A Study of Orchestration Techniques for the Wind Ensemble/Wind Band as Demonstrated in Seminal Works

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A Study of Orchestration Techniques for the Wind Ensemble/Wind Band as Demonstrated in Seminal Works
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Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
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Richards, Paul S
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Waybright, David A
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Koonce, Paul C
Robinson, Russell L
Pulvermacher, Neta
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Clarinets ( jstor )
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Musical rhythm ( jstor )
Saxophones ( jstor )
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Wind instruments ( jstor )
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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A STUDY OF ORCHESTRATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE WIND ENSEMBLE/ WIND BAND AS DEMONSTRATED IN SEMINAL WORKS By Chris Sharp May 2011 Chair: Paul Richards Major: Composition The purpose of this study is to explore orchestration techniques found in several significant works drawn from the body of literature composed for the wind ensemble and/or wind band. Although there are already a number of highly regarded books on orchestration, none of them look directly at pieces from within the wind ensemble/wind band repertoire. In an attempt to chart the growth and development of these orchestrational practices, several examples drawn from ten representative works will be studied, focusing on textures and effects unique to the medium. Also included will be the first appearances of techniques from other compositional mediums that represent a significant departure from the standard practices in place for bands at the time of the composition. Special focus will be devoted to the practical aspects of orchestration from the standpoint of the composer/conductor, and how scoring decisions impact both the conductor and the individual musicians. The pieces selected for examination will be presented chronologically, in an effort to document the gradual evolution of orchestrational practices and trends as they occurred over time. Each work will be treated separately, but with references to previously studied pieces, tracing the influence and impact of earlier pieces on later ones. ( en )
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
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2 2011 Chris Sharp


3 To all the teachers who selflessly shared with me their knowledge and experience, this study is respec tfully dedicated


4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Paul Richards and the members of my committee for their time and mentorship during this process. Additional thanks go to Dr. Paul Koonce for his invaluable input and ongoing editorial comment ary. I would also like to thank my many colleagues in the music education profession for their insight and contributions to this study. Many thanks also to the leadership and membe r ship of the Gainesville Pops for donating their time and talents for my P h.D. recital. Heartfelt t hanks go to my parents for their continued love and support throughout my career. Finally, spe cial thanks to my wife, confidant and life partner Sue for always being there through thick and thin.


5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................15 Value of Study ........................................................................................................................16 Methodology ...........................................................................................................................17 Limitations ..............................................................................................................................18 Definitions ..............................................................................................................................19 Background: The Wind Band in America ..............................................................................19 Origins of the Wind Ensemble ...............................................................................................23 2 ORCHESTRATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL REPRESENTATIVE WORKS DRAWN FROM THE REPERTOIRE ...................................................................................27 First Suite in E flat for Military Band, Gustav Holst, C omposed 1909 .................................27 Instrumentation ................................................................................................................27 Background ......................................................................................................................30 Analysis ...........................................................................................................................32 Chaconne ..................................................................................................................32 Intermezzo ................................................................................................................41 March .......................................................................................................................49 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................53 Dionysiaques, Op. 62, No. 1, Florent Schmitt, C omposed 1913 ............................................55 Instrumentation ................................................................................................................55 Background ......................................................................................................................58 Analysis ...........................................................................................................................59 Conclusions .....................................................................................................................85 Symphonies of Wind Instruments, Igor Stravinsky, C omposed 1920; R evised 1947 ............86 Instrumen tation ................................................................................................................86 Background ......................................................................................................................87 Analysis ...........................................................................................................................91 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................110 Lincolnshire Posy, Percy Aldridge Grainger, C omposed 1937 ............................................111 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................................111 Background ....................................................................................................................113 Analysis .........................................................................................................................116


6 Lisbon (Sailors Song) ........................................................................................116 Horkstow Grange (The Miser and his Man: A local Tragedy) ...........................122 Rufford Park Poachers (Poaching Song) ............................................................128 The Brisk Young Sai lor (who returned to wed his True Love) ..........................133 Lord Melbourne (War Song) ..............................................................................139 The Lost Lady Found (Dance Song) ..................................................................146 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................150 Theme and Variations, Op. 43a, Arnold Schoenberg, C omposed 1943 ...............................151 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................................151 Background ....................................................................................................................152 Analysis .........................................................................................................................154 Conclusi ons ...................................................................................................................175 Symphony in B flat, Paul Hindemith, C omposed 1951 ........................................................176 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................................176 Background ....................................................................................................................177 Analysis .........................................................................................................................178 Moderately fast, with vigor ....................................................................................179 Andante grazioso ....................................................................................................195 Fugue, Rather broad ...............................................................................................201 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................212 Music for Prague 1968, Karel Husa, C omposed 1968 .........................................................213 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................................213 Background ....................................................................................................................215 Analysis .........................................................................................................................217 Introduction and Fanfare ........................................................................................219 Aria .........................................................................................................................225 Interlude .................................................................................................................229 Toccata and Chorale ...............................................................................................230 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................236 and the mountains rising nowhere, Joseph Schwantner, C omposed 1977 ...........................237 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................................237 Background ....................................................................................................................238 Analysis .........................................................................................................................239 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................256 Winds of Nagual, Michael Colgrass, C omposed 1 985 .........................................................257 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................................257 Background ....................................................................................................................258 Analysis .........................................................................................................................259 The Desert: Don Juan Emerges from the Mountains ..........................................260 Don Genaro appears ...........................................................................................263 Carlos Stares at the River and Becomes a Bubble ..............................................267 Gait of Power ......................................................................................................270 Asking Twilight for Calmness and Power ..........................................................274 Don Juan Clowns for Carlos ...............................................................................277 Last Conversation and Farewell .........................................................................279 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................283


7 Fantasy Variations, Donald Grantham C omposed 1998 .....................................................284 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................................284 Background ....................................................................................................................285 Analysis .........................................................................................................................286 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................314 3 FINAL CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................316 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................320 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................325


8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 11 Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 18, theme ....................................................32 12 Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 1624, condensed .........................................33 13 Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 1624, orchestrated ......................................34 14 Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 4148, florid woodwinds + brass accents ....36 15 Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 5664, chamber texture ................................37 16 Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 6472, alto saxophone solo ..........................38 17 Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement final chord .........................................................40 18 Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 311, oboes + muted tpt. .........................41 19 Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 2738, secondary theme ..........................42 110 Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 5966, secondary theme ..........................44 111 Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 6775, cha mber like writing ...................45 112 Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 9298, cornet solo ...................................46 113 Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 123129, second Listesso tempo ............48 114 Holst, First Suite in Eb third movement m. 4048, lyrical theme ....................................50 115 Holst, First Suite in Eb third movement m. 123130, combined themes .........................52 21 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 14, opening motive ................................................................60 22 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 1316, development of opening motive ..................................61 23 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 1720, clarinet .......................................................................62 24 Sc hmitt, Dionysiaques m. 2528, first full ensemble moment .........................................63 25 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 4748, impressionist style gesture ..........................................66 26 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 4348, reorchestration of previouslyheard material ..............68 27 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 6265, the dance section begins ..............................................70 28 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 7273, folk songlike moment ................................................72


9 29 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 9495, low woodwinds exposed .............................................74 210 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 114118, iconic motive ...........................................................75 211 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 2528, Aquarium like moment ............................................77 212 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 179183, orchestrational color ................................................79 213 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 195202, Sorcerers Apprentice moment ............................81 214 Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 295299, final statement .........................................................84 31 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 16, opening bell motive ..................91 32 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 711, first chordal signature .............93 33 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 1822, fanfare ...................................95 34 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 2829, double reed motive ..................95 35 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 3034, flute section passage ................96 36 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 4046, bassoon solo .............................97 37 Stravinsky, Sym phonies of Wind Instruments m. 5560, tone painting ............................98 38 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 7173, eighth motive .........................100 39 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 99102, double reeds fragment ..........101 310 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 194199, ninth motive .......................103 311 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 216219, tempo, texture change ........104 312 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 242244, large r ensemble ..................106 313 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 257264, full ensemble ......................107 314 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 310318, chorale ................................109 41 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy first movement m. 15, Lisbon theme .........................117 42 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy first movement m. 1821, Lisbon theme, second iteration ............................................................................................................................118 43 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy first movement m. 3442, Lisbon theme, third iteration ............................................................................................................................120 44 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy second movement m. 15, Horkstow Grange theme ....123


10 45 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy second movement m. 1721, Horkstow Grange theme, third presentation ..................................................................................................125 46 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy second movement m. 3437, ending ................................127 47 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy third movement m. 1 6, Rufford Park melody in canon ................................................................................................................................129 48 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy third movement m. 5156, trumpet texture ......................131 49 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy third movement m. 8590, Quint effect ........................133 410 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy fourth movement m. 17, Brisk Young Sa ilor theme ...135 411 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy fourth movement m. 1721, Brisk Young Sailor theme, third iteration ........................................................................................................136 412 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy fourth movement m. 3843, climax point ........................138 413 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy fifth movement m. 1, Lord Melbourne opening statement ..........................................................................................................................140 414 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy fifth movement m. 3345, Lord Melbourne theme, third iteration ....................................................................................................................142 415 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy fifth moveme nt m. 5659, ending ....................................145 416 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy sixth movement m. 1 9, Lost Lady Found theme ( first stanza) .....................................................................................................................147 417 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy sixth movement m. 4957, Lost Lady Found, fourth stanza ................................................................................................................................148 418 Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy sixth movement m. 130137, final stanza ........................149 51 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 19, opening statement .....................................156 52 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 2226, variation I ..............................................158 53 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 4046, transition into variation II .....................160 54 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 6062, flugelhorns f eatured ..............................162 55 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 8185, Rhapsody references ...........................163 56 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 104110, transition into variation IV ................165 57 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 148153, variation V .........................................166


11 58 Schoenberg, Theme a nd Variations m. 169175, variation VI .......................................168 59 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 188193, transition into variation VI ................169 510 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 213214, alto saxophone solo ...........................170 511 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 249251, full ensemble .....................................172 512 Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 274278, ending ................................................174 61 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 16, opening statement, primary theme ................................................................................................................................180 62 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 1821, second statement of primary theme ..................................................................................................................182 63 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movemen t m. 4144, secondary melody: clarinets ............................................................................................................................184 64 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 5154, unison line ..........................185 65 Hi ndemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 6973, full ensemble ......................186 66 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 7883, Molto agitato ......................187 67 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 129138, rhythmic stratification ....189 68 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 147150, full ensemble ..................190 69 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement m. 157161, two themes together .......192 610 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat f irst movement m. 209212, ending ............................194 611 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat second movement m. 16, primary theme ...................196 612 Hindem ith, Symphony in B flat second movement m. 2126, cornets/trumpets ............197 613 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat second movement m. 4952, beginning of part two ....198 614 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat second movement m. 7175, letter G ...........................199 615 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat second movement m. 9194, letter I ............................200 616 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat third movement m. 18, first subject ...........................202 617 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat third movement m. 6669, letter E ...............................204 618 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat third movement m. 7782, letter F ...............................205


12 619 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat third movement m. 8995, letter G ..............................206 620 Hindemith, Symphony in B flat third movement m. 161166, letter L ...........................208 621 Hinde mith, Symphony in B flat third movement m. 197205, transition to letter O ......210 71 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, tone rows ........................................................................218 72 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, first movement m. 18, opening statement ....................219 73 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, first movement m. 3543, letter C .................................222 74 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, first movement m. 7480, climax ..................................224 75 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, second movement m. 37, melody .................................226 76 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, second movement m. 4647, letter L .............................228 77 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, third movement m. 1, solo snare drum ..........................229 78 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, fourth movement m. 919, textural variety ....................231 79 Husa, Music for Prague 1968, fourth movement m. 4954, woodwinds + xylo. ...........233 81 Schwantner, and the mountains rising nowhere m. 13, opening ...................................240 82 Schwantner, and the mountains rising nowhere m. 3846, pyramid effects ...................246 83 Schwantner, and the mountains rising nowhere m. 97104, various effects ..................251 84 Schwantner, and the mountains rising nowhere m. 120E and F, graphic notation ........254 91 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual first movement m. 18, opening statement .........................260 92 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual first movement m. 2631, Don Juan theme ........................261 93 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual second movement m. 8489, clowning ..............................264 94 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual second movement m. 117125, romantic melody ..............265 95 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual second movement m. 143149, laughing effect .................266 96 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual third movement m. 161168, watery effects ......................267 97 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual third movement m. 194196, shimmer effect .....................269 98 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual fourth movement m. 223229, opening ..............................270 99 Col grass, Winds of Nagual fourth movement m. 241246, trombones ..........................272


13 910 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual fourth movement m. 282288, brass ..................................273 911 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual fifth movement m. 304311, reflective mood ....................274 912 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual fifth movement m. 400405, flugelhorn solo .....................276 913 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual sixth movement m. 466472, piccolo/tuba duet .................278 914 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual sixth movement m. 493497, wrong notes .....................279 915 Colgrass, Winds of Nagual seventh movement m. 566570, Carlos leaps into the abyss .................................................................................................................................281 101 Gershwin, Three Preludes prelude 2 main themes .........................................................287 102 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 17, Introduction.......................................................288 103 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 1726, Variation 1 ....................................................292 104 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 8185, Variation 5 ....................................................296 105 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 118126, Variation 7 ................................................298 106 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 152160, Variation 8 ................................................300 107 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 227235, Variation 10 ..............................................303 108 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 287288, mysterious sound ...................................305 109 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 330335, Variation 16 ..............................................308 1010 Grantham, Fantasy Variations m. 353357, Variation 18 ..............................................311


14 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the U niversity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A STUDY OF ORCHESTRATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE WIND ENSEMBLE/ WIND BAND AS DEMONSTRATED IN SEMINAL WORKS By Chris Sharp May 2011 Chair: Paul Richards Major: Music The purpose of this study is to explore orchestration techniques found in several significant works drawn from the body of literature composed for the wind ensemble and/or wind band. Alt hough there are already a number of highly regarded books on orchestration, none of them look directly at pieces from within the wind ensemble/wind band repertoire In an attempt to chart the growth and development of these orchestrational practices, se veral examples drawn from ten represent ative works will be studied, focusing on textures and e ffects unique to the medi um. Also included will be the first appearances of techniques from other compositional mediums that represent a significant departure from the standard practices in place for bands at the time of the composition. Special focus will be devoted to the practical aspects of or chestration from the standpoint of the composer/conductor, and how scoring decisions impact both the conductor and the indi vidual musicians. The pieces selec ted for examination will be presented chronologically, in an effort to document the gradual evolution of orchestrational practices and trends as they occurred over time. Each work will be treated separately, but with references to previously studied piece s, tra c ing the infl uence and impact of earlier pieces on later ones.


15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION As the 21st century begins, t he wind ensemble and other forms of the wind band ha ve b ecome entrenched as the premier performance groups for music programs in most American co lleges, universities, and secondary schools. The repertoire for this ensemble has enjoyed conti nued development and growth over the past century, and has attract ed many notable compos ers of music from other genres. Their contributions have given legitimacy to the wind band as a vehicle for serious composition, a group that was once considered only suitable for performing marches, overtures, and/or transcriptions of established works from the orchestral canon. In his book The Wind Ensemble and Its Repertoire e steemed conductor Donald Hunsberger commen ted in 1968, The wind band today currently stands at a level of development which reflects tr emendous growth over the past four decades and promises a highly encouraging future as a concert perfo r mance medium.1 Hunsbergers words ring just as true today, over 40 years later. Yet in spite of the prof usion of activity aimed at increasing and enhancing the wind band repertoire, very little has been done in the area of document ing the orchestrational opportunities exclusive to this configuration. The composers challenges are many, involving not only the creative process of finding new m aterial that is meaningful and worthy, but also deciding how best to transfer these ideas to the printed page in or der to accommodate the practical aspects of performance. A study of some of the timeworn, established pieces from the wind band lexicon from the standpoint of orchestr a tion would seem a necessary exercise for those wishing to make a significant contributi on to the a lready existing body of work. 1 Donald Hunsberger, The Wind Ensemble and Its Repertoire Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1994, 33.


16 In addition to the well known general orchestration texts in current use, there are a handful of bandspecific texts, but as yet no study that explores in depth works already composed for the m e dium It is the intention of this study to produce a body of knowledge focusing on the unique orchestrational pos sibilities of the wind ensemble and wind band. Areas explored will include i nstruments and configurations not normally found in other large art music ensembles ( e.g. the saxophone section ; massed clarinets, including the alto and contrabass clarinets, etc. ). Composers accustomed to having a string section available have developed strategies for using certain groups of winds to simulate that mass of sound or othe r wise compensate for its absence. These strategies will be noted as they appear. Of particular interest is the expanded role of the percussion section as it has developed over the past few decades. As wind bands typically include up to a dozen percuss ionists (in co ntrast to the 3 4 in a standard orchestra), naturally the possibilities of this group are still ripe for exploration. Modern composers are discovering new sounds for the percussion section, whether functioni ng as an entity unto themselves or when used in combination with other wind instruments to produce new and unique sounds Value of Study As stated previously, there is as yet no text devoted solely to the study of existing pieces composed for wind band This is a significant gap within th e lexicon of orchestrational texts considering the current prominence of the wind band as a collegiatelevel performing group and also as an outlet for new compositions. Recognizing that the wind band is an area more accep ting of new contemporary works than the patrondriven professional orchestra, significant co mposers are now regularly contributing to its repertoire. A text documenting innovations made by contemporary band composers, along with suggestions for possible new textures would be a


17 useful tool for the composer seeking to make a significant contribution to the wind band repe rtoire. Methodology Ten pieces from the wind band repertoire have been chosen for their unique orchestrations and/or historical significance The process by which these pi eces were chosen was based on i nput from numerous band directors who teach at the secondary and collegiate levels. A frequency chart listing the number of times pieces were mentioned revealed a number of seminal works that were identified by the majority of those directors polled. Although there were many other worthy pieces mentioned, the list was narrowed to ten in order that they all may receive due at tention within the confines of this study. The se pieces will be examined one by one focusing on pass ages that display innovative approaches to the wind ensemble and wind band that have resulted in new, previously unheard sounds or textures. These orchestrational effects will be evaluated based not only on their originality, but also on the impac t they m ay have on the listener, that is, what kin d of response they might elicit be it emotional or otherwise. Occasionally harm onic language will be discussed with regard to how it may suggest ce rtain moods and/or how it may influence decisions about the orchestration. Basic scoring t echniques from the early repertoire will be included where they have impacted what has become known as standard practice. Also included will be passages that represent a significant d e parture from orchestrational practices for t he wind band that were in place at the time of the compos ition. In places, there will be references made to standard repertoire orchestra works from which wind band composers may have borrowed certain techniques. The pieces w ill be presented chronological ly with emphasis placed on how each impacted the ones following. Before each analysis, i nformation specific to the piece regarding the com-


18 posers impetus for crea ting it will be included. Each piece will be analyzed phrase by phrase, making note of how t he composers use orchestr a tion to help articulate structure as well as how they create variety and interest through the course of a piece. Score excerpts will be e m bedded into the text as need ed allowing for the discussion of certain passages in greater detail. A discography of recordings will be included within the bibliography to provide aural re ferences for each composition di s cussed. It is highly recommended that the reading of this text be accompanied by listening to each passage discussed. In addition, those wishing to fully unde rstand each piece are encouraged to seek out alternate recordings to hear how interpretations of the same piece may differ. T he instrumentation of each work will be listed at the beginning of each section. Following tha t listing will be a brief discussion of the instrumental specifics of the piece, including any n otable departures from the standard instrumentation of the time. Then, several score excepts will be presented, with detailed analyses of each passage cited. A brief conclusion will follow the analysis, summing up the impact of the piece on the evolution of orchestrational practices for the wind band. Limitations This study will focus exclusively on original music for the wind ensemble /wind band that was compos ed during the 20th century. Although there is a wealth of transcriptions existing for th ese configurations they generally dont explore new sounds and/or techniques orchestrationa lly, so for that reason they will be excluded. Many of the important works composed for the wind band are considered pieces for a full symphonic band, not the wind ensemble or other smaller configurations There are a number of seminal works that fit this category and a r guably some that have broken new ground with regard to ins trument usage. Some of those will be included here as this study would surely be incomplete without them.


19 Definitions For the purposes of this study, the term wind band applies to any group of winds or winds and percussion, of over 12 members. This could range from a large chamber ensemble (e.g. Mozarts Gran Pa r tita) all the way up to a large symphonic band of 100 members or more. Other terms describing different sizes of wind bands include the concert band, the wind orche stra, the symphonic winds an d the wind symphony. Symphonic bands are typically the largest of these ensembles, usually indicating 75 or more performers. The term concert band seems to be a catch all indicator, and is used in di fferent ways for different applications. The term wind ensemble refers to the smaller group first established by Frederick Fennell where the individual instrumental parts are generally pe rformed by a single player. The term wind symphony has become popular in recent years to define a group whose numbe rs fall somewhere between the wind ensemble and the sy m phonic band. The difference between these varying numbers lie s primarily in the quality of the sound produced. Whereas the wind ensemble and smaller groups are characterized by the transparency of t heir orchestrational texture and an increased presence of individual expressivity, the larger groups feature a deeper, more complex sonority. M any standard repertoire band pieces do not specify exact numbers for their performance, however, band composers (aware of these differences) often indicate specific numbers of i nstruments in the listings on their scores. Background: The Wind Band in America In sharp contrast with the European tradition of the orchestra, the ensemble of choice for training the majority of young musicians in the United States is the wind band by any of the names listed above or in its most refined form, the wind ensemble. The school band in America is the direct descendent of military band s which first appeared as the fife and drum corps of the


20 Revolutionary War period. Among its purposes was to serve as an aid in the teaching of close order drill, to provide music for ceremonial functions, and to act as a general morale boos t er for soldiers enduring the r i gors of battle. The establishment of the band of the French National Guard under Bernard Sarrette in 1789, combined with the innovations of German band leader Wilhelm Wieprecht during the ea rly 19th century transformed the military ceremonial unit from a glorified noise maker in to a l egitimate music generating ensemble. During this time, the march developed as the literature of choice for bands. Transcriptions of music for the orchestra also began to appear. Just prior to the American Civil War, the band began to fill a differ ent role as a source of popular music. The availability of published band music from England begi nning in the mid19th century spurred remarkable growth, as groups sprang up in communities across the United States. After the war the activity continued to flourish, aided by surplus instruments left over from various regimental bands on both sides of the conflict. This surge of activity before, during, and after the war led to the era of the first professional bands, including those under the d irection of celebrated leaders such as Patrick Gilmore and John Philip Sousa. Composer Victor Herbert noting at this time the tremendous popularity of the band, even over the o r chestra, commented, There are to day [sic] large and expensive concert bands which trave l from State to State over the entire continent, while orchestras have to limit their tournes.2 During this period, the repertoire of the band was limited, consisting of marches, quicksteps, polkas and other dance numbers along with transcriptions of well known European orchestral music. It wasnt until after the turn of the 20th century that the band itself had evolved to the point where it began to be considered a legitimate vehicle for serious composition. The Eng2 Victor Herbert, quoted in Richard Franko Goldman, The Wind Band Boston: Allen and Bacon, Inc., 1961, 6668.


21 lish composers Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Percy Grainger b e gan to tap into the wealth of English folk music that they themselves and others had collected, creating the first tr uly artistic and expressive works of music written specifically for the band. Grainger, an Australi an born composer who spent time in Europe and later the U.S., is much better known for his wind band works than for his compositions for other media. His a ffinity for the wind band is well documented, as he was convinced of its superiority over the conventional orche s tra: Grainger with an almost evangelistic fervor was nursing a growing dislike of the inflexibility of the symphony orchestra [because of the] inherent imbalance between strings and wind instruments, with the best tunes almos t always given to the violins his own mus ical output was increasingly becoming a one man crusade[against] the domination of the world of composition by the symphony orchestra.3 Grainger himself, aware of the wind bands perceived inferiority to the orchestra l a mented in his program notes to Lincolnshire Posy : Why this coldshouldering of the wind band by most composers? Is the wind band with its varied assortment of reeds its complete saxophone family that is found nowhere e lse its army of brassnot the equal of any medium ever conceived? As a vehicle of deeply emotional expression it seems to me unrivalled.4 Edwin Franko Goldman founded the Goldman Band in New York City in 1911. Recogni zing the limited quantity of original piece s for band, he set out to try to remedy the situation by approaching composers of music for other mediums to write for the band. He successfully e ngaged many prominent European and American composers including Ottorino Respighi and Wi lliam Schumann. In t he book The Wind Band, authored by Goldmans son Richard, composer Henry Cowell remarked, That it is now possible to offer a program of fine art music of great 3 John Bird, quoted in Frank L. Battist i, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Public a tions, 2002, 22. 4 Percy Grainger, from his Program Note reprinted from the 1937 score, Grainger, Percy Aldridge, Li n colnshire Posy ed. Frederick Fennell, 75, (Cleveland, OH: Ludwig Music Pub lishing, Inc., 1987).


22 variety and interest, all written expressly for the band by famous living composers, is very la rg ely due to the efforts, i nfluence and persuasiveness of Dr. Goldman.5 During his tenure as the leader of the Gol d man Band, Edwin Franko Goldman sought to continue his advocacy efforts in a more formal manner, so he founded the American Bandmasters Asso ciation in 1929 as an off icial vehicle for generating new commissions. The members of the ABA established the Ostwald Award in 1956, which continues today to inspire new creations for the wind band. The annual Festival for the Promotion of Contemporary Music held in Donaueshingen, Germany devoted their 1926 festi val to new works for the wind band. This event led to a series of significant compositions including Konzertmusik fr Blaso r chester by Paul Hindemith, Three Merry Marches by Ernst Krenek, Spiel fr Blasor chester by Ernst Toch, and Kleine Serenade fr Militrorchester by Ernst Pepping. This flurry of activity by relatively well known composers drew considerable attention to the wind band. By the 1940s it had become stylish to contribute to the w ind band repertoire, and many other American composers joined the fray, including A aron Copland, Morton Gould, Paul Creston, Roy Harris and William Grant Still. Other efforts have also resulted in the generation of new band works, most notably the American Wind Symphony Commissioning Project under the guidance of its founder and dire ctor, Robert Austin Boudreau. This organization is responsible for the addition of over 400 new works to the repertoire which were composed for its touring gr oup of orchestral winds. Today commissioning consortiums assembled by various college and university band directors continue to provide opportunities for established composers to contribute new works every year. The artistic climate for new music in America definitely fav ors the wind band, as its pr oprietors have proven themselves far more receptive to new contemporary works than the conve n5 Henry Cowell, quoted in Richard Franko Goldman, The Wind Band Boston: Allen and Bacon, Inc., 1961, 86.


23 tional patron driven orchestra. Composer Clifton Williams, winner of the first two ABA Os twald awards recognized this f act as early as the late 1950s. In counsel ing his students W. Fra ncis McBeth and John Barnes Chance ( the latter a future Ostwald winner) he commented, The orchestra is the Cadillac; I know that, but they dont want you. They dont want anything past Debussy and truly dislike twentieth century music. The winds are where you want to go because they want new music.6 Origins of the Wind Ensemble Artistic output for the wind band took a new direction in mid century with the establis hment of a more refined version of the ensemble. Frederick Fennell in a brief but revealing art icle which first appeared in the February 1972 issue of Instrumentalist recalled his creation of the first wind e n semble in 1952 at the Eastman School of Music. Fennell recognized that the band tradition that had developed in the U.S. during the first half of the 20th century had ushered in a new and el e vated level of musicianship among American wind instrumentalists. In an effort to showcase these enhanced abilities, and also to provide perform ance opportunities for wind band pieces written for reduced instrumentations, he proposed a group more along the lines of an e xpanded chamber ensemble, where wind parts w ere not doubled up as in the traditional band pra ctice. This configuration would open up the possibilities for more transparency and greater ind ividual expression within the e nsemble, hence an ensemble of winds Fennell was fascinat ed with works composed for the British military band during the early part of the 20th century, as well as wi th other existing European works for various combinations of winds and percussion This led him to the realization that, without an ensemble of flexible instrumentation to perform these compositions, they c ould fade into obscurity. His research r e6 Clifton Williams, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002, 50.


24 garding Gustav Holsts First Suite in E Flat revealed that based on the numerous ad lib indic ations on the original manuscript, it was composed for only 23 musicians, far fewer than the numbers in a typical band of the time. Works composed in the 1930s for Germ anys Donaueschin gen Festival also indicated a reduced instrumentation, as did other pre 20th century wind ense m ble works, m ost notably the harmoniemusik composed for the Austrian courts of the midto late 18th century. Although th e Eastman Wind Ensemble did perform many of the pieces that were co mposed for reduced instrumentation, it should be noted that many of Fennells early perfor mances and recordings also included works considered to be full band pieces. Fennells original Eastman Wind Ensemble was c omprised of the fol lowing:7 Reeds 2 flutes and piccolo 2 oboes and English horn 2 bassoons and contrabassoon 1 E flat clarinet 8 B flat clarinets or A clarinets divided in any manner desired or fewer in number if so desired. 1 alto clar inet 1 bass clarinet 2 alto saxophones 1 tenor saxophone 1 baritone saxophone Brass 3 cornets in B flat and 2 trumpets in B flat or 5 trumpets in B flat (5 players total) 4 horns 3 trombones 2 euphoniums 1 E flat tuba 1 B B flat tuba, or 2 B B flat tubas, if desired Other instruments: percussion, harp, celesta, piano, o rgan, harpsichord, solo string instruments and choral forces as desired. Fennells choice of this particular instrumentation was based on his desire to replicate the orchestra wind section used by Stravinsky in his ballet The Rite of Spring (1913) and Wagners wind section from his opera cycle T he Ring of the Nibelung ( 185374) To th ese numbers Fe nnell added an alto clarinet and a section of saxophones. Not exactly faithful to either of those 7 F rederick Fennell, Time and the Winds Kenosha, WI: LeBlanc Publications, Inc., 1954 51.


25 earlier groups, Fennell defends his choice as a point of departure one from which it is poss ible to deviate when a particular score requires more or less instruments.8 It should be noted that standard wind ensemble practice often includes the doubling of clarinet parts, as these instruments typically serve as replacements for the string section when performing orchestral transcri p tions. This flexible approach represented a marked departure from the conventional thought r egarding bands of the time K enneth Berger in his 1961 paper The Band in the United States charts the efforts to standardize the instrumentation of the band beginning with the configur a tion proposed in 1924 by the Committee on Instrumental Affairs, a byproduct of that years M usi c Supervisors National Conference. This issue was also among the chief concerns of the Amer ican Bandmasters Association from its inception in 1927, as it is addressed in the very first draft of their constitution. The fact that the bands instrumentat ion was subject to change with regard to its director, environment or any number of other variables (including economics) was one of the factors pr eventing its acceptance as a vehicle for serious composition Berger quotes Cecil Effinger who stated that, the serious composer does not write for the band for the simple reason that he can never be sure what the band is, much less what combination will act ually play the work.9 Fennell, not wishing to limit composers access to any instrument they might des ire to use in his ens emble remarked that, Indeed, there are some which might be added to the present list, such as the alto flute, the bass flute, the heckelphone, the contrabass clarinet, and flugelhorn . When any or all of these instruments are placed in the permanent instrumental fabric of the Wind E n8 Ibid, 52. 9 Cecil Effinger, quoted in Kenneth Berger, The Band in the United States Evansville, IN: Band Associates, Inc., 1961, 27.


26 semble by composers, they will be welcomed. 10 His last comment has proven prophetic, as the contrabass clarinet is now generally included as a standard member of the modern wind ense mble. The impact of the creation of the wind ensemble has been profound. Speaking in retr ospect McBeth stated, When Frederick Fennell started the wind ensemble and chose the name, he performed one of the ingenious acts of the 20th century.11 Fennells group (or a mode rnized a daptation) has since become a fixture at the Eastman school and has produced a number of infl uential recordings. It has served as a model for similar groups in colleges and universities throughout the U.S., as evidenced by the proliferation of hundreds of s uch groups. Now more than 50 years fol lowing the establishment of the Eastman Wind Ensemble there still remains a void in the area of a standard text addressing the specific orchestrational possibilities of the wind ensemble and the wind band. It is the intention of this study to compile a body of knowledge about the orchestrational practices unique to these groups that documents the innovations made by composers during the 20th century 10 Frederick Fennell, Time and the Winds Kenosha, WI: LeBlanc Publications, Inc., 1954 51. 11 Francis McBeth, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Twentieth Century American Wind Band/Ensemble: History, Development and Literature Fort Lauderdale, FL: Meredith Music Publications, 1995, 79.


27 CHAPTER 2 ORCHESTRATIONAL ANAL YSIS OF SEVERAL REPR ESENT ATIVE WORKS DRAWN FROM THE REPERTOIRE Chapter 2 will address ten different compositions written for wind bands of various sizes and configurations. They will be presented in chronological order, discussing the construction of each piece from the standpoin t of orchestration, but also including certain aspects of their co mpositional structure as it relates to orchestration. Occasional commentary will be made regarding the practical aspects of the orchestrations and potential challenges to players and conduc tors that may arise from certain situations. Short examples drawn directly from the original or revis ed scores will be used to illustrate certain techniques and/or effects. These discussions sometimes will include the potential emotional impact on the listener that may result from orchestra tional choices. In cases where more than one version of the piece exists, the most commonly pe rformed version will be studied, making reference to any notable amendments or adjustments made by the com poser. 1. First Suite in E flat for Military Band, Gustav Holst, C omposed 1909 Instrumentation Original version: F lute and P iccolo D flat 2 Clarinets E flat (2nd ad lib) 2 O boes ( ad lib) Solo Clarinet B flat 1st Clarinets B flat ripieno 2nd Clarinets B flat 3rd Clarinets B flat A lto S axophone E flat (ad lib ) T enor S axophone B flat ( ad lib ) Bass Clarinet B flat (ad lib) 2 Bassoons (2nd ad lib) 1st C ornets B flat 2nd Corne ts B flat 2 T rumpets E flat ( ad lib ) 2 Trumpets B flat (ad lib ) 2 H orns in F 2 Horns in E flat (ad l ib ) Baritone in B flat 2 Tenor T rombones (2nd ad lib) Bass Trombone Euphonium Bombardons String Bass ( ad lib ) Timpani ( ad lib) Bass Drum Cymbals Side Drum Triangle Tambourine


28 Modern version (Matthews edition): C F lute & P iccolo O boes 2 E F lat C larinets (2nd ad lib) Solo C larinet in B flat 1st Clarinet in B flat 2nd Clarinet in B flat 3rd Clarinet in B flat B ass clarinet ( ad lib) 2 Bassoons (2nd ad lib) A lto S axophones Tenor S axophone Baritone S axophone ( ad lib ) Bass Saxophone ( ad lib ) Solo C ornet 1st Cornet 2nd Cornet 2 T rumpets in B flat ( ad lib) 1st & 2nd H orns in F 3rd & 4th Horns in F ( ad lib) 1st & 2nd T rombones (2nd ad lib ) 3rd Trombone E uphonium Bass String Bass ( ad lib ) Timpani ( ad lib) Percussion (2 3 Players): Bass Drum Side Drum Pair Cymbals Suspended Cymbals Triangle Tambourine The term military band used in the title is not an indication that this particular group is an outdoor ceremonial band as we in the 21st century have come to know it. Rather, the term is used here to distinguish the type of band illustrated here, which features a mix of woodwinds, brass, and percussion, from the traditional British brass band which contains no woodwinds. The above configurations (and the terminology) became t he established norm for English composers of band m usic during the first half of the 20th century. The D flat piccolo indicated in the original instrumentation refers to an instrument used regularly in the band up through the middle of the 20th century. Although it has since fallen into obscurity, parts for it can still be found in older editions of band music. Similarly, parts wri t ten for the E flat horn were provided for many years as that instrument was often used as a replacement for the French horn particularly in bands that commonly performed outdoors. The E flat horn is a smaller instrument, with a frontfacing bell that resembles a shrunken baritone. It can


29 still be found today in the British style brass band. The bombardons indicated were an early form of the tuba (possibly the helicon), which, like the E flat horn, were more suited to being carried by a marching m usician Th e modern instrumentation indicated is from the 1984 Boosey & Hawkes edition, which is an exhaustive restoration of the 1948 score by Holst historian Colin Matthews that also u pdates the piece for performances on todays instruments. It is atypical in that two E flat clarinet players are required a very unusual situation for wind band literature, and one not often a ccommodated in performances. In many instances the first B flat clarinet is used to cover the lo wer E flat part that is cued on their part. In addition the saxophone section includes a bass sax ophone along with the more common bar i tone saxophone. Both of thes e instruments were added to the 1948 edition by an unknown editor at Boosey, this version being the first available full score for the piece. The bass saxophone is o ften omitted in performances of First Suite due to the difficulty in procuring an instrume nt However, most reputable recordings do include it M odern co m posers are now using th is instrument with increasing frequency, as it is one of the more distinctive voices within the wind band or chestra tiona l palette. There is a school of thought among purists that truly accurate renditions of First Suite must include both cornets and trumpets, reasoning that the different bore configurations (conical versus cylindrical) are distinctive enough to merit the inclusion of both types of instruments. Holsts treatment of the se instruments in his orchestration s would seem to support this notion. The performance practices surrounding the cornet in England are significantly different than those of the trumpet, and there, the sound of the instrument varies cons iderably from that of the trumpet. However, in the U.S., only cornetists who perform regularly with British style brass


30 bands are likely to develop a truly different sound on the instrument, so it is normal in this cou ntry for bands to pe r form all of the cornet and trumpet parts using trumpets only. Though it is most often performed by full bands, Holst indicated through ad lib notations on his 1909 manuscript that a small ensemble (19 23 players) can successfully perf orm the work. Hence many modern conduc tors have embraced the opportunity to present this work using these more chamber like forces, allowing for the transparency and clarity of Holsts writing to be r evealed. Most recently a new edition of this piece has been released by the Ludwig Publishing Company. It reportedly was edit ed by Frederick Fennell himself and professes to be the exemplary version, conforming more closely to Holsts original intent than any of the previous editions. However, certain inconsistencies have been discovered in this newest edition, consequently many directors still prefer the 1984 edition. A s the fine recording produced in 1978 by the Cleveland Symphonic Winds under Fennells direction serves as the aural reference for this study, the score excerpts presented here w ill be drawn from Colin Matthews 1984 edition which is based on the Boosey & Hawkes 1948 edi tion Background Gustav Holsts motivations for composing the First Suite are unknown. I t has however become a cornerst one of the wind band repertoire and still enjoys literally hundreds of performances each year throughout the world. In the first of Richard Miles influential series of books, Teaching Music Through Performance in Band, it is acknowledged as the first significant co mposition approximating what i s todays standard band instrumentation.1 Frank Battisti, in his book The Winds of Change quotes Richard Franko Goldmans proclamation that it is the first 1 Richard Miles, Teaching Music Through Performance in Band, Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc., 1997, 251.


31 available and universally recognized original band work of the century. Goldman goes one step further to state (arguably) that, no more effective pieces have been written for band.2 The place of honor this piece has earned in the wind band repertoire is well deserved, as it established many of the techniques that would become common practice f or writers of this genre for years to come. Longtime University of Michigan band director H. Robert Reynolds is quoted, The fact that it came to the band repertoire without previous original compositions of highquality band music is a sign of Holsts ge nius as a composer. With one piece he changed the destiny of band music forever and provided a model for other composers to follow .3 It is f or all these reasons that the First Suite has been chosen as the opening piece in this study. Holsts affi nity for English folk music is apparent here in that, though original, his themes embody a folklike quality both in their lyricism and in their harmonic language. All of the themes are masterfully united through the use of a threenote motif that is outl ined at the very beginning of the first movement. The three movements suggest a neoclassical approach, as the titles Chaconne, Intermezzo and March could just as easily comprise a baroque keyboard suite perhaps by Henry Purcell, whom Holst idolized. It is clear that Holsts earlier experience as a trombonist in several bands supplied him with a knowledge and understanding of the wind bands capabil i ties. His manipulation of this instrumentation is not contrived in any way, but appears to be a natural ou tgrowth of the standard orchestrational techniques with which Holst was already fami l iar. 2 Richard Franko Goldman, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Pu blications, 2002, 16. 3 H. Robert Reynolds, quoted in Bruce Moss, Holsts First Suite: A Century of Memories, The Instrumentalist December 2009, 14.


32 According to Holst authority Jon C. Mitchell,4 the first known concert performance of First Suite in E flat was not until June 23, 1920, eleven years after it was fi rst composed. It took place at Kneller Hall in London in a performance by the 165member Royal Military School of Music Band. Analysis 1. Chaconne From the opening phrase of the Chaconne Holst immediately establishes this group as an ensemble of winds a nd not an orchestra through his choice of the combination of euphonium doubled by tuba down an octave to present the first theme. The first three notes, 1 2 6 of the E flat m a jor scale, recur throughout the composition in various incarnations. Figure 11. Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 18, theme This use of conical bore bass clef instruments, though commonly heard in todays wind band works could only be found heretofore in certain late Romantic orchestral works such as Richard Strauss Ein Heldenleben (1898) due to the relatively late addition of the euphonium and/or tenor tuba to the composers palette. The timbre produced by this combination at the p volume level is dark, rich, and noble, adding an understated dignity to Holsts theme. This passage is contrasted by the following entrance of the theme, one beat before measure 9 in the trombones (which are of cylindrical bore) accompanied by contrapuntal supporting 4 cited from Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Pu b lications, 2002, 15.


33 lines in the cornets. Though still a relatively dark brass timbre owing to the conical bore co rnets, the trombone tone quality provides a slightly more strident t imbre when compared to the euphonium. At this point the listener may be misled into thinking this a brass band piece, as the woodwinds have yet to appear. Measure 16 confirms the presence of the woodwinds, as they assume the melodic and ha rmonic responsibilities in a homophonic passage. The sound of massed woodwinds in the wind band is distinguished in part from orchestral woodwind combinations by the prese nce of the saxophones. In condensed form this passage appears below : Figure 12. Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 1624, condensed Holsts orchestration of the passage utilizes the entire woodwind section excepting the flutes and lower saxophones. This is an early example of block scoring, in both the woodwind and brass sec tions, that would eventually become standard practice among writers for the medium :


34 Figure 13 Holst First Suite in Eb first movement m. 1624, orchestrated A ware of the various woodwind instruments capacity to blend well together, Holst uses the different sonorities in roles that change throughout the passage, moving from melodic to supporting roles and vice versa. The oboe for example gives an inner voice its identity in the first five measures of the passage. Beginning in the sixth measure it emerges effortlessly as the pr imary melodic timbre, even though it is outnumbered by clarinets playing the same line. Beneath this line the alto saxophone blends with the third clarinet to produce a homogenous inner voice. Though much of the voice trading in this passage is due to the shifting instrumental regi st ers, Holst succeeds in managing these issues artistically as well as practically. The lower i nstrumen ts join seamlessly to continue the repetition of the chaconne figure, with saxophone, ba s-


35 soons and bass clarinet melding into a smooth, sonorous voice. Octave adjustments made to keep the instruments in their optimal ranges are barely detectable. The next passage is a rhythmic counterpoint between harmonized woodwinds and unison octaves in the first cornet and first trombone The upper brass element, even though it involves fewer per formers, easily balance s the upper woodwind forces. This iteration of the chaconne melody itself features a blend of lower woodwind voices that mixes read ily with the conica l bore low brass used in the ope ning statement. The p ercussion section finally make s its first entrance leading into the next phrase. This sparse and ju dicious use of percussion is a marked contrast from the typical approach of this time I ts appearance beginning at measure 33 almost suggests a satire of the standard band re pe r toire of th is period, which was heavily dominated by marches and other such bombastic fare. The use of timpani to reinforce the melody in the lower instruments conforms to late Romantic orchestral practice, as displayed in works such as Tchaikovskys 1812 Overture (1880). Letter B (measures 41 48) introduces a texture that will com e to be commonly exploited by wind band writers well into the future (the Mackerras arrangement of Arthur Sullivans Pin eapple Poll comes to mind), as a 16thnote woodwind line is punctuat ed by brass and percussion. Here, the blocked scoring practice is demonstrated in the brass section:


36 Figure 14 Holst First Suite in Eb first movement m. 4148, florid woodwinds with brass accents It is interesting to note that, although there are numerous entrances and exits by the various woodwind instruments to a ccommodate their ranges (see the full score) the overall timbre and cha r acter of the melodic line remains the same; it is essentially clarinet like in quality The slurs provided indicate phra s ing that connects the woodwind and brass/percussion elements together. Holst uses the brighter tone of the trumpets in opposition to the darker cornets, creating a subtle melod ic line in the a c companiment over the remaining brass. The bass clef brass instruments are n ot divided, but instead are kept together in un ison o ctaves in order to maintain the integrity of the chaconne theme T he ensembles sonority is ma ximized through a harmonic series like configuration, where wider intervals in the lower re gister are accompanied by closer intervals in the upper register Holsts choice of bass drum and cy m-


37 bal for his percussion contributions help to add weight to the bottom of the ensemble and bri lliance to the top. Though there are a variety of instrumental colors combining in this passage, both the comp ositional inte nt and the clarity of the different elements are preserved. After a bold statement of the chaconne theme in the upper brass accompanied by a contr apuntal bass line, Holst provi des a delightful contrast at letter C. He retreats into chamber like textures f or the next three iterations of the chaconne theme, the third being an inversion that is transposed to the relative minor. The passage beginning one beat before measure 56 features a solo French horn delicately accompanied by only the clarinet section. M any conductors will r educe this passage to one player per part even eliminating the doubling of the upper melody, to allow for individual mus i cal expression in the performance of the supporting lines: Figure 15. Holst, First Suite in Eb fir st movement m. 5664, chamber texture Holsts choice to double the French horn with the third clarinet is almost undetectable in a well rendered performance. However it adds a dynamic quality to the line as a result of the combined waveforms while also subtly linking the melody to the timbre of the accompaniment The


38 transpa r ency of this section provides a poignant moment of repose after the heroic full forces that pr e cede it. The passage that follows is one of the very first instances within the repertoire of the alto saxophone being exposed as an expressive solo voice: Figure 16. Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement m. 6472, alto saxophone solo The implied shift to a compound meter through triplet subdivisions is heightened by the change in instrumentation, providing contrast even within this subdued section of the movement. Chr omatic alterations of the harmony that suggest minor tonalities also help to sustain interest, along with the use of different instrumental colors for each line. Holst could easily have assigned the inner clarinet figure to the solo B flat part, but he chose instead to use the distinctive timbre of the E flat clarinet, maximizing the variety within his orchestra tiona l choices. As he moves into the minor tonality of his inverte d theme beginning at measure 73 Holsts return to duple beat subdivisions is also sobering; it provides a contrast to the whimsy of the earlier triplet rhythms. The change of atmosphere is also enhanced by the reintroduction of low register brass timbres and the bassoons at letter D P lodding bass drum rhythm s under a softly rolling cymbal lend the definite suggest ion of a funeral procession capitalizing on the associ ative capa c ities of these percussion i n struments


39 Letter E marks a harmonic shift back to the home key of E flat major A protracted buil ding section over a pedal B flat produces a retransi tion like passage, simulating the sonata allegro form in miniature. Decreasing note values combined with a snare drum roll effectively co mmunicate a s ense of anticipation that is heightened by a continuous crescendo. The tension builds to a climax at measures 111 113 as the registers are expanded upward. This sense of anticip a tion is further emphasized by the hemiola rhythms that lead into an explosi on of sound at letter F. Holst remarkably creates a moment of expansive grandeur here through the absence of percussion, allowing the full sonority of his e nsemble to sing through unhindered by nonpitched sounds. The final eight measures are curiously co lored through Holsts temporary harmonic choice of the Dorian mode on the fifth scale degree, allowing for a decidedly 20thcentury progression of displaced major chords over the E flat pedal. The final resolution, on a stridently voiced tonic chord that seems to float groundlessly is one of the more memorable mome nts in the wind band literature :


40 Figure 17. Holst, First Suite in Eb first movement final chord The striking effect of this chord is due in part to the scoring of the first cornet, first trumpet and flutes near the top of their practical ranges. Note the heavy doubling of the root in the lower i nstruments (albeit in the ir upper register), and the fifth in the upper voices, lending the chord a pr onounced austerity. The third of the chor d is only present in the second clarinet and lower divisi of the first cornet. This cornet voicing was an adjustment on the part of Ma tthews, as in previous editions the concert G appeared as the lower note in the second cornet, and as such was likely to be omi tted, especially in school band situations. Under normal circumstances this would be considered


41 an imprudent use of the available instrumental forces especially on a final chord, but Holst uses this unconventional approach to great effect. 2. Inter mezzo Holsts second movement titled Intermezzo is an unexpected vivace episode that departs from the typical fast slow fast scheme one would expect in a three movement work. The original chaconne melody has been transformed into a scherzo like theme an d is played by the unlikely combination of two oboes, a solo clarinet and a solo muted cornet Carrying over the alla turca tradition of the European classical period, t his instrumentation produces an almost middle eastern flavor, enhanced by tambourine strikes on the first three notes of each phrase and occ asional triangle e m bellishments : Figure 18, Holst First Suite in Eb second movement m. 311, oboes and muted tpt. These first accented notes serve as a harbinger of the beginning of the third movement, where they appear inverted. H olsts two E flat clarinets are exposed in an eighth note ostinato pa t tern underneath the melody line Matthews, c onscious of the fact that very few secondary -


42 level e nsembles will have two E flat clarinets at their di sposal (much less one), has judiciously cued the lower part in the first cl a rinet. A second rendition of the melody at measure 19 moves the E flat clarinets into their most character istic upper register. This element combined with denser percussion rhyt hms heightens the sense of exoticism. At letter A there are textur al and register change s as the eighthnote a ccompaniment is transferred to the lower instruments. T he middle eastern flavor is not diminished, but is varied through the addition of timpa ni and bassoons to the orchestrational mix A t measure 27 a secondary theme is exposed in the clarinets and alto saxophone : Figure 19. Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 27 38, secondary theme


43 Holst uses all of the B flat clarinets on the melody in this passage, assuring its strength against the rest of the ensemble. The relatively low register of the first four measures places it in an id eal range for the alto saxophone; Holst uses this instrument as reinforcement until the themes s econd re ndition which is a third higher. A clear countermelody in the tenor saxophone and lower horns is achieved through the a bsence of sound in the frequency range between the bass ostinato element and the lowest notes of the accompanying harmony. The te xture of the bass figure is made more complex through the combination of the added string bass with the various intersecting wind instrument figures. The a l ternating patterns of the ostinato figure in the winds maintain the constant eighthnote rhythm wh ile still allowing the pla yers to take breath s Offbeat punctuations in the cylindrical bore brass instruments are ac centuated in the upper frequency range by the tambourine. After a return to the texture of the opening statement, Holst varies his next rep etition of the melody at measure 59 making us e of the massed lower woodwinds :


44 Figure 110. Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 59 66, secondary theme The presentation of the melody here in five separate octaves is a distinctive timbre but ha s been dubiously enhanced by the unauthorized addition of extra low woodwind instruments by the Boosey editor of the 1948 edition. Nevertheless, the presence of the additional instruments r esults in a timbre unique to the wind band, as no other standard i nstrumentation has that same concentration of lower woodwind voices. The accenting of the first three melody notes persists, further e m phasizing the motivic development that permeates First Suite


45 At letter C, the re is a textur al shift to a lyrical styl e in 4/4 time though the tempo is mai ntained through the use of a Listesso marking. Here is another example of the transparent cha mber like writing that displays the stylistic range of the wind band. Holsts compositional abilities also shine here, as he transform s his thematic material into a sensitive and moving melody played by the solo clarinet: Figure 111. Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 67 75, chamber like writing This reflective passage provides a welcome respite from the rhythm ically active section that pr ecedes it. The variety of woodwind instruments along with the horns blends beautifully with the solo clarinet, and the sparing use of lower pitched instruments imparts a floating quality to the phrase. At letter D a solo c ornet assumes the melodic responsibilities. The second half of the phrase, beginning at measure 92, is one of the most sublime passages of the piece, as flowing woodwind harmonies provide a rich counterpoint over the lyrical melody:


46 Figure 112. Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 92 98, cornet solo Even within this short passage Holst continually varies the texture, overlapping entrances and bringing different sounds in and out of the ensemble. The melody line itself begins in the solo cor net and euphonium gradually thickening with the addition of oboe and B flat clarinets, then finishing with all of the cornets joining in The B flat clarinets change roles twice within this phrase, starting as a harmonic accompan i ment and then playing a short section of the melody before retreating back into a supporting role. Though


47 this passage can be successfully negotiated without the E flat clarinets due to the doubling of their parts by other instruments their presence lends a dynamic to the overa ll ensemble sound that would be lessened by their a bsence. Following this section the piece resumes, adopting its original rhythmic and tex tural ident ity. At measure 101 Holst takes the opportunity to feature the euphonium on the melody, a sound not famil iar to those accustomed to the standard orchestra palette. At letter E the massed lower woodwinds of measure 59 return; this time they are assigned to the consequent phrase rather than the a ntecedent. Here Holst has used his treatment of the instrumentat ion to create compositional unity within the movement, and in a creative rather than predictable way. At letter F a second Listesso section is presented, recalling the exotic bassoon/timpani combination heard previously at letter A. This time however it serves not just as a background for the secondary theme as before, but as a platform for the combination of that theme with both the origi nal theme an d the lyrical theme of letter C (Figure 113). Holst creates a complex tapestry of sounds at letter F yet he achieves remarkable clarity between the competing elements through the use of distinct ranges and timbres. The lyrical me lody is relegated to the lower register, using the bass clarinet, lower saxophones and euphonium, all of which blend well:


48 Fi gure 113. Holst, First Suite in Eb second movement m. 123129, second Listesso tempo The midrange instruments lower register clarinet and alto saxophone present the secondary melody. At measure 128 a mode adjusted version of the original melody a ppears in the upper woodwinds and solo cornet.


49 The recurring accents on the first three motive notes are highlight ed in this instance by the triangle, while the midrange melodic element is accentuat ed with tambourine reinforcement. Bassoons, bass saxoph one, third trombone, tubas, string bass and timpani combine to form the bass ostinato. The movement winds down with a gradual thinning out of the texture The i nstruments drop out one by one until all that remains are a few solo fragments reiterating the three note source motive over light accompaniment figures. A lightly scored eighth note punct uation closes the movement. 3. March Holst opens his final movement with the same threenote motive, but this time in verted with the 1 2 6 scale tone patter n now appearing (apparently) as 325 of the relative C minor. The tonality is still in question throughout the first phrase as both E flat major and C minor are suggested, but not confirmed. If not for the opening woodwind trills of the introduction, this mov e ment ( if heard by itself ) could easily be mistaken for a brass band piece In much the same way as the beginning of the first movement, only the brass and pe r cussion are used through the first three phrases. Holsts orchestrational technique reveal s nothing remarkable until the woodwinds make their presence known after letter A. B orrowing a convention from the standard march form Holst shifts the key from the tonic to the subdominant for the exposition of the secondary theme beginning at measure 40. Here the brass is reduced to only the conical bore instruments (the third trombone notwithstanding), as these timbres blend much more readily with the woodwinds :


50 Figure 114. Holst, First Suite in Eb third movement m. 4048, lyrical theme Holst h as created a curiously unbalanced mixture of melody and countermelody, as only two instruments are assigned to the latter the baritone saxophone and euphonium while the upper line is pe r formed by no less than fourteen musicians. This situation is exac erbated further by the discrepancy in the indicated dynamics, p in the lesser force versus mf in the greater. In addi tion the con larghezza direction may encourage an even broader expression of this line. The sensitive conductor is faced with the decisi on of how to balance this combination, yet the overall effect is likely to be p leasing and a welcome contrast to the bombastic brass and percussion passage that precedes it.


51 At letter B where the oboes and E flat clarinet join the upper line, the lower lin e i s rei nforced with the addition of the second clarinet and bassoons. The l ightly articulated quarter notes in the cylindrical bore brass beginning at measure 80 recall the percussiveness of the ope ning se c tion, suggesting an imminent return to that text ure. The material does in fact return, but in an almost comically understated form, as p woodwinds reiterate the first theme with only light su pport from the French horns A developmental section extends from letter C through several key centers, eventual ly leading back to the original C minor tonality for the triumphant return of the opening theme at letter D. This time however the themes are successfully combined, though not without some creative manipulatio n of the melodies and harmonies by Holst :


52 Fi gure 115. Holst, First Suite in Eb third movement m. 123130, combined theme s


53 Holsts scoring of this full ensemble statement reveals some intriguing aspects of his technique. He has no compunction against massing his clarinets together in their extre me high range, a pra ctice that most modern wind band writers would likely avoid, particularly in writing for the large sections common today with their wide range of playing abilities. Although it is not true to Holsts orchestration, m any directors instr uct their players (particularly the third clarinets) to readjust this passage, with the higher notes moved back into the staff doubling the first cornet part. Bassoons performing repeated octave leaps to their lowest available note could also be problema tic for less experienc ed players. Though multiple octaves are used for both themes, Holst carefully avoids crossing the voices, especially in the cornets, where like timbres could potentially mask the clarity of the two competing melodies. Holst makes a n interesting harmonic choice in measure 129: a major seventh chord. This reflects the influence of Impressionism and the growing acceptance of extended harmonies among composers and listeners at this point in time. Holst relents temporarily from his dri ving percussive march style at measure 153, allowing the massed sonorities to be apprec iated without the clutter of percussion. His opening melody makes one last triumphant appea rance, at the Meno mosso at measure 162 D riving rhythms return to end the piece, which culm inat es with a flourish of woodwind color. Conclusions In composing this piece Holst unknowingly provided a model for the next century of wind band writers, as he brought into common practice scoring techniques that are still used in new wor ks today. Though this piece may seem unremarkable when held up against many of the wind band works composed since, its significance in establishing a band sound is unde niable. The block scoring method displayed here has become a standard feature of nu m erous other works


54 particularly those intended for younger bands, as the massed numbers of instrumentalists pe rforming like rhythms helps to build confidence. Holsts exposure of solo instrumentalists in transparent, chamber like textures is also now a m ainstay of the band orchestration lexicon. This feature of his writing was one of the motiv ations for Frederick Fennell to found the Eastman Wind Ensemble. As American wind players have continued to develop, more and more composers are risking these spar se textures, confident in the knowledge that most ensembles will have players who are up to the task. The First Suite still enjoys hundreds of performances each year by ensembles encompas sing a wide range of experience Many directors consider it an ind ispensable part of the wind band repertoire and a piece that every instrumentalist should be exposed to at some point in their education. There are numerous fine recordings of this work available, a further testimony to the level of its compositional craf t as well as its exemplary scoring. It is destined to remain a mainstay of the wind band experience long into the future.


55 2. Dionysiaques, Op. 62, No. 1, Florent Schmitt, C omposed 1913 Instrumentation Original 1913 version : 2 Piccolos in C 2 F lutes (or 4) 2 Oboes 1 English Horn (or 2) ad lib. 2 Bassoons (or 4) ad lib. 1 Contrabass Sarrusophone in C (or 2) ad lib. 2 Sopranino Clarinets in E flat (or 4) 2 Solo Clarinets in B flat 12 1st Clarinets in B flat 12 2nd Clarinets in B flat 2 Bass Clarinet s in B flat (or 4) ad lib. 1 Co ntra bass Clarinet in B flat (or 2) ad lib. 2 Alto Saxophone s in E flat (or 4) 2 Tenor Saxophones in B flat (or 4) 2 Baritone Saxophones in E flat (or 4) 1 Bass Saxophone in B flat ad lib. 2 Trumpets in C (or 4) 2 Cornets (or 4) 2 French Horns in F 1st, 2nd and 3rd Trombones Bass Trombone 3 Percussionists* Glockenspiel ad lib. Xylophone ad lib. Celesta ad lib. 1 Sopranino Bugle in E flat (or 2) ad lib. 2 Bugles in B flat (or 4) (A) 2 Bugles in B flat (or 4) (B) 1st, 2nd and 3rd Alto Horns in E flat 2 Bar itones in B flat 6 Basses in B flat 6 Contrabasses in BB flat 2 String Basses (or 4) ad lib. snare drum, tenor drum, tambourine, ca stanets, triangle, tam tam, cymbals, bass drum


56 Modern version (Duker edition, 1975) : 2 Piccolos in C 1st Flute ( 6 or 8) 2nd Flute (6 or 8) 1st Oboe (1 or 2) 2nd Oboe (1 or 2) English Horn (1) 1st Bassoon (1 or 2) 2nd Bassoon (1 or 2) Contrabass oon (1) E flat Clarinet ( 2) 1st B flat Clarinet (4) 2n d B flat Clarinet (8) 3rd B flat Clarinets (8) Alto Clarinet (2 or 4) B ass C larinet ( 4 or 6) E flat Contralto Clarinet (1 or 2) B flat Contrabass Clarinet (1 or 2) String Bass (2) 1st A lto Saxophones (1 ) 2nd Alto Saxophone (1) T enor Saxophone (1 ) Baritone Saxophone (1 ) 1 st Cornet (4) 2nd Cornet (3) 3rd Cornet (3) 1st T rumpet (2 ) 2nd Trumpet (2) 1st H orn (2) 2nd Horn (2) 3rd Horn (2) 4th Horn (2) 1st T rombone (2) 2nd Trombone (2) 3rd Trombone (2) 4th Trombone (2) Euphonium (2) Tuba (6) Timpani Celesta Triangle Castanets Tam Tam Bass Drum Cymbals Snare Drum Tambourine Tenor Drum Bells Xylophone Dionysiaques is unique in that it was composed for the specific instrumentation (at the time) of the 100member Band of the Garde Rpublicaine, the French National Guards official wind band, which was originally founded by Bernard Sarrette in 1789. The instrument a tion of the 1913 version is reflective of the still fluctuating configuration of bands at this time as ev idenced by the presence o f the now obsolete contrabass sarrusophone in C There are other i nstruments included that are no longer in current use in the band including the trumpet in C and the bugles (ostensibly the keyed variety): sopranos pitched in B flat and altos in Eb. No te that there are A and B batteries of B flat bugles indicated in Schmitts original score possibly


57 suggesting di f ferent placements of the groups within the performance venue. This antiphonal effect (if that was i ntended) was not retained in Dukers adaptation. Though it was composed by Schmitt in 1913, the first published score to Dionysiaques (by the French firm Durand and Co.) did not appear until 1925. The score has several ad lib indic ations suggesting that the piece can be successfully perfor med without the English horns, ba ssoons, sarrusophone, bass clarinets, contrabass clarinet, bass saxophone, contrabasses and some of the percussion. As it seems clear that certain instruments (most notably the lower clarinets) are necessary, m ore likely this is an indication that certain combinations of these instruments can be used with some flexibility, providing that all the parts are covered. There are also notations indi cating that additional players of certain instruments would be acceptable, possi bly reflecting the large number of musicians present in the original group for which Dionysiaques was co mposed. The late Guy M. Duker of the University of Illinois produced a modern adaptation of Schmitts score in 1975, reconciling the unusual instrumenta tion to a configuration more likely to be accommodated by modern bands. This version, the one now most commonly performed, reassigns the key passages originally performed by now obsolete instruments to ones available in todays wind band. The number of p layers indicated in Dukers score is variable, but extraordinarily large, ranging anywhere from 108 (assuming eight percussionists) up to 122. These nu mbers are much more suggestive of an expanded symphonic band rather than a wind ense m ble. However, the historical significance of this piece as well as its varie d instrumental palette and creative use of orchestrational color more than merits its inclusion in this study. Schmitt has in fact anticipated by decades the expan ded wind band palette as we know it today, as his piece bears a remarkable resemblance to those currently being composed, at least in its variety of i n-


58 strumentation. Clearly Schmitt considered his wind band to be on equal artistic footing with the orchestra, as the sophistication of his score reveals no concessions to the pe r ceived notion of the time that the band was inf e rior. Dukers omission of the bass saxophone from his updated score reflects the state of co nventional thinking in 1975 regarding this instrument. Had the adaptation be en done today, this instrument would likely have been retained, as the bass saxophone is becoming more and more commonplace in e nsembles of the level that would attempt this piece. Duker s addition of the alto clarinet is similarly telling, as this instru ment has since fallen out of favor, particularly with the recent reemergence of the basset horn as a preferred option. Though some of the original te xtures are undoubtedly altered by thes e substitutions and omissions the essential character and intent of the piece has been preserved. It is Dukers version upon which the following study is primarily based; however many of the orig i nal French stylistic markings of the original score have been preserved for this analysis Background Florent Schmitts fascin ation with exotic themes no doubt led to his composing of Di onysiaques B ased on the ancient Greek festival honoring Dionys us the god of wine Dionys iaques offered Schmitt the opportunity to explore a wide range of instrumental colors and em otions Th e festival, typically characterized by w a nton behavior brought on by excessive drink, provides fe r tile ground for this wildly expressive piece of music. Composed during Schmitts service to the French army in World War I, Dionysiaques seems a joyous escape from the horrors of war that he no doubt witnessed. One of Schmitts students, composer Pierre Octave Ferroud, remarked, One can see in the work the overflowing of sap at springtime, and the una-


59 bashed raucousness of the military band reinforces the i mpre ssion of intense joy.5 The war i tself delayed the first performance of Dionysiaques until June 9, 1925, when it was finally prem iered at the Jardin d u Luxembourg in Paris by the Garde Rpublicaine Band under the direction of Gui l laume Balay Dionysiaques is enigmatic as a wind band work, in that it seems to have been created in an artistic vacuum, independent of any influence of the American and British band traditions that were being established at the time. Nevertheless Schmitt succeeded in producing a signi ficant piece of wind literature. Its compositional complexity and variety of orchestrational color a l lows it to compare very favorably with the bulk of wind band works composed since, even in to the modern era. This analysis will examine both the or iginal score and also Dukers adapted score, noting the adjustments made to accommodate the modernized instrumentation. Analysis Dionysiaques offers an opportunity to examine a work composed without the restraints that had traditionally been placed on wind bands of this time. It represents for the first time a truly or chestral approach to the ensemble, free from any preconceived notion regarding the skill level of the performers involved. It would take the passage of many more years for serious co m posers to relinquish this notion, to compose purely for effect rather than for playability, and to be wil ling to take risks with innovative sounds and/or approaches. Dionysiaques begins with the exposition of a motive constructed of half steps that expand in bot h directions, immediately establishing the chromatic tonal language that will be explored throughout the piece: 5 Pierre Octave Ferroud, quot ed from program notes, Songs and Dances University of Cincinnati College Conservatory of Music Wind Symphony, Klavier KCD 11066 1995.


60 Figure 21. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 14, opening motive Schmitts choice of the low register instruments combined with the motives chroma ticism i mparts a sinister quality and a sense of foreboding, suggestive of both the content and scale of what is to follow. The addition of the timpani on the final note signals the completion of the initial idea. This motive serves as the compositional basis for the entire piece, reappearing in numerous guises throughout. Over the next several measures, Schmitt develops his opening motive, explor ing a variety of woodwind textures that combine pairs of like instruments with other like pairs of contrastin g instrument s Whereas the flutes/oboes combination in octaves was already a familiar sound to orchestra goers of the time the combination of clarinets and sax ophone s would have been a less familiar texture. Schmitts affinity for the saxophone, then st ill a relatively new instrument, was borne out by its presence in a number of his solo and chamber works. An interesting use of orchestration occurs in the brass at rehearsal number 2:


61 Figure 22. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 1316, development of openi ng motive Here, the initial motive is developed in the brass, expanding tonally as it did before, but in this instance also expanding orchestrationally. The first euphonium holds the initial pitch at measure 13 which is overlapped by the previous woodwind passage. Then the additional i nstruments en ter in sequence, a developmental growth that is aided by the increasing dynamic. Particularly effective is the addition of the lower octave in measure15, which increases the u rgency of the for ward motion and e nhances the overall sinister quality of the line. Once again, timpan i are used to reinforce the final note of the statement. Though clearly derived from the chromatic opening motive, Schmitts solo clarinet figure at rehearsal number 3 bears more than a p assing resemblance to a prominent melody from Igor Str a vinskys Firebird (1910) :


62 Figure 23. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 1720, clarinet figure In this passage, Schmitt achieves a subtle texture change through the alteration of solo clarinets on the me lody line. The stylistic indications translate as with movement and with a feeling of Oriental nonchalance. The blending of unlike woodwind instruments on the supporting ha rmonic lines masks the individual instrumental timbres, but produces a more te xturally complex background. The ascending solo horn line creates an effective counterpoint against the low register descending woodwind figures, resolving curiously to a major tonality on beat four in both of the first two measures. A brief flurry of act ivity at measure 20 suggests a hint of instability before the motivic development resumes suddenly at rehearsal number 4. Here, the melody is voiced in the solo flute and alto saxophone, separated by two octaves. As the performance practice s for both of these


63 instruments typically includes vibrato, the players can listen and coordinate the vibrations to cr eate a more unified voice. The two octave space allows Schmitt the opportunity to feature a solo English horn on one of the supporting lines. Possibly anticipating the difficulty in procuring an i nstrument and/or performer, this line is cued in the oboe, even in the original version. At rehearsal number 5, almost the entire ensemble plays revealing for the first time the s cope of the instrumental for ces: Figure 24. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 2528, first full ensemble moment


64 Assuming the minimum numbers indicated on Dukers score, the top figure (after the flourish on beat one) is to be performed by no less than 38 woodwind players, numbers that dw arf even the expanded force s of the late Romantic orchestras of Wagner and Mahler. Modern performances of this piece are highly unlikely to employ this number of performers! Clearly this e xperience of massed wind instruments did not previously exist in t he music world outside of the occasional outdoor grand extravaganzas (such as Handels Music for the Royal Fireworks, composed in 1749). Though it could be argued that this configuration was an attempt to simulate the massed strings of the Romantic or chestra, Schmitt, in bringing these numbers into the concert hall, once again anticipated what would eventually become common practice for the large sy mphonic band. Among the other noteworthy features of this passage is the exclusion of the cylindrical bore br ass instruments ( the brighter timbred trumpets and trombones), possibly being held in r eserve for more grandiose moments later in the piece. Another interesting departure from stan dard practice is in measure 28, where the lower harmony line in the cornets (originally bugles) is voiced beneath an upper harmony line in the first bassoon and flutes, resulting in an unusual ti mbre. Dukers score also contains some note errors in the French horn and euphonium parts, possibly made dur ing the transposition from Schmitts score. At the Accl rez peu peu ( accelerando ) passage occurring at rehearsal number 6, the trumpets and trombones make their first appearance, in rhythmic figures that punctuate alterna ting passages between the midrange and upper woodwinds. T he change i n brass timbre is subtle, but adds a dimension to the orchestration that would be difficult to achieve without the availabi lity of the divisi euphonium part. At measure 31, Duker opted to omit the doubling of the woodwind figure by the soprano bugle. A piccolo trumpet might have been an appr opriate substitute


65 here but the technical demands posed by the line, combined with the li m ited availability of the instrument (at least in wind bands of 1975) may have discouraged its use Once the tempo se ttles at measure 32 ( Anim ) Dukers translation again makes use of the euphoniums He combin e s them with the French horns to produce rhythmic four part chordal figures that have a noticeabl y dark timbre This instrumental combination would not be avail able even in todays standard orchestra; the only other ensemble where it was (and still is) avail able is the British style brass band. In fact, an examination of the original score reveals that these fi gures were originally assigned to the alto and barito ne bugles. This reassignment of the bugle parts also r e sults in a more active performance experience for many of the brass players, who now have fewer rests. The predominance of brass and timpani between rehearsal numbers 6 and 8 helps to e nhance the demo nic quality of the musical material. Schmitt makes use of a textural device b etween measures 27 and 39, sustaining a concert A flat ( G sharp ) most of the way through, but co ntinually altering the instrumentation, thus sustaining the listeners focus on this pitch until it crescendos into a terminal rhythmic figure. The final sixteenth note figure at measure 39 is derived from an inversion of the opening motive and serves to signal the conclusion of this section. This textural varying of a sustained unison/octave note is used to great effect in Karel Husas Music for Prague 1968, which is examine d later in this study. After the relaxation of the tempo leading into rehearsal number 8, Schmitt makes use of his expanded battery of lower woodwinds, trading th e melodic line between the two bass clarinets. Rhythmic figures in octaves played by the bassoons, contrabassoon, and baritone saxophone help fill the gaps during stagnant longer duration not es. Here, the original sarrusophone and bass saxophone parts hav e been reassigned to the bassoons and contrabassoon. The returning harm o-


66 nized fi gure at measures 45 46 receives a more subtle treatment this time appearing in the upper woodwinds. The reorchestration achieves variety while preserving the continuity of the repea ted m a terial. The flourish at measure 47 combines several instruments in an impressionist style gesture suggestive of Dukas The Sorcerers Apprentice (1897) : Figure 25. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 4748, impressionist style gesture


67 Schmitts use of multiple divisi within his greatly expanded clarinet section supports the idea that they are functioning (at least in part) as a substitute for a section of violins. The extension of the piccolo into its upper register gives the flute/piccolo figu re a bri l liance that only the piccolo can provide. Contrary downward motion in the first clarinets adds d i mension to the gesture as does the polytonal harmonic language. The final touch is supplied by the celest a its very name su gges ting other worldly connotations. This is a n associa tion it has carried ever since its use in Romantic ballet scores such as Tchaikovskys The Nutcracker (189192) where it is featured prominently in The Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairies Rehearsal number 9 features another re orchestration of previously heard material, this time featuring a solo cornet substituting for a solo soprano bugle. Following a brief pause, a pair of richly colored transitional sections separated by a moment of repose signal the start of the dance like Anim (lively) section. This passage is again reminiscent of The Sorcerers Apprentice due to the use of fast scalar passages, grace note woodwind figures and trills along with ra pidly articulated brass rhythms T he judicious use of percussion i n this passage also helps to heighten the manic excitement:


68 Figure 26. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 4348, reorchestration of previouslyheard material Closer examination of this passage reveals a degree of detail not present in the Holst score. Whereas Holsts approach was more all inclusive with regard to dynamics, Schmitt seeks to cr eate more textural variety by layering different dynamic levels within the score This practice can produce subtly high light ed figures over subdued accompaniments.


69 The s udden tempo change at measure 51 marks the first of two passages that begin with a flurry of eighth note figures that are embellished with grace notes The presence of thirty se c ond note figures on repeated notes in the brass indicates that by this time, double tonguing ha d become an expected technique for brass players in the wind band. Until this point in time, earlier composers may have di s missed it as a parlor trick. Th is first rendition of th is passage hints at th e upcoming dance section. It tempo rarily se ttles into a dance like tempo, but then it relax es in to a brief state of repose, again su ggesting a sort of schizophrenia. The second version, beginning at rehearsal number 11, mimics the rhythmic activity of the first, albeit with some variation s. It then quickly resolves into the main dance se ction at rehearsal number 12, marked Anim sans exag r ation ( lively, without exaggeration) Here, the second half of the piece clearly begins :


70 Figure 27. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 6265, the dance se ction begins


71 The wandering chromaticism of the first section finally yields to a key center of F minor, as evidenced by the first appearance of a key signature. However, the minor tonality is only co nfirmed through the grace note ornamentations: the strong downbeat figures are in open fifths. Cautionary accidentals in measure 62 confirm this to be the harmonic minor language, with the lowered sixth and raised seventh scale degrees, along with a chromatic alteration of the fourth as a leading tone to the dominant. Schmitt deploys his full battery of instruments here, further emphasizing the significance of this marked shift in attitude that is also accompanied by a meter change to 3/4. Earlier pieces by Schmitts countrymen that may have influenced this raucous dance section include Saint Sans Bacchanale from the opera Samson and Delilah (first performed in 1877) or perhaps even Berlioz groundbreak ing Symphonie Fantastique (1830) The Saint Sans piece may be the more direct precursor being the ne wer of the two, and also sharing its identity in a way, Ba cchus being the Roman reincarnation of the Greek god Dionysus. Orchestrationally, Schmitt has maximized the impact of this passage by using the strong upper registers of many of the instruments, rei nforcing both downbeats and upbeats using pe rcussion sounds. Further he has not encumbered the brass players with any of the grace note e mbellishments present in the woodwinds allowing their short, articulated eighth notes to be crisp and clear. The pr esence of the tambourine contributes to the exotic and festive quality of this section, carrying over the tradition of the alla turca style of the classical period, when unusual percussion sounds were first introduced in to the orchestrational palette. The section immediately following this introduction (measures 6671) features a curious harmonic mix of F melodic minor, a fullydiminished chord built on C and polytonal flirtations with other major tonalities. Schmitt uses his instrument families to distin guish and demarcate


72 these various overlapping tonalities, allowing them to interact in ways that are clearly discern able to the ear. Measures 72 and 73 stand out from the previous material as there is a sudden mode change to F major: Figure 28. Sch mitt, Dionysiaques m. 7273, folk songlike moment The mode change is accompanied by a texture change, as Schmitt leav es out the lower woodwind and brass instruments, and most of the percussion. This passage is a temporary m oment of frivolity, further em phasizing the split personality character of the piece, and will serve a significant developmental role as the piece progresses. Orchestra bells highlight the offbeats in the upper woodwinds as well as the brass downbeats. Note that the brass structures are kept


73 open and clear by the omission of the lower octave thirds from the chords in the trombones and euphoniums. This folk songlike moment may suggest to modern listeners the music of Aaron Copland, especially Hoedown from his ballet Rodeo (1942) w hich would not appear for a nother 29 years. At rehearsal number 13, the introductory passage from rehearsal number 12 is repeated, but the harmonic language is altered slightly, substituting D flat s for the Cs heard previously. Though not texturally diffe rent from the initial version, the resulting augmented tonalities provide a subtle measure of compositional variety. Similar versions of the earlier material follow, though transposed up a half step giving an almost subconscious impression of building te nsion. The folk songlike section is repeated at measures 84 85, also transposed up a half step, though scored almost iden tically. A transitional section follows, using more chromatic fragments from the opening motive and rhythms similar to previous figures. The large number of low woodwinds in addition to the saxophones is a distinguishing feature of this passage, exploring once again a texture unique to the wind band. Measures 94 and 95 in particular stand out:


74 Figure 29. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 9495, low woodwinds exposed Though Schmitt has used octave adjustments and staggered entrances in the low woodwinds and saxophones to allow for range limitations, the overall effect in performance is that of a unified line The tritone s in the brass i nstruments serve to neutralize the tonality, thus rel e gating their eighth note accompaniment to a n almost percussive role. At rehearsal number 15, a familiar melody reappears, one first heard in the solo third clar inet back at measure 66. This time, the m assed lower clarinets and baritone sax ophone combine to transform this figure from a melodic curiosity in to a much more menacing statement. A po rtion of the folk songlike material heard earlier reappears at measure 104, though this time in an angry minor mode. More melodic fragments build into yet another iteration of the folk songlike


75 moment, in major mode but in alternating ton alities a tritone apart. This yield s an intense anti cip a tion of this passage at rehearsal number 17 perhaps the most iconic moment in the piece: Figure 210. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 114118, iconic motive


76 The full power of the ensemble is unleashed here, as every wind instrument plays at ff vo lume reinforced with percussion accents The indication Avec clat translates to with flair. The sparseness of the harmony, with only a single melodic line doubled in octaves against a pedal point of identical rhythms, provides a strength that would be diluted by thicker harm onies. The Dorian m odal language used here typically produces a folksy quality, yet Schmitts use of it in this instance actually adds to the si nister quality of the statement Also, the harmonic shift at the midpoint of the phrase further enhances the split personality theme that has thus far pervaded th e piece. Schmitt omit s the grace notes in the trumpet parts, yet retains them in the cornets, acknowledging the greater technical agility of the conical bore instrument. Extra sixteenth notes in the lower cornets trumpets and French horns impart a fan far e like quality to the statement as well as add textural interest. This section is followed by more melodic fragments in a developmental passage. At r ehearsal number 18, material from the opening passages of the piece is layered over a rhythmic backgr ound. The melody is again presented in the woodwinds, helping the listener to make the connection to the earlier section. The powerful statement of rehearsal number 17 along with its accompanying development reappear s at rehearsal number 19, this time transposed down a tr itone to the key of D. This shift is accomplished with an actual change of key signature, onc e again alluding to the works split personality character. Curiously, this key change is present only for the nontransposing instruments the tran sposing instruments having reverted back to displaying no key signature. At rehearsal letter 21, there is a distinctive texture accompanying one of the recurring melodies. This is comprised of piccolos, flutes and clarinets playing arpeggiated figures on a diminished chord against similar fi gures in the celest a m oving in contrary motion:


77 Figure 211. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 2528, Aquarium like moment This use of chromatically descending diminished harmonies is reminiscent of the work o f another of Schmitts countrymen and contemporaries Camille SaintSans, in the Aquarium


78 movement of his suite, Carnival of the Animals (1886). In addition, the wind instruments pla ying lightly articulated eighth notes (marked lger, meaning light) in combination with the c elesta, suggest a texture similar to the two pianos used throughout Carnival of the Animals This passage is immediately followed by a relaxation of the tempo at rehearsal number 22, indicated Un peu moins vite or A little less lively The melodic material used here, along with the slower tempo is evocative of passages near the very beginning of the piece, which provides continu ity. The following section is a trans ition back to the quicker tempo that resum es at measure 166. Measures 168 169 are a repeat of figures heard earlier at measures 53 54, again contri buting to the overall continuity. This recalling of earlier material is suggestive of a cyclical work, but there is not enough direct repetition to fully warran t the lab el. A texture new to the piece makes its first appearance at r e hearsal number 25:


79 Figure 212. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 179183, orchestrational color This moment of brilliant color, along with the preceding measures is perhaps the most technically challenging passage in the piece. The variety of complex rhythmic subdivi sions is daunting. In addition, the scalar passages in measures 182 183 a re not based on the standard m a-


80 jor or minor scale pa t terns familiar to most players. Rather, they are fournote sets of half step/half step/ minor third intervals ( 0125 sets), the outline of which is a perfect fourth The sets are linked by another half step, creating a tritone interval, which has already been identified as one of the unifying harmonic elem ents of the piece. Th e 0 215 set appears to be an equal tempered version of one of the tetrachords introduced in ancient Greek music theory. Perhaps Schmitt was seeking to make a musical connection with the mythology upon which Dionys iaques is based. M any of the instruments involved in this passage are required to span the practical range of their instrument in just a split second. There are also simultaneous time signatures in measures 180181, with most instruments in 3/4, but selected brass instrume nts in 9/8. These challenges are among the most extreme in the piece, and could be a contributing factor to the relatively infrequent performances of it in contrast with many other of the standard repertoire works. Orchestrationally, th ese furious woodwind flourishes combined with the syncopated octaves figure in the brass and the diminished chord and tritone based harmonic language gene rates a sense of dire urgency unmatched thus far in the piece. The brass figure, marked en dehors (translated literally as on the outside) seems like a simple triplet pattern to the ear, but the score reveals it to be the superimposed 9/8 time signature. The strong accent on beat th r ee of measure 180 tricks the listener into believing th is impact occurs on beat one of the following measure. This seems unnecessarily complicated, as the same effect could be produced by simply eliminating a beat from measu re 180, making it a 2/4 measure. That would place the strong a ccent on the downbeat of the next measure rather than on the weaker beat three. After a moment of repose on the unison C, there is a section that featur es staggered entrances of varying colors. This passage strongly resembl es the opening measures of the piece.


81 Measures 187 189 appear to be an elongation of the figure first heard in measures 14 15. Fo llowing another low, sustained unison, this time on the note A, r ehearsal number 28 marks the beginning an entirely new texture, one also seemingly borrowed from Paul Dukas The Sorce rers Apprentice (1897): Figure 213. Schmitt, Dionysiaques m. 195202, Sorcerers Apprentice moment


82 The c ontrabassoon, bassoons, contrabass clarinet and string bass begin an uneasy ostinato, with the baritone saxophone added in the fifth measure. Light percussion reinforcem ent s help to establish a rhythmic background that will propel the next developmental section, with tension supplied by the softly rolling tympani A hemiola effect suggests duple time to the listener, though the a c tual time signature is 3/4. Familiar motives in solo instruments are presented in staggered en trances, start ing with the tenor saxophone in measure 202. The stylistic indications translate as lively movement, a little held back at first. The overall effect is one of rebirth, very much like the corresponding passage in the Dukas work. This section continues with still more previouslyheard material. Third inversion dom inant seventh chords in the brass at measures 206 and 212213 provide variety and interest, as they climb and fall in slurred eighth note pairs, moving in tritone intervals. Rehearsal number 31 marks the reappearan ce of the F minor key signature with an extended preparation passage of sixteenth note figures that outline diminished chords These figures move throughout the e nsemble in various combinations and colors. M easures 223 237 are an elongation of material previously heard in measures 94 95 ; their familiarity genera tes a n even greater sense of anticip ation Th e rhythmic flurry culminates at rehearsal number 3 3, with the reappearance of the po werful iconic motive first heard at rehearsal number 17. The k ey signature change here signals that th e motive has now been transposed to the key of F. This is related to the motives other two a ppearances, (in the keys of A flat a nd D respectively) in that they are all separated by minor thirds, co nformin g to the dim inished/tritone harmonic language that has permeated the piece. Rehearsal number 34 is a fully orchestrated version of the folk songlike moment from measures 7273, m ade more dr a matic by a gradual ritardando through the four measures.


83 The tempo resumes at rehearsal number 35, with short fragment s of the iconic passage leading into yet more frantic developmental material. Each time, these segments are sep a rated into tw o similar mea s ures that, like the iconic passage, are transposed to tonalities a minor third apart. Though not necessarily detectable to the casual listener, these key relationships neverth eless contribute to the overall continuity of the work, if only on a subconscious level. This sec tion is followed by another halting rend i tion of the folk songlike passage at rehearsal number 37. The pace picks up again at r e hearsal number 38, and remain s unabated from there until the end of the piece. In measures 2 75285, Schmitt continues his practice of elongating the rhythms of passages from earlier the piece; the triplet eighth note figures in the brass that appear here are extended versions of figures from measures 187 189. They lead into rehearsal number 40, which is a r ecapitulation of r e hearsal letter 12, the very opening of the dance section. The key center here is F like before, but this time the open fifths of the original passage are filled with major thirds, lending a more triu m phant and decisive flavo r to this rendition. Schmitts ending is preceded by a lengthy preparation, consistent with the scale of the rest of the composition. Again, rhythmic and harmonic material from earlier in the piece is used d evelopmentally to signal the upcoming conclusi on of the work. The final measures feature chords in the brass that recall key relationships used throughout the piece:


84 Figure 214, Schmitt. Dionysiaques m. 295299, final statement


85 The G flat minor chord in measures 295296 is in a n altered Neopolit an relationship with the tonic key, and serves a pre dominant function. The u se of mostly cylindrical bore brass gives the chord a fatalistic effect, as it emerges from the flurry of rhythmic activity preceding it. The penultimate chord is a C flat dominant ninth chord, related to the tonic through a tritone root substitution. The precedent for this type of harmonic movement can be found only a few years ear lier in Igor Stravinskys groundbreaking ballet scores for The Firebird (1910) and Petrushka (1911). Clearly Schmitt was among the beneficiaries of the Paris premieres of these pieces. Orchestrationally, Schmitt achieves an organ like effect on the C flat chord through his use of harmonic series like spacing of the chord tones in the brass. The open fifths in the tubas and e uphoniums in particular contribute greatly to the effect as does the open structure voicing of the chord within the trombone section. The superior technical mobility of the conical bore co rnets, horns and euphoniums is exploite d on the sixteenthnote triplet figures leading into the f inal two eighth note impacts. Conclusions It seems clear that Florent Schmitt was either unaware of or unconcerned by, the popular notion held during this time that the wind band was not a serious musical ensemble. His co mposition shows no compromises whatsoever with regard to range or technical considerations, as he pushes instruments to their limits throughout the piece. Consequently, this composition sh ould only be attempted by only the fines t professional or col lege level groups. Until Dukers 1975 edition, performances of Dionysiaques were rare, due most likely to the technical and musical challenges, but also in part to the unavailability of instruments that had become obsolete. Neverthel ess, Schmitt has succeeded in producing a wonderfullynuanced, emotionally engaging contribution to the repertoire of the serious wind band. Modern composers for the medium can learn much from the study of this score, particularly from the standpoint of


86 orchestrational color. Without realizing it, Schmitt effectively raised the bar for what could be expected musically and artistically from the band. The impact of his work is sure to be an infl uence long into the future. Although Dionysiaques existed with in a vacuum for many years, it is now readily avai l able and should be examined and performed frequently, as it is a piece worthy of being consi dered among the best works for the large symphonic band. As individual technical expectations among developing m usicians continue to rise, perhaps this piece will enjoy greater exposure in the coming years. 3. Symphonies of Wind Instruments, Igor Stravinsky, C omposed 1920; R evised 1947 Instrumentation Original 1920 version: 3 F lute s in C Alto Flute in G 2 O boes English Horn 2 Clarinets in B flat A lto Clarinet in F 3 Bassoons ( 3rd doubles on Contrabassoon) 4 Horns in F 2 T rumpets in C Trumpet in A 3 T rombones Tuba Revised 1947 version: 3 F lute s in C 2 O boes English Horn 3 Clarinets in B flat 3 Bassoons ( 3r d doubles on Contrabassoon) 4 Horns in F 3 T rumpets in B flat Trumpet in A 3 T rombones Tuba An examination of these two versions of Symphonies of Wind Instruments will reveal that they were intended for the winds of the standard orchestra, rather than the typical concert band. Neither configur a tion includes the saxophones or euphonium, instruments not norma lly found in the orchestra. Also notably absent are the lower register bass and contrabass clarinets, and any


87 percussion. The 1947 revision is not only a rethinking of the orchestration, but also resulted in some omitted m a terial and re barring of measures from the original version. The instrumentation changes are possibly a reflection of the settling of conventions within the wind band in the int e rim between the versions, as the C and A trumpets were replaced by a section of all B flat instruments. In addition, the now obsolete F alto clarinet was eliminated, along with the alto flute, since neither instrument is normally present in the standard orchestra wind section though the alto flute still appears frequently in new compositions The re barring seems to be a reaction to pe r formance and interpretive issues Stravinsky may have had with the 1920 version. The 1947 ve r sion also makes the piece more readily accessible to modern ensembles, and thus renders it a more commercially v i able product Though the 1947 revision has been proclaimed by Stravinsky himself as the definitive version, the 1920 version is also performed with nearly equal freque ncy, in spite of its challen ges. For those who prefer it a revised and corrected version of the 1920 score is now available in an ed i tion from Boosey & Hawkes that includes both scores. To accommodate performance s of the older version, modern groups may have to substitute the recently resurrected F basset horn for the F alto clar i net, or transpose the part up a whole step for todays E flat instrument. For the purposes of this study, the 1947 edition will be used, making reference to certain points wher e it departs from the original. This approach can offer a fascinating glimpse into the thought pr ocesses of a highly esteemed composer as he revi s its one of his works. Background Symphonies of Wind Instruments composed for winds and percussion, represent s one of a limited number of pieces Stravinsky produced for nonorchestral large ensembles. The original version follows his Song of the Volga Boatmen (1917) and precedes his Octet (1923), both works that are of smaller dimensions than Symphonies. During this time, which has been since reco g-


88 nized as the cusp between his Russian and neoclassical periods, Str a vinsky also produced the Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1924), but th e use of winds in that work was large ly in support of the solo piano an d not the primary focus. Though he also produced his Circus Polka in 1942, that piece is more of a parody of the circus band and was the result of a collaboration with choreographer George Balanchine who had been commissioned by the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus to produce for them an elephant ballet. Also worth mentioning is the Ebony Concerto (1945), a work written for jazz band on a commission from popular bandleader and clarinetist Woody Herman. In add ition there are a number of sm aller chamber works that are comprised predominantly of wind i nstruments (such as LHistoire du Soldat 1923), but they also include strings. The dedication published on the score of Symphonies reads, To the memory of Claude Achille Debussy reflecting the impact of this composers 1918 death on the still relatively young Stravinsky. An unabashed innovator himself, Stravinskys disregard for established 19thcentury compositional conventions was no doubt inspired, at least in part by Debussys well documented disdain for all things Germanic. The chorale used in this piece originated as a piece for piano that Stravinsky had contributed to an issue of the Paris periodical La Revue Musicale. This particular issue had been dedicated as a memorial to Debussy. The term symphonies used here refers not to the by then well worn musical form, but as Stravinsky described it a n austere ritual which is unfolded in term s of short litanies between groups of homogenous instruments.6 Indeed, Stravinskys textural use of the unusual harm onies in this piece reflects Debussys own innovative use of harmony outside of standard tonal pra c tices. English composer Harrison Birtwistle lauded the piece, stating that, I think that the 6 Igor Stravinsky, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002, 32.


89 Sy m phonies of Wind Instruments is one o f the great masterpieces of this century and certainly one of its most original, in that its to do with juxtaposition of material without any sense of development.7 One of the unique aspects of Symphonies is Stravinskys use of orchestration to hel p ide ntify and distinguish his themes. His skilled use of the instruments in his ensemble, even in the closing chorale section resulted in an expanded dimension of depth and individual expressivity. These qualities are absent from the original piano chor ale, it having but a singular timbre throughout. It seems clear that Stravinsky decided at the onset that the piece would conclude with t his chorale in honor of Debussy. Working backwards, he composed the other sections using the chorales harmonic conte nt as source material for the development of his motives. In his book Stravinsky: The Composer and his Works author Eric Walter White identifies four episodes that make up the piece: 1. Two Russian Popular Melodies 2. Pastorale 3. Wild Dance 4. Chorale8 There are at least nine identifiable motives that recu r in various guises and instrumentations They are: 1. a repeated marcato note in the extreme range of the clarinet (identified by White as the bell motive) 2. a dark, vertical chordal structure (chora le fragment) dominated by the horns 3. a brief fanfare figure 7 Harrison Birtwistle, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Public ations, 2002, 31. 8 Eric Walter White, Stravinsky: The Composer and his Works Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of Cal ifornia Press, 1 966, 253 260.


90 4. a double reed motive (sometimes oboes and English horn, sometimes English horn and bassoons) 5. a lyrical passage in the first flute accompanied only by the other two flutes 6. a plaintive upper re gister solo in the first bassoon 7. a staccato eighth note motive in groupings of threes 8. a lyrical woodwind figure comprised of a dotted eighth note, two 32nd notes, two eighth notes and two more eighth notes preceded by a grace note, and 9. two alternating c hordal structures moving in contrary motion T he se motives are as much identified by their orchestration s as they are by their musi cal content, thus clearly justifying the inclusion of this composition within this study. In addition, Stravinsky explores a number of unusual instrumental combinations, providing many examples of unique colors and textures. Sy m phonies of Wind Instruments was premiered in London by Se r ge Koussevitsky on June 10th, 1921 to lessthanenthusiastic reviews. The audience, used to the richness strings provide to the orchestra, did not immediately embrace the austerity of the piece, perhaps not recognizing the intentional s olemnity of Stravinskys post mortem for Debussy. Also absent from the piece is the sweeping romanticism audien ces had come to expect, replaced instead by a sober objectivity. After the debut performance, Stravinsky himself commented, It lacks all those eleme nts that infallibly appeal to the ordinary listener. It is futile to look in it for passionate impu lse or d ynamic brilliance.9 Like so many great works, only the perspective of time has allowed this piece to be recognized and embraced as a significant contribution to both the orchestra and wind band lexi cons. 9 Stravinsky, quoted in Eric Walter White, Stravinsky: The Composer and his Works Berkeley and Los Angelas, CA: University of California Press, 1966, 257 258.


91 Analysis Stravinskys known penchant for r ange extremes is displayed in the opening measures, as the two top clarinets are pushed to the upper limits of the instrument in their expression of this bell motive : Figure 3 -1 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 1 -6, opening bell motive Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission The difficulty in producing controlled sounds on the clarinet in this register is exacerbated by the requirement for two players to accomplish this while attempting to match pitch, tone color and intensity. Historically, Stravinsky was unconcerned with challenges such as these he only wished to hear the result, which in this case is a piercing tone color, unobstructed by a very sparse and distant accompaniment. Harmonically, the structure is polychordal: a G dom i nant seventh chord superimposed over displaced dominant and tonic notes in the key of B flat In


92 each case, the upper and lower structures are separated by over an octave, producing a regi s ter as well as a harmonic str atification The effect is one of vacant austerity, presumably an expre ssion of Stravinskys own personal loss over the death of Debussy. Interesting to note here is that the 1920 version begins with measures of 5/8 meter instead of alternating 2/8 and 3/8 measures. Perhaps Stravinsky was prompted to make this adjustment to alleviate difficulties he encountered in his own experience conduct ing the piece. Also missing from this version is the fermata at the end of the first phrase, replaced instead with specific note lengths. This conforms to Stravinskys well documented insistence on precise tempo and styli stic accuracy in performances of his works. The level of detail with regard to articulations, slurs note lengths and dynamics just in these first few measures is evidence of his exacting standards. R ehearsal number 1 marks the first appearance of the vertical structure (chorale fragment) that is repeated several times over the course of the composition a chordal signature, which is the second o f the recurring motive s. This chord is a transposed version of the one that begins the chorale originally written for Debussy :


93 Figure 32. Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 7 11, first chordal signature Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son ( London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission


94 This is an unusually voiced chord, a B flat dominant seventh chord with a flatted ninth e xtension added in the lower register. In conventionally voiced extended dominant chords, the upper extensions are typically voi ced above middle C for clarity. This use of a flatted ninth in the lower octave creates a tritone with the fifth degree of the chord just below it, resulting in a dark, unse t tled quality. In addition, the chords key center of E flat a fourth above the preceding bass note in the trombone produces a half cadence effect that contribut es to the instability. Orchestrationally, the doubling of notes throughout the structure by unlike instruments creates a more complex timbre and thus a more texturally inter esting sound than would chord tones played by single instruments. The choice of bassoons for the bass note is curious, partic ularly with the availability of the contrabassoon, which has instead been assigned to the fifth above the bass This lower B flat bass note is completely missing from the 1920 version. In a ddition, the short articulated chords at the end of some of these repetitions appear only in the brass in the original version; in the 1947 revision, these chords are fully orchestrated The ove rall e ffect of these moments is dense and unsettl ing, a marked contrast to the vacancy of the ope ning measures. A short lyrical fragment from the chorale combining double reeds and conical bore brass, precedes a single iteration of the signature chord, and then another chorale fragment. R e hearsal number 2 is a re barred repeat of the opening passage minus the first measure. At r ehearsal number 3, there is a moment of frivolity (identified as a short fanfare by Robert Craft in his video, The Final Chorale10), achieved through temporarily smaller note values and open fifth dyad s moving in contrary motion: 10 Robert Craft in The Final Chorale DVD, Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanitie s and Sciences, 1999.


95 Figure 3 -3 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 18 -22, fanfare Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission In this passage and also ones preceding it, Stravinsky uses sustained pitches in the trumpet to accentuate the articulation of short woodwind figures. To the listener, t his gives an impression of the figures being suspended in midair. Stravinsky is ver y specific in his indications of metric relationships between the continually changing time signatures. This seemingly innoc uous bit of music is the third motive, which turns out to be much more of a compositional force later in the piece. Rehearsal number 4 features the same material as rehearsal letter 1, but it has been altered slightly and extended. There are more repetitions of the signature chord at rehearsal number 5, al though this time played over an E bass note. These are followed by th is two me asure lyr ical /rhythmic passage played by the u pper double reeds: Figure 3 -4 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 28 -29, double -reed motive Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission


96 Th is, the fourth motive, a brie f descending passage, is almost always scored using some combination of double reeds This gives the passage and orchestrational as well as musical identity. The angular harmony used here is suggestive of the ballet scores from Stravinskys Russian per i od, particularly The Rite of Spring (1913). The absence of percussion in Symphonies allows Stravinsky to display his ability to create a rhythmic pulse using only the wind instruments. This technique is also used by Stravinsky in The Adoration of the Ear th from The Rite of Spring. Both t he preceding passage and this one at rehearsal number 6 are good exa m ple s : Figure 3 -5 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 30 -34, flute section passage Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission Here at the beginning of the second episode (the Pastorale), Stravinsky uses only the flute section to sustain the melodic, harmonic and rhythmic interest. This passage is the f if th motive. The interval s between the lower voice and th e two upper voices suggest another polytonal rel ationship, a G flat major scale over a D bass note The second measure contains a hocket effect with one of the melody notes assigned to the second flute. In addition, there is a clever rhythmic modulation a c complished through a twoequals three eighthnote relationship. The 1920 version has this expressed as quarter note equals dotted quarter note, which is not as clear a definition for either the conductor or the performers. The effect to the listener is an apparent shift from simple to compound meter, but an examination of the score reveals the true methodology. The passage at rehearsal number 6 has also been re barred, eliminating the 4/4 measures and repla c-


97 ing them with 2/4 and 3/4 measures. This texture continues into rehearsal number 8, where a new voice is added: Figure 3 -6 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 40 -46, bassoon solo Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission A harmonic and rhythmic shift accompanies the entrance of the solo bassoon on this mel ody, which is the six th motive The 1920 version has this line assigned to the alto flute. Stravi nskys decision to reassign it to the bassoon profoundly changes the character of the solo, from subdued and somewhat detached to plaintive and urg ent This use of the bassoons extreme u pper register is reminiscent of the solo that begins Stravinskys The Rite of Spring, a similarly plaintive statement. Stravinskys use of legato marks in this excerpt seems to suggest added weight on the articulation of the flute accompaniment notes rather than delineating the note lengths. The breath marks sep a rating the se notes are new to the 1947 version. Following this passage is a repeat of the opening bell motive though transposed down a half step. Leading into rehearsal number 11, material from measures 11 12 is repeat ed though transposed up a half step. These shifts of tonality seem to be intuitive, merely accommodations for Stravinsky to get from place to place in the compositional unfolding of the piece. The last two beats of measure 54 are a brief reference to the fourth motive. A tempo change, indicated Pi mosso (Tempo IIo) and a metrical shift from duple to triple mensurations accompany this sombe r passage. Stravinsky indulges i n a bit of tone painting here:


98 Figure 3 -7 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 55 -60, tone painting Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission The open fifths voicings in the doubl e reeds, combined with the dotted quarter note rhythms in the trombones, suggest the tolling of a clock tower, as if for a f uneral procession. Interesting to note is the ability of the double reed instruments to mimic brass sounds when used in combination with them, especially the oboe and English horn, which, in measures 5557, sound remarkably like trumpets.


99 At measure 58 the seventh motive, a figure comprised of staccato eighth notes grouped in threes, appears in the trumpets The shift to a quicker tempo that occurs at measure 55 is temp orarily di s guised by the dotted quarter note rhythms in the trombones until the appearance of the eighth notes in the trumpets. Although measure 58 is a combination of brass and woodwind i nstruments, the brass timbr es dominate, with the woodwind voices functioning simply as upper e xtensions of the texture. One of the recurring characteristics of Stravinskys music is the technique of stratification, that is, the use of differing musical elements superimposed ove r each other. This passage is a good example It is comprised of three distinct strata: the dotted half notes of the double reeds and third trumpet, the dotted quarter notes of the trombones, and the trumpet eighthnote figure, a ccomp a nied by the clarine ts and horns. Also curious is the voice crossing between the first and second trumpets in measure 58, which also occur s in measures 61 and 63, where the s even th motive is repeated and d e veloped. T hough the voices cross, the timbre difference disting uishing the players sti ll allows the firstpart player s line to be heard clearly. This technique appears only in the revised score, not the original version, perhaps indicative of Stravinskys continued evolution throughout his c a reer. The sounds used here are Debussy like, in that chordal structures are used texturally, rather than as part of any particular harmonic scheme. This is a good illustration of the break from Germanic tradition that characterizes the music of both Debussy and Stravinsky. Stra vinsky provides instrumental variety in measures 6470, as the eighth note motive in the brass (motive seven) is mimicked by the double reeds, and then further developed. It is an almost mockingbird like effect, with the second figure playfully poking fun at the first. The di s-

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100 sonant harmonies also help to generate a harmonically neutral avian quality, not unlike the music of Olivier Messiaen which follow ed years later At rehearsal number 15, the eighth motive is introduced in the flute and then repeated an octave higher in the next measure by the first clarinet: Figure 3 -8 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 71 -73, eighth motive Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission T he extended passage beginning with these measures is one that was re orchestrated, su bstituting a soprano flute for the alto flute of the 1920 version, and the second B flat clarinet for the alto clarinet Though the actual not es are identical, the register difference s of the higher pitched i nstruments produce a much more delineated effect to the individual lines. Whereas the alto flute and alto clarinet produced a much more blended and homogenous effect beneath the upper range first clarinet lines, the replacement instruments of the 1947 ve rsion are more distin ctive in tone changing the character of this entire section. Also, the first clarinet is much more strident and co ntrasting in the earlier version when compared to the darker toned alto flute and alto clarinet. Throughout this Pasto rale section, Stravinsky intersperses brief moments of contrasting textures, providing a great variety of sounds. His affinity for the exotic quality of the double reeds is displayed by his intermittent use of them in several places during this passage. In this

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101 piece, as in most of his works, Stravinsky continually changes the metrical placement of figures to maintain a rhyt hmic ambiguity. Rehearsal number 21 is a good example: Figure 3 -9 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 99 -102, double reeds fragment Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission Stravinsky emphasizes the eighth note displacement of his double reed figure (a nother variation of the s even th motive ) by extending beams across the bar lines. His use of the second and third flutes to accentuate this figure demonstrates a technique he uses several times in the composition. Whereas the second flute plays full length notes, the third flute plays only short, accented notes at the beginnings of the groupings, providing a wind instrument version of percussion rei nforcement. T his excerpt is another example of Stravinskys use of stratification, this time achieved through the contrasting of smooth, lyrical passages against articulated marcato ones. Th e lower register flute/clarinet texture continues until it is interrupted at rehearsal nu mber 26, where low double reeds in quarter notes repeat the fourth motive. This produces a so mber transition into yet another appearance of the bell motive, this time transp osed down a minor

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102 third. Chorale fragments follow as before, with a brief four not e phrase in the dark timbred co nical bore horns and tuba at rehearsal number 28. This short passage provides a sharp co ntrast to the bright timbre of the clarinets and dou ble reeds. The fourth motive appears again in mea s ures 132133. The flute/clarinet duet (motive eight) resumes at rehearsa l number 29 and is a l most a verbatim repeat of the earlier section at rehearsal number 15, with only minor variations. The highrang e bassoon solo of rehearsal number 8 (motive six) returns at rehearsal nu mber 38, transposed down a step. Measures 186 187 are yet another rendition of motive four. At rehearsal number 40, the flute theme from rehearsal number 6 (the f if th motive) also r eturns, transposed up a major third. These recurring textures almost suggest an arch form to this Past orale section, though it lacks enough direct repetition to fully fit the description. Still, the sim ilar i ties help to give the piece an overall sense of continuity. Just before the next appearance of the signature chordal structure there is a new texture introduced:

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103 Figure 3 -10 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 194199, ninth motive Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission This intricately colored passage is the ninth motive. It appears for the first time at almost the exact halfway point in the composition. It is a curious tex ture of alternating polychords that is made even more complex through the use of contrary motion and voice crossing, superi mposed against static extremerange notes in the upper and lower voices. A recurring major s econd i nterval in the upper flutes seems to violate basic voicing principles, yet results in an exotic and unique whis tling sound. The choice of woodwinds combined with French horns almost suggests an expanded woodwind quintet. Though there is dissonance, there are no half step

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104 clashes, only whole steps, so the textu re still retains a certain dark, sonorous quality. This pa ssage reappears several times throughout the next session, though altered in some way each time. Rehearsal number 42 features a repeat of the chordal signature (motive two), this time voiced only in the brass. The absence of woodwinds in this rendition yields a more vacant and poignant effect. It is in this guise that the signature chord introducing the compositions final chorale section appears. At rehearsal number 43, there is a fragment of the passage from r ehearsal number 41, though re voice d for a very dark combination of horns and bassoons. A short stat e ment in marcato eight h notes played by cylindrical bore brass seems to be a reference to the seventh motive ( first heard at rehearsal number 21 ) but is in fact a harbinger of the extended rhythmic section that is to come. At 45, a nother brief reference to the passage at 41 leads into a tempo and texture change at 46: Figure 3 -1 1 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 216219, tempo, texture change Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & S on (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission

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105 This passage marks the beginning of the third episode the Wild Dance, establishing the tempo and style for the 60 measures that follow. Stravinskys desire for absolute tempo accuracy is reflected once again by the metrical indication of three equals four eighth notes. These mathematical ratios only appear in the 1947 version; in the original, almost all tempi are indica ted with metronome markings. Perhaps the composer was reacting to performances of the or ig inal version of his piece that did not conform to his exacting e xpectations. Musically, this passage is actually a recreation of the third motive, the short fanfare fi gure first appearing at rehearsal number 3. The last note of the original phrase ap pears to be missing from the score, but listening reveals that it has been transferred to the English horn, which makes a register leap to complete the idea. The next several measures are a series of short passages in a steady eighth note rhythm, but with continually changing time signatures, yielding a texture of irregularly accented phrases. The instrumentation changes from phrase to phrase, alternating between bassoons alone, conical bore brass, and bassoons in combination with oboes and English horn. Each fragment in this passage appears to be some variation of the third motive. The harmonic language and rhythmic movement are again very suggestive of The Adoration of the Earth from Stravinskys The Rite of Spring. Modern listeners might also compa r e this section with the Profa nation movement from Leonard Bernsteins Symphony No. 1 Jeremiah (1942). At rehearsal number 51, a larger ensemble plays:

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106 Figure 3 -1 2 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 242244, larger ensemble Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission The strident sounds here are the result of harmonic dissonances as well as orchestration. There is a three part stratification of tonali ties: A major on the top, D major in the middle and A flat m ajor at the bottom. This creates an open quartal structure in the upper instruments that reacts with the displaced open fifths of the lower instruments, resulting in dissonant major seventh and m inor ninth intervals. Textural interest is added by the trad ing of voices within the sections be-

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107 tween two pitches. A melody is established in the first horn, the single instrument within the structure not confined to only two pitches. This phrase is repeated three times, interrupted after the first iteration by th e double reeds fragment from the earlier section This is an overlapping technique designed to join the sections t ogether in a less obvious way. After an absence of over 200 measures, t he full ensemble finally plays again at rehearsal number 54: Figure 3 -1 3 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 257264, full ensemble Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd., Reprinted by permission

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108 Stravinsky uses silence effectively to signal this powerful statement, pausing just before it for a full b eat. This longer rest stands out against the previous extended series of phrases, none of which are separated by more than an eighth rest. Though the melodic contour is altered, the rhythm is ide ntical to the figure heard just previously at rehearsal num ber 51. The striking effect Stravinsky achieves harmonically here is the result of polychords mo ving in a parallel planing motion, a technique common to Debussys music. Whereas Debussy used planing with more consonant structures (as in his Nuages fro m Nocturnes, 1899) th is use of more dissonant polychords moving in parallel motion is Stravinskys own personal twist on the technique. The first structure at 54 is an A major chord in the trumpets, superimposed over C major in the lower instruments Th e melodic movement here however suggests not A, but D m ajor or the mixolydian mode on A. Orchestrationally, the upper woodwinds are used only as accent figures, in open fifths that correspond to the overall D major tonality. The resul t is an inverted ped al point, with the repea ted tones occurring at the top instead of the bottom of the structure. This is another example of percussionlike reinforcement using only wind instruments. The overall effect of this passage is one of anger and frustration, perha ps Stravinskys own over the loss of Debussy, who was an important and innovative voice in the world of composition. The sounds here are again remini scent of The Rite of Spring and mark this music unmistakably as that of Stravinsky. A moment of repose is provided at rehearsal number 56 by the return of the chordal signature (motive two) in its vacant brass only mode. A variation of the ninth motive follows at 57, followed by a set of variations on the fanfare (third) motive. A variety of textures is explored in this section, which is a much more subdued wild dance. At rehearsal number 64, this epi-

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109 sode comes to a close, with a final iteration of motive nine over a sustained E flat pedal in the ba s soons and contrabassoon. The last episode, the Cho rale begins at rehearsal number 65 Here the actual form of the piece is finally revealed: a theme and variations in reverse : Figure 3 -1 4 Stravinsky, Symphonies of Wind Instruments m. 310318, chorale Copyright 1926 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd. Reprinted by permission Stravinskys chorale is scored simply and starkly, using brass only (except for the few contrabassoon bass notes) for the first 17 measures. The harmony is a simple G7 chord in second inversion, except for the flatted ninth in th e third trombone. However, that single note and its unorthodox placement within the voicing, is enough to lend a disturbing quality to this otherwise staid and somber statement. Once again, wind instruments are used percussively, as the horns enter only on certain notes to add weight and emphasis. At 66, the tuba assumes the role of ad ding weight, as the bass line is temporarily transferred to the contrabassoon, which blends unobtrusively into the texture. This chorale is an interesting mixture of cons onance and dissonance. While the overall flavor is one of pensive reflection, there are occasional harsh clashes, such as the low register

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110 m a jor seventh in the trombones in measure 318. It seems that Stravinsky wishes to emphasize these clashes orchestra tio nally, rather than masking them. In this instance, he assigns the diss onance to like instruments. This practice generally yields a much more strident effect than dissonances between unlike instruments. He does this again in measure 326, adding extra tension to the flatted ninth interval by voicing both notes in the horns. This creates even more of a diss onance than is pr e sent in the original piano version of the chorale. Stravinskys music is typically filled with viol a tions of standard orchestratio nal practices such as these. This flagrant disregard for convention is just one of the many factors that contribute to its uniqueness. The piece finally comes to rest at measure 368 on a relatively consonant C major ninth chord. This is a particularly r esonant voicing, owing to its construction that closely mimics the harmonic series. In contrast with the angular harmonies that comprise the bulk of the piece, the en ding provides a welcome sense of closure. Conclusions In composing Symphonies of Wind Ins truments for orchestral winds, it seem s clear that Stravinsky did not consider this to be a band piece per se; it certainly does not fit within the established norms of the time for the wind band. In spite of the instances of chamber style wri ting in th e Holst First Suite this practice was still uncommon in most band writing. By taking an idiosyncratic approach to the ensemble Stravinsky ma de significant contributions both in the area of instrumental color and in the use of families of instruments to provide textural var i ety. In addition to its challenging harmonic language and generally austere character, many of the instruments go for long periods without playing. Most wind bands even today would be frustrated by the fact that Stravinsky rarely depl oys the full compl e ment of available instruments in th is piece. This is music that is intend ed to project a complex sent i ment, and is not constructed for the gratification of the individual musician.

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111 Nonetheless, the impact of Symphonies of Wind Instruments can be felt in the music of many future composers, not the least of whom was Leonard Bernstein, whose Symphony No. 1 Jeremiah (1942) co ntains strong references to this piece. The reverse theme andvariations form is explored again in the last piece wit hin this study, Donald Granthams Fantasy Variations ( 1999) 4. Lincolnshire Posy Percy Aldridge Grainger, C omposed 1937 Instrumentation 1987 score: Piccolo Flute I Flute II Oboe I Oboe II English H orn B assoon I Bassoon II C ontrabassoon E flat C la rinet B flat C larinet I B flat C larinet II B flat Clarinet III E flat A lto clarinet B flat Bass Clarinet B flat Soprano Saxophone E flat A lto S axophone I E flat Alto Saxophone II B flat T enor S axophone E flat Baritone S axophone B flat Bass Saxophone B flat Trumpet I B flat Trumpet II B flat Trumpet III F Horn I F Horn II F Horn III F Horn IV Trombone I Trombone II Bass Trombone B flat Baritone Euphonium T uba String Bass Kettledrums Bass Drum and Cymbals Side Drum Tuneful Percussion (Xylophone, Glockenspiel, Tubular Chimes, Handbells) The reason for the indication 1987 score is that Grainger never provide d a full score to this piece, only a compressed conductor friendly version. Even into the 1970s it was the standard practice for band publishers to provide only condensed scores for their pieces, as they felt conductors would be unable or unwilling to deal with a full score. It was also a way to keep

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112 publishing costs down. Fortunately, publishers of new pieces now ro utinely include a full score. C onsequently, potential band leaders are now trained at colleges and conservatories in how to read and manage these scores. The edition used for this study was prepared by former Eastman Wind Ensemble conductor Frederick Fennell (assisted by numerous collaborators), after a long period of painstaking r esearch into the piece. It is now available along with a complete set of updated and corrected parts from Ludwig Music (cat. #SBS 250). The original set of parts published i n 1940 by Schott & Co., Ltd. was found to be fraught with wrong notes and other inconsistencies numbering over half a thousand according to Fennell .11 This required the use of extended lists of errat a the most authoritative of which was produced by Fennell himself, for an accurate performance of the piece. This piece conforms very closely in instrumentation to Fennells original 1952 Eastman Wind Ensemble (see p. 24), and is very likely one of the pieces that prompted his formation of the group. Partic ularly notable is the inclusion of both the soprano and bass saxophones, for ming a complete saxophone choir within the ensemble. Graingers love of the saxophone, partic ularly the soprano, is well documented, as he felt these instruments most closely rese mbled the human voice, especially in their potential for expressivity. Like Holst, Grainger also includes both the treble clef baritone and the bass clef euphon ium, possibly to conform to the conventions of the British brass band, for which he also wrote It should be mentioned that in the British tradition, these are two markedly different instruments, both in size and in the character of their sound. F or an accurate rendition of this piece, it would seem neces sary that the two distinct instruments be used, not simply assigning both parts to the 11 Frederick Fennell, from his performance notes accompanying the score, Grainger, Percy Aldridge, Lincolnshire Posy ed. Frederick Fennell, 2, (Cleveland, OH: Ludwig Music Publishing, Inc., 1987).

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113 more co m monlyused euphonium (as often happens). With the increase in brass band activity in the U.S., the smaller instrument has become more readily available, so purists are now freer to i ndulge this peculi arity. There are only three trumpet parts indicated on the score however the presence of divisi in each part suggests that at least six players are required, one more than Fennell provides in his original Eastman instrumentation. Although Lincolnshire Posy is generally considered to be a piece for the full band, t he score examination that follows will reveal some of Fennells motiv ations for wanting to perform it with the wind ensemble. As evidenced by his recordings with both the Eastman group and the Tokyo Kosei Wind Orchestra, t he transparency and enhanced expressive capabilities of his wind ensembles reduced numbers were able to add a new dimension to the piece. Background Like his fellow composers Gustav Holst and Ralph Vaughan Williams, Percy Gra inger was a collector of English folk tunes. A lecture given in 1904 by another col lector, Lucy Broadwood sparked Graingers interest He would take trips out into the countryside on foot, armed with a wax cylinder recorder and would solicit vocal performances from anyone willing to cooperate. Some of these tunes form the movements of Lincolnshire Posy Among Graingers innovative contributions to the composition world was a willingness to allow melodies to exist in their original metrical form, instead of attempting to reconcile them to a regular meter. This propensity is demonstrated in Lincolnshire and resulted in some frustr a tion on the part of conductors and musicians attempting early performances of the piece. Indeed, Graingers own consternation with the state of band musicians at the time is reflected in the fo llowing quote from his original 1937 published score:

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114 Bandleaders need not be afraid of the two types of irregular rhythms met with in the Li ncolnshire Posy : those conveyed by changing t ime signatu res in Rufford Park Poachers, and those (marked Free Time) left to the band leaders volition in Lord Melbourne. Both these types lie well within the powers of any normal high school band. The only players that are likely to balk at thos e rhythms are seasoned professional bandsmen, who think more of their beer than their music.12 Lincolnshire Posy was the result of a commission by the American Bandmasters Associ ation for two new pieces to be premiered at their upcoming 8th annual conventi on in Milwaukee, WI. Grainger responded with Lincolnshire Posy, and a new march, The Lads of Wamphray The first performance s of these pieces, given by the Milwaukee Symphonic Band under Graingers baton on Sunday, March 7, 1937, featured only three of t he movements of Lincolnshire due to the difficulties presented by this (at the time) unconventional work. Graingers communications with Joseph Bergeim (the conventions organizer) indicate that Grainger had originally planned to perform five movements of the L incolnshire Posy Unfortunately, Rufford Park Poachers and Lord Melbourne were dropped from the program due to performance issues that could not be overcome by the musicians who were not accustomed to Graingers innovative style Later on, s ens ing that the composition didnt feel complete to him, Grainger added his adapt a tion of The Lost Lady Found, a song that was not actually collected by Grainger, but by Lucy Broa dwood. The Milwaukee band a professional group sponsored by Local 8 of the American Federation of Musicians was actually a conglomeration of members from other groups assembled for this performance As one of these was the band from the Blatz Brewery American Legion Post th ese musicians could very well be the one s to which Grainger was referring in his previous quote! It is speculated that the first complete performance of L incolnshire Posy may have been 12 Percy Grainger, from To Bandleader s reprinted from the 1937 score, Grainger, Percy Aldridge, Lincolnshire Posy ed. Frederick Fennell, 74, (Cleveland, OH: Ludwig Music Publishing, Inc., 1987).

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115 May 29th of the same year at the New York City Town Hall by the band from the Ernest Wi lliams School of Music Many mode rn conductors prefer to perform this piece with the wind e nsemble, rather than the expanded symphonic band. However, it should be noted that the Mi lwaukee group numbered 84 musicians, almost double the size of Fennells first wind ensemble at Eastman. The ABA concert was a two anda half hour gala, featuring thirteen of the most esteemed conductors of the time, including Henry Fillmore and Karl L. King, both of whom conducted their own marches ( His Honor and Barnum & Baileys Favorite, respectively). T hough most reports of the concert praised it overwhelmingly, not all of the critics were kind regarding Grai ngers new music In a review indicative of the sentiments of band audiences at the time, Richard Davis of the Milwaukee Journal wrote, there is much to be said for the virility and honest directness of the old school band music. When composers attempt too much, as Percy Grainger unmistakably did in the pieces he presented Sunday night there is no gain, but rather a loss.13 Lincolnshire Posy is a s ix movement piece, each movement being an interpretation of a different English folk song. All the songs except the final one were collected by Grainger hi mself from the Lincolnshire area of England. Grainger described the composition as a bunch of musi cal wildflo w ers, hence the title. The six movements are: 1. Lisbon 2. Horkstow Grange 3. Rufford Park Poachers 4. The Brisk Young Sailor 5. Lord Melbourne 6. The Lost Lady Found 13 Richard Davis, quoted in Mark Grauer, Graingers Lost Letters on Lincolnshire Posy The In strumentalist A ugust, 1992, 14.

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116 Each song is a separate story unto itself; Graingers use of form, harmon y, and instrume ntation helps to portray not only the story but also the character of the singer from which the tune was collected Graingers propensity for exotic textures, particularly nasally, bagpipes like sounds, is on full display in this piece. H e uses the double reed instruments extensively, often featuring them prominently. Despite its metric irregularities, Lincolnshire Posy has come to be r e garded as a masterpiece of wind band orchestration. In his book The Winds of Change Frank Battisti com ments: Graingers band orchestration achieves a unique resonance that is both startling and beaut iful. He employs instruments such as the English horn, bass clarinet, bassoon, contraba ssoon and saxophones (soprano to bass) in a manner that reveals new tex tures and co l ors.14 Though Graingers assessment that this piece is within the powers of any normal high school band may be a bit optimistic, Lincolnshire Posy nevertheless holds a unique place of honor within the wind band repertoire and still receives n umerous performances annually. Analysis The six movements of Lincolnshire Posy will be examined separately, making note of any unusual textur es and also how the use of orchestration helps to describe the story and/or singer. As these are not original comp ositions, the study of this piece will also include mention of some of the arranging techniques Grainger used to give the songs depth and meaning. 1. Lisbon (Sailors Song) This song is the tale of a sailor and his lady who must be separated because of t he mans duty to king and crown. Revealing that she is with child, she offers, I'll cut my long yellow hair off, your clothing I'll put on, in order to go to sea with him. He of course protests, fearing for her safety as she professes her undying devotion to him. 14 Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002, 24.

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117 The nautical theme is portray ed here, not only by the 6/8 meter, but also through the use of the mixolydian mode Grainger seems to prefer the key of D flat perhaps for the sonorities it yie lds; many of his other pieces are also in this key. Th e first texture appearing in the piece is well known to those familiar with Lincolnshire Posy It is the songs melody harmonized using m a jor chords planing in parallel motion: Figure 4 -1. Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, first movement m. 1 -5, Li sbon theme Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission This distinctive combination of bassoons and muted brass produces an exotic nasal qua lity that is further heightened by the parallel c hordal movement. This is impressionist style pla ning as exemplified by the music of Debussy. Grainger emphasizes the lower line as the melody by doubling the bassoons and horn against single line harmonies in the muted trumpets. In the firs t of his th ree article series on Lincolnshire Posy ( The Instrumentalist, May, Sept., and Oct. 1980), Fennell cautions against potential balance problems with this passage, pointing out that, the horn and bassoon dont always grow with ease in many a band directors country ga rden.15 15 Frederick Fennell, in Percy Aldridge Graingers Lincolnshire Posy: An Interpretive Analysis, The Instrumentalist May 1980, 14.

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118 A dash of color and rhythmic reinforcement appears at measure 14, with an eighth note figure in the horn and upper saxophones. Graingers gift for sublime woodwind scoring is revealed at mea s ure 18, with the second iteration of the tune : Figure 4 -2 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, first movement m. 18 -21, Lisbon theme, second iteration Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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119 In spite of the apparent complexity of this texture, there are in fact only five different m usical lines, but each is doubled in at least two octaves. Contrapuntal interest is supplied by the line in the oboe English horn, alto clarinet and alto saxophone that mov es in contrary motion to the mel ody. The bouncing equestrian feel is enhanced by the comparatively active bass line in the lower instruments, reinforced every two measures by the kettle drums (Fennells preferred te r minology to timpani). Shortened quarter notes resulting from the de tached indication are also a contributing factor. The overall tone quality is reedier than usual for a full woodwind se ction due to the use of double reeds on the moving lines and also to the addition of the sax ophones. The darker toned euphonium blends easily with the woodwind choir, but the trumpets with their brighter timbre, stand out at measures 28 29, reinforcing the descending countermel ody. Grainger varies the B phrase of the melodys AABA form by introducing slurred lines in some instr uments The overall style becomes smoother and more lyrical beginning at measure 34, as the texture thins to only clarinets and bassoons for the third repetition of the melody. Grainger introduces a surprise element in the third measure of the phrase:

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120 Figure 4 -3 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, first movement m. 34-42, Lisbon theme, third iteration Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission The melody that suddenly interrupts the Lisbon theme a t measure 36 is actually a phrase from another folk tune, The Duke of Marlborough. Though this sound is unquestionably dominated by the French horns, the addition of the saxophones (not actually detectable in a properly balanced rendition ) serves to fat ten up the sound. The single trumpet however is audible and adds a note of brilliance to the heroicly [sic] performed statement. This excerpt is a good opportunity to note that the stylistic indicato r s that Grainger uses (gently, louden, etc.) all a ppear in English, rather than the more commonlyused Italian. Grainger was of the opinion that everyone except the Brit ish, Scandinavians and Dutch were

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121 fo reigners, hence he refused to conform to the standard practice of using Italian for written i ndic ations in his music, preferring what he called blue eyed English.16 Even Graingers use of English reveals a certain eccentricity. In his interactions with Grainger as a student at Wayne State University, longtime University of Illinois band director H arry Begian recalls that Graingers speech, was sprinkled with invented words: undowithout able, intuneness, art skills .17 etc. These made up words inevitably made it into his scores, as Graingers uncompromising musical sensibilities dic tated. Grai nger often use d chromaticism in his arrangements; there are instances of it in the ha rmony lines accompanying the melody between measures 34 and 40. They add richness and i nterest to the harmonic content as well as serving as a n engaging contrapuntal ele ment. Grai ngers affinity for metric variation is apparent in his use of hemiola within the superimposed Duke of Marlborough melody. Though the full battery of instruments is available to him, Grai nger opts to exclude the trombones and most of t he percus sion from this movement, not feeling obl igated to use them just to keep the players occupied. For the fourth and final iteration of Lisbon, Grainger drops the melody down an octave into the clarinets lower register, which thins the texture to only three voices: the melody, a countermelody and a sustained A flat in the flutes and second alto saxophone. There are occasional reminders of the heroic horn statement appearing as fragments performed as if from afar su ggesting perhaps that the sailor has left port and that the horns are but a distant memory. Grainger employs some alternate harmonizations resulting from his chromatic meanderings as the 16 Thomas Slattery, Percy Grainger: The Inveterate Innovator Evanston, IL: The Instrumentalist Co., 1974, 156. 17 Harry Begian, Remembering How Grainger Conducted Lincolnshire Posy, The Instrumentalist August 1992, 18.

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122 movement dwindles to a close. The upanddown chromatic lines combined with dynamics that rise and fall accor d ingly, generate a sensation of the motion of waves in the ocean. 2. Horkstow Grange (The Miser and his Man: A local Tragedy) This folk song (named after a farmhouse) relates the rather violent tale of a servant who, after much abuse, attacks and kills his master with a club. The beautiful flowing melody seems more a memorial to the men themselves than a description of the actual events. Grainger co mbines his middle and lower woodwinds with conical bore brass to cre ate this well blended s onor i ty:

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123 F igure 4 -4 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, second movement m. 1 -5, Horkstow Grange theme Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission As before, there is not an abundance of separate lines her e (only four) it is the doubling of voices, with woodwind and brass timbre s interacting that creates the richness. The melody

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124 line is actually a combin ation of three instrument types: the upper saxophones, French horns and tre ble clef baritone; yet the y blend superbly. Note that Grainger uses the lowest available note of the soprano saxophone ; its character in this register add s a certain poignancy to the lyrical mel ody. The 5/4 measures in this instance seem an accommodation for exten ding th e termina l notes of the phrases. P erhaps they are an individual interpretation added by the singer from which Grainger collected this mel ody. Harmonically, it is clear that Grainger is not bound by voice leading techniques of the past: parallel fifths abound, espe cially in the lower voices. This simulation of the lower partials of the ha r monic series is quite common in Graingers voicings. It is this technique that often results in the deep, res onant sonority of his writing. Curiously, our 21stcentury ears are not bothered in the least by this apparent breach of convention. Indeed, our popular music and jazz is filled with such para l lelism. The second rendition of the tune at measure 10 transposes the melody up an octave (two, including the piccolo doubling), w here the upper woodwinds take the lead. The pairing of oboe and clarinet on the melody (which some orchestration texts caution against) results in a reedy quality, though it is not unpleasant. The passing major seventh in the harmony of measure 12 is par ticularly beautiful. Also effective is the extended crescendo that anticipates the tonic chord at measures 13 14. A lowered seventh has been added to this chord; hence it now func tions as a V7 of IV. This second version of the song ends unresolved at measure 17. Here, there is a ha r monic substitution: an F flat major seventh chord instead of the expected V chord. This pr olonged use of the major seventh chord is yet another example of the influence of I mpressionism on early 20th century composers:

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125 F igure 4 -5 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, second movement m. 17-21, Horkstow Grange theme, third presen tation Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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126 The third appearance of the melody appears in the solo trumpet at measure 20 transposed to the key of A flat This key, superimposed over the F flat major seventh chord, is an example of harmonic stratification, not unlike that found in Stravinsky. Emotionally, it produces a dark quality, represen tative of the disturbing aspect of the Horkstow story. Note the subtle added te nsion of the softly rolling snare drum and the complexity of the staggered releases as the texture is thinned to accommodate the trumpet soloist. Grainger makes eff ective use of triplets to pr oduce a rhythm i cally interesting and harmonically beautiful hemiola texture on the second half of this melody in measures 2627. For the fourth and final iteration of the tune, it is transposed back up to the original key, takin g advantage of the strong tonic dominant relationship set up by the previous modulation. Grainger uses a pedal point in the bass instruments to dramatic effect, and then slowly moves chromatically downward toward the climax point at measure 34:

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127 Figure 4 -6 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, second movement m. 34 -37, ending Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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128 Grainger maximizes the drama at the peak of the final phrase through the use of a diss onant F dominant seventh chord with sharped ninth and flatted thirteenth extensions. This ha rmonic structure thoroughly expresses the anger and grief of the story portrayed. Although composers in other genres were even more harmonically adventurous t his would have been a very unusual chord for a wind band piece of 1937. This structure however, now commonly appears in contemporary jazz language. Grainger ends this piece appropriately with the half cadence suggested by the melodys final note, a fittingly unsa t isfactory conclusion to this sordid tale. Notice Graingers use of accents, and a variety of differing dynamic levels in a complex scheme, designed to bring out specific elements as they are presented over time. At one point in measure 35, there are f and pp dynamics happening simultaneously. Always a passionate mus ician, whether as performer or composer, Grainger was not afraid to utilize extremes at each end of the dynamic scale; both fffff and ppppp levels appear with in his works as wel l as the grad ations in between Of course these indications must be considered within the context of the surrounding music, and must always be interpreted within the boundaries of musical taste. 3. Rufford Park Poachers (Poaching Song) T he term poaching here refers to illegal hunting within a publicly or privately owned game preserve. In Europe, the very wealthy would sometimes purchase large tracts of land, pr ohibiting hunting there. This would preserve the stock of game, ensuring the success of the owners hunting expeditions. Unauthorized hun t ing in a preserve contained the added thrill of evading capture by keepers, ward ens hired by the estates owner. This aspect accounts for the surre p titious quality of this movement. Th is tune describes a confrontation between a group of poachers who are fighting for the rights of the poor man, and the keepers who are de fending their masters turf.

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129 When Grainger collected this song, its singer offered up two different versions. Unable to decide which of the two he preferred for Lincolnshire Grainger has included both, allowing the conductor himself to choose. This oddity, along with the technical challenges here in, has som etimes resulted in reluctance to include this movement when performing the piece. I t is however, one of the more intriguing bits of wind band music, both in i ts construction and in its use of orchestration. Although Grainger reportedly preferred the second version, t he first version seems to be the one most often performed (even in conc erts conducted by Grainger himself!), hence this is th e version th is study will address. The movement opens with two separate renditions of the melody, superimposed over each other, but with one lagging a full quarter note behind the other. This is possibly a device Grai nger used to represent the poachers being trac ked by the wardens The choice of instrument al combinations piccolo with clarinet, and E flat clarinet with bass clarinet is not unusual unto i tself. However, having each combination separate d by t hree octaves, and the displaced rend i tions themselves sounding an octave apart lends an eerie, exotic quality to the pa s sage: Figure 4 -7 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, third movement m. 1 -6, Rufford Park melody in canon Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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130 The complexity of this movement is apparent from the outset, as both conductor and pe rformers are faced with shifting regular and irregular time signatures, requiring f rom them an unswerving inner sense of rhythmic subdivision. Here is an example of Graingers refusal to re concile the folk singers performance to a more manageable time signature purely for the sake of the instrum e ntalists. In addition, he has not simpl y relied on the band musicians natural i nstincts but has pr ovided a very detailed plan for the shaping of the phrase. For the second iteration of the melody at rehearsal number 18, Grainger exploits the wide range of timbres available within the trumpet f amily, contrasting the mellow tone quality of the flugelhorn against the gritty rasping of a muted trumpet. Clarinets bassoons and contrabasses provide a suitably neutral chordal background, their tone color not detracting from the solo i nstruments. Note the subtle color reinforcement provided by the English horn at measure 19, where the harmony shifts downward. Notice also Graingers melodic shift from the Dorian lo wered seventh, up to the natural seventh in measure 43 to conclude the flugelhorn solo. Grainger slowly layers in brass sounds, beginning with the French horns and euphonium at measure 44. He then adds the trombones and trumpets, first as melodic instr uments, and later harmonic ally, leading into the first full ensemble moment at measure 50. The b ass drum pr ovides an authoritative punctuation on the downbeat. At measure 51, Grainger uses the trumpets in a unique textural role:

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131 Figure 48. Grainger Lincolnshire Posy third movement m. 5156, trumpet texture Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 44110 1999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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132 Clearly, the folk singer rendered a much more dramatic third verse to his tune, which Grainger communicated through this darker, denser orchestration. For the trumpets, Grainge r indicates, Triple tongue as fast as possible; no set number of notes to the beat. This texture of indeterminate rhythm could be considered the brass equivalent of the string tremolo. Here it suggests a sort of nervous trembling, representing perhaps the danger sensed by the poachers. The divisi part in the trumpets confirms that this is not wind ensemble piece by de f inition (one player per part), but that the trumpets as well as the clarinets must be doubled. This passage also provides another illust ration of Graingers use of layered dynamics to control shifting instrumental co lors within the overall texture. This technique can be used for drawing out ce r tain sounds at certain points, and then withdrawing them back into the ensemble. Grainger place s extra emphasis on the leading tone that co nclud es the melody at measure 62, as if to defy the lowered seventh of the original melody. After the movements menacing climax at measure 69, Grainger offers up a more concili atory rendition of the tune shif ting the key to D flat major. For the melody, he us es a soothing co m bination of French horns, baritone and saxophones, as if the lyric revealed at this point some sort of resolution to the conflict in the narrative. Grainger weaves his typical chromatically moving stream of underlying harmony in an uneasy tapestry finally resolving the melody at measure 83 as the sixth scale degree of D flat To close the movement, there is a return to the atmosphere of the opening passage. Grai nger further increases t he sense of mysticism by engaging in some Stravinskian stratific a tion :

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133 Figure 4 -9 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, third movement m. 85 -90, Quint effect Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by per mission By separating the solo lines by an octave plus a perfect fifth, Grainger has simulated an organ stop known as a quint where the fundamental pitches are accompanied by a parallel line a perfect fifth, or a fifth plus an octave higher. It is a simple trick, yet highly effective in produc ing an exotic quality. The choice of instruments here ( piccolo, oboe, bassoon, and E flat clar i net ) also contribute s to the atmosphere, as well as the stratification of F major and D flat major tona lities. 4. The Brisk Young Sailor (who returned to wed his True Love) Grainger first heard this tune in 1906, but never used it until this setting in Lincolnshire Posy It relates the tale of a sailor who returns to his betrothed after seven years at sea, only to not be recognized by her. Only when he produces a love token from around his neck does she

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134 happily realize it is him. Though the tune originally had seven stanzas, Graingers setting i ncludes five repetitions, each with a different treatment based presumably on the sentiments expressed by the lyrics. Following the words while listening to Graingers treatments in succession reveals which variation co r responds to which stanza. The lyrics are as follows: A fair maid walking all in her garden, a brisk young sa ilor she chanced to spy, He stepped up to her thinking to woo her, cried thus: Fair maid, can you fancy I? You seem to be some man of honor, some man of honor you seem to be, I am a poor and lowly maiden, not fitting, sir, your servant for to be. Not fitting for to be my servant? No, I've a greater regard for you. I'd marry you, and make you a lady, and I'd have servants for to wait on you. I have a true love all of my own, sir, and seven long years he's been gone from me, But seven more I will wait for him; if he's alive, he'll return to me. If seven long years thy love is gone from thee, he is surely either dead or drowned, But if seven more you will wait for him, if he's alive, then he will be found. He put his hand all in his bosom, his fingers they were both long and small. He showed to her then the true love token, and when she saw it, down then she did fall. He took her up all in his arms, and gave her kisses, one, two and three, Here stands thy true and faithful sailor, w ho has just now returned to marry thee.18 The opening statement of the tune is scored for clarinet choir, with sporadic infusions of color from other instruments: 18 r eprinted from Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias, Lincolnshire Posy, h ttp://

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135 Figure 4 -10. Grainger, Lincolnshire Posy, fourth movement m. 1 -7, Brisk Young Sailor th eme Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission This delightful sound is one only available in the wind band, it being the only large ense mble (outside of an actual clarinet choir) with this m any massed clarinets. It is worth r emember ing here that in the wind ensemble, the B flat clarinets traditionally are doubled. Note the use of the alto clarinet as an indispensible element, without which the harmony would be incomplete. Due to difficult ies in producing consistent tone quality and intonation, t his instrument has since fallen out of favor with modern band composers and is in fact completely absent from many recent scores. Graingers choice of accompanying instruments illustrates his knowle dge of instrumental color and complementary instruments. This passage also reveals Graingers intense attention to detail with regard to note lengths, slurs and articulations. His markings here have produced a

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136 wonderfully nuanced combination of note lengths which combine to yield this lilting melo dic/rhythmic combination. Note again Graingers refusal to use the traditional Italian style indic ators (plucked instead of pizzicato ; Sprightly instead of All e gr ett o). At measure 9, the second repetition of the melody is accompanied by a number of sync opated sixteenth note rhythms, producing an almost ragtime feel. This willingness to incorp orate so called popular styles into what could be considered serious music displays Graingers general disda in f or convention and is also perhaps one of the reasons his music has survived until today. Graingers third iteration of the melody features a contrasting texture of a legato melody in the solo baritone accompanied by a very technical arpeggiated figure in the upper woodwinds: Figure 411. Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, fourth movement m. 1721, Brisk Young Sailor theme third itera tion Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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137 Here is a prime example of the need for an actual British style baritone, as this solo exposure would likely lack the desired lightness of quality if it were performed on the euphonium. Once again, Grainger has infused the passage with carefullyselected reinfor cements of color from the other instruments. Notice the remarkably brilliant effect of the piccolo, as it ventures into the upper reaches of its range. T he f ourth repetition of the melody is a chamber like presentation of the tune in canon, fe a turing (Gra ingers personal favorite) the rarely used soprano saxophone. T he fifth and f i nal version of the tune involves the full ensemble for the first time in this tune The ragtime like rhythms are back, culminating in this memor a ble moment just before the end of the movement:

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138 Figure 4 -12 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, fourth movement m. 38 -43, climax point Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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139 Here at the climax point of the movement, Gra ingers musical representation of the songs text becomes obvious. The sixth stanza of the tune ends with the words, and when she saw it, down then she did fall. After holding on the word it, the music clearly depicts the collapse of the fainting wom an, not only through the contour of the melody, but also Graingers use of craz ily shifting tonalities in the brass at measure 41. The last of these eighth notes is a wonderfully dissonant B7 chord with a sharped 11th extension, functioning as a tritone s ubstitution for the dominant F7 chord. Note the textural interest added by the voice crossing in the trumpets. The decelerating syncopated passage in measure 42 is one of the signature moments of Lincolnshire Posy and one of its most technically challengi ng. Here, the ensemble communication in a performance must be absolutely clear or the passage will fall to pieces. When properly performed, these last few measures perfectly convey the sentiment of the storys apparent happy ending, a masterful stroke of tone painting on the part of Grainger. His final two chords, with their extended harmonies, seem almost a self parody, as though Grainger is winking at his a udience, assuring them that its all in fun. Graingers uncompromising attention to detail is once again on display through these measures, as is his quirky Anglicization of the stylistic indicators (soften, feelingly, In time, etc.). The need for doubled instrumentalists on the clarinet and trumpet parts is once again borne out by the numer ous divisi indications through this passage. 5. Lord Melbourne (War Song) This movement, which has become the bane of many a college conducting student, is eas ily one of the most innovative contributions ever made by Grainger. At a time when bands were hea vily steeped in convention, and living primarily on a diet of marches, overtures, novelty pie ces, and transcriptions of mainstream orchestra works, Grainger boldly threw down the gauntlet, cha l lenging them to venture forth from their comfort zone into a ne w aesthetic.

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140 The original song is a tale of conquests and brave deeds, as told by the stricken war lord on his deathbed. Grainger attempts to recreate his folk singers drunken rendition of the tune (wo nderfully recreated by Frederick Fennell in his rehear sals with the U.S. Navy Band)19 through a combination of free time (his own term ), and a string of unconventional fractioned time signatures. To the seasoned bandsmen who were charged with performing the premiere of Lincol nshire Posy, Grainger must have seemed a madman. Time (and the development of a common practice with regard to its performance) has been a friend to Lord Melbourne, as it no longer is regarded with fear and dis dain, but is now embraced as a worthy part of the wind band repe rtoire. The opening phrase, in Graingers free time is notated as follow s: Figure 4 -13 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, fifth movement m. 1, Lord Melbourne opening statement 19 Frederick Fennell, in Lincolnshire Posy DVD, Lafayette, LA: Channel One Video and Films, 2005.

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141 Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission Graingers nota bene instructs the conductor to direct every note. However, using this method, the accurate rhythmic placement of notes within the triplet figures, particularly those that include syncopations, would be difficult Grai nger himself admit ted that the above passage presents a regrettably disturbing picture to the eye .20 Early in his career Grainger was known to disparage conductors, claiming that all the conductor has to do is to listen to the orchestra, follow along wi th it and look inspired.21 It seems that, at the time, he didnt anticipate his own future expl orations into unconventional m e ters! Orchestration ally, Graingers use of brass only for this statement reflects the heroic nature of the material. He exploits the dissonances of post Romantic harmony to produce some striking clash effects, through the use of major seventh and minor second intervals. Grainger once again departs f rom Germanic tradition with his blatant (but effective) use of parallel fifths G rainger contrasts his stoic first stanza with a breezy restatement of the tune in the sax ophones and solo horn, accompanied by playful syncopations in the clarinets, bassoons and pi zzicato contrabass. For the B section of the AABA for m of the se first two stanzas Grainger uses a string of odd time signatures that could be considered equally disturbing in appearance to conductor and musician. The third stanza A section also includes these unusual time sign atures, as well as some inventive orchestr ations: 20 Percy Grainger, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002, 25. 21 Ibid.

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142 Figure 4 -14 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, fifth movement m. 33 -45, Lord Melbourne theme, third i teration Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission The time signature of 2 ove r 4 is unconventional, to say the least. Whereas the same division of time could be accomplished using 5/8 measures ; perhaps it was Graingers intent to e x-

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143 press to the conductor and musicians precisely how these measures are to be conducted: two full baton strokes followed by a shortened one. Fennell, in his videotaped Navy Band rehearsals a ppear s to disagree, dividing the measures into + 3 groupings.22 In any case, maintaining an awareness of subdivision of the measure for all involved is of paramount importance in negotia ting this and also the other passages where fractionalized time signatures are used. The construction of the transition between phrases at measures 33 35 shows that Grainger was knowledgeable regarding the physical workings of the hu man ear. After the ear is exposed to sounds that are at a loud volume (such as the ensemble chord leading into measure 35), there is a brief transitory period known as threshold shift23 that occurs while the brain readjusts to process softer sounds. Gra inger has used this phenomenon to disguise the entrance of the ppp chord that is sustained into the next section. It is a very effective and engaging trans i tion. Students of orchestration are cautioned early on to avoid voic ing a chord with the interval of a half step at the top of the structure. Yet, Grainger has done exactly that in his French horns, as they su s tain a D minor major ninth chord through measures 35 and 36, with the ninth clashing against the minor third at the top of the voicing. It is a pensive, melancholy sound that provides an appropriate background for the songs third B section, which is played by a solo piccolo and an oboe that are spaced two octaves apart. Note the doubling of the top horn note in the first alto saxophone, confi rm ing that the dissonance is intentional. The first bassoon, providing the bass note, blends well with this combination. 22 Frederick Fennell, in Lincolnshire Posy DVD, Lafayette, LA: Channel One Video and Films, 2005. 23 for a detailed discussion, see Science Notes, T. J. Nelson, Noise Induced Hearing L oss

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144 As the clarinets take over the melody at rehearsal number 44, the half step dissonance a ppears again at the top of the structure, whil e a descending contrapuntal line reacts with the melody. Note that it takes both of the oboes, the soprano and alto saxophones and a muted trumpet to give the descending line enough weight to compete with the sustained melody note in the clar inets. The color difference between the clarinets and the nasal, reedy counter line helps to sep arate the two competing el e ments. At the end of the movement, there are three fully voiced chords that display the wind e nsembles potential for remarkable resonance:

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145 Figure 4 -15 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, fifth movement m. 56 -59, ending Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission

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146 The organlike quality of these chords is achieved through Graingers simulation of the harmonic series in the spacing of the chord tones. Open fifths at the bottom of both the brass and woodwinds mimic the second and third partials of the harmonic series, while the upper chord tones are spaced closer together, similar to the upper harmonics of the series. For clarity, Grainger omits the third of the chord completely from the low brass voicing, so that the lowest third occurs as B3 in the first French horn. Piccolo at the very top also contributes to th is pipe organlike effect as it simulates the u pper octave doubling common to many organ stops. Note again the divisi in the trumpets indica t ing a minimum of six players. 6. The Lost Lady Found (Dance Song) The final folksong in this collection is the only one not personally documented by Grai nger, but was contributed by fellow collector Lucy Broadwood. It is the tale of a girl who is kidnapped from her home in England by gypsies. Her uncle goes looking for her, but instead is charged with her disappearance. He is imprisoned and sentenced to die A squire, who is smi tten with the young woman, searches throughout Western Europe for her, eventually finding her in Dublin. They happily return home, just in time to save her uncle from the hangmans noose. This tune was first set by Grainger in 1910, tone wrought for mixed voices and 9 or more instruments.24 Grainger revives it here as the happy finale for Lincolnshire Posy The melody is suitably folklike in its simple structure and is set in the Dorian mode, as are many such tunes. In comparison with the previous movements, this song is almost disappointing in its conventionality, maintaining the same 3/4 meter throughout. All nine stanzas are presented again using musical references to the co ntent of the narrative. The first statement of the melody is simple and straightforward: 24 Percy Grainger, quoted in Frederick Fennell, Percy Aldridge Graingers Lincolnshire Posy: An Interpretive Analysis, The Instrumentalist May 1980, 26.

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147 Figure 4 -16 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, sixth movement m. 1 -9, Lost Lady Found theme (first stanza) Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A ., Used by permission This reedy combination of clarinets, saxophones and double reeds is one only available in these proportions to the wind ba nd writer. It is a noble sound and one well suited to this provincial tale of loss and redemption. Graingers tempo indication reveals that th e piece is to be conduc ted in one, that is, one baton stroke per 3/4 measure. The use of the dotted quarter note at the ends of the phrases is Graingers indication to the performers for uniformly precise note lengths. T his texture is joined in the second stanza by an accompaniment of short quarter notes that occur on the downbeats of each measure and on beat three of every fourth measure. This rhythm is suggestive of a swashbuckling type of attitu de and is certainly reminiscent of the musical score from a recent series of wildly popular pirate movies. In the third stanza, the accompaniment changes to a figure comprised of quarter notes on beats two and three that are pr e ceded by an eighth note on the anacrusis of beat one. This gives the music a slightly different feel, al most like that of a Viennese waltz.

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148 In the fourth stanza, there is a profound shift in attitude, as the music becomes more flo wing and lyrical. This corresponds to the introduction of the lovelorn s quire, who sets out to re scue the lost girl. The fourth stanza reads: There was a young squire that loved her so, Ofttimes to the schoolhouse together they did go, I'm afraid she's been murdered, so great is my fear. If I'd wings like a dove I would fl y to my dear.25 Figure 4 -17 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, sixth movement m. 49 -57, Lost Lady Found, fourth stanza Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., Used by permission Here, Grainger has returned to his practice of scoring melodies for instruments separated by three octaves. This combination of piccolo and alto clarinet, however, results not in an exotic quality, but more a sense of longing and wistfulness (gently, feelingly). The meandering t hirds in the saxophones set over the sustained ground bass of the lower woodwinds effectively co nvey the wa n derings of the squire as he searches for his love. 25 r eprinted from Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias, Lin colnshire Posy, h ttp://

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149 The story continues to unfold with similar variations until a flash of instrumental color at r ehearsal number 122 signals the upcoming final stanza beginning at measure 130: Figure 4 -18 Grainger Lincolnshire Posy, sixth movement m. 130 -137, final stanza Copyright 1987 by Ludwig Music Publishing Co, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio 441101999 U.S.A., U sed by permission

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150 This triumphant sound was obviously inspired by the passage in the tunes text, The bells they did ring and the music did play. Accented fourths in many of the instruments simulate the ove rtones of a bell while actual bell sounds emanate from the percussion section. Note the heavy doubling of the melody in several octaves, allowing it to compete with the accented longer dur ation notes. Graingers indication tuneful percussion is evidence that in 1937 pitched percussion i nstruments ha d not yet become standard as part of the bands instrumentation. Grainger would no doubt be delighted with the wind band of today, which regularly carries a full barrage of melodic percussion, including bells, xylophone, vibraphone, marimba, chimes, crota les, celesta and sometimes a set of tuned gongs. Graingers forward thinking attitude is reflected in this early use of handbells with the wind band, which today is still relatively uncommon. Conclusions This piece, along with the string of other qualit y pieces for the wind band that Grainger produced, forms his musical legacy As a proponent and staunch advocate of the wind band as a legitimate vehicle for serious artistic expression, Graingers compositions form the crux of his argument. They demonst rate clearly that the wind band is capable of tremendous depth of sound, and that it is virtually unmatched by any other large ensemble in its potential for variety of i nstrumental color. It is sad that Graingers important contributions were not fully re cognized or appreciated during his lifetime. But the passage of time has revealed the impact he has had on the evolution and acceptance of the wind band. Lincolnshire Posy stands as a monument to Graingers co mmitment to his craft, and is sure to survive for as long as there are ensembles to perform it.

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151 5. Theme and Variations Op. 43a, Arnold Schoenberg C omposed 1943 Instrumentation 1944 score: Piccolo in C Flute I Flute II Oboe I Oboe II B assoon I Bassoon II C ontrabassoon C larinet in E flat Cl arinet I in B flat C larinet II in B flat Clarinet III in B flat A lto clarinet Bass Clarinet A lto S axophone I in E flat Alto Saxophone II in E flat T enor S axophone in B flat Baritone S axophone in E flat Cornet I in B flat Cornet II in B flat Trumpet I in B flat Trumpet II in B flat Flugelhorn I in B flat Flugelhorn II in B flat Horn I in F Horn II in F Horn III in F Horn IV in F Trombone I Trombone II Trombone III Baritone (Treble Clef) Euphonium (Bass Clef) Basses and Tubas String Bas s Timpani and Percussion Arnold Schoenbergs Op. 43a presents instrumentation that is much like that of the mo dern wind band. Although at first glance the numbers appear to be specific, the solo indications wit hin the score suggest that Schoenberg was aware of the potential (at this time) for fluctuating numbers of players, particularly in the flute, clarinet, and cornet/trumpet sections. Ther e fore, this piece should be considered a composition for the full band. Schoenberg clearly desired a wide varie ty of available timbres, particularly in his brass sec tion. The presence of flugelhorns, as well as both the baritone and euphonium, is notable. For the two lower instruments mentioned, it is likely that he (as Grainger did in Lincolnshire P osy) intended the two very different instruments that are both present in the British brass band. Their timbres and characters are distinctive; merely performing both parts on todays standard

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152 euphoniums would seem to diminish from the composers intent, yet that is a common practice in many performances. A feature of this score unique to Schoenberg is the indication of principal (P) and secon dary (S) compositional elements within the score, as well as arrowed brackets outlining the begi nnings and ends of some phrases. Schoenberg no doubt recognized the complexity his music in comparison to that of his contemporaries. In this piece, as well as many of his others, he sought to provide both the conductor and the performers with clues as to how to properly realize the mu sic. Also notable is the layering of dynamics within the orchestration to denote primary, se condary, and tertiary levels of importance of elements within the texture. In addition, Schoe nberg uses seven distinct articulation markings, as well as numerous slurs and stylistic indicators. These features are typical of his attention to detail and of his desire for accurate and consistent re nditions of his works. Though it is not clear if Schoenberg or his publisher, G. Schirmer is responsible, this is one of the first scores for the wind band where oversized time signature indicators are used. This practice has since become commonplace in todays contemporary scores, where multiple meter changes often occur on the same page. T he challenging chromaticism of Theme and Variations is borne out by the presence of a large number of accidentals that appear throughout the score. This is a common feature of many of Schoenbergs works. Background In 1943, Carl Engel, who was president of G. Schirmer at the time, comm issioned A r nold Schoenberg to produce a new work for the wind band. Recognizing the important role of the school band in the development of the wind ensemble as an emerging musical and artistic force, Engel directed Schoenberg to produce a piece appropria te for high school/amateur bands, which

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153 contained many different characters and moods.26 Schoenberg responded with his Theme and Variations, Op. 43a, an uncharacteristically conventional piece given his reput a tion as the chief purveyor of the dodecaphonic music of the second Viennese school Though tonal (possibly in response to expectations of the genre at the time), it nevertheless presents technical and interpr etive challenges generally considered beyond the typical high school level group. In this piece, Schoenberg makes use of his entire palette of available instruments, featu r ing virtually every one in a solo exposure at some point. In contrast to Stravinskys Symphonies of Wind Instruments this piece does consider the active involvement of the musicians in the group. Whereas Stravi nsky allowed his compositional sensibilities to dictate the pacing and density of his piece, it is apparent that Schoenberg sought to keep every musician reasonably engaged throughout the course of Theme and Variations Although Schoenberg himself admitted that Theme and Variations was, not one of my main works because it is not a composition with twelve tones, it nevertheless is an i m portant and pivotal work for the wind band. Schoenberg goes on to say it is one of those compositions which one writes in order to enjoy ones own virtuosity and, on the other hand, to give a certain group of music lovers here it is the bandssomething better to play.27 As a demo nstration of thematic development, there are few w ind band compositions to rival Theme and Variations With each listening, more and more of its intricate structure is revealed. An interesting feature of this piece is its references to Rhapsody in Blue (1924), perhaps the best known of the compositions produced by Schoenbergs good friend, George Gershwin. Though seemingly diametrically opposed in musical philosophies, nevertheless a close friend26 Carl Engel, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002, 28. 27 Arnold Schoenberg, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Ga lesville, MD: Meredith Music Public ations, 2002, 28.

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154 ship developed between the two after Schoenberg relocated to southern California in 1934 to e scape Nazi persecution Gershwins death in 1937 was still fresh in Schoenbergs mind; Theme and Variations could possibly have served as Schoenbergs final sendoff to his friend. Given Schoenbergs attitudes about the limitations of the standard orchestra, it seems odd that he did not produce more pieces for the wind ensemble. In Orchestration: An A nthol ogy of Writings edited by Paul Mathews, Schoenberg writes, I f one recalls that one has two types of flute, 24 types of oboe E flat, A and bass clarinets, and basset horns bassoon, contra bassoon, horns, tenor tubas, tenor horns, tru mpets, cornets, flugelhorn, trombones, bass tuba, four strings and pianothat is to say some 30 different types (add to that all the kinds of mutes!). As against all this, the orchestra consisting of a mere eight types of instruments seems very meager.28 Theme and Variations was premiered at New Yorks Central Park on June 27, 1946 by the Goldman Band under the direction of Richard Franko Goldman. Recognizing the limited appea l the piece might hold for band audiences, Schoenberg also transcribed the piece for the orche s tra under opus number 43b. That version actually received its premiere before the band ve r sion, on October 20, 1944 by Serge Koussevitzky and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Theme and Variations, Op. 43b remains one of the very few orchestra works that originated as a band piece. Analysis Theme and Variations is comprised of an eight measure theme and seven variations plus a coda. They are performed attacca, continuously, as an unbroken composition. Again, this piece is a testament to the skill of Schoenberg. It is an excellent display of his orchestrational acumen, and also of his ability to use motives in a variety of ways to create a cohesive and engaging pi ece. Though it would be fascinating to examine this piece based solely on its motivic deve l28 Arnold Schoenberg, quoted in Paul Matthews, ed., Orchestration: An Anthology of Writings New York, NY: Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, 135 6.

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155 opment (as many have already done)29, for the purposes of this study we will focus on Schoe nbergs use of orchestration as a means of achieving the unity and variety within this piece. The opening statement establishes the key of G minor, which, in spite of nearly continuous chromatic movement, serves as the general center of tonality for the piece. Many of the motives that permeate the composition are revealed here at the outset: 29 see Marcia La Reau, Arnold Schoenbergs Theme and Variations, Opus 43a, College Band Directors National A ssociation Journal, No. 9, 4 26.

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156 Figure 5 -1. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 1 -9, opening statement Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers Immediately, the eye notices the numerous P indications on the score, denoting the primary melodic line as it is trad ed through the ensemble. While the texture is not dense, the complexi ty of the individual musical responsibilities is obvious, as the integrity of the primary melody must be maintained over numerous separate entrances and releases.

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157 Note the variety of dynamics used, as Schoenberg attempts to create not only linear cont inuity, but also ensemble balance using only the on notations the printed page. Note also the number of different articulation markings used: five within just this short passage. Among the attractions of this piece are its continually shifting palette of instrumental color and Schoe nbergs creative manipulation of his motives. These are apparent, starting from the very begi nning of the piece. He uses the instruments in many different way s, some blended together on melodic lines, some in passages featuring sections of like instruments, and occasionally, some in unlikely co mbinations that yield une xpected results. Dotted eighth /sixteenth note rhythms and triplets are both introduced in the opening se ction. Variation I appears to be based on superimposing these rhythms one on top of the other:

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158 Figure 5 -2. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 22 -26, variation I Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers Freed from the restraint of th e opening statement, here, in variation I, Schoenberg gleefully e xplores the variety of instruments available to him. Once again, he uses a mixture of slurs, articulations, and stylistic indications to weave a rich fabric of color and rhythm. Note that t he bea ming of the eighth note/sixteenth note figures serves not the musician, but the intent of music. Dynamically, Schoenberg works within a very subtle pp to p range in this passage. From the standpoint of ensemble unity, this section is representative of Schoenbergs uncompromising devotion to his art. If Holsts First Suite is the model for the practice of block

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159 scoring for the band, then this piece is surely its antithesis. Here is more evidence that, in spite of Schoenbergs intention to produce a work accessible to a wide range of musicians, this piece r e mains within the domain of only the most accomplished of scholastic level groups. One of the decisions the conductor and musicians are faced with in this piece is how to reconcile the dotted eighth/sixteenth note figures to the overlying triplet eighth note figures. While a strict rhythmic interpretation would result in problems with vertical alignment of the figures, simply softening the dotted eighth/sixteenth combinations to allow them to ali gn with the triplets does not precisely recreate the notation of the music. Most recordings, however, seem to r e flect an adoption of the latter strategy, presumably for the sake of consistency. The transition from variation I into variation II establishes the methodology for all the ot her links between the variations:

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160 Figure 5 -3. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 40 -46, transition into variation II Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers Schoenberg signals the end of each variation with a rela xing of the tempo before proceeding on to the next section. Harmonically, there is sometimes the sense of a conventional dominant to tonic cadence, which seems surprising for Schoenberg at this point in his career. Perhaps it is another accommodation for his more conventional wind band musicians and audience.

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161 The thirty second note triplet figure in the upper woodwinds at measure 41 was first intr oduced in the lower woodwinds during the transition into variation I (measure 20). The repe tition of it here, along with the similar harmonic motion, helps to create continuity and fulfill the e xpectation of the listener. The change in orchestration however has a decidedly more urgent e ffect. (Noted film score composer James Horner has used this figure repeated ly in his soundtracks to evoke fury and intensity.) The opening of variation II is marked by the introduction of new colors, as Schoenberg e xpands his palette yet further with the addition of muted cornets and trumpets. This change, plus the added sheen t hat the glockenspiel provides in measures 4445, helps to alter the overall attitude to one of whimsy. The short, accented triplet figures also add bounce to the feel. Measures 4546 feature a sound heard nowhere else except for the brass band: the barit one and the euphonium in oc taves. Schoenberg has, however, overlooked one practical consideration, that is, the time inte r val necessary for the insertion of a mute. Three quarters of a beat at this tempo would render it nearly impossible for a cornet or trumpet player to accomplish this without the inevitable metallic clank occurring. Most ensembles probably accommodate this situation by having an addition battery of players standing by at this point with their mutes already in place. Here is more evidence that this piece is more practical for a full band than for a wind ensemble. The preponderance of articulated triplets throughout this piece could possibly be an oblique reference to Rhapsody in Blue particularly in measures 51 53. Measures 60 62 fe ature the exposure of another rarely heard instrument, the flugelhorn:

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162 Figure 5 -4. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 60 -62, flugelhorns featured Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers Schoenbergs choice of the relatively neutral tone color of the clarinets in their chalumeau regi ster blends well with the flugelhorns to produce a dark, mellow timbre. In the hands of a c a pable player, the saxophone can produce a wide range of tone colors, from dark and smoky, to bright and piercing. Here, the i nstruments blend imperceptibly with the clarinets, adding body to the sound.

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163 In the following phrase, Schoenberg contrasts this warm sound with biting, muted cornets and trumpets accompanying the first clarinets, who play in their bright, clear upper register. Note that the upper line is supported an octave lower, helping to stabilize the pitch for the e xposed upper player. A profound change in texture is effected in measure 77, simply by shifting from short, accented articulations to smooth, slurred tr iplet groupings. Schoenbergs use of pe rcussion is eff i cient, but effective, particularly in accentuating this demarcation of style on the downbeat of measure 77. At the transition point between variations II and III, Schoenbergs references to Rhapsody i n Blue go from oblique to almost overt: Figure 5 -5. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 81 -85, Rhapsody references Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers

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164 The French horns begin the string of quotes in measure 81, overlapped by the first a lto sax ophone, the first clarinet in measure 62, and finally a solo flugelhorn to end variation II. Schoe nberg not only uses the melodies and rhythms from Rhapsody in Blue but also clearly scores the sni ppets to make them recognizable. This is a well crafted transition, in that not only are the Gershwin quotes cleverly incorporated, but the pacing and attitude allow it to flow perfectly into the next section. Variation III opens with the first solo exposure of the oboe, introducing a calmer, more introspective mood which contrasts effectively with the previous joviality. The bassoons and saxophones provide an unobtrusive and complimentary accompaniment. This cerebral mood (perhaps Schoenbergs solemn reflection on the passing of his friend) persists t hrough several more exposures of diffe rent solo instruments, providing a wide variety of color. At measure 96, a new motive is alluded to in the lower woodwinds. This theme will return later in the piece, in a decidedly different guise. The transition i nto variation IV includes another sub tle Gershwin reference:

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165 Figure 5 -6. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 104-110, transition into variation IV Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers The major 10th interval between the parallel solo alto sax ophone and solo baritone passages at measure 105 is somewhat suggestive of the harmonies of Rhapsody in Blue Variation IV introduces a change of meter, to a light waltz (conducted in one), where Schoenberg reduces his forces to chamber like proportions. Though Theme and Variations is considered a band piece, this exposed writing is more characteristic of compositions intended for the wind ensemble. Here, the need for accomplished individual musicians on the solo lines b ecomes obvious, as the lightnes s and transparency of this moment could not possibly happen with less skilled players. Note how the judicious addition of the triangle and tambourine e nhances this moment ever so subtly.

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166 Schoenberg employs another rare sound at measure 108: the muted ba ritone. This pa s sage is marked with an S, indicating that it is an important secondary part. Until fairly recently, mutes for this instrument were not considered standard issue, due to their infrequent use, when compared to those for the trumpet and trombone. However, modern composers are using the muted sound of the baritone, euphonium, and tuba with much more frequency, so it has become safer to assume that players of these instruments (at least at the college level) will be so equipped. This var iation progresses using several references to the primary themes, all adapted to 3/4 time. The sense of mischievousness has returned, as Schoenberg continues his exploration of the available palette of instrumental color. The addition of the xylophone at measures 133 135 is particularly noticeable. In variation V, a new notation appears: Figure 5 -7. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 148-153, variation V Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers

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167 Schoenberg defines his soloists phrasing yet further through the use of arrows, dividing the lines into separate ideas almost as though the segments were to be performed by different players. Having no form of existing notation to express this instruction, Schoenberg has presumably invented one of his own. A new attitude is revealed in this variation, assisted by a key change to E flat major. Once again, the composer has retreated to a thinner, more chamber like texture, a l lowing his soloists to communicate the character of the passage. Listen for the subtle sparkle the glockenspiel adds in measures 151 153. It is used here to emphasize only certain notes from within the te x ture rather than to mi r ror an existing line. An examination of the two solo lines reveals that the lower one is actually the upper one inverted, transposed down a tritone, and delayed by a measure. Serial techniques such as the se pervade Schoenbergs dodecaphonic works; here, he has applied the same practices to a t onal piece. In this transparent texture, even the casual listen er can detect and appreciate such comp ositional construction. Schoenbergs experimentations continue at measure 156, where several players generate an intriguing sound through the use of flutter tonguing. The effect is chilling when combined with the chrom atic movement, the sustained low register bass trombone and tuba notes, and the softy stroked gong. The muted French horns also contribute a distinctive buzz. The i nverted and staggered clarinet and baritone solos continue, in a sort of bizarre dialogu e until the transition to the next variation. Variation VI begins with the statement of a theme alluded to back at measure 96:

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168 Figure 5 -8. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 169-175, variation VI Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers Schoenberg has returned to the home key of G minor for this marchlike statement. He uses only brass at the beginning, reinforcing the martial quality. In measure 172, there is a second entrance of the melody, transposed up a perfect fifth, suggesting this might be a fugue. However the a nswer to the fugue subject turns out to be neither real, nor tonal, as it is altered in only the s econd measure. Though there are other later entrances of the subject, this variation can only be d e scribed as fugue like (imitative), as it does not fulfill the strict formal requirements for a fugue. It is not out of character for Schoenberg to include this technique, as many of his other compositions are considered to be neoclassical. In this passage, Schoenberg has doubled the French horn line with the baritone, a common practice which gives the French horns more body, wit hout noticeably altering the character of their sound. The imitative texture continues, with voices added gradually until the entire ensemble is involved. The addition of timpani at measures 179181 also heightens the martial atmosphere, as does the xylophone reinforcing the melody beginning at measure 185. This growing tension culminates at measure 189:

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169 Figure 5 -9. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 188-193, transition into variation VI Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers Schoenberg unleashes the full power of the ensemble here at this cadence point just before the final variation. The forces converge on beat four of measure 189, on a D7 chord with a lowered fifth (the French augmented sixth chord in structure, but not in function). Here, the connection to Rhapsody in Blue becomes almost undeniable, as Gershwin used this very same chord at a

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170 pivot al moment in his piece. The chord voic ing and orchestration are almost identical, and it is easily d e tected by the ear. After this powerful moment, Schoenberg immediately retreats back to his introspective state with a sparsely scored variation based on a motive built from seven sixteenth notes fo llowed by a single quarter note. In this delicate texture, the various interacting motives are clea rly detected. Measures 203 204 feature rarely heard low woodwinds grouped together on a pair of technical sixteenth note passages, a texture that stand s out from the surrounding e n semble. The full ensemble abruptly reenters at measure 205, just before the transition to the pieces finale. The low brass assumes the sixteenth note role, although with much more power and fury, as the upper brass punctuate with accented eighth notes. The upper woodwinds soar high ove rhead on the longest note values, in this unusual reversal of normal technical demands. The finale begins with another relatively rare solo exposure the alto saxophone: Figure 5 -10. Schoenberg Theme and Variations m. 213-214, alto saxophone solo Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers

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171 Graingers contention that the saxophone is the instrument most like the human voice is given credence in this moment, which generates feelings of warmth and sentimentality. The choice of accompanying instruments here is appropriate for supporting the lyricism of the soloist, with colors that do not detract. Note the subtlety of the dynamic markings, which add gentle nuance to the supporting lines. This moment of repose is short lived, as Schoenberg follows it with a rhythmic call and response section, pitting upper instruments against lower ones. There is another ritardando at measure 228, as though a new variation is about to be introduced, but th is is just a pause wit hin the finale before a restatement of the fugato section from variation VI. This leads into an e xtended development where, in classical style, the composer parades all of his themes past in rapid succession as a sign that the end is imminent. Here, the overlapping motives are disti nguished by differences in instrumental color, allowing them to be identified from within the m lange of sound. The expectation that the end is near is confirmed in grand style at measure 249:

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172 Fig ure 5 -11. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 249-251, full ensemble Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers

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173 This full ensemble moment is a restatement of the opening measures of the piece, only on a much larger scale. It is comprised of five elements: the main melody (oboes, clarinets, cornets and first trumpets), a technical obbligato line (upper and midrange woodwinds), percussive a ccents (second trumpets, flugelhorns and percussion), a chordal accompaniment (French horns and trom bones), and th e bass line (lower woodwinds and brass, and the string bass). The construction of this dense texture is such that each element is detectable within the full ensemble. Schoenberg uses the windows of temporal space that occur during the longer dur ation notes of the melody, filling them with more rhythmically active material. This is a common orchestrational practice when trying to generate sustained interest under less rhyt hmically active melodies. Whereas the chordal accompaniment and bass line are comp limentary to the rhythmic motion of the melody, the percussive accents that occur in these windows provide interest during the more static moments. The upper technical line, in addition to its increased rhythmic a ctivity, also benefits from the natural projection of the notes in the woodwinds upper register. The overall effect here is grandiose and expansive. The large scale of this moment is i ntentional and is meant to reflect the length and complexity of the body of work that precedes it. Note parti cularly the authoritative punctuation provided by the bass drum and crash cy m bals on the downbeat of the phrase, and the anticipation of it supplied by cres cendo s in the timpani and suspended cymbal rolls leading into it. This passage, in spite of its apparent finality, turns out to be a false ending, as Schoenberg continues with another short developmental section. The poco accelerando section at measures 265268 is a restatement of previous material from measures 215 218, replacing the groupings of three eighth notes with groupings of a dotted eighth, a sixteenth, and an eighth note. This is

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174 Schoenbergs creative way of restating material to generate a sense of continuity without repea ting himself verbatim. At measure 269 ( meno mosso), there is another equally grandiose statement, extended in Wagnerian style with a progression of heroic chords over pounding low brass figures and percussion impacts. Suddenly, the statement disappears ( piano subito ) and there is a modulation to the relative major leading to this final passage: Figure 5 -12. Schoenberg, Theme and Variations m. 274-278, ending Used by permission of Belmont Music Publishers

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175 Schoenbergs ending, though clearly related thematically to the rest of the piece, seems almost inappropriate in its conventionality given the highly chromatic content that precedes it. Neve rtheless, it is another clear reference to Rhapsody in Blue and may simply be a concession to the band audience for a pleasing ending. The various dynamic levels used in the build to the final note are evidence of Schoe nbergs acknowledgement of the relative individual strengths of the instruments, as he brings in the brass and percussion instruments at softer volume levels than the woodwinds. He allows a full quarter note on the final note so that the sonority of the ensemble can be fully appreciated. Conclusions Theme and Variations is one of a group of original band compositions that were championed by Edwin Franko Goldman and his Goldman Band of New York City. Its mere presence i n the wind band lexicon lent immediate legitimacy to the efforts of Goldman, his son Richard, and the other advocates of the wind band as being a worthy vehicle for serious artistic expression. The Goldmans, through their numerous commissions and work wit h the ABA, would continue to add significant works to the repertoire over the next se veral years. With this piece, Schoenberg provides evidence that the band can successfully communi cate complex musical concepts within a highly developed thematic work. Hi s use of the full range of dynamic levels proves that the band is capable of remarkable subtlety and delicacy, and is not just a purveyor of loud, outdoor music. He also demonstrated the wide range of instrumental color available to the composer within th is configuration. Schoenbergs willingness to compose for the wind band helped to open the eyes of other serious composers to the potential of this e nsemble. Soon after, more and more original works from noted composers be gan to appear.

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176 6. Symphony in B flat, Paul Hindemith, C omposed 1951 Instrumentation 1951 score: Piccolo 2 Flutes 2 Oboes 1 E flat C larinet 1 Solo B flat Clarinet 3 B flat C larinets 1 E flat A lto C larinet 1 B flat B ass C larinet 2 B assoons 2 E flat A lto S axophone s 1 B flat T enor S axophone 1 E flat Baritone S axophone 1 Solo B flat C ornet 3 B flat Cornets 3 T rombones 4 F H orns 1 Baritone (Euphonium) 2 Basses Timpani Percussion (3 Players) Glockenspiel Tambourine Triangle Snare Drum Cymbal Bass Drum Sy mphony in B flat was published by Schott & Co., Ltd. of Mainz, Germany in the same year it was composed. The instrumentation is standard for band pieces written during this pe riod in that the clarinet and cornet sections each contain a solo part in additi on to the first, s e cond, and third parts. The score order however, is unusual: the bassoon parts appear below the bass clarinet i nstead of with the other double reeds, and the French horns appear between the trombones and the baritone. While the former p ractice is not entirely uncommon, the reason for the latter may be the desire to group the conical bore brass i nstruments together on the score. Though it is centered around the key of B flat major/minor, Hindemith has chosen to use no key signature at all due to the chromaticism that permeates the piece, allowing the accidentals to accomplish the continuing shifts in tonality. This practice has since become commo nplace for the majority of todays contemporary scores, which are increasingly pantonal (if not completely atonal).

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177 Another feature of this score, one that assumes a certain musical experience, is that tr i plet groupings do not always have the 3 designation if they are part of a continuous pattern. Arti culations are sometimes discontinued after a measure or two if the notes involved are also part of a continuous pattern. In scores of this complexity, occasionally editors choose to omit repeated markings they feel are redundant, in order make the music cleaner and more readable. In addition, th e use of the tenor clef in the first trombone part reflects the assumption of a more advanced player, as trombonists below the college level generally are not comfortable reading in this clef. Symphony in B flat is the first piece examined in this study t hat fully conforms to the modern configuration for the wind band. Though this piece can be effectively performed with minimal instrumentation, it is considered a work for the full symphonic band; hence it loses some of its immense scale when performed by smaller ensembles. However, when listening to recor dings of this piece (and others), it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish the size of the group that is actua l ly performing it. As demonstrated by the fine series of Mercury recordings by the Eastman Wind Ensemble under Frederick Fennell, a quality small ensemble is thoroughly able to match the intensity and sonority of much larger groups. Background Symphony in B flat was composed for the occasion of an invitation for Paul Hindemith to guest conduct the premiere band of the U.S. Army, Pershings Own. When first invited to a ppear in February of 1951, Hindemith requested a later date so that he might have the time to write a li t tle something.30 The little something turned out to be Symphony in B flat. This 30 Paul Hindemith, quoted in Luther Noss, Paul Hindemith in the United States Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989, 136.

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178 piece was innovative, in that it was the first substantive, extended, original work to be composed for the wind band. Hindemiths use of orchestration was groundbreaking in terms of the depth of s onority he achieved with the ensemble and in his development of themes through the use of te xture and numerous solo exposures. In contrast to his Gebrauchsmusik compositions that were intended for amateur musicians, Symphony in B flat was written for the mature, professional musicians of the army ba nd. Unlike Schoenbergs Theme and Variations Hindemiths piece makes no concessions to either the pe rformers or the audience. A masterpiece of formal structure and thematic development, it has b ecome one of the cornerstones of the wind band repertoire. Ironically, even though Symphony in B flat was not intended for scholastic level ensembles, and Schoenbergs Theme and Vari ations was, it is the former piece that is more often performed by high school bands. Symphony in B flat was premiered in Washingto n, D.C. on April 5th, 1951 by Pershings Own, with Hinde mith co nducting. Analysis Symphony in B flat is a threemovement work, with the movements named simply after their stylistic indications: 1. Moderately fast, with vigor 2. Andantino grazioso 3. Fugue, Rat her broad There are a number of themes that appear throughout the composition in various guises. The i nterval of a perfect fourth is used extensively, facilitat ing Hindemiths pantonal language. The resulting quartal harmonies give the piece an angula r, industrial quality, almost as though Hi ndemith anticipated his countrys postwar high tech economic recovery. A descending minor third also a p pears as part of many of the themes, as well as sets of quarter note triplets.

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179 Formally, the overall scheme is fast slow fast, in an adapted Sonata Allegro form. Each movement also has its own binary form within; there are clear separations between the two parts d elineated by changes in style and compositional material. I. Moderately fast, with vigor As stated, each movement is divided into two parts. In the first movement, the division occurs following measure 77. The first part is characterized by a preponderance of triplet eighth note rhythms; in the second part, the dominant rhythm is the dotted eighth/sixt eenth note combination. Hindemith immediately establishes the scope of the ensemble and the promise of the depth of his composition with a fully scored figure on the opening downbeat:

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180 Figure 6 -1. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 1 -6, o pening statement, primary theme Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Can adian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany The listener is immediately engaged in a wash of sound as, after a forceful fivenote motive is sounded, the primary theme continues in the cornets and trumpets beneath a complex tapestry of woodwind rhythms. Notice Hindemiths use of fourths in the primary theme, and also the qua rter note triplets. The five note figure that appears in measure one, played by the bassoons and tubas, is an important element that will return several times during the composition. It ends with

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181 the minor third interval, which will also be revealed as an important compositional element. Hindemith orchestrates the figure with strength, delaying the upper rhythmic motion until beat three to make sure the motive is detectable through th e full e nsemble. The scoring of the woodwind accompaniment reinforces the fact that this is a mature work. There are ten different overlapping rhythms, none of which are doubled in any other part. Hi ndemith uses a combination of staccato articulations and slurred notes to create a var ied texture. An examination of these figures reveals that it is not just a flurry of rhythmic activ i ty, but that there is a harmonic progression being outlined by the individual notes. Hence, if any of the fi gures are weak o r missing, elements of the harmonic structure may be compr omised. The absence of a bass line beneath the melody gives a floating sensation to the co rnet/trumpet line. Notice in measures 4 6 how Hindemith reinforces the lower range of the mel ody by incl uding the first horn and first trombone on selected notes. In a well rendered performance these instruments are barely detectable, yet their presence ensures an even pr o jection of the melodic line, in spite of its extended range. Hindemith uses the falli ng minor thirds in the last phrase of the primary theme (measures 7 9). At letter A the roles are switched, as the second statement of the primary theme is as signed to the woodwinds, while the cornets and trumpets provide the rhythmic accompaniment. To av oid predictability, Hindemith overlaps the final measure of the first statement with the beginning of the second melody. Recognizing the technical limitations of the brass (in com parison with the woodwinds), Hindemith limits their figures to eighth note triplets on repeated pitches. He maintains a continual triplet rhythm through staggered entrances so that no single player is technically ove r whelmed.

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182 The woodwinds retain their harmonic responsibilities, as their melody line is harmonized. At the bottom of this upper texture is a descending line that begins in the alto saxophones and horns and is continued into the lower register by the bassoons and lower clarinets. This descending line is clearly intended to be the second most dominating element, as it is conceived contr apuntally with its rhythmic motion occurring during the longer duration melody notes. The second melody statement continues at measure 18, but there is a sudden change of density and texture: Figure 6 -2. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 18 -21, second statement of primary theme Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distrib utors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany For the series of repeated figures at the end of the melody (the descending minor thirds), Hindemith creates variety in this, the second repetition, by trading these fragments through the ensem-

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183 ble, transposing them, and assigning them to different instruments or combinations of instr uments. Note that the brass fragments are performed by soloists, but the woodwinds are doubled for theirs, reflecting the relative strengths of the indiv idual instruments. The rhythmic accompaniment in this passage is more subtle, yet the triplet eighth notes are still maintained from the previous section. The chromatically wandering figures in the alto sa xophones impart an uneasy nervousness to this pass age, which grows in intensity with the addition of the trilling clarinets. This culminates in a bombastic, full ensemble statement at measures 2425, signa l ing the introduction of the secondary melody at letter B. While the ear is recovering from the impa ct on the downbeat of measure 26 (the physiological phenomenon known as threshold shift see p. 143), Hindemith has already begun light tremolos in the flutes. The smallest unit of rhythms is now the eighth note, which results in a relaxation of the rhy thmic intensity. Hindemith temporarily delays the entrance of the first oboe solo on the secondary melody to allow a moment of breathing space. The brief pause is ae sthetically pleasing and allows for a clear presentation of this important melody, unclu ttered by the reverberation of the previous impact. A solo bassoon replies to the oboe during the pauses in the me l ody. The first five notes of this melody are the same as the fivenote motive heard at the very begi nning of the piece. More instrumental colors are exposed in the following episode, using fragments of the melody, building into a second statement of this new melody at measure 41:

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184 Figure 6 -3. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 41 -44, secondary melody in the clarinets Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany At this point, the atmosphere has shifted to one of frivolity, as the clarinets playfully chant the melody over a jaunty accompaniment of conical bore brass. The piccolo and first flute contri bute light eighth note fills and the glockens piel tinkles merrily on top. The five note motive is heard again, both as part of the melody and also as accompan i ment figures in the piccolo and flute. The motive is almost disguised in these upper instr uments due to the different transpositions and a rhythmic shift that places the first notes on upbeats. These changes in rhythm and language result in an almost ragtime feel, possibly a reflection of Hindemiths e xposure to American popular music.

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185 This episode comes to an abrupt end at letter D, where a curiously wandering unison line is heard: Figure 6 -4. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 51 -54, unison line Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany The sudden change in volume and density draws the listener in at this point. Though this is not an unusual combina tion of instruments, the reedy timbre of the line, along with its es o teric content, combine to create in an intriguing and memorable musical moment. The Grai nger like reedy quality produced here is the result of the particular registers used. The oboes a nd alto cla rinet are in their strongest, lowest range, the clarinets are in their distinctive throattone register, and the bass clarinet and bassoons are in their robust mi dranges. As this section progresses, repetitions of the serpentine unison line reve al that it is actua l ly the countermelody to a fanfare like figure first introduced by the French horns at measure 57. The presence of quarter note triplets in this figure ties it rhythmically to the primary theme. With each repeat of the phrase, Hindemith adds instruments to thicken both the fanfare and the countermelody until the full ensemble is involved in a powerful statement of the fanfare figure at measure 69:

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186 Figure 65. Hindemith, Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 6973, full ensemble Hind emith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany

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187 This version of the fanfare figure has elongated spaces between the elements. Here, Hinde miths return to triplet eighth notes as the smallest unit of rhythm increases the density and drama of the moment. This elongation of space, filled with additional technical lines, is suggestive of Tcha ikovskys treatment of the finale to his 1812 Overture (1880), as well as similar pas sages from other large scale Romantic works. Note the added intensity of the sustained pitches in the baritone saxophone, second and third cornets, and baritone and rolling timpani underneath the technical woodwind lines. Qua r ter note lines in the French horns and low brass, superimposed beneath the triplet quarter notes of the melody in measure 71, add rhythmic sophisticati on. The timbres of the E flat clar i net and piccolo on the upper octaves of the fanfare figures simulate the octave doublings of the stops on a pipe organ, lending an organlike quality to this m o ment. This bombastic moment also ends suddenly when a change of texture signals the begi nning of part two of the movement: Figure 6 -6. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 78 -83, Molto agitato Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, M ainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany Hindemiths metric shift from triplet eighth note to dotted eighthnote/sixteenthnote rhythm s has the effect of a sudden increase in velocity, yet he accomplishes it with no change of tempo.

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188 Once more, Hindemith uses a drastic reduction in density to draw in his listeners. He rewards them with this tonally ambiguous figure that is a diminution of the dottedquarter/eight note fi gures heard previously in mea s ures 2324. The combination of the alto clarinet with alto saxophones is an unusual sound and one that is not likely to be found in any other large ensemble. Hindemith appears to be launchin g into a fugue, as there are successive entrances of this figure in other instruments, but as before, it turns out to be si m ply an episode of fugue like writing (fugato). Hindemiths adaptation of standard forms to his more modern language is displayed here, as the second entrance of the subject is at the i nterval of an augmented ninth rather than the more conventional fourth or fifth. Hindemith continues his exploration of the dotted eighth note/sixteenthnote rhythm us ing only woodwind combinations until measure 99 where the brass suddenly takes over. The addition of quiet ruffs on the snare drum adds a militaristic quality, as the brass expands into a dense harmony. This aggressive statement provides an angry contrast to the more cerebral, inquisit ive quality of the woodwind episode. The brass phrase ends at a ff volume level, leaving behind only a curious flute melody that is lightly accompanied by muted trumpets, trilling third clarinets, bass line figures in the baritone, and sparse triangle decor a tions. More episodes follow in similar fashion, contrasting belligerent, warlike sounds with calmer, more introspective textures. Measure 129 marks the beginning of this interesting combination:

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189 Figure 6 -7. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first move ment, m. 129-138, rhythmic stratification Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U. S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany A new theme is introduced here in the solo cornet, though it appears to be derived from the se condary theme first heard at measure 28. This passage, like many of the chamber like m o ments that precede it, features a variety of instrumental colors. It is distinguished from the others in that it contains a rhythmic strati fication of its multiple layers. While the main melody consists of a combination of quarter notes, eighth notes, eighth note triplet s, and sixteenth notes, the countermelody in the alto saxophone retains the dotted eighth/sixteenth note combination that pervades part two of the movement. These lines are s uperimposed over constant eighth notes in the bassoon and a bass line constructed of quarter and eighth notes. This rhythmic diversity results in a complex and intriguing interaction b e tween the parts. There are several more entrances of the main melody and its countermelody in another im itative, but not strictly fugal, texture. As be fore, Hindemith adds instruments and density to the orchestration, increasing the intensity into a moment of full ensemble involvement at measure 147. The snare drum roll crescendo from measures 139 146 builds tension leading into the i mpact point:

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190 Figu re 6 -8. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 147-150, full ensemble Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany

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191 In this dramatic statement, the original five note motive returns both as the first measure of the secondary melody (first introduced at letter B) and also as the rhythmic accompaniment fi gures in the upper woodwinds. Hindemith has maintained the presence of this dotted eighth/sixteenth note combination in some form ever since the start of the second part of the movement (Figure 66, Molto agitato ). His combini ng of melodic and rhythmic motives, along with this powerfully voiced rendition of the secondary melody in augmentation, produces a strong sense of co ntinuity at this, the climax point of the movement. Hindemith achieves sonorous block voicings through the simulation of the harmonic s e ries as seen in the open fifths at the bottom of the chords and thirds placed relatively high up in the structures. Passing tones moving between the chordal elements add textural interest, as do the wide interva l lic leaps tha t occur in some instruments. Hindemiths choice of harmony, using a series of unrelated minor chords, brings a larger than life, epic quality to this important m o ment. At measure 153, Hindemith finally relinquishes the dotted eighth/sixteenth note rhythm, as this statement culminates in a written out ritardando of unison brass figures (using increa s ingly larger note values) underneath furious woodwind trills. Suddenly at letter K, the triplets have returned. This is a hint of the cyclical form of this mo vement, which is confirmed by the rea ppearance of the pr i mary theme at measure 157. Never satisfied to repeat himself, Hindemith creatively reharmonizes this theme using a simple but effective combination of flutes and oboes in parallel fifths:

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192 Figure 6 -9. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 157-161, two themes together Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of Europea n American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany The entrance of the primary theme in the upper woodwinds is cleverly disguised through an elongation of the first note. Hindemith then introduces the seconda ry theme, which is immed iately recognizable due to its first five notes. So although the primary theme is introduced first, the listener is not aware of it until a f ter the return of the secondary theme. Hindemith creates an interesting background texture in the clarinets, again using a mi xture of different overlapping rhythms and articulated notes played against slurred notes. The impre ssion of rhyt h mic complexity is achieved by simply superimposing duple and triplet eighth notes. Note that these figures are constructed of perfect fourths and their inversion, perfect fifths, tying the passage harmonically to previously heard material. The exotic sounding flute/oboe combination moving in parallel fifths (and fourths) over the harmonically static backgrou nd produces interesting chromaticism that is textural rather than

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193 functional. Hindemith again exploits the wind bands unique instrumentation using a combination of bass clarinet, bassoon, and bar i tone saxophone for the secondary melody. At letter L, the secondary theme is moved to the top as a flute solo, while the solo clarinet plays the primary theme beneath it. The descending line of letter A returns in the solo bari tone, as softly trilling clarinets provide an uneasy background texture. This section draws to a close with a number of solo exposures on the four note motive that appears at the end of the primary theme. At letter M, Hindemith reconstructs the entire section that first appeared at letter D. In n eoclassical fashion, this material is transposed up a fifth, and Hindemith, true to form, has re orchestrated the entire section. Note the sophistication added by the movement of inner voi c es within the brass harmony, particularly at measures 203208. Intensitybuilding repetitions are used to si gnal the end of part two, this time resulting in the closing of the movement. Again, r einforcement from the percussion adds tension, in this case a bass drum roll through the last two measures just prior to the impact point. The last four measures engage the entire ensemble:

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194 Figure 6 -10. Hindemith Symphony in B flat first movement, m. 209-212, ending Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by pe rmission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany

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195 Hindemiths woodwind figure is tonally ambiguous, outlining B flat minor, A major, and B m ajor in succession. This is a reflection of the tonally shifting content of the rest of the movement. The B flat downbeat melody note of each measure functions as a different chord degree during the successive repetitions. It appears first as the root of B flat minor, then as the third of F sharp majo r, then as the fifth of E flat major, before finally resolving as the root of B flat major. Hindemith refrains from using the major tonality as a cadence point anywhere in the move ment until the final chord, saving the expected res olution for the last pos sible moment. In contrast with the bulk of the multi movement pieces composed for the wind band, the scale, sophistication, and length of this first movement, along with its highly developed formal stru c ture, would allow it to stand on its own as a complet e piece of music. Perhaps recognizing once again the conventions of the band world, Hindemith could foresee that his first movement might be pr ogrammed as a stand alone piece (as it often has been), so he designed it in such a way that it would seem co m pl ete unto itself. II. Andante grazioso Like movement I, the second movement also has an overall binary form, being similarly divided by a change in the prevailing rhythm. The division in this case takes place between measures 48 and 49. Despite Hindemiths me ter of 2/2, indicating that this movement should be conducted in 2, the amount of rhythmic activity and interaction would suggest that conducting it in may be a more practical approach. Movement II begins with the exposition of the primary theme pres ented by the solo co r net. Again, the perfect fourth and its inversion are used in the construc tion of this theme:

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196 Figure 6 -11. Hindemith Symphony in B flat second movement, m. 1 -6, primary theme Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., Lon don 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany A countermelody in the alto saxophone enters at measure 2; at first it seems to be a tonally a djusted second entrance of the primary melody another possible fugue, perhaps? By the end of the third measure however, this passage is revealed to be just another instance of imitative wri ting. The melody and countermelody do not suggest any specific tonal direction but seem purposely constructed as though to suggest randomness. The accompaniment chords are dark clusters that, along with the soft thumps of the bass drum, are more percussive than har monic. This combination of elements results in a sparse, wandering sort of atmosphere that is intr ospective, but perhaps em otionally vacant. The first significant change of texture occurs at letter B, where Hindemith utilizes his n umerous cornet and trumpet players to produce an expanding, sixpart texture of like voices:

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197 Figure 6 -12. Hindemith Symphony in B flat second movement, m. 21 -26, cornets/trumpets Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Sc hott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany Though there is a significant color change here, Hindemiths use of parallel sta cked thirds mai ntains the sense of harmonic neutrality that has prevailed thus far. The demands he places on his solo cornet player here are considerable, as this voice is very exposed and taxed by the n e cessity to maintain a controlled sound at upper range extremes, despite the subdued dynamic level. At measure 27, the opening texture is resumed, though the melody is now presented in octaves by solo alto and tenor saxophones. Dotted eighth/sixteenthnote accompaniment fi gures recall the first movement, as a harmonized piccolo/flutes combination engages in a background dialogue with the French horns. This added instrumental color lends a mischievous pe r sonality to the pa s sage. The solo cornet returns at measure 38 before trombones in octaves add a menaci ng touch at letter D. Part one of this movement dwindles to a dark close with a major seventh melody note in the alto saxophone. This is layered over a decidedly unresolved open fifth in the tubas and bass clar i net, which is accompanied by a flatted ninth in the second bassoon.

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198 At measure 49, the atmosphere changes dramatically with a shift to 12/8 meter and an i ncrease in tempo. The stylistic indicator (Fast and gay) also accurately describes the rhythmic and harmonic content: Figure 6 -13. Hindemith Symphony in B flat second movement, m. 49 -52, beginning of part two Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Musi c Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany A secondary theme is introduced here in the solo and first clarinets. While the harmonic la nguage hasnt significantly changed since part one, the increased rhythmic activi ty, combined with the o r chestration, paints a profoundly different picture in this section, which begins part two of the second move ment. Exploiting the technical potential of the clarinet, Hindemith constructs this light, airy pa ssage that communicates a carefree, if not mindless, attitude. The numerous staccato articul a tions are deftly accentuated by the tambourine, and the occasional trills help to heighten the manic mood. Hindemith once again makes the suggestion of a fugue with a second entrance of t he secondary theme in the alto saxophone at measure 51. The frivolous exploration of woodwind sounds continues in similar fashion with several more entrances of the theme in various instruments. Here, Hindemith makes full use of the large

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199 and diverse coll ection of woodwind timbres available within the wind band configuration, combining them in a variety of different ways. A unison/octave passage at letter G introduces a new mood: Figure 6 -14. Hindemith Symphony in B flat second movement, m. 71 -75, letter G Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Mus ic, Mainz Germany Massed low register woodwinds used in this way can have as menacing a quality as the trombones in octaves did in the passage at letter D. The piccolo/flute response is innocent and light when compared to the threatening lower woodwinds Though Hindemith clearly intended his symphony as absolute music, with no programmatic connotations, this passage suggests images of angry hornets vs. floating but terflies. At measure 77, the secondary theme returns in much the same guise as it was hear d ea r lier. After more than a minute without any brass sounds, their entrance at measure 80 is quite notic eable. The brass section quickly manifests itself; by measure 84, this light, frivolous movement has become decidedly more forceful. Against the driv ing tutti rhythms, the French horns play a version of the primary theme in augmentation. Particularly striking is the rhythmic interaction in

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200 measures 85 86 caused by duplet figures in the horns and trombones that are played against the hemiola in the rem aining brass, saxophones, and timpani. A flurry of si xteenth note woodwind figures at measure 87 temporarily restores the rel a tive calm. Letter I features yet another rendition of the secondary theme, but this time it is more insistent. A new melody has seemingly been added underneath by the baritone saxophone and French horns: Figure 6 -15. Hindemith Symphony in B flat second movement, m. 91 -94, letter I Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Sch ott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany As it is revealed, this new melody becomes recognizable as yet another version of the original pr i mary theme from the beginning of the movement. The choice of instruments gives this line a certain sobr i ety, but also a sense of foreboding, as though it is a march to ones doom.

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201 Hindemith has chosen to use simultaneous time signatures here, perhaps to provide clearer notation to the parts where the rhythms are simpler, or possibly to provide a visual manifestation of the stratification of these two layers of activity. For his presentation of the secondary melody, he has uncharacterist ically reproduced the same orchestration as at measure 49, although tran sposed up a whole step. The addition of the returning primary theme may have caused him to r etain more of the original sound of the secondary theme for the sake of clarity. Measure 10 2 begins a repeat of this section, though it is more densely orchestrated. The falling quarter note lines in the saxophones between measures 106 and 110 were heard earlier in the movement, between measures 16 and 20. Letter K features the combining of m aterial from two earlier sections, letter B (Figure 6 12) and letter G (Figure 6 14). The fact that these passages seem to mesh so well reveals Hi ndemiths careful planning in the construction of the piece, not only with regard to the material itself, but also with the orchestration. Both elements are easily detectable to the listener. The last few measures of the movement also contain returning motives from earlier in the piece. First, at letter L, are the menacing trombone octave figures from letter D. The first trombone solo at measure 125, with its perfect fourth interval and triplet quarter notes, seems to recall the primary theme from movement I. Hindemith ends again on a major chord, this time in G, which could be considered the relative major of the B flat home key. III. Fugue, Rather broad Hindemith has included suggestions of a fugue throughout the entire composition. Fina l ly, here in the final movement, he delivers not only a fugue, but a double fugue. The two parts of the binary form of thi s movement are from the beginning to measure 160 and from measure 161 ( Tempo primo) to the end.

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202 The first subject of the double fugue is almost march like in its content; Hindemiths full ensemble presentation in the movements introduction does little t o dimi nish that impression: Figure 6 -16. Hindemith Symphony in B flat third movement, m. 1 -8, first subject Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany Perfect fourths abound here, not only as the first two intervals of the subject, but also wit hin the harmonization of the initial figure. Hindemith has again combined articulated and slurred

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203 lines, which helps distinguish the two competing melodies in measures 25. Trills in the woodwinds add a third texture, yet the ear easily recognizes all three elements. Note the devastating e ffect of the polytonal (D flat minor over A augmented) chord su stained at measure 8. In his voicing of this chord, Hindemith has apparently violated sound orchestrational practices by placing a major third interval very low in the voicing (first and secon d bassoons, and third trombone with the upper tuba). Although the clash of waveforms is som ewhat diminished in the brass by the use of different instrument types (conical bore tuba vs. c ylindrical bore trombone), the resulting effect adds extra darkness t o an already dense structure. For younger players, this voicing would be inadvisable, as it would likely be muddy and unre cognizable. However, the more advanced musicians that are likely to perform this piece can adequately handle this challenge. The rolling bass drum is again used to help build tension leading into the im pact point. At letter A, Hindemith begins his fugue proper. He uses articulation differences once again, in this case to create variety between the antecedent and consequent phrases of his su bject (measures 10 14 and measures 15 17, respectively). This diversity will come into play later as these elements are combined. The next several measures feature numerous complete entrances of the subject, exposing a wide spectrum of instrumenta l color. At letter B, there is an entrance of the subject that is played by the baritone and tuba at measure 30. This overlaps the subject entrance begun at measure 26 by the upper woodwinds. As the antecedent and consequent phrases start overlapping at measure 31, the choppy cha r acter of the first phrase makes it easily detected underneath the smooth, slurred lines of the second. A significant texture change takes place at letter E (scherzando ):

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204 Figure 6 -17. Hindemith Symphony in B flat third mov ement, m. 66 -69, letter E Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany This entrance of the first subject marks the only time thus far that the eighth notes in the first half of the figure are slurred rather than articulated. A delicate background texture of eighth notes mimics the sho rtly articulated earlier version. The flutes play repeated notes, but the piccolo and oboe have a chromatic figure derived from the half step motion of the subjects s e cond fragment. This texture is much lighter than the heavily articulated material that precedes it, provi ding a welcome contrast. For the piccolo/oboe line, Hindemith has taken into account the tec hnical considerations of the instruments, recognizing the relative ease of the slur two tongue two pa ttern as opposed to a string of articulated eighth notes. This results in a more relaxed, fluid pe r-

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205 formance of the figure, which is reflected musically. Note the contribution of the triangles r esponses in the spaces of the alto saxophone melody. The second subject of the double fugue makes a rather inauspicious first entrance at le t ter F ( espressivo ): Figure 6 -18. Hindemith Symphony in B flat third movement, m. 77 -82, letter F Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany This subject seems almost listless and lazy in comparison to the march like first subject. The t rip let quarter notes have returned, serving as a rhythmic connection to movement I. Note the trill in the fifth measure this feature will help in identifying the second subject when it a ppears later within dense o r chestrations.

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206 Hindemiths use of the extreme low range of the lower woodwinds gives this subject added weight and sloth. The rarelyused lower register of the flute, doubling this melody up two octaves, adds a tired, breathy quality to the line. The mellow sounds of p trombones and tuba pr ovide a complementary accomp a niment. There are several more appearances of the second subject content using a variety of i nstrumental textures. As opposed to the first subject, the longer note values of this subject make it more suitable for harmonized v ersions. Most interesting is the collection of overla p ping false entrances, beginning at le t ter G: Figure 6 -19. Hindemith Symphony in B flat third movement, m. 89 -95, letter G Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany

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207 Hindemiths triadic harmonies, dynamic shaping, and wanderi ng tonalities also contribute to the lazy, lackadaisical attitude of the second subject. The effect is interesting and amusing. In the flute/oboe/E flat clarinet voicing of the first measure, Hindemith has sandwiched the E flat clarinet between the two oboes, temporarily creating the sound of a three oboe te xture. The second flute, uncharacteristically at the bottom of the voicing, provides the root of the E m ajor seventh chord, and then moves upward in contrary motion, providing other chord tones as we ll as textural interest. The background motive that appears in the bass clarinet and bassoons, and later in the first flute, oboe and horn, is a combination of the primary and secondary subject material: the rhythm of the fo r mer with a melodic shape influenced by the latter. Its appearance here is an early clue that the primary and secondary subjects will eventually be combined later in the piece. Letter J marks the return of the accompaniment texture first used at letter E (Figure 6 17). In this instanc e it functions as an accompaniment to the first subject. Here, the alto saxophone soloist instead plays the second subject this is yet another clue to what lies ahead. The lazy tri plets of the second subject make it easily heard beneath the duple eight h note pattern of the background. Part one of this movement winds to a peaceful, if uneasy, close beginning at letter K. Note the gloomy effect of the chord sustained though measures 154160. This is a C7 chord with raised 11th and 13th extensions. Play ed up an octave, this is a chilling sonority; when sounded where Hindemith has scored it, it is complex and unsettling. The addition of the C sharp at the fe r mata in measure 160 completes the polytonal structure of F sharp minor over C7. Part two of this movement begins with the combining of the first and second subjects of the double fugue:

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208 Figure 6 -20. Hindemith Symphony in B flat third movement, m. 161-166, letter L Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany Hindemith now begins to lay out the feast he has been preparing for t he entire duration of the piece up to this point. Like a master storyteller, he methodically recalls all of his plot lines, linking them together one by one as he leads to the full revelation of his plot. At first glance, his treatment of the two fugue subjects seems out of balance, with so many instruments assigned to the lower line. However, the register difference between the competing elements allows the upper line to be heard clearly. In addition to the two subjects, Hindemith has also subtly incl uded the dotted quarter/eighth note rhythm first heard way back at measure 24 of movement I. This is just the beginning of a masterful series of combined themes in a plan that seems almost as though the composition was composed in reverse; that is, starti ng from the end and moving forward. Orchestrational interest can be seen in the reedy, exotic quality of the oboes/clarinets co mbination and in the earthiness of the massed lower woodwinds that are combined with low regi s-

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209 ter French horns. Though they are at a mf dynamic, the cornets are so unobtrusive within the texture that they act almost as pe r cussion rather than as pitched instruments. Hindemith continues his overlapping of the two subjects in true fugal fashion, contrasting articulated and slurred pas sages to maintain clarity through the ever increasing density and complexity. At letter M, the primary theme from the beginning of movement I returns, disti nguished from its rhythmically active background not only by its longer note values, but also by the ti m bre of the cylindrical bore brass instruments to which it has been assigned. By letter N, the composition has reached critical density, as, faced with more than three competing elements, the ear is overwhelmed and challenged to focus on any one element. Rea lizing this, Hindemith does not sustain the confusion for long. At measure 197, he recalls the fal ling minor third quarter note motive from the end of the primary theme in movement I, this time as ff half notes :

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210 Figure 6 -21. Hindemith Symphony in B flat, third movement, m. 197-205, transition to letter O Hindemith SYMPHONY IN B FLAT, Schott & Co. Ltd., London 1951, Renewed assigned 1979 to Schott Music, Mainz Ge r many, All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Dis tributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Music, Mainz Germany Taking advantage of the longer note values of the now augmented rhythm, Hindemith cr eates striking harmonies, adapting the descending counter line from letter A as a chromatic bass line. Voice crossing throughout the brass section creates textural interest; especially the wide interval skips in the baritone. Hindemith maximizes the intensity of this passage by ha r monizing the longest note values with particularly dissonant chords In measure 199, there is a B flat m i-

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211 nor triad over a displaced root note of D natural and measure 202 has a B flat dominant 7th chord with upper extensions of a raised 11th and lowered 13th. In the latter chord, Hindemith again places the third of the chord very low in the voicing ( third trombone), producing an unus ually dark, cluttered sonority. Tremolos and trills in the alto clarinet and saxophones add even more disruption to these m o ments. The woodwind accompaniment figures seem more linear and m elodic than vertical and harmonic Here, the eighthnote rhythm has been derived from the fugues first subject. Hindemith displays even more timbral variety, alternating between the piccolo/flute/oboe color and the combined clarinets. The E flat clarin et, placed in its upper range extreme, is particular ly strident. This tension filled passage leads to a release at letter O in the tonic key of B flat. Hind emith anticipates this moment in the timpani, sounding the B flat during the four measures pr ecedin g it. At this point, the primary theme from movement I returns, voiced once again in the cornets and trumpets. This time, however, it is given the imitative treatment that has characte rized the entire piece. The restating of this important theme at this point is particularly re warding for the li s tener. Measure 213 features another densely scored combination of motives, most noticeably the falling minor third motive, which has been restored to its original quarter note values. A chr omatic figure (based o n the fugues second subject) that appears only in the baritone is r e markable for its ability to cut through the full ensemble. This can be attributed to the baritones disti nguishing tone quality, the register of the instrument Hindemith uses, and the ei ghth note rhythms of the figure occur ring in just the right places. The piece comes to a dramatic conclusion as, in classical style, Hindemith sounds repeat ed rhythms on the tonic chord. The surrounding chromaticism is, however, decidedly contempo-

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212 rary. T he eighthnote rhythm of the tutti figures in the bass clarinet, bassoons, cornets, trumpets, and tubas, beginning at measure 218, helps to tie together the final movement because of its rel ationship to the first subject of the double fugue. Hindemith closes on the B flat major chord one final time, authoritatively ending the composition. Conclusions As one of the first symphonies composed specifically for the wind band, Symphony in B flat still stands as arguably the best. Unlike many of the wind band pi eces written by noted composers of other media, this piece ranks among Hindemiths finest works. It raised the bar for composers seeking to write serious, extended works for the band. Composer Vincent Persichetti, who himself contributed significantly to the wind band re pertoire (including his own Symphony No. 6 for Band in 1956), wrote an article discussing Sy mphony in B flat in 1964 for The Journal of Band Research. In it, he states, Band music is virt ually the only kind of music in America today (outs ide of the pop field) which can be intr oduced, accep t ed, put to immediate wide use, and become a staple of the literature in a short time.31 This sentiment may have been influenced in part by the ready acceptance of Hindemiths symphony. Hindemiths timing could not have been better. With the post WWII boom in college and public school band activity, there was a growing population of directors hungry for well crafted music for the wind band. Hindemith delivered that and more. Hindemiths contribution to t he advancement of wind band orchestrational practices is si gnificant. He demonstrates the manner by which a complex, contrapuntallydense compos i tion can be constructed to take advantage of the wide variety of instrumental colors available in the wind ens emble, both through substantial solo writing and intriguing and sometimes unusual 31 Vincent Persichetti, Symphony No. 6 for Band, Journal of Band Research, No. 47, 17.

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213 combinations of timbres. At the time Symphony in B flat was composed, Hindemith already e njoyed an established reputation in Europe and a growing one in the U.S. The fact t hat he a l ready had a regular publisher in place allowed him to meet the imm e diate demand for his new work. Symphony in B flat is no less popular today than when it was first composed; it still is reg ularly programmed. With the continued development of public school musicians, more and more high school bands are attempting this piece, many of them successfully. Sy m phony in B flat is destined to be a mainstay of the college and university repertoire for years to come. 7. Music for Prague 1968, Karel Husa, C omposed 1968 Instrumentation 1969 score: Piccolo (div. doubles Flutes) 1st Flute 2nd Flute 1st Oboe 2nd Oboe English H orn 1st B assoon 2nd Bassoon C ontrabassoon E flat C larinet 1st B flat Clarinet (div.) 2nd B flat C larinet (div.) 3rd B flat Clarine t (div.) E flat A lto clarinet B flat Bass Clarinet 1st E flat A lto S axophone 2nd E flat Alto Sax ophone B flat T enor S axophone E flat Baritone S axophone (+E flat Contrabass Clarinet, ad. lib.) B flat Bass Saxophone (+B flat Contrabass Clarinet, ad. lib.) 1 st B flat Trumpet/Cornet (div.) 2nd B flat Trumpet/Cornet (div.) 3rd B flat Trumpet/Cornet (div.) 4th B flat Trumpet/Cornet (div.) 1st F Horn 2nd F Horn 3rd F Horn 4th F Horn 1st Trombone 2nd Trombone 3rd Trombone (Bass) Baritone (div.) T uba s (div.) String Bass Timpani Percussion (5 players incl. Timp.) Chimes Marimba Vibraphone Xylophone Timpani 3 Antique Cymbals preferably pitched) 3 Triangles (sm,m,l) Cymbals 3 Suspended Cymbals (sm,m,l) 3 Tam Tams (sm,m,l) Snare Drum(s) (preferable 2 or 3) 3 Tom Toms (sm,m,l) Bass Drum

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214 Karel Husas score for Music for Prague 1968 conforms very closely to the expectations for the modern wind band. It features the full complement of woodwinds including the contr abassoon and even t he bass saxophone. While the latter instrument was popular in band compos itions of the 1920s and 1930s (including many of Percy Graingers), the bass saxophone fell out of common usage for a period, even to the point where they became difficult to obtain. Music for Prague 1968 began a sort of renaissance for the instrument; today it is co m mon for the bass sax ophone to be included in serious wind band music. This score features unusually dense orchestrations at certain points. While it is not un usual to s ee divisi in the first, second & third clarinet parts, in places, as many as 12 B flat clarinet parts are present. In the brass section, Husas score calls for four trumpets. This number (r a ther than the traditional three) has become more commonplace in co ntemporary band works in order to accommodate extended harmonies that are now a part of modern compositional practice. Here, each of four parts also is divided, requiring a minimum of eight performers on trumpet. Divisi parts also appear in the bariton e and tuba parts, and, in addition to two piccolos, a minimum of six flutists are needed. Thus, this piece cannot be considered a wind ensem ble work but a composition intended for the larger symphonic band (or, as indicated on the score, the concert band). This score features detailed program notes including a foreword that explains the histor i cal background of the piece and the use of motives in its construction. Husa has requested the forward be either read to the audience prior to each performance, o r printed in its entirety in the concert program. The complexity and intense weight of this composition could possibly tax the patience of a typical band aud i ence. The availability of these program notes may serve to draw the listener a bit closer to the exper i ence from the outset.

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215 In addition to performance notes, there is a map, indicating the recommended stage placement of the numerous percussion instruments required for the performance of Music for Prague While the score indicates a minimum of fiv e percussionists, Husa also includes add itional instructions should a sixth player be available. This reflects the common practice among todays wind band composers who continue to develop and expand the use of the percussion se ction. Hence, it is now no t uncommon for wind bands to have a regular complement of eight or more percu s sionists. Background Karel Husa composed Music for Prague in 1968 in response to a commission from Ithaca College for a new piece for their concert band. For the motivation to c ompose this piece in pa rticular, Husa had only to look at world headlines at the time, as his native country of Czechosl ovakia had just been invaded by the Soviet Union. This was an attempt by the Russians to quell attempted reforms in Czechosl ovakia unde r its new leader, As the city of Hundreds of Towers, Prague has at least that many church bells available to warn the denizens of an impending attack. This fact provided Husa with the additional fodder he needed to produce his highly colorful, yet del i cately nuanced score. He also tapped into the strong nationalistic leanings of his fellow countrymen by including an ancient Hussite war chant that had for centuries served as a rallying cry for the oppressed. Husa used this piece as m elodic and rhyt hmic source material for his composition. In addition to its orchestrational innovation, Music for Prague is an outstanding example of motivic development and the use of such as a unifying device throughout the piece. In di scussing his choi ce of the wind band for this composition, Husa said, I was sure that the music I would write for Prague would be scored for the concert band, a medium which I have admired for a long time. The combination of [wood]wind and brass instruments with percussi on fascina t-

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216 ed me, and the unexplored possibilities of new sounds and combinations of instruments have a ttracted me for some time.32 Husas ability to exploit the wide variety of sounds avail a ble in the wind band is borne out by the success of Music for Prague and of his other widely pe r formed large band piece, Apotheosis of This Earth (1970). Regarding Husas music, Frank Battisti, in his book The Winds of Change cites a newsp aper review from 1984. The critic wrote, Husa speaks with an arresting indivi dual voice, that of a master of sonority and structure. Husas music seethes with repressed emotions that ever so often explode with tremendous force.33 Although these comments were directed toward H usas Concerto for Wind Ensemble (1982), this is a thor oughly accurate description of Music for Pr ague It is patently apparent that Husas very personal emotional connection with the subject ma tter is on display in this piece. The Soviet invasion of Prague took place August 21st of 1968. Its profound impac t on Husa is evidenced by his completion of the score for Music for Prague in Oct ober only seven weeks after the event. Orchestrationally, Music for Prague breaks new ground in the wind band world for its i nnovative and effective use of the percussion se ction. Employing a formidable battery of instr uments, it requires of the percussionists a highly developed sense of musicality and refined phys ical technique. The wind instrumentalists are equally challenged. Husas unconventional harm onies along with his use of combinations of instruments and extremes of range are not normally found in works for the wind band. Passages where instrumental texture is the princ i pal feature abound in this piece. Husa uses techniques such as flutter tonguing, overlapping t rem olos, and unlike instruments making multiple entrances and releases on the same pitch, creating another 32 Husa, Karel. Notes on Music for Prague 1968. Unpublished, 1971. 33 Anonymous critic quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002, 111.

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217 whole level of musical detail beyond the traditional melodic, harmonic and rhythmic responsibi lities. The official premiere of Music for Prague took place on January 31st, 1969 at a meeting of the Music Educators National Convention in Washington, D.C. The performing group was the Ithaca College Concert Band, who originated the commission, under their conductor, Ke nneth Snapp. Husa also produced an orchestra version of the piece, which received its premiere exactly a year later, on January 31st, 1970 by the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra with Husa hi m self conduc t ing. Analysis Music for Prague is a four movement piece, symphonylike in its construction. Much of the material from the first movement is repeated in the fourth movement; therefore it can be co nsidered a cyclical work. The four movements are traditionally named, so it could also be d escribed as a neoclassical piece. The movements are: I. Introduction and Fanfare II. Aria III. Interlude, and IV. Toccata and Chorale Music for Prague is one of the first wellknown wind band pieces that was composed us ing serial techniques. Though not strictly a dodecaphonic piece, Husa does employ a pair of twelve tone rows. This approach works well in Music for Prague as the tonal neutrality of H usas tone row effectively conveys the sense of social chaos that prevails in wartime. The two rows are as fo l lows:

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218 Figure 7 -1. Husa, Music for Pragu e 1968, tone rows Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Virtually all of the melodic and harmonic material for the piece can be traced back to these rows. The twelve notes in each row are divided into three groups of four notes. These groups of notes, when sounded simultaneously, produce highly dissonant sonorities. Husa uses half step intervals, and their inversion, the maj or seventh, extensively throughout the piece to e f fectively portray a t mospheres of fear and chaos. Note that each four note grouping contains at least one half step. The rows are derived from the 15th century Hussite war song Kdo jste bo bojovnci ( Ye Warr i ors of God and His Law). This traditional song has strong symbolism in the former Czechoslovakia, as it has served for centuries a rallying cry for the oppressed. Many other Czech composers have used this particular song to give a national ident ity to their works inclu dIn addition to the serialization of the harmonic language, other elements of the compos i tion (e.g. dynamics) are also similarly organized. For a detailed explanation of how the musical m aterial is developed from the tone rows, see the excellent article, An Interpretive Analysis, Karel Husas Music for Prague 1968 by Byron A dams.34 34 Byron Adams, An Interpretive Analysis, Karel Husas Music for Prague 1968, The Instr u mentalist, Vol. 42, No. 3, 1987, 1924.

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219 I. Introduction and Fanfare The opening of Music for Prague is sparse and forbidding, with disturbing dissonances and an underly ing tens ion: Figure 72. Husa, Music for Prague 1968, first movement m. 18, opening statement Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permissio n. Husa begins with the timpani, militaristic by its very nature, quietly outlining the first pitches of the Hussite war song. The solo piccolo, according to Husa, represents a bird call which is a symbol of the liberty which the city of Prague has seen only for moments during its thousand years of existence.35 It appears again briefly at the end of the mov e ment. The three dissonant chords appearing in measures 3 4, in addition to setting the uneasy mood of the opening statement, are also important str uctural elements in the piece. Derived from the second tone row in the previous example (Figure 71), they return in various configurations throughout the composition, determining the tone of the overall harmonic language. 35 Karel Husa, from his program notes to the score, Music for Prague 1968 New York, NY: Associated Music Pu blishers, Inc., 1969, 2.

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220 In the seventh measure, the first and second trumpets play a minor second interval using Harmon mutes. Up until this point, Harmon mutes were very uncommon in serious writing. They usually were used with the stem intact, as the stem out timbre was more closely associa t ed with jazz. Ho wever by the 1960s, the influence of Miles Davis, who was closely assoc i ated with this sound, was no doubt felt by many of the composers of serious music. Husa added this sound to his pa l ette and uses it here. Though there seems hardly any music here, thi s passage contains a level of dynamic detai ling, beyond anything seen thus far in this study. Even within the short durations of the three di ssonant chords, Husa creates interest through changes in balance between the chordal elements. This aspect, plus the other unusual indications, including echo tone in the first clarinet and coperti (muffled) and perdendosi (gradually dying away) in the timpani, requires even more than the usual attention to detail from the performers. Orchestrationally, Husa has created more potential pitfalls through his unconventional combinations of instruments, further compounding the difficulties of his variablybalanced ha rmonies. His use of the rarely heard low register of the flute requires absolute control from pla yers n ot accustomed to performing subtle passages in that range. The solo piccolo, which is highly e xposed throughout the entire opening section, is faced with having to maintain integrity of pitch in spite of unconventional harmonic language, wide interval ski ps, and extremes of re gister. Trumpets playing in mutes (especially the Harmon mute) are already physically cha l lenged by the increased air resistance caused by the mute. Having to maintain consistent pitch and tone quality through an accented extended note at a pp volume only exacerbates the situa tion. The demands on the timpanist, having to create dynamic sha ping within a very narrow range, are also unusual. These are the numerous challenges appearing within just the first eight measures. Si m-

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221 ilar leve ls of individual detailing continue throughout the piece. With this single composition, Husa has ramped up even higher the expectations and musical responsibilities of wind band conductors and pe r formers. Husas compositional skill is displayed right at th e outset of the piece. Here, he has achieved a remarkable level of suppressed intensity using only a handful of instruments. The effect of this opening passage is certainly foreboding, creating in the listener a nervous anticipation of what is yet to com e. It also establishes the complex serialization of elements that pe rvades the piece. As the opening progresses, textural features come into play to an even greater degree, i ncluding the flutter tonguing in the flutes in measures 1215, and in the Harmonmuted first tru mpet in measures 16 17. The use of half step intervals through this passage also adds intrigue, especially the figure in the vibraphone at measure 13. Tremolos in the second flute add a shimmer to the clar i net harmonies in measures 15 16. In measures 20 21, there is another unconventional sound. In this instance, the Harmonmuted first tru m pet is combined with the second trumpet playing with a straight mute. The two instruments play notes a half step apart. The cre a tive and subtle use of percussion timbres also continues, as at measure 19, Husa indicates that a large tom tom is to be scraped using a triangle stick. Not satisfied with the existing palette of orches trational color, Husa adds more and more of his own gradations. Morse co de like warning rhythms are a programmatic element that Husa uses throughout the piece. They first appear in the oboes at measure 26 27. The distinctive timbre of the oboe makes them noticeable through the combined texture of the other instruments. Husa builds te nsion using dense harmonies and the insistent pounding of the timpani. Particularly effective is

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222 the textural use of multiple instruments on a unison D, building in intensity until this expl osion of fury at le t ter C: Figure 73. Husa Music for Prague 1968, first movement, m. 3543, letter C Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The unison D of the woodwinds carrie s over into the brash trumpet statement at letter C, followed by horns, trombones, and baritones five measures later. The choice of the brass in this passage to signal the arrival of Soviet forces is also programmatic, due to the association of fanfarish figures with warlike themes. Husas preparation for this moment could be interpre t ed as growing political te nsions, while letter C represents the onset of the actual invasion. Husas motivation for a four part trumpet section is revealed in this passage, as he has four pitches sounding simultaneously at points. The sixteenthnote figure in mea s ure 38 uses the first four pitches from the second of the two tone rows (Figure 7 1). The same notes are used in a different order at measure 41. As this movemen t progresses, dissonant four note motives are used in some form in vi r tually every section of instruments of the band.

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223 The equipment needs of the percussion section exceed normal parameters, as this passage alone requires three different sized suspended cy mbals and three different sizes of tam tams. Husa associates the registers of these instruments by pitch, with the cymbals accomp a nying the trumpets and the lower pitched tam tams reinforcing the horns and low brass. This technique has the potential to g enerate additional resonance, as even non pitched percussion vibrate within a particular frequency range, and can resonate sympathetically when combined carefully with i nstruments of the same range. The first movement reaches a fever pitch at measure 74, w ith a powerful statement from the Hussite war song:

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224 Figure 74. Husa Music for Prague 1968, first movement, m. 7480, climax Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Husas orchestration of this melodic fragment is particularly daring. If the ossia lower o ctaves in the trumpets are actually omitted, there is a three octave spread (or two and a major se venth) between the trumpe ts and the baritones. The resulting emptiness in between is star tling. In addition, the trumpets are a minor second apart for their first five notes, in the upper extreme of

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225 their range. This is an almost unbearable clash, yet it effectively conveys the sense of panic and terror Husa wishes to recreate. Letter G is one of the most striking moments in the wind band repertoire. Through a fur ious flurry of woodwind trills, tremolos and flutter tonguing, Husa has used a battery of tom toms pounding out unis on sixteenth notes to simulate Russian tanks rumbling into Prague. The effect is amazingly realistic and terrifying. A sense of urgency is produced by the C augmented ha rmony, especially the low register triad in the contrabassoon, trombones and tubas. Add i tional tension is supplied by D sharps and As, producing half step dissonances against the chord tones. This passage leads to an aleatoric section between measures 82 and 87, where the piccolo, flutes, double reeds, and clarinets are provided rhythms, but the choices of notes are left to their individual whims. This produces a controlled chaos that portrays the social confusion of the Prague residents. Although Husa has momentarily relinquished his complete control of the e nsemble, the resulting indet erminate rhythms produce a compelling effect. The attack comes to a close, as the terror abates with the ensemble dissolving into octave Ds at letter H This passage is given a nervous uneasiness by the flutter tonguing in the flutes and the quicklyarticulated random rhythms in the oboes and clarinets. The activity slowly les sens, as the texture gradually thins to only a few instruments sustaining Ds over waning pr otests from the timpani. The movement concludes with the return of the piccolo bird call, su ggesting a return to relative order. The music ends on the major seventh, leaving the matter unresolved. II. Aria Husas aria is more like the lament of a people oppressed by an occupying force. There is an underlying anger that threatens to boil over at any moment, as threats of revenge and retr ibution seethe just below the surface. Grouped saxophones and low woodwinds generate an om inous tone on the slow and winding, but deliberate melody:

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226 Figure 75. Husa Music for Prague 1968, second move ment, m. 37, melody Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. This combined low woodwind sound is distinguished by the presence of the bass sax ophone, and is perhaps the reason Husa chose to include it in his instrumentation. The succes s ful communication of this melody requires a uniform dynamic shaping of the phrase by all of the players, as though they were a single performer. This must be accomplished while mai ntaining the integrity of the pitch, requiring a mature level of individual control. Later in the movement (measures 9 10) there are unison grace notes in this line, which will likely require instruction from the conduct or in order to achieve a unified i nterpretation. The dark, moody sound of this melody, with its sense of repressed anger, comes in part from Husas use of wide interval skips and nonspecific sense of tonality. The same factors make the pitched percussion contributions sound almost like drops of water falling intermittently from trees after a rainstorm. The placement of the breath marks (in the tuba at measure 4), and the

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227 ba r itone at measure 7) seem like indications of a lift at the end of a sustained no te rather than a dire c tive for an actual breath. The sustained pitches from the tuba and baritone also contribute to the pensive atmos phere. Later in the movement, these sustained pitches are transferred to the higher pitched instruments, with half step intervals creating a chilling effect. Morse code like rhythms appear again, in the piccolo, flutes, and clarinets, beginning at measure 33. Husas use of half steps and major sevenths at letter L is particularly ja r ring:

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228 Figure 76. Husa Music for Pr ague 1968, second movement, m. 4647, letter L Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.

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229 The like instrument combinations of half steps, such as those in the oboes and bassoons, pr oduce the harshest clashes. But the low register half steps in the lower clarinets and saxophones gene rate a distinctive vibration in the sound, the result of colliding waveforms. It is a diff i cult effec t for musicians to achieve, as their lifelong training in predominantly tonal music urges them to try to a djust the pitches back into tune, in order to eliminate the vibrations. Morse code like rhythms appear in this movement as well. The trumpets at measure 49 produce a unique texture, as they articulate the rhythms using three different types of mutes. This is another use of texturally focused writing, as pitches trade places from instrument to i nstrument exposing the varied ti m bres produced by the mute s. The movement ends in much the same way it begins. In several places, Husa makes use of multiple instruments on a single sustained pitch, allowing natural human inconsistencies to cr eate varied textures. Note also the textural effect of superimposed el ements building and dimi nishing in volume independently from le t ter M to the end. III. Interlude A more appropriate title for the third movement might be Nocturne, as it seems a recre ation of the tense sounds of war at nighttime. There is distant gunfir e, amidst a prevailing sense of anticipation, as though a skirmish might break out at any second. Husas use of a solo snare drum with the snare turned off, and a cloth draped over it, is eerily effective in simulating the sound of a far off battle: Fi gure 77. Husa Music for Prague 1968, third movement, m. 1, solo snare drum Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.

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230 Husas r hythms are not merely random. He has given serious thought as to the sound of automatic weapons firing from a great distance, and the patterns men create when using them. This passage must be played with the greatest of subtlety and control, or the effect is not co nvincing. Equal care and consideration has gone into the remainder of the movement, as Husa creates an amazingly varied spectrum of sounds using only standard percussion instruments. Close examination of the dynamics used throughout this movem ent reveals a pattern of serialization, as 12 different levels of volume are employed. The bass frequency response of the large tam tam provides a floor for the sparse contr ibutions from the mallet instruments. Half steps used here yield an entirely dif ferent result than in the winds a much more ethereal quality. Husa exploits his audiences familiarity with the sound of the vibraphone, and how it has been used in numerous film and television scores to evoke an aura of intrigue. At letter P, the snar e drum returns to its traditional military role, rou sing the troops and marshaling them for the battle ahead. Additional snare drums join in, increa sing in volume to a point that Husa de scribes as, nearly unbearable.36 IV. Toccata and Chorale The final m ovement starts with a battery of unison/octave Morse code rhythms, signaling to the listener that the final resolution is imminent. The articulations of the cylindrical bore brass are made even more pointed by the use of straight mutes. Husa follows the bold opening stat ement with this eclectic co l lection of sounds: 36 Karel Husa, in his notations within the score, Music for Prague 1968, New York, NY: Associated Music Publis hers, Inc., 1969, 48.

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231 Figure 78. Husa Music for Prague 1968, fourth movement, m. 919, textural variety Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). Internation al Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Eight separate flute lines are present for this layering of flutter tongued parts, as both piccolo players have also switched to flute. The entrances follow a chromatic pattern similar to ones heard earlier in the piece. A new, but also similar, collection of motivic fragments is introduced in the trumpets, pr oceeding through various permutations with each new playing. Aleatoric elements are introduced by the oboes and saxophones in measure 18, replacing the trumpets. While these indeterminate sections represent a certain release of control by the composer, different performances of these same passages generally end up sounding quite sim ilar. The overall effect of this odd assortment of instrumental textures is one of nervous, but e xcited anticipation of the coming conflict, as though there are butterflies in ones stomach.

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232 The trumpet fragments from measure 9 on are assembled into a theme at letter A, played by the solo clarinet. The fl utes have discontinued their flutter tonguing, and now sustain these tones as a dense cluster, senza vibrato This cluster, combined with a sustained open fourth i nterval in the first bassoon and baritone saxophone, produces an interesting background buz z accompanying the clarinet. The next few measures are a development of the clarinet theme, interspersed with ti m pani punctuations and raspy interjections from the trombones in straight mutes. The plinking of the xylophone is a sound Husa has not used until this movement. It is an appropriate contri bution to this collection of disjointed fragments. In contrast to the wind instruments, the xyl ophone easily handles the wide intervallic skips. Husas combination of open and stopped French horns at measure 46 is a fresh sound as well. Yet another inventive texture is exposed, beginning at measure 49:

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233 Figure 79. Husa Music for Prague 1968, fourth movement, m. 4954, woodwinds + xylo. Music by Karel Husa. Copyright 1968 (Renewed) by Associate Music Publishers, Inc. (BMI). International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Here, the xylophone continues its disjointed interval skips, but is now accompanied by an a l most electronic sounding hum. This humming sound is the result of several overlapping woodwind effects: a low register tremolo in the E flat clarinet, a dissonant sustained chord in the B flat cla rinets, the alto and bass clarinets performing whole step slides in opposition to each other, and alternating eighth notes i n the alto saxophones. Note that the second and third clarinets cr escendos and diminuendos are in opposition. Though it is only a momentary event, Husas cre ativity in conceiving such a harmonic and textural effect is noteworthy.

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234 This moment is immediat ely followed by cricket like chirping in the piccolos and E flat clarinet at letter C. Due to the intonation challenges inherent to these instruments, Husa antic ipates that this combination will be at least slightly out of tune, which provides even more t extu ral interest. Half steps are used once again, in the sustained French horn and muted trumpet voi cings leading into letter D, where the clarinet theme is reiterated, and this time by the entire se ction. This is another moment of high technical demand, as all of the B flat clarinets are charged with maintaining consistency of pitch while negotiating interval skips that exceed two octaves in some places. At letter E, the alternating eighth notes in the bassoons and lower clarinets result in a te mporary m etric ambiguity, as the triple 6/8 meter is effectively disguised for several measures. An altered and extended form of the dissonant passage from the first movement (Figure 76) returns at letter F. This is an early allusion to the upcoming confirmation of the c yclical form. Over the next several phrases, several instrumental colors are explored, as each section is featured playing different variations of the thematic material. A constant eighth note rhythm is maintained throughout, by either the pitche d instruments or the percussion, driving the movement onward. Note the effect of the glissandi traded through the sections, leading into letter K. More material from the first movement is revisited, as a sustained unison E emerges from the texture, begi nning at measure 179. This is followed by syncopated chordal figures in the French horns at measures 184 188, sim i lar to those first heard in the brass at letter E of the first movement. Familiar four note motives are recalled by the trumpet section, starting at measure 193, as the i ntensity continues to build. The Hussite war song reappears in full force at measure 211, in harsh half steps that are played by the trumpets and French horns. This is a powerful and strident sound, effectively r e-

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235 calling the anger and terror of the first movement. The opening rhythms of the fourth move ment are used again to build intensity to the upcoming point of revelation. At letter O, the cyclical form of the piece is fully revealed. Here, Husa repeats almost verbatim th e section from letters C through E of the first movement. Only minor deviations are r equired to adapt the original material from 4/4 to the new 6/8 time signature; the orchestra tional structure is retained intact, forming an unmistakable continuity. The d riving Morse code rhythms make one final appearance beginning at measure 297, to signal the end of the 6/8 section. After a grand pause, Husa uses multiple staggered entrances on the note D, varying the individual dynamics of the players once again, to cr eate textural i n terest. This forms a backdrop for the timpani, which restate the Hussite war song. The addition of the vibraphone at measure 310, with its motorized vibrato effect activated, contributes a shimmering lower o c tave. A final great crescend o leads to the powerful unison/octave chorale statement. Husa voices the brass at letter T in their middle registers for maximum power. Timpani, continuing from the previous section, add additional impact, while also recalling their involvement from the previous movements. There are more Morse code signals from the woodwinds (with xyl ophone reinforcement), and then the brass continues with the chorales second phrase. At letter V, an extended aleatoric measure recalls the panic and confusion from the first movement, this time accompanied by the simulated ringing of church bells by the chimes. Again, a solo snare drummer musters resistance from the turmoil, recalling its role from the third movement. The final statement of the piece leaves the Hussite song unfinished, culmina t ing in a half cadence. The addition of the chimes on the last two notes once again reminds li s teners of the role of Pra gues church bells, rallying its denizens to the cause.

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236 Conclusions In composing Music for Prague Karel Husa clearly was driven by a powerful progra mmatic agenda. Drawing inspiration from his personal impressions, he succeeded in producing an i ntensely moving piece of music that, if properly realized, has the potential to be a profoundly emotional experience for performers and audiences alike. Even listeners unfamiliar with the historical circumstances of the pieces creation can scarcely avoid being affected by it. Husas contributions to the orchestrational practices for the wind band are significant. He imme nsely expanded the spectrum of orchestrational color through his innovative approach to the instrumentation, along with his bold experiments with texture. While the simple unisons, which evolve and build tension through the gradual addition of instruments are particularly e ffective, his creative rethinking of percussion writing in the first and especially the third movement is nothing short of remarkable. These techniques that Husa pioneered can often be found in new contemporary compositions by other wr i t ers. Perhaps Husas greatest achievement in this endeavor transcends his artistic statement. With this piece, he focused attention on the plight of his countrymen and their struggle against Soviet expansionism. Husas decision to end with his peoples Hussite song incomplete may have been his personal statement, on their behalf, that their r e solve will not die. In his review of Music for Prague a critic from the Chicago Tribune wrote of the pieces final measures, But the invaders cannot crush the sp irit of humanity, and the final brass chorale signals a message of hope the Czech people will prevail, just as they have throughout their op pressed history.37 37 John von Rhein, cited in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002, 22.

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237 8. and the mountains rising nowhere, Joseph Schwantner, C omposed 1977 Instrumentation 1977 s core: 6 F lute s (Flutes 1 4 double on piccolo) 2 Clarinets in B flat 4 O boes (Oboes 34 double on English Horn, all Oboes double on crystal water goblets) 4 Bassoons 4 Trumpets in B flat 4 Horns in F 3 T rombones Bass Trombone Tuba Amplified Piano Contrabass Percussion (6 players)* *glockenspiel, xylophone, vibraphone, marimba, tubular bells, crotales, 2 triangles (1 high, 1 low), 4 tom toms, tam tam, water gong, 3 suspended cymbals (small, med., large), bell tree, timbales, bass drum, timpani. O ne glance at Schwantners score to and the mountains rising nowhere is all it takes to recognize that this piece does not lay within the conventions of the majority of wind band compositions. The first noticeable feature is the absence of staves containin g empty measures. Known as a cutaway score, it is not unusual to see this practice applied to contemporary m usic scores. This is, however, among the first of this type to appear for a mainstream wind band work. Closer inspection of the score will reveal more anomalies. In addition to playing their i nstruments, musicians performing and the mountains rising nowhere may also be called upon to sing, whistle, and/or generate sounds from a set of crystal drinking goblets. As these responsibi lities clearly f all outside the realm of normal expectations for the typical wind band musician, performances of this piece will undoubtedly require extra preparation along with certain amount of training. The absence of lower clarinets, saxophones, and the baritone/euphonium indicate that this piece is appropriate for performance by the wind section of an orchestra, in addition to the stan dard concert band. However, orchestra based wind/percussion groups wishing to perform this

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238 piece will likely have to take on additiona l players in the flute, oboe, and percussion se c tions in order to meet the min i mum number of required musicians. Whereas most conductors can negotiate a typical wind band piece with just a precursory examination of the score, it would be virtually impossible to fully understand how this music is to be realized without some kind of aural reference. In addition to negotiating the almost conti nual changes in tempi, the conductor is required to respond to certain sections where no m e ter is given; there are man y passages whose length is measured by indications in numbers of s e conds. For these timed passages, Schwantner uses a time signature of X. Though unconve ntional, this practice is not without precedent in wind band literature. It appears in David A mra ms King Lear Variations (1967), and is used again afterward in Dan Welchers Zion (1994). Later in the piece, Schwantner uses the standard numerator/denominator configuration, except with an actual note in place of the lower number. This is a nontransp osed score; conductors should be aware of that fact when addressing players of transposing instruments in rehearsal. All in all, to endeavor a performance of this formidable piece requires no less than the most de tailed preparation, but the final result m ore than justifies the ef fort. Background The Eastman Wind Ensemble commissioned Joseph Schwantners and the mountains ri sing nowhere through a Composers Fellowship Grant provided by the National Endowment for the Arts. It was premiered by that group, under the direction of Donald Hunsberger, at the 1977 convention of the N a tional Association of College Band Directors. The title is an excerpt from a collection of poems by Carol Adler entitled Ar i oso At the time mountains rising was composed, Schwantner had been working with several contemporary chamber ensembles. In a 1991 interview, he explained the influence his compos itions for these other groups had on his new wind band work:

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239 I wanted to explore ways small ensembles produce sound by giving ind i vidua l musicians more to do. For example, a clarinetist might play other instruments such as crotales, tria ngles or crystal goblets. This idea of augmenting performers roles led to a similar strategy with concert band in which musicians sing and whistle. The amplified piano and large percussion section are treated equally with winds and brass and state many of the works primary musical elements.38 Analysis The first score example shows the configuration of the cutaway score. Timing design ations in seconds appear in several places. In addition to the music, Schwantner has included an e xcerpt from the Carol Adler poetry: 38 Joseph Schwantner, quoted in Richard Miles, ed., Teaching Music Through Performance in Band vol. 2, Chic ago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc., 1998, 530 1.

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240 Figure 8 -1. Schwantner and the mountains rising nowhere m. 1 -3, opening Schwantner AND THE MOUNTAINS RISING NOWHERE, 1975 Schott Helicon Music Corp., Renewed 1977, All Rights R eserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Helicon Music Corp.

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241 The composition begins with a heavy percussion figure in the three sets of toms, which is expressed rather indeterminately as grace notes. One must assume that these can only be coord inated to occur simultaneously through a rote agreement between the players and conductor. Immediately, the new textures that distinguish this piece app ear, as the water glasses are brought into resonance on staggered entrances of a B natural minor tonality, played by the oboe section. Schwantners designation of the oboes to handle this responsibility may stem from their choice of instrument. As oboists, they have to be natural problem solvers in order to deal with the quirks of their instrument. The glasses are set into vibration through the friction of fi ngers rubbed around their rims. This nonstandard effect must be prepared and practiced befor ehand, with experimentation to determine the exact amounts of water to use in each glass in order to produce the desired pitches. Marking the glasses for future rehearsals/performances could also present problems, as using tape or some other such indicator is likely to inhibit the resonance of the ve s sels. Another unusual texture Schwantner has included is the sound produced by piano notes held down at the beginning of the piece, allowing the vibrations created by the percussion i mpacts to excite resonant f requencies within the lower piano strings. This effect varies consider ably depending on the particular equipment used, and also the acoustic properties of the performance venue. The use of an a m plified piano as part of a traditionally acoustic ensemble m ay have raised issues among band purists at the time as to what is appropriate to include as part of this ensemble. Schwantner obviously felt no obligation to conform to convention, as it would have limited his creative pal ette to only the already accepted sounds. The ethereal effect of the singing glasses on the B minor tonality is soon interrupted by a fortissimo B minor eighth note chord on the piano. The passage continues with a root/major s e-

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242 cond trill that is accompanied by various percussion sounds, including the water gongs. These instruments are simply standard gongs, which are raised and lowered as indicated from water filled tubs. Another gong that is excited into vibration by a cello bow contributes an eerie swooshing effect. After the mo mentary suggestion of a tonality shift to G in the piano (with triangles adding upper frequency color), the otherworldly sound dissolves back into the ringing glasses sonority. This is punctuated by a dissonant nonchord tone figure in the piano in 32nd notes, followed by a curiously effective arpeggiated figure that is constructed of stacked perfect fifths, playing B m inor chord tones and extensions. Vibraphones add other nonchord tones, with the right and left hand ma l lets sweeping simultaneously in a crossing pattern over (presumably) white keys, an effect more textural than tonal. Another non chord tone figure in the piano follows, similar to the first, as Schwantner co ntinues to create interesting textures by combining pitched and nonpitched instrum ents, thereby e xpanding his orchestral palette. Then, the piano plays B flat chord with added seventh, ninth, raised fourth and raised fifth extensions, superimposed over the B minor tonality in the glasses. This figure ends with a feathered beam rhyth m on high C that progresses from shorter to longer note va l ues. This tonally ambiguous atmosphere continues into the first metered section at measure 2, beginning with rim shot timpani exclamations on the B minor root note. There are B minor note clusters in the pitched percussion layered over a dynamically varied G major seventh chord with a raised fourth in first inversion in the brass. Notice how Schwantner has indicated the 4/8 m eter, using a numeral 4 over an eighth note instead of the standard t ime signature desi gnation.

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243 Between the timpani/mallet impacts in measures 2 5, the tonal ambiguity is heightened as Schwantner adds a piano figure using the B octatonic scale (whole step first). He ends the section with an accelerating piano flurry on other octatonic sounds (in differing keys) over B minor tremolo clusters in the pitched percussion, leading into a final percussive impact. A moment (~four seconds) of r e pose is allowed as the final piano chord resonates over the ever present B minor chord i n the water glasses. One can see the difficulties inherent in trying to communicate these types of unconve ntional sounds. Given the complexity of the first few moments of the music, Schwantner must have reasoned that using the X measure was the only lo gical way to notate it. At its prem i ere, this opening statement must have made a profound impact on listeners accustomed to mai nstream wind band music. Few pieces that predate mountains rising required this level of musical sensibility and flexibility of its performers, particularly those involved in the duties out side of their normal instrumental responsibilities. Moving beyond the music in Figure 81, human voices are introduced at measure 8, singing an n sound on the root pitch. The vocal syllable gradually opens up to an ah sound, providing textural interest that adds to the novelty of a vocal presence. The water gongs are a udible at this point, providing an unearthly moaning effect. The B minor perfect fifths figure r eturns in the piano, this t ime in septuplet 32nd notes, stacked from low to high pitches. It is a ccompanied on this occasion by both the xylophone and the vibraphone, a feat that must no doubt be carefully r e hearsed. This next section continues for an extended period, as the singer s move through varied and increasingly aleatoric sections, reacting harmonically with the glasses timbre on the first six pitches of the B natural minor scale. At measure 10, the French horns seem to emerge from

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244 within the vocal texture, followed by trombones, manipulating various scale tones, but focused mainly on the minor second interval between the second and third scale tones. The ghostly e ffect of the lower French horn glissando into the half step interval, and also the trombones gli ssandos at measure 12, is noteworthy as well. The piano/xylophone/vibraphone figure from measure 8 makes repeated appearances between measures 9 and 36, but each time the percussion effects are varied, giving the repet i tions different characters. The vibraphone sweeps r eturn, starting at measure 11, adding another dimension to the texture. The first use of the crotales/orchestra bells combination a c companying the piano is at measure 12. It is very pronounced, as are its later appearances between meas ures 15 and 36. A roll in the multiple suspended cymbals at measure 24 generates a temporary chill as it increases in volume. Whistlers are introduced at measure 16; they gli s sando slowly between B minor chord tones, adding yet another dynamic to the supernatural atmos phere Measure 27 marks the departure of the water glasses, though it is masked by overlapping sections of aleatoric whistling, and a seventh appearance of the piano/xylophone/vibraphone fi gure, which are doubled this time in the flutes and clarinets. The addition of sustained winds to the separate tones of this figure brings a newness to it, both in texture and intensity. A rhythmic timpani figure on low G seems to reinforce the change, as the nonharmonic piano motive from the opening measure makes a repeat appearance. Its repetition here acts as a un i fying device. An ensemble of lower winds, comprised of bassoons, horns and low brass, enters om inously (as indicated) at measure 30, on an open fifth tonality with an added ninth. This r e solves outward, f or a brief appearance of a B flat major chord, before moving immediately into the G major seventh, raised fourth tonality that was heard in the piano at the beginning of the piece.

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245 The effect of this chord as orchestrated for the winds is much more forbidding than the same chord played on the piano. As the piano and percussion continue with similar textures, the brass/bassoon gesture is r epeated at measure 32, this time adding ninth and thirteenth chord extensions in the tru m pets. The result is a polytona l A major over G major structure. The piano and pitched percus sion answer, with a 32ndnote figure in measure 36 that is characterized by leaping intervals. This figure is also derived from the B octatonic scale that was heard previously. It is doubled in the woodwinds, with different instruments sustaining particular notes as they land on them. The color di fferences between the various instruments, when combined with the exotic tonal la nguage, make for a very striking effect. The low brass on the toni c B, combined with nonpitched percussion, end this section with a four second moment of repose. Measure 37 is another measure divided into timings in seconds (X). It begins with a percussive piano/drum figure, which decays to expose an understated pian issimo cluster chord in the brass. The brass chord is comprised once again from whole step first B octatonic scale. The harmony produced here is disturbing, as the chord increases in volume, accompanied by accele rating percussion punctuations. This is a repeat of a similar passage first heard in measures 2 6, but is compressed in time, and is more percussive due to the additional of the toms. Measure 38 (see Figure 8 2) signals a return to the B natural minor tonality. The scale tones are used in anothe r pyramiding e f fect that sweeps through the entire ensemble. Piccolos land on the nonharmonic tone C at the top of the structure, before being joined by the French horns, in a dramatic octave anda half glissando from B b e low the staff, all the way up to high F:

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246 Figure 8 -2. Schwantner and the mountains rising nowhere m. 38 -46, pyramid effects Schwantner AND THE MOUNTAINS RISING NOWHERE, 1975 Schott Helicon Music Corp., Renewed 1977, All Rights R eserved Used by permission of European American Mus ic Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Helicon Music Corp.

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247 The unearthly chord builds, with percussion support, to an impact note at measure 40, followed by two seconds of silence. Here, Schwantner uses the performance venue itself to cr eate an effect, knowing full well that the silence in the hall will be filled by the reverber a tion from the previous impact. A similar pyramiding effect follows, this one constructed of stacked perfect fifths like the piano figure from the opening measur e. Once again the chord tones are distributed throughout the ensemble, exploiting the resulting timbral differences to cr e ate another remarkable texture. It should be noted that assembling and aligning these complex rhythms (as well as the ot hers throug hout the piece) will present challenges to even the most accomplished individual mus icians. Thankfully, these areas of rhythmic demand are us ually within sections where there is a defined meter and pulse, and not in the timed X sections. In this excerp t, Schwantners use of horizontal lines on the staff in measures 42 and 44 indicates duration, rather than trad i tional note values. This graphic representation of time is a feature common to many conte m porary scores for less traditional ensembles. The next several measures (beyond the excerpt) consist of similar gestures layered upon each other, as voices emerge from the texture during sustained notes interspersed with more rhythmic pyramiding effects and percussion exclamations. Woodwinds sustain an F sh arp in octaves at measure 51, at the top of a final pyramid structure that signals the end of the sec tion. Throughout these measures, the French horns, whose unique timbre is always able to be heard through the ensemble, are predominant. A brief pause al lows the final chord to once again r everberate through the perfor m ance venue. The rhythmic activity and harmonic language used through this passage, along with the strident timbres of instruments playing in their upper registers, combine to form an effec t that is

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248 cataclysmic. The harmonic language Schwantner uses here is reminiscent of the Edgard V a rse wind band and tape piece, Dserts (1954). Many film score composers have accessed this language to depict scenes of social upheaval, including Jerry Gol dsmith in his wrenching score to the post apocalyptic The Planet of the Apes (1968). Measure 52 begins in a more reflective mood, as the upper woodwinds sustain a six second chord. The chord starts at a pianissimo volume and crescendos, with punctuations pr ovided by the melodic percussion. The chord itself is harmonically interesting, a polychord com posed of a G half diminished chord superimposed over a B dominant seventh structure. Muted brass adds a sustained A flat melodic minor cluster at measure 53, which is also reinforced on the attack with pitched percussion. The brass sustain briefly, then the woodwinds resume, performing pyrami ding effects a measure later on a B Lydian mode structure stacked in thirds. These effects are now much more subtle, both in texture and volume, generating a temporary dream like state. An E flat in the horns and trombones emerges through measures 57 and 58, as the brass r esumes its dominant role in measure 59, pyramiding on the A flat melodic minor tonality. Woodwinds a dd an upper texture to the brass decay, reverting back to the G half diminished chord, as low brass explore nonharmonic tones in the lower octave over an E pedal point. At measure 62, the tonality shifts to a whole tone scale rooted on an A in the trombones, as tremolos in the vibraphones add texture along with muted forte piano trumpet notes. This shift in language results in a darker mood, one that is less ethereal than in the previous section. An F sharp chord cluster, containing both the major and minor thirds, sounds at measure 64, adding mystery to a moment of double reed exposure. This figure ends in an A half diminished chord at measure 68. Schwantners use of an abnormally large double reed section adds exot i cism and intrigue through this mor e pensive pa s sage.

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249 The harmony changes to an F melodic minor chord at measure 70, with the double reeds holding an A flat into measure 71. Here, a piano fi gure in major sixths introduces the natural form of the A flat minor tonality, with lowered sixth a nd seventh scale degrees. A measure lat er, the upper woodwinds confirm the chord with their arpeggiated figure, followed by a brief rea ppearance at measure 73 of the non harmonic sixteenthnote piano figure heard earlier. This serves as another unifying device within this (by now) apparently free composed form. All of these structures are suspended over the E timpani note, which recurs under each moment of r epose. This atmosphere continues at measure 74, as the A flat natural minor tonality (or E Lyd ian if inclu d ing the timpani pedal note) is reinforced by tremolos in the vibraphones that extend through the next several measures. The continually shifting tonalities and kaleidoscope of i nstrumental color serve to sustain the interest of the listener thr ough this less rhythmicallyactive section of the piece. In measure 76, a piano figure recalls the original B minor tonality, which is a strident sound against the A flat minor background. Two measures later, the piano seems to change its mind, reverting back to A flat natural minor, with a rhythmic flurry of notes. The A flat continues to be su s tained in the tenor range by horns, as the upper woodwinds fade in and out on chord tones, the upper B flat in the flutes being the most pronounced of these. The re is a tender m oment of harmonized melody between the oboes and English horn at measures 7980. This figure also resolves upward to the B flat, as the piano and pitched percussion trade tremolos that are a c cented by the trumpets. A moment later, the tru mpets increase the intensity of the texture with a pyr a miding figure initiated by the piano and marimba, again terminating on the upper B flat. The A flat sustained by the horns grows out of this moment to introduce the only strong melodic section within t his predominantly textural piece. This melody occurs at measure 85.

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250 Accompanied by the vibraphone tremolos and a unison trombone line, the horns play their three measure A flat minor melody in a 12/8 meter (expressed unconventionally as a 4 over a dotted eighth note). The mood here shifts suddenly from ethereal to heroic. The A flat natural minor tonality is formally confirmed by the brief appearance of a sevenflat key si gnature. The trumpet section takes over in measure 88, mimicking the horn melody, until the cl imax of the phrase, which is a four measure sustained chord at measure 91. This structure co ntains all the notes of the A flat minor scale except the minor third. Tension is created within the structure by the fifth and sixth scale degrees (which are a minor second apart) played against each other in several octaves. Accompanying this uncharacteristically tonal moment in the winds is the nonpitched pe r cussion, playing the only regular rhythm of the entire piece. The percussion texture continues beyond the chordal moment for another 26 measures, a ccompanied by a variety of sounds including forearm clusters in the piano paired with gong i mpacts. A particularly dark voicing of the B natural minor scale occurs at measure 97:

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251 Figure 8 -3. Sc hwantner and the mountains rising nowhere m. 97 -104, various effects Schwantner AND THE MOUNTAINS RISING NOWHERE, 1975 Schott Helicon Music Corp., Renewed 1977, All Rights R eserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Helicon Music Corp.

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252 The open fifths in the trombones a major seventh apart, sustained over the B root note, form an dissonant structure that expresses an emotion of great dread. At measure 100, there is a su stained, angry C sh arp in the French horns, and frantic whistling from the piccolos and flutes, who play aleatorically on rows of notes that include all 12 tones. The regular percussion rhythms and French horns give this passage a militaristic flavor, as though a vast, conquering army is approaching. Pantonal piano clusters also contribute to the sense of doom. The cut a way score helps to illustrate the proper temporal alignment of these different interacting el e ments. At measure 108, the suggestion of tonality returns, ove r the driving percussion, as the trombones, bassoons, and piano play a line derived from a whole step first octatonic scale based on A flat. As the octatonic scale is a symmetric structure containing both A flat and B, the ha rmonic language is actually identical to that used at the beginning of the piece, just s uperimposed over a different root note. This tonality effectively reflects the anger of the rhythmic percus sion and piano clusters. The clarinets, English horn, and French horns join the melody line as it develops through measures 110 111. At measure 112, the tonal center slips down a half step, to G octatonic, then another half step lower, to G flat in 113, followed by free tonality, as the line thickens to include oboes and trumpets. The wildly angular melody line builds into an accented polytonal chord (F pentatonic over G flat pentatonic) at measure 118, released abruptly in the next measure to end this se c tion. The quiet entrance of the woodwinds on a D flat melodic minor tremolo (minus the ro ot note) is masked by the decay from the loud chord preceding it, an effective manipulation of the human aural response (threshold shift see p. 143 ). A Bflat to C trill in the flutes and piano is

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253 the most prominent element, as clarinets play an aleator ic version of the scale, while scale tones are struck ra ndomly on the chimes. This section, another extended measure in free time (X), is delineated once again in seconds, and lasts for over a minute. Rehearsal letters from A to G provide reference points for the various cued entrances that follow. After 15 seconds, a roll on the gongs signals the return of the singing tones produced by the water glasses, and also the whistlers (letter B). This is a faint su ggestion of a possible cyclical form to the piece. The cued entrances include flute glissandi that alternate between a D flat minor tremolo and a sustained, ethereal B flat major tonality that includes raised fourth, raised fifth, and m a jor seventh degrees. This altered B flat chord is reinforce d by the piano. Water gongs and ot her sustained percussion sounds add shimmer, along with bowed vibraphone notes drawn from the unusual flute andpiano B flat tonality. This combination of sounds yields a watery, impressionist type atmosphere, and is a profound contrast from the pr e vious section. The crotales (also bowed) play a series of fixed register notes that dont appear to define any particular tonality. The piano recalls figures heard earlier in the piece, then moves through a series of alea tori c passages, the first of which recalls the original B minor tonality that opens the work. At letter E, the flutes begins to move independently, on scalar lines indicated grap hically on the music, with no specific pitches provided, only a general contour. With its odd graphic not a tions, this portion of score looks even more unconventional:

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254 Figure 8 -4. Schwantner and the mountains rising nowhere m. 120E and F, graphic notation Schwantner AND THE MOUNTAINS RISING NOWHERE, 1975 Schott Helicon Music Cor p., Renewed 1977, All Rights R eserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors LLC. sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Helicon Music Corp.

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255 At this point, the whistlers switch to short, articulated, undefined pitches, with only a suggesti on of a rhythm, executed as quickly as possible. The aleatoric piano is joined by the pitched percussion entering in sequence, their pitches indicated, but with rests interspersed, and the rhythmic timing left up to the individual players. Here, the conductors responsibilities have been r e duced to a series of cues. This mlange of sound results in an impression of the surreal, with possibly a hint of mental instability. All of this activity builds in volume and inte nsity to a climax at letter G, where the B to C sharp piano trill from the opening section returns, again sugges t ing a cyclical form. The meter resumes at measure 121, with a sixteen note ostinato in the piano and the first flute that is dodecaphonic. The lower notes of the piano are held down, as at the beginning of the piece, allowing the other instruments to stimulate resonant frequencies. The remaining flutes reinforce the line, stopping on particular pitches that change from measure to measure. The ele ctronic piano sound and sustaine d flute timbres combined with the relentless repeating pattern produces an ambiance bordering on the Satanic. Percussion sounds are added here and there, beginning at measure 126, giving additional textural variety to the passage. After five repetitions the ostinato begins to unravel pitchwise, moving upward, though the regular rhythm continues. Melodic percussion sounds increase in frequency and density, building into measure 130, where the brass re enter on pyramid effects that are similar to those heard near the beginning of the piece. In this instance, they conform harmonically to the 12tone pattern introduced in the woodwinds at mea s ure 128. The pyramid figure is repeated three times through measures 130, 131, and 132. The notes of the figure are sustained after their entrances, producing a complex polytonal structure of three harmonic layers. The layers are: G major in first inversion on the bottom, F sharp major in the middle, and F major (including the seventh) at

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256 the top. It is signif i can t that the note B is at the bottom of these structures, as that was the root note upon which the piece began. This is yet another suggestion of a cyclical form, though ce rtainly not in the conve n tional sense. After the three repetitions of the woodwind/br ass/piano pyramid, the winds settle on an octatonic chord in measure 133, punctuated heavily by nonpitched percussion. At measure 134 (X), the sonic effect introduced back at measure 120 is repeated, with the remaining sound this time being the water gla sses, once again suggesting a loose cyclical form. Horns sustain a vacant open fifth between B and F sharp, and are doubled by instrumenta l ists singing the same pitches. This texture resonates for a full 40 seconds. To conclude the piece, the pianist ma kes a tender statement in major sixths, and then ends on the B natural minor tonality that opened the piece, accompanied by bells and cr otales. The return to the original pitch material provides a logical and satisfying end to the work. Conclusions Schwan tner has contributed an engaging and original work to the wind band repertoire through his use of unconventional sounds and structures, along with a harmonic language rar e ly explored within the genre before this piece. The dramatic impact of and the mount ains rising nowhere is undeniable, and Schwantner has accomplished it using none of the usual harmonic devices that composers generally em ploy. For wouldbe composers of new wind band music, mountains rising underlines the need for a comprehensive underst anding of contemporary compositional practices, and of the various harmonic languages that are available, including a knowledge of jazz harmony. Only with a complete arsenal of these resources can the composer be truly free to express the full range of at mospheres and em otions. This is a landmark piece for the wind band, and the foundation upon which many later pieces are based. It effectively cleared the way for the use of unconventional textures, nonstan d-

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257 ard instruments and contemporary graphic notation in wind band works. Though written in 1977, this piece it can easily fit within todays programming, and is sure to be well received by modern a udiences. 9. Winds of Nagual, Michael Colgrass, C omposed 1985 Instrumentation 1985 score: 6 Flutes (3 double Piccolo, 2 double Alto) 1 E flat C larinet 6 B flat C larinets 1 B flat B ass C larinet 1 E flat Contra Alto Clarinet 1 B flat Contra Bass Clarinet 1 Contrabassoon 1 B flat Soprano Saxophone 1 E flat A lto Saxophone 6 Trumpets (2 doub le Cornet) 6 H orns 6 T rombones (2 Bass) 2 Euphoniums 2 Tubas 2 Contrabasses Piano (doubles Celesta) Harp Timpani (4) 5 Percussion* *Parsifal bells, vibraphone, crotales, chimes, xylophone, marimba, bass drum, 3 gongs, 4 large suspended cymbals, 3 lar ge pairs of crash cymbals, 1 pair 8 crash cymbals, 5 cowbells, temple blocks, bongos, timbales, snare drum, tenor drum, and field drum. The score to Winds of Nagual is unique in that Colgrass did not adhere to any standard i nstrumentation but designed hi s own configuration using instruments in numbers of his own choosing. There are no double reeds except the contrabassoon, and he includes both the contra lto and contrabass clarinets. His saxophone section is limited to only the soprano and the alto. Col grass brass section is unusually large, including six French horns and six trombones, two of which are bass trombones. He uses a variety of instruments in the trumpet family including two cornets and a flugelhorn. In addition, he has a large percussion section playing an exte nsive variety of instruments (some nonstandard), plus he has added a harp and a ke yboard. As part of the percussion section, Colgrass has included Parsifal bells, named for the Richard Wagner opera. They are a mallet instrument i ntended as a substitute for church bells. There are

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258 also two contrabasses required instead of the usual one. With its very specific instrumentation, Winds of Nagual clearly belongs to the realm of the wind ensemble. This score, like the Schwantner score, is a l so nontransposed. Background The music of Michael Colgrass combines the many influences he accumulated over the course of his life in an eclectic and personal style. In 1969, New York Times music critic Harold Schoenberg described Col grass as, so mething of a maverick. He will use serial textures, but will mix them with jazz, or outright romanticism, or dissonance la Ives.39 It seems that no source of inspiration is off limits to Colgrass, as Winds of Nagual appears to access a wide range of mu sical references, including some from pop cu l ture. Winds of Nagual was composed in response to a commission from Frank Battisti and the New England Conservatory Wind Ensemble, with funding provided by the Massachusetts Council for the Arts. It was well re ceived at its premiere the same year, and was immediately embraced by the wind band community. In his review of the piece, Richard Dyer of the Boston Globe wrote, Winds of Nagual is extraordinarily visual, storytelling music in a way that has gone whol ly out of fashion since the great Strauss tone poems like Don QuixoteThe music is full of the mystery and the matter of fact, it has mountains and rivers and bubbles in it, singing and dancing, meditation and the m oon, all pre cisely, colorfully and ima ginatively caught. There is even an audible phil osophical point about coexistent worlds of spirit and body.40 In addition to the Sudler prize, Winds of Nagual also earned the Best Composition Award from the National Band Association and the Barlow Award. 39 Harold Schoenberg, cited in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Public ations, 2002, 106. 40 Richard Dyer, quoted from Williams College Music, Symphonic Winds: Excavations of Nostalgia and Myth: r e claiming the past, reexamining the present, reimagining the future http://music.williams. edu/node/376

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259 Analysis Winds of Nagual is subtitled, A Musical Fable for Wind Ensemble on the Writings of Ca r los Castaneda. According to Colgrass: Winds of Nagual is based on the writing of Carlos Castaneda about his14 year apprenticeship with don Matis, a Yaqui Indian sorcerer from Northwestern Mexico. Castaneda met don Juan [sic] while researching hallucinogenic plants for his masters thesis in Anthr opology at UCLA. Juan became Castanedas mentor and trained him in pre Colombian techniques of sorcery, the overa ll purpose of which is to find the creative self what Juan calls the nagual .41 Winds of Nagual is a seven movement piece, with the movements performed attacca. The seven movements are: Movement 1: The Desert: Don Juan Emerges from the Mountains Movement 2: Don Genaro Appears Movement 3: Carlos Stares at the River and Becomes a Bubble Movement 4: Gait of Power Movement 5: Asking Twilight for Calmness and Power Movement 6: Don Juan Clowns for Carlos, and Movement 7: Last Conversation and Farewell The work is programmatic, with a variety of styles and moods. These moods sometimes change abruptly to reflect the narrative of the story. In places, characters are represented by certain i nstruments and themes, not unlike the Wagnerian leitmotif. In a 1991 interview, Colgrass described his approach to Winds of Nagual stating, Important to me in this piece is the sudden change of styles and feelings and moods and tempos. These characteristics are indigenous to the books, where a humorous situa tion will be followed instantly by a terrifying one. I tried to ca pture these changes and moods in the m usic.42 41 Michael Colgrass, from the program notes to Winds of Nagual New York: Carl Fischer, 1985. 42 Michael Colgrass, quoted in Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Public ations, 2002, 106.

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260 1. The Desert: Don Juan Emerges from the Mountains The piece opens with the distinctive sound of the E flat clarinet: Figure 91. Colgrass Winds of Nagual first movement, m. 18, opening statement Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The exotic tone of the sopranino c larinet, in combination with the bell like accentuations from the crotales, establishes the spiritual quality of Colgrass composition right from the opening statement. While the pentatonic language of the melody suggests the music of the Orient, the diss onant co ntributions from the muted trumpets add a dark mysticism. The numerous bell like effects suggest perhaps the glaring intensity of the desert sun. The clarinets lower grace notes appear to belong to a different scale than the more prom inent uppe r notes, suggesting a fixed registration that creates a polytonal effect. The m i nor ninth interval between the grace note and the note it embellishes is a challenging intervallic skip, r equiring the technique of a more advanced player. Colgrass indicates whisper mutes for the tru mpets. This type of mute is generally not considered standard issue for trumpet players, but is a device usually used for quiet practice. These mutes are, however, successful in giving the dissonant trumpet chords a far a way sound. At measure 15, a four layer stratification of contrasting scalar languages between the pi ccolo, E flat clarinet, B flat clarinet, and soprano saxophone further deepens the intrigue. More

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261 strata are added leading into measure 26, where the Don Juan the me suddenly appears. This is an example of the abrupt style changes Colgrass alluded to in his 1991 interview: Figure 92. Colgrass Winds of Nagual first movement, m. 2631, Don Juan theme Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The previous mystical section segues directly into this ominous sounding heroic theme, with no more warning than a crescendo of the stratified texture just prior to it. The title of this passage on the score indicates that this melody is intended to represent the character of Don Juan. The low register of the line, and its dark accompaniment, gives weight to the theme. The bass trom-

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262 bone at measure 28 a dds a menacing quality, while the other trombones in straight mutes contribute a rasping effect. This passage is made even nobler by Colgrass use of all six of his French horns. Other scores boasting horns in these numbers include Wagners operas, the symphonic poems of Ric hard Strauss, Mahlers epic symphonies, and Holsts orchestral suite, The Planets (1918). In the latter pieces fourth movement, Jupiter, Holst uses the French horns to bring great di gnity to the hymn, I Vow to Thee, My Country. C olgrass uses the euphonium to add body to the French horn sound at measures 26 29, and then the flugelhorn, when the French horn range ve ntures higher in the following two measures. This technique is similar to Hindemiths reinforc ement of his cornet/trum pet me l ody at the beginning of Symphony in B flat Colgrass indication of Danceband derbys [sic] for the cornets at measure 30 is ev i dence of his big band roots. Without that experience, he may have had no knowledge of that as an available sound for cornets/trumpets. The derbies add a veiled darkness to the cornets, compl imenting the tone of the French horns. The cornet/flugelhorn figure at measure 31, with its alte rnating notes outlining a perfect fourth, could be perceived as a tribute to the iconic whistling m otive from Ennio Morricones memorable film score to the Sergio Leone spaghetti western, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966). At measure 33, the cornet and flugelhorn rhythmic figures lend a suggestion of mariachi trumpets to the theme, an allusion to Don Juans Mexican heritage. Colgrass use of minor se venth and major seventh chords in measures 36 39 also point to his jazz background. The cornets add similar m a riachi references later as solo passages in measures 47 49. A rare solo exposure for the E flat contralto clarinet occurs at measure 52. It is accomp anied in the extreme low register by an equally unlikely combination of contrabassoon, harp, pi-

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263 ano, and string basses. The understated tone of the contralto clarinet, along with the plodding quarter note accompaniment, is a dark and eerie sound. The appearance of a solo clarinet at measure 59, playing a light, happy figure, creates a sharp contrast to the dark surrounding material. This coincides with Colgrass indication, Ca rlos approaches Don Juan. This is perhaps a suggestion that this clarinet melody is associated with Castaneda himself. The bell like effect of the celesta in measure 62, combined with tru mpets in whisper mutes, is an unexpected and foreign sound to the ears of the wind band li s tener. Its timbre, along with the bizarre chordal structure used, contributes to the supernatural mood. The next passage, titled Don Juan shows Carlos a new concept of himself, is characterized by the appearance of an alto flute. This instrument, though not entirely foreign to the wind band, must be used carefully due to its fragile sound, which is incapable of projecting through any kind of dense ensemble. Colgrass provides reinforcement to the subtle sound using the harp, creating a reflective, impressionistic quality. This section is very understated and intuitive, r esembling te xtures from the Nuages movement of the Debussy composition Nocturnes (1899). 2. Don Genaro appears The frivolous nature of the material that opens this seco nd movement would suggest that Don Genaros character is quite the opposite of Don Juans. The notation at measure 84, G enaro clowns for Carlos, explains the sounds:

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264 Figure 93. Colgrass Winds of Nagual second movement, m. 8489, clowning Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The 6/8 meter provides a change of attitude, along with Colgrass exploitation of comedic sounds, suc h as the muted trombones performing glissandi Tenor clef is used in the trombones to minimize ledger lines. Grace notes, again spanning the interval of a minor ninth, appear in the piccolos, giving their figures a quirky, disjointed quality. The contra bassoon, another i nstrument not normally exposed in solos, also contributes humor, contrasting its extreme lower range with the upper extreme provided by the three pi c colos. Colgrass knowledge of percussion is again displayed here. He utilizes an unlikely but oddly appropriate choir of cowbells, playing on their association with clowns. He achieves the desired timbre through his designation of a specific mallet. The tinny sound (his indic a tion) of a small set of crash cymbals at measures 90 94 heightens the toy like character of this section. A

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265 score notation reads Preferably K. ZildjiansA. Zildjians are not crude enough, refe r ring to the cymbals manufacturer. A nonpercussionist would likely not have as intimate a knowledge of the available eq uipment. Colgrass contrasts these frivolous phrases with dark, sustained clusters of sounds in the lower woodwinds and brass at measures 96 and 105. In the second example, note in particular the strumming effects on the lower strings of the harp and piano, and how the resonance from the instruments themselves helps to augment the sound. Another change of style occurs at measure 116: Figure 94. Colgrass Winds of Nagual second movement, m. 117125, romantic melody Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, In ternational Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC This section takes advantage of the listeners association of the marimba with Mexican music. Though it is actually Guatemalan in origin, the marimba has come to represent Mexico al most as much as the mariachi band. The sound is very pleasing, and it communicates well the overly romantic and sentimental mood specified by Colgrass. His choice of an alto saxophone to a ccompany the cornet is unexpected, as the mariachi band typically uses two trumpets playing m elodic lines harmonized in thirds such as this one. Colgrass knowledge of percussion comes into play again, as he knows exactly how to use the marimba idiomatically, even down to the preferred type of mallet. The four hand tec hnique required to execute this passage is somewhat advanced, but should be within the ability of most competent college level percussionists. Colgrass, recognizing that most pe r cussionists are much

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266 more comfortable reading in treble clef, writes the marimba parts in that clef using the 8v b indication, rather than writing the passage in bass clef. The following passage (from measure 126 through 142) is filled with engaging combinations of wind and percus sion color, suggesting an aura of stealth and sophistication. This mood is shattered at measure 143 by Colgrass instrumental representation of Genaro laughing: Figure 95. Colgrass Winds of Nagual second movement, m. 143149, laughing effect Copyr ight 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC This is a very inventive orchestration that uses the distinctive upper register of the E flat and B flat clari nets in grace note figures and short tremolos. The tone quality of these instruments in this register can easily suggest comedy when used in this manner. Here the flutes and piccolos serve simply as reinforcement as the character of their sou nd is not as pronounced. The trumpets, still in straight mutes from the previous passage, add a strident effect to the beginning of each laugh. Trombones repeat the hu morous cupmuted glissandi heard previously (Figure 9 3).

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267 Colgrass use of close harm onies here resembles the simulated bird call effects that characterize much of Olivier Messiaens music, especially his piano and orchestra piece, Oiseaux e xotiques (1956). These chordal structures have a neutral quality to them, making them more ge stural than harmonic. Measures 158 160 end the movement with a flourish that spans the entire range of the woodwind section in only seconds. It has a light and enchanting quality that recalls another of Holsts movements from The Planets Mercury. Colgrass indication for the harp in measure 159, to use a coin for the gliss., may reflect the influence of John Cage, with whom he worked. The orchestra bells, with the indication plastic (referring to the desired mallet), add an appr opriate punctuation to the final note. 3. Carlos Stares at the River and Becomes a Bubble The influence of Impressionism on Colgrass music is apparent in the first few sounds of this movement. It also suggests the hallucinogenic aspect of the Castaneda story. This combination of sounds from the celesta, harp, and vibraphone very clearly conveys the idea of water: Figure 96. Colgrass Winds of Nagual third movement, m. 161168, watery effects Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights rese rved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC This is an outstanding example of textural writing, as Colgrass uses wind chime like sounds combined with irregular rhythms to simulate the randomness of nature. The vibraphone is particularly effective here, with its motorized vibrato suggesting the motion of waves. Cross staff

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268 beaming in the celesta and harp indicates precisely to the performers how to manage the complex rhythms. Note the invented scale Colgrass indicates fo r the harp. It is polychordal, combining the D flat major and C major scales. It communicates not only the idea of water, but with an added mysticism, as though being, perhaps, under water. The simple alto flute contributions beginning in measure 171 als o have a watery presence about them. Colgrass holds off venturing below the staff with the harp until measure 175. When he finally does, it is as though the water has sudde nly gotten deeper. The rhythmic activity increases at measure 178, coordinated wit h the notation . and travels with the water. The sonic exploration continues downward into the depths as, one by one, the bass, contralto, and contrabass clarinets join in. Various elements crescendo and dimi nue ndo, layered upon each other as though they are images floating beneath the surface. Colgrass achieves a remarkable effect beginning at measure 194:

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269 Figure 97. Colgrass Winds of Nagual third movement, m. 194196, shimmer effect Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC Using dynamics within dynamics, this shimmer texture emerges from the mlange of sound created by the continuous arpeggios of the celesta and harp. N ote that while the celesta part has changes in direction, the harp sweeps move only from bottom to top. This is reflective of the technical capabilities of each instrument, as well as their idiomatic conventions. Six note harmonic clusters in the flutes and clarinets alternate with six note clusters in the muted trumpets, providing two contrasting colors that suggest sunlight reflecting off the surface of a lake. The contrast is heightened by the shifts in tonalities that occur in each measure, much like the undulating cur rents of a river. The triplet rhythms Colgrass uses enhance the effect even

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270 further, while the rising and falling woodwind figures add an underwater dimension to the te xture. The absence of any bass line through this passage contributes to the floating effect, as do the occasional vibraphone contr i butions. The passage from measure 201 to 208, Carlos tumbles in cascades of water, is also very musically descriptive, as is the next section at measure 209, Juan jolts Carlos awake with a shrill voice. In these sections, Colgrass continues his experimentations with instrumental color, producing some startling effects. The use of the piccolos, E flat clarinet, soprano saxophone, and the Parsifal bells in measures 209 211 is particularly creative. 4. Gait of Power The start of this movement, Don Juan shows Carlos how to leap between boulders in the dark, offers Colgrass another opportunity to employ unusual sounds: Figure 98. Colgrass Winds of Nagual fourth movement, m. 223229, ope ning Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The contrabass clarinet and contrabassoon used in combination is a texture foreign to many m usic listeners. It does, however, convey the concept of leaping boulders in the dark, when a c-

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271 companied by the other instrumental sounds present here. Colgrass wisely cautions the brass pla yers not to overwhelm the woodwinds, as they easily could. The use of silence in this excerpt is effective, and the syncopations add an element of the unexpected. Once again, Colgrass anticipates the reverberation of the performance venue, using it as a compositional tool. The tenuous quality of this passage is reminiscent of the sparse bassoon effects in Paul Dukas The Sorcerers Apprentice (1897). It also provides a stark contrast to the almost continuous sound of the previous movement. As the movement progresses, the timpani becomes the fea tured instrument appropriate for its primal, earthy connotations. Beginning at measure 241, Something moves in the dark, Colgrass puts his extra large trombone section to work:

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272 Figure 99. Colgrass Winds of Nagual fourth movement, m. 241246, trombones Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The glissando on the trombone is generally used as a comedic effect. Colgrass uses it quite di fferentl y here to suggest an unseen danger. This passage can present problems, even for acco mplished players, as the spreading sound of the instrument when smearing at higher volume le vels can impede technical ability and rhythmic accuracy. Such passages must be given the nece ssary attention in rehearsal in order to address these issues. The full power of six trombones is more fully revealed in the heavily articulated eighth notes between measures 248 and 254. The players should be advised where the harmony is act ually split six ways (as at 249); separate parts take more air to properly balance than do unisons.

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273 The si xteenth note figure in measure 250 requires a lighter, jazz type interpretation to prevent it from bogging down. Note Colgrass contrasting of t he cylindrical bore trombone sound with the coni cal bore French horns and euphoniums between measures 252254. The syncopated dissonant brass chords and percussion from measures 263 270 are evoc ative of Stravinskys Rite of Spring (1913), particularly the Adoration of the Earth section. Colgrass uses this material similarly to depict primal fear. The fear is realized at measure 271 (A terrifying creature), where the trombones perform glissandi on a six part chord cluster, a frightening sound, especial ly when combined with the furious woodwind trills. Measure 282, Carlos exerts his will, marks another abrupt change of mood: Figure 910. Colgrass Winds of Nagual fourth movement, m. 282288, brass Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC

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274 This powerful section features a heavily doubled brass voicing involving the flugelhorn, French horns, and all of the low brass. The texture i s made even thicker by the numerous major and m inor second intervals within the chords. The tubas play the same pitches as the lower two trombones, ending up in their extreme high register at measure 288. This gives the final chord a di stinctive ringing quality, enhanced even more by the percussive reinforcement of the chimes. The woodwind contributions at measure 285, particularly the piccolos and E flat clarinet, are so shrill and piercing that they sound almost as if they are percussion. 5. Asking Twilight for Calmness and Power This movement begins with a reference to the opening measures of the first movement. The familiar timbre of the E flat clarinet helps the listener to make the connection between the two passages. The melody is similar, but is not an exact reprise. Colgrass creates interest and variety by mirroring the upper line in inversion a major 10th below in the soprano saxophone. The muted trumpets that accompany the original melody are replaced here by subdued flutes and clarinets. At measure 304 (Carlos dances), Colgrass creates a quiet, reflective mood: Figure 911. Colgrass Winds of Nagual fifth movement, m. 304311, reflective mood Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved includ ing performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The combination of an alto flute with the alto saxophone, playing in a very quiet subtone, is calming, yet at the same time somewhat disturbing. This disquieting aspect is caused by two di f-

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275 ferent, layered tonalities, G sharp minor over F major. The harmonic stratification gives the pa ssage a Str a vinskian quality. Colgrass use of the vibraphone performing both lines simultaneously is a unifying el ement that adds a subtle articulation to each note. A cupmuted trumpet, accompanied by the bass clarinet and harp, provides a temporary change of color at measure 313 before the alto flute and vibraphone return at measure 317. When the soprano flute takes over at measure 320, the change of ins truments is hardly noticeable until the instrument ventures above the staff at mea s ure 324 and beyond. The accompanying instrument here switches from the bass clarinet to the alto clar inet. Through all of these changes of responsibilities, Colgrass maint ains the same pensive a tmosphere, but with sligh t alterations of instrumental color. At measure 335 (Carlos meditates), the soprano saxophone adds a new color as it assumes the melodic role. A shift in tonality to F natural minor changes the compositional la nguage almost imperceptibly. The role of the harp is expanded, providing addi tional harmonic support, as well as reinforcing the melody line. The addition of the marimba adds an impression of dripping water, further enhancing the calm demeanor. Ethereal muted brass adds yet another dimension be ginning at measure 363. Beginning at measure 376, the exotic sound of the Harmonmuted trumpet is heard co mbined with the celesta. Here, the accompaniment is provided by the bass clarinet and harp, which play the same pitches. These combinations of sustaining and decaying instruments e nhance even further the reflective atmosphere. The fivepart flute cluster at measures 385 386, using the C harmonic minor scale along with seemingly random rhythms in the cele sta, produces an interesting moment of mysti cism.

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276 At the a tempo (measure 387), a solo clarinet takes over the melody. The bass line is now being played by a French horn with both lines again combined in the harp part. They are accompanied by the crotale s with sustained notes accentuated by the trumpets, which are now in metal straight mutes. Colgrass choice of the metal straight mute provides a bright timbre that co mpliments the strident sound of the crotales. This polychordal texture (B major over G ha r monic minor) recalls the very opening measures of mov e ment 1. More material from the first movement is alluded to at measure 400 (He feels a deep calm and joy), where the expressive potential of the flugelhorn is displayed: Figure 912. Colgrass W inds of Nagual fifth movement, m. 400405, flugelhorn solo Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC

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277 After the previous section, which was limited to the middle and upper ranges, the introduction of the lower woodwinds and contrabasses is effective in expressing the deep joy aspect of this pa s sage. The darkness of the lower chords is increased by the half step dissonances between the C in the euphonium and the D flat of the other instruments. French horns contribute a buzzing te xture with their stopped notes. Colgrass keeps the frequency range of the flugelhorn clear of any obstructions, allowing the player plenty of latitude for uninhibited expression. Trombones in measures 401 404 recall vaguely the shimme r ing effect from the watery third movement. The root movement down a major third and then back is similar to passages from the first movement. These references to moments ear lier in the piece help to generate an overall sense of continuity. A moment of heroic romanticism occurs at measure 410 (Nightfall), before Colgrass concludes the movement with a series of hushed tone clusters suggesting the density of a mist rolling in. The melodic percussion highlighting the entrances of the upper woodwinds and whi sper muted trumpets is enchanting, as is the final punctuation by the single crotales note. 6. Don Juan Clowns for Carlos The festive calypso style of this movement provides a welcome contrast to the weight and depth of the previous movement. Instrumental colors alternate in the introduction, combining to signal its end at measure 424. For the melody beginning in the next measure, Colgrass taps the comic potential of the E fl at clarinet (used to great effect by Henry Mancini in his popular B a by Elephant Walk). He combines this with the lightness of the rarely heard E flat trumpet u s ing donkeylike heehawing grace notes. The laughing effect from the second movement (Fi gure 95) is recalled at measure 435, before the melody resumes. While the clarinet tremolos are rel a tively easy to produce, the lip trills in the cornet require an advanced level of embouchure flex i bility.

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278 Colgrass continues the comedy with a pair of broken record passages that are acco mplished through the use of unconventional time signatures and dictated pauses. At one point he actually encourages the musicians to play tinny and out of tune. The second of these sections features the unlikely c ombination of a solo contrabass with an accompanying contralto cla rinet and contrabassoon, almost as though they are supplying the music to a circus elephant act. Both passages conclude with dissonant clusters, simulating the scratch of a phonograph needl e as if the record player was bumped by an impatient listener. A piccolo/tuba duet follows shortly afterward: Figure 913. Colgrass Winds of Nagual sixth movement, m. 466472, piccolo/tuba duet Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyrig ht Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The humor of this passage is both musical and visual, as the comparative size of the instruments themselves matches their musical output. The fiveoc tave separation of parts suggests the com ical juxtaposition of extremely large and small characters. Another piccolo/tuba passage familiar to band audiences occurs at the very end of Gustav Holsts Second Suite in F (1911), where it achieves the same whim sical effect. Colgrass follows this section with another reference to mariachi trumpets (measures 474 481). A working knowledge of this rather spread sound and overly articulated style, with its wide vibrato, is required of the performers involved in orde r to achieve an idiomatically correct rendi tion. Without a clear understanding of those performance practices, the cultural reference (and the humor) would likely be lost.

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279 At measure 493, the music is written to produce intentionally wrongsounding note s: Figure 914. Colgrass Winds of Nagual sixth movement, m. 493497, wrong notes Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC The passage here is suggestive of a broken music box due to its dissonant minor second and m ajor seventh intervals. Each of the four note syncopated impact notes contains two dissonances. That aspect, combined with the squeaky upper register of the clarine ts, conveys this tongue in cheek attitude. The piece continues with a disjointed collection of isolated notes from a variety of instruments that spans the range extremes of the entire ensemble. This passage also seems deliberately silly, as though a child was plunking random notes from each end of a piano. A fragment of the pi c colo/tuba melody from Figure 913, voiced in half steps, ends the movement unresolved. 7. Last Conversation and Farewell The frivolity of the previous movement is immediately quelled by the sober melancholy that begins the final movement. A dark melody in C sharp harmonic minor is stated by the e uphonium, accompanied by ponderous, plodding quarter notes in the contrabasses, harp, piano, and timpani. The flugelhorn figure in measures 521522 is an unmistakable reference to the first appearance of the Don Juan theme from movement 1 (see Figure 9 2).

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280 Carlos theme from measure 63 also reappears, played by the soprano saxophone at measures 522 through 526. It is decidedly more poignant in this guise than it was as the unde rstated contralto clarinet solo of the first movement; there it seemed almost an afterthought. Measures 525 527 are also recognizable repetitions of previously heard material. Similar th ematic references appear in t he E flat clarinet at measure 547, in the flugelhorn at measure 549, and in the flute at measure 551. These recollections of earlier themes serve the farewell aspect of the narrative, as well as help tie together the musical composition. Using orchest rations that are similar to those heard earlier (though not necessarily exact repetitions) further strengthens those connections. The Maestoso passage at measures 556 558 involves the full ensemble and serves as a dramatic gateway to the cataclysmic final section of the piece. According to Castanedas book, the ultimate goal of the Don Juan philosophy is to discover the crack, or abyss, between the world of the diableros (sorcerers) and the world of living men. Measures 561 through 565 become increasingly more dissonant as Carlos, upon finding the abyss, contemplates his fate with fear and apprehension. At measure 566, Carlos (literally) takes a leap of faith and dives in, where he enters an enlightened state and gains an entirely new understanding of t he cosmos:

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281 Figure 915. Colgrass Winds of Nagual seventh movement, m. 566570, Carlos leaps into the abyss Copyright 1987 by Colgrass Music, International Copyright Secured All rights reserved including performing rights, Reprinted by permission of Carl Fischer, LLC

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282 At this point, Colgrass shifts to a pantonal language, utilizing every note of the chromatic scale. The jump itself is graphically represented by an atonal sweep through the ensemble from top to bottom, which is repeated three times. A seemingly bottomless pit is depicted in measure 567 where a dense cluster of notes below the bass clef staff suggests immeasurable depth. For earm clusters in the piano, accompanied by a stroke on the lowest gong, provide a reverberant, apoc a lyptic effect that spans the lower frequency range. Carlos explodes into a thousand views of the world at measure 568 where the numerous views are represented by layered clusters of notes in different families of instruments. These clusters enter in sequence using an irregular pattern of rhythm. The percussion adds pitched and nonpitched accents to the various impacts, enhancing the mlange of sound. Many of the e ntrances in the wind instruments are made to simulate the decay of the percussion and piano through the use of diminue ndos following the initial attacks. Throughout this cacophony, Colgrass maintains a relative clarity within his tone clusters by using larger intervals toward the bottom of the ensembles frequency range and limiting most of the half step diss onances to the upper instruments. The series of clusters continues, thinning to just the trumpets and horns until measure 573 where there is a momentary pause. This pause is followed immediately by an accented brass chord using every note of the Lydian mode in F. The emotional impact created by this noticeably consonant tonality seems to suggest that this is the point where Carlos has reached a state of supreme enligh t enment. The remainder of the composition is a gradual thinning of the texture, as instruments drop out one by one. A sequence of descending thirds, beginning in the E flat clarinet in measure 575, is transferred through several other solo instruments, generating an impression of resignation and acceptance. Beginning at measure 582, ar peggiated figures in the harp outline the Lydi-

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283 an mode in B, which is also implied by the three note pattern in the vibraphone. The chimes add another three note figure that outlines the D Lydian mode. The two modes are combined in the final p brass chord at measure 583, creating an ethereal atmosphere that dissolves into nothingness, leaving only the chimes to suggest the soft tolling of faraway church bells. Carlos spirit u al journey has ended; he has discovered a higher plane of existence. Conclusions Winds of Nagual is a well crafted piece of wind band music, displaying a wide spectrum of instrumental colors and an unabashed creativity. It showcases the programmatic potential of the ensemble and plays on the preconceptions of the listener, taking adva ntage of the cultural assoc iations connected to particular instruments as well as accessing certain pop culture refer ences. Colgrass compositional skill transcends mere musicmaking, as he takes his audience on an e xtended jou r ney as witnesses to his characters guided tour into self discovery. Colgrass grasp of orchestration and vast knowledge of styles allows him to conjure up vivid visual images using only the medium of sound. Just as mountains rising demo nstrates the need for a comprehensive kno wledge of musical languages, Winds of Nagual displays the advantage of having a working knowledge of the percussion section, and the orchestrational e f fects it is capable of producing. Winds of Nagual is a remarkable accomplishment and a towering contribut ion to the wind band repertoire. Much like Husas composition, Music for Prague Colgrass creation goes b eyond mere music making. It has opened the door to a new world of sounds and a new approach to composition that is sure to benefit future writers of wind band music, as they embark on their own journeys into self discovery.

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284 10. Fantasy Variations, Donald Grantham, C omposed 1998 Instrumentation 1999 score: C Piccolo 1st C Flute 2nd C Flute 1st Oboe 2nd Oboe English H orn E flat C larinet 1st B fla t Clarinet 2nd B flat C larinet 3rd B flat Clarinet E flat A lto clarinet B flat Bass Clarinet BBflat Contrabass Clarinet 1st B assoon 2nd Bassoon C ontrabassoon B flat Soprano Saxophone 1st E flat A lto S axophone 2nd E flat Alto Sax ophone B flat T enor S axophone E flat Baritone S axophone 1 st C Trumpet 2nd C Trumpet 3rd C Trumpet 4th C Trumpet 1st Horn in F 2nd Horn in F 3rd Horn in F 4th Horn in F 1st Trombone 2nd Trombone 3rd Trombone (Bass) 4th Trombone (Bass) Euphoniums T uba Double Bass Timpani Percussion (4 players)* Piano (doubles on Celesta) *Orchestra Bells, Xylophone, Vibraphone, Marimba, Crash Cymbals, Hi Hat, Suspended Cy m bal, Tambourine, Wood Block, Slapstick, 4 Tom Toms, Snare Drum, Trap Set, Bass Drum Granthams score for Fantasy Variations is very much in line with the current expectations for the instrumentation of the wind ensemble. He utilizes a full woodwind section, including the contrabassoon and contrabass clarinet (but not the contralto as Colgrass did in Winds of Nagual ). With the p ossible exception of the inclusion of the soprano saxophone, there are no unusual diversions. The published score features the oversized meter indications that have become co mmonplace in recently produced works. Continuing the practice established by Husa in Music for Prague t he brass section is co mprised of four of each of trumpets, French horns, and trombones. This configuration allows a c-

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285 cess to the extended jazz harmonies that Grantham consistently uses, particularly in this piece. As in Granthams o ther wind band works, the two lower trombone parts require i nstruments with at least F attachments, if not the more grounding bass trombones The euphoni um part splits in places, but there is no evidence that more than one tuba is required. There are no nonstandard instruments used in the percussion section; however, a pianist is included, doubling on the cele sta. The inclusion of the string bass helps to represent the jazz style. Grantham has a propensity for using orchestral C trumpets instead of the B flat trumpet more common to band music. This could be to encourage performances of his pieces by the wind and percussion sections of established orchestras. His numbers appear to be very sp e cific; it is a s sumed that, except for the B flat clarinets, there are no other doubled parts. Hence, this can be co nsidered a true wind ensemble piece. Background Fantasy Variations is based on the second of George Gershwins Three Preludes (1926), a suite for solo piano. On his choice of source material, Grantham w rites, My attraction to the work is personal because it was the first piece by an American composer I learned as a piano student.43 Though constructed as a theme and variations, this piece is a departure from the standard format in that the theme itself (Gershwins prelude) does not appear in a recogni z able form until near the end of the composition. Grantham weaves his piece from fragments drawn from the two melodies of the prelude, beginning with obtuse references, and then slowly moving into more fami liar motives that lead toward the final revelation of the prelude in its original form. 43 Donald Grantham, in hi s program notes, Donald Grantham, Fantasy Variations, Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publ ications, 1999, ii.

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286 In contrast to Winds of Nagual this piece represents a return to a more conventional a pproach to orchestration with fewer experimental sounds and a more idiomatic us age of the wind band instrumentation. The textures are denser in general, and standard doublings within sections and between sections are more common. Though there are occasional thinly scored pa ssages in Fantasy Variations the bulk of the piece utilizes instrument groupings, as o pposed to the more soloistic, chamber like writing of previous pieces within this study. Fantasy Variations was commissioned by a consortium headed by Jerry Junkin, which i ncluded the University of Texas at Austin, University of Oklahoma, University of Nebraska, University of Illinois, University of Florida, and Michigan State University. It was awarded first prize in the 1999 NBA/William D. Revelli Composition Competition and also won the 1999 ABA/Ostwald Award. Analysis Grantha m has indicated on his score where each of his variations occurs; this seems a log ical breakdown for this analysis as well. While the principle focus of the study of this piece will be the or chestration, certain aspects of the compositional construction w ill be explored as well. The bulk of the composition is based on the two main themes from the Gershwin second prelude. The two themes are as follows:

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287 Figure 101. Gershwin Three Preludes, prelude 2 main themes FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used b y Permission Introduction (measures 1 16): Granthams composition begins with a grandiose opening statement:

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288 Figure 102. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 1 7, Introduction FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used by Permission

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289 Measures 1 2 contain an opening rhythm of an eighth note followed by a dotted quarter note. The first note is voiced as an E flat major chord in the upper instruments only; the second is a C major chord, fully orchestrated, with impacts in the percussion. Superimposed, these c hords form a C dominant seventh chord with a raised ninth, a tonality that permeates this entire composition. The upper woodwinds and piano continue trilling a C major chord through the s econd measure, with the piccolo playing the root note on top. Upper registers are used on all of the woodwinds in order to maximize the bri l liance of the trill. The oboes, clarinets, and bassoons break off the trill in measure 2, continuing with a chr omatic flourish in contrary motion that is supported by a snare drum rol l. This element is not pa rticularly pronounced in the recording; it is mostly obscured by strong, accented harmonic fi gures in the brass that move chromat i cally downward against an ascending tuba line. The rhythm of this line begins with a quarter note a nd a half note, essentially the opening rhythm in augment ation. Grantham makes use of the striking modal harmonies created by major chords superi mposed over displaced roots. Beginning on beat four of measure 1, the structures are C major over F sharp, B major over G, B flat major over A flat, and C major over B flat. The contrary motion is reversed in measures 4 5, the structures being F major over B, G flat major over A, G major over A flat, and A flat major over G. While some of these polychords are highly dissonant, the upper structure major chords suggest the conventions of contemporary jazz harmony, making them a c ceptable to the ears of modern audiences. The chromatic content of this introductory material is derived from the half step bass line m ovement in Gershwins piece. These lines are accompanied by pedal point Gs in the contr abass clarinet, contrabassoon, baritone saxophone, euphonium, double bass, timpani, and piano,

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290 giving the passage an overall dominant harmonic feel. This subconscious sense of dominant function persists all the way into the beginning of Variation 1 at measure 33, reinforcing the i mpression that this section actually is an intr oduction. A woodwind episode follows beginning in the second half of measure 5. It is seemingl y derived from the eighth note/quarter note/eighth note rhythms found in the B section of Gershwins original prelude (see Figure 10 1). The upper element is accompanied by a disjointed bass line that is shared by the lower woodwinds, piano, and pizzica to bass. As it moves into measures 9 and 10, traces of Gershwins A melody are detectable. This is one of the first audible hints of the source material. Harmonically, the texture is modal, with the melody voiced again in major chords set over displac ed root notes. The result is tonal, but not within any standard harmonic progression. French horns join the melody line in measure 10, and the phrase peaks at measure 12 with the horns very notic e able on their high B flat. Another technical woodwind line that is harmonized in thirds rises up from the lower instruments. It is answered by the upper woodwinds, also in thirds. The use of thirds in the construction of this section could be a reference to the very first interval of the A melody in Gershwin s prelude (Figure 101). There are brief passages that trade between families of i nstruments, leading into a measure of articulated sixteenth note figures in the brass. These figures mirror the rising and falling scalar background passages that accompany Gershwins original A melody, only using smaller note values. A final woodwind flourish signals the end of the introduction and the beginning of Variation 1. The length and complexity of the introduction is indicative of the scale of the work to follow; Grantham uses the introduction to establish his harmonic language and to briefly hint at the origins of the piece. At this point, he has already exposed the listener to the full palette of i n-

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291 strumental forces he has at his disposal and, hence, the implications of what is yet to come. The writing style itself is dramatic and colorful, bordering even on the theatrical. Perhaps it is a reflection of Gershwins dual career both as a producer of commercial music and also as a serious symphonic composer. This first excerpt is a good example of the orchestrational practices that are consistent with Granthams other wind band works. In the bulk of his music for this genre, the instruments are used idiomat i cally; unusual combinations are rare in comparison to Colgrass approach. Much of the writing utilizes fam i lies of instruments, featuring them by themselves or in opposition to other groups of like instr u ments. T he presence of the piano in this particular piece provides a link to Gershwins original composition and also suppli es additional orchestrational color. The introduction features only the upper and lower piano ranges, as any playing in the middle fr equencies would likely be lost within the dense wind instrument writing. Variation 1 (measures 17 32): The first variation is propelled by an irregular ostinato in the pianos lower register, su pported by the low woodwinds and timpani. The timpani line is a fragment of Gershwins A melody and is most noticeable over the rumbling ostinato line. The use of 3/8 measures creates unpredictable rhythmic shifts in the line, much in the manner of Stravinsky. A melodic motive is introduced in the low woodwinds, contrabass, and piano in measures 1720:

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292 Figure 103. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 1726, Var iation 1 FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used by Permission Numerous film score and television writers have employed the pianos lower register in this manner to suggest action and suspense. Grantham generates the same atmosphere here, provi ding an emotional contrast to the flamboyant introduction. The first two measures of the melodic motive from measures 17 20 are repeated in inve rsion in the low brass at measures 24 26. The brass flutter tonguing and the use of tremolo in the double bass (now bowed) add appropriate texture to this a ngry sounding section. The flutter tonguing is limited to only the brighter sounding trombones; the conical bore euphonium and t uba provide purer tones, and are more effective for reinforcing the actual pitches.

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293 Like Schoenberg, Grantham uses a variety of articulations, seven different ones already to this point. They define a detailed range of note lengths and levels of emphasis. Grantham i nstructs Percussionist IV to use the handle end of a snare drum stick on the bass drum, giving it a harsher, more conspicuous attack that adds energy to this rhythmically active pa s sage. Bowings have been provided for the contrabass. As this instrument is considered a part of the standard complement for the wind band, it is important for the wind band composer to have at least a working knowledge of string techniques. In this passage, Grantham uses downbows (heavier and more pronounced than upbows) to add emphasis to the notes accented in other i nstruments. This short variatio n concludes with an articulated si xteenth note figure in the trumpets and trombones, reinforced with percussion that moves downward chromatically in a motion similar to measure 7 of Gershwins A melody (Figure 101). Variation 2 (measures 33 48): The second variation continues the eighthnote pulse of the previous variation as a new e pisode, exploring the chromatic movement that signaled the end of Variation 1 using a recur ring two note motive that outlines the interval of a half step. Though the pulse i s maintained, the te xture is changed, with only winds playing and no percussion reinforcement. The entrances in measures 33 34 are staggered upward through the trombones and trumpets, and occur on the s econd half of the beat at various intervals. The acc ented notes are passed through the parts, pr oducing an aggregate melodic line that is joined together by the euphonium. The result is a mel ody that varies in color while it moves upward, as the reinforcing i nstruments change. The A melody fragment rea pp ears in the upper woodwinds in measures 4042, followed by chromatic variations of the motives minor third interval. These variations lead to an ascend-

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294 ing trumpet passage whose terminus at measure 48 is punctuated by a rip in the French horns. This vari ation concludes with another chromatic sixteenthnote figure in the trombones, this time ascending. Instrumental color and emphasis are added in places by the piano and pe r cussion. Variation 3 (measures 49 64): The melodic motive from Variation 1 reappear s in the third variation, which actually b egins on the last eighth note of the previous section. It is thickly orchestrated in the upper woodwinds with simultaneously sounding major second intervals that impart a humorous quality to the relentless, poundi ng rhythms. The sound of the piccolo, playing in its extreme highest range, is almost severe. Occasional 3/8 measures appear again, continuing to disrupt the predic t ability. The melodic motive is restated in its original form and then in inversion. Her e, it moves about, accompanied by irregular chromatic rhythms in the lower instruments. The sixteenthnote chromatic brass figure also reappears at measure 64, ending the vari ation. This time it features contrary motion between the trumpets and trombones. By this point, Gra ntham seems to have established a dichotomy between the conical bore and cylindrical bore brass instruments. He generally uses the latter in more of a percussive role, due to the instr uments brighter timbre. Variation 4 (measures 65 80): The xylophone is featured in the fourth variation. It plays chromatically against an E flat pedal point for the first four measures and then breaks free of the bass notes for the next four. The texture here is much thinner, providing contrast to the previous, more heavily orchestrated variation. Figures simulating percussive ruffs in the lower woodwinds, brass, and piano add punctua tions, while the clarinets provide a momentary contrast through a soft, legato appearance of the A fragment that is p resented in parallel, dissonant ha r mony.

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295 At measure 73, the xylophone line is transferred to a solo piccolo, accompanied by an odd mi xture of staccato chords in the upper double reeds and saxophones. This is layered over an inverted pyramid effect in the Harmon muted trumpets. The wood block is used to add a subtle touch of percussive color. The result is a brief, cartoonish cat andmouse episode that concludes with an ascending figure in the clarinets, flutes, and piccolo, suggesting the escape of the prey. Having exhausted ways to present it, Grantham finally departs from the sixteenth note brass fi gure he has used to close the previous variations. This one ends quietly at measure 80, with little fanfare. The ascending pitch register of the woodwi nds in the last measures effectiv ely introduces the next vari a tion. Variation 5 (measures 81 96): The fifth variation is the last of a series of 16 measure sections that have thus far provided an underl y ing structure to the piece, though it is not overtly apparent due to the rhythmic shifts and irregular time signatures. This section, which is sparsely orchestrated in music box fashion using only the piccolo, flutes, xylophone, bells, and celesta, offers even more contrast to the ponderous heaviness of the earlier variations:

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296 Figure 104. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 8185, Variation 5 FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This co mposition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used by Permission In this excerpt, the celesta/orchestra bells combination alternates with piccolo, flute, and xylophone in a de licate dialogue. The doubling of the celesta with the bells creates a combined sound that further enhances the celestas already ethereal sound. This sparkling combination of highpitched instruments produces an enchanting quality that is rarely accessed by wind band writers. The celesta was used very sparingly outside of the standard orchestra until the 1970s. The difficulty in securing an instrument, as well as its prohibitive cost, discouraged its use among most band composers. It is however becoming more and more available in upper level college and university pr ograms, and is being used with increasing frequency in newer works. This passage is composed of more chromatic figures and fragments based on the A melody of the prelude. Slurred figures i n the flutes and clarinets beginning at measure 88 provide contrast to the driving eighth notes heard previously. The clarinet texture from mea s ures 7172 of the previous variation makes a return, leading into the next section.

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297 Variation 6 (measures 97 116): A key change to G major, accompanied by a change of texture, opens the sixth variation. Here, the saxophones provide brief oom pah introductions to a series of slurred and harm onized fra gments. These fragments are rhythmically similar to Gershwins A melody; however the melodic contour has been altered to resemble more closely the original accompaniment fi gure from the piano prelude. Granthams use of contrary motion within these figures mirrors Gershwins sim i lar practice in his piece. These passages are followed by a legato transition into the next variation that is derived from the figure at the end of Gershwins B section. This is the first appearance of any obv iously recognizable material from the original composition. The predominantly w oodwind sound of this variation provides an oppor tunity for the contrast to follow. Variation 7 (measures 118 142): The seventh variation, the longest so far, shifts to a 3/4 meter while continuing the lyrical style of the previous section. The flowing, r hythmically ambiguous style temporarily masks the time change. A warm brass sound, provided by the conical bore instruments, contrasts with the previous texture. This brass combination is accompanied only by the lower clarinets, which blend seamlessly wi th the sound. The clarinets are almost undetectable, yet they add su pport:

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298 Figure 105. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 118126, Variation 7 FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Granth am Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used by Permission Although there are only four lines of music here, the doublings by like and unlike instr u ments create interactions between the slightly different waveforms. The aggregate waveforms are richer than those provided by single instruments; here they serve to fatten and warm the overall sound. The French horn melodies in this passage are derived from the second phrase of the Gershwin B section (see Figure 10 1). There are some answering figures in the upper woodwinds, and then another reference to a melodic fragment that is also from the B section. The harmonic language is dark and chromatic with wandering inner lines that generate a sense of mystery. The detailed dynamic contouring provides added i n terest. At measure 126, upper woodwind figures lighten the atmosphere with a more consonant harmonic language. A dialogue between the two elements continues into measure 134, con-

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299 trasting dark and light instrumental colors. More woodwind figures, punctuated by the piano at measure 134, add a touch of whimsy, and then the movement winds down with additional B mat erial from the prelude that appears in the horns. The variation ends with unresolved harm onies, creating a sense of uncertainty. Variation 8 (measures 143 205): Another meter shift, this time to 6/8, along with a return to the key of E flat major pro vide s clues to an upcoming change of attitude. Imitative entrances in the saxophones that are based on the end of Gershwins B melody introduce a wandering, syncopated woodwind episode driven subtly by the double bass, piano, and hi hat. The mood is inquis itive, yet playful. The addition of a rhythm section to the winds at measure 152 (who until now have been unaccompanied) lends a clear suggestion of the jazz flavor that is soon to come in the piece. Granthams inclusion of the contrabass for this piece facilitates the walking bass line that appears in measures 152 159. Saxophones that are exposed here as a section also allude to a jazz e nsemble:

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300 Figure 106. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 152160, Variation 8 FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Us ed by Permission The slurred style here contrasts with the detached figures of the previous measures. Co ntrary motion occurs between the two upper saxophone lines, again referencing the original Gershwin piece. The jazz band texture is short lived however, as the upper woodwinds return after an absence of only four measures, thus reaffirming the wind band instrumentation. Al though the hi hat drops out at measure 156, the rhythmic swing feel is maintained by syncopa ted fi gures in the upper woodwinds th at are pitted against the downbeats of the bass line in the lower sax ophones, contrabass, and piano.

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301 Both the melodic line and the accompaniment figures in this passage are derived from Gershwins A melody. Overlapping fragments from the preceding varia tions appear, introdu cing a brief, jaunty eighth note episode that begins at measure 166. This episode is an exte nsion of the figure that first a p peared at measure 151. A moment of rhythmic sobriety is furnished by the flutes and vibraphone at measure 172 (cool jazz references). This is followed by a sudden punctuation by the full ensemble at measure 176, and then the disjointed eighthnote rhythms resume in the woodwinds. The wandering sax ophones return at measure 181, engaging the clarinets and contr abassoon in a short dialogue that co n trasts lyrical and rhythmic styles. The variation concludes at measure 201 with an understated rhythmic coda played by the full woodwind section with another reference to the end of Gershwins original B section. A lone French horn sustains its G (concert C) into the next variation, en a bling a tonality shift from E flat major to the relative minor, C. Variation 9 (measures 206 223): A meter shift to 2/4, rubato for the first two measures of variation 9, allows for a n intr oduc tion by the second euphonium, which quotes the end of the Gershwin A section. This pa ssage confirms the tonal shift to C minor. Then, just as things are settling, a change of key signature at measure 210 signals a sudden modulation downward t o A minor (or possibly C major). Grantham va r ies the timbres subtly at this point by exchanging the second euphonium for the first. The bass and contrabass clarinets provide responses to the euphonium questions, which are joined by a bassoon, and then t he upper clarinets at measure 215. Here, the first euphonium melody is a foreshadowing of material that appears later in Variation 11, as the tuba joins with it

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302 in a dialogue. This pa s sage is much more subdued and reflective than the previous variation; the tone colors are dark and rounded, enhancing the mysterious quality. Continued chromaticism through this variation maintains the ambiguity of the tonal center until the very end, where it appears to settle on C minor. The last few melodic fragments are clearly drawn from the B section of the Gershwin prel ude, as the flutes complete the transition to the next variation in eerie, parallel major thirds. Variation 10 (measures 224 248): The celesta contributes to the supernatural quality of variation 10, which is perpetuated by the still wandering chromaticism. A fascinating woodwind passage at measure 237 uses the di stinctiveness of the E flat clarinet timbre to isolate its line within the dense texture of surrounding ha r monies that move together in a homophonic rhythm:

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303 Figure 107. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 227235, Variation 10 FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This co mposition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used by Permission A closer inspection of this exotic and seemingly complex woodwind passage reveals that it is comprised of only two separate lines! Octave doublings and timbral differences combine to cr eate a richness of texture that disguises the simplicity of its construction. The origin of the upper melodic line of this passage becomes clear at measure 236 where it becomes identifiable as the last phrase of Gershwins A melody (see Figure 10 1). Gra ntham then ends this variation with earlier material from the preludes A section, as the mystery of the original source material co ntinues to slowly unravel.

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304 Variation 11 (measures 249275): Granthams score indication of the beginning of the eleventh variation seems premature, as the first two measures appear to belong to the previous section. After that, the density increases rhythm i cally as well as orchestrationally, creatin g more uneasiness and a sense that something signif i cant is forthcoming. The same melodic material persists, but is now supported by an ever changing kaleidoscope of harmonic development. A meandering triplet eighth note line in the bass clarinet and sax ophones adds depth to the intrigue, as the line gradually thickens toward a dynamic arrival point ( ff ) at measure 264. Here, the mood turns suddenly romantic, as the wandering chromaticism gives way to strong tonal root movement in fourths. Though not a part of the original source material, the aesthetic of this pa ssage recalls Gershwins popular torch songs of the 1920s (The Man I Love, Someone to Watch Over Me, etc.). The dense, dramatic writing culminates with the peak of the phrase at measure 26 7. The question posed by this drama is answered, as the texture thins to only upper woodwinds who r eveal elements of Gershwins B melody in the least disguised form thus far. The minor ninth harmony at measure 267 is effective in generating passion to ears familiar with the film noir movie soundtracks of the mid20th century. Orchestra bells add sparkle to the sequence of entrances that conclude the vari a tion. Variation 12 (measures 276 293): As in the previous variation, the very beginning of the 12th variation seems to belong to the one preceding it, although Grantham appears to consider the meter change to 4/4 the start of the new section. Similar melodic fragments continue here in a dialogue between the solo flute and

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305 clar i net. They are accompan ied by the now familiar combination of low register clarinets and coni cal bore brass. This reflective section also has a film scoretype feel to it, due to the expressive solo pla ying and harmonically interesting background. The chord progression in mea sures 283286 (chromatically descending major chords superimposed over a bass note a tritone below the root) is very suggestive of the music of John Williams. Note the mysterious quality of the passage at measures 287 288: Figure 108. Grantham Fantas y Variations m. 287288, mysterious sound FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE G ERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used by Permission This atmosphere is generated by a combination of note choices and instrumentation. Modal harmony that was used previously returns here in the clarinets/coni cal bore brass accompan i-

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306 ment. Measure 287 is a C scale superimposed over a harmony of F sharp major; the following measure is the same stru c ture transposed down a whole step. In each of the two measures, the ascending and descending triplet eighth note l ines are constructed from the tones of the two m ajor scales a tritone apart. The doubling of the moving woodwind lines with the melodic percussion provides textural complexity, as well as an ethereal envelope of decaying scale tones that are sustained b y the pedals of each instrument. The vi braphone plays on every other note only, creating a subtle r e inforcement of the triplet rhythm in augmentation. This variation concludes with solo flute figures that are derived from the Gershwin B section. They a re set over a chromatically moving accompaniment that ends in a tender moment of repose, on the C m a jor tonic note. Variation 13 (measures 294 306): Scherzando is the stylistic marking for the 13th variation, which begins with a series of staggered solo en trances of a threenote fragment. This figure is drawn from the flute passage that closed the previous variation. The 2/2 time signature, with its increased rhythmic activity, contrasts with the lyrical content of the previous variation and marks the beginning of a new s eries of connected variations. A double bar in the score also indicates this division within the overall structure of the piece. Gradually the density of the entrances increases, forming a loose tapestry of individual colors that are punctuated by various pitched percussion sounds, including the xylophone, the marimba, and the piano, which return after an a bsence of several measures. The wind/percussion combinations used here are more distinctive in texture than una ccompanied solo entra nces. In addition, they require simultaneouslytimed entrances that add a performance dynamic that would not otherwise be present. This variation serves as an introdu ction to the fol lowing section where the ideas are developed further.

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307 Variation 14 (measures 307318): The beginning of the 14th variation seems to be anticipated by a measure. Here, eighth note passages that contrast with the rhythmic texture of the previous section begin a measure early. Once the variation is underway, the saxophones maintain an unbroken stream of eighth notes, continuing the chromatic language heard previously. Throughout most of the composition, Gra ntham has creat ed a sense of continuation by overlapping the musical styles of each variation into the next; this section is no exception. The brass entrances in this part are varied in texture from the prev i ous movement through the addition of mutes. Piano contributions continue, adding rhythm and color, while serving as a subconscious reminder of the origins of the piece. As the saxophones continue to weave a contr a puntal fabric, the accompanying three note figures grow increasingly heavy, eventually leading into a final four note fi g ure at measure 318. This figure is derived from the last two measures of the piano preludes B section (Figure 10 1). It is punctuated by an accented offbeat on the last eighth note, signaling the end of the variation. The minor pentatonic scale, a scale commonly used by jazz improvisers, is used in meas ures 318319, just prior to the final four note figure. Variation 15 (measures 319 329): The four note figure ending the previous variation is repeated three more times in the 15th variation. In between, there are brief, eighthnote passages in the clarinets that mimic the sax ophone move ment heard at the end of the last section. Beginning in measure 325, recognizable snippets of the A melody appear in the clarinets, then in the flutes and oboes, and finally in the low woodwinds and brass, signaling the start of the next variation. Cyli ndrical bore brass, with straight mutes, provides a buzzing bac kground.

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308 Variation 16 (measures 330 341): The beginning of the 16th variation is marked by a rhythmic shift to a triplet eighth note subdivision, imparting a swing feel to the ensemble. Quart er notes in the low winds and trap set accompaniment reinforce the walking bass line in the double bass, helping to define and pr opel the style change: Figure 109. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 330335, Variation 16 FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE G ERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserve d Used by Permission

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309 The harmonized eighthnote lines heard here are actually constructed from the three note motive that first appeared in Variation 13. Octave doublings hide the fact that there are only three active woodwind lines here, plus a single b ass line that is also doubled in octaves. This writing style varies from the usual practice of jazz saxophone soli writing as the lines do not move together, in a fully harmonized, homophonic big band style, but independently, creating unique contours. G rantham accommodates some of the players need to take breaths by occasionally dro pping out voices, a practice that also adds textural variety to the passage. The task of realizing an authentic, big band swing feel is challenging, as players from this genre often lack sufficient exposure to jazz styles. Nevertheless, an interesting effect is achieved compositionally through the use of angular harmony and contrary lines within the texture. It is not a ble that most of the brass has been excluded from this p assage, possibly to allow for more fluidity. In form, this section mimics the 12bar blues alluded to in the original Gershwin pre lude, particularly with the support of the jazzy, repetitive bass line. A flurry of ascending tr i plets against descending ei ghth notes in measures 340 241 leads into the next section. Variation 17 (measures 342 353): Variation 17 is another 12 bar blues passage, but more energetic and percussive than the first, simula t ing the shout chorus of a big band composition. There ar e passages of slurred and articulated eighth note triplets, and now the trumpets and French horns are included. Gra ntham limits the contributions of the trombones to accented downbeat quarter notes, which are doubled by the lower woodwinds and piano. In creased activity in the nonpitched percussion helps to reinforce selected rhythms, as the toms and bass drum are used to augment the set drummer. This intense section concludes with a two measure ritard as the woodwinds cascade upward to signal the upco ming revelation. They

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310 are supported by crescendos on the gong and suspended cymbal, which heighten anticipation of the pa s sage that follows. Variation 18 (measures 354 365): Variation 18 is where the Gershwin A melody is finally revealed in its full glo ry:

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311 Figure 1010. Grantham Fantasy Variations m. 353357, Variation 18 FANTASY VARIATIONS (ON GEORGE GERSHWINS PRELUDE II FOR PIANO) By George Gershwin Arranged by Donald Grantham Copyright 1927 WB MUSIC CORP. (RENEWED) This composition 1998, 1999 WB MUSIC CORP. GEORGE GERSHWIN is a registered trademark of Gershwin Enterprises All Rights Reserved Used by Permission

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312 The main melodic and harmonic elements of this passage are orchestrated for the brass section, giving them a sense of epic powe r. A dramatic, highregister French horn part is prominent, as the first and second trumpets and trombones project the top line using their strong upper ranges. Grantham fills in the longerduration notes of the harmonized melody with dr a matic flourishes from the cymbals. The woodwinds add interest and depth with a variety of unison technical pa s sages that add a decorative filigree to the top of the ensemble. The woodwind figures are heavily doubled, a llowing them to compete with the ff brass section. T rills add texture, distinguishing the woodwind timbres within the dense scoring of the full ensemble. Grantham recognizes that the piano is also unlikely to be heard through this texture, so he uses it to reinforce the quarter note bass and countermelody lines. Rolling timpani usher in the se c ond four measures of the phrase, as the brass voicings open up at measure 358 into organlike harmonies, enhanced by upper octave doublings in the woodwinds. The ponderous tempo, coupled with the quarter note moveme nt in the bass instruments, gives the illusion of a giant, lumbering creature. The motion slowly grinds to a crawl, as the te xture thins at measure 363, with expressive solo contributions from the first trumpet and euphonium. Variation 19 (measures 366 377): The grandiose statement in Variation 18 is followed by a tempo change and an unexpected rendition of the Gershwin B section. In this guise, the B section is almost satiric in its happy expression, as though the wicked witch is dead. The effect is achieved through a par odying of the swing style by the upper woodwinds playing dotted eighth/sixteenth note rhythms, doubled two octaves down by saxophones and lower woodwinds.

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313 Clarinets add a flurry of activity in the middle register while the bells sp arkle merrily at the top. Especially noticeable is the E flat clarinet in its extreme range adding its unmistakable, comic signature to the proceedings. The fr i volity is momentarily interrupted by the piano, which quotes material directly from the Gershw in prelude, though transposed up two octaves. The last part of the phrase is sequenced up a minor third, setting up a modulation into the f i nal variation. Here, the woodwinds are included, adding variety. Variation 20 (measures 378 390): A key change t o A flat major marks the start of the final variation. It is also based on the Gershwin B melody and features a heavily scored canon between the lower and upper winds. The rhythm is r e laxed momentarily at measure 383 where slurred lines over sustained harmonies replace the jolting articulations. The percussive eighth note figure from measure 373 (the ninth measure of the Gershwin original, Figure 101) returns for one last hurrah in measure 386. Here, it is punctuated by upper register figures in the piano. A dramatic lyrical statement, in sweeping, longer note values that are reminiscent of Rhapsody in Blue leaves the listener hanging unr esolved, anticipating the f i nale to come. Coda (measures 391 406): The coda begins with low register clarinets an d lower woodwinds, providing an uneasy sixteenth note texture. Over this, the upper woodwinds provide a final quote of the Gershwin A melody in augmentation, embellished by the bells and celesta. The parallel harm o nies of the upper line generate intrig ue, as recognizable melodic fragments poke out sporadically from the lower woodwind texture. Percussive renditions of these fragments by the brass take over in measure 398, followed by a whirlwind of woodwinds announcing the final, grand rendition of the five note theme. This

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314 fi gure is accompanied by the brass, in a contrarymotion harmony that moves in minor thirds. These blocks of sound are embe l lished with riffs in the piccolo and bells. Strident brass trills finish off the piece, along with a final woodwindandpercussion flourish. Like the introduction, the coda is complex in its construction and is grandiose in the scale of its orchestration. It is a fitting and satis factory end to this monumental work. Conclusions In comparing Fantasy Variation s with other works by Grantham, certain tendencies become apparent. For the bulk of his pieces, he is consistent in his use of the full wind ensemble instrumentation, and rarely scales down his forces to more intimate proportions. The only vari ations fro m the standard complement of wind band instruments are his inclusion of the piano and his use of the soprano saxophone as the top voice for the saxophone choir. To ensure the most complete palette of instrumental color, Grantham consistently employs the f ull battery of woodwinds available to him, including the English horn, contrabass clarinet, and contrabassoon. There are often solo opportunities for many of the instruments, allowing for individual expre ssion within the body of a work. In his brass writing for the wind ensemble, Grantham uses four trumpet parts and usually four trombone parts, often to accommodate the jazz harmonies that he regularly includes in his works. He occasionally uses the cylindrical bore and conical bore brass instruments in o pposing choirs, exploiting the timbre variation. In addition, he sometimes will combine the coni cal bore low brass together with the lower woodwinds to create a dark, homogenous sound. His trea tment of the percussion section is notable, in that he uses a wide variety of instruments, i ncluding some not normally present in the wind ensemble (such as the celesta), and often creates fresh, new sounds by combining these instruments with the winds in creative ways.

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315 It is easy to see why Granthams work is appea ling to bands and band directors as he makes an effort to engage every player in the ensemble and to keep them stimulated with interesting and challenging parts. Though he often makes considerable range demands (particularly in the woodwinds), Granthams scoring practices are solid, and his orchestrations feel good for the players to perform. The band director is always assured of a certain level of craft in every piece, and the compositional devices used are intelligent and well conceived, challenging the listener as well as the performer. Granthams harmonic language for the wind ensemble is generally very accessible, albeit a bit more conservative than one finds in some of his earlier chamber works. Though he is som etimes bound by the simplicity of his source material, Grantham consistently finds ways to elevate the formal and harmonic construction of the original songs through his use of variation, inve ntion, and contemporary harmony. The musical references he employs reflect a broad knowledge of mu sical styles, none of which he considers off limits to this genre. Many of Granthams works have already become a part of the standard repertoire for the wind band; his craft and skill are certain to produce many more.

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316 CHAPTER 3 FINAL CONCLUSIONS As t here are numerous other compositions that represent significant contributions to the wind band repertoire, this study is in no way intended to be complete. It can, however, serve as a point of departure for those wishing to learn more about the history and development of the wind ensemble, as well as the evolution of its orchestrational practices. This approach may also pr ovide a model for the examination of other musical works. Those wishing to derive the maximum benefit from this study should have the full scores available while reading it and most importan tly, should listen to the recordings of these pieces listed in the bibliography. First Suite in E flat is a good primer in basic voicing techniques and formal structure. D ionysiaques displays the lar ge scale possibilities of the ensemble with its wide range of instr umental color. Symphonies of Wind Instruments represents a more cerebral and economic use of the e nsemble; examining it also offers insight into the compositional mind of Stravinsky. The s tudy of Lincolnshire Posy offers a detailed look into one of the cornerstones of the repertoire and a t tempts to reveal some of the reasons why it has attained such status. Theme and Variations explores the expressive capacity of the group, while providing an example of mature thematic de velopment. Symphony in B flat reveals the potential of the ensemble on an epic scale, within the stru cture of an established compositional form. Music for Prague 1968 demonstrates the ability of the large symphonic band to evoke powerful emotions and vivid visual suggestions through m usic. Schwantners piece, and the mountains rising nowhere showcases new sounds and a dr amatic contemporary language. Winds of Nagual expands even further the ensembles palette of instru mental color, as well as showcasing its potential for programmatic imagery, and Fantasy Variations displays the modern disposition of the group using an i nnovative form.

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317 While the compositions studied here represent milestones for the wind band, the potent ial for its future development is limited only by the creativity of those who seek to make contributions to its repertoire. In a 2003 article by Thomas Dvorak, Frederick Fennell discussed the possibilities for new contemporary works, stating, You could not expand the melodic proc ess more than it has been already, but the harmonic process is standing there waiting for ever ybody to do anything they can with it.1 Further innovations in the area of timbre and texture also seem likely, as the compositions of Schwantner and Colgrass suggest that there are still new sounds that have yet to be fully explored. An important consideration when composing for wind bands of various levels is the pract icality of the demands being asked of the musicians and their conduc tor. An intimate knowledge of the ranges and technical capabilities of all the instruments is vital, as is an awareness of what can be expected from the band director in terms of communicating the musical ideas in a clear way. Exotic key and time signatures should be avoided for the most part, unless there is no other logical way to express the music. The band is not a chamber group, and in all but the most r efined ensembles, it is likely there will be a few lessaccomplished musicians added to the mix. The most successful pieces for the wind band (including those studied here) feature a healthy ba l ance between challenging passages and those that fall within most players comfort zone. Composers wishing to contribute to the wind band repertoire are advi sed to seek inspir ation and new ideas from music outside of this idiom. This study demonstrates that the composers who have had lasting impacts on the wind band world are those who think outside of the box. Indeed, it seems clear that todays composers who are fluent in musical styles outside of 1 Frederick Fennell, quoted in Thomas Dvorak, Frederick Fennell Looks Back on 51 Years of Wind Ensembles, The Instrumentalist, Vol. 58, No. 2 2003, 18

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318 the world of art music enjoy a clear advantage over those whose study is limited only to art m usic. More and more, new compositions are accessing so called commercial music content, gi ving them a freshness an d appeal that is well received by performers and audiences alike. That be ing said, the vast majority of music publishers who serve the wind band today tend to gravitate toward music that they deem to be immediately accessible, that is, music that fits th e mold of what has already proven to be commercially successful. These companies are in the business to make money, and generally are not willing to assume the financial risk of championing exper imental music. Thus, the onus is on the composer to see k out conductors and e nsembles that are willing to take a chance on music that might not necessarily conform to the established conve ntions of the genre. While it may not always persist, the current artistic climate favors the wind band as an ou tlet for new music over the orchestra, as conductors of the latter often are financially obligated to their patrons. Bands, with their financial support coming primarily from educational instit utions, are relatively free to explore new compositions, whereas orchestra patrons expect to regularly hear established works. Pulitzer prize winning composer William Bolcom recently premiered his First Symphony for Band. Having already enjoyed a successful career as a composer in other genres, Bol com states that, B and is different from orchestra in more than just the absence of strings and the greater number of winds. There is a culture of the orchestra that goes back several centuries, one that shapes new pieces for it in subtle ways even a composer may not be fully aware of. The band culture is younger and historically more oriented to outdoor events and occ asions. Band players seem now to be mostly of college age; there are very few profe s sional nonuniversity bands today, nothing analogous to the Sousa and Goldman outfits of my youth. The resonance of a long history like that of the orchestra is largely lacking. Against this and I think this is why more and more composers of art music are turning to the bandis the fact that band people work hard and long on a new piece. They will spend

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319 weeks in rehearsal perfec t ing and internalizing it. And there is something infectious about the yout hful enthusiasm a good college band will put into a performance.2 The future of the wind band seems bright. With the current avai lability of groups at every level of maturity and the desire among its conductors for new, quality pieces of music, innovative, forward thinking composers are ensured of a forum for the exploration and further artistic growth of this medium for years to co me. 2 William Bolcom, reprinted from Michigan State University College of Music, program notes, First Symphony for Band,

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320 LIST OF REFERENCES Books Battisti, Frank. The Winds of Change Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications, 2002. Blacking, John. A Commonsense View of All Music Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Berger, Kenneth. The Band in the United States Evansville, IN: Band Associates, Inc., 1961. Fennell, Frederick. Time and the Winds Kenosha, WI: LeBlanc Publications, Inc., 1954. Gilles, Malcolm, Pear, David and Carroll, Mark, ed. Self Portrait of Percy Grainger. Oxford: Oxford Uni versity Press, 2006. Goldman, Richard Franko. The Wind Band: Its Literature and Technique Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1961. Hunsberger, Donald. The Wind Ensemble and Its Repertoire Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1994. Matthews, Paul, ed., Orchestration, An Anthology of Writings New York, NY: Routledge, Ta ylor & Francis Group, 2006. Miles, Richard, ed., Teaching Music through Performance in Band, vol. 1. Chicago, IL:GIA Publications, Inc., 1997. Miles, Richard, ed., Teaching M usic through Performance in Band, vol. 2. Chicago, IL:GIA Publications, Inc., 1998. Miles, Richard, ed., Teaching Music through Performance in Band, vol. 3. Chicago, IL:GIA Publications, Inc., 2000. Noss, Luther. Paul Hindemith in the United States Ur bana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989. Oliver, Michael. Igor Stravinsky London: Phaidon Press, Ltd., 1995. Sadie, Stanley, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians second ed., s.v. Gra ntham, Donald. Sadie, Stanley, ed., The New Gro ve Dictionary of Music and Musicians second ed., s.v. Schoenberg, Arnold. Sadie, Stanley, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians second ed., s.v. Schwan t ner, Joseph.

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321 Slattery, Thomas C. Percy Grainger: The Inveterate Innovator. Evanst on, IL: The Instrume nta l ist Co., 1974. White, Eric Walker. Stravinsky: The Composer and his Works Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1966. Wilson, Brian Scott. Orchestrational Archetypes in Percy Graingers Wind Band Music. Lewi ston, NY: The Edwin Mellin Press, 2002. Articles Adams, Byron, An Interpretive Analysis, Karel Husas Music for Prague 1968, The Instrume nta l ist Vol. 42, No. 3, 1924. Bowles, Richard W., Stravinskys Symphonies of Wind Instruments for 23 Winds: A n Anal ysis, Journal of Band Research, vol. 15, no. 1, 3237. Begian, Harry, Remembering How Grainger Conducted Lincolnshire Posy, The Instrumentalist Vol. 47, No. 1, 1720. Dvorak, Thomas, Frederick Fennell Looks Back on 51 Years of Wind Ensembles T he Instr umenta l ist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1418. Fennell, Frederick, Percy Aldridge Graingers Lincolnshire Posy, An Interpretive Analysis, Part I, The Instrumentalist Vol. 34, No. 10, 4248. Fennell, Frederick, Percy Aldridge Graingers Lincolnshire Posy, A n Interpretive Analysis, Part II, The Instrumentalist Vol. 35, No. 2, 1520. Fennell, Frederick, Percy Aldridge Graingers Lincolnshire Posy, An Interpretive Analysis, Part III, The Instrumentalist Vol. 35, No. 3, 2836. Fennell, Frederick, The Holst Suite in Eb The Instrumentalist Vol. 29, No. 9, 2733. Fennell, Frederick, The Wind Ensemble The Instrumentalist Vol. 26, No. 7, 17. Grauer, Mark, Graingers Lost Letters on Lincolnshire Posy The Instrumentalist, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1217. Kopetz, B arry E., Hindemiths Symphony for Band, An Interpretive Analysis, The Instrume ntalist, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2432. Moss, Bruce, Holsts First Suite: A Century of Memories, The Instrumentalist Vol. 64, No. 5, 1215, 4445.

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322 Watson, Robert W., Toward a Crit ical Edition of Stravinskys Symphonies of Wind Instr uments in The Wind Ensemble and its Repertoire: Essays on the Fortieth Anniversary of the Eastman Wind Ensemble ed. Frank J. Cipolla & Donald Hunsberger Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 19 94, 121140. Web resources Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias, Lincolnshire Posy, Michael Colgrass, Michael Colgrass biography, Dolmetsch Music Dictionar y Online Paul Hindemith Paul Hindemith biography (English), http://www.p aul,en Michigan State University College of Music, First Symphony for Band program notes, G. Schirmer, Inc., Karel Husa biography, 49 Joseph Schwantner, Joseph Schwantner biography, http://schwantner.n et Science Notes, T. J. Nelson, NoiseInduced Hearing Loss The Whole Earth Catalog, Fadiman, James, review of Carlos Castaneda, The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge review/268/the.teachings.of.don.juan.a.yaqui.way.of.knowledge Williams College Music, Symph onic Winds: Excavations of Nostalgia and Myth: reclaiming the past, reexamining the present, re imagining the future The Wind Repertory Project, Winds of Nagual, Musical Scores Colgrass, Michael. Winds of Nagual New York, NY: Carl Fischer, 1985. Grainger, Percy Aldrich. Lincolnshire Posy ed. Frederick Fennell. Cleveland, OH: Ludwig M usic Publishers, Inc., 1987. Grantham, Donald. Fantasy Variations Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publications, 1999. Hindemith, Paul. Symphony in B flat London: Schott & Co., Ltd., 1951.

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323 Holst, Gustav. First Suite in E flat for Military band, op. 28, no. 1, ed. Colin Matthews. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1984. Husa, Karel. Music for Prague 1968. N ew York, NY: Associated Music Publishers, Inc., 1969. Schmitt, Florent, Dionysiaques ed. Guy M. Duker. Unpublished. Schoenberg, Arnold. Theme and Variations, Op. 43a. Pacific Palisades, CA: Belmont Music Publishers, copyright renewed 1977. Schwantner, Joseph. and the mountains rising nowhere Valley Forge, PA: Helicon Music Corp., 1977. Stravinsky, Igor. Symphonies of Wind Instruments London: Boosey & Hawkes, 2001. Audio Recordings Colgrass, Michael. Winds of Nagual Cincinnati CCM Wind Symphony. Eugene Corporan. Klavier KCD11064. Grainger, Percy Aldrich. Lincolnshire Posy Cleveland Symphonic Winds. Frederick Fennell. Telarc TLC 80099. Grantham, Donald. Fantasy Variations North Texas Wind Symphony. Eugene Corporan. Klavier KCD11098. Hi ndemith, Paul. Symphony in B flat Cincinnati CCM Wind Symphony. Eugene Corporan. Klavier KCD11059. Holst, Gustav. First Suite in E flat for Military band ., Cleveland Symphonic Winds. Frederick Fennell. Telarc TLC 80038. Husa, Karel. Music for Prag ue 1968. Eastman Wind Ensemble. Donald Hunsberger. CBS Masterworks MK 44916. Schmitt, Florent, Dionysiaques. Cincinnati CCM Wind Symphony. Eugene Corporan. Klavier KCD11066. Schoenberg, Arnold. Theme and Variations, Op. 43a. Stockholm Symphonic Wind Orchestra. Jun ichi Hirokami Caprice CAP 21516 Schwantner, Joseph. and the mountains rising nowhere University of Florida Wind Sy m phony. David Waybright. Mark 4361MCD Stravinsky, Igor. Symphonies of Wind Instruments Orchestre symphonique de Montral. Charles Dutoit. London 414 2022.

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324 Video Recordings The Final Chorale DVD, Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1999 Lincolnshire Posy DVD, Lafayette, LA: Channel One Video and Films, 2005.

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325 BIOGRAPHICAL S KETCH Chris Sharp is a composer, arranger, and music educator currently living in Gainesville, Florida. He was educated at the University of Florida and the University of Miami. He has enjoyed a varied career as a professional musician, commercial composer/arranger/orchestrator, and music educator at the elementary, middle school, high school, and collegiate levels. He currently has over 100 published works for concert band, jazz band, orchestra, and chamber groups of va r ious configurations.