of a consumer segment that stems from a latent unmet need often characterized by an emotion For example, in the 2003 Molson ¨ entry, the consumer insight was a behavior: men seek out conversation starters from magazine article s and jokes for example, to gain confidence when meeting women in bars. This stems from the often unmet need for acceptance in these types of situations and is characterized by a fear of rejection. Executed properly, the insight resonates with the consumer and establishes an emotional connection between consumer and brand as well as a bond between members of the consumer segment. B rand insight : A brand insight is an asset of a brand that can position it as a solution to the consumer 's underlying unmet need For example, in the 2003 Molson ¨ entry, agency research determined the beer had a neutral brand personality and could be made into a funny, laid back conversation starter (solution). The insight can come from areas such as brand attributes, pe rformance, past advertising, history and process changes C ategory insight : A category insight is an opportunity or threat based on a category's structure and competitors which influences the positioning of the brand as a solution to the consumer's unmet need F or example, in the 2003 Molson ¨ entry,

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44 research determined the opportunity presented by m ajor beers having a badge value that some men use to show personality. The entry gives the examples of Guinness ¨ meaning connoisse ur, Corona ¨ meaning laid back, and so on. A category insight is found by looking at all categories that pose as a solution to the same consumer unmet need or problem and aids in differentiating from or outperforming competitors so i t is important to look at competitors in the category the br and currently competes in as well as in other categories that the brand could potentially compete in These insights can be found from the category's attributes, performance, competitor positioning and saturation of the category. Piecing it together : As s hown in this study, o ther insights can come from consumer stories, current events, popu lar culture an d so forth, which aid in creating the emotional connection between the consumer, brand, and category insights. Each of these pieces can be used to form a m arketer's overall campaign strategy. In the 2003 Molson ¨ entry, the agency created labels for the beer bottles with pickup lines and fun statements that served as needed conversation starters. Molson ¨ became a funny, laid back brand. RQ2: Finding and Using Insights As a starting guide, account p lanners can use Figure 5 1 as a map of where consumer, brand, category and other insights were discovered in t his study (Figure 5 1 ). The following insight characteristics could serve as starting points since they occurred the most often in the gold winning entries. Social needs, most commonly belonging and self actualization needs were the most popular People buy assurance to succeed with their goals and also want to do good/make a difference in the world

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45 Planne rs should look for emotions, barriers, attitudes, opinions, thoughts, behaviors, rituals, and lifestyle. Figure 5 1 Where insights are f ound. A) Consumer, B) Brand: Performance, Attribute, Communication Development Change, Past Adve rtising, Etc. C) Cat egory: Attribute, ClichÂŽ Advertising, Commoditization, Norms, Performance, Insights into Successful Marketing (viral crazes and icons) D) Story (Other) : Current Event, Pop Culture, Reason Why, Brand As V erb, Solution to Problem, Etc Most useful shroud s of emotion surrounding a need are fear, anxiety, or vulnerability that the product can solve. Planners can discover consumer problems and how to solve them by searching for these social needs characterized by an unpleasant/intense feeling. Within this sample advertising attempted to solve people's inner struggles 32.26 % (10 campaigns) of the time.

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46 Most barriers to purchase especially psychological ones, occurred with belonging needs. Psychological barriers are those that have to do with the self, usually t he struggle between needs and values. Unique brand proposition centered on performance and attributes and how they connected to consumer insights. The two areas of insight that emerged were just as important: communication process and past advertising. Top category insights were a ttribute of competitors' product s and clichÂŽ advertising of the category. Category insights help create distance from the competition. Appearance of po pular culture increased in time. Integrating a campaign with current events and trends helps with consum er relevance and entertainment. Personalization is another important recent trend: p lanners should pay attention to ways consumers would like the product tailored to their needs. RQ3 : What to Do While reflecting on the data, the acc ount planner should also take into account what was not said or what was said through a consumer's body language ( Bernbach 1980; Steel 1998). Once a n unmet need, likely regarding b elonging and self expression, and its manifestations are identified, the acc ount planner turns to brand information for a solution. The planner must ask what best addresses the unmet needs and emotions of the consumer in a resonant, memorable way and differently from how competitors propose to solve a problem or enhance an exper ience. However, s ometimes research reveals potential psychological, social, financial, time related, safety risks/barriers that cur rently seem to outweigh the brand as a solution to the unmet need If unfounded, the campaign should lift these barriers wit hin the overall strategy. The planner can also look for s tories from consumers, popular

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47 culture, ways to lift perceived risks, and ways t o personalize for each consumer, while keeping the category battlefield in mind. Leads to insights were found not just in primary research but also in easy to access secondary sources like online networks, documented customer complaints, etc. RQ4 : Change Over Time Popular culture, current events consumer control and personalization have become more prevalent from 2003 2 010 However, it's important to note that this study analyzes a small sample of mainly 2009 and 2010 entries. N o pattern s emerged regarding the number or importance of consumer, brand, category insights over time. Generally, no pattern regarding high and l ow involvement products emerged from this small sample. However, low involvement products tended to consider brand and category aspects more in order to differentiate themselves in a commodity market. RQ5: Research Type The most popular type of reported agency research was qualitative research with 61 % of campaigns using only qualitative. Additionally, four out of the 31 campaigns used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. Most campaigns, even though sometimes using projective techniques conduct ed focus groups, interviews, and qualitatively observed consumers. Researchers used diaries, toured important towns, used photo montages, mood boards, category archeology, semiotics, friendship triads, and tested differ ent product forms and concepts.

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48 CHAP TER 6 CONCLUSION Planners and researchers can use and debate these basic definitions o f insight and where to find them for campaign strategy creation It is the hope of the researcher that this study will help marketers not only create better campaigns bu t also solutions and new tools that people will want to seek out in order to better their lives. It's essential to talk to consumers like the business knows them, and creating example consumer personas rooted around insights may be one of the best ways to pass knowledge to an agency's creative team. This study also contributes to the body of knowledge that helps create account planner training programs and standards for evaluation of successful account planning. Even though it's helpful to have a framewor k for research data (consumer, brand, category), account planner s must realize that insights can come from anywhere not just the categories defined in this study. Like several account planners (Steel 1998 ; Fortini Campbell 2003; Weichselbaum 2008) warn, use common sense and keep the bigger picture in mind throughout the entire research process to reveal the unexpected. For example, the insights that emerged in this study, like getting insights from viral crazes and characteristics of icons was outside of the realm of con sumer, brand, and category. Insights may seem simple and obvious in hindsight, but they take research and considerable reflection time in order to understand all the pieces of a marketing situation. Once the research all the pieces of the strategy puzzle, is sorted like dirt shaken out of a sieve to reveal gold that is when crafting a powerful campaign strategy begins

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49 CHAPTER 7 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH This exploratory study's small sample size of 31 gold winning entries and pu rposive sampling are limitations, and patterns that emerged cannot be generalized to all campaigns. Also, there were e ight gold winning entries one entry from 2004, one from 2009, and six from 2010 that were excluded from the sample because either the agency did not give permission to publish or the entry was a research tool. The subjectivity of what was classified an insight within the award entries is also a limitation. The codes indicating the author or researcher identified the insight were an att empt to address this subjectivity. Additionally, the post coding of the open ended responses may vary between researchers. Interviews, focus groups, and surveys should be conducted with account planners to further elaborate on the concept of insigh t and how different research te chniques achieve them. Future research should also look at insights more in relation to the creative execution. This will aid in teaching planners how to efficiently write insights into creative briefs to best inspire the creative team and communicate strategy. Additionally, f uture content analyses should use a larger sample size of the Jay Chiat Awards for Strategic Excellence If not all of the published awards, future samples could be all entries within a product category, award category, the various medal levels, etc. A larger sample size can also determine if aspects other than those judged, like purpose and category (i.e. nonprofit), affect which entries win gold medals. The entries could be further categorized by marketing app eal, positioning (functional, expressive, symbolic, experiential) where it fits in the means end value chain (attributes, function, benefits, values), and by consumer motivation ( negative

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50 problem removal/avoidance etc. or positive sensory gratification, intellectual stimulations, social approval etc ). Studies should explore the other insights that emerged but were not fully covered in this study such as consumer attitudes, values, behaviors, motivations, rituals, and lifestyles.

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51 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIR E Campaign Name: ________________ Book Year: _____________________ Award Category: _________________ Award Medal: ___________________ Coder initials: ___________________ If a question is not applicable, type 0. Do not leave any spaces blank. 1. What ca tegory is the product/service in? (Golan and Zaidner 2008) 1. NPO (not for profit organization) 2. Fashion 3. Food and Beverage (not alcohol) 4. Travel 5. Electronic and Communications 6. Household products 7. Pharmaceuticals 8. Alcohol and Tobacco 9. Entertainment and Media 10. Banking 11. Automotive 12. Other 2. Is it a low or high involvement product category? (Nelson 1970) 1. Low involvement 2. High involvement 3. N/A 3. What is the advertising function? Select all that apply. 1. Positioning the product/servic e first time (Trout and Ries 1979 ) 2. Modifyi ng the current position 3. Total repositioning 4. A line extension (adding a brand) 5. Call for action 6. A promotional campaign (short term)

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52 CONSUMER INSIGHT 4. Is at least one of the insights something shared among the target market? (Steel Sharma) 1. Yes, it is ide ntified by the author. 2. Yes, I identified it (not author) 3. No 5. If yes, list the main concept that is shared: ________________ Some examples are: Behavior, Ritual, Lifestyle Experience, Situation Emotion (i.e. shared fear) Values (beliefs that guide what people regard as important or good. i.e. value education so pursue a degree [Felton]) Motivation (inner state of arousal with the aroused energy directed to achieving a goal) Attitudes, Opinions, Thoughts Desires, Aspirations, Goals Want, Need (i.e. shared need for permission) Loss Problem Solution Cultural Norms (these may prevent buying a product) Self Concept List others as needed NEEDS 6. Is there an insight that reveals a need? If no, skip this section. 1. Yes 2. No 7. What consumer need does the insight ad dress (see codebook)? _______ EMOTIONS 8. Does the insight unearth an emotion? If no, type 0 for the rest of this section. 1. Yes 2. No 9. If so, what is the main emotion? (i.e. fear) See codebook for examples. ______________________________________ 10. If the re's an emotion, what is the emotion of? (i.e. fear of addiction ) ______________________________________ RISK/BARRIER REMOVAL 11. Does an insight help remove a risk or barrier in purchasing the product for the consumer? If no, type 2 for rest of this sect ion.

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53 1. Yes 2. No 12. Does an insight remove a performance risk (regarding the product or service) for consumer? 1. Yes 2. No 13. Does an insight remove a financial risk for consumer? 1. Yes 2. No 14. Does an insight remove a physical (or safety) risk for consume r? 1. Yes 2. No 15. Does an insight remove a social risk for consumer? 1. Yes 2. No 16. Does an insight remove a psychological risk for consumer? 1. Yes 2. No 17. Does an insight remove a time risk for consumer? 1. Yes 2. No 18. Does at least one of the consumer insights give "permission" to the consumer to do something? 1. Yes 2. No BRAND INSIGHT 19. Is there a brand specific insight? If no, type 0 for the rest of this section. 1. Yes, it is identified by the author. 2. Yes, I identified it (not author) 3. No 20. Does the brand insight ha ve to do with an attribute (which is characteristic like price, packaging, speed, etc), performance (i.e. keeps tarter away), or other? Type 0 if none. 1. Attribute (characteristic) 2. Performance (i.e. keeps tarter away)

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54 3. Other 21. If yes, what spec ifically is it (i.e. speed of car)? Type 0 if none. ___________________ 22. Is it relevant to, derived from, or referencing the product's competition (positioning)? Type 0 if none. 1. Yes 2. No CATEGORY INSIGHT 23. Is there a category specific insight? If no, type 0 for the rest of this section. 1. Yes, it is identified by the author. 2. Yes, I identified it (not author) 3. No 24. Does the category insight have to do with an attribute (which is characteristic like price, packaging, speed, etc), performance (i.e. keeps tarter away), or other? Type 0 if this doesn't apply. 1. Attribute (characteristic) 2. Performance (i.e. keeps tarter away) 3. Other 25. If yes, what specifically is it (i.e. speed of car)? Type 0 if none. ________________ 26. What is the category of this insight? Type 0 if none. __________________ OTHER 27. Is the resulting campaign time bound, that is, having to do with the time's popular culture (trend, fad, current events, celebrities, movie, video game, book, etc.)? 1. Yes 2. No 28. Does the campaign emphasize personalization to the consumer? 1. Yes 2. No RESEARCH 29. What type of research (that's reported) was used to attain the insights?

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55 1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative 3. Mixed 30. What methods? ____________________

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56 APPENDIX B TRAINING GUIDE Campaign Name: Wri te the full name of the product as the campaign name. Book Year: Indicate what year the campaign was submitted. Award Category: Indicate the official Jay Chiat category that the campaign is under. Award Medal: Indicate whether the award was "Grand Prix" o r "Gold." Coder Initials: Use your first and last initial for coder identification. INSIGHT In sum, insight is an experience during or subsequent to problem solving attempts, in which problem related content comes to mind with sudden ease and provides a feeling of pleasure, the belief that the solution is true, and confidence in this belief" ( Topolinski and Reber 2010). indicates a subject's attitudes and feelings and give good insight into a participant's need value system" (Kassarjian 1974). "The mor e compatible the innovation is with consumers values, norms, and behaviors, the less resistance and greater product diffusion" (Gatignon and Robertson). "The product helps avoid risks, fulfill their needs, solve problems, or achieve their goals criteria t hat affect consumer's adoption decisions" (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ). concentrate on behaviours as well as attitudes and mind sets ( Hipperson, 2010). "In my 40 year career in advertising, I've learned that you can't legislate insight But you can orchest rate insight. You can create a favorable environment for it. You can steer people toward it and demand it -and you can reject it when it doesn't meet your standards You find it in research and marketing data. You find it in the CEO's statements. You find i t in throwaway comments in meetings, You find it in customer complaints ." (Dusenberry 2005 ) However, many agencies say something to the effect of: "Planning isn't always about unearthing a deep consumer or brand truth. Once in a while if you're lucky planning is about recognizing and seizing upon a moment in popular culture when your brand is perfectly poised as the answer" (JetBlue campaign). "A consumer insight "is like God present everywhere but not seen, felt, or easily understood. Verbatim judg ments, linearly observed consumer behavior, or simply aphorisms for life are often passed off as insights. However, to get insights, you need deeper thinking" (former executive director of Ogilvy and Mather Vivek Sharma) "At the heart of an effective crea tive philosophy is the belief that nothing is so powerful as an insight into human nature, what compulsions drive a man, what instincts dominate his actions, even though his language so often camouflages what really motivates him. For if you know these thi ngs about a man you can touch him as the core of his being" (Bernbach). GENERAL 1. What category is the product in? (Golan and Zaidner 2008)

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57 The product/servi ce is related to one of these industries: A not for pro fashion, food and beverage, travel, electronics and communications (i.e. cell phones), household products (soaps and lotions included here), pharmaceuticals (has to be prescribed by a doctor), alcohol and tobacco, entertainment and media, banking, insurance or 2. Is it a low or high involvement product category? (Nelson 1970) If the brand purchase decision is low involvement, trial experience is sufficien t and it's likely a non durable item. If high involvement, there is higher risk in purchase (i.e. product is expensive) so information search and conviction is usually required. An example for selecting "N/A" is a recruitment campaign. 3. What is the advertising function? Select all that apply. Position which encompasses concepts like image, personality, emotions evoked, etc, of the product/service in the consumer's mind. Modifying a position adds or slightly changes the existing image etc. Total re positioning is drastic and may change the category of the product. A line extension means adding a brand to an existing line of the company's products. A call for action is asking for the consumer to do something like donate money to a cause or asking hi m/her to actively live a healthier lifestyle. A promotional campaign is a short term effort like a holiday promotion or a campaign to distribute promotional items. CONSUMER INSIGHT 4. Is at least one of the insights something shared among the target ma rket? (Steel Sharma) A consumer insight is a flash of understanding on the part of a marketer regarding something shared, like an unmet need, of a consumer segment. It indicates a subject's attitudes and feelings and gives good insight into a participant' s need value system." (Kassarjian 1974) 5. If yes, list what is shared (pick any you see fit but below are examples) : Some examples of shared items are: Shared Behavior/Ritual/Lifestyle Shared Experience/Situation

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58 Shared Emotion (i.e. shared fear) Shar ed Values (beliefs that guide what people regard as important or good. i.e. value education so pursue a degree [Felton]) Shared Motivation ("inner state of arousal with the aroused energy directed to achieving a goal") (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 p. 49) Shar ed Attitudes/Opinions/Thoughts Shared Desires/Aspirations Shared Want/Need (i.e. shared need for permission) Shared Loss Shared Problem Shared Solution Shared Cultural Norms (these may prevent buying a product) Shared Self Concept NEEDS 6. Is there an ins ight that reveals a need? If no, type 0 for rest of section. A need is "an internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal or desired state." (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ) Most of the needs addressed in the books are higher level social/egois tic/self actualization needs (Maslow) such as need to enhance self image (personal expression, self esteem), need to belong, etc. See below for more examples. 7. What consumer need does the insight address? Type any but some examples below. Maslow's Hier archy of Needs: Physiological: food, water, warmth, rest Safety: security, safety Belongingness and Love : intimate relationships, friends Esteem: prestige and feeling of accomplishment Self actualization: achieving one's full potential including creative a ctivities (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ) Needs are social or nonsocial and span from functional, symbolic, and experiential/hedonic. 1. Functional (solve problems, provide benefits to customers) 2. Symbolic (self image enhancement, ego identification, belon ging) 3. Experiential/Hedonic (provide sensory stimulation, cognitive stimulation) (Park Jaworski and MacInnis 1986)

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59 Social needs are externally directed and relate to other individuals. Fulfilling these needs thus requires the presence or actions of ot her people." (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ) Examples are modeling, support, status, affiliation, belonging, achievement, reinforcement, sex, and play For example, the need for status drives our desire to have others hold us in high regard; the need for supp ort drives us to have others relieve us of our burdens; the need for modeling reflects a wish to have others show us how to behave. We may be motivated to buy products like Hallmark cards or use services such as MySpace.com because they help us achieve a n eed for affiliation Other products may be valued because they are consistent with our need for status or our need to be unique We also have antisocial needs needs for space and psychological distance from other people." For example, "plane seats that a re too close together violate our need for space and motivate us to escape the confining environment." (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ). "Nonsocial needs are those for which achievement is not based on other people" (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ). Examples of funct ional nonsocial needs are safety, order, and physical well being Symbolic nonsocial needs examples are self control and independence Experiential/hedonic nonsocial needs examples are sensory stimulation, cognitive stimulation, and novelty "Our needs fo r sleep, novelty, control, uniqueness, and understanding, which involved only ourselves, can affect the usage of certain goods and services. We might purchase the same brand repeatedly to maintain consistency in our world or we might buy something differe nt to fulfill a need for variety (Hoyer MacInnis 2007 ). EMOTIONS 8. Does the insight unearth an emotion? If no, type 0 for the rest of this section. "According to appraisal theory, emotions are based on an individual's assessment of a situation or an ou tcome and its relevance to his or her goals" (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ). 9. If so, what is the main emotion? Type any but some examples below. Rossiter and Percy: Anger (associated with problem removal solution provides Relief) Fear (associated with problem avoidance solution provides Relaxation) For example, fear of getting addicted or fear of being inadequate. Disappointment (incomplete Satisfaction Optimism) Guilt (mixed approach avoidance Peace of Mind)

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60 Mild annoyance (normal depletion Convenience) Du ll/Bored (sensory gratification and intellectual stimulation Elated/Excited) Apprehensive (social approval Flattered) Emotions identified are pride, hope, excitement, guilt, shame, fear, anxiety, happiness, distress, admiration, love, contempt, disgust, envy, gratitude, anger, enraged, resentful, satisfied, relieved, delighted, interest, challenge, disappointed, threatened, frustrated, regret, pleased, miserable, bored, glad, pity, joy, sadness. Adapted from Allison Johnson and David Stewart "A re apprais al of the role of emotion in consumer behavior: Traditional and Contemporary Approaches," Review of Marketing Research (New York: ME Sharpe 2005) pp. 3 34. Chart a s shown in Hoyer and McInnis 2007 10. If there's an emotion, what is the emotion of? (i.e. f ear of addiction ) Refer to the campaign. RISK/BARRIER REMOVAL 11. Does the insight help remove a risk or barrier? If no, skip this section. Perceived risk "is the extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the consequences of an action, e.g., buyin g, using, or disposing of an offering" (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ) 12. Performance risk reflects uncertainty about whether the product of service will perform as expected." 13. Financial risk is higher if an offering is expensive, such as the cost of buy ing a home." 14. Physical (or safety) risk refers to the potential harm a product or service might pose to one's safety. Many consumer decisions are driven by a motivation to avoid physical risk." 15. Social risk is the potential harm to one's social s tanding that may arise from buying, using, or disposing of an offering." For example, social disapproval of smoking was more effective than advertising health consequences. 16. Psychological risk reflects consumers' concern about the extent to which a pr oduct or service fits with the way they perceive themselves." For example, an environmentalist buying disposable diapers may be psychologically risky. 17. Time risk reflects uncertainties about the length of time that must be invested in buying, using, o r disposing of the product or service. Time risk may be high if the offering involves considerable time commitment, if learning to use it is a lengthy process, or if it entails a long commitment period."

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61 18. Does at least one of the consumer insights give "permission" to the consumer to do something? Indicate whether the insight reveals the consumers aren't buying the product because of a perceived barrier(s) that advertising needs to address. Often, the cases actually use the word "permission" when discus sing the consumer feeling like they need permission to do something. BRAND INSIGHT 19. Is there a brand specific insight? If no, type 0 for the rest of this section. Did the planners discover something new about their client's brand that wasn't already app arent? This does not include existing brand image or position that's incorporated in strategy. 20. Does the brand insight have to do with an attribute (which is characteristic like price, packaging, speed, etc), performance (i.e. keeps tarter away), or oth er? Type 0 if none. Refer to campaign. 21. If yes, what specifically is it (i.e. speed of car)? Type 0 if none. Refer to campaign. 22. Is it relevant to, derived from, or referencing the product's competition (positioning)? Type 0 if none. Does it position against competitors? Refer to campaign. CATEGORY INSIGHT 23. Is there a category specific insight? If no, type 0 for the rest of this section. Did the planners discover something new about the brand's category (competitors) that wasn't already apparent? This can include statements like category has become commoditized. 24. Does the category insight have to do with an attribute (which is characteristic like price, packaging, speed, etc), performance (i.e. keeps tarter away), or other? Type 0 if this doesn' t apply. Refer to campaign. 25. If yes, what specifically is it (i.e. speed of car)? Type 0 if none. Refer to campaign. 26. What is the category of this insight? Type 0 if none. Is the insight in the product category, a broader category, etc? Be specific a nd refer to the campaign. OTHER 27. Is there a consumer insight that's time bound, that is, having to do with the time's popular culture (trend, fad, current events, celebrities, movie, video game, book, etc.)?

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62 Does the campaign's execution relate to a t rend, fad, current events celebrities, movie, video game, book, etc? A trend is a time period's current interpretation of a value's manifestation. For example, Facebook is a trend today for the value of maintaining friendships by keeping in touch with fr iends. A fad is "a successful innovation that has a very short product life cycle" (Hoyer and MacInnis 2007 ) For example, Pokemon cards. 28. Does the campaign emphasize personalization to the consumer? Is an element of the campaign customized or tailored to each individual consumer in some way? RESEARCH 29. What type of research was used to attain the insights? Quantitative research is "a means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. These variables, in turn, can be measured, typically on instruments, so that numbered data can be analyzed using statistical procedures" (Creswell 2009). Examples of quantitative methods are survey, experiment, and observation. Qualitative research is "a means for exploring and understan ding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. The process of research involves emerging questions and procedures, data typically collected in the participant's setting, data analysis inductively building from particulars to g eneral themes, and the researcher making interpretations of the meaning of the data" (Creswell 2009). Examples are focus groups, interviews, and ethnographies. 30. What methods? Refer to the cases for what methods were used. If not mentioned, write N/A.

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63 APPENDIX C POSTCODES Emotional Valence/Intensity Valence (pleasant, unpleasant) Intensity (Intense, Calm) 0 No emotion discovered 1 Unpleasant, calm 2 Unpleasant, intense 3 Pleasant, calm 4 Pleasant, intense Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 1 Physiological 2 Belonging 3 Esteem 4 Self actualization

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64 APPENDIX D INTER CODER RELIABLITY Inter coder Reliability Question Agreement of Coders Category of Product/Service 100% Involvement 87.10% Advertising Function 74.19% Existence of Consumer Insight 90.32% General Concept Sha red by Consumers 100% Existence of Need 64.52% Type of Need 64.52% Existence of Emotion 74.19% Type of Emotion 74.19% What Emotion is of 67.74% Existence of Barrier 61.29% Performance Risk 74.19% Financial Risk 93.55% Physical Risk 90.32% Social Risk 80.65% Psychological Risk 67.74% Time Risk 90.32% Permission 74.19% Existence of Brand Insight 67.74% General Aspect of Brand Insight 48.39%

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65 Specific Aspect of Brand Insight 80.65% Brand Insight Referencing Competition 83.87% Existence of Cate gory Insight 67.74% General Aspect of Category Insight 61.29% Specific Aspect of Category Insight 70.97% Category of Insight 64.52% Time bound (pop culture or current events) 77.42% Personalization 70.97% Type of Research 61.29% Research Methods 80 .65%

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66 LIST OF REFERENCES Avery, Jim (2010), Advertising Campaign Planning, Chicago: The Copy Workshop. Baskin, Merry and David Pickton (2003), "Account planning from genesis to revelation," Marketing Intelligence & Planning 21 (7), 416 424. Bullmo re, Jeremy (2006), Apples, Insights and Mad Inventors Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Creswell, John W. (2009), Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Durgee Jeffrey F. ( 2005 ), Creative Insight : The Researcher's Art Chicago: The Copy Workshop. Dusenberry, Phil (2005), "Bringing Good Insights to Life," Fast Company 98 (September), 80 83. Feig, Barry (2006), Hot Button Marketing: Push the Emotional Buttons That Get People to B uy Avon, MA: Adams Media. Feldwick, Paul (2007), "Account Planning: Its History and Significance for Ad Agencies," in The SAGE Handbook of Advertising edited by Tellis and Ambler, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Fisher, Dan and Scott Smith (2010) "How Do People Think Marketing Works? Teaching Students How to Build Theory, Develop Imagination, and Discover Deeper Consumer Insights," Marketing Education Review 20 (1), 65 70. Fortini Campbell, Lisa (1992) Hitting the Sweet Spot: How Consumer Insig hts Can Inspire Better Marketing and Advertising Chicago: The Copy Workshop. Hackley, Christopher E. (2003a), "Account planning: current agency perspectives on an advertising enigma," Journal of Advertising Research 43 (2), 235 45. (2003b), "From consumer insight to advertising strategy: the account planner's integrative role in creative advertising development," Marketing Intelligence & Planning 21 (7), 446 452. Heller, Wendy (1993), Neuropsychological mechanisms of individual differences in e motion, personality, and arousal. Neuropsychology 7 (4), 476 489. Holsti, Ole R. (1969), Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities, Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

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67 Hoyer, Wayne D. and Deborah J. Macinnis (2007), Consumer Behavior (Fourth Edition) Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Jacoby, Jacob and Leon Kaplan (1972), "The Components of Perceived Risk," in ed. M. Venkatesan, Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 3 ), Chicago: Association for Consumer Research, 382 383. Jaffe, Andrew (20 03), Casting for Big Ideas: A New Manifesto for Agency Managers New York: Adweek. Krippendorff, Klaus (2004), Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology (2nd ed) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. MacLeod, Hugh (2011) "Note to Social Media Marketing Dorks: The Hard Currency of the Internet is Social Objects'" (May 19), www.gapingvoid.com (accessed May 20, 2011). Maslow, Abraham H. (1943), "A theory of human motivation," Psychological Review 50 (4), 370 396. Merriam Webster Eleventh Dict ionary (2003), Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster. Merriam Webster Ninth Collegiate Dictionary (1983), Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster. Meyers, Bruce (1986) "To Plan or Not to Plan," Journal of Advertising Research 26 (5), 25 26. Modea Agency (2010), "Gr aco Mobile Website: New mothers meet new technology," www.modea.com/portfolio (accessed May 20, 2011). Morrison, Margaret A. and Eric Haley (2003), "Account Planners' Views on How Their Work Is and Should Be Evaluated," Journal of Advertising 32 (2), 7 1 6. Kim B. Sheehan and Ronald E. Taylor (2002), Using Qualitative Research in Advertising Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Ogilvy, David (1985), Ogilvy on Advertising New York: Vintage Books, Random House. Owyang, Jeremiah (2010), "Tr end: How Social Media Boutiques are Winning Deals Over Traditional Digital Agencies" (December 21), www.web strategist.com/blog (accessed May 6, 2011). Packard, Vance (1960), The Hidden Persuaders New York: McKay. Parente, Donald (2006), Advertising C ampaign Strategy: A Guide to Marketing Communication Plans Cincinnati, Ohio: South Western College Pub.

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68 Park, Whan C., Bernard J. Jaworski and Deborah J. Maclnnis (1986), "Strategic Brand Concept Image Management," Journal of Marketing 50 (October), 621 35. Ries, Al and Jack Trout (1979), Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind New York: McGraw Hill. Rossiter, John, Larry Percy, and Ron Donovan (1991), "A Better Advertising Planning Grid," Journal of Advertising Research 31 (5), 11 21. Sandelowski, Ma rgarete (2000), "Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Sampling, Data Collection, and Analysis Techniques in Mixed Method Studies," Research in Nursing & Health 23 (3), 246 255. Schmidt Louis A. and Laurel J. Trainor (2001), Frontal brain electrical ac tivity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions," Cognition and Emotion 15 (4), 487 500. Sharma, Vivek (2004), "Insight abuse," Businessworld (November 15), www.businessworldindia.com/nov1504/casestudy02.asp (accessed 3/13/2006). So uthgate, Nick (2003), "Coolhunting, account planning and the ancient cool of Aristotle," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 27 (7), 453 461. Steel, Jon (1998), Truth, Lies and Advertising New York: John Wiley and Sons. Sullivan, Luke (2008), Hey, Whippl e, Squeeze This: A Guide to Creating Great Ads Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Sutherland, John (2010), Campaign Process, Unpublished manuscript, Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Tashakkori, Abbas and Charles Teddlie (1998), Mixed methodology: Combini ng qualitative and quantitative approaches Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Thompson, Craig J. (1997) "Interpreting Consumers: A Hermeneutical Framework for Deriving Marketing Insights from the Texts of Consumers' Consumption Stories," Journal of Ma rketing Research 34 (November), 438 455. Topolinski, Sascha and Rolf Reber (2010), "Gaining Insight Into the Aha' Experience," Current Directions in Psychological Science 19 (6), 402 405. Wansink, Brian (2000), "New Techniques to Generate Key Market ing Insights," Marketing Research Summer, 28 36.

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69 (2003), "Using laddering to understand and leverage a brand's equity," Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 6 (2), 111 118. Weichselbaum, Hart (2008), Readings in Account Planning Chicago: The Copy Workshop. West, Douglas C. and John Ford (2001), "Advertising Agency Philosophies and Employee Risk taking." Journal of Advertising, 30 (1), 77 91. Zambardino, Adrian and John Goodfellow (2003), "Account planning in the new marketing a nd communications environment (has the Stephen King challenge been met?)," Marketing Intelligence & Planning 21 (7), 425 434.

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70 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Vilma J. Jarvinen was born in Tampere, Finland in 1987. She received a bachelor of advert ising degree with a minor in business in 2009 and received her Master of Advertising degree in 2011 from the University of Florida She worked at music start up Grooveshark in its beginning days, Austin Chamber Music Center, Florida Museum of Natural Histo ry, and the digital advertising agency Modea. Jarvinen also presented a segmentation study of social media users at the American Academy of Advertising conference in 2011. She embarks on her advertising agency career in Blacksburg, Va where she is currentl y a strategic planner for the agency Modea.