1 THE NOTION OF HOMELAND IN TAIWANESE CONTEMPORARY ELEMENTARY MUSIC EDUCATION By CHIUNGWEN CHANG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T HE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 ChiungWen Chang
3 To all who nurtured my intellectual curiosity, academic interests, and sense of scholarship throughout my lifetime, making this milestone possible
4 ACKNO WLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the following people for their support in completing this dissertation This dissertation could not have been done without the mentoring of my advisor, Dr. Larry Crook, who served as a constant source of support and inspira tion. He never hesitated to give me well thought out advice throughout my doctoral degree studies and dissertation process. He has given me confidence in my ability to conduct this research. I greatly appreciate his enthusiasm for my work, his attention to detail, and his willingness to share his research specialty. The University of Florida faculty has provided me with one of the best educations and has willingly assisted me with time and expertise. I am especially thankful for receiving the encouragements and assistances from my doctoral dissertation committee members, Dr. Kevin Orr, Dr. Elizabeth Bondy and Dr. Welson Tremura during my dissertation process The fieldwork in Taiwan to gather data provided me the opportunity to meet outstanding scholars and educators and to observe excellent classroom teaching activities. I want to express my appreciation to Dr. ShihZe Yao and Professor Chui Tang Chiu, who have provided me with invaluable insights during the process of my fieldwork. I also would like to express my sincere gratitude to the faculty and staff at ChenPing Elementary School for permitting me to collect data from their students and themselves for this research. I am grateful to my husband Clayton Niehaus for his precious love for me and for giving me the courage to risk going after my dreams. I am indebted to my parents for their everlasting love refined family upbringing, and good education that they offer me. I am forever thankful to my family and friends for their encouragement and support
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF MUSIC EXAMPLES .......................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH OVERVIEW .....................................................................................................12 Introduction .............................................................................................................................12 Background and Justification .................................................................................................18 Methods and Interpretations ...................................................................................................21 Definitions of Terms ...............................................................................................................27 Delimitation ............................................................................................................................29 Summary .................................................................................................................................30 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................34 Indigenous Taiwanese Folk Music in the Elementary School Music Curriculum: Historical, Social, and Political Transitions ........................................................................34 Folk Music, Popular Music, and Homeland Music: Various Definitions and Their Social Context ................................................................................................................................41 Folk Music .......................................................................................................................41 Popular Music ..................................................................................................................48 Homeland Music .............................................................................................................50 Nationalism: General Overview and Conception ...................................................................59 Nationalism in Music ......................................................................................................61 Musical Nationalism in Educational Settings ..................................................................64 Practice Theory: Contents and Relevance to Ethnomusicology .............................................66 Identity Formation and Social Practice ...........................................................................66 The Emergence of Practice Theory Pierre Bourdieu and habi tus ................................68 Critical Pedagogy: History, Philosophical Origins and Its Application in Music Education ............................................................................................................................71 History and Philosophical Origins of Critical Pedagogy ................................................72 Major Themes of Critical Pedagogy and Applications in Music Education ...................76 Parallel Concepts between Practice Theory and Critical Pedagogy ................................79 3 TAIWANS CONTEMPORARY ELEMENTARY EDUCATION PROFILE .....................85
6 Curricular Standard Adoptions and Textbook Policies before 1987 ......................................92 Curricular Reforms and Their Impacts on Music Education ..................................................94 4 VIEWS ON HOMELAND: POLICY MAKERS, PRACTITIONERS AND RECIPIENTS ........................................................................................................................113 Homeland and Homeland Music in Government Publications ............................................115 Concepts of Homeland before the Enactment of the 1993 New Curricular Standard ...115 Concepts of Homeland during the Practice of the 1993 New Curricular Standard .......122 Concepts of Homeland under the Treatment of the Grade 19 Curriculum after 2003............................................................................................................................128 Homeland Music Education Policies and Their Practices ....................................................138 Personal At titudes of the Educational Policy Legislators, Executors, and Recipients toward Homeland ..............................................................................................................162 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMELAND MUSIC ..............................................................189 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...............................................................233 APPENDIX A RECORDER LESSON: KNOWING THE F# .....................................................................245 B LESSON PLAN: TAIWANESE HOLO OPERA ................................................................250 C MUSIC EXAMPLE: QIU CHAN (THE FALL CICADAS) ...............................................256 D SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL POLICY MAKERS .........258 E SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL POLICY PRACTITIONERS AND PARENTS ...................................................................................260 F SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR CHILD INFORMANTS ...............................262 G IRB APPROVAL OF PROTOCOL .....................................................................................264 H PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT ................................................................................265 I ADULT INFORMED CONSENT .......................................................................................269 J CHILDS ASSENT FORM ..................................................................................................273 WORKS CITED ..........................................................................................................................275 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................293
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 21 Taiwans political history ..................................................................................................84 31 Timeline of different Curric ular Standards adopted in Taiwans elementary education history ..............................................................................................................................112 51 Numbers of vote and rankings of the most representative Taiwanese homeland songs from my 30 participants ...................................................................................................218
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 11 The informants/participants of this dissertation .................................................................33 21 Map of Ta iwan and its neighboring area ...........................................................................83 31 The curricular plan of the Flexible Learning Units of the 1st grade students at Chen Ping Elementary School in spring 2008...........................................................................106 32 The curricular plan of the Flexible Learning Units of the 6th grade students at Chen Ping Elementary School in spring 2008...........................................................................107 33 The total amount of clas ses per week scheduled by Chen Ping Elementary School and those announced by the Ministry of Education. ........................................................108 34 Example of the lower grades (2nd Grade) Schedule of Courses in weekly format ........109 35 Example of the middle grades (4th grade) Schedule of Courses in weekly format .......110 36 Example of the upper grades (6th grade) Schedule of Courses in weekly format .........111 41 The cover page of the book (Arts Taipei) .................................187 42 Corner No. 3 language learning facility at Chen Ping Elementary School, Taichung City, Taiwan .....................................................................................................188 51 The lyrics of Bang chhunhong ( Craving for Wind of Spring ) ...................219 52 The lyrics of It ni a gong gong (The Innocent First Grade Students) ..219
9 LIST OF MUSIC EXAMPLES Example page 51 The song Bang chhun hong ( Craving for Wind of Spring ) transcribed into Western music notation ....................................................................................................220 52 The beginning four measure prelude of BoMing Wus four part chorus arrangement of the song Bang chhun hong .......................................................................................221 53 Wus Bang chhun hong the F major key modulation round singing section ...............222 54 ChungYi Lais musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong for the small instrumental music ensemble, the 5th measure to the 8th measure .................................223 55 ChingYi Lins musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong, the beginning four measures of the first section .............................................................................................223 56 Chi ngYi Lins musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong, measure 17 to measure 24 of the second section. ..................................................................................................224 57 ChingYi Lins musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong, the first four measures of the third section, measure 33 to measure 36 ................................................................224 58 The first section of ChingYi Lins musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong for the Soprano and Alto twopart recorder ensemble, the beginn ing 8 measures ................225 59 ChingYi Lins musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong for the Soprano and Alto two part recorder ensemble, from the 17th measure to the 28th measure. ..............226 510 The last section of ChingYi Lins musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong, measure 34 to measure 37 ................................................................................................227 511 The Hakka folk tune and the Romanization of its lyrics ................227 512 The beginning four measures of Topento, a traditional folk song of Taiwanese aboriginal Zou tribe ..........................................................................................................228 513 Topento, the homophonic texture and the ostinati vocal accompaniments, from the ninth measure to the twelfth measure ..............................................................................229 514 Traditional Holo folk tune Su siang ki ( Thinking Back ) and its Holo lyrics ............230 515 Tsit tsiah tsiau a hau kiu kiu ( A Crying Bird ) melody and lyrics .............................231 516 The chord progression of FuYu Lins It ni a gong gong from the 13th measure to the 20th measure ....................................................................................232
10 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE NOTION OF HOMELAND IN TAIWANESE CONTEMPORARY ELEMENTARY MUSIC EDUCATION By ChiungWen Chang May 2011 Chair: Larry Crook Major: Music This dissertation offers an int erpretive account of music, politics the education system and social change in Taiwan in relation to the concept of homeland and homeland music. It identif ies and interprets the social forces that led to a shift from Sinocentri sm to Taiwan centrism t o multiculturalism in the implementation of the concept of homeland in Taiwans educational system. In order to understand and interpret this shift, t his dissertation combines critical pedagogy and practic e theory to examine the power structure in Taiwanese contemporary music education. Written sources including policy documents m usic textbooks newspaper articles, and scholarly works and data gathered from ethnographic researchparticipant observation and indepth interviews are analyzed and interpreted t o provide an account of the development of ideologies of homeland in Taiwan. While the ideology of Taiwanese homeland identity was embedded into the elementary music curricula of Taiwan by hegemonic processes initiated by the dominant class this dissert ation suggests that the concept of homeland is perceived differently by educational policy makers, practitioners, and recipients. Analysis reveals that three approaches to Taiwanese homeland identity Taiwan centered, Chinese mainland oriented, and Holo/J apaneseinfluenced co exist among the adult participants in a group of thirty Taiwanese students,
11 parents, teachers, administrators and educational policy makers interviewed for this research. A Taiwan centered approach emphasizes Taiwan s own unique music al forms and styles that are perceived as distinct from other musics and that should be valued as authentically Taiwanese. T he Chinese oriented approach emphasizes Taiwans cultural affinity with the Chinese mainland The HoloJapanese approach is found am ong those who recogniz e and value the history of Japanese colonial influences on Taiwan. T hese ideological distinctions are linked to the informants individual musical and life experiences and reveal general characteristics associated with Taiwanese homel and music vocal styles vernacular languages (Holo, Hakka, or Taiwanese aboriginal languages), pentatonic modes, popular ity among Taiwanese general public, and historically momentous subject matters. The dissertation demonstrates that socio cultural phenom ena, community interactions family upbringings, individual awareness of power structures are important factors that influence conceptions of Taiwanese homeland music among participants.
12 CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH OVERVIEW Introduction As a teacher and researcher, I locate myself within the research process, the classroom, and broader society. Every research process is situated in a particular time and place in relation to th e personality of the researcher and within a variety of social circumstances. The researc h topic of this dissertation Conceptions of Homeland in Taiwanese Music Educationwas prompted by two educational occurrences that took place during my professional career. The first one occurred while I was teaching elementary school music in Taiwan (1996 2000 and 2002 2004). During these two periods, I found an increasing amount of Taiwanese local folk expressions embedded in the music and general educational curriculum. The increased attention to the folk music, folk arts, and folk customs of Taiwan and a general affection to locality had emerged during the last two decades prior to my teaching experiences. Folk materials, generally called the homeland materials ( x ) in Taiwan were incorporated in every subject of school educati on, including music, visual art, language and social studies I later learned that the contemporary emphasis of teaching homeland materials in the education sy stem in recent decades contrast ed sharply with the earlier focus of cultivating a Chinese cons ciousness among Taiwanese students that occurred between the 1950s and the early 1980s.1 In other words, the specific c ontents in music e ducation teaching materials ha d shifted from a focus on Chinese traditional music and an emphasis on Western art music to the inclusion of Taiwanese folk music as well as a multicultural move to include a variety of musical forms from other countries. 1Wai Chung Ho and Wing Wah Law, Music Education in Taiwan: the Dynamics and Dilemmas of Globalization, Localization and Sinophilia, The Curriculum Journal 13, no. 3 (2002): 340.
13 W hile advocat ing the homeland studies2 doctrine is ubiquitous among Taiwa ns recent educational reforms, the term homel and studies is relatively ambiguous. What does homeland music mean in the educational system in Taiwan? D oes the concept of homeland relate to mainland China3? Does homeland refer to the island of Taiwan or to the Chinese mainland ? Given the fact th at the Han Chinese are the majority of the Taiwan population this is an important question. What does the idea of homeland music convey to students ? What do children learn about homeland music in elementary general music classes in Taiwan? Answers to t hese critical questions will provide cultural insights into the ongoing political tension between China and Taiwan. The se questions also are significant to researcher s of Taiwan S tudies striv ing to acquire an in depth understandi ng of the interrelationships be tween the music education system and broader soci ocultural and socio political phenomena. The second incident that motivated me to explore the meanings of homeland in Taiwanese elementary music education stemmed from my initial research on Taiwanese fol k music.4 In my preliminary work, I defined indigenous Taiwanese folk music as the musical genres that are indigenous to Taiwan while neglecting the fact that many Taiwanese folk musics are actually derived from traditions with recent roots in mainland Chi na. During the first year of 2H omeland studies ( xiangtu jiaoyu ) or native cultural studies ( bentu wenhua jiaoyu, ) consist of homeland arts (including music, visual arts, and performing arts), homeland history, homeland geography, and homeland languages in elementary school education of Taiw an. 3I n English, homeland and mainland both refer to the na tive land or the native country 4Chiung Wen Chang, Indigenous Folk Music in Elementary Music Education of Taiwan since 1987 (paper presented at the annual meeting of North American Taiwan St udies Association International Conference, Santa Cruz, CA, 5 July, 2006), 9. This research paper was accepted by the Review Board of the Society of Ethnomusicology Southeast and Caribbean (SEMSEC) Chapter Conference and first presented in April 2005. It a lso has been admitted to several professional conferences in the United States between 2005 and 2006, including the 50th Society of Ethnomusicology (SEM) National Conference, 4th Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities, 12th North American T aiwan Studies Association (NATSA) 2006 Annual National Conference, and 49th College Music Society (CMS) 2006 National Conference. These conferences have offered me the opportunity to share my work with international scholars.
14 my doctoral studies at the University of Florida, I wrote a paper titled, Indigenous Folk Music in Elementary Music Education of Taiwan since 1987 that disclosed the intertwined relationships among the educational, political and social reforms advocating the twin process of internationalization and localization after the lifting of martial law in 1987. During the research process, I noticed that political transitions in Taiwan influenced reform s in music education and facilita ted the incorporation of Taiwanese local music i n the elementary music curriculum; I also reflect ed upon my own personal teaching experience, in which students were provided with the means for experiencing musical localization and internationalization. A f ew months after my presentation at the College Music Society National Conference, I was engaged in reviewing the literature of critical pedagogy and practice theory for my qualifying examinations. During this time, I perceived that elements of both critica l pedagogy and practice theory help to explain the case of Taiwanese music education in relation to concepts of homeland. I devoted myself to contemplat ing the issue of homeland music once more. After reading the paper again, my contention emerged regarding my own definition of indigenous Taiwanese folk music : [Taiwanese indigenous folk music refers to] m usical genres that originated in Taiwan and developed strong local characteristics specific to their particular regional, historical, and cultural backgrounds. Those genres include: (1) Holo folk music, including Holo folk songs, B di x ( hand puppet drama), and (Taiwanese Holo opera); (2) Hakka folk music, including Hakka folk songs and Hakka teapicking opera; and (3) [Taiwanese] aboriginal folk music.5 While such a definition may appear to be adequate in a common sense kind of way, it excludes traditional music that originate d in China and w as brought to Taiwan with the Han Chinese immigrants by the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Thes e traditions ( such as Peking Opera and Chinese instrumental ensembles ) have gone through development in Taiwan Nonetheless, while I intuitively regarded Peking Opera and Chinese instrumental ensembles as Chinese music 5Chang, Indigenous Folk Music in Elementary Music, 9.
15 but not Taiwanese folk music simply because both genres are derived from mainland China, I was not aware that some small Chinese ensemble groups, such as B (the Northern School) and N (the Southern School), were actually the instrumental accompaniment of Holo genres such as B di x and Moreover, many of s musical and performance characteristics ( such as the instrumentation, costumes, make up, casts, stage settings and choreographies ) are quite similar to Peking Opera because freely borrowed from elements of other [Chinese traditional] theatres 6 throughout its development. Therefore, my own definition had challenged my insight and left me in doubt about the ideological distinction between Chinese music and Taiwanese music. I further asked myself: what are the true genres of indigenous Taiwanese folk music? I have come to realize that while Taiwanese local folk music in elementary music education has become a central focus in Taiwan, the perceptions of folk music traditional music, classical music and popular music are conceptualized variously i n the minds of individual s based largely on their ethnic, social and educational backgrounds This raises questions and complicates matters regarding popular opinion on Taiwanese folk music. How do people in Taiwan perceive folk music as different from popular music ? What musical genres are categorized as Taiwanese traditional music ? Does Taiwanese traditional music include Taiwanese folk music ? How does the perception of such issues relate to policy making regarding music education in the country? Through analyzing these pivotal questions, this dissertation penetrates issues of how the current music education system in Taiwan has been constructed, shaped and has linked with various politica l, social, and historical factors. I also discover that, by adopting practice theory and critical pedagogy as the theoretical framework of this dissertation, I am able to explicate the 6Huei Yuan Belinda Chang, A theatre of Taiwaneseness: Politics, Ideologies, and Gezaixi In The Drama Review Vol. 41, No. 2 (Summer 1997): 113.
16 reasons why attitudes have changed toward Taiwanese folk music and why it has been incorporated into the elementary music education since the year 1987. According to Pierre Bourdieu s theory of practice, human s behavior (practice) is shaped by internalized dispositions and habits (habitus) that are related to external condit ions, that is, the social system, but are in turn transformed through socialization, for example, through education.7 In addition, critical pedagogy, based in Marxist s theory and heavily influenced by Paulo Freire seminal work is a reflexive process of e ducational theory and practice that attempts to help students and educators achieve critical consciousness in order to question and challenge domination.8 Critical pedagogy provides key insights into questions of how education changes our ideologies and social behaviors, claiming that education is political in that it involves power and hegemony In relation to the Taiwanese context, practice theory and critical pedagogy also enable me to discover and explain the incorporation of so called homeland materia ls in music education in relation to political influences, historical transitions cultural developments, individual preferences, and other prominent social forces in Taiwan. My emphasis is on identifying and interpreting what social forces have caused th e inclusions of Taiwanese folk music in the curriculum of Taiwanese elementary schools. Special attention is paid t o how those social forces have interrelated to the 7Pierre Bourdieu is a distinguished French anthropologist His work, Outline of a Th eory of Practice (first published in English translation in 1977 by Cambridge University Press), develops a social theory of how human action should be understood. In the book, Bourdieu draws on his fieldwork in Kabylia (Algeria) to illustrate his theoreti cal propositions. With detailed study of matrimonial strategies and the role of rite and myth, Bourdieu analyzes the dialectical process of incorporating structures and objectifying habitus and concludes that social formations tend to reproduce themselves. Bourdieu s theory of practice explains the dichotomy of objective structures and subjective practices around the concept of habitus, which exerts a considerable influence in social sciences 8Critical pedagogy is an educational approach to help students to cultivate their critical consciousness, to recognize authorities and power relations, and to connect knowledge and ability to take constructive action against oppression while stressing the importance of liberating e ducation. Paulo Freire is the most ce lebrated critical educator; other distinguished critical pedagogues include Henry Giroux, Peter McLaren, Joe L. Kincheloe and so on. Postmodern, anti racist, feminist, postcolonial, and queer theories all further explain Freire s philosophy of critical ped agogy and shift its central focus on social class to enclose issues pertaining to religion, race, gender, sexuality, nationality, ethnicity, and age.
17 constructions of values and ideologi es of individuals within the elementary education syst em The purpose of this dissertation is to provide an interpretive account that will clarify and explain the interrelatio nships of music, politics the education system and social changes in Taiwan through analyzing the concept of homeland in elementary music education. I finally conclude that my own definition of Taiwanese folk music has been shaped through the long history of political manipulations in Taiwanese education system. In the period from the 1950s to the 1970s, Taiwanese folk music was marginalized in the formal school music curriculum because of the Kuomintang9 government s political intervention in education advocating the Great Chinese consciousness. Since martial law has been lifted in 1987, Taiwan encountered social, educational and pol itical transformations and reforms. After the Democratic Progressive Party took the political leadership in Taiwan in the year 2000, establishing Taiwanese consciousness through homeland education was one of its objectives in school education. Thus, beca use of Democratic Progressive Party s political intervention in education, Taiwanese folk music has gone from being marginalized to being privileged in the education system to further transforming Taiwanese students ideological orientation from Sinicizati on (Chinese centric) to Taiwanization ( Taiwan centric). 9The Kuomintang ( abbreviated KMT ) also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party o f the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known internationally as Taiwan since the 1970s. It is the founding and the ruling political party of the ROC. The headquarters of the KMT is located in Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China and it is currently the majo rity party in terms of seats in the Legislative Department and the oldest political party in the Republic of China. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and Chinese New Party the KMT forms what is k nown as the Taiwanese Pan Blue coalition which supports reconciliation and eventual reunification with the Chinese mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate their stance by advocating political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan In order to ease tensions with the People's Republic of China, the KMT endorses the S (Three No P olicy ) no unification, no independence and no use of force. (Information from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2008/0 1/21/2003398185)
18 Background and Justification Reviewing the history of ethnomusicology, it is obvious that many studies have strived to connect musical traditions with specific social, historical, political, cultural and other artistic phenomena and contexts After all, the field of ethnomusicology is substantially interdisciplinary and, as Bruno Nettl describes, ethnomusicology is often defined as the study [of] music in or as culture. 10 One of the major ethnomusicol ogical studies of the cultural aspects of Taiwanese music is Nancy Guy s book, Peking Opera and Politics in Taiwan, published in 2005. Guy s research places a specific musical genre, Peking Opera, in a broad political context and discusses the dilemma of Peking Operas position on the island (of Taiwan) 11 and how Peking Opera encapsulates the wider political problems of Taiwans position vis vis the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) .12 Many ethnomusicological studies a dopt social theories to interpret th e relationship of music to broaden social systems and cultural logics. For instance, Steven Feld s Sound and Sentiment (1990) is a n ethnographic study of sound as a cultural system among the Kaluli people of Papua New Guinea Feld utiliz es French anthropol ogist, Claude Levi Strauss s structuralism and Clifford Geertzs interpretive anthropology to analyze the form and performance of weeping, poetics, and song in relation to their origin myth. Christopher Waterman s article, J j History: Toward a Theory of Sociomusical Practice (1985) employs both structural functionalist approach and practice theory to explain the continuity and change of the musical style of j j a popular music in Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria. Thomas Turino s 10Martin Stokes: Ethnomusicology, IV: Contemporary Theoretical Issues, 1. Theory and Culture Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 7 January 2008), < http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/shared/views/article.html?section=music.52178.4.1&authstatuscode=2 00> 11Rachel Harris, review of Peking Opera and Politics in Taiwan by Nan c y Guy, The China Quarterly 185 (March 2006): 207. 12Ibid.
19 fieldwork in the Fiesta de la Cruz in 1986 in the rural area of southern Peru adopts practice theory s idea of tactics to elucidate how music performers determine a change of musical style within a social structure.13 Inspired by these e thnomusi cological works, I took an interpre tive approach as a model of my dissertation in order to establish an interdisciplinary work that ties music education and ethnomusicology together. What I attempt to accomplish is an ethnomusicological research that amalgamates Taiwanese music and practice theory. My strategy is, on the one hand, to apply contemporary ethnomusicological fieldwork methodologies while collecting data; on the other hand, to use practice theorythe theoretical background founded in anthropologyand critical pedagogythe theoret ical foundation rooted in the field of education in interpreting data. According to Christopher Waterman, ethnomusicology provides unique opportunities for explaining the continuity and change of a musical style. He asserts that in the study of ethnomusicology, adequate accounts of musical continuity and change must deal with (1) relationships among patterns of musical sound and performance behavior, cultural symbolism and value, social transaction and ideology,14 and (2) the material forces that encourag e or constrain particular forms of expression.15 Most significantly, practice theory, focusing on how the system is produced and reproduced and how change can occur and influence the individual actions, is comparable with certain ethnomusicological formula tions concerning continuity and change. 13Thomas Turino, Structure, Context, and Strategy in Musical Ethnography In Ethnomusicology Vol. 34, No. 3 (Autumn 1990), 399 412. 14Christopher Waterman, Juju History: Toward a Theory of Sociomusical Practice, in Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History ed. Stephen Blum, Philip Bohlman, and Daniel Neuman (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 50. 15Ibid.
20 Embedded in a critique of the educational setting, the idea of critical pedagogy was developed by Paulo Freire in Brazil in the 1960s at first to teach illiterate adults to read Portuguese. Critical pedagogy is not a traditional music teaching method, but a combined theory that comprises philosophy and pedagogy, theory and practice.16 It is a way to negotiat e and transform the classroom instruction, know ledge, institutional structure, material culture and social relati ons of the broader community, society and nation state. In the case of educational policy, music curriculum is conceived as an outcome of social phenomena enacted by dominant social groups who hold political power through political control of the state. Th e dominant or privileged groups administer their power by establishing a certain social value and ideology on citizens through manipulating education and mass media consumed by the broad population including marginalized groups. Hence, dominant ideologie s influence what is considered vulgar, peasant, earthy, or rustic, and what sort of music is regarded as elegant, noble, refined, or cultured. Through hegemony, such labels and values are ingrained in every individual s head through the pol itical control of education and mass media. In other words, dominant social classes who hold political power determine what kind of music is considered folk, popular, art, and traditional music through hegemonic control of education and mass media. Critical pedagogues perspective helps understand the ideological nature of unity tenets such as folk music to describe certain musical phenomena. In many situations, music education becomes a political tool to advocate such dominant ideology. Therefore, I find it beneficial and compatible to apply both practice theory and critical pedagogy in explaining the change of emphasis in the music curriculum of Taiwanese elementary school 16Frank Abrahams, The Application of Critical Pedagogy to Music Teaching and Learning: A literature Review, UPDATE: App lication of Research to Music Teaching and Learning 29, no. 5 (Spring/Summer 2005): 12.
21 throughout decades from Sino centric Chinese traditional music to Taiwan centric local folk culture. In short, this dissertation offer s interpretive accounts of power relations involving homeland music to expound the complicated phenomena of the contemporary elementary music education in Taiwan. It focuses on identifying and i nterpreting the social forces that have caused the curricular focus to shift from Sinocentrism to Taiwan centrism in recent decades. It will provide explanations on how these social forces have shaped and influenced local values, ideologies, and concepts about homeland music. Additionally, I will offer some relevant and feasible suggestions on curricular design and educational policymaking that might be beneficial to elementary music education in Tai wan The ultimate goal of my dissertation is to construct an interdisciplinary model that integrates Taiwan studies, anthropology, musi c education and ethnomusicology. I hope that this dissertation will provide a greater understanding of the role of music education in multicultural nations like the Un ited States. Methods and Interpretations To assess the notion of homeland in the elementary music education of Taiwan my archival research included interpretations of the following types of sources : G overnment archives, m usic textbooks and m usic curricular standards. In addition, observations and per sonal interviews were conducted by means of ethnographic fieldwork. First, I selected and interview ed music specialists about their personal experiences on how certain musical genres that they have taught have gone throug h continuity, evolution, and change in Taiwanese history. The se historically informed accounts by cultural experts were utilized to describe the ways social circumstances interact with Taiwanese music al genres and impact continuity and change on their musi cal styles. The analyses and interpretations reveal how social forces including political transformation, historical transition and cultural development influence certain musical choices.
22 Second, I examined elementary music textbooks, curricular standar ds (or guidelines), and other government documents, such as the Education Yearbooks and the Arts Education Policy White Paper s of the past two decades. These documents provide a blueprint of the relevant outcomes of educational decisionand policy making. Major textbooks that are reviewed include those published by KangHsuan ( ) Ren Lin ( ) Na ni ( ) and Han Lin ( ) Textbook review was focus ed on disc overing what genres of Chinese and Taiwanese traditional music, classical music, and folk music were included in and excluded from the curricul a in contemporary Taiwanese education history. Third, I observe d the music classroom activities in elementary schools in Taiwan in order to gather ethnographic data on what children we re taught in the elementary school music courses in the practical classroom setting I observe d the music classroom activities at Taichung ChenPing Elementary Schoo l a public school located in the suburban area in Central Taiwan. My observations of music classroom activities were guided by the following set of questions: H ow ha ve educational policies r egarding homeland music been carried out in the music classes? Wh ich teaching strategies and methodologies are used by music te achers to teach homeland music in cluding music appreciation, music history, music theory, a nd music performance ( singing and instrumental performan ce skills, theater, and dance)? What special teaching strategies do individual teachers use in the teaching of homeland music? How do music teachers assess childrens learning of homeland music? D o teachers and students enjoy teaching a nd learning homeland music in the music classrooms? What are the objectives of the teaching activities of homeland music? Are they achieved efficiently ? I also observ e d the nation wide music competitions that we re held annually in Taiwan ese formal school education ( including the Nationwide Homeland Song Competitions for Teachers and
23 Students and the chorus competition s of the Nationwide Music Competitions for Students ) and the intramural music performances and contests that were held at ChenPing Elementary School during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 school years. The field investigations of these nationwi de and intramural music events were conducted in order to ob tain a broader picture of homeland music policies and practices in Taiwanese elementary music education system in the national level for data interpretation purposes In addition to classroom and music performance observations, a twenty to thirty minute personal interview was administered to assess the informants perceptions of homeland and homela nd music For ethical reasons, all interviews are kept confidential and the names of my informants are withheld from publishing in this dissertation by mutual agreement. Each interviewee is assigned a label when I describe the data. A total set of thirty people (N=30) was selected and interviewed. I seek to discover if factors such as levels of education, ethnicity, gender, occupation or age of the individuals would affect their ideological orientation. Therefore, I classified my participants into three di stinct groups within the elementary school system among Taiwanese citizens. The stratifications and numbers of the participants are described as follows: E ducational policy makers (N1) : The policy makers are the educational policy legislators who take char ge of the government educational policies and the curricular standards or guidelines for Taiwanese elementary music education There were 4 educational policy makers (N1=4) including 1 government official 2 music scholar s, and 1 music educator selected to be interviewed in this research (see Figure 1 1) They were chosen from the committee members of the enactment and design of the Music Curricular Standards (or Guidelines) and the music textbooks. Only four interviewees were chosen because the legislators who participated in enacting the Arts and Humanities Learning Area Curricular Guideline of the Grade 19
24 Curriculum (2003) consisted of merely two music specialists for t he Grade 19 Curriculum emphasized curricular integration and resulted in combining music visual arts, and performing arts into one discipline titled the Arts and Humanities Curriculum As a result, t he visual arts specialists occupied most seats of the legislative committee of the Arts and Humanities Learning Area of the Grade 1 9 Curri cular Guideline. E ducational policy practitioners (or executor s ; N2) : The policy practitioners involve the elementary scho ol s administrators and music teachers. A total number of 10 educational policy practitioners were included in this study (N2=10). The participants comprised 5 school administrators and 5 music teachers. The school administrators refer to the following staff members the school principals and the directors of teaching, student, financial and counseling affairs. Among the educational poli cy practitioners, 4 school administrators and 3 music teachers came from Chen Ping Elementary School, where their music classroom activities were also observed (see Figure 1 1) E ducational policy recipients (N3) : The educational recipients consist of chil dren and childrens parents or guardians (see Figure 1 1) Sixteen educational recipients participated in this dissertation research (N3=16) comprising 8 elementary school children and 8 children s parents (or guardians). Among the 16 participants, 6 child ren and their parents (a total of 12) were chosen from Chen Ping Elementary School. I chose to interview children of the elementary grades because this age group has been considered by Taiwanese government as the most important e generation manpower 17 for Taiwan s future. 17The term e generation manpower appeared in the title of the article Challenging 2008: The Strategies and Objectives of e Generation Manpower Cultivation written by the Minister of Education Jong Tsun Huang. The article was published in June 2003 in the (Research and Examination Bi week Journal), Volume 27, No. 3, page 11th to page 20th. E generation is a term referring to the 21st century young generations. They are called the e generation for they rely on electronic devices such as cell phones, i Pods, i phones and computer technologies frequently for communication purposes. The term also signifies the potentials possessed in all young people who live in this high tech 21st century.
25 The background information of each participant was collected includ ing age, gender, occupation, ethnicit y, musical instruments he or she can play, languages he or she can speak and level of education for the educational policy makers, practitioners, and children s parents (or guardians) In addition, the interview questions for the participants were aimed at identifying and understanding the participants perspectives of homeland and homeland music Participants were asked to describ e their own experiences with homeland music including patterns of listening, performing, teaching or learning. They were also asked to provide their own defini tions of Taiwanese folk music, homeland music, traditional music, national music, and popular mus ic. Other questions included: W hat musical genres should be categorized as Taiwanese folk music ? How is fo lk music different from popular music ? Do you think Chinese music, such as Peking opera, is Tai wanese folk music? Do you thi nk it is your homeland m usic? Why? In your perception s of homeland music what do you think the homeland refers to? Why? Do you think homeland music is the same as Taiwan ese folk music? What have you learned in your music classes when you were in the elementary schools? Which T aiwanese folk songs do you think best fit under the category of homeland music? For each informant, more indepth questions about his or her own personal involvement with the homeland music curriculum in music education were also asked. Furthermore the li terature review of this dissertation includes an assessment of critical issues about homeland studies and homeland music as represented in Taiwanese contemporary newspapers. Newspapers that were selected for reviews comprise of the following five major publishers : Zhong Guo Shi Bao ( China Times ) Lian He Bao ( United Daily News ) Zhong Yang Ri Bao ( Central Daily New s), Zi You Shi Bao (The Liberty Times), and Guo Yu Ri Bao (Mandarin Daily News). Issues that were
26 reviewed concentrated on those surrounding the educational policies and reforms in the history of contemporary Taiwanese music education. The purpose of exa mining these educational issues on homeland studies and homeland music in the newspapers was to explore the interrelationships between music and the education system, politics, and social changes in contemporary history of Taiwan. I accumulated data obtained through field observations and personal interviews I apply both practice theory and critical pedagogy in explaining data. The purpose of applying practice theory and critical pedagogy as the theoretical framework of this dissertation is to clarify and interpret some complicated social phenomena, if there is any, regard ing how they intersect with music education system. Data collected through interv iews with the educational policy makers from observations of nationwide music competitions, and from reviews of textbooks, curricular guidelines, and government documents represented the concepts of homeland in the ideological systems of the educational policy legislators. Data gathered from classroom observations and personal interviews with the school administrators and music teachers manifested the perceptions of homeland among the educational policy practitioners. Further, children s and their pare nts or guardians answers to the interview questions and data gathered through the classroom observations and field investigations conveyed the understandings of homeland among the educational policy recipients. My interpretations of data not only empha sized explanations of what social forces led to the inc orporation of Taiwan ese homeland music in the elementary school curricula but also drew attention to interpret what the concepts of homeland denoted and how they are embedded in the education system. The analyses of the answers given by the participants were used to determine the following two traits: (1) why certain traditional music al genres we re included or
27 not included in present elementary music curricula ; (2) what similarities and disparities of the homeland music were acquired among three different levels of educational members educational policy makers, practitioners, and recipients in the elementary education. Also, I made crosscomparisons on assessing the concepts of homeland arts between data collected through personal interviews, and data accessed from textbooks, government documents, and newspaper reviews. By crosscomparing data, I attempted to disclose the notion of homeland in the music education of the elementary school system in contemporary Taiwan. In addition, certain songs in the elementary textbooks that were evaluated as the more representative homeland ( or ) songs by the informants were more formally analyzed. The analyses of these songs include their historical backgrounds, lyrical contents, and musical elements. In particular, I addressed how social forces have shaped ones own value and ideological system and interplayed with the educational policymaking including the textbook and curricular designs. Definition s of Terms Some of the key terms used in the text of this dissertation are defined in this section Some of th e se terms are p honetic translations taken directly from their original Chinese languages or local dialects. Other terms have been widely used by English speaking scholars, educators, and by the mass media in Taiwan. Han Chinese : Han Chinese is an ethnic group indigenous to China Han Chinese is one of the fifty six official ethnic groups in China.18 Han Chinese account s for 91.59% of the overall Chinese population according to the Fifth National Population Census of 2000 in the People s R e public of China .19 It is the majority of the total ethnic groups in the 18Information accessed from OMF Internati onal: http://www.omf.org/omf/us/peoples_and_places/people_groups/han_chinese (accessed on March 29, 2011). 19Information accessed from TravelChinaGuide.com, a China Tour Se rvice agent: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/nationality/ (accessed on March 29, 2011).
28 People s Republic of China and Taiwan. The Han Chinese is a subset of the Chinese nation and an alternative name adopted by many Chinese people to refer to themselves Descentants of the Dragon, or Descents of the Yan Di (Yan Emperor) and Huang Di (Yellow Emperor). However, t here is considerable genetic, linguistic, and sociocultural diversity among the Han Chinese due to thousands of years of immigration and assimilation among various regi onal ethnicities and tribes in China. In Taiwan, a ccording the Government Information Office of the Republic of China ( Taiwan ), the majority of the island s populationover 95 percent is of Han Chinese ancestry; the remainder composed of aboriginal ( Austronesian) peoples of the Malay Polynesian descent and other recent immigrants .20 The Han Chinese began migrating from China s southeastern provinces to Taiwan in the 17th century to seek refuge from upheavals during the political transition between the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The majority of these were Holo people ( mostly from areas in southern Fujian Province Z hangzhou and Quanzhou) and Hakka people from eastern Guangdong Province (mainly Huizhou, Chaozhou and Meizhou). The Holo i mmigrants from Quanzhou settled in coastal regions of T aiwan and those from Zhangzhou residended on inland plains, while Hakka immigrants inhabited the hillside areas. Clashes between these groups over resources led to the relocation of some communities, and, as time passed, varying degrees of intermarriage an d assimilation took place. Holo : Holo is a term pertaining to one of the ethnic subgroups of the Han Chinese the Holo people. T he term also refers to the local dialect that the Holo people speak the Holo language According to the demographic information p rovided by the Government Information Office t he Holo people are the largest Han Chinese immigrants in Taiwan, accounting for approximately 70 percent of the entire Taiwanese population. During the Q ing dynasty, a large number of single Holo men from main land China married women of indigenous aboriginal (Austronesian) groups. Hence, many Holo in Taiwan who consider themselves Han have indigenous ancestry as well. With Austronesian as well as Japanese colonial influences ( 1895 1945), the Holo in Taiwan ha ve developed a hybrid culture quite different from that of their cousins in mainland China.21 Hakka : Hakka, similar to the term Holo, is also a term that has du al meanings: (1) the Hakka people one of the ethnic subgroups of the Han Chinese; (2) the Hakka l anguage the dialect that spoken by the Hakka people. The Hakka, who make up about one fifth of the Han Chinese population in Taiwan, have a long history of periodic migration. T he name Hakka literally means guest people ( ). Mainlanders : In Taiwan, m ainlanders are also called the Nationalists. They are the immigrants whose ancestors fled to Taiwan with Chiang Kai shek after 1949 due to the civil war on the mainland of China between the Chinese Communist Party ( led by Mao Ze dong) and the Kuomintang (also called Chinese Nationalist Party, led by Chiang Kai 20The statistics and information in this section are derived from the website of Government Inform ation Office, Republic of China (Taiwan): http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan website/5 gp/yearbook/02People&Language.pdf (accessed on March 29, 2011). 21Ibid.
29 shek) Traditionally, the Mainlanders are called W in Chinese Mandarin, namely people from outside of the Taiwan province. According to the Republ ic of China (Taiwan) s Government Information Office, t he Kuomintang governments relocation to Taiwan in 1949 occasioned an influx of 1.3 million people from the Chinese mainland to the island ; t he majority were soldiers, civil servants or teachers.22 Unli ke earlier immigrants, these people came from all over the mainland and included not only Han Chinese but also ethnic groups from Mongolia, Tibet and southwestern China. Sinicization : The word is also spe lled Sinicisation or Sinification. Sinicization refers to the assimilations of language and culture of China. It refers to the process of becoming Chinese. The term has been used in social science primarily to describe the assimilation of nonHan Chinese peoples (such as the Manchus, Mongolians, Tibet ans and other Chinese minorities). The term also pertains to the phenomenon whereby neighboring cultures to China have been influenced by Chinese culture and language without being assimilated. This is reflected in the histories of Korea, Japan, and Vietna m. Desinicization : Desinicization is a word including the prefix De and the word sinicization It is the opposite process of sinicization. It is a term that describes the act s of eliminating Chinese influence s, namely to become not Chinese. Desini cization is a term which appeared in the political vocabulary of Taiwan in 2001. It is used by political parties or social groups which oppose Taiwan independence such as the Kuomintang. The term exists to emphasize that anti independence groups are not opposed to the development of a Taiwanese identity or symbols such as language, but are opposed to viewing Taiwan s history, culture and language as an independent identity and symbols that are separate from a broader Chinese identity. Taiwanization : The te rm, also known as the Taiwanese localization (or indigenization ) movement ( ) is a political term used in Taiwan to emphasize the importance of a separate Taiwanese identity rather than to regard Taiwan as solely an appendage of China This involves the teaching of the history, geography and culture fro m a Taiwan centric perspective, as well as promoting languages locally established in Taiwan, including Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aboriginal languages. Delimitation Elementary music education in Taiwan has gone through a signific ant curricular reform sinc e 2003 : First, elementary music curriculum in Taiwan has been integrated with junior high school s (Grade 7 9) into a Grade 1 9 Curriculum. Second, music has been combined with visual 22The statistics a nd information in this section are derived from the website of Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan): http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan website/5 gp/yearbo ok/02People&Language.pdf (accessed on March 29, 2011).
30 arts and performing arts into a broad learning area 23 (discipline) arts and humanities. However, this dissertation centers its discussion of the homeland notion primarily on music education in the elementary school (Grade 1 6) level, for children of this stage identify a critical time of socialization and enculturation in t he formation of their ideologies. Music education of high school (junior and senior high schools) and collegiate levels, visual arts, performing arts, and other subjects of arts and humanities are not included in the scope of this dissertation. In addition, the time frame of this dissertation is the contemporary era, particularly the recent two decades (1987 2007). Nonetheless, in order to achieve more thorough data interpretations, historical archives that are earlier than the recent twenty years are desc ribed for the purpose of relative data comparisons. Finally, this dissertation utiliz es ethnographic method to examine and draw on detailed examples mainly from one school, that is, Chen Ping Elementary School in central Taiwan. The in depth field investigation involved only this school district and its community. However, in order to illustrate the overall picture of the elementary education system in Taiwan, data collected from other school districts and communities through personal interviews are briefly described. Summary This dissertation delves into the notion of homeland a tenet embedded in Taiwanese contemporary elementary music education system as well as Taiwanese society at large. It not only investigates why the curricular focus had been changed from Sinocentric Chinese traditional music to Taiwan centric folk cultures in elementary music education, but also 23Current Grade 1 9 Curriculum combines relevant individual subjects and forms seven primary disciplines called seven major learning areas ( xue xi ling yu ) including: (1) language arts, (2) health and physical education, (3) social studies, (4) arts and humanities, (5) mathematics, (6) science and technology, and (7) integrative activities. For more information, visit http://teach.eje.edu.tw/ 9CC/about/about3.php and http://teach.eje.edu.tw/9CC/fields/2003/language source.php
31 penetrates issue s of how current music education phenomena in Taiwan has been constructed, shaped and intersected with various social fac tors and international trends With the goal of clarifying and interpreting the complicated interplay between ideological constructions of individuals and social and educational phenomena in a society, this dissertation draws on practice theory and critical pedagogy for key theoretical framework s in research design. D ata we re obtained through music classroom observations and personal interviews with educational policy makers, practitioners, and recipients. Data collected through interviewing with the educat ional policy makers observing nationwide music competitions, and reviewing of textbooks, curricular guidelines, and government documents revealed the concepts of homeland among educational policy makers. Data gathered via classroom observations and personal interviews with the school administrators and music teachers manifested the perceptions of homeland among educational practitioners. Furthermore, the concepts of homeland in the ideological systems of the educational policy recipients were related t o my observations of their classroom activities and their answers to the interview questions. The data interpretation s drew conclusions on the two following intertwined socio cultural phenomena related to the notion of homeland in contemporary elementary e ducation: First, the interrelated social forces the rapid political transformation, emergence of the indigenous movement, the increase of Taiwanese national identity, and the pursuit of indigenization and internationalizationhave facilitated the incorpora tion of homeland materials in the elementary school music curriculum in contemporary Taiwan. Second, because of political manipulations in education, before lifting of martial law in 1987, the notion of homeland referred to the Chinese mainland and Siniciz ation, whereas after the execution of the 1993 New
32 Curricular Standard, the concept of homeland embedded in school curricula and the Taiwanese citizens ideological system desi gnated Taiwan and Taiwanization.
33 Categor ies Number of People Labels Distributio n s Educational Policy Makers/Legislators 4 L1 ~ L4 1 Government Official 2 Music Scholars 1 Music Educator Educational Policy Practitioners/ Executors 10 E1 ~ E10 5 administrators 5 music teachers Educational Policy Recipients 16 R1 ~ R16 8 school children 3 2 graders 2 4 graders 1 5 grader 2 6 graders 8 childrens guardians Figure 11. The informants/participants of this dissertation
34 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter includes an examination of scholarly writing s which aid in evaluating the definitions of terms such as folk music, popular music, and homeland music. I seek to establish the parameters of Taiwanese notions of folk music within the official realm of contemporary elementary school music educat ion of Taiwan and then discuss how this relates to the concept of homeland (xiangtu ) or native land (bentu ). The review explores relevant issues, such as nationalism, localization, and internationalization, which are involved in the conceptualization o f the notion of homeland among Taiwanese people s ideologies. In addition to interrogating these terms, I will suggest ways they correlate to practice theory and critical pedagogy. An overview of practice theory and critical pedagogy is provided. Moreover, ways in which practice theory and critical pedagogy can be usefully applied in contemporary Taiwanese art education are discussed. The literature review in this chapter provides a theoretical framework that will be utilized later in interpreting data. In addition, a brief historical overview of Taiwan will be offered before delving into these topics. Indigenous Taiwanese Folk Music in the Elementary School Music Curriculum : Historical, S ocial, and Political T ransitions Taiwan, formerly known in the West as Formosa,1 is located off the coast of Eastern Asia in the Pacific Ocean. Taiwan is separated from m ainland China by the 100mile wide Taiwan Strait.2 The total area of Taiwan is nearly 36,000 square kilometer s about 13,900 square miles, which is slightly bigger than the combined area of the states of Maryland and Delaware and approximately the size of the Netherlands. The island of present day Taiwan has been inhabited 1 I will refer to the island as Taiwan in this dissertation even when discussing eras when the island was known under different names such as Formosa. 2The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth ed., s.v. Taiwan [database on line ] ; available from http://www.bartleby.com/65/ta/Taiwan.html ; Internet; accessed 9 February 2008.
35 for approximately 50,000 years. Its current population is about 23 million with the majority of Taiwanese people residing in the western part of the island, one of the most densely populated areas in the world. Taiwan s climate is as marine tropical with a rainy season that lasts from June to August. Typhoons and earthquakes are the island s two major n at ural hazards Figure 2 1 shows a map of Taiwan, its surrounding area, and its relation to the Chinese mainland. Taiwan was originally settled by the aboriginal people of Malay Polynesian descent and then later colonized by the Dutch and Spani sh in the early seventeenth century. When the Dutch first arrived, they found only the aborigine population on the island. By the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, migration from Fujian [ (Holo people ) ] and Guangdong [ (Hakka people )] in the southern provinces of China steadily increased until these Han Chinese (Holo and Hakka) immigrants supplanted aborigines as the dominant population group. The Japanese later ruled Taiwan for fifty years after it was ceded by China as a result of the 1895 treaty ending the SinoJapanese War. Table 2 1 displays the political history of Taiwan. Western missionaries first introduced formal music education on the island during the period of Dutch and Spanish colonial rule from 1624 to 1661.3 The music program included the singing of hymns and private lessons of keyboard instruments such as the organ, harmonium, and piano.4 As was common throughout European colonial territories, music education was established for the purpose of promoting Christianity. Secular academic music education was not developed on the island until Japan ruled over the area in 1895. Owing to Japan s adoption of the completely Westernized educational system and policy after its Meiji Restoration in the late 3This time frame is named Dutch and Spanish Era ( ) by ChangHui Hsu in his book, Taiwan yin yue shi chu gao (First Manuscript of Music History of Taiwan published in 1994) 104. 4Shi Ze Yao, Toward the New Era of Multiple Social Change: An Investigation of Musical Environment and Social Values, in X (A New Approach to Contemporary Music Education) (Taipei, Taiwan: Shi da shu yuan, 2003), 176.
36 nineteenth century, a hybrid style of the music education system was developed in Taiwan s elementary and high schools that contained European classical music and Japanese traditional music.5 Music education in the universiti es established by the Department of Educational Affairs of the Japanese Government General of Formosa in Taiwan was also organized as a combination of Western and Japanese musical instruction. Under Japanese rule, Taiwan s music education system was classi fied into general music education and normal school music education.6 General music education involved both primary education and higher education. The main purpose for primary education was to teach singing skills, whereas the major instruction in higher education included music theory in addition to singing.7 In contrast, the goal for normal school music education was to prepare the teachers for instructing music in primary education.8 During the fifty year Japanese reign, a firm and comprehensive foundat ion of arts education in Taiwan was established. At the end of World War II (1945), the island reverted to Chinese rule; however, smoldering political differences erupted into a civil war on the mainland of China between the Kuomintang (also called Chinese Nationalist Party) led by Chiang Kai shek and the Chinese Communist Party led by Mao Ze dong. In 1949, the Kuomintang force was defeated and Chiang 5Shen Keng Yang, Dilemmas of Education Reform in Taiwan: Internationalization or Localization? (p aper presented at the annual meeting of the comparative and International Education Society, Washington D.C., Maryland, 1317 March 2001), 4. 6Chang Hui Hsu, Taiwan yin yue shi chu gao (First Manuscript of Music History of Taiwan) ( Tai pei C i ty : Q uan yin yu e pu chu ban she, 199 4) 258. 7Shi Ze Yao, 1993 (Reflections and Retrospection s of the 1993 Middle School Music Education), in X (A New Approach to Contemporary Music Education) (Taipei, Taiwan: Shi da shu yuan, 20 03), 238. 8Yao, Musical Environment and Social Values, 176
37 Kai shek fled to Taiwan with some two million Nationalists.9 Chiang founded the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan and claimed that Taiwan was only a province of the ROC, and the ROC government under the leadership of the Kuomintang was to represent the orthodox regime of all China (including the Mainland) in the international community.10 The ROC s rejection o f communism involved the definition of Chinese culture, customs and ethics as the fundamental values of the nation.11 In this way, the Nationalists retained strong emotional ties 12 to m ainland China.13 The island of Taiwan was conceptualized as only a temp orary refuge 14 and the Nationalists kept a belief that someday in the near future the ROC would launch an offensive to recover the mainland.15 In order to keep this belief alive, the Nationalists discouraged any Taiwanese cultural practices that they deem ed distinct from China.16 Chiang and his authorities devalued Taiwanese local cultural practices, such as music, theatre and arts, and restricted the use of native languages in order to enforce the adoption of 9Nationalists are also called Mainlanders. They are one of the four social groupings Holo, Hakka, Aborigines, and Mainlanders in Taiwan. They were refugees including the Nationalist government officials and military personnel who fled to Taiwan with Kuomintang s leader, Chiang Kai shek in 1949. Conventionally, Taiwanese call ed the people whose ancestors immigrated from Fujian province ( Min ) of m ainland China M namely people from Southern Min or B namely people of this (Taiwan) province The Taiwanese people whose ancestors immigrated from Guangdong province ( Y u e ) of m ainland China would be called K meaning the Hakka people, and those whose ancestors immigrated to Taiwan after 1949 with the Kuomintang government would be called W namely people from outside of the Taiwan province. 10Wai Chung Ho and Wing Wah Law, Music Education in Taiwan: the Dynamics and Dilemmas of Globalization, Localization and Sinophilia, The Curriculum Journal 13, no. 3 (2002): 340. 11Ibid. 12Nancy Guy, Republic of China National Anthem on Taiwan: One Anthem, One Performance, Multiple Realities, Ethnomusicology 46, no. 1 (Winte r 2002): 101. 13Ibid. 14Ibid. 15Ibid., 103. 16Ibid., 102.
38 Mandarin Chinese.17 For example, during the 1950s and 1960s, students who spoke Taiwanese local dialects at school received physical punishment. Also during this period, strict quotas were set on the percentage of Taiwanese native languages allowed in the mass media and Taiwanese pop songs were freque ntly censored.18 School curricular policies, such as education for nationalism and Chinese culture education, were enacted in order to cultivate Chinese consciousness among Taiwanese students. 19 The use of Taiwanese folk music in schools was prohibited, and formal music education was restricted to Chinese traditional music and Western art music. Furthermore, according to American ethnomusicologist Nancy Guy, mainlandderived art forms, 20 such as Peking Opera and the Chinese Instrumental Ensemble, were given a high degree of support and officially referred to as National Opera ( guoju) and National Music ( guoyue ) respectively, while the local Taiwanese Holo Opera ( gezaixi ) was disparaged.21 These circumstances demonstrated the political hegemonic inter ventions in Taiwanese socio cultural and educational spheres in the premartial law era. Since martial law was lifted in 1987, Taiwan has made an effort to achieve localization.22 In 1988, after the ROC President Chiang Chingkuo (Chiang Kai shek s son) die d, Vice President Lee Teng hui, a member of the Kuomintang, was sworn in and became the first nativeborn Taiwanese president. This denoted a political power transformation from the Mainlanders to local Taiwanese. From this time, government interest in edu cation has witnessed a shift in 17Ho and Law, Music Education in Taiwan, 340341. 18Ibid. 19Ibid., 340. 20Guy, National Anthem, 102. 21Ibid 22Ho and Law, Music Education in Taiwan, 341.
39 support from Chinese to Taiwanese history and culture. This is part of the Taiwanese Localization Movement ( ), a political and cultural movement that focuses on the local history and culture of Taiwan in order to advocate Taiwan s own national identity.23 Localization was strongly supported during Lee s presidency. This national identity was articulated in the use of Holo language in the broadcast media and the allocation of aboriginal and Hakka programs in the television channels. In terms of education, the contents of textbooks have been revised to include Taiwanese local cultures. A political compromise was reached to teach both the histor y of Taiwan and the history of m ainland China. This avoided the politically sensitive issue of whether or not Taiwan was part of China. This Localization Movement has exerted a great influence on music education in Taiwan resulting in a gradual incorporation of indigenous Taiwanese folk music into the elementary and high school music textbooks. In the early 1990s, Taiwan began to officially refer to itself as the ROC on Taiwan or simply Taiwan, on many public occasions and in government documents.24 Since the year 2000, political power has transferred from the Kuomintang to the Democratic Progressive Party. The Democratic Progressive Party s administration, taking into account the ethnic diversity in Taiwan, 25 stressed the importance of homeland studies ( xiangtu jiaoyu ) and homeland languages ( xiangtu yuyan )26 to accomplish multicultural education for 23Localization is a political movement supportin g the view of Taiwan as a centered place rather than as solely an appendage of China, and it involves the teaching of Taiwanese history, geography, and culture from a local perspective, as well as promoting languages native to Taiwan, including Holo, Hakka and aboriginal languages. 24Ho and Law, Music Education in Taiwan, 341. 25Yiling Huang, Educational Reform in Taiwan: Change and Continuity since the Change in Ruling Party ( London: University of London, April 2004) 9. Special Collections, accessed 1 December 2004; available from http://www.soas.ac.uk/taiwanstudiesfiles/conf042004/paper/panel4yilingpaper.pdf. 26Wing Wah Law, Education Reform in Taiwan: A Sea rch for a National Identity through Democratization and Taiwanization Compare 32, n o. 1 (2002): 61
40 different ethnic groups of Taiwan.27 Localization (or Taiwanization ), involved a shift from a Sino centric cu rricula that emphasized knowledge about China, to curricula that are more Taiwan centric involving homeland studies and homeland languages.28 Ho Wai Chung and Law Wing Wah s article, Music Education in Taiwan, depicts this cultural shift in recent years as follows: The aboriginal songs and dances, and Chang Hui mei s (a popular Taiwanese aboriginal singer, also known as A Mei) singing of the national anthem that were heard at President Chen Shui bian s inauguration in May 2000 were highly symbolic of this general cultural shift towards a local, endogenous Taiwanese consciousness. On 13 January 2002 President Chen Shui bian announced that the word Taiwan was now to be used on passports, as one further step towards declaring the island an autonomous nation state.29 In the search for a national identity, government authorities frequently use music to engender patriotic feelings and a sense of national belonging. The means by which a nation defines itself in music often takes into account the mass media a powe rful agent.30 For instance, Baily s article, The Role of Music in the Creation of an Afghan National Identity provides an example of how music wa s used by the Afghan state to construct a national identity. Baily notes that the radio was a powerful tool of the state in Afganistan for propagating national identity to its diverse ethnic groups.31 Similarly, the radio in Taiwan during the 1940s and 1950s became a potent apparatus utilized by Kuomintang government to advocate Chinese consciousness and patriotism by broadcasting plenty of patriotic songs and military marches. After martial law was 27Huang, Change and Continuity, 10. 28Law, Democratization and Taiwanisation, 73. 29Ho and Law, Music Education in Taiwan, 341. 30Martin Stokes, Intr oduction: Ethnicity, Identity and Music, in Ethnicity, Identity and Music: The Musical Construction of Place ed. Martin Stokes (Providence, RI: Berg Publisher Limited, 1994) 20. 31John Baily, The Role of Music in the Creation of an Afghan National Ident ity, in Ethnicity, Identity and Music: The Musical Construction of Place ed. Martin Stokes (Providence, RI: Berg Publisher Limited, 1994), 11.
41 ceased, as part of the government s effort of utilizing music to propagate national identity, the category of indigenous folk music has been valued and progressively inc orporated in school music curricula at the elementary, juniorand senior high school leve ls. Ho and Law succinctly point out the circumstances of current music education in Taiwan: For hundreds of years the ROC has maintained close relations with the nati on states on its periphery and its curriculum content has accordingly included traditional Chinese, traditional Western and local cultures On the one hand, music education in the ROC integrates Chinese and Western cultures and values with the modern worl d, and on the other hand, it adopts its native folk music for the curriculum.32 This suggests that not only did the government authorities seek to proclaim Taiwan s own national identity in the international arena, but also that the rise of cultural nationa lism among Taiwanese people compelled the government authorities to recognize that the indigenous folk music of Taiwan is an important heritage in the social and cultural development of the nation. Accordingly, a variety of Taiwanese folk music styles have gradually been incorporated in the music curriculum. Folk Music, Popular Music, and Homeland Music: Various Definitions and Their Social Context Folk Music Scholars and musical performers have defined folk music in many ways. However, it has most often be en placed into the European and American models, which clearly distinguish folk or traditional music from art music (that is, European classical and sacred music) and popular music. The term folk is historically related to the German word Volk, m eaning people or nation. The term wa s also commonly associated with peasants or industrial workingclass people in the nineteenth century. The Sallie Bingham Center for Womens 32Ho and Law, Music Education in Taiwan, 341342.
42 History and Culture of Duke University Libraries gives a synthetic accoun t of definitions of the term folk music and suggests that folk music is music of culturally homogeneous people without formal training, generally according to regional customs, and continued by oral traditions.33 As folk music has been associated with the lower class and illiterate people of stratified societies, it was often marginalized within the development of musicological historiography of Western music history. The Britannica Concise Encyclopedia indicates such circumstance as follows: Knowledge of the history and development of folk music is largely conjectural. Musical notation of folk songs and descriptions of folk music culture are occasionally encountered in historical records, but tend to reflect primarily the literate classes' indifference or even hostility. As Christianity expanded in medieval Europe, attempts were made to suppress folk music because of its association with heathen rites and customs, and uncultivated singing styles were denigrated.34 The New Harvard Dictionary of Music notes that, humanistic attitudes tended to accept folk music as rustic and antique. 35 Also, t he New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians points out that folk music was perceived as only produced by artisans and by labouring rural people 36 for eighteenth century English folksong collector Cecill Sharp.37 Cecill Sharp addresses the three vital components 38 that define folk music including continuity, variation, and 33The Sall ie Bingham Center for Womens History and Culture Duke University Libraries 2006 ed., s.v. Folk [database on line]; available from http://library.duke.edu/specialcollections/bingham/guides/music/mufolk.html; Inter net; accessed 1 January 2008. 34Britannica Concise Encyclopedia 2003 ed., s.v. Folk Music [database on line]; available from http://sc.hrd.gov.tw/ebintra/Content.asp?Query=4&ContentID=8868; Internet; accessed 11 January 2008. 35The New Harvard Dictionary of Music 19 86, s.v. folk music ," by Jon H. Appleton. 36Carole Pegg: Folk Music: Definitions and Scope Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 6 January 2008), 37Ibid. 38Ibid.
43 selection .39 The International Folk Music Council (IFMC), founded in 1947, adopted Sharp s th ree criteria and the notions of tradition and oral transmission40 to defin e folk music at its conference in So Pa ulo (1955) .41 The Council characterized f olk music as the product of a musical tradition that has been evolved through t he process of or al transmission .42 This concept drew a distinction between orally transmitted folk music and written transmitted popular and art music.43 Folk music has also been considered synonymous with the term traditional music. Evidence of this is shown by the change of name of the I nternational F olk M usic C ouncil (IFMC) to the International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM) in 1981.44 Although both terms folk music and traditional music have been used interchangeably, some communities adopt the term traditio nal music as a way to distinguish their music from the present folk music revivals derived from popular culture. They consider traditional music as music that consists of authentic or old materials, which are not heavily influenced by urban popular music and the mass media.45 For instance, the 1960s singer songwriters such as Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Joan Baez, and Bob Dylan in North America relied on traditional music to enrich their compositions.46 Folk music has been categorized as one of the subject areas in the study of world music. Toner and Wild note that until the 1960s the study of world music embraced those forms outside 39Pegg: Folk Music 40Ibid. 41Ibid. 42Ibid. 43Ibid. 44Ibid. 45Britannica Concise Encyclopedia Folk Music. 46Ibid.
44 of Western classical music including folk music designating them the internal primitives of Euro America. 47 The idea of folk m usic has led to constant debates and research on nationalism by scholars since the late nineteenth century.48 In the twentieth century, folk music became a research subject in ethnomusicology, folklore, sociology, and popular music studies. According to Peg g, research on folk music utilized structural functionalist models in the first half of the twentieth century.49 Folk music was considered an indispensable part of annual festivals, life cycle rituals or work s It is participatory a nd a creation of communal activity The Society for Ethnomusicology, founded in Philadelphia in 1955, included sociocultural anthropologists who related musical structures to social organizations. They paid more attention to social changes than social stability as in Cecill Sharp s and the structural functionalist s homogeneous model. For example, Bruno Nettl propose d an evolutionary perspective to distinguish folk music from tribal music and argued that folk music coexist s in societies with u rban professional art or classical music, while tribal music is a communal product of illiterate societies in an earlier stage of musical development 50 of folk music. According to Charles Seeger the criteria to define folk music in the contemporary era include as follows: Class strati fication: F olk music is associated with lower class in the primitive, feudal ist capitalist and some oriental societies that coexist with the elite and the popular musical cultures.51 Cultural dichotomy52: Folk music is passed down from generation to gener ation through oral tradition. 47P.G. Toner and Stephen A. Wild, Introduction World Music: Politics, Production and Pedagogy; a Specia l Thematic Issue of the Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology vol. 5, no. 2 (August 2004): 98. 48Ibid. 49Pegg: Folk Music. 50Ibid. 51Cited in Richard Middleton, Studying Popular Music ( Philadelphia: Open University Press 1990/2002), 127128.
45 Folk music has been used in the context of construct ing and negoti ati ng class, national and ethnic identities Particularly, f olk music has been exploited in a variety of political agendas including nationalism, communism, fa scism colonialism and localism.53 For example, musicologist Ying fen Wang mentions that after martial law was lifted in 1987 in Taiwan, folk music has become a vehicle for political statements, a bridge across ethnic boundaries, and a form of Taiwanese consciousness. 54 Folk music manifests the history of a nation explicitly or implicitly. Performing folk music is an expressive communal social behavior. The concept of folk music as integral in the daily lives of a community is important for the concept of homeland music in Taiwan. As Taiwanese scholar Yu Shan Chang states, [Taiwanese] homeland arts pertain to the indigenous folk arts, that is, the local folk arts of our surroundings55 (my own translation). Taiwanese musicologists tend to draw parallels bet ween folk music and court music (or art music ). Thus, Taiwanese ethnomusicologist Lu Yuxiu utilizes the term traditional music instead of folk music in her book, Taiwan yin yue shi (Music History of Taiwan).56 She argues that if the term folk music were used for introducing Taiwanese music history, its relative terms 52Middleton, Popular Music 53Carole Pegg: Folk Music: Political and Ideological Issues Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 6 January 2008), http://www/grovemusic.com.lp.hscl/ufl.edu. 54Ying fen Wang Music and Chinese Society: Contemporary Taiwan, in Robert C. Provine, Yosihiko Tokumaru, and J. Lawrence Witzelben, eds., The Garland E ncyclopedia of W orld M usic Vol. 7, East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea ( New York : Gar land 19 98), 424. 55Yu Shan Chang Yi shu yu ren wen xue xi ling yu de zheng he jiao xue she ji (The Design of Teaching an Integrated Arts and Humanities Learning Domain), Jiao yu yan jiu yue kan (Educational Research Monthly) 102 (October 2002): 127 56Yuxiu Lu, Taiwan yin yue shi (Music History of Taiwan) ( Tai p ei City : Wu nan tu shu chu ban gu fen you xian gong si, 2003), 12
46 such as court music and art music ought to also be discussed.57 According to Taiwanese ethnomusicologist Chang H ui Hsu s catalogue, folk music of Taiwan includes music derived from Min ( name for Fujian province) and Yue ( name for Guangdong province) regions of mainland China and has been brought to Taiwan with Han Chinese immigrants since the seventeenth century.58 In the book, First Manuscript of Music History of Taiwan (1994), Hsu uses the name Hn Ts mn ch (meaning Han folk music ) to distinguish Han Chinese (Holo and Hakka people) folk music from aboriginal folk music. He notes that Taiwanese Han folk music contains six genres in general:59 1. folk songs; 2. tra ditional narrative and musical performance; 3. theatrical music; 4. folk instrumental music; 5. dance music ( ke wu h siao hsi yinyue or named jentou music ); 6. ritual music 60 (my own translation). However, music scholar Zhuang Yongming defines Taiwanese folk songs as only those of Holo people. He poses: While aboriginal language and Hakka language have become the minor languages today, we refer Taiwanese folk songs roughly to the folk songs of the Holo language system (Holo speaking)61 [my o wn translation]. Taiwanese folk songs are also considered to involve nature (traditional) folk songs and composed folk songs.62 Composed folk songs refer to folk songs composed before and after 57Lu, Taiwan yin yue shi (Music History of Taiwan) 13. 58Chang Hui Hsu Han tsu min chien yin yue de yuan liu (The Origins of Han Chinese Folk Music), in Yin yue shi lun shu gao II: Taiwan yin yue shi chu gao bu chong pian II: (Music History Discourse II: A Supplemental Volume of First Manuscript of Music History of Taiwan) ( Tai pei C i ty : Quan yin yue pu chu ban she 1996), 47. 59Ibid. 60Ibid. 61Deming Sun and Zhuang Yongming eds. Taiwan ge yao xiang tu qing (Taiwanese Songs; Homeland Love) ( [Taipei?]: Sun Deming: Jing xiao chu Taiwan di dian, 1994), 10. 62Ren Lin Wen Hua, Taiwan minyiao ( Taiwanese F olk Songs : A Supplemental Teaching Material) (Taipei, Taiwan: Ren Lin Wen Hua, 2004), 4 5.
47 1911 while Taiwan was reverted to Chinese Nationalist rule. Since these folk songs consist of rich local characteristics and reflect the historical background of Taiwan, Taiwanese scholars are accustomed to including composed folk songs in the category of Taiwanese folk music.63 In addition, composed folk songs tha t were popular as short lived musical hits are also categorized as popular music.64 Hence, based on the definition of folk songs by Taiwanese musicologists, the conceptions of folk music in Taiwan contain certain elements of popular music. According to Taiw anese folk musician Shang Jen Chien ( ) three fundamental criteria characterize Taiwanese folk songs: (1) Taiwanese local and traditional characteristics, (2) mass composed (or created) and perpetually circulated around the general public, and (3) can be sung or chanted.65 I perceive that these criteria were influenced by not only the Western musicological definitions of folk music and folk songs, but also were affected by the social actions of the Taiwanese localization movement. In the pre martial law e ra before 1987, Taiwanese Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal folk songs were adapted to be sung in Chinese Mandarin in music textbooks due to the ROC government s Chinese Mandarin language promotion policy. They were also marginalized as the supplemental songs be cause of the Sino centric educational orientation. After martial law was lifted in 1987, the localization movement generated Taiwan consciousness. The general public valued Taiwanese folk songs as one of the important Taiwanese local cultural heritages tha t symbolize Taiwanese national identity and consciousness. Taiwanese folk songs specifically referred to the Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal songs and were regarded as homeland songs that were closely related to the broader concept of Taiwanese homeland. As a result, Taiwanese folk songs and music have become a part of the ideological category of homeland music of Taiwan 63Ren Lin Wen Hua, Taiwan minyiao ( Taiwanese Folk Songs ), 5. 64Ibid., 4. 65Ibid.
48 and have been emphasized by the educational authorities as a part of the Homeland Curricula, particularly in the 1993 New Curricular Standar d. Popular Music Popular music, according to the New Har vard Dictionary of Music and Musicians ,66 is massdisseminated music developed first during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe and North America. According to this source, popular music is not necessarily composed or notated as classical or art music; it s musical forms are simpler and shorter and are less technically demanding to the performers. Also, different from folk music, the styles of popular music are considered to be less distin ctive to certain geographical regions or ethnic groups. Popular music developed in Western music history due to the rise of middle class demands for musical involvement. From an elite perspective, p opular music is often associated with low musical value an d less sophistication than art music in terms of its forms and musicianship .67 While classical or art music is associated with the music of the elite and upper class in stratified soci eties, popular music is considered to be readily accessible to large num bers of musically uneducated listeners rather than to an e lite .68 This suggests that popular music is a mass production of amate ur musicians or laypersons. In other words, popular music includes music al styles intended for the general public in a literate technologically advanced society dominated by urban culture.69 It is often the commodity of the modern entertainment industry permeated 66The New Harvard Dictionary of Music 19 86, s.v. Popular Music ," by Jon H. Appleton. 67Richard Middleton and Peter Manuel : Popular Music Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 6 January 2008), 68Ibid. 69Britannica Concise Encyclopedia 2007 ed., s.v. Popular Music [database on line]; available from http://www.encyclopedia.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/doc/1B1 375659.html; Internet; accessed 9 February 2008.
49 through mass media for earning profit s French musicologist Jean Nicolas de Surmont incorporates Frans Birrer s four paradigms when articulating the conceptions of popular music: 1. Normative definitions Popular music is an inferior type. 2. Negative definitions. Popular music is music that is not something else (usually folk or art music). 3. Sociological definition s Popular music is associated with (produced for or by) a particular social group. 4. Technologic al economic definitions Popular music is disseminated by mass media and/or in a mass market.70 In some cases, popular music is used for political purposes. Ma ny popular song lyrics are embedded in political content. In Taiwan, the distinctions between popular music and folk music appear to be less salient. Certain popular music is considered folk music and therefore is conceptualized in the realm of Taiwanese h omeland music that represents Taiwanese identity. For example, the (College) Campus Folk Songs ( ) and one of the categories of Taiwanese Holo folk songs termed composed folk songs ( chung zu mn yo ) are both regarded by Taiwan ese musicologists as folk songs, while these composed songs are actually Chinese Mandarin popular songs and Holo popular songs.71 The composers of both types of folk songs are known, and recordings of these songs were produced and sold for commercial purposes. Specifically, the Holo composed folk songs consist of distinctive Taiwanese regional characteristics, and their bucolic flavors are considered representative of Taiwanese Holo identity. During the Japanese colonial era, some composed Holo folk songs such as Bang chhun hong and U ia hoe were so popular that they could not be prohibited among 70Frans A. J Birrer, Definitions and R esearch O rientation: D o W e N eed a D efinition of P opular M usic? in D. Horn, ed., Popular Music Perspectives 2 (Gothenburge, Exeter, Ottawa and Reggio Emilia 1985 ), 104; quoted in Jean Nicolas de Surmont From Oral Tradition to Commercial Industry: the Misunderstood Path of Popular Song, Georgian Electronic Scientific Journal: Musicology and Cultural Science 2006 No. 1 (2), 4. 71Information based on the following source: Ren Lin Wen Hua The Composed Songs of Japanese Colonial Era (1932~1945) ( R 1932~1945) in Taiwan minyiao ( Taiwanese Folk Songs : A Supplemental Teaching Material) (Taipei, Taiwan: Ren Lin Wen Hua, 2004), 18.
50 the general populace in Taiwan. As a result, many lyrics were changed into Japanese and entire songs were adapted and used to promote Japanese political conviction.72 Similarly, during the pre martial law era, Holo composed folk songs Sewing the Torn Nest ( P oo phua bang ) and Selling the Warm Rice Cakes ( Sio bah tsang ) and Campus Folk Songs Catching the Loaches ( Z ) as well as m any Chinese Mandarin popular songs were banned because the government suspected that these songs impl ied the ideology of the political left.73 Homeland Music Homeland music is the English translation of the Chinese term xiangtu yinyue ( ). While the ar ts display the developments of society and history of a culture in general homeland arts are linked more directly to the identity of a nation. Homeland music is one of the categories of arts education and has been extraordinarily emphasized in Taiwanese m usic education in the past twenty years. Current promotion of homeland arts education and research by government officials, academic institutions, local communities and scholars displays the awareness of the ignorance to Taiwanese native cultures among most of Taiwanese citizens because of the Sino centered educational policy in the pre martial law era.74 Taiwanese ethnomusicologist Chang Hui Hsu portrays this situation in the following quote in an article that appeared in the newspaper Tzu li wan pao ( ) : 72Shang Ren Jian Taiwanese Folk Songs ( T ) in Taiwan minyiao ( Taiwanese Folk Songs : A Supplemental Teaching M aterial) (Taipei, Taiwan: Ren Lin Wen Hua, 2004), 29. See also BorYuan, zi li ( S Were Banned: Review of the Prohibited Songs during Martial Law Era ) One And Only Teresa Tseng Blog, entry posted June 22, 2007, http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/jw!zjNad_aZGRnrlWL_WVO002pJ/article?mid=128 [accessed Jan uary 27, 2011]. 73Yuxiu Chen, Musical Taiwan ( Y ), 111 113. 74Ho and Law, Music Education Dilemmas, 340.
51 Our [Taiwanese] ethnic folk arts had never been emphasized in our arts education the contents of Taiwan s culture and arts education appear simply as either Chinese or Western 75 (my own translation). The ethnic folk arts and Taiwan identity are clearl y separated from Western and Chinese arts in this article. I n order to improve and localize Taiwan s arts education, the Ministry of Education added the subject named homeland teaching activities ( xiangtu jiaoxue huodong; ) in the Elementary School Curricular Standards in 1993. Moreover, homeland studies ( xiangtu jiaoyu; ) have been integrated into the teaching materials of the Seven Major Learning Areas76 of the Grade 19 Curricular Guidelines since 2001. The goal of teaching homeland studies is to demonstrate the special life style, customs, geography and cultural tradition of each region. Homeland education provides an intellectual expedition for teachers and students to discover Taiwan.77 The concept of ho meland in Taiwanese elementary education refers to the homeplace where a person lives; it does not necessarily refer to his or her hometown. WenJing Shan, professor of education at National Taipei Normal University, notes that scholars in the United Sta tes utilize the term local, area or region to articulate the arena of their homeland 75Chang Hui Hsu, Mei you di fang yi shu, na you guo jia yi shu? ? (No Local Arts; No National Arts?), Tzu li wan pao 20 April 1991. In ChangHui Hsu, Yin yue shi lun shu gao II: Taiwan yin yue shi chu gao bu chong pian (Music History Discourse II: A Supplemental Volume of First Manuscript of Music History of Taiwan) ( Tai pei C i ty : Quan yin yue pu chu ban she, 1996 ), 247. 76The Seven Major Learning Areas in the Grad e 1 6 Curricular Guidelines include: Language Arts ( ), Health and Physical Education ( ), Social Studies ( ), Arts and Humanities ( ), Mathematics ( ), Science and Technology ( ), and Integrative Activities. 77This is my own translation of the sentence. For the original language, see the ar ticle: National Taipei University of Education, Xiangtu jiao cai (Homeland Materials), Ministry of Education Elementary Education Learning Fueling Station (Taipei, Taiwan: Ministry of Education, 2007); Internet; available from http://content.edu.tw/server/server_select1.htm; accessed 23 January 2008.
52 studies.78 Shan further advises that homeland can also implicate native and home .79 He addresses the four divisions of American homeland studies (1) local history, (2) local geography, (3) local culture ( regional culture or community culture), and (4) folklife (or folklore).80 Shan Ju Chang L in professor of National Taiwan University, describes the meaning of homeland as a place where a person was born or lives f or a long time 81 and a synthesis of nature, humanities, and social environment.82 Another term similar to homeland is indigene ( bentu ) or native land, but indigene is more often used for political propaganda as indigenization ( bentu hua ) in Ta iwan. According to Taiwanese scholars Wan Shou Chuang and Shu Hui Lin, I ndigenization is a process in which the colony seeks the subjectivity and is the basic human rights demand by which the reigned people retrieve their dignity. 83 The term bentu ( indigene or native land ) or bentuhua (indigenization, localization, or nativism) is in widespread use as a motto by the journalists in Taiwan to describe almost any kind of sociocultural phenomenon and activity. For instance, Huei Lin Chao ( ), journalist of one of the local newspaper publishers, Lien Ho Bao (United Daily ) writes about the second Presidential Cultural Awards held in 78Wen Jing Shan, Mei guo chung xiao xue xiang tu jiao yu de shih shih (The Practice of Homeland Education in the Elementary and High Schools of t he United States), Jen wen chi she hui xue ke jiao xue tung hsun (Research of Humanities and Social Studies Teaching), Vol. 8, No. 2 (1997): 140. 79Ibid. 80Ibid. 81Shan Ju Chang L. Taiwan di qu guo xiao xiang tu jiao yu jiao shi zi xun xu qiu yu sou xun xing wei zhi tan tao: zhi de fang tan : ( An Investigation into Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviors of Elementary School Teachers Teaching Taiwan Cultural Heritage ) Tu shu guan xue yu zi xun ke xue (Jou rnal of Library and Information Science) Vol. 30, No. 2 (October 2004): 117. 82Ibid. 83Ibid.
53 Taoyuan ( ), Taiwan in 2003, an annual event to acknowledge citizens who give prominent contributions t o Taiwanese cultural development and preservation. Chao remarks on Taiwanese indigenous culture ( bentu wen hua ) made by the Feng Tieh award84 winner Yu Feng Chen as follows: What needed to be reformed is the conception of Taiwan s i ndigenous culture Indigenous culture should not become an individual culture of a specific ethnic group [in Taiwan]. It should be an amalgam of astronomy, geography, humanities and sciences85 (my own translation). Chen s remark simply implies that the indigenous culture in Taiwan has been stereotyped by most of Taiwanese people as the Holo people s culture (a specific ethnic group) ; therefore, he advises that Taiwan s indigenous culture should be re defined in a broader way that combines not only various groups but also diff erent discipines However, ChengKuo Su, one of the journalists from another local newspaper publisher Chung Guo Shih Bao ( ; China Times), uses the term specifically to include Taiwanese homeland music, folk arts and martial arts.86 According to Su, Tai wanese homeland music includes not only Holo folk music, but also Hakka folk music and aboriginal folk music. Su s interpretation of indigenous culture does not simply involve Holo people s culture. Thus, indigenous culture can be somewhat an ambiguous 84There are six awards endowed at the Presidential Cultural Awards. Feng Tieh award is given to someone who gives great contributions on the environmental protection and ecological nursing. Other awards and their related field of contributions include: (1) Tai Yang : social welfare and public services; (2) Yu Shan : community building and promotion; (3) Pu Ti: social balance and international peace; (4) Bai He : cultural development and artistic creativity; (5) Young Adult Chuang Yi: vitality and cultural innovation. 85Yu Feng Chen, Feng Tieh Award Winner (speech delivered at the 2nd Presidential Cultural Awards in Taoyuan, Taiwan on 22 November 2003), quoted in Huei Lin Chao, Zun tong wen hua jiang, a bian zan da ai (The Presidential Cultural Awards, A Bian Praise the Dai Ai), Lien Ho Bao (United Daily), 23 November 2003, B6. 86Cheng Kuo Su, Sian fu jhe jhong tui dong bent u wen hua (County Government Enthusiastically Promotes Indigenous Culture), Chung Guo Shih Bao (China Times), 1 October 1991, 14.
54 ter m in its interpretation. Other examples of journalists adoptions of bentu as a socio cultural expression are listed below: I ndigenous S ocial C lubs ( bentu she tuan):87 This term refers to s ocial clubs that seek to pursue Taiwan s social advancement, such as Taiwanese Teachers Association, Taiwanese Teachers Assembly, Bei she (The Northern Club), and Society for Taiwanese Homeland Language Education. I ndigenized E ducational R eform ( bentu hua jiao gai ) :88 It pertains to a type of educational reform which advocates a Taiwan centered curricular design and educational objective. Indigenous Martial A rts ( bentu yi jhen ) :89 This term is interpreted by most journa lists in Taiwan as the regional, localized ethnic related martial art genres. I ndigenous G eneral E ducation C ourses ( bentu tong shih ke ) :90 According to a news report in Chung Guo Shih Bao ( ; China Times), Yuan Chih University ( ) has started to offer indigenous general education courses such as Homeland Music, Ecology and Environment, and Introduction to Taiwanese History.91 The goals of offering indigenous courses are to achieve the school s educational objectives globalization and localism, and to help students know more about Taiwan.92 I ndigenous C onsciousness ( bentu yi shih ) :93 This term designates the ideological conception of Taiwanese local culture. A news report written on Chung Guo Shih Bao ( 87Chun Yi Lin, Tai ke sian lun chan, bentu tuan ti kang yi (Tai Ke Cause Debate; Indigenous Social Clubs Protest), Chung Yang Jih Bao (Central Daily News), 19 August 2005, 14. 88Wan Shou Chuang and Shu Hui Lin Ben tu hua de jiao yu gai ge ( Indigenized Educational Reformation), abstract, Guo jia zheng ce ji kan (National Policy Quarterly) Vol. 2, No. 3 (September 2003) : 27. 89Hui Syuan Ye, Wei bentu yi chen chu ru sin sheng ming, chun hsu gao chung wang chu chin chiang : (Inject New Life for Indigenous Martial Arts: Chun Hsu Industrial and Commercial College Gains the Golden Prize), Chung Yang Jih Bao (Central Daily News), 1 April 2003, 14. 90Luo Wei Chen, Tai feng hsi chuan da syue yuan xiao: Yuan chih kai bentu tung shih ke : (Taiwanese Fashion Sweeps through Colleges and Universities: Yuan chih University Promote Indigenous Genera l Education Courses), Chung Guo Shih Bao (China Times), 14 October 2004, C8. 91Ibid. 92Ibid. 93Cai Yun Lin, Tai sheng he chang tuan hsin pien yu yeh hua (Taisheng Choir Arranges Rainy Night Flowers ), Chung Guo Shih Bao (China Times), 7 Nove mber 2004, D8.
55 ; China Times) reveals that the rise of Taiwanese indigenous consciousness in recent years has led to the establishment of many local choirs that feature repertories sung in local dialects. Drawing from a constellation of such concepts, homeland education refers to the enhancement of teaching homeland materials in education.94 The prevailing popularity of homeland education in recent years is related to social change. According to scholars from National Taipei University of Education, the scope of homeland education (or homeland studies) covers the teaching materials of the entire area of Taiwan.95 Xin Wang, geography professor of National Taiwan University, suggests that present homeland studies in Taiwan cover five categories including homeland language, homeland history, homeland geography, homeland science, and homeland arts.96 Two principles are induced when Wang discusses the contents of homeland education: Homeland is a native place or native land, which the student currently inhabits.97 Homeland education is experiential; homeland education focuses on a sensible and experiential teaching approach.98 H omeland education is the f irst step to teach children to know their own country. Therefore, according to Wang, the scope of homeland teaching materials, including homeland geography, homeland history, homeland languages, and homeland arts, in elementary education should be 94Chang L., Xiang tu jiao yu jiao shi zi xun xu qiu ( Information Seeking Behaviors of Elementary School Teachers ) 117. 95National Taipei University of Education, Xiangtu jiao cai (Homeland Materials), Ministry of Education Ele mentary Education Learning Fueling Station (Taipei, Taiwan: Ministry of Education, 2007); Internet; available from http://content.edu.tw/server/server_select1.htm; accessed 23 January 2008. 96Xin Wang Xian tu xiao xue gai lun (Introduction to Homeland Teaching) Nan tou xian jiu nian yi guan ke cheng xiao xue zi yuan wang zhan (Nan Tou County Grade 1 9 Curriculum Teaching Resource Website ) 2. [article online]; available f rom http:// www.ntnu.edu.tw/eec/eeq/40/eeq40 02.doc (accessed 1 January 2008). 97Ibid., 3. 98Ibid
56 limited to areas in close proximity and should emphasize things or objects which children can feel or experience.99 Taiwanese music educator and former professor of National Taipei Normal University Shi Ze Yao ( ) notes that homeland arts refer to the folk culture and arts that possess the aesthetic value and represent the tradition of local features including customs, theaters, music, dances, architectures, religions, homeland literature, and folk relics 100 [m y own translation]. He also stresses that homeland arts implicate the common characteristics of the cultural tradition that belongs to a mutual group or community.101 In other words, homeland arts originated from an environment where a group of people reside s. Homeland arts are closely related to a common life style, custom, experience, and religious belief of the inhabitants of a region. Yao further states that different from fine arts, Taiwanese homeland arts designate the local and traditional folk arts in Taiwan.102 Taiwanese homeland arts are developed through a longterm accumulated ethnic ideology, social background, religious belief, history, or custom; they embody the unique cultural features of a region.103 Chen Hua Wen, professor of the History Depart ment at National Taiwan Normal University, writes an essay for the Taiwanese local newspaper publisher Taiwan Times titled Homeland Education and the New Global Perspective.104 The essay not only 99Wang Xian tu xiao xue (Introduction to Homeland Teaching) 3 100Shi Ze Yao, Taiwan xiangtu yishu wen hua chia chih ji chi luo shih syue siao jiao yu de chung yao hsing (The Cultural Values of Taiwanese Homeland Arts and their Importance of Practicing in School Educations), in Xian dai yin yue jiao yu xue xin lun (A New Approach to Contemporary Music Education) (Taipei, Taiwan: Shi da shu yuan, 2003), 197. 101Ibid. 102Ibid. 103Ibid. 104Chen Hua Wen, Xiang tu jiao yu yu sin shih chieh guai (Homeland Education and the New Global Perspective), Taiwan Times (Taipei), 30 June 1995, 3. [article online]; available from http://taup.yam.org.t w/comm9509/tpdc5928.html; Internet; accessed 23 January 2008.
57 describes the definition and historical development of homel and education in Taiwan, but also incorporates Western educational theory and physician Fritjof Capra s criticism of Ren Descartes and Isaac Newton s models of physics to support the values of homeland education in the new curricular reform. In the essay Wen defines homeland as a person s closest and most familiar small space. 105 He claims that homeland studies originated from homeland history and was influenced by the Taiwanese Independent Movement.106 From Wen s standpoint, homeland history and Taiw an s history mean the same thing. He says, Before martial law was lifted, historians used the term homeland history instead of history of Taiwan in order to emphasize the relationship between Taiwan and Mainland China and to suppress Taiwan s autonomy and historical status107 (my own translation). Furthermore, he proposes that if educators can recognize Taiwan s history as national history and Chinese history as foreign history,108 the concepts of homeland education will be able to be clarified, and the importance of educational practice will be able to be fulfilled.109 Wen s absolute viewpoint on the conception of homeland is echoed by RuYi Yuan, professor of National Taipei University of Education. Yuan asserts that the most important criterion to charac terize homeland arts is the indigenous Taiwanese character. She writes the definition of homeland in her article titled An Analysis of the Reflection of National Education in the Elementary and High School Arts Education 110 as follows: H omeland stands f or Taiwanese 105Wen, Xiang tu jiao yu, 3. 106Ibid. 107Ibid. 108Ibid. 109Ibid. 110Ru Yi Yuan, Xi lun guo xiao guo zhong xiang tu yi shu jiao yu suo fan ying di guo jia jiao yu nei han (An Analysis of the Reflection o f National Education in the Elementary and High School Arts Education), in Ministry of
58 and folk 111 (my own translation). However, Yuan suggests that not all folk arts can be regarded as the homeland arts ; the contents of homeland arts should only include those that are ancient, traditional, pre industrialized, and ce rtain endangered art genres .112 Although folk arts cover broader genres than homeland arts, Taiwanese anthropologist YuYao Wan argues that both folk arts and homeland arts are nurtured and indigenized in the land of Taiwan.113 She explains that both folk art s and homeland arts manifest a combined artifact of human life and aesthetics.114 The Ministry of Education in Taiwan divided the contents of the elementary school homelandart curriculum into four categories in 1993: (1) homeland s traditional theaters; (2) homeland s traditional music; (3) homeland s traditional dances; (4) homeland s traditional artworks.115 Hence, homeland music education only covers traditional theatrical music and traditional music. Homeland traditional theatrical music involves opera ( daxi ), operetta ( xiaoxi ) and puppetry ( ouxi ). Among all, daxi includes Northern S chool T heater ( beiguan xichu) Southern S chool T heater ( nanguan xichu), and Taiwanese Holo opera ( gezaixi ); xiaoxi covers teapicking theater ( chaxi ) and drum theater ( guxi ); ouxi comprises hand puppet theater ( budaixi ), fantoccini ( kuei lei xi ) and shadow puppet theater ( pi ying xi ). Homeland traditional music consists of folk songs, instrumental music, ritual music, Northern S chool ( nanguan) music and Southern S chool ( beiguan ) music Among them, folk songs cover Education: Guo xiao yin yue ke xue shi jia you zhan ; [article online]; available from http://c ontent.edu.tw/primary/music/tp_ck/91e/doc/mainli.htm; Internet; accessed 26 October 2007. 111Ibid. 112Ibid. 113Yu Yao Wan, Min su yi shu jiao xue yen chiu (Study of Teaching Folk Arts), in Yi shu yu ren we n jiao yu ( Education of Arts and Humanity ). Vol. 2, e d. Hwang Ren Lai and Editorial Board of Research in Arts Education (Taipei, Taiwan: Gui Guan Tu Shu, 2002), 560. 114Ibid. 115Ibid.
59 aboriginal folk songs, Holo folk songs, Hakka folk songs, and composed folk songs; instrumental music embraces percussion music ( luo gu yue ), drum and wind ensemble music ( gu chui yue ), silk and bamboo ensemble music ( si zhu yue ), and grand ensemble music. Students are expected to learn the folk arts and cultures of the communities where they live. Nevertheless, since the execution of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum in 2003, the realm of homeland teaching materials are not clear ly indicated in the Curricular Guideline. This shows that the rationale of the Grade 19 Curriculum emphasizes the selection of homeland teaching materials based on the student centered experience and the school based curricular design.116 Much of the debate regarding conceptions of homeland is political in nature and relate s to the issue of natio na lism. Nationalism: General Overview and Conception Nationalism is an ideology and a political movement. According to Richard Taruskin, nationalism is a doctrine, in which the people of a country claim their social and political allegiance to their own nation.117 Merriam Webster Online Dictionary defines nationalism as follows : [Nationalism means the] loyalty and devotion to a nation ; especially a sense of national c onsciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations.118 116Sheng Chin Lin Jiu nian yi guan ke cheng jiao shi de xiang tu zi yuan diao cha fang fa ( Survey of Homeplace Resources of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum ), Shi da di li yan jiu bao gao (Geographical Research), No. 41 (November 2004): 84. 117Richar d Taruskin, Nationalism Grove Music Online (Accessed 5 September 2007), http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. 118Merriam Webster, Nationalism Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (Accessed 5 September 2007), http://www.m w.com/dictionary/nationalism.
60 This suggests that nationalism has been developed as a political movement with cultural ramific ations. 119 Nationalism arises when the people of a nation claim the right to constitute an autonomous political entity based on their shared history, language, culture and value These shared heritages are drawn upon to generate national identity in the i deology of each individual social group within the arena of nationalism. T he national ist population of a nation also forms a certain degree of uniformity and homogeneity. According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy nationalism is an attitude of r ecognizing national identity and an action of seeking self determination among the people of a nation.120 Although mainly manifested in political agenda, nationalism also takes place in many different aspects of social practices, such as linguistic s ethnic ity religio n, cultur e and histor y.121 However, many nationalist texts are based on the European notion. Whether or not nationalism has been developed in nonWestern countries is a constant debate.122 According to Grove Music Online nationalism became one of the major components of European cultural ideology by the end of 18th century. 123 Nationalist movements became prominent during the 19th century, and a t the end of the 19th century, Marxist and other socialists gave political analyses critical to the na tionalist movements, and then influenced the political ideology of central and eastern 119Taruskin, Nationalism. 120Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2005 ed., s.v. Nationalism available from http://plato.stanford.edu/entri es/nationalism/ (accessed September 5, 2007) 121Richard Taruskin, Nationalism: 1. Definition Grove Music Online (Accessed 5 September 2007), http://grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. 122Eric G. E. Zuelow, W hat Is Nationalism? The Nationalism Project (Nationalism Studies Information Clearinghouse, 2007) [Accessed 5 September 2007] http://www.nationalismproject.org/what.htm. 123Taruskin, Nationalism: 1. Definition.
61 European countries. The Romantic exaltation of feeling and identity and the liberal basis of civic rights 124 are thought to be the primary impetus of 19th century na tionalism.125 Nationalism in Music Nationalism has had a great impact on the arts and music in particular .126 Thomas Turino defines cultural nationalism as the use of art and other cultural practices to develop or maintain national sentiment for political purposes. 127 In historical musicological thought, musical nationalism emerged in Europe in the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is based on the idea that the composer should make his work an expression of national and ethnic traits .128 According to ethnomusicologist Sue Tuohy, c onventional definitions often limit national music to that consciously composed using native characteristics. 129 Composers make use of musical ideas such as folk tunes, folk melodies, rhythms and harmonies that are identified wi th a specific country, region, or ethnicity. Musical nationalism also involves utilizing folklore in programmatic compositions and opera. For example, national theater a theat rical genre in which plays and operas were performed in the vernacular language first appeared in Humberg.130 In addition, Volkstmlichkeit (folksiness) can be found in much 18thcentury art 124The Internet Modern History Source Book 2007 ed., s.v. Nationalism available from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook17.html (accessed 5 September 2007) 125Ibid. 126Tarus kin, Nationalism: 1. Definition. 127Thomas Turino, Nationalists, Cosmopolitans, and Popular Music in Zimbabwe ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 14. 128Willi Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music 2nd ed. ( Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press 1975) 108; quoted in Sue Tuohy The Sonic Dimensions of Nationalism in Modern China: Musical Representation and Transformation Ethnomusicology Vol. 45, No. 1 (Winter 2001) : 564. 129Sue Tuohy, The Sonic Dimensions of Nationalism in Modern China: Musical Representation and Transformation Ethnomusicology Vol. 45, No. 1 (Winter 2001): 108. 130Richard Taruskin, Nationalism: 4. Cultural Nationalism and German Romanticism Grove Music Online (Accessed 5 September 2007), http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu.
62 music, especially in opera buffa and its French, English, German and Russian vernacular imitations131 that were associated with peasants or lo wer class people.132 Clearly, music has been taken as a field of symbolic activity and is considered highly important to nation states.133 M usic adds a performative dimension 134 that g o es beyond image and text and provides a means for people to feel and experi ence their own nation. In the search for a national identity, government authorities frequently use music specifically to engender patriotic feelings and a sense of national belonging. The close relationship between music and a nation is well portrayed by Sue Tuohy: Links between music and the nation are forged, sometimes unintentionally, through the contextualization of music within the framework of the nation its conceptualization, vocabulary, and structures. Nationalism may scoop up everything in its mus ical path as music is repeatedly linked to the nation and performed within its sites.135 Nationalism is the existence of symbols and beliefs that are either propagated by elites or held by many members of regional or ethnic groups. For instance, Suzel Ana Re ily suggests that in Brazil, music provides the symbolic means by which Mario de Andrade could argue for the national integration 136 of Brazil, which brought together European, African and Amerindian identities. In the case of Taiwan, since martial law was lifted in 1987, the rise of national identity among Taiwanese people has compelled the government authorities to recognize that the vernacular style of music is important heritage and could aid in the social and cultural 131Taruskin, Nationalism: 4. Cultural Nationalism 132Ibid. 133Martin Stokes, Introduction: Ethnicity, Identity and Music. In Ethnicity, Identity and Music: The Musical Construction of Place (Providence, RI: Berg Publisher Limited, 1994) 15. 134Tuohy Sonic Dimensions of Nationalism 109. 135Ibid., 108. 136Stokes, Identity and Music, 14.
63 development of Taiwan. Accordingly a variety of Taiwanese folk music styles have gradually been identified and incorporated in the music education of Taiwan. Specializing i n the music political, and cultural policies of Taiwan, American ethnomusicologist Nancy Guy depicts the rise and de cline of Peking Operas position on the island of Taiwan which manifest the wider political problems of Taiwans position vis vis the Peoples Republic of China (PRC)137 in her article, Governing the Arts, Governing the State ( Ethnomusicology Fall 1999) and her book Peking Opera and Politics in Taiwan (2005) Both works demonstrate how the politics of culture and censorship shaped Peking O pera s unique history in Taiwan. Her study provides a perspective on the interplay between ideology and power within Taiwan s dynamic society. According to Rachel Harris s review Guy makes an assertive proposition that politics dictate taste. 138 Guy suggests that Peking Opera flourished under Japanese rule precisely because it was an expression and representation of Ch inese identity and was a symbolic opposition to Japanese rule .139 Later, its popularity declined u nder the K uomintang s rule Guy argues, mainly due to Kuomintang regimes violent and discriminatory policies yet it was artificially maintained b y government support for over fifty years.140 Guy addresses t he fourfold reasons behind the regimes suppor t : (1) to compete with the P eople s R epublic of C hina in the field of culture, (2) to re Sinicize Taiwan after Japanese rule, (3) to continue the association with C hina among the Chinese mainlanders those who left China in 1949; and (4) to promote Confucian ideals.141 For the Nationalist regime in Taiwan, Peking 137Rachel Harris, review of Peking Opera and Politics in Taiwan by Nancy Guy, The China Quarterly 185 (March 2006): 207. 138Ibid. 139Ibid. 140Ibid. 141Ibid.
64 Opera manifested essential traditional Chinese culture and represented authentic Chinese identity. This helps explains why Peking Opera has been called the national opera in Taiwan.142 The incorporation of homeland music into the general education system of Taiwan was inherently linked to these political manifestations of nationalism. Musical Nationalism in E ducational Setting s Music is often used intensely to propagat e dominant classifications in the developing world or in the context of the development of new social formations. This dominant power is enacted through state control of educational universities, conservatories and archives, and is also disseminated through mass media.143 Education i n this sense is inherently political and represents the force of the state over the social and economic realities of the nation. M usic curriculum is enacted by dominant social groups to advocate their own hegemonic ideology over subaltern groups of the society. Bercaw and Stooksberry state that s ocial transformation begins with the assumption that existing societal norms silence voices outside of the dominant culture. 144 The current music curriculum in Taiwanese schools is the product of the manipulation by dominant ideologies. The notion of what is good music or bad music is imposed through the political control of education, while the voices outside of the dominant c ulture have been silenced or marginalized. However, Bercaw and Stooksberry go on to assert that as long as individuals are silenced, there exists the need for current societal norms to be 142Nancy Guy, Peking Opera as National Opera in Taiwan: What s in a Name? Asian Theatre Journal 12, No. 1. (Spring 1995): 92. 143Stokes, Identity and Music, 5. 144Lynne A. Bercaw and Lisa M. Stooksberry, Teacher Education, Critical Pedagogy, and Standards: An Exploration of Theory and Practice University of Southern Carolina Online Essays ; [article on line]; available from: http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol122004/Bercaw.pdf; Internet; accessed 13 January 2008.
65 transformed toward a fully democratic society .145 These ideas reflect the essential rationale of critical pedagogy: to transform society through critical awareness of hegemonic control by dominant spheres of a society. Since the 1960s, the emergence of critical theory in the fields of humanities and social sciences exempli fies the concept of using educational control in a nation by a ruling party or the dominant groups toward the minorities or the so called oppressed groups. Critical theorists attempt to become actively engaged in promoting social change within the education system. They critique the current curricula, testing, teacher training, and other educational problems through critical theory. Most critical educational theorists would argue that schools are social and cultural reproducers of the dominant ideology. The dominant ideology is developed to support the dominant political and economic power by the dominant groups who employ knowledge and skills through out the education system. There is also a close link between the dominant ideology and what is taught in the classroom. French critical sociologist Pierre Bourdieu argues that through the school system, the dominant class reproduces its own culture and imposes it on other social classes. The knowledge, teaching methods materials, and textbooks are produced and practiced in a way that they all are viewed as neutral and valued. As an example of American music education, classical music is emphasized and systematically taught in schools while popular music, jazz, and blues are typically left in a marginalized posi tion. In Taiwan, before the lift of martial law, after the Nationalist Party was defeated and fled to Taiwan, school curricular policies such as education for nationalism and Chinese culture education promoted Chinese consciousness among Taiwanese stud ents.146 The 145Bercaw and Stooksberry, Teacher Education, Critical Pedagogy, and Standards 146Ho and Law, Music Education in Taiwan, 340.
66 use and teaching of Taiwanese folk and vernacular languages and music at schools were highly restricted and music education consisted solely of Chinese traditional music and Western art music. However, after the Democratic Progressive Party took political control in Taiwan in 2000, local Taiwanese folk music and culture have become the central focus of school curricula. The change of emphasis in the music curriculum of Taiwanese elementary schools throughout the decades from Sino centric Chines e traditional music to Taiwan centric local folk culture exemplifies that education is a political tool to advocate dominant ideology. Practice Theory: Contents and Relevance to Ethnomusicology Identity Formation and Social Practice Taiwanese social and musical processes (such as musical performances) are important mechanism for Taiwanese identity formations related to the notions of homeland. In this section, I investigate the close connections between music and the broader arena of social practices. Soc ial performance (including music and dance) is perceived as a practice in wh ich meanings and identities are generated and mani pulated and provide [s] the means by which the hierarchies of place are negotiated and transformed.147 Research on identity issues in the 1970s presented the view that, as Turino states, Identities came to be viewed as fluid, constructed, consciously manipulated resources for strategic action. 148 In post structuralist works, the contingent and fluid nature of identity is emphasized. H owever, according to strict structuralist analysis the constructions of social identity are based on a rather static conception of structure, which contains three components of cultural capital: habits, human histories, and material culture. Identity compr ises trajectories of habits; each habit is constructed by a specific social history; 147Stokes, Identity and Music, 4. 148Thomas Turino, Introduction: Ide ntity and the Arts in Diaspora Communities, Thomas Turino and James Lea eds. I dentity and the Arts in D iaspora C ommunities ( Warren, Mich igan : Harmonie Park Press, 2004 ), 9.
67 then the material culture is created, and finally the effects over time gain certain stability. However, post structuralists argue that habits can change through conscious efforts or through new experiences. In the 1980s anthropologists began to react against the emphasis on structur al functionalism, founded by Durkheim, that focused on social structures and the functions of institutions, morality and religion in maintaining a particular social structure. Rather than organic social structures or cognitive classificatory systems, Marxist theories in anthropology launched in the 1960s and 1970s, were concerned with explaining the relations of production and change Cultural systems, religion or moral systems were view ed as socially constructed ideologi es to be analyzed so that the ingrained cultural capital (or material reality ) and the embedded domina nt exploitation could be clearly revealed. This led to the advent of practi ce theory, advocated by Pierre Bourdieu in the 1980s. Bourdieu suggests that signs of identity result from socialization. For example, as Turino points out, speech accent, tempo, rhythms, body gestures, facial expressions, and gender roles are the result o f deep socialization and are frequently taken for granted.149 There are many subtle signs of social identity that are the result of deeply ingrained habitus which can remain outside of focal awareness for artists and audiences. Turino argues that to understa nd the roles of artistic forms in relation to identity, it is important to recognize both the signs that emerge from deep rooted socialization and those that are consciously manipulated as emblems of identity.150 He further notes that i f artists are of the identity position being represented, both types will be involved simultaneously.151 Various types of expressive cultural practices and semiotic means have been used to express national identity. For example, in the pre martial law era in Taiwan, in order to 149Turino, Identity and the Arts, 9. 150Ibid., 10. 151Ibid.
68 argue with the People s Republic of China (PRC) in the international arena for the orthodox ruling regime of the whole China, the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China (ROC) promoted Peking opera as the national opera because it symbolized Chines e identity. I n the post martial law era, the government in Taiwan advocated teaching the homeland materials of the Holo people Hakka people and Taiwanese aborigines in the language education, history, geography, and arts education because these homelan d expressions embodied the genuine Taiwanese identity and helped to cultivate Taiwanese consciousness among students. The Emergence of Practice Theory Pierre Bourdieu and habitus Practice theory is influenced by Marxs dialectical approach to social histo ry 152 P ractice theory s emergence does not represent a theoretical school as structural functionalism or Marxism but rather juxtaposes and synthesizes various theoretical approaches that analyze the individuals actions in the broad social system. Practice theory recogni zes that the system shapes human actions and that individuals manipulate things within these systems.153 In other words, practice theory focuses on how the system is produced and reproduced, and how change can occur154 and influence individual action s Practice theorists conduct major concepts such as praxis, actor and action, interaction, agent, subject, self, individual, experience, and performance. Practice theory discusses the constitution and tr ansformation of consciousness and subjectivit y and how certain ideology and culture control the defi nitions of the world for individuals A ccording to practice theory, c ulture eventually becomes part of the individual Practice theory 152Christopher Waterman, J j History: Toward a Theory of Sociomusical Practice, in Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History ed. Stephen Blum, Phillip Vilas Bohlman, and Daniel M. Neuman (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 51. 153Johan Rasanayagam, AT5301 Lecture 13: Practice Theory Bourdieu and the Habitus [document online]; available from http://www.abdn.ac.uk/anthropology/notes06/Level2/AT2003/Lectur e%209%20%20Practice%20theory%201.doc; Internet; accessed 12 March 2007. 154Ibid.
69 is the study of practice on all forms of human action, but from a political angle155 which looks at action as a pragmatic choice and decision making, and/or active calculating and strategizing.156 P ractice theory considers society as a constraining system, but recognizes how the system can be re produced and changed through the individual s inten tional choice s and interaction s with the system. Pierre Bourdieu s concept of habitus is important to practice theory. Anthropologist Johan Rasanayagam summarizes Bourdieu s conception of habitus as follows, The habitus is developed through the process of sociali z ation during childhood and acts as a structure through which individuals interpret their environment and influences how they interact with it the goals and values on which these strategies are based are determined by the habitus The habitus is also continually being developed through experience .157 This remark suggests that habitus is ingrained in every individual s head and is socially constructed institutional behaviors. Scholars who adopt practice theory pay close attention to how members of a social system constitute their own cognitive structure, value and moral systems and mold their own behaviors. However, t hese scholars emphasi z e the intentions and motivations of the actions that the individuals take. In addition, another key concept articulated by Bourdieu in practice theory is cultural capital. The term cultural capital was first used by Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Claude Passeron in their collaborative work, Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction (1973). In th is book, Bourdieu and Passeron expl icate the differences in the effects of education in France during the 1960s. Bourdieu claims that cultural capital serves as an agent in a social system. Cultural capital refers to materials or things that are considered worthy of pursuit in our society. 155Sherry B. Ortner, Theory in Anthropology since the Sixties, In Comparative Studies on Society and History vol. 26, no. 1 (1984): 149. 156Ibid., 150. 157Rasanayagam, AT5301 Lect ure 13: Practice Theory
70 It endows power to an existing social status. Hence, cultural capital is closely linked to class differences. As Bowles and Jensen claim, Bourdieu argues that, since there is no objective way of differentiating between di fferent class cultures (upper, middle and working class cultures for example), the high value placed on the dominant cultural values characteristic of an upper or ruling class is simply a reflection of their powerful position within capitalist society. A d ominant class is able, in effect, to impose its definition of reality upon all other classes.158 The concept of cultural capital attracts many scholars attention s all around the world and is frequently used in relation to the education system The dominant class utilizes cultural capital in the education system to advocate a set of dominant socio cultural behaviors to ensure its power. While structural functionalists typically look at change as exceptional or even dysfunctional, practice theorists perceive c hange as a recursive process. While structural functionalists typically look at change as exceptional or even dysfunctional, practice theorists perceive change as a recursive process. 159 Ethnomusicologists who use practice theory view the reproduction of a structure as its transformation .160 Christopher Waterman writes that transformations will occur when actors are confronted with contradictions grounded in circumstances not of their own choosing, and are thus forced to rethink normally tacit assumptions and values. 161 Such formulations are compatible with earlier ethnomusicological theories. For example, Alan Merriam s (1964) model of musical process suggests that the conceptions of musical performers are reproduced or transformed through musical practice .162 158William Bowles and Michael Jensen MIMO: A Social Economic Model of the 21st Century ; [information on line]; available from http://www.williambowles.info/mimo/refs/tece1ef.htm; Internet; accessed 10 January 2008. 159Ibid. 160Waterman, J j History, 51. 161Ibid. 162Ibid., 52.
71 Ethnomusicologists in recent years have incorporated the concept of practice theory in their structural analyses of music and society. Two prominent models are represented by the works of Christopher Waterman and Thomas Turino. Christopher Waterman s r esearch on j j history, an African popular genre in the Yoruba community of southwestern Nigeria, utilizes both structural functionalist position and practice theory in the analyses of the continuity and change of jj musical style.163 Thomas Turino s work in the Fiesta de la Cruz in 1986 in the rural area of southern Peru utilizes practice theory to explain how music performers determine the change of a musical style within the notion of the structured nature of social relations.164 According to Bourdieu, habitus is linked to individuals on the basis of social class distinction. Based on Bourdieu s premise, members from a certain social class possess similar ways of thoughts and form certain behaviors, which are distinct from members from other social classes. Moreover, members of the dominant social class are able to manipulate others through their powers to impose their favored ideologies among other social classes. While the ideology of homeland was embedded into the elementary music curricula of Taiwan b y hegemonic processes initiated by the dominant class this dissertation explores the idea that the concept of homeland is perceived differently by educational policy makers, practitioners, and recipients. Practice theory helps explain the power structur es and relations within the society and how the variant views on homeland occurred within the education system. Critical Pedagogy: History, Philosophical Origins and Its Application in Music Education Critical pedagogy emerged from the synthesis of critica l theory as a philosophical framework and the applications of learning theory. In a very general sense critical pedagogy is a 163Waterman, J j History, 50. 164Thomas Turino, Structure, Context, and Strategy in Musical Ethnography Ethnomusicology 34, n o. 3 (Autumn 1990) : 406.
72 teaching process, which attempts to help individuals question and challenge domina tion with the goal of changing the current soci al, political, and economic status quo through social practices and human actions In other words, it is a theory and practice of helping students achieve critical consciousness of their own position within a system of power relations Critical pedagogy is a cultural and political tool that, as Barry Kanpol notes in the book Critical Pedagogy (1999), refers to the means of attempting to change the structures of schools that allow inequities and social injustices. 165 Kanpol goes on to state that critical pedagogy seeks to release the oppressed and unite people in a shared language of critique, struggle, and hope, to end various forms of human suffering.166 As Abrahams argues, critical pedagogy is not a traditional musicteaching method, but a combined theory that comprises philosophy, pedagogy, theory and practice.167 It is a way of negotiating and transforming the relationships among classroom teaching, knowledge, institutional structure, and social relations of the wider community, society and nation. According to practice theory, the tacit knowledge and cultural capitals are formulated through hegemony. This is parallel with critical pedagogy s proposition of hegemony and cultural capital. Critical pedagogy s claim of the political controls in education manife sted the hegemony that is takes place in a socio culturally stratified education system proposed by practice theory. History and Philosophical Origins of Critical P edagogy Critical pedagogy is based on critical theory in the educational setting; hence, it is also called a radical theory of education, the new sociology of education or a critical theory of 165Barry Kanpol, Critical Pedagogy: An Introduction, 2nd Ed. Edited by Henry A. Giroux. (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1999), 27. 166Ibid. 167Frank Abrahams, The Application of Critical Pedagogy to Music Teaching and Learning: A literature Review, UPDATE: Application of Research to Music Teaching and Learning 29, no. 5 (Spring/Summer 2005): 12.
73 education.168 According to Barry Kanpol, critical theory built its roots in Western Marxist philosophy.169 Critical pedagogy usually refers to the theore tical tradition developed by the Frankfurt School of critical theory, a group of critical theorists. According to Joe Kincheloe, in its beginning stage, Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, and Herbert Marcuse initiated a conversation with the German tradition of philosophical and social thought, especially that of Marx, Hegel, and Weber.170 During World War II, a number of its members fled to the United States as a result of persecution by Nazis because they were leftist and Jewish.171 Influenced by the contradicti ons between progressive American egalitarianism and racial and class discrimination, these theorists produced their major work while residing in the U.S. After the war, they returned to Germany and re established the Institute in Frankfurt in 1953. Emerging in the 1960s, many of the New Left scholars were impressed by critical theory s dialectical concern with the social construction of experiences.172 It provided a radical theory of education and analysis of schooling, as well as a social theory and new meth odologies that influenced numerous disciplines such as literary criticism, anthropology, and sociology. Critical theory also resonated with students and intellectuals in the 1960s and 1970s. With the advent of the civil rights, homosexuality, environmental protection, and feminist movements, critical social and educational theorists have been engaged in debates over the social and cultural relationships that schools have encountered and supported. Peter McLaren asserts, critical 168Peter McLaren, Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundations of Education (New York: Longman Inc., 1989), 159. 169Kanpol, Critical Pedagog y 27. 170Kincheloe, Joe L. Critical Pedagogy Primer (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2004), 46. 171McLaren, Life in Schools 159. 172Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer 47 48.
74 theorists empower the power less and transform existing social inequalities and injustices. 173 A major tension that a critical theorist has to deal with is between a traditional and a critical scope of education. Critical theory in education offers historical, cultural, political, and ethical directions for those in education who hope to change the society, and critical pedagogues have paid special attention to social, cultural, political and economic status in order to better understand contemporary schooling. Critical pedagogues ques tion and act in order to offset unequal relations among people in the school system .174 Leaning toward the side of the oppressed, a major task of critical pedagogy has been to challenge the role that schools play in our political and cultural lives.175 With th e Brazilian Paulo Freire, the notion of critical pedagogy emerged as we understand it today. Peter McLaren has called Freire the inaugural philosopher of critical pedagogy.176 Not only have scholars in education employed Freire s work, but individuals working in literary theory, cultural studies, philosophy, research methods, political science, sociology, and other disciplines have used his work as a model. Paulo Freire practiced critical pedagogy in Brazil in t he 1960s in order to teach illiterate adults (he call ed them the oppressed ) to read Portuguese. 177 Frank Abrahams synthesizes Freire s teaching process as follows: Believing that teaching was a conversation or dialogue between the teacher and the student, Freire posed problems for his students that caused them to take what they already knew and understood from their world outside the classroom and connect it 173McLaren, Life in Schools 160. 174Kanpol, Critical Pedagogy 30. 175McLaren, Life in Schools 160. 176Ibid., 70. 177Abrahams, Application of Critical Pedagogy, 3.
75 to the goals of literacy, namely the abilities to read and write the language .. .his goal was to use that knowledge as a bridge to new learning.178 Freire s model of praxis, a critical reflection that commits oneself to action s was intended to result in not only transformative learning but also a more just society.179 Henry Giroux s work in the late 1970s and 1980s extended and strengthened the concept of critical pedagogy.180 Bringing together Freire s work, the idea of cultural capital of Pierre Bourdieu, the radical democratic work of Aronowitz, and the critical theory of the Frankfurt School, Giroux established critical pedagogy as a domain of study and praxis. Critical theory provided Giroux in the early 1980s with poignant criticisms that reshaped and extended the notion of politics in the education system.181 Regarding Giroux s contribution in the history of the development of critical pedagogy in the U.S., Kincheloe provides a solid description in the Critical Pedagogy Primer (2004) as follows: Giroux s introduction of Frankfurt School critical theory into educational scholarship struck a responsive stream with those offended by the right wing use of schooling and other social institutions to reeducate Americans .Adeptly using critical theory to expose the right wing s use of education in this larger project, Giroux in the early 1980s exposed modes of domination tacitly operating in educational spaces both in and out of school.182 Using the interdisciplinary tool of cultural studies to translate theory into practice, Giroux expanded his search for new academic avenues. His work since the 1990s onward has provided new insights into the pedagogical proces s.183 178Abrahams, Application of Critical Pedagogy, 3. 179Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer 70. 180Ibid., 77. 181Ibid. 182Ibid. 183Ibid., 80.
76 Major Themes of Critical Pedagogy and Applications in Music Education Critical pedagogy adopts Paulo Freire s notion of generative themes to assist students read and understand the world.184 Frank Abrahams proposes several key principles used to define critical pedagogy in his article The Application of Critical Pedagogy to Music Teaching and Learning (2006). I synthesize and conclude with the following central themes and concerns of critical pedagogy: 1. Education is an interactive dialogue: Through dialogue, s tudents and their teachers will work collaboratively. They pos e questions and solve problems together.185 As Peter McLaren stresses, critical pedagogy welcomes dialectical theories that recognize the problems of society. Through dialectical educat ion, both students and their teachers understand that schools function as agents of domination and liberation. 2. Education is empowering.186 C onscientization implies students recognize the status quo and then work to e ffect a change. Paulo Freire defines conscientization as a state, an acute awareness of the dynamics of one s environment.187 Hinchey suggests that critical pedagogues help students to recognize the need to change their life circumstances through an understanding of their circumstances, the for ces that produced those circumstances and actions that might change the status quo.188 184Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer 15. 185Abraham s, Application of Critical Pedagogy, 3. 186Ibid. 187Patricia H. Hinchey, Finding Freedom in the Classroom: A Practical Introduction to Critical Theory (New York: Peter Lang, 2004), 120. 188Ibid.
77 3. Education is transformative. 189 C ritical pedagogues suggest that learning takes place when both the teachers and the students can190 recognize a change of perception .191 T he goal of education is to e ffect a change in the way that both students and their teachers perceive the world. The combination of three principles of critical pedagogy dialectical, empowering, and transformative demonstrates a social and educational vi sion of justice and egalitarianism. According to Peter McLaren, the dialectical nature of critical pedagogy enables the educational researcher to consider the school not only as a place that imparts knowledge that students should know, but also as a cultu ral terrain that promotes student empowerment and self transformation.192 The Grade 1 9 Curriculum in the Arts and Humanities Learning Area in Taiwan emphasized the student centered curriculum and dialectic teaching process. 4. Education is political : Criti cal pedagogy is constructed on the belief that education is inherently political.193 Abrahams writes: There are issues of power and control inside the class room, inside the school building and inside the community.194 Critical pedagogue Kincheloe argues tha t school is actually an institution designed for social benefit.195 He further elaborates that developmental theories derived from research on students from dominant cultural backgrounds, schools not only reflect social stratification but also extend i t. 196 189Abrahams, Application of Critical Pedagogy, 4. 190Ibid. 191Ibid. 192McLaren, Life in Schools 167. 193Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer 8. 194Abrahams, Application of Critical Pedagogy, 4. 195Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer 8. 196Ibid.
78 Therefore, when teachers develop pedagogies, they are unconsciously exerting a political policy. Critical pedago gues resist the constraints that those in power place on them.197 They demonstrate their realization of such hegemony in their teaching by valuing the experiences and knowledge that students have gained from the outside world. 198 Critical pedagogues assume that education is a political tool that supports the need of the dominant culture while subverting the interests of marginalized cultures .199 To them, teaching is not simply making use of a technology or teaching methods; rather, it is the praxis of explaining students lives and effecting personal and social transformations. Henry Giroux describes critical pedagogy as an educational process that integrates issues of power, history, self identity, and possibility of collective agency200 and struggle. In this tradition, the teacher lead s students to question ideologies and practices that are considered oppressive (including those at school), and encourage collaborative and individual responses to the actual conditions of their own lives. As Kincheloe notes, t he critical teacher must understand not only a wide body of subject matter but also the political structure of the school.201 M ost critical educational theorists agree that schools are social and cultural reproducers of the dominant ideology, which require knowledge and skills needed to support the dominant political and economic power. There is also a close link between social class structure and knowledge taught in the classroom. Bourdieu argues that through the school system, the dominant class reproduces its own culture and imposes it on all other classes. 197Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer 8. 198Ibid. 199Ibid. 200According to Joe Kincheloe, a gency denotes persons ability to shape and control their own lives, freeing self from the oppression of power In Joe Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer (New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc., 2004), 2. 201Kincheloe, Critical Pedagogy Primer 2.
79 When the school system works as a social cultural reproducer of the dominant class, t he knowledge, teaching methods and materials are produced and practiced in a subtle manner so that they seem neutral As an example, classical music and classical literature are systematically taught in schools but not popular music, jazz, blues or other popular music styles. Since 1970s, some music scholars have begun to apply the ideas of critical pedagogy in music education and musical scholarship The most popular concept has been grouped under the label of multiculturalism. David Elliot, music professo r at New York University, is one of the advocators of multicultural music education. While in America the traditional methodology in music education was to teach Western European music to students, Elliot believes that music from other cultures should be i ncluded in the curriculum One of his famous concepts is praxial music education which means music is something that all humans do, and a musical practice, form, or style should be understood in a particular cultural context. For instance, the mainstream belief in the field of music education has been based on Social Darwinism the Western art music, since it completed its own evolution and is the example of excellent music among other music. This ethnocentric view has misled music educators to believe t hat music from other cultures can best be understood in comparison to Western Art music. Parallel Concepts between Practice Theory and Critical Pedagogy T he concepts of praxis, hegemony, cultural capital, and dialectical understanding of social actions (su ch as music performance) in critical pedagogy are closely linked to practice theory. Stephen Blum, drawing upon the work of Walter Benjamin, characterizes the practice of a performing musician as a mode of human labor. T he performer learns and refines the techniques through exercises which make it possible for him or her to act as a performer within one or more
80 changing or stable contexts.202 The emergent musical product thus carries in it the processes through which the performer has effected and realized his choices, has established his personal and social stance.203 This formulation links the dialectics of performance practice to patterns of social interaction and the enactment and negotiation of identity.204 As Waterman claims, musical structure and musical p erformance are interdependent aspects of a more inclusive system. In practice theory, according to Waterman, musical structure is defined as learned habit, knowledge, and value that predicate performance strategies; musical performance is defined as the di alectical realization of musical structure in social action ( praxis ). Musical styles continue when performers and listeners reproduce through practice the understandings that guide their conventional expressive behavior ( also called habitus ). The change of musical style, explained by practice theorists, occurs when music performers are confronted with contradictions caused by the unintended consequences of their actions or changes beyond their control in the material and social world. When such conseque nces occur, the music performers may reinterpret traditio nal musical values, symbols, and methods. Sometimes in musical practice, change might involve tactics or even strategies.205 For example, Thomas Turino describes the relationship of social structure to the tactics of rural Aymara musicians during rehearsals and performances of flute music for the Fiesta de la Cruz in southern 202Cite d b y Christopher Waterman, J j History: Toward a Theory of Sociomusical Practice, in Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History ed. Stephen Blum, Phillip Vilas Bohlman, and Daniel M. Neuman (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 53. 203Cite d by Waterman, J j History 53. 204Ibid. 205Tactics is a concept proposed by Michel de Certeau. According to De Certeau, tactics are performed as a response to external conditions, a way of making do but does not escape the notions of system and social struct ure, since systems of social power are central to De Certeau s definition of tactics
81 Peru. Tactics are a holding operation against the existing fundamental structures that are generated by the sociocultural domina ted systems. Turino explains, [E]very historical act is .unified with multiple layers of determination, and in order to approach the concrete historical complexity of a given practice ., we must reconstruct the determinations that constitute it.206 Therefore in the fiesta, when people from other communities joined their ensemble performance, the ensemble performers adjusted the way they perform in order to achieve an ideal of egalitarianism in a social structure. As Turino writes, .because of an ethos of eg alitarianism, community unity and conflict avoidance, people usually do not call attention to others in public social settings, let alone correct or criticize them (such a situation results in the total denial of a problem during the performance).207 Moreove r, Turino enunciates that, in Conima society, equal access to participation is granted a higher priority than achieving the aesthetic ideals of musical performance.208 This case illustrates how performers reconstruct and change their conventional musical behaviors and extend their performance context within a social structure. In this dissertation, I apply a critical approach combining critical pedagogy and practice theory to examine the present power structure in the educational environment particularly in the elementary arts education in contemporary Taiwan Critical pedagogy provides excellent explanations on how the ideologies of homeland were shaped through hegemony in the hierarchical structure of Taiwanese contemporary education. Homeland teaching materials ( X ) were originally designed to reinforce Taiwanese students homeland consciousness and national identity. Nevertheless, due to the political nature of 206Turino, Structure, Context, and Strategy, 407. 207Ibid, 405. 208Ibid.
82 education as suggested by critical pedagogues and practice theorists, the notion of homeland was manipulated by political powers in education and hence was constructed in two distinct ways Sino centric and Taiwan centric. These two conceptions of homeland education reflect changes in the political sphere of the pre martial law era and the post martial law era. In the following chapters, I will analyze how the government in Taiwan manipulated its education throughout history by promoting certain ideologies such as gu yu (translated as national music or Chinese music ) and (or ) jio ci ( ) (translated as homeland materials ) and how this power relation manifested in the elementary school curricular standards and music textbooks.
83 Figure 21. Map of Taiwan and its neighboring area [ Source: Data from W eb T ranslations : Making International eBusiness Easy, Taiwan Business Information, (Web Translations, 2008). http://www.web translations.com/resources/country_guides/Taiwan/ (accessed March 8, 2010).]
84 Table 2 1. Taiwan s political history Political Rule Time Frame Pre history 50,000 B.C. A.D. 1624 Dutch and Spanish Era 1624 1661 Kingdom of Tungning (founded b y Zheng Chenggong of the Ming Dynasty of China ) 1662 1683 Qing Dynasty Rule 1683 1895 Japanese Rule 1895 1945 Republic of China: Kuomint a ng (Nationalist Party) Democratic Progressive Party Kuomint a ng (Nationalist Party) 1945 present 1945 2000 2000 2008 2009 present
85 CHAPTER 3 TAIWAN S CONTEMPORARY ELEME NTARY EDUCATION PROF ILE This chapter reveals the structures of the elementary education system in contemporary Taiwan. It includes general statistical reports of the elementary schools, a br ief history of Taiwanese contemporary educational and curricular reforms, and the formations of formal school curricula. I draw specifically on the examples of Chen Ping Elementary School s curricular arrangements to illustrate the implementation of curric ular reforms of Taiwanese contemporary elementary education. The information in this chapter will provide the nonTaiwanese readers a better understanding of the formal school education in Taiwan. Beginning at the age of six in Taiwan all children are req uired to receive six years of elementary education and three years of junior high school education. There were 2,654 public elementary schools in 2008.1 In elementary education, the Taiwanese government advocates small sized classes (small numbers of students in a class) and small sized schools (small numbers of classes at a school) in accordance with the educational reform. According to the Education Yearbook of the Republic of China (2007), the majority of elementary schools in Taiwan were the small sized schools, which consisted of class numbers under twenty four; moreover, among those small elementary schools, most of them had class numbers under six only; each class consisted of around thirty to thirtyfour students. In recent years, the number of c hild ren who attend elementary school ha s gradually decreased each year. This correlates to a gradual decreasing birth rate in Taiwan in recent years. According to the statistic report, there 1The statistic records are stated in the Ministry of Education Department of Statistics ( Jio y b ) website, Overview of the Elementary and Junior High School (G ), http://www.edu.tw/statistics/content.aspx?site_content_sn=8956 [ accessed November 1, 2009]
86 were 1,798,436 children attended elementary school in the year 2006.2 Comparing the year 2006 to the year 2005, the number of children who received formal school education had decreased 33,477.3 In turn, the population of children who attended elementary school has decreased every year. While the total number of school chil dren has decreased, the number of licensed elementary school teachers has slowly increased in recent years. According to the Education Yearbook of the Republic of China (2007), since the year 2003, qualified elementary teachers had been increased to 99% of the entire teacher population and had been growing up to 99.44% in the year 2007.4 Most elementary school teachers are between the ages of 25 to 44 and are female. Moreover, in 2006, over 96% of elementary school teachers had received a bachelor s degree or above.5 This development should be attributed to the conversion of the educational policies on teachers training procedures. Differing from the former policy that strictly stipulated that qualified elementary, junior high and senior high school teachers should be trained by the 2The statistic record comes from Si nf a Li n and Pe is i o u De ng Gu mn jio y in [ Education Yearbook of the Republic of China] (Taipei, Taiwan: National Institute of Educat ional Resources and Research, 2007), 69 3For more information, see Si nf a Li n and Pe is i o u De ng Gu mn jio y in mn gu jio y nin bo [ Education Yearbook of the Republic of China] (Taipei, Taiwan: National Institute of Educational Resources and Research, 2007), 69 71; also see Si nf a Li n Pe is i o u De ng and Bo l i n C h e n Gu mn jio y in [ Education Yearbook of the Republic of China] (Taipei, Taiwan: National Ins titute of Educational Resources and Research, 2006), 69 70. 4For comparison and more information, see C h u nr o ng Li o u and Liy i n Ch e n Gu mn jio y in [ Education Yearbook of the Republic of China] (T aipei, Taiwan: National Institute of Educational Resources and Research, 92. See also Si n fa Li n and Pe is i o u De ng Gu mn jio y in [ Education Yearbook of the Republic of China] (Taipei, Taiwan: Na tional Institute of Educational Resources and Research, 2007), 73 75. 5See the statistic record in Si nf a Li n and Pe is i o u De ng Gu mn jio y in mn gu jio y nin bo [ Education Yearbook of the Republic of China] (Taipe i, Taiwan: National Institute of Educational Resources and Research, 2007), 74 75.
87 three normal universities and the nine teachers colleges, after the enactment of the S ( ; translated as the Act of Teachers Cultivation Procedures ) on February 7th in 1994, almost every institution of higher education in Taiwan has established the Elementary or High School Teachers Credential Program to develop qualified school teachers. The new law has diversified the manners of training qualified new teachers; nevertheless, this has simultaneously incurred a severe overflow of certified teachers while not providing enough job vacancies to fill all of them in the elementary and high schools teaching positions in recent years. The elementary school in Taiwan is divided into three levels: the upper grades, the middle grades, and the lower grades. The upper grades include the 5th and 6th grades, the middle grades included the 3rd and 4th grades, and the lower grades include the 1st and 2nd grades. Elementary school students go to school five days a week from Mondays through Fridays. At most public schools, a typical school day for elementary children starts at 7:50 a .m and finishes at 4:00 p.m. However, the lower graders6 end their school days at 12:00 p. m except for Tuesdays that end at 4:00 p.m The middle gr aders finish their school days at 4:00 p. m except for Wednesdays and Mondays (or Fridays, decided by every different school district itself) when the day finishes at noon. The upper grades start their school days at 7:50 a .m and end at 4:00 p. m except W ednesdays that end at noon. Generally, schools schedule four classes in the mornings and three classes in the afternoons; each class lasts 40 minutes. There is a 10 to 20minute break between each class; the lunch break (including the nap time) usually la sts about an hour and 10 to 20 minutes between 12:00 p. m to 1:30 p. m. Because the Grade 1 9 Curriculum strongly emphasize s the content integrations among all subjects, the curricular structure is categorized into Seven 6In Taiwan s elementary schools, the lower graders refer to the first grade and the second grade children; the middle graders refer to the third grade and the fourth grade c hildren; the upper graders refer to the fifth grade and sixth grade students.
88 Disciplines ( Q or literally translated as Seven Learning Areas ) and Six Societal Innovative Topics ( L ). The Six Societal Innovative Topics, however, were designed to be blended into the Seven Disciplines. The Seven Discipl ines are: Language and Literature, Health and Physical Education, Social Studies, Nature Science and Life Technology, Mathematics, Arts and Humanities, and Integrative Activities; the Six Societal Innovative Topics are: computer technology, environment, ge nder, human rights, career development, and household management.7 When the school administrators schedule the courses, each one of the seven disciplines is divided into several individual subjects based on their students learning capacities, schools developments and objectives, and faculty teaching specialties. Accordingly, the subjects covered under each of the seven disciplines are listed as follows: Language and Literature: Chinese (Mandarin), X ng (translated as Dialects or Homeland l anguages, those are Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal languages), and English. Health and Physical Education: Physiology and Health Care (or Health Education), and Physical Education Social Studies: History, Geography, and Sociology Natural Science and Life Technology: Natural Science and Life Science Mathematics (regarded as an individual subject itself) Arts and Humanities: Music, Visual Arts, and Performing Arts (Theater and Dance) Integrative Activities (including all topics related to life, environment, and career development, such as life education, environmental education, civil education, human rights, household management, and student counseling ). 7For more information, see Ji a o y u b u (Ministry of Education), 2003 ( Teaching i nnovation in Grade 1 9 Curriculum questions and answers year 2003 revision ) (Taipei: Ministry of Education, 2 003), 2021.
89 Although divided into several different subjects, according to the Curricular Guideline of current Grade 1 9 Curriculum, when scheduling courses, the Department of Teaching Affairs at each elementary school still must consider integrating the course objectives, contents knowledge and assessments. In addition, the Curricular Guideline emphasizes the flexibility o f course arrangements and the individuality and the characteristic development of each school. It encourages each school to promote its own strength and characteristics in terms of its curricular development. Thus, besides the 80% of entire courses require d within the six learning domains, children were granted 20% courses on the flexible learning units ( T n xng xu x ji sh ). These flexible courses were designed for each individual class, school, or community to employ for hosting its public events or exploiting its strengths. The homeroom teachers are allowed to apply these courses in order to provide their students l earning assistance, student counseling, or self studying.8 Figure 31 and F igure 32 illustrate how the Flexible Learning Units were utilized in the first and sixth grades curricular plans at Chen Ping Elementary School in the semester of spring 2008. The extracurricular activities were scheduled on Wednesday afternoons (after school hours) and Saturday mornings. Children could choose to participate in their favorite literary, art or sport clubs that the schools host. In general, Grade 19 Curriculum Guide line suggested that elementary school students attended their schools five days a week, 200 school days per year. Every week, twentytwo to twentyfour classes were 8Si nf a Li n : (The directions of cross century Taiwanese educational reforms in elementary school: background, rationale, and critic ism) National Taipei Teachers College Newsletter 14 (September 2001): 92.
90 scheduled for the lower graders and twenty eight to thirty one for the middle graders, wher eas thirty to thirty three classes were offered for the upper graders.9 The ChenPing Elementary School is located in the suburban area of Taichung City in Central Taiwan, and is a medium sized school with a total of fifty one classes in the 2007 school ye ar. Students began their school day at 7:50 a .m with a 45minute Morning Sunrise Time until 8:35 a m. During the Morning Sunrise Time, most students had written assignments given by their homeroom teachers; however, some students evaluated as artistical ly or athletically t alented by their teachers participate d in the chorus rehearsals, the school s instrumental band rehearsals, and/or sports training sessions. There was no written guideline for determining athletic or musical talent; however, according to the physical education teachers and the music teachers, these students were chosen in accordance with not only their passion, but also their performances in the physical education classes, the music classes and the auditions. On M ondays, the Morning Sunr ise Time was devoted to the Morning Assembly which was utilized by the school administrators to impart morality, give awards, and make special announcement regarding recent events or student affairs. This meeting was held at the school s stadium All the school members including students, faculty and staff were required to attend this substantial weekly meeting. There was a fiveminute break after the Morning Sunrise Time prior to starting the first class. Every period of class lasted forty minutes. Identical to the structure of most public schools, the administration department at ChenPing Elementary School arranged four class periods in the mornings and three class periods in the afternoons on Tuesdays for students from first to sixth grades and on Thur sdays and Fridays for students from third to sixth 9Jiao yu bu Ministry of Education, (The Curriculum Guideline of Grade 1 9 Curriculum), (Taipei: Ministry o f Education, 2003), 13.
91 grades; however, students in the lower grades received only the morning class every Wednesday, T hursday and F riday, and those of the middle grades received the morning class each Monday and Wednesday. Chil dren of the upper grades received seven class periods every Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, and hence, they stayed at school on those days until 3:55 p.m. Each Monday, the upper grade students attended only two class periods instead of the regular three peri ods in the afternoon ( for a total of six periods for the day). In other words, they were dismissed from school right after finishing the sixth period at three o clock in the afternoon. Overall, the lower grade students received 23 class periods a week ; the middle graders received 29 periods a week, whereas the upper graders received 31 periods per week. Figure 33 shows the comparisons of the total numbers of courses scheduled per week at Chen Ping Elementary School and those directed in Grade 1 9 Curriculu m Guideline by the Ministry of Education. The weekly course schedule of Chen Ping Elementary School illustrat es this. English10 (offered from second to sixth grades), Chinese Mandarin, and the homeland languages of Holo and Hakka were included in Language and Literature discipline; two courses, visual arts and music, were scheduled in Arts and Humanities discipline. Health and Phy sical Education L earning A rea counted as two separate courses; the other four disciplines Social Studies, Natural Science and Lif e Technology, Mathematics, and Integrative Activitieswere placed as four independent subjects. Computer technology was offered once a week starting from the third grade through sixth grade. In addition, every grade received a course titled Flexible Learn ing Units one to three times a week. This was a course that allowed every homeroom teacher the time for teaching remedies and classroom managements. The extracurricular activities were held 10In the ninety six (Fall 2007) to ninety seven (Spring 2008) school year when I was conducting my fieldwork for this dissertation, English was offered from second to sixth grades at Chen Ping Elementary School and most of public ele mentary schools in Taichung City, Taiwan.
92 routinely on Wednesday afternoons and Saturday mornings, while some clubs also held activities after school on other weekdays. Furthermore, the break between each class usually lasted ten minutes, yet the morning recess, which was placed between the second and the third periods, consisted of twenty minutes. The Lunch Br eak, following the Noon Recess or the Nap Time at Chen Ping Elementary School ran from noon to 1:30 p.m. There was also a fifteen minute Cleanup Time scheduled in the afternoons between the sixth and the last class periods. The Cleanup Time on Wednesday, the half school day, was ordinarily taken place on the twenty minute morning recess from 10:10 a .m to 10:30 a .m. Every Wednesday was designated as Mother Tongue s Day according to the policy announced by the Ministry of Education. On this special day, school members were supposed to speak their own homeland languages (mainly Holo or Hakka dialects) at school when greeting, talking to each other, and hosting guests. Figure 34, F igure 35 and F igure 3 6 display the examples of weekly course schedules of the lower grades, middle grades, and upper grades respectively at Chen Ping Elementary School in the fall 2009 semester. Curricular Standard Adoptions and Textbook Policies before 1987 Taiwan s elementary curricular standards have gone through eight major revisions in Taiwan s educational history after the fifty year Japanese colonial period (18951945). Those revisions took place in 1948, 1952, 1962, 1968, 1975, 1993, 1998, and 2003 (see Table 3 1). This section will discuss the history of different curric ular standard adoptions and textbook policies before the abolition of martial law in 1987. Curricular revisions and textbook policies in the contemporary era, that is, after the year 1987, will be addressed in the next section, Curricular Reforms and Thei r Impacts on Music Education. Generally speaking, curricular standards or curricular guidelines are educational handbooks that outline the curricular rationales, curricular objectives, teaching materials, core
93 competences, competence benchmarks, curricula r evaluation, instructional assessment, and other administration strategies and principles. Textbook design and course scheduling are required to follow the Curricular Standards and Guidelines. The creation and implementation of new curricular standards at different time periods were the consequence of social changes, cultural developments, and civil demands. The first textbook revision occurred after Japanese occupation ended and took place in September, 1948. This was part of the Elementary Curricular Sta ndard that was revised in accordance with the Constitutional Law. In this Curriculum Standard, the lower grades music course was changed from the original name Singing ( C hng G ) to Singing and Playing ( C hng G Y u X ); the middle and upper gr ade students received three thirty minute music classes per week. Next, in November 1952, the curricular standards of two subjects, national language Chinese Mandarin and social studies, were revised. This curricular revision was made to correspond to the national policy on promoting Chinese Mandarin as the national language and the Kuomintang (or the Nationalist Party ) regime s pros pect of recovering Chinese m ainland. The designation for elementary school was changed from (the Primary School) to gu mn xu xio (the Civilian School). While change of language designation clearly reflected Chinese mainland influence, music curriculum did not make any recommendation in the 1952 Curricular Standard. In July 1962, the elementary curricula r standard underwent another revision for implementing the Grade 1 6 Curriculum ; the music class of the lower grades changed title again, from Singing and Playing to Recreation Class. This curricular name change indicated that the contents of the music class of the lower grades evolved from singing and playing to a combined curriculum of music and physical education (see Table 3 1 )
94 In January 1968, in order to promote the Nine Year Compulsory Education (sixyear elementary school education plus three year junior high school education), another curricular standard revision ensued. The designation for elementary school was changed again from gu mn xu xio (the Civilian School) to (the Civilian Elementary School) and has remained in use since that time. The major transformation when implementing the Curricular Standard of the year 1968 was in relation to the textbook publishing policy. Before the 1968 Curricular Standard, music textbooks were authorized to be published by various publishers such as FuXing and G ua ngYin T ang S ome musicians who were born in m ainland China and had immigrated to Taiwan after 1945 were assigned to the textbook designs. They emulated the music education of the Chinese m ainland and incorporated many Western musicteaching materials in the textbooks they designed. Nevertheless, after the 1968 Curricular Standard had been carried out, textbooks were designed and published solely by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation. This sort of textbook unionpublishing policy was in effect until the year of 1980. In August 1975, the Ministry of Education announced a Curricular Standard revision for carrying out the rationale of the nine year integrated education and for enhancing the ethnic consciousness education. In addition with the goal of reducing children s course load, the middle and upper grades weekly music courses were adjusted from three class periods to two class periods while each class period was increased from 30 minu tes to 40 minutes. Curricular Reforms and Their Impacts on Music Education Curricular reforms appear to be among several of the demands highlighted by the educational reform in Taiwan. Educational reform occurred when Taiwanese society underwent a series o f reconstructions after the government announced the end of martial law on July 15th,
95 1987. As the politics, society and culture have been steadily liberalized since that time, Taiwanese citizens ha ve simultaneously felt a strong need to reform their educa tion system In fact, educational reform has been an ongoing process since the early 1980s.11 As a consequence, after martial law was terminated in 1987, specifically after the lifting of censorship on newspapers in 1988, many civic groups seeking educational reform were established with subsequent legal initiatives.12 For instance Zhn du xu hu established in 1987, was an association for research on the rationales and practices of educational reforms; J qun c jn hu (Associati on for Teacher Rights Enhancement) and Q un gu (National Teachers Association), both founded in 1987, fought for teachers rights in the profession; R (Educational Foundation for Human Rights), formed in 1988, fought for students rights regarding their individuality and learning privileges and protested against the administration of physical punishments; founded in 1988, advocated the significance of parental education and parental i nvolvement on children s education.13 Educator Huang Yiling describes educational reform as an outcome of social movements. She claims, The educational reform was tightly connected with social movements and was pushed for by different interest groups in Tai wanese society, while at the same time being one of the government s objectives.14 11Yiling Huang, Educational Reform in Taiwan: Change and Continuity since the Change in Ruling Party (London: University of London, April 2004, Special Collections, accessed 1 December 2004), 4; available from http://www.soas.ac.uk/taiwanstudiesfiles/conf042004/paper/panel4yilingpaper.pdf; Internet. 12Li n (Taiwanese educational reforms in elementary school): 77. 13Ibid., 79. 14Huang, Change and Continuity, 2.
96 This statement implies that the educational reform had been given enormous expectations in the society and held a responsible position for Taiwanese people s social well being. The official launch of the educational reform nationally was the context for a momentous demonstration on April 10th, 1994 by the Alliance of Educational Reform composed of many civic educational groups. In order to mend what they considered the malicious circumstances in education at the time, these groups proposed four major reforms to the government: 1. Fulfill the smallsized school and small sized class. 2. Promote educational modernization. 3. Establish high schools and colleges/universities widely. 4. Enact the Basic Education Act15 (my own translation) After the demonstration, the Ministry of Education, the major government educational authority conducting the educational reform in Taiwan, gave a positive response to their appeals resulting in subsequent national education committee meetings. Accordingly, on September 21st of the same year, the Ministry of Education established the Committee for Educational Reform Council and enlisted Dr. Yuan Tseh Lee, President of Academia Sinica and 1986 Nobel L aureate in chemistry as the convener of the Committee. The Committee for Educational Reform Counci l published the Counsel of Educational Reform Report ( ) in December 1996. In terms of the reforms in elemen tary and high schools, the Ministry of Education proposed three dominant curricular reformation plans: First, a dminister the Grade 1 9 Curriculum: Grade 1 9 Curriculum was one of the principles advocated by the educational reform. It denoted the curricula integrations from the first grade in the elementary school throughout the ninth grade in the junior high school. Instead of teaching children academic knowledge that they could barely use in daily lives, one of the 15C h o ngch e n C h e ng (In Search of the Veins o f the Development of Educational Reform), in (Educational Reform and Educational Development), ed. Des i a ng H u a ng (Taipei: Wu Nan, 2001), 522.
97 educational goals of the Grade 19 Curric ulum is to equip children with the basic skills that are required for them to live in this modern era.16 Therefore, what students learned at school in the new curriculum are intended to include those abilities and skills closely related to their everyday ex periences. Second, l iberate the authorization of textbook designs from the unified, government authorized publication National Institute for Compilation and Translation, to diversified, commissioner reviewed publishers. In fact, the Ministry of Education started to lift the textbook design restrictions on some noncore courses such as arts and some elective courses of the elementary and junior high schools in 1989. Those textbook publishers followed the Grade 19 Curriculum Guideline to design their textbooks and then sent them to the Textbook Reviewing Committee s who w ere convened by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation. The commi ttees were divided into six specialized small groups in accord with the Six Learning Areas. They gather ed in small groups in a few meetings to discuss and examine th e textbooks. During the review meetings, they define d certain evaluation guidelines and clari fied questions Those textbooks that passed the reviewing process were then qualified to be selected for use by the individual schools and teachers. Third, e xecute English education beginning from the fifth grade: Before the Grade 1 9 Curriculum was implemented officially, English was not a required course in public elementary schools. Students began to receive English as a required course when they entered the junior high school. With the wish for implementing the educational reform s ideal on internationalization and global communication, the Committee for Educational Reform Council passed a law to 16H ongi Wu D : Y (C hapter Two: Music Teaching Research), in Y (Education of Arts and Humanity), vol. 2, ed. R e nl a i H u a ng and Editorial Board of Research in Arts Education (Taipei: G 2003), 464.
98 adopt English as a required course in elementary education in 1996. Since the practice of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum, English became a required course to the upper grades in every elementary school in Taiwan. Particularly, due to Taichung City Mayor Jason Hu s English specialty and his governance rationale, the City Educational Bureau of Taichung executed its policy by lower ing the beginning age of English education at elementary school level from fifth grade down to the second grade. Under the pressure of educational reform, the Ministry of Education introduced curricular reforms in two stages that have directly and significantly impacted the elementary music education the New Curricular Standard () issued in 1993 and the Grade 19 Tentative Curriculum Guideline ( ) announced in 1998.17 In October 1993, a revised curricular standard was enacted to accommodate the social and cultural transformations and liberaliz ations after the abolition of martial law in 1987. Scholars and educators termed this curricular revision the 1993 New Curricular Standard because of its significance in Taiwan s educational history. It designated a momentous and epochal curricular refor m after the old curriculum, the 1975 Curricular Standard, had been practiced for sixteen years. It was the longest time frame between any one of the former and latter curricular revisions. According to the 1993 New Curricular Standard, a general music clas s was to be taught from the first grade through the sixth grade in elementary education, while previously it was taught only from the third grade through the sixth grade. T hus, since the 1993 New Curricular Standard was fully implemented in elementary education in 1996, all children in grades one through six received two forty minute class periods of music course every week. This change not only enhanced the design of the 17Shen Keng Yang, Dilemmas of Education Reform in Taiwan: Internationalization or Localization? (paper presented at the annual meeting of the comparative and International Education Society, Washington D.C., Maryland, 1317 March 2001), 14 15.
99 elementary school music education curriculum but also accelerated the educational development of children s early musical ability. On the other hand, policies on textbook publication faced another transition between the executions of the 1975 Curricular Standard and the 1993 New Curricular Standard. A fter the year 1991, the Ministry of Educ ation also released the textbook publication right to many private textbook publishers. In other words, textbook policy had been changed from the unionpublication ( referring to the National Institute of Compilation and Translation) starting in 1968, to both the unionand multiple publications since 1991. Moreover, beginning from the year 1996 while the 1993 New Curricular Standard was implemented, the textbook publication authority had been completely released to the private publishers; the National I nstitute of Compilation and Translation no longer produced any school textbooks. Major private textbook publishing companies include Ka ngHs ua n Re nLi n Ha nLi n and Na ni However, textbooks designed to be published by these private publication companies were still required to pass a reviewing process. The Ministry of Education commissioned the National Institute of Compilation and Translation as the entity for the textbook reviewing process. The Institute invited scholars, educators, educational administrators, and current experienced elementary school teachers to establish a Textbook Reviewing Committee. The committee members gat hered together in small groups for a few meetings in accordance with the academic subjects and the specializations of the members. In the committee meetings, they discussed and formulated the reviewing guidelines and then progressed to the reviewing proces s. Only publishers whose textbooks passed all the reviewing procedures could be further ratified to receive a legal publishing license to make their textbooks accessible to the public. If their textbooks failed the reviewing process, publishers could make revisions as specified by the
100 Reviewing Committee s comments and then request to be reviewed again.18 In most cases, publishers could revise their textbooks until they eventually passed the review. The Grade 1 9 Curriculum was introduced in 1998 with the G rade 1 9 Tentative Curricular Guideline format. The official Curriculum Guideline was released in January 15th, 2003. According to the Grade 19 Curriculum Guideline, music education was combined with a broader arts education visual arts and performing ar ts that collectively formed a new subject called Arts and Humanities. The combination of Arts and Humanities, was unprecedented in the history of Taiwan s primary education, since it was the first time that the field of arts had been combined with the area of humanities. In contrast to the 1993 New Curricular Standard, the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline only provided a general outline of the curricular rationales, curricular objectives, and key points about implementation of the standard For instance, many music textbook designers complained that the 1993 New Curricular Standard imposed specific principles that were too rigid about what should be taught in every grade level of the elementary education including such matters as ear training and rhythm acquisition. According to textbook designers, these regulations had limited their choices in selecting songs and musical pieces.19 They also admitted that in many cases they often had to compose new songs to fit the requirements in the Curricular Standard.20 Y et, in the Grade 19 Curricular Guideline s Arts and 18For more information about the Textb ook Review Guideline, see the following resource: Republic of China (Taiwan) Ministry of Education, G u mn xi tio wn (The Amendments to the Textbook Review Guideline for the Elementary School and the Junior High School) of the 5th of December, 2008, Document no. 097024104 7C, sec. 8 11. http://db.lawbank.com.tw/FLAW/FLAWDAT01.asp?lsid=FL008948 [accessed October 7, 2009]. 19Chiung Wen Kung, [The Study of Analyzing the Ethnic Songs in the Elementary Music Textbooks] (M.A. thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, 2000), 110. 20Ibid. 131.
101 Humanities Learning Area, the detailed knowledge of musical elements ( quarter notes, eighth notes, sixteenth notes, major keys or minor keys and so on) were not strictly specified. This change granted gr eater flexibility to the music textbook designers and editors. According to the legislators of the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline, the purpose of giving only a rough outline instead of offering detailed teaching contents was to provide the flexibility and individuality to the educational policy practitioners (including the textbook designers, teachers and school administrators) so they could have more freedom to fully exert their own strengths and specialties in order to achieve higher standard of educational objectives while building and executing curricula. Besides, such curricular reform has liberated the curriculum designing and lesson planning of each individual school and its own teachers. The current generation and future generations of Taiwanese hav e been encouraged to think creatively and critically and been given the freedom to examine educational, political, and social issues. Most important for the current research these matters have affected the public opinions of Taiwanese homeland music. In t he educational arena, the curricula of teaching homeland materials have shifted from homogeneity to heterogeneity and thus have diversif ied and liberalize d the ideological definitions of Taiwanese homeland music itself The new Arts and Humanities curricul um stressed the development of children s aesthetics through learning, creating, and performing music and the arts. Furthermore, it was intended to emphasize self value through appreciating the cultural heritages of music and arts from a student s own home land culture and from those of other children Last, but not least, the music curriculum in the lower grades was categorized under Life Curriculum (or Life Learning Area). Scholars and educators perceive d this kind of curricular change as both evolutionar y and revolutionary. First, it was revolutionary because music courses in the lower grades had gone
102 through multiple curricular reforms during the last two decades. Music class in the lower grades used to be named Chng Yu (translated as Recreation Class in English), which was a mixed course of music and physical education before the 1993 New Curricular Standard. After the new curricula were administered with earnest effort, such independent and solid music course and curriculum were only practiced for such a short time until the year 200 3 when the Grade 19 Curriculum was administered. The music course under the treatment of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum was switched back to a kind of melting pot course, in which music wa s blended with visual arts and performing arts and was jointed together with other learning areas such as Social Studies and Natural Science and Life Technology into a discipline entitled Life Second, the new Grade 19 Curriculum was evolutionary for it signifie d the curricular integrations and was exemplified in the evolutional stages of the music curriculum of the lower grades during these years. It is also worth noting that both curricular reform stages in mu sic education proposed that music teaching materials should be chosen from children s daily life School teachers were authorized the right to select and decide which (authorized) textbook would be best to use for their students and for their classroom teachings. Teachers and schools were also encouraged to design their own curricula with local features, even incorporating their schools and communities special characteristics. Yang Shen Keng, professor of National Taiwan Normal University, in his article Dilemmas of Education Reform in Taiw an observes that Taiwan is following current educat ional [materials] reform trends : Indigenous knowledge and values have been taken into serious account in implementing education reforms in many parts of the world.21 An increase of the teaching material derived from local history, geography, music and arts was evident in the 21Yang, Dilemmas of Education Refor m, 16.
103 recent curricular reform at every school level in Taiwan. Subsequent curricular reforms in Taiwan greatly emphasize d not only localization, but also internationalization. Both localiz ation and internationalization became curricular objectives. In this regard, the new curriculum in music education incorporated what was deemed as appropriate foreign educational ideas and practices, such as the applications of Western music education teaching methods of the twentiethcentury the Dalcroze eurhythmics, the Orff Schulwerk process, and the Zoltn Kodly method. In addition, the global trend of teaching children about their local or indigenous folk music within these Western derived models was implemented in elementary music education in Taiwan While being an elementary music teacher in Taiwan from 1996 to 2000 and from 2002 to 2004, I was fortunate to experience the two stages of these curricular reforms. One of the most popular elementary mus ic textbook series, the KangHsuan ( ), published by the KangHsuan Publishing Company ( ), exemplified both stages of curricular reform.22 During the period of the New Curricula Standards from 1993 to 2000, the elementary school music textbooks includ ed a great number of indigenous Taiwanese folk music items in addition to Chinese music, Western art music, and examples of other foreign music such as music from the United States, European countries, Latin America, and the neighboring Asian countries of Japan, Korea, and Indonesia In this series 1998 edition, children s nursery songs, lullabies, and Holo chant songs were all included in the first and second grade music curricula. The third and fourth grade music curricula consisted mainly of native and foreign vocal and instrumental music; whereas, the fifth and sixth grade curricula were devoted to a broad repertoire of indigenous folk music, such as aboriginal folk songs, Hakka folk songs, Holo folk songs, lullabies, children s 22For more information, see Mei Lian Liu ed., Music Textbooks for Elementary Schools : Vol. 1 8 (Taipei: Kang Tsuan, 1999), and also MeiLian Liu ed., Arts and Humanities Textbooks for Elementary Schools : Vol. 1 8 (Taipei: KangTsuan, 2004).
104 nursery songs, and some Taiwanese Holo opera tunes. In contrast to teaching at the beginning of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum in 2003, I found that in addition to the indigenous Taiwanese folk music and foreign music that were originally included in the music curriculum, a wider varie ty of indigenous traditional arts were introduced in the 2004 edition of this textbook series.23 The new edition also included the folk arts such as Taiwanese hand puppet theater ( Budaixi ), Taiwanese Holo opera ( Gezaixi ), folkloric customs and festivals such as the Aboriginal Memorial Ceremonies, ritual music and temple carnivals. To accomplish the educational goals of the Arts and Humanities curriculum, music teachers were also required to teach theater and dance. Since internationalization was another major theme in the two stages of curricular reforms, in my own teaching I incorporated folk songs from other countries, such as songs of the United States (Navajo, Native American, and New England), Israel Africa, Latin America, Trinidad (Calypso), Japanese, Thailand, and Hungary. To sum up, the abolition of martial law in 1987 played a significant role in liberating and democratizing Taiwanese society and reforming the education al system Taiwanese educational reforms in recent years resulted in revising the curricular standards and liberating the textbook publication policy. Before martial law was lifted, the contents of the elementary school curricular standards and textbooks presented strong senses of Sinocentrism and Eurocentrism. Particularly, music textb ooks that were designed in accordance with the 1948, 1952, 1962, and 1968 Elementary School Curricular Standards promoted Chinese consciousness and anti communist ideology through the materials presented. In contrast, after matial law was lifted, contents of music curricula and textbooks sought to cultivate Taiwanese indigenous consciousness in students that is, Taiwanization, due to the rise of Taiwanese localization movement. Homeland 23Liu ed. Arts and Humanities Textbooks Vol. 1 8.
105 materials emphasized Taiwanese local geography, history, language and cultural heritage and became one of the primary curricular concentrations while the 1993 New Curricular Standard and Grade 1 9 Curriculum Guideline were executed in the elementary schools. The concepts of homeland in Taiwanese education system have changed over time and are reflected in the various revisions of curricular standards and textbooks. In the next chapter, I will discuss the public views of homeland in the education system.
106 Weekly Flexible Learning Units () 3 class periods ( 3 ) Ministr y of Education Announced Weekly Flexible Learning Units ( ) 2 4 class periods ( 2 4 ) Items () Activity c ontents and class periods that need to be used () Total class periods () School Events () Department of Teaching Affairs ( ) Vernacular Song Contest (1) Mathematic Topic Activities (3) Picture Stories Exhibition (1) Achievement Contribution Week (2) 7 Department of Student Affairs ( ) Campus Safety Announcement (1) Major Cleanup Time (2) Measu rements of Body Lengths and Weights and Eye Exams (1) Japanese Encephalitis Shot (1) Morality Education Seminar (1) Anti -drug Video Broadcast (1) 7 Department of Counseling ( ) Life Education Seminars (2) Flea Market s (2) Family Education Seminar s (2) Gender Equality Education Seminars (4) Special Education Seminar s (2) Domestic Violence Prevention Seminar s (2) 14 School Featuring Courses ( ) 0 0 Electives ( ) 0 0 Class Calendar () Cla ss Counseling () Daily Routine and Disciplines ( 2) Basic Marching Movements and Actions Trainings (2) Table Manners Mentoring (2) Vacation Life Mentoring (2) Class Counseling (7) 15 Remedy Class ( ) Remedy Classes (10 ) 10 Others ( ) Birthday Celebration s (5) Field Trips (3) Talent Shows (2) 10 Total Flexible Learning Units are 63 c lass p eriods ( 63 ) Figure 31. The curricular plan of the Flexible L earning Units of the 1st grade students at Chen Ping Elementary School in spring 2008. ( Sources: Based on data accessed from the school year 2009 ChenPing Elementary School s website http://sfs3. cpes.tc.edu.tw/sfs3/modules/new_course/?act=&&year_seme=98 1&class_id=098_1_02_01 information compil ed and translated by the author )
107 Weekly Flexible Learning Units ( ) 4 class periods ( 4 ) Ministry of Education Announced Weekly Flexible Learning Units ( ) 3 6 class periods ( 3 6 ) Items ( ) Activity c ontents and class periods that need to be used () Total class periods () School Events () Department of Teaching Affairs ( ) Achievement Contribution Week (2) 2 Department of Student Affairs ( ) Campus Safety Announcement (1) Major Cleanup Time (1) Measurements of Body Lengths and Weights and Eye Exam (1) Inter-cl ass Sports Contest (1) Physical Adjustment Ability Exam (1) Commencement Rehearsals (4) Anti -drug Video Broadcast (1) 10 Department of Counseling ( ) Family Education Seminar s (2) Gender Equality Education Seminars (4) Sp ecial Education Weeks (2) Domestic Violence Prevention Seminar s (2) 1 0 School Featuring Courses () Arts and Humanities (19) Computer Technology (19) 38 Electives () 0 0 Class Calendar ( ) Class Counseling ( ) Classroom Routin e and Discipline Training (1) 1 Remedy Class ( ) Mathematics Advancement and Remedy Courses (15) 15 Others ( ) 0 0 Total Flexible Learning Units are 76 c lass p eriods ( 76 ) Figure 32. The curricular plan of the Flexible Learnin g Units of the 6th grade students at Chen Ping Elementary School in spring 2008. ( Sources : Based on data accessed from the school year 2009 ChenPing Elementary School s website http://sfs3.cpes.tc.edu.tw/sfs3/modules/new_course/?act=&&year_seme=98-1&class_id=098_1_02_01. I nformation compiled and translated by the author )
108 Total amount of classes 1st grade 2nd grade 3rd grade 4th grade 5th grade 6th grade Chen Ping scheduled total amount of f lexible periods 3 3 4 4 4 4 Ministry of Education announced total amount of flexible learning units 2 4 2 4 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 Chen Ping scheduled t otal amount of classes 23 23 29 29 31 31 Ministry of Education announced range of total classes 22 24 22 24 28 31 28 31 30 33 30 33 Figure 33. The total amount of cla sses per week scheduled by Chen Ping Elementary School and those announced by the Ministry of Education. ( Sources: Based on previous data accessed on October 30, 2007 from the school year 2007 ChenPing Elementary School s Teaching Affairs Department Websi te http://web.cpes.tc.edu.tw/classweb/menu/index.php?account=teaching. Information compiled and translated by the author )
109 Class Period Day Time Subject Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8 15 8 35 Morning Sunrise Time 1 840 | 920 National Language (Mandarin) Mathematics Mathematics National Language (Mandarin) Physical Education 2 930 | 1010 English National Language (Mandarin) National Language (Mandarin) Mathematics National Language (Mandarin) 3 10 30 | 1110 Life Integrative Activity National Language (Mandarin) Life Health 4 11 20 | 1200 Life Music Homeland Language s/Dialects Integrative Activity Flexible Period 12 00 13 20 Lunch Break and Noon Recess 5 13 30 | 1410 Visual Arts 6 1420 | 1500 Visual Arts 15 00 15 15 Cleanup Time 7 15 15 | 15 55 Flexible Period Figure 34. Example of the lower grade s ( 2nd Grade ) Schedule of Courses in weekly format ( Sources : Based on data accessed from the school year 2009 Chen Ping Elementary School s website http://sfs3.cpes.tc.edu.tw/sfs3/modules/new_course/?act=&&year_seme=98 1&class_id=098_1_02_01. Information compiled and translated by the author )
110 Class Period Day Time Subject Mon day Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8 15 8 35 Morning Sunrise Time 1 8 40 | 920 Integrative Activity National Language (Mandarin) Music National Language (Mandarin) National Language (Mandarin) 2 930 | 1010 National Language (Mandarin) Mathematics Homeland Language s/Dialects National Language (Mandarin) Mathematics 3 1030 | 1110 Physical Education Natural Science and Life Technology Mathematics Social Studies Social Studies 4 11 20 | 1200 English Integrative Activity Integrative Activity Physical Education Social Studies 12 00 13 20 Lunch Break and Noon Recess 5 13 30 | 1410 Visual Arts English Natural Science and Life Technology 6 14 20 | 1500 Visual Arts Computer Technology Natural Science and Life Technology 15 00 15 15 Cleanup Time 7 15 15 | 15 55 Flexible Period Music Figure 35. Example of the middle grade s ( 4th grade) Schedule of Courses in weekly format ( Sources: Based on data accessed from the school year 2009 Chen Ping Elementary School s website http://sfs3.cpes.tc.edu.tw/sfs3/modules/new_course/?act=&&year _seme=981&class_id=098_1_04_0. Information compiled and translated by the author )
111 Class Period Day Time Subject Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8 15 8 35 Morning Sunrise Time 1 8 40 | 920 Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics Health Natural Science and Life Technology 2 930 | 1010 National Language (Mandarin) Natural Science and Life Technology National Language (Mandarin) Physical Education Natural Science and Life Technology 3 1030 | 1110 National Language (Mandarin) English Computer Technology Nation al Language (Mandarin) Mathematics 4 11 20 | 1200 Physical Education Social Studies Homeland Language s/Dialects Flexible Period National Language (Mandarin) 12 00 13 20 Lunch Break and Noon Recess 5 13 30 | 1410 Visual Arts Music Social Studies Integrative Activity 6 14 20 | 1500 Visual Arts Flexible Period English Music 15 00 15 15 Cleanup Time 7 15 15 | 15 55 Integrative Activity Integrative Activity Social Studies Figure 36. Ex ample of the upper grade s (6th grade) Schedule of Courses in weekly format ( Sources: Based on data accessed from the school year 2009 Chen Ping Elementary School s website http://sfs3.cpes.tc.edu.tw/sfs3/modules/new_course/?act=&&year_seme=98 1&class_id=098_1_06_01. Information compiled and translated by the author )
112 Table 3 1. Timeline of different Curricular Standards a dopt ed in Taiwan s e lemen tary e ducation history Titles of the Curricular Standards Enactment Time Elementary School Curricular Standard s econd edition September 1948 Elementary School Curricular Standard ( Language and Social Studies Subject Revision ) November 1952 Elementary School Curricular Standard Revision July 1962 Elementary School Tentative Curricular Standard January 1968 Elementary School Curricular Standard August 1975 Elementary School Curricular Stand ard October 1993 Elementary and Junior High Schools Grade 1 9 Tentative Curricular Guideline 1998 Elementary and Junior High Schools Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline January 2003 The Year 2008 Elementary and Junior High Schools Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline (Execute in the 2011 School Year) May 2008
113 CHAPTER 4 VIEWS ON HOMELAND: P OLICY MAKERS, PRACTI TIONERS, AND RECIPIE NTS In this chapter, I discuss how homeland music is conceptualized among three groups in Taiwan s elementary education system: (1) the educational policy makers, including educational policy legislators such as government officials, curricular standard (or curricular guideline) drafters, and textbook examination committee members; (2) the educationa l practitioners and executives, including elementary school teachers and administrators, and (3) the educational recipients, including students and their parents or guardians. I analyze the informants perceptions of homeland music and their experiences wi th practicing the homeland curricula. As a critical pedagogue, I perceive public education as i nherently political and involv ing processes of hegemony. To confirm and promote their political dominance, government authorities often manipulate education. Mor eover, different political parties in a nation usually promote certain educational policies to propagate their political inclinations and to wrestle for their own benefits. For the purpose of analyzing how such hegemony takes shape in Taiwans educational system, I examine how the notions of homeland have been presented and transformed in the realm of music education during the last two decades in the government educational policy archives, Curriculum Standards and Grade 19 Curricular Guideline, as well as the music (and the arts and humanities) textbooks. Specifically, the government educational archives that I review include the Ministry of Education Annual Executive Plans (2001~2009), Arts Education Policy White Paper, and the Executive Departments C hallenging the Year 2008 National Major Development Plans on the e Generation Manpower Cultivation Plans. I will discuss the educational legislators views on homeland in contemporary elementary music education in relation to three different time periods : (1) before the enactment of the 1993 New Curricular Standard; (2) during the practice of the 1993 New Curricular Standard; (3) under
114 the treatment of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum after 2003 (see Table 3 1) I draw my discussions based on the impositions of the two significant curricula practices the 1993 New Curricular Standard and the Grade 19 Curriculum Guideline for both of them have exerted significant influences in Taiwans contemporary educational history. The 1993 New Curricular Standard designated a m omentous and epochal curricular revision after the previous 1975 Curricular Standard that had been practiced for sixteen years and was the longest time frame between any one of the former and latter curricular revisions. The Grade 19 Curriculum is the latest curricular outline that is currently practiced in the elementary education, so I allocate my examinations of the past ten year educational policy makers views on homeland in the section of under the Treatment of the Grade 19 Curriculum. Together, t hese indicate major statements of policy makers views of homeland. The educational policy practitioners in this dissertation refer to the schoolteachers and administrators in the elementary schools, while the educational policy recipients involve elemen tary school children and their parents or guardians. Through participant observation in the actual classroom setting and in depth personal interviews with the educational policy practitioners and recipients, I delved into the trajectory of how the notion of homeland was conceptualized and was manifested in the contemporary elementary music education. The fieldwork for the project was conducted from fall 2007 to spring 2009. I observed music classroom teaching procedures, music ensemble rehearsals and perfor mances, and extracurricular music activities primarily at Chen Ping Elementary School in Taichung, Taiwan. I chose ChenPing Elementary School as the major fieldwork site for this dissertation research because music was selected by the schools administrat ors to be its specialized and featured developing curriculum. The school had four music teachers in the academic school year of fall 2007 to
115 spring 2008. In addition, I observed the rehearsals of the Chinese orchestra at San Min Elementary School in Taipei City to gain more comprehensive data and broader picture of the practices of the implementation of homeland music in contemporary elementary education of Taiwan. I also participated in and observed various events related to government educational policies of homeland education at ChenPing Elementary School such as the Taiwanese Mother Tongues Day and the One Person Per Musical Instrument, One School Per Art Group projects. The investigations of these classroom activities, music ensemble rehearsals an d performances will be rendered into an informative account of the practical aspects of the contemporary homeland education in Taiwan. Next, in order to understand and interpret the perceptions of the term homeland and the phrase homeland music I conducted and then transcribed and analyzed interviews with selected educational policy legislators, executors and recipients. The interview questions involved their personal experiences and attitudes toward homeland and homeland music. The educational policy practitioners and recipients were also asked about their opinions on the governments homeland education policies. For ethical reasons, all interviews are treated as confidential and the real names of the informants are withheld from publishing in this dis sertation by mutual agreement. Each interviewee is assigned an anonymous label. I will use the contents of the information to explain and interpret data but not to link it to specific individuals. Homeland and Homeland Music in Government Publications Conc epts of Homeland before the Enactment of the 1993 New Curricular Standard One way to understand how homeland as a concept emerged and how homeland music was treated by the government educational authorities before the 1993 New Curricular Standard is th rough analyzing the Curricular Standards and the music textbooks in use before the 1993
116 New Curricular Standard was adopted. There were four major curricular standard revisions from 19491 to 1993 (1952, 1962, 1968, and 1975, see Table 3 1 ). My reviews of t hese four Curricular Standards and subsequent music textbooks designed to accompany the Curricular Standards reveal that before martial law was lifted, homeland referred to the Chinese mainland, homeland culture pertained to the cultural heritage and t radition of the Han Chinese and other Chinese minorities, and homeland music comprised the musical cultures of the Han Chinese majority and those ethnic minorities from the borders of the mainland territory. Music textbooks contained a large proportion of Han Chinese music and songs and revealed a strong sense of Sino centrism. Specifically, the 1968 Elementary School Tentative Curricular Standard stipulates that the 50% or more of the songs taught in music classes should advocate Chinese national spirit.2 It also require s that the music appreciation materials must consist of at least 50% of (Chinese) ethnic music.3 This sinocentric educational focus can be further proved by reviewing the curricular standards in place before 1987. Chinese educator Han Lia ng Yu writes in his article The History and Evolutions of the Revisions of Elementary School Curricular Standards of Our Nation ( W ) that the first phase of Curricular Standard R evision took place in Qing dynasty during 1902 and 1911, and the instructions were Chinese classic books in 11949 is the year when the Kuomintang (KMT), or called the Chinese Nationalist Party, lost the civil war to the Chinese Communist Party. The KMT government withdrew from m ainland China with one to two million refu gees, relocated to Taiwan and established the Republic of China (ROC). In October of the same year, the Chinese Communist founded the People s Republic of China (PRC). 2Ministry of Education, Gu mn xu zhn xng [Elemen tary School Tentative Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1968), 358. 3Ibid.
117 Confucianism.4 In the 1910s, there was a subject named Homeland ( ) teaching local history and geography of J and Z pr ovinces of mainland China at some elementary schools located in these two Chinese provinces.5 These two instances show that the initial elementary school curricular standards were enacted in mainland China, and thus in those days, the educational materials consist ed of Chinese classic literature and the homeland history, geography, and culture of th e Chinese m ainland. In addition, the 1948, 1952, 1962, and 1968 Elementary School Curricular Standards all propose that Chinese Mandarin the national language as the only language to be used by teachers to give instructions .6 These curricular standards also state that the music teaching materials ought to incorporate elegant and classic Chinese music ( ) and must choose 4Han Liang Yu, The History and Evolutions of the Revisions of Elementary School Curricular Standards of Our Nation ( W ) in ed. Ministry of Education (Taipei, Taiwan: Department of Elementary School Education, Ministry of Education, 1959), 3 4. 5Ministry of Education, X [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1948), 6. 6The statements are cited in the Principal Instructional Guidelines ( J ) in the following Curricular Standards: A. Ministry of Education, X [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1948), 9. B. Ministry of Education, [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1952) 9. C. Ministry of Education, [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1962), 8. D. Ministry of Education, Gu mn xu zhn xng [Eleme ntary School Tentative Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1968), 17.
118 those that are suitable for Chinese national characteristics ( ).7 A major factor in defining homeland lies in the political status of Taiwan and the Kuominta ng government s language policy in school education at that time. First, in terms of the political status, before the abolition of martial law, the Kuomintang government regarded Taiwan as only a temporary refuge with the ultimate goal of reclaiming the Ch inese mainland. Taipei was treated as only a temporary capital. Han Liang Yu states the relation between the 1948 Elementary School Curricular Standard and Taiwan as an ideal curricular standard executed in the temporary Taiwan province. He notes, The el ementary school curricular standard revisions in the seventh phase were proclaimed to be executed in September 1948 by the Ministry of EducationThis phase of revisions took the longest time, exerted the most efforts, and thus the contents of the curricula r standard were surely the closest to the ideal goals as proposed Unfortunately due to the communist bandits disturbances, many provinces in the Mainland continuously fell into enemy s hands. The central government had then been temporarily moved to Taiwa n. Thus, this particular curricular standard (the 1948 version) could only be executed first in Taiwan8 (my own translation). 7The statements are cited in the Teaching Material Selection Guidelines ( J ) in the following Music Curricular Standards: A. Ministry of Education, X [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1948), 60. B. Ministry of Education, [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1952) 60 C. Ministry of Education, [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1962), 95 96. D. Ministry of Education, Gu mn xu zhn xng [Elementary School Ten tative Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1968), 222223. 8Yu, Revisions of Elementary School Curricular Standards 13. Same text can also be seen in Han Liang Yu, B (The Process o f Revisions of this Curricular Standard), in [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1952) 183.
119 Similarly, Taiwanese educator Chiung Wen Kung describes the Kuomintang government as Taiwan s visitors. 9 She notes as follows: [ Textbooks] drew attention to President Chiang Kai Shek and his offspring s strenuous efforts and contributions [to Taiwan s modernization] after they came to Taiwan with the purpose of strengthening Kuomintang s official political regime. The Kuomintang government was also always preparing to receive the Chinese mainland s political reign Taiwan became a [political] tool or a gangway for recovering the Mainland territory. Taiwan was merely a place for sheltering. These all manifested Kuomintang s temporary visitor attitude toward Taiwan10 (my own translation). At that time, the concept of the Taiwanese people s homeland displayed in the Curricular Standards and music textbooks were directed to the Chinese mainland. T he language policy of the government enforced the adoption of Chinese M andarin as the national language of Taiwan and forbade children to speak Holo and Hakka dialects at schools in order to acculturate the Holo people who then consisted of 70% of the total Taiwanese population. This strict langu age policy is addressed in the 1952 Curricular Standard, in the section titled (Choosing the Song Texts), under the (Teaching Strategies): The language has to be written in the spoken style; the phonetics has to be in Chinese Mandarin11 (my own translation). In addition, politics manipulated school textbooks and curricula and c an be perceived especially in the social studies textbooks, which emphasized that Taiwanese people s ancestors and cultures 9Chiung Wen Kung, [The Study of Analyzing the Ethnic Songs in the Elementary Music Textbooks](M.A. thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, 2000), 53. 10Ibid. 11Ministry of Education, [Elementary School Curr icular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1952), 61.
120 were all derived from mainland China.12 Although these curricular standards did not establi sh the proportions of Chinese music (including the music of Han Chinese and other ethnic Chinese minorities) and other foreign nations musics in the music textbooks, in order to meet the general princip le of the elementary curricular standard objectives to cultivate the inherent civil virtues of Chinese nationality,13 music textbooks contained a large portion of folk and composed Chinese music and songs, which revealed a strong sense of Sino centrism. For example, in the eighth volume of the music textboo k designed by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation based on the 1968 Elementary School Curricular Standard, Chinese songs consist of approximately 61.9% of the entire song selections (there are thirteen Chinese songs among the total of tw entyone songs in this volume).14 Moreover, even though the Han Chinese in Taiwan includes the Holo, the Hakka, and the Mainlanders ( also called the Nationalists), before martial law was lifted, the music of Holo and Hakka people was marginalized and comple tely excluded from the textbooks that were designed to cope with the 1948 Curricular Standard and the 1952 Curricular Standard. After adopting the 1962 Curricular Standard Revision, the music textbooks included two Taiwanese aboriginal songs Fishing Song ( B ) and Rolling the Boat ( Y o chun ).15 Nevertheless, due to the policy of promoting Chinese Mandarin language instead of singing in their original aboriginal languages, the lyrics to indigenous songs 12Kung, [Ethnic Songs in the Elementary Music Textbooks], 53. 13Ministry of Education, [Elementary Sch ool Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1952) 1. 14The quantitative result was calculated after reviewing the following text: National Institute of Compilation and Translation, Music for Elementary Grades vol. 8 (Taipei, Taiwan: National Institut e of Compilation and Translation, 1972). 15The song list is provided in Chiung Wen Kung, yn ji [The Study of Analyzing the Ethnic Songs in the Elementary Music Textbooks ](M.A. thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, 2000), 151.
121 were translated to be sung in Chinese Mandarin. Music textbooks designed in accordance with the 1968 Tentative Curricular S tandard contained one Taiwanese aboriginal Amis folk song titled Fishing Song ( B ) in Volume 4 for the fourth graders and one Taiwanese Holo folk song named F arming Song ( ) in the S upplemental Song section in Volume 8 for the sixth graders. Likewise, because of the language policy, the lyrics of the two songs were both translated into Mandarin. After executing the 1975 Curricular Standard, the songs selected in the music textbooks became more diversified and included two Holo songs, one Hakka songs, and ten Taiwanese aboriginal songs. Yet, while the origins of the songs were diversified, all of the songs still were required to be sung in Mandari n. In addition to earlier restrictions on Taiwanese indigenous songs, folk and popular songs from other areas were also being discriminated before the 1962 Elementary School Curricular Standard Revision. As stated by the 1952 Curricular Standard, the music and songs selected for use in music textbooks had to be elegant and classic Chinese music; do not choose current lewd music or songs 16 (my own translation). Also, teachers we re instructed to choose well known foreign music but not jazz 17 (my own transla tion). Although the Curricular Standard did not define what lewd music or songs meant, from its context, lewd music or songs might refer to popular music, or even folk music and folk songs. The reason was that popular music and folk music or folk songs, including love songs and those that depicted activities of daily lives, were considered inappropriate in a conservative society during that period of time in Taiwan s history As described by Kung, 16Ministry of Education, [Elementary School Curricular Standard] (Ministry of Education, 1952), 60. 17Ibid.
122 Music and songs that were chosen in the textbooks before t he abolition of martial law were not based on the beauty of the melodies but based on whether or not the meanings of the lyrics were properly acceptable in the society during the time18 (my own translation). From the analysis of the policies and textbooks a bove, the concept of homeland music that was embedded in curricular standards and music textbooks before martial law was lifted refer s to Chinese ensemble music ( also called Chinese orchestral music) and to the art songs that were collected in Y ( One Hundred and One Best Songs ) published in 1952 by the Educational Association of Taiwan Province ( ).19 Concepts of Homeland during the Practice of the 1993 New Curricular Standard The notion of homeland was transformed greatly after the 1993 New Curricular Standard due to the liberalization of Taiwan s society and Taiwan ese people s thoughts after martial law was lifted in 1987. I suggest that this shift in meaning of homeland and homeland music during the adoption of the 1993 New Curricular Standard related to a new focus on cultivating a local identity rooted in Taiwanese indigenous and Taiwanese traditional folk cultures that closely related to people s daily life and customs. The notion of hom eland acquired a strong local and vernacular flavor as contrasted with elegant classical and Chinese mainland associations of earlier usage. In English translation, the term homeland even could be replaced by the word vernacular, such as the vernacu lar languages, vernacular curricula, vernacular music, and vernacular cultures. Anything that was vernacular could be referred to the Taiwanese homeland. 18Kung, [Ethnic Songs in the Elementary Music Textbooks], 102. 19Many world famous art songs were transcribed and translated into Chinese Mandarin and were included in the Y A lot of songs from this volume were in corporated in the music textbooks at that time, such as the Chinese art songs S ong bi (The Farewell) and M ng (Dream) composed by Shu Tong Li
123 The 1993 New Curricular Standard and the textbooks that followed displayed a significant curricular ad justment from Sinocentrism of earlier books to Taiwancentrism. The 1993 New Curricular Standard emerged after the abolition of martial law. It derived from a series of research, meetings and discussions, survey investigations, draft enactments and revision s until the final draft was published. It represented a revolutionary curricular transformation in music education of Taiwan that reinforced the development of children s early musical ability by starting the general music class from the elementary school s firstgrade students. M ore importantly, owing to the Ministry of Education s Minister Wei Fan G uo s principal educational policy i ndigenizing c urricula the 1993 New Curricular Standard emphasized the learning and understanding of children s native musical cultures. Thus, one of the principal objectives of the 1993 New Curricular Standard explicitly states that children should be encouraged to know, appreciate, and learn traditional music .20 Traditional music21 ( ) in the curricula was refer red to local vernacular culture and was defined in the same way as the newly formulated concept of homeland music ( ). The 1993 Curricular Standard also stipulated the proportions of domestic songs (70% for the lower grades, 65% for the third grade, and 60% for the fourth through sixth grades) and foreign songs (30% for the lower grades, 35% for the third grade, and 40% for the fourth through sixth grades) that should be taught in ever y grade level. Moreover, only two patriotic 20Ministry of Education, Gu mn [Elementary School Curricular Stan dard] (Ministry of Education, 1993), 197. 21The concept of traditional music will be discussed more thoroughly later in this chapter. Basically, i n contemporary Taiwan, the terms traditional music ( chun ) and n ational m usic ( gu yu ) are used interchangeably in the academic setting. However, the term national music ( gu yu ) has been criticized by many Taiwanese musicologists as too political oriented because of Taiwan s obsecure political status and attitude toward mainland China. M any universities in Taiwan have adjusted the title of their Department of National Music ( gu yu x ) to Department of Traditional Music ( chun ) in recent decade.
124 songs the National Anthem and the National Flag Songremained in the Curriculum specified to be taught regularly [or termed Common Songs ( G )], while prior to the 1993 New Curricular Standard, the G consisted solely of patriotic songs due to Taiwan s diplomatic frustration in the international arena in those days.22 After martial law was lifted in 1987, the speaking of Taiwanese dialects such as Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal languages were no longer prohibited.23 As a result, the song texts of Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal folk songs (previously translated into Chinese Mandarin) could now be sung in their original lan guages. The result was that Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal folk songs were no longer marginalized as merely supplemental songs in music textbooks. For instance, in 1997, An Egret ( Peh ling si ) and The Passing Train ( Tio tio tang a ) two Holo folk songs were simultaneously incorporated in the fourth grade music textbooks of the four major textbook publishers Kang Hsuan, RenLin, Nani, and HanLin. Furthermore, the following 22According to the 1968 Elementary School Tentative Curri cular Standard and the 1975 Elementary School Curricular Standard, the Common Songs that were determined by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation consisted of six patriotic songs: Republic of China National Anthem, National Flag Song, Nati onal Celebration Song, Memorial Song for the ROC Founding Father, Leader Song, and Anti communism and Nation Revival Song. For more information, see the following text: National Institute for Compilation and Translation, table of contents to the Gu mn xi (Elementary Music), vol. 8 (National Inatitute for Compilation and Translation, 1971), 2, 4 9. 23During martial law era, speaking a local dialect was strictly restrained. The language policy extended to the Radio and Television Broadcasting Act ( ) initially enacted on January 8, 1976. The law restricted the quota of local dialects to be used in radio and TV broadcasting system. In article 20, it states: The primary language that is used for the radio broadcasting pro grams should be the national language (Chinese Mandarin). The use of local dialects should be gradually reduced every year. The proportions of the national language and local dialects will be decided by the ROC Government Information office (my own transl ation). For more information, see ROC Department of Legislature, Radio and Television Broadcasting Act ( ), art. 20 (Taipei, Taiwan, 1976). Information available at http://db.lawbank.com.tw/FLAW/FLAWDAT08.asp?lsid=FL016419&ldate=19760108 [accessed January 23, 2011]. After martial law was lifted, Article 20 of the Radio and Television Broadcasting Act was removed on August 2, 1993. ROC Department o f Legislature, Radio and Television Broadcasting Law ( ) (Taipei, Taiwan, 1993). Information available at http://db.lawbank.com.tw/FLA W/FLAWDAT0801.asp?lsid=FL016419&ldate=19930802&modi fy=1 [accessed January 23, 2011]. Also available at Laws and Regulations Database of the Republic of China: http://law.moj.gov.tw /LawClass/LawHistory.aspx?PCode=P0050001 [accessed January 23, 2011].
125 kinds of songs were also included: Holo songs Lullaby ( Y ), Selling Things ( M i sh x ) ; Hakka songs Fishing Song ( D ), The Sparrows ( H b zi ), Good Days ( G ), January ( Z ) ; and Taiwanese aboriginal songs K ids from the Mountain ( S shng de hi zi ), Memorial Ceremony ( W ), Eating the Taro ( C ), and Memorial Song ( ). Taiwan s own indigenous arts and cultures were further brought into public attention through newly sponsored educational projects A new project termed Homeland Education was added in the elementary middle and upper grades curricula. In music education, the committees for Curricula r Standard Revision acknowledge d the value of Taiwanese traditional music and thus advocated the implementation of teaching and learning indigenous musical cultures. Hence, the 1993 New Curricular Standard indicated that every school district might design its own homeland music teaching materials if the school needed. In contrast to the former Curricular Standards that had neglected native Taiwanese traditional music and non classical traditions the 1993 New Curricular Standard included Taiwanese folk songs, traditional theat rical pieces and other forms of traditional music. For example, according to the 1993 New Curricular Standard, the use of Chinese traditional percussion instruments like no b and lu and Chinese traditional melodic instruments namely d nn h and were included in the elementary music curriculum. In addition, Taiwanese traditional theaters such as the puppet theaters and the Taiwanese (Holo) opera ( G ) were introduced into the music curriculum. According to the 1993 New Curricular
126 Standard, Homeland Teaching Activities ( X ) of Homeland Arts includes the following : Homeland traditional theatrical music: (1) Grand opera ( D x ) : Northern S chool theatrical music ( B ), Southern S chool theatrical music ( N ), and Taiwanese Holo opera ( G ) (2) Operetta ( X ): Tea pic king theater ( C h x ) and Drumming theater ( G x ). (3) Puppetry ( u x ): Holo handpuppet theater ( B di x ), Marionette theater ( K ), and Shadow puppet theater ( P ). Homeland traditional music: (1) Folk songs : Taiwan ese aboriginal folk songs, Holo folk songs, Hakka folk songs, and composed homeland songs. (2) Instrumental music : Music of gongs and cymbals ( L yu ), Music of percussions and wind instruments ( G yu ), Silk and bamboo music ( S ), and Chinese Instrumental Ensemble music/Orchestral music ( D h zu yu ). (3) Funeral ceremonial music ( yu ). (4) Southern School music ( N ): Instrumental program music ( P ), Suites ( Z ), Songs ( Q ), and S (5) Northern School music ( B ) Homeland traditional dances: (1) Taiwanese aboriginal dances. (2) Parade formation and operetta dances ( ) : Q N i l zhn C T i Q W lng W G B D S B W S F
127 D u ni zhn W S S C T P and S zhn (3) Th eatrical music dances ( X ). (4) Ethnic dances ( M n z ). (5) Others : Martial art dances ( G ) and Mi scellaneous ( Z li ). In addition to the 1993 New Curricular Standard and the textbooks that followed, the Taipei City Government published a book named Arts Taipei ( Y F igure 41) in 1999 for the upper grade elementary school students and their teachers to use as the teaching materials for Taipei s Homeland Arts Education ( x ). In the preface, the book states that it attempts to cover the multicultural homeland arts of Holo, Hakka and aborigines.24 When discussing musical genres, the book tries to make close connections between Taiwanese traditional culture and counterparts on the Chinese mainland. Nevertheless, the texts emphasize the role of the evolutions of those musical genres in Taiwan. For instance, in the introduction to the puppet theaters ( k ) the book first describes that originates in Z u dynasty, then briefly outlines the variety of puppet theaters, and next focuses on introducing the Thread hanging Puppet Theater ( X ) which is the only type of ku that developed and is performed in Taiwan.25 Accordingly, period in which the 24Taipei City Government, preface to teachers and parents of Y ( Arts Taipei ), (Taipei, Taiwan: Taipei City Government, 1999), iv. 25For more information, see: Taipei Cit y Government, One: Puppet Theaters [ ] in Y sh ti ( Arts Taipei) (Taipei, Taiwan: Taipei City Government, 1999), 151 55.
128 1993 New Curricular Standard was in effect homeland arts implied the artistic cultures of Holo, Hakka and aborigines and the folk traditions that were closely related to t he civilians daily lives. Concepts of Homeland under the Treatment of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum after 200 3 Under the execution of the Grade 19 Curriculum (2003) the notion of homeland and homeland music that was presented in government publications denot ed Taiwan and music of Taiwanese people. Homeland languages ( or ) designated the dialects that were spoken in Taiwan by Taiwanese residents, those were, Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aboriginal people s spoken languages. The 2003 Curricular Guideline also requires that the grades one through six elementary school children have to take one dialect among the three categories of vernacular languages including Holo, Hakka, or aboriginal languages.26 Based on my own observations homeland music during this period pertained to any music that originated in Taiwan or that was brought to Taiwan from m ainland China and further developed and evolved into a genuinely Taiwan ese form Different from the former 1993 New Curricular Standard, the notion of homeland in music education under the treat ment of the 2003 Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline specifically referred to the vernacular music of Taiwan. The concept of vernacular music of Taiwan was also further defined and characterized. Music education itself was integrated into the broad er field of a rts education stressing the integral functions of the arts such as, arts and (or in ) learners surrounding environments, cultures, communities, homeland, daily lives, societies and so on. The Curricular Guideline of 2003 states that the content knowle dge of Arts and Humanities Curriculum should cover visual arts, music, 26Ministry of Education, Gu mn y [Elementary and Junior High School Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline Arts and Humanities Learning Area] (Ministry of Education, 2003), 15.
129 performing arts, and other synthesized styles of arts in relation to their histories and cultures.27 It also claims that students should be able to evaluate and comprehend various art genres through learning arts and then should implement and apply the arts in their lives.28 Moreover, the benchmark 141 in the Curricular Guideline indicates that students should be able to acquire a socio cultural perspective of the artistic creations. 29 In addition, according to the Curricular Guideline, various artistic styles ( fine arts, commercial arts, life arts, folk arts, and traditional arts ) should be introduced to the students. This represented a clear departure from earlier focus on Chinese and Western classical traditions. In order to further explore the concepts of homeland and homeland music I searched sources in several government educational archives Specifically, I reviewed the Ministry of Education s Annual Executive Plans from 2001 to 2009, the Arts Education Policy White Paper and the Executive Department s Challenging the Year 2008 National Major Development Plans on the e Generation Manpower Cultivation Plans. In May 2002, the Executive Department (or called the Executive Yuan30) pr omulgated a national development project titled Challenging the Year 2008 National Major Development Plans This document i s a vision for Taiwan s future national development targeting the fulfillment of those plans in the year 2008. In this project, there were ten major investment plans. One of them pertains to arts education labeled e Generation Manpower Cultivation Plans It not only highlight s the goals of enhancing 27Ministry of Education, J g y [Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline], 29. 28Ibid. 29Ibid., 22. 30 Yuan is a Chinese phonetic direct translation that can be translated into English as Department
130 Taiwanese people s English ability and creating the internationalized life surroundings, 31 but also features the One Person Per Musical Instrument, One School Per Art Group (Y rn y yu q, y xio y y tun ) 32 project The slogan, One Person Per Musical Instrument, One School Per Art Group refers to the desire that every student should be able to play at least one musical instrument and each school should form at least one art group. According to the Executive Department, the art group encompasses the following: The orchestra, instrumental ensemble [or called children s band ], diabolo team,33 stage play, G theatre [or called Taiwanese (Holo) opera ], handpuppet the atre, and other art groups and so on34 (my own translation). The statement above does not define the distinction between homeland and nonhomeland art groups, however, the inclusion of folk or vernacular art forms such as the diabolo team, Song G theatre and handpuppet theatre suggest that the government encouraged the educational institutions to establish the homeland art groups ( X ), because they believed that homeland art groups offer their students the oppor tunities to learn, perform, understand, and appreciate their own artistic and cultural heritages. The practical wisdom lies in the belief that we have to first learn and know about our own traditions before 31Executive Yuan, T 2008 [ Challenging the Year 2008 National Major Development Plans ] (Executive Yuan, 2002), 18. 32Ibid., 26. 33According to the Council for Cultural Affairs (Taiwan), the diabolo ( ) is a n indigenous Chinese folk sport. The diabolo appeared to be many diff erent names but all based on its whirring sound when it was spun around. It was made of wood with a round shape and a diameter of about 12 inches. It was hollow in the center with holes on four sides and a bamboo axis in the center. It has a string wrapped around the bamboo axis and passed through a bamboo board with a hole. There are traces of the diabolo all over the world, not just in China. The diabolo was introduced to England during the 18th century and suddenly became all the rage amongst the Englis h, who called it the devil on two sticks When it was introduced to France, French people made it out of porcelain clay and gave public performances. In r ecent years, a n elder Taiwanese named Chen Jin Ming performed around the world with the Li Tang Hua Acrobatics Troupe using a one handed diabolo technique, garnering international acclaim. For more information, see the following links: http://folksports.ntua.edu.tw/02_knowledge.aspx; http://www.diabolotricks.com/whatisit.html. 34Executive Yuan, F [ Development Plans ], 26.
131 learning traditions from the international arena. Likewise, the goal proposed in this project, creating the internationalized life surroundings 35 would not be achieved until students first possess the fundamental knowledge about their own life surroundings through literature, arts, history, natural and ecological environment. The prospect in arts education on Challenging the Year 2008 National Major Development Plans resulted in the birth of the Arts Education Policy White Paper a government policy guideline for national arts education from the year 2006 to 2009 distributed in December 2005 by the Ministry of Education. The vision for Taiwan s future art education in this document was titled ,36 which indicate d a desire to develop a creative and artistic Taiwan and to equip Taiwanese citizens with sense of beauty and the capacity of competitiveness. This arts education project included five guiding principles, twenty two development strategies, and eighty four a ction plans. In fact, earlier on November 2nd, 2004, the Ministry of Education had already proposed four executive guiding principles, thirteen strategies, and thirty three action plans, followed by a chief executive orientation: Creative Taiwan, Global SchemesNurturing new citizens who will exploit thei r own expertise37 ( ). In the volume s pr eface, Minister Jheng Sheng Du states: Constructing Taiwan s autonomy is the principal axle of the nation s whole education sy stem, and this principal axle is the core value of arts education. By 35Executive Yuan, F [ Development Plans ], 18. 36Ministry of Education, Y sh jio y z [Arts Education Policy White Paper] (Ministry of Education, 2005), 35. 37Ibid. 3.
132 strategizing arts education, every Taiwanese citizen s autonomous consciousness can be effectively strengthened38 (my own translation). This statement implies that the executive principle of Taiwan s current arts education is to build Taiwan s own autonomous consciousness of national identity. While arts in themselves are the important core of cultural heritage in Taiwan s history, Minister Du recognized that a critical means to construct Taiwanese identity was to make a thorough and procedural arts education executive plan. He elaborates his philosophy and how the project would be fulfilled as follows: [The] current primary mission of [Taiwan s] arts education is to nurture [our] citizens to know the artistic characteristics of Taiwan itself, to deepen identity, and to further research in order to offer an environment that will promote Taiwan s artistic characteristics through arts education39 (my own translation). This remark points out the purposes of this project. First, it appealed to all the members in the education system to advocate the characteristics of Taiwanese arts by intensifying the general arts education. Second, by framing the issue within the context of Taiwan s arts educatio n, a field that developed and continues to be influenced by Western methods the white paper emphasizes the integration of indigenous culture into the international realm .40 The second purpose hallmarked the essential component of the Arts and Humanities Cu rriculum that was practiced on the formal school system from first grade through ninth grade. The Ministry of Education s 2001 to 2009 Annual Executive Plans showed the contemporary educational goals of Taiwan including internationalizing education, holist ic education (or whole person education ) and student centered education. Above all, internationalizing education was a project closely related to homeland education. Policies on internationalizing Taiwan s education involved knowing ourselves, knowing our environments, 38Jheng Sheng Du, preface to the Arts Education Policy White Paper (Ministry of Education, 2005). 39Ibid. 40Ibid.
133 and knowing others. Therefore, the Executive Plans of the year 2001 and 2002 pointed up the multicultural education on Taiwan it self and on others.41 The Executive Plans since the year 2003 stressed providing equal educational opportunities to the ethnic minorities, to the remote regions of the country, and to socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Taiwan s autonomous national identity was reinforced through promoting elementary, junior and senior high schools homeland education. For exa mple, the 2001 Executive Plan proposed the promotion of the elementary, junior and senior high schools homeland education that emphasizes the Homeland Education on arts and on homeland languages particularly the Holo and Hakka dialects.42 Moreover, under the category of Social Education, the 2001 Executive Plan addressed the enhancements of traditional ethnic arts education ( C ) 43 and vernacular arts and humanities education ( X ) 44 as well as the research, accumulation and dissemination of homeland languages including Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal dialects (my own translation).45 Generally speaking, the notion of homeland arts that was conceptualized by the Ministry of Education in its Executive Plans designated not only the vernacular arts of the Holo, Hakka and the aborigines, but also the 41Ministry of Education Annual Executive Plan 2001, objective #12 proposes that T y c jn z qn rng h (Promote multicultural education, enhance multicultural heritage s circulations, and adva nce ethnic integration); the Executive Plan 2002, objective #10 proposes that Z y xng ti ; (Respect cultural differences, develop multi educational mode; construct multicultural education environment, and protect traditional cultural features); available from http://www .edu.tw/SECRETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet. 42Ministry of Education, J [Ministry of Education 2001 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2001), 37; available from http://www.edu.tw/SECRETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet. 43Ibid., 35. 44Ibid. 45Ibid. 37
134 traditional arts, f ine arts and classical music of the ethnic groups of Holo, Hakka, aborigines, and the Mainlanders. It was intended to achieve a balance between indigenous and foreign, folk and classical, art and popular traditions. Taiwan s own territorial identity had be en reinforced in the objectives of the Ministry of Education Annual Executive Plans since the year 2005. First, the 2005 Annual Executive Plan and the subsequent editions from the year 2006 through 2008 all stressed embarking on indigenization and developing a broad world view 46 (my own translation). The plan claimed that the curricular and teaching reforms attempt to deepen students territorial identity through educations on language, social studies, science and ecology, and arts and humanities, 47 (my own translation). The main executive orientation was titled Creative Taiwan, Global Schemes ( ,) 48 and further expanded on Enhance Taiwan s autonomy; Develop global vision ( ) 49 These slogans all resonated with the government s educational ideals and revealed the attempt to build Taiwan s territorial identity in the international arena through the promotion of homeland education. In language education, the official language of Taiwan, Chinese Mandarin, was shifted from the designation of 46Ministry of Education, J s [Minis try of Education 2005 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2005), 6 1; J w j hu [Ministry of Education 2006 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2006), 6 1; J li nin [Ministry of Education 2007 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2007), 62; J [Ministry of Education 2008 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2 008), 6 2; available from http://www.edu.tw/SECRETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet. 47Ibid. 48Ibid. 49Ibid.
135 (national language) to (Mandarin) in the 2007 Annual Executive Plan.50 Such terminolog ical modification impacted the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline ( 2008 edition ) I surmise that this lexical revision on Chinese language is attributed to the government s intention of avoiding the nationalist political association with the nation al language education. In addition, from 2007 on the language education policy promote d the Taiwanese Mother Tongues Day ( T ) project and its related affairs.51 Taiwanese mother tongues were now considered the homeland languages and included Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal languages. The Mother Tongues Day project was administered weekly at every elementary sch ool on a day decided by local education bureau s For instance, the Taiwanese Mother Tongues Day in Taipei city was designated to occur on Mondays while in Taichung city it was on Wednesdays. On the Mother Tongues Day every school was expected to focus i ts curricula on speaking and instructing in the homeland languages. Noticeably, the purpose of this project showed the government s tendency toward utilizing the vernacular language education to fortify Taiwan s territorial autonomy. The 2005 to 2009 Annua l Executive Plans also strived to accomplish the One Person Per Musical Instrument, One School Per Art Group ( Y rn y yu q, y xio y y 50In J [Ministry of Education 2006 Annual Executive Plan], task item #5 (Carrying out language and literature education) under the job titled S (Social education administ ration and supervision), #1 (process the project of national language, Holo, and Hakka language and literature database establishment, integration, and connection) (Ministry of Education, 2006), 6 14; available from http://www.edu.tw/SECRETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet. Later, since the year 2006, the Ministry of Education has revised the term (national language) into (Ma ndarin) in its Annual Executive Plans. 51See the Taiwanese Mother Tongue s Day project listed in J li [Ministry of Education 2007 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2007), 6 20; J io y b [Ministry of Education 2008 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2008), 6 22; J [Ministry of Education 2009 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministr y of Education, 2009), 6 25; available from http://www.edu.tw/SECRETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet.
136 tun ) 52 project that was addressed by the Executive Department s Challenging the Year 2008 National Major Development Plans on the e Generation Manpower Cultivation Plans. This project strived to achieve a standard in which every student would be able to perform on at least one musical instrument and in which every school would develop at least one art g roup when the project was completed. Thus, the Ministry of Education developed the Grade 1 9 Curriculum and proposed to enhance the cultivation of every school s own individual characteristics. Its 2006 to 2009 Executive Plans sketched the following plan: [The administrators and teachers of] the elementary, junior and senior high schools are encouraged to establish arts and humanities groups. This is suggested on the purpose of strengthening students abilities on music and visual arts appreciations and of developing schools own characteristics53 (my own translation). Last, but not least, in the division of Education for the Overseas Chinese, since 2005, Taiwanese identity had been proclaimed by the Annual Executive Plans, because the 2005 edition had changed the titles of the Taiwan based overseas educational institutions from the Overseas Taipei School to the Overseas Taiwan School. Although the 2009 edition did not emphasize territorial autonomous slogans in its annual objectives, certain fundamental educational rationales such as broadening the world view and advocating Taiwan s indigenous characteristics, were still maintained and practiced. For instance, the Technology Development subdivision aimed to promote international exchange. It claimed t hat through international exchanges in academic research, education and business affairs, teachers and students would be 52Executive Yuan, T 2008 [ Challenging the Year 2008 National Major Development Plans ] (Executive Yuan, 2002), 26. 53Ministry of Education, J w [Ministry of Education 2006 Annual Executive Plan] (Minis try of Education, 2006), 6 1; J li j hu [Ministry of Education 2007 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2007), 6 2; J [Ministry of Educa tion 2008 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2008), 62; available from http://www.edu.tw/SECRETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet.
137 able to develop Taiwan s indigenous characteristics, to improve their global visions and profess their Taiwanese identity.54 Moreover, a s presented in the 2009 edition, the Ministry of Education pr oceeded to exploit the heritage of Taiwanese literature, history, and arts in a pilot project termed Taiwanese literature, history, and arts pilot project under globalization 55 This was to be a chieved by means of national and international research, education, dissemination, and the exchange of these Taiwanese cultural heritages. Overall, in the contemporary era, the ideologies of homeland and homeland music that were embedded in the government publications and educational archives exhibit a strong sense of Taiwanization. G overnment document s portrayed the Taiwan island as the homeland of Taiwanese people, departing from earlier views of Taiwan as merely a temporary shelter and an armed gangplank for the Kuomintang government to prepare for its ultimate objective of Chinese re unification. Moreover, some homeland arts [ X (or B ) y sh ( ) ] in government educational archives were designated as Chinese art forms that were now Taiwa nized. The se involved the art forms derived from M and Y u regions of the Chinese mainland that were brought to Taiwan and developed in the island. Deductively, the homeland music of Taiwan could be referred to as Taiwanized music This designation emphasized the process through which certain Chinese traditions had been transformed into form s now to be taken as authentically Taiwanese. This Taiwan centered curricular orientation in 54Ministry of Education, J [Ministry of Education 2009 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2009), 6 9; available from http://www.edu.tw/SEC RETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet. 55The project, Taiwanese literature, history, and arts pilot project under globalization was one of the 14 pilot projects initiated by the Environmental Protection Team of the Department of Science and T echnology. A detailed list of the jobs conducted by the Department of Science and Technology can be found in: Ministry of Education, J [Ministry of Education 2009 Annual Executive Plan] (Ministry of Education, 2009), 6 9~6 14; available from http://www.edu.tw/SECRETARY/content.aspx?site_content_sn=906; Internet.
138 the contemporary elementary curricula contrasted sharply with the Sino centered orientation prior to the execution of the 1993 New Curricular Standard. In many fields of education, the Grand Chinese paradigm was replaced by the Nativism (or Taiwanization ) and Multiculturalism paradigm. Evidently, the transitions hitherto in educational prospect from Sinocentrism to Taiwan centrism manifested the consequences of Taiwan s social, political and educational reforms. Homeland Music Education Policies and Their Practices Homeland education under the execution of the 2003 Grade 19 Curriculum was distributed over the seven disciplines ( it can also be translated as the seven learning areas ). In other words, the former Homeland Teaching Activities of the 1993 New Curricular Standard involving homeland languages, homeland geography, homeland history, and hom eland arts were now fused into a thematic integration of learning experiences. Homeland arts in the Arts and Humanities Learning Area ( Y ) displayed a variety of artistic expressions including music, theater and danc e in their traditional, classical, folk, popular, and contemporary fusion art forms. In order to fulfill the government policies and curricular objectives, the music curriculum at Chen Ping Elementary School was carried out in three major contexts the gene ral music class, the children s band and chorus, and the extracurricular clubs. The general music class was arranged into one music class per week for the lower grade and two music classes per week for the middle and upper grades. The c hildren s band and t he c hildren s c horus were the two principal music groups organized and directed by the full time music teachers. Both groups rehearsed regularly at the Morning Sunrise Time and sometimes during the Noon Recess. The extracurricular clubs were founded for re creational purposes and to increase children s
139 accomplishments by joining in a variety of literary, art and sport clubs managed by the Department of Student Affairs. They were held every Wednesday afternoon, every Saturday morning, or every other after sch ool weekday. The extracurricular music clubs involved the flute clubs, the violin club, the ocarina clubs, and the harmonica clubs at ChenPing Elementary School in the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 academic years. Since music was Chen Ping Elementary School s curricular development emphasis, music teachers were specialists who mainly taught music courses. There were four music teachers at Chen Ping Elementary School in the 2007/2008 school year ; two of them taught full time music classes and the other two were school administrators teaching part time music. The music teachers at Chen Ping Elementary School presented diverse expertise. Each of the four music teachers had a specialty, teaching philosophy and curricular emphasis. T eacher 1 (T1) specializes in Chines e traditional musical instrument r h soprano and alto recorders, and speaks two foreign languages (English and Dutch) fluently besides the native languages Chinese Mandarin and H olo. Her teaching mostly focus es on aesthetic learning; hence, music app reciation was her curricular emphasis. She liked to apply multi media and computer technology to illustrate her lectures while introducing Taiwanese homeland arts to the students. T2 is a talented pianist and was trained academically in Western classical m usic. In contrast to T1, T2 s curriculum stressed developing children s fundamental musical abilities in ear training and sight reading, as well as performance skills on the soprano recorder. T3 is a fine piano accompanist and music educator. Her teaching was accentuated by her students diversified musical performance abilities of singing and playing the soprano recorder and the Orff keyboard percussion instruments. The other music teacher (T4) is a music educator and specializes in the ocarina and the Chi nese traditional musical instrument yang qn Like T2, T4 s music class underlined developing
140 children s basic music abilities on listening and playing the soprano recorder. Fostering children s singing ability through ear training was the highlight of T4 s music lessons. In her classroom activiti es, she utilized musical instruments, the recorder, harmonium or the piano, to guide students to experience, understand, and perform music. The Arts and Humanities textbooks were their primary teaching materials; however, they often incorporated extra supplemental materials outside of textbooks to enhance the effectiveness of their teaching. For instance, T3 adopted a volume of recorder music, G ( A Music Book for the Soprano Recorders ) published by the textbook publisher Re nLi n and edited by JiaLin C hiu for her lessons. During 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 school years the music and visual arts teachers at Chen Ping Element ary School adopted HanLin Publishing s Arts and Humanities textbooks as the primary teaching resources of the Arts and Humanities Curriculum for their middle and upper grade students and KangHsuan Publishing s Life Learning Area56 textbooks for the lower grade pupils. To facilitate teaching activities, accompanying with the textbooks, the textbook publishers also thoughtfully supplied supplemental materials to school teachers including the teacher s manuals, a series of vivid multimedia discs, flash cards, and enlarged wall charts such as the page contents excerpted from the textbooks, music scores, music notes, magnets, maps, and pictures. According to one of the music teachers, the music teachers at Chen Ping elementary school chose to use HanLin Publishing s textbooks because this textbook series was moderate in the difficulties of its content knowledge. In addition, the teacher claimed that they needed to try new sources because the textbooks published by 56According to the 2003 Grade 19 Curriculum, Life L e arning Area c overs the disciplines of Social Studies, Arts and Humanities, and Nature Science & Life Technology for the elementary school lower grade (first grade and second grade) students.
141 Kang Hsuan have been used for a long time (five years) besides Nan i and RenLin Although the four music teachers possessed various strengths, teaching strategies, and curricular structures and emphases, all of them drew attention to their students capability of playing the soprano recorder. According to T1, the reason is that the soprano rec order is an inexpensive musical instrument compared to other musical instruments; it is light in weight and is portable allowing children to carry with and perform with it easily. In addition to these advantages, the other music teacher, T4, also mentioned that the soprano recorder is easier to learn than other Western melodic musical instruments; it also helps to develop children s early musical abilities including ear training and improvisations. In fact, the ability to play the soprano recorder is specif ied in the 1993 New Curricular Standard as one of the melodic instrument performance requirements starting from the third grade, while in the 1975 Elementary Curricular Standard, it is regulated to start from the fourth grade. The 2003 Grade 1 9 Curriculum Guideline does not explicitly suggest a ny musical instruments and related performance skill requirements. O n the contrary, it gives school administrators and music teachers more flexibility to design their own curricula based on the ir expertise and the ch aracteristics and cultures of their schools and local communities. Accordingly, the music teachers at Chen Ping Elementary School all agreed on retaining the soprano recorder performance skill as a basic curriculum requirement when teaching their students. The soprano recorder was first introduced to the elementary music education system in Taiwan with Karl Orff Schulwerk eurhythmic music teaching process.57 The Bulgarian 57The information in this section is derived primarily from the following sourc e: Shiao Wei Tseng ( ), The Development and Adaptation of Recorder in Taiwan since Moving into the Music Educational System
142 missionary, Father Alophonse Souren, at the Kuang Ren Elementary School in Taipei Count y, Taiwan, first taught it to the third grade elementary school students. The recorder they used was made of wood by YAMAHA music incorporation and was imported from Japan to Taiwan by the KHS in Taiwan in 1969. Father Alophonse Souren applied the Orff ins trumentation the recorders, drums and Orff percussion instruments into the rhythm band of Kuang Ren Elementary School. Under his direction the school won several music contests at the national level during 1973 to 1974. In 1971, Taiwanese music educator, H ai Dong Hong delved into the structure and construction of the recorders and learned the recorder performance skills with Austrian student musician Gu Bi Ru who was seeking his overseas advanced study in Taiwan. Hong contributed to the research and teaching of the recorder and established Lu Ming Publishing that afterwards produced the soprano and alto recorders and published several recorder teaching materials. Inspired by Hong s dedication to recorder education, Professor Ou Kang at National Taiwan Normal University thus advised the Ministry of Education to incorporate the recorder lessons in the fourth grade s music performance skills in the teaching material guidelines in the 1975 Elementary School Curricular Standard. In 1974, the KHS music in corporation imported YAMAHA plastic recorders from Japan. This reduced the costs of the recorders and made the recorder more accessible to the general public. In 1975, Yi Syong Chong manager of Hao Hua Music Instrument Incorporation developed and manufactured the plastic recorders named the ABS recorder in Taiwan and became the pioneer of the domestically made plastic recorders. MUSIX Company Limited imported the Aulos plastic recorders from Japan in 1979. The recorder has become more and more popular in Observations of Three Elementary Schools in Chung Li as Examples (master s thesis, Taipei National University of the Arts, 2006) 62 65.
143 Taiwan s music education since 1980s because of the efforts of a few Taiwanese music educators such as H ui L ing C he n Ro ngG ui Wu Ruei Ching Chang, ShangRen Wang Jia Shu Liou GuoPan Chen and YuanQuan Huang They c ollaboratively held workshops and seminars on recorder pedagogies and recorder performance techniques in many school districts. I n 1983, music educators Jia Shu Liou, GuoPan Chen, and ShangRen Wang went to Japan to observe and study the mechanics of reco rder production at Aulos Music Instrument Company. They established Yue Yuan Publishing Company issuing particularly recorder related books, publications, and music scores. Since the Ministry of Education listed the recorder as one of the required musical instruments58 in the music curriculum of the Junior High School Curricular Standard in 1983, a few folk music clubs hence embarked on hosting the recorder contests in their communities. The most prominent one was the Taichung County s Li X ue Be i Recorder Co ntest The Ministry of Education has hitherto included the recorder in the annual Nationwide Musical Competitions for Students. Between 1984 and 1986, teaching recorder has been steadily professionalized in music education of Taiwan. Many colleges and universities offered courses on recorder teaching and performance. Taiwan Theological College and Tainan Junior College of Home Economics (now Tainan University of Technology ) accredited their music degree program with a major in recorder performance. During my fieldwork in the fall semester of 2007, ChenPing Elementary School s music teacher T3 demonstrated a two class unit lesson of teaching the soprano recorder to her fourth grade students. T3 prepared the lesson plan of this unit; I translated it into English, adapted and 58The recorder, guitar and traditional musical instruments are listed as the required musical instruments in the music curriculum of the Junior High School Curricular Standard in 1983.
144 placed it in APPENDIX A in the back of this dissertation. Her recorder lesson involved teaching students how to play the note F sharp and a short recorder piece, The Joyful Years ( H nin hu ). This particular piece contains a note F sharp and is arranged in the key of G major for the soprano recorder. T3 chose it from the volume A Music Book for the Soprano Recorders ( G ) published by RenLin. It is a song composed by Peter Chen and was very popular in the 1970s and 1980s. Its lyrics are written by You Yuan and its original singer is TaiJing Cuei T3 articulated her instructions by applying simple but vivid languages to explain difficult concept s to fit children s age of psychological development. For example, she described the note F as the baby Fa, and she further impersonated F natural and F sharp when she explained that the position of the note F sharp in the staff of the treble clef is sli ghtly higher than the natural F. She said: The baby Fa has a good friend (Fa sharp). Would you guess whether he lives above the baby Fa or under the baby Fa? In addition, she effectively applied the instructional strategies of turning the abstractions in to concrete concepts or objects in the assessment. For instance, when she attempted to assess whether or not her students could aurally identify the different tone colors of F natural and F sharp, she asked her students to physically perform the abstract c oncepts. So when they heard the F natural, the students would draw a big circle in the air above their heads; on the other hand, if the students heard F sharp, they would do the little superman pose. In the final assessment, T3 enhanced students learning efficiency by launching the group competitions after a seven minute intensive team practice time. The teacher gave each team a point scale from 1 ( lowest ) to 5 ( highest ) to designate performance result s Children in general enjoyed this type of collaborati ve learning with their own team members because a challenging group competition was anticipated.
145 In addition to T3 s recorder lessons, I also observed T1 s classroom activities of teaching Taiwanese Holo Opera ( ). T1 considered Taiwanese Holo Opera an essential component of Taiwanese homeland arts, so T1 employed her four class periods introducing Taiwanese Holo Opera to her sixth grade students. The lesson plan illustrates course objectives, rationa le, benchmarks, and teaching procedures (see APPENDIX B). T1 s Taiwanese Holo opera lesson reveals the trend of applying computer and multi media technologies in the homeland music teaching in contemporary Taiwan. She facilitated her lectures with PowerPoi nt slide shows, pictures and videos. She presented and reinforced concepts by asking students questions and selecting students from among those who raised their hands to answer the questions. When teaching the theatrical performance, T1 first presented the choreographies through pictures and videos, and next, she demonstrated the body movements to the students. The students practiced the body movements in groups. Then T1 assessed students levels of proficiency through group performances and gave verbal com ments. The students were also offered the opportunities of peer reviews by voluntarily providing verbal comments on other teams performances. T1 usually gave a team a positive comment at first, and then she would provide opinions on how to improve. For example, the verbal comments that she gave for the students in Team O ne on their performance of the sh ng s and dn s standard body gestures you, him (or her), and me are illustrated as follows: Every member of the Team One presented clear foot steps an d hand gestures. They also did an excellent job rendering the different physical characteristics between the male role and female role: the sh ng is strong and vigorous ; the dn is soft and delicate. They could improve by targeting their eyes toward the di rections where their hands will eventually pause; just like what we ve seen in the videos (my own translation).59 59I translated and interpreted the quote based on the classroom observation (Sixth grade, Class 4) on October 31, 2007 between 8:40 a m and 9:20 a m.
146 Her commentary also contained advice for the rehearsals in addition to the formal performances. This can be exemplified by the following remark that she put f orward to children of the Team S ix. Team S ix did a good job on coordinating their choreographies by calling out the paces (1, 2, 3 and 4) to complete the gestures. This strategy made every team member s movement go together at the same pace but on the other hand limited the flexibility of their body movements and so made the movements look stiff. I do admit that the call out the pace method help coordinating the team members movements and would work particularly well when a team practices th e movements together. However, to avoid rigid body movements, I suggest only using the call out the pace method for group rehearsals (my own translation).60 Overall, T1 s students preferred interactive and experiential types of knowledge and learning styles. The students displayed more interests in the hand gestures and body movements of the different casts in a play. Students were willing to perform the standard hand gestures and body movements of the female and male roles when asked to do so. Som e students laughed and entertained themselves by mocking the hand gestures that were demonstrated by the children on the videos, X (The Standard Body Movements, You, Him/Her and Me of the Casts of X ) and X (The Standard Body Movements, You, Him/Her and Me of the Casts of ). The students showed less interest in the lesson on the history and performance venues of Taiwanese Holo Opera. A few evidences were found during the lesson on the topic of the origins and performance venues of Taiwanese Holo Opera: During the lecture, a few students who sat on the back of the classroom were talking to each other or doing other things irrelevant to the class. When T1 asked her students questions to a ssess if they fully comprehend the lecture, few students volunteer to answer the questions. 60I translated and interpreted the quote based on the classroom observation (Sixth grade, Class 4) on October 31, 2007 between 8:40 a m and 9:20 a m.
147 On the other hand, I investigated the outcome of the implementations of the Ministry of Education s major education policies regarding homeland curriculum at ChenP ing Elementary School one was the Taiwan ese Mother Tongue s Day and the other was the One Person Per Mu sical Instrument, One School Per Art Group project ,. The Taiwanese Mother Tongue s Day was carried out weekly at the elementary schools accord ing to the Ministry of Education s executive guideline of promoting homeland education. Taichung City Education Bureau introduced it to be practiced every W ednesday. According to the Director of the Department of Teaching Affairs at Chen Ping Elementary, t he objectives of this education policy were to enhance students interests in learning Taiwanese homeland languages, to improve teachers and students ability of speaking fluent homeland languages, and to offer students diverse learning opportunities and performance venues.61 On Wednesday s M orning S unrise T ime from 7:50 a .m to 8:35 a .m at Chen Ping Elementary School, some classes would play songs that were sung in Holo or Hakka language in their classrooms to create an amiable and a natural learning envi ronment. The reports of teachers and the students on the morning assembly on Wednesdays conducted by the school administration department via the campus central television broadcast system were encouraged to speak animatedly in homeland languages. The scho ol administration department held the Students Morning Assembly to invite voluntary students to groupperform or selfperform homeland language related activities, such as singing, chanting, telling jokes, or interviewing celebrities. In the 2007/2008 sch ool year, ChenPing Elementary School scheduled its homeland language courses all on Wednesdays. Students were free to select one homeland language among the four dialects Holo, Hakka, and two Taiwanese 61Chen Ping Elementa ry School Homeland Language Teaching Web, the Executive Plan of Taiwanese Mother Tongue s Day in the Ninety Seven School Year, Chen Ping Elementary School, http://web.cpes.t c.edu.tw/classweb/menu/index.php?account=taiwanese (accessed March 31, 2010).
148 aboriginal languages, Coast Amis and Paiwan. There we re forty seven class sections of Holo language course taught by the homeroom teachers; students took the course at their own homerooms. Hakka language course was only opened for two class sections; one section for the middle graders and the other for the u pper graders. The students who chose to take Hakka were assigned to be taught by Ms. Ting Fang Chen, a third grade homeroom teacher and specialist on Hakka language, at the music classroom. The Coast Amis language and the Paiwan language were each offered one class section; each section was taught at the science classroom by two language specialists who were appointed by the Ministry of Education to come to the school to teach these language courses every Wednesday. Also, in order to motivate learning inter ests and to achieve effective learning, students and teachers were urged to learn through the Internet. The Homeland Language Education Committee of ChenPing Elementary School designed a Homeland Language Learning Website .62 The website is very comprehensi ve and includes the administrative policies, conference agendas, faculty catalogues, curriculum structures, supplemental teaching resources, and the photo gallery of homeland language teaching activities. In addition, one unique feature of ChenPing Elemen tary School s homeland language education was its language learning facility located on the right hand side corner of the gallery of the corridor at the first floor front gate named the Corner No. 3 ( Z see F igure 4 2). Its name was inspired by the popular Taiwanese movie Pier No. 7 ( ho ) in an attempt to intrigue children s learning interests. It was an electronic language learning device displayed in three micro phones on the top. Below the microphones were the descriptive transcripts of the idiomatic phrases written in English, Hakka, and Holo 62The World Wide Web of Chen Ping Homeland Language Education is located at http://web.cpes.tc.edu.tw/classweb/menu/index.php?account=taiwanese.
149 respectively. A button was equipped on the bottom of each microphone that linked with its designated language transcript. The English transcript included the English idiom and its Chinese translation; the Hakka transcript contained simply the Hakka phrase written in Chinese characters; the Holo transcript comprised a Holo proverb with its Chinese M andarin annotation. When so meone pressed a button, the specific microphone connected to it would play the voice of the idiomatic phrase speaking in its designated language English, Holo, or Hakka. The voices played from the microphone were recordings of students who were chosen by t he language teachers. The phrases were taken from the proverbs, idioms, slangs or the casual expressions. At Chen Ping Elementary School, the outcome of the government policy One Person Per Mu sical Instrument, One School Per Art Group was exhibited in the school s musical activities of the music ensembles and extracurricular clubs. Although the school did not have a conventionally recognize d Taiwanese homeland art troupe [the Chinese music ensemble ( G u yu tun ) or Taiwanese Holo Opera troupe ( G tun )], their music groups did perform the repertories involving Chinese traditional music and Taiwanese folk music besides Western classical music. In addition, the music curriculum at Chen Ping Elementary School emphasized the recorder performance skills as a way to fully implement the government s music educational project, One Person Per Mu sical Instrument, One School Per Art Group. The Children s Chorus has been established since 1998, the same year as the school was founded. The members of the chorus composed of the middle grade and upper grade students on the fledging stage of ChenPing Elementary School s history. Later, as the school s total student numbers increased, the chorus members consisted of merely upper graders. According to the Dire ctor of the Department of Student Affairs, the purpose of establishing the Children s Chorus was not only to cultivate students interests in and ability to sing, but also to
150 develop students sense of honor through participating in the Nationwide Music Competitions for Students. The membership of the Children s Chorus was the result of a series of recruiting process. In the beginning of every fall semester, the upper grade students who were interested in joining the chorus could sign up through their music teachers. The Chorus Director63 would then call them for auditioning during the class recess hours. In the auditions, students were asked to sing a C major scale ( one andhalf octave ascending and descending scale ) and then they were assigned by the Chorus Director to sing a short simple song, such as the Republic of China National Anthem or a piece chosen from their current music textbooks. The students would be assigned to sing the Republic of China National Anthem because, according to the Chorus Di rector most students were taught to sing it in the elementary school an d were familiar with its melody; therefore, singing it could make the audition process easier than singing a new song that they just learned. T hose students who officially became members were selected by the Chorus Director after the auditions, approximately forty five to fifty eight students based on the principal executive guideline of the Nationwide Music Competitions for Students the c horus catgory.64 After the audition process, the chorus started its regular rehearsal at the school s Morning Sunrise Time from 7:50 a .m to 8:35 a m twice or three times a week; when approaching the days of the chorus upcoming performances, the Director frequently added several intensive rehearsals at the school s Noon Recess from 12: 40 p. m to 1: 20 p.m. The rehearsal generally began by the general announcements regarding student affairs and the 63The full time music teachers at Chen Ping Elementary School had the responsibility to take turns as the Director of the Children s Instrumental Band and the Director of the Children s Chorus. Each term of the directorship lasted two years. The job assignments of the Chorus Director (or the Band Director) included conducting, training, and organizing the Children s Chorus (or the Children s Band). 64National Education Radio, Q (The P u r poses and Evol utions of the Nationwide Music Co mpetition s for Students), National Education Radio, http://music.ner.gov.tw/SEH/history/history.htm (accessed March 22, 2010)
151 upcoming performances, followed by a tento fifteen minute vocal warm up, and then focused on reviewing the old pieces and learning new pieces. Students learned new pieces by rote and by listening to the demonstration audio recordings. They were also trained in sight reading and sight singing skills, as well as the ability to hear other students voices. The ch orus sang a broad range of repertories in the rehearsals including the excerpts from the music textbooks (or since 2003 the Arts and Humanities textbooks) and the chorus music from the previous or current Nationwide Music Competitions for Students reperto ry pools. According to the contest guideline, to become eligible to compete in the Nationwide Music Competitions for Students the c horus category, a school s chorus has to win both its own school district s chorus contest and its city or county s chorus co ntest so it can be promoted to the national level. Each fall semester, the school administrators, the Chorus Director, and the music teachers at Chen Ping Elementary School cooperatively organized and trained their Children s Chorus to partake in the Be i tu n School District Chorus Contest, a rudiment level of the Nationwide Music Competitions for Students the c horus category. The Nationwide Music Competitions for Students has a long history of prominence in Taiwan s music educ ation. Through engaging in the c ompetitions, the educational policy legislators and executors could observe and assess the outcomes of the implementations of the arts education curricula. Students of various ethnic backgrounds are encouraged to take part in the musical contests. The Nati onwide Music Competitions for Students was originally the Taiwan Province Musical Contests and had been taken place annually since 1950. In 2000, the name w as officially changed to the Nationwide Music Competitions for Students. According to the Social Education Department of the Ministry of Education, the goals of holding the annual Nationwide Music Competitions for Students are not only to develop students musical aptitudes,
152 but also to enhance their musical expertise. In addition, because the contests w elcome the musical performances that exhibit diverse ethnic attributes, both teachers and students experience and learn to appreciate various musical styles of other ethnic groups. The contests are classified into the group contests and the solo contests. In the 2007/2008 school year the group contests consisted of ten categorieschorus, children s instrumental band, orchestra, wind ensemble, string ensemble, chamber music ensemble (trio, quartet, and quintet ), Chinese orchestra, Chinese silk and bamboo chamber music ensemble, recorder ensemble, harmonica ensemble, ocarina ensemble, and saxophone quartet. The solo instrumental contests comprised fourteen categories the piano, violin, viola, cello, double bass, (a Chinese a lto fiddle), (a Chinese soprano fiddle), nn h (a Chinese two string fiddle), (a Chinese reed pipe wind instrument), (a Chinese vertical bamboo flute), d (a Chinese bamboo flute), (a Chinese woodwind horn), ocarina, alto saxophone, barit one, harp (with pedals), and the female vocal solo (soprano and alto) and the male vocal solo (tenor and bass). The competitors in each category in the contests we re required to perform two musical pieces; the competitors themselves could sel ect one piece, and the other ha d to be chosen from the repertory pools that we re assigned by the committee members who enact ed the musical composition pool for the Nationwide Music Competitions for Students. The Social Education Department of the Ministry of Education note d that the 2007/2008 school year s Nationwide Music Competitions for Students consisted of Taiwanese homeland music (includin g music of Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aborigines) in the assigned repertory pool for the competitions of chorus, vocal solos, ha rmonica, recorder, wind ensemble and wind instrument solos. For instance, the Taiwanese homeland music included in the assigned repertory pool for the elementary children s chorus competition was the Holo song Taiwan Is a Precious Island ( T
153 ), and that for the elementary school recorder ensemble contest was the Holo folk song Plowing Song ( S ) and the Taiwanese aboriginal folk song The Twilight a nd Stars Are Nice Tonight ( J ). The Children s Instrumental Band ( r tng yu du ) at Chen Ping Elementary School was chosen to play the music for the school s award ceremony, flagraising ceremony, Morning Assembly and the school anniversary sports carnivals. The reperto ry of th e Instrumental Band comprised ceremonial music, military music, and patriotic music, such as the Republic of China National Anthem and the National Flag Song and therefore seldom played Taiwanese homeland music. M any musical pieces have also been chosen fr om the volume The Instructional Materials for the School Instrumental Band ( X u xio q yu ) arranged by J i a Li n C hiu .65 For example, the Children s Band adopted C hiu s musical arrangements of The Song of Victory ( S ) and Sherman Brothers It s a Small World as the marching music for the school s Morning Assembly or other school events. In addition, it also applied Franz Peter Schubert s Military March, Opus 53 and Georg Friedrich Handel s Judas Maccabeus: See, the conquering hero comes! for the award ceremony. Such manner of repertory arrange ment has embedded a certain degree of the influence of Chinese Nationalist education dated from pre martial law era. The musical instruments that were adopted in the Children s Instrumental Band included around twentyfour to twenty six recorders, six to e ight pianicas, two to four accordions, one or two xylophones, one 65The following volume is frequently used by the music teachers who direct the Children s Instrumental Band at Chen Ping Elementary School: Ji a Li n C h iu ed., X [ The Instructional Materials for th e School Instrumental Band] (Taichung, Taiwan: Li Yi Publishing, 1996).
154 or two metallophones, two to four glockenspiels, one bass drum, two to four snare drums, and one pair of cymbals. Other small sized percussion instruments like the triangle, the tambourine, the woodblock, and the castanet were also incorporated. The Children s Band Director chose the band members from a pool of 4th to 6th grade students. Similar to the Children s Chorus, students who were interested in being the members of the Instrumental Band had to pass the auditions of the instruments that they chose. For instance, in the audition, a student who chose to master accordion would be asked to play the piano; he or she would play one piece assigned by the Band Director and the other piece selec ted by the student himself or herself. After passing the auditions, they became the official members of the band. A student who mastered the small sized rhythmic percussion instruments may be required to play all of the small sized rhythmic percussion inst ruments depending on the instrumental arrangements of the musical pieces. For example, if one musical piece has only the triangle and the castanet in the small size rhythmic percussion instrument section, the students mastering the tambourine or the woodbl ock will be assigned to play the triangle and the castanet instead. The C hildren s B and at the elementary schools originated in 1967 just after the 1966 Elementary School Tentative Curricular Standard was enacted Initially, the ensemble was called the Dru m and Recorder Band ( G d du ), which involved recorders, bass drums, snare drums, alto drums, and cymbals. Later it evolved into the rhythm band, for its instrumentation consisted of primarily the rhythmic percussion instruments such as the bass dr ums, snare drums, cymbals, triangles tambourines, castanets and so on, accompanying a few melodic instruments namely the recorders, pianicas, and the xylophones. After the Ministry of Education modified the curriculum standard in 1968, the instructional m aterials of the instrumental music performance have been incorporated in the elementary music curriculum. Simultaneously, the Ministry of
155 Education decided to include the children s rhythm band into the competition categories of the annual Nationwide Music Competitions for the sake of promulgating the development and instructions of the instrumental band in the elementary school level. In 1970, the Ministry of Education further offered special grants to the Teachers Colleges, the public educational institut ions which cultivated professional elementary school teachers, to purchase the music instruments and to recruit and train the elementary school teachers to direct the rhythm bands in order to enhance the instructions of the instrumental music performance. Afterwards, many elementary schools established and promoted their own rhythm bands. In 1973, the rhythm band officially became a competition category in the Nationwide Music Competition for Students, and in 1976, the Ministry of Education amended the Curr iculum Standard of the T e achers College to change the term rhythm band into children s band. The Curriculum Standard also stipulated that every student who graduated from the Teachers Colleges must possess the ability to direct t he C hildren s B and. Sin ce the execution of the 2003 Grade 1 9 Curriculum, the C hildren s B and has become a way not only to disseminate a school s curriculum feature but also to implement government s One Person Per Musical Instrument, One School Per Art Group project. The childr en s bands that participated in the Nationwide Music Competition for Students rarely selected Taiwanese homeland (Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aboriginal) music pieces, for musicians and music educators who composed or arranged children s band music in the past were influe n ced by the European classical music heritage and Eurocentrism in Taiwan s music education. Therefore, the repertories that continue today consist of European classical orchestral music, ensemble music, or chamber music pieces arranged for children s band rather than Chinese traditional music. According to the record, the homeland repertory that was chosen by
156 the children s band directors for children s band in the Nationwide Music Competition for Students included as follows: The Drum Sain t Plays Tricks on the Lion ( G ) composed by Ji Hong Jheng performed by Taipei County s Ju Guang Elementary School in the 1997 Nationwide Music Competition and by GaoXiong City s Qi Xian Elementary School in the 2000 Nationwide Music Competition Taiwanese Aboriginal Folk Song composed by CianHuei Hong performed by Taipei County s Ji Sui Elementary School in the 1998 and the 2002 Nationwide Music Competitions The Spirit of the Mountains ( ) composed by Ji Hong Jheng performed by Taipei County s Ju Guang Elementary School in the 1999 and the 2000 Nationwide Music Competitions and by GaoXiong City s Qi Xian Elementary School in the 1999 Nationwide Music Competition Theme song from the Chinese movie House of Flyi ng Daggers ( Sh min mi f ) adapted by HongYi Cai performed by ZhangHua County s Ping He Elementary School in the 1997 and the 2002 Nationwide Music Competitions ( a Taiwanese Hakka folk song), performed by GaoXiong City s ZhongXiao Elementary School in the 1998 Nationwide Music Competition The extracurricular music clubs were directed by the music specialists who were commissioned by the private music companies in the community to come to the school and gave instructiona l activities. In the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 school years, the Department of Student Affairs at Chen Ping Elementary School cooperated with t he private music companies, the Praha ( B ) Music Institute and the Dvorak ( D f zh k ) Music School and authorized them to take charge of the school s extracurricular music clubs. These two music companies provided instructors and textbooks. In the beginning of every semester, the Department of Student Affairs took charge of the registration process; the students signed up at the Department of Student Affairs for the clubs that they were interested in joining in and then paid certain instruction fees. There were two types of ext racurricular clubs based on when they met the after school clubs and the weekend clubs. T he after school music clubs rehearsed on
157 Wednesday afternoons or other after school weekdays and consisted of the flute and the violin clubs; the weekend music clubs m et on Saturday mornings and comprised of the ocarina and the harmonica clubs. The two private music companies, the Praha Music Institute and the Dvorak Music School supplied the students of the music clubs with the instructional textbooks edited by the co mpanies themselves under their own names. The repertories children learned to play were from these textbooks; they contained some re arranged Western classical music tunes, such as the excerpts from Chopin s waltz and Beethoven s Ode to Joy, several comp osed art songs and children s nursery songs from the elementary school music textbooks adapted for musical instruments, such as The River ( H )66 and The Butterflies ( H di ), and some contemporary Taiwanese popular music tunes, such as The M elancoly Pub ( S ), and The Nation s Southern Border ( G ). The school held a public performance for these extracurricular music clubs in the end of each semester, generally at the Morning Assembly. For these perfor mances, instructors prepare d two to three music pieces for the club students to perform Chinese O rchestra (also called Chinese instrumental ensemble, National music ensemble, or Taiwanese folk music ensemble ) is a modern musical creation. It evolved from several small sized (fifteen players at most) regional folk ensembles, such as the Northern School Music Ensemble ( B ), the Southern School Music Ensemble ( N ), or the ( J N n) Silk and Bamboo Music Ensemble [( ) ]. It is a synthesis of Chinese traditional music and Western orchestral music. Its instrumentation and structure are taken from Western orchestra. Its tunes derive from Chinese traditional or folk music, such as B 66The original tune of this song is named L eau vive composed by Guy B art B har
158 music, N music and other Chinese regional theatrical music, and these tunes are re arranged by contemporary composers based on European counterpoint and har mony. The i nstruments utilized in Chinese O rchestra correspond to the four categories of Chinese traditional musical instruments, including plucked string instruments, bowed string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments: Plucked String I nstruments: P p L Y ng qn G Z and D B owed String Instruments: G (or ), N n h Z G h and B i g h Wind Instruments: B Q d X S and S P ercussion Instruments: D lu D b X T M qn M y X L and B Some Western musical instruments such as the double bass and cello are also used in Chinese orchestra. Nn J C e ntral Radio Station Chinese Orchestra was the first Chinese O rchestra and performed in Taiwan for the World Exhibi tion in November 1948. Chinese O rchestra has become ubiquitous in Taiwan since 1949 the Republic of China Nationalist regime. Many traditional music specialists who fled to Taiwan with the Chinese Nationalist Party ( also called the Kuomintang) gathered together and established the Central Radio Station Chinese Orchestra in Taiwan. In the Taiwanese elementary school system, a school that owned a C hinese O rchestra or a folk ensemble would be considered to have indirectly met its educational objectives, curricular emphasis, and community culture as a Chinese or Taiwanese traditional music preserver or advocator. However, t here was no Chinese O rchestr a at Chen Ping Elementary School during the time frame of my fieldwork. This was the result of the school s surrounding community s
159 musical tastes, students musical preferences, and the administration decisions. Mr. Chen, Director of Student Affairs at Ch en Ping Ele mentary School, explained that the school had planned to offer an extracurricular r h (a Chinese two string fiddle) club and an extracurricular ethnic dance club but then failed to do so when only two students signed up for the r h club and just four students showed their interests in joining the ethnic dance club. The school s principal, Mr. Chang, m entioned that establishing a Chinese O rchestra required a large amount of funding support from the school s Parents Association. The funding would be used for hiring several Chinese music instrumental specialists to teach each specific Chinese musical instrument and for purchasing musical instrume nts and music scores. It appear ed that since Chen Ping Elementary School s parents wer e more inclined to have their children learn Western musical instruments, sponsoring a Chinese O rchestra was not their pr iority Therefore, although the school had an excellent full time music teacher who specialized i n Chinese traditional music and in the r h performance, Chinese O rchestra never gained enough support from the community. In general, Chinese O rchestras at the elementary schools operated as extracurricular music clubs but were directed by the schools formal full time music teachers. T he music teachers or the administrators who were also Chinese traditional music enthusiasts promoted them. A good example of this is the Taipei City s San Min Elementary School where the Chinese orchestra director was a full time music teacher and loved Chinese traditional mus ic. She was responsible for the search process of hiring the instructors and the conductor; she communicated with and coordinated among the conductor, the students and their parents; she also managed the orchestra affairs, which included suggesting what music scores and instruments the orchestra should purchase. The school s Chinese O rchestra rehearsed every Wednesday afternoon from 1:30 p. m to 4:00 p.m. Additional rehearsals were scheduled before every public performance and music
160 competition. In the fall of every semester, their students from third grade to sixth grade responded to a survey distributed by the Student Affairs Department about if they would like to join in the Chinese O rchestra and what instruments they would like to learn or m aster. Accord ing to one of the homeroom teachers, many students who joined the Chinese O rchestra were the children of their schoolteachers. Students who signed up had to pay a tuition and material fee. The school purchased Chinese traditional instruments for instructional purposes. The major purpose of establishing the Chinese O rchestra at San Ming Elementary School was to encourage the students to learn and appreciate the beauty of Chinese traditional music. The repertoires that were performed were mainly original folk tunes or theatrical music, pentatonic scale musical pieces, or those that incorporated Chinese or Taiwanese theatrical or folk music tunes. For example, Childhood Memory ( T ong nin de hu y ) composed by LiangHui Lu, Spring Horse Riding ( C ) composed by De Ju Chen, Throwing And His Coins ( D ) composed by ZongXian Wu, and the B theatrical tune The Spring of a Hundred Family ( B ) were part of the ensemble s repertoire. These orchestral pieces were mainly musical pieces composed by contemporary Chinese or Taiwanese compo sers. In addition, the Chinese O rchestra became the school s trademark as it helped cultural preservation and exchange. Chinese O rchestral music has become a musical style representing Taiwanese traditional culture, particularly after the government began to promote the homeland curricula. For instance, on December 2nd, 2009, when H. E. Ambassador Jacques Sawadogo, Burkina Faso s ambassador in Taiwan, visited S an Min Elementary School, the school s Chinese O rchestra performed two composed Taiwanese traditional pieces, The Golden Snakes Dance Madly ( J ) and The Barn Village Drinking Song ( N ) to welco me the ambassador. The
161 Chinese O rchestra at San Min Elementary School also participated in at least the regional level of Nationwide Music Competition for Students every year and has ranked quite high with an excellent reputation. Establishing the Chinese O rchestra became prevalent in the elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools after the 1993 New Curriculum Standard that advocated the homeland education. As stated in the previous passage, the elementar y schools that had the Chinese O rchestras or the folk ensembles often functioned as the Chinese or Taiwanese traditional cultural advocators Several music teachers who were also political enthusiasts chose certain music repertoires for their students to learn in a way that could also indirectly reveal their own musical inclinations and political identities. For instance, a school s Chinese O rchestra that learns solely Taiwanese regional folk music of the Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aborigines and plays them in many public performances might easily be associated with the Taiwanese nativist. I argue that, although Chinese O rchestral music denoted the Chinese national music in the pre martial law era and was associated with the Chinese nationalism, in the post martial law era, its connotation shifted to represent Taiwanese nativism and implied the national music of Taiwan. Above all, in the realm of instrumental music it is especially obvious that Taiwanese traditional and folk music derive d and evolve d from Chinese sources. Accordingly, whether the educational pol icy legislators define Taiwanese homeland arts as those of the Holo clans, of the Hakka clans, of the aborigines or as those of the entire population of Taiwan (including the Holo people, Hakka people, Taiwanese aborignes, Chinese mainlanders, and other new immigrants), Chinese music instruments utilized in the Chinese O rchestra are not divisive but rather stand for both the Chinese and the Taiwanese identities.
162 Personal Attitudes of the Educational Policy Legislators, Executors, and Recipients toward Home land The purpose of the indepth personal interviews with the educational policy legislators, executors, and recipients is to examine the relationships between the informants personal and educational backgrounds and their ideologies and perceptions of ho meland and homeland music. T he interviews were conducted during fall 2007 to spring 2008. The educational policy makers chosen to be interviewed included one of the legislators of the 2003 Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline ,67 one of the members of the Music Textbook Examination Committee appointed by the NICT (National Institute for Compilation and Translation), and one of the national arts education policy legislators. In addition, I recruited a music scholar who was a Professor of Music and Guidance Mentor of Student Teaching at a Teachers College that was previously a major elementary teacher s training institution in Taiwan; this informant was listed in the category of the educational policy makers for his educational involvement in the Ministry of Educat ion s policy guidance team for the Grade 1 9 Curriculum entitled Deep Plowing Guidance Team. The educational policy practitioners who were interviewed consisted of five elementary school music teachers and five administrators; seven of them were from ChenPing Elementary School among these ten informants. The educational policy recipients who participated in this research comprised eight elementary school children and eight children s parents or guardians; fourteen of them were ChenPing Elementary School s children and their guardians among these sixteen participants. Among the eight child participants, three were the second graders, two were the fourth graders, one was the fifth grader, and two were the sixth 67The Grade 1 9 Curriculum combined music into the Arts and Humanities Curriculum with visual arts a nd performing arts, so the legislators who participated in enacting the Arts and Humanities Learning Area Curricular Guideline of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum (2003) consisted of merely two music specialists, S hih Ze Yao and Lai Fa Lin The visual arts specialists occupied most seats of the legislative committee of the Arts and Humanities Learning Area of the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline.
163 graders. I n order to protect the identities o f my informants, in the succeeding passages, I replace the real name of each participant with a capitalized English letter L, E, or R followed by an algebra number in numerical order. L is the first initial of the word Legislator, standing for the educat ional policy legislator E stands for the educational policy executor, and R stands for the educational recipient F or example, E1, E2, E3etc., indicate the educational policy Executor No. 1 Executor No. 2 Executor No. 3 and so forth. In the interview, the participants were asked to provide their background information including their ages, genders, ethnicities, birthplaces, musical instruments they could play and languages they could speak. They were also asked to describe their own involvement and experiences with homeland arts ( y sh ) or homeland music ( ) including listening, performing teaching or learning. Then, they were asked to answer questions about their own perceptions of homeland and homeland music They were invited to define homeland ( or ) and homeland music ( or ), Taiwanese folk music ( T ), traditional music ( ), national music ( gu yu ) and popular music ( or ) based on their own understandings. I used a different set of interview questions to assess child participants perceptions of and attitudes toward homeland and homeland a rts. Questions for the children involved their listening, watching and learning experiences with Taiwanese folk arts such as and Chinese arts, such as the Peking opera, Chinese O rchestra and Chinese traditional musical instruments. These que stions were also utilized to evaluate how children acquired and conceived their c oncepts of homeland and how these were related to the idea of Taiwan. I also delve d into the issue of whether the elementary school students possessed the
164 knowledge of homeland through the formal school education, the informal social environment, or a combination of both. The adult informants of the educational policy legislators and executors were also asked about their opinions on current Grade 19 Curriculum. T he background information and the questions that involved the informants past experiences were utilized to investigate the informants ideologies of homeland in relation with their family, social and educational backgrounds. My informants descriptions of their own per ceptions of homeland and their definitions of the musical terms associated with the concepts of homeland were then analyzed and interpreted. All of the educational policy makers have education related degrees; three of them possess a degree in music educat ion; one has a doctorate degree in music education, two have their master s degree in music education, and the other one has a bachelor s degree in education. Among all the ten educational policy practitioners, five of them were school music teachers and a nother five were school administrators; all of them possess at least the bachelor s degrees. In addition, nine out of ten educational policy practitioners have education related degrees and five have their master s degrees or have earned graduate credits. As for the educational recipients, seven out of eight child parents or guar dians have earned at least the bachelor s degree s and six of them have education related degrees. According to the statistics of Government Information Office of the Republic of Chi na (Taiwan) in 2009, the number of Taiwanese citizens with higher education68 degrees was 6.94 million, representing thirty percept of the population and an 68According to Government Information Office of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Taiwan s higher education is provided by colleges, universities, graduate schools, junior colleges and institutes of technology. See Government Information Office of Republic of China (Taiwan), Education, in Taiwan Yearbook pp. 221231 (Taipei, Taiwan: Government Information Office, 2009 ), 224. Available from http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan website/5 gp/yearbook/16Education.pdf (accessed March 25, 2011).
165 increase of 3.87 percent from the previous year (2008) .69 Therefore, it reveals that all my adult i nformants can be considered among the intellectual or educated elites of the country. In terms of the educational and the social backgrounds of my informants, except for the eight educational policy recipients who were the elementary school students and one senior adult informant who was born in 1922 under Japanese colonial rule all my adult participants we re brought up in the oppressed social and educational circumstances under the Nationalist s hegemonic rule in the pre martial law era: six were born in the 1940s and 1950s, up to thirteen were born in the 1960s and 1970s. O nly one participant was born in 1984. Regarding my informants ethnic background, among the four educational policy makers, two are Holo, one is Hakka and the other is a Chinese m ainla nder; among the ten educational practitioners, eight are Holo, and the other two are Chinese m ainlanders. Comapring the ethnicities of the sixteen educational policy recipients, among the eight students parents or guardians, five are the Holo and the othe r three are Chinese m ainlanders; among the eight elementary school students, three are Holo, three are Chinese ma inlanders, one is Hakka, and the other one is Taiwanese aborigine. All the informants speak Holo and Chinese M andarin. I also investigated my i nformants musical backgrounds and experiences. Among the four educational policy legislators, each one can play the piano; three of them can play the Chinese traditional music instrument r h (Chinese traditional two string fiddle) including the one who does not have a music diploma. Among the three informants who had their music degrees, because of their academic music training was mainly on Western classical music, they all learned to pla y Western musical instruments two of them play the cello and the other plays the violin. 69Government Information Office of Republic of China (Taiwa n), Education, (Taipei, Taiwan: Government Information Office, 2009), 224. Available from http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan website/5 gp/yearbook/16Education.pdf (accessed March 25, 2011).
166 Although these three music specialists all received Western classical music training, two of them have learned to play the r h outside of the formal school educati on system; moreover, between these two, one of them has learned to play the (Chinese traditional twelve string zither) in addition to the r h ; both also actively involved in the societal developments of arts and humanities, as well as the preservations of Taiwanese traditional music, such as the Northern School music ( music ) Among the three music specialists, only one of them could not play any Chinese traditional musical instrument; however, this educational legislator was enthusias tic about Chinese traditional arts. The music specialist informed me in one of the personal interviews that when he was in elementary school, after school, he often took his friends to go together to watch the b di x (Taiwanese Holo handpuppet theater) performance at the temple gate in the neighborhood. On the other hand, the informant who had a bachelor s degree in education but was not an academically trained musician said that he was always keen on Taiwanese folk songs and could play r h The musical backgrounds of the ten educational policy practitioners who participated in this dissertation reveal that six of them have learned to play at least one Chinese traditional musical instrument ; among these six, two are professional r h pe rformers and one is Chinese instrumental music specialist who can play r h yng qn qn qn and and also used to be the Chinese O rchestra conductor. Concerning the musical backgrounds of eight children s guardians seven of them were elementary school teachers; five of them can play the piano; three of them have learned to play the Chinese r h and ; only two of them cannot play any musical instruments at all Analysis indicates that all my adult informants appreciate the learning of Chinese traditional
167 musical instruments even if they were nurtured under the Nationalist s Sino centric hegemonic education. Besides, r h was one of the most popular Chinese traditional musical instrument s in their generation. In contrast, as I reviewed what the musical instruments that my eight child participants could play, none of them have learned to play any Chinese traditional musical instruments but seemed to be more interested in learning the Western musical instruments: six of my student participants have learned to play the piano, two of them were currently learning the flute, and one was learning the violin. The facts seemed to disclose that Westernization has affected the musical tastes of Taiwanese new generations who are born after the 1990s. In particular, as my adult informants recalled their childhood experiences with the general music class in elementary school, two of them who were born in the 1940s and attended the elementary school in the 1950s expressed that they had not been taught the general music classes in elementary schools at that time. Another informant who received his elementary education in the late 1950s and early 1960s stated that he and his classmates danced and sang songs along with the harmonium played by their teacher in the first and secondgrade Recreation Class and the third and fourthgrade general music class; however, he mentioned that he was not offered any music courses at school in the fifth and sixth grades due to the educational pressure from the Junior High School Unified Entrance Examination ( G ). In Taiwanese education history, from 1943 to 1967, students received only a six year compulsory education (that is, the elementary school education from first grade to sixth grade). After the elementary education, students who want ed to continue their education had to pass the Junior High School Unified Entrance Examination. Taiwanese students were not offered the Nine Year Compulsory Education until 1968. Therefore, because music was not included as a required test
168 subject of the e ntrance exam, schools often neglected the music course and marginalized it as a minor subject. At that time, the homeroom teachers who were in general not music specialists usually taught the general music class at many elementary schools. Some homeroom teachers even chose to teach other primary subjects such as Chinese M andarin (or called the national language ), mathematics, and science to replace the originally scheduled music classes in their course calendars. Music education in the elementary school started to become less marginalized after the implementation of the Nine Year Compulsory Education beginning in 1968. Nonetheless, the contents that were taught in the general music classroom were still rigid and restrained. T he adult informants who receive d their elementary education in the early 1970s claimed that their music al experiences in the elementary music classes were limited primarily to singing; the course contents consisted of few music theory or music appreciation components. T he songs they san g were in Chinese Mandarin but never in their mother tongues. According to informant E3 ( a school administrator ) and R3 ( a fourth grade parent ) when they were in elementary school they received penalties when caught speaking Holo language at school let a lone learning Holo folk songs. E3 described the situation as follows: we never sang (Taiwanese) Holo songs because speaking Holo language was prohibited at school during that time. I did speak Holo at school, so I hid when the (school administrators who were also the) Chinese Mandarin language promoters came to our classroom to fine us [for] sp eaking Holo70 (my own translation). Even if there were Taiwanese Holo folk songs in the music textbooks, those were the supplemental songs and were placed in the bac k of the music textbooks. My informant E5, a school administrator, mentioned as follows: Since at that time it was under Kuomintang ( Nationalist) rule, we never s a ng real Taiwanese native folk songs. But [in the choir] we sang Korean folk songs 70Personal interview with an educational policy practitioner, November 1, 2007. (All interviews are confidential; the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement.)
169 American f olk songs and folk songs from many other countries71 (my own translation). Generally, my analyses of the educational backgrounds of my adult informants demonstrate that academic music training in the 1950s through the early 1980s in Taiwan favored Western c lassical music and disregarded Chinese traditional music and Taiwanese folk music. S tudents acquired the learning and performance experiences of Chinese traditional music through joining in the after school amateur musical training programs or through part icipating in social or communal events. T he course contents of the elementary school general music class have become more diverse in the 1990s since the execution of the 1993 New Curricular Standard. Since the 1970s, music teachers have begun to teach musi c theory, ear training, music composition, music improvisation, and music appreciation to the new generations of the 1970s. Taiwanese folk songs and theatrical music have been introduced in the general music class. The concept of Taiwanese homeland music h as then been defined as the music of the Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aboriginal people s in Taiwan and further been incorporated in the elementary music education. The major portion of the interviews with the educational policy makers, policy practitioners a nd recipients involved their definitions of musical terms associated with the concepts of the homeland, such as the Taiwanese folk music, traditional music, national music, popular music and homeland music. The four educational policy makers were concerne d that the term (indigenous) had political implications and hence suggested replacing it with another synonymous term (homeland), although the Grade 19 Curricular Guideline Revision Committee has decided to change (homeland) to 71Personal interview with an educational policy practitioner, November 1 2007. (All interviews are confidential; the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement.)
170 (indigenous) in the 2008 edition of the Grade 19 Curricular Guideline after a committee meeting on January 11, 2008. According to the United Daily News ( L in H B o ), We nC hung Pa n, a member of the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline Revision Committee explained that the Guideline Revision Committee made this terminological alteration in the Curriculum Guideline because many elementary and junior high school teachers in the past have suggested that the term (homeland) seemingly contains der ogatory meanings, for it implies subjects or artifacts that are primitive, savage, rustic, and vulgar.72 Just as another committee membe r Li Chu n Li n indicated that the jio ci (homeland curriculum) seemed to suggest those pastoral, co untryside subject matter teaching materials, while replaced by (indigenous), the phrase refers to our land and the subject matter would include Taipei City the Mass Rapid Transit and so on.73 Generally speaking, both (indigenous) and (homeland) imply the insularity of a geographical location, both contain a certain degree of regional isolated nativism (or localism) and reflect a status of physical or emotional reclusion. In fact, the term (indigenization) ha s bee n embedded in the political connotation of Taiwanese independence that was identified by political parties, whereas (homeland) had been associated with one s hometown, folk and vernacular entities and has been used by artists and scholars as a p olitically neutral expression. Analysis of informant responses also reveals that there were two approaches about Taiwanese homeland music among the educational policy legislators. I call these the revolutionists (Taiwan centered approach) emphasizing nativ e Taiwanese musical cultures, and 72He Yu X u e, J io y b zi zhng mng, (The Ministry of Education does the re name again, Chinese language or national language is changed to Chinese mandarin) L in H B o (United Daily News), February 14, 2008. 73Ibid.
171 the evolutionists (Chinese oriented approach ) emphasizing Chinese influence in Taiwanese music. The revolutionists believe that Taiwanese homeland music is the type of music that originated, grew and developed in the island of Taiwan. I describe them as the revolutionists, for I suspect that this camp of intellectual s is influenced by modernity and the political waves of Taiwanese democratization movement and Taiwanese independent movement. They stress the concept of Taiw anese self dominance; they advocate Taiwan s socio political, socio cultural, socio economi c autonomy and diplomatic independence. To them, music that was born in mainland China and then has been brought to Taiwan with the later Holo, Hakka, and the mainla nders but has been alienated, and has never been developed and never flourished among the general public in Taiwan, should be excluded from the domain of Taiwanese homeland music. Educational policy legislators in this camp focus their attentions on evalua ting Taiwanese homeland music according to whether the music was conceived and developed in Taiwan, that is, whether it is indigenous to Taiwan. My informant, L1, government official and one of the members of the national arts policy legislators, is one of the representatives of the Taiwan centered approach In his opinion, Taiwanese homeland music means authentic, native Taiwan born musical genres. He explain ed T racing back to Fujian province in mainland China if there is no G ( Taiwanese Holo opera ) or B di x (Taiwanese H olo handpup pe t theater), then I think they are for sure both Taiwanese homeland music genres Aboriginal music is doubtless Taiwanese indigenous homeland music74 (my own translation). Another revolutionist interviewee, L4, a music specialist and one of the Textbook Examination Committee members appointed by the National Institute for Compil ation and Translation, m aintains that categorizing Taiwanese homeland music has to in volve those musical genres that 74Personal interview with a government official, one of the members of the national arts education policy legislators, November 14, 2007.
172 underwent Taiwan s so cio cultural development and were integrated into Taiwanese general populace s life environment. Hence, the musical genres that derived from the Chinese mainland but have not been integrated into Taiwanese people s lives should not be categorized as Taiwan ese homeland music. According to this viewpoint, many musical genres derived from mainland China, such as Peking opera, Cantonese opera ( Y u j ), composed Chinese art songs such as Revealing Your Veil ( X ), and The Green Qing hai ( Q ), were not blended with the lives of Taiwanese general public during the past fifty years.75 They are insulated wi thin Tai wanese society. She cited Peking opera as an example to illustrate her viewpoint: I think if Peking opera were popular in Taiwan in the past fifty years, it could be considered one of Taiwanese homeland arts. T he pr oblem is that Peking opera does not appeal to Taiwanese audience The national orchestra is quite popular for it co llaborates with many other theater troupes But this is not the case of Peking opera [troupes]76 (my own translation) Therefore, the revolutionist Taiwan centered approach assesses Taiwanese homeland music not only based on if it is genuine to Taiwan, but also on whether or not it can attract Taiwanese audiences and hence become integrated in Taiwanese society. On the other hand, based on my observation, the evolutionists beli eve that the homeland music of Taiwan encompasses a broad realm of musical forms. It not only covers the Chinese traditional music that derived or evolved from mainland China, but also includes a variety of contemporary musical styles that borrowed from ot her foreign music. My informant, L2, asserted that the homeland music of Taiwan encloses a wide periphery including those which can be 75Interpreted based on a personal interview with a music specialist, one of the Textbook Examination Committee members appointed by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation, October 4, 2007. 76Personal interview with a music specialist, one of t he Textbook Examination Committee members appointed by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation, October 4, 2007.
173 heard, known, learned, appreciated and performed by the general populace in the land of Taiwan; he considered Taiwanese f olk music only a part of the homeland music.77 According to L2, any music that belongs to the entire Taiwanese population, including that of the four ethnic groups Holo, Hakka, the mainlanders and Taiwanese aborignescan be called Taiwanese homeland music. He further stated that Taiwanese folk music is composed of the Holo and Hakka people s religious ritual and liturgical music, funeral dirge, temple carnival music, the Taiwanese aborigines gathering celebration and festival music, and the Chinese mainland immigrants regional theatrical music.78 Another informant, L3, characterized Taiwanese homeland arts as, first, Taiwanese regional traditional folk arts and cultures, which derived from social conventions, ethnic consciousness and religious beliefs, and s econd, reformed homeland arts impacted by foreign cultures.79 Based on the descriptions of L2 and L3, the homeland music of Taiwan does not have to be those musical genres that originated in Taiwan; however, they do agree that a lot of Taiwanese homeland mu sic is borrowed or has evolved from Chinese traditional music and other foreign music. Their perceptions of Taiwanese homeland music manifest elements related to Darwin s evolutionary theory. My informant R6 elaborated the evolution of Taiwanese homeland m usic in the interview as follows: .I think they ( b di x and Hakka tea picking songs) are all from abroad (the Chinese mainland), but they have already been developed into Taiwanese homeplaced genres. They are not quite the same as their original forms. I would consider them even more homeland, more native to Taiwan. I think that these resemble the evolution of the species, [for example,] the elephants. Although they are all called the elephants, the African ones are different from the Asian ones, because of their (different) environments or 77Based on a personal interview with a music scholar who was a Professor of Music and Guidance Mentor of Student Teaching at a Te achers College, October 3, 2007. 78Ibid. 79Based on a personal interview with a music specialist, one of the legislators of the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline, October 9, 2007.
174 whatnot, they are just different. Likewise, although these musical genres are from there (mainland China), they are just different from their original ones. And I would as sume that after been transformed, they would be even closer to our Taiwanese homeland, what we ve said homeland80 (my own translation). Rather than segregating the cultural roots between Taiwan and mainland China, the evolutionists evaluate Taiwanese homeland music on the basis of the genealogical evolution of music itself. The revolutionist versus evolutionist paradigm can also be perceived in the educational policy practitioners and recipients reflections on Taiwanese homeland music. Although s ome of the educational policy recipients did not provide consistent answers to my questions about Taiwanese homeland music mainly because music is not their specialty and therefore they feel they not equip ped with adequate knowledge about Taiwanese homeland music t heir attitudes toward homeland music still exhibited the essential traits of either the Taiwan centered orientation or the genealogical (Chineseoriented) orientation In addition, w hen defining Taiwanese homeland music in particular, four adult participan ts in the educational policy practitioners and recipients categories expressed that their observations of Taiw anese homeland music pertaining to the Holo folk songs and Holo music that contains the musical elements of Japanese colonial sentiment I encapsu late their viewpoints into another approach in regard to the notion of Taiwanese homeland music the colonialists (the Holo Japanese approach). T he emergence of the Holo Japanese approach can be credited to the impact of Japanese colonial influences on the musical development of Taiwan. My informant E3 can be categorized as one of th e exemplars of the colonialists when he suggested in the interview, Taiwanese homeland music is Japanese colonial influenced music and songs, generally referring to Holo music and songs.81 As a result, juxtaposing the revolutionist Taiwancentered approach and the 80Personal interview with a student s guardian, October 22, 2007. 81Personal inter view with an elementary school administrator, November 1, 2007.
175 evolutionist Chinese oriented approach, I perceive that the notion of homeland imbedded in the minds of the educational policy executors and recipients displayed a trichotomythe revolutionists, the evolutionists, and the colonialists. Additionally, almost all the adult participants defined Taiwanese folk music as music that is closely related to Taiwanese people s daily lives, customs and folk traditions. So the music utilized for weddings, funerals, festivals, religious (ritual and liturgical) ceremonies and communal celebrations is perceived as Taiwanese folk music. Nevertheless, one informant L4 argued that some of the se kinds of music should be classified as popular music because they have been thoroughly blended into the daily lives of the Taiwanese and are continuously performed. She consider s Taiwanese popular music as the folk music that has been developed, evolved, and flourished throughout Taiwan s history and has been subsequently popularized or commercialized as a part of Taiwanese civil society T he kinds of popular music rooted in Taiwan s folk traditions she mentions are contemporary fusions such as folk rock, electric folk, progressive folk music and so on. Interestingly, she also noted that the subtle difference between Taiwanese folk music ( ) and homeland music ( ) is that homeland music comprise s internationalized folk music s This view on homeland music can be u tilized to s ummariz e the characteristic of Taiwan s homeland education in the contemporary era a combination of indigenized and internationalized curriculum. This combination is explicitly part of the 2008 edition of the Grade 19 Curriculum Guideline On this new edition educators are instructed to take both indigenization and internationalization into
176 consideration.82 Based on this viewpoint Taiwanese traditional music, folk music and even popular music fall under the category of Taiwanese homeland music. With regard to the child participants understandings of Taiwanese homeland music, traditional music, folk music, and popular music, the higher grade the children were in, the clearer and more comprehensive they were in their answers. The only term that a ll children responded to coherently was popular music. They all expressed that Taiwanese popular music pertains to the composed and commercialized contemporary popular songs that are sung by young Taiwanese pop singers. M erely the two sixth graders were familiar with Taiwanese traditional music and folk music and were able to explain what they were. In particular, sixth grade student R9 gave an exceptionally precise description about Taiwanese traditional music. In response to a question about traditional music she said, [Traditional music is the] old song, long time ago, and possibly many people have already forgotten the song, so we want to pass this song down83 (my own translation). In addition, with reference to Taiwanese folk music, R9 answered: When people work, they sing work songs. [Folk songs] related to life or customs.84 Concerning the elementary school children s perceptions of homeland, I notice that among all the eight participants, only the two sixth grade students and one of the two fourth grade students had heard the term Taiwanese homeland music and could provide some understandable explanations about what they think it 82In the Grade 1 9 Curriculum Guideline, 2008 edition, the General Guideline, Article No. 4 (The Designs, Examinations, and Adoptions of Teac hing Materials) under Title No. 6 S (Executing Guidelines), includes a new item Chapter No. 1 Jio (When designing textbooks, the specialists should base on their professional knowledge and take both indigenization and internationalization into consideration in the aspects of subject matters and aesthetics of the teaching materials ). 83Pe rsonal interview with an elementary school sixth grade student, October 16, 2007. 84Ibid.
177 is, although their definitions were divergent. One of the sixth grade students, R9, described that [Taiwanese homeland music includes] Holo songs or Hakka songs.85 The other sixth grade student R12 addressed that [Taiwanese homeland music] refers to the songs that are composed by people of our nation (Taiwan).86 One of the fourth grade child informants, R11, responded tha t [Taiwanese homeland music] is Taiwanese native music. 87 Above all, I learned that children started to construct a concept of Taiwanese homeland and their own ideologies and attitudes toward homeland arts such as Taiwanese H andpuppet T heater ( B di x ) and Taiwanese Holo Opera ( G ) in the beginning of their formal school education. However, even if some of the folk arts that I mentioned in the personal interviews with my student participants were not taught by their schools, for example t he Seventh Brother and the Eighth Brother s Parades ( Q ) and the Hakka Teapicking Opera, these students have experienced some of those folk performances in their communities before. In other words, children gained their knowledge and underst anding about Taiwanese homeland arts through their surrounding environments including watching the TVs with their family members. This shows that social enculturation also plays an important role in building young children s individual ideologies and opini ons about homeland. Thus, the formal school education, family and social e nculturation all contribute to the elementary school children s ideological formations of Taiwanese homeland and homeland music. A mong the eighteen adult participants categorized as educational policy practitioners and recipients, half of them noted that Taiwanese homeland music is specifically the music of Holo, 85Personal interview with an elementary school sixth grade student, October 16, 2007. 86Personal interview with an elementary school sixth grade student, October 22, 200 7. 87Ibid.
178 Hakka and Taiwanese aborigines Such definitions resonated with the government s policies about Taiwan ese homeland music. S uch circumstances reflect critical theory s proposition that the educational system is an effective means to develop and control the thoughts and values of the populace. Nonetheless, while the government authorities intended to establish Taiwan s own autonomous identity through executing the homeland curricula in the education system since the early 1990s, Taiwan s national identity remained implicit and paradoxical in the international arena due to both the political manipulation and diplomatic pressure from the People s Republic of China and the United States. This larger political context is manifested in the divergent definitions of the term gu yu (national music) as responses by the educational policy makers during the personal interviews. Literally, Taiwanese homeland music ( T ) is conceptualized as the national music of Taiwan ( ). Yet, the question still remains; what is the national music of Taiwan? The National Music Club at National Tsing Hua University (Xinzhu, Taiwan) published in its website an article A Brief Introduction to Chinese Music: The Origin of National Music ( Z : G u yu y c de yu li ) citing the historical instances of the term national music in Chinese history. According to the article, the phrase national music first appeared in the Journal of Music ( Yue Zhi ) of t he Histor y of Liao ( Liao Shi )88 and then was utilized in Chinese music around the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic Era, particularly after the May Fourth Movement89 for the term distinguished Chinese music from Western music.90 The article continues as foll ows: 88The Journal of Music in the History of Liao cites the national music as follows : Liao has the national music; It represents the virtues of the previous Kings ( L ). 89The May Fourth Movement ( W s yn dng ) was an anti imperialist and anti -feudal ist revolutionary cultural and political movement generated by university student demonstrations in front of Tiananmen in Beijing on
179 The term first appeared in the public education system since the establishment of the Department of National Music at the National Conservatory of Music near the city of Chong Qing in mainland China in the early Republic Era. After the Chinese Communist regime concurred the Chinese mainland, the national music has been changed into mn yu (the people s music ) due to its national title and political orientation. The name was shifted into (the Chinese music ) in Hong Kong and was replaced by hu yu (the ethnic Chinese music ) in Singapore. As for Taiwan, the term gu yu ( national music ) still remained perpetual ever since91 (my own translation). This cited documentary evidence att empts to legitimize the existence of the national music in Chinese history. However, what is the context of the national music in Taiwan ? My informant L1, who was the government official and one of the national arts policy legislators, replied as follows: If we consider Taiwan as a nation, the national music of Taiwan is Taiwanese traditional music; if we dont consider Taiwan as a nation, w hat is Taiwans national identity? Does the nation refer to China (the Peoples Republic of China), or does it refer to the Republic of China? If the nation refers to the Republic of China, then the national music refers to the national music of the Republic of China. Right now, the Republic of China has different meanings. The Republic of China in governments legislative documentations is different from the Republic of China in its current status quo. So this question is related to politics92 (my o wn translation) May 4, 1919 protesting the Chinese governments spineless respon se to the Treaty of Versailles, particularly the Shangdong Problem. The protesters voiced their anger at the Allied betrayal of China and the governments inability to secure Chinese interests in the conference. These demonstrations sparked national protes ts and marked the upsurge of Chinese nationalism, a shift towards political mobilization away from cultural activities and a move towards populist base rather than intellectual elites The broader use of the term May Fourth Movement often refers to the p eriod during 1915 to 1921 called the New Cultural Movement. Leaders of the New Cultural Movement questioned Chinese values which they defined as traditional that was defeated by foreign powers. T he Western sphere of influence further inflamed the sense of Chinese nationalism among the emerging middle class and cultural leaders. 90The National Music Club at National Tsing Hua University, Z : G u yu y c de yu li (A Brief Introduction to Chinese Music: The Origin of National Music), National Tsing Hua University, http://mayasun.idv.tw/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=198 [accessed on February 23, 2010]. 91Ibid. 92Personal interview with a government official, one of the me mbers of the national arts education policy legislators, November 14, 2007.
180 As a government policy legislator, he pointed out the dilemma and ambiguity of Taiwan s national identity in the political stance. In general, music that is utilized to represent a nation is called the national music of a country. Many Ame rican colleagues have told me that the national music of the United States is the countrys national anthem, the Star Spangled Banner This is what represents the United States in both domestic and international arenas. However, a similar situation does not apply to Taiwan. First, the so called National Anthem of the Republic of China (also known as Taiwan ) cannot be played in the international arena such as the Olympic Games, for the People s Republic of China treat s Taiwan as a part of Chinese territo ry and thus exerts constant pressure on Taiwan and othe r international organizations to prohibit the performance of the Republic of China s national anthem during international events. Hence, instead, the Olympic Representative Team of Taiwan usually repla ced the Republic of China s National Anthem with its National Flag Song and substituted its national title Chinese Taipei for the Republic of China or Taiwan to avoid the political controversy.93 Second, the lyrics of the Republic of China s National Anthem portray the history and the objectives of the Kuomintang ( Chinese Nationalist Party ) In fact, m any Taiwanese citizens consider the piece an anthem of the Chinese Nationalist P a rty and therefore have rejected it as Taiwan s national anthem and are even opposed to singing along with it in many public occasions. Such highly charged political emotions can not be separated from music. 93Due to the One China Controversy, many nations and international organizations choose to recognize the Peoples Republic of China as the official representative of China since t he Peoples Republic of China replaced the Republic of Chinas membership in the United Nation General Assembly in 1971. Under the circumstance of having few diplomatic relationships with other countries, the Republic of Chinas National Anthem cannot be p layed in the international occasions. The Republic of Chinas National Flag Song becomes an alternative avenue acceptable by the International Olympic Committee and other international organizations. This alternative policy is accepted by the Republic of China because Taiwan, Penghu, Jinmen, and Mazu under the Republic of China s territorial jurisdiction still play the National Flag Song for their Flag raising Ceremony, Morning Assembly or other communal ceremonies. [Based on data accessed from the Wn D website http://wenda.tianya.cn/wenda/thread?tid=10b0c8bb41087015 on February 22, 2010. Information compiled and translated by the author ]
181 Another interviewee (L2) asserted that it was justifiable to define the national music of Taiwan as the music that ori ginated from the Chinese mainland since the notion of such national music was established by the Republic of China in the past. According to his opinion, the foundation of national music in contemporary Taiwan was introduced from mainland China around ei ghty or ninety years ago; the repertory included arranged music and composed tunes borrowed from Chinese traditional theatrical music, such as those traditional old tunes, regional theatrical music or regional folk songs of the Chinese mainland, and then t hese would be performed by the national music ensemble ( gu yu tun ) or by the national musical instruments ( gu yu q ).94 He admitted that the notion of national music in Taiwan was constructed as a result of the Kuomintang regime s Sino centric education al policies. The Grand Chinese Culture has been deeply rooted in many Taiwanese citizens ideological systems since 1949. Yet, this informant disapproved the Democratic Progressive Party s education policy of separating Taiwanese homeland cultures ( wn hu ) from their Chinese mainland derivations, because many Taiwanese homeland cultures have been transplanted 95 from mainland China in terms of their ethnic cultural origins. He especially emphasized the process of transplantatio n ( y zh ), which consists of both words graft and grow, when explaining the process of cultural evolution and transformation of the national music in Taiwan. He noted, The national music is a musical genre distributed since 1910 from Beijin to Shan ghai, from Shanghai to Hong Kong and then from Hong Kong to Taipei. The instruments used in the national music are derived from mainland China As for the musical contents (of the national music), almost all of them are transplanted 94Personal interview with a music sc holar who was a Professor of Music and Guidance Mentor of Student Teaching at a Teachers College, October 3, 2007. 95Ibid.
182 from mainland China [ to Taiwan]. I use the term trans plant, [transfer and] plant, which is equivalent of growing and flourishing on here [the land of Taiwan]96 (my own translation). Rather than stressing the political context, this educational legislator focused his standp oint on the ethnic and cultural genesis of the national music. On the contrary, another informant, L3, argued that the term and the notion of national music would not have emerged in isolation from the political interference. He further claimed that national music ( gu yu ) in Taiwan was a product of Kuomintang s hegemonic political manipulation. He suggested, The national music is a vague term. It can come up with many different definitions. It depends on if a person thinks a type of music can represent the characteristics of his or her nation. However, none of any specific musical genres or musical forms of a country would be legitimate enough to be called the national music. For example, if you ask: what is the national music of Japan? The answers will be very diverse97 (my own translation). His statement reveals a viewpoint: national music is aligned to nationalism. In order to reinforce the political sovereignty, politicians often use their powers to propagate a sense of national belonging through various avenues, s uch as the control of education, the media, and the exploitation of cultural heritage. G u yu (national music), like (national language) and gu j (national opera, or called the Peking opera ), was manipulated by the Nationalist s politi cal authorities during the martial law era to advocate the patriotic feelings and national belongings by virtue of its cultural and language policie s. During those years, Chinese M andarin was promoted as the national language ( ), Peking opera was supported by the Republic of China (ROC) government ruled by the Kuomintang as the national 96Personal interview with a music scholar who was a Professor of Music and Guidance Mentor of Student Teaching at a Teachers College, O ctober 3, 2007. 97Personal interview with a music specialist, one of the legislators of the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline, October 9, 2007.
183 opera ( gu j ), and Chinese traditional instrumental music was propagated as the national music ( gu yu ). The reason was to compete with the Chinese Communis t Party in China in the international sphere for the Republic of China in Taiwan s political legitimacy and artistic authenticity of the genuine Chinese. Owing to Kuomintang s political manipulation and hegemonic policies on education, a nationalist ideology is ingrained in every civilian s head and the general public in Taiwan still narrowly considers the national music of Taiwan as the music played by the Chinese traditional instruments, the Chinese orchestra, or the Chinese traditional instrumental ens embles. For example, among my participants in the category of the educational policy recipients, all of my eight adult informants and seven out of the eight elementary school student participants surmised that the national music ( gu yu ) is Chinese traditional instrumental music. Nine out of the ten participants under the category of the educational policy executors (the elementary school teachers and administrators) also agreed that the national music in Taiwan refers to music that is performed on Chin ese traditional musical instruments. E8, one of the educational policy executors, pointed out in the personal interview w e have been educated to think that national music is the Chinese instrumental ensemble music .98 This indicates that the hegemony in politics and education has significantly affected the formations of Taiwanese citizens own ideologies. In contemporary Taiwan, while traditional music ( chun ) signifies those ancient grassroots music, national music ( gu yu ) is often utilized as a synonym of traditional music by the general public. As stated by L3, many universities in Taiwan have adjusted the title of their Department o f National Music ( gu yu x ) to Department of 98Personal interview with a music teacher, October 20, 2007.
184 Traditional Music ( chun ) in recent decade.99 My informant E8 also addressed the similarity between the national music and the traditional music in the academia as follows: Since th e time I started the formal school education, the definitions of both [national music and traditional music of Taiwan] are the same. My teachers defined them as the same thing as well. When I took the College Entrance Examinations, my instrument [Erhu] was called one of the traditional musical instruments. There were four formal traditional instruments that were included in the Entrance Examination [at that time] p p r h and Chinese d zi So I think we have been taught that traditional music is national music (my own translation).100 Zo ngChi ng Chu defines the national music as a professional terminology, a musical genre, and the broad traditional music.101 Nonetheless, not until the 1993 New Curricular Standard was published did the term traditional music commence to replace national music and to incorporate the lu g yu and folk ensemble music, as well as nn gun and i gun theatrical music. This was depict ed by my informant L4 as : Both T raditional music and national music have many levels of overlapping. Prior to the 1993 New Curricular Standard, the term national music was used in the music curricular standards signif ying Chinese traditional instruments like nn h d zi and those played in the national music ensemble ( gu yu tun ). In those days [before executing the 1993 version Elementary New Curricular Standard], the traditional music included neither nn gun (the Southern School) nor n (the Northern School) music; all music played in the temple carnivals, such as Buddhist music and Daoist music, were not counted [as traditional music]. At that time, only Chinese O rches tra and 99Personal interview with a music specialist, one of the legislators of the Grade 1 9 Curricular Guideline, October 9, 2007. 100Ibid 101Chu, G ? (Rename National Chinese Orchestra, Taiwan ? ).
185 the instruments used in it were considered Chinese traditional music102 (my own translation). Her comments help to unveil the entangled relationship of national music and traditional music in the context of elementary music curriculum. In sum, the re sult of my indepth personal interviews with the educational policy makers exhibits two approaches regarding homeland and homeland music the Taiwan centered approach and the Chinese oriented approach. Moreover, after interviewing the educational policy pra ctitioners and recipients, I further discovered that a Holo Japanese approach co exists with the Taiwan centered approach and the Chinese oriented approach in the ideological systems of these two education groups. The Taiwancentered approach is taken by a group of revolutionist elites who consider Taiwan as their homeland and emphasize Taiwan s socio cultural self dominance They believe that Taiwanese homeland music consists of those musics that are native to Taiwan born in Taiwan or brought to Taiwan by the immigrants and integrated into Taiwanese civil society ; they refuse to recognize any cultural linkage with mainland China. I suspect that my adult informants taking the Taiwan centered approach are influenced by Taiwan s (indigenization) mov ements in its political sphere in the contemporary era. On the contrary, the Chinese oriented approach is adopted by the evolutionist intellectuals who dedicated themselves to the study of stylistic evolutions of musical forms. The evolutionists reject the poli tical interference in education and believe in a universalist ideology of the arts in which no national boundar ies exist. They also oppose the revolutionist idea of denying the genealogical relationships of Taiwan and mainland China merely because of politics. When discussing Taiwanese homeland music, they devote their attention to the archaeological kinship 102Personal interview with a music specialist, one of the Textbook Examination Committee members appointed by the National Institute for Compilation and Translation, October 4, 2007. (All interviews were confidential; the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement.)
186 of Taiwan with Chinese mainland and other countries. Taiwanese homeland music is viewed as a melting pot that went through a process of transforma tion and evolution. On the other hand, based on my observation, the HoloJapanese colonialists consider Taiwanese homeland music as those Japanese influenced Holo folk songs and music. These were borrowed from Japanese music during Japanese colonial era an d further transformed into the peculiar Holo songs or those that carry certain Japanese colonial sentiment. However, it appears that the HoloJapanese approach only occurs among the intellectuals of the educational policy practitioners and the educational policy recipients. In any case, whether born in the island or in other countries, all the music merged in Taiwan with the settlers and immigrants and then blended into a pal le t of diverse and distinct Taiwanese musical culture.
187 Figure 41. The cover pa ge of the book Y (Arts Taipei). Photograph by ChiungWen Chang.
188 Figure 42. Corner No. 3 language learning facility at Chen Ping Elementary School, Taichung City, Taiwan. Photograph courtesy of the Department of Teaching Affairs, C henPing Elementary School.
189 CHAPTER 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF H OMELAND MUSIC T he conclusions in chapter three and chapter four suggest that there are various levels of cognitive understandings and ideological recognitions of Taiwanese homeland music among educ ational policy makers, practitioners and recipients. The government educational policies in the archives of the contemporary Taiwanese elementary education point to the fact that historically, Taiwanese homeland arts was conceptualize d as the folk arts of Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aborigines However, my research indicates that since the Grade 1 9 Curriculum was adopted, the educational policy legislators, executors, and recipients now conceptualize Taiwanese homeland music as either music that has been developed in Taiwan or Holo folk music that contains Japanese colonial sentiment. In this chapter, I will explore the key content and aesthetic dimensions of music that is linked to the idea of homeland. I will discuss the implications of the idea of Taiwanese homeland as embedded two musical events that promoted Taiwanese homeland musicthe Nationwide Homeland Songs Competitions for Teachers and Students and the Homeland Song Contest for the Lower graders held at ChenPing Elementary School. I will also draw on the examples of a few major intramural musical events held at Chen Ping Elementary School to exemplify the contents of Taiwanese homeland music. I will examine and analyze the emblematic musical pieces that were used in the national and intramural musi cal events in order to characterize Taiwanese homeland music. In particular, different musical arrangements of a famous composed Holo song, Bang chhun hong ( pronounc iation based on Taiwanese Holo language) will be analyzed since it was not only voted by my thirty participants to be the most representative Taiwanese homeland song, but also elected by the general populace in Taiwan to
190 be the most popular and most representative Taiwanese song in a public musical event held in 2000 by Taipei City Governm ent and the mass media.1 My musical analyses in this chapter will focus on characterizing Taiwanese homeland music. Relevant questions include: What would make a music sound homeland to my informants ? Specifically, what melodies or tunes are distinguished as Taiwanese homeland music? Are homeland songs sung in certain languages (in Holo, Hakka, Chinese Mandarin, or abogirinal languages)? Is there a common background of homeland music composers? Are they all Taiwanese composers of Chinese descent (the Holo Hakka, Taiwanese aborigines, or the Mainlanders)? Are there any particular performance styles, stage settings or instrumentations that are linked to Taiwanese homeland music styles? The answers of these questions will be provided as the chapter develops. In the personal interviews, my informants were asked to name one to three Taiwanese folk songs that they personally considered as the most representative Taiwanese homeland songs. Among the total of thirty participants, ten of them named Ba ng chhun hong (translated into English as Craving for Wind of Spring, composed by YuShian Teng ) to be the most representative homeland song. Some other songs that were also considered as homeland songs include U ia hoe (translated into English as The To rment of a Flower also composed by YuShian Teng ), and Su siang ki (translated into English as Thinking Back ). As a result, Bang chhun hong received the most votes from my 1A ccording to a report posted by Unied Daily News in the webs ite Taiwanese Songs of A Hundred Year ( ), the song Bang chhun hong was elected by over 220,000 Taiwanese people to be the most representative song of Taiwan and the most popular Taiwanese old song in a public event title d Ten Old and Popular Songs of A Hundred Year ( ) held by Taipei City Government and the United Daily News in 2000. For more information, please check the website Taiwanese Songs of A Hundred Year ( G ) at http://issue.udn.com/CULTURE/TAIWAN100/index.htm.
191 participants. Besides, U ia hoe was ranked the second highest pl ace with a total of eight votes. Taiwanese Holo folk song of HengChun region, Su siang ki was ranked third with a total of six votes (see t able 5 1). Other Holo songs that were named by my informants can be grouped into three categories as follows: The Holo regional folk songs T i o tio t a ng a ( An Old Train ) of Yi Lan region, ( Song of Farmers ) of Heng Chun region, and ( Plowing Song ) of Tainan region. The composed Holo songs Poo phua bang ( Sewing t he Torn Nest, composed by YunFeng Wang ) Lan na phah khui sim lai e thang ( If I O pen the W indow of M y H eart, composed by ChuanSheng Lu ) Sio bah tsang ( Selling the Warm Rice Cakes, composed by DongSong Changchiu ), Nn ( Song of Farm Villages, composed by T ong Su ), and Bang li tsa kui ( Longing for Your Early Return, composed by SanLang Yang ). The Holo children s nursery songs such as Ti o o ( The Dark Sky, a folk song of Taiwanese n orthern regions), Tiam ma ka ( The Tars, composed by FuChen Shi ), Sai pak hoo ( The Thunder Storm, a Holo children s nursery rhym), Peh ling si ( The Egrets, a Holo children s nursery rhyme, melody composed and added in by FuYu Li n ) and so on. Two composed songs sung in Chinese Mandarin G ( The Green and High Mountain )2 and Q ( The Fall Cicadas )3 were also mentioned by my informants to represent Taiwanese homeland. G theme song of a classic Chinese Mandarin movie Happenings in Ali Mountain ( produced in 1949) is composed by the eminent film director Che Chang while Q 2A short music video clip of the song, G can be viewed on YouTube at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?gl=GB&hl=en GB&v=UJ7CENgx4ss [accessed on September 19, 2010] 3The song Q is composed by Zi -Heng Lee and the originally recording was sung by Fang-Yi Yang and Siao -Jing Syu The original audio recording can be viewed on YouTube at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vk8lV0xXMhU [accessed on September 19, 2010]
192 was originally a composed (College) Campus Folk Song ( X ) that was very popular in the 1970s in Taiwan. Analysis of the voting from my informants for the most representative Taiwanese homeland songs reveals some consistency of characteristics of Taiwanese homeland songs. On the one hand almost all of the songs that my informants named are sung in Holo language Moreover, t he lyrics of these songs deal with Taiwanese Holo people s historical origins, folk lives, and with other socio cultural phenomena The composers and the original singers of these chosen song s are all Taiwanese who we re born or at least grew up in Taiwan, encompassing the three ethnic groups Holo, Hakka, and the Mainlanders Only two of the songs selected were not in Holo language but in Chinese Mandarin G and Q However, the lyrics of both of these songs feature depictions of the landscapes of Taiwan. The song portrays the Ali mountain in central Taiwan, and Q describes the beautiful landscape of Taiwan in the four seasons in a poetic style. It is likely that the lyric subject matter of both G and Q led my informants to believe that the two songs were representative of the Taiwanese homeland. On the other hand, these chosen songs e ncompass a broad diversity of Holo songs, ranging from the Holo folk songs that are passed down through oral tradition, to the composed Holo popular songs that are preserved by written notation. T he majority of these songs are based on the five modes of pe ntatonic scales namely the G (Do) mode, S (Re) mode, J u (Mi) mode, Z (Sol) mode, Y (La) mode, except the composed Holo song Bang li tsa kui and the composed Mandarin song .4 Overall, the musical traits of the songs indicate my twentytwo adult 4 Bang li tsa kui is in minor key (usually in A minor), and is in major key (usually in G or D major).
193 participants believed that Taiwanese hom eland music generally possesses the following characteristics: homwland music is vocal music, constructed on pentatonic scales, sung in Holo language, composed by Taiwanese composers (or Taiwanese composers of Chinese descent), and the song texts conceive Taiwanese Holo people s historical and sociocultural backgrounds. Furthermore, the majority of these chosen songs are Holo lineage, regardless of its origin as a composed or orally transmitted song. A ccording to a r eport posted by Unied Daily News in the website Taiwanese Songs of A Hundred Year ( ), the song Bang chhun hong was elected by over 220,000 Taiwanese people to be the most representative song of Taiwan and the most popula r Taiwanese old song in a public event titled Ten Old and Popular Songs of A Hundred Year ( ) held by Taipei City Government and the United Daily News in 2000.5 Therefore, Bang chhun hong has touched many Taiwanese people s hearts symbolizing a genuine Taiwanese homeland musical identity According to the song archives collected by T (Taiwan 123 Electronic Database Archives), Bang chhun hong is a song that almost every Taiwanese knows and can sing. Even Taiwanese mainlanders who do not speak Holo language are reported to be able to hum the melody. Bang chhun hong is not only the most representative song of Taiwan, but has also become a symbol of Taiwanese identity for the Taiwanese population all over the world.6 T he song s graceful and soothing melody is in the 5For more information, please check the website Taiwanese Songs of A Hundred Year ( G ) at http://issue.udn.com/CULTURE/TAIWAN100 /index.htm. 6Taiwanese Song Archives, ed. Yi Hua, T http://www.taiwan123.com.tw/musicdata/index.htm (accessed September 23, 2010).
194 pentatonic G mode ( G ) E xample 51 shows the song Bang chhun hong in Western notation and its lyrics in a phonetic rendering based on Holo pronunciations. The song is composed by well known Taiwanese composer of Hakka descent, YuShian Teng ; the lyrics are written by a prominent Taiwanese lyricist Lin Chiou Lee The song was released in 1933 by Columbia Record s sensational singer C hunChun (real name Qing Xiang Liu ) and was widely sung in the 1930s during the Japanese colonial period. During the 1930s the Japanese government began to reinforce the influence of Japanese culture and suppressed the development of the Taiwanese Holo songs. Under the Japanes e colonial policy termed Movement ,7 many of the composed Holo songs were banned or were rewritten in Japanese language. The original melody of Bang chhun hong was then adapted by Koshiji Shirou ( ) into a Japanese patriotic song named The Mother Earth is Calling on You ( Daichi wa maneku), sung by the Japanese pop singer Kirishima Noboru ( ).8 T ogether with Bang chhun hong, another Holo song U ia hoe ( The Torment of a Flower ) was also modified into a Japanese military song named The Glorious Soldiers ( ) for the purpose of encouraging Taiwanese men to join in the military during the World War II.9 7Japanese gover nment s ( ) Movement was a Japanese cultural assimilation movement that was practiced in Japan s newly conquered territories after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. literally means to make people become subjects of the emporer. It was the pr ocess of acculturation with different levels of intensity. 8The Japanese version of the song can be viewed on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2zrLGIhK2k&feature=related (accessed September 15, 2010) 9Both and can be viewed on a short video clip from YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACOwc0uascc (accessed September 15, 2010)
195 Bang chhun hong ha s been sung by many Taiwanese popular singers, such as Teresa Teng ( ), Maya Showlen ( ), Fen g Fei F ei ( ) Stella Chang ( ) and David Tao ( ). The song has also been widely used as the background music in many Taiwanese films. In 1937, a Taiwanese film of the same name that was directed by Japanese director Andou Tarou ( ) was released. The 2006 award winning film Singapore Dreaming has incorporated the song as its theme song.10 In 1994, American Saxophonist Kenny G re arranged the song and included it in his saxophone album Miracles ; the name of the song was translated into English as S pring Breeze .11 In addition, the Evergreen Group, a Taiwanbased shipping and transportation conglomerate has used the song to propagate Taiwanese identity .12 In recent years, Eva Air, the international airline of the Evergreen Group, played the song s orch estral version in its passenger planes during the boarding and departure time.13 10The film Singapore Dreaming won the Montblanc New Screenwriters Award at the 54 th San Sebastian International Film Festival in Spain. It was the first Singaporean f ilm to receive an IFFPA recogniz ed international feature film award 11The music can be listened at the website Gosong.net: http://gosong.net/spring_breeze_kenny_g.html. 12Information cited from the following online article: FCJ (The Free China Journal) Editors, Sky Rivals vie in Hot Market for Air Travel, Taiwan Jo urnal, July 12, 1996. http://taiwanjournal.nat.gov.tw/site/Tj/ct.asp?xItem=14356&CtNode=118 [accessed January 17, 2011]. 13Information accessed from Xilin, Pyudufou2005 s Blog, entry posted December 6, 2010, http://blog.udn.com/article/trackback.jsp?uid=puydufou2005&aid=4668514 [accessed January 17, 2011]. The most thoughtful service provided by the Eva Air is to let its passengers hear the sweet and familiar Taiwanese folk songs while boarding. In order to enhance its quality service for a cozy atmosphere in the passenger cabins, the Eva Air commissioned the Evergreen Symphony Orchestr a to select and record the boarding music in 2004. In addition to Taiwanese folk songs, the music selections include folk songs from Taiwan, Japan, Indonesia, United States and England that are re arranged by many prominent world musicians and composers such as Min Hsin Tu Masaaki Hayagawa Shih Hao Lee Vaughan Williams and so on. The song Bang chhun hong in the Eva Air s boarding music selections is adapted by MinHsin Tu into the o rchestral version to be played by the Evergreen Sympho ny Orchestra. [The information above cited from http://shopping.pchome.com.tw/?mod=item&func=exhibit&IT_NO=DNAA4T A41815362&c=A05 on January 17, 2011].
196 Bang chhun hong is a love song. Its original Holo lyrics depict a young lady who aspires to meet her true love and get married. According to the memoir of the song s lyricist Lin Chiou Lee, the lyrics were inspired by the archa ic phrase The shadow of the flowers on the wall is moving, so I suspect that my partner is coming in ( G y sh y rn li ) from Shi Fu Wang ( ) s Chinese classical n ovel The Diary of the West Wing ( X ).14 I include the song text of Bang chhun hong, its Holo pronunciations in Holo language Romanization, and its English translations in Figure 51. Bang chhun hong has been adapted by many contemporary arr angers into a solo, chorus or instrumental piece and has been selected by many groups to be performed in musical competitions and concerts. For example, the song was one of the assigned songs in the 2007 Nationwide Homeland Song Competitions for Teachers and Students for the high school chorus. I t was adapted by Han Lin Textbook Manufacturer into a G major piece and incorporated in its fifth grade Arts and Humanities Textbook in 2006 as one of the supplemental instrumental performance pieces for the soprano recorders. Taiwanese composer Chung Yi Lai also arranged the song into a small sized instrumental ensemble piece. T he song also was arranged by ChingYi Lin into an F major and a C major recorder ensemble pieces for the elementary school recorder bands. In the following section, I will describe performances of these different musical arrangements of Bang chhun hong. In Nationwide Homeland Song Competitions for Teachers and Students in 2007, Bang chhun hong was adapted by composer Bo Ming Wu into a three part and a four part choral music arrangements based on Western harmony. Due to Wu s Western classical music 14Informa tion cited by Heng Long Zheng W Encyclopedia of Taiwan, http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw/web/content?ID=10093 [accessed January 17, 2011].
197 background and training, he utilizes Western counterpoint technique, turning the originally pentatonic tune of Bang chhun hong into a Western style tonal piece. The opening four measures outline Wu s manners of musical arrangement ( see Example 5 2). Throughout the piece, Wu employs basic harmonic progressions including the tonic, subdominant and dominant chords with their inversions a nd the seventh chords. He also adopts some secondary dominant chords to enrich the harmony. Example 52 shows the prelude of Wu s Bang chhun hong four part chorus arrangement. The chord progressions that Wu uses are: I, IV6/4, vi7, secondary dominant vi/ V6/5, secondary dominant vi/V7, IV, secondary dominant V/V7, I, V6/5 and I. It begins in the key of G major, m odulat es to end in F major. It appears to be a swift tempo change between the m odulation of the two major keys. As the key alters to F major, the piece turns from the homophonic texture into a simple round. Starting at the twentyfirst measure, the four voices sing separately in two primary keys F major and B flat major, at the four different entrances: The Alto commences the melody of Bang chhun hong in F major; the Soprano begins two beats after the Alto, singing in B flat major; the Bass joins in one measure after the Alto has begun, singing in F major but is an octave lower than the Soprano; then, the Tenor comes in twobeat later than the Bass, singing in B flat major (see Example 53). Wu romanticized the song by adopting extensive dynamic and tempo changes including the rit., crescendo, decrescendo and fermata and so on. In addition, he also adopts various broken chords ( arpeggio) in the pia no accompaniment of the song. ChungYi Lai arrange s Bang chhun hong for the small sized instrumental music ensemble that consists of the xylophones, recorders, violins, vibraphones pianicas, and the snare drums. Lai s arrangement is in the key of D majo r. Lai applies a simple chord progressions I V I or I IV I with some chordal inversions. The vibraphone s and pianica s accompaniment
198 portion utilizes appoggiatura creating the natural flow and soothing feeling. This brief version is appropriate for elementary school instrumental bands to play. Example 54 shows the 5th measure to the 8th measure of Lai s musical arrangement. ChingYi Lin s two musical arrangements of Bang chhun hong for the recorders are particularly suitable for the elementary sc hool students to perform. His twopart soprano recorder arrangement can be divided into three sections, and each section consists of sixteen measures. The entire piece is in the form of theme and variations. The first section introduces the primary melody of Bang chhun hong. It is a tutti section that begins in unison and then divides into two parts at the intervals of the thirds (see Example 5 5). The second section is a developmental segment. T he first recorders play thematic variations on the original melody of Bang chhun hong yet still follow the fundamental rhythmic contour, whereas the second recorders rigidly keep playing the melody and rhythms of Bang chhun hong in F major (see Example 56). In the third section, Lin makes the most alterations to the song s tempo, melody and rhythms (see Example 57). The sonority in the third section also turns aggressive; the dynamics begin at mf (mezzoforte) in the thirty third measure and then become louder and louder. From f (forte) in the forty first measu re with a couple of paired accent signs ( >), the density of the volume is gradually intensified into ff ( fortissimo ) in the forty fifth measure and finally ended in f (forte). Another piece arranged by ChingYi Lin is also a two part recorder ensemble; nev ertheless, in this arrangement, only one part is set for the soprano recorders; the other part is set for the Alto recorders. The whole piece can be divided into three sections as well, a ternary form, despite a repetition in the second section from measur e seventeen to measure thirty one. Thus, A B B C is the format of its structure. The soprano or the alto recorder takes a turn playing the melody of Bang chhun hong for each section of the piece. In the first section, the soprano
199 recorders play the Bang chhun hong melody (see Example 58); then, the alto recorders play the melody with syncopated rhythmic adaptations to fit with the 6/8 time in the second section (see Example 59); in the last sectio n, the soprano recorders resume playing the melody (see Example 510). It is in the key of C major at the beginning; subsequently, the key changes to F major in the second section from measure seventeen to measure thirty two. The key modulates again into B flat major in the third section from measure thirty three to the end. The tempos of the three sections are Andante Allegretto Adagio, respectively. The technical complexity laid out for the soprano and alto recorders makes this musical arrangement substantial and popular among the elementary and high school recorder ensembles (see Example 59). From the songs that my informants chose a s representative of the Taiwanese homeland, the concept of folk song in Taiwanese people s minds appears to be slightly different than th e Western notion of folk song. As mentioned earlier in this work, a ccording to much Western scholarship, folk songs refer to songs that closely related to people s lives and have been passed down through oral transmission (by word of mouth ) from generation to generation, and thus are believed to be old and their composers and lyricists are unknown. American ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl describes the concepts of folk songs in Western society as follows: It (folk song) has signified heritage, cultural integrity a way for people from man y groups to communicate. Since its inception before 1800the concept was batted about by politicians of the left and right, by social reformers, nationalists, educators, antiquarians, musicians theoretical and practical Its prevailingly oral tradition and its supposed association with entire ethnic groups have put it under the particular aegis of ethnomusicology.15 15Bruno Nettl, The Study of Eth nomusicology: Thirty one Issues and Concepts 2nd ed. (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2005), 358 9.
200 However, the Taiwanese notion of folk songs involves not only the folk songs that are transmitted through oral tradition as comprehended by Weste rn ethnomusicologists, but also some composed songs that are written by Taiwanese composers and are significant in Taiwanese history. T he term folk songs in Chinese Mandarin is translated as or mn yo literally means songs of the people. Taiwanese folk songs ( T or T i ) are generally categorized into the natural (traditional) folk songs [ z rn ( ) mn yo ( ) ] and the composed folk songs ( chung zu mn yo ).16 According t o Taiwanese musicologist Shang J en Chien C hung zu mn yo (the composed folk songs) is also called X (translated into English as the homeland songs ), and each C hung zu mn y o has its own composer and lyricist.17 Notably, the term X literally denotes the songs about the homeland. Taiwanese musicologists conventionally incorporate the composed folk songs in the realm of Taiwanese folk songs, because these son gs not only reflect significant eras in Taiwanese history, but also are believed to record the Taiwanese people s aspirations and sentiments during such historically important moments. Similarly, X (the Campus Folk Songs), one of the subgenres of the composed folk songs written by college singers and songwriters that were quite popular in the 1970s, is designated folk songs, owing to its historical significance. However, each of the Campus Folk Songs has a fixed composer and is not tr ansmitted through oral tradition, some Western musicologists would categorize as these 16Chien ShangJ en, T [Taiwanese Folk Songs] (Taipei, Taiwan: T Government Information Office of Taiwan, 1992). Quoted in Re n Li n Wen Hua, T [Taiwanese Folk Songs] (Taipei, Taiwan: Ren Lin Wen Hua, 2004), 45. 17Ibid, 4.
201 as popular songs or perhaps as folk revivalist popular songs Also, they are influenced by European heptatonic scales (rather than one of the pentatonic scales) and tona l harmonic progressions. For example, Q ( The Fall Cicadas ), a noted Campus Folk Song, is constructed on heptatonic scale, usually in G major or D major. Its original recording was collected in an album titled The Golden Melody Album Vol. 5: The Fall Cicadas and Return to the Sa nd City Collected Album ( J ( ): j ( ): ) published by Rolling Stone in 1980. Its first recording was a vocal duet sung by two female singers Fa ng Yi Yang and XiaoJing Xu The texture of Q is homophonic in binary form. Its composer Zi Heng Li applies five basic formats of Western tonal harmonic progressions which are commonly used in popular music, including I IV I, I vi V (vi V) IV I, vi I V, I IV V I, and I vi V IV I. In its original recording, the instruments utilized to accompany the vocal duet are the guitar, the Chinese flute ( d zi ) and the Western flute The musical texture sounds explicitly Western.18 Therefore, based on Western m usic paradigm, musicologists may surmise that the distinctions between folk music and popular music in Taiwan are not as salient as those in the West I would argue rather, that the definition of Taiwanese folk songs, according to Taiwanese conceptions e mphasizes certain aesthetic aspects of the songs (including their historical values ), more than merely their modes of transmission. The fact that various arrangements of the pieces feature Western derived elements does not appear to alter Taiwanese percept ions of the pieces as linked to the Taiwan homeland. In fact, the category of Taiwanese homeland music incorporates both local and Western aesthetic ideas. 18I transcribed and modified the song and included the first thirty three measures of the song in App endix C in the back of this dissertation I modified the song s instrumentation by changing the Chinese flute to the piccolo and the 3rd flute to the bassoon
202 Musical events featuring the performances of homeland music have been held frequently in Taiwan in r ecent decades During my fieldwork in Taiwan from 2007 to 2009, I observed two musical events in the education system that exclusively exhibited homeland songs ; one was the Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students and the other was th e Homeland Song Contest for the Lower graders19. The former was a nationwide musical competition held by the Ministry of Education and its affiliated government agencies; the latter was an intramural musical contest held at Chen Ping Elementary School. Both musical events schematically manifested the notion of homeland in the education system and also characterized the Taiwanese homeland music in a broader socio cultural trajectory The Nationwide Homeland Song Competitions for Teachers and Students was a government sponsored music activity for the purpose of promoting its homeland education policy. The Executive Guideline of the Competition addresses the following goals: [The purposes of the competition are] developing [in] teachers and students the interest s of learning homeland songs and homeland languages and enhancing the knowledge of cultural diversity and the teaching of homeland songs among school teachers and students for the purpose of promoting homeland music education (my own translation).20 The Co mpetition was originally named Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Students and was held annually from 2000 to 2003. It was suspended for two years from 2004 to 2005 for organizational consolidating purposes and has been resumed since 2006. Since then, the assembly that organized the Competition has added the teachers as competitors and thus changed 19There are 1 6 grade levels in Taiwanese elementary education system. T h e lower graders refer to the first and second grade elementary school students in Taiwanese elementary education system. Since the first and second grades are the lowest grade level in the elementary schools, they are called the lower grades. The third graders and the fourth graders are called the middle graders, and the fifth graders and the sixth graders are called the upper graders. 20The Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students Assembly, II. Goals in Executive Guideline of the Ninety six School Year Nati onwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students (Taipei, 2007), 1, http://www3.ttcsec.gov.tw/song/sing_t.htm [accessed March 8, 2008].
203 the name to Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students. This nationwide competition marks a milestone in Taiwanese music education history, entailing the conceptualization of homeland and homeland education in Taiwanese school system. As I reviewed the Guideline of the competition, I found that the use of vernacular languages (including Holo, Hakka, and the dialects of Taiwanese abori gines ) and the emphasis of grassroots and ethnic distinctions contribute to further defining the term homeland in Taiwanese education. I will elaborate on my observations by analyzing how the competition was structured in accordance with the languages, selected repertories, performance styles, and the evaluation standard as follows. The Nationwide Homeland Song Competitions for Teachers and Students was divided into group and individual competitions. The group competition was basically a chorus competition. According to the Competition Guideline, the members in a chorus (including a conductor and a piano accompanist) were restricted to the maximum of sixty performers In a general situation, a chorus group had to win the regional level Homeland Song Compet itions ranging from the school district level to the city/county level in order to participate in the national level, which is the final round of this competition. The event was organized into three competition categories based on language s Holo, Hakka, and the Taiwanese aboriginal languages. The competitors were asked to choose any on e of these three language categories. They would sing two homeland songs of their own choices in the competition. They were also required to sing the lyrics in the specified vernacular languages. Starting from 2007, another regulation stated that one of the songs that the competitors selected had to be chosen from a pool of assigned songs provided by the Assembly of Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students According
204 to my investigation, the homeland songs that were most frequently listed in the assigned song pools included the following: The Holo language category: It tsiah tsiau a hau kiu ( A Crying Bird, a folk song of Jia Yi region, arranged by B. M. W.), assigned to the junior high school students as one of the assigned songs in the 2007 Competition and to the senior high school students in the 2008 Competitions. In ui wu li ( Because of You, composed by ShanGui Gao and arranged by Jia Ling Chang ), assigned to the teachers in the 2007 and the 2009 Competitions. It liap bi ( A Small Grain of Rice, composed by JianXun Wang and arranged by Han Yun ), assigned to both the senior high school students and the teachers in the 2009 Competition. The Hakka language category: K ( The True Hakka, composed by MinHeng Tu and arranged by BoMing Wu ), assigned to the teachers in both the 2007 and the 2009 Competitions. C ( Tune for Poling a Punt, a Hakka hillside song): It is arranged by Jia Ling Chang into a two part chorus piece and was assigned to the junior high school students in the 2009 Competition. It is also arranged by XinYi Chen into a three part and a four par t chorus pieces and both arrangements were assigned to the teachers in the 2007 and the 2009 Competitions. H ( The Silly Girl, composed by JunFeng Sie and arranged by Jia Ling Chang ), assigned to the teachers in the 2008 Competiti on and to the senior high school students in the 2009 Competition. Y ( A Sweater, composed by ZihYuan Lin and arranged by Han Yun ), assigned to the the teachers in the 2008 Competition and to the senior high school students in the 2009 s. The aboriginal language category: L ( Revive, a Paiwan tribe archaic song, arranged by GuoSyong Yu ), assigned to the teachers in the 2007 and 2009 Competition and to the senior high school students in the 2008 s.
205 N ( Song of the Gulf Na Lu, a folk song of the Amis tribe, arranged by Han Yun ), assigned to the high school chorus in the 2007 and the 2009 Competitions and the teachers in the 2008 s. B ( The Song of the Annual Festival for the Juveniles of the Puyuma Tribe, a folk song of the Puyuma tribe; music notated by Li Guo Ming and ar ranged by B. M. W.), assigned to the junior high school chorus in both the 2007 and 2008 Competitions. Topento ( Ode to Joy, a traditional folk song of the Tsou tribe in Mt. Ali, arranged by ShanHua Cian ), assigned to the teachers in the 2008 and the 2009 Competitions and to the senior high school chorus in the 2007 s. Many of these assigned songs are composed or arranged based on Western circleof fifth harmonic progressions or contrapuntal techniques. In addition, taking the elementary school teams in the 2006 Competition as an example, the majority of the chorus groups in the Holo and Hakka language c ategories relied on piano as the primary instrument for the accompaniment. Therefore, even though the Competition Guideline stipulates that the melodies of the songs chosen by the competitors have to have the vernacular flavors and to be able to underline the ethnic characteristics (my own translation),21 these homeland songs composition manners, harmonic structures, the use of piano as a major accompaniment instrument, and the employment of the multipart chorus as the primary performance style have made the music performances somewhat W esternized All of these suggest that to identify whether or not a song is Taiwanese homeland primarily lies in the use of certain vernacular languages and the subject matter of the songs. In terms of the evaluation standar d, 60% of the total score w as distributed to evaluate the song styles and singing techniques of the competitors, while the other two evaluation criteria 21The Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teacher s and Students Assembly, VI. Competition Rules: 2. Final Competition Stipulations: (2) in Executive Guideline of the Ninety six School Year Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students (Taipei, 2007), 2, http://www3.ttcsec.gov.tw/song/sing_t.htm [accessed March 8, 2008].
206 timbre and the skills of the conductor and accompanist each only took up to 20% of the entire score. In other words, a team s performance styles and techniques that were able to highlight an ethnic group s attributes w ould be more likely to win the competition. For example, in the 2007 competition the Wu Ling Elementary School s chorus won the first prize in the aboriginal language group because its costume, performance style, and music interpretation all revealed the strong ethnic traits of the Taiwanese aboriginal Bunun tribe They chose two songs of the Bunun tribe to sing in the Competition B ng hu qng ( Scenes of the Life of the Bunun ) and B ( The Buklavu Is Singing ). Based on my observation, they were able to perform and to render the essential characteristics of the aboriginal people s recitative and sonorous a cappella singing in a confident and audacious manner. They utilized a traditional Bunun instrument, pestle, as their rhythmic and the only musical accompaniment. The pestle accompaniment played a major role that contributed to the success of their performance because the instrument itself symbolizes the musical identity of the Bunun tribe. Overall, the way that the Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students was organized including the language operations, assigned repertori es, performance manners (choral music), and evaluation standard suggested that Taiwanese homeland songs referred to mainly Holo, Hakka, and aboriginal vocal music that contains strong ethnic features; however, Chinese art songs or songs sung in Chinese Mandarin were excluded from the scope of the Taiwanese homeland. According to my observation of this nationwide music competition, the common musical features presented in the three language categories of the Taiwanese homeland songs are the pentatonic melodi es and the adoption of piano as a major accom paniment musical instrument. Other distinguishing musical traits of the Holo songs are the strophic form and the
207 melismatic texture. The unique musical features of the Hakka songs are the theatrical nature of th e songs, the yodeling and antiphonal singing styles, because many traditional Hakka folk songs, such as the Hakka hillside songs, are transformed from the theatrical genres. For example, C ( Tune for Poling a Punt ) is a tune sung in the Hakka Three Cast es Tea picking Opera ( S, or simply called the Hakka Tea picking Opera C ) characterized by the antiphonal singing of the female cast e s termed dn and the clown cast e s termed When the tune is sung in the theater, the scenario is set to the dialog between a sailorman and a female passenger during the boat ride. Example 511 is the music transcription of the tune C o and its Hakka lyrics.22 C has been incorporated in Kang Hsuan Publishing Group s fifth grade Arts and Humanities textbooks. It was one of the assigned songs in the 2009 Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for the junior high school chor us, and the tune was performed in the 2009 ChenPing Elementary School s Graduation Concert by one of the soprano recorder ensembles of the six grade class. In terms of the stylistic and tonal traits of the aboriginal songs as presented in the 2007 Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students Taiwanese aboriginal songs emphasize a cappella singing, as well as the lead and responsorial singing. For example, Topento (translated into English as Ode to Joy ) is a traditional folk song of Taiwanese aboriginal Zou tribe. Shan Hua Cian adapted the folk tune into a three part choral music sung a cappella. Cian adopts the lead and responsorial singing style in the first 22The English translation of the song text is as follows: The 1st verse: January is a month for the Chinese Lunar New Year. People will perform the dragon dance an d lion dance and put up the red paper couplets written in Chinese calligraphy. People will gather together and party with their neighbors. Men and women, the old and the young are so happy. Hai ia lo di hai, he ia lo di he, he ia lo di he, so happy! The 2 nd verse: January is the month for the Chinese Lunar New Year. As the sun rises, it s going to be a good day. People will buy the gifts and give to others. So they are anxiously waiting for the slow poling punts to arrive the docks when they are taking the punt rides, but they can t do anything to rush the punt to move faster. Hai ia lo di hai, he ia lo di he, he ia lo di he, can t do anything!
208 seven measures of the piece; the lowest voice leads the singing and is re sponded by the alto voice and next by the soprano voice (see Example 512). Then, the texture changes to homophonic. T here are three distinct lines; the two lower voices sing two separate ostinati in the rhythms and melodies, while the soprano voice create s the primary melody (see Example 513). Additionally, one of the special musical characteristics in Taiwanese aboriginal folk songs is their overtone and multipart singing techniques that create heterophonic texture with individual improvisation skills; this particular musical trait is also prevalent in numerous Hakka hillside songs and Holo folk songs. For instance, when the noted traditional Holo folk song, Su siang ki ( Thinking Back ) that portrays the ancestors pioneering efforts in developing Taiwan was sung by a distinguished Taiwanese folk musician C he n Da many individual creative elements were involved.23 Strictly speaking, Su siang ki is a folk tune and is often modified in accordance with its fundamental contour; its lyrics are not se t rigidly but are frequently extemporized by the singers. Chen Da sang Su siang ki with many vocal embellishments, such as the glissando and sostenudo, which are also common performance techniques of many Chinese traditional musical instruments. As he sang the song, he simultaneously played the traditional Chinese string instrument yueqin (moon guitar) as the musical accompaniment. He applied his melismatic singing style in improvising the lyrics and modifying the melodies. The melody of Su siang ki is constructed based on pentatonic Z (Sol) mode (see Example 514). Besides the pentatonic modes, melismatic singing style, strophic form, and the individual creative process, one distinguishing musical characteristic imbedded in Holo songs that have 23Chen Da s singing of Su siang ki can be heard in the Website T (The Map of Taiwanese Music): http://edu.ocac.gov.tw/culture/music/english/1/map.htm. This performance is recorded by Taiwanese ethnomusicologist Chang Hui Hsu in the mid 1970s.
209 beco me linked to homeland music is the presence of sentiments tied to the Japanese colonial era. Japanese government colonized Taiwan for fifty years (1895 1945) and changed the musical cultures of Taiwan. Taiwanese people s resistance and frustration to the f oreign rule sparked their own musical creativities. During Japanese colonization in Taiwan, many Holo songs were composed with colonial sentiment, that is, the sentimentality that grew up in response to Japanese colonial rule. Therefore, the melodies and t he lyrics of these songs sound gloomy, sorrowful, and sentimental involving Taiwanese composers dismay at the social and political oppressions caused by Japanese government s Acculturation Policy. As illustrated by lyricist Da Ru Chen in th e Holo song Farewell by the Dock, ( G x bi published in 1939): My dream of love is dismantled by the others; my dream of freedom is repressed by the others; my dream of youth is awakened by the others 24 (my own English translation), the others insinuates the foreign rule, that is, the Japanese government. The Holo songs composed during Japanese colonial rule reflect such colonial sentiment with the distressful love stories and cruel social circumstances on the music compositions. This sentimental musical trait was termed the New Fashion of Lament ( X ) and was extended even after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II and withdrew from Taiwan. Examples of Holo songs carrying Japanese colonial sentiment include, Tsit tsiah tsiau a hau kiu kiu ( A Crying Bird ), Gu eh ia than ( Sighing in the Moonlit Night, composed in 1930), U ia hoe ( The Torment of a Flower, composed in 1933), Sim sng sng ( Sadness of the Hearts, composed in 1936), Pi luan e tsiu pue 24Cheng Jia Wu ( ), G i (Farewell by the Dock), lyrics by Da Ru Chen ed. Y o ng Ming Chuang and De Ming Sun T (The Homeland Affection of the Taiwanese Songs) (Taipei, Taiwan: De Ming Sun 1999), 230. The original Chinese M andarin text is:
210 ( A Cup of Wine for the Sorrowful Love, composed in 1936), Long tshun khik ( Song of Farm Villages, composed in 1937), Bang li tsa kui ( Longer for Your Early Return, composed in 1946), Poo phua bang ( Sewing the Torn Nest, composed in 1948), T shing tshun pi hi khik ( The Sorrow and Happiness of the Youth, composed in 1950), Koo luan hoe ( Solitary Lover, composed in 1952), Kang too ia u ( The Night Rain in the Port, composed in 1951). Among these, I will describe Tsit tsiah tsiau a hau kiu kiu ( A Crying Bird ) in more detail to show the nature of this kind of song. Tsit tsiah tsiau a hau kiu kiu is a traditional folk song from the J i a Na n Plains in the southern region of Taiwan. The lyrics depict a desperate bird crying dreadfully for losing his nest; the subject matter implies the fall of a nation and the sorrow of its people. It is in D minor key. The main melody is simply composed of three notes D, F, and A in addition to a measure of a three note (A, C, and D) coda section. The tonality is constructed in conjunction of the semitones and the intervals of the perfect fifth and the perfect fourth. When Taiwan was ceded to Japan as a result of the SinoJapanese War in the end of 1895, the dreary tonality and suggestive lyrics of Tsit tsiah tsiau a hau kiu kiu implicitly reflected Taiwanese people s anguish and indignation in resistance to Japanese occupation. It became a favorite song for some Taiwanese patriots to express their misery and thwarting toward Japan s oppressive rule (see Example 515). In the 1950s to the 1960s after Japan withdrew from Taiwan, many Taiwanese composers borrowed the original melodies of some Japanese songs and then changed their Japanese lyrics into Holo language. These hybrid songs featured a low cost pro duction and stood in reaction to Kuomintang government s oppression to Taiwanese homeland cultures when Taiwan ese society underwent the White Terror at the time. Examples of these hybrid Holo songs include The
211 Hometown in the Dusk Time (originally a Japanese song ), The Wishes of an Orphan Girl (originally a Japanese song ), The Wretched Flower of Love, Goodbye! (originally a Japanese song ) Although these hybrid Holo songs are significant in Taiwanese musi c history, scholars argue that they are not Taiwanese homeland songs for they are not originally composed by Taiwanese composers but by Japanese composers In addition, some of the songs are constructed on Japanese Miyakobushi or Okinawa scales which are t he distinctive characteristics of Japanese music.25 For instance, the hybrid Holo song A Guitar of the Hot Spring Town ( ) is actually the Japanese song and is composed based on the Japanese Miyakobushi scale .26 In fact, the use of the Miyakobushi scale symbolizes Japanese identity rather than Taiwanese or Chinese identity. Therefore, as I discussed in the former chapter, my informants of the HoloJapanese approach claimed that the homeland music of Taiwan is Japanese influenced Holo music. They proposed that the Japanese influenced Taiwanese homeland music encloses both the Holo songs that contain Japanese coloni al sentiment and the hybrid Holo songs that borrowed the musical elements from Japanese music. 25The Japanese Miyakobushi scale and Okinawa scale are the pentatonic scales with half tones. Miyakobushi scale is composed of a five note upward scale E F A B D and a five note downward scale E C B A F. Okinawa scale is composed of E F G B C five notes. 26The audio recordings of both the Japanese original version and the Holo hybrid version of the song A Guitar of the Hot Spring Town can be accessed online: (i ) The hybrid Holo version: Koga Masao ( ), (A Guitar of the Hot Spring Town) , Yam blog Web site, W Windows Flash Player audio file, 4:09, http://mymedia.yam.com/m/2340300 [accessed September 1 9, 2010]. (ii) The original Japanese version: Koga Masao ( ), (A Guitar of the Hot Spring Town), Yam blog Web site, Harumi Miyako ( ) Windows Flash Player audio file, 4:13, http://mymedia.yam.c om/m/2797191 [accessed September 19,2010].
212 The Homeland Song Contest for the Lower graders was an intramural musical contest for the firstand second grade students. ChenPing Elementary School s Departm ent of Teaching Affairs on ChenPing Elementary School campus has held the contest annually since the 2006 school year. According to the Contest Guideline, the goal of the homeland song contest is to enhance students communication abilities in homeland la nguages and to strengthen students cognitive understandings of their homeland cultures through participating in and observing the performances in the contest.27 The contest was generally held in the second semester of a school year as an assessment of the children s learning outcome of the Taiwanese homeland languages. The participants in the contest were the entire first and second grade students of Chen Ping Elementary School. Every class of the first grade and the second grade take turns to perform as a team in the contest, and each team perform one homeland song of its own choice. Students sing and dance with the songs accompanying the background music played by the audio CD recordings that were provided by the textbook manufacturer. I n the spring semester of 2009, I was appointed to be one of the judges for this contest. The other two judges were two of the school s full time music teachers; one taught the fourth grade and the other taught the fourth and the fifth grades. The contest was held on May 12, 2009 in the afternoon from 1:30 p. m to 2:10 p. m for the secondgrade contest and from 2:20 p. m to3:00 p. m for the firstgrade contest at the S tudent A ctivity C enter The evaluation criteria and proportions were provided for the judges as follows: Conc ert etiquette (20%) including the performers attire and their attitudes both as the performers and as the audience. Timbre or vocal quality (30%) 27Department of Teaching Affairs, I. Objective s in Executive Guideline of the Ninety seven School Year Chen Ping Elementary School Homeland Song Contest for the Lower Graders (Taichung, 2009). http://web.cpes.tc.edu.tw/classweb/menu/index.php?account=taiwanese [accessed October 4th, 2010].
213 Enunciation of the song texts (20%) Musical expressions (30%) In the end of the contest, the scores of each t eam given by the three judges were totaled. The team that received the highest total score won the first prize, and the team which received the second highest total score earned the second prize. The total scores of the two teams that ranked the third and the fourth highest were both given the third prizes; the rest of the teams partaking in the contest were awarded the fourth prizes. Generally speaking, ChenPing Elementary School s Homeland Song Contest for the Lower graders manifested the implementations of the Arts and Humanities curriculum. It demonstrated the integrated curriculum incorporating dance, performing arts, and language arts into the broad field of arts education. In addition, the contest reflected the homeland ideology among the educational policy practitioners. First, I found that all the songs performed by both the first grade and the second grade students were in Holo languages. In contrast with the Nationwide Homeland Song Competition, which categorizes homeland songs into three language groups ( Holo, Hakka, and the aboriginal languages ) ChenPing Elementary School s c ontest involves purely Holo song repertory and excludes songs of other homeland languages such as the Hakka and aboriginal dialects. As the school administrators of Chen Pi ng Elementary School named the contest a Homeland Song Contest ( B ) rather than a Holo Song Contest ( M or T ), noticeably, they considered homeland songs in this context as equivalent to the Holo songs. Second, similar to the Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students the performance featured the chorus style with some body movements along the singing. This suggested that Taiwanese homeland music f eatures largely in vocal music.
214 Moreover, the homeland songs that the students performed in the contest were primarily selected from the students Holo language textbooks by their Holo language teachers or their homeroom teachers. Among all the songs performed in the contest, only Tio tio tang a ( The Passing Train ) would be categorized as a traditional folk song. Other songs such as N iau a a i s e bi n ( T he Cats Love Washing Their Faces ), Tsok hue lai piann sau ( Let s Cleaningup Together ), T shun thinn e tsa si ( The Morning of Spring ) are all Holo songs composed by contemporary Taiwanese composers. Accordingly, regarding the musical ideology embedded in this contest I find that the homeland songs in contemporary elementa ry Arts and Humanities curriculum have been interpreted by the educational practitioners at Chen Ping Elementary School as those originally sung in Holo language but not limited to the traditional Holo folk songs or the newly composed Holo songs. Besides t he above two musical events that promoted Taiwanese homeland music education, many major music performances held in the school system in Taiwan were in favor of folk and vernacular musical styles and repertories. For instance, the organizing unit of the an nual Nationwide Chorus Competition for Students customarily nominates one or two Holo, Hakka or aboriginal songs as the assigned songs for the competition. The Nationwide Chorus Competition for Students is one of the competition categories of the Nationwid e Music Competition for Students and notability is comparable to the Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students Every school year, in most cases, an elementary school s children s chorus chooses to take part in either the Nationwide Chorus Competition for Students or the Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students When I was the conductor for ChenPing Elementary School Children s Chorus and directed them to participate in the 2008 Nationwide Chorus Competition f or S tudents at the Beitun School District Level, one of the
215 assigned songs for the elementary level competition was a Holo chant song named It ni a gong gong ( The Innocent First Grade Students ). The lyrics humorously portray the general character traits and the behavioral development stages of Taiwanese elementary school children from the innocent first graders up to the sophisticated sixth graders. Fig ure 5 2 is the English translation of the Holo lyrics of the song It ni a gong gong ( The Innocent First Grade Students ) The song s original melody is in pentatonic G (Do) mode. The version of the arrangements used in the 2008 Nationwide Chorus Competition for Students is a two part chorus piece in C major, binary form, arranged by FuYu Lin The two part chorus is accompanied by a piano. T he texture of this arrangement is homophonic. The chords progress from the tonic chord I, and then s witch among the submediant chord vi (or submediant seventh chord vi7) and its inversions, the dominant chord V (or dominant seventh chord V7) and its inversions and the tonic chords I, creating an ambiance of the aristocratic Holo folklore. Example 516 de monstrates this manner of harmonic application. The chord progression from measure thirteen to measure twenty is illustrated as follows: vi7 vi vi6 I6/4 V V7 vi iii7 vi6/4 I6/4 V7 I I6. In my opinion, Lin s It ni a gong gong ( The Innocent First Grade Students ) is a very successful composition that underlines the tonal characteristics of Taiwanese homeland songs while adopt ing the Western music composition al techniques Lin utilizes the harmonic progressions of the subm ediant chords to tonic chords to balance the harmonic structure in Western classical music and the pentatonic melodic composition in East Asian folk music. In addition to the nationwide music competition, some intramural music performances held by the school community were also particularly fond of performing the rustic and grassroots
216 music. At the Chen Ping Elementary School for example, every year in the spring semester, from the third grade through the sixth grade, each grade level would host a seasonal concert to present their music learning achievements. Many of these concert programs featured the soprano re corders playing folk tunes. I n spring 2007, the fourth grade children s seasonal concert featured in playing the folk songs from all over the world on the Soprano recorders. The Taiwanese homeland songs that they performed included the composed Holo song Bang chhun hong composed Chinese Mandarin song The Joyful Years ( H ) and the Taiwanese theatrical tune T that is both a Holo theatrical ( G ) tune and a Hakka tea picking operatic tune. Comparably, in spring 2009, ten cl asses of the school s sixth grade gave excellent recorder ensemble performances in their Graduation Concert highlighting a variety of folk repertories from all over the world These folk repertories consisted of the French folk song My Little Flute the Italian folk song Santa Lucia, and the Mexican folk song Riding the Carriage Traveling through the Wilderness They also performed several Taiwanese folk repertories such as the traditional folk songs of Holo people N ( Plowing Song ) and L i yu m l ( June s Jasmine Flowers ), a traditional folk song of Hakka people C ( Tune for Poling a Punt ), and the contemporary College Campus Folk Songs ( X ) The Gathe ring ( P ng j ) and The Sunlight and the Drizzling ( Y ). To a large extent, most of Taiwanese intellectual elites would have no doubt that musical styles that contain the following traits described in four adjectives as traditional, bucolic, vernacular, and grassroots are certainly indicative of Taiwanese homeland music. Among all the four adjectives, I have noticed that vernacular is actually a key word to claim a piece of
217 music homeland to the general public in Taiwan. However, the vernacular style is closely related to the use of homeland languages, namely the Holo, Hakka, and the dialect s of Taiwanese aborigines After examining the musical events and competitions held in the elementary school or in the education syste m, I argue that a song s archeological origin: transmission method, composition process, and instrumentation are not the primary factors for most of Taiwanese intellectual elites to determine its homeland character. A homeland song does not have to be co mmunally created, orally transmitted historically momentous, and old fashioned. That is why certain songs composed or adapted by Taiwanese contemporary composers such as N iau a a i s e bi n Tsok hue lai piann sau K ( The True Hakka ), and In ui wu li ( Because of You ) to some extent would still be considered Taiwanese homeland songs in many national or community musical events. Although Taiwanese hom eland music indeed stresses vocal music, a piece of music would still be considered homeland to many Taiwan ese even if it is originally a song but later is played by the soprano recorder or by the piano. Moreover I believe that in contemporary Taiwanese m usic education, the implication of homeland does not simply refer to vernacular, but becomes more inclusive, covering songs that are significant in Taiwanese music history and songs that scrupulously depict Taiwanese people s daily lives. Hence some of the educational practitioners and recipients, like a few of my informants, would likely identify some songs sung in Chinese Mandarin such as G and the Campus Folk Songs, specifically Q and H as Taiwanese ho meland music.
218 Table 5 1. Numbers of vote and rankings of the most representative Taiwanese homeland songs from my 30 participants Song Title Legislators Practitioners Recipients Sum Rank Bang Chhun hong 2 3 5 10 1st U ia hoe 2 2 4 8 2nd Su s iang ki 4 2 6 3rd Tio tio tang a 1 2 2 5 4th T i o o 4 4 5th Peh ling si 1 1 2 6th 1 1 2 6th Sai pak hoo 2 2 6th Tiam ma ka 2 2 6th 1 1 10th Poo phua bang 1 1 10th Q 1 1 10th Lan na phah khui sim lai e thang 1 1 10th S i o bah tsang 1 1 10th 1 1 10th N 1 1 10th Bang li tsa kui 1 1 10th
219 Traditional Chinese Holo Language Romanization English Translation chhengoe chhitpoeh chhutk lin ke K jin pia u, si ke lng ch? s, sim p kun choh angsi Tn s kun li chhi chheng. khui ; eh tai chai I was waiting alone under a lamp The spring breeze blowing on my cheeks As a teen I was still single looking at the young gentleman. (He was) really handsome and cute, which family would he come fr om? I i nten ded to chat with him, but my heart was as nervous as a pipa I wish ed him to be my groom I hid my love in my mind. Waiting for the day that the gent leman comes to pick when the flower was blo oming. I h eard someone coming, I opened the door to l ook The moon laughed at me for being an idiot, as I was tricked by the breeze. Figure 51. The l yrics of Bang chhunhong ( Craving for Wind of Spring ) [Source: Data adapted from hong entry posted July 21, 2009, http://taigujp.blogspot.com/2009/07/bangchhun hong.html#comments ( accessed September 10, 2010 )] Traditional Chinese English Translation ha ha! he he! ho ho! The first graders are very nave ha ha! The second graders are the Monkey King, he he! The third graders spit the sword of light. The fourth graders are most boastful, ho ho! The fifth graders are the deities of God. The sixth graders are the demon s of the H ell. Nave Nave So nave Monkey King! Monkey King! S pit the sword of light M ost boastful The first graders, second graders, third graders, fourth graders, fifth graders, and the sixth graders T ons of little hungry ghosts! Figure 52. The l yrics of It ni a gong gong ( The Innocent First Grade Students )
220 Example 51. The song Bang chhun hong ( Craving for Wind of Spring ) transcribed into Western music notation.
221 Example 52. The beginning four measure prelude of Bo Ming Wu s four part chorus arrangement of the song Bang chhun hong. Source: Excerpt f rom Bo Ming Wu, Bang chhun hong, in J http://www3.ttcsec.gov.tw/song/96y/SONG/FULAU/_0916094411_001.pdf ( accessed March 12, 2008).
222 Example 53. Wu s Bang chhun hong the F major key modulation round singing section. So urce: Excerpt from Bo Ming Wu s Bang chhun hong http://www3.ttcsec.gov.tw/song/96y/SONG/FULAU/_0916094411_001.pdf (accessed March 12, 2008).
223 Example 54. ChungYi Lai s musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong for the small instrumental mus ic ensemble, the 5th measure to the 8th measure. Source : Excerpt from ChungYi Lai, arr. Bang chhun hong, in Y (Anthology of Music Ensemble Pieces) (Taipei, Taiwan: Yue yun Publishing 2003), 23. Example 55. ChingYi Lin s musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong, the beginning four measures of the first section. Source : Excer pt adapted from Chin g Yi Lin, arr. Bang chhun hong, in Z No. 1 ( ) (Anthology of the Recorder Ensemble Pieces, Vol. 1) (Tainan, Taiwan: Chingyun Publishing 2003), 27.
224 Example 56. ChingYi Lin s musical arrangement of Ba ng chhun hong, measure 17 to measure 24 of the second section. Source : Excerpt adapted from Chin g Yi Lin, arr. Bang chhun hong, in Z No. 1 ( ) (Anthology of the Recorder Ensemble Pieces, Vol. 1) (Tainan, Taiwan: Chingyun Publi shing 2003), 28. Example 57. ChingYi Lin s musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong, the first four measures of the third section, measure 33 to measure 36. Source : Excerpt adapted from Chin g Yi Lin, arr. Bang chhun hong, in Z h d h zu q j No. 1 ( ) (Anthology of the Recorder Ensemble Pieces, Vol. 1) (Tainan, Taiwan: Chingyun Publishing 2003), 29.
225 Example 58. The first section of ChingYi Lin s musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong for the Soprano and Alto twopart re corder ensemble, the beginning 8 measures. Source : Excerpt adapted from Chin g Yi Lin, arr. Bang chhun hong, in Z No. 1 ( ) (Anthology of the Recorder Ensemble Pieces, Vol. 1) (Tainan, Taiwan: Chingyun Publishing 2003), 43.
226 Example 59. ChingYi Lin s musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong for the Soprano and Alto two part recorder ensemble, from the 17th measure to the 28th measure. Source : Excerpt adapted from Ching Yi Lin, arr. Bang chhun hong, in Z h d h zu No. 1 ( ) (Anthology of the Recorder Ensemble Pieces, Vol. 1) (Tainan, Taiwan: Chingyun Publishing 2003), 44.
227 Example 510. The last section of ChingYi Lin s musical arrangement of Bang chhun hong, measure 34 to measure 37. Sourc e : Excerpt adapted from Chin g Yi Lin, arr. Bang chhun hong, in No. 1 ( ) (Anthology of the Recorder Ensemble Pieces, Vol. 1) (Tainan, Taiwan: Chingyun Publishing 2003), 45. Example 511. The Hakka folk tune C n dio and the Romanization of its lyrics.
228 Example 512. The beginning four measures of Topento, a traditional folk song of Taiwanese aboriginal Zou tribe Source : Excerpt from Shan Hua Cian arr. Topento, in J ng 98 ( The assigned songs of the aboriginal language group for the chorus competition of the 2009 Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students ) The Blog of the Ministry of Education for the 2009 Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students, entry posted September 24, 2009, http://blog.ilc.edu.tw/b log/index.php?op=printView&articleId=74259&blogId=4171, data downloaded from http://beta.nmp.gov.tw/970821/980904_3.pdf [accessed September 21, 2010] 114.
229 Example 513. Topento, the homophoni c texture and the ostinati vocal accompaniments, from the ninth measure to the twelfth measure. Source : Excerpt from Shan Hua Cian arr. Topento, in J 98 ( The assigned songs of the aboriginal language group for the chorus competition of the 2009 Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students ) The Blog of the Ministry of Education for the 2009 Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students, entry posted September 24, 2009, http://blog.ilc.edu.tw/blog/index.php?op=printView&articleId=74259&blogId=4171, data downl oaded from http://beta.nmp.gov.tw/970821/980904_3.pdf [accessed September 21, 2010] 114.
230 E xample 514. Traditional Holo folk tune Su siang ki ( Thinking Back ) and its Holo lyrics28. 28The lyrics in Example 14 are translated according to the first verse of the lyrics written b y Ren Lin Wen Hua in its music supplemental source book, T [Taiwanese Folk Songs] (Taipei, Taiwan: Ren Lin Wen Hua, 2004), 8.
231 Example 515. Tsit tsiah tsiau a hau kiu kiu ( A Crying Bird ) melody and lyrics.
232 Example 516. The chord progression of FuYu Lin s It ni a gong gong from the 13th measure to the 20th measure. Source : Excerpt from Fu Yu Lin arr. It ni a gon g gong (Tai pei Taiwan: Chinese Music Bookstore 2008), 2.
233 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Homeland, nativism, and indigenization are critical and popular subject matters in contemporary Taiwanese education. However, the notion of homeland presented in Taiwanese contemporary elementary music curricula has undergone changes in response to changing political environment; from the Sino centric to Taiwan centric dichotomy into a focus on multiculturalism. This dissertation utilized practice th eory and critical pedagogy in order to interpret the interactions between actors and actions and their interactions within broad socio cultural phenomena that were reflected on Taiwanese contemporary elementary music education. I summarize my research find ings as follows. According to Pierre Bourdieu s practice theory, actors who come from the same social background, specifically the same social class, tend to hold the same habitus The habitus is a set of behaviors, habits, ideologies, values, and moraliti es that are acquired through the process of enculturation, including that learned in formal education. T aking Bourdieu s habitus as the theoretical framework, I categorized my thirty informants into three hierarchical groups educational policy makers (or educational policy legislators ), educational policy practitioners (or educational policy executors ), and educational policy recipients; all of them are middle class intellectuals and school children. While my investigation is based upon the premise that there is a great resemblance among the participants of the three education groups regarding their perceptions of the homeland music in Taiwan, issues involving what the divergent perceptions are and how they occur are the central focuses of my discussion. The result of my data interpretations shows that there are different sub habitus operating within my informants who were categorized into three levels as the educational policy makers, practitioners, and recipients, although all of them are of the same cl ass (middleclass
234 intellectuals). In other words, not all middle class people possess the same or similar concepts regarding Taiwanese homeland and the homeland music. This result suggest s that Bourdieu s theory, claim ing that people from the same social class have the same or similar habitus needs to be reevaluated I propose that numerous external and internal conditions can occur in the process of enculturation, such as various social phenomena or divergent individual experiences These complicated soci ocultural factors lead to variant developments and acquisitions of habitus of actors from the same social class. Three approaches on Taiwanese identity the Taiwan centered approach, the Chinese oriented approach and the HoloJapanese approach have co exi sted among my adult informants in relation to their habitus The majority of them are categorized as either the Taiwan centered revolutionist s or the Chinese oriented evolutionists The principal distinctions between the two approaches (Taiwan centered approach and Chinese oriented approach) lie in the following premises: Whether or not the two approaches would consider t he musical genres derived from m ainland China that have not been integrated in Taiwan s civil society as Taiwanese homeland music, such as the Chinese art songs, the Cantonese Opera ( Y u j ), the Kunshan tune ( K ) and many others. What approaches were taken and what their emphases were when they defined homeland music. So, based on the two premises, adherents of the Taiwan centered approach take the revolutionary method advocating Taiwan s sovereignty in musical cultures; adherents of the Chinese oriented approach adopt the evolutionist strategy concentrating on the significance of a music and cultu ral lineage between Taiwan and m ai nland China. The HoloJapanese approach only appears among the educational policy makers and practitioners. While the result displays that none of the policy legislator informants took the colonialist Holo Japanese approach I suggest that the reason is
235 th at these policy makers ideologies regarding Taiwanese homeland music have gone through even more indepth and complicated enculturation as they participated in the processes of enacting the government s educational policies. Based on my observations, the Taiwan centered approach represents a group of revolutionists who believe that Taiwan has cultivated its own musical forms and styles that are distinct from their Chinese mainland counterparts, whereas the Chinese oriented approach represents a flock of evolutionists who emphasize and cherish the lineal affinity with the Chinese mainland when responding to questions regarding Taiwanese homeland music. Adherents of t he Holo Japanese approach are a small cluster of colonialists who emphasize Japan s colonial influences on Taiwan s society and culture, and thus they give special value to the impact of Japanese colonialism. Their understanding is based on their belief that Japanese colonialism brought musical sentiment to Taiwanese homeland music which enriched Taiwan s musical cultures. This colonial sentiment is particularly evident in Holo music. I also perceive that the ideological distinctions among the three approaches are attributed to my participants individual experiences in interacting with the homeland music. Their ideologies are determined by a variety of experiences such as the formal school educations they received and the socio cultural activities they encountered or participated in, as well as the family upbringings they had. For example, my info rma nt R7, whom I categorized as an adherent of the evolutionist Chinese oriented approach did not define Hakka songs as Taiwanese homeland songs because of her personal experiences with the Hakka people. Besides, owing to her own political experiences, R2, whom I labeled as a member of the Holo Japanese approach, claimed that singing Holo songs signifies localization ( ) so Holo songs are Taiwanese homeland songs. Furthermore E1 and E4 are both the elementary school administrators, born in the same year and from similar
236 soci al and economic backgrounds ; however, they did not acquire the same educational experie nces (E1 specialized in linguistics and language education; E4 mastered in Chinese traditional instrumental music performance and was a conductor of a Chinese orchestra) and hence assessed Taiwanese homeland music differently. E1 is a revolu tionist who vie ws Taiwan and m ainland China as two separate entities in terms of geography, politics, and culture, whereas E4 is an evolutionist who stresses the ethnic and cultural ties between Taiwan and China. On the one hand, according to E1, music derived from the C hinese mainland is not homeland music; rather, genuine Taiwanese homeland music has its origin in Taiwan. On the other hand, E4 asserts that Taiwanese homeland music is a part of the ethnic Chinese musical sphere and believes that it is not possible to era dicate the musical roots from the Chinese mainland. Other factors including the biological inheritance, age, gender, and ethnicity, nonetheless, do not seem to affect my informants ideas about homeland music to any noticeable degree. For instance, my info rmant R2 is born in the 20s and my informant E7 is born in the 60s, but they both developed similar attitudes toward homeland music in a way that I describe a s the HoloJapanese colonialist In other words, individuals who are in different generations have developed the same habitus Moreover, actors who are the same ethnicity do not always have the same ideas about homeland music. My informant R4 and R6 are both classified as educational policy recipients and are both the descendants of Chinese mainlanders, yet R4 is a revolutionist and R6 is an evolutionist. In contrast, R6 is descended from mainlanders, and R5 is of Holo descent, but R6 and R5 are both evolutionists and have similar attitudes toward Taiwanese homeland music. Evidently, as shown in my rese arch, ideas of Taiwanese homeland music are due to enculturation largely as a result of school education and other social experiences. Sixth grade students were able to better articulate their perceptions of Taiwanese homeland music since they
237 have receive d more knowledge and materials about it at their schools music courses, visual art courses, social studies and homeland language classes. Young children also obtain the knowledge of Taiwanese homeland arts by experiencing the arts in the social activities or community events. For instance, all second grade children knew what Taiwanese Hand puppet Theater ( b di x ) is even though their schools did not teach them about it. In such cases, children basically learned about it by watching TVs with their family members or seeing the performances of it at the templegates in the communities in which they live. As child ren grow older, they read books, watch TVs, and are told by other friends or by their teachers, parents, or other elders and acquire the knowledge that b di x is Taiwanese homeland arts. Their ideologies are thus formulated. As critical pedagogues sugge st, hegemony is manifested in education and other government support ed and controlled social or cultural activities. Practice theorists also propose that when certain groups are in powers, they strive to propagate ideologies supporting their own personal i nterests (as interest theory ) or constraining the opposition powers from growing (as strain theory ). However, when individuals later encounter other different opinions or arguments, they might deny the contradictions or rethink and adjust their belief systems. This internal thought process of conscientization as suggested by critical pedagogue Paulo Freire offers an excellent explanation to the procedure of how individuals handle contradictions and act on them to change the status quo for a more just so ciety and future. Accordingly, I assert that in addition to formal school educations, sociocultural phenomena, community interactions and family upbringings, conscientization is also a factor (or a social force per se) that results in the various concepti ons of Taiwanese homeland music among my informants even though all of them are middle class intellectual s.
238 The notion of homeland in the elementary music education has been transformed throughout Taiwanese contemporary history. When Taiwan was governed by Japanese from 1895 to 1945, Japanese music was considered the homeland music of Taiwan. Before martial law has been ceased in 1987, Taiwanese homeland music was designated as Chinese music of the Chinese mainland. In the post martial law era, after the en actment of the 1993 New Curricular Standard and before the execution of the Grade 1 9 Curriculum, Taiwanese homeland music pertained to music of the island s vernacular cultures, that is, the traditional music of Holo, Hakka, and Taiwanese aborigines Sinc e Grade 1 9 Cu rriculum has been in place (200 3), music education has been integrated with arts education and has become diversified. It has been combined with visual arts and performing arts and become an interdisciplinary discipline named Arts and Humani ties Learning Area. The notion of homeland has been used to refer to things from Taiwan. Taiwanese homeland cultures have been broadly defined as the cultures of Taiwanese people. The homeland music of Taiwan has been transformed into a Taiwanized music namely, any musical forms that are Taiwanized (whether from Taiwan or not) In addition, the elementary school music curricula in contemporary Taiwan have been designed to meet the educational dual objectives of localization (or indigenization u ) and internationalization (gu j hu ). In fact, this dual localism and internationalism strategy in Taiwanese contemporary elementary arts education has been inspired by critical pedagogy because of its interdisciplinary nature, student centere d curriculum, and experiential learning process. Taiwanese critical artist, Chia Wei Chang, writes an article titled Critical Pedagogy for Arts Education suggesting that current arts and hu manities education in
239 Taiwan shares parallel educational concepts and objectives with critical pedagogy.1 S he claims that the design of arts and humanities curriculum is centered on learners daily experiences and dialogical process that are parallel with critical pedagogy s rationale s .2 C ritical pedagog y oriented arts and humanities e ducation in Taiwan has been implemented in recent years through a student centered interdisciplinary curriculum that emphasizes collaborative learning and social communication of arts education in daily life.3 I also recognize that s uch cri tical pedagogy oriented a rts and humanities e ducation involving Taiwancentrism and multiculturalism has itself led to diverse interpretations concerning the homeland music of Taiwan. Although the government ( through its education authority) sponsored musi cal events (such as the Nationwide Music Competition for Students and Nationwide Homeland Song Competition for Teachers and Students ) and government archives (such as the Ministry of Education Annual Executive Plans from 2001 to 2009 and a variety of homeland teaching materials after the 1993 New Curricular Standard has been administered) altogether attempted to promote the music of the Holo, Hakka and aborigines to be Taiwanese homeland music, ideologies involving Taiwanese homeland music appear to have been remodeled. In turn, the crit ical nature of the dual strategy Taiwan centric localization and multiculturaloriented internationalization embedded in current Grade 19 Curriculum has contributed to the 1Chia Wei Chang, Pi pan jiao yu xue qu xiang de yi shu yu ren wen jiao yu chu tan (Critical Pedagogy for Art Education: Learning through Dialogical Art), 110. [article online]; available from http://www.docin.com/p 7870590.html; Internet; accessed March 28, 2011. 2Ibid., 6. 3Ibid., 1.
240 disassociation of indigeniz ation with desinicization4. It also promotes a kind of ethnic egalitarian ism as well. The outcome of the music analyses also reveals some of the basic characteristics associated with Taiwanese homeland music. Generally speaking, the majority of Taiwanese h omeland music is vocal music, sung in vernacular languages (Holo, Hakka, or Taiwanese aboriginal languages), constructed on pentatonic modes, and is widely sung among the general public in Taiwan. In addition, the music s lyric contents and subject matters highlight Taiwanese historical facts. These homeland songs are either passed down through oral tradition from generation to generation, or have been composed by Taiwanese composers ( including Taiwanese composers of Chinese descent). Besides, the subject m atter of Taiwanese homeland music often deals with the lives of important individuals, geography, history, folk traditions and cultures of Taiwan. Some homeland music is instrumental, for example, the Chinese traditional instrumental ensemble music n (the Northern School), (the Southern School), yu (the music of gongs and drums) and Chinese orchestra l music ; however, the instrumental music is usually adapted from regional theatrical tunes and folk songs. As far as the musical texture s are concerned, on the one hand, the individual creative process is a crucial and primary feature in traditional Taiwanese folk songs. When musicians perform the traditional folk songs, almost all of them will employ the individual creative process the im provisation techniques. The improvisation techniques include adding ornamentations to the melodies, extemporizing the song texts, singing in melismatic or recitative styles. On the other hand, the homeland music of every 4Desiniciz ation ( ) is a word including the prefix De and the word sinicization. It is a term that describes the act of eliminating Chinese influence. It is the opposite of sinicization. F or more information, see Samuel Yang s article Let ters: Taiwan s desinicization in Taipei Times on February 20th, 2008. A vailable from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2008/02/20/2003402094 [acces sed January 17th, 2011].
241 ethnic group has its unique charact eristics. The Holo songs are noted for the strophic form and the sorrowful melodies and distressful subject matter imbedded in Japanese colonial sentiment. The Hakka songs feature the yodeling and antiphonal singing manners as well as the theatrical style s because many of the songs are borrowed from Hakka opera tunes. The aboriginal songs are characterized by a cappella singing, lead and responsorial ( call and response ) singing, and multipart singing techniques Additionally, I also discover that the notion of folk songs in Taiwan is conceptualized differently from the Western notion of folk songs. Folk songs, according to Taiwanese conceptions, signify the vernacular savage, and peasantry and are better interpreted as the homeland songs ( yu ). Nevertheless, Taiwanese folk songs ( homeland songs ) cover a wide range of song types, ranging from the orally transmitted traditional folk songs, the historically significant composed songs [such as the Composed Holo Folk Songs ( f ng zu mn yo ) and the Campus Folk Songs ( )], to the folk tunes derived from Taiwanese regional theaters. Moreover, after observing the national annual music competitions in Taiwan including the Nationwide Homeland Song Compe titions for Teachers and Students and the chorus competition of the Nationwide Music Competitions and the intramural music performances and musical contests held at Chen Ping Elementary School, I find that both hegemony and the use of resistive tactics applies to the syncretized styles of Taiwanese homeland music. Taiwan s music education and society in contemporary era are in favor of Western music, and this trend challenged the traditional music and changed the musical landscape. The formation of Chinese O rchestra is itself an example of the outcome of Western musical hegemony. In addition, much of the traditional music in recent years has been adapted into new forms that balanced the characteristics of Taiwanese music and
242 Western music. As part of the We stern musical hegemony, Taiwanese composers and musicians have applied techniques of Western composition methodhomophonic texture, tonal harmony chord progressions and counterpoint techniques. Many Western musical instruments are incorporated as the musical accompaniment. Moreover, many Westernstyle music ensembles in Taiwan perform Taiwanese traditional music that is re arranged by Taiwanese composers educated in Western music. For instance, the elementary school children s chorus groups sing pieces adap ted from the traditional music. Students are taught to play Taiwanese homeland songs with the soprano recorders. At ChenPing Elementary School for example, the school s chorus, instrumental band, and the extracurricular music clubs (the ocarina club, flut e club, violin club, and harmonica club) perform Taiwanese traditional music and folk tunes that are re arranged i nto Western styles. Hence in the educational setting, Taiwanese homeland music has been transformed into a syncretic music form that synthesi zes traditional pentatonic folk melodies and Western heptatonic harmon y progressions, tonal textures and instrumental ensembles To conclude this dissertation, I offer a few relevant recommendations for future studies, and make suggestions on educational policy making and policy practices. My suggestions for the educational policy makers to improve homeland music education include : 1. Offer school teachers more opportunities for pedagogical enhancements and trainings: Current Arts and Humanities curriculum is inspired by the twentieth century post modernist critical pedagogy. However, not all teachers are acquainted with such student centered inquirystyle teaching methods and the interactive collaborativestyle learning. Also, most of elementary school mus ic teachers are not competent in teaching Taiwanese homeland music for they are academically trained only in Western classical music. Their capacity of teaching the homeland arts of Taiwan is limited by lacking adequate knowledge and experiences in Taiwanese
243 homeland arts. Therefore, the educational authorities should provide more pedagogical training opportunities to teachers. 2. Avoid desinicization: Before martial law was lifted, education in Taiwan cultivated the concept of Great Chinese Culture; the ve rnacular cultures and languages were oppressed. Such Sinocentrism has been rectified and taken away as Taiwanese government pursued democracy since martial law has ended. While Taiwanese native cultures were emphasized in formal school education in the pos t martial law era, school curricula denied the cultural heritages that were brought from the Chinese mainland. This desinicization was criticized by Taiwanese scholars and educators until the Grade 1 9 curriculum emerged. In general, Taiwanese educators were glad that the Grade 19 Curriculum shifted to the dual education objectives of localization versus internationalization in order to counter the earlier Taiwan centrism that over emphasized the vernacular cultures of the Holo, Hakka, and aborigines. Text book writers and teachers should carefully examine the textbooks and take responsibilities of eliminating contents that are extreme, judgmental or sarcastic. In my opinion, the concept of sinicization and desinicization are both divisive and will hinder t he development of ethnic egalitarianism in Taiwan. Elementary school administrators and teachers should be open minded when they introduce homeland arts and homeland cultures to children. The school administrators and teachers should encourage students to share their own experiences, thoughts, and creativities when dealing with the controversial issues about homeland and its relationship with the Chinese mainland. They should avoid preaching and strive to minimize the effects of their own ideologies on thei r students. They ought not to give absolute answers to the politics and ideological arguments concerning whether or not certain beliefs are right or wrong or what someone says is true or not true. The teachers should also avoid criticizing certain historic al incidents or
244 personages. The teachers also need to have open minds that welcome contradictory opinions into the classroom The central focus of this dissertation is the analyses of similarities and disparities of the ideological constructions regarding homeland among thirty middle class informants in Taiwan. Both practice theory and critical pedagogy served as theoretical foundations to explain the complicated interplays on how ideologies of homeland were formed and were then transformed by social forces The result of this dissertation suggests that members of the same social class may actually acquire different habitus or at least develop a subhabitus This is revealed in the fact that my twentytwo middle class adult informants co nstitute three different ideologi cal orientations in relation to their perceptions and attitudes toward homeland and homeland music. The factors (or social forces ) that attribute to their variant ideological formations include their school educations, experiences in the cult ural events and interactions with their communities, family upbringings, and concientization. For future research, I recommend the exploration of the similarities and differences among the educational members of different ethnicities among a larger sample of informants Research subjects can be simplified into those selected purely from a single education group or occupation, for example, the schoolteachers. Yet, these schoolteachers should come from the four various ethnic backgrounds, the Holo, Hakka, aborigines and mainlanders. Analysis can clarify if people from the same ethnic origin develop the same set of ideological system regarding their perceptions of homeland and homeland music. Bourdieu s practice theory will be further testified if actors of the same social backgrounds (in this case, of the same ethnicity) have developed similar habitus Finally, I hope that the conclusions and recommendations provided in this research will benefit the future of Taiwanese children and elementary music education.
245 APPENDI C ES APPENDIX A RECORDER LESSON: KNO WING THE F# GRADE: 4th grade I NSTRUCTION TIME : 80 minutes ( 2 class periods) MAJOR CONCEPT(S): # (accidental symbol sharp ), Fa nature and Fa # (sharp), Ostenati OBJECTIVES Course Rationales : Children will develo p another talent when learning a musical instrument such as the recorder. Children s musical achievements rely more on whether they have the opportunity to learn rather than on whether they have the musical ability. Basic music improvisation skills can be developed through teaching the recorder. Children will be able to compose or improvise music when they can feel the music and perform. Prerequisites: (1) Students already know the fingerings of the notes from middle G to high E. (2) Students have the kno wledge of reading the music notes on the treble clef. Content Objectives (Know): (1) Students will learn the accidental symbol # (sharp) (2) Students will distinguish F# (F sharp) from F nature. (3) Students will comprehend the musical form of the song H hu ( The Joyful Years ). Process Objectives (Do): Students will demonstrate the understanding of the content knowledge by playing the recorders. They will be able to play the F# note on the recorders and be able to sing the entire song H ( The Joyful Years) and play it on the recorders. They will also be able to express their feelings to the music by reviewing the musical performances of each other. BENCHMARKS 1 2 2 4 Students can experience the elements of music through rhythmic mov ements, singing and playing the musical instruments. 1257 Accompanying by the music and rhythmic movements, students can improvise simple melodies and rhythms by using voices, body movements and musical instruments. 2254 Students can express their feelings and experience their self accomplishment through appreciating the musical performances of their peers. RESOURCES/MATERIALS 1. Chiu Jia Lin G (A Music Book for the Soprono Recorders). Taipei Taiwan : Ren Lin Publishing, 2000. 2. Syu CihCian H : A Recorder Lesson Plan Grade 19 Curriculum Teaching Resources Taichung, Taiwan: Education Network Center and Compulsory Education Counseling Team of the Education Bureau of Taichung City Government. http://etoe.tceb.edu.tw/modules/km_user/viewres.php?did=4087
246 INSTRUCTIO N Teaching / Learning Activities Lesson One (40 minutes) 1. Opening A ctivity /Warmup : Review (5 minutes) The teacher says: Do you remember the song Z ( Goodbye, The Wonderland ) that we learned last time? [Students answer: Yes.] The teacher says: Now, let s revie w the song together and see if there is anybody forgetting about it. (The teacher then plays the electronic keyboard accompanying students to sing the song.) The teacher says: It s probably boring to just sing the song, so now let s do some body movements with it. Please lend me your hands now and follow what I do. (The teacher leads the students to sing along doing the body movements.) The teacher says: Wow! You guys are awesome! Learned so fast! Give yourself three claps. [Students clap three times for themselves.] The teacher says: So this was a review of the song we learned last time. Today we are going to learn a new thing. Later, I am going to see who are the smartest to be able to remember everything I teach you today. 2. Development Activitie s: Sight Reading and Playing the Recorder (25 minutes) The teacher says: Look at the chalkboard. What is this? [Students answer: the staffs.] The teacher says: Yeah! So does anybody know what this note is? [Students answer: Fa] The teacher says: Th e baby Fa has a good friend (Fa sharp). W ould you guess whether he lives above the baby Fa or under the baby Fa? [Students answer: Above] (The teacher then plays the note F# with the recorder.) The teacher says: Ok! So, this good friend of baby Fa is ca lled Fa sharp The teacher asks: Do you know how to play the note Fa sharp with the recorder? The teacher says: Now, please follow what I do. (The teacher shows students the fingering of the note Fa sharp: 0123 56) The teacher says: Whoa! Everyone s Fa sharp sounds so loud and angry! Please follow me playing a mild and tender Fa sharp. Being very soft (The teacher demonstrates by playing a very soft F# and then students try to play a soft F#.) The teacher says: Ok! Now anybody who can play Fa sharp please raise your hands. The teacher says: Alright! Now please put away your recorders. I am going to test you to see who has the great ears that can distinguish which one is Fa nature and which one is Fa sharp. When you hear a note, if you think it is F nature, you draw a big circle in the air above your heads, but if you think it is Fa sharp, then you do the little superman pose. Like this (The teacher demonstrates the little superman pose.) Got it? The teacher says: Ok! Now let s start the exercise. (The teacher repeatedly plays the note F or F# one after another for students to exercise their ears.) The teacher says: Alright! I believe that so far everyone all somehow understands the note Fa sharp. Now, I want you to take your recorders and play after me. Just like before, I play first and then you play the same thing after me. (The teacher leads the students to play the F# etudes first and then continue to the song H .) The teacher asks: Done! Isn t it easy? Do you know what the name of the song we just played is?
247 The teacher says: Please open your Recorder Lesson Book, page 69. Do you see the song H l nin hu ? This is the song we just played. Would you please help me look for the note Fa sharp that we just learned? Could you tell me how many Fa sharp are in this song? [Students answer: One.] The teacher asks: So where is it? [Students answer: It is located in the final second measure from the last one, in the bottom staff of this page.] The teacher says: Yes, excellent! But, that Fa note does not go with a # (sharp) symbol before it. How do you know that note Fa is a Fa sharp? (The teacher let the students come up with their own answers.) The teacher says: Let me tell you now, and you will have to kee p in mind. In every single staff, did you see that there is the # (sharp) symbol next to the treble clef? When you see this symbol, it means that all the Fa notes have to be Fa sharp. Why is it written next to the treble clef? That is because if we would h ave to draw a # (sharp) symbol next to every Fa sharp note, it is too troublesome! So, we try to keep things simple by just drawing the # next to the treble clefs, and so this means that every Fa has to be sharped. The teacher says: Now, let us play H from the beginning one more time, in the slowest, the slowest speed. 3. Closing Activity/Concept Reminder (10 minutes) The teacher says: Ok! Now, I sing one phrase, and you follow what I sing. We are gonna play a musical game later. But you will have to be very concentrated on singing, or we will not be able to play the game later on. (The teacher guides the students to learn singing H .) The teacher says: Now please follow me; do what I do. (The teacher leads the students to sing H and do the body movements along the song.) The teacher says: You are now gonna play H with the recorders. I will play the accompaniments with the keyboard. (The teacher plays the keyboard accompanying the melo dies played by the students with the recorders.) The teacher says: Now put your recorders away, sing the song please! (The teacher plays the keyboard accompanying the melodies sung by students.) --End of Lesson One -Lesson Two (40 minutes) 1. Opening activity/Warmup: (5 minutes) The teacher says: We already learned the song H last time. In this class we will learn more. Do you remember the body movements that we did for the song H ? Let s review! (The teacher leads the students to review the rhythmic body movements of H l nin hu.) The teacher says: This time we are gonna do more challenging body movements. Now turn to the classmate sitting next to you and follow what I do. (The teacher guides the students to do rhythmic body movements for the groups of two persons.) 2. Development activities/ Class discussions: A. Music Theory: (5 minutes)
248 The teacher says: Wow! Everybody did a great job! Next, please open to page 69 H hu. I want you to look for a few things. I am gonna see who the smart person are to be able to find it very fast. The teacher says: Could you find any places in the song that look the same? The teacher says: You guys are awesome, boys and girls! Let s look at this song. It can be divided into 4 sections. The 1st section is called A; it is the 1st phrase B B B D B AG C C C D C BA The 2nd section is also labeled A, because it is the same as the 1st section; it is made up of B B B D B AG C C C D C BA as well. The 3rd sect ion is called B; it is made up of BC D BA G E D C BA What about the last section? It is labeled B1, because it looks like B, but it s different. It grows a tail. It is made up of BC D BA G E D C BA F# GA G Thus, the musical form is labe led A, A, B, B1. B. Recorder Performance: (15 minutes) The teacher asks: Last time we learned to play the song H with the recorder. Do you still remember it? [Students answer: Yes! I remember it.] The teacher says: Good! Let s play it! (The teacher leads the students to review the song.) The teacher says: Today I am going to teach you a new stuf f. We are going to compete with each other in a little bit, so you must be very concentrated right now, or you will lose the competition later. Ok? The teacher says: Now, follow me and play this G G D D A A D D with the recorder. Keep playing i t over and over again! (The teacher demonstrates the phrase first and guides the students to play it with the recorders.) The teacher says: This phrase is called the ostenati Now, you guys play the ostenati, and I will play H After th at, next, it will be your turn to play H and I ll play the ostenati. While we are playing, if anybody got lost, then they lose the competition. Got it? Ready? 1 23Go! (The teacher and the students take turns playing the main melody of the song H and the ostenati.) The teacher says: Now, we are going to do a competition between boys and girls. We are going to see which one is better than the other. [The male students and the female students take turns playing the main m elody of H and the ostenati.] C. Singing: (5 minutes) The teacher says: Alright! Now please put your recorders away. Keep your hands empty! I want you to follow my directions to do the actions. The teacher says: First, please sing fort e loud, to the song H The t e acher says: Would you please sing piano very very soft, to the song H The teacher says: Next, please sing staccato to H The teacher says: Sing legato to H The teacher says: Please sing H in dolce in a very very gentle way. The teacher says: Now, please sing H in furioso, in a violent and very angry way. 3. Closing Activity/Group Competition: (10 minutes) The teacher say s: Now we are going to do a musical competition. We have 6 groups. You will have 7 minutes to practice the recorder to the song H with the classmates in your groups. After the 7minute practice time, each group will perform in front of the class. I will give
249 each group a point scale ranging from the lowest 1 to the highest 5. Finally, we are going to see which group wins the competition. [Students practice with their classmates in their own group for 7 minutes. The teacher goes around each group to make sure that the students are engaged in the group recorder practice. Then each group takes turn to perform in front of the class. The teacher gives feedbacks to the group performances.] --End of Lesson Two-
250 APPENDIX B LESSON PLAN: TAIWANESE HOLO OPERA GRADE: 6th grade I NSTRUCTION TIME : 160 minutes (4 class periods) MAJOR CONCEPT(S): (The Act of Saints), Y (Outdoor staged Taiwanese Holo opera), dn jng OBJECTIVES Course Rationales : Tai wanese Holo opera ( ) is one of the homeland traditional theaters originated in Taiwan. This unit utilizes technology in classroom teaching to guide children to know about Taiwanese Holo opera. The contents are demonstrated through pictures, vi deos, and PowerPoint slideshows. Students will learn the casts and performance aspects of Taiwanese Holo opera. They will learn about the meanings, performances, origins, and usages of a subgenre of Taiwanese Holo opera, through watching t he videos, group discussions, and practicing the basic body movements. Through this unit, I hope to stimulate students interests in Taiwanese homeland traditional theaters and to pass down and disseminate traditional arts. Prerequisites: (1) Students alre ady possessed the basic language abilities of listening and speaking Holo. (2) Students have gained the experiences in watching the performances of Taiwanese Holo opera through televisions or videos. Content Objectives (Know): 4. Students will demonstrate the understanding of the genesis and characteristics of Taiwanese Holo opera. 5. Students will present the basic knowledge of 6. Students will show interests in learning Taiwanese homeland theaters. 7. Students will comprehend the casts and their body movements, as well as the implications of their body movements. Process Objectives (Do): Students will demonstrate the content knowledge of the performance of Taiwanese Holo opera by imitating of the body postures and hand gestures of the casts. BENCHMARKS 1 3 1 Explore the variety of different ways of artistic creations to express creative imaginations. 132 Construct the topics and contents of artistic creations: choose proper media or avenues to implement strategic and affectionate creations. 133 Be able to apply the styles and skills of creative art works to express individual tho ughts and affections. 134 Complete art works through group cooperation. 238 Use appropriate visual, audio and psychomotor art terms to describe the values and characteristics of his/her own art works and those of others. 239 Express aesthetic experiences and understandings of artistic creations through discussions, analyses, and assessments. 3311 Appreciate various art exhibitions and performances with correct viewpoints and attitudes.
251 RESOURCES/MATERIALS 8. Han Lin Publishing. Arts and Humanities Vol. 7. Taipei Taiwan : Han Lin Publish ing 2007. 9. Chen L ingZih, LuoNa Bao and Wei Wen Yang. G (The Teaching Materials of Taiwanese Holo Opera). Grade 19 Curriculum Teaching Resources Taichung, Taiwan: Education Network Center and Compulsory Education Cou nseling Team of the Education Bureau of Taichung City Government. http://etoe.tceb.edu.tw/modules/km_user/viewres.php?did=9256 10. (E learni ng Huayu of Taiwan). (The World of Chinese Culture) Taiwan Chapter: G (Taiwanese Holo Opera), (E learning Huayu of Taiwan). http://edu.ocac.gov.tw/culture/chinese/cul_chculture/vod05html/VOD05_02.HTM INSTRUCTION Teaching / Learning Activities Lesson One: The Genesis and Venues of Taiwanese Holo Opera (40 minutes) 1. Opening activity: The teacher asks the students: Have you ever seen ? Do you know anything about the origins of ? The teacher then plays a short video clip about Taiwanese Holo opera in order to motivate students interests and learning enthusiasms. (10 minu tes) 2. Development activities: (15 minutes) (a) Class discussion: The teacher guides students to discuss the pictures and materials about Taiwanese Holo opera which they have gathered before today s class and also to describe their opinions on the video c lip they just watched. (5 minutes) (b) Lecture: The teacher introduces the origins and performance venues of Taiwanese Holo Opera as follows: Taiwanese Holo opera is one of the regional theatrical genres which synthesize Taiwans folk cultures. According to data investigations, Taiwanese Holo opera originated in Lan Yang Plain (in Northeast Taiwan) approximately hundred years ago. The original tunes of Taiwanese Hol o opera derived from the J (the M iscellaneous Songs) of Mainland China and later became the regional folk Mountain Songs which were popular in the TouFen Village of Yi Lan County. These tunes were passed down by the carpenters along the DanShui River to Taipei and Taoyuan areas and then gradually became popular everywhere. The perf ormance venues of Taiwanese Holo opera include: L (Ground sweeping opera), Y (Outdoor staged Taiwanese Holo opera), (Indoor staged Taiwanese Holo opera), Radio Broadcast Taiwanese Holo opera, and Te levision Taiwanese Holo opera. (c) Discussion and analysis: The teacher asks, What is the performance venue of Taiwanese Holo opera, Ten Suns in the short video clip that we just watched? Have you ever seen other types of performance venues of Taiwa nese Holo opera, such as the Radio Broadcast Taiwanese Holo opera, Television Taiwanese Holo opera, or others? 3. Closing Activity/Concept Reminder : The teacher prepared some relevant questions about Taiwanese Holo opera to ask the students. (5 minutes) Q 1: Where does Taiwanese Holo opera derive from? Q. 2: What are the types of performance venues of Taiwanese Holo opera? What are the differences among them? --End of Lesson One -
252 Lesson Two: B (40 minutes) 1. Opening activity: (5 minutes) (a) The teacher presents the pictures of three saints, f (Saint of good fortune), l (Saint of prosperity), and shu (Saint of longivity) to motivates students interests. (b) Stud ents collected the auspicious phrases for holidays and festivities prior to the lesson. Students present the auspicious phrases that they collected and explain their meanings in class. (5 minutes) 2. Development activity/ Class discussion: The teacher asks : Have you ever seen the performance of the y (Outdoor staged Taiwanese Holo opera) ? There is a short play before the performance of the Outdoor staged Taiwanese Holo opera. What is this short play called? Do you know why the is performed in Taiwanese Holo opera? (5 minutes) 3. Lecture: The teacher introduces the origins and contents of (15 minutes) It is a custom in Taiwan to play a short section of auspicious theater so called x (the Act of Saints) before the performance of Taiwan ese Holo opera. The plot depicts that the Saints of the heaven plead for good fortunes from God. In Taiwan, the most common x are (the Dialogs of the Three Saints), (the Gathering of the Three Saints), (the Drunken Eight Saints) and (the Heavenly Officer Endow Good Fortunes). B x (the Acts of Saints) consists of ( the Celestial s Theater) and (the Mortal s Theater) two parts. The portrays the three saints, the eight saints, the heavenly officer, or other star admirals go to God s birthday celebration party and then t hey and the disciples are given good fortunes by God. The depicts the auspicious sto ries of the mundane world. The plots include the historical heroes family gathering events, career successes, and job promotions. The speeches and lyrics of the x are auspicious phrases; the plots depict the Saints bestowments of good fortunes, of career achievements, and of job promotions; the casts reflect people s hopes for the future. So, the contents of the reveal Taiwanese people s values and hopes of life. For example, in theater and th eater, the major casts include the three Saints f (Saint of good fortune), l (Saint of prosperity), and shu (Saint of longevity) the (the star chief), ( Ganoderma lucidum ) and bi yun ( white ape, or the Saint of Wealth ). T he f l a nd shu three Saints represent good fortune, prosperity, and longevity respectively; their treasures which they contribute to God also have symbolic meanings. The Saint of Good Fortune contributes the ku (the star chief), which designates career and fame and symbolizes people s hopes for career success and job promotion. The Saint of prosperity bestows the ( Ganoderma lucidum ), which signifies people s hope for immortality. The Saint of longevity grants the bi yun ( white ape ) that manifests longevity or wealth. 4. The teacher plays the video about the for students to watch. (5 minutes) 5. Closing Activity/Concept Reminder : The teacher asks students the following questions: (10 minutes) Q.1: The video clip we just watch ed is the or the ? Q.2: What are the characters?
253 Q.3: What is the treasure that each of them bestowed to God? Q.4: What do those treasures symbolize? --End of Lesson Two-Lesson Three: The Casts of Taiwanese Holo Opera 1. Opening Activity/Content Review: The teacher presents the PowerPoint slideshow and asks students questions about Taiwanese Holo opera that they learned in previous lessons to remind them of some important concepts. (5 minutes) Q.1: Where is the birthplace of Taiwanese Holo Opera? Q. 2: What were the original Taiwanese Holo opera tunes called? What were these tunes later named when they became popular in Yi Lan? How these tunes were passed down and became popular in Taiwan? Q. 3: What are the performance v enues of Taiwanese Holo opera? Q. 4: When is played? Could you name two of the most common x ? Q. 5: What are the two parts of x ? Would you describe the plots of the two parts of bn x ? Q. 6: What are the three major ca sts of x ? What do they symbolize? 2. Development activities: (a) Lecture: The teacher uses the PowerPoint slide show to introduce the casts of Taiwanese Holo Opera to students. After introducing each one of the casts, the teacher displays the picture of the cast and asks students what the cast is to enhance students impressions on the casts. (20 minutes) Life resembles the drama it includes the casts dn, jng and The drama resembles li fe they encompass the fortune, anger, sadness, and joyfulness. There are men and women, the old and the young, and the good and the evil in the real life; likewise are there in the theatrical venues. In theatrical performance, the variety of people in the real life are formulated and categorized based on their gender, age, personality, and good or evil. Simply speaking, casts are the categories of the characters of a drama. The major casts of Taiwanese Holo Opera are and ; later, the role derived from Theater has been added in the casts. Hence, the major four casts, have been formed. is a generic term for the male roles. Although the cha racters themselves are male, the performers who play the roles do not necessarily have to be male. Particularly, it is very common for women to play the roles in Taiwanese Holo Opera, and this kind of setting is very popular among the female audiences. roles can be classified into the child young and old according to their age. The child are little boys. The young are adult young men. The young who are intellectual elites are called ; the young who are the warriors and good at performing martial arts are called ; those who are intellectual elites and enable to perform martial arts are termed wn The old are old men. Their basic features are staid and wise men wearing long mustaches with dignified behaviors and attitudes. They are also classified into the wn and The old intellectual elites who cannot perform the martial arts are the wn ; the warriors who are good at performing martial arts and battling are the ; the
254 old wise men who are both intellectual elites and warriors are termed the Dn Dan is a generic term for all the female characters. Like the role dan does not have to be strictly performed by women but can be acted by men. Dan can be classified into (the young lady) and (the old lady) according to their age. Dan is also categorized into k dn and based on their different personality traits. In the early history of Taiwanese Holo Opera, most of the plots tended to depict lifes misfortune and grief. So has been designated to be the main female role and is portrayed to be modest but undergo the miseries of mankind. is characterized as nave and optimistic female roles who generally appear to be the maids in the play. are female roles who also possess excellent martial art skills. Jng J ng or actresses of Jng painted their face brightly colorful to delineate this characters personality traits bold and poignant. Most of Jng are male characters. Nowadays actors who play the Jng roles do not painted their faces as much as the original Jng character before; they wear slightly more exaggerated make up than other casts. (the clowns) refers to those hilarious comedians. In Taiwanese Holo Opera, the male are termed a ; the female are named The female generally are the matchmakers or the store managers. They behave intrusive and overdramatized; one of the characteristics of their face makeup is the one dot mole. (b) Discussion and analysis: The teacher displays two pictures of the casts of the two Taiwanese Holo Operas, A Legend of the White Panther and Ho u Yi sh r (Hou Yi Shot the Suns): A Story of the Ten Suns. Then the teacher guides students to discuss and analyze the casts and in the two videos. (5 minutes) i. What are the casts in the two short movies you just watched? Ans. (i) A Legend of the White Panther Xu Xian, the white panther Ba i Su Z he n, the green panther, and the bookman; (ii) Hou Yi Shot the Suns Hou Yi Chang E the Sun ii. What are the characteristics of the casts? Ans. (i) A Legend of the White Panther: the young lady, the nave optimistic and vivacious maid, the young male intellectual elite, the male clown; (ii) Hou Yi Shot the Suns: the young men who can perform martial arts, the young women who are good at martial arts. 3. Closing Activities: (10 minutes) (a) The teacher concludes that in a play, each role has its unique feature and significance. To accomplish a great play requires solid cooperation among the casts. (b) The teacher assists students to complete the worksheet Everybody comes to see --End of Lesson Three Lesson Four: The Gestures of Taiwanese Holo Opera
255 1. Opening activity/Concept review: The teacher asks students questions about Taiwanese Holo Opera that they learned in previous lessons. (5 minutes) Q. 1: Could you describe the variety of casts of Taiwanese Holo Opera? Q. 2: What does the famous motto L ife resembles the drama; the drama resembles life mean? 2. Development activities: (15 minutes) (1) The teacher displays the pictures of the standard hand postures of the male cast sh ng, and the female cast dn, in Taiwanese Holo Opera. The teacher also demonstrates those gestures to the students: a. (the sword fingers): Used when the points out a certain object or direction. b. J (the ginger s bud finger s): the standard gesture performed by the dn. In the actual performance, this hand gesture can be employed flexibly by relaxing and freely moving the thumb and keeping it a slight distance with the middle finger. (2) Class performance: The teacher leads students to practice both hand gestures the sword fingers and the ginger s bud fingers. (3) Video demonstration: The teacher plays the video that demonstrates the standard body gestures of the male cast sh ng, and the female cast dn when they refer to you, him (or her), and me in the performance. (4) Class performance: The teacher demonstrates the sh ng s and dn s standard body gestures you, him (or her), and me, respectively, and guides students to practice those body gestures. 3. Closing activities: (10 minutes) (1) Students practice those gestures with their teammates. (2) Class performance and contest: Students take turn to perform with their own teams and the teacher evaluates their team p erformances and gives verbal comments. --End of Lesson Four -
256 APPENDIX C MUSIC EXAMPLE: QIU CHAN ( THE FALL CICADAS )
258 APPENDIX D SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL POLICY MAKERS Outline of the Interview Questions for Educational Policy Makers : Age ( ) Gender ( ) Occupation ( ) Ethnicity ( ) Birthplace ( ) Musical instruments you can play ( ?) Languages you can speak ( ?) Highest Education ( ) Could you explain to me the process of enacting an educational policy/law based on your experience? ( ?) What do you do/ what is your job assignment in educational policy making? ( ) ,? ? How many years have you been doing this job? ( ) ? I know in recent educational reform, localization is greatly emphasized. In the educational setting, what is the status of localization in the elementary music education? ( ., ?) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ,. ? Could you describe your own experiences of folk music and homeland music including listening, performing, teaching or learning? ( ) In your time, what have you learned in music classes whe n you were in elementary school? ( ?) : What are your definitions of Taiwanese folk music, homeland music, traditional music,
259 national music, and popular music? ( ,, ( ) ? ) In your opinion, what musical genres should be categorized as Taiwanese folk music? What musical genres should be categorized as Taiwans homeland music? ( ? ?) How is folk music different from popular music? ( ? ,? ?) Do you think Chinese music, such as Peking operas music, is Taiwanese folk music? Why? [Do you think Peking opera is Taiwans homeland/folk arts? ( ) ( ) ? What a bout Nanguan and Beiguan? ( ?)] In your opinion, do you think homeland music is the same as Taiwanese folk music? ( / ?) Do you think there is any difference between homeland music and folk music? If yes, what is the difference? ( ? ,?) What is your definition of traditional music and national music? Do you think there is any difference between the two? ( ,? ,?) Do you think homeland music include Chinese traditional music? ( ? ,?) In your opinion, which one of the Taiwanese folk songs best fits under the category of homeland music? ( ?) Do you know any Taiwanese native born folk musicians? ( ?) ? ? ? ? (1) Beiguan ( ), (2) Naiguan ( ), (3) Peking operas music ( ), (4) Gezaixi( ), (5) Taiwanese Holo hand puppet drama ( ), (6) (7) (8) : (9) (10) ? ,,: 1) (folk) 2) (homeland) 3) (ethnic) 4) (traditional) 5) (national) 6) ( )(popular) ?
260 APPENDIX E SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL POLICY PRACTITIONERS AND PARENTS Outline of the Interview Questions for Educational Practitioners : Age ( ) Gender ( ) Occupation ( ) Ethnicity ( ) Birthplace ( ) M usical instruments you can play ( ?) Languages you can speak ( ?) Highest education ( ?) Could you describe your own experiences of folk music and homeland music including listening, performing, teaching or learning? ( ) In your time, what have you learned in music classes when you were in elementary school? ( ?) How many years have you been doing this job? ( / / / / / ( ) ?) ? ? ? ( ,,,,,)? ? ? ? ? What types of musical ensembles do your school has? What types of ensemble are you directing right now? / ? ? ( ) / ? / ? / ? ? I know in recent educational reform, localization is greatly emphasized. In the educational setting, what is the status of localization i n the elementary music education? ( .( ) ?) ? ? ? ? ? ?
261 ? : What are your definitions of Taiwanese homeland music, folk music, ethnic music, traditional music, national music, and popular music? ( ) , ( ) ? In your opinion, what musical genres should be categorized as Taiwanese folk music? What musical genres should be categorized as Taiwans homeland music? ( ? ?) How is folk music different from popular music? ( ? ,? ?) Do you think Chinese music, such as Peking operas music, is Taiwanese folk music? Why? [Do you think Peking opera is Taiwans homeland/folk arts? ]( ( ) ( ) ?) What about Nanguan and Beiguan? ( ?)] In your opinion, do you think homeland music is the same as Taiwanese folk music? ,( ) ? Do you think there is any difference between homeland music and folk music? If yes, what is the difference? ( ? ,?) What is your definition of traditional music and national music? Do you think there is any difference between the two? ( ,? ,?) Do you think homeland music include Chinese traditional music? ( ? ,?) In your opinion, which one of the Taiwanese folk songs best fits under the category of homeland music? ( ?) Do you know any Taiwanese native born folk m usicians? ( ?) ? ? ? ? (1) Beiguan ( ), (2) Naiguan ( ), (3) Peking operas music ( ), (4) Gezaixi( ), (5) Taiwanese Holo hand puppet drama ( ), (6) (7) (8) : (9) (10) ? ( ,,?) ,: 1) (folk) 2) (homeland) 3) (ethnic), 4) (traditional), 5) (national) 6) ( )(popular)
262 APPEND IX F SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR CHILD INF ORMANTS Outline of the Interview Questions for Child Informants : : Age ( ) Gender ( ) Grade ( ) Ethnicity ( ) Birthplace ( ) Musical instruments you can play ( )? Lan guages you can speak ( ?) ? ? ? ? ( ,) ? ( )? ? ( )? ( ) ?[ : ,, ? ? ,?] ( ) ? [ ,( ) ,,, .] ? ( )? ? ? ? ? ( ,, ) ? ( ) ? ( ,, ) ? ? ( )? ? ? ? ( ,, ) ? ( )? ( ) ? ( ,,,,,, ,) ? ? ( )? ? ? ? ( ,,) ? ( )? ( ) ? ? ? ( ,) ? ?
263 ? ? ? ( : ? ? ? ? ?) ( ) ? ( )? ( ) ( ) ? ? ? ? ? ( )? ? ? ( )? ? ? ? ( ) ? ( ) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ( ) ? ? Nanguan and Beiguan?( ?) ? ? ? : ,( ) ? ( : ? ,?) ,? ? ,? ? ? ? [ : ? ? (1) Beiguan, (2) Naiguan, (3) Peking opera, (4) Gezaixi( ), (5) Taiwanese Holo hand puppet drama ( ), (6) (7) (8) : (9) (10) ] ? ( ,,?) : ,,: 1) (folk) 2) (homeland) 3) (ethnic) 4) (traditional) 5) (national) 6) ( )(popular)
264 APPENDIX G IRB APPROVAL OF PROT OCOL
265 APPENDIX H PARENTAL INFORMED CO NSENT
269 APPENDIX I ADULT INFORMED CONSE NT
273 APPENDIX J CHILD S ASSENT FORM
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293 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ChiungWen ( Michelle) Chang was born in Taichung, Taiwan. She grew up mostly in Taipei, Taiwan. She earned her bachelors degree in m usic e ducation from National Taipei University of Education in 1997 and her masters degree in m usic e ducation from Indi ana University of Pennsylvania in P ennsylvania U nited S states in 2002. Michelle is a classically t rained pianist and French horn player. Before pursuing her doctorate degree in ethnomusicology at University of Florida, Michelle taught elementary school music and directed instrumental band and choir for children in both Taiwan and the United States. Her passion to music and cultural studies directed her to earn her doctorate degree in e thnomusicology. Michelle received her Ph.D. from the University of Florida in the spring of 2011. Throughout her career, Michelle dedicated her innovation, creativity and e nthusiasm to music teaching and pedagogical research.