1 PALEOBIOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF EXTINCT LAMNID AND OTODONTID SHARKS (CHONDRICHTHYES, ELASMOBRANCHII, LAMNIFORMES) By DANA JOSEPH EHRET A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL F ULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010
2 2010 Dana Joseph Ehret
3 To my family, Bryan, Debra and Sydney Ehret Alyssa, Jim, Doyle, and Cowan Fagen for all of their support
4 ACKNOWLEDG MENTS I am grateful for the guidance of my advisor Bruce MacFadden, who has been a source of intellectual and research support. I thank my Ph.D. Committee, including Doug Jones, Karen Bjorndal, Jonathan Bloch, Greg Erickson, Dick Franz and Gordon Hubbell for their support with my research I would especially like to thank Gordon and Kate Hubbell for all of their hospitality, time spent teaching me about fossil sharks, and moral support. Jonathan Bloch has contributed to my development as a researcher and has provided invaluable advice while search ing and applying for jobs Richard Hulbert has helped by teaching me curatorial and field collection techniques offering editorial advice, and providing access to fossil materials My dissertation research would not have been possible without access to museum collections including: the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), Jaws International, Gainesville, Florida (GH) Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado Lima, Peru (MUSM), Royal Belgian Instit ute of Natur al Sciences, Brusse ls, Belgium (IRSNB), Saitama Prefectural Museum, Saitama, Japan (SPM), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (USNM) and Natural History Museum, London England (NHM) Specifically, I thank the following persons for access to, and h elp with, the relevant collections under their care: Richard Hulbert, Vertebrate Paleontology, FLMNH; Gordon Hubbell, GH ; Rodolfo Salas Gismondi Departmento de Paleontologia de Vertebrados MUSM ; Dirk Nolf, Vertebrate Paleontology, IRSNB; Osamu Sakamoto, Vertebrate Paleontology, SPM; Dave Bohaska, Department of Paleobiology, USNM; Zerina Johanson, Department of Palaeontology, NHM. Chapter 2 i s a collaborative effort with Bruce MacFadden and Gordon Hubbell. I thank J ason Curtis, I rvy Quitmyer, and D avid Ste adman for assistance with
5 geochemical analyses that were performed at the FLMNH and Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida. C athy Bester and J eff Gage were instrumental in the preparation of the illustrations. Doug Jones, FLMNH, Tho mas DeVries from Vashon Island, Washington and R odolfo Salas Gismondi and M arcelo Stucchi from the Museo de Historia Natural of Lima, Peru provided critical assistance in the field in 2007 to relocate the exact site of excavation of UF 226255. Editor J ohn Maisey and the reviewers K enshu Shimada and M ichael Gottfried made constructive suggestions for the improvement of this manuscript. Chapter 3 is a collaborat ive effort with Bruce MacFadden and Rodolfo Salas Gismondi. I would like to thank Jana Miller for assistance with figures I also offer thanks to the 2007 Peruvian field crew and two anonymous reviewers for comments and suggestions Chapter 4 is a collaborative effort with Bruce MacFadden, Doug Jones, Thomas DeVries, David Foster, and Rodolfo Salas Gis mondi. I especially thank Gordon Hubbell for donating UF 226255 to the Florida Museum of Natural History as well as access to his collection and his wealth of knowledge about fossil sharks I would also like to thank M ikael Siverson from the Western Austra lian Museum, Welshpool, Western Australia and J ames Bourdon of www.elasmo.com for discussions and constructive suggestions for this chapter. E vgeny Mavrodiev from FLMNH provided valuable assista nce with Russian trans lations. I also thank David Ward and J rgen Kriwet for constructive comments and suggestions to improve this manuscript. For assistance with the research in Chapter 5 I would like to thank Sabine Wintner, S heldon Dudley, and G eremy Cliff of the Kwazulu Na tal Sharks Board, South
6 Africa, for their hospitality, access to white shark specimens, and growth data. Matthew Colbert, T imothy Rowe, C hristopher Bell, K erin Claeson, and J ennifer Olori of the University of Texas, Austin, offered their hospitality, assis tance, and guidance with CT scans and digital imaging. I thank M ichael Warren and the staff of the C. A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory, University of Florida, for help with digital imaging. I would also like to thank A ndrew Piercy, University of No rth Florida, N icholas Pyenson, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and E llen Martin, University of Florida Department of Geological Sciences for valuable discussions regarding shark growth, cetacean evolution, and paleoclimate. I thank J ames Co lee, University of Florida, Department of Statistics, for assistance with analyses. I also thank J onathan Bloch, J ason Bourque, R ichard Hulbert, J ulie Mathis, and I rvy Quitmyer, FLMNH, for discussions and technical support of this chapter Th e School of Natural Resources, the Florida Museum of Natural History, and the Department of Biology have provided logistical and financial support, including access to museum specimens, office space, staff assistance, and a teaching assistantship. My resea rch assistantship, digital imag ing and travel were also supported by National Science Foundation grants EAR 0418042 and 0735554 Additional financial support was supplied by the Florida Museum of Natural History Lucy Dickinson Scholarship, the Jackson School of Geosciences Student Member Travel Grant provided by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, and travel grant s supplied by the Graduate Student Council and the School of Natural Reso urces and Environment at the University of Florida. I am thankful for the support of the School of Natural Resources, Department of Biology Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Department of Geological
7 Sciences, Florida Museum of Natural Histo ry and the I 3 program faculty, students, and staff George Burgess, Ste ph en Humphrey, Nikki Kernaghan, Ellen Martin, Michael Moulton, Larry Page, David Reed and Sandra Russo have provided research, educational, and/or career support. Ben Atkinson, Cathy Bester, Ashley Boggs, Jason Bourque, J R. Cash, Stephen Chester, Lisa Marie Erickson, Alex Hastings, Larisa Grawe Desantis, Carly Manz, Julie Mathis, Russ McCarty, Paul Morse, Catalina Pimiento, Sarah Reintjes Tolen, Julian Resasco, Allen, Kaley, Amelie, and Ivan Shorter, and Emily Woodruff have offered a diversity of assistance from advice on research to moral support. Pam Dennis, Chris Pickles, Art Poyer, Cathy Ritchie, Meisha Wade, and Shuronna Wilson helped with logistics. Finally, I am extremely grate ful for the continued support from my family. I am thankful for my parents, Bryan and Debra Ehret for being there with not only moral, but also financial support. I thank my sister Alyssa, my brother in law Jim, my nephews Doyle and Cowan, my grandparents, aunts, and uncles for understanding all of the missed holidays. I appreciate the weekend visits from m y Uncle Kevin and Cousins Drew and Matthew, even if they were more excited for the football game s And last but not least, I am grateful for my dog Sydne y who has been there with me through it all and is always happily awaiting my return home.
8 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 11 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 16 2 EXCEPTIONAL PRESERVATION OF THE WHITE SHARK CARCHARODON (LAMNIFORMES, LAMNIDAE) FROM THE EARLY PLIOCENE OF PERU ........... 21 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 21 Geological Setting and Marine Vertebrates from the Pisco Formation ............. 21 Fossil Record and Origin of Carcharodon carcharias ................................ ....... 23 Materials, Methods, and Abbreviations ................................ ................................ ... 25 Abbreviations ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 27 Referred Material ................................ ................................ .............................. 27 Occurrence ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 28 Anatomical Description ................................ ................................ ..................... 28 Mandibular arch ................................ ................................ ......................... 28 Neurocranium ................................ ................................ ............................ 29 Dentition ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 30 Vertebral centra ................................ ................................ ......................... 32 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 32 Fossil Record and Evolution of Carcharodon carcharias ................................ .. 32 Increment al Growth of Vertebral Centra ................................ ........................... 34 Length Estimation of Fossil and Extant Carcharodon carcharias ..................... 36 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 38 3 CAUGHT IN THE ACT: TROPHIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN A 4 MILLION YEAR OLD WHITE SHARK ( CARCHARODON ) AND MYSTICETE WHALE FROM PERU ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 54 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 54 Locality and Stratigraphy ................................ ................................ ........................ 55 Specimen Description ................................ ................................ ............................. 57 Discussi on ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 59 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 61
9 4 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE SHARK, CARCHARODON (LAMNIFORMES: LAMNIDAE), BASED ON RECALIBRATION OF THE LATE NEOGEN E, PISCO FORMATION OF PERU ................................ ................................ ......................... 66 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 66 Methods and Materials ................................ ................................ ............................ 69 Geological Setting and Geochronology ................................ ................................ .. 71 Overview of Taxonomy and Fossil Record of Carcharodon ................................ .... 74 Systematic Palaeontology ................................ ................................ ....................... 80 Depository and Abbreviations ................................ ................................ ........... 80 Type Species ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 80 Remarks ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 80 Holotype ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 81 Other Material ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 81 Type Locality, Horizon and Age ................................ ................................ ........ 81 Diagnosis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 82 Description ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 82 Remarks ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 84 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 85 Geology and Stratigraphy ................................ ................................ ................. 85 Taxonomy and Evolution of Carcharodon ................................ ........................ 87 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 90 5 MACROEVOLUTION, AGE, AND GROWTH DETERMINATION OF THE MEGATOOTHED SHARKS (LAMNIFORMES: OTODONTIDAE) ........................ 100 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 100 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ .......................... 101 Materials ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 101 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 103 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 107 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 110 Heterochrony ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 113 Biotic and Abiotic Factors ................................ ................................ ............... 118 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 124 6 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 137 APPENDIX A OUTREACH ACTIVITIES ................................ ................................ ..................... 142 B ABSTRACTS OF OTHER RESEARCH PROJECTS ................................ ............ 147 Nursery Area for Giant Baby Sharks in the Miocene of Panama .......................... 147 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 147 Methodology/Principal Findings ................................ ................................ ...... 147 Conclusions/Significance ................................ ................................ ................ 148
10 Biodiversity and Paleoecology of Late Miocene Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Selachii) from the Gatun Formation, Panama ......................... 148 An extinct map turtle Graptemys (Test udines: Emydidae) from the Pleistocene of Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 149 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 150 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 165
11 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Tooth measurements for all teeth in the functional series of UF 226255. ........... 49 2 2 St able isotope ( 13 C and 18 O) results from microsampling along growth axis of vertebral centrum of Carcharodon sp. (UF 226255) ................................ ...... 51 2 3 Total length (TL) estimate s for UF 226255 ................................ ........................ 52 2 4 References and equations for TL regression estimates ................................ .... 53 4 1 Strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of fossil marine mollusk shells from the Pisco Formation. ................................ ................................ ........................... 99 5 1 Centrum radius (CR) and growth ring (GR) measurements for otodontid sharks. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 133 5 2 Analysis of Cov ariance slopes (= rates of growth) for otodontid and white sharks. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 135 5 3 Paired t test comparing the slopes (rates of growth) between otodontid and white sharks. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 136
12 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 L ocation of the Pisco Formation in southwestern Peru. ................................ ...... 39 2 2 Measu red secti ons of Pisco Formation, Peru. ................................ .................... 40 2 3 Hypothetical phylogenies of the possible origination of Carcharodon carcharias ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 41 2 4 Vent ral view of Carcharodon sp. ( UF 226255 ) ................................ ................... 42 2 5 Close up view of upper teeth of Carcharodon sp. ................................ ............... 43 2 6 Close up view of lower te eth of Carcharodon sp. ................................ ............... 44 2 7 Reconstruction of tooth set of UF 226255 ................................ ......................... 45 2 8 Silhouettes of A1 teeth for comparison of serrati on types. ................................ 45 2 9 First vertebral centrum of UF 226255. ................................ ................................ 46 2 10 X ray image of centrum of UF 226255 analyzed for stable isotopes. ................. 47 3 1 Location of study area, Sud Sacaco West, along the southwestern coast of Peru. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 63 3 2 Composite stratigraphic section fo r the upper Pisco Formation. ......................... 64 3 3 Mysticete mandible with white shark ( Carcharodon sp.) tooth (MUSM 1470) ... 65 4 1 Map of Peru with localities within the Southern section of the Pisco Formation. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 92 4 2 Stratigraphic map of the Pisco Formati on Peru. ................................ ............... 93 4 3 Carcharocles megalodon tooth, USNM 33 6204. ................................ ................ 94 4 4 Comparison of serration types in lamnid and otodontid sharks. ......................... 94 4 5 Isurus escheri from the Delden Member (Early Pliocene), the Netherlands ...... 95 4 6 Carcharodon n. sp. UF 226255 (holotype) ................................ ........................ 96 4 7 Functi onal tooth series of Carcharodon n. sp. UF 226255 (holotype). ............... 97 4 8 Vertebral centrum of Carcharodon n. sp. UF 226255 (holoty pe). ...................... 98
13 4 9 Individual upper teeth demonstrating the gradation of serrations from the Pisco Formation, Peru ................................ ................................ ....................... 98 5 1 Images of megatoothed shark vertebral centra. ................................ ............... 127 5 2 X radiographs of vertebral centra ................................ ................................ ... 128 5 3 Centrum radius (CR) per growth ring (GR). (A) otodontid sharks, (B) otodontid sharks compared to growth in Carcharodon carcharias ................... 129 5 4 Analysis of covariance, Centrum area vs. growth rings (GR) for the four megatoothed species and Carcharodon carcharias ................................ ........ 130 5 5 Anterior oto dontid shark teeth through time ................................ ..................... 131 5 6 Growth rates for otodontid sharks compared with neocete diversity through geologic time ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 132
14 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PALEOBIOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF EXTINCT LAMNID AND OTOD O NTID SHARKS (CHONDRICHTHYES, ELASMOBRANCHII, LAMNIFORMES) By Dana Joseph Ehr e t December 2010 Chair: Bruce J. MacFadden Cochair: Douglas S. Jones Major: Interdisciplinary Ecology Studies of Cenozoic lamnid and otodontid sharks are important for gai ning insights into the evolution and paleoecology of ancient marine systems. These groups, including the white, mako, and megatoothed sharks, are of particular significance due to their large size and status as apex predators However, t he lack of preserve d cartilage s and associated specimens has result ed in taxonomic and paleobiological studies that are largely based on isolated teeth Recent innovation s in the field of lamniform paleobiology ha ve yielded new and promising information about the growth, pal eoecology, and trophic interactions of these sharks My dissertation aims to utilize new techniques and well preserved specimens to elucidate the taxonomy and paleobiology of these two families The first part of my dissertation focus es on the evolution o f the white shark, Carcharodon during the Late Miocene. The description of a n exceptionally well preserved species from the Pisco Formation of Peru provides direct evidence for the evolution of Carcharodon carcharias from Carcharodon ( Cosmop o litodus ) hast alis in the Pacific B asin. This new species exhibits characteristic s of both species including weak
15 serrations, a symmetrical first anterior tooth, and a mesi ally slant ed third anterior tooth. Growth analysis of this species also reveals a rate slower than that of the extant white shark. Recalibration of Sacaco B asin sediments within the Pisco Formation, Peru using zircon U Pb dating and s trontium ratio isotopic analysis suggests that localit i e s are older, Late Miocene (6 8 Ma) rather than previously though t. The next part of my dissertation discusses direct evidence for trophic interactions between a white shark ( Carcharodon n. sp.) and a mysticete whale also from the Pisco Formation. Th is evidence includes a partial mandible with a partial tooth of a white shark embedded within the cortical bone. The final part of my dissertation focuses on the growth of the megatoothed sharks. I calculate the a ge and growth rates for species, including Otodus obliquus Carcharocles auriculatus Carcharocles angustidens and Carcharocles megalodon using i ncremental growth bands visible in X radiographs of fossilized v ertebral centra Species growth r ate s spanning the Early Eocene (~55 Ma) through Middle Miocene (~12 Ma) are compared with shifts in paleoclimate and whale evolu tion and diversity.
16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Studies of fossil neoselachians ha ve traditionally focused on descriptions of species and faunal assemblages based on isolated teeth, incidences of predatory behaviors, and in rare instances, associated specimen s (including tooth sets and vertebral centra). These studies tend to be descriptive in nature owing to lack of more complete specimens. The prevalence of isolated teeth and the paucity of associated s keleto ns in the fossil record are related to two main fe atures of chondrichthyan anatomy : constant tooth replacement and the cartilaginous skeleton. Constant tooth r eplacement in chondrichthyans is a characteristic present in most species dating back to the Devonian (Botella et al 2009). Replacement rates in e xtant taxa have been documented from one row per every 1 5 weeks depending on the species up to one tooth per every 1 2 days in the sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus (Overstrom 199 1 ; Correia 1999 ; Botella et al 2009). Hubbell ( 1996) estimated that an ind ividual lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris could produce more than 20,000 teeth in its lifetime T he refore, it is no surprise that shark teeth, which have been continuously shed by shark populations through time, are the most common vertebrate fossils fo und today. Conversely the cartilaginous skeleton of neoselachians (and chondrichthyans in general) is largely uncalcified and rarely found fossilized Th e lack of skeletal material s in the fossil record has severely limited our knowledge both taxonomic a nd paleobiologic, of extinct neoselachians. In these rare instances, when skeletal materials, including vertebral centra and other cartilages, are preserved they can offer a unique glimpse into the paleobiology of these sharks. This information can include but is not
17 limited to: body size and shape, information about growth (i.e. birth size, rate, and age), dietary requirements, and evolutionary relationships. However, the value of these specimens and their paleobiological implications ha s only recently bee n explored (Gottfried et al 1996; Purdy 1996; Shimada 1997a; MacFadden et al 2004; Labs Hochstein and MacFadden 2006; Shimada 2008; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). My dissertation focuses on the taxonomy and paleobiology of Cenozoic lamniform sharks utilizing exceptionally well preserved specimens recovered from localities in Peru, Belgium, and Morocco. Within the Lamniformes, I will focus specifically on the evolution of lamnid and otodontid shark s during this period Species within these two famil ie s include the largest extant ( Carcharodon carcharias ) and extinct ( Carcharocles megalodon ) predatory sharks to have ever lived. T he evolution of large body size within both groups and presence of numerous convergent characters has caused much confusion a mong paleontologists. Utilizing fossil materials from the Florida Museum of Natural History, Gordon Hubbell Collection and Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences I will address these key questions: Is the extant Carcharodon carcharias more closely rel ated to the megatoothed or mako sharks ? (Chapters 2 and 4) How has growth in white sharks ( Carcharodon ) evolved through time? (Chapter 2) Is the evolution of serrations on the teeth of Carcharodon related to changes in diet? (Chapter 3) When and where did the transition from Carcharodon ( Cosmopolitodus ) hastalis to Carcharodon carcharias occur? (Chapter 4) How did Carcharocles megalodon grow so large? (Chapter 5)
18 Chapter 2 describes a n exceptionally well preserved white shark ( Carcharodon n. sp. ) fossil fro m the Pisco Formation of southwestern Peru. The teeth of this specimen show characters of both Carcharodon and Isurus / Cosmopolitodus While Carcharodon n. sp. f rom the Pisco Formation show s numerous diagnostic characteristics shared with C. carcharias it a lso exhibits unique characte rs that represent a distinct species The vertebral centra of the Pisco Carcharodon preserve distinctive dark and light incremental bands that, based on calibration with oxygen isotopes, indicate annu al growth couplets. Based on tooth and vertebral centra measurements, this specimen is estimated to have had a minimum total body length of 4.80 5.07 m, similar to estimates for modern older individuals of C. carcharias The fossil record of lamn id sharks preserved in the Pisco Forma tion demonstrates that the modern white shark is more closely related to Isurus ( Cosmopolitodus hastalis ) than it is to the species Carcharodon megalodon and the latter is therefore best allocated to the genus Carcharocles. Chapter 3 focuses on t rophic in teractions between an extinct white shark and a mysticete whale Trophic interactions captured in the fossil record are categorized as either indirect or direct evidence. Indirect evidence includes such traces as shark tooth marks and gouges on the bones o f prey, including fish, reptiles, whales, dolphins, and seals. Direct evidence is represented by the presence of shark teeth in definite association with prey species. This chapter describes direct evidence for trophic interactions between a white shark ( C archarodon n. sp.) and a mysticete whale from the Pisco Formation of Peru. The evidence includes a partial mandible of an unidentified mysticete whale with a partial tooth of a white shark embe dded within the cortical bone. Modern white sharks are known pr edators of many marine mammal species and both
19 active hunting and scaveng ing have been well documented. This fossil is unusual because it represents a seldom reported event that preserves direct evidence of trophic interactions Chapter 4 includes t he form al description of the exceptionally complete fossil white shark, Carcharodon from the Late Miocene, Pisco Formation of Peru Morphological evidence presented suggests the extant white shark is derived from the broad toothed Carcharodon ( Cosmopolitodus ) has talis based on the description of Carcharodon n. sp a taxon that demonstrates this transition Specimens from the Pisco Formation clearly demonstrate an evolutionary mosaic of characters of both recent Carcharodon carcharias and fossil Carcharodon hasta lis I n addition to this description, I also provide a recalibration of the Pisco Formation, within the Sacaco Basin, Peru using z ircon U Pb dating and s trontium ratio isotopic analysis. The recalibration of the absolute dates suggests that Carcharodon n. sp is from the L ate Mio cene ( 6 8 M a) not the Early Pliocene (4 5 Ma) as previously reported. T h ese new dates provide tighter constrain ts and elucidate the timing of white shark evolution in the Pacific Ocean during the Late Miocene Chapter 5 discusses t he macroevolution of body size and changes to growth rates in the otodontid (megatoothed) sharks. It is hypothesized that the megatoothed sharks, including Otodus obliquus Carcharocles auriculatus Carcharocles angustidens and Carcharocles megalodon rep resent an extinct lineage of large predatory neoselachians that replace one another through time via phyletic evolution (Glikman 1964; Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Ward and Bonavia 2001; Cappetta and Cavallo 2006) Arising in the Paleocene and extending into the Pliocene, an evolutionary series of taxa have been
20 described that exhibit shifts in tooth structure and a general increase in size through time. To test the hypothesis that megatoothed shark specie s i ncreas ed in size through time, I measure the increme ntal growth bands preserved within the vertebral centra of the four extinct species listed above. I calculate growth rates and discuss the heterochronic changes in growth for the megatoothed species and compare those with Carcharodon carcharias Additional ly, changes in growth rates and tooth morphology of the otodontids are compared with the evolution and diversification of marine mammals and changes in paleoclimate through time. The aim of this dissertation is to advance the field of paleoichthyology by u tiliz ing new paleoecological techniques that have been previously ignored The use of exceptionally preserved specimens (i.e. fossilized cartilages, associated dentitions, and evidence of trophic interactions) can provide valuable information regarding the evolution and paleobiology of extinct neoselachians. In addition to the description of a new species of Carcharodon and my work on the paleobiology of extinct lamniform sharks, I also discuss the outreach activities that I have participated in to dissemin ate my research to the general public. These activities have included: front end evaluations : T he L argest S hark T hat E ver L collecting organizations, and a t wo week field camp in vertebrate paleontology for local 5 th grade students. By incorporating biological principles, paleontological research, and outreach, I will co ntinue to improve understanding of neoselachian paleobiology and share my knowledge and ent husiasm with the general public.
21 CHAPTER 2 EXCEPTIONAL PRESERVA TION OF THE WHITE SH ARK CARCHARODON (LAMNIFORMES, LAMNID AE) FROM THE EARLY P LIOCENE OF PERU Introduction Isolated shark teeth are the most commonly preserved and collected vertebrate fossils fr om Neogene marine sediments worldwide. 1 In contrast to the ubiquitous occurrence of shark teeth, however, other parts of the skeleton generally are not as common in the fossil record. When exceptionally well preserved specimens of extinct shark species ar e found in the fossil record, they greatly increase knowledge about both the range of dental variation exhibited within an individual (and species) and other related skeletal characters. In 1988, an exceptionally well preserved individual of a white shark, Carcharodon was collected from approximately 4 million year old ( E arly Pliocene) sediments of the Pisco Formation of southern Peru. This specimen contains 222 teeth on the upper and lower jaws, and a series of 45 vertebral centra. The purpose of this pap er is to describe this specimen and to discuss its importance in elucidating the morphological variation and paleobiology of a white shark, Carcharodon from the Pliocene of Peru Geological Setting and Marine Vertebrates from the Pisco Formation Extending inland from the coast of southwestern Peru at low elevation (less than a few hundred meters), Neogene sediments of the Sacaco Basin preserve a rich record of marine transgressive and regressive cycles as well as fossils deposited in a fo rearc basin ( de Mu izon and DeVries 1985 Figure 2 1). Of relevance to understanding the 1 Reprinted with permission from EHRET, D. J., HUBBE LL, G. and MACFADDEN, B. J. 2009. Exceptional preservation of the white shark Carcharodon (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the early Pliocene of Peru. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29, 1 13.
22 geological context of the shark fossil described here, the L ate Miocene through E arly Pliocene Pisco Formation consists of basal coarse grained deposits along with massive intervals of t uffaceous and diatomaceous siltstone and sandstones. The stratigraphic local mea sured section and is the interval from which the fossil shark was collected (Fig ure 2 2). This section also contains a diverse shallow water marine invertebrate fauna interpreted to represent a barrier bar and lagoonal facies. Sud Sacaco West is E arly Plio cene in age, dating to between about 4 and 5 Ma ago, based on correlations to an overlying section (Sacaco) with an associated K Ar age of 3.9 Ma, and younger than the Miocene based on bios tratigraphy ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985 ; DeVries and Schrader 1997). The rich marine vertebrate fauna has been known from the Pisco Formation for over a century. In addition to other taxa of sharks, the Pisco marine faunas contain rays and chimeras, teleosts, chelonians, crocodilians, a diversity of shore birds, seals, wha les and dolphins, an d an aquatic sloth (Hoffstetter 1968; de Muizon and DeVr ies 1985; de Muizon and McDonald 1995; de Muizon et al 2002; de Muizon et al 2004). Of relevance to this paper, the otodontid and lamnid sharks Carcharocles megalodon and Isurus hastalis occur in the lower (L ate Miocene) part of the formation and Carcharocles megalodon and Carcharodon sp. occur in the upper ( E arly Pliocene) part of the Pisc o Formation ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985). The vertebrate biostratigraphy of the upper Pisco Formation indicates a correlation with the approximately contemporaneous, shallow water, primarily marine fauna of the Yorktown Formation of North Carolina
23 (Purdy et al 2001) as well as with the marginal marine Palmetto faunas of the Upper Bone Vall ey For mation in Florida (Morgan 1994). Fossil Record and Origin of Carcharodon carcharias The evolutionary history and taxonomic placement of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias within the Lamnidae remains a controversial issue. Two hypotheses have been pr oposed for the evolutionary history of the modern white shark. Th e first contends that Carcharodon carcharias is more closely related to the megatoothed sharks, including C megalodon (App legate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996; Gottfried et al 1996; Martin 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001; Purdy et al 2001). In this scenario, C carcharias shares diagnostic characters with C megalodon and the other megatoothed sharks to place them within the same genus (Fig ure 2 3A). This phylogeny is based on characters o f tooth morphology in the fossil and modern species which include: (1) an ontogenetic gradation, whereby the teeth of C carcharias shift from having coarse serrations as a juvenile to fine serrations as an adult, the latter resemble those of C megalodon ; (2) morphological similarity of teeth of young C megalodon to those of C carcharias ; (3) a symmetrical second anterior tooth; (4) large intermediate tooth that is inclined mesially; and (5) upper anterior teeth that have a chevron shaped neck area on th e lingual surface (Gottfried et al 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001 ; Purdy et al 2001). Following this hypothesis, the white shark evolved as a result of dwarfism from a larger ancestor. However, the neck that lacks enameloid seen in C megalodon and oth er megatoothed sharks is not seen in C carcharias In addition, serrations are much finer in the megatoothed sharks than in C carcharias (Nyberg et al 2006). Proponents of this hyp othesis (e.g., Gottfried et al 1996 ; Purdy et
24 al 2001) assess a case of heterochrony in which large teeth of C carcharias and equal sized teeth of C megalodon look very similar (Nyberg et al 2006). The second hypothesis contends that the megatoothed sharks are in a separate family (the Otodontidae) and that C carcharias s hares a more recent common ancestor with the mako sharks (Fig ure 2 3B), includ ing Isurus hastalis (Casier 1960; Gli kman 1964 ; de Muizon and DeVries 1985 ; Cappetta 1987 ; Nyberg et al 2006). In this scenario, the species C megalodon and the other megatooth ed sharks are allocated to the genus Carcharocles and placed within the Otodontidae with Otodus and Parotodus (sensu Casier 1960 ; Gli kman 1964 ; Cap p etta 1987). Casier (1960) considered that the labiolingual flattening in the teeth of both the fossil Isuru s (specifically I xiph o don of Purdy et al 2001) and Carcharodon carcharias is a shared derived character (Nyberg et al 2006). De Muizon and DeVries (1985) also suggested a possible Isurus Carcharodon relationship when they described weakly serrated teet h from the E arly Pliocene Pisco Formation of Peru that they believed show characters of both Isurus and Carcharodon carcharias It should be noted that their interpretation was challenged by Purdy (1996) and Purdy et al (2001) because the fossil record fo r Carcharodon has been reported to extend into the M iddle Miocene elsewhere, pre dating the Peruvian specimens. These other specimens of Carcharodon have been described from the M iddle to L ate Miocene of Maryland (Gottfried and Fordyce 2001), California (S tewart 1999, 2000, 2002), and Japan (Hatai et al 1974; Tanaka and Mori 1996; Yabe 2000). In addition, molecular clock dating on the origins of Carcharodon has shown a divergence time close to 60 Ma (Martin 1996; Martin et al 2002). Nyberg et al. (2006) u sed morphometric analysis to compare geometrically the teeth of I hastalis I xiphodon
25 Carcharodon carcharias Carcharocles megalodon representing the transitional species of de Muizon and DeVries (1985) and Carcharodon sp. of this paper. Based on tooth and serration shape, they concluded that Carcharodon carcharias and Isurus are more closely related than are Carcharodon carcharias and the megatoothed sharks. M aterials M ethods and A bbreviations Tooth nomenclature foll ows that of Shimada (2002), except that I (2002, 2007) in order to retain the most commonly used terminology. Five measurements were taken on the labial side of each tooth in the functional series, following Hubbell (1996) and Shimada (2002): (1) crown height: the vertical distance between a line, drawn across the lowest reaches where the tooth enamel touches the root, and the apex of the crown; (2) basal crown width: the widest region of the enamel, located where the enamel and root meet; (3) mesial crown edge length: the number of serrations along the edge of the tooth facing the jaw midline; (4) distal crown edge length: the number of serrations along t he edge of the tooth facing the outer edge of the jaw; and (5) degree of slant: the angle between a perpendicular line that bisects a line drawn across the lowest reaches where the tooth enamel touches the root and another line drawn from that point that r uns through the apex of the tooth (i.e., inclination). The angle is positive if the tooth is slanted toward the distal side of the mouth and negative if the tooth is slanted toward the mesial side of the mouth (Table 2 1). The vertebral centra were measure d, imaged using X radiography, and subjected to incremental growth and isotopic analyses. The diameter of each prepared centrum was taken using the longer (dorsoventral) measurement. It should be noted that in the
26 anterior most vertebrae, the anterior and posterior articular surfaces have different diameters (the posterior surface being larger than the anterior surface). The posterior, or larger, diameters are recorded here. Anteroposterior length measurements were also taken along the dorsal side of the ce ntra. To differentiate density differences between light and dark bands, X rays were taken at the C. A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory at the University of Florida. The X rays were set at 78 kV for 2 minutes following MacFadden et al (2004). Using this technique, X ray images are the reverse of those seen in the actual specimen (i.e., dark bands appear as light bands and light bands appear as dark bands). Using Adobe Photoshop, the X ray images were then reversed to show light and dark banding for a ge and isotopic analysis. To interpret incremental growth bands preserved, one precaudal vertebral centrum was sampled for carbon and oxygen isotopic analysis. The centrum was mounted to a petri dish for stability and sampled using a MicroMill computer interfaced automated drilling device. Thirty one microsamples of approximately 5 mg each were collected by running the drill to a depth of 100 mm across the centrum. Samples were taken consecutively across the growth axis from the center to the outer margin, using a method similar to that described in MacFadden et al (2004). The goal was to sample the light and dark bands across the centrum. Sample powders were treated using established isotope preparation techniques for fossil hydroxylapatite ( e.g., Koch et al 1997). This includes successive treatments with H 2 0 2 weak (0.1 M) acetic acid, and then a methanol rinse. About 1 2 mg of the resulting treated powder was analyzed in the VG Prism stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer using an automated carousel
27 introduction device for each sample at the Center for Isotope Geoscience, Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida. The carbonate fraction of the hydroxylapatite was analyzed using this method and the results are presented b elow using the standard notation: (parts per mil, ) = [R sample /R standard 100] x 1,000 where R = either 13 C/ 12 C or 18 O/ 16 O of the sample being PDB (Pee Dee Belemnite) standard (Coplen 1994). Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in the t ext: A1, first upper anterior tooth; a1, first lower anterior tooth; A2, second upper anterior tooth; a2, second lower anterior tooth; a3, third lower anterior tooth; CH, crown height; BCW, basal crown width; I, intermediate tooth; L, upper lateral teeth; l, lower lateral teeth; PCL, pre caudal length; TL, total body length; UF, Vertebrate Paleontology Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida; VD, vertebral diameter; VR, vertebral radius. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY Class CHONDRICHTHY ES Huxley 1880 Su bclass ELASMOBRANCHII Bonaparte 1838 Order LAMNIFORMES Berg 1958 Fam ily LAMNIDAE Mller and Henle 1838 Genus CARCHARODON Smith in Mller and Henle 1838 CARCHARODON sp. Referred Material UF 226255, exceptionally well preserved, articulate d individual consisting of upper and lower jaws with 222 teeth and 45 associated precaudal vertebral centra (Fig ure 2 4).
28 Occurrence Collected from Sud Sacaco West, approximately 30 m above base of measu red section ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985), Upper Pisco Formation; approximately 5 km east of Lomas (Punta Lomas), coastal Peru, 15 E arly Pliocene, more than 3.9 Ma (Fig ures 2 1 2 2). Anatomical Description Mandibular a rch ed, although, the specimen is flattened dorsoventrally, making it very difficult to reconstruct the anteroposterior shape of the jaws (Fig ure 2 4). The palatoquadrates lack most of the dorsal portions on both left and right sides, with preserved cartilage beginning just above where the functional tooth series was present and arcing laterally. The left palatoquadrate is not preserved distally, resulting in the loss of several lateral tooth rows. The upper dental bullae are present and contain both the anteri or and intermediate tooth rows. There is a defined intermediate bar on each palatoquadrate that appears as a labiolingual constriction in the cartilage of the jaw (Siv erson 1999). The intermediate bar is preceded distally by the lateral teeth, which are no t situated in the upper dental bullae. The symphysis of each palatoquadrate is square and relatively the medial and lateral quadratomandibular joints are not discernable d ue to the dorsoventral flattening of the specimen. Although the mouth is preserved agape, the mouth. Length measurements were taken from the symphysis to the distal edg e of the seventh lateral tooth position. This landmark was chosen because the seventh lateral
29 tooth is the distal most tooth preserved in both palatoquadrates. The left palatoquadrate measures 33.4 cm while the right palatoquadrate measures 32 cm for the s ame distance. The lateral gape of the palatoquadrates was also measured, also using the distal edges of the seventh lateral teeth as landmarks, and is 48 cm across. The absence of the distal portion of the left palatoquadrate makes it impossible to assess the true gape of the specimen. the posterior portions of both cartilages are highly fragmented and their exact shape is not distinguishable. There is significantly less arcin g seen in the lower jaws in comparison to the palatoquadrates. The lower symphysis of the appears to be shallower than that of the palatoquadrates, suggesting a weaker connection (Shimada and Cicimurri 2005). Due to the better preservat ion of the lower symphysis to the lateral cartilage measures 28.5 cm while the right measures 25.5 cm. Neurocranium The posterior portion of the neurocr anium is the only part preserved in UF 226255 (Fig ure 2 4). It is also flattened dorsoventrally and does not preserve much structure. The occipital hemicentrum and the anterior portion of a foramen magnum are present (Fig ure 2 4). Other fragments of sheet like preserved cartilage within the jaws are most likely attributable to the basal plate of the neurocranium. While some perforations are visible in this preserved cartilage, some appear to be areas of erosion and not true foramina. No other defined struct ures are visibly identifiable.
30 Dentition A total of 222 teeth are present on the articulated palatoquadrates and the has been removed for study (Fig ures 2 5 2 6), leaving four to five replacement series visible, depending on the tooth row. The teeth are flattened labiolingually, with a slight convex curve on the lingual surface. CH of individual teeth within the functional tooth series ranges from 44.6 mm for the largest anterior tooth to 2.9 mm for the smallest lateral tooth (Table 2 1). The enameloid shows some post mortem cracking and peeling on a few teeth, but is otherwise well preserved. Although UF 226255 is most similar to C carcharias the morphology of the tooth series is not entirely diagnostic of the modern white shark, showing a distal inclination of the intermediate tooth (Fig ures 2 5 and 2 7). Each palatoquadrate contains two anterior and one intermediate tooth. The upper right side contains ten lateral teeth, whereas the upper left side contains ei ght lateral teeth (Fig ure 2 5). In the lower jaw there are three five lateral teeth on the right side while the left side contains eight laterals (Fig ure 2 6). The discrepancy in the number o f lateral preservation, with the loss of some teeth on the left side during fossilization. The serrations are weaker than those seen in extant white sharks. Anterior teeth average more tha n 30 serrations per side, while lateral teeth vary from more than 30 serrations per side for the larger laterals to no serrations for the distal most laterals. There is no consistent differentiation in the number of serrations per centimeter between the an terior and lateral teeth. All teeth that have serrations average 8 12 serrations per centimeter on both mesial and distal sides (Fig ure 2 8). The most basal serration on most of the teeth is larger than the other serrations. This larger, basal serration is very
31 similar to the lateral cusplets seen in juvenile teeth of Carcharodon carcharias (Uyeno and Matsushima 1979; Hubbell 1996). The teeth in the lower jaw are smaller than the corresponding upper teeth in both CH and BCW. In the palatoquadrate, the two a nterior teeth are the largest in the series. The intermediate tooth has a distal inclination, which is atypical for Carcharodon (Fig ures 2 5, 2 7). The first two lateral teeth are larger than the intermediate tooth and become progressively smaller distally The lateral teeth also have a distal inclination, with the first lateral tooth having the strongest asymmetry. In the lower jaw, the second anterior tooth is larger than the first. The lateral teeth become progressively smaller distally, as seen in the p alatoquadrate. There is very little inclination of the teeth in the lower jaw. The roots of the upper teeth are rectangular, with a weak basal concavity (Fig ure 2 6). The roots of the lower teeth have a deep basal concavity and are somewhat thicker than th ose of the upper teeth, giving them a relatively bulbous appearance. The concavity is most prominent in the anterior teeth, and becomes less so in the lateral series. Central foramina are also present labially in some roots, primarily in the first several laterals in both the upper and lower jaws. Replacement tooth series are also present in UF 226255. The replacement teeth are identical in morphology and appearance to those of the functional series. These series consist of both fully formed teeth labially and enameloid shells that represent teeth that have not fully formed lingually. There are three series of fully developed upper and lower anterior teeth and two series of enameloid shells in labio lingual succession. This differs from the number of series of lateral teeth, for which there are two series of
32 fully developed upper and lower lateral teeth and two series of enameloid shells present. Vertebral c entra UF 226255 contains 45 vertebrae including the first seven centra in situ and connected to the occ ipital hemicentrum (Fig ure 2 4). The remaining preserved vertebrae are in small numbered blocks of two to five centra that have not been prepared. The centra are laterally compressed, with concave articular surfaces that show clear, concentri c, calcified l amellae (Ridewood 1921, Fig ure 2 9). Sunken pits present in the center of the articular surfaces indicate the position of a notochordal constriction (Gottfried and Fordyce 2001). Centra are composed of two calcified cones supported by radiating calcified l amellae within the intermedialia, with paired pits for the insertion of both the haemal and neural arches. Lamellae vary in number and size around the circumference of each centrum. Lateral compression of the centra gives them an oblong appearance and resu lts in a larger dorso ventral diameter. The measurements of dorso ventral diameters for the first 17 centra range from 47.2 to 76.2 mm. These diameters are based on the posterior articular surface, which is larger than the anterior surface in the first sev eral centra. Antero posterior length measurements range from 19.4 to 38.6 mm. The articular surfaces show well marked dark light incremental couplet rings that ar e interpreted to represent annual growth cycles (Cailliet et al 1985), as is also discussed b elow. D iscussion Fossil Record and Evolution of Carcharodon carcharias Carcharodon is a monotypic genus belonging to the order Lamniformes. Within the Lamniformes, the genus is placed in the Family Lamnidae (the mackerel sharks) along
33 with Isurus and Lamna Based on molecular data and morphological analyses, Isurus and Carcharodon are considered to be sister taxa (Compagno 1990; Martin 1996; Naylor et al 1997; Martin et al 2002; Shimada 2005). The similarities in tooth morphology between the two taxa are consistent with this interpretation. However, the origination time for the genus Carcharodon based on molecular clock analyses has yielded a divergence time close to 60 Ma (Martin 1996; Martin et al 2002). Purdy et al (2001) allocate the weakly serrated teeth described by de Muizon and DeVries (1985) of Peru to I xiph o don from the L ate Miocene and dismiss an Isurus Carcha rodon transition based on the presence of Carcharodon fossils from the M iddle to L ate Miocene. The oldest fossil specimen attributed to the species Carcharodon carcharias appears to be a single tooth from the L ate Miocene of Maryland (Gottfried and Fordyce 2001). There is disagree ment with the conclusions of Purdy et al (2001) for two reasons: (1) the complete tooth set described here do es not match the characters of I xiphodon based on their artificially assembled composite tooth set; and (2) the temporal range of the specimens alone cannot discount an Isurus origin for C carcharias (Nyberg et al 2006). The associated specimen describ ed here from the E arly Pliocene of Peru shows morphological characters that are present in Carcharodon carcharias an d Isurus hastalis The A1 tooth is the largest in the dentition and it is symmetrical, as seen in C carcharias (Uyeno and Matsushima 1979; Purdy et al 2001). In UF 226255, the A2 tooth is slightly larger than the a2, another character of C carcharias (Compagno 2001). There are also weak serrations found on a majority of the teeth in the dentition; however, the use of this character has been debated for use in phylogenetic analysis
34 (Purdy et al 2001; Nyberg et al 2006). Alternatively, the intermediate tooth (I) in this specimen is inclined distally, a feature characteristic of the genus Isurus (C ompagno 2001). UF 226255 has more characters in common with Carcharodon and that is why it is designate d as such. UF 226255 may be considered a new species; however, at the present time, the corre ct specific name is unclear and thus UF 226255 is designated as Carcharodon sp. Incremental Growth of Ve rtebral Centra The cartilaginous centra of sharks progressively calcify (Ridewood 1921), being mineralized with hydroxylapatite, thus providing a potentially preservable record of incremental growth during ontogeny. MacFadden et al (2004) found that even though E arly Eocene centra of the lamnoid Otodus obliquus from Morocco were highly altered by diagenesis (Labs Hochstein and MacFadden 2006), they nevertheless archived a predictable pattern of 18 O across the growth axis. This pattern was interpreted to represent seasonal differences in environmental temperature experienced by the sharks, although this is not necessarily the case for all elasmobranchs (Cailliet et al 1986; Branstetter 1987; Nat anson and Cailliet 1990). Similar signals are also found in modern lamnoid shark s (Labs Hochstein and MacFadden 2006), which likewise preserve growth couplets (Cailliet et al 1986; Wintner and Cliff 1999; Cailliet and Goldman 2004; Cailliet et al 2006), with the darker bands representing times of relatively slower growth during colder seasons (as confirmed by increased 18 O ) and the lighter bands correspondingly representing periods of more rapid growth during warmer seasons (also confirmed by more negative 18 O values). These dark light band couplets are therefore cycles of progressive mineralization. In addition to those of O obliquus similar physical incremental growth,
35 interpreted as annuli, has been described for other fossil lamnoids, including the exceptionally well preserved Oligocene Carcharocles angustide ns from the L ate Oligocene of New Zealand (Gottfried and Fordyce 2001) and Cretoxyrhina mantelli from the L ate Cretaceous of K ansas (Shimada 1997 b ). It should be noted, however, that although annuli characteristically correspond to annual growth cycles, th ey sometimes can represent other, non annual periodicities. Thus, in this paper isotopes are used as an independent proxy to elucidate and calibrate the incremental growth pattern of UF 226255. Isotopic analyses of microsamples from eight dark and nine lig ht bands, interpreted to represent, respectively, increments of slower winter and faster summer growth, were sampled along the growth axis of one of the associated centra of UF 226255 (Fig ure 2 10 Table 2 2). For the carbon isotope data (Table 2 2), Stude nt t (t observed = 0.626, t critical = 2.131, P = .540) and Mann Whitney U (Z observed = 0.289, Z critical P = .773) tests indicate that there are no significant differences (P = .05) for the microsamples of the dark versus light bands. In modern sharks, incl uding the white, carbon isotope data vary with the trophic level of the prey species eaten (Estrada et al 2006). Thus, a shark feeding on predatory marine mammals such as carnivorous seals would have a relatively higher 13 C signal than one feeding on an herbivorous mysticete whale. Using this extant model, the lack of significant variation in the 13 C signal for UF 226255 is interpreted to indicate that there are no seasonal or ontogenetic differences in the trophic leve l of the diet of this shark. In contrast, for the oxygen isotope data (Table 2 2), Student t (t observed = 2.549, t critical = 2.131, P = .020) and Mann Whitney U (Z observed = 2.502, Z critical = 1.960, P = .012) tests indicate statistically significant diffe rences (P =
36 .05) between the dark and light bands, with the mean value for 18 O for the winter bands being more enriched, as would be expected if this indeed is accurately archiving a temperature proxy (MacFadden et al 2004). So far as can be determined, adjacent dark (Fig ure 2 10) are interpreted to repres ent intervals of annu al growth similar to those seen in modern sharks, including white s harks (Francis 1996 ; Wintner and Cliff 1999). Using this assumption, approximately 20 ( 1) dark light band couplets can be counted. It is concluded, therefore, that UF 226255 was at least 20 years old when it died. Most vertebrates follow a Von Bertalanff y growth curve (Von Bertalanffy 1960) where incremental growth decreases through later ontogeny, particularly from the time that individuals reach sexual maturity until later years during their lifetime. Decreased annu al growth is correlated with onset of sexual reproduction. For example, a 5.36 m long modern pregnant white shark caught off the coast of New Zealand was estimated from incremental growth of its centrum to h ave been 22 years old. Growth rate during the later years had decreased (Francis 1996). Comparing UF 226255 with published growth curves for Carcharodon carcharias the fossil appears to have been growing at a slower rate than extant white sharks (Cailliet et al 1985; Francis 1996; Kerr et al 2006). Length Estimation of Fossil and Extant Carcharodon carcharias The exaggeration of total length (TL) estimates for modern shark species occurs commonly due to the difficult nature of measuring a large shark. Di stortion that occurs while the shark individual is being brought out of the water and the lack of a trained scientist at the time of capture can oftentimes lead to a mismeasurement (Mollet et al 1996). TL estimates for modern white sharks are also exagger ated because of their fearsome reputation, and have included specimens reported to be 7 to 11.1 m long
37 (Randall 1973, 1987; Mollet et al 1996). Most of these TLs have been refuted and even individuals more than 6.4 m in length are somewhat rare (Randall 1 987; Mollet et al 1996). Two previous papers have published TL estimates for fossil C carcharias one from the Pliocene (Goto et al 1984) and one from the Pl eistocene (Uyeno and Matsushima 1979) based on the tooth size regression of Randall (1973). The use of morphometrics has been proven to be a reasonable method for estimating TL (Mollet et al 1996). When using teeth, CH is used rather than tooth height because: (1) the growth rate between the crown and the root is not isometric; and (2) fossil teeth do not necessarily preserve the entire root, making TL estimates inaccurate (Shimada 2002). The growth regressions of Shimada (2003) were used to correlate CH with TL in the fossil specimen. Regressions were published for all tooth positions in Shimada (20 03); all available fossil teeth were used to determine an average TL for UF 226255. TL estimates were obtained for all 42 tooth positions present in the specimens and can be seen in Table 2 3. The mean for the 42 measurements was calculated to provide an e stimated TL of 5.07 m. In addition to using CH, TL estimates are extrapolated based on the vertebral diameter (VD) or vertebral radius (VR) as proposed by Cailliet et al (1985), Gottfried et al (1996), Wintner and Cliff (1999), and Natanson (2001) follow ing the work of Shimada (2007). The largest measurable vertebral centrum (17th) with a diameter of 76.2 mm was used for these calculations; however, it is not necessarily the largest in the vertebral column. The published regression equations and TL estima tes can be seen in Table 2 4. The mean of the four TL estimates is 4.89 m, which corresponds very closely with the estimate of 5.07 m based on CH measurements. Based on the vertebral annuli,
38 UF 226255 may not have been sexually mature, but using our TL est imates, this individual falls within the range of an extant mature white shark based on Gottfried et al (1996) and Compagno (2001). Figure 2 11 shows a reconstruction of this shark, exhibiting characteristics of both Carcharodon and Isurus C onclusions UF 226255 is an extraordinarily well preserved fossil lamnid shark from the E arly Pliocene of Peru. The presence of a nearly complete tooth series preserved with other portions of the skeleton provides new information regarding the evolutionary history of Ca rcharodon carcharias T his specimen is allocated to Carcharodon but without identifying it to species. However, it does retain an important character linking it to the Isurus clade. UF 226255 exhibits an intermediate tooth inclination that is diagnostic o f Isurus while the presence of serrations, small side lateral cusplets, and an a2 tooth lower than its A2 is diagnostic of Carcharodon (Uyeno and Matsushima 1979; Compagno 2001). Isotopic analysis of annuli within the centra of this specimen leads to inf erences about growth and seasonality during the lifetime of this individual. This specimen grew at a presumably slower rate than modern white sharks based on TL estimates and count s of annuli (Cailliet et al 1985; Francis 1996; Kerr et al 2006). Exceptio nally well preserved specimens, like UF 225266 from the Pisco Formation of Peru, advance our knowledge of the systematics and paleobiology of fossil and extant lamnoid sharks and elucidate their evolutionary history.
39 Figure 2 1. Location of the Pisco Formation in southwestern Peru. A, Geographic location; B, surface geology of Sacaco Basin. Measured sections A, B, and C correspond to those depicted in Figure 2 2 ( after de Muizon and DeVries 1985).
40 Figure 2 2. Measured sections of Pisco Formation P eru. (A C) in Sacaco B asin (from de Muizon and DeVries 1985; also see Figure 2 1) and stratigraphic context (section C) of Carcharodon sp., UF 226255, from early Pliocene Pisco Formation of Peru.
41 Figure 2 3. Hypothetical phylogenies of the possible ori gination of Carcharodon carcharias A, Otodus origin hypothesis proposes that C carcharias descends from megatoothed sharks. B, Isurus origin hypothesis proposes that C carcharias descends from I hastalis
42 Figure 2 4. Ventral view of Carcharodon sp. (UF 226255). Specimen consis ts of an associated dentition, preserved cartilage of the jaws, and seven of the associated vertebral centra. A, photograph; B, line drawing (stippled areas represent cartilage of the neurocranium). Note: not all tooth position s present are represented in the line drawing because some t eeth have been removed from the specimen. Abbreviations: A, upper anterior tooth; a, lower anterior tooth; fm, foramen magnum; I, intermediate tooth; L, upper lateral tooth; l, lower anterior toot h; Mc, hemicentrum; v, vertebra. Scale bar represent s 10 cm.
43 Figure 2 5. Close up view of upper teeth of Carcharodon sp. Top row shows lingual view (depicting upper right dentition); bottom row shows labial view (images revers ed to depict upper left dentition). Abbreviations: as for Fig ure 2 4. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
44 Figure 2 6. Close up view of lower teeth of Carcharodon sp. Top rows shows lingual view (depicting lower right dentition); bottom row shows labial view (images reversed to depict low er left dentition). Abbreviations: as for Fig ure 2 4. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
45 Figure 2 7. Reconstruction of tooth set of UF 226255 Scale bar represents 5 cm. Figure 2 8. Silhouettes of A1 teeth for comparison of serration types. A, Carcharodon carcharias ; B, Carcharodon sp. Scale b ar represents 5 cm.
46 Figure 2 9. First v ertebral centrum of UF 226255. A, anterior view; B, dorsal view. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
47 Figure 2 10. X ray image of centrum of UF 226255 analyzed for stable isotopes Scale bar represents 1 cm.
48 Figure 2 11. Reconstruction of Carcharodon sp. from the Pisco Formation, Peru.
49 T able 2 1 Tooth measu rements for all teeth in the functional series of UF 226255. All measurements in millimeters and abbreviations are in the text. Tooth angle in degrees, teeth are inclined distally unless denoted with ( ), then they are inclined mesiall y. Measurements denot ed with (*) are teeth that are damaged or have missing pieces. Tooth CH CW Angle () Distal Length Mesial Length Distal Serrations Mesial Serrations Right Side A1 44.6 34.7 1 48.9 47.7 39 32 A2 42.7 36.8 1 46.7 50.2 34 38 I 33.0 31.8 3 35.9 38 .5 28 29 L1 34.1 35.1 4 34.1 45.3 28 30 L2 24.4 34.9 3 37.4 42.7 32 27 L3 31.5 34.3 6 33.8 41.6 29 26 L4 24.5 26.1 2 25.7 30.2 22 26 L5 17.5 22.9 2 19.4 24.8 16 17 L6 12.0 17.7 1 13.0 16.2 7 8 L7 8.5 12.2 1 9.4 11.5 2 1 L8 6.6 10.2 1 7.3 8.2 1 0 L 9 4.7 8.7 1 5.0 7.0 0 0 L10 3.0 7.6 0 5.0 4.4 0 0 a1 37.8 28.5 0 40.4 39.4 31 26 a2 43.0 31.4 0 46.1 46.4 32 33 a3 31.2 27.8 1 34.0 32.5 18 23 l1 27.8 27.7 1 31.7 29.6 26 24 l2 23.9 22.1 1 27.2 24.4 20 15 l3 20.0 21.0 0 21.9 21.9 10 17 l4 13.7 1 6.7 1 16.2 15.9 1 1 l5 9.5 14.0 1 10.9 12.7 1 1 Left Side A1 43.5 34.0 2 46.4 48.8 37 39 A2 43.0 36.2 2 46.0 51.1 38 39 I 30.3 30.7 3 33.2 38.2 26 23 L1 33.7 34.6 6 33.6 44.2 29 33 L2 35.3 35.0 2 36.8 44.6 27 28 L3 32.9 34.5* 2 35.0* 43.8* 23 26 L4 24.8 28.3 2 26.2 33.4 20 18 L5 17.5 17.6* 1 18.3 17.6* 12 8 L6 12.8 16.5 2 13.3 16.7 8 10 L7 9.4 12.6 1 10.5 11.9 1 1 L8 7.6 11.4 1 8.1 9.9 1 1 a1 37.7 29.3 0 41.0 39.7 30 28 a2 41.7 31.4 0 44.2 44.9 31 23 a3 31.9 28.1 1 36.9 36.5 26 22
50 T able 2 1 Continued Tooth CH CW Angle () Distal Length Mesial Length Distal Serrations Mesial Serrations Left Side l1 28.4 27.2 1 32.3 29.2 23 21 l2 24.6 27.2 1 30.6 27.3 16 13 l3 19.8 21.4 0 22.0 22.5 9 11 l4 15.9 18.6 0 17.9 17.6 1 1 l5 9.1 14.0 0 11.5 12.2 1 1 l6 6.8 11.2 0 8.2 9.1 0 0 l7 5.0 9.0 0 5.6 6.9 0 0 l8 3.6 8.0 0 4.5 5.6 0 0
51 T able 2 2 Stable isotope ( 13 C and 18 O) results from microsampling along growth axis of vertebral centrum of Carcharodon sp. ( UF 226255 ). Also see Figure 2 10. Pooled mean sample statistics Dark bands (N = 8): Mean C = 7.76, max = 6.78) Mean 18 0.07, max = 0.75) Light bands (N = 9): Mean C = = 8.35, max = 6.86 ) Mean 18 O = 0.14, min = 0.27, max = 0.18) Distance from Center (mm) Lab Sample Number (2007) Band Interval Type C ( VPDB) 18 O ( VPDB) 14.2 PS 28 Dark 7.36 0.63 16.5 PS 27 Dark 7.65 0.75 21.0 PS 25 Light 8.35 0.18 22.3 PS 24 Li ght 8.13 0.05 24.5 PS 23 Dark 7.76 0.16 27.9 PS 21 Dark 7.42 0.01 29.7 PS 20 Light 7.13 0.07 31.0 PS 19 Light 7.21 0.27 32.0 PS 18 Light 7.22 0.13 33.2 PS 17 Dark 7.19 0.10 34.5 PS 16 Dark 7.04 0.06 37.2 PS 14 Light 6.86 0.07 38.3 PS 13 Dark 6.77 0.06 46.9 PS 05 Dark 6.98 0.07 47.8 PS 04 Light 6.99 0.19 48.9 PS 03 Light 7.57 0.15 50.2 PS 01 Light 7.19 0.21
52 T able 2 3. Total length (TL) estimates for UF 226255. Results based on the CH regressions of Shimada (2003) for e ach tooth position present. CH and TL given in cm. Tooth Regression Equation (x=CH) CH TL Right Side A1 TL = 5.234+11.522x 44.63 519.46 A2 TL = 2.16+12.103x 42.71 514.76 I TL = 19.162+15.738x 33.00 538.52 L1 TL = 5.540+14.197x 34.09 489.52 L2 TL = 4.911+13.433x 34.42 467.27 L3 TL = 0.464+14.550x 31.47 458.35 L4 TL = 5.569+17.658x 24.48 437.84 L5 TL = 5.778+26.381x 17.46 454.83 L6 TL = 71.915+50.205x 12.04 532.55 L7 TL = 48.696+69.292x 8.45 536.82 L8 TL = 84.781+104.968x 6.63 611.16 L9 T L = 62.050+142.142x 4.65 598.91 a1 TL = 8.216+14.895x 37.77 554.37 a2 TL = 7.643+13.597x 42.95 576.35 a3 TL = 10.765+17.616x 31.19 538.68 l1 TL = 9.962+17.437x 27.82 495.06 l2 TL = 1.131+19.204x 23.86 459.34 l3 TL = 30.947+25.132x 20.03 472.45 l4 TL = 51.765+35.210x 13.73 431.67 l5 TL = 73.120+55.262x 9.52 452.97 Left Side A1 TL = 5.234+11.522x 43.47 506.10 A2 TL = 2.16+12.103x 42.95 517.66 I TL = 19.162+15.738x 30.30 492.02 L1 TL = 5.540+14.197x 33.74 484.55 L2 TL = 4.911+13.433x 35.27 478.69 L3 TL = 0.464+14.550x 32.92 479.45 L4 TL = 5.569+17.658x 24.80 443.49 L5 TL = 5.778+26.381x 17.45 454.57 L6 TL = 71.915+50.205x 12.80 570.71 L7 TL = 48.696+69.292x 9.36 599.88 L8 TL = 84.781+104.968x 7.62 715.10 a1 TL = 8.216+14.89 5x 37.74 553.92 a2 TL = 7.643+13.597x 41.69 559.22 a3 TL = 10.765+17.616x 31.90 551.19 l1 TL = 9.962+17.437x 28.39 505.00 l2 TL = 1.131+19.204x 24.60 473.55 l3 TL = 30.947+25.132x 19.82 467.17 l4 TL = 51.765+35.210x 15.86 506.67 l5 TL = 73.120 +55.262x 6.81 303.21 l6 TL = 117.456+96.971x 5.01 368.37 l7 TL = 64.732+138.350x 3.55 426.41 l8 TL = 137.583+231.411x 3.60 695.50
53 T able 2 4 References and equations for TL r egression estimates Abbreviations: VD, vertebral diameter; VR, vertebra l radius. TL estimates given in cm. Other abbreviations: r 2 correlation coefficient; n, sample size; PCL, pre caudal length; Fl, fork length. Reference Equation [ r 2 ; n; TL conversion (when needed)] TL Cailliet et al (1985) TL = 35.9 + 5.7 VD [.90; 67; ] 470 Gottfried et al (1996) TL = 22 + 5.8 VD [.97; 16; ] 464 Wintner and Cliff (1999) PCL = (VD/10 + 0.3)/0.02 [.96; 114; TL = 5.2 + 1.3 PCL] 520 Natanson (2001) FL = 21.0 + 11.8 VR [.94; 14; TL = (FL + 0.06)/0.94] 501
54 CHAPTER 3 CAUGHT IN T HE ACT: TROPHIC INTE RACTIONS BETWEEN A 4 MILLION YEAR OLD WHITE SHARK ( CARCHARODON ) AND MYSTICETE WHAL E FROM PERU I ntroduction Neoselachian sharks are represented most commonly in the fossil r ecord by unassociated teeth. 2 In fact, shark teeth are some of t he most abundant vertebrate fossils in the geologic record (Hubbell 1996). Less commonly, other fossil shark remains are recovered that include preserved cartilage, coprolites, gastric residues, and indirect evidence of predation or scavenging. The scarcit y of these types of specimens corresponds to the low probability of uncalcified tissues and trace fossils being preserved. Most evidence of shark predation and scavenging from the fossil record consists of tooth scrapes and goug es on bones (Demr and Ceru tti 1982; Cigala Fulgosi 1990; Noriega et al 2007). Very rarely shark teeth or portions of teeth are found embedded in, or in direct association with, the prey species (Repenning and Packard 1990; Schwimmer et al 1997; Shimada and Everhart 200 4; Shimada and Hooks 2004). This report describes a partial mysticete whale mandible that contains an embedded partial white shark ( Carcharodon sp.) tooth and associated scrape marks. The specimen was collected from the Upper Miocene to Upper Pliocene Pisco Formation of southern Peru, an area well known for both its abundance of marine fossils and the exceptional preservation of articulate d skeletons ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Pilleri and Siber 1989; Bouetel and de Muizon 2006). This unique preservational environmen t is exceptional because we can infer more about the paleoecology of the 2 Reprinted with permission from EHRET, D. J., MACFADDEN, B. J. and SALAS GISMONDI, R. 2009. Caught in the act: Trophic interactions between a 4 Million Year Old white shark ( Carcharodon ) and mysticete whale from Peru. Palaios 24, 329 333.
55 assemblage than from many other shallow marine localities. The site where the specimen was found has produced numerous complete whale skeletons and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil white shark ever found ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). In addition, this is the first report of a fossil white shark tooth embedded within the bo ne of its prey. Previous reports of fossil white shark feeding be havior include possible predation of an extinct bottle nosed dolphin from Italy (Cigala Fulgosi 1990), scavenging of a cetotheriid whale from California (Demr and Cerutti 1982), and scavenging of a balaenopterid whale in Argentina (Noriega et al 2007). L ocality and S tratigraphy The Pisco Formation of southern Peru (Fig ure 3 1) represents a series of marine transgressive and regressive cycles deposited in a forearc basin along 350 km of coastline from Pisco to Yauca ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Bouetel an d de Muizon 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009 ). These rocks range in age from L ate Miocene to L ate Pliocene, or ~10 4 Ma. The outcrops are discontinuous throughout the region and the formation is not fully exposed at any single site. T he stratigraph y, therefore, is a composite section based on numerous separate localities (Fig ure 3 2). The deposits consist of tuffaceous sandy siltstone, medium to coarse grained sandstone, shelly sandstone with some bedded tuff, conglomerate, and coquina ( de Muizon a nd Devries 1985). De Muizon and Devries (1985) concluded that the Pisco Formation represents nearshore, intertidal, and lagoonal depositional environments during higher sea levels in the past, based on the sequence, lithology, and structure of the deposits
56 The specimen was collected on 13 August 2007 from an area known as Sud ). This locality is characterized by a fossil zone, referred to as SAS by de Muizon and Devries (1985), that extends from ~21 to 43 m above the base of the local measured section and represents the interval from which this speci men was collected (Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). A diverse shallow water marine invertebrate fauna also present in the SAS supports the interpretation that the depos its represent barrier bar and lagoonal settings. Sud Sacaco West is thought to be E arly Pliocene in age between 4 5 Ma old, based on correlations to an overlying section (Sacaco) with an associated K Ar tuff date of 3.9 Ma, and younger than the Miocene bas ed on bios tratigraphy ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; D eVries and Schrader 1997; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009 ). In addition to sharks and mysticete whales, marine vertebrate fossils in the Pisco Formation include rays, teleosts, chelonians, crocodilians sea birds, seals, an d an aquatic sloth (Hoffstetter 1968; de Muizon and DeVries 1985; de Muizon et al 1994; de Muizon et al 2002). T he relative abundance of species, however, is difficult to deduce due to mostly nonsystematic collecting practices. Of t he lamniform species, there is a good representation o f lamnid and otodontid sharks. Carcharocles megalodon and Isurus hastalis are abundant in the lower part of the formation ( L ate Miocene), whereas C. megalodon and Carcharodon sp. occur in the upper ( E ar ly Pliocene) part of th e formation ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Ehret Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009 ). The upper Pisco Formation correlates approximately to the contemporaneous, mostly shallow water marine fauna of the Yorktown Formation of North Carolina (P urdy et al
57 2001), as well as the marginal marine Palmetto fauna of the Upper Bone Valley Formation in Florida (Morgan 1994) based on the vertebrate biostratigraphy. Specimen Description The specimen, MUSM 1470, is housed in the Museo de Historia Natural ( MUSM), Lima, Peru, and consists of a portion of mandible of a mysticete whale with an embedded partial tooth crown from a lamnid shark (Fig ure 3 3 ). The tooth crown can be referred to a white shark ( Carcharodon sp.) based on overall morphology and the pre s ence of weak serrations (Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009 ). The cetacean mandible is 183. 0 mm long and slightly convex. The dorsal side of the bone has a vestigial alveolar groove present that is 111.1 mm long and 7.9 mm wide. This groove tapers off roug hly three quarters of the way down the bone. This fossil represents the left labial portion of the mandible based on the convex shape of the bone and the direction that the vestigial alveolar groove tapers. There are several small foramina parallel to this groove, the largest of which is ~2.0 mm in diameter. MUSM 1470 potentially could be referred to one of two species of mysticete whales currently re cognized from Sud Sacaco West. The first is the cetotheriid whale, Piscobalaena nana which is a small, bale en beari ng mysticete (Pilleri and Siber 19 89; Boue tel and de Muizon 2006). The second is an undescribed balaenopterid referred to as Balaenoptera sp. (Pilleri and Siber 1989; Bouetel and de Muizon 2006). There is no positive identification as to which spec ies it represents d ue to the fragmentary nature of the specimen. The crown is broken off in the cortic al bone of the whale mandible. The apex, or tip, of the tooth is visible on the reverse s ide, within the marrow cavity. The tooth is situated ~44.0 mm fro m the dorsal surface and 29.4 mm from the ventral surface of the
58 bone. The labial side of the tooth is situated parallel to the dorsal surface of the mandible and the lingual surface of the tooth parallel to th e ventral surface of the bone. The tooth fragm ent measures 26.4 mm from the apex to the highest p ortion of enameloid preserved. Weak serrations are developed on the labial side of the bone, whereas the apex of the tooth has a smooth edge, a characteristic of this white shark ( de Muizon and De vries 198 5; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). When the tooth is removed from the bone, weak serrations are visible on b oth cutting surfaces (Fig ure 3 3). The tooth has been broken on an angle, so that the broken edge is flush with the surface of the bone. The me dial edge is longer and contains 17 serrations, whereas the lateral edge is shorter and has 11 serrations. The number of serrations per millimeter is also consistent with that of the Carcharodon sp. specimen described from S ud Sacaco West, Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden (2009 ). The exact tooth position in the jaws of Carcharodon cannot be positively identified due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen. T he tooth is most likely a lateral tooth based on its size and curvature, however. In addition to the t ooth crown, there are two oth er tooth marks on the bone. One appears anterior, and the other po sterior, to the partial crown. Both marks appear as shallow grooves across the labial surface of the bone (Fig ure 3 3). They are < 1 mm deep and do not have any visible serration marks. The anterior mark is 59.4 mm long and runs at an angle of 35 across the bone. The posterior mark is punctuated by a small pit, 4.5 mm long that leads into a shallow groove that extends for 42.6 mm and continues off the edge of the specimen at a 40 angle.
59 D iscussion There have been numerous isolated cases of predation and scavenging by sharks documented in the literature. Prey items including sea turtles, mosasaurs, bony fishes, cetaceans, a desmostylian, and even a dinosaur have b e en recorded (Demr and Cerutti 1982; Cigala Fulgosi 1990; Repenning and Packard 1990; Schwimmer et al 1 997; Shimada and Everhart 2004; Shimada and Hooks 2004; Noriega et al 2006). T hese reports, however, are only a small fraction of all of the shark bi tten materials in collections that have not been identified or described. Most papers focus only on extraordinary examples of predation or ones where the shark or prey species can be identified. While these reports do give some insight into the paleoecolog y of fossil species, it is difficult to ascertain what would be considered normal prey items. In contrast, there are very few studies that have examined the paleoecology of sharks based on multiple lines the feeding evidence from a given locality (Pur dy 19 96; Aguilera and Aguilera 2004). In MUSM 1470, the characteristics of the tooth are consistent with those of a Carcharodon sp. The only other shark species with large, serrated teeth found at Sud Sacaco West is Carcharocles megalodon There is no doubt, ho wever, that this tooth represents a white shark based on the serration pattern, thickness, and size of the tooth. An articulated specimen of Carcharodon sp., UF 226255, was collected only a few hundred meters from MUSM 1470 in 1988, which includes a nearly c omplete dentition (Ehre t, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). Documenting the co occurrence and interactions between this species and other marine organisms in the Pisco Formation is significant to the paleoecological community.
60 The diet of modern white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ) has been stud ied extensively (e.g., McCosker 1985; Long and Jones 1996). A dietary shift in trophic levels has been documented from juveniles to adults that can be traced through the use of nitrogen a nd carbon isotopes (Kerr et al 2006). Juvenile white sharks are mainly piscivorous with a shift to marine mammals as they reach maturity. This shift is most likely tied to changes in morphology, energetic requirements, and size of predato r and prey (Tricas and McCosker 1984). Adult wh ite sharks will actively pursue pinnipeds, whereas attacks on live cetaceans are extremely rare (Long and Jones 1996). When feeding on pinnipeds, behavior usually entails bite and release which usually inflicts a fatal injury known as the bite and spit str ategy. The shark then waits for the individual to die before eating t he carcass (Tricas and McCosker 1984; Long et al 1996). In other feeding modes, white sharks typically scavenge cetacean carcasses, stripping off la yers of blubber (Long and Jones 1996; Curtis et al 2006; Dicken 2008). It is extremely difficult to separate acts of predation from those of scavenging in the fossil record. Active predation could be identified by bone growth or healing a round a wound (Schwimmer et al 1997; Shimada and Hooks 1997). In contrast, bite marks that do not show signs of healing could be related to either predation, which resulted in death or scavenging (Cigala Fulgosi 1990; Shimada and Hooks 2004). As stated previously, modern white sharks very rarely attack live cetaceans. In those rare instances when predation has occurred, the sharks targeted the back or side of the body with no bite marks in the cranial region (Long and Jones 1996). In MUSM 1470, the partial tooth crown is positioned with the lingual surface pa rallel to the dorsal surface of the mandible and the labial surface parallel to the ventral surface of the mandible.
61 The shark would have bitten the mandible ventrally based on the orientation of the bite mark. The nature of the fossil record makes it diff icult to discriminate if this trophic interaction was an act of predation or scavenging, but considering previous discussions, MUSM 1470 is interpreted to represent a scavenging event. Recent observations of feeding behaviors in modern juvenile white shark s support our hypothesis. Dicken (2008) witnessed young of the year and juvenile white sharks preferentially biting and feeding around the mouth region of a deceased humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae ). The whale carcass had inverted and was floating d ue to gas build up durin g decomposition (Noriega et al 2007; Dicken 2008). The carcass remained in that state for over one month during which time numerous white sharks fed on the carcass. This report is the first case of juvenile white sharks feeding on a whale carcass and the first documentation of preferential feeding in and around the mouth region. While the total length of the fossil white shark in our specimen cannot be ascertained it seems to represent a juvenile or young adult. Thus, similarities appear to exist in feeding behavior with modern white shark analogs. C onclusions MUSM 1470 represents a scavenging event by a fossil Carcharodon sp. on a mysticete whale based on the feeding observations of modern white sharks. Documenting the trophic inte ractions between this large predatory shark and a cetacean elucidates the paleoecology of southern coastal Peru during the Pliocene. Reconstructing the life histories of fossil sharks is often hampered by the incomplete preservation of their cartilaginous skeletons. Interpreting paleoecological information from isolated teeth is extremely difficult, and even with indirect evidence of feeding, the exact interactions between species can be difficult to ascertain. W hen such specimens
62 as MUSM 1470 are discovere d, they provide almost unique opportunities to advance knowledge about trophic dynamics within ancient ecosystems.
63 F igure 3 1 Location of study area, Sud Sacaco West, along the southwestern coast of Peru.
64 Figure 3 2. Composite stratigraphic sect ion for the upper Pisco Formation MTM = Montemar; SAO = Sacaco; SAS = Sud Sacaco West (after de Muizon and DeVries 1985).
65 Figure 3 3. Mysticete mandible with white shark ( Carcharodon sp.) tooth (MUSM 1470). The tooth is figured at center. Boxes on lef t and right show tooth scrapes.
66 CHAPTER 4 ORIGIN OF THE WHITE SHARK, CARCHARODON (LAMNIFORMES: LAMNID AE), BASED ON RECALIBRATI ON OF THE LATE NEOGE NE, PISCO FORMATION OF PERU I ntroduction N eoselachians are well represented in the fossil record worldwide d uring the Neogene with most of the fossil material found consisting of isolated teeth. 3 Shark teeth that acts as a protective layer during fossilization. The cartilaginous skeleton of chondrichthyans does not typically preserve except in rare instances, and calcified vertebral centra, portions of the neurocranium, and fin rays have been described (Uyeno et al 1990; Shimada 1997 b ; Siv erson 1999; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001; Shimad a 2007; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009) The lack of more complete specimens of most fossil taxa has led to conflicting interpretations about the taxonomy and anatomy of many species. Such problems have ca used much confusion in the nomenclature (including generic and specific names) and terminology (i.e. dental homologies) of fossil neoselachi ans. One of the most debated enigmas within the neoselachians focuses on the evolution and taxonomic placement of th e white shark, Carcharodon carcharias Linn us, 1758, within the Lamniformes There are two distinct hypotheses regarding the evolution of C carcharias that have been proposed in the literature The first hypothesis places all large, serrated megatoothed s harks within the genus 3 Reprinted with permission from EHRET, D. J., MACFADDEN, B. J., JONES, D. S., DEVRIES, T. J., FOSTER, D. A. and SALAS GISMONDI, R. In Press Origin of the white shark, Carcharodon (Lamniformes: Lamnidae), based on recalibration of the late Neogene, Pisco Formation of Peru. Palaeontology
67 Carcharodon including C carcharias as well as those species referred to as Carcharocles e.g. Carcharocles megalodon Jordan and Hannibal, 1923 and its related taxa Based on this taxonomy, the lineage of C carcharias branched off as smaller forms of the megatoothed sharks and co evolved alongside the truly large taxa, such as C megalodon (Applegate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996; Gottfried et al. 1996; Purdy 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001; Purdy et al. 2001) The second hypothesi s proposes that C archarodon carcharias evolved from the broad toothed Carcharodon h astalis Agassiz, 1838 while the megatoothed sharks belong to a separate family, the Otodontidae, within the Lamnifo r mes (Casier 1960; Glikman 1964; Cappetta 1987; Ward and B onavia 2001; Nyberg et al. 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). C archarodon hastalis was originally assigned to the genus Oxyrhina and later to Isurus However, based on affinities with C carcha rias Glikman (1964) suggested the reassignment of all u nserrated forms within the Carcharodon lineage to the genus Cosm o politodus to reflect this relationship (Siverson 1999; Ward and Bonavia 2001). From a taxonomic standpoint, C hastalis and C carcharias represent chronospecies as one species is replaced by another in geological time through a stepwise gradation. Furthermore, the teeth of C hastalis do not share characters with Isurus but instead are more similar to C carcharias exhibiting triangular crowns that are labiolingually flattened, a flat labial face, a lingual face that is slightly convex, and a root that is flat and quite high (Cappetta 1987). As such, the genus Carcharodon Smith in Mller and Henle, 1838 is the senior synonym of Cosmopolitodus Glikman, 1964 the proper genus name for C hastalis Fossil materials collected from the L ate Miocene and E arly Pliocene of the Pacific Basin including Peru (specifically the
68 Pisco Formation), Chile, California, and Japan provide further evidence of this relationship ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Long 1993; Tanaka and Mori 1996; Stewart 1999, 2002; Yabe 2000; Suarez et al 2006; Nyberg et al 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). The shallow water, marine Pisco Formation of southwestern Peru consists of sediments that accumulated during the L ate Miocene to E arly Pliocene ( c 13 4 Ma) and it is a deposit that is well known for its excellently preserved fossils In addition to the presence of complete whale, fish, bird, and aquatic sloth skeletons, the area also contains the partial remains of fossil sharks including: associated tooth sets, vertebral centra, and preserved cartilage of the jaws and neurocrania. Additionally, the Pisco Formation represents a period of time when C archarodon hastalis disappeared and C archarodon carcharias first appeared Another taxon that exhibits intermediate characters between the two species, previously referred to as Carcharodon sp., is also abundant in some localities of the Pisco Formation ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). The recent descrip tion of an articulated specimen of this intermediate form of Carcharodon from the Pisco Formation presents important new insights into the evolutionary history a nd taxonomy of the genus (Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). In their description th e specime n was referred to the E arly Pliocene ( c 4.5 Ma) based on the stratigraphic framework of de Muizon and DeVries (1985). However, isotopic recalibration of some of the original localities of de Muizon and DeVries (1985) using strontium and zircon dating allo ws us to reassess the ages of these localities Based on these recalibrations, this specimen is now refer red to the L ate Miocene rather than the
69 E arly Pliocene. The purpose of this paper is to present a reassessment of the ages of some localities within th e Pisco Formation, formally describe a new species of white shark, and relate changes in age and taxonomy to the evolution of the white shark within the Pacific Basin. Methods and Materials Numerous studies indicate the Miocene Epoch was characterized by r apidly increasing 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the global ocean; therefore, it is especially amenable to dating and correlating marine sediments using strontium isotope chemostratigraphy (e.g. Hodell et al 1991; Miller et al 1991; Hodell and Woodruff 1994; Oslick et al 1994 ; Miller and Sugarman 1995; Martin et al 1999; McArthur et al 2001 ). T hree fossil marine mollusk shells were analyzed from each of five localities within the Pisco Formation in order to determine the ratio of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the shell calcium carbonate When compared to the global seawater reference curve, these data allow us to estimate the geological age for each locality (Table 4 1 ). For isot opic analyses, a portion of the surface layer of each shell specimen was ground off to reduce possible contami nation. Areas showing chalkiness or other signs of diagenetic alteration were avoided. Approximately 0.01 to 0.03 g of aragonite or low magnesium calcite powder was recovered from each fossil sample. The powdered samples were dissolved in 100 l of 3.5 N H NO 3 and then loaded onto cation exchange columns packed with strontium selective crown ether resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.) to separate Sr from other ions (Pin and Bassin 1992). Sr isotope analyses were performed on a Micromass Sector 54 Thermal Ioniza tion Mass Spectrometer equipped with seven Faraday collectors and one Daly detector in the De partment of Geological Sciences, University of Florida. Sr was loaded onto oxidized tungsten single filaments
70 and run in triple collector dynamic mode. Data were a cquired at a beam intensity of about 1.5 V for 88 Sr, with corrections for instrumental discrimination made assuming 86 Sr/ 88 Sr = 0.1194. Errors in measured 87 Sr/ 86 long term reproducibility of NIST 987 ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.71024). Age estimates were determined using the Miocene portion of Look Up Table Version 4:08/03 associated with the strontium isotopic age model of McArthur et al (2001). Zircons were extracted from samples using standard crushing, density separation, and magnetic separation techniques. The zircon s were hand picked, mounted in epoxy plugs along with the reference zircon FC 1 (Paces and Miller 1993), and analyzed using laser ablation multi collector inductively coupled plasma mas s spectrometry (LA MC ICP MS). A Nu Plasma mass spectrometer fitted wit h a U Pb collector array was used for analysis at the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida 238 U and 235 U abundances were measured on Faraday collectors and 207 Pb, 206 Pb and 204 Pb abundances on ion counters. The Nu Plasma mass spectrom eter is coupled with a New Wave 213 nm ultraviolet laser for ablating 30 60 m spots within zircon grains. Laser ablation was carried out in the presence of a helium carrier gas, which was mixed with argon gas just prior to introduction to the plasma torch Isotopic data were acquired during the analyses using Time Resolved Analysis software from Nu Instruments. Before the ablation of each zircon a 30 s peak zero was determined on the blank He and Ar ga ses with closed laser shutter. This zero was used for o n line correction for isobaric interferences, particularly from 204 Hg. Following blank acquisitions individual zircons underwent ablation an d analysis for c 30 60 seconds. The analyses of unknown zircons were bracketed by analyzing an FC 1 standard zircon
71 G eological S etting and G eochronology The Pisco Formation crops out on the coastal plain of southern Peru from the town of Pisco south to Yauca ( Figure 4 1). Its sediments, which include tuffaceous and diatomaceous sandstone and siltstone, ash horizons, b ioclastic conglomerates and phosphorite, representing shallow marine environments preserve cyclic marine transgressive and regressive periods spanning the mid Miocene ( c 13 Ma) through the Pliocene ( c 4 Ma) ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Dunbar 1990; DeVr ies 1998; Amiot et al 2008 ). This formation is well known for its wealth of vertebrate fossils including elasmobranchs, teleosts, chelonians, shore birds, seals, dolphins, whales, and aquatic sloths (Hoffstetter 1968; de Muizon and DeVries 1985; de Muizon and McDonald 1995; de Muizon et al 2002; Amiot et al. 2008; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). Around the Sacaco area, de Muizon and DeVries (1985) recognized 5 vertebrate fossil layers within the Pisco Formation : El Jahuay (Alto Grande) (ELJ), Aguada de L omas (AGL), Montemar (MTM), Sud Sacaco (West) (SAS), and Sacaco (SAO) ( Figure 4 2) These layers are distinguished by a high diversity of species. The ELJ level contains layers of mollusks, as well as a tuff bed that has been assigned an age of 9.5 Ma based on K Ar dating ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; de Muizon and Bellon 1986). This layer is also marked by the presence of C archarodon hastalis and C archarocles megalodon AGL is similar in stratigraphy and it might be contemporaneous with ELJ. Two tuff b eds dated using K Ar were assigned ages of 8 Ma and 8.8 Ma respectively ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; de Muizon and Bellon 1986). Montemar was considered to be l ate st Miocene ( c 6 Ma ) in age based partially on the occurrence of transitional Carcharodon tee th and several molluscan species. The Sud Sacaco vertebrate layer is marked by a series of barnacle and shell beds that that contains a diverse assemblag e
72 of mollusks and vertebrates. These beds are capped by thick vertebrate bearing tuffs, fining upward c ycles of brachiopod bearing sandstones which contain more strongly serrated C archarodon carcharias like te eth ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985). Based on the stratigraphy and palaeontology, it was believed that these beds were older than the 3.9 Ma tuff bed of de Muizon and Bellon (1980), but younger than the Mioc ene ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985). Finally, the SAO level i s found above a tuff bed that was dated at 3.9 M a, indicating an E arly Pliocene age ( de Muizon and Bellon 1980; de Muizon and DeVries 1985) Add itional sampling of invertebrate fossils and the tuff beds taken from ELJ, MTM, SAS, and SAO during the summer of 2007 were analyzed for 87 S r / 86 Sr isotopes and zircon U Pb. At Alto Grande, within the ELJ vertebrate layer, 87 S r / 86 Sr ages of the inverteb rate s gave an age range of 9.03 6 .51 Ma with a mean of 7.46 Ma. Analysis of 55 zircon grains collected from the tuff bed at Alto Grande yielded 54 that gave ages that were Neoproterozoic through Cretaceous, which are obviously inhe rited or mixed detritus. One grain gave a concordant crystallization age of 10 1 Ma, which could also be inherited and should be treated as a n upper limit for the locality. Mollusk samples analyzed from MTM yield 87 S r / 86 Sr dates of 8.70 6.45 Ma with a mean of 7.30 Ma. These ages are c ongruent with the estimation of de Muizon and DeVries (1985) based on the verte brate and invertebrate faunas. While the resolution of the strontium data is not more precise than the estimate based on the molluscan fauna, it does confirm a L ate Miocene age for the locality. At Sud Sacaco (West) (SAS) Dosinia Scopoli, 1777 beds that graded into gastropod lay er were sampled for strontium. 87 S r / 86 Sr dates for the layer ranged from
73 10. 77 2 .50 Ma with a mean of 6.59 Ma. Additionally, the vertebrate bearing tuff b ed was locate d and sampled for zircon data. In total, 35 zircon grains were analyzed with a majority being inher ited or mixed detrital grains. Of the Oligocene and Miocene zircons identified, the youngest grain is 7 1 Ma and is probably the upper limit of the depositional range. An in situ Carcharodon specim en (UF 226255) was recovered 20 40 cm above the base of this ash layer and will be d iscussed in detail below (Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). D iatom analysis of the SAS (West) (Hans Schrader, Univer sity of Bergen, Norway, 1 986, unpublished data) ash bed (locality DV 432 1) recovered the following species: Rossiella tatsunokuchiensis Koizumi, 1972 FAD (first appearance datum) 7 Ma, LAD (last appearance datum) 3 M a ; Shionodiscus oestrupii Alverson et al ., 2006 FAD 6 Ma, LAD 0 Ma, which are c onsistent with both ash and Sr data. On the east side of SAS (West), approximately 10 m above the ash layer, a shell bed containing abundant Ophiomorpha Lundgren, 1891 burrows was sampled for strontium a nd yielded a n age range of 6.35 5. 47 Ma, with a mean of 5.93 Ma. These new dates for the SAS are older than those previously recorded for the locality and suggest a L ate Miocene rather than E arly Pliocene age ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985). At the youngest locality, Sac aco (SAO), mollusk samples were collected near the Museo de Sacaco and yielded 87 Sr/ 86 Sr dates of 6.76 4.86 Ma, with a mean of 5.89 Ma. This age is much older than the underlying tuff bed dated at 3.9 Ma by de Muizon and Bello n (1980). Additional unpublish ed Ar Ar data from the SAO ash bed located on the floor of eastern side of Quebrada Sacaco (locality DV 514 2Snee) below the unconformity that separates Sacaco shell beds from upper portion of sequence on the hillsides of Sacaco y ielded an age of 5.75 0.05 Ma (Lawrence Snee, USGS, sample
74 collected 1987). This new Sr and Ar data makes the 3.9 Ma age of de M uizo n and Bellon (1980) suspect. The Sacaco section appears to be older than previously recorded while the angular unconformity on the hillside of Sacaco represents more time than originally thought. O verview of T axonomy and F ossil R ecord of C archarodon As previously discussed, the evolutionary history of Carcharodon has been a contentious subject. In order to elucidate our current knowledge of the subject, it is important to review the hypotheses that have been previously proposed. Next, material from Peru will be compare d and incorporate d into these paradigms. The taxonomy of the megatoothed sharks (including Otodus Agassiz, 1838 and Carcharocles Jordan an d Hannibal, 1923) beyond their relationship to C archarodon carcharias is not within the scope of this paper and will only be add ressed to the extent necessary. The first hypothesis places the megatoothed sharks ( Otodus and Carcharocles ) and Carcharodon car charias within the Lamnidae. The serrated toothed forms of the megatoothed sharks are assigned to the genus Carcharodon (referred to as Carcharocles here), while the unserrated form is recognized as being related and has been given a separate generic name, Otodus ( Applegate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996; Gottfried et al 1996; Purdy 1996; Purdy et al 2001) It should be noted that a recent shift in paradigm recognizes Otodus as a chronospecies, thereby placing all s pecies of Carcharocles into the genus Otodus with the exception of megalodon which has been referred to the genus Megaselachus Glikman, 1964 (Casier 1960; Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Ward and Bonavia 2001 Cappetta and Cavallo 2006 ). For the purpose of thi s discussion, however, all serrated megatoothed sharks are referred to Carcharocles based on the accepted taxonomy in the literature at the present time.
75 The grouping of megatoothed sharks with Carcharodon carcharias was based on a number of dental charact ers including: (1) a symmetrical second anterior tooth; (2) large third anterior (intermediate) tooth that is inclined mesially; (3) upper anterior teeth that have a chevron shaped neck on the lingual surface; (4) an ontogenetic gradation whereby the coars e serrations of a juvenile C carcharias shift to fine serrations in the adult, the latter serrations resembling those of C archarocles megalodon ; (5) morphological similarity between the teeth of young C megalodon and adult C carcharias (Gottfried et al. 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001; Purdy et al. 2001; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). Following this hypothesis, C carcharias is either the result of dwarfism from a larger megatoothed taxon or evolved via cladogenesis from a large megatoothed shark species sometime during the Paleocene and coevolved alongside the other species (Gottfried 1996; Martin 1996 ; Purdy 1996; Purdy et al. 2001 ) This taxonomy, however, does not tr uly reflect the fossil record. The characters listed above as diagnostic, uniti ng the megatoothed sharks and Carcharodon carcharias are a result of a combination of individual variation, interpretation, and homoplasy (Hubbell 1996; Shimada 2005). Variation and pathologic abnormalities within individual teeth can lead to the incorrec t interpretation and identification o f specimens. As an example, USNM 336204 has been described as lateral tooth of Carcharodon sp. (Purdy 1996) or C carcharias (Gottfried and Fordyce 2001) from the M iddle Miocene of the Calvert Format ion of Maryland ( Fig ure 4 3). However, re analysis of this specimen reveals that it is a small C archarocles megalodon based on the presence of a chevron shaped neck, the thickness of the crown, and the serration type.
76 While the serrations are somewhat coarse for C megalodon and could be misleading, the presence of the other characters listed above make this identification more plausible. Furthermore, the reconstruction of dental patterns of extinct sharks based on isolated teeth or disarticulated tooth sets are misleading wh en extant taxa are used as a template for interpr etations (Shimada 2006, 2007). Finally, the presence of serrations in both the megatoothed and white sharks is a result of homoplasy rather than a diagnostic c haracter uniting the two taxa. A comparison of t he serrations shows that they are in fact very different, with the Carcharocles exhibiting very fine and regular serrations while those of Carcharodon are coarse and irregular ( Figure 4 4). The second hypothesis keeps C archarodon carcharias and the broad t oothed rks are reclassified into their own family, the Otodo ntidae within the Lamniformes. This hypothesis proposes that C archarodon hastalis gave rise to the serrated toothed C carcharias during the L a te Miocene or E arly Pliocene (Casier 1960; Glikman 1964; de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Cappetta 1987; Ward and Bonavia 2001; Nyberg et al. 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). This hypothesis would suggest that the lamnid and otodontid sharks last shar ed a common taxon in the Cretaceous (Casier 19 60). Casier (1960) proposed that C hastalis is ancestral to C carcharias citing characters of dentition (although he did not list these characters) and offering as a possible transition between the taxa Isuru s escheri Agassiz, 1838, which exhibits weak, fine crenulations (not true serrations) on t he cutting edges of its teeth. It should be noted that Agassiz (1833 1843) separated the broad into numerous separate morphotypes, two of the most pro minent were originally
77 referred to Carcharodon ( Oxyrhina ) hastalis and Isurus ( Oxyrhina ) xiphodon (Agassiz 1838). His differentiation of the two taxa was based on C hastalis having a noticeable flattening of the lingual crown foot and narrower tooth crown s than I xiphodo n but conceded that the latter was too weak of a character for identification (Agassiz 1833 1843; Purdy et al 2001). Leriche (1926) included I xiphodon in the synonymy of C hastalis and noted the uncertainty of the origin of the types, which have since been lost (Ward and B onavia 2001). The species was recognized by Glikman (1964) and Purdy et al (2001), who attributed specimens of C hastalis from Peru, North Carolina, and Belgium; the new species from Peru described herein; and I surus escheri from Belgium to I xiphodon based solely on the broadness of their crowns. Ward and Bonavia (2001) regarded I xiphodon as a nomen dubium based on the arguments of Leriche (1926) the absence of any type specimen s, and an unlikely provenance. Recen t morphometric analysis of broad supports a morphological difference based on the broadness of the c rown in broad While this study might accurately separate these species, this cou ld also represent sexual dimorphism or ontogen e tic changes in tooth morphology in one taxon. There may be a true delineation between broad and narrow crowned broad Bonavia (2001 ), the name I xiphodon is inappropriate and use C hastalis for all forms of broad The species Isurus escheri was originally placed in the genus Oxyrhina and later Isurus as a variant of Carcharodon hastalis (Agassiz 1 833 1843; Leriche 19 26; Casier 1960). Specimens have been reported from the L ate M iddle Miocene through the E arly
78 to M iddle Pliocene ( c 14 4 Ma) of the northern Atlantic (including Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark) with materials ranging fr om isolated teeth to an associated set of teeth and vertebrae from northern Germany (Agassiz 1833 1843; Leriche 1926; v an d en Bosch et al 1975; Nolf 1988; Mew is and Klug 2006; Mewis 2008). The crenulations on the cutting edges of the teeth are much finer than the serrations of C archarodon carcharias and specimens found in the Pacific B asin and tend to be along the entire cutting edge of the tooth (Leriche 1926; v an den Bosch et al 1975; Nolf 1988). In addition to crenulations, some specimens may exhibit 1 3 pairs of lateral cusplets, which are more pronounced i n the lower teeth (Mewis 2008). The crown shape of Isurus escheri is less dorso ventrally flattened and thinner antero dorsally with a stronger distal inclination than either C archarodon hastalis or Carcharodon carcharias ( Figure 4 5). This inclination is a result of a marked change in direction of the distal cutting edge of the tooth crown and appears to be mor e pronounced in lateral teeth. The roots of the upper teeth also appear to be more lobate a nd angular than either C hastalis or C carcharias which have very s quare, rectangular roots (Ehret, Hubell, and MacFadden 2009). The teeth of I escheri appear to have stronger affinities with a more narrow toothed form of C hastalis Whereas the verte bral centra reported from Germany appear to have the typical amphicoelous lamniform morphology that is not diagnostic for refined taxonomic assessment above the ordinal level (Mewis and Klug 2006; Mewis 2008). While the latter hypothesis more accurately p ortrays the evolutionary history of Carcharodon the designation of I surus escheri as a sister taxon to C archarodon carcharias based on cladistic analysis of dental characters by Mew is (2008) could be
79 misleading. Shimada (2005) has shown that cladistic ana lysis combining both dental and non dental characters of extant and fossil shark taxa generates co nsiderable phylogenetic noise. Comparisons of consensus trees using dental characters versus trees combining dental and all other morphological characters res ult in different topol ogies. Tree statistics for the cladogram just using non dental characters were better than those combining dental and non den tal characters (Shimada 2005). Shimada did acknowledge, however, that patterns indicated that dental characte rs are important for at l east some phylogenetic signal. A review of the analysis by Mewis (2008) reveals that 3 of the synapormorphies uniting I escheri and C carcharias relate to the presence of serrations, which have evolved numerous times in the Lamni formes while 2 others are dependent on correct tooth position assignmen t of disarticulated specimens. Additionally, the restricted fossil distribution of I es c heri to the n orthern Atlantic and Mediterranean does not support the earliest Pliocene occurrenc es of C carcharias in the Pacific, while appearances of the white shark are slightly later in the Atlantic. In contrast to I surus escheri the evolution of the white shark in the Pacific during the L ate Miocene and E arly Pliocene ( c 10 4 Ma) is well docu mented in the fossil records of Peru, Japan, California, Australia and Chile ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Kemp 1991; Long 1993; Tanaka and Mori 1996; Stewart 1999, 2002; Yabe 2000; Nyberg et al 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). Based on the rich fossil record and the rejection of I escheri as a sister taxon to C archarodon carcharias the second origin hypothesis outlined above is more agreeable if it is amended to include a Pacific Basin origin for the genus Carcharodon Furthermore, this chapter designat es a
80 new species of Carcharodon from the Pacific B asin that represents an intermediate form between C archarodon hastalis and C carcharias S ystematic Palaeontology Depository and A bbreviations The holotype and most of the specimens figured in thi s manuscript are deposited in the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida (UF). Other specimens discussed and figured in this study are deposited in the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C. (USNM) and the Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru (MUSM) respectively. Terminology follows Cappetta (1987) and Siverson (1999), specifically intermediate teeth are defined as those that form on the intermediate bar, vary in number, and are less than one half the crown heights of the anterior teeth. Order LAMNIFORMES Berg 1958 F amily LAMNIDAE Mller and Henle 1838 Genus CARCHARODON Smith in Mller and Henle 1838 Type S pecies Squalus carcharias Linn u s, 1758, by subsequent monotypy through Carcharias lamia Rafinesque, 1810. Remarks Glikman (1964, p. 104) placed the genera Carcharodon and Cosmopolitodus within the Carcharodontidae (Gill, 1893) (mis cited as 1892 in Glikman) based on the following charac ters: teeth broad and blade like, crowns of upper lateral teeth dorsoventrally flattened, neck very small, roots short base of the tail with keels. The idea of the Carcharodontidae was also raised separately by Whitley (1940) and
81 supported by Applegate an d Espinosa Arrubarrena (1996), who cited anatomical evidence including fin positions (but did not explicitly list the characters) and the presence of serrations and lateral denticles as synapomorphies. However, the characters of the Carcharodontidae listed by Glikman (1964) are not synapomorphies specific to Carcharodon Furthermore, the separation of the Otodontidae from the Lamnidae and the presence of a weakly crenulated I s urus escheri do not restrict serrations and lateral cusplets to the Carcharodontid ae and therefore the family is not supported. Glikman (1964) also differentiated the genus Cosmopolitodus from Carcharodon based on the absence of serrations and lateral cusplets. However, some L ate Miocene Carcharodon hastalis teeth may exhibit basal ser rations. CARCHARODON n. sp. Figures 4 6, 4 7, 4 8 Holotype UF 226255 ( Figure 4 6), articulated dentition including 222 teeth, 45 vertebral neurocranium. Other Material Upp er teeth (UF 245052 245057) ( Figure 4 9) from type locality and horizon. Type Locality, Horizon and Age Sud Sacaco West (SAS), 5 km east of Lomas, Arequipa Region, Peru Pisco Formation, L ate Miocene c 6.5 Ma, based on the calibrations presented in this p aper,
82 Diagnosis Large lamniform shark; teeth labio lingually flattened, triangular in shape with one central cusp, weak serrations present but not fully developed along medial and distal cutting edges, larger ser rations present basally, root flat and rectangular; A1 tooth symmetrical and largest in the dentition, A3 tooth distally inclined, A2 tooth larger than a2 tooth. Description The mandibular arch of UF 226255 is partially preserved, making it not possible to distinguish some features of the jaws. The left and right palatoquadrates are preserved anteriorly along with the symphysis. The symphysis of both palatoquadrates is square and deep. The upper dental bullae are also preserved in both pala to quadrates. With in these bullae the upper anterior teeth are found within a hollow, with an intermediate bar, or a labiolingual constriction of the cartilage, present between the third anterior tooth and the first lateral tooth. The distal portions of both palatoquadrates are not preserved, and the medial and lateral quadratomandibular joints are not discernable due to the dorso ventral flattening of the specimen. portions of both are highly fr agmented, making the original shape impossible to discern. The lower symphysis is preserved, and appears to be much weaker than that of the palatoquadrates, suggesting a subterminal mouth. Portions of the neurocranium are preserved, however the structure is not discernable due to the dorso ventral flattening of the specimen. The occipital hemicentrum consists of the posterior half of a calcified double cone vertebral centrum
83 which a rt iculat es with the anteriormost centrum of the vertebral column The anterior portion of the occipital hemicentrum is separated from the basal plate of the neurocranium, which is preserved as portions of sheet like cartilage present within the gape of the j aws. Openings present within these fragments of cartilage could represent foramina, however due to the preservation they probably represent areas of weathering. The dentition of C archarodon n. sp. is represented by 222 teeth located on the palatoquadrates lingually, and triangular in shape ( Figure 4 7). The crowns have a slight convex curve lingually. There are five to six tooth series present for each tooth position. The teeth are weakly serrated, with anterior teeth averaging more than 30 serrations per side for anterior to no serrations for the distal most laterals. Of the teeth that do have serrati ons, there is an average of 8 12 serrations per centimeter on both edges of each tooth. Basal serrations on the teeth are larger than the other serrations on the edges. There are three anterior teeth present in each palatoquadrate. The A1 is symmetrical and it is the largest in the tooth in the dentition. The A2 is also symmetrical and is slightly larger tha n the a2. The A3 is distally inclined. The upper lateral teeth are also inclined distally (with L1 having the greatest inclination), and get progressively smaller towards the distal edge of the jaw. The roots of the teeth are relatively flat and rectangula r in shape. teeth have crowns that are more slender than those of the uppers. There is very little inclination seen in any of the lower teeth. As in the uppers, the teet
84 cartilages are progressively reduced distally. The roots of the lower teeth have a deep basal concavity and are thicker than those of the upper teeth, being somewhat lobate. There are 45 vertebral centra of UF 226255 preserved in the holo type. The centra are asterospondylic, laterally compressed, and are composed of two calcified cones connected by radiating calcified lamellae within the intermedalia ( Figure 4 8). The articular surfaces are concave and show clear, calcified lamellae as wel l as pits in the center that represent the notochordal constricture (Ridewood 1921; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001). In UF 226255, the occipital hemicentrum followed by the first 45 centra which get larger in size in ascending order. Remarks C archarodon n. sp. is an intermediate form between Carcharodon hastalis and Carcharodon carcharias and demonstrates a mosaic of dental characters of both C hastalis and C carcharias Tooth crowns of C archarodon n. sp. are convex and curve lingually similar to the crowns o f C hastalis The serrations of C archarodon n. sp. are enlarged basally and progressively get weaker towards the apex of the crown. This unique serration pattern represents an intermediate between the unserrated C hastalis and the coarsely serrated C ca rcharias ( Figures 4 4, 4 9). Additionally, the enlarged basal serrations of C archarodon n. sp. are very similar to the lateral cusplets seen in juvenile C carcharias (Uye no and Matsushima 1979; Hubbell 1996). Other characters that unite C archarodon n. sp. with C carcharias include an A2 that is symmetrical and slightly larger than the a2 (Compagno 2001). Whereas, the A3 of C archarodon n. sp. is inclined distally a feature shared with C hastalis Carcharodon hastalis Carcharodon n. sp. and Carcharodon c archarias are chronospecies, with C archarodon n. sp. representing a morphological intermediate
85 between C hastalis and C carcharias Specimens collected in L ate Miocene deposits throughout the Pacific B asin exhibit a morphologic gradation from C hastalis to C archarodon n. sp. and later to C carcharias in the E arly Pliocene. The observable transition of species through time is denoted here by the designation of C hastalis and C archarodon n. sp. to the genus Carcharodon (Smith in Muller and Henle, 1838) w hich is given precedence over Cosmopolitodus (Glikman, 1964). Furthermore, the diagnosis of Cosmopolitodus by Glikman ( 1964) is misleading since some L ate Miocene C hastalis teeth may present basal serrations. D iscussion Geology and S tratigraphy The new a bsolute ages obtained from many of the loca lities of the Pisco Fm. suggest that the deposits are ol der than previously published. These results have direct bearing on the age of the holotype for C archarodon n. sp. and the evolution of whit e sharks in the P acific B asin. The changes to the ages of the localities within the Pisco Fm. require a reassessment of the stratigraphy and palaeontology of those areas affected. Previous dating of the tuff bed at Alto Grande within the ELJ vertebrate level resulted in an age of 9.5 Ma based on K Ar dating ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; de Muizon and Bellon 1986). This date is consistent with the non inherited zircon grain ( 10 1 Ma) analyzed in this study. The strontium data collected from shell layers overlying the tuff bed yielded ages that are younger than those for the ash layer. However, the upper limits of these ages are within the range for the other dating methods making these age estimates congruent with previously published dates. The original age of the MTM level i s consistent with the new dates from the strontium data. A L ate Miocene ( c 6 Ma) age based on the correlation of gypsum beds
86 with AGL, fossiliferous sandy siltstone with SAS (West), and calibration of the molluscan fauna was posit ed by de Muizon and DeVri es (1985). The range of dates between 8.70 6.45 Ma with a mean of 7.30 Ma is consistent with the resolution o f mollusk calibration method ( 2 Ma). Both geochemical methods, zircon U Pb and strontium isotopic data, yield ages for the SAS level that are olde r than previous reported by 1 2 million years ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Tsuchi et al 1988). Analysis of diatoms from this locality supports this interpretation (H Schrader, pers. comm. 1986). This difference changes the age of the SAS (West) from the E arly Pliocene to the L ate Miocene (Gibbard et al 2010). Previous methods of calibrating the SAS level include correlation of mollusks with white shark ( C archarodon carcharias ) fossils. The reassignment of the shark fossils from C carcharias ( E arly/ M iddl e Pliocene) to C archarodon n. sp. ( L ate Miocene/ E arly Pliocene) supports an older age for the locality. This change would also suggest that an unconformity (i.e. buried erosional surface) above Sacaco may represent more time than previously thought (3 5 mi llion years). Interestingly, the youngest horizons within the Ica Valley section of the Pisco Fm. to the North of Sacaco are dated at 7 5 Ma, raising the possibility of a basin wide erosional event (i.e. sea level regression) during this time. Ages from th e east side of Sud Sacaco (West) and Sacaco, while both older than previously reported, were very similar in age to one another. The average age of 5.93 Ma for the east side of Sud Sacaco (West) supports the reinterpretation of Sud Sacaco being L ate Miocen e. However, the stratigraphy at SAS (West) and SAO suggests that the beds are not at the same level especially when taking into account regional t ilt ( de
87 Muizon and DeVries 1985). The older ages from SAO may actually represent an area of faulting where old er sediments, presumably those that correlate to SAS, are exposed within the section. In that case, the new median ages of 5.89 Ma from strontium and 5.75 0.5 Ma from a rgon isotopes has more bearing on the age of SAS than on the SAO level itself. Taxono my and E volution of Carcharodon The taxonomic evolution and placement of Carcharodon is a complex subject that has been compounded by the lack of more complete specimens and high levels of homoplasy in the too th morphology of many species. While a C archarodon hastalis origin hypothesis has gained popularity in recent years, the timing and transition from one taxon to the other has remained unresolved. It is generally accepted that C archarodon carcharias is directly related to C hastalis and not the megatoothe d s harks as previously discussed. Isurus escheri from the M iddle Miocene through E arly Pliocene of the n orthern Atlantic has been suggested as a possible sister taxon to C archarodon carcharias based mainly on the presence of crenulations on the cutting ed g es of the teeth ( Figure 4 4). However, these fossils are restricted to the n orthern Atlantic and Mediterranean and become extinct just prior to or as a result of the appearance of C carcharias in the Atlantic by the mid Pliocene. This species likely evol ved from an Atlantic population of slim toothed C archarodon hastalis or hastalis li ke taxon in the E arly Miocene. Meanwhile, materials from the Miocene Pacific Basin clearly demonstrate an intermediate form between C hastalis and C carcharias that is sig nificantly different from I escheri The discovery and description of C archarodon n. sp. from the L ate Miocene of Peru, and the recalibration of the Pisco Formation demonstrate the
88 presence of serrated forms in the Miocene and E arly Pliocene of the Pacifi c, while there is general lack of specimens from the Atlantic at the same period. The distinction of C archarodon n. sp. from Isurus escheri is validated by the morphological differences exhibited in UF 226255 and specimens of I escheri examined from the D elden Member ( E arly Pliocene), the Netherlands (UF 245058 and UF 245059) and the description of an associated specimen from Germany (Mew is and Klug 2006; Mewis 2008). I escheri has been identified from the M iddle Miocene ( c 14 Ma) to at least the E arly P liocene ( c 5 4 Ma) throughout n orthern Europe Van den Bosch (1978, 1980) differentiates I escheri from the L ate Miocene as weakly crenulate and E arly Pliocene teeth as strongly crenulate types. However, this difference was not quantified or figured in e ither of the studies and is inconsistent with our E arly Pliocene samples that demonstrate we ak crenulations ( Figure 4 5). C archarodon n. sp. teeth show a progressive increase in the number and overall coarseness of serrations on their cutting edges from th e L ate Miocene to the E arly Pliocene that are distinctively different and appear to evolve separately from I escheri ( Figure 4 9). Additionally, the in situ dentition of UF 226255 demonstrates a mixture of characters expressed in both C archarodon hastalis and C archarodon carcharias supporting our revised C. hastalis origin hypothesis. Isurus escheri on the other hand, appears to be a separate taxon more closely related to a narrow crowned Carcharodon hastalis or hastalis like taxon. Tooth serrations (or in this case crenulations) have evolved independently numerous times throughout the evolution of the selachians (Casier 1960; C appetta 1987; Frazzetta 1988). Based on the living mako sharks, their tooth shape, and overall body size, it is
89 hypothesized that species within the genus Isurus were piscivorous (Applegate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996; Purdy et al 2001; A guilera and de Aguilera 2004). The evolution of serrations or crenulations would be advantageous for competition with other piscivorous shark ta xa ( C hastalis Galeocerdo Mller and Henle, 1837, Hemipristis Agassiz, 1835, and Carcharhinus de Blainville, 1816). Therefore, it is not surprising that more than one form would acquire serrations. The evolution of the white shark in the Pacific Basin is validated by the presence of weakly to moderately serrated teeth in the fossil deposits from the L ate Miocene and E arly Pliocene of North and South America, Asia, and Australia ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Kemp 1991; Long 1993; Tanaka and Mori 1996; Stewa rt 1999, 2002; Yabe 2000; Nyberg et al 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). While many of these specimens from the Pacific represent different degrees of evolution between C archarodon hastalis and C archarodon carcha rias it is not possible to separat e these based on isolated teeth. A complete tooth set, exhibiting more definitive characters would be required to differentiat e potentially different forms. Therefore, these teeth are assigned to the species Carcharodon n. sp. ; previous identifications as Isurus escheri (Kemp 1991) Carcharodon sp. (Nyberg et al 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009), or C carcharias ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Long 1993; Tanaka and Mori 1996) should be amended to reflect this new assignment. Additional research on C ar charodon n. sp. has shed light on the palaeobiology of this species (Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009; Ehret, MacFad den, and Salas Gismondi 2009). Incremental growth analyses of the vertebral centra of UF 226255 have revealed annu al growth patterns that relate to the life history of this specimen. Growth rings
90 visible using X radiography appear to represent annual periodicity based on the calibration of oxygen and carbon isotope analysis within the rings. Counts of the growth rings using the X radiographs provide an age estimate of at least 20 years. The overall length of the specimen was estimated using the averages of both crown height and vertebral centrum diameter regressions from previously published studies of C archarodon carcharias Resulting data p rovides total length estimates between 4.89 and 5.09 m. for the specimen. Based on growth curves of modern C carcharias UF 226255 appears to have been growing at a slower rate than whit e sharks today. Further palaeobiological information about C archarodo n n. sp. includes a partial mysticete whale mandible from the SAS layer containing a partial tooth crown MUSM 1470, housed in the collection of the Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru (MUSM) describe d by Ehret, MacFadd en, and Salas Gismondi (2009). This specimen represents direct evidence of feeding behavior of th e species in the L ate Miocene. The presence of tooth serrations and MUSM 1470 provide definitive proof that C archarodon n. sp. was adapted f or taking marine mammals as prey as early as c 6.5 Ma. C onclusions The recalibration of localities within the Pisco Formation indicates ages that are older than previously published ( de Muizon and Bellon 1980; de Muizon and DeVries 1985; de Muizon and Bel lon 1986). While these changes are not exceptionally large, it does directly relate to the evolutionary history of the genus Carcharodon Previous accounts of shark material from the Pisco Formation exhibiting characteristics of both C archarodon hastalis a nd C archarodon carcharias were referred to the E arly Pliocene ( c 5 4 Ma) ( de Muizon and DeVries 1985; Nyberg et al 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and
91 MacFadden 2009; Ehret, MacFadden, and Salas Gismondi 2009). However, the geological age of these specimens was no t consistent with the first records of C carcharias in the E arly to M iddle Pliocene. New ages for the SAS (West) layer placing it in the L ate Miocene ( c 6.5 Ma) accord better with the evolutionary history of the white shark. The discovery and description of an outstanding specimen from the Pisco Formation further elucidates the taxonomy and paleobiology of the white sharks. The hypothesis that Isurus escheri is a sister taxon of C archarodon carcharias is refuted based on the Miocene and Pliocene distribut ion of Carcharodon fossils from the Pacific Basin and tooth morphology. The genus Carcharodon should be amended to include the species hastalis n. sp. and carcharias based on tooth characters shared between the taxa discussed above, and our interpretatio n of the C hastalis n. sp. carcharias transition as an example of chronospecies. Palaeobiological information from UF 226255 reveals that this specimen grew at a rate comparatively slower than modern white sharks. MUSM 1470 confirms that the diet of C arch arodon n. sp. was at least partially comprised of marine mammals as early as the L ate Miocene. Continued research on these specimens and others will only further advance our knowledge of the fossil lamnid sharks.
92 Figure 4 1. Map of Peru with localitie s within the Southern section of the Pisco Formation.
93 Figure 4 2. Stratigraphic map of the Pisco Formation Peru. A fter de Muizon and DeVries 1985
94 Figure 4 3. Carcharocles megalodon tooth, USNM 336204 Scale bar represents 10 mm. Figure 4 4. Comparison of serration types in the lamnid and otodontid sharks. (A) Carcharodon hastalis (UF 57267), (B) Carcharodon n. sp. (UF 226255), (C) Isurus escheri (UF 245058), (D) Carcharocles megalodon (UF 217225), (E) Carcharodon carcharias (G. Hubbell coll ection). Scale bar represents 10 mm.
95 Figure 4 5 Isuru s escheri from the Delden Member (Early Pliocene), the Netherlands Upper Anterior tooth, UF 245058 (A) Labial view, (B) Lingual view; Upper Lateral tooth, UF 245059 (C) Labial view, (D) Lingual vie w. Scale bar represents 10 mm.
96 Figure 4 6. Carcharodon n. sp. UF 226255 (holotype). Scale bar represents 10 cm.
97 Figure 4 7. Functional tooth series of Carcharodon n. sp. UF 226255 (holotype). Scale bar represents 5 cm.
98 Figure 4 8. Vertebr al centrum of C archarodon n. sp. UF 226255 (holotype). Scale bar represents 10 mm. Figure 4 9. Individual upper teeth demonstrating the gradation of serrations from the Pisco Formation, Peru Upper teeth from left to right, UF 245052 245057 A F, l ab ial view; G L, lingual view. Scale bar represents 10 mm.
99 Table 4 1. Strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of fossil marine mollusk sh ells from the Pisco Formation. Ages and confidence intervals (CI) determined from McArthur et al (2001). Locality Mean 8 7 Sr/ 86 Sr Age estimate (Ma) 95% CI (Ma) ELJ 0.7089424 7.46 9.03 6.51 MTM 0.7089468 7.30 8.70 6.45 SAS (West) 0.7089659 6.59 10.77 2.50 SAS (West) 0.7089978 5.93 6.35 5.47 SAO 0.7090005 5.89 6.76 4.86
100 CHAPTER 5 MACROEVOLUTION AGE AND GROWTH DETER MINATION OF THE MEGATOOTHED SHARKS ( LAMNIFORMES: OTODONT IDAE) I ntroduction The extinct ot odontid (or megatoothed) shark species in the genera Otodus and Carcharocles include some of the largest predatory sharks to have ever lived. The species Otodus obliqu us first appears in the L ate Paleocene, becoming more predominant in the E arly Eocene, and is replaced by a series of species belonging to the genus Carcharocles through time by what some believe is phyletic evolution (Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Cappetta an d Cavallo 2006). The otodontid shark lineage ends with the extinction of the largest species of the family, Carcharocles megalodon in the Pliocene. These sharks were large, apex predators that were likely filling the top s ocea ns (Aguilera and Aguilera 2004). The fragmentary nature of chondrichthyan fossils, due mainly to their cartilaginous skeletons, has made taxonomic and paleobiological studies very difficult. In particular, a majority of the fossil record for neoselachian s harks is comprised solely of isolated teeth. The lack of bony structures in paleontological studies of sharks can be clearly demonstrated by the discrepancies in generic and species assignments for the megatoothed sharks (see Jordan and Hannibal 1923; Leri che 1926; Casier 1960; Glikman 1964; Applegate and Espinosa Arrub arrena 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001; Purdy et al 2001; Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Cappetta and Cavallo 2006) where multiple taxonomic combinations are recognized for most species. Further more, paleobiological studies of the megatoothed sharks are relatively limited considering the overwhelming public interest in this group. Previously published research includes studies on skeletal anatomy and sizing, paleoecology, trophic interactions, di agenesis
101 and growth, and nursery areas (Gottfried et al 1996; Purdy 1996; Aguilera and Aguilera 2004; MacFadden et al 2004; Pimiento et al 2010) The study of growth in fossil sharks and how it relates to their paleobiology is a relatively new field bec ause it focuses on the rarely preserved vertebral centra. Previous studies of incremental growth include: documentation of incremental bands in f ossil lamniform centra (Shimada 1997a), growth and diagenesis of E arly Eocene O obliquus (MacFadden et al 200 4; Labs Hochstein and MacFadden 2006), ontogenetic parameters and life history of L ate Cretaceous Cretoxyrhina mantelli (Shimada 2008), and incremental growth of L ate Miocene Carcharodon n. sp. (Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009; Ehret et al In Press ). In th is chapt er, I present research on the growth rates of four megatoothed shark species in order to compare heterochronic change in size through time. Additionally, I investigate two factors one biotic and one abiotic, that are thought to have contributed to these changes. The otodontid sharks were chosen because of their extremely large size, their perceived increase in overall length and the corresponding changes to their growth thro ugh time (Gottfried and Fordyce 2001). M aterials and M ethods Materials Ver tebral centra from four megatoothed shark taxa: Otodus obliquus Carcharocles auriculatus Carcharocles angustidens and Carcharocles megalodon were analyzed for incremental growth bands using digital X radiography (Figure 5 1). Otodus obliquus specimens are from the Florida Museum of Natural History (UF) (UF 162732; UF 256397 ) and were collected in the Ouled Abdoun Basin of Morocco and are Ypresian (55.8 48.6 Ma) in age (Arambourg, 1952; MacFadden et al 2004).
102 Carcharocles specimens (including C auricul atus C angustidens and C megalodon ) are on loan from the collections of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (IRSNB). The Carcharocles auriculatus specimen (IRSNB P809) was collected in the Brussels Formation of Belgium and is Lutetian in ag e (48.6 40.4 Ma) (Nolf 1988). The C angustidens specimen (IRSNB P929) was collected from the Argile de Boom, Belgium and is Rupel ian in age (33.9 28.4 Ma) (Nolf 1988). Finally, the C megalodon specimen (IRSNB 3121) is from an associated vertebral column which was collected in Antwerp, Belgium in the 1860s and is designated only as Miocene (23.3 5.3 Ma) in age but likely represents the M iddle to L at e Miocene (~14 5.3 Ma) (Leriche 1926; Gottfried et al 1996). Although the taxonomy of the megatoothed sharks is beyond the scope of this study, the nomenclature I will follow should be justified. While it is widely accepted that the megatoothed sharks are lamniforms, their placement within the Lamniformes has been a contentious subject. In his original descripti ons of the megatoothed shark species, Agassiz (1835) placed all serrated toothed taxa within the genus Carcharodon which also includes the modern white shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ). Thus megatoothed sharks were assign ed to the Lamnidae with close interr elationships with C carcharias Isurus and Lamna In 1923, Jordan and Hannibal erected the genus Carcharocles for the serrate d megatoothed sharks, thereby implying that they did not share close affinities with C carcharias Casier (1960) separately drew the same conclusion renamed these species Procarcharodon which was accepte d by many authors before being considered a junior synonym of Carcharocles In 1964, Glikman erected the family Otodontidae for the megatoothed sharks, including the genera
103 Otodus Carcharocles and Parotodus He placed the species C auriculatus and C angustidens within the genus Otodus based on the hypothesis that these species evolved directly from O obliquus and erected the genus Megaselachus for Carcharocles chubutensis and C megalodon cit ing the reduction/loss of lateral cusplets on the tooth crowns as a diagnostic character. Recent literature (1990s p resent) has been divided into three separate ideologies with regards to nomenclature. A small minority of researchers still r efers the serrated megatoothed sharks to the genus Carcharodon and places them within the Lamnidae (App legate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996; Purdy 1996, Gottfried et al 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2 001; Purdy 2001). However, although entrenched in the pop ular literature, this idea is no longer widely accepted. A second group follows the designations of Glikman (1964) and refers the serrated Otodus and Megaselachus based o n the idea that the lineage represents a series of chr onospecies (Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Cappetta and Cavallo 2006; Adnet et al assignment of the megatoothed sharks to the family Otodo ntidae, but separates Otodus obliquus which has smooth edged teeth, from the serrated forms, Carcharocles following Jordan and Ha nnibal (1923) (Ward and Bonavia 2001; Ehret, Hubbell, MacFadden 2009; Pimiento et al 2010, Ehret et al In Press ). Methods Verte bral centra were imaged using traditional x radiographic (X rays) photography. In studies of extant sharks, it is recommended to choose a centrum anterior to the first dorsal fin (precaudal) from individuals (Wintner and Cliff 1999). However, due to the ra rity of megatoothed shark centra, all available specimens were
104 sampled. Digital X rays were taken at the C. A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory at the University of Florida. The X rays reveal differences in bone density and produce reversed images in DICOM and JPEG formats (Figure 5 2). X ray settings followed those used by MacFadden et al (2004) and Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden ( 2009), approximately 78 kV for 1 to 2 minutes. However, depending on differences in preservation and mineralization of i ndividual centra (which is related to age, locality, and sedimentology) sett ings were adjusted accordingly. Digital X rays were set to the actual specimen diameter, converted to TIFF files, and examined using Adobe Photoshop. This included adjustments to t he contrast and brightness of the X rays in order to fully view all growth bands. Centra were oriented with the insertions for the neural arches and basopophyses (following Walker 1975) in life position (i.e. the dorsal neural arch insertions are positione d along the top edge of the image and the ventral basopophyses insertions positioned along the bott om edge) (Natanson and Cailliet 1990; Natanson et al 2008). Diameter and growth ring measurements for the centra were taken along the midlateral axis follow ing Cailliet et al (1985) and Wintner and Cliff (1999) (Figure 5 2). Incremental growth pattern terminology follows that recommended by Cailliet et al (2006). The term growth band is used for seasonal periods (i.e. opaque bands that tend to deposited in summer months and translucent bands that tend to be deposited in winter months in modern chondrichthyans). While the term growth ring (GR) is used for patterns that are demonst rated or assumed to represent a period of a year Therefore, one opaque and one translucent growth band pair represent one growth ring. Incomplete or finer, narrow bands were observed but not used for ageing purposes
105 (Cailliet et al 1985; Officer et al 1997; Wintner and Cliff 1999). The birth mark is defined as the angle change on t he centrum face, which marks the difference between fast intrauterine and slower postnatal growth ( Win tner and Cliff 1999). The annual periodicity of growth rings in megatoothed sharks is assumed based on studies of extant and isotopic work of extinct lamn iforms (MacFadden et al 2004; Kerr et al 200 6; Labs Hochstein and MacFadden 2006; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). Using methods including oxytetracycline (OTC) injected markers, known age individuals, bomb radiocarbon dating, and marginal increment analysis (MIA), researchers have shown that numerous lamniform sharks: the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus porbeagle, Lamna nasus salmon, Lamna ditropis sand tiger, Carcharias taurus and white, Carcharodon carcharias all deposit annua l growth rings (C ailliet et al 1 985; Wintner and Cliff 1999; Natanson 2001; Campana et al 2002; Natanson et al 2002; Goldman and Musick 2003; Ribot Carballal et al 2005; Ardizzone et al 2006; Goldman et al 2006; Kerr et al 2006; Natanson et al 2006). T he only lamni form species that does not to follow this rule is the basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus which produces growth rings that are neither periodic nor associ ated with age (Parker and Stott 1965; Natanson et al 2008). Instead growth ring counts in C maximus change with centrum position within the vertebral column and numbers are related to structural morphology rath er than age ( Natanson et al 2008) It should be noted that basking sharks are atypical lamniforms for numerous reasons : ( 1) their centra are le ss calcified than other species; (2) the number of lamellae in centra becomes reduced posteriorly in the vertebral column, and (3) the vertebral morpho logy changes with age (Ridewood 1921; Natanson et al 2008).
106 Growth rings were identified and marked using Adobe Photoshop (Figure 5 2). The image files were then imported into the program Image J where the radius of each growth ring and the birth mark were measured for analysis. X radiographs for each fossil specimen were counted and measured on four separat e occasions by the author. The average number of rings and centrum radii for each growth ring from the four separate counts were used for the final analysis. Analyses compare centrum radius (CR) as a measure of size and growth ring count as a measure of ag e. Centrum radius is used because total length (TL) of these sharks is not known. Previous studies of fossil lamniforms (Gottfried et al 1996; Shimada 1997b; Shimada 2008; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009; Pimiento et al 2010) have estimated TL of exti nct species based on CR or centrum diameter of the extant C carcharias While TL regressions may be acceptable for establishing general estimated body lengths, I caution the use of this information in growth studies without a reasonable justification. Fur thermore, this study compares growth in fossil megatoothed sharks to C. carcharias specimens from the Indian Ocean previously reported by Wintner and Cliff (1999). Comparisons of growth in megatoothed and white sharks, based solely on TL or precaudal lengt h (PCL) of Carcharodon could misrepresent the fossil data. Growth data of fossil megatoothed sharks was compared with growth data from extant C carcharias specimens from the Indian Ocean Wintner and Cliff (1999) to provide a baseline growth rate and a m odern analog. Data from white sharks include CR and age information for 109 individuals ranging from 0 13 years. Unlike fossil s pecimens, extant data represent the maximum age and CR for each specimen.
107 However, when all extant specimens are plotted togethe r, the resulting data represent a hypothetic al growth rate for the species. To determine if the growth rates of megatoothed and white sharks differed statistically from one another, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed using SAS software Line ar regressions based on the area of each centrum were calculated for each of the shark species, which included pooled data for the two O obliquus specimens. The slopes of the linear regressions (i.e. growth rates) were then compared to one another using a t test with probability (P) values > 0.05 representing statistically different rates using JMP software (Natanson and Cailliet 1990). R esults Annual growth rings were observed in X rays of all fossil megatoothed shark vertebral centra. Growth rings in th e three Carcharocles species ( C auriculatus C angustidens and C megalodon ) were more clearly visible than those seen in O obliquus which is likely related to the mineralization diagenesis, and preservation of the specimens (Figure 5 2). The four in dividual readings of each X ray were consistent in most cases, but differed by a maximum of 3 GR in one observation. This difference was observed in one of the Otodus specimens (UF 162732), and relates to the visibility of GRs. The averages of the GR count s, the radii per GR, and the area of the centrum at each GR for each specimen were used for comparisons (Table 5 1). Birth marks (BM) were observed in all X radiographs. While the change in angle is not directly observable in X rays, the presence of the fi rst opaque band distal to the focus was defined as the BM (Natanson et al 2006). The perceived BMs in the X rays were compared with physical BMs present on corpus calcareum of the specimens using landmarks also visible in the digital images. In every obse rvation, BMs in X rays
108 matched the actual specimens correctly. BM radii for O obliquus (UF 162732, UF 256397 ) and C auriculatus (IRSNB P809) specimens were smaller than the CR for the one South African white shark (1.11 cm) that recorded an age of 0 (Tab le 5 1). C angustidens (IRSNB P929) had a BM radius that was slightly larger, but comparable in size to the extant C carcharias The radius of the BM for C megalodon (IRSNB 3121), meanwhile, was significantly larger (1.66 cm) than all other species, and corresponded to extant C carcharias specimens that were at least 2 years old. Growth of the megatoothed and white shark species was compared in terms of centrum area vs. number of growth rings (GR; i.e. age in years) (Figure 5 3). Total length (TL) and/o r precaudal length (PCL), which is commonly measured and reported in modern studies, was not available for fossil species. Previous studies estimating megatoothed shark lengths are based on measurements for extant Carcharodon carcharias (Gottfried et al 1 996, Pimiento et al 2010). Since w hite shark growth data w ere used for comparison to give a baseline for growth of modern lamniforms using data f rom Carcharodon to estimate megatoothed TLs would be biased The overall numbers of growth rings counted in t he megatoothed shark specimens fall within the range of published counts for modern chondrichthyan taxa (Table 5 1). However, megatoothed GR numbers are higher, ranging from 18 30 years for fossil specimens, than many modern studies (Cailliet et al 1985; Wintner and Cliff, 1999; Natanson et al 2002). Relatively high counts for extant species have been documented and include: 31 and 32 GRs for Isurus oxyrinchus (Ardizzone et al 2006; Natanson et al 2006), 35 GRs for Lamna nasus (Francis et al 2007), and 41 GRs for Galeorhinus galeus (Francis and Mulligan 1998). Total age limits (potential longevity) for
109 chondrichthyans have been estimated to approach 60 years or more (Francis et al 2007). The lack of older extant specimens might be related to over fishi ng of shark species (Goldman et al 2006; Francis et al 2007). However, Francis et al (2007) also discussed the potential for age underestimation of L nasus specimens over 20 years in age (GRs), as somatic growth slows in adult individuals. Results show ed that GRs become more tightly compacted, making them more difficult to accurately differentiate and count in cross section. Plotted growth data for all fossil species depicts a decrease in slope angle (i.e. decreasing somatic growth) with increasing GR ( i.e. age) (Figure 5 3). Shimada (2008) also observed t his pattern in the Cretaceous lamniform shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli and similar patterns are also visible in length/mass vs. GR data for modern lamniforms including C carcharias I oxyrinchus L na sus L ditropis and C taurus (Cailliet et al 1985; Wintner and Cliff 1999; Campana et al 2002; Natanson et al 2002; Goldman and Musick 2003; Ribot Carballal et al 2005; Ardizzone et al 2006; Goldman et al 2006; Natanson et al 2006). While the vis ual decrease in slope angles is comparable for most species, it should be noted that C megalodon is well above and outside the range of all others both in overall growth and the delay in growth decrease. Growth rates for the fossil and modern species were calculated comparing the area of centrum surface based on the measurement of GR radii to the number of GRs. The results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) can be seen in Figure 5 4. For the purpose of this study, growth rates are reported and compared in terms of the slope of the covariance analysis (Table 5 2). Data for fossil megatoothed specimens are compared to a population of extant white sharks (Wintner and Cliff 1999) to set a
1 10 baseline growth parameter that is tangible. As observed with BM CR, t he overall growth rates for C auriculatus and C angustidens are comparable to C carcharias while O obliquus and C megalodon are significantly higher than the other specie s. To accurately assess the growth rates between the different fossil species an d how their rates compare to C carcharias the slopes from each taxon were analyzed using a t test. Growth rates were considered statistically different from one another if the P value > 0.05 (Table 5 3 ). The growth rate for the E arly Eocene Otodus obliqu us, which is recognized as the first otodontid taxon, was determined to be faster (i.e. having a steeper slope) and significantly different than that of C carcharias The general growth rates for the genus Carcharocles are characterized by an overall incr ease in rate through time. In the M iddle Eocene, C auriculatus had a growth rate statistically similar to that of C carcharias and significantly slower than O obliquus (Table 5 2 ; 5 3 ). Therefore, the transition from Otodus to Carcharocles is marked by a significant decrease in growth rates between the E arly and M iddle Eocene. Carcharocles angustidens in the E arly Oligocene, evolved a growth rate that is statistically similar to the fossils O obliquus and C auriculatus as well as C carcharias Compa rison of their actual slopes (Table 5 2 ; 5 3 ) reveals that the growth rate of C angustidens is intermediate between C auriculatus and O obliquus and therefore, faster (i.e. has a steeper slope) than Carcharodon carcharias In the M iddle to L ate Miocene C megalodon, the final otodontid species before their extinction in the Pliocene grew at a much faster rate than any other species in this stu dy. D iscussion Fossilized vertebral centra from four species of megatoothed shark were analyzed for annual growth rings using X radiography. Growth rings were observed in all
111 specimens, although some exhibited more visible GRs than others (Figure 5 2). Four GR counts and radius measurements were taken and averaged for all fossil specimens. Growth rates were calculate d for O obliquus C auriculatus C angustidens and C megalodon through time and compared to each other and the extant white shark, Carcharodon carcharias In the E arly Eocene (Ypresian), Otodus obliquus exhibited growth rates that were comparatively f aster than C carcharias However, the overall size of the vertebral centra at birth was comparable to, or slightly smaller than the extant white shark. Annual growth ring counts for the two specimens (UF 162732, UF 256397 ) were calculated at 24 and 18 ye ars, respectively (Table 5 1). Based on rates for C carcharias (Wintner and Cliff 1999), and age estimates for attaining sexual maturity (~9 10 years), O obliquus also appears to have prolonged a faster growth rate (i.e. somatic growth) during its lifeti me (Cailliet et al 1985). While it is tempting to associate this prolonged rate with age at maturation, it is not possible to gl ea n this information from the X rays (Araya and Cubillos 2006). Growth trends for the genus Carcharocles are characterized by a n increase in both rate and overall size through time. The earliest species of the genus, Carcharocles auriculatus from the M iddle Eocene (Lutetian), has a growth rate that is comparatively slower than O obliquus and statistically similar to C carcharias (Figure 5 3; Table 5 2 ; 5 3 ). If Carcharocles did arise from Otodus during the Eocene via phyletic evolution (Glikman 1964; Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Cappetta and Cavallo 2006), growth rates slowed significantly across this transition. However, size at birth (b ased on the radius of BM), overall lifespan, and the duration of somatic growth appears to remain relatively
112 consistent. Interestingly, this period of time also corresponds to the appearance of serrations on the cutting edges of tooth crowns. Hypotheses re lated to the cause of this growth rate change and evolution of serrations including temperature fluctuations and diet, will be discussed below The calculated growth rate for the E arly Oligocene (Rupelian) C angustidens i s statistically similar to three species: C auriculatus, O obliquus and C carcharias Upon comparison of the slopes (i.e. growth rates) of plotted data, the rate for C angustidens was slightly faster than C auriculatus and C carcharias and slower than O obliquus (Table 5 2 ; 5 3 ). Size at birth, based on the radius of the BM for IRSNB P929, is larger than that of O obliquus C auriculatus and C carcharias However, other growth and age parameters are well within the range of the other species. The M id dle L ate Miocene Carcharocl es megalodon specimen exhibits a growth strategy that is significantly different from other megatoothed sharks. Previously discussed (and geologically older) species had relatively similar sizes at birth and comparable growth rates. In contrast, C megalod on exhibits a larger size at birth and a substantially faster growth rate. A comparison of BM radius between C megalodon and C angustidens the next largest specimen, reveals that the former was 1.3 times larger at birth. Furthermore, the growth rate for C megalodon when compared with O obliquus which had the second fastest calculated rate, was found to be 1.5 times greater. In addition to both birth size and growth rate increases, the overall number of GRs for C megalodon (30) is also greater than a ll other specimens (Table 5 1). This count is within the range of modern chondrichthyans and not significantly higher than other fossil
113 species however, it is important for comparisons of somatic growth duration. Plotted data of growth for the megatoothed sharks (Figure 5 3) reveal that C megalodon prolonged somatic growth for a longer duration of its lifetime compared to other species. In C megalodon cessation or slowing of somatic growth, appears to occur at or around 25 years of age. This prolonged gr owth rate would have been advantageous for attaining larger sizes however, if this feature is related to sexual maturity, this extremely slow maturation (compared to C carcharias ) might have been detrimental to the species (Cailliet et al 1985; Wintner a nd Cliff 1999). Heterochrony Heterochrony is defined as a documented change in rate of growth and timing of developmental processes between species (typically with an ancestor descendant relationship ; Goul d 1977; Alberch et al 1979; Stanley 1979; McKinney and McNamara 1991; Rice 1996; Klingenberg 1998; McNamara and McKinney 2005). Although the literature on this subject is quite confusing, the two main forms of heterochrony are : paedomorphosis or the retention of juvenile traits in an adult stage, and pera morphosis, or the delaying of sexual maturity beyond the adult stage. Within each of these subdivisions, there are three further divisions which are related to the onset and offset of development as well as the duration of somatic growth (see McKinney and McNam a ra 1991). In recent years, the use of heterochrony to describe changes in the rate and timing of developmental events across taxonomic groups through time and space has come under scrutiny due to its broad definitions and application on many differen t levels (i.e. molecular, individ ual characters, species, etc.) (Rice 1997 ; Klingenbe rg 1998; McNamara and McKinney 2005). However, I describe changes in
114 megatoothed shark growth through time using published terminology of McKinney and McNamara (1991) and Klingenberg (1998) but acknowledge these arguments. As discussed previously, the change in overall growth rates between Otodus and C auriculatus decrease during the L ate to M iddle Eocene. The offset time (i.e., the slowing or cessation of somatic gro wth) does not appear to change through t ime (Figure 5 3; Alberch et al 1979). If we consider O obliquus to be directly related to Carcharocles this decreased growth rate, without a change in offset time, corresponds to the heterochronic mechanism known as ne oteny (Alberch et al 1979; Klingenberg 1998 ). Neoteny is defined as a type of paedomorphosis whereby somatic development is slowed with regards to maturation when comparing ancestral descendant species (Gould 1977; Stanley 1979). In addition to changes in growth, characteristics of its dental morphology separate C auriculatus from Otodus and other Carcharocles species. T he most obvious differentiation from Otodus being presence of fine serrations along the cutting edges of the tooth crowns. Applegate and Espinosa Arrubarrena (1996) also noted that the crowns and lateral cusplets of O obliquus are proportionally longer than those of Carcharocles auriculatus Additionally, they hypothesized that C auriculatus was the smallest species of the genus Carcharoc les based on comparisons of upper anterior teeth between megatoothed species and with the extant C carcharias These observations are consistent with a reduction in overall growth rate and size between Otodus and C auriculatus in the E arly M iddle Eocene. The growth rate and offset timing for Carcharocles angustidens is not statistically different from either C auriculatus or O obliquus meaning that cessation or slowing of
115 somatic growth remains relatively constant in megatoothed shark species throughou t the Eocene and E arly M iddle Oligocene (Figure 5 3; Table 5 2 ; 5 3 ). It should be noted, however, that the actual growth rate of C angustidens falls in between the two species. This increase, without a change in offset can be categorized as a type of per amorphosis known as acceleration (Alberch et al 1979; Klingenberg 1998). A comparison of tooth morphology between C angustidens and earlier Carcharocles species reveals changes consistent with the growth analysis. The teeth are larger than C auriculatus with finer, more regular serrations. Tooth crowns of C angustidens have also been described as being proportionately narrower than those of earlier species (Applegate and Espinosa Arrubar rena 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001). However, the general trend for Carcharocles is a widening of tooth crowns through time. Lateral cusplets are present in C angustidens although they vary in morphology amongst different tooth positions, being more pronounced in the anterior teeth and reduced in the posterior lateral s (Gottfried and Fordyce 2001). The final species analyzed in this study, Carcharocles megalodon exhibits a growth pattern very different from all other taxa. The combination of an increased rate of growth and a delayed offset timing, compared to other me gatoothed species, results in one of the largest predatory sharks to have ever lived, with estimated lengths up to 17 m (Gottfried et al 1996; Pimiento et al 2010). C megalodon exhibits two different types of peramorphosis: (1) acceleration of growth ra te similar to, but at a much greater level than C angustidens and (2) hypermorphosis, which is the delay in the offset timing of somatic growth (Alberch et al 1979; Klingenberg 1998).
116 The analysis of growth patterns in C megalodon is reinforced by its tooth morphology. Tooth sizes for C megalodon are the largest of all known chondrichthyans, with published measurements of anterior teeth over 16 cm in total height (Gottfried et al 1996; Purdy et al 2001). Upper tooth crowns are broad and triangular in shape, ranging from equilateral to isosceles, with lowers being somewhat narrower. One of the most notable characters of C megalodon teeth are the lateral cusplets, which are not present in subadult and adult teeth and may or may not b e present in juveni les (Leriche 1926; Casier 1960; Glikman 1964; Menesini 1974; App legate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001; Purdy et al 2001; Ward and Bonavia 2001; Pimiento et al 2010). The size of lateral cusplets in megatoothed sharks becomes re duced through geological time and are functionally absent in C megalodon This reduction and eventual loss of cusplets has been cited as an evolutionary trend in Carcharocles related to an ontogeneti c shift in morphology (Menesini 1974; App legate and Espi nosa Arrubarrena 1996; Ward and Bonavia 2001). This hypothesis is supported by the growth data presented in this study. In addition to the cusplet loss, generalized changes in tooth morphology of otodontid sharks through time includes: (1) overall increase in size, (2) development of serrations, (3) broadening of tooth crowns (Figure 5 5). As discussed previously, this evidence is the basis for the hypothesis that otodontid sharks represent a series of chronospecies, which replace on e another through time ( Glikman 1964; Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Ward and Bonavia 2001, Cappetta and Cavallo 2006). These morphological shifts are continuous, making clear delineations between the species/genera difficult. This issue is evident when reviewing the overwhelming numb er
117 of nominal species that have been published in the literature (Agassiz, 1833/1843; Jordan and Hannibal 1923; Leriche 1926; Casier 1960; Glikman 1964; Applegate and Esp inosa Arrubarrena 1996; Purdy 1996; Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999; Gottfried and Fordyce 20 01; Purdy et al 2001; Ward and Bonavia 2001). Growth data pres ented in this study corroborate the documented morphological shifts in tooth shape and structure. The increase in overall tooth size and the reduction and loss of lateral cusplets could be rela ted to the increase in birth size through time. However, increased birth size does not necessarily translate to a change of onset timing with regards to growth. In contrast, it is more logical to assume the relationship between these morphological changes is a result of increased growth rates through time. While ontogenetic shifts in growth rate and/or the onset or offset timing of somatic growth might be able to explain some of the morphological changes of otodontid teeth by, it cannot explain all of these features. The evolution of serrations along the cutting edges of teeth in the transition from O obliquus to Carcharocles is likely related to a shift in diet through time (Purdy 1996). The smooth edged teeth of O obliquus and the presence of lateral cus plets are somewhat similar in general tooth shape to the genus Carcharias (App legate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996). However, this superficial convergence is likely related to their diet preferences rather than an actual taxonomic affinity. Frazzetta (1988 ) has shown these tooth types are ideal for the rapid penetration and puncture of prey items, and is common in piscivorous sharks. Furthermore, Frazzetta (1988) hypothesized that lateral cusplets might fill in gaps between the narrow tooth crowns and trap food that might otherwise be lost. The evolution of serrations in the L ate Paleocene/ E arly Eocene otodontids coincides to the evolution of cetaceans at
118 this s ame period of time (Purdy 1996; Thewissen and Williams 2002; Uhen 2010). Tooth serrations are wel l adapted for slicing flesh and are present in most actively predaceous extant sharks including C carcharias Carcharhinus leucas and Galeocerdo cuvier (Frazzett a 1988). Perhaps most notably, Carcharodon is well known for using its serrated teeth for pre dation of pinnipeds and other cetaceans (Long and Jones 1996; Compagno 2001; Kerr et al 2006; Ehret, MacFadden, and Salas Gismondi 2009). Furthermore, the loss of lateral cusplets might also correspond to the widening of the tooth crowns during the L ate O ligocene and Miocene. B iotic and Abiotic Factors The causation for the evolution of large body size and the eventual extinction of the otodontids has been an unresolved issue for many years (Gottfried et al 1996; Purdy 1996). The two major hypotheses that have been proposed for both focus on the evolution and diversification of cetaceans and climate change throughout the Cenozoic. The data presented in this study can be used to make correlations with both the evolution and diversity of cetaceans and change in temperatures through time. The earliest cetacean, Himalayacetus has been described from the E arly Eocene (~52 Ma) of India (Bajpai and Gingerich 1998; Uhen 2010). These first whales are characterized as being semi aquatic, freshwater, and confined alm ost exclusively to the Indo Pakist an region (Bajpai and Gingerich 1998; Thewissen and Williams 2002). The widespread invasion of marine ecosystems by cetaceans does not occur until the M iddle Eocene. T his initial, and cosmopolitan, diversification of archa eocetes is documented in the fossil record throughout Europe, North Africa, North America, and parts of South America (Steeman et al 2009; Uhen 2010).
119 This diversification of archaeocete whales also coincides with a number of changes within the otodontid sharks. The first evidence of serrations in Otodus / Carcharocles is found in the fossil record during this transition between the latest Paleocene and E arly M iddle Eocene. Teeth from this period are formally referred to as Carcharocles ( Otodus ) aksuaticus a nd have been described from Kazakhstan (Zhelezko and Kozlov 1999). Additionally, the transition from the M iddle to L ate Eocene is marked by the reduction of growth rate in C auriculatus (this study). While there are little data on the feeding habits of ei ther C auriculatus or archaeocete whales, fossil materials of both have been recovered in the same localities and it can be surmised that either interspecies competition, predator/prey relationsh ips, or both occurred (Purdy 1996; Thewissen and Williams 20 02). The origin of the Neoceti (including the mysticete and odontocete whales) in the L ate Eocene (~ 36 Ma) and their rapid diversification coincides with the initial increase of growth in Carcharocles angustidens (Steeman et al 2009; Uhen 2010). Sperm (P hyseteroidea) and beaked whales (Ziphiidae) and dolphins and their relatives (Delphinid ae ) appear ~30 Ma, while the baleen whales (Mysticeti) closely follow at 29 26 Ma (Steeman et al 2009). Hypotheses for this rapid diversification include: the restructu ring of the ocean basins, the origination of currents (i.e. the Antarctic Circumpolar Current), changes in sea temperatures, and increases to and diversification of diatoms (Steeman et al 200 9; Marx and Uhen 2010). Although the growth rate change of C an gustidens in the E arly Oligocene does not differ significantly from the M iddle Eocene C auriculatus the origination of neocetes appears to be concurrent. Therefore, C angustidens (IRSNB P929) is recording the earliest stages of a long term
120 growth patter n shift in Carcharocles which might be related to this initial diversification of neocetes. The pattern of increased growth and size in Carcharocles through time can also be correlated with a peak in neocete diversity during the L ate M iddle to E arly L ate M iocene (~12 8 Ma) (Steeman et al 2009; Marx and Uhen 2010; Uhen 2010). This peak has been calibrated using all published taxa listed in the Paleobiology Database separately by Steeman et al (2009) and Marx and Uhen (2010). Much like the origination of th e neocetes across the Eocene Oligocene transition, this peak has been linked to diatom diversity (i.e. food resources) and te mperature shifts (Marx and Uhen 2010). This period also coincides with the first occurrence of Carcharocles megalodon in the fossil record. The increased growth rates recorded in the C megalodon specimen in this study coincides with this peak in neocete diversity (Figure 5 6). It should be noted, however, that this diversity drops severely during the L ate Miocene while records for C megalodon continue into the M iddle to L ate Pliocene before going extinct. Further sampling of L ate Miocene and Pliocene samples of C megalodon centra may reveal a decrease in growth. Additionally, this drop in resource diversity and availability may be a driving factor in the extinction of the megatoothed sharks. A second hypothesis related to overall body size and the eventual extinction of the megatoothed sharks is based on global climate change during the Cenozoic. Previous studies have posited that th e movements of large whales to higher latitudes and the cooling of ocean temperatures in the Pliocene may have led to the extinction of Carcharocles (Gottfried et al 1996; Purdy 1996). This hypothesis is partially based on the ectothermic physiology of mo st chondrichthyan species (Carlson et al 2004). Based
121 on this assumption, these large sharks would not have been able to follow food resources into colder waters during the Pliocene. Extant lamnid sharks (white, mako, porbeagle, and salmon sharks) however do exhibit endothermy and maintain constant, elevated body temperatures regardless of water temperatures (Goldman et al 1996; Goldman 1997; Carlson et al 2004). If these sharks were ectothermic, climatic changes through the Cenozoic should impact their growth rates (i.e. warmer temperatures would lead to faster rates, and colder temperatures would result in slower rates). To test this hypothesis, we can compare calculated rates for otodontids through time with previously published literature on climat ic change through the Cenozoic. Global temperature trends during the Cenozoic track patterns of general warming and cooling events driven by plate tectonics, orbital processes, and other aberrant events (Zachos et al 2001). Comparing evolutionary trends in otodontid growth and ocean temperatures is a difficult task, considering that the distribution and migratory pathways of these shar ks is relatively unknown (Purdy 1996). Therefore, the localities of fossil specimens might not necessarily be indicative of t he envi ronment where the sharks lived. As discussed previously, Otodus obliquus first appears in the L ate Paleocene and becomes relatively common in the E arly Eocene (Ypresian) (Cappetta 1987). The timing of O obliquus is also characterized by having the warmest temperatures of the Cenozoic. There are two major spikes in temperature during this period: the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~55 Ma, and the Early Eocene Climactic Optimum (EECO) at 51 53 Ma (Zachos et al 2001; Zachos et al 2008). T he PETM is characterized by a rise in sea surface temperatures (SST) by as much as 8C in higher
122 latitudes and less closer to the equator (Zachos et al 2001). Zachos et al (2006) calculated mid latitude Atlantic SSTs in excess of 30C and possibly as hig h as 35C across the PETM and EECO. As discussed previously, calculated growth rates for O obliquus during this period are greater than other megatoothed sharks, except for C megalodon in the Middle La te Miocene. These increased ocean temperatures during the PETM and EECO might have influenced the rate of growth in Otodus during the E arly Eocene. However, samples from the L ate Paleocene would provide more relevant data for meaningful comparison s Eocene ocean temperatures, following the PETM and EECO, dec line over the next 17 Ma and are punctuated by an extreme cooling event at the Eocene Oligocene transition (~ 34 Ma) (Zachos et al 2001; Lear et al 2008; Lui et al 2009). Temperature declines across the Eocene have been estimated at ~ 7C for deep sea c ooling (Zachos et al 2001). In addition to this general decline, temperatures at the Eocene Oligocene transition were an additional 2.5 5C cooler, creating the first significant glaciation event in the Antarctic during the Cenozoic (Lear et al 2008; Lui et al 2009). The general cooling trend in the M iddle Eocene coincides with a reduction in growth rate found in the transition from O obliquus to C auriculatus However, as discussed previously other physical, and presumably physiological, changes were also occurring in the otodontids during this period (i.e. evolution of serrations and its dietary implications). The cooling event at the Eocene Oligocene transition does not appear to have impact ed growth in C angustidens during the E arly Oligocene. If C angustidens was ectothermic, observed growth rates would presumably decline during this period. However, the opposite effect
123 is documented suggesting that either: (1) otodontids were able to regulate their body temperatures or (2) other factors had a gr eater influence on growth. Climatic condi tions across the Oligocene and E arly Miocene is marked by a series of warmer and cooler oscillations with periods of both glaciation and ice free or reduced ice conditions (Zachos et al 2001). Temperature variation s across this period are cooler than those seen in the Eocene. As discussed earlier, this time period also coincides with the evolution of most modern groups of marine mammals. A significant warming event during the M iddle Miocene, the Middle Miocene Clima te Optimum (MMCO), occurs at ~15 12 Ma and coincides with the first records of C megalodon in the fossil record ( Cappetta, 1987; Applegate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996 ; Gottfried et al 1996) The estimated global average SST during this period has been calculated to be ~18.4C or ~3C above average modern da y ocean temperatures (You et al 2009). Based on the increased growth rates of C angustidens in the Oligocene, and the size of otodontid teeth ( Carcharocles chubutensis ) in the Late Oligocene/E arly M iocene it does not appear that the significantly advanced growth patterns seen in C megalodon could have evolved concurrently with the MMCO. Additionally, generally cooler temperatures during the Oligocene should have reduced the growth rate of an ectothe rmic species. The pattern of increased growth in Carcharocles appears to be a long term trend that begins in the E arly Oligocene and continues at least into the M iddle L ate Miocene and possibly the Pliocene. The MMCO might have had a localized affect on th e growth of C megalodon during the M iddle Miocene but likely did not drive growth in genus. The lack of overall correlation between long term climate trends and increased growth rates in Carcharocles suggests that the otodontid sharks m ight have exhibited endothermy.
124 C onclusions Vertebral centra from four species of megatoothed sharks ( Otodus obliquus Carcharocles auriculatus Carcharocles angustidens and Carcharocles megalodon ) were analyzed for annual growth rings using X radiography and compared to th e extant Carcharodon carcharias Based on data involving both modern and fossil shark species, growth rings (GR) observed within the X rays a re assumed to represent annual increments. C ounts of GRs in the fossil specimens were used to reconstruct growth ra tes for the species that were then compared to the extant white shark, Carcharodon carcharias Overall growth patterns for O obliquus in the E arly Eocene reveals a relatively fast growing species when compared to early Carcharocles taxa and the extant C carcharias The transition from O obliquus to Carcharocles auriculatus in the E arly M iddle Eocene is not only characterized by a physical change in tooth morphology (i.e. acquisition of serrations) but also a decrease in growth to rates comparable to C c archarias Growth rates for the E arly Oligocene C angustidens are not statistically different from C auriculatus but do reveal a moderate increase. Analysis of C megalodon in the M id dle L ate Miocene provides evidence for a substantial increase in growth rates and delay of offset timing for Carcharocles through time. Carcharocles megalodon was found to have a growth rate 1.5 times faster than the next comparable species, O obliquus Comparisons of BM radius reveal that C megalodon was also significantly (1.3 times) larger at birth than the next largest species, C angustidens Finally, its age at offset timing was also found to be significantly older than all other species examined. The overall trends of growth in Carcharocles can be explained by an incr ease in the rate, size at birth, and age at offset of species across the E arly M iddle Eocene
125 through the Mio Pliocene. Morphological changes in tooth structure including: a widening of the tooth crowns, the reduction and eventual loss of lateral cusplets i n adults, and an overall increase in tooth size track these changes in growth patterns. While the evolution and refinement of serrations along the cutting edges of the tooth crowns likely reflects a shift in dietary preference that is correlated with the evolution of whales in the Eocene (Applegate and Espinosa Arrubarr ena 1996; Gottfried et al 19 9 6; Purdy 1996; Bajpai and Gingerich 1998; Purdy et al 2001; Thewissen and Williams 2002; Uhen 2010). Proposed biotic and abiotic factors that likely influenced the increased rates of growth and overall size include the evolution and diversification of cetaceans and overall climate change. The appearance of whales in the E arly Eocene corresponds to the evolution of serrations on the tooth crowns in Carcharocles While the evolution of neocetes in the Oligocene and their increased diversity up until a peak in the M iddle Miocene tracks the increased growth patterns observed in Carcharocles during the same period of time. A significant reduction in diversity in the L ate Miocene and E arly Pliocene may correspond to the eventual extinction of Carcharocles in the Pliocene. Trends in climate and SSTs through time correspond to some but not all of the changes in otodontid growth patterns if we assume ectothermy. Rapid gro wth rates in O obliquus during the Paleocene/Eocene correspond with increased temperatures during the PETM and EECO. However, the general trend of increased growth in Carcharocles through the Eocene Miocene do es not track climate changes during the same p eriod. In particular, a glaciation event at the Eocene Oligocene transition and the relatively cooler temperatures across the Oligocene and E arly Miocene do not agree
126 with the increased growth rates seen in Carcharocles angustidens and C. megalodon Theref ore, otodontid sharks may have exhibited endothermy or other factors (including whale diversity) might have had a larger impact on overall growth. The study of the otodontid sharks has been mired in confusion due to the lack of fossilization of skeletal re mains and convergent evolution in tooth morphology with Carcharodon carcharias (Ehret et al 2010 ). Paleobiological studies of well preserved specimens, including this chapter yield valuable data that can further our knowledge of these taxa and their inte rrelationships. Furthermore, research in the fields of global climate change, plate tectonics, oceanography, neocete evolution, etc, as evidenced here, should be correlated with fossil chondrichthyan research to reveal new and exciting trends in evolution.
127 Figure 5 1. Images of megatoothed shark vertebral centra. (A) Otodus obliquus UF 162732, (B) Otodus obliquus UF 256397 (C) Carcharocles auriculatus IRSNB P809, (D) Carcharocles angustidens IRSNB P929, (E) Carcharocles megalodon IRSNM 3121. Scal e bar represents 5 cm.
128 Figure 5 2. X radiographs of vertebral centra. (A) Otodus obliquus UF 162732, (B) Otodus obliquus UF 256397 (C) Carcharocles auriculatus IRSNB P809, (D) Carcharocles angustidens IRSNB P929, (E) Carcharocles megalodon IRSN B 3121. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
129 Figure 5 3. Centrum radius (CR) per growth ring (GR) (A) otodontid sharks, (B) otodontid sharks compared to growth in Carcharodon carcharias (after Wintner and Cliff 1999).
130 Figure 5 4. Analysis of covariance, Centr um area vs. growth rings (GR) for the four megatoothed species and Carcharodon carcharias
131 Figure 5 5. Anterior otodontid shark teeth through time. Lingual views on top row, labial views on bottom row. A) Otodus obliquus B) Carcharocles auriculatus C) Carcharocles angustidens D) Carcharocles chubutensis and E) Carcharocles megalodon All specimens are part of the G. Hubbell Collection. Scale bar represents 5 cm.
132 Figure 5 6. Growth rates for otodontid sharks compared with neocete diversity throu gh geologic time (Neocete diversity data from Marx and Uhen, 2010). Data points for otodontid sharks represent time averaged dates for the species included in this study.
133 Table 5 1. C entrum radius (CR) and growth ring (GR) measurements for otodontid shar ks. CR measurements in cm, GR counts in years. Otodus obliquus Otodus obliquus Carcharocles auriculatus Carcharocles angustidens Carcharocles megalodon Growth Ring (GR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centr um Radius (CR) 0 1.04 0.84 1.00 1.24 1.66 1 1.48 1.28 1.21 1.57 1.99 2 1.74 1.60 1.39 1.89 2.24 3 1.95 1.89 1.58 2.09 2.47 4 2.14 2.11 1.77 2.33 2.68 5 2.35 2.37 2.00 2.52 2.91 6 2.58 2.57 2.23 2.66 3.11 7 2.75 2.77 2.42 2.78 3.36 8 2.91 2.93 2.61 2.91 3.54 9 3.15 3.11 2.80 3.05 3.73 10 3.28 3.25 2.96 3.22 3.91 11 3.45 3.39 3.09 3.39 4.12 12 3.60 3.53 3.27 3.55 4.37 13 3.76 3.67 3.41 3.70 4.66 14 3.93 3.80 3.52 3.85 4.85 15 4.09 3.93 3.65 3.97 5.01 16 4.27 4.04 3.83 4.13 5.21 17 4.46 4.14 4.01 4.28 5.42 18 4.65 4.25 4.15 4.43 5.59 19 4.82 4.25 4.56 5.81 20 4.96 4.35 4.67 6.00 21 5.12 4.46 4.72 6.17 22 5.26 4.57 4.80 6.34 23 5.41 4.66 6.51 24 5.50 4.72 6.64 25 6.79 26 6.95
134 Table 5 1. Continued Otodus obliquus Otod us obliquus Carcharocles auriculatus Carcharocles angustidens Carcharocles megalodon Growth Ring (GR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centrum Radius (CR) Centrum Radius (CR) 29 7.29 30 7.37
135 Table 5 2. Analysis of C ovariance slopes (= rates of growth) for otodontid and white sharks Species Slope (Rate of Growth) Otodus obliquus 3.5259 Carcharocles auriculatus 2.8209 Carcharocles angustidens 3.1295 Carcharocles megalodon 5.4924 Carcharodon carcharias 2.8007
136 T able 5 3. Paired t test comparing the slopes (rates of growth) between otodontid and white sharks. T Scores Carcharocles angustidens P Values Carcharocles auriculatus P Values Carcharocles megalodon P Values Otodus obliquus P Values Carcharodon carc harias P Values Carcharocles angustidens 0 1 1.00 0.32 8.18 >0.001 1.430 0.16 1.41 0.16 Carcharocles auriculatus 1.00 0.32 0 1 9.57 >0.001 2.64 0.01 0.09 0.93 Carcharocles megalodon 8.18 >0.001 9.57 >0.001 0 1 8.05 >0.001 13.91 >0.001 Otodus obl iquus 1.43 0.16 2.64 0.01 8.05 >0.001 0 1 4.12 >0.001 Carcharodon carcharias 1.41 0.16 0.09 0.93 13.91 >0.001 4.12 >0.001 0 1
137 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS The paleobiology of extinct neoselachians can provide valuable insights into the paleoecology of anc ient marine habitat s. The utilization of rare, well preserved specimens and new analyzation techniques can yield exciting new information regarding the evolution of chondrichthyan groups and their interactions with the environment Capitalizing on the coll ections of Dr. Gordon Hubbell, the Florida Museum of Natural History, the Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado, Lima, Peru and the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Brusse ls, Belgium I have expanded our knowledge o n the evolution and paleobio logy of Cenozoic lamniform sharks. The focus of my research is on two of the most recognizable families, the Lamnidae (white, mako s salmon, and porbeagle) and the Otodontidae (megatooth ed sharks ). Their position as apex predators has directly influenced t he structure of marine habitats through time and yet we know very little about their evolution and paleoecology (Purdy 1996). The taxonomic placement of the otodontid sharks and their relationship to the extant Carcharodon carcharias ha s been a topic of de bate over the past 175 years. The paucity of associated specimens and the convergent evolution of tooth structure in the otodontid, white, and mako sharks has confounded the issue leaving the taxonomic assignment of the family open to individual interpret ation (Jordan and Hannibal 1923; Casier 1960; Glikman 1964; Applegate and Espinosa Arrubarrena 1996; Purdy 1996; Gottfried and Fordyce 2001; Purdy et al 2001; Nyberg et al 2006). I address this issue in Chapters 2 and 4 of my dissertation through the des cription and formal designation of a new species of Carcharodon from the Late Miocene of Peru. This specimen collected
138 in 1988 and only recently made av ailable for scientific analysis elucidate s our understanding of white shark evolution and the interrel ationships of Carcharodon with Isurus and the otodontids. The type specimen of Carcharodon n. sp. offers a n unparalleled opportunity to evaluate and compare a set of unique dental and morphological characters that provide direct evidence of an evolutionary history related to Carcharodon hastalis and not Carcharocles megalodon as some have suggested. Comparisons with Carcharocles and Isurus escheri specimens suggest the convergent evolution of serrations or crenulations in multiple taxa of lamniform sharks d uring the Cenozoic. Additionally, the prevalence of C archarodon n. sp. specimens from numer ous localities within the Pacific Basin and the relative rarity of specimens elsewhere suggest a Pacific origin for the species. I also investigated t he paleobiology of extinct white sharks by incorporating studies on the growth (Chapter 2) and feeding behaviors of Carcharodon n. sp. in the Late Miocene of Peru. A vertebral centrum from UF 226255 was imaged using X radiography to count and measure preserved growth inc rements. To verify the annual periodicity of these increments, carbon and oxygen isotope samples were collected for analysis The resulting data validated the annual periodicity of the increments and revealed that the extinct white shark, C archarodon n. sp grew at a slower rate compared to the extant C carcharias (Wintner and Cliff 1999; Ehret, Hubbell, and MacFadden 2009). This finding suggests that white sharks might have prolonged maturation, possibly in response to pressures from Carcharocles or othe r paleoenvironmental factors. In Chapter 3, I described a partial mysticete whale mandible which included a partial tooth crown belonging to Carcharodon n. sp. also from the Pisco Formation. It is
139 well documented that extant white sharks feed on marine mam mals and their coarsely serrated teeth are suited for cutting through flesh (Frazzetta 1988; Long et al 199 6 ; Curtis et al 2006 ). Interestingly, in extant Carcharodon dietary needs shift during maturation from a piscivorous diet in juveniles to one cons isting primarily o f marine mammals in mature adults (Estrada et al 2006). It is hypothesized that the evolution of tooth serrations in white sharks is correlated to a dietary shift in Carcharodon through time from piscivory to n eocetes as they diversified during the Miocene However, there is very little fossil evidence prior to the Pleistocene for the timing of this shift in diet (Dem r and Cerutti 1982). T he positive identification and description of a Late Miocene white shark preying on a mysticete wha le provides some of the earliest evidence marine mammal predation by Carcharodon Furthermore, the relatively weak serration pattern exhibited in C archarodon n. sp. suggests that the dietary shift occurred concurrently with this morphological change. In th e final research chapter (Chapter 5) of my dissertation, I discus sed the macroevolution of body size and change in the growth rate s of the otodontid sharks through ou t time. Based on the size of isolated teeth, it has been shown that sharks in genera Otodus and Carcharocles have increased in size through time. Causation of this change has been hypothesized to represent a response to environmental factors (i.e. increase s in prey size and/or diversity and paleoclimatological shifts). I set out to examine the e xtent of the rate changes that led these sharks to evolve from sizes comparable to extant white sharks (~ 7 m) and gr o w to lengths upwards of 17 m ( Randall 1973, 1987; Gottfried et al 1996; Pimiento et al 2010) It should be noted that while this study is not the first time this question has been asked the rarity of
140 megatoothed vertebral centra in the fossil record has severely limited the paleobiological studies of these sharks. Therefore, using new techniques and approaches to study the few samples avai lable has greatly advanced our knowledge of the taxa. Additionally I examined the heterochronic mechanisms that influenced these growth changes and some potential biotic and abiotic factors that contributed to these changes in size. Growth data taken from X radiographs of vertebral centra were collected following the same procedur es used in Chapter 2. Changes in growth rates between taxa through time were not linear as initially suspected. A distinct drop in growth rate from the Early Eocene Otodus obliquus and the Early Middle Eocene Carcharocles auriculatus was recorded. Explanations for this shift include: climatic cooling following the PETM and EECO and a dietary shift from piscivory to feeding on marine mammals as evidenced by the evolution of tooth ser rations during this period. Growth in the three species of Carcharocles ( C auriculatus C angustidens and C megalodon ) examined exhibit a continued rate increase from the Middle Eocene through the Middle Late Miocene. In particular, the growth rate of Carcharocles megalodon in the Middle Late Miocene was found to be 1.5 times greater than the next closest species ( O obliquus ). In addition to this increased rate, C megalodon also exhibited two heterochronic changes to its growth strategy: a larger size at birth and a later offset time compared to O obliquus C auriculatus and C angustidens which contributed to its immense size. Hypotheses for the causation behind the increases in both growth rate and overall size within the otodontids have included : changes in paleoclimatic conditions, the initial evolution of whales in the Eocene and the diversification of n eocetes during the
141 Oligocene and Miocene. I compared th e evolution of growth rates to changes in paleo temperature through time and found very l ittle correlation. Aside from the reduction across the Early to Middle Eocene ( O obliquus to C auriculatus ) discussed above, the general trend of increasing growth rates through the Oligocene and Miocene do not correspond with general paleoclimatological changes. This suggests that temperature was not a decisive factor in the growth of the otodontids In contrast, comparisons of growth rates with the evolution of whales and the diversification of n eocetes in the Oligocene and Miocene show some correlation Therefore I hypothesize that dietary resources played a more important role in the macroevolution of body size and eventual extinction of the megatoothed sharks. My dissertation presents new research on the evolution and paleobiology of extinct lamni d an d otodontid sharks. I emphasize the importance of exceptionally preserved specimens in the study of extinct neoselachians. In addition to the proper collection and curation of specimens, it is imperative to acquire accurate locality and stratigraphic infor mation. The application of new technology and techniques (including those applied to research on extant species ) can offer new insights into the paleobiology of these extinct shark s Paleoichthyologists working on chondrichthyans should move beyond interpr etative papers focusing on loose teeth and start focusing on important paleobiological questions that can be addressed utilizing these new technologies
142 APPENDIX A OUTREACH ACTIVITIES It is the responsibility of scientists and researchers to take an act ive role in the dissemination of scientific information to the general public. Oftentimes there is a significant disconnect between the scientific theories and hypotheses proposed by of these ideas and con cepts. Such misunderstandings can be related to numerous factors including: the complex nature of the concepts, the technical language used in scientific literature and even the general mistrust of scientists by the public. Left uncorrected, these misconce ption s may become ingrained in the evolution. Therefore, as a scientist I believe that it is important to use ever y opportunity available to convey my research and other scientific concepts to a general audience. To become an effective communicat or of scientific concepts it is important to first learn the best methods for disseminating information I approach ed th e subject of scientific education in a stepwise manner beginning with enrolling in a seminar course in 2007 The purpose of this seminar was to provide hands on experience for graduate students wishing to learn how to communicate science to the general public. For me, this course also served as an introduction to scientific teaching and exhibit design One of the more important aspects of the course was to develop and administer a front end : Th e L argest S hark T hat E ver L ived ( www.flmnh.ufl.edu/megalodon/ ). The front end evaluation was administered to visitors of the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) and was designed to the gauge th existing knowledge about fossil sharks. The
143 evaluation also set out to determine what type of information they would want to learn in an exhibit on fossil sharks. The results were then used in the development and design of the actual exhibit. Ex periences gained from this course improved my communication understanding of scientific concepts. Following the completion of the course, I continued to assist museum pe rsonnel in the development and design of the travelling o in order to learn more about scientific education My duties and responsibilities included the gathering of scientific information and materials for exhibit panels and the selection of museum specimens to be utiliz ed in the display cases. Exhibit panels were evaluated for effectiveness by allowing visitors at FLMNH to view them. Visitors were then asked a series of questions pertaining to the material on the panels in o rder to gauge their understanding of the materials being presented. If overall comprehension of the panels was low, on e could assume that the main themes o f the panel were not being presented adequately. Once the exhibit opened, we administered summative e valuations to visitors in order to gauge the overall effectiveness of the exhibit. Evaluation r esults were positive and the exhibit has since travelled to several museum s including: the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, Miami Science Museum, Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, and North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. This experience taught me how to design and test scientific information designed and written for public exhibits From designing and executing the evaluations to working with mock up panels, it gave me hands on experience producing a successful museum exhibits.
144 Based on the experiences learned through coursework and exhibit design, I then pursued opportunities to interact directly with the public through the FLMNH This first included a two we ek field camp in vertebrate paleontology for local 5 th grade students. The main object ive of this camp was to expose children to general concepts in paleontology and geology and to teach them basic field methods for collecting fossils. Classroom activities focused on teaching the children general geological (i.e., basic stratigraphy, the law of superposition, and mineralization) and biological (general ized taxonomy, ecology, and physiology) concepts through the use of interactive lessons. For example, large sheets (~ 4 meters in length) of paper were laid out along a sidewalk. Students dipped large sponges in water and tied them to their feet. They were then instructed to walk, run, or jog down the length of the paper at different speeds. The ft by the wet sponges were then marked and the different stride lengths were measured. We then compared these stride lengths to pictures of fossilized dinosaur trackways. Students were then asked to discuss how paleontologists can determine how fast differ ent dinosaurs could walk/run based on their footprints. The second portion of the class involved taking the students to various fossil localities around Gainesville (including Hogtown Creek and Thomas Farm) to learn the proper techniques for collecting and students would recount the techniques they learned and their fossil The students learned the importance of good writing skills and the need to collect and record data fo r scientific study This field camp was a positive learning experience for me as the teacher, as well as the students who absorbed a substantial amount of new material in a relatively short period of time.
145 Given the positive feedback from the field camp, I have since committed to other outreach activities includ ing the presentation my research to numerous amateur paleontology clubs and school groups. Presentations of my research have included numerous p aleontological clubs throughout Florida, such as : the S outhwest Florida Fossil Club, Lee County Fossil Club, Tampa Bay Fossil Club, and the Florida Paleontological Society. Additionally, I have also given research seminars to numerous school, college, and professional groups at many different levels including: 4 th grade students at Spring Lake Heights Elementary School, New Jersey, 12 th grade students at Vashon Island High School, Washington, the Biology Department at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, a convocation of Alachua County art teachers, and Project Shark Awarenes s FLMNH. These s eminars have provide d me with the experience of presenting my research to groups of all different ages and backgrounds. For example, present ing fossil research to a class of 4 th grade students is much different than p resenting to a paleontology enthusiast group. These types of activities prepare me for a career path in paleontological research and museum outreach. Finally, I utilized the methods acquired throughout the coursework and outreach activities discussed above to disseminate my research to a wider audience via the internet In this technological age, the internet can be a valuable tool for reaching a large number of people on a global scale Working in conjunction with Cathy Bester and George Burgess in the div ision of Ichthyology at FLMNH, we created a fossil shark research webpage through the FLMNH website ( www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/sharks/fossils/ ). The website is intended to aide amateur paleontolog ists in the identification of their fossil shark teeth as well as present current fossil shark research at FLMNH The initial
146 idea was suggested by George Burgess, who was receiving multiple requests a week to identify fossil shark tee th for amateur collec tors. However, the interest and need for more readily available resources for the general public was apparent to both of us. The identification key focuses on the most common fossil species found in the southeastern United States and will eventually featur e images of actual specimens. The main webpage also includes contact information which encourages visitors to contact me directly with specific questions. Based on the number of email requests I receive for identifications and additional information (~2 3 per week) and the positive feedback offer ed by visitors I believe that this webpage has been successful in meeting the needs of the amateur shark collector community. In addition to the local community, email requests from other states and other countries provide evidence that our webpage is reaching a larger audience than we had initially intended Scientific education and p ublic outreach are an inte gral part of being a scientist. By first taking pertinent c oursework and then practicing outreach activiti es through FLMNH have supplied me with numerous opportunities to learn and refine my skills as a lecturer and teacher. As a result, t hese opportunities directly benefit my career goals as I work towards research in a museum and/or university setting.
147 APP ENDIX B A BSTRACTS OF OTHER RESEARCH PROJECTS Nursery Area for Giant Baby Sharks in the Miocene of Panama Background As 4 we know from modern species, nu rsery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Ca rcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evide nce of ancient nurseries for C megalodon from the L ate Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C megalodon within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formatio n from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addit ion we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small C megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor 4 Reprinted with permission from PIMIENTO, C ., EHRET, D. J., MACFADDEN, B. J. and HUBBELL, G. 2010. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark megalodon from the Miocene of Panama. PLoS ONE 5, e10552.
148 the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, t he individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo nursery area for C megalodon fr om the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories. Biodiversity and Pale oecology of Late Miocene Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Selachii) from the Gatun Formation, Panama The late Miocene Gatun Formation of northern Panama contains a highly diverse and well sampled neritic fossil assemblage that was located in a shall ow water strait that connected the Pacific and Atlantic (Caribbean) oceans about 10 million years ago. Although previously less well known, the Gatun Formation likewise contains a relatively diverse selachian assemblage. Based on recent field discoveries a nd further analysis of existing collections, the sharks from this rich unit consist of at least 16 taxa, including four s pecies that are extinct today. The remaining portion of the selachian biodiversity has taxonomic affinities with modern taxa and indica tes relatively long lived species. Comparisons of Gatun dental measurements with older and younger faunas suggest that many of the species have an abundance of small individuals. Based on the known habitat preferences for modern selachian analog assemblage s, the Gatun sharks were primarily adapted to shallow waters (i.e., between about 20 to 40 m depth) within the neritic zone. This paleo depth assessment is also consistent with previous interpretations based on the marine invertebrate fauna from the Gatun Formation.
149 Finally, even though some species are now restricted to the Caribbean, in comparison with modern species, the Gatun shark fauna has mixed Pacific Atlantic (Caribbean) biogeographic affinities due to its location between two ancient ocean basins. An extinct map turtle G raptemys (Testudines: Emydidae) from the Pleistocene of Florida Graptemys n. sp. from the Suwannee River drainage of north central Florida represents the most southeastern occurrence of the genus. This species is morphologically a Graptemys barbouri G n. sp. exhibits sexual dimorphism similar to extant G. barbouri G ernsti G pulchra and G gibbonsi with females being megacephalic and attaining a much larger s ize than males. This new species possesses a very wide skull and mandible making it the most blunt headed member of its clade. Specimens described here include a nearly complete skull, 6 mandibles, an epiplastron, thirteen neural bones, and an assortment o f other shell fragments. Previously reported fossil material from Pliocene and Pleistocene. Rare Earth Element (REE) analysis of this material is reinterpreted here as be ing Rancholabrean in age.
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165 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dana Joseph Ehret was born in Spring Lake Heights, New Jersey He attended Spring Lake Heights Elementary Schoo l for his primary education. During this time his love for the natural sciences and history was fostered by two extraordinary teachers, Ardythe Wright and Richard Muhlenbruck. Dana attended Manasquan High School in Manasquan, New Jersey focusing on course s in the sciences, including marine biology. He was accepted to the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey and graduated with a Bachelor of Scie nce degree in m arine b iology in 2001 While at Richard Stockton College, Dana was advised by Roger C. Wood wh o s upport ed his dream of becoming a vertebrate paleontologist. In addition to coursework for his degree in marine biology, he Quarry (Late Maastrichtian), Niobrara Count he also participa ted in t wo consecutive summer internships working with d iamondback terrapins at the Wetlands Institute in Stone Harbor, New Jersey under the supervision of Roger Wood Dana enrolled in the Departmen t of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida in 2001 under the supervision of Bruce J. MacFadden. Dana received his Master of Science degree in g eological s ciences during the spring of 2004. His thesis was S keletochronology as a method o f aging Oligocene Gopherus laticuneus and Stylemys nebrascensis using Gopherus polyphemus Dana also received a minor in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation while working on various herpetological projects with his mentor and friend Dick Franz. In addition to his work on fossil chondrichthyans for his Doctorate of Philosophy, Dana also has a great interest in fossil and extant chelonians, particularly in the southeasthern United States.