1 GETTING ENGAGED IN DEVELOPMENT : GENDER AND PARTICIPATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS OF THE ANTAMINA MINING COMPANY IN SAN MARCOS, PERU, 2006 2008 By JUNGWON KANG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010
2 2010 J ungwon K ang
3 To my father and mother
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many people contributed to the completion of this dissertation. To all of them, I am deeply grateful. I am especially grateful to many people and institutions in Peru because without their support the research for this dissertation would no t have been possible. The staff in the Ancash Association provided me valuable information when I first arrived in Huaraz I especially thank Gabriela Antunez and Alejandro Camino who were always ready to interchange ideas and provided me important i nsights. In San Marcos, I am indebted to numerous people and institutions. Blanca and Juvenal offered me a place to stay throughout my fieldwork. They also made me feel as part of the family, being always concerned about my well being. Nancy and Carlos wer e always kind and friendly, welcoming me to their lives and families Auristela taught me so much and showed me great patience despite all my questions. I am particularly indebted to the people in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa who opened doors for me and embrac ed me with support and care. I owe special thanks to Miguel, Wich, Juana, Pilar, Rucila, Julio, Norma, Agripino, Carlos Guerra. Many institutions in San Marcos also provided important assistances and support for this project. The staffs of IDMA, FOCADER, I DESI, ACUDIP, PRODESA, Macrogestion, the employees of CMA, and the officers of the Municipality of San Marcos were exceptionally helpful. They provided me valuable information and welcomed me to their work site s I am especially grate ful to the staff of IDMA and FOCADER who provided me insightful thoughts and who became a reliable companion in many stages of this project. In Lima, Jeanine Anderson at the Pontificia Universidad Cat lica del P er (PUCP) Ludwig Huber at the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP), and Juan Carlos Guerrero previously at the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FL ACSO ) gave their thoughtful comments on my research questions, and showed interest in the importance of this study. My special thanks to
5 Yo ung mi Lee at PUCP who always stimulated me with her integrity and warm hearts I will forever be in debt to the people whom I met in Peru during my fieldwork. At the University of Florida, I am grateful for the useful comments and advice of my doctoral c ommittee. My advisor, John H. Moore, dedicated much time in reading the draft of this dissertation and provided me helpful and insightful comments. I thank him for having continually encouraged and supported me since the initial stage of my doctoral training Charles H. Wood gave me advice and support when I most needed it He showed utmost confide nce in my abilities which nourished and inspired me to stay on the right track He also informed and guided me to elaborate the research hypotheses and meth ods of this project. Anthony R. Oliver Smith introduced me to the field of development induced displacement in South America, and eventually to Andean studies He inspired me in diverse manners which include a graduate seminar research projects and stimulating discussion inside and outside the classroom Peter F. Collings always gave me support and useful advice since he joined my dissertation committee. His positive attitudes encouraged me to stay confident in my progresses Colleagues and researche rs in the United States and South Korea have also supported me throughout this project in many ways. I especially thank Luz Martin del Camp o and Zoe del Campo who made me feel at home in Gainesville They gave me so much more than I could ever have expected and they will forever be one of my best friends. I am grateful to Neila Soares da Silva Jennifer Fiers, Sonia Duin Kathy Chin hsin Liu, Asmeret Mehari, Sung won Jin, Jae hoon Lee for the amusing and liberating talks In South Korea, Suk kyun Wo o showed interest in the importance of this study and pointed me in many valuable directions. I extend my gratitude to Kwang ok Kim, Kyung s oo Cheon, Jae sung Kwak, S un g hyong Rh ee who gave me support and useful advice during different stages of my graduate training.
6 Most importantly, I owe boundless debt to my family. This dissertation would not have been completed without my family. They showed me unwavering encouragement and faith in me. To my mothe r, Myeng rim Yoon, my father, Joo n yong Kang, my sisters, Nam won Kang and Jeong a Kang thank you for showing and teaching me the meaning of love I also thank all my family including my nephew Tae joon Park and my nieces Ji ho Nam and Je ih Park who were wondering what their aun t was doing far away from home and who used to amaze me with candid and innocent questions.
7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: GENDER, DEVELOPMENT AND THE CORPORATE MINING INDUSTRY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 17 Analytic Concepts: Development, the Corporate Mining Industry and Gender .................... 18 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 20 Anthropological Debates on Development ................................ ................................ ..... 20 Critical Analysis of Planned Development and Participation ................................ ......... 24 Anthropology of Corporate Mining ................................ ................................ ................. 26 Anthropology of the Andes ................................ ................................ ............................. 28 Research Design and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ 33 Fieldwork ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 33 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 38 Dissertation Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 40 2 LARGE MINING INDUSTRY AND THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 48 Peruvian Mining History and Its Contested Realities ................................ ............................. 50 Mining and Peasant Miners in the 20 th Century ................................ .............................. 50 Mining Industry, Regional Development and Resistance ................................ ............... 53 The Large Mining Industry in Peru: 1900s 1990s ................................ ................................ .. 55 The Cerro de Pasco, 1900s 1950s ................................ ................................ ................... 55 The Southern Peru Copper Corporation and the Marcona Mining Company, 1950s 1970s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 56 Mining Multinational Corporations and the Mining Boom of the 1990s ........................ 60 CMA and Community Development Projects in San Marcos ................................ ................ 68 History of Mining in San Marcos ................................ ................................ .................... 68 Privatization of the Antamina Deposit and the Establishment of CMA ......................... 71 Arrival of CMA in San Marcos and the Development Promises: 199 6 1998 ................. 73 Community Development Projects in San Marcos before the Mining Canon: 1999 2006 ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 77
8 Community Development Projects in San Marcos after the Mining Canon: 2007 2008 ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 87 Definition and Regulations of the Mining Canon ................................ .................... 87 Community Development Projects in Sa n Marcos after the Transfer of the Mining Canon in 2007 2008. ................................ ................................ ................ 90 3 RURAL URBAN DIVIDE AND GENDER RELATIONS IN SAN MARCOS .................. 97 Geography and History ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 100 Rural Urban Divide in San Marcos ................................ ................................ ...................... 104 Rural Urban Divide and Ethnicity in San Marcos ................................ ........................ 1 07 Political Institutions in the Commercial Town and Rural Villages ............................... 113 Economic Activities in the Commercial Town and Rural Villages .............................. 121 Gender Relations in San Marcos ................................ ................................ .......................... 130 Village ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 133 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 138 Gender Relations in San Marcos in Terms of Three Categories of Socio Economic Organizations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 140 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 152 4 GENDER AND PARTICIPATION IN THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJ ECTS IN SAN MARCOS ................................ ................................ ........................... 154 Actors, Priorities and Procedures of Community Development Projects in San Marcos .... 156 Project Planning and the Role of CRO and AA ................................ ............................ 159 Unfulfilled Development Promises and Local Contestation ................................ ......... 164 Definition of a Beneficiary Population and Contesting Priorities: Carhuayoc and Huaripampa ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 168 Community Development Project and Local Participation by Gender ................................ 173 Research Hypotheses and Method ................................ ................................ ................. 177 Gender and Participation in the Community Development Project: CPAEA, FOCADER, Textile Project and PMIP ................................ ................................ ...... 179 Case 1) Centro Pil oto de Agricultural Ecolgica Andina Cochao Farm of IDMA (2004 2008) ................................ ................................ ............................. 179 Case 2) FOCADER of ACUDIP (2006 2008) ................................ ....................... 184 Case 3) Artisanal Textile Project of IDESI Lima (2004 2008) ............................ 191 Case 4) Project of Maintenance of Public Infrastructure of the Municipality of San Marcos (2008) ................................ ................................ .............................. 196 Assessment of Research Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ............. 205 H1) Women are likely to be excluded from community development projects than men. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 205 mode and intensity, according to the type of socio economic organization in which they are involved. ................................ ................................ ..................... 207
9 5 DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMATIC AND PARADOXES OF PARTICIPATION ............ 212 Development Problematic in San Marcos ................................ ................................ ............ 215 Stakeholder Groups and Development Discourses ................................ ....................... 215 Controversy over the Project Outcomes ................................ ................................ ........ 224 Paradoxes of Participatory Development Model ................................ ................................ .. 229 Top Down Imposed Mechanisms of Participation: Was Participation Inclusive? ........ 231 Impact of the Project Participation on Gender Relations: Was Participation Empowering? ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 234 Contradictory Dimensions of Participat ory Development Approach ........................... 240 6 EPILOGUE: REFLECTIONS ON THE POLITICS OF DEVELOPMENT IN SAN MARCOS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 242 Social Disintegration or Communi ty Reinforcement? ................................ ......................... 244 Politics of Development in San Marcos ................................ ................................ ............... 246 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 253 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 267
10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 List of acronyms, abbreviations and equivalences for groups mentioned in narrative text. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 61 2 2 Summary of community development projects in the district of San Marcos, 1999 200 6 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 84 2 3 Regulations governing the mining canon ( canon minero ) ................................ ................. 88 2 4 Use of the mining canon ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 90 3 1 Technical division of labor by gender in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa ........................... 141 3 2 Household compositions in the town of San Marcos, Carhuayo c, and Huaripampa ....... 146 4 1 Project participation of Huaripampa, CPAEA of IDMA ................................ ................. 181 4 2 Project participation of Carhuayoc, FOCADER of ACUDIP ................................ ......... 186 4 3 Project participation of Carhuayoc, Handicrafts Project of IDESI Lima ........................ 192 4 4 Project participation of the commercial town of San Marcos, PMIP of the district municipality of San Marcos ................................ ................................ ............................. 198 4 5 Project participation of Huaripampa, PMIP of the district municipality of San Marcos ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 200
11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 M ap of San Marcos and Antamina ................................ ................................ ................... 69 2 2 Record of the mining canon in the district of San Marcos, De c. 2004 Feb. 2009 .......... 91 3 1 Map of the Cordillera Blanca an d the Cordillera Negra ................................ .................. 101 3 2 Map of the district of San Marcos ................................ ................................ ................... 103 3 3 Populations in the district of San Marcos, 1993 2005 ................................ ..................... 122 3 4 Type of occupations among the EAP (Economically Active Populatio n) in San Marcos ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 123 3 5 Primary economic activity of the household heads in Carhuayoc in 2008 ...................... 125
12 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S AA Asociaci n Ancash ACUDIP Asociaci n para el Desarrollo Integral ARP Accelerated Resettlement Plan CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CMA Compa a Minera Antamina CME Manufactures & Exporters CONACAMI Coordinadora Nacional de Comunidades Campesinas del Per Afectadas por la Miner a CONFIEP Confederacin Nacional de Instituciones Empresariales Privadas CooperAcci n Acci n Solidaria para el Desarrollo CPAEA Centro Piloto de Agricultural Ecolgica Andina CRO Oficina de Relaciones Comunitarias CSR Corporate Social Responsibility DESCO Centro de Estudios y Promoci n del Desarrollo Development Roundtable Mesa de la Concertacin EAP Economically Active Population ECAs E xport Credit Agencies EIA E nvironmental Impact Assessment FIDA Fondo de Inversiones para el Desarrollo de Ancash FMA Fondo Minero Antamina FOCADER Fortalecimiento de Capacidades para el Desarrollo GAD Gender and Development GAM Gender Analytic Matrix GDP Gross Domestic Product GMI Global Mining Initiative
13 GRADE Grupo de An lisis para el Desarrollo GRUFIDES El Grupo de Formacin e Intervencin para el Desarrollo Sostenible GTH Grupo de Trabajo Huascarn IDESI Instituto de Desarrollo del Sector Informal IDMA Instituto de Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente IIED International Institute for Environment and Development s IFC International Finance Corporation INEI Instituto Nacional de E stadstica e Informtica MEM Ministerio de Energa y Minas MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency MMSD Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development project MNCs Mining Multinational Corporations NGDOs Non governmental Development Organizations NGO Non governmental Organizations OD 4.20 Operational Directive 4.20 on Indigenous People OD 4.30 Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement PAMA Programas de Adecuacin y Manejo Ambiental PMIP Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestructura P blica PMSP Programa Minero de Solidaridad con el Pueblo PRODESA Programa de Desarrollo de la Sanidad Agropecuar a s SMGB Sociedad Minera Gran Breta a s SNIP Sistema Nacional de Inversion Pblica SNMPE Sociedad Nacional de Minera Petrleo y Energa SPCC Southern Peru Copper Corporation s WBCSD World Business Council on Sustainable Development
14 WBG World Bank Group WID Women in Development Workshop of Taller de Presupuesto Participativo Participative Budgeting
15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy GETTING ENGAGED IN DEVELOPMENT : GENDER AND PARTICIPATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS OF THE ANTAMINA MINING COMPANY IN SAN MARCOS, PERU, 2006 2008 By J ungwon K ang December 2010 Chair: John H. Moore Major: Anthropology Anthropologists have constructed their distinct way of doing development by deconstructing development. The efforts to deconstruct development by critically analyzing the most fundamental notions circulating in the planned development have focused on the two concepts: development and participation In this dissertation, I examine two major dimensions of the development intervention in San Ma rcos, an agricultural village i n the northern Peruvian Andes which has bec o me a town of a multinational mining company s operations since the late 1990s First, I explore the discrepancy between development narratives and practices Second, I reflect on the notion of participation to show how planned development in San Marcos interacts with social order which I approach through the rural urban divide and gender r elations. For the analysis of development discours es, I identify four core groups : the mining company, NGOs, local government and local communities and examine how heterogen e ous are their ideas and priories when it comes to the subject of development. As for participation, I examine whether participation in the development projects was both inclusive and empowering Two research hypotheses are proposed : 1) women are likely to be excluded from community development projects than men ; 2) women s participatio n in community development projects differs in its
16 mode and intensity, according to the typ e s of socio economic organization in which they are involved. As a way of conclusion, I observe that the core groups have rather incompatible development priorit i es which led them to have differing interpretations of the development performance. As well I note that gender relations operated as a deci si ve factor shaping the mode and intensity of project participation in San Marcos. Contrary to my first hypothesis, se veral dimensions seemed to have promoted greater project participation by women than by men, although this participation appears not to have generated a n y notable changes in gender roles. Based on these obs ervations, I argue that a range of development measures undertaken in San Marcos did not in practice serve as a remedy to the local division Instead, the massive revenues generated by the mine became another source of conflicts, which were unprecedented in their kind and intensity.
17 C HAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: GENDER DEVELOPMENT AND THE CORPORATE MINING INDUSTRY T he concept of development is embedded in the idea of change which can be understood in 2005; Strathern 1991, 1999; Wade 2007). The relativity entailed in the concept of development so far has been addressed in the field of anthropology in a contradictory manner. S tated as a distinction between development anthropology and anthropology of development (Arce and Long 2000; Grillo 1997), the concept of development has been employed by two contrasting or even antagonistic perspectives in anthropology between those who position anthropological tools and knowledge in order to apply the concept of development as a catalyzing term of socio economic changes and those who question the coherency of the concept and consider it as an illusionary term largely invented for political purposes Despite their theoretical and subsequently practical discrepancies, these tw o groups are united in supposing that we are living in a world where the idea and the practice of development are an inevitable ethnographic fact (Grillo 1997 : 1) The controversy and suspicion surrounding development become more evident when it comes to t he planned development, which is usually mediated by development specialists of professional institutions, namely i nternational o rganizations, n on governmental o rganization s or academic institutions. Driven by the presence of a mining multinational corpor ation, a range of community development pro jects in San Marcos, my research site have made the location a laboratory of planned development ideas and experiments. Based on fieldwork which started in January 2006 and ended in December 2008 throug h out fifteen months this dissertation examines t wo aspects of planned development: 1) how does development practice define and prescribe solution s to local livelihood in the Northern Peruvian Andes which are viewed differently by four stakeholder groups compo sed of the mining company development NGOs local government
18 and local community ; 2) how does planned development interact with the Andean social order of the local setting. S tudies on the social impact of planned development note that it ends up aggravat ing inequalities and conflicts of the recipient communities (Babb 1985; Crewe and Harrison 1988; DeWind 19 8 7; Pottier 2003; Sillitoe and Wilson 2003; Stein 200 3 ). The localized nature of development intervention as well as the fast changing development pra ctices, however, makes it be come a highly complex process with a room for unpredictable outcomes. In order to address th is complexity of planned development I identify the rural ur ban divi de and gender relations as major factors shaping s ocial stratification of the field site. In this regard, anthropological studies in the Andes which focus on the relational aspects of the rural urban divide as well as on the impact of such a division on the formulation of gender relations provide theoretical b ackgrounds for this dissertation ( Salman and Zoomers 2003 ; de la Cadena 2001, 2000, 1995; Leinaweaver 2008 ; Paulson 2002; Seligmann 2004). Analytic Concepts: Development, t he Corporate Mining Industry and Gender Development: This dissertation analyzes the narratives and practices of the community development projects funded by the Compa a Minera Antamina (CMA) during 2006 2008 in the area of the commercial town of San Marcos and the agricultural villages of Carhuayoc and Huaripampa. Fieldwork in San Marcos has allowed me to identify three major project objectives which were proposed by the project provider s : 1) subsistence strengthening ; 2) commercialization; and 3) institutional empowerment. Driven by the language of transformation, these obj ectives are prescribed and applied as a solution to the problems of local livelihood. This research examines how an array of actors relate to the stated development model through an analysis of multiple narratives and practices of the development projects through out different stages of the project cycle. The perspective provided from the post structural critique of development is particularly informative to this dissertation in formulating the following research
19 questions ( Escobar 1995; Ferguson 1990; Stein 200 3) : 1) how discrete are the actors involved in the practice of development in their respective narratives and aspirations of development ? 2) is there any notable discrepancy between stated objectives of development and its actual practices ? and 3) how are the mode and intensity of project participation determined by prevailing gender relations of the commercial town and rural villages? The Corporate Mining: The motivation, rationale, and magnitude of development intervention in San Marcos are framed b y the presence of CMA Development intervention prompted by the corporate mining industry is distinguished from government funded or organization headed development intervention in that: 1) the mining company makes development intervention to the local com munities considered affected by its operations as a compensatory measure for its mineral extraction ; 2) the mining company takes the position of the employer and manager of the development experts In order to address effectively how the development in tervention is structured by the presence of the mining corporation, this research identifies the mining corporation as one of the core stakeholder group s in the planned development of San Marcos and it delineates three other stakeholder groups: development NGOs; local government ; and local communities in San Marcos. Gender: It is well noted that Andean social life is characterized by a strict division of labor by gender (Babb 1985; Deere and Leon 1981; Graubart 2000; and Mitchell 1986 ). Several works indicate that due to a strong division of labor, socio economic changes in the Andes including modernization (Deere 1977), development intervention (Babb 1985), neo liberal restructuring (Hays Mitchell 2002), and economic crisis (Vincent 1998) cam e with different ramifications to women and men. In order to address the complexity entailed in gender relations, I identify three broad sets of socio economic principles which shape and perpetuate gender relations of San
20 Marcos: 1) economic organization w hich is identified as gender division of labor and cash accessibility; 2) social organization which is defined as household headship ; and 3) political organizations defined as affiliation to communal organizations. Data on the project participation of wome n and men in the commercial town of San Marcos and two rural villages, Carhuayoc and Huaripampa were collected in the format of a Gender Analysis Framework (March et al 199 9 ) to explore the research question of how the mode and intensity of project participation are determined by the prevailing gender relations. Literature Review The complexity involved in the development intervention of corporate mining requires reference to mul tiple fields of anthropological research: anthropology of development; anthropology of mining ; and anthropology of the Andes. Each anthropological subject field offers distinctive but equally relevant points of reference in the elaboration of this disserta tion. Specifically, anthropological critiques of development and participation will be referenced to consider the disruptive impact of planned development in San Marcos. A nthropological studies of mining are informative for this dissertation because of the ir explanations on the conflict driven by the heterogeneity among and within multiple stakeholder groups. Due to the localized practices of d evelopment intervention, this dissertation is particularly concerned with analyzing the political economy and gende r relation s of San Marcos, the place which exhibits distinctive features in the Andean highland. Hence, this dissertation refers to several studies of anthropologists in the Andes, which will be broadly grouped as anthropology of the Andes. Anthropologica l Debates on Development As Ferguson says a field (of Anthropology) is divided between those who retain a characteristically anthropological antagonism toward development and those who have embraced the development world (1997 : 167) T he concept of development conventionally
21 provokes contesting reactions in the discipline of anthropology. Interestingly, this disagreement regarding development frequently e volves into two opposite stanc es -between pro and anti d evelopment groups For i nstance, Horo w itz reflects upon his experience in a large department of anthropology where the faculty was deeply riven into pro and antidevelopment anthropology camps yet in which most of the social anthropology graduate students studies development (199 6 : 326). Why does development provoke such contrasting reactions in anthropology? In order to answer this question, I will first review critiques made by anthropologists toward the so called pro development anthropology camps. As one of the well known scholars in the critical analyses of development, Ferguson explains that development anthropologists or pro development camps, have been despised by their own discipline because they are portrayed as being conspicuously uninterested in the larger theoretical and historical issues that development interventions raise (1997 : 166). This lack of critical awareness of development anthropologists, its critics argue, leads them to serve as accomplice s of neo colonialism which is perpetuated by de velopment institutions. In this sense, Ferguson cites the comment of Edmund Leach that I (Leach) consider development anthropology a kind of neo colonialism ( Ferguson 1997 : 166). On the other hand, Horowitz explains that the antagonism of academic anth ropologists toward development is grounded on the idea that development anthropology violates two traditionally dominant precepts in the discipline: moral neutrality and the preference for the pristine (Horowitz 199 0 : 191). These descriptions indicate th at development anthropology is attacked largely because: 1) it is harmful because it is compromising (to the interests of development institutions and ultimately to those of the dominant system) (Crewe and Harrison 19 8 8: 16; Gardner and Lewis 1996 : 77); 2 ) it is less academic because of its weakness in critical approach ; 3) it is less academic because
22 development anthropologists fail in maintaining their impartiality as scientist s ; and 4) it fail s in properly appreciating the value of the pristine nature of traditional anthropological subjects. The critiques of development have been further elaborated by Arturo Escobar through his writings of the 1990s. Through his paper of 1991, A nthropology and the Development Encounter: The Making and Marketing of Development Anthropology Escobar defines development anthropologists as anthropologists who share their interests in development projects and those who are involved in the formulation and operation of the projects. In this article, he traces the origin of this anthropological expert group to the tradition of applied anthropology. He blames this new expert group as marketing their knowledge and skills or . to sell themselves to the dominant development institutions (1991 : 667). These attacks are very provocative and sensational with room to be interpreted even as personal attack s Escobar secures the ground of his critique by equating development anthropologists to the Northern middle class anthropologists who are building up a stable career by working for major d evelopment agencies. H is article has provoked strong critiques especially because he was considered to be intentionally ignoring the contribution of many important development anthropologists (Little and Painter 1995 : 603) and because he was considered ignorant of the fact that anthropologists have been already deeply involved in the subject of development either through their acad emic work or through their practices long before the appearance of this new professional group of development anthropologists ( Little and Painter 1995 : 603). This antagonism on development in anthropology can be better understood when we take into consi deration how anthropology has differentiated itself from other disciplines. Historically, anthropology has been distinguished from other disciplines by the following characteristics: 1)
23 focus on the particularities of its research context; 2) focus on non W estern people as its subject of research; 3) (mostly long term and in depth) ethnographic fieldwork (and emphasis on building rapport with its subjects through fieldwork); and 4) cross cultural analysis. Development intervention in the form of a project, however, contrasts with these attributes of anthropological research because it should be possible to be translated into general terms, being governed by general principles such as poverty reduction or enhancement of the quality of life (which is measured by specific indices such as education, health, or employment). Also, constrained by a project cycle (mostly on a short term basis), development projects entail the involvement of diverse actors. Accustomed to working alone, observing alone, and writing al one, a nthropologists who are involved in development projects frequently find themselves pressured to compromise their flexibilities. Moreover, anthropologists have built up their rapports with people whom they study both by showing their respect toward differen ces of people whom they study, and by keeping their distance from what they see. In the scheme of development projects, however, these differences are likely to be portrayed as something to be evaluated and modified through the development intervention. Gi ven these attributes of anthropological research, it is rather obvious that development intervention contradicts with, and challenges the aloofness which anthropologists have struggled to maintain from the beginning of their discipline. In this context an thropological suspicions about development intervention, and anthropological antagonism toward anthropologists who are involved in development projects, may seem a lmost inevitable. To consider development intervention as a subject incompatible with anthrop ological research, however, is misleading considering the analytic and theoretical values of the subject. On the contrary critical approach to development has been in fact, crucial in initiating anthropological research on development,
24 and it has represe nt ed a substantial part of anthropological research on development. As Gabriel argues development anthropology focuses on what ought to exist in future while anthropology of development addresses what exists at present (1991 : 37) Thus, t he difference between the two camps should be considered arising rather from their distinctive methodological approaches than their differences in perspective. In other words, these anthropological critiques of development should be understood as showing how anthropolo gists have distinguished themselves from other disciplines by aggressively questioning the integrity and implication of the concept of development (Cooper and Packard 1997 : 5) which reflects the particular way anthropology has embraced the subject of development as a core concept Critical Analysis of Planned Development and Participation As the above review illustrates, anthropologists have constructed their distinct ways of doing development by deconstructing development. These anthropologic al efforts to deconstruct development by critically analyzing the most fundamental notions circulating in the planned development such as development and participation are particularly informative to this dissertation because this study is interested in exploring how these concepts are differently defined and practiced in the course of negotiations among diverse parties engaged in the planned development in San Marcos. That is to say, this dissertation considers local development projects in San Marcos a field where multiple actors, who are heterogeneous among and within themselves, confront each other to defend their conflicting ideas and priorities through the language of development. To analyze the complex process of negotiation among diverse actors in the field of development project, the following two concerns will be referenced. First this dissertation is congruent with anthropological studies which approach development from post structuralist perspectives (Escobar 1995; Ferguson 1990; Stein 200 3 ) i n regarding that individual actors involved in planned development are struggling to conceptualize
25 the idea of development. In particular a post structuralist approach to development is informative to this study in its analysis of the discrepancy between development discourses and development practices To address discourse and practice of development as two separate facets is pertinent to this dissertation because such perspective enables me to approach the concept of development as an outcome of rigorous negotiations among diverse parties involved which are unevenly positioned in the definition of development (Arce and Long 2000 ; Grillo 1997; Woost 2002). By supposing that multiple stakeholders have con flicting ideas and interests in conceptualizing development, I intend to illustrate how specific development priorities are selected or discarded in the course of negotiation A p ost structuralist approach to development is also relevant to this dissertati on because it scrutinizes the politics imbedded in the development intervention without being restricted to its economic impact s imagery of an anti politics machine (1990) ably displays, development intervention is not necessarily made to obtain its proclaimed economic or technical goals. If anything, it seems to be more conventional that development projects are conducted as a show off case driven by unstated intentions especially when the project s are given as a compensatory measure to a chieve other goals. This discrepancy between the proclaimed purpose and actual practice of development intervention implies that the narrati ves delivered from official documents, public speeches, or formal interviews cannot provide sufficient information t o enable one to comprehend the entire mechanism of development intervention. Instead, to fully explore the politics embedded in the development intervention, I propose to examine how the choice s and preference s of each stakeholder are constrained by the organization that they are associated with. Second this study is in line with the critique of participatory development model in considering that participation in development projects is not made in a political vacuum and it
26 tends to generate marginalizing ramifications when it takes place in the context of existing relations of power ( Cleaver 1999 : 608; Crewe and Harrison 1988 : 184 ; Mehta 2002; Pottier 2003 ). From this perspective, the coherence or validity of the notion of p articipation is questioned. For instance, Cleaver argues that the concept of participation is now being almost worshipped as a prior principle of development projects supported by its moral or ethical implications. However, he questions whether the valid ity of the concept has ever been empirically tested. Existing hot ideology lacking social technology (Cernea 1991 : 25), participation can be used to control who will be included and who will be excluded in the practice of development projects. If th which are corroborative with the pre existing hierarchies of the recipient community, the application of the concept is very likely to end up aggravating social exclusion of the less privileged groups of the community involved In that sense, Cleaver points out that the technique of participation may lead to a further exclusion of the subordinated groups when these words do not properly address the particularity of the affected region of the developmen t project (1999 : 608 ). In this dissertation, the marginalization effects of participation will be examined by investigating how participation of local people in San Marcos is structured by external factors and how the mode and intensity of project particip ation are determined by the prevailing social order which will be examined through gender relations. Anthropology of Corporate Mining This dissertation also refers to studies on the social aspects of corporate mining particularly in terms of their analys is of the multiple stakeholder model ( Ballard and Banks 2003; Jenkins 2004; Kapelus 2002; Kemp 2009; Kirsch 2002). While adopting th e multiple stakeholder model, several concerns are presented from anthropological research of corporate mining. Above all, the anthropological literature of mining ably recognize s the profound heterogeneity among and
27 within stakeholders involved in corporate mining. Literally speaking, this heterogeneity may refer to the contesting interests that each stakeholder endeavor s to represent. Conflicting interests are also observed within individual categor ies of stakeholder. For instance, as Ball ard and Banks (2003 : 293) point out, multinational mining corporations are not necessarily steered by consistent mandates. C onflicting prio rities often exist among the company divisions such as between the Community Relations Office (CRO) and the headquarters or they can refer to contesting corporate values concerning the importance of community relations which are often termed as the conflic t between old mining and new mining (Bebbington et al. 2007 : 5; Szablowski 2004 : 300 303). The contesting priorities become more imperative as multinational mining corporations transfer substantial portion of their tasks in the division of community af fairs (which usually are sorted under the category of Corporate Social Responsibility) to outside entities either by creating an independent trust, or by contracting non profit organizations (Kapelus 2002 : 288 ). Conflicting interests are also observed amo ng individuals who are loosely grouped as constituent s of the local community. Frictions among and within the communities are largely provoked by the uneven allocation of compensatory benefits from the mining company Additionally, the exclusion of local communities during the initial stages of the project cycle leads them to have conflicting expectations and understandings concerning the intervention of the mining company. Conventionally referring to phases like expl oration, design, and construction, this initial stage of the mining project cycle is conventionally controlled by a dual stakeholder model constituted of the state and mining company (McMahon and Remy 200 1 ). E xcluded from the dialogue until the mining inve stment becomes irrevocable, local communities
28 often are placed as the least prepared stakeholder s at the bargaining table with fewer resources to reflect their initiatives than other stakeholder groups. This heterogeneity among stakeholders also relates t o their uneven relations of power to define each other. Several studies take note of the arbitrariness entrenched in drawing a boundary of community i n the context of corporate mining (Ballard and Banks 2003 : 297 ; Jenkins 2004 : 26 ; Kapelus 2002 : 280 ). While Jenkins interprets this arbitrariness as stemming from the : authori ties of local communities to the exclusion of the other groups to maximize its legitimacy as well as to minimize costs during the negotiation processes (2002 : 280). This inclination of mining compan ies, for example, to explicitly draw the category of local community for their own convenience generates the the communit y involved particularly along the lines of age, class, ethnicity, and gender (Polier 1996; Robinson 1996). The unequal power dynamics and profound heterogeneity among stakeholder groups question s the adequacy of the conventional bargaining model which is grounded on the assumption of a fair deal among the parties involved in the practice. In consideration of the power inequal ity among the stakeholder groups engaged in corporate mining operations (Kirsch 2002), this dissertation tries to give due attention to how the category for each stakeholder is flexibly re delineated in the course of negotiations. Anthropology of the Ande s The social stratification of Peru has been often analyzed through the metaphor of dualist ic entities such as: highlands and coasts; Indians and mestizos (Mayer 1991); countrypeople and townspeople (Stein 1985); Indian and Ladino (de la Cadena 2001); and Quechua and Spanish (Garcia 2003). For instance, Enrique Mayer (1991) identifies an anthropological narrative of the
29 two Peru argument in Vargas Llosa s Report on the massacre in Uchuraccay in 1983 According to Mayer, while Basarde came up with the distinction between official Peru and deep Peru in 1943 to differentiate the state legal system (official Peru) from the people who constitute the nation (deep Peru), Llosa twisted the original version of the two Peru a rgument by racializing it ( Re quoted from Mayer 1991: 4 76 479). Mayer notes that according to Llosa s Report, the tragic event stemmed from fundamental misunderstandings between the two Peru epitomized through the metaphor of official Peru and deep Pe ru In other words, the former which is associated with eight journalists brutally murdered refers to modernization, education, civilization while the latter which is associated with the Iquichanos blamed for the massacre is defined by negatives, wants, or primitive Andean culture (Mayer, 1991: 477 478). The imagery of divided social entities is elaborated by Marisol de la Cadena (2001) throug h her analysis of the historical formation of ethnic discourses in Peru. According to de la Cadena (2001, 1996) the Peruvian project of modernization was ultimately a national endeavor to integrate the heterogeneous Andean entities into urban social life. As de la Cadena says a cursory look into private life can reveal that intense anxiety that the reverberations of the European Enlightenment created in Latin American elites the dangers of backwardness, and even degenerations, if they did not contr ol the Indians (2001 : 258) T he Andean entities had to be conceptualized, appraised, and explained to the Peruvian elites who were undertaking the task of modernization. Thus, racial ideologies during the first half of the 20 th century in Peru illustrate how and why cultural attributes such as decency ( de la Cadena 2001 : 260 261) increasingly took the place of phenotypic differences in racial designations for instance, to enable local intellectuals to preserve the security and unassailability of the elite s self definition as white in an environment where ruling classes could have Indian features without being an Indian that
30 high moral standards were not only ascribed by birth. T hey could also be acquired through education ( de la Cadena 1996 : 1 17). From this narrative, the Peruvian elite could confirm their moral superiority and justify their hegemonies by portraying the Indian s as moral others and they could disguise the discriminatory repercussions of their discourses by presenting the mestizo as a status to be achieved by education rather than to be ascribed by birth De la Cadena s argument is revealing in showing how ethnic labeling in Peru has thus operated as a principal model to dictate the hierarchal relationships which can be flexibly assigned either by people who label or by people who are labeled. The tendency to designate racial labeling by cultural attribute rather than by physical qualities became more prev alent since the term Indio was officially replaced by the term campesino in the course of the 1969 agrarian reform (Stein 1985 : 215). The Velasco regime s policy to abolish the term Indio reflects its willingness to get rid of the colonial legacy of racial discourses and to integrate the rural population into the nationalization project. In taking that action the Velasco regime s policy shares common ground with the Peruvian elites of the early 20 th century in supposing that national integration was an ultimate goal. As the term campesino officially replaces the label of the Ind io ethnic designations became more dictated by achieved criteria, like occupation, residence, or educational level. Despite such fluidity and subjectivity, ethnic labels in Peru operate as mechanism s to legitimatize discriminatory social orders, supporti ng unequal power relationships. Exploitative social structure s particularly uneven development between the urban and rural area, is disguised in racial discourses which consider belonging to the lower ethnic stratum as a result of individual efforts. As a mechanism to reproduce an unequal social order, ethnic discourse also crosscuts gender ideology in Peru. For instance, based on the data on ethnic differentiation in Chitapampa,
31 Peru, Marisol de la Cadena (1995) observes that while 74 % of people who are c lassified as Indians are women only 30 % of people who are classified as mestizo are shown as women This data, de la Cadena says, support her opinion that women are more (1995 : 340). Being Indian in Peru means to belong to the lowe r racial hierarchies. This racial inequality occurs along with gender inequality, placing Indian women along the lowest s ocial strat a The complex interaction between racial inequality and gender inequality is also well noted by Helen Safa (2005) in her ana lysis of indigenous women s struggles. To quote some of her discussion, she notes how the conquest ideology of white elite men legitimated a double standard, confining elite women to the home but exposing non elite women to men as sexual predators w orking class mestizo men adopted this same ideology as a way of equalizing their inferior status and, like elite men, regarded women as male possessions. T hus mestiza women were subordinated both sexually and economically, until economic opportunities open ed up that enabled them to challenge this patriarchal structure Indigenous women, though economically productive, were largely confined to the domestic realm to protect them from the advances of sexually predatory mestizo men (2005 : 319). The abov e analyses of Peruvian social stratification in the form of racial discourses and gender ideology are informative to this dissertation because they enable me to identify the rural urban divide and gender relations as two primary factors shaping the social order of the field site. As the official replacement of the racial category of Indio as campesino implies, racial categories were rarely spoken in everyday conversations at the field site even though they are deeply embedded in everyday life dictating lif e styles and socio economic structures. Given the ambiguity entrenched in racial discourse, this dissertation identifies the rural urban divide, a particular dimension which characterizes racial discourses in Peru (Stein 1985 : 214), as a major
32 factor deter mining socio economic structures at the field site. Moreover, this study relies on Bourque and Warren s (1981) comparative analysis of gender relations in the Peruvian town of Chiuchin and in the agricultural community of Mayobamba to identify people in th e commercial town and people in the rural villages of San Marcos as separate groups for analysis. In Bourque and s study, the main question was how changes like urbanization, increasing involvement in the cash economy, the penetration of national political institutions, and increasing migratory flows affect women s status in these two places ( 1981 : 5). To address the complexity of gender stratification in the Andes, Bourque and Warren have adopt ed a coordinated application of the social ideology a nd class analysis perspective ( 1981 : 80). G ender ideologies like machismo and marianismo are depicted as dictating gender relationships in the social life of the Peruvian towns. Authors point out that machismo gives authority to man in the public sphere a s a representative of his family while marianismo provides woman superiority in deciding economic and moral matters inside household ( 1981 : 78). In this way, differential access to economic and social resources between women and men is legitimatized and re inforced by social ideology wh ich dictates proper sex roles. In addition, Bourque and Warren ( 1981: 134 148 ) observe that -differently from men -women in the two places differentially experience class mobility depending on their m ode of economic participation. Specifically, they find out that while in the commercial town of Chiuchin, women s status is more likely to be a result of independent or shared control of economic resources in agricultural Mayobamba, the upper status of wo men is more likely to be derived from their relationship to their male family members like husband, brothers or fathers ( 1981 : 135 149). A review of Bourque and Warren s study is informative to this dissertation in illuminating the following dimensions of gender relations which will be explored in the later part of this dissertation: 1) sex stereotyp ing in the
33 Peruvian Andes is constructed and perpetuated not only by gender ideology (like machismo marianismo ) but by social structures divided between the co mmercial town and rural villages; 2) women differentially experience physical as well as social mobility according to the type of socio economic organizations that they are involved in. Research Design and Methods In order to examine the impact of gender relations on project participation, this dissertation proposes two hypotheses: 1) Women are more likely to be excluded from developm ent projects than men; 2) Women s participation in development projects differs in its mode and intensity according to the type of socio economic organizations in which they are involved. In order to test the se hypotheses, the present dissertation compares women s and men s participation in the development project s of the commercial town of San Marcos and of two rural village s Carhuayoc and Huaripampa of the district of San Marcos. To address the second hypothesis, I identify three categories of socio economic organization: economic organization defined as the sexual division of labor by the type of productive activities ; so cial organization defined as household headship; political organization as defined by affiliation to communal organizations. Fieldwork The incipient idea for this dissertation came from my experience working as a research assistant at the anthropology dep artment of the University of Florida on the subject of development induced displacement, particularly focused on the corporate mining in South America. Researching the extensive literature on the subject for two semesters, I was getting more convinced abou t the importance as well as the urgency to conduct ethnographic research on the subject, which motivated me to consider the subject as a topic of my doctoral dissertation As the subject was relatively new to me, I decided to take time off from the school during Spring and Summer, 2005 in order to research literature s on the subject and to make a selection of a
34 particular case with relevant research questions. As I was already determined to conduct my field research on Peru, I did some comparative research on a couple of large mines in Peru to decide which case might better suit my interests. In that process, the Antamina project came as a case more captivating to me particularly because the case was still at an early stage of mineral production, and becaus e the case seemed to be relatively under investigated not only by scholars but by the media despite the scale of the project and the magnitude of the project derived development revenues. The Antamina mining case was also intriguing to me because the mode and intensity of local conflicts provoked by the mine seemed to be quite different from those of other major mines such as Yanacocha or Tambogrande which seemed to be deeply entangled in intense and relatively well organized local protests at that point. My first question was why is the Antamina mine provoking relatively fewer conflicts in the local context, at least according to the media reports compared to other mines of a similar scale? Does it have something to do with its development performances in the local setting? Once I determined to research the Antamina case, I could then set the scope of my research questions in reference of ethnographic research in the field of the anthropology of development and in the field of gender and development studie s, the research fields in which I had been interested since I started training as a graduate student. My first trip to the field was made in January 2006 and lasted until April of the same year. As I did not have any prior contact with any person or organ izations engaged in the Antamina mining operation, I started contacting a couple of institutions in Lima including GRADE ( Grupo de An lisis para el Desarrollo ) and CONACAMI ( Coordinadora Nacional de Comunidades Campesinas del Per Afectadas por la Miner a ) which were involved in the Antamina mine in one way or another. After getting a rather general idea about the situation of the field site through these visits, I decided to settle down in Huaraz, capital city of the department of Ancash which
35 was hosting major subsidiaries of the Antamina Mining Company (CMA) including the Ancash Association (AA), a separate unit of CMA designed as a foundation to administer CMA s development fund. As I got in contact with the staff of AA, I realized that it was very benef icial to choose AA as my entry point. At first, I was concerned that my presence would provoke distrust and even antipathy from the people involved in the mine especially because I was informed that mining in Peru tends to be very closed and hostile to o utsiders. I do not think that my concerns were groundless considering my profession which required me to be inquisitive and keen on every small detail. The support that I could get from the personnel in AA was, in this sense, much more than I expected I found that they were open minded and transparent enough to welcome the presence of an outsider like me. To have AA as an entry point to the field also turned out to be helpful because it often became a meeting site of diverse development NGOs which wer e starting or already executing development projects in San Marcos. Both personal contacts and information that I obtained through AA during my stay in Huaraz allowed me to develop more concrete ideas and plans before I headed toward San Marcos in March of the same year. My first trip to San Marcos in March turned out to be very challenging particularly because of my appearance as an Asian woman. As there were not many outsiders in San Marcos before CMA started operations in the late 1990s, local people wer e not familiar with a foreign woman, more so an Asian, wandering alone around everywhere, not only in the market place of the town but in rural villages and at diverse public meetings. At first, I could feel that my presence provoke d curiosity, but not ne cessarily hostility, from several people in San Marcos which evolved into a very interesting experience as a researcher. It was interesting and sometimes fascinating because my questions to local people,
36 even some very basic research questions such as W h at do you think about Antamina? used to provoke another series of questions from them which were mostly concerned with my background. To share my educational as well as very personal background was in fact an effective way of letting people begin to talk about their personal life, which could be sensitive and even inappropriate if I initiated such a conversation During my stay in San Marcos for two months between March and April, I was introduced to the authorities of various local institutions as well a s to the staff of diverse NGOs including PRODESA ( Programa de Desarrollo de la Sanidad Agropecuar a ), IDMA ( Instituto de Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente ), IDESI ( Instituto de Desarrollo del Sector Informal ), and DESCO ( Centro de Estudios y Promoci n del Desarr ollo ). My second stage of fieldwork was conducted between January and August, 2007. Going back to the field after spending several months in Korea, I was impressed that many people in San Marcos remembered me even though I had spent less than two months in the field during my previous trip. To have some acquaintance s at the field site turned out to be a great advantage because more people started showing me confidence about the accountability of my research At this stage of fieldwork I started collectin g data on the project participation of local people in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa under the format of Gender Analytic Matrix (GAM). During this stage, collaboration s with development NGOs such as IDMA, IDESI, FOCADER ( Fortalecimiento de Capacidades para el D esarrollo Rural ) team of ACUDIP ( Asociaci n para el Desarrollo Integral ), and Ludoteca were a crucial part of my investigation because a considerable portion of my investigation was made at the project site s of these NGOs. I used to visit the project site s of Carhuayoc and Huaripampa from Monday to Saturday with the NGO staff of these organizations. When I came back, mostly in the afternoon, to my room in the town of San Marcos, I used to walk out to the town, wandering around the market place which was a
37 wonderful place to get in contact with local people not only of the town but of rural villages or chatting with people at the restaurant, stores or a bench around the main square ( Plaza de Armas ). I particularly enjoyed this type of informal conversation because it used to be a very effective way of getting in contact with diverse strata of people in San Marcos in a more relaxed manner. Most of my data on the project participation in IDMA, IDESI, and FOCADER were collected through the fieldwork of this sta ge. My final stage of fieldwork for this dissertation was carried out for three months between October and December, 2008. After spending about a year in Korea, I was eager to go back to the field before I start writing this dissertation particularly beca use I wanted to track down any changes in the field which would have occurred during my year of absence. I was particularly anxious to go back to the field because I knew that San Marcos was waiting for the administration of the mining canon 1 when I was leaving the field in 2007. Going back to San Marcos, it did not take much time to realize that the changes driven by the execution of the mining canon were rather stunning. Although I used to joke with local people in San Marcos that here, nothing happens ( a qu no pasa nada 2007, I could realize that such a joke would not work any more when I went back in 2008. The impact of PMIP ( el Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestructura P blica ) which was initially called as Pilot Plan ( Plan P loto ) during the first three months seemed to be comprehensive and profound. I could observe that more outsiders were arriving at the town in which native sanmarquino s (resident s of San Marcos) 1 Designed to distribute a certain proportion of the mining revenues to regional and local societies of the mineral production, mining canon ( canon minero ) in Peru was concretized through a range of regulations stipulated during the 2000s. According to these regulations on the mining canon, 50 % of the incomes and rents of the Peruvian government derived from the mining sector should be allotted to the mining canon (see Table 2 2 and Table 2 3 of Chapter 2 in this dissertation for the definition and regulations of the mining canon). Classified as a district producing minerals, the district of San Marcos is entitled to 1 0 % of the total mining canon derived from the Antamina mining company. The total amount of mining canon distributed to San Marcos in 2007, the first administrative year of the canon in San Marcos, was US $70.42 million ( http://mim.org.pe/vermim.php?region=ancash see Dibos ( 2006) for the details of the mining canon in Peru).
38 did not seem to be a majority any more. Moreover, I could observe that the daily habits of local people not only of the town but of the countryside were changed to match the work schedule of PMIP. The town was bustling with merchants coming from all over Peru to take advantage of the boom created by PMIP and local people seemed to be engrossed in spending money on high tech electronics which I did not observe during my previous visits. At this stage of my fieldwork my investigation was mostly concentrated on PMIP. I used to spend time at the PMIP project site s of Carhuayoc, Huaripampa, and the commercial town of San Marcos, interviewing the project participants and observing their activities Another priority of my research at this stage, was to re visit people whom I had interviewed during my previous fieldwork a nd to catch up with any changes that they were experiencing not only as project participant s but as household member s Methods Primary research methods were the interview and participant observation. Three types of interviews were conducted targeting four stakeholder groups: 1) semi structured key informant interview s ; 2) in depth interview s ; and 3) open ended survey s To interview CMA s personnel, NGO staff and local authorities, I approached them through semi structured key informant interview s Key infor mant interview s, not restricted by a set of prepared question s allowed me to broaden the scope of my questions flexibly as the interview proceeded To interview local people, I conducted in depth interview s and open ended survey s Usually, but not necessarily the open ended survey became a starting point to progress into an in depth interview. Baseline data as well as data related to the GAM format were collected mostly through the survey. In depth interview s allowed me to review the life history o f the interviewee and it was particularly useful to get the history of the research area which was subjectively reconstructed based on the memory of interviewee s
39 P articipant observation was another important research method during my fieldwork Particip ant observation took place mostly in the project sites, at public events, and during informal meeting s Project sites includ ed the project of IDMA at Carhuayoc and Huaripampa, FOCADER at Carhuayoc and Huaripampa, IDESI at Carhuayoc and PMIP at Carhuayoc, Huaripampa, and the commercial town of San Marcos Moreover, I participated in public events including the D e velopment R oundtable ( Mesa de la Concertaci n ) in 2006 the annual fair for seed s and potato es in 2007 the annual fair for handicrafts and textile products in 2007 various local protests, the annual workshop for Participative Budgeting ( taller de Presupuesto Participativo ) in 2007 and an annual contest for local artisans in 2007 and 2008 Participant observation often included voice recording. At public meetings and project sites, I tried to observe how attend ees interacted by looking at details like form of speech, frequency of speech, and use of language between Spanish and Quechua because I considered these to embody i mportant dimensions of gen der relations. Informal meetings which were mostly conducted at the street, restaurant, and market place were particularly informative as a means of observing the local way of life. Through these activities, three types of data were collected: 1) data col lected through participant observation and semi structured interviews at the project site on the project participation; 2) key informant interviews with local authorities, government officers, mining company employees, and NGO workers on details, narrative s, and evaluations on the projects; and 3) base line survey and in depth interviews with the local population at three researched sites of Carhuayoc, Huaripampa, and the town of San Marcos on sexual division of labor and sex role stereotyping. The Gender Analytic Matrix which divides societies into four levels women, men, household, and communit y, considering four kinds of impact labor, time, resources, and socio
40 cultural factors (March et al 1999 ) was adopted to analyze how each project entailed a different mode and intensity of participation by different levels of societ y Dissertation Over view The dissertation consists of six chapters including this introductory chapter. In this section I will briefly review the main ideas and arguments of each chapter. In Chapter 2, I examine the contents and logic of development intervention of CMA in lig ht of literature on the corporate mining industry and social development. Since the Mining Code was enacted in 1901, which turned over the rights for mineral properties from the state to private investors on the condition of tax payment (Becker 1983: 31; D eWind 1987: 31; Dore 1988: 90) foreign capital mostly from the U.S. and Europe has constituted a major actor in the Peruvian large mining sector controlling more than 97 % of Peru s mineral exports by 1929 (Dore 1988 : 103) and continuing its presence in the Southern Peru Copper Corporation after 1948 (Becker 1983; Dore 1988 : 140). Since the first mining boom in Peru which was stimulated by the Mining Code in the early 20 th century, the second mining boom came in the late 1990s largely driven by changes in technology, revision of mining regulations, and globalization of mining capital. Along with this mining boom, Peru has witnessed many transformations in the social aspects of this new generation of mining multinational corporations (MNCs), which can be be tter viewed in light of the conceptual framework of Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR). The World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) considers that CSR requires the continuing commitment by business to behaving ethically and contribu ting to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the community and society at large (Wheeler et al 2002 : 298). Widely adopted and publicized by mining MNCs including CMA (Jenkins 2004), CS R reflects an increasing importance as well as a changed status of the local community in the operation of mining MNCs. In spite of the popularity of the CSR
41 framework not only inside but outside the mining business, it can become a very unclear concept wh en it is applied to the local setting. S everal studies consider the difficulty of this framework stemming from the complex nature of defining the community (Jenkins 2004; Kapelus 2002; Kirsch 2002) while some others focus on the incompatib le concepts of cost and benefit among stakeholders involved in the industry (Cragg and Greenbaum 2002; Esteves 2008; Humpreys 2000). The ambiguity involved in the CSR framework makes it rather problematic to use it as an evaluati ve tool for business performance. However, it is still valuable as an analytic framework to explain the intentions and behaviors of the mining MNCs in their relationships with local communities in the name of community development. In this context, I examine the literature of CSR and the applicati on of CSR of CMA to explain the logic of its development intervention at the field site. In Chapter 2 I also examine how CMA has interacted with the local people of San Marcos since its initial stage in the late 1990s As an open pit polymetallic mining project, a consortium of CMA was established in 1998 with the participation of three Canadian companies. A total of US $2,500 million was pledged for the project, which made it the largest investment ever in Peru. The financing of the project involved a st ring of global financial agencies, giving it a truly global dimension. Presented as the third largest mine in the world and the first largest copper zinc mine in the world 2 the project earned a nation wide fame as a vanguard of the e conomic development of Peru. Here I focus on how and why development commitment came to operate as a major rationale mediating the activities of a range of parties involved in the mining operations in San Marcos, specifically CMA the local government and local communities of San Marcos The background of the development intervention of CMA is examined from two dimensions -one 2 Source: http://www.antamina.com/01_antamina/CMA.html last accesse d, August, 2010.
42 related to the international factor s concerned with the CSR strategies and the other concerned with domestic pressure s in Peru through legal as well as industrial changes. The major entities of CMA as a development provider in San Marcos are three in number : 1) Ancash Association; 2) contracted Non governmental Development Organizations; and 3) the Community Relation s Office in San Marcos. The primary activities as well as structural attributes o f each entity are also examined C hapter 3 is focused on the social mapping of San Marcos with a particular concentration on how its social order is shaped by the rural urban divide and by gender relations. Loc ated in the Northern Peruvian Andes with an altitude over 2,963 meters above sea level, the district of San Marcos comprises a commercial town of the same name with a population of 3,332 and 28 peasant villages with a total population of 7,393 (INEI 2005) The division between town and countryside can be drawn in socio economical as well as political terms Seated with administrative bodies, educational and health centers, and central markets, the town exists as a center where all types of flows are made : flows of goods, flows of information, and flows of people. On the other hand, sustained by subsistence agriculture combined with pastoral and artisanal activities, rural villages play the role as a provider of labor and produc e (agricultural, pastoral, and artisanal) to the town. The distinctive social spheres of the town and countryside are maintained primarily because they are dependent on each other to reproduce their own systems and economies. Mostly related as family members as people migrate from coun tryside to the town, kinship ties among people in the town and countryside is another important factor connecting these distinctive social spheres. Focused on this distinctive but inter related relationship between town and rural villages in San Marcos, Ch apter 3 examines how people identify themselves along the lines of its dichotomous social structure.
43 The division between town and rural villages in San Marcos is also detected in their distinctive gender relationships. Based on the data collected through fieldwork Chapter 3 examines gender relations in the two peasant communities of Carhuayoc and Huarip ampa compared to those of the town. Findings from fieldwork indicate that even though women s access to cash is more restricted among women in rural villages than women in the town, their contribution to the household economy seems to be at least equally i mportant, which means that women s productive labor in rural villages is usually unremunerated compared to women s labor in the commercial town Additionally it is observed that married women are almost always the primary care taker s of the household in b oth places. However, it is noted that the much higher birthrate as well as the nature of agricultural and pastoral activities in rural villages make peasant women more burdened with reproductive labor compared to women in the town. Here I also examine how these sexual divisions of labor are shaped and sustained by ideologies about sex role. In the first part of Chapter 4, I investigate the type, intensity and frequency of local participation in development projects during 2006 2008 in San Marcos. Until the local government began to administer the mining canon in 2007, all the community projects were controlled by CMA and the development NGOs During this period, local participation in the decision making of development was extremely limited. While local people could intervene to a certain degree through public meetings such as the D evelopment R oundtable ( M esa de la C oncertaci n ) or small workshops, their influence was trivial. The distribution of the mining canon starting in 2006 has brought a drastic change in the mode and intensity of local participation. Accounting for 10 % of the entire mining canon derived from CMA, the district of San Marcos received US $ 60 m illion in 2006, 70 million in 2007, and 59 million in 2008 in the
44 name of the mining canon which made it be the richest place in Peru in terms of the governmental budget. Administered by the local government, resources from the mining canon created a new type of local engagement in development practices New public spaces were created with some changes in the local leadership as a response. As the decision making process becomes systemized under the direction of the local government, new priorities and narratives of development are observed with a different mode and intensity o f local participation In the second part of Chapter 4, I examine the participation of women and men in particular development projects focused on two peasant communities, Carhuayoc and Huaripampa, and the commercial town of San Marcos. Four development projects were visited and investigated for this purpose: 1) agro pastoral projects provided by IDMA, 2006 2007, and by ACUDIP, 2006 2008; 2) a tourist project targeting local artisans provided by IDESI, 2006 2007; and 3) a job creating program of PMIP administered by the local government 2008. These projects were selected for research because they have been directed at productive activities and because they are relatively long term with a minimum duration of one year. In o rder to analyze women s participation compar ed to men s participation in each community, data were collected and presented in the format of the GAM framework The final part of Chapter 4 is devoted to assessing research hypotheses based on the findings pr esented in the previous parts. Two research hypotheses are proposed: 1) women are more likely to be excluded from development projects than men; 2) women s exclusion from development projects is different in its mode and intensity according to the type of socio economic organizations in which they are involved, which are identified into three categories: 1) sexual division of labor by the type of productive activities ; 2) household composition; and 3) affiliation with community organization. As for the sec ond hypothesis, Susan Bourque and Kay
45 Waren s (1981) comparative work in two Andean communities offers a referential point for identifying the type of subsistent activities as the first category. The second category of household composition is identified b ased on the Carmen de Deere s (1990) study in the Peruvian Andes that the domestic cycle of each household is the most important determinant which dictates the status of each household within the community. The third category of affiliation to community or ganization is identified based on the perspective which regards campesino community as a focal point of village livelihood in the Andes (de la Cadena and Mayer 1989; Mayer 2002; Paulson 2002). In Chapter 5, I consider the theoretical and practical ramifications of planned development in San Marcos in relation to two research questions. First, I examine discrete discourses of development among four stakeholder groups constituted of the mining company, NGOs, the local go vernment, and local communities and I look at how development is differently defined by these groups. Based on the data presented in Chapter 4, I will evaluate how the development projects in San Marcos performed in t erms of their stated objectives, namely poverty reduction, commercialization and institutional strengthening Post structural development theory of anthropology (Arce and Long 2000; Crewe and Harrison 1988; Escobar 1995, 1992; Ferguson 1999, 1990; Grillo and Stirrat 1997 ; Little and Painter 199 5; Pottier et al 2003) is referenced to explore the discrepancies among : 1) what people think, 2) what is prescribed and 3) what is practiced in reference to development in the local setting of San Marcos. In the second part of Chapter 5 I reflect on the concept of participation to address how planned development in San Marcos interact s with its social order which is drawn by gender relations. The findings of Chapter 4 in terms of research hypotheses are re examined to reflect on theore tical and practical implications in relation t o the concept of participation. I note t hat
46 participation in development projects does not necessarily create a new gender role. Moreover, I observe that women from the poorest household s tended to have a great er participation as they had fewer choices in general Studies on gender and development (Babb 1985; Bener a 2003; Kabeer 1994; Mehta 2002; Mosedala 2005; Moser et al. 1999) and studies on peasant women s livelihood in the Andes (Alcalde 2006; Barrig 2001; Bastos 2007; Deere 2005 1982, 1981; Elena 1993; Mayer 2002, 1999) will provide a valuable framework to illustrate the theoretical and practical meanings of these observations. In Chapter 6, I focus on local responses to social changes driven by the pres ence of CMA and by its development intervention. W hile the previous discussions are concerned with discrepancies surrounding the narratives and practices of development among stakeholders, and inclusive or exclusive implications of participation within and among local communities, Chapter 6 examines the ramifications of development intervention in terms of the concept and practice of community. Several studies argue that the presence of mining multinational corporations and their development inte rvention ends up as social disintegration and community break down because of its divisive nature (Filer 1990; Kapelus 2002; Kirsch 2002; Kuecker 2007; Sillitoe and Wilson 2003). Identifying community as a unit of local reaction is important because local people in San Marcos had a tendency to identify themselves as member s of community rather than individuals when they situate d themselves in relation to other stakeholder groups. In Chapter 6, I examine the conflict between CMA and Carhuayoc to show how co mmunity operated as a basic unit of local mobilization. Through this analysis, I observe that community became a source not only of solidarity but of contestation in San Marcos Confronted to the se contrasting aspect s of community, local people have flexib ly identified their community affiliations to better represent
47 their interests Here I also examine how people in San Marcos have relied on the language of distrus t to legitimatize their strategies of inclusion and exclusion (Ballard and Banks 2003: 298) in the interaction with other stakeholder groups. Through this review of local strategies, I discuss the scope of challenges as well as potentials that the people in San Marcos have in their struggles to get a better control of changes after the Antamina
48 CHAPTER 2 LARGE MINING INDUSTR Y AND THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT As an ancient activity which started in the pre colonial period, mining activities have been a crucial co mponent of the Peruvian economy throughout the i r history. Mining extraction was at the center of Spanish colonialism which started in the 16 th century and the importance of the mining sector was restored after independence by the Peruvia n government as a major source of foreign currency. While there was no question about the importance of the mining sector in the Peruvian economy as a whole, its impact in a local setting has been questioned from a broad range of sectors including local co mmunities, civil organizations, and scholars particularly in the field of local development. In this sense, social impact has been one of the most controversial and contested areas within the mining sector in Peru. Social impact of mining activities is d etermined by various factors. These factors include 1) operational scale of the mine which can be divided into large and small scale mines, and artisanal mine s ; 2) mining technology which is closely related to operational scale; 3) domestic and internation al legal regulations; and 4) socioeconomic characteristics of the local community involved in the mining operations The mining boom in Peru which start ed in the 1990s is based on legal revisions promoted by the Peruvian government and on the ensuing growth of large mines mostly controlled by foreign capital Motivated in part by these changes in the mining sector, the local community began to contend for a new status in its relationship unparalleled in its kind throughout the history o f Peru. In this sense, community development projects provided by the Antamina Mining Company (CMA by its Spanish acronym) need s to be understood in light of a range of changes in the mining sector after the mining boom of the 1990s. The mode and scope of community development projects of CMA in San Marcos have changed as the mine underwent different operational stages. During the exploration and
49 construction stage s of the mine ( September 1996 September 2001), CMA s development intervention was mostly li mited to the local pop ulation s or communities that had been directly affected by the mining operations by selling their private or communal lands to the company. As the mine entered its mineral production stage in October 2001, CMA began to provide more co mprehensive development projects in diverse fields including agriculture, tourism, education and health designed for a broad range of recipient population s The Asociacin Ancash (AA) was established in January 2003 as a separate unit to be in charge of th e administration of development funding from CMA. The responsibility for major CMA development projects was transferred to AA and the association began to take the status of a contractor of non governmental development organizations (NGDOs) for the executi on of individual projects. The distribution of the mining canon ( canon minero ) to the local government of San Marcos which started in 2006 and the administration of the voluntary development fund ( Fondo Minero Antamina or FMA by its Spanish acronym) which was created in 2007 became an additional source of change in the scope and contents of development projects in San Marcos. Community development projects in the context of mining multinational corporations (MNCs) tend to be unsteady in their durati on and inconsistent in their priorities because they are particularly susceptible to various external factors su ch as conflictive local scen a rio s or volatile industrial environments which are highly unpredictable due to the probability of unexpected accide nts, unstable mineral price s or different priorities exercised by each operational stage (Bebbington et al 2007; MMSD 2002). The inconsistency observed in the field of community development project s in San Marcos largely reflects such volatility common t o the mining industry. Nonetheless, stated in the language of corporate social responsibility, the community development project in San Marcos has operated as a majo r channel through which CMA has
50 in teracted with local communities To identify major actors involved in the community development project and to examine how each actor differently defines priorities of development allow us to understand why community development project has come to operate as a rationale mediating various actors including CMA an d local communities. Peruvian M ining History and Its Contested Realities Having a history of thousands of years, the mining sector in Peru is full of contradictory experiences. M ineral extraction both amplified the legendary wealth and grandeur of the Inca Empire and also became a central motive of the Spanish conquest. During Spanish colonialism, mineral extraction was at the core of economic and political systems. The c olonial mineral sector was characterized by a continuous labor shortage and it was imperative for the Spanish colonizers to keep control of a constant and sufficient labor force for the mineral sector. Out of such necessity, the labor recruiting system named m ita m inera was implemented to draft indigenous populations as mineworkers. As a forced labor system designed to satisfy the labor shortage in Potos and Huanvcavelica, mita was implemented in 1573 and lasted until it was legally abolished in 1812 (Contreras 1987 : 63). The implementation of mita became a source of disruption of Indian society because people were running away from communities to avoid labor conscription (Dore 1988 : 69). The enforcement of mita was constantly resisted not only by indigenous populations but by lando wners who were complaining of consequent labor drainage. Nonetheless, mita was the primary mechanism for controlling the indigenous populations in colonial Peru by keeping them in a status of servitude. Mining and Peasant Miners in the 20 th Century The m ining sector in the Republic of Peru was still a source of contrasting realities in the 20 th century Patronized by the Peruvian state as a means of capitalist development, mining has been one of the most dynamic sectors in the Peruvian economy. Mineral extractions were further
51 localized as Spanish control came to an end and as the state failed to regain the level of control of the mining sector it maintained in the colonial period. The localized mining operations were characterized by exploitative labor systems mostly comprised of impoverished highland peasant miners. The turn of the century came with an important change in the min ing sector. The Mining Code in 1901 envisaged an increasing presence of foreign capital in the mining sector (Boylan 1999 : 320). The mining code promot ed private investment in the large mining sector ( gran miner a ) by giving rights for mineral properties which had previously belonged to the state to private investors upon the payment of taxes (Becker 1983 : 31; DeWind 1987 : 31; Dore 1988 : 90). The parti cipation of foreign investors in the large mining sector enabled the exploitation of large mine sites including the Cerro de Pasco mine in the central highlands. Exploitation of large mine sites led by foreign capital had promoted remarkable transformation s not only in the industrial structure of the mining sector but in the local life of the region s where the mining deposits were seated. Until the mid 1950s when the open pit mining method was adopted, mining operations were labor intensive. Characterized by a low level of technolog y the industry was highly dependent on unskilled cheap labor to generate profits. T he control of sufficient cheap labor forces was particularly important for large mining companies because of the operational scale of the mines. The majority of the unskilled labor force for large mines was made up of migrant peasants (Boylan 1999 : 329; Contreras 1987 : 75). Peasants constituted a reliable source of low wage mineworkers because they had their home villages adjacent to the mine sites which were otherwise relatively inaccessible due to its remoteness Peasants also became more available to the mining sector because commercialization processes in rural area which had been accelerated since the 19 th century were intensifying the pov erty rate among small land holding peasants.
52 Studies of peasant mineworkers in the central Peruvian highland during this period indicate that the large mining sector was highly vulnerable to the agricultural cycle because of the seasonal migration of peas ant miners to their rural home villages (Contreras 1987 : 91; DeWind 1987; Long and Roberts 1984). Peasant miners only rarely turn ed into entirely salaried worker s Instead, they tended to maintain the tie to their agricultural origin by temporarily migrati ng to their home villages when agricultural production needed their labor contribution particularly during harvest or plantation seasons. Peasant miners migration to agricultural home village s was perpetuated in part by the low level of wages from the mi ne which were not sufficient to cover their subsistence needs (DeWind 1987 : 155; Long and Roberts 1984 : 55). A debt labor system referred to as enganche was adopted by mining companies to reduce the instability caused by peasant miners seasonal migratio n. In the enganche system funds were paid in advance to prospective mineworkers in need of money. As wages from the mine were not sufficient even for subsistence needs, indebted miners often found that they had few other choices but to stay longer in the mine to pay back their debts. The eng anche system lasted until the late 1940s (Long and Roberts 1984 : 51) and it represented how large mining companies were creating a profit by exploiting the impoverished condition of peasant miners in the highlands. The adoption of the open pit technique i n the Cerro de Pasco Corporation and the Southern Peru Copper Corporation in the mid 1950s brought important changes in the industrial structure of the large mining sector. The capital intensive mining operations enabled by open pit technology created grea ter demands for skilled labor and less demand s for unskilled labor. In mechanized mining operations, workers were divided between mining professionals who were turning into a new upper middle class and unskilled mineworkers who came mostly from the rural highlands. Reduced demands for unskilled labor in large mines coincided with growing
53 unemployment in Peru. Getting a job at the large mines was getting more competitive and the shortage of unskilled labor was no longer an issue to the large mining companie s. As cheap labor was becoming less important and more abundant, large mining companies had little incentive to improve the level of wages or benefits to unskilled workers even though they were experiencing much higher productivity through technical revolu tion. Mining Industry, Regional Development and Resistance The history of the Peruvian mining industry shows how the mining sector generated profits by keeping the wages of unskilled labor low and how labor systems met the demand of large mines for a secu re and steady supply of cheap labor. The experience of large mining operations in Peru also shows that the large mining industry of the 20 th century was highly dependent on Andean rural society for a pool of unskilled labor. Even though wages from the mine were not sufficient to cover the basic needs of peasant miners, it was still an important resource for subsistent peasants who could not make ends meet only solely by agricultural production. In this sense, the impoverished condition of rural area contrib uted to increasing the profitability of the mining industry in Peru. Benefits from the mining sector to local communities were small and the distribution of the benefits, if there were any, was made unevenly. The performance of the large mining operations in the Andean highlands has provoked strong critiques against the mining industry from a multiplicity of social actors These critiques constantly questioned whether mining operations could be compatible with regional development particularly of the rura l regions (Bebbington et al. 2007 : 3). Local resistance to large mining operations became more obvious as the mining sector was experiencing another boom after privatization during the 1990s (Glave and Kuramoto 2002 : 28) Also, the turn of the century open ed with two important confrontations in Tambogrande and Yanacocha where mining mega project s were cancelled or revised because of local resistance.
54 Located in northern Peru, the Tambogrande gold mine project was sought after by the Canada based Manhattan Minerals Corporation in the late 1990s. The proposed mine site is surrounded by a rural area which is famous for the agricultural production of lime s and mango es which are important commercial products for foreign as well as domestic markets. The major co ncern was related to the negative impact of the project on commercial agriculture in the region. Local resistance was organized in the form of a public referendum during which more than 93 % of voters expressed opposition to the project. 1 The project was ca ncelled and the company completely withdr ew from Peru in 2003. As another well known site for local confrontations against mega mining project s in Peru, the conflict in Yanacocha, a large gold mine in Cajamarca operated by Newmont, a U.S. based company w as exacerbated in 2004 when the company presented a plan to expand its operation on the Cerro Quilish, an important source of drinking water to the city. Local protest s entailed the intervention of armed police generating intens e confrontations between the company and the local community. The company finally withdrew the plan with a public apology. 2 The conflicts in Tambogrande and Yanacocha were comprehensively covered by domestic as well as foreign media. They were interpreted by journalists as symbolic e xamples of a new type of local relationship with large mining companies for the following reasons: 1) they involved the participation of diverse social act o rs including international and national activist organizations such as Oxfam America, Oxfam Great B ritain, the Peruvian NGO s namely CooperAcci n 1 Major Gold Project Implodes in Peru: Community Succeeds in Opposing Controversial Gold Mine, Mining Watch Canada posted on Friday, December 12, 2003, article accessed at http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/major gold project implodes peru community succeeds opposing controversial gold mine last accessed, A ugust, 2010 2 Victory for Villagers against World s Largest Mining Company, The Ecologist, publicized in November, 2005, p. 10; The Cost of Gold Treasure of Yanachcha, Tangled Strands in Fight Over Peru Gold Mine, New York Times, published on June 14, 2010, article accessed at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/25/international/americas/25GOLD.html last accessed, August, 2010.
55 ( Acci n Solidaria para el Desarrollo ), CONACAMI ( Confederaci n Nacional de Comunidades del Per Afectadas por la Miner a ), and GRUFIDES ( El Grupo de Formacin e Intervencin para el Desarrollo Sostenible ); 2) t he projects were being operated by foreign capital at a large scale; and 3) protests were successful in the sense that local communities obtained some of their demands against the mining company as an outcome of their mobilization. The conflicts in Tambogr ande and Yanacocha reveal ed a deep seated fear and distrust against mining operations at diverse social levels. They also show the changed status of local communities in the ir interaction s with large mining companies. How could local people take part in th e decision making of the mining operations which had been conventionally monopolized by the mining company and the state? Does this changed status of the local community signify that local people are holding more powerful position in their relationship wit h the mining company? In order to discuss these questions, we need to examine the changed profile and status of large mining companies in the Peruvian mining industry. The Large Mining Industry in Peru: 1900s 1990s The Cerro de Pasco, 1900s 1950s The first mining boom after the independence of Peru started with the Minin g Code in 1901 which stimulated private investment in the mineral sector. Concentrated in large scale mines, foreign capital entirely controlled major large mining operations in Peru un til the nationalization of the mining sector in the 1970s. The presence of foreign capital in large mines started with the establishment of the Cerro de Pasco Corporation. Founded in 1902 by North American capital, the Cerro de Pasco Corporation was the la rgest copper mine for over half a century in Peru, having a comprehensive control of economic and social life of the central highland (Contreras 1987; Long and Roberts 1984). The Cerro de Pasco Corporation was a mining, smelting and refining operator as we ll as being the largest landowner of the large mine
56 sites in the central highlands including the Cerro de Pasco, Morococha, Casapalca, Oroya, Yauricocha, and San Cristobal (DeWind 1987 : 20 39). The primary interaction of the company with the region was ma de in the form of employment of a labor force which was mainly composed of migrant peasants. 3 As the technology level was not high in the Cerro de Pasco until the mechanization of the 1950s, the Cerro had a great need for unskilled labor secured through th e enganche (debt labor system). Wage s from the mine s encouraged the commercialization of rural societies in the central highlands. Moreover, commercial activities arising from the mining economy accelerated the capitalist development of the region, for ins tance through the creation of local markets designed for mineworkers, increasing mobility through the infrastructure constructed for the mining activities, and agro pastoral production through the company owned Ganadera division. 4 The Southern Peru Copper Corporation and the Marcona Mining Company, 1950s 1970s The Mining Code of 1950 foretold the arrival of different types of large mining companies in Peru. 5 In 1955, the Southern Peru Copper Corporation (SPCC) was created with the participation of th e Cerro in association with Asarco, Phelps Dodge, Newmont and the Grupo Maran, all of which were among the seven largest mining companies in the world (Martini re 1999 : 365). I n 1953, the Marcona Mining Company was created by the Utah Construction 3 Dore judges the scale of the Cerro de Pasco by saying that by the 1920s the (Cerro de Pasco) Corporation was the largest employer in Peru. (1988:121). According to Long and Roberts, the average number of workers in the extraction of the Cerro was 16,000 in the late 1930s and 1940s (1984:50). 4 De Wind explains that the Cerro de Pasco Corporation purchased most of the land of the Ganadera Division in order to reduce any legal charges of contamination against its Oroya smelter (1987:230). However, more complicated reasons were sought for the Cerro s purchase of the farm (Long and Roberts 1984:49). The products from the division were mostly sold to workers and employees of the mine at a price lower than market. Providing agro pastoral products to mine workers at a low price facilitated the Cerro to red uce labor costs and improve the stability of the mine labor force (Lagos et al. 2002:5). 5 The Mining Code in 1950 simplified the tax structure in order to provide much lower tax rates for the mining industry compared to any other sectors (Dore 1988:141; B ecker 1983:37). Dore explains that with the Mining Code of 1950, the Peruvian government committed to subsidize the mining companies, which were expected to be profitable with open pit mining techniques (1988:142).
57 Company in association with the Cyprus Mines Corporation and both of them were U.S. based companies. The mining operations of SPCC and Marcona were characterized by the most up to date technologies. As these mines adopting the latest mining and metallurgical techn ologies, including open pit methods, the Peruvian large mining sector was heading toward a technology revolution which would take place in the 1960s. The change from labor intensive to capital intensive operation for the large mining sector signified that regional impact of this new type of operations would be significantly different from the previous ones. Profitability was generated not fr om low wages of an unskilled labor but rather from higher productivity obtained through modern technology. 6 This indus trial change among open pit large mines brought about restructuring in the mining labor force The demand for unskilled labor decreased and priority was given to maintaining the stability of labor forces. One of the corporate strategies to enhance the labo r stability was to provide better compensations to workers, which caused work in the mine to be sought after not only by local peasants but by migrants from diverse cities. As mining was attracting people from diverse cities, migrants from Lima and other c ities began to replace migrant peasants for unskilled labor in the mines. Even when peasants made it into the mines, they could not maintain their agricultural ties because of the labor contract which did not permit absence from the mine sites. M odernized open pit mining operations after the mid 1950s had fewer socioeconomic linkages to local societies compared to the Cerro de Pasco ( until the mid 1950s ), or to the medium scale mining operations. Work in the open pit mines was attracting people fr om diverse cities because it was less demanding in terms of working conditions but provided higher 6 According to DeWind (1987:86), the ope n pit system in Toquepala (one of the projects of SPCC) produced roughly 18 times more ore per worker than the underground system used in the Cerro de Pasco Corporation s mines and the profit rate of the SPCC was almost 4 times larger than that of the Cerr o de Pasco Corporation.
58 remuneration compared to other salaried work (Becker 1983 : 291). Moreover, as the stability of labor force was a high priority to the mining operations, the companies had little incentive to rely on migrant peasants as a source of labor force. Thus, work from open pit large mines was no longer a dependable source of labor for subsistent peasants who migrated in search of a temporary employment as a supplementa ry measure to offset their deficient agricultural production. Moreover, export economy through mineral extraction was not properly benefiting the Peruvian economy. Benefits from minera l extraction were not invested in socioeconomic infrastructure (Long and Roberts 1984 : 12) and mining operations existed as an enclave with little relevance to other domestic sectors (Kuramoto 1999 : 23; Martini re 1999 : 355). Thus, the nationalization of the Cerro into Centromin in 1973 and the transfer of the Marcona to Hierr oPeru in 1974 by the military regime could be understood as measure s to reduce these negative enclave effects of the mining sector. The period from the early 1980 to the early 1990 was a decade of socioeconomic deteriorations in Peru. Socioeconomic crisis was aggravated by the internal war provoked by the activities of the Shining Path and the repercussions were wide and deep affecting diverse sectors including the mining industry. The m ining sector during this decade was characterized by low investment a nd over excavation significantly lowering its productivity (Kuramoto 1999 : 28; Martini re 1999 : 373) 7 The end of terrorism and the adoption of the privatization policies of the Fujimori government (1990 1998) as well as the global expansion of mining capital in the early 1990s heralded that the mining sector in Peru would be making a transformative turn from the previous decade. In 1991, a range of legal actions were under taken by the Peruvian government 7 Recession in the mining sector resulted in the closure of mining sites, especially small scale mines. It also led to the reduction in mineral production. For instance, the annual growth rate of the mining sector between 1987 and 1992 was minus 4.36% (Martini re 1999:354).
59 to promote private investment in diverse sectors including the mining sector. For instance, Legislative Decree 662 was passed to promote foreign investments, 8 Legislative Decree 674 was initiated for the privatization of state owned companies (Kuramoto 1999 : 28) and Legislative Decree 708 was created to promote private investment in the mining sector. 9 The mining boom of the 1990s 10 came with the participation of foreign capital from countries which did not have prior experience in the mining sector of Peru. 11 Mining projects which had been previously owned by the state were privatized by foreign mining companies as in the case of Cerro Verde by Phelps Dodge Tintaya by BHP, Cajamarquilla by Cominco, M arcona by Shougan, and Centromin by Doe Run. Foreign investment also promoted an exploration of new projects in Antamina by Noranda, Rio Algom and Teck; Pierina by Barrick; and Yanacocha by Newmont and Buenaventura (Glave and Kuramoto 2002 : 30). Large min ing sites which had been abandoned for financial reasons began to be explored as joint venture s by 8 Legislative Decree 662 guaranteed equal conditions for the market participation of foreign and domestic capital by prohibiting any discriminatory treatment against foreign investment in comparison with domestic investment (Echave and Torres 2005:41). 9 Legislative Decree 708 regulated all processes related to mining activities and it offered to the mining sector a range of benefits including tax stability, permission to transfer profits abroad, free availability of foreign currency, and free domestic and foreign commerce. It was also through LD 708 that the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Programs of Environmental Adjustment and Management ( Programas de Adecuacin y Manejo Ambiental PAM A by its Spanish acronym) were introduced in the mining sector (Echave and Torres 2005:42). 10 There are numerous data available on the mining expansion in Peru during the 1990s. For instance, between 1992 and 1997, mineral production more than tripled per day (Moran 2001: iv). Land occupied by mining activities more than tripled in the 1990s from 10 million to 34 million hectares in the 1990s (Glave and Kuramoto 2002:3). By 1999, about 55% of six thousand peasant communities were in an area affected by mini ng (Echave 2001). Mineral production increased as a whole in all mineral items but the increase of gold production was especially remarkable For instance, gold production increased 2,480 % from 1980 to 1999 principally driven by the operation of Yanacocha which started its production in 1994 (Echave 2001:5). 11 For instance, mining companies from Australia (Broken Hill Proprietary), Canada (Teck Corpor ation, Cambior, Noranda, Placer Dome, TX/Milpo/Simsa), France (Cedimin), Great Britain (RTZ), Japan (Mitsui ), and South Africa (Anglo American) submitted petitions for a mine exploration in Peru between 1992 and 1995 (Daff s 1997:64).
60 diverse foreign and domestic mining companies. 12 The expansion of mining investment signified that the area without prior experiences of large mining operation was turning into a hub of the mining industry as in the case of Cajamarca (Yanacocha) and Ancash (Barrick and Antamina) in the northern Peruvian Andes. With the agglomeration of mining capital the scale of mining projects was getting bigger with better financial security. The further importance of foreign shareholders as well as the growing scale of large mining projects, on the other hand, becam e a source of pressures to enhance the stability and transparency of mining operations. Mining Multinational Corporations and the Mining Boom of the 1990s The diversification and alliances of foreign mining capital since the 1990s indicates a tendency fo r globalization in the profile of large mining companies in Peru. The mining sector after the 1990s has also witnessed the emergence of new actors which has compelled changes in the corporate strategies of large mining companies. From a financial perspecti ve the growing role of public financial institutions is notable, namely the World Bank Group (WBG) and the national E xport Credit A gencies (ECAs) (see Table 2 1 for a brief description of the acronyms) Channeled through the International Finance Corporat ion (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), the private financial arms of the WBG, the WBG has financed major large mining projects in Peru including Antamina, Cajamarquilla, Cerro Verde, Mitsu, Tintay, and Yanacocha. 13 The financing through IFC/MIGA meant that the projects are regulated 12 The examples of these associations are those of RTZ and CRA, BHP and Magma, BRGM and Normandy, Cyprus and Amax, Alcan and Pech iney, el Grupo Mexico and Phelps Dodges, Billiton, Noranda and Codelco, Cominco and Teck Corporation, among others (Echave 2001:23). 13 The IFC/MIGA financed mining projects in Peru are as follows: Antamina held by Noranda Inc. Rio Algom Limited, EDC, Teck Corporation based in Canada and by Mitsubishi Corporation in Japan financed in 1999 and 2000; Cajamarquilla held by Marubeni in Japan financed in 1996; Cerro Verde held by Cyprus Climax Metals Company in the United States in 1995; Mi ts u del Peru by Mi ts u & Co. Inc. of the U.S. in 2001; Magma Tintaya by Magma Copper Company in the U.S. financed in 1995; Yanacocha held by Union Bank of Switzerland, Newmo n t, Mine Or S.A. in the U.S. financed in 1994 and 1995. ( http://www.miga.org/regions/index_sv.cfm?stid=1531&country_id=169&hcountrycode=PE last accessed, August, 2010. )
61 by a set of environmental and social guidelines such as the World Bank Operational Guideline 4.20 designed to alleviate negative effects of mining project s for indigenous populations (MMSD 2002 : 153), and the Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement (Szablowski 2004 : 248) among others. F inancing through the ECAs has also become another source of external regulation on the mining companies practices even though the regulatory policies of t he ECAs have been known less to the public compared to those of the WBG agencies (MMSD 2002 : 136). 14 The regulatory influence of these public financing institutions in the mining sector is still controversial because their guidelines are not obligatory on m ining companies. However, they have played a role as a pressure group to mining companies especially when there were reported cases of misconduct or incompliance with guidelines (Perlez and Johnson 2005) Table 2 1. List of a cronyms, a bbreviations and e q uivalences for g roups m entioned in n arrative t ext. Abbreviation Definition Feature AA Asociaci n Ancash Corporate agency(CMA) ACUDIP Asociaci n para el Desarrollo Integral NGO ARP Accelerated Resettlement Plan Program title CIDA Canadian International Development Agency Governmental agency CMA Compa a Minera Antamina Company CME Manufactures & Exporters Private institution CONACAMI Coordinadora Nacional de Comunidades Campesinas del Per Afectadas por la Miner a NGO CONFIEP Confederacin Nacional de Instituciones E mpresariales Privadas Private institution CooperAcci n Acci n Solidaria para el Desarrollo NGO 14 Antamina is a good example of a large mining project with a high proportion of ECAs financing For the US $2.3 billion Antamina project, ECAs provided 51 % of the debt finance, guaranteed a further 8 % and were part of a consortium guaranteeing a further 25 % (MMSD 2002:136).
62 Table 2 1. Continued Abbreviation Definition Feature CRO Oficina de Relaciones Comunitarias Corporate agency(CMA) CSR Corporate Social Responsibility DESCO Centro de Estudios y Promoci n del Desarrollo NGO Development Roundtable Mesa de la Concertac i n Program title ECAs E xport Credit Agencies Private institution EIA E nvironmental Impact Assessment Program title FIDA Fondo de Inversiones para el Desarrollo de Ancash Development fund FMA Fondo Minero Antamina Development fund FOCADER Fortalecimiento de Capacidades para el Desarrollo NGO GAD Gender and Development GAM Gender Analytic Matrix GDP Gross Domestic Product GMI Global Mining Initiative Program title GRADE Grupo de An lisis para el Desarrollo NGO GRUFIDES El Grupo de Formacin e Intervencin para el Desarrollo Sostenible NGO GTH Grupo de Trabajo Huascarn NGO IDESI Instituto de Desarrollo del Sector Informal NGO IDMA Instituto de Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente NGO IIED International Institute for Environment and Development s International organization IFC International Finance Corporation International organization INEI Instituto Nacional de Estadstica e Informtica Governmental agency MEM Ministerio de Energa y Minas Governmental agency MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency International organization
63 Table 2 1. Continued (Source: Elaborated by the author) The operations of large mining companies in Peru are increasingly under the scrutiny of social actors comprising international and national civil organizations. As an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), the activities of the Oxfam Ame rica and Oxfam UK in Abbreviation Definition Feature MNCs Mining Multinational Corporations NGDOs Non governmental Development Organizations NGO Non governmental Organizations OD 4.20 Operational Directive 4.20 on Indigenous Peoples Program title OD 4.30 Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement Program title PAMA Programas de Adecuacin y Manejo Ambiental Program title PMIP Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestructura P blica Program title PMSP Programa Minero de Solidaridad con el Pueblo Program title PRODESA Programa de Desarrollo de la Sanidad Agropecuar a s NGO SMGB Sociedad Minera Gran Breta a s Company SNIP Sistema Nacional de Inversion Pblica Governmental agency SNMPE Sociedad Nacional de Minera Petrleo y Energa Governmental agency SPCC Southern Peru Copper Corporation s Company WBCSD World Business Council on Sustainable Development Private institution WBG World Bank Group International organization WID Women in Development Workshop of Participative Budgeting Taller de Presupuesto Participativo Program title
64 the Minera Majaz (Bebbington et al. 2007 : 18 20), Tambogrande (Moran 2001; Muradian et al. 2003), and Yanacocha are the most representative examples in Peru showing how international NGOs have played the role of a mediator in the confr ontational scene between mining company and local communities. The intervention of these international NGOs has taken place in the form of assistance to national activist groups including CooperAcci n, CONACAMI, and GRUFIDES through financing and staffing of these organizations, and through reports of conflicts to national as well as international audiences by using their conventional networking. The cooperation of national and international activist groups has been proven effective because it enlarged the audience of the conflictive scene to include the countries where the financing and consumption of mining projects originate, which could be a considerable threat to the company s reputation. The involvement of these new actors in the mining sector has contributed to changing the status of local communities in their interaction with large mining companies. As large mineral deposits are typically placed in a remote Andean highland, the majority of large mining operations have taken place in a local settin g where the livelihood profoundly relies on subsistent agro pastoral production. A review of the history of the Peruvian mining industry reveals tha t the mining sector has been functionally linked to the subsistent agricultural economy of the Andean highla nd in the form of unskilled peasant mine labor. The technological revolution in large mining sector after the 1950s, however, has greatly weakened the linkage between the mining sector and the agricultural economy, generating the enclave effects of the lar ge mining industry. Large mining operations begun after the 1990s have intensified the mining enclave effects as they are adopting totally mechanized open pit techniques. Despite the growth of large mining operations in the 1990s, their total employment ra te has decreased from 29,000 to 23,000 (Glave and Kuramoto 2002 : 16). Moreover, increasing demands for skilled mine workers have propelled
65 mining companies to hire their labor force from cities outside the regions in the vicinity of the mine wh ich convent ionally do not have the capacity to provide a sufficient number of skilled mineworkers. The local perception that the presence of large mining companies would not make any significant contribution to local economy has caused protest s against large mining o perations. The confrontational episodes of the large mining projects in Peru including Majaz, Tambogrande, and Yanacocha reflect that local people in the large mining region have organized collectively in cooperation with outside activist groups. This lo cal strategy has enabled local people to take the status of main actor in the mining operations, affecting the fate of large mining projects. Global financing as well as a growing number of regulatory agents in the mining sector have generated pressures for large mining companies to keep a good relationship with local communities. The growing importance of community relationship has also been widely observed through the expe rience of divisive episodes in large mining projects. As a highly localized process, mineral extraction is intimately related to local livelihood, which makes it highly susceptible to local protest as well as to unpredicted disruptive incidences. 15 The cost of local conflicts and their ramifications can be particularly severe to the mining sector because of the highly volatile features of the industry. The volatility of the mining industry arises from diverse 15 Local protest has been a major factor in the cancellation, modification or delay of large mining projects. There is an ample range of examples on mining conflicts. To present a few of them, 1) Mitsubishi funded mining project in Intag, Ecuador was cancelled by local protest in the late 1990s (Kuecker 2007); 2) Codelco proposed mining project in Ecuador was cancelled by local resistance in the 1990s (Martinez Alier 2001:158); 3) Ok Tedi mine in Papua New Guinea by Broken Hill Proprietary (BHP) confronted local resistance for its environmentally and socially disastrous impact. Af ter a two years court fight between BHP and local representatives composed of six hundred clans and thirty thousand indigenous people, the settlement was made in 1996 requiring the company to implement a containment system and pay k40milllion(Papua New Gu inean kina) as compensation for its disastrous impact and k110 million to all affected persons (Hyndman 2001:34); 4) Tambo Grande project launched by Manhattan in 1996 was resisted by local people with several violent scenes and a referendum was conducted in 2002 with 94 % of voters saying no to the project (Muradian et al. 2003). The project was cancelled and the Manhattan corporation was completely withdrawn from Peru in 2003; and 5) Newmont s plan to expand operation of the Yanacocha into the Quilish hill was withdrawn in 2004, faced by strong local resistance arising from the fear of consequent environmental contaminations (Perlez and Johnson 2005).
66 factors such as high up front costs before the pr oject enters the minerals production stage 16 unstable minerals market price (Danielson 2001), and the adoption of lean manufacturing techniques and just in time inventory system (Humpreys 2000 : 128). These changed environments point out that community re lations in the mining industry could signify both greater risks and opportunities. In accordance with these changes, a review of recent mining corporate approaches indicates that community concerns are given a higher priority in the mining industry (Jenkin s 2004). In this context, recent tendencies of mining companies to present themselves in the language of sustainable development constitute a major corporate strategy to address community concerns. The effort to associate the mining sector with sustainabl e development has been made at various levels. At the global level, the Global Mining Initiative (GMI) organized in 1999 is an emblematic example. Represented by 34 mining multinational corporations (MNCs), the major action of the GMI has been to undertake a two year project the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development project (MMSD) which was operated by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) (Yakovleva 2005 : 42). They proposed to assess the global mining sector in relatio n to sustainable development and identify the manners in which the sector could make a better contribution to sustainable development (MMSD 2002 : xiv) T he MMSD project is remarkable because it was the first and most comprehensive action taken by global mi ning companies to institutionalize their strategies in the global arena by using the language of sustainable development. Corporate strategy to portray the mineral extraction in association with sustainable development is also frequently observed at the individual project level. For instance, in an 16 The minerals cycles can be broadly divided into the five: exploration, evaluation, mine site development, extraction mining (production), and closure. For further details, see MMSD, 2002:34.
67 analysis of the company report of 16 mining comp anies from the Rio Tinto group to BHP Billiton group and the Anglo American group, Jenkins (2004 :29 ) detects that the companies are identifying themselves in thei r relationship s with local communities as a world leader powerful and an engine of economic and social development In order to portray themselves as a promoter of development, mining companies depend on the rhetoric of sustainable development as a motive for their operations. ( 2004 : 31). From that perspective mineral extractions are portrayed as an activity which is compatible with sustainable local livelihood and a mining company is identified as a major actor accountable for the ultimate goal of local development. The primacy of the sustainable development framework in global mining companies recent corporate strategy is also discerned by the proliferating case studies on the subject (Esteves 2008; Guerra 2002; Humpreys 2002; Jenkins 2004 ; Kapel us 2002; Warhurst et al. 2000; and Yakovleva 2005). The circulation of sustainable development frameworks in the global mining industry is a source of expectations and concerns. As a sector which has been historically charged with disastrous environmental and social conduct, corporate effort to give better consideration to community relations in the large mining industry raises the expectation that the sector may be turning into a new business stage where the mining company fulfills its responsibility resp ecting the rights of other stakeholders, as the frequently addressed perspective which differentiates the Peruvian mining industry between old mining and new mining industry has argued (Bebbington et al., 2007 : 5). On the other hand, sustainable development rhetoric in the mining sector has almost always constituted the narrative of the company with little relevance to the language of local people. In that sense, the rhetoric of sustainable development and corpor ate social responsibility in the mining sector can be easily used as a means for a mining company to
68 create its own images based on propaganda rather than reality, and thus justify its presence in a local setting. The following sections will examine how th e framework of development was implemented by the Antamina Mining Company (CMA) a mining multinational corporation, throughout its interaction with local communities of the district of San Marcos, a n agricultural town in the northern Peruvian Andes. For t hat purpose, we shall first look at the arrival and progress of the Antamina project in San Marcos. CMA and Community Development Projects in San Marcos History of Mining in San Marcos San Marcos is one of 16 districts in the province of Huari in the northern Peruvian Andes belonging to the department of Ancash. It is part of the Conchucos V alley which has the Cordillera Blanca mountain range on its eastern side. Considered as one of the world s highest tropical mountain r ange s with the southern peak of Huascar n reaching 6768 meters above sea level the region has a rough topography constituted of high peaks covered with snow, deep valleys, and harsh living environments. The rough topography as well as the remoteness of t he Conc hucos V alley had made the region isolated from much of the economic and social activities of the coastal cities. T he outstanding landscape of Huascar n ha s been the most important attraction for the Conchucos region to the outside until large mining projects were initiated in the 1990s. The historical record notes that the Conchucos region was known for its silver veins before the Spaniards arrived. The first mine in the region to be discovered by the Spaniards was recorded in 1644 (Riveral 1999: 2 00). 17 It is reported that there was an attempt by a British engineer to exploit minerals from the region with advanced technology in 1817 which became 17 The mines in the Conchucos V alley known in the Colonial Peru include the mines of Conchucos, Siguas, Tambillo, Pomapamba, Chacas, Cuari, Chavin, Guanta, and Ruriquincha y (Bonnycastle 1818:129).
69 futile for financial restraints as well for an unexpected incident (Trevithick 1872, Chapter 22). 18 While the region was known to the Spaniards for its mineral veins, mineral exploitation in the region seems to have been mostly worked locally during the colonial Peru with few consequences for the central economy. Figure 2 1. Map of San Marcos and Antamina (Source: http://www.minem.gob.pe ). The first mineral extraction in the area of San Marcos took place in the Contonga mine. It was explored and operated by the Sociedad Minera Gran Breta a (SMGB) from 1984 to 1990, and later transferred to the Minera Huallanca in 2003. As an underground polymetallic mine, Contonga is classified as a medium sized mine. Due to the scale of the mine, its impact was limited to the creation of local mining employment. Despite its li mited impact, the experience of the Contonga by SMGB remained and operated as a reference point for local people in San Marcos affecting their expectation s when CMA first arrived at the area. 18 The incident refers to the murder of two Europeans which is described as follows: In the year 1817 two Englishmen, sent from Pasco by Mr. Trevithick (who afterwards followed with the intention of working some of the silver m ines in Conchucos) were murdered by the guides at a place called Puloseco. This horrid act was perpetrated by crushing their heads with two large stones, as they lay asleep on the ground. The murderers were men who had come with them from Pasco. (Trevith ick 1872, Chapter 22)
70 The first mining activity in the area of the Antamina deposit was made in the Taco and Rosa mines, recorded by Anto n io Raimondi in his publication of El Peru in 1860 (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998 : 1 3). Afterwards, there were successive attempts for exploration by individual mining engineers including a Peruvian mining eng ineer, Cutberto Giles in the early 1900s (Boggio 1988 : 241). While the deposit was known to be very promising, it largely remained undeveloped until it was explored more extensively by the Cerro de Pasco in the early 1950s. DeWind explains that the abrupt withdrawal of the Cerro de Pasco from the Antamina might have been related to budget and tax problems (1987 : 91). The sporadic exp lorations of the deposit by the Cerro between 1969 and 1970 were deemed inadequate for the governmental requirements and the majority of the concessions were transferred to the state owned Minero Peru in 1971. In 1974, a joint venture between Minero Peru a nd a Rumanian company of Geomin was made for the exploration of the deposit. A feasibility study was completed in 1981 which indicated a production capacity from 10,000 tons per day for 7 years and to 20,000 tons per day for 13 years. Even though the study was optimistic, Geomin withdrew from the project for financial difficulties in 1982. Afterwards, i t l argely stayed undeveloped for a lack of investment I n 1993, the rights to the deposit were transferred to the state owned Centomin Peru S.A. as a partial strategy of the government for its privatization efforts 19 The experience of the Antamina mining deposit is exemplary of other large mining deposits in Peru such as Tintaya, Yanacocha, and Pierina which stayed unexplored despite their promising minera l capacity for the lack of investment until they were finally conceded to multinational mining capital by the privatization policies of the 1990s. I could not get a local 19 Information accessed at http://www.proinversion.gob.pe/RepositorioAPS/0/0/JER/PACENTROMIN/Antamina/Resumen_Ejecu tivo_Antami na.pdf last accessed, August 2010.
71 description about the origin of the Antamina deposit during my fieldwork Only a coup le of senior people in San Marcos remembered the aborted efforts of Cerro de Pasco, Minero Peru and the Geomin to exploit the deposit However, local people in San Marcos usually said that they had heard from their parents or grandparents that San Marcos w as seated on top of minerals, which allows us to assume that people in San Marcos had some idea ab out the magnitude of the deposit long before the scale of the deposit was finally known to the world through the exploration of CMA in the late 1990s Privatization of the Antamina Deposit and the Establishment of CMA Bidding for the Antamina deposit was made in 1996 as a part of the Fujimori government s privatization program. Two Canadian companies Rio Algom and Inmet won the bidding in a partnership with an offer of a US $ 20 million cash payment, commit ted to spending at least US $ 13.5 million on a feasibility study, and a pledged investment commitment of US $ 2,500 million ( Moel and Tufano 2000: 26 ). The bidding came with a two years grace period du ring which the winning bidder would study the feasibility of the project and decide either to give up the project after wasting US $ 20 million up front or to proceed with the project on conditions of 30 % penalty payment when its total investment falls shor t of its committed amount ( Moel and Tufano 2000 : 15). By the time of bidding, the Antamina deposit was known as the largest unexplored ore deposit in the world. However, there was no data available on the exact amount of reserves, which increased the uncertainty of the project. Moreover, the remoteness of the mine site was another factor making the project very challenging and expensive ( Moel and Tufano 2000 : 3). However, the subsequent exploration of the deposit by the winning bidder proved that the reserves were much greater than expected, clearing up any doubts on the feasibility of the project. In 1998, Inmet sold its interest in the project for financial reasons to the two Canadian companies of Noranda Inc. and TeckCominco Corp., which brought about a consortium of
72 Compa a Minera Antamina (CMA) comprising three Canadian companies : Noranda, Teck, and Rio Algom. 20 As the large scale of the project indicates, the project of CMA entailed financing f rom diverse global institutions. A total financing of US $ 1 ,320 million was secured by 2001 from 22 export credit agencies (ECAs) and commercial banks. The financing of CMA also involved loans from the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) of the World Bank Group (WBG). 21 The financing of CMA project instilled it with truly global dimension s greatly enlarging the profile of its shareholders. In addition, the engagement of MIGA signified that the company would be regulated by operational guidelines of the WBG including the Operational Directive (OD) 4.30 on I nvoluntary Resettlement and OD 4.20 on Indigenous Peoples (Szablowski 2004). The scale and profile of the project financing of CMA implied that the risk of going astray from its proposed scheme could be enormous, even endangering the continuity of the project. As an open pit pol ymetallic mining project, the establishment of CMA attracted nation wide attentions and expectations especially because of its large scale. As of the year 2002, the project was presented as the third largest in the world and the first largest copper zinc m ining site in the world, representing 0.8 % of GDP and 30 % of the mineral production of Peru. 22 The project was also extensively broadcast not only by the Fujimori government (1990 2000) but by 20 The ownership of CMA has gone through several important changes along with the active merging and amalgamation of global mining capital. Specifically, i n October 2000, UK based Billiton Plc acquired 95% shares of Rio Algom along with its share for Antamina, and in the following year, Billiton Plc. a nd BHP merged to Australia UK based BHP Billiton Plc. In October 1999, Japan based Mitsubishi acquired 10% s take with an agreement to provide 14 year off take agreement for 200,000 tpy production, becoming a new participant of CMA. In July 2005, Noranda Inc. was merged into Toronto based Falconbridge Ltd., which was absorbed by Swiss based Xstrata in August 2006 Currently, the ownership of CMA is shared by Swiss based Xstrata 33.75%, Australia UK based BHP Billiton Plc. 33.75%, Canada based TeckCominco Ltd. 22.5%, and Japan based Mitsubishi Corp. 10%. 21 In 1999, MIGA provided US $67.5 million for equity invest ment to CMA. In the next year, MIGA issued additional loans amounting US $40 million to Mitsubishi. ( http://www.miga.org/news/index_sv.cfm?stid=1506&aid=49&pv=s last accessed, Augus t 2010 ) 22 Source: http://www.antamina.com/01_antamina/CMA.html last accessed, August 2010.
73 the Toledo government (2001 2006) as a showcase of their own acc omplishment s for the economic and social development of Peru. For instance, Fujimori claimed his contribution to the project through the following retrospective memo. Arguing that CMA paid US $ 100 million s regional development funding in the form of penal ty to the Toledo administrations in 2002, Fujimori says : Ancash has the capital necessary for its development, thanks to the privatization program that was implemented durin g my governmental terms. Toledo, his family and friends of the Peru Posible do not have any rights to deny a progress to these people. (Fujimori 2004) 23 On the other hand, through out his address at the inauguration ceremony of the Antamina project in November 2001, then president Toledo commemorated the project as a symbol of the emerg ence of a more positive attitude of foreign investors toward a stable and reliable political environment in Peru (Potts 2002). To the Toledo government, the successful inauguration of such a mega project as Antamina embodied a breakthrough from the politi cal instability of the past decades toward a stable integration of Peru into the world economy. Arrival of CMA in San Marcos and the Development Promises: 1996 1998 The initial stage of CMA s project corresponds to the mining exploration period (September 1996 July 1997) and pre construction period (August 1997 September 1998) during which the encounter between CMA and local communities in San Marcos began While the interaction between CMA and local communities was minimal during the exploration period b eing limited to the irregular visits of a team of engineers, CMA began to have a regular presence in the local setting once its pre feasibility study was proven positive in August 1997 (Szablowski 2004 : 341). During the se periods, CMA was involved in two major tasks: 1) a complete environmental impact assessment (EIA) and get ting an approval of the assessment 23 The quoted memo is accessed at http://albertofujimori.org/index.php?selection=others&articleId=1241 last accessed, August 2010, translated by author from Spanish.
74 from the Peruvian government; and 2) completing land transactions required for the mining construction and providing partial r esettlement measures to displaced families. Controlled by distinct levels of regulations, each task became a source of different types of local expectations as well as of delusions concerning the mining company. The interaction between CMA and local communities in San Marcos dur ing this initial project stage is important because it engendered a range of upcoming local conflicts, many of them still remaining unsettled The legal grounds of the EIA were created during the 1990s through a series of legislative measures 24 of the Peru vian government as its partial effort to promote private investment in the mining sector. The legal ranges regulating the EIA include environmental impact of the mining operations as well as more comprehensive fields such as social and cultural impact on t he affected local communities. 25 In addition to these Peruvian national laws, CMA s EIA includes the guidelines of the IFC/WBG as its regulatory framework, confirming that the project would be monitored by the standards of the WBG (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998 : 2 11). CMA s EIA prese nts its objectives as follows: 1) evaluate any potential risks or impact of the proposed mining project from its environmental as well as its socio economic aspects, and; 2) propose a plan to minimize or monitor any negative impact of the project (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998 : C h. 1). These stated objectives of EIA in fact stand on the assumption that these impact s can be assessed in advance and they can be controlled by corporate measures. Moreover, thanks to the norms requiring that the document be elaborated by an independent consultant group which is enlisted by the Peruvian ministry of energy and mines (MEM) a nd the regulations that it should be approved by 24 These measures include the L egislation D irective (LD) 708 on the promotion of investment in the mining sector (11/14/91) which introduced EIA in the mining sector (Echave and Torres 2005:42), and a range of legislations about environmental protection such as LD 613 (08/09/90), and LD 757 (13/11/91) (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998:2 10). 25 The legal regulations controlling CMA s EIA are presented in detail in Chapter 2 of the same report (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998).
75 MEM, the document serves as a measure to endow the mining company with official authority In this manner, EIA operated as a type of official license so that CMA could start its operation in a local setting. Nonetheless, it should be remembered that the elaboration or approval of the document barely and seldom involved any local participation. 26 Moreover, during my fieldwork I encountered various strata of local people who were complaining that CMA was not fu lfilling what is stated in its EIA. These complaints reflect that the validity of EIA as a license for CMA to operate in the local setting has not been well grounded on a local consensus. While the EIA entailed a limited degree of local participation, land transaction s and resettlement measures of CMA involved much more intense and comprehensive local participation 27 Land transaction and resettlement are among the most conflictive local issues in the mining industry particularly because they directly a ffect or even endanger the livelihood of affected people. As well, land transaction often becomes a very complicated process because formal land owner ship is a rare practice in the Andean highland. As well due to the limited timeline of the mining project where any unexpected delay could signify severe financial damages or even a cancellation of the entire project, mining companies are often pressured to make hasty and locally unacceptable decisions to get things done on time. By 1997, CMA had petitioned for the rights to the minera ls belonging to approximately 12, 000 hectares of land in total in San Marcos (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998 : C h. 1). As these concessions guarantee only the rights to the minerals underneath the ground which are considered to be belonging to the state, 26 Vladimir Gil gives a detailed account of how restricted was local participatio n in CMA s EIA (2005:168 245). Specifically, Gil recounts that: 1) public hearing for CMA s EIA was not accessible because it was taken place in Lima; 2) only the executive summary of the EIA was distributed in the public hearing; 3) the complete EIA was a vailable only in the offices of the Ministry in Lima to only interested parties; and 4) the concerns during the hearings were not well incorporated in the document (2005: 202). 27 Three ethnographic works of Guillermo Salas (2008), David Szablowski (2004), and Vladimir Gil (2005) provide excellent details on the conflictive episodes surrounding land purchase of CMA in San Marcos which was begun in 1997.
76 the purchase of surface land should have been done separately with individual landowner s. Several di stinctive and even contradicting regulations were ruling CMA s land purchase and resettlement policies, which became an important so urce of upcoming conflicts. In particular, financed by IFC/MIGA of the WBG, CMA is regulated by the OD 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement which encourages land for land approaches (WBOM 1990 : 4) and stipulates that resettlement plans should be aimed at im proving or at least restoring the economic base for those relocated ( WBOM 1990 : 2). While OD 4.30 gives a priority to the voluntary decision s of local population s the servitude law ( derecho de servidumbre ) which was modified in 1995 by the Peruvian gove rnment conceded a symbolic power to the mining company in the process of land transaction by offering the company the rights to confiscate the land forcefully at a market price when the owners refuse to sell it (Glave and Kuramoto 2002 : 18). The experien ce of San Marcos indicates that different rules were selectively accepted or discarded by the changing needs of CMA during its negotiation processes. The land for land approaches were suddenly replaced by cash only compensations as resettlement began (Szab lowski 2004: 390). 28 Moreover, it was frequently observed that the engineers who had been contracted by CMA for land transaction promised a myriad of compensational measures to persuade private landowner s, most of which were orally made without any record in writing, thus without any binding force (Szablowski 2004 : 373). 29 The inconsistent policies of CMA during 28 One NGO worker puts the arbitrariness of CMA s land purchase as follows: Agreements of purchases are d one arbitrarily. The limit of the property is not well established. From th e very initial stage, you start initiat ing a lot of problems And the origin of these problems will later come ou t. ( Interview conducted in April 2006, in San Marcos ) 29 It was also commented that the company wants to present itself as a good neigh b or of the village. So, the community relation people make a lot of offers and commitments to the community, to the authorities, and individuals. That we will hire you, that we will build a new school. Some of the people who sold the land, are promised to get not only money, but also jobs. ( Interview conducted with a NGO worker in April 2006, in San Marcos )
77 the land transaction and resettlement processes became a major source of local disappointments and angers toward CMA, some of which still persist 30 Community Development Projects in San Marcos before the Mining Canon: 1999 2006 The implementation of community development projects signified unique challenges to CMA. First, as stated with the framework of corporate social responsibility, community deve lopment projects in the context of the large mining industry were a relatively new field of practice in Peru. 31 The lack of experience in this type of social program was combined with divergent priorities on social issues inside the company, which could cre ate inconsistency in its social programs. Second, because of the scale of the project, the scope of local area which would be affected by the project was large and difficult to mark out. The company report divided the area of influence into four regions : 1 ) the Conchucos valley where the mine is located; 2) Huaraz, capital city of the department of Ancash, where the El Pinar housing, the employees and their families camp, is located; 3) Huarmey, where the port is constructed; 4) Valle de Fortaleza and o ther towns, where the pipeline is constructed ( CMA 2000 : 17). The problem was that each of these regions includes highly differentiated sectors with extremely distinct claims on the impact of mining operations. For instanc e, the region of the Conchucos V alley is again divided into the area of the mine 32 the district of San Marcos, and other regions with distinct levels of impact 30 The NGO worker also points out that there were also a lot of people who were verbally offered, jobs for you, jobs for your family, betterment of your training, etc. N obody kept any drag of the offers. Many of the complaints that Antamina has now are related to the offers made at some times, by some community relations offi cers, but many of them were not fulfilled. But also, in many cases, they get money. ( Interview conducted with a NGO worker in April 2006, in San Marcos ) 31 In its first social responsibility report, CMA puts it the following way: There exists no single ac cepted model for a Social Balance, and there is no standardized information on what a Social Balance should contain; neither is there any previous experience, either on the part of CMA or of the Peruvian mining sector, that could be used as a point of refe rence. ( CMA 2000:5) 32 This area corresponds to the region surrounding the mining deposit, the area most directly affected by the mining operations, such as the Centro Poblado of Santa Cruz de Pichi and the two pastoral villages of Ayash Huaripampa and J uprog.
78 from the mining, each being divided again into sub regions in terms of its impact Third, the land transa ction and resettlement processes had generated serious delusions about CMA among the majority of local people in San Marcos. T h e adoption of Accelerated Resettlement Plan (ARP) at a late stage of land transaction had particularly provoked local anger toward CMA, creating a loc al perception that the company was not consistent and reliable in its behavior (Szablowski 2004 : C h.6). For instance, one of the NGO workers in San Marcos recalls that during 2001 and 2002, the hostility against the mine was very strong. Some people even physically assaulted the employees of the mine at the street. There were some cases that people from Antamina were verbally or physically attacked ( Interview conducted with a NGO worker in Sa n Marcos in March 2006 ) 33 Given these circumstances, it was urgent for CMA to get rid of negative local perceptions toward the company in San Marcos and come up with a more persuasive resettlement program. The incipient ideas for CMA s community development projects were presented in its EIA (Klohn Crippen SVS 199 8). Categorized as an area of immediate impact, San Marcos would be receiving two separate types of assistance, one for the resettled families and the other for the local community in general. Three priorities of community development projects were identif ied: 33 For this research, I conducted three types of interview: 1) semi structured key informant interviews; 2) in depth interviews; and 3) open ended survey. The interviews with the CMA employees, the NGO workers, and the local authorities in San Marcos were mostly conducted in the format of semi structured key informant interview. When I was conducting a semi structured key informant interview, I asked, at the beginning of the interview session, the interviewee(s) to allow me to tape record our conversa tion. If the interviewee(s) agreed, I tape recorded the conversation. If the interviewee(s) did not want me to tape record, I wrote down the conversation in my field note after the session ended. When I was conducting in depth interviews or open ended surv ey, I seldom tape recorded the conversations because most of these conversations were done in a more informal manner. Most of the conversations were done in Spanish. There were few occasions when the interviewee(s) preferred speaking in Quechua for convenience sake or for the lack of fluency in Spanish. When the interviewee(s) spoke in Quechua, I had an accompaniment of an assistant to interpret Quechua into Spanish on my behalf. There were two exceptional cases when the inte rview was done in English. All the interview conversations in this dissertation which had originally been done in Spanish were translated into English by myself. Throughout the present dissertation, I am using pseudo name if I have to name the interview pa rticipants. I consider it very important to keep the anonymity of the interview participants of this study. As the situations in San Marcos can turn into very conflictive, and some information can be considered sensitive, I believe it necessary to keep the anonymity of the interview participants of this study to protect them from getting involved in any conflict due to their participation in this study.
79 1) social development in the form of health and educational projects; 2) economic development via agro pastoral and micro business projects; 3) cultural development through conservation projects in the archaeological site s of Chav n and the Huascar n National Park (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998: C h. 8). While the EIA approaches CMA s community projects from a cost and benefits perspective, the preliminary version of CMA s sustainability report in 2000 explicitly adopted the framework of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a background for its development projects. Adopting the major concepts of the CSR framework as its key variables such as the need for a social license le bottom line approach and stakeh older engagement ( CMA 2000 : 6), CMA identified its position as a of community development projects ( CMA 2000 : 18). To analyze the rhetoric of CMA s development intervention which was first presented in its social balance report in 2000 and further elaborated in the subsequent annual sustainability reports reveals certain important dimensions of the company s rationale in relation s to the local communities. T he following phrases epitomize how the company presented itself to the public : A Peruvian example of mining excellence worldwide. Extraordinary leaders turning challenges into success. Inspiring tomorrow s development (CMA 2005 : 7) Here, CMA is identified as a world class leader which is devoted to creating benefits and values. The c oncept of sustainability is comprehensively used in the CMA narratives to indicate that the achievement of the company is directed not only to the current beneficiaries but to future generation s The association with diverse regulatory regimes such as the code of social responsibility of ICMM (International Council on Mining and Metals) (CMA 2001 : 14), SNMPE (National Society of Mining, Petroleum and Energy) (CMA 2002 : 12), Global Compact of the United Nations (CMA 2003 : 15), and Mining Dialogue Gr oup (CMA 2005: 70) is confirmed in order to show the authenticity
80 of the company s conduct. In this CSR framework, community development projects are presented as a major channel through which the company s commitment to sustainable development is fulfilled. A list of community development projects reported to have been implemented during the relevant period is then presented as a proof in order to corroborate the company s fulfillment in this respect. In these reports, developme nt commitment has future oriented fe atures as the following phrases illuminate: open mind toward change potential future achievement improving the quality of life being an innovative co mpany to achieve extraordinary results (CMA 2005: 8). From this perspective, develop ment is portrayed as a win win strategy (CMA 2005: 8) both of the company and the l ocal communities. Even though development commitment is presented in the reports as an effective channel through which the company builds up its o wn reputational images as a good neighbor of the local communities, it was much more challenging and complicated when it was applied to a local setting. For instance, one NGO worker describes the conflicts during the initial stage of CMA s development intervention as follows: T he town of San Marcos is a town with many family conflicts inside. But with the presence of Antamina, some got money and some did not get money. Some got employment and some did not get employment All this exacerbate d the conflicts You could imagine people coming from other places searching for an opportunity to get money S ome fake NGOs showed up and some people came in with fantastic projects T hey took money away and disappeared. But there was also a major administer of this chaos in the managemen t of these projects ( Interview conducted with a NGO worker in San Marcos, April 2006 ). As this reflection indicates, it was a strong local perception especially during the initial stage of CMA s development intervention that development projects were provided as a means through which the company would make compensation either in money or in employment to
81 local people in return for their support for the mining operations. I could hear during my fieldwork different version s of episodes concerning several people who had the acumen to take advantage of the situation and ma ke their own way after obtaining a fortune from CMA T he creation of the Asociaci n Ancash (AA) in 2002 then, should be understood as an effort of CMA to institutionalize the administration of community development projects and to lessen the conflictive aspects of the development intervention by internally dividing the company s responsibilities which had been previously administered entirely by the Communi ty Relations Office ( Oficina de Relaciones Comunitarias CRO hereafter). Founded as an independent non profit organization, AA was entitled to administer the majority of development funding as well as the development projects which had been previously in c harge of CRO in San Marcos. The priorities of AA were divided into four fields: 1) productive activities including agro pastoral activities; 2) education; 3) health; and 4) tourism. A founding director Alejandro Camino, was invited to build up the structu re and policies of the organization He had been trained as an anthropologist with a comprehensive experience in the field of conservation and rural development. Public bidding and contest s were adopted by AA as a channel to select the operator s or beneficiaries of individual project s These methods were preferred because they were expected to reduce the tendency for development projects to be given as a personal favor or as political compensation and to increase the transparency in the distribu tion of the development fund. As AA started operating in January 2003, CMA s local affairs in San Marcos were divided into three teams: 1) CRO in the mine 34 ; 2) CRO in the town of San Marcos 35 ; and 3) AA 36 The 34 The office was set up in 2001 at the mine site as a response to conflicts with local communities surro unding the site. It works with communities adjoining the mine site such as the population center ( Centro Poblado ) of Santa Cruz de Pichi a sector of Ayash Huaripampa, a peasant village of San Antonio de Juprog and other communities located along the Cono cocha Yanacancha access road such as Aquia and Huallanca. Located at 4,000 meters above
82 company estimated that a total capital investme nt of US $ 2,450 million was made by 2006, among which US $ 2,117 million was invested in the land purchase and construction activities, US $ 112 million was made as a complementary payment 37 which was converted into the Ancash Development Investment Fund ( Fon do de Inversiones para el Desarrollo de Ancash FIDA by its Spanish acronym), and an additional US $ 221 million after the mineral production started in October 2001. Among these investments, the company reported that a total of US $ 28.2 million was spent on CMA s social and economic programs in the Ancash area between 1998 and 2006 (CMA 2006). With a stated objective of improving the quality of life, CMA initially identified two areas of development: 1) a social area through educa tion and health; and 2) an economic area through agro pastoral and micro business activities ( CMA 2001 : 30). Besides, AA had begun to focus on tourism as an additional field of priority since 2003. While several local meetings including the Development R ou ndtable ( M esa de la C oncertaci n ) were organized as a channel for local participation, CMA s units (CRO and AA) stayed as a practical contractor and as a sea level, the neighboring communities of the mine are considered as a puna area in which pastoral activities have an importance as a daily economic activity along with basic farming activities. A total population of these regions was surveyed at 3,780 as of 2005 (CMA 2005:35). 35 Having an office at the town of San Marcos, CRO in San Marcos works with all the communities of the district of San Marcos, except those region s in charge of C R O in the mine. While its work is mostly related to the community affairs and resettlement programs in San Marcos, the office also serves as a liaison of CMA for the neighboring district of Chav n de Huantar and for Huari sector. 36 The off ice of AA is located at the city of Huaraz. While the primary working populations of AA at its initial stage were the district of San Marcos and the coastal city of Huarmey, AA has constantly expanded its scope of participating communities from the areas o f direct influence of Antamina to other areas in the entire Conchuchos Valley. 37 This payment is based on the agreement with the Peruvian government in 1996 in which Inmet and Rio Algom agreed to pay 30 % of the diffe rence between their invested capital an d their US $2.5 billion bid to Centromin if the spending was lower than the bid. With the total investment of US $2,147 made by 2001, CMA made this complementary payment in 2002 to the Peruvian government. FIDA was mostly allocated to the construction of i nfrastructure including highway (US $69.68), electrification (US $20.15), and educational facilities (US $21.15). (CMA 2005)
83 sponsor of each project, carrying out the following tasks: identifying development needs, deciding the priority among diverse needs, recruiting each non governmental organization (NGO) as an operator of individual project, administrating development funding, and evaluating final project outcomes. Table 2 2 below summarizes some of the major projects in thr ee areas of development, which were implemented by CMA s subsidiaries including CRO San Marcos and AA in the district of San Marcos between 1999 and 2006. As Table 2 2 indicates, a number of Peruvian NGOs were contracted to operate each project including PRODESA ( Programa de Desarrollo de la Sanidad Agropecuar a ), IDMA ( Instituto de Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente ), GRADE ( Grupo para Desarrollo ), IDESI ( Instituto de Desarrollo del Sector Informal ), ACUDIP ( Asociaci n para el Desarrollo Integral ), and Mountain Institute among others. Mostly educated at a university with a specialty in agricultural engineering, and speaking Spanish as their mother tongue with little knowledge of Quechua language, development specialists of these NGOS were assigned to the entire r ange of tasks required for the project execution These tasks included: conducting a base line study on the participating populations; collecting and training project participants; providing technical assistance; presenting follow up reports on a regular b asis to the project financier, etc. As only a small number of people were rec r uited as the operator(s) of each project, they were expected to be multi tasking and versatile in their professional performance. As the operator(s) of the project, the mission o f these development specialists was to translate and apply a general goal, for instance improvement of the quality of life, poverty reduction, empowerment, commercialization, etc., into the local context.
84 Table 2 2 S ummary of community development projects in the district of San Marcos, 1999 200 6 38 Area of priority Subject Project Name Provi der Operator Primary Participa n t s Features Duration Economic area Agro pastoral activities Fundo Shahuanga CRO (SM) & AA CMA Inversiones Shahuanga S.R.L Resettled families (76 families) Pilot livestock breeding farm 2002 2004 Cochao Farm CRO (SM) & AA PRODESA & IDMA 5 peasant communities (Carash, Cochao, Huancha, Huaripampa, Huish) Pilot agricultural farm 2002 2008 Irrigation system CRO (SM) & AA IDESI Hu nuco Huaripampa Renovation and improvement of sprinkling irrigation system 2003 Reservoir system CRO (SM) & AA IDESI Hu nuco Huaripampa Construction of reservoir system 2003 2004 FOCADER CRO (SM) ACUDIP Mothers clubs of 3 peasant communities (Carhuayoc, Mosna, Huaripampa) Strengthen rural development capabilities 2006 2008 38 The projects implemented in the areas of the mine (CRO mine) are not included in this table.
85 Table 2 2 Continued Area of priority Subject Project Name Provider Operator Primary Participants Features Duration Polylepis AA Mountain Institute 173 families from Aquia, Santa Cruz de Pichi Taparaco, Challhua llaco, Puj n Forest conservation 2004 200 6 Micro business activities Arukushun CRO ( SM) None A total of over 5,000 people in 134 projects Temporary employment program 2005 2007 Tourism Artisanal production AA IDESI Nacional & IDESI Lima 3 peasant communities (Carash, Carhuayoc, Pacash) Training and commercialization of artisanal prod u ction 2005 2007 Konchucos de Tambo AA Rainforest Exp.& E xplorandes Tourist hotel and workshops 2004 present Social A rea Education Ludotecas CRO (SM) & AA Contracted promoters 11 communities Infant education (kids younger than 3 years) 2003 pre s ent Educatio n program CRO (SM) GRADE 13 primary schools of Santa Cruz de Pichi Carhuayoc, Huaripampa Educational diagnosis and training of teachers 2003 2006 Health M isc. Others Resettle ment Resettlement program CRO (SM) GRADE & PRODESA & CASTIC 99 displaced families Misc. 1999 pres ent (Source: Elaborated by the author)
86 Although these development specialists played an indispensable role not only as designer s and operator s of the project but as intermediar ies of diverse parties engaged in the project, their status of expatriate s was often questioned by local people. Local grievances against NGO workers were expressed in diverse manners. In some cases, the hostility was expressed through the allegation that NGO workers were taking money from local people which would have been allo cated to local people if it had not been used for operational costs of the project including the salaries of these workers. Some local critiques were headed toward the type of knowledge that these NGO workers claimed to own and toward their capacity to ap ply their knowledge to the local setting. For instance, it was noted that there were a number of complaints from peasant s that some of the innovative seeds distributed from the Cochao Farm ( Fundo Cochao ) would not produce when they have it in their own far m ( Interview conducted in March 2006, with a NGO worker in San Marcos ). Local doubts on the initiatives of NGO workers were also reflected in the perception that NGO workers were providing a short sighted measure designed for a quick result without address ing the more fundamental needs such as the irrigation system. The relatively unstable and short duration of the project s also became a nother source of local grievance. One of local people says that they (the NGO workers) knock at the door with a lot of pr omises. But, once you open the door, you find one day that they are gone all of a sudden without anything left ( Interview conducted in November 2008, with an artisan of Carhuayoc ). These narratives reveal that the local hostility to the NGO workers is grounded on the perception that the NGO workers, mostly coming from the outside cities, are not eligible to share the mine derived resources (mostly available in the form of development fund). The compensatory measures provi ded by CMA to the affected communities in return for its mineral extraction are given to a small circle of people Thus, a local membership is a
87 prerequisite to take part in the circle In this context, the status of an expatriate of the NGO workers is p articularly questioned, making their intervention be challenged. On the other hand, the critique of local people concerning the efficacy of development projects implies that there was a discrepancy between the stated objectives of development projects and local priorities. Furthermore, the critique of local people about the reliability of NGO workers indicates that local people were not fully informed of the terms of contract of each project including the project duration. Community Development Projects in San Marcos after the Mining Canon: 2007 2008 Definition and Regulations of the Mining Canon Beatriz Boza Dibos defines the mining canon ( c anon m inero ) of Peru as follows: From the perspective of the beneficiaries (local and regional governments), the mining canon is a constitutional rights which permit s them to take part in a certain percentage of the income and rent obtained by the state in return for the resource exploitation carried out under its jurisdiction. From the perspecti ve of the state, the canon is a manner to distribute the income that its fiscal sector obtains from those who exploit natural resources. Thus, as we can see, the mining canon is not a tax or additional payment. Technically, it is an income derived (2006:17 translated from Sp anish by the author of the present dissertation ). Allot t ed from the income and rent paid to the central government by t he mining company, mining canon refers to the 30 % of the mining company s annual profits (Bebbington et al 2007: 34), which makes its to tal sum vary by the minerals market price as well as by the mining company s annual production performances. The legal ground of the mining canon in Peru was foreseen in 1993 via the constitutional article no. 77 which mentioned the necessity of
88 distribut ing certain part of the mining tax to the benefit of the areas of mining operations (Dibos 2006: 35). 39 Table 2 3 Regulations governing the mining canon ( canon minero ) Item Description Source of transfer 30% on profit 4.1% on dividends Share going to s ubnational governments 50 % of the canon minero Distribution of the t ransfer a. 20% regional governments b. 5% national universities c. 75% municipal governments of which: 10% to districts producing minerals (of which 30% goes to communities in these districts) 25% to municipalities of the province in which the mineral is located 40% to municipalities in the department in which the resource is located Mode of fiscal transfer 12 monthly quotas: beginning 60 days after annual declaration of income tax Conditions on use of t ransfer Pre investment studies Infrastructural works Maintenance of infrastructure Transparency Payment of taxes: only companies listed on the stock market publish their accounts Transfers: Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Nat ional Council on Decentralisation publish the amounts transferred Use of resources: Although the law requires local governments to provide public information on spending this does not exist (Source: Arias and IFC seminar, November 3rd, 2006, re quoted from Bebbington et al. 2007: 35 and modified by the author of the present dissertation ) A series of legal actions were made afterwards to concretize the concept of the mining canon including Law No. 27506 on the canon ( nueva ley de canon ) in 2001 which st ipulates that 39 Beatriz Boza Dibos (2006: 34) searches the original idea about the Mining Canon from the Peruvian constitutional article no. 121 of the year 1979 which describes: allow the areas where natural resources are located to adequately partake in the sharing of the payment made through the e xploitation of these resources, in agreement with the politics of decentralization (translated from Spanish by the author of the present dissertation ).
89 50 % of the total incomes and rents of the State through the mining activities be allocated to the mining canon, and Law No. 28077 in 2003 which changed the criteria of the distribution of the mining canon from the population density to the degree of impact by the mining operations, specifying that the district of the mineral extraction gets the 10 % of the payment received by the central government from the mining company (Dibos 2006: 36, see Table 2 3 for details). Between 2002 and 2005, there were eight times of modifications on the mining canon (Dibos 2006: 40), 40 which implies that its concept has been constantly changing with a room for additional amendments. Designed as a legal system to distribute the mine derived revenues to regional and local societies of the mineral production, mining canon can be understood as an effort of the Peruvian government to decentralize the economic impact of the mining sector, thus reducing its enclave effects. The regulations about the use of mining canon have been continua lly changing. However, the princip a l rule that it should be spent for the purpose of social investment has remained consistent Table 2 4 summarizes the regulations on the use of the mining canon. As Table 2 4 illustrates, the mining canon is designed to f inance the following categories of local and regional expenditure: 1) public investment for a sustainable development; 2) maintenance and expansion of infrastructure; and 3) incidental expenses required for other categories of work. The regulations concern ing the use of the mining canon, however, operate rather as general guidelines, passing over to the local and regional governments the responsibility of interpreting and applying these guidelines in a local setting. The allocation of these responsibilities to the 40 Legal modifications on the Mining Canon have been continuously made since 1995, which include: Law No. 26472 in 1995 (Dibos 2006:35); D.S. 04196 in 1997 (Glave and Kuramoto 2002:19); Decree of Urgency No. 001 2002 in 2002 and Decree of Urgency No. 002 2004 in 2004 (Dibos 2006:36) among others
90 local and regional governments has become a major source of great confusions and disorders surrounding the mining canon in Peru. Table 2 4 Use of the m ining c anon Percentage of the transfer Use Legal measures Up to 100% Investment, projects of regional and local impact, expansion of basic services, community development. Law No. 28077 (26/09/03) D.S. No. 187 2004 EF (22/12/04) Law No. 28652 (21/12/05) 30% Productive investment for a sustainable development of the communities where the resource is exploited. D.S. No. 187 2004 EF (22/12/04) Up to 20% Maintenance of the infrastructure derived from the projects of regional and local impact. Law No. 28562 ( 28/06/05) D.U. No. 027 2005 (4/11/05) Law No. 28652 (21/12/05) Up to 20% Finance on the spending made for the selection of investment projects. D.U. No. 027 2005 (4/11/05) Law No. 28652 (21/12/05) Up to 1% (5% of 20%) Elaboration of the profile of the projects which have regional and local impact. Law No. 28652 (21/12/05) (Source: Dibos (2006: 91), translated from Spanis h by the author of the present dissertation ) Community Development Projects in San Marcos after the Tran sfer of the Mining Canon in 2007 2008 The transfer of the mining canon to the local government of San Marcos began in 2006. Due to the enormous amount of money at stake, the payment of mining canon in San Marcos has drawn attention from major nat ional as well as regional media, giving a national reputation to San Marcos as one of the richest places in Peru. 41 For instance, through a special coverage El Comercio, the Peruvian newspaper based at Lima, reports that the income of San Marcos doubles 41 La Rep blica one of the major Peruvian newspaper s based at Lima had an exclusive coverage on San Marcos, published in August 10, 2008. In this special report, Milagros Salazar notes that in 2007, the Municipalit y of San Marcos could invest more than 18,000 Peruvian nuevo soles on each resident of the total population of 10,725 persons while the national average budget per capita was barely 400 soles. (translated from Spanish by the author of the present disserta tion )
91 t he income of the city of Cajamarca, triples Ayacucho, and exceeds various districts of Lima such as San Mart n de Porres and Comas. 42 The distribution of the mining canon to the local government has entailed remarkable changes in diverse aspects of commun ity development projects in San Marcos. Above all, the transfer of the mining canon signifie d that the local government began to replace CMA as a major administrator of the development fund the amount being unprecedented locally as well as nationally ( Fig ure 2 2). The changes subsequent to the transfer of the mining canon however, were made rather slowly in San Marcos for various reasons. Above all as the mining canon was a newly introduced concept, the local government as well as local people were entirely inexperienced and poorly informed about the system of the mining canon. Figure 2 2. Record of the m ining c anon in the d istrict of San Marcos, Dec. 2004 Feb. 2009. (Source: Elaborated by the author based on infor mation provided by the MIM Ancash ( http://mim.org.pe/vermim.php?region=ancash ) and the Ministry of Economy and Finance of Peru ( http://www.mef.gob.pe ). *In U.S. m illion dollars **Converted from the Peruvian Nuevo Sol to the U.S. dollar at the conversion rate at 3 The current version of the mining canon gives to the local and regional governments a full responsibility for identifying development needs and elaborat ing them into a particular project type. Once the local and regional governments elaborate a project profile they are required to 42 El Comercio, Regiones con Harto Billete, by Manuel Marticorena and Marianella Ortiz, July, 23, 2007 0 50 100 150 200 Dec. 31, 2004 Dec. 31, 2005 Dec. 31, 2006 Dec. 31, 2007 Dec. 31, 2008 Feb. 28, 2009 Amount received Amount spent Amount accumulated
92 submit it to the National System of Public Investment ( Sistema Nacional de Inversion Pblica SNIP by its Spanish acronym) Then, SNIP evaluates each project in light of diverse criteria, including the feasibility, relevance, sustainability, and the competency of the proposed project operator (Dibos 2006: 91 92). Once the project is approved by SNIP, local and regional govern ment can start the procedure to activate a portion of the mining canon for the execution of the approved project. In this sc heme, the use of the mining canon, the bulk of which can be executed only via the SNIP approved projects, is ultimately determined b y the initiatives and capacity of local and regional governments. That is to say the incapacity of the local and regional governments can lead to a low execution rate, or a serious delay in the use of the mining canon. The performa n ce of the local governm ent of San Marcos during the first administrative year of the canon turned out to be very disappointing. In 2007, the investment ratio of the district of San Marcos was reported at 4.8 % It means that among the total US $70.42 million distributed in 2007 to San Marcos only US $ 3.42 million was spent ( Figure 2 2). This disappointing performance of the local government in the use of the mining canon provoked intensive critiques from diverse local groups. In particular, the critiques generated divisive impact on the local politics. People mostly from the former large land owning families ( hacendados ) started organizing meetings to expel the then mayor of San Marcos because of his incompetence. The critics of the local government questioned the background of the then mayor of San Marcos, who came from a peas a nt family and barely completed the secondary education presenting it as an evidence of why he is not appropriate to be in the position. For instance, the ex mayor who comes from one of the two rival hacendado families and had been elected intermittently, as a mayor of San Marcos for five times, criticized the then mayor saying: he does not have an experience and does not know what to do as a mayor ( Interview conducted
93 with the ex mayor of San Marcos in July 2007 in San Marcos ). The critics of the local government ambitiously claimed to hold a district level referendum in August 2007 to expel the mayor However, the referendum never happened because nobody had the leadership or resources require d to organize such a scale of local movement. Nonetheless, it was obvious that along with the injection of the mining canon in San Marcos local people began to search for their development expectations from the local government which had been previously sought after from CMA. In other words, as the local government took the role of an operator of the mining canon, the role of CMA in the local setting became of less importance which would be gradually reflected through the subsequent reduction of CMA s co mmunity development projects in San Marcos. The changes in CMA s community development projects in San Marcos have also been furthered by the creation of the Fondo Minero Antamina (FMA ) in 2007. Made in the form of a voluntary contribution in accordance with the People Solidarity Miner Program ( Programa Minero de Solidaridad con el Pueblo PMSP by its Spanish acronym) initiated by the Peruvian government, 43 CMA made a commitment to create a development fund for the department of Ancash. A total amount of US $ 124.5 million was committed by CMA as of 2008 for an anticipated duration of five years in the four areas of development priority health and nutrition, education, productive activities, institutional strengthening (CMA 2007a : 71). The approach of FMA is clearly differentiated from CMA s previous community development programs in 43 The PMSP was initiated by the National Society of Mining, Petroleum and Energy (SNMPE) of Peru in 2007. The extraordinary profits that the minin g companies in Peru had been making thanks to the strong minerals market price during the previous couple of years became the major motivation of the program. The program was interpreted as the Peruvian government s strategy to stimulate the mining sector to make a contribution in accordance with its extraordinary profits without having to make a revision to the existing tax systems (Sanborn 2008). Ten large mining companies accounted for 94.5 % of the PMSP funding as of April 2008, among which the contribut ion of CMA was calculated at 30 % of the total sum becoming the biggest contributor to the PMSP funding ( MEM DM 2008:5).
94 several ways Above all, the project beneficiaries have been extensively amplified exceeding the previously defined boundaries of the affected populations (Klohn Crippen SV S 1998 : C h 8). 44 Compared to previous CMA local projects, the broad er range of project beneficiary populations of FMA signified that the features of development projects as a compensational measure became less important in this system. Moreover, the scope of actors involved in the operation of FMA s programs became far more comprehensive as well as diversified in its character, which includes a number of distinct entities specifically the Peruvian ministry of mining and energy (MINEM), and the Peruvian and foreign NGOs such as ADRA Peru, C ritas del Peru, CARE Peru, SUM Canada, and USAID among others. The role of the MINEM as a decision maker of the priority areas of development was particularly important in shaping the approaches of FMA. The MINEM identifi es alleviation of poverty as the ultimate goal of the PMSP fund and elaborates strategic subfields mostly related to the basic subsistence needs of the rural poor, which promoted the FMA s program to operate like a quasi state welfare program. 45 In terms of community development projects in San Marcos, the most obvious change came along with the creation of a temporary employment program in 2008, titled E l Plan P loto (Jan. Mar., 2008) and subsequently renamed as E l Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestruc tura P blica (Apr. Dec., 2008) (PMIP afterwards). Based on Law No. 28562 and Law No. 28652 stipulating that up to 20 % of the mining canon can be used for the maintenance of regi onal and 44 In the EIA document (Klohn Crippen SVS 1998: C h 8), CMA identifies the following three categories of affected populations by the Antamina mining operation: 1) the area of localized impact (approx. 800 residents) including the region of the mine and mine workers base camp, in which CRO mine has an office; 2) the area of immediate impa ct (approx. 28,000 persons) including four districts such as San Marcos, Chav n de Huantar, Huachis, and San Pedro de Chana; and 3) the area of extended impact (approx. 100,000 residents) including the capital city of Huaraz and other districts such as Hua ri, Catac, Huallanca, and Llata. While the previous CMA s community development intervention was mostly focused on the area of local and immediate impact, FMA identifies 100 districts with a total population of approximately 460,000 persons as an area of i ts local intervention (CMA 2007) 45 For the details, see the MINEM s guideline on the PMSP funded project which is available at : http://www.minem.gob.pe/minem/archivos/Lineamientos_ PMSP.pdf last accessed, August, 2010.
95 local infrastructure ( see T able 2 4 ), PMIP has created temporary loca l employments for about 4,000 persons financed by the mining canon during 2008. The major motivation of PMIP arose from the increasing local criti ques related to the low execution rate of the mining canon which was below 5 % as of the year 2007 (Figure 2.2) Having a two tiered group of workers divided between skilled and unskilled, the jobs created by PMIP are entirely concerned with the maintenance of infrastructural facilities such as road, school, municipality building, church, cemetery, and irrigation s ystem. PMIP is distinct from any other community development projects which have been previously implemented in San Marcos especially because: 1) it does not have an intervention of a NGO as a project operator; 2) it is not guided by any integral project objective; 3) project participation is compensated by a monetary payment; 4) it targets any resident of the district of San Marcos as a project beneficiary; and 5) project participation is incompatible with the daily pro ductive activities of the participants because of the time demands as well as the nature of the tasks conducted through the project. The impact of PMIP ha s been profound and comprehensive particularly because it engaged local people from all the rural an d urban regions of San Marco s as project beneficiaries. Besides, the competitive wage rate set at US $ 10 (S/. 30) per day for unskilled labor and US $ 13 (S/. 40) or US $ 16 (S/. 50) per day for skilled labor and the undemanding nature of the work were mak ing the job s very attractive. Local participation in PMIP was very strong especially in rural villages where there were fewer opportunities for other paid jobs compared to the commercial town The average participation rate in the project among the total e ligible local population s was somewhere between 30 40 % in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa, two biggest campesino ( peasant ) communities, and over 70 % in some peasant villages such as Orocosh as of November 2008. The greatest local impact of PMIP stems from the circumstance that the salary
96 paid by the project began to r eplace resources which had previously been obtained through conventional productive a ctivities such as agriculture, temporary labor migration, textile production, or small business. The abandonment of traditional productive activities was increasingly observed. For instance, it was observed at the end of 2008 that potatoes were being impor ted from outside market places for the local consumption, which had been one of the conventional subsistent products in San Marcos. The impact of PMIP was also detected from other community development projects. With eight hours work time from nine to five on weekdays, the new daily schedule of local participants in PMIP and its subsequent time constraints became a direct factor holding back their participation in other community development projects. Initiated by the local government as a counter measure to the growing grievances against the unsatisfactory use of the mining canon, PMIP provided a temporary solution to local d emand. In a place where over 40 % of populations suffer from poverty and over 50 % are in the condition of under nutrition, 46 t he cash distributed by means of temporary employment generated comprehensive local participation with immediate socio economic effects. The circulation of mining revenues through PMIP also accelerated commercial activities of the region, expanding the scal e of the local market. The growing commercial activities and the increasing in bound migration constituted of outsiders as wel l as return migrants in search of a job were generating the atmosphere of a mining boom town for San Marcos. 46 Source: Small Towns Face Challenges of Using Windfall Mining Revenues, by Milagros Salazar, Inter Press Service, September, 5, 2008. http://ipsnews.net/news. asp?idnews=43802 For the poverty map of Peru, visit: http://www.mef.gob.pe/ESPEC/mapa_pobreza.php
97 CHAPTER 3 R URAL URBAN DIVIDE AND GEN DER RELATIONS IN SAN MARCOS It does not take long for the bus to San Marcos to fill with passengers. 1 While the seats are quickly taken, some passengers anxiously sta y outside to make sure that their parcels are properly loaded by the young men who bustl e around the vehicle loading the parcels. D ozens of boxes of fruits, groceries, and various domestic fowls are wait ing their turn. A fter the bus is filled to capacity it usually takes another half an hour or so before the driver fin ally sign als his assistants that they are read y to get underway The bus connecting Huaraz and Huari is a major channel of movement not only of people moving back and forth to San Marcos but for the transport of commodities that people purchase in Huaraz to sell in the local markets of San Marcos. The road that the buss travels passes the splendid Querococha lake and the Kahuish tunnel some 4,516 meters above sea level along the rim of the Huascaran National Park. 2 Financed by the Antamina mining company (CMA), 3 the road was partially paved and the tunnel was widened several years ago The improvements cut the driving time between Huaraz and San Marcos by half, to around four hours by bus and two hours by private ve hicle, thus enabling a daily round trip between the two sites. The paved road between the city of Huaraz and the town of San Marcos and the consequent increase in the movement of goods and people between the two places reflects the dramatic changes which have 1 Part of this chapter was published in Asian Journal of Latin American Studies (2010) Vol. 23 No. 2, titled as Gender Roles and Rural Urban Divide in the Peruvian Andes: An Analysis of the District of San Marcos. 2 The road connecting Huaraz and Huari via Catac was inaugurated in 1939 making it possible to travel between the regions by automobiles whic h had to be made on foot or by horse before the road was made (Diessl 2004: 332 ). 3 The pavement of the road (Huari and Catac) and the amplification of the Kahuish tunnel were largely financed by FIDA ( Fondo de Inversiones para el Desarrollo de Ancash ) which was created in 2003 with a funding made in the form of penalty payment with a total amount of US $ 111.5 million by CMA. The amount of the penalty is equivalent to 30 % of differences between the total investment made by CMA as of 2001 and the promised US $ 2.5 billion bid which CMA had pledged to spend at the bidding in 1996 (see Chapter 2 of this dissertation) More information on FIDA and its financed projects is available at: http://www.antamina.com/04_social/pdf/Informacion%20FIDA.pdf last accessed, August 2010.
98 been taking place in San Marcos as it turned into a thriving city. Once a traditional rural town based on subsistence farming, the district of San Marcos (San Marcos, hereafter) was referred to as the land to pass by ( la tierra del paso ). Today it i s the site of the largest mining investment in Peru. The image of remoteness is a theme people frequently use t o describ e San Marcos before the Antamina mining project came to the town T he isolation of San Marcos prior to the Antamina project refers not only to the physical distance to the town and to the long travel hours to get there but also to socio economic isolation. San Marcos was thus considered a typical Andean highland town, which was assumed to be relatively static and detached compared to coastal cities. As Vargas Llosa s two Peru argument impli es (Mayer 1991: 477), the social structures of San Marcos prior to the Antamina mining project were typical of deep Peru ( Peru profundo ) The metaphor referred to place s that w ere dominated by Quechua speaking peasant s who survived on small scaled commercial activities tailored to a peasant clientele and who routinely migrated to coastal cities as a livelihood strategy to supplement the meager income from subsistent farming. Th e imagery of San Marcos as a remote Andean town is valid at least in some respects. There is little doubt that the town has been shaped by the distan ce from the central government as well as from the economy of coastal cities. But the image of remoteness is also misleading because it obscures the degree to which residents of San Marcos have actively constructed soci al and economic ties to outside people and institutions in order to sustain their own systems The notion that San Marcos is distant and unconn ected similarly overlooks how access to these external ties has interacted with the internal structure of San Marcos.
99 In a similar vein, anthropological literature on the Andes has shown a concern about defining what constitutes the Andean ness particularly because the notion tends to project fixed and homogeneous images of the Andean highland societies even though these societies have been constantly changing and manifest a high degree of internal diversification (del Castillo 2003; Niekerk 200 3; Starn 1994). In light of this critique, Chapter 3 will examine the diversities and adaptabilities of the people of San Marcos with a particular focus on how its social order is shaped along the lines of gender and rural urban divide s Located in the Nor thern Peruvian Andes with a range of altitude between 2,760 and 4,300 meters above sea level, San Marcos is composed of the commercial town of the same name with a population of 3,332 and 28 peasant villages with a population of 7,393 (INEI 2005). The divi sion between the town and countryside is evident in socio economic as well as political aspects. Equipped with local governmental offices, educational and health facilities, a central market, and a church, including CMA s local office, the town operates as a n administrative and commercial center characterized by the flow of goods, information, and people. On the other hand, sustained by subsistence farming combined with pastoral and artisanal activities, rural villages provide the town labor and primary pro duc ts The distinctive social spheres of the town and countryside are maintained primarily because they depend on each other to reproduce their respective systems. K inship ties are another important factor that connect the distinctive social arenas of the town and country. In this context, I examine h ow political and economic organization s in San Marcos are constructed in line of these distinctive but inter related relationships between the town and countryside. Anthropological studies of the Andes that interpret ethnic formation in Peru in terms of dualistic entities such as deep Peru versus official Peru (Mayer 1991); coastal cities and highlands (Alcalde 2006);
100 countrypeople versus town s people (Stein 1985); Indian versus Ladino (de la Cadena 2001); Quechua and Spanish (Garcia 2003) will be examined in regard to the case of San Marcos The analysis of gender relationship s is an integral component of Chapter 3 because it is considered a major determinant of local participation in development projects as well as interaction with local CMA representatives and its contracted development professionals. It is well noted that the Andean social life is characterized by a strict division of labor between women and men (Babb 1985; Deere and Leon 1981; Graubart 2000; Mitchell 1986 ). Because of this strong sexual division of labor, several studies indicate that the socio economic changes in the Andes including modernization and its resulting class stratification (Deere 1977 ; 1982 ), development intervention (Bab b 1985), neo liberal restructuring (Hays Mitchell 2002), and economic crisis (Vincent 1998) had different consequences for women and men Here t he analysis of gender relation s will be examined through its two components : the sexual division of labor and sex role stereotyping. In order to examine gender relations in the commercial town and rural villages, this research relies on literature on gender in the Peruvian Andes which suggests three broad sets of organization which shape and perpetuate the variat ions in sexual division of labor and sex role stereotyping in the Andean highland societies : 1) the type of economic activities in which women are engaged; 2) the type of household composition; and 3) the type of communal organizations that in which women are involved. Geography and History Located in the northeastern part of Ancash, San Marcos is one of 16 districts of the province of Huari which belongs to the Callej n de Cochucos lying to the east of the Cordillera Blanca ( Figure 3 1). Blocked by the mountain range of the Cordillera Blanca which is noted for world highest peaks covered by snow and glaciers, the region in the Conchucos V alley is difficult to access especially during the rainy season which starts in October and last s until April.
101 The precipitous mountain range of the Cordillera Blanca and the rugged topography of the valley isolate s the region from the rest of Peru, especially compared to the parallel region of the Huaylas V alley which lies to the west of the Conchucos separating the Cordillera Blanca and the Cordillera Negra. The isolation of the Conchucos region was accentuated after independence when economic and political power became further centralized coastal cities (Macrogestion Proyecto UGM 2007: 7). Figure 3 1. Map of the Cordillera Blanca and the Cordillera Negra. (Source: Infoperu, accessed at: http://www.infoperu.com/pics/ancash.gif ). Several archaeological remains in the area of the Huari province illustrate the importance of the region both as a political center and as a strategic point during the pre Inca and Inca period. Designated as a UNESCO world heritage, the religious temple of Chav n de Hu ntar, a district neighboring San Marcos (Figure 3 1 ) is the most renowned remains in the region. Considered
102 the oldest pre Inca culture in Peru, the complex of the Chavin culture located in the town of the same name is believed to hold a critical clue to the complex sociopolitical organization of Andean civilization (Bustamante 2004) This mak es the Chav n de Hu ntar region archaeologically as important as other well known archaeological sites of Peru including those in the city of Cusco or Cajamarca. The area is also traversed by the royal Inca road ( e l Camino Inca ) which travels from Hu nuco through Huaman n and pass es Ayash and Huachis Its location along the Inca road shows that the region was once an important component of the central political and administrative systems of the Inca Empire by virt ue of connecting the coastal and the jungle areas (Macrogestion Proyecto UGM 2007: 7; Serrudo 2004). As the most extensive and most inhabited district of the Huari province, San Marcos was first founded in 1540 named San Marcos de Gollana de Pincush by a Spanish soldier Mart n Mendoza. While the central site was originally established at the place where Huaripampa is currently located, the oldest population center ( centro poblado ) of San Marcos, the commercial town of San Marcos was relocated to it s present site in 1734 for environmental and geographic considerations (Macrogestion Proyecto UGM 2007:7). Today the town of San Marcos is located 2,964 meters above sea level Elevations in t he lower part of the district vary widely. The town is l ocated on the bank of the Mosna river, mantled by the valleys of the Conchucos and steep mountain ranges of the Cordillera Blanca, which makes its climate temperate throughout the year. The boundary separating San Marcos from other neighboring districts is the Mo sna river which divid es San Marcos from Chav n de Hu ntar to the south, from Hu ntar to the north, and from Aquia and Huallanca in the province of Bolognesi to the southeast (Macrogestion Proyecto UGM 2007:8) ( Figure 3 2).
103 Figure 3 2. Map of the d istrict of San Marcos. (Source: The District Municipality of San Marcos ). HUARIPAMPA ALTO CRUCE SAN MARCOS 8955000 8950000 HUANTAR HUARI HUANCHA HUARIPAMPA TUPEC CARHUAYOC SAN MARCOS RANCAS MILLUISH 285000 HUACHIS PACASH MANYANPAMPA CHUCHUS OPAYACO SAN PEDRO DE CHANA CHALLUAYACU CHULLUSH LUCMA CAUCHO CHUYO MACHAG CHAVIN 8945000 8940000 CHAVIN MOSNA PICHIU SAN PEDRO PICHIU QUINUARAJRA QUINUARAJRA SALVIA 8930000 8935000 8925000 CRUCE MACH AG CONIN VISTA ALEGRE QUISHU RUNTU CARASH HUAMALIES HUANUCO BOLOGNESI BOLOGNESI 255000 260000 265000 270000 275000 280000 8910000 8915000 8920000 CAPTION EARTH ROAD BRIDLE ROAD MAI N ROAD DISTRICT OF SAN MARCOS The District Municipality of San Marcos. All Rights Reserved.
104 Rural Urban Divide in San Marcos San Marcos has distinctive social spheres between the commercial town and rural villages. The features differentiating the urban area and rural villages encompass not only geographic and ecological conditions but also their dissimilar socioeconomic structures. Nested in the valley floor, the urban area, also the capital city of the district of San Marcos ( simply referred to as San Marcos ) operates as a center of commercial and human traffic between and within diverse levels of the rur al and urban sectors. Hosting a variety of administrative and commercial institutions, the urban area is also a center of political and economic life of San Marcos. The concentration of economic and social functions in the urban area has provided urban res idents jobs in small business es market trade, public service school teaching, and employment in private sectors such as mining company or health center among the others. In addition, the arrival of CMA in San Marcos and the subsequent changes driven by the mining sector have accelerated the growth of the urban area (see Figure 3 3 of Chapter 3 ) 4 In contrast to the rather homogenous ecological configurations of the commercial town, rural villages are spread across a broad r ange of elevation s, ranging from 2,760 meters up to 4,700 meters above sea level characterized by varied topographical features which include the valley floor, ravine regions characterized by steep slopes and semi rocky terrain, and puna region s (the high Andean plateau) (Macrogestion Proyecto UGM 2007: 14). While subsist e nce agro pastoral production is the predominant economic activity in rural villages, the diverse micro climates mean that the scope and mode of agro pastoral activities varies among villag es situated at different elevations. The original indigenous communities were officially re instated 4 Between 1993 and 2005, the total population of the urban area in San Marcos has grown from 2794 to 3332 persons while the population in the rural area has decreased from 8876 to 7393 persons. With this change, the proportion of the urban population to the total population has increased from 24 % to 31 % while the proportion of the rural population has decreased from 76 % to 69 % during the same period (INEI 1993; 2005).
105 as campesino communities (c omunidad campesina ) in the course of the agrarian reform promote by the Velasco regime during the late 1960s and the early 1970s Today the rural area is comprised of 28 campesin o communities and 5 population centers ( centro poblado menor ). 5 While these distinct economic activities as well as the separate socio political institutions of the commercial town and rural villages give the appearance that the boundary between them is fixed and permanent, it should be noted that both places are closely intertwined. The interdependence between the town and rural villages can be perceived in many ways including the flow of goods and people between the two places. R ural villages are highly dependent on the market places of the commercial town for the purchase of goods which cannot be locally obtained The items includ e household commodities, processed foods, dairy products, fruits, and vegeta bles. Rural villagers also comprise a small but important proportion of sellers in the urban markets. Almost a lwa ys constituted of peasant women they participate in the market places of the town in the form of a street vendor with their agro pastoral prod ucts or occasionally simple meals prepared at home such as chich a (drink made by fermented maize) and chocho (cooked white beans mixed with onions, tomatoes, and fried corns). The merchants in the town are also highly dependent on people from the countrys ide as a primary clientele group. T he mining economy driven by the Antamina project has contributed to the emergence of a new buyer composed of outsiders, yet local people from rural villages still comprise one of the most 5 The modification of campesino community into a population center ( Centro Poblado ) was initiated as a part of the Peruvian governmental policies for decentralization. Regulated by Law No. 27972 on the Organization of the Municipalities and Law No. 28440 o n the Election of Authorities of Municipalities of Population Centers, population center operates as a basic administrative unit at the level of district. According to the INEI s 2002 population survey, there were registered a total number of 69,951 popula tion centers among 1,831 districts in Peru (ONPE 2007: 12). The five population centers of San Marcos are as follows: Pichiu San Pedro, Pichiu Quinuaragra, Challhuayaco, Carhuayoc, and Huaripampa.
106 i mportant and reliable clientele groups in urban market town s 6 The importance of the urban market economy also stems from the fact that it operates as a major channel through which rural villages get involved in cash economy, both as consumers and as sellers, something not as fully developed in the countryside. The town and countryside are also interconnected through the movement of people. As is well noted (Larson et al. ed. 1995; Collins 1988; Gascon 2004; Paerregaard 1997) m igration is a primary strategy of peasants in the Andean highlands to find employment as wage labor ers, which is hardly available within rural villages. As a source of supplementary income, temporary labor migration, mainly to coastal cities, is normally practiced on a seasonal or temporary basis for periods that seldom exceed six months. While temporary labor migration is conventionally practiced by married ad ult men in rural villages, rural to urban migration within the district is commonly practiced by younger individuals who move to the town with an intention of permanently leaving their home village in search of an urban career. The census carried out by Ma crogestion in 200 8 illustrates the scale of rural urban migration within the district of San Marcos. According to the census data, among 2,274 persons surveyed in the commercial town, 39 % were born in the town area while 26 % were from rural villages in San Marcos, 11 % from Huaraz or Lima, and 24 % other regions outside the district of San Marcos (Macrogestion 2008a: 24). Th ese data show that more than half the population in the town was born in other regions, and has migrated and settled down in the town. It is also worth mentioning that one out of four 6 A survey conducted in 2007 by Macrogestion, a counseling group based at Lima contracted by CMA and the Municipality of San Marcos through a financing of FMA, provides interesting data regarding the composition of clientele groups for the urban market. The survey shows that among the total customers in the commercial town, 41 % are from the commercial town of San Marcos and the other 59 % are from outside the commercial town The originating place s of the latter are as follows: 49 % from other parts of the district of San Marcos; 26 % from other districts of the province of Huari; 13 % from other provinces of the department of Ancash; and 12 % from other departments (Macrogestion 2008a: 47). In other words, the proportion of customers in the urban markets who identify themselves as comin g from rural villages of San Marcos is 29 % comprising the second most important clientele in the urban markets.
107 persons in the town was born in rural villages. These rural migrants in the town remain connected to their family members in rural villages and try to maintain their status as a community member ( comunero ) eve n after moving to the town Such ties partially explain how and why the close rural/urban interaction in San Marcos has been maintained. Rural Urban Divide and Ethnicity in San Marcos The distinct but mutually dependent rural and urban social spaces lead to the question whether any discrete ethnic identity exists in line with the rural urban interdependence In order to examine this question, I will relate the topic to the literature on the Peruvian ethnic relations with a particular foc us on how the notion of ethnicity in these studies has been conceptualized in terms of the rural urban relationship. At the outset, it should be recognized that the highly controversial concept of Indio has been differently defined s history Three historical moments are noteworthy in this respect First, it has been generally agreed that the idea of the Indio was invented during the Spanish colonial period (Abercrombie 1998; Salman and Zoomers 2003: 4). Conceived as a fiscal catego ry (Wilson 2000: 240), the major motivation behind the category of Indio was to preserve the flow of tribute to Spanish royalty (Stein 1985: 218). In addition to financial considerations, the category of the Indio had to be maintained to legitimize the domination by the Span is h as well as to facilitate the exploitation of a labor force comprised of so called Indian population in the form of mita draft. It is during this period that the status of servitude was imposed on the category of Indio a value laden stereotyp e loaded with negative images (Spalding 1967). The independence of Peru meant that the concept of Indio had to be redefined so that the native population could be regulated by the nation building project (del Castillo 2003: 40). In this respect Marisol de la Cadena (2001; 2000; 1996) identifies two major ethnic ideologies that predominated in Peru until the mid 20 th century, and which became a source of ensuing cultural
108 fundamentalism in terms of the Peruvian racial thought. Identified as Indigenismo in the 1920s and Neo Indianismo in the 1940s (De la Cadena 1996), the major task of these ethnic ideologies was to elaborate colonial honor codes through the lens of political liberalism (De la Cadena 2000: 40). For this purpose, socio cultural rather than biological traits were emphasized in order to identify ethnic categories such as Indio cholo and mestizo The socio cultural basis of the classification system meant, in turn, that eth nic labeling was not a permanent attribute By changing their manners, clothes, language, and culture, individuals could change their status although this occurred only on a rare occasion. The public policies adopted during the Velasco regime (1968 1975) epitomized the third crucial moment in the formulation of ethnicity in Peru. In line with the agrarian reform promoted by the military regime which expropriated hacienda land s and distributed them to the peasant communities (Love 1989), the te rm Indio was substituted by the term of campesino (peasant) in official documents. The association of Indio and campesino in the Andean highlands had already been profoundly embedded in the Peruvian ethnic thought long before the Velasco government s ini tiative For instance, Marisol de la Cadena says that indigenistas believed that Indians had to be remade in their racial proper place. I t was in the rural, agricultural ayllus that the Indians should be taught (2000: 66). In the same context, Jos Mari tegui succinctly state d in his the problem of the Indian is rooted in the land tenure system of our economy (1971: 22). As a review of literature on the Peruvian ethnic thought indicates, biological (or, physical) attributes have bee n much less importan t compared to socioeconomic dimensions in defining ethnic categories of Peru. The lack of biological dimension in ethnic labels such as Indio cholo and mestizo (or, creole ) has made the categories particularly ambiguous and contested, resulting
109 in a high degree of flexibility in the boundaries among the categories (Bourricaud 1974; del Castillo 2003: 45). In spite of the subjectivity entailed in ethnic categories, it should be noted that: 1) the features which are believed to determine ethnic affiliation of individual have been barely changed; and 2) ethnic categories are embedded in hierarchal orders that relegate people to distinct level s of social status. Determined by particular socioeconomic features such as the level of literacy and urbanity (De la Cadena 2000: 29), education (S rensen and Sorensen 2003), and language (Spanish, Quechua, or Aymara) (Garcia 2003), the Peruvian ethnic categories are profoundly intermingled with class stratification The conflation of ethnicity and class was officially reproduced by the Velasco s reform policies. The correlation between class stratification and ethnic categories in Peru has generated the Sorensen 2003: 210), in which ethnic labels still operate as a major rule through which each individuals situate themselves in interaction with others performing customs which are deemed to be appropriate to a particular ethnic category. However, in this scheme, id entity is rarely stated in the language of ethnic labels. That is to say people rarely identify themselves with a particular ethnic label such as mestizo cholo or Indio The field research in San Marcos strongly supports this phenomenon. In San Marcos, it was a rare occasion that local people identified themselves in the language of ethnic labels. 7 Instead, division was commonly made between people in the town of San Marcos who called themselves as sanmarquino/as (people in San Marcos) and people in the rural villages who frequently referred to themselves as campesino/as (peasant). People in different peasant communities also 7 The perspective which considers that there is no ethnic differentiation inside the district of San Marcos is also found in official document s. For instance, in a diagnostic report on San Marcos, Macrogestion concludes : Population Centers, we have not been able to identify the presence of ethnic groups that differentiate from the majority of the population. On the contrary, people a re completely identified with the district of San Marcos, its Macrogestion Proyecto UGM 200 7 : 35) (translated from Spanish by the author of the present dissertation )
110 identified themselves in terms of their community of residence such as carhuayino/a (people in the community of Carhuayoc), huaripa mpino/a (people in the community of Huaripampa) etc Localized affiliation was also occasionally made in order to distinguish people from the district of San Marcos and those from the coastal cities through the term of serrano/a (people of the sierra, mou ntain region in the Ande s ) instead of the term of andino/a (people of the Ande s ). These localized categories were selectively chosen in a manner that implied different levels and types of boundaries. Although these boundaries were usually invoked to mark a specific tend ed to be l oaded with distinctive values and characteristics. For instance, one woman in her 60s who had migrated from a rural village to the commercial town after getting married to a man in t demanding work load i n the field, along with the notion of rural poverty are prominent features of the image of peasant life, portrayed some cases, peo ple from the town or from coastal cities singled out the high fertility rate and high illiteracy rate in rural villages to describe by people from rural villages engaoso habil commercial town who were believed to have made a better deal in the negotiation with CMA, for instance by managing their child(ren) to get a secure job at the mine or by selling their land in puna at a higher price, were portrayed as being shrewd ( la gente habil ). In the circulation of th ese value laden images, it is noteworthy that these images tend to be adopted to describe the classification of other people with whom the speaker does not identify. In other words these images are circulated in relative terms so that the speaker s differe ntiate themselves from those who are being depicted. While the division between people in the commercial town and peasants
111 ( campesinos/as ) in rural villages was most frequently and extensively narrated, the category of serrano was occasionally used to refe r to people in the district of San Marcos in general. For instance, in a conversation during the patronage festival of Carhuayoc in December 2008 ( fiesta patronal serranos are different from people in the city. You should be careful with them because they are not reliable. They try to take advantage of you. But, we are Through the categorization by location, the labels like sanmarquino/a campesi no/a or serrano/a indicate a particular condition of belonging. The geographic basis of the typology further implies that individual s can easily switch his or her category. The classification system also effectively disguises the distinctive values attached to each category. However, the process of crossing the boundary from one category to another is a complicated process, especially because it signifies a change in life style. The distinctive life style s of people in the town and in the countryside are profoundly embedded in the socioeconomic institutions through which they make a living and through which they build interpersonal relationships. Moreover, in San Ma rcos as is typical in many other Andean highland societies, language and clothing habits operate as prominent features through which the urban life style is most obviously manifested. For example, as a bilingual place, both Spanish and Quechua are ordinar ily spoken in the town as well as in the villages. The use of Quechua is, however, much more common in rural villages where Quechua rather than Spanish is the primary means of communication, not only in everyday conversations but also in the public sphere. As Quechua is a primary language of communication inside household, children in rural villages often do not have adequate opportunities to learn Spanish until they enter a primary school. As a native language, the ability to speak Quechua is considered a n indicator showing that the person understands the values and
112 customs of local life, an attribute that has become much more appreciated given the growing presence of outsiders associated with the Antamina project In this context, it is of note that townsp eople, especially merchants intentionally chose to speak in Quechua when they were having conversation with rural peasants as a way of showing respect and of build ing trust with their clients. Associated with distinctive values and life style s these loc ation based categories correspond to ethnic categories in as much as they further differentiate local people by more comprehensive social indexes including occupation, language, education, etc. The biggest difference between these spatial categories and ex plicitly ethnic categories, however, stems from the fact that by using the location based terms such as sanmarquino campesino carhuayino huaripampino serrano limeo etc., instead of using ethnic terms like mestizo Indio cholo etc., the discriminatory dimensions of the categorization scheme are effectively disguised and the potential for mobility among the categories is exaggerated. In this sense, it is worth noting that when people spoke of racism, even though racism rarely became a subj ect of conversation in the local context, racism was portrayed as something that took place between people from the coastal cities and people from the sierra When I brought up the issue of racism, most of local people, either from the town or villages, of ten talked about their experiences in Lima where they incomodo mal tratado aprovechado of the fact that they came from the sierra This denial of internal ethnic diversitifation however, contras ts with the clear evidence of distinctive value s life style s and socioeconomic institutions between urbanites and rural villagers which are reflected in individual and collective identities of peopl e in San Marcos. In this context I will now examine how political and economic institutions are distinctively constructed in rural villages and the commercial town. In order to
113 examine socioeconomic institutions of the countryside, I visited Carhuayoc and Huaripampa, two largest Population Centers in the distri ct of San Marcos Political Institutions in the Commercial T own and Rural Villages San Marcos is situated in the Conchucos valley which is characterized by a greater degree of isolation because of its rugged geography as well as the lack of adequate transportation compared to the Huaylas region which runs parallel to it in line with the Cordillera Blanca Because there were no particular attractions of interest to visitors, San Marcos used to be called as a land to pass by ( la tierr a de paso ) San Marcos has shaped its socio political systems T he state had a weak presence in the area which was controlled by a few powerful fa milies comprised of former land owners ( hacendados ) who maintain ed their influence as gamonales ( regional bosses mostly constituted of large landowners). While there were a handful of hacendados before the agrarian reform during the late 1960s and early 1970s, two factions of land owning families survived the agrarian reform s of the Velasco era withou t moving to the cities such as Huaraz or Lima By keeping their land they were able to continue exercis ing influence in local socio political arenas in the form of traditional power relationship namely compadrazgo In their role as merchants and government officials, the two faction s became intermediar ies between outside cities and people living in the rural villages. Over the years these two factions of former land owning families built up a rivalry when they competed for access and control of local resources This competition was the main basis of the divisive local politics in San Marcos. They took turns holding the position of the District Mayor of San Marcos throughout the 1980s and 1990s. When they lost an election individuals who were out of po wer
114 took over the leadership of a string of local organizations in the town which served mainly as a means to pressure local government. 8 Given that local politics were controlled by the two former hacendado families, the result of the election for the Di strict Mayor of San Marcos in 2006 can be considered exceptional because local people voted for a candidate who did not belong to either powerful faction, which was unprecedented since the mid 1980s. The competition surrounding the election was extraordina rily intense because of the expectation that the Mayor would administer a large sum of money that was added to the budget in the form of the mining canon which would become available beginning in 2007 (see Table 2 3 Table 2 4 and Figure 2 2 in Chapter 2 f or the details of the mining canon) The winning candidate was b orn into a peasant family in a small hamlet in San Marcos and spent most of his twenties and thirties in the coastal city near Lima His background and experiences were much like other young p eople in San Marcos who are born in rural villages and choose to migrate in search of opportunities in the city. Locals thought of the little known candidate with a mixture of sympathy and suspicion Despite this ambivalence, t he fact that he was from a peasant family that spoke Quechua as a native language attracted local support P eople used to say that He speaks our language. Thus, he will work for us. The election in 2006 reflected some of changes in local politics that have been taking pla ce in San Marcos since CMA made its presence. The fact that someone other than a member of the ruling factions won the election meant that traditionally powerful groups comprised of former land owning families have not been able to maintain the support of local electors and have lost control of political institutions. This change came in a critical time when resources from the mining project increased the budget of the local government The failure of traditional factions to 8 These organizations include the Front for the Defense of Interests of San Marcos ( Frente de Defensa de los Intereses de San Marcos ) and the Environmental Committee of San Marcos ( Comit Ambienteal de San Marcos ).
115 win the local election does not necessarily mean that their influence as a local authority has been thoroughly weakened considering that they maintain strong connection s to local communities either as a leader of civil organizations or in the form of compadrazgo Instead, the transformat ion in local political dynamics can be understood in terms of the emergence of new political actors They are represented by the Mayor and newly organized municipal level teams who are mostly comprised of university educated professionals from Huaraz or Li ma. 9 Furthermore, the intense competition for the position of the Mayor was a clear indication of the increasing importance of local government, especially in light of the new revenues that flowed into the budget from the mining company in amounts that wer e unprecedented not only locally but also nationally. 10 Seated in the town of San Marcos, the Municipality acts as an agent for the state In that role it mediat es between diverse levels of local communities and the central government. The Municipality is at the core of local politics in the town along with a handful of civil 9 The Municipality of San Marcos which has expa nded its size considerably since 2007 is administered by new teams which are devoted to the administration, planning, and financing of development projects funded by the mining revenue As of 2009, the Municipality is constituted of the Mayor, 4 aldermen ( regidores ), 91 officers, and irregularly contracted informal employees. The administrative body ( Gerencia Municipapl ) is divided into 6 executive teams with additional sub groups for each division (Macrogestion Proyec to UGM 2007: 37 38). The financing of the expanded staff of the Municipality has been made through two different types of funding which became available since 2007, which are : 1) Participatory Budget ( Presupuesto Participativo ) which comes from the centra l government and 2) Antamina Mining Fund ( Fondo Minero Antamina ) in the form of institution strengthening fund. While each executive team and its sub groups are headed by separate director(s), th e position of the director is mostly comprised of university educated professionals who come from outside cities such as Huaraz or Lima. 10 This new status of the local government as a major actor at the local level contrast s with the situation during the 1980s and early 1990s when San Marcos was under the control of the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso ), the Peruvian guerilla group. The Shining Path had a stronger presence in the town than in the villages There were several murders committed by the guerilla group in San Marcos O ne of the victims was from a renowned large land owning family. The majority of powerful local groups who had been living in the town of San Marcos and who could afford to leave had left for Huaraz or Lima during the violent period. As was typical in the area s under the influence of the Shini ng Path, the so called red zone s local government positions stayed vacant or inactive during the period because nobody wanted to act as an agent for the state due to the risk involved.
116 organizations 11 which are characterized by the following features: 1) they are organized in reaction to a particular issue, thus the organizational durations are temporary, and their activities are restricted to a particular issue; 2) members participation is very low and even the members of the organization are usually not aware whether the organization is still active or not; 3) they were established to represent the interest s of a particular group of people who are allied based on occupation, religion, age, etc.; and 4) t he leaders of organizations have a very limited influence and their authority is restricted to pragmatic matters. The organizational instability and weak participat ion in the town contrast with organizational features of rural villages in San Marcos. In rural villages, t he most basic as well as the oldest institution is the campesino community ( comunidad campesina ) through which the majority of decisions are made, not only with respect to sociopolitical matters of the community but also with regard to the allocation of communal e conomic resources. 12 A total number of 28 campesino communities are currently registered in the district of San Marcos, 13 among which 5 comm unities are classified as a 11 Civil organizations in the town include the front for the defense of interests of San Marcos ( frente de defensa de los intereses de San Marcos ), the environmental committee of San Marcos ( comit ambienteal de San Marcos ), the association of parents of family of the primary and secondary schools ( asociaci n de padres de familia de las escuela and colegio ), religious groups, neighbor group ( junta vecinal ), the association to improve the tourism ( A sociaci n para mejorar el turismo ), the association of the merchants ( A sociaci n de los comerciantes ), and the youth group of Sa n Marcos ( O rganzaci n juvenil de San Marcos ), etc. 12 Although there are debates regarding the origin of comunidad campesina its roots date back to t he Incaic communal society of ayllu or reducci n in the 16 th century of the colonial period (Damonte el al. 200 1 ; Mayer 2002: 36; Ouweneel 2003). In the Republican Peru, two important moments can be identified during which the present structure of comunidad campesina was formulated. The first moment refers to the p eriod of the dictatorship of Augusto Leguia (1919 1930) during which comunidad de indigenas was officially recognized for the first time declaring its property unalienable (Ouweneel 2003: 82; Vel squez et al 2005: 38). The territorial definition of comuni dad was made in this scheme The second moment refers to the changes made during the Agrarian Reform of the Velasco regime (1968 1975) in which the title was changed from comunidad de indigenas to comunidad campesina It was during that period that land ow ned by hacendados were confiscated by the state and redistributed as a communal property to the comunidad campesina 13 As of 199 4 the total number of campesino communities ( comunidades campesinas ) registered in Peru was 5,6 80 and the n umber of native comm unities ( comunidades nativas ) was registered 1,192 (CEPES 2005: 5 6). Both of them are considered indigenous villages ( Pueblos Ind genas ) Their legal definition was established in1987 and 1978 respectively in the following ways: 1) Law No. 24656 recogni zed peasant communities into those places organized by public interests, with legal presence and corporate body, integrated by families that inhabit and
117 Population Center ( Centro Poblado Menor ) To be classified as such, the total size of population must be over 500 adult persons ( Ley Org nica de Municipalidades ) with its own Municipality. For this research, the campesino communities of Angoraju Carhuayoc and Huaripampa were visited, both of which are also registered as a Population Center. These two communities are among the most important in San Marcos in terms of history and population, and have been major recipient com munities from CMA, which have be en often described as the children of Antamina ( hijas de Antamina ). The initial contact between these two communities and CMA was made during the exploration stage from 1997 to 1998 During that period CMA started negotiat ing for land in the puna region, a large portion of which belonging to these communities in the form of communal territories. 14 Even though Carhuayoc and Huaripampa are the most well known and biggest peasant communities in San Marcos, their politi cal dynamics differ in several aspects. The differences control territories, linked by ancestral, social, economic, and cultural bonds, expressed in the communal property of land, communal labor, mutua l help, democratic body, and the development of multi sector activities, of which its purposes are oriented toward a full realization of its members and the country ; and 2) Law No. 22175 referred to native communities and agrarian development of the regio ns in the jungle and the edge of the jungle ( ceja de selva ) that have origin s in the tribal groups of the jungle and the edge of the jungle and are constituted of groups of families, linked by the following principal elements such as language or dialects, cultural and social characteristics, communal tenancy and usufruct, and permanence of a same territory, with nuclear or disperse settlement ( CEPES 2005: 16 17, translated from Spanish by the author). In the province of Huari, a total of 47 comunidades ca mpesinas are registered, among them 28 belong to the district of San Marcos, which shows the importance of San Marcos as the largest district of Huari. 14 Among the total 6 999.2 hectares of land sought after by CMA, 611.9 (has.) in the property of Neguip and 518 (has.) in the fundo Yanacancha belonged to Angoraju community while 2337 (has.) in Yanacancha were the property of Huaripampa community (Szablowski 2004: 325). The land transaction was completed in Januar y 1998 at the total sum of US $ 934,800 in th e case of Huaripampa ( Szablowski 2004 : 357). In June 1998 the total payment was US $452,000 in the case of Angoraju Carhuayoc ( Szablowski 2004 : 368) The land transaction process and distinctive reactions of these two communities in interaction with CMA du ring the process are thoroughly presented in the works of Gil (2005), Salas (2008), and Szablowski (2004). Various field studies were conducted on this issue: during June 2001 August 2002 in the case of Vladimir Gil s dissertation (2005), during April 20 00 June 2001, June 2002 in the case of David Slablowski s work (2004), and during the extended periods of August 1998, January 1999, June 1999 March 2000, May 2000 July 2001 in the case of Guillermo Salas work (2008) T hese studies provide excellent details on local conflicts particularly during the initial stage of CMA s operation in the area of San Marcos. Although th e present dissertation focus es on the later stage of CMA s operation in which it has fully entered into mineral production, I am indebted to the ethnographic research conducted by these previous scholars especially the detailed information regarding local interaction of CMA in San Marcos during its initial stage of the mining project
118 between these two communities concern a number of factors including the fact that Huaripampa is the oldest campesino community in San Marcos. Although the legal recognition as a campesino community wa s made in 1963 (Pasc Font et al. 2001 : 182), it was the original site of the town of San Marcos which was founded in 1540 by a Spanish soldier named Mart n Mendoza San Marcos moved to its present location in 1734 (Macrogestion Proyecto UGM 2007: 7). 15 Carhuayoc, i n contrast, was previously a hacienda that belong s to a large land owning family until the property was expropriated by the state during the agrarian reform Carhuayoc was legally recognized as a community in 1972 with the ex colonists comprisi ng the comuneros (members of community) of the community (Pasc Font 2001: 182). Internal political tensions intensified after the land sale transaction with CMA in 1998 The tensions were partly related to the number of displaced families from the Yanacan cha hamlet who chose Carhuayoc as their new destination The resettlement in Carhuayoc involved 36 families among the total 99 who were displaced. 16 The tension emerged when th e newcomers contended for an equal allocation of the communal resources in competition with the old er residents Moreover, although the land that Carhuayoc had sold to CMA was almost half the size of land that Huaripampa sold, Carhuayoc was doing far better than Huaripampa by invest ing the money received fr om CMA in its own multi service corporation which has CMA as its primary as well as single client. The initiative has continuously generate d income for the community. The profits from the communal 15 The local account of the history of Huaripam pa traces back to the 16 th century which shows that local people in Huaripampa took pride in being a member of community that founded San Marcos. According to local people, Huaripampa began to be called by that name in May, 1973. At first, it was called a s Cruz Antigua (Old Cross) until the 1700s. From the 1700s to the 1830s, it was called Cruz Roja (Red Cross). In the 1830s, it was called by yet another name, Gollana Pincush a legendary summit which is actually located in the current site of Huari pampa, a name by which the town of San Marcos had been known in ancient time s 16 The other destinations of the displaced families from the Yanacancha hamlet are as follows: 18 families to the town of San Marcos, 7 families to Huaripampa, 6 to Carash, 5 to Huaraz, 5 to Pacash, 3 to Rancas, 3 to Lima, 2 to Huancha, 2 to Juprog, and 2 to Pujun T he other 10 families resettled in diverse villages such as Cochao, Llata, Opayacu, Orocosh, Parinacancha, Pincullo, Puna, Shahuanga, and Valle (Information obtained f rom personal communications with the NGO workers in San Marcos).
119 corporation have been annually distributed to its comuneros T he amount of money annually received per comunero was said to be around US$300 as of 2008. The stronger competition for communal resources in Carhuayoc compared to Huaripampa is reflected in the strict requirements that the community of Carhuayoc stipu lates as a condition to apply for community membership. T o qualify as a community member the individual must : 1) be over 18 year old; 2) have at least one parent who is a comunero of the community: 3) be a head of a household (men are normally considered a s a household head and women are registered as a household head if she is divorced or widowed); 4) have maintained residence in Carhuayoc over three to five years; and 5) have provided service as a communal labor ( faena ) all the while maintaining residenc e in Carhuayoc. On the other hand, Huaripampa does not require a male headship to qualify for the status of a community member. This major difference allows women and unmarried young people in Huaripampa to be registered as a comunero The impact of this r equirement in Carhuayoc is verified if we compare the proportion of people who obtained the status as a community member among the total number of residents. Specifically, among the total 801 residents of Huaripampa, the number of residents with a status of community member is over 500 individuals This contrast s sharply with Carhuayoc where the number of residents with a s tatus of comunero is around 160 persons out of a to t al of 1004 (INEI, 2005). To obtain the status of comunero is an important step for residents of rural villages especially because it grants two distinct kinds of rights One is the right to claim commun al land and other type s of communal propert y. The other is the right to participate in community meetings and thus have a say in the decisions that affect community matters. By restricting the status of comunero to a small circle of people, the majority of them adult married male resident s
120 the community of Carhuayoc seems to be maintaining the authority of the Junta Directiva (Directive Board) which is controlled by long time community members Such mechanisms effectively prevent the intervention of new residents The different political dynamics between Carhuayoc and Huaripampa is also related to their distinctive geographical configurations. Separated into three sectors of Huaripampa Alto, Medio, and Bajo by altitude, Huaripampa has a broad range of el evation s, varying from 2,000 to 4,700 meters above sea level (Macrogestion 2008c: 39). While each sector is populated somewhat evenly, precipitous slop ing terrain and rough road conditions reduce the mobility of people among the sectors especially during the rainy season These hardships are particularly severe for visitors who are not accustomed to the local topography. Huaripampa landscape contrast s with the scenery of Carhuayoc. Although Carhuayoc also has a varied range of e cological zone s, with elevations that vary from 2,760 to 4,300 meters above sea level (Macrogestion 2008b: 39), its residential site s are mostly located in the lower elevations Horizontally arranged, the entire residential site can be easily reached on fo ot, thus enabling greater mobility within the community. The distances between sectors in Huaripampa are reflected in the structure of grassroots communal organizations such as Mothers Club ( Club de M adres ), and the Association of Agrarian Producers ( Asoc iaci n de Productores Agrarios ), which are divided by sectors. Although these organizations suffer from a low level of local participation and the activities that are channeled through them are very weak, the incapacity of these organizations to accomplis h their missions has been aggravated by the divisive rivalry among the sectors. In sum, the above comparison of political institutions in rural villages and in the commerical town of San Marcos indicates that communal activities are carried out through two
121 major channels, the Municipality in the case of the commercial town and the campesino community in the case of rural villages. B ecause b oth a re legal entit ies authorized by the state, and given that communal activities are mostly performed via these institutions, these observations reflect the weak organizational capacity of San Marcos as a whole where few activities are organized voluntarily by grassroots organizations. Local participation in the Municipality is extremely restricted especiall y because local people have very little access to affect the decision making of the Municipality. On the other hand, local participation in campesino community is more inclusive and thorough although there remain inequalities among residents in their acces s to sociopolitical resources allocated through the representative body of the campesino community. Moreover, it is worth noting that the campesino community operates as a basic unit of identification through which residents in rural villages define their affiliation, build network s and struggle to gain access to a bigger share of socioeconomic resources. It is also worth mentioning that in both the town and the rural villages, the arrival of CMA has generated rather contradictory effects on the dynamics o f local politics. Specifically, longstanding political divisions were exacerbated by a number of factors such as the emergence of new actors like a group of professional officers at the Municipality, the result s of the previous mayoral election, and the re settlement of displaced families On the other hand, the magnitude of resources generated from CMA has increased the importance of local political institutions through which these resources are distributed The increases in the municipal budget stimulat ed local people to become engaged in these institutions which now had to meet new expectations and attend to new interest groups. Economic Activities in the Commercial Town and Rural Villages The Peruvian national censuses in 1993 and 2005 (INEI 1993 ; 2005) indicate that during the elapsed time between these censuses, the population of San Marcos became more urbanized.
122 The census data show that the urban population gr ew while rural population decreased during the 12 year period ( Figure 3 3). The change s shown in Figure 3 3 are the result of two types of migration that have taken place during the period: in migration from rural villages to the town; out migration from the district of San Marcos to places such as Huaraz or the northern provinces of Lima w hich are favorite destinations of out bound migrants in San Marcos. Figure 3 3. Population s in the district of San Marcos, 1993 2005. (Source: Elaborated by the author based on the data provided by the Peruvian National Census of 1993 and 2005 in reference of Macrogestion Proyecto UGM (2007 : 22) and Pasc Font (2001)). Even though in bound migration from rural villages to the commercial town has been growi ng in San Marcos during the last decade, its economy is still controlled by agro pastoral activities in rural villages with a small portion of commerce and manufacturing industry in the commercial town ( Figure 3 4). Although the data provided in Figure 3 4 is impr e cise because of the high number of the people who are categorized as unspecified, they nonetheless offer a broad picture of the relative size of each economic sector. The small proportion of people found in the categories conventionally associat ed with an urban environment, such as commerce, touris m and manufacturing reveals much about the nature of the urban economy in San Marcos A s a mediator between the coastal market economy and peasant economy, the San Marcos 2784 8876 11660 3332 7393 10725 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Urban Rural Total Population in 1993 Population in 2005
123 economy appears to be constrained by an incapacity to fully develop its potential by virtue of its dependen ce on the purchasing power of the rural sector Figure 3 4. Type of occupations among the EAP (Economically Active Population) in San Marcos. (Source: elaborate by the author based on the data from INEI 2005 in reference of Macrogestion Proyecto UGM (2007 : 23)). Urban c ommercial activities are comprised of somewhat distinct types of market people, who can be classified into the following three broad categories. First, there is a group of traders who own their own estate in the area of the Main Square ( Plaza de Armas ) and use the space to run stores, restaurants or hotels. As such property is mostly inherited through family tie s the traders in this group are usually fro m established merchant families or from former large land owning families. Even though the number of traders in this category is relatively small compared to other categories of market people, they hold a very important status A s patron s with extensive re sources and highly developed network s, they exert considerable local influence. The second group is trade persons who run store s that carry varied items such as grocer ies fruits, clothes, electronics, and daily necessities or who run a restaurant outside the Main Square throughout the central area of the commercial town. Although some of them own their own store, 1,714 1,046 303 137 101 100 96 30 30 23 14 13 9 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800
124 the number of people who rent space is growing as the market place in San Marcos has expanded considerably after CMA. The majority of this group live in town, and have worked as merchant s throughout their life. S treet vendors make up the third group. They are mostly from rural villages or from other cities especially Huaraz. In the case of vendors from rural villa ges, peasant women comprise the majority. These women often sell pre cooked food in order to supplement their household income. While peasant women who are street vendor comprise a relatively small proportion of this group, the majority of them come from H uaraz to sell fruit, clothes, electronics, or other consumer goods. The number of street vendors who come to San Marcos from Huaraz has grown remarkably after 2008 in response to a series of development projects particularly the P ilot P lan and PMIP which increased local purchasing power and promoted the expansion of market economy of San Marcos. The primary economic activit ies in rural villages, on the other hand, are subsistent agricultural and pastoral production 17 Data on household heads of Carhuayoc shown in Figure 3 5 illustrates a proportion of major economic activities in rural villages. 17 Although there is no statistical data available on the degree of subsistence in the agro pastoral production of San Marcos, an estimate can be made by referring to a survey conducted in th e region of the Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Negra by a team of CEDEP ( Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo y la Participacin ). According to the CEDEP survey, 55 % of agricultural production is directed to family consumption in the Cordillera Blanca w hile the rate was 65 % in the Cordillera Negra. The rate of production which was sold was 34 % in the Cordillera Blanca while it was 23 % in the Cordillera Negra. This survey also noted that among the middle or rich peasant households, the production rate for market sale was much higher, between 46 and 40 % of their production in comparison with poor households which sold only 17 % of their p roduction. On the other hand, in Cordillera Negra, poor groups sold 34 % of their production while the middle groups sold 28 % Richer households marketed only 6 % of their production (Elena et al. 1993: part 2) Even though the conclusion is not based on spe cific data, the rate of auto consumption in rural villages of San Marcos seems to be much lower than those of the CEDEP survey. During the interview in the field, NGO workers contracted by the Antamina mining company in order to conduct several base line s tudies in the area of San Marcos and Cha vn confirmed that the proportion of production that local people sell at the market out of their total agricultural production is between 15 and 20 % but would not exceed 20 % by any standard ( information obtained th rough personal communications with the NGO workers in San Marcos, 2007 ) The major source of household differentiation in terms of their wealth in rural villages of San Marcos does not seem to be much concerned with the scale of agro pastoral production b ecause very few household s have sufficient cultivable land to produce a surplus, especially after the large land owning families and campesino communities sold their private or communal land s to the Antamina mining company in 1998.
125 Figure 3 5. Primary economic activity of the household heads in Carhuayoc in 2008. (Source: Elaborated by the author based on the data provided by Macrogestion (2008b)). While the data in Figure 3 5 conveys the importance of agriculture in rural economy, certain aspects need to be addressed in order to better understand the implication of these figures. F irst, it is worth remembering the male biased tendency of the data considering that the survey targeted the head of household who is typically an adult male. Although there is no survey data available regarding adult peasant women s activities in the regio n, my observation s during the fieldwork suggest that it is women rather than men in the household who take primary care of cattle Moreover, another survey in the district of San Marcos regarding the secondary occupation of the head of households 18 indicate s that cattle farming constitute d 30 % while agriculture constitute d 35 % of the secondary occupation of the s urvey participants (Macedo et al 2007: 66). Accordingly, the low proportion of cattle ranching in the above figure may stem from the male biased survey technique as well as people s tendency to consider cattle breeding as a 18 The survey was conduc ted with 107 household heads in the district of San Marcos (Macedo et al. 2007: 30). Among the survey participants, 81% were male and 19% were female (Macedo et al. 2007: 30). In this survey the distinction between the urban and rural populations was not made among the survey participants. 166 61 11 9 5 5 4 2 263 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
126 secondary activity Second, it needs to be mentioned that the survey was conducted after the Municipality implemented the development program in 2008, so called the Pilot Plan ( Plan Piloto ) and later renamed as PMIP ( Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestructura P blica ). This project has generated a significant number of temporary wage laborers in rural villages ( eventuales ). For instance, survey data c onducted in Carhuayoc by Macrogestion of the type of labor found that temporary wage workers ( eventuales ) comprise d 41.8 % of the labor force while independent labor correspond ed to 53.2 % showing a high proportion of temporary wage labor in rural villages (Macrogestion 2008b: 35). There is also indirect evidence that the proportion of temporary wage earners involved in traditional forms of production (such as seasonal workers and peones ) is declining while the proportion of wage temporary wage earners hired by the PMP is increasing. In November, 2008, when I carried out my fieldwork PMP projects accounted for about 30 to 40 % of the temporary labor force. Hence, it is possible that the large number of e who are working for the PMIP as a temporary wage laborer. Agro pastoral activities in the villages of San Marcos are constrained by several factors, which dictate the scope and mode of these activities. T he presence of distinctive ecological zone s by elevation and micro climate is a major factor determining the type and scale of crops and ranching which can be produced in each ecological zone. 19 As the concept of verticality indicates, the acc ess to these diversified 19 In this respect, Guillermo Salas (2008: 53) identified five ecological zones focused on in the Carash river basin in San Marcos, which also apply to other regions in San Marcos (Szablowski 2004: 320) According to his classification, the characteristics of each ecological zone are as follows. Production zone no. 1: irrigated lowland for the cultivation of maize white potato es and fruits, 2900 3200 meters above sea level. Production zone no. 2: un irrigated low land for the cultivation of maize and white potato es 3100 3400 meters. Production zone no. 3: cereal zone for the cultivation of wheat, barley, olluco potato es chocho ( tarwi ), 3400 3700 meters. Production zone no. 4: tuber zone of puna for the cultivation of cultivate potato es olluco oca forrajera oats, as well as extensive ranching of sheep, 3700 3900 meters. Production zone no. 5: grazing zone of puna used to raise sheep, vacunos and horses, 3900 4400 meters.
127 production zones is critical for peasants to meet their subsistent needs which cannot be fully satisfied by depending on the use of a single ecological zone (Mayer 2002 : 16 ). In this context, reciprocal relationship constructed thr ough diverse kinship networks or compadrazgo (fictive kinship) is a vital element for the survival in rural villages (Salas 2008: C h 2). 20 As noted in studies o f the Andean highlands, the web of reciprocity engages diverse levels of people including not on ly local residents but also people in other villages or in the commercial town, as well as people who have migrated to other cities (Mayer 2002: 11; Fonseca 1985; Paerregaard 1997). Connected mainly through family or fictive family ties, the relationship o f reciprocity entails the exchange of varied types of resources including service provision for cattle raising in the pastoral highland ( puna ) in return for locally cultivated agricultural products and consumer goods such as shoes, clothes, electronics, et c. It is also very usual that the initial rural to urban migration is shaped by reciprocity networks In return for certain services, m igrants are provide d food and housing, sometimes even a recommendation for a manual labor in the city, by a family member who had moved to a new site long ago In addition to the opportunities and constraints determined by the various ecological zones, agricultural and pastoral activities in San Marcos are strongly marked by adverse production conditions. The scarcity of arable land is a major feature constraining the agricultural production T he majority of rural households in the area have access to less than 1 hectare of land. A ccording 20 Based on his fieldwork in Yanacanc ha, Guillermo Salas observes that in this region, communal organizations do not play a significant role in coordinating the use and management of the pastoral land of puna (2008:79). Salas notes that there is no sectoral alternation system in the region differently from other Andean societies. He explains the sectoral alternation system as an equivalence to muyus, moyas, or laymis in which a family usufruct is communally organized and controlled thus enabling an alternation between agricultural and pastoral activities ( 2008: 77). Salas searches the absence of communal collab orative system in the region from its relatively short history of communal organizations including the institution of comunidad campesina (2008: 78 79). In this aspect, it also needs to be mentioned that the strong presence of hac iendas (large land owning system ) in rural villages of San Marcos which lasted until the late 1960s may have destroyed much part of the traditional labor and production systems of the region based on the communal administration of resources.
128 to the INEI s agro pastoral census in 1994, among the total 45,635 hectares of surfa ce land which is classified as a natural pasture land, only 4,944 hectares were being used for agro pastoral activities, an amount which corresponds to less than 10 % of the total land in this category (INEI 1994). Low productivity caused by land scarcity i s aggravated by the inadequacy or deficiency of irrigation system which covers only a very limited area of lowland agricultural zone. The impoverishment in rural villages is intimately related to these adverse production conditions where individual househo ld cannot adequately meet their subsistent needs by agro pastoral activities alone T he major strategy people employ to contend with the land scarcity and poverty has been a seasonal labor migration or artisanal textile production. 21 In the case of seasona l labor migration, it is mostly conducted by married peasant men who follow the agricultural cycle Their primary destination is the northern provinces of Lima. The migration of unmarried young people is also frequent However, the nature of this type of m igration is different because this type of migration is more permanent and it is conducted by both women and men in more or less equal proportions The contribution of artisanal textile production as a complementary source of household income is much more restricted and sporadic compared to the income generated through labor migration. Hand knitting is daily and extensively practiced by peasant women usually for household use. On the other hand, market oriented textile production by weaving machine is almost exclusively a male domain Four peasant villages in San Marcos ( Carhuayoc, Carash, 21 In this context, Carmen Diana Deere (1990) provides a detailed analysis on the peasant livelihood strategies focused on the case of Cajamarca, Peru. Based on the perspective that reliance on temporary wage employment need not automatically signal incomplete reproduction or household disintegration income earned by household members in various occupations, whether through wage work, trading or remittances, can serve as the basis for t he household to accumulate means of production ( Deere 1990 : 269), Deere notes that the income obtained through non agricultural activities plays a complement s household reproduction in rural villages with little room for the accumulation of a surplus whic h is generated through these activities.
129 Pacash, and Huancha ) have a strong tradition of artisanal production for commercial purposes but this type of activity is of very little importance in other villages. The above review of economic activities in urban and rural places shows that the market economy in San Marcos is heavily dependent on the magnitude of local purchasing power, the majority of which is sustained by peasant economy. That is the essential role of the urban economy lies in mediating between the external market economy and local peasant economy. Thus, as a retailer, profits in the urban economy are made by maximizing the price differences between exter nal market places and rural sectors. The r ural economy, on the other hand, was shown to be largely characterized by subsistent agricultural and pastoral activities. However, it was noted that the subsistent agro pastoral production in rural villages is con strained by several adverse conditions such that individual households cannot reproduce themselves solely on the basis of agro pastoral production. The insufficiency of agro pastoral production propelled economic diversification in rural villages which enc ompasses temporary wage labor, commerce, textile production, mining, construction or manufacturing ( Figure 3 5). Among these non agricultural activities, temporary wage labor is shown to be the most important and extensive household strategy in order to su pplement household income. It has been also in the arena of temporary wage labor where the most obvious changes have taken place in rural villages of San Marcos following the initiation of a series of development projects financed by a range of mining fund s from CMA By increasing the demand for temporary wage labor the PMIP development project has replaced the conventional channel of temporary wage labor, especially migration, as a source of temporary wage labor. The impact of these projects is not limite d to the economic sphere as they also promote changes in socio cultural dimensions of local life
130 Gender Relation s in San Marcos Scholars who have focused on gender in the Peruvian Andes have noted that a strict division of gender roles is a primary feature of Andean social life (Babb 1985; Deere and Leon 1981; Mitchell 1986 C h 2 ). The division of gender roles in the Andes h a s been conceptualized in terms of contrastin g concepts : complementarity and subordination Conventionally referring to the traditional Andean gender relations, the concept of complementarity (or parity) was used to describe gender relations in the Andean highland societies (Silverblatt 1987: 147). From this perspective, equality in diversity (Safa 1995 : 319 ), and women and men are portrayed to hold an equal control of land and pro ductive resources, based on both gender egalitarian land inheritance of material wealth and upon traditional gender ideolog y (Belote and Belote 1977; 1988, requoted from Hamilton 1998: 27). In contrast, the complex dimension of gender complementarity was also noted. For instance, Harris notes that the stress on the difference between femaleness and maleness is sometimes used to disqualify women from participation in most collective activity obscuring violence committed based on gender difference (H arris 1978: 37, requoted from Bourque and Warren 1981: 27; also see, Hamilton 1998: 153) The assumption embedded in the idea of gender complementarity was fu r ther questioned by several scholars who increasingly stressed the unequal gender relations in the Andes ( Babb 1985; Bourque and Warren, 1981; Deere and Leon 1981; Stein 2003: 426 ). From this perspective which emphasizes women s subordination in the Andes, the divided social life be t ween women and men is both an outcome and a source of the marginalizat ion of women from the access to a range of social and economic resources. The gender complementarity approach and the subordination approach have incompatible perspectives on the gender divi si on of labor. Nonetheless, it is obvious that these studies all agree that a strict division of gender roles characterizes the social and economic life of the Andean highlands. The relatively
131 distinct social and economic spheres that women and men occupy in Andean societies also impl y that gender operates as a major factor shaping the social order. T his research therefore positions gender at the center of my analysis of local participation in development projects In order to examine gender relations in th e town and villages, I identif y three sets of factors that shape and perpetuate variations in the sexual division of labor and s e x role stereotyping in the Andean highland s The first factor relates to the division of labor by the type of productive activity in which women are engaged s of two Andean communities offers an important point of reference in this respect. After comparing gender ideology and the sexual division of labor in the commercial center of Chiuchin and the agricultural village of Mayobamba, Bourque and Warren conclude : not free from sexual hierarchy or limitations of sex role stereotyping (1981: 148). However, the y further note : th e greater accessibility to capital among women in Chuichin enables them to take a better share of resources and to achieve higher social status with less mediation from their male everal anthropological studies on the market women in the Andean towns in Peru (Babb 1989; de la Cadena 1995; Seligmann 2004) also come up with relevant observations regarding the differences in gender relations between market women and peasant women ( camp esinas ). C h 7) ethnography on the interaction between market women and peasant customers in Cusco is particularly interesting because it shows that the two groups of women are clearly aware of their distinct social status and that each group struggles to confirm or confront their superiority or inferiority in comparison to the other group.
132 The second category is concerned with household composition. Poverty in the Andean highland intensifies the unequal allocation of resources among households, thereby increasing the differentiation between households within the community (Deere 1990; May e r 2002: 38,114,209). While there can be diverse factors causing this stratification among households, I am (1990) observation that the domestic cycle of each household is one of the major d eterminant s of the status of each household within the community. To operationalize the domestic cycle of each household, I examine whether the household was male headed or female headed In the Andes, it has been extensively observed that the absence of male head by death, divorce, migration, or abandonment within household as well as women s daily responsibilities (Bourque and Warren 1981: 36). The third category that affects sexual division of labor in the Andean society is related to the type of communal organizations in which women are involved. It is well noted that h ouseholds in the Andes are highly interconn ected each other (de la Cadena and Mayer 1989; Mayer 2002: 33; Paulson 2002). As Marisol de la Cadena ably points out interdependence leads households to acknowledge the communit y as a key institution that manages common property and decides how to allocate and consume resources (Mayer 2002: 39 41). Campesino community is a focal point not only in the economic sphere but also in the political dimension of village life in the Andes Th e centrality of campesino community in the life of rural villages was something that I clearly detected during my fieldwork i n San Marcos. Specifically, it was evident that comuneros (officially registered members of the campesino community) and their representative bodies were the one that negotiated with CMA staff, or its contracted development personnel The campesino community thus holds a central position in determining household livelihoods, while
133 the prevailing sex role stereotypes help to make i t a male dominated space. Women also participate in community management tasks, but it they are more likely to do so through their through the ir participation in separate grassroots organizations like the Mothers Club or the Glass of Milk In the later part, I explore how gender relations are formulated in San Marcos in interaction with distinctive urban and rural socioeconomic institutions For that purpose, I will first present life history of four women to compare how women in the town and countryside are differently positioned in their life choices and experiences. I will then analyze how the rural urban divide is reflected in gender relations by comparing three broad sets of organizations: economic organiz ations; social organizations; and political organizations. Case Studies: Four Women s Life Hist o ry in the Commercial T own and Rural Village Case 1) Juana in the commercial town of San Marcos (52 year old) 22 : As one of the most successful merchants in town, Juana and her husband, Filo, are a respected couple in San Marcos. Coming from lowly peasant origins, respect for them is very much related to the fact that they have made their own way by working hard. Born in a small hamlet Filo moved to the town when he was a teenager to help an old widow who single handedly operated a small lodging house. After many years of hard work, he earned the trust of the lady. With no offspring or other close relatives, she decided to leave her pr operty to this diligent young man. The inheritance and his decade long experience were resources that made him a very successful business owner in San Marcos. Juana, who was 10 years younger than Filo, was a very trustworthy and devoted wife who became th e most reliable co 22 Throughout this dissertation, I am using pseudo names to refer to the interview participants of this study.
134 Filo and Juana converted part of the space into a restaurant. Although Filo administered the restaurant, Juana cooked and waited on the customers. Filo remained on the lookout for additional economic resources, especially taking care of the agricultural cultivation in his chacra (farm) which he had inherited from his parents. business experienced several ups and downs. The biggest challenge came in the late 1980s when the Shining Path guerilla movement made its presence in San Marcos. Because of the insecurity caused by this turn of events, Filo and Juana decided to take their four children and temporarily leave San Marcos for Lima. The savings cove red their expenses for several years in Lima until political and social turmoil caused by the Shining Path calmed down. After spending a couple of years in Lima, they came back to San Marcos in the early 1990s with out a dime at hand. Their oldest daughter, Carmen, decided to stay in Lima to search for a job. It was not difficult to resume their business in San Marcos because they maintained the ownership of their property in San Marcos while they were staying in Lima. As their business in the lodging house and restaurant got back on track they sent their other three children to Carmen in Lima so that they could study and find jobs. The arrival of CMA in San Marcos during the late 1990s represented a crucial opportunity for Filo and Juana. Located in the mai n square ( Plaza de Armas ) area their restaurant rapidly became one of the most favored places by visitors. Moreover, Filo differed from o ther local merchants in that he was astute enough to make an investment with the capital that Juana and he had accumul ated. They used their capital to buy space near the main square and change it into a five story hotel with modern facilities Within a few years, this made them one of the wealthiest merchants in San Marcos. The expansion and success of their business did not change their everyday activities. Juana has continued cooking at the restaurant and serving customers while
135 Filo became mo re dedicated to the administration of hotel. These days, Filo and Juana are considering the po ssibility of handing over the management of the hotel to their oldest daughter C ase 2) Rosa in the commercial town of San Marcos (29 year old) : Born in a pastoral highland village ( puna ) of San Marcos, Rosa is the fifth among her nine siblings. Her experience in the city started very early, when she was still a n elementary school stud ent. Entrusted to her her adolescent period helping in her life in the city as a challenging experience because it presented opportunities as well as frustration and insecurity. After graduating from high school in Lima, she came back to San Marcos to continue studying for a higher degree at the technology institute, the only tuition free public educational institution in the region Studying co mputer science at the institute, she recalls walking to the school in the town from her house at puna because she could not afford transportation, a trip that normally took s ome six hours on foot. Having many siblings has been a great advantage to her beca use her older brothers and sisters had already explored life outside the puna and were able to provide her a place to stay when she needed it While studying at the institute, she fell in love with a young man who came from Lima to work in San Marcos The relationship evolved very quickly and they started living together in town without legally getting married. The relationship with her husband, Miguel, represented an important breakthrough in her life. First of all, it signified a permanent break fr om her home village. She temporarily travels once or twice per year to visit her parents and her youngest sister in the puna but confesses that she is no longer comfortable living in ther e. I cannot bear the inconvenience of living without the facilities available in town. The marriage
136 with Miguel also meant access to a range of new networks that Miguel has built up through his family relations in the coastal city as well as through his work in San Marcos. As monthly salary barely covered the ir daily living costs in the town, Rosa started making money by who came from other cities to work in San Marcos and thus normally ate all their meals at local restaurants While Ros a cooked and served food, Miguel managed the earnings obtained through Rosa s labor. After cooking meals for two years, Rosa succeeded in persuading Miguel to let her have a share of the earnings so that she could rent a small piece of farm land in the coa experience in the chacra as a child, she decided to plant garlic for commercial purposes. To manage the farm, Rosa regularly stays a month or two at her parents in The marriage seems to have been economically and emotionally successful for both Rosa and Miguel. Case 3) Eugenia in the campesino community of Carhuayoc (37 year old) : These days, Eugenia is often seen walking around the village with an anxious look. It was unfortunate that the accident that befell her two sons happened one after another. Even though her sons were only slightly wounded, she realizes that the money that she has at h and is in sufficient to cover the cost of the medicines that the doctor at the medical post prescribed. She is thinking that probably Juan, a local coordinator of the plan ploto will help her get selected for the next round of job assignments because he s aw her entering the medical post in San Marcos yesterday. Otherwise she will have to talk with Raulo, her husband, this Saturday when he comes back home from the puna for a break to see if he has any money available for the boys. Although it was a relief t hat Tina, her oldest daughter, could settle down in Lima with her oldest son, Julio, who help their uncle at the restaurant, it will still take several years before they start making money to be of any help to the family. These days, it is much more expens ive to take care of her 6 children who are
137 too young to work in a city. It was a long time ago that they spent all the money they had received from the Antamina company in return for the land in Yanacancha. She realizes that after selling the land, they ca n no longer count on cattle in the puna which they used to feed their children. Except the small supply of potatoes that she receives once a year from her sister in the puna she is forced to buy all the food for her family from the local market. She tries to make the most of the small amount of money that Julio earns by working either as a carpenter at the puna or as a jornal (daily laborer) at the Contonga mine. She is amazed to see her children growing up so fast. However, she often feels that life is to o harsh for her with too many responsibilities. She hopes not to have any more children, although Julio does not permit her to use contraceptives. Case 4) Auristela in the campesino community of Huaripampa (35 year old) : Born in Huaripampa as a second one of three children Auristela is a mother of four children. Although she feels these days that she has finally found some peace in her life, she sometimes worries that this peaceful time will not last long. It still hurts to recall her childhood because it reminds her of the absence of her abusive father who was often drunk, and the abuse she and her siblings received at the hands of her mother. After dropping the school at the third year of the elementary school, she still cannot write well which has always been an obstacle whenever she attempted to get any decent job outside her home village. When she was eighteen year old, she went to Lima expecting to have a chance to change her life. She stayed in Lima about 7 years, 4 years working as a housemaid, and 3 years working as a servant in a small restaurant. Working in Lima was not easy particularly because the job paid so little that she was unable to save and because there were many people who abused and tried to take advantage of her. This was one of the ma jor reasons why she agreed to come back to her home village with Jorge, a young man from a small highland village in San Marcos, whom she met in Lima. She was glad that she finally could have a
138 separate space with Jorge in her home village where her mother is the only remaining family member. She grows vegetables in a small cha c ra while Jorge works irregularly in the town of San Marcos. When he finished training as a cook at a the job training center in the town he was able to find a job at the mine as an assistant cook Auristela was glad that he could finally bring money home on a regular basis. However, it did not take long before he stopped coming home. She soon found out that he got engaged to other woman who lived in a rural village near th eir house and Jorge stopped sending her money. Left with three children, she realized that she has no other resource to feed herself and her three children. Her only option was to start making chicha which she sometimes sold in her home village and other times in the market in San Marcos. Making a living as a single mother was difficult. Although her mother sometimes helped her to take care of her children she struggled to get Jorge to pay certain portion of his salary for the maintenance of their three children Several years later, she met another man, Manuel, in the same village who was five years younger than she. He was kind to her and her children and he bought cloths and shoes for her children. As they got to know each other better, they decided to live together and they rented a small room together. Within t wo years she gave a birth to a daughter with Manuel, who brought a certain stability to the relationship. Auristela continues to petition to the judge in Huari to compel Jorge to pay monthly ali mony to support their children. Implications Due to the diversity of life histories of women in San Marcos, it will be inaccurate to consider the experiences of these four women as typical. The ir experiences nonetheless provide a partial look at how the range of choices that women make in their life is constrained by socioeconomic factors. First of all, the cases indicate that both urban and rural women have certain experience of living in the city a phenomenon that is related to the high freque ncy of
139 rural urban migration in the region. Rural urban migration among women mostly takes place either as a single young woman or as members of a family unit. The importance of temporary labor migration to a single woman stems from the fact that migration has been a major channel through which women are exposed to cash economy and participate as a salaried labor force, mostly in the form of domestic servants or service workers. Second, the case histories show that largely determi ned by their marital relationship s All of the cases show that women actively participate in productive activities whether they are based in rural or urban setting but the degree and intensity of their participation varies depending on a number of factors. The latter include the extent of their reproductive responsibilities or the range of productive opportunities that are available as well as their education and age. It is also apparent that their access to economic resources seems to be highly determine d by their marital relationship s For instance, the experience of Juana and Rosa illustrate how they got engaged in commercial activities in the urban economy through the mediation of their male se of Juana) or networks (in the case of Rosa). On the other hand, the experiences of Eugenia and Auristela illustrate that their attachment to rural economy constrains their access to commercial activities. The participation of women in rural villages in productive activities seems to be mostly concerned with agro pastoral support, Auristela was compelled to become engaged in commercial activity as a street vend or. However, the lack of capital as well as her child rearing responsibility limited her commitment to irregular and temporary activity. Although the idea of man as a breadwinner of the household was strongly observed in the urban area as well as in rural villages, women in rural villages seemed to be more dependent on their male partner as a source of household income compared to
140 women in the town. n is concerned with the limited access that peasant women have to cash economy compar ed to urban women. experiences in the commercial town and rural villages of San Marcos. In the following sect ion I will examine how the previously noted three categories of socio economic organi zations influence the sexual division of labor and sex role stereotyping with a particular focus on women in the commercial town and two rural communities Carhuayoc and Huaripampa. Gender Relations in San Marcos in T erm s of Three Categories of Socio E conomic Organizations S exual division of labor by the type of productive activities : As the case histories show women actively and extensively participate in productive activities whether they are based at the town or the rural villages. In spite of the i mportant role productive activities play in both economies, the type of women s labor and the degree of their responsibilities in comparison with their male partners differ considerably because of the distinctive economic structur es that characteri ze urban and ru r al areas. In place in the arena of subsistence agr icultural production. The labor intensive nature of subsistent agro pastoral production has the household as its basic production unit. Diverse family members contribute their labor, including extended family members and people associated through fictive kinship networks. The extensive labor participation in agro pastoral production, however, takes place within a scheme where each ta sk is rather strictly divided among family members by their sex, age, and availability. The sexual division of labor in subsistent agr icultural production which I have observed in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa during the fieldwork corroborates the general patt erns presented by the relevant literature on the subject (Barrig 2001; Bastos 2007; Deere 1982; Deere and Leon
141 1981; Elena et al. 1993; Mayer and Glave 1999; Mitchell 1986). Sexual division of labor in agr icultural production of these communities can be ex amined with respect to three dimensions. place according to particular tasks in the process of work (1981: 341). This type of division of labor in agriculture is shaped by the gender attitude s that relegate women and men to specific tasks. Table 3 1 describes how each task is divided by sex in agr icultural production in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa. Table 3 1. Technical division of labor by gender in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa Agricultural activities p low plant thresh lift heavy loads apply fertilizer and pesticide fix tools repair infrastructural facilities plant process grains prepare products for storage prepare meals for field workers sort potatoes sell crops at a market Animal husbandry kill animals butcher buy and sell livestock fetch grass and water graze and herd animals c lean animal collect eggs shear sheep buy and sell livestock sell animal products at a market (S ource: Elaborated by the author based on fieldwork and in reference of Knox seith 1995 : 138 139; Mitchell 1986 : 95 97) The list of sex specific tasks in Table 3 1 indicates that men perform tasks which are mostly concentrated in the field ( chacra ). of tasks which are concerned, not only with the work in the field but also with agricultural processing and servicing, such as handling grains, storing, selling, and preparing meals for the
142 field laborers. Moreover, the list in animal husbandry illustrates that women take more extensive responsibilities compared to their male partners. Women serve as primary caretakers of the rather supplementary to what women do. The greater respo nsibility of women in animal care partially stems from the situation that villagers raise small animals such as chickens, guinea pigs, pigs, rabbit s and sheep, and, occasionally, larger animals such as horses or cattle. The division drawn in Table 3 1 is normally followed when there is a presence of both a female and male labor force in the household. However, there are moments when the division becomes flexible, especially in the absence of working adults due to migration, accidence, death, or other reaso ns. The second aspect of the sexual division of labor in rural economy is concerned with sexually divided household space. As the sex specific activities in Table 3 tasks mostly take place in the outside field site ( chacra ) while the maj productive labor is performed inside the house such as animal care, agricultural processing and storing work. The geography of gender roles further mean s women s greater responsibilities in reproductive labor such as child care, cooking, l aundering, and house cleaning which should mostly be done inside the house As Deere and Leon note, are rather homogenous cross culturally in comparison with productive activities (1981: 339). Women both in rural vill ages and in the town take full responsibilities for reproductive labor while men s responsibilities tend to be complementary or improvised. Despite the similarities of women s reproductive responsibilities, the higher fertility rate in the countryside 23 and the lack 23 According to the 1993 census of the INEI, the average number of children (among women aged 40 49) in C arhuayoc is 7, Huaripampa 7, Huaripampa alto 9, Ayash 11. The number seems to be much higher in the pastoral highland ( puna ) (e.g., Antamina 13, Ayash 11, Juprog 8, Pujun 10) while the birth rate in the commercial town is recorded to be 6 on the average.
143 of facilities in rural villages seem to make peasant compared to that of urban women. 24 The third aspect of sexual division of labor in rural villages is related to the seasonality of the agricultural c ycle. Due to poorly developed irrigation systems agricultural production in San Marcos is strongly dictated by climatic changes composed of two distinctive seasons, the rainy season from November to April and the dry season from May to October. As has bee n long noted (Knox seith 1995 : 51 91 ; Mayer and Glave 1999 : 361 ) agricultural activities are carefully in temporary labor migration is also carried out within t his annual scheme. As agricultural production can barely cover household subsistent needs, income through a wage labor is indispensible to ho usehold survival. As it is frequently and extensively observed in the Andean highlands, temporary labor migration t o outside cities has been an important household strategy 24 The high birth rate in the rural area is related to the low popularity of modern c ont raceptive measures Although the medical post which is installed in each population center ( centro poblado ) provides free contraceptives such as a tri monthly contraceptive shot, only a small number of local women are reported to have used it. For instance, a doctor of the medical post at Huaripampa informed me that about 50 requests for a contraceptive treatm ent were recorded at this post in 2006. In Carhuayoc, the doctor reports that among about 600 adult women, only 41 women have visited the center for contraceptive treatment in 2007. According to these doctors, women resist the use of modern contraceptive m easure s for three main reasons : T hey claim that they do not have time for it. They explain that women assume that it does harm to their body. They also say that their husbands do not allow them to use it. With respect to the latter, people reported that me n feel insecure if their wives are not pregnant because they are worried about their wives may have an extramarital affair. When I brought up this issue, some people responded to y masculine ( Ellos lo hacen es que son muy hombre highlands are reluctant to discuss sexual matters. It is worth noting that that these opinions imply that the idea of masculinity is portrayed as a quality which makes man be a primary decision maker with respect to their female we compar e the average birthrate of each campesino community to that in the commercial town. For instance, the the peasant villages in San Marcos ranged f rom 7 to 13, while women of the same age range in the town of San Marcos are recorded to have 6 children on the average. In places where women are the primary caretaker of children, high birthrates lead to a greater reproductive burden on women compared to participation in paid jobs. Avoidance to birth control is especially prevailing among adolescent couples as their sexual relationship is liable to be more impulsive and secretive. Although there is no st atistical data available a bout adolescent sexual relationship in the region the interviews with school teachers, medical providers, and the NGO staff indicate that people usually have their first sexual relationship between the ages of 11 13. While a couple is expected to be a liv e in partner once they have a child, there is no obligation in this regard, and it is not unusual to find adolescent single mothers which community you may visit in San Marcos.
144 in rural villages of San Marcos especially before the arrival of CMA. Temporary migration mostly takes place between June when the harvest season ends and October or until November when planting st arts, and is conventionally conducted by a married adult male The seasonality of the work in the lower mobility compared to their male partners is related to the nature of respons ibilities assigned to women, which require a constant attention throughout the year, such as animal husbandry, processing and storing of agricultural products, and child rearing. Male temporary labor migration nonetheless promotes greater flexibilit y in the sexual division of labor because, when the men are gone, women are compelled to play a substitute role for their male partners often in cooperation with other family members Compared to the strict sexual division of labor in the rural area, sexual d ivision of productive labor in the urban area seems to be more flexible due to the diversity of economic activities in the town Women s economic engagement in the urban labor force encompasses a broad range of activities such as petty trade school teachi ng, administrative jobs, and service work in restaurants, stores and hotels. Although it has long been observed that men assume the role of manager of household income even though income is created through the collaboration with their female partners, urba n women still have much greater and more frequent acces s to cash compared to peasant women. Moreover, as urban women are involved in a wide range of economic activities and because male temporary labor migration is not such an important household strategy in the urban economy as it is in rural economy, the mobility difference s between women and men is far less evident in urban areas As Bourque and Warren observe (1981: 128), greater access to cash means that women in town experience less male intervention in managing the household economy compared to peasant women Moreover,
145 the diversity of urban women s economic activities implies that the pattern of sexual division of labor in town tends to be more complex and heterogeneous compared that in the rural villages. H ousehold composition : The absence of an adult male, whether temporary or permanent, is a major source of change in sexual division of labor within the household (Bourque and Warren 1981: 36; Deere 1990: 310). In rural areas, the stri ct division of labor between women and men breaks down in the absence of the male partner. When men are gone, women are forced to find a substitute for male labor force, either among the available family members or by hiring paid workers. If they cannot af ford to hire outsiders, women are com pelled to perform the activities the tasks which they are normally assigned. The absence of male labor force can intensify productive responsibilities, especially when they cannot afford to pay for a substitute male labor force. But the absence of the male can also enable women to take a greater control of the household matters, including the allocation of diverse resources. M oreover, the male absence prompts women to take part in activities which they would have not otherwise do, such as participate in temporary wage labor or become involved in communal activities as a representative of her household. Due to the prevalence of male temporary migration in rural villages, the majority of rural households are likely to go through a period without the presence of adult male members at certain points during the year. While male labor migration serves as a condition instigating women to take a temporary household headship, the proportion of households with a permanent female head due to such factors as single motherhood, divorce, death of male partner or abandonment also comprises a substantial portion of all the households in San Marcos which is shown in Table 3 2.
146 Table 3 2. Household compositions in the town of San Marcos, Carhuayoc, and Huaripampa Urban San Marcos Carhuayoc Huaripampa Huaripampa Alto Total population 1400 720 223 237 Female population 710 (51%) 349 (48%) 120 (54%) 130 (55%) Male population 690 (49%) 371 (52%) 103 (46%) 107 (45%) Civil status 902 448 132 127 Consensual ( conviviente ) 107 (12%) 78 (18%) 25 (19%) 28 (22%) Married 385 (43%) 157 (35%) 50 (38%) 47 (37%) Single 349 (38%) 181 (40%) 40 (30%) 41 (32%) Others 61 (7%) 32 (7%) 17 (13%) 11 (9%) Household headship 318 153 53 42 Female 79 (25%) 29 (19%) 12 (23%) 6 (14%) Male 239 (75%) 124 (81%) 41 (77%) 36 (86%) (Source: INEI IX Censo de Poblacion y IV de Vivienda 1993, elaborated by the author) Although the census data in table 3 2 do not represent the entire local population at the time of the survey, it can, however, be used to estimate the type of marriage and the proportion of female and male headship in the town of San Marcos, and in Carhua yoc and Huaripampa. According to the 1993 census data in Table 3 2, the female headship is 25 % in the commercial town. This value is relatively or much higher compared to Carhuayoc which is 19 % Huaripampa which is 23 % and Huaripampa Alto which is 14 % The specifics on the composition of female headship are not provided by data in the above table In this respect, Deere provide the 1972 census data in Cajamarca showing that among the 25 % of household with a female head, 29 % were widows, 23 % were single and 43 % were in a relationship either through marriage or consensual relationship (1990: 310). The Cajamarcan case allows us to speculate that the female headship in Table 3 2 is likely to include households in which the adult male is absent due to tempo rary labor migration at the time of the survey.
147 Table 3 2 further shows a relatively higher proportion of consensual couples and a lower proportion of married couples in rural villages compared to the commercial town. I could not identify any customs that explain the higher proportion of consensual unions in rural villages, but it should be noted that a consensual union is a less preferred type of relationship than a legal marriage among women in Peru. This is particularly the case because it does not prov ide the rights that women would be entitled to in a legal marriage especially after they are separated from their male partners (Bourque and Warren 1981: 100). The higher prevalence of consensual unions may be due to barriers that stand in the way of obtai ning legal documents in rural areas. Similarly, I speculate the higher proportion of consensual union in ru ral villages than the town may reflect the disadvantaged position of peasant women in their access to institutional resources which, otherwise, could be exerc is ed through a legal marriage. C ommunal organizations : I earlier showed how participation in communal activities takes place through distinctive political institutions in the town and in the rural villages. As a legal entity charged with the administration of communal properties, the campesino community ( comunidad campesina ) re t ains the binding force in rural villages through which the majority of communal matters are discussed and decided. Because of the nature of campesino community it tend s to stimulate both direct and inclusive local involvement The binding force of political institutions in the commercial town, however, tends to be much weaker and more restricted in scope as most local matters are discussed and determined through the mun icipal bodies. As a consequence, local participation tends to be indirect, entailing various levels of intervention of governmental officers, most of whom are contracted from other cities such as Huaraz or Lima. The gender dimension of communal activities in the urban and rural areas of San Marcos,
148 therefore, need s to be examined in the context of these distinctive political institutions in the town and rural villages My research findings are consistent with previous studies on peasant women s status (Barrig 2001: 106; Elena et al. 1993; Harvey 1989) which conclude that men dominate public spaces in the Andes. Male dominance in the institution of campesino community is produced and perpetuated in diverse ways. Male community membership is one of major channels through which male household headship is institutionalized. In contrast to Huaripampa where women are equally eligible for the status of comunero (official community member), community membership in Carhuayoc is strictly limited to the h ousehold head. Thus, in Carhuayoc, women are disqualified for the status of community member when they have a presence of male household head The status of comunero is a crucial determinant of life in rural villages because it entails the right to adminis t er and use communal properties. Communal assemblies are also the locus of decision making power regarding communal matters. In that sense, male community membership in Carhuayoc prohibits representation in the communal assemblies, and thus institu tionaliz es male dominance. The female marginalization in the public space is sometimes internalized by women themselves. For instance, when I encounter ed women in Carhuayoc and asked their opinion on communal issues including rural development project, they responded as follows : I do t know well about those issues. These are what men decide. Even when women are registered as a comuner a and officially entitled to the same rights fferent manner. For instance, I observed during the fieldwork that peasant women seldom expressed their opinions in communal meetings especially when they attend ed along with their male partners In this regard, one woman in Huaripampa explain ed : (m en) are very machos. You will see how women
149 are silenced at the assembly. Sometimes when a woman speaks out, they would yell or frown at their language ski ll in Spanish For instance, the 1993 INEI census show ed that in Carhuayoc, 15 % of men were illiterate (57 persons out of 371 male population) while the proportion almost doubled among women ( 32 % or 112 persons out of 349 women). In Huaripampa and Huaripa m p a Alto, the illiteracy rate among men was 20 % and was twice as high among women ( 43 % ) 25 High illiteracy rate and deficiency in Spanish among peasant women turn into a substantial barriers that hinder representation in public meetings It also reduces local institutions as such positions require frequent contacts with outsiders who often communicate solely in Spanish. P been also analyzed throug h the concept of power. In this regard, Bourque and Warren adopt the term of influence in order to conceptualize the type and manner of control that peasant women exercise in major public organizations in which male dominance has been institutionalized ( 1981: Ch 2). In their account, the influence is differentiated from the concept of power because the former is strategically conceived in reaction to the marginalization in order to affect or restrict the latter. In that sense, peasant women are seen to p lay a mediating role, exercising influence in informal and indirect ways in order to be heard. Women s marginalized public status is profoundly grounded on sex role ideolog ies that defin e women s status as a manager of household economy while men are expe cted to administ er 25 The higher illiteracy rate of women compared to men is also found in the tow n of San Marcos. According to t he 1993 INEI census data, 61 men were illiterate out of a total of 690 men, which is 9 % On the other hand, the illiteracy rate among women was 15 % ( 106 out of 710 women surveyed ) Th ese data indicate that the overall illiter acy rate s in the town is approximately half the rate of the rural villages while women were almost twice more likely to be illiterate than men in the commercial town as well as in rural villages of San Marcos.
150 the cash economy and serve as the household representative in interaction s with outsiders. The high proportion of Quechua monolingual female population underpins such dualist imagery which associates women with traditional sector and men with modern one. Moreover, peasant women are expected to get dressed in traditional ways while men are not required to follow any particular dress code. The clothes women and men wear thus perpetuates a dualist imagery that portrays w omen as a carrier of tradition while men are allowed greater flexibility (Deere 1990: 307). In this way peasant women are clearly and immediately distinguished from women in the commercial town According to tradition, women plait their hair in l ong braids and wear the pollera (long skirt composed of several layers), the manta ( a colored shawl worn all the time and used for various purposes such as carry ing miscellaneous items or use d as a mat to lie on ), and a dark colored hat which is sometimes decorated with a feather or flower shaped fabric. On the other hand, peasant men do not wear items that differentiate them from men in the town except a hat which they frequently but not always wear. Although peasant women s participation in the major communal institutions is limited, there are few organizations which were created and sustained entirely by women participants such as the Mother s Club ( Club de M adres ). The activities of Mother s Club are mostly task oriented I ts influence in the local politics is limited because the community level meetings ( reuniones ) through which all the decision s of the community affairs are ultimately made, are organized by the leadership of the Directive Board ( Junta Directiva ) in whic h the community president take s the head leadership with several other male members of the Board. T he leader of the Mother s Club is allowed to participate in the community level meetings in the position of a local authority along with the leaders of several other local organizations including the Committee of Irrigation Association of Producers Glass of Milk ( Vaso de Leche ).
151 Notwithstanding th e Mother s Club is importan t because it is the only official unit in rural villages in which women take le adership, take a full charge of a common resource, and engage in decision making without male intervention. although its mode and intensity is somewhat different from the experience in rural villages. First of all, the lack of collective activities channeled through social organizations in the commercial town reduces the room for local participation There are few occasions where local people decide communal matters T he majority of public meetings or events are organized by district municipal officers. In that sense, we can conclude that the urban political structure marginalizes townspeople as a whole whether they are men or women The feeling of alienation from political decision making in town is therefore manifested with little reference to its gender dimensions. Women s marginalized status in the urban public space s thus tends to be more ambiguous and difficult to pinpoint compared to what takes place in rural villages. T here are nonetheless certain arenas in which we can identify women s uneven access to communal resources compared to men. For instance, male s dominate the high ranking positions in the municipality such as in the position of district mayor and governor S imilarly, male s play leadership roles in a range of organizations which were sporadically created with the intention of becom ing a representative body in the interaction with the mine Such organizations include the Frente de Defensa de los Intereses de Sa n Marcos and the Comite de Medio Ambiente de San Marcos In all of these, women took a secondary role to men in decisions related to communal matters. Moreover, the absence of any social organization which is designed solely for women equivalent to that of the Mother s Club in rural villages, leaves urban women without access to the public space where they can voice their own needs and interests.
152 Summary In Chapter 3 I examined how the social order of San Marcos is drawn along the lines of t he rural urban divide and gender relations As I noted, the town and countryside of San Marcos are characterized by distinctive but inter related socioeconomic institutions I also noted that such a rural urban distinction in San Marcos was seldom c onceptual ized through ethnic terms Th e unpopularity of ethnic labeling reflects the deep rooted resistance to ethnic categories in Peru due to their discriminatory implications. As well, it reflects the desire of local people to impose greater mobility in terms of social categorization. However, people in San Marcos have constructed their individual as well as collective identities by drawing diverse levels of boundaries. Through the review of local narratives, I showed that the rural urban divide operated as one o f major reference point s through which people in San Marcos situated themselves in the interaction with others Here I also explored how the rural urban divide is reflected in women s experiences and gender relations compelling people in the town and countryside to be differently positioned in their choices, relationship s and livelihood strategies. Specifically, the comparison of women s life history in the town and rural villages reveals that women are actively engag ed in productive activities regardless of the type of socioeconomic organizations that they belong to. To compare gender roles in the commercial town and countryside, I identi f ied three analytic frameworks: sexual division of labor by the type of productiv e activities ; household composition; community organizations. First, through the analysis of gender division of labor, I observed that se x ual division of labor tends to be more strictly d rawn in the countryside than the town due to the nature of agricultur e production. The strict sexual division of labor resulted in peasant women s much lower mobility than their male partners, which was not clearly observed in the town. Second, in relation to household composition, I could not find any remarkable difference s in the
153 sex ratio of household headship between the town and countryside. Yet, some difference was observed in the composition of civil status through which I speculated that the difference migh t reflect peasant women s disadvantaged status in accessing i nstitutional resources which could be obtained through marital relationships compared to women in the town. As a final point, the comparison of women s status in the public spa c e illustrated that women as a whole seem to be marginalized in the decision ma king of communal matters whether they are located in the town or countryside. However, the comparison of their experiences suggested that the mode and intensity of women s marginalization in the public space vary due to the distinctive organizational struc tures of the town and countryside. To understand these stratified social orders of San Marcos is important because they are not only an outcome but a source of individual as well as collective strategies as a response to varied levels of social changes whi ch have entailed unparalleled challenges at each moment of the history In Chapter 4 I will explore how such social order of San Marcos shaped the mode and intensity of local participation in a range of c ommunity development projects of the region.
154 CHAPTER 4 GENDER AND PARTICIPA TION IN THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMEN T PROJECTS IN SAN MARCOS The presence of a multinational mining corporation, the Antamina Mining Company (CMA), and a range of min e derived revenues have brought nation wide fame to San Marcos a small area of the Northern Peruvian Andes known as millionaire town or as the richest district in Peru. 1 Although the scale of the revenues distributed to its local government ha s received major media att ention, this reportage has focused mainly on contrasting the unrelenting poverty of San Marcos with the magnitude of its revenues from mining. This contradictory reality has led to the growing recognition of both the state and the local government city to translate revenues from the mining bonanza to meet basic socioeconomic needs of the district Although t h is media presentation of San Marcos as a showcase of public policy failure is not entirely false it delivers at best, a very simplified and partial view of the situation in San Marcos. Above all, it fails to explain neither the reasons for disappointing social returns on mining revenue nor the relations of the multiple interests involved in Moreover, it does not explain the proliferation of s ocial programs including a variety of community development projects, and the emergence of additional development NGOs. A walk in the downtown area of San Marcos instantly and vividly nationally or internationally renowned NGOs have their local offices and groups of well dressed, Spanish speaking, and newly arrived professionals -lawyer s doctor s engineer s economist s, and so on -are busily moving around the street, the m unicipal office, store s restaurant s Internet cafs or boarding houses Although both these NGOs and the so called professionals have 1 For instance, see the following articles from the two major Peruvian newspapers, Regiones con Harto Billete, by Manuel Marticorena and Marianella Ortiz, El Comercio, July, 23, 2007, and San Marcos, el Pueblo Millonario que Vive en Extrema Pobreza, by Milagros Salazar, La Rep blica, August, 10, 2008.
155 diversified specialties and backgrounds, they share it in common that they have all been drafted by the mining fund either thr ough CMA or the m unicipality, and that they are all involved in the execution of the mining revenues. This intense presence of development projects in San Marcos gives it the air of a quasi laboratory of planned development in which countless development projects as well as new thoughts and ideas on development are being tried. The ambiance of San Marcos in recent years corroborates the observation that exposure to development discourses is a fact of everyday life (Grillo 1997: 1, Woost 1997: 235). It is undeniable that development practices and ideas are a social fact in San Marcos, guiding actions whose ramifications can be intentional as well as unintentional Chapter 4 starts from the recognition that a wide ra nging development work within which multiple stakeholder groups -CMA, NGOs, local government and local communities -interact, negotiate or dispute their contesting interests is an all pervading presence in San Marcos. Thus, I assume that this scheme of development produce s and perpetuate s the contradictory realities that have been superficially conveyed in media coverage. The scale and variety of development projects in San Marcos makes it extremely difficult to encompass all in a single analytic framew ork. Moreover, the fact that this investigation was conducted during a limited time period by an individual researcher required me to adopt a strategy that narrows its scope For this reason, Chapter 4 focus es on the development projects which center on pr oductive activities. For analytic purposes I have identified and investigated over a period of fifteen months -January 2006 to December 2008 -f our community development projects in three research sites: the commercial town of San Marcos and the campesino communit ies of Carhuayoc and Huaripampa. A series of questions guide and structure the p rimary inquiry of Chapter 4 : W ho are the major actors in community development projects of San Marcos? W hat are the ir priorities and
156 how are these priorities defined applied or contested? H ow do the development projects address the divided social space between the town and countryside of San Marcos? How and why are women and men differently engaged in the development intervention? H ow does the distinctive involvement of women and men in these community development projects interact with gender relations that are identified along the lines of three socio economic categories in C hapter 3? Actors, Priorities and Procedures of Community Development Projects in San Marcos In C hapter 2, I analyzed the narratives of the public documents of CMA to show the process by which the company has elaborated its development projects within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) framework Regarded from this perspective, development projects in San Marcos can be categorized into th ree fields: 1) economic projects that are concerned with productive activities including agro pastoral and artisanal production, tourism, and temporary employment; 2) social projects in education and healt h; 3) resettlement project (see T able 2 2 of Chapter 2 for a profile of the specific projects of each category) Although the three entities that constitute of the Community Relations Offices (CRO) of CMA along with the Ancash Association (AA) of CMA and the Municipality of San Marcos (Municipality, hereafter) act as project manager s the operation of individual project s is transferred to a particular NGO which normally has its head office in Lima or Huaraz. Since each NGO is separately contracted for a p roject, little harmonization exists among separately managed pro jects. Individual p rojects are likely to have discrete objectives and employ unique project techniques and approaches. The development project in the field of resettlement well illustrate s th is phenomenon. As was briefly mentioned in C hapter 2, the land transaction s initiated by CMA and the ensuing displacement of those affected by them are fraught with thorny conflict s. Displaced families are not easily reconciled to changes that have radically transformed their material conditions for better or worse. Concerns about potential sudden conflicts with these displaced families have
157 grown within CMA, particularly because the number of grievances presented by the displaced families to the CR O s office in San Marcos ha s increased Many resettled families were running out of the compensation money that had been provided in return for their land sale. 2 Even among the families who were cautious enough to save some of the se payment s for future use or for investment purposes, a sense of deception rapidly spread, since they now understood that most of the verbal promises made by CMA s staff before land transaction s, such as job s at the mine or better living conditions after resettlement lack binding legal force To prevent conflicts with such displaced families from escalating CMA hired a renowned counseling company in Lima, GRADE ( Grupo para Desarrollo ), to identify families who can be classified displaced and to conduct a base line survey on their living conditions after resettlement. In 2002, GRADE survey outcome identif ied 99 displaced families which it divided into four categories based on their poverty level s As a follow up measure, CMA signed a c ontract with an independent enterprise PRODESA ( Programa de Desarrollo de la Sanidad Agropecuar a ) which had been created by a former CRO employee and a handful of development engineers most of whom came f r om Cusco P RODESA was supposed to provide assis tance to these displaced families. 3 2 According to the ex employees of PRODESA, an amount of US $37,000 was paid as monetary compensation to displaced families. Some of the families received up to three times the compensation money of others, depending on the size of the land that they had owned. Guillermo Salas provides details on the compensation during the land sale. According to Salas, CMA adopted PARU ( Programa Acelerado de Reunicaci n ) to speed up the land transaction s so that it could meet the time limi t of September 16, 1998 (2002: 238). In this scheme, a land for land principle would be replaced by land for money of which a total of US $30,000 would be paid at once as compensation money. Three options were offered to the displaced families for resettl ement. First, they could move to a house in San Marcos previously rented by CMA and receive 6 times the monthly payment, US $200 per month, to displace Second, they could move to a prefabricated house in San Marcos that CMA could purchase and receive US $200 per month for 6 months. Third, they could move to their own house or rent a family property and receive 6 times the US $500 monthly payment (Salas 2002:240). 3 The projects of PRODESA were transferred to CASTIC ( Centro de Accin Social Tcnica y de Capacitacin ) in 2007. Technicians were drafted from inside and outside San Marcos to organize this new NGO that would continue the projects that had been previously operated by PRODESA.
158 The project intervention of PRODESA has unique features that cannot be observed in ordinary development projects. With the stated objective of reducing the detected poverty level of the recipient famil ies 4 PRODESA has implemented programs that include not only technical assistance to traditional productive activities such as agro pastoral and artisanal production but also support for the creation of family business es inside or outside San Marcos such as restaurant s internet cafs small clothing factor ies and trout farm s Tailored to the particular needs of individual families, the programs of PRODESA have touched every aspect of the economic and social life of the displaced families. Serving b oth as a counselor to and a sponsor of displaced families seeking to reconstruct their livelihoods after resettlement, the development intervention of PRODESA has generated a high dependency among the recipients of its aid The project providers seemed to be well aware of this dependency, which often became a source of concern. For instance, as an ex employee of PRODESA there were some families who come to the office for whatever they need. At the beginning, people came to the office when they w ere sick or needed a medicine instead of going to the medical post. It took time to persuade them that there are limitations about what we can do for them. Also, we are trying to let them understand that we cannot stay here forever beside them ( Interview conducted with an ex employee of PRODESA in San Marcos, March 2006 ). Additionally, the sensitivity of the development intervention of PRODESA distinguishes it from ordinary development projects in San Marcos Displaced families are often described as 4 To categorize the resettled families into four categories by poverty rate certainly facilitated the development intervention of the PRODESA. However, the validity of the measurement used for the categorization has been questioned. For instance, in an interview conducted in March 2006 an ex employee of PRODESA indic ates that the classification of poverty level has some serious flaws. There were some families who are classified at the level of zero even though they own three houses, land, and animals ; while the others are classified at the level three even though th ey did not have any of those. Some of these problems occurred because there were families who falsely reported their economic situations so that they would be placed in a lower category of poverty, which, they thought, would signify more and longer financ ial support from CMA.
159 wa rrior who ha ve survived the painful processes of displacement and resettlement and who have suffered the traumatic experiences during the processes Rumors have constantly circulated in San Marcos regarding the se families According to these rumors, some families had received sums of money so large that with it they have bought several houses in Huaraz or Lima while other s have been left penniless, after squandering all their money on immoderate shopping or alcohol consum ption Although few people have shown any interest in uncovering the validity of these stories, their mere repetition ended up exaggerating the good fortune or the misery of the displaced families, thus intensifying tensions between this uprooted populatio n and their new neighbor s. In this context, it is unlikely that CMA has benefits from publicizing the scope and nature of the help that these displaced families received from PRODESA, particularly when other families have complain ed to the company that th ey were unjustly removed from the list of the Because of the sensitivity of the subject, families were reluctant to reveal that they were displaced and that they had been recipient s of the PRODESA project. I have observed a similar attitude am ong the staff of PRODESA who hesitated to provide any details regarding their project performances. These peculiarities impl y that development intervention in the field of resettlement is guided by discrete strategies and priorities whose exclusionary benefits are not open to easy scrutiny, and whose principal aim is to lessen the anger or complaint s of the displaced families Project Planning and the Role of CRO and AA By the beginning of 2006, when my fieldwork started, the administration of most de velopment projects of CMA in San Marcos had been transferred from CRO in San Marcos (Community Relations Office) to AA (Ancash Association) When I began to contact the personnel of AA in January 2006 for this research, it appeared that the organization wa s looking
160 ahead to a crucial moment of change as its director and half its personnel had resigned because of internal conflicts. During its three years of operation, AA had administered about 100 projects including some small ones in agro pastoral produc tion, education, health and tourism. The establishment of AA in 2002 has stimulated certain changes in the scope and form of the development projects in San Marcos. Initial tensions had arisen between CRO and AA as the latter began to assume the financin g authority over development projects in affected communities of the former. Some CRO employees worried about the loss of financial power, which was deemed a crucial tool in supervising community relations. Moreover, local people lacked a clear understanding of the operation of the new system and the administration of its funds A former employee of AA states, First during eight or twelve months, people came to AA, people from communities, asking for money. Yo u know I helped the W e said t hat we do not fund individuals, individual initiatives. Every week, we had three or four people coming We had to make a strong case that this is not our policy Therefore, we made a presentation in every communities about how do we work. Projects had to b e presented by the corporate of community, endorsed by the community group, and we cannot fund individuals. B ut this was the origin of the some difficulties and tensions T hen, we started opening project proposals G radually, they came in ( Interview conduc ted with a former employee of AA in Huaraz, April 200 6 ). A public contest was introduced by AA as a means of minimizing confusions and uncertainties about its financial activities especially to finance small scale projects In this new system, local organizations and communities were asked, regularly or irregularly to present a project proposal that reflect s their particular needs ; a team of experts were convoked to decide which projects would be funded. The introduction of a public contest as a way of identifying and prioritizing local necessities has enhanced the transparency of AA s activities and it has somewhat improved local participation by enabling residents to engage in the planning phase of project s Such involve ment however, has been and is still restricted to short term and small
161 scale project s In this respect, it is relevant to compare the project s of the Cochao Farm ( Fundo Cochao ) in the field of agro pastoral production and that of the Hotel Konchukos Tambo in tourism. Transferred from CRO to AA in 2003, the Cochao Farm budgeted at US $ 1.87 million, appeared first in the CMA s 2000 report (2001:44). Initially this project envisioned the construction of a pilot agricultural farm of 17 hectares on which pr ofitable agro pastoral products were to be cultivated for a secured market In addition, it proposed the establishment of facilities to promote agrarian technological progress (CMA 2001: 44). As conceived, the Cochao Farm seemed promising and particularly relevant to rural villages which are highly dependent on labor intensive subsistent farming. However, the proposal allocated no mechanism for local people to participate in the planning and implementation processes of the Cochao Farm Moreover, contrasti ng accounts exist regarding the origin of the Cochao Farm For instance, one former employee of CMA states, The origin of the farm is very interesting. When the construction of the min e was coming to the end, there was a lot of worry in Antamina that they were going to lay off up to 10,000 people because during the construction of the mine, there were 14,000 people working there from 1999 to 2001. In the construction, they came to work, came from Lima, with relatives in San Marcos. People were coming in, and San Marcos was growing. New houses. So, Antamina was very worried. When the construction end ed there will be unemployment. So, somebody came with the idea to buy a farm, and help peo ple fund the ir labor. So, how [did] the Antamina do this? Antamina bought the farm of seventeen hect ares and hired a very competent agriculturalist from Cusco with experience in mountain agriculture. A nd they told to him you know your job is to develop the farm and let people get jobs ( Interview conducted with a former employee of CMA in Huaraz, April 2006 ). According to this narrative, the origin of the Cochao Farm lay in the desire to create jobs which would be urgently needed when the construction of the mine terminated and a large labor force was no longer required for its operations. I could repeat different versions of local critique, recounted by people who questioned if the Cochao Farm supports local needs, an issue which
162 w ill be examined in more detail later part. The questions and doubts surrounding the Cochao Farm support the argument that the project was emerged not out of local initiatives but rather out central company planning On the other hand, the project of Hotel Ko nchukos Tambo in the sector of tourism illustrates the development of a proposal through the initiative of project managers By the time only some incipient ideas about encouraging tourism existed in San Marcos. The lack of tourism re lated activities in the region stemmed from the lack of point s of attraction to beckon outsiders to the district. Moreover, the deteriorating road network that connected San Marcos to other cities discouraged overland travel by tourists from Huaraz especi ally during the rainy season. Nonetheless, the neighboring town of Ch vin which possesses archeological remains, boasted a steady influx of day tourists. 5 The construction of a new road connecting Huaraz and San Marcos via Ch vin stimulated the personnel of AA to contemplate the potential for tourism in the region that, along with the archaeological site of Ch vin possesses a strong tradition of artisanal production centered both in Ch vin and in San Marcos. In this respect, Alejandro Camino, the ex director of AA said O riginally in San Marcos, we only had agriculture, education, and health. That was the three areas that we started. However, we realized that new road was being built. The possibility for tourism existed Yet, the community i tself had not had a very clear idea of tourism or of initiatives. That is why we organized workshops, invited people to discuss the potentials and risks of tourism in this area. [After] s everal workshops, people began to start visualizing this potential ; t hey requested to do 5 It is estimated that as of 2005, the total number of people who bought a ticket to the monument was about 60,000. The majority of these visitors (about 50,000) were school students who came by chartered bus and le ft right after vis iting the monument. Among the remaining 10,000 visitors, about half were Peruvians and the other half foreigners Of them, it is estimated that only about 500 stayed in Ch vin overnight the others returning to Huaraz without further to urist activities in the region ( Information obtained through personal communications in Ch vin and San Marcos ).
163 school, ranch training schools ( Interview conducted with Alejandro Camino in Huaraz, February 2006 ) The idea for the Hotel Konchukos Tambo (Konchukos, hereafter) came from these local workshops. Initiated in May 2004 with a prelimin ary investment of US $200,000 and an additional investment proposed for 2005 of US $52,921, the Hotel Konchukos was constructed beside the Cochao Farm which is 20 minutes by foot from the town of San Marcos. With 19 private rooms, it still stands out from the other lodging facilities of San Marcos both because of its refined appearance, which comes at a prohibitive rate of about US $70 per night and its remote location. The initi al idea was to build a training school for tourism. Alejandro Camino explains the mutation of this notion into the current Hotel Konchukos : W e designed a proposal to turn this into a large training center for tourism, community based tourism. But we did no t have a budget W e invited two architecture school students. They came But t here were no maps, no blueprints for this construction. That is why they did the blueprints. They did a very nice model of the idea. Afterwards, we took the model to the board of AA. The board had seven members. Four from Antamina, three are outsiders. They liked and approved it. The idea is we are not in the business of running this. Instead we ran a national bidding At the bidding, the winner was the consortium of tourism oper ators T hey have a concession for ten years. During the low tourist season, from January to March, and in October, November, and December, they do training. During the high season, they operate the lodge. The idea is that AA gets certain percentage of the income of the hotel. With that percentage, we provide somewhere between 40 and 60 scholarship s per year for the people in the area to be trained ( Interview conducted with Alejandro Camino in Huaraz, February 2006 ) The process described by the ex director of AA is revealing since it illustrates : 1) how a new field of project was initiated through the interaction between the local project managers and local necessities ; and 2) how an initial proposal evolved into the type of project, the scope and features of which were hardly anticipated at the beginning. The decision to select a specialized operator who is committed to co financing the project with CMA and to designate a set portion of the profits to finance project related activities sounds reasonable, s ince both conditions allow
164 certain sustainability to the project which is ultimately conditioned on the profitability of the operator. However, the mere existence of a hotel has been insufficient to generate tourism. Moreover, the room rate 7 times that o f other accommodations in San Marcos or Ch vin was unrealistically high Right until the moment that I left the field in December of 2008, the h otel seemed vacant most of the time. It appeared that the facility was occasionally used for activities of CMA and not by local people. This history revels that, although the Hotel Konchukos, unlike the Cochao Farm was initiated from considerations about local necessities it also ended up relegating local people to a secondary position in the planning and implem entation stages of the project. In the case of the Konchukos, the project managers took the leadership in order to represent local necessities. The outcome of the endeavor, however, can hardly be considered successful given that the property has not fulfi lled its proposed purposes, either as a hotel or as a training center for local artisans or local traders engaged in tourism related activities. Since early 2006, AA has restructured itself and has undertaken new activities under the leadership of a new d irector. Project administration in agriculture, education, and health has been gradually transferred back to CRO AA now concentrates on cultural conservation natural resource management and sustainable tourism. In this changed system, CRO has retained its control over most development projects while the influence of AA in the region seems to have been much reduced. Unfulfilled Development Promises and Local Contestation As the preceding discussion indicate s development projects in San Marcos have bee n largely seen as means to handle the community relation issues of CMA and not to promote an integrated development plan or strategy. Although AA has introduced a public contest in order to identify the needs and to facilitate the participation of local pe ople in the planning phase s of
165 project s this system has been largely limited to small scale and short term initiatives, such as the provision of school facilities to primary, middle and high schools of the region with little long lasting impacts. Because of its ad hoc nature project planning has been determined by the priorities and views, which have often been elaborated by just a few employees hired under irregular contracts, in the Community Relations Office something that has only engendered greater project instability and incoherence. Projects have often been abruptly cancelled in the middle of the ir execution and contracts terminated with the operating NGOs without much explanation given either to the project operator or the project partici pants. 6 Given these circumstances, it is no t surpris ing that projects have tended to be oriented toward short term goals that generate immediate impacts. The staffs of both CRO and NGO s have had a prevailing distrust of local residents, an attitude that ha s created further instability for development projects As the conflict between CMA and displaced families reveals frustration and anger has surfaced among the latter at any suggestion of wrongdoing or neglect on the part of the former. From the initial s tage of the mine the local population has expected CMA to generate tangible economic benefits for them, but as production commenced, it became clear that these local hopes would not be fulfilled for mine workers have been mostly drafted from outside cities where an experienced labor pool with a higher level of education has been tapped. Furthermore, almost all the necessities of these workers have been supplied from within the work camp creating little need for them to enter San Marcos. The grievances of local people are reflected in their critiques of 6 For instance, DESCO ( Centro de Estudios y Promoci n del Desarrollo ) started working in San Marcos on rural irrigation projects and institutional capacity building At the beginning, its project was contracted to last five years. However, in early 2006 CRO terminated the project without explanation Similarly, IDMA an organization operating the Cochao Farm since 2005 was also told to abandon its project ahead of schedule. In case of IDMA the notice was made in an indirect manner in which CRO requested IDMA to scale down its project activities by cutting its annual budget.
166 the CRO s personnel and its contracted NGO workers. These two groups have been criticized for wasting money that would otherwise have been directly distributed to the local population Moreover, the legitimacy of the NGO workers who are expatriates, has been questioned. These critiques have their roots in the local fear that people from the coastal cities, who are more resourceful and better informed, will migrate to San Marcos and expl oit local resources for their own gain Native workers who migrated and worked in coastal cities when younger and who have now returned to the district have offered the sharpest criticisms of outsiders; they have portrayed themselves as better equipped to lead the development effort in their hometown. On several occasions, projects had to be cancelled or suspended for several months as in the case of ( Interview conducted with an ex DESCO staff in March 2006 in San Marcos ) Frustration over unfulfilled development promises h ave also been directed at local political leaders, who are strongly distrusted Rumors have circulated concerning corrupt deals made by the current and ex district mayors a nd the presidents of campesino communities. Although these charges have often been backed up with specific details, such as the total amount of money involved and the manner in which money was laundered, very few of these accusations have resulted in legal charges. Instead, corruption has been taken for granted and has bec o me an explanation of the workings of local power. For instance, it has often been said : cheats. Although local authorities steal, people are all righ t only if they do something for local people. However, if they do not do anything for people, then people get upset. Although accusations of corruption and embezzlement have formed a part of daily conversation, these have never taken place in the p resence of an accused person. Moreover, almost without exception, local notables have been treated with respect, regardless of the accusations against them.
167 The local pr o test held in the town of San Marcos on July 12, 2007 under the leadership of the then district mayor illustrates the intensity of suspicions evoked toward the authorities. The demonstration was part of a larger group of protests that had been organized against two major mining companies in the region, Antamina and Barrick, throughout the d epartment of Ancash under the leadership of the regional g overnment in Huaraz. Composed of about 30 40 protesters with apparently rural origins the demonstration made strong critiques of Antamina for contamination, cheating bribery, and dividing the popu lation. Besides the small number of participants, the rally also differed from conventional communal meetings in the local hostility that it generated While the protest was staged for about two hours in the main square of San Marcos, all the nearby stores were asked by the municipality to remain temporarily closed in a supportive strike action Either by remaining inside stores or watching from a distance, people seemed to be more interested in figuring it out how much the mayor paid the protestors to come to the rally than in learning about its purpose Although the protestors identified themselves as coming from the rural villages of the San Marcos district very few people seemed to be convinced that the district mayor who had already been weakened by a series of accusations concerning corruption and misdemeanors could mobilize local residents. 7 The reactions to the demonstration reveal the way in which local populations, confronted by conflicting interests, rely on the language of distrust to define an d justify their positions and to determine their participation in collective activities 7 For details on the legal allegation submitted against the district mayor, read the articl es reported in a local newspaper, available at http://www.diariolaprimeraperu.com/online/huaraz/noticia.php?IDnoticia=6767 and http://www.diariolaprimeraperu.com/online/huaraz/noticia.php?IDnoticia=6431 las accessed A ugust 2010.
168 Definition of a Beneficiary Population and Contesting Priorities : Carhuayoc and Huari pam pa Because of t he compensational nature of the development CMA projects, 8 th e beneficiary population s ha ve ultimately been determined by the mode and intensity of mining operation s in them, 9 a feature that has been a direct cause of the uneven distribution of the mining revenues. 10 In San Marcos, greater weight has been given to th e two campesino communities, Carhuayoc and Huaripampa, principally because they engaged in land sale transaction s with CMA during the explorative stage s of the mine. The land purchased from these communities represent ed almost half the total that CMA bought for its mineral extraction a percentage that indicates the importance of these two communities for the commencement of the mining project. Of the total 6999.2 hectares of land purchased by CMA 611.9 was the property of Neguip and 518 that of the fundo Yanacancha belong ing to Angoraju community while fully 2337 in Yanacancha 8 The Social Balance 2000, CMA s first document on its developm ent commitments, conceptualizes the compensational nature of community development programs through the term social license. Taking an economic approach to the concept, the report argues that social license is needed for the mining company to ensure b usiness continuity avoid major incide nts or conflicts with local community or the government thereby maintaining or enhancing the company s attractiveness to shareholders and potential lenders (2001 :6) I t also relies on the principal assumpti on of the stakeholder model by stating that the social license is obtained sharing mutual benefits with different parties involved in the mining operations. 9 Recently, the distribution of the mining revenues, especially the mining canon, has become a m ajor field of contestation in Peru. The current l aw s o f the mining canon stipulate that 50 % of it be transferred to the sub national government in which the mineral deposit is located and 10 % to the district which produces minerals (Bebbington et al. 2007:35, for details, see Table 2.3 in Chapter 2 ). However, these definitions have occasionally been challenged. The strife between Moquegua and Tacna surrounding the mining canon from the Cuajone mine of the Southern Copper Corporation is emblematic in this aspect. The conflict was exacerbated as the protestors from Moquegua blocked the highways and took more than 50 police officers hostage in June 2008 ( http://www.elcomercio.com.pe/ediciononline/HTML/2008 06 20/paro moquegua ha sido capitulo bochornoso historia pnp.html last accessed, August 2010 ). The major dispute was concerned with the contribution that each region makes to the process of mineral production. The legal interpretation was also at the core of the dispute as shown in the debate on the concept of concentrated in the D.S. 157 ( http://www.elcomercio.com.pe/edicionimpresa/Html/2008 09 02/distribucion canon minero moquegua discutira sabado 6.html last accessed, August 2010 ). 10 For instance, the district of Rahuapampa received 8.7 million Nuevo soles between 2006 and July 2009 in the form of the mining canon while the allocation for San Marcos during the same period was more than 552 million Nuevo soles even tho ugh both of them belong to the province of Huari ( http://www.alainet.org/active/33083 last accessed, August 2010 ).
169 belonged to the Huaripampa community (Szablowski 2004: 325). The land transaction was completed with Huaripampa in January 1998 for the sum of U S $ 934,800 (Szablowski 2004 : 357) and with Angoraju Carhuayoc in June 1998 for US $452,000 ( Szablowski 2004 : 368) A comparison of the expenditure of these compensational funds by the two communities reveals their institutional differences To begin with Carhuayoc and Huaripampa have placed different priorities on the use of the compensation money. Specifically, in Huaripampa half the money was spent on the construction of an electrification system and a health center (Gil 2005: 275). On the other hand, in Carhuayoc, all the money was used to purchase vehicles that were to bring a stable income to the community. According to this plan, the community would lend the vehicles to carry freight from the mine with CMA as its primary client. With little choice but to accept the offer of the community, the company has engaged these freight services (CMA 2002: 36) that have become an important revenue resource for the communal population; a profit of approximately US $300 has been returned to each household at the end of each year 11 While the investment in Carhuayoc has resulted in secure and enduring benefits, the returns from the infrastructural facilities in Huaripampa did not last long especially once people realized that the electricity would not be provide d free of charge. To make things worse, the compensation money in Huaripampa ended up dividing local people since half the money had been stolen a few years after its payment; consequently, people began to turn away from the D irective B oard ( Junta Directi va ) of the community which had been charge d with the administration of the money The community president at the time was charged with 11 A similar type of communal enterprise was created in Huaripampa in 2001 through the fina ncing of CMA (CMA 2001:65). Local people explain that the scale and profits of the communal company of Huaripampa are much smaller compared to that of Carhuayoc. Since CMA went into the production stage, a number of small scale enterprises have been starte d in the regions adjoining the mining site such as Ayash Huaripampa and Santa Cruz del Pichi The micro enterprise was conceived as a major channel through which CMA created temporary jobs in the region under the direct influence of the mine. The major, and usually the single, client of these companies is CMA, which indicates a strong dependency of these companies on it.
170 embezzlement ; he alledgedly escaped to Huaraz spent his illicit gains, and returned without a penny. In contrast, I have not heard of any similar charges in Carhuayoc where people seemed to have a higher confidence in the transparency of their system. The diverse paths taken by Carhuayoc and Huaripampa in the allocation of compensational money corroborate s the prevailing local view of the former as a community united by stronger organization than latter. Certainly, the type of investment made in Carhuayoc would not have been possible if it were not supported by communal consensus and coop eration. On the other hand, the rivalry among Huaripampa Alto, Medio, and Bajo might have prevented its people from having full confidence that the investment would be equally distributed, once it had started to generat e profits. The investment strategies of the two communities also reflect their distinct priorities regarding the distribution of benefits. In this aspect, Vladimir Gil s analysis has some validity He argues that the investment made in Carhuayoc mirrors people s desire for job s, each gained b y an individual, while that of Huaripampa reveal the desire of its population to have equal access to a public good (2005: 277). The benefits generated from the compensation money, however, have not been sufficient to make up for the loss that resulted fro m the land sale of these communities. The forfeiture of communal land has doomed the raising of cattle a major source of nutrition in rural villages. Furthermore, population growth due to the resettlement of displaced families by Antamina, has led, especi ally in Carhuayoc to a greater demand for resources with fewer of these to share The environmental contamination of lands in the vicinity of mineral deposits, which has become severe as production continues, has further intensified disco nten t s 12 The recent protest in the 12 In September 2008, Carhuayoc under the headship of the community president submitted a written denunciation of CMA to the relevant state institutions including the Peruvian Ministry of Energy and Mines, the Office of the Ombudsman, the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Health, and the Embassy of Canada, among others. The document denounces environmental co ntaminations, the dangerous condition of the Condorcocha lagoon which is
171 Neguip, an annexed hamlet of Carhuayoc, in September 2009 in which approximately 400 peasants took part, of whom seven were wounded by the police, 13 reveals the gravity of the ongoing conflicts in the region. Considering the pre vailing discontent and the conflicts of Carhuayoc and Huaripampa with CMA I speculate that the local people have development priorities that are incompatible with those of CMA As stated above the primary concerns of the latter were immediate impacts in order to relieve local discontent. The origin of the Cochao F arm which was conceived as a tool to increase temporary jobs for local residents, supports this argument. Moreover, CMA has been committed to community development projects in the affected area s in order to defend its image as a social ly responsible corporation, which it has publicized through diverse channels including its website, local brochures, local radio stations, and its annual sustainability report. In this context, the community develo pment project has operated as a showcase through which CMA justifies and consolidates its social license to continue operating in the region. When development projects are conceived in this way the efficiency of a project becomes a priority so as to minimize its cost and to maximize its returns which are measured through publicity. Commenting on this phenomenon, one NGO worker who has worked in the region on behalf of disappearing as its water is used in the Antanima operations, the demolition of the Condor hill in the territory of Neguip ( http://www.diariolaprimeraperu.com/online/huaraz/noticia.php?IDnoticia=6728 lastly accessed A ugust 2010). The Neguip hamlet, currently inhabited by 680 residents, is one of the villages in the vicinity of the mining site t hat are expected to be displaced as the mineral production continues (CMA 2007:86). Until now, I have not found any formal action taken by CMA or by the Peruvian government in response to the denunciation presented by Carhuayoc. The contamination has been also one of the major sources of conflict between CMA and Huaripampa. The contamination at the river basin of Ayash, a sector of Huaripampa with a total population of 1,061 (CMA 2005:35) is at the core of local protest s against CMA The residents of Ayash have engaged in these protests since the initial mineral production stage. Used as a deposit site for the wastewater of the Antamina operations, the contamination in Ayash have been widely perceived by the residents who have reported several cases of animal death s At the field site, I was informed that the residents of Ayash were trying to negotiate with CMA in order to be resettled voluntarily in another site because they felt threatened about contamination near their home village However, there has not been any, as far as I know, definite answer given by CMA regarding this local demand for resettlement. 13 For the context and progress of this protest, read news articles availabe at: http://www.alainet .org/active/33083 or http://www.primerapaginaperu.com/article/ancash/2475 last accessed A ugust 2010.
172 CMA says, Throughout the project, they (CRO employees) never cared or showed a ny interest in how the project wa s progressing. However, only at the time when the contract has been cancelled, and when our staffs were leaving, they began to ask how it was going. I think [that] they are actually not interested at all in the results of t he project ( personal communication in San Marcos, March 2006 ). The rather simple motivation of CMA however, contrasts with the complicated ones of local communities, in which heterogeneous actors divided by occupation, residence, age, gender, education, and so on have contend ed to have their interests respected L ocal people seek not merely immediate economic benefits but rather ongoing, sustainable ones, and they have made this desire a major demand; consequently, they have articulated social and econo mic benefits in many ways For instance, the annual workshop for Participative Budgeting ( Taller de Presupuesto Participative ) of San Marcos in 2007, which was organized to facilitate the involvement of local residents in identifying their needs so that these might be reflected in the next year s budgeting, ended up with more than 400 project requests a number that requires three new projects every other day for a year. The se dissimilar and often incompatible priorities make community development projec ts in San Marcos an arena where heterogeneous actors project financier s project operator s and the disparate local population negotiate or dispute with one another. The intensity and complexity of conflicts in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa with CMA have, in p articular, placed these communities at the center of CMA s development intervention. Hence, an analysis of their reaction to development, when compared to that of the commercial town of San Marcos will permit us to explore how distinctive social orders be tween the town and countryside was transformed or reinforced through the planned development programs. Moreover, as already explored in Chapter 3 life in San Marcos is shown to be shaped by gender relationships
173 permitting me to hypothesize these as a cen tral factor in the engagement of local people in the development projects Focusing on this perspective the next part of Chapter 4 explores the impact of the urban rural divide and gender relations on the project participation of the local population For this purpose, I compare the mode and intensity of such involvement by women and men in the town and rural villages of San Marcos. Community Development Project and Local Participation by Gender A review of the literature on women and social change in Per uvian Andean societies indicate s that due to the strongly divided sex roles socio economic changes including modernization and ensuing class stratification ( Deere 1977, 1982 ) neo liberal restructuring (Hays Mitchell 2002) and economic crisis (Vincent 1 998) have differently affected women and men in this region Similarly, through an analysis of the field data of the Peru Cornell project in the Vicos, Florence Babb (1985) observes that development al intervention in this area further narrowed women s access to productive activities and diminished their status in the public sphere. From Babb s perspective, the development projects in the Vicos have reinforced the sexual division of labor which is characterized by the unequal access of women to the re sources generated by development intervention. The se concerns have also been elaborated for the mining industry which regardless of its scale, has been a masculine reserve because of its preference for male labor. The predominant male status of the indu stry has been perpetuated through diverse soci o cultural apparatuses, which perpetuate an instilled work ethic through the formulation of a specific notion of masculinity (Finn 1998). As Robinson notes, th e highly masculine nature of the industry has conce aled its gender impact (1996: 137). Additionally, several studies o f the ramifications of the mining industry on gender relations have come up with similar observations which focus on the marginalization of women whether through diminished access to land the feminization of
174 subsistence through male absenteeism, or economic monetization and its effects on marriage and sexuality (Ballard and Banks 200 3 : 302). Regarding these concerns, I examine if women either in general or in particular are excluded from a range of community development projects in San Marcos. For this purpose, it makes sense to conduct a review of the conceptualization of women s exclusion in the literature of gender and development. The exclusion of women from planned development has often been explained in terms of the dualist gender ideology that associates women with the private sphere and men with the public. From this perspective, such gender roles are r einforced in development projects (Babb 1985; Mehta 2002). Sp ecifically, through her re search on women in India who were displace d by a large dam project, Lyla Mehta argues that the definition of well being is likely to be more receptive to men s needs that to those of women for two reasons: First men are even mor e vocal and expressive about their ill being than women, presumably due to their greater exposure to outsiders and higher degree of articulateness (2002: 10) s econd, since women s lives are largely centered around the domestic realm and the family, they may have fewer outlets than men to cope with vulnerability, insecurity, etc. due to their restricted mobility ( 2002 : 10). Mehta s observation s suggest that when men are by circumstances better able than women to defend themselves outside the domestic rea lm, development projects are likely to be more responsive to their needs, which are more accessible and comprehensible than those of their female counterparts. This argument carries suggestive value for San Marcos, considering its strictly divided sex rol es, particularly in the agricultural villages. Women s exclusion in planned development has also been analyzed through the concept of participation. Specifically, Cleaver (1999) argues that while the participation of women in the project process and their verbal intervention in meetings is less than that of men, such evidence
175 does not indicate the absence of female involvement. Instead, Cleaver notes that in Tanzania when women spoke at publ ic village meetings, they were representing other women. W hen men spoke, they were speaking as individuals (1999: 602). Cleaver s approach implies that women may interpret the concept of participation rather differently than men and that their unique noti on may affect the manner of their involvement Women and men also may have different motivations for their contribution to development projects. Several studies suggest that the concept of participation generates very conflicting interpretations among peop le active in such activities depending on their status and their interests. For instance, Woost describes the NGO staffs efforts to interpret the concept of participation as struggling over the interpretation of participation itself (2002: 115). Woost argues that the concept of participation signifies a market led development strategy to the Sri Lankan government, while it is simply understood as meaningless official development rhetoric tied to funding by NGO staffs. On the other hand, villagers inte rpret development as a means to satisfy subsistence needs and to obtain funds for consumer products. T h e se conflicting interpretations regarding participation arise however in the context of existing relations of power and hierarchy (Crewe and Harrison 1 988: 184). When the concept of participation reflects the motivations that are corroborative of dominant power relationships, it may worsen the exclusion of people who are already barred from access to important social resources, while it increase s the sha re s of the already privileged. The endeavor to include women in development intervention and to reduce the sexually uneven impacts of development projects has been elaborated through two frameworks Women in Development (WID) and Gender and Development (GAD). Crewe and Harrison (19 8 8: 51 68) sum marizes the change from the former approach to the latter as a switch from approach to empowerment Moser et al (1999) evaluate that the WID
176 approach as efficiency a nd the GAD equality and trace the framework change from equity to antipoverty to efficie ncy. Likewise, Visvanathan (199 7 ) compares the WID with the GAD, explaining that while the former is grounded on traditional modernization theory and the acceptance of existing social structure, the latter challenges patriarchal hierarchy and pre existing power relations. These views imply that the priority of the WID is to offer woman more access to the process of developm ent while the GAD supposes that their inclusion cannot alter the unequal allocation of resources by gender if it is not accompanied by a transformation of unequal gender relationships. As the GAD approach claims, women s inclusion in development projects does not necessarily lead to enh anced status or to better access to social resources. If women s inclusion in such projects takes place in the context of existing relations of power and hierarchy, it can end up increasing their burdens. Moser et al (1999) identify in fact, triple burde n s that embrace productive, reproductive, and community management responsibilities. Similarly, Cleaver (1999) points out that the participatory literature does not pay enough attention to the connection between inclusion ( participation ) and subordination. Women may not get an equal opportunity to participate in development projects because they have not been considered as important as men for the success of development intervention. However, critical studies of participatory development discourses, which s hare a common perspective with the GAD approach, argue that women s inclusion in the development process may not necessarily guarantee their greater access to resource s or to enhanced status if it takes place in the context of unequal gender relationship s The WID and GAD approaches are informative in addressing the subject of gender in relation to participatory discourses of development. However, the distinctions between the two perspectives are complicated and not
177 clearly drawn when they are applied at a local setting, showing the difficulty of relying on these frameworks at the policy level. Research Hypotheses and Method Th is literature review allows me to formulate two general hypotheses: H1) Women are more likely to be excluded from community develop ment projects than men ; H2) Women s participation in community development projects differs in its mode and intensity according to the type of socio economic organization in which they are involved. The t hree categories of socio economic organization shap ing gender relations in San Marcos were identified in C hapter 3 : the sexual division of labor by the type of productive activities ; the composition of the household; and the type of communal organization. In order to compare the mode and intensity of project participation of women and men this study adopts the major format of the Gender Analysis Matrix (GAM) which divides societies into four levels men, women, household and community and adopts labor, ti me resources, and socio cultural factors as its principal analytic categories. Initially designed by Rani Parker (1993), I have chosen to use the GAM for the following reasons: First, it consists of analytic units and categories that are rather simplif ied and thus do not necessitate technical expertise for their application (March et al. 1999: 68), a quality essential for this research which was conducted by one individual with limited resources. Second, the GAM can be employed during different stages of t he development project. This quality is important, since I was examining diverse projects at different moments in their histories Third, the participatory approach of the GAM allowed me to better evaluate the information and opinions provided by the proje ct participants. Although this study adopts the basic analytic units and categories of the GAM, the format of this research tool has been modified during its application. In particular, data were mostly
178 collected through the participant observation technique and through the administration of an open ended questionnaire In other words, the focus group meeting was not a major channel for the information collection as it is usually in the GAM approach (Leach 2003: 72). In this sense, the GAM is used for analytic purposes rather than its original ones, which are to enhance gender awareness and promote changes among project participants through their participation in the analysis ( Leach 2003 : 71). Moreover, I am using a modified f ormat of the GAM since I have not conducted an impact assessment during which project participants decide whether the result of each category is negative or positive. To briefly present the major components of the GAM, Kangisher (2007: 153), Leach (2003: 73 74), March et al (1999: 70), and Parker (1993) define the four analytic categories of GAM as follows: Labor refers to changes in the tasks levels of skill required (skilled, unskilled, formal education, and training) and labor capacity ( the numbers an d capacities of the labor force ) ; t ime to changes in the amount of time (in hours, days, and so on ) that it takes to carry out the task s associated with the project or activity ; r esources to changes in the access to resources (income, land, and credit) and the extent of control over these changes ; and c ultural factors to changes in the social aspect of the participants lives (changes in gender roles or status) as a result of the project. For data, I visited the project sites of four community development projects IDMA, FOCADER, IDESI, and PMIP in the urban area of San Marcos and the two campesino communities of Carhuayoc and Huaripampa during my 15 months of fieldwork ( January to April 2006; January to August 2007 ; and October to December 2008 ) In the next part of Chapter 4 I examine the proposed objectives and specific activities of each project and analyze the
179 differences in the engagements of the women and men of the recipient communit ies in each project following the modified format of the GAM. Gender and Participation in the Community Development Project: CPAEA, FOCADER, Textile Project and PMIP Case 1) Centro Piloto de Agricultural Ecolgica Andina Cochao Farm of IDMA (200 4 200 8 ) As the administration of the Cochao farm was transfer red from CRO to AA in 2004, the latter proposed a national bidding to select a new operator for the farm a decision that generated several changes in the property. The winner of the bidding was IDMA ( Instituto de Desarrollo y Medio Ambiente ), an N GO established in 198 4 with an organic farm at Huanuco in the central eastern Peruvian Andes The bidding was largely motivated by local complaints about the performance of the farm which had been previously operated by PRODESA. The local residents argued th at the farm was contaminating the land through the overuse of chemicals and that the seeds and plants distributed by the farm operator did not produce when transplanted on land Moreover, the subsidies received by the farm from C MA engendered opposition. For instance, one NGO worker says, at that time, the investment per hector of corn was around 3,500 dollars invested for agro chemicals. And the corn being sold was 1,500 dollars. It was totally subsidized ( Interview conducted with a NGO worker in April 2006 in San Marcos ) AA allotted a total budget of US$600,000 for five years, beginning in September 2004. The property was renamed the Centro Piloto de Agricultural Ecolgica Andina (CPAEA) and IDMA identified its new activitie s as the following First, the farm would switch from potato and corn production to the cultivation of a number of traditional and innovative crops. The entire production process was to be organic. To facilitate technical assistance, the individual famil ie s of the recipient communities were identified as the basic unit s of the project activity At the same
180 time, greater focus was given to providing assistance for the household farming of these participant families rather than simply concentrating on t he pro duction in the demonstrative farms attached to the Cochao property. For that purpose, technicians and NGO staff began regularly visiting the houses of the participant families to monitor progress 14 Table 4 1 presents the data collected in Huaripampa on the participation of local people in project according to the modified format of the GAM. 15 As is shown in the Table 4 1, both women and men played active role s as project participant s However, their involvement markedly differed because of the existi ng division of labor. Specifically, men were primarily engaged, along with the technicians, in the production in the cha c ra, a household farm located outside the residential site while women were most ly engaged, again with assistance, in the biohuerto a home garden, raising guinea s pig s or beekeeping. This divided project participation of women and men corresponds to the technical division of labor by sex in productive activities of the rural economy, in which men s tasks are mostly centered on the chacra and women on the house. The pre existing sexual division of labor also generated another result, which was hardly anticipated by the project operators. 14 As of January 2007, five communities in the district of San Marcos and Chavin were re ported to be participating in the project. The specific number of families engaged in the IDMA s project at that time were as follows: 78 families in Huaripampa, 17 in Carash, 12 in Huancha, 32 in Cochao, and 26 in Huishin. The IDMA staff provided this nu mber in January 2007 through personal communications. 15 Each analytic unit is defined as follows: women refers to married adult women who are engaged in the project; men refers to married adult men who are engaged in the project; household refers to a nuclear or extended family living in a single house sharing responsibilities for productive and reproductive activities; community refers to everyone living in the judicial unit in which the project is conducted and with which the project pa rticipants identify their residential belongi ng.
181 T able 4 1. Project participation of Huaripampa, CPAEA of IDMA 1) Project Name : Centro Piloto de Agricultural Ecolgica Andina 2) Project Operator : IDMA 3) Community Name : Huaripampa 4) Project Phase : Implementation, second and third year (Feb. Mar. 2006, Jan. Aug. 2007) 5) Proposed Objectives : Strengthening subsistent farming and commercializati on of agro pastoral production 6) Stated G ender O bjectives : Equity and social justice. Gender equality to be maintained in the provision of project services which include access to and control of resources (IDMA 2006: 13) Definition of analytic category Labor Time Resources Culture 1) N umber of participants 2) Change in tasks 3) Level of skill 4) Labor capacity 1) Time spent in the project 2) Change in the time required to carry out the task 1) Change in the access to capital 2) Change in control over resources 1) Change in gender roles 2) Change in gender status 3) Other Men 1) Adult men in 78 families 2) Some men began to plant a new type of seed at the outside farm ( chacra ) 3) Most ly unskilled, but several tasks required training provided by the project technicians 4) No need for a hired labor. 1) Meeting s with technicians for less than 15 minutes per week or per every other week 2) There was not much change in the total time spent on a chacra 1) No change in access to land. Access to new seeds or organic fertilizers. 2) No change in control over products from a chacra 1) No change in their responsibilities for productive or reproductive labor. 2) No obvious change observed in gender status. 3) Men had opportunities to communicate with technicians. Women 1) Adult women in 78 families 2) Some began to raise guinea pigs plant a new type of seed or install a biohuerto (organic home garden) mostly within the ir dwelling space s. 3) Mostly unskilled, but several tasks required training provided by the project technicians 4) No need for a hired labor 1) Meeting s with technicians for less than 15 minutes per week or per every other week 2) Women who started raising guinea pigs or planting domestic biohuerto s had to devote constant care to these tasks Women mostly spent additional time on these tasks which would take normally less than 1 or 2 hours per day, resulting in the reduction of their leisure time. 1) No change in access to land; little change in access to income which is difficul t to measure because most of the products from the project were consumed by families ; change in access to income was biggest among women who started raising guinea pigs or began to keep bees. 2) Products from the biohuerto were mostly consumed by families Guinea pigs and apiculture generated small and irregular income for women. 1) No change in their responsibilities for reproductive labor. Some women started carrying out new tasks of` the project which increased their responsibilities for productive labo r. 2) No obvious change in gender status. 3) Women had opportunities to communicate with technicians.
182 Table 4 1. Continued Labor Time Resources Culture Household 1) Major participants are mostly adult married women and men with very little engagement of children or the elderly. 2) Some families started raising more guinea pigs started beekeeping or cultivate new types of plants 3) Mostly unskilled but some tasks required training 4) No need for a hired labor 1) Technical assistance was provided to adult women and men of the participating families 2) Children or the elderly sometimes helped in the tasks (e.g., fetching fodder for guinea pigs, helping in the maintenance of the biohuerto ). The involvement of children or the elderly was irregular and it is difficult to measure it in time units 1) Access to new breed of guinea pig or, new types of seed or plant. Improved nutrition. 2) Some women had new source s of income selling guinea pigs or honey from apic ulture. 1) New activit ies for children or the elderly to help female or male project participants. 2) No obvious change detected in gender status. 3) Better networking with the technicians. Community 1) 78 families regularly participate d in the project ; some communal organizations meet in weekly workshop s sponsored by the project operator 2) 78 families received technical assistances ; some members participated in communal activities including the annual seed fair organized by the project operator 3) New techniques for organic farming were learnt 4) No need for a hired labor 1) N/A 2) A range of meetings organized by the communal organizations including the M others C lub or the Association of P roducers. More time spent on communal activities. Duration of each session was normally less than one hour. Meeting s were held irregularly. 1) Some families have access to organic fertilizers and new breed s of guinea pigs or plants. Association of Producer s received some technical assistance from IDMA while it was preparing a new project proposal for the government and CRO /AA. 2) N/A 1) N/A 2) No obvious change observed in gender status. 3) Communal organizations such as the Mothers Club and Association of Producers expanded their networking within as well as outside the community by collaborating with the project operator. Source: Elaborated by the author based on the fieldwork data collected during February March 2006 and January August 2007 in Huarip ampa)
183 Specifically, as the project was mostly concerned with the productive activities of the rural economy with little relevance to reproductive labor, the women who took part in its new tasks, such as raising guinea pig s beekeeping or planting the biohuerto s, ended up having an increased work load since these new obligations were added to their traditional reproductive ones However the tasks of men such as the cultivation of new types of seeds and plants or the adoption of organ ic farming techniques, did not generate much change in their total workload s, which is reflected in the number of hours they worked and the intensity of their labor As the participation of women and men conformed to the existing sexual division of labor, it had little effect on gender status both within the household and in communal spaces. Th is lack of change despite women s active inputs, is also related to the unsatisfactory performance of the project which initial ly proposed two primary objectives, security in the subsistent economy and commercialization. The introduction of organic farming techniques and innovative seeds essentially involved subsistence production because of the small size of the cultivable land. Although guinea pigs were presented as a strategic field for commercialization, it was extremely difficult to find sufficient fodder to feed the numbers of guinea pigs raised Generating a profit from apiculture was also not a simple task since very few p eople had secure access to the market to sell honey In this context, although some female participants obtained additional income by raising guinea pigs or keeping beehive s the amount s w ere too small to permit investment or enhance purchasing power. The lack of change in gender status was also observed at the community level. Identified as a strategic channel for commercialization, two community organizations, the M others C lub and the Association of Agrarian Producers were targeted as major recipient s o f technical assistance and training. The collaboration with was periodic, as in the annual seed or guinea pig fairs, held in the town of San Marcos, events
184 initiated by the project donor and operators. The collaboration was temporary and the members of the club lacked the resources to affect the mode or the goals of their association with IDMA The scope of relationship was largely defined by the project operator which made its impact provisional In a similar vein, IDMA s technical assistance and networking have permitted t he Assoc i ation of Agrarian Producers to expand its membership and to increase its resources. However, the intervention of IDMA did not make any obvious change in the organizational structure or power relations of t he committee whose leadership was predominantly controlled by male members who define d its agenda for new projec ts and its negotiations with prospective project donors. Case 2) FOCADER of ACUDIP (2006 2008) The project Strengthening of Capacities for the Rural Development ( Fortalecimiento de Capacidades para el Desarrollo Rural FOCADER by its Spanish acronym) started in August 2006 initially targeting three peasant communities, Carhuayoc, Huaripampa and Mosna. ACUDIP ( Asociacin Cultural para el Desarrollo Integral Participative ), a Lima based NGO officially registered in March 2006 served as the umbrella organization for operation A team initially composed of two agricultural engineers and three assistant techni cians was organized under the leadership of an ex employee of the PRODESA. FOCADER embraced three goals : 1) strengthening leadership and organizational capacities; 2) facilitati ng access to technology for sustainable production; and 3) promoti ng entrepren eurship. Its objectives thus coincide d with those of the CPAEA as did its approaches particularly since it targeted the M others C lub and Association of Agrarian P roducers as the strategic unit s of collaboration and emphasized technical intervention for guinea pig husbandry Despite these resemblances, FOCADER unlike the CPAEA made use of the communal land s of the participating communit y, turning them into a model farm where the members of the
185 collaborating organization s would become directly involved in the entire process of cultivation including planting, harvest ing, and distribution The use of the communal land promoted the constant engagement of the project participants especially as it engaged participants not as individual s but as memb ers of organization s This strategy of FOCADER facilitated an ongoing commitment of their participants, especially because the benefits of the project were collectively managed giving participants a greater sense of achievement Table 4 2 examines the mod e and intensity of local participation in Carhuayoc following the framework of the GAM. The data were largely collected from February to August of 2007 through fieldwork in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa ; additional information was collected during fieldwork in 2008. Table 4 2 illustrates that women more comprehensively and intensely engaged in the project tasks of FOCADER than men. As I observed in the project of IDMA the major motivation of women s greater involvement was related to tasks that the project prioritized and to the sexual division of labor in rural villages. In particular, at the family level, two types of intervention were made, the installment of the domestic biohuerto and assistance in the raising of guinea pig s As in the CPAEA, land scarcity has been a major factor determining the size and location of the biohuerto s and the variet ies of cultivable plants. With an average size of 206 m 2 in Carhuayoc and about 140 m 2 in Huaripampa and with some 7 8 types of vegetables plante d on them (FOCADER 2008: 19), the domestic biohuerto s installed through the project intervention w ere very small and mostly located within dwelling site s The location of biohuerto s, as well as intensive rather than seasonal labor that they required cor responded to women s daily routines Moreover, the priority on the raising of guinea pig coincided with the existing perception that women should take care of domestic animals.
186 Table 4 2. Project participation of Carhuayoc, FOCADER of ACUDIP 1) Project N ame : Fortalecimiento de Capacidades para el Desarrollo Rural 2) Project O perator: ACUDIP 3) Community N ame : Ango Raju Carhuayoc 4) Project P hase : Implementation, second year (Jan. Aug. 2007) 5) Proposed O bjectives : Institutional strengthening, nutritional sec urity through sustainable production, commercialization of agro pastoral production 6) Stated G ender O bjectives : Gender objectives are not specifically stated. Instead, individuals are portrayed as a member of a family, the unit through which wellbeing is mea sured. Definition of analytic category Labor Time Resources Culture 1) N umber of participants 2) Change in tasks 3) Level of skill 4) Labor capacity 1) Time spent in the project 2) Change in time required to carry out the task 1) Change in access to capital 2) Change in control over resources 1) Change in gender roles 2) Change in gender status 3) Other Men 1) For the domestic biohuerto married men from 44 families. For the raising guinea pig s, no male participant s were registered. 2) Help in the maintenance of the biohuerto at the home garden. 3) Mostly unskilled but several tasks required training from the project technicians. Training was made through a series of workshop s and exchange field trip s 4) No need for a hired labor 1) No regular meeting with the project providers. 2) No change s in time spent for the task. No change in total labor hour s 1) Access to new seeds or organic fertilizers for the domestic biohuerto Access to more guinea pigs. Access to potatoes from the m odel farm (applicable to members of the Association of P roducers). 2) No change in control over income, products or land. 1) Married men had to share responsibilities for household chores with other family members during the absence of their female partners who were in for training workshop s or exchange field trip s 2) Some men experience d that their female partners were spending more time on communal activities. 3) Men had opportunities to communicate with technicians.
187 Table 4 2. Continued Labor Time Resources Culture Women 1) For the domestic biohuerto married women from 44 families. For the raising of guinea pig s, 27 married women most of whom are members of the m other s c lub s More than 100 women attended training workshop. 2) Cultivation of vegetables in the domestic biohuerto Raising g uinea pig s Collective production o n the model farm allotted for the m other s c lub s 3) Some tasks are skilled requiring technical assistances of the project providers. Training was made th rough diverse channels such as regular home visits of technicians and weekly training sessions for the workshop and exchange field trip. 4) No need for hired labor. 1) For members of the M others C lub 1 2 hours of weekly meeting s Home visits of technicians that took about 10 minutes per week or per every other week. 2) Women who started raising guinea pigs or planting domestic biohuerto s had to devote constant care to these tasks. Women mostly spent additional time in order to undertak e tasks that w ould take normally less than 1 or 2 hours per day. Members of the provided unskilled labor for the production on the model farm which took 1 2 hours per week. 1) For members of the access to the communal land allotted by the organization. Access to an innovative breed of guinea pig. Access to diverse types of seeds. 2) Products from the project participation including vegetables from domestic biohuerto guinea pig s or products from the model farm were mostl y consumed for family use. Women in the received small sum s of money by selling products from the farm. 1) No change in the workload for reproductive labor. Increased workload for productive labor such as labor in domestic biohuerto s care f or guinea pigs. Increased workload for communal labor such as collaborative work on the model farm. 2) No change in gender status within the household. 3) More opportunities for communal activities either the membership in the or through participation in the project as individual s
188 Table 4 2. Continued Labor Time Resources Culture Household 1) 44 families engaged in the biohuerto. 27 families engaged in raising guinea pigs Regular engagement of married women and men with complementary services from children and the elderly. 2) Cultivation from domestic biohuerto. More number of guinea pigs. 3) Mostly unskilled but some tasks require training. 4) No need for a hired labor 1) Less time together because of the project participation of married women. 2) Children or the elderly sometimes helped in tasks (e.g., fetching fodder for guinea pigs and helping in the maintenance of the biohuerto ). I nvolvement of children or the elderly was irregular and it is difficult to measure the time spent on it. 1) Access to a new breed of guinea pig, more guinea pig s and cage s for guinea pigs. Access to vegetables from the domestic biohuerto Access to products from the model farm. 2) Some women had new sou rce of income from selling products of the model farm. 1) Increased workload for household chores for children and the elderly. 2) No change within household. 3) Better networking with the technicians. Community 1) Installment of domestic biohuerto and guinea pig cages in individual famil y homes Two local communities started producing potatoes and vegetables in the communal land designated as a demonstrative farm. 2) Technical assistances for agro pastoral production to individual and group partici pants A series of workshop s for training. Exchange field trip s to outside cities twice per year. 3) New techniques learnt to farm diverse types of vegetables 4) No need for a hired labor 1) N/A 2) More time spent on communal activities. 1) Access to more guinea pig cages. Access to various types of seeds. 2) No change The use of communal land for the project had to be approved by the Directive Board of the community. The influence of the Directive Board in the allocation of communal land did not chan ge. 1) No change 2) No change. The leadership or organization structure of the community was not changed. 3) Communal organizations such as the and the Association of P roducers expanded their networking within as well as outside the communit y by collaborating with the project operator. (Source: E laborated by the author based on the fieldwork data collected during January August 2007 in Carhuayoc)
189 The sex ratio of participants clearly illustrates the sexual division of this task. For instance, an internal document of FOCADER reports that in the second year of the project, all those who engaged in this task in Carhuayoc were women and in Huaripampa 46 women and only four men took part in it (2008: 27). The greater female presence in the projects did not generate any marked change s in gender role s or gender status within the household, as was observed in the CPAEA, since the products produced added little to family consumption or for sale In this sense, the overall domest ic impacts of FOCADER were very similar to those of CPAEA. On the other hand, the strategy of FOCADER to include local organizations as basic productive units, by turning the communal land assigned to each organization as a usufruct into a model farm facilitated the more constant and comprehensive engagement of these associations than that of the CPAEA. The project intervention at the organizational level involved the of Carhuayoc, Huaripampa Alto, and Huaripampa Bajo and the Associatio n of Producers of Carhuayoc. The active engagement of the m others c lub s in FOCADER s institutional intervention may seem unusual especially given peasant women s marginalized status in the public space. As mentioned in the Table 4 2, FOCADER did not pres ent any specific gender objectives either in its documents or through its activities, which make one wonder if the m c lub s participated not because they were intentionally targeted by the project operators but because they were the most available and receptive institution s. In this regard, I speculate that the active participation of the is largely grounded on the distinct attitudes of women and men toward the development project in rural villages. Specifically, i t reveals the greater reluctance of men to provide unremunerated labor for the project task. This resistance of peasant men is partially related to the perception that they are the bread winners of household s, especially in terms of monetary income, and th at their labor,
190 whether permanent or temporary, should be compensated, unlike that of women Moreover, I often hear d people proclaim that men know more and thus they do not need to attend any training workshops. On the other hand, the peasant women of the mothers clubs usually told me that they participated because they enjoy ed socializing B y providing access to new resources the project has certainly strengthened the organizational capacity of the mothers clubs As revealed in Table 4 2 the resource s generated through the project encompass ed not only material benefit production, but also social experiences obtained through such diverse channels as the training workshop s the exchange trips to the cities in Lima or Cajamarca, and the participation in the annual agro pastoral fair. The size s of the project farm s w ere very small for instance ranging from 0.05 to 0.28 h ectares in Huaripampa Bajo constraining the scale of and gains from production. In this sen se, the material benefit s of the project were barely perceptible either by the project participants or by their family members. Similarly, tasks that were designed to promote entrepreneurship among participants including the production of jam made of nati ve fruits and weekly sale s of picante de cuy a traditional dish made of guinea pig at the market place of the commercial town had educational rather than practical impacts because of the small sum of the profits 16 Accordingly, the material benefit s can hardly be considered a major factor motivating the participation of the mothers clubs Instead, the project has generated more comprehensive and permanent affects on female participants by providing a rationale and an incentive for collective activities and thus enlarging the scope and intensity of women s engagement at the 16 For instance, in a field visit in March 2007 I discovered that Mothers Club of Huaripampa Alto made a net profit of 450 Nuevo Soles which is equivalent to about US $150 in two jam production periods Th e profits were shared by seven women who had provided manual services for the production, which means that each participant received approximately US10$ per session, which is equivalent to a regular daily wage for unskilled labor in San Marcos these days. Considering each session took about 4 5 hours for the production of jam, the profits obtained from the production barely offset the value of labor provided by participants.
191 communal level. The se increased opportunities are important for the women of Carhuayoc and Huaripampa who are, in the case of the former, largely denied entrance to the community reun ion because they are not considered representative of household s and are normally required to obtain permission of their male partners to attend public meetings. However the social space created through the project intervention did not generate remarkable changes in women s public status since women played limited roles in the project in which they did not have any power to define its scope or purpose. That is the project intervention did not challenge the existing power relations in which women usually take a passive role with l ittle access to decision making. Case 3) Artisanal Textile Project of IDESI Lima (2004 2008) Initiated by AA a series of development project s in tourism have been carried out in San Marcos since 2004. The project of artisanal te xtile production is a major component in this field along with the Hotel Konchukos Tambo. As already discussed, tourist visits to this region have largely centered on the Chav archeological site and have had little, if any, impact on the socio economic activities of San Marcos. The few v isitors who stay in the town for personal or business reasons have helped to sustain a range of service businesses The creat ion of tourist attractions and facilities thus require d strategic plans and long term i nvestment. In this sense, it is reasonable that AA s community development project in the field of tourism targeted essentially peasant populations who have been involved in artisanal textile production for decades either for domestic consumption or for s ale The operation of the project was assigned to the regional divisions of IDESI ( Instituto de Desarrollo del Sector Informal ), a renowned Peruvian NGO that was founded in 1986 and that specializes in entrepreneurship for small and medium firms
192 Table 4 3. Project participation of Carhuayoc, Handicrafts Project of IDESI Lima 1) Project N ame: Proyecto de desarrollo productivo y comercial de la actividad artesanal textil de los distritos de San Marcos y Cha vn de Huantar II Fase 2) Project O perator: IDESI Lima in San Marcos and IDESI Chav n in Chav n 3) Community N ame: Angoraju Carhuayoc 4) Project Pha se: Implementation, second stage (Jan. Aug. 2007) 5) Proposed O bj ectives: Institutional strengthening, promotion of textile production and commerciali zation 6) State G ender O bjectives: Gender objectives are not specifically stated. Definition of analytic category Labor Time Resources Culture 1) Number of participants 2) Change in tasks 3) Level of skill 4) Labor capacity 1) Time spent in the project 2) Change in time required to carry out the task 1) Change in access to capital 2) Change in control over resources 1) Change in gender roles 2) Change in gender status 3) Other Men 1) O ne adult man 2) Received technical training. Continued doing the same type of tasks to which he has been devoted for more than 20 years. 3) Skilled labor. Skills were mostly learnt from father. 4) No need for a hired labor 1) Regular meeting with the technicians twice per week. About 4 5 hours per meeting. Irregular workshop s with varied durations. 2) No change in time spent for the task. No change in total labor hour. 1) Facilitated access to primary materials and innovative designs. Access to artisanal textile fair s held within as well as outside San Marcos. 2) No change in control over products or income. 1) No change observed. 2) No change observed. 3) Communication with technicians and expanded networking to obtain information concerning textile production and mar kets. Women 1) Approximately 14 adult married or single women. 2) Received technical training. Learnt new techniques for textile production including dyeing with native plants, operations of knitting looms, and designing. A couple of women started using looms. 3) Skilled and unskilled labor. Skills learnt from female family members 4) No need for hired labor. 1) Regular meeting with the technicians twice per week. About 4 5 hours per meeting. Irregular workshop s with varied durations. 2) More time spent on knitting. Not much change in the time required to complete the same task. 1) Facilitated access to primary materials and innovative de signs. Access to artisanal textile fair s held within as well as outside San Marcos. 2) Some women started making small sum s of money by selling hand knitted items to local markets. 1) No change observed 2) No change observed. 3) Women could communicate wi th technicians. Women had opportunities to visit national or regional fair s Women had opportunities to share interests in textile production with their neighbors.
193 Table 4 3. Continued Labor Time Resources Culture Household 1) Adult man and women from 15 families. 2) New tasks were carried out only by the project participants without any involvement of other family members. 3) N/A 4) No need for a hired labor. 1) Less time spent together. 2) More time spent on hand knitting among female participants. Other family members spent more time carrying out tasks that were left undone because of the absence of female participants. 1) A couple of families installed loom and other equipments. 2) A few women irregularly earned small su m of income by selling products. 1) More workload for family members. 2) No change observed. 3) No change observed. Community 1) Fifteen local persons participated in the project. The project participants formed a local organization for textile artisans. 2) New techniques for textile production were learnt. A series of training workshop was held at the community level. 3) Female participants in the project learnt skills for the operation of loom. 4) No need for a hired labor. 1) Twice per week, project meetings were held with duration of approximately 4 5 hours. 2) More time spent on communal activities. 1) Access to innovative designs. Access to new markets. Access to more machines for textile production. Access to more primary materials. 2) A new orga nization constructed through the project had better access to textile markets. Other persons who did not participate felt disadvantaged. 1) No change. More women became devoted to textile production. However, it did not change the previous gender roles. 2 ) No change. Women did not hold leadership in a new organization. 3) A new organization constructed by the project participants had better networking with technicians and with market holders. Artisans who did not participate felt discontented at such chan ge s (Source: Elaborated by the author based on the fieldwork data collected during January August 2007 in Carhuayoc)
194 In San Marcos, three peasant communities Carhuayoc, Carash and Pacash were identified as the primary recipient s because of their relatively stronger tradition of textile production and the higher proportion of their population s devoted to the tasks required for it 17 Based on the data collected in Carhuayoc during fieldwork in 2007, T able 4 3 presents details of lo cal participation in the project activities of IDESI during the research period. As seen in T able 4 3, the project of IDESI in Carhuayoc is noteworthy because of the high er proportion of female (14 women) than male participant s ( one man). These findings s eem somewhat contradictory considering that textile production has been an important source of income for peasant men in Carhuayoc. As with other tasks in rural villages, textile production in Carhuayoc is strongly divided between the sexes Specifically, peasant men become involved in textile production in order to sell the ir product s and thus generate income while women are more oriented to production for family use. 18 Moreover, women s weaving differs from that of men both in its manner and its level of skill For instance, in the case of Carhuayoc, the loom is an indispensable part of production for male artisans while women essentially concentrate on hand knitting The different technique s and purpose s of their textile production enabl e women to have more flexibility. More specifically men s labor tends to take place during particular hours 17 According to IDESI s internal document, among the total population devoted to pl ain weaving in San Marcos, 33 % are from Carhuayoc, 30 % from Pacash, 22 % from Carash, and 8 % are from Huaripampa. ( http://www.aancash.org.pe/proy ectos/cultura/ProgramaDesarrollodeCadenasProductivasArtesanales.pdf ) 18 I have not obtained statistical data regarding the scale of income obtained through textile production of Carhuayoc. IDESI s internal document ( http://www.aancash.org.pe/proyectos/cultura/ProgramaDesarrollodeCadenasProductivasArtesanales.pdf last accessed, August 2010 ) provides a broad fig ure in this respect. According to it in San Marcos, only three artisans who specialize in plain textiles managed to sell their products outside the province of Huari. The income obtained from the markets outside the province rarely exceed ed S/. 450 (appro ximately US $150). Considering that the artisans who manage to sell outside the province used to be those of the most devoted and most skilled producers in the region and the profits from the sale within the province would not be of greater scale because o f the small size of local market, it is estimated that income from local markets would be smaller. The document also presents that the monthly average income among women who are devoted to hand knitting for sale is about S/. 100 (US $35 approximately). The se figures point out that textile production in the region is mostly of small scaled and it is relied upon as a complementary measure to household economy.
195 at one worksite and that of women at various times, either at home, walking around the street s sitting at bus stop s, or chatting with their neighb ors. How has this sexual division labor in textile production interacted with the project ? Is the high rate of women s project participation in Carhuayoc motivated in one way or another by it ? While I was visiting the project site in 2007 during its second stage, I did not observe any clear impact of the project on the mode and intensity of female participants weaving. Above all, the project generated hardly any strong commitment among participants. Mostly designed to teach techniques for the production of plain textile s the session s took place at the worksite of the single male participant who already possessed adequate weaving equipment including a loom and who was already the most renowned and successful artisan of the community. The involvement of f emale participants who were mostly novice s in the operation of loom was quite low and irregular which prevented them from obtaining new skills and from undertaking new tasks. As the project was coming to the close, I discovered that the male participant was the only one who had received training throughout the session s, sometimes even without any attendance of female participants This finding contrasts with the relatively satisfactory performances and results of the project in other communities like Carash and Pacash. Apparently, the project failed to promot e new roles as weaver s for the women who took part in it, because they deemed it to be too time consuming and devoid of considerable rewards. In November 2008 when IDESI was preparing to resume the project through the financing of the Antamina Mining Fund (FMA), I had a chance to accompany the staff of IDESI to a pre arranged meeting with local artisans of Carhuayoc. The purpose of the meeting was to construct a new organizat ion of artisans comprised of local people who ha d not participated in the IDESI s previous activities. During the meeting, I spoke to the attending artisans all of whom
196 were men, about their reluctance to take part in the project during the previous year s. They directed their critiques t oward the representativeness of the existing organization which had taken part in the p roject, strongly condemning it for using the project to promote the interests of particular individuals at the expense of other residen ts From these accounts, it was clear that the project was generating division among the locals. To a certain extent the unsatisfactory performance of the IDESI s intervention in Carhuayoc stems from project operators ignorance of or lack of consideration for the relations among local artisans who are in competition with one another for better access to the local markets and who have established their reputation s through father to son and mother to daughter technical training. I speculate th at the reluctance of Carhuayoc male artisans to participate in the project during the previous years reflects not only their refusal to recognize the authority of a particular artisan as a leader but also their disapproval of introducing people without such life time dedication in to the profession. Case 4) Project of Maintenance of Public Infrastructure of the Municipality of San Marcos (2008) Initiated by the local government of San Marcos, the Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestructura Pblica (PMIP by its Spanish Acronym), a project to maintain the public infrastructure began in January 2008 originally in the form of Pilot Plan ( Plan Piloto ). As briefly discussed in C hapter 2, PMIP was conceived as a political measure in order to assuage mounting criticism of the performance of the local government. The major source of these complaints was the low execution rate of the mining canon which remained at below 5 % of the total sum allocated by end of the year 2007 (see Figure 2 2 in Chapter 2 of this dissertation) Confronted to the difficulty of elaborating project profiles that can obtain the approval of the SNIP, a screening body of the central government, the local government came up with the idea of innovative ly interpreting the mining canon law, which stipulates the use of up to 20 % of the
197 budget for infrastructure (see Table 2 4 in Chapter 2) to distribute money to local people in the form of a temporary employment. Opponents of the then district mayor were mobilized at the end of 2007 under the leadership of local politicians, including the ex mayor of San Marcos, an event that indicates the intensity of the political conflicts buffeting the local government (see Chapter 2 of this dissertation) The scheme o f PMIP was unprecedented. It sought to provide local residents with temporary employment at a competitive rate which was determined to be between US $10 US $16 ( S/.30 S/.50 ) per day depending on skill levels. C onsidering the desperate economic conditions of Peru where people roam from city to city in search of job s that barely pay S/. 20 per day in deteriorating working conditions this scheme appeared rather utopian. Accordingly, it is no wonder that the program was enticing enough to calm the escalating local critiques of the then district mayor and his personnel. Claiming 4,000 participants during the year 2008, PMIP had a profound impact, not only on local livelihood s but also on local participation in another series of community development projects that were already under way in several communities. T able s 4 4 and 4 5 present the details of this local participation and the changes driven by the project following the modified format of the GAM ; it is based on data collected from the commerc ial town of San Marcos and from Huaripampa during October and December 2008. As shown in Table 4 4 and T able 4 5, PMIP engendered a variety of impacts, both in the commercial town and in the rural village of Huaripampa, which I chose as a representative case of the rural villages. Unlike other community development projects that sought to reinforce traditional occupations, PMIP consisted of tasks that were incompatible with traditional productive activities, leading participants to abandon existing liveli hood strategies.
198 Table 4 4. Project participation of the commercial town of San Marcos, PMIP of the district m unicipality of San Marcos 1) Project N ame : Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestructura Pblica 2) Project O perator: District Municipality of San Marcos 3) Com munity N ame: Commercial town of the district of San Marcos 4) Project P hase: Implementation, first year (Oct. Dec. 2008) 5) Proposed O bjectives: Provide employment to the local population with equity and enhance the quality of infrastructure 6) Sta ted Gender O bjectives: Gender objectives are not specifically stated. Definition of analytic category Labor Time Resource Culture 1) Number of participants 2) Change in tasks 3) Level of skill 4) Labor capacity 1) Time spent in the project 2) Change in time required to carry out the task 1) Change in access to capital 2) Change in control over resources 1) Change in gender roles 2) Change in gender status 3) Other Men 1) More than 10 projects with 5 20 participants were carried out simultaneously evenly composed of female and male adults. 2) New tasks were undertaken such as cleaning road s painting wall s 3) Mostly unskilled. Chief and assistant chief of each team were required to be skilled although skills were not necessarily related to the ir task s 4) No need for hired labor 1) 8 hours on weekdays for 2 weeks. New teams were organized every other week with new participants. 2) N/A. Tasks are mostly new to the participant. 1) Access to bi weekly wages that are between S/. 420 and S/. 700 depe nding on the skill of the participant. 2) More control of income. Some people reported to use the income for family use. Yet, the ultimate decision on the use of income rest ed with male income earner. 1) Men who were not assigned position s did some household chores o n behalf of their female partners who were working on the project. 2) Men experience d their female partners exercising more power within household as the latter earn ed income. 3) Less time spent with families. Men stopped going to the o ther cit ies in search of job s Women 1) More than 10 projects with 5 20 participants were carried out evenly composed of female and male adults. 2) New tasks were undertaken including cleaning road, painting wall s Many women stopped preparing lunch for families. Household chores were usually done on weekends. 3) Mostly unskilled. Some young women with education were considered skilled and positioned as chief s or assistant chief s 4) No need for a hired labor. 1) 8 hours on weekdays for 2 weeks. New teams were organized every other week. 2) Tasks were mostly new to participants. Less time spent on household chores. 1) Women started earning income. More access to cash income. More access to networking with their neighbors 2) More control of income. Income reported spent mostly on family use. However, women kept a certain portion of income for their own use without discussing it with their family members 1) Women had reasons not to do household chores while wor king for the project. More help from male partners and other family members on household chores. 2) Some women experienced more power in the decision making on household matters. 3) Less time spent with family members More time spent with neighbors. Gre ater opportunities to communicate with neighbors through work.
199 Table 4 4. Continued Labor Time Resource Culture Household 1) Family members, especially elderly women, who did not have previous experience in paid employment started making income. 2) The former tasks of the project participant s were attended to by other family members when available. 3) N/A 4) No need for a hired labor 1) Less time together. 2) Women spent less time on household work 1) More access to income. Children often had less food or less nutritious food because adult women could not prepare food for them. 2) Family members, especially female s who previously did not have access to money started making money, using some of their income for their own use. 1) More household chores for children. The division of labor in reproductive labor became more flexible as women became less available. 2) Female members started having more power in decision making o n household matters. 3) M ore male members stay ed at home because they s topped leaving to search for job s More return ing migrants join ed the project. Community 1) Additional personnel of the municipality were hired for the monitoring and administration of the project. 2) New tasks related to the administration of the project such as recruiting, management of the payment roll, inspection s etc. 3) Unskilled and skilled labor. There was no separate training to enhance participants skill. 4) Local people were hired for the maintenance of public facilities including chu rch es school s gym s streets, or the main square. 1) More time spent by the government personnel on the administration of the project. 2) Less time for communal activities. 1) Access to facilities with better conditions. About 20 % of the budget of the government was spent on the project. 2) Local people who participated in the project began to have more purchasing power. Local people who did not participate felt disadvantaged because of higher living costs. 1) More women engaged i n paid employment. 2) No change observed in women s status in communal organizations. 3) Higher living costs. Increase of population because of the presence of return ing migrants in search of job s in the project. Increase of street vendors who come from Hu araz or other cities. (Source: Elaborated by the author based on the fieldwork data collected during October December 2008 in the town of San Marcos)
200 Table 4 5. Project participation of Huaripampa, PMIP of the district m unicipality of San Marcos 1) Project N ame: Proyecto de Mantenimiento de Infraestructura Pblica 2) Project O perator: District Municipality of San Marcos 3) Community N ame: Huaripampa 4) Project P hase: Implementation, first year (Oct. Dec. 2008) 5) Proposed O bjectives: Provide employment to the locals with equity and enhance the quality of infrastructure 6) Stated G ender O bjectives: Gender objectives are not specifically stated. Definition of a nalytic category Labor Time Resource Culture 1) Number of participants 2) Change in tasks 3) Level of skill 4) Labor capacity 1) Time spent in the project 2) Change in time required to carry out the task 1) Change in access to capital 2) Change in control over resources 1) Change in gender roles 2) Change in gender status 3) Other Men 1) About 5 projects composed of 10 15 participants were carried out simultaneously evenly distributed between adult women and men 2) New tasks were undertaken such as cleaning road s removing stones, or fixing school facilities. 3) Mostly unskilled. Chief and assistant chief of each team were required to be skilled although skills were not necessarily related to the ir task s 4) Some male peasants hired daily worker s for chacra 1) 8 hours on weekdays for 2 weeks. New teams were o rganized every other week with new participants. 2) Tasks are mostly new to the participant s Some participants discarded work at the chacra Some participants stopped going outside the district for temporary work 1) Access to bi weekly wages between S/. 420 and S/. 700 depending on the skill of the participant. 2) More control of income. Income was usually spent on family. Yet, the ultimate decision on the use of income rested with male income earner. 1) Men who were not assigned a position had to do household chores on behalf of their female partners who were working on the project. 2) Men experienced their female partners exercis ing more power within household as the latter earn ed income. 3) Less time spent with families. Men sto pped going to other cit ies for jobs Women 1) About 5 projects composed of 10 15 participants were carried out simultaneously evenly distributed between adult women and men. 2) New tasks undertaken including cleaning road s painting wall s etc. Many women stopped preparing lunch for families. Household chores were usually done on weekends. 3) Mostly unskilled. 4) No need for a hired labor. 1) 8 hours on weekdays for 2 weeks. New teams were organized every other week. 2) Tasks were mostly new to participants. Less time spent on household chores. 1) Women started earning income. More access to capital in the form of income. More access to networking with neighbors 2) More control of income. Income was mostly spent for family. Yet, some women kept a certain portion of income for their own use. 1) Less household work. More responsibilities were given to other family members for household work. 2) Some women experien ced that they had more power to decide the allocation of resources because they did not need to get the approval of their male partners. 3) Less time spent at home. More networking with male and female neighbors
201 Table 4 5. Continued Labor Time Resource Culture Household 1) Adult family members participated in the project whenever jobs were available. 2) Less division of labor either productive or reproductive labor within household. 3) Mostly unskilled. 4) Some families hired a daily worker to attend to the chacra 1) Less time together. Children ended up spending more time alone without attendance of adults. 2) Women spent less time spent on household work Men spent less time in chacra The elderly started working regularly. 1) More access to income. Children often skipped lunch especially if they are too young to attend school. 2) Male members experienced that other family members, especially their female partners and the elderly had more control of resources. 1) More workload for children. Greater flexibility in division of labor. 2) Women started exercising m ore power in decision making on household matters. 3) More male members staying at home without leaving for jobs in othe r cities. More return ing migrants. Community 1) About 30 40 % of local population. 2) Cleaning and maintenance of road and public facilities. Reduced communal activities. Difficulty of obtaining faena (communal labor) 3) Unskilled and skilled labor. There was no separate training to enhance participants skill. 4) Local people were hired by the district municipality. More demand for wage labor at the farm. 1) N/A 2) Less time for communal activities. Less time spent in another community development projects. 1) Access to road and facilities at better conditions. Higher level of household income. Less agro pastoral production. Less textile production. 2) The influence of the mayor o n population became greater. Promoters who were in charge of recruiting and positioning project participants began to have power. 1) Women started making money. Some men had to attend to household chores on behalf of their female partners working in the project. 2) No change observed in wo men s status in communal organizations. 3) Population growth because of return ing migrants other cities. More consumption of consumer goods. More drinking among peasant women and men. (Source: Elaborated by the author based on fieldwork data collected during October December 2008 in Huaripampa)
202 The repercussions of the PMIP varied in the commercial town and the rural villages largely because of their distinctive economic structures. To begin with, in the former, most pa rticipants came from low income families and had no secure sources of income but the wage s obtained from the project. Because of the insecurity of the bi weekly work shift system, people often ended up waiting two weeks or more to be assigned a position, w hich discouraged those with some resources from becoming involved in the project In contrast, PMIP affected mid income or rich families in the commercial town rather indirectly, through increased local consumption driven by greater purchasing power or inc reased living costs. Money earned from the project was easily and rapidly spent mostly on dining out or for processed food, clothes and electronic products including cellular phone s, DVD player s TV s or digital camera s, among others. The amplified loca l consumption boosted the local economy of the commercial town which is ultimately depend ent on commerce. Negatively, the project created a galloping inflation rate which increased average living costs to the levels of Huaraz or even of Lima. Middle income families, who could not quit their jobs as servant s or as employees and who lacked the capital to profit commercially from the boom, were most adversely affected by it. On the other hand, project participation in the rural villages was not as socia lly stratified as those in the town of San Marcos The members of families with economic resources from agriculture, textile production, or mine employment did not generally join in the project. However, such families made up fairly small proportion s of th e total population s, and a reserve labor force of those conventionally excluded from the labor market, principally adult women or the elderly provided a ready participant pool. The project, moreover, brought about notable changes in rural villages To beg in with project participat ion had a depressing influence on the traditional productive activities of the rural economy. Agricultural production suffered greatly
203 because of a shortage of labor Hence, familial self sufficiency in staple foods including po tatoes and corn was greatly reduced Moreover, a ugmented by income from the project, peasant families changed their diets from traditional cereals and vegetables to noodles, rice, dairy, and chicken Second, women and the elderly entered the labor market. As discussed in Chapter 3, the rural economy is based on a strict sexual division of labor in which women s productive activities are largely unremunerated and those of men, who are tied to seasonal labor migrations, are paid. Engaged b y PMIP, both women and the elderly now disposed of money incomes. Certainly, they performed manual unskilled tasks and did not benefit from training I n this sense, PMIP engendered no changes in the quality or the competitiveness of peasant women or that of the elderly on the market. That is to say the paid employment of women and the elderly created an intense but temporary impact on the local economy The w age labor of these groups triggered changes in their access to capital and their control o f resources. I have not found specific data on the ways in which the money earned in the project was spent In response to my questions, people usually indicated that they had spent most of their earnings for family needs, answers that partially reflect th eir reluctance to give details on family budgeting a private matter in the unwritten moral code of the rural household economy. However, I frequently observed that the wage earner whether male or female, held the ultimate power in determining the use of income even though such power varied between the sexes Wages created new consumption patterns among peasant women. By the time that I visited the field in October 2008 when PMIP had been in place for over nine months, I encounter ed more peasant women di ning alone in the commercial town of San Marcos and spending money on clothes. I heard reports that the consumption of alcohol in rural villages was no longer an exclusive male habit
204 Moreover, PMIP has brought about important changes in local patterns of labor migration. The employment it offered has acted not only as a major determent to male seasonal labor migration but also as a draw for local labor migrants, who had departed for l arger cities in their teens or twenties, to return to the district These return ing migrants lived in their parents homes so as to sav e money for yet another departure The c ultural and social consequences of this inward migration for local societies were not obvious since the majority of returning migrants had maintained various contacts with their families and communities and planned to remain but for a short time As for the gender impacts of PMIP, I observed that the access of women to and control of resources both in the commercial town and the rural villages were enhanced by their participation in the project. Moreover, as they became less available for household chores other family members, usually children but sometimes men, carried out more of t hese tasks. However, this increased flexibility in the division of labor within the household did not necessarily signify a shift in traditional gender assigned roles. Strong resistance to men cooking, laundering, or animal keeping work, prevented such a change. Accordingly, children, who were often left unattended or even expected to step in for their parents either at the chacra or at home confronted greater burdens At the same time, women gained no greater public authority. On the whole, PMIP discouraged people from an involvement in community affairs especially in rural villages where it employed larger percentages of the population A range of community development projects in the region also witnessed the reduction of loc al civic attendance and interest
205 Assessment of Research Hypotheses H1) Women are likely to be excluded from community development projects than men. The data presented in the above tables indicate in contradiction to this hypothesis, that women had a higher participation rate than men. They formed the primary participating group in projects centered on agro pastoral production and textile production or tempora ry wage labor. Their important role in these initiatives both in the town and countryside, cl early underscores their crucial productive position. However, the engagement of women can be better explained by the other factors, related to the nature and form of the projects and the structure s of local societies First, the difference between the inv olvement of women and men was most strongly observed in projects encouraging agro pastoral and textile production in rural villages. As the data in Table s 4 1, 4 2, and 4 3 show, the projects of IDMA ACUDIP and IDESI encouraged the relatively constant and active participation of peasant women but not their male counterparts The rural sexual division of labor and the ensuing perception that male labor should be remunerated were the p rimary factor s behind male resistance As already discussed, commercializa tion was the ultimate goal of these projects. However, success in achieving it was minimal at best since none of the projects sufficiently expanded local production P easant men whose productive labor tends to be seasonally organized and quantitatively e valuated, harshly criticized t he lack of tangible benefits generated by these initiatives. On the other hand, peasant women were more receptive, especially because of their greater availability and the centering of their labor on the home garden and small animal keeping In other words, peasant women perceived less risk in their project involvement, even with only the promise of small returns Additionally, an inquiry into the project s of FOCADER and IDESI demonstrates that the sexually divided communal sp ace of rural villages influenced participation; specifically, it
206 encouraged the engagement of woman in FOCADER plan and discouraged the involvement of men in that of IDESI As already discussed, communal institutions in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa are largely controlled by their male members especially in the former village and also by male leaders In this context, the organizational collaboration of FOCADER with the mothers clubs of Carhuayoc and of Huaripampa contributed in reinforcing the organiz ational strength of these groups by providing them with material and social resources. As local organization s, made up entirely of women and with female leadership, the mothers clubs offered an important space for peasant women to socialize and share info rmation without much meddling by their male partners or other men The ongoing engagement of project participants in FOCADER was based on their club member ship, rather than individual considerations Moreover, the lack of male resistance at the household a nd community levels was largely grounded on the consensus over the legitimacy of women s communal activities through traditional organization s, such as the mothers clubs The IDESI generated however, a rather contrasting outcome. Unlike the FOC ADER its plans confronted strong male critiques and resistance especially by male artisans, in Carhuayoc ; these opponents concentrated on the legitimacy of the organization created by the intervention Thus, the attempt to create a new communal space that was not grounded on the existing social order which is a complex fabric of gender relations and local perception s of legitimacy or authority, engender ed stiff local opposition that weakened the project. The ac tive role of women in the projects also concerns with the nature of the local participation data on which this study is based, since these were gathered during the implementation stage of each project. As I earlier mentioned, the community development proj ects in San Marcos were planned and formulated essentially by their administrators or
207 operators and not local residents However, the administration of the mining canon compelled the local government to open a space for the local population in order to ide ntify the priorities for its anticipated budget In this scheme, the annual workshop for Participative Budgeting operated as a major channel for local participation. A t the annual workshops of Carhuayoc Huaripampa and the town of San Marcos in June 2007 I observed that the increased engagement of women in a range of development projects barely affected their influence at public meetings either as decision maker s or as opinion leader s Their absence at these public meetings reveals that as long as male leadership institutionalized through headship at the household and community levels, endures, the priorities of women will be reflected through the mediation of their male partners. In this sense, I believe that the feminine presence in the examined proje cts endured because it did not challenge male hegemony in the decision making process. H2) Women s participation in community development projects differs in its mode and intensity according to the type of socio economic organization in which they are inv olved. In C hapter 3, I examined a range of experiences and choices of the women in San Marcos in light of the following three socio economic factors : sexual division of labor by the type of productive activities the composition of the household and the engagement in communal organizations. I regard the second research hypothesis to see if one or more of these factors affected women s participation in the community development projects. In this way, I explore the diverse attitudes and reactions of women i n San Marcos to planned development and the relation of these to the gender relations of local societies. Sexual d ivision of labor by the type of productive activities : As I previously noted most of the community development projects in the field of productive activities in San Marcos were implemented in rural villages with the exceptional case of the PMIP which was carried out at the district level. Accordingly, in order to examine differences in the e ngagement of the
208 women in rural villages and in the commercial town in relation to their responsibilities in productive labor, I will first compare their participation in the PMIP of both places. As data in Table s 4 4 and 4 5 reveal the overall sex ratio of project participants of the PMIP in two settings did not differ Women in the commercial town and in rural villages were, compared to men, an important participant group However, as argued above, in the commercial town the members of low income familie s were more involved, while in rural villages participants came from a broader social spectrum The town offered relatively abundant and diversified ways to earn income in the cash economy and the rural villages did not, decreasing the participant pool in the former and increasing it in the latter. This comparative analysis implies that the accessibility to cash operated as a major factor determining the project participation of women. Besides, I observ ed that peasant women s greater participation compared to men in a range of community development projects such as the project of IDMA, ACUDIP, and IDESI in the rural villages was motivated in part by the nature of productive activities that they were engaged in. T he rather str ict sexual division of labor in the rural economy triggered the involvement of women, since they did not partake, unlike men, in seasonable and quantifiable tasks, but rather in year around and flexible ones Moreover, their absence from income generating activities underlies the perception that their labor is less valuable than that of men, creating a major obstacle to the participation of men in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa. Taking into consideration that the sexual division of labor in the productive activit ies of the commercial town was not as strictly drawn as in the rural villages, I doubt that the development project s there would generate local participation that is as sexually divided as in the rural villages. Since no particular project in the field of productive activities existed in the commercial town of San Marcos except PMIP
209 while I was carrying out field research in San Marcos between 2006 and 2008 I present this inclination in the form of a supposition. Household composition : As I noted in C hapter 3, female headship in San Marcos which is driven, temporarily or permanently, by the absence of a married adult male s, makes the sexual division of labor more flexible, especially in productive activities and gives women more authority in househol d and the public space. The consequences of female headship in community development projects seem s however rather ambivalent. On the one hand, women s greater authority a s decision maker s in female headed households has encouraged their project particip ation. The opposition of their marital partner s was frequently presented by women, but very rarely by men, as a reason why they did not join a project or why they d id not devote as much time and service to it as was expected of participants For instance, some men, especially in the commercial town, put a low value on the task of PMIP which they regarded as an initiative for poor people, and felt shame at the thought of their wives taking part in it Other men simply did not want their wives to spend so mu ch time outside the house, often working with male neighbors, even though they usually gave different reasons for their opposition claiming, for instance, that the work was too demanding or that the house needed tending. Separated, divorced, and abandoned women, as well as widows, in comparison, faced no such restraints on their freedom of choice with regard to participation. Women s household headship, however, did not necessarily operate as a decisive factor shaping local participation. When it comes to the community development projects implemented in rural villages for agro pastoral activities, the primary participatory unit was either the nuclear family or grassroot s communal organization s particularly the mothers clubs of Carhuayoc and Huari pam pa. By presenting the nuclear family as a basic recipient unit, the project reduced
210 potential conflicts among participating family members, since this feature encouraged the perception that any benefits would be collectively shared Moreover, working with loca l organizations, especially traditionally accredited one s, lessened male opposition at the household level since people undertook project tasks not as individual s but as member s of a traditional social unit. The indefinite consequences of female headship were more clearly observed in the case of PMIP. As mentioned above, women often presented male opposition as the reason for their lack of project involvement. In comparison the presence of adult males in the household actually facilitated such participat ion especially b ecause of the strong labor demand of the project. Project participants were requested to abide by strict working hours which were set from 8 AM to 5 PM on weekdays. Such obligations created heavy pressures on the female heads of household s, who were forced to leave domestic chores unattended due to the project participation the pressure which could be alleviated through the assistance of a male partner in the households with the presence of adult males. Communal organizations : As the data in Table s 4 1, 4 2, and 4 3 indicate, local organization s, whether existing or new, were key recipient group s of the development projects in rural villages This targeting of organizations made the ir membership s an important, al though not neces sarily decisive, precondition for participation. Furthermore, membership also became a channel to the stable resources incumbent upon it, a fact that led to conflicts within the local population The se conflicts were instigated by a myriad of factors. For instance, when the project worked with a n existing organization as FOCADER in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa disputes arose between women who belonged to an organization before the project and those who were aspiring to obtain membership after its commencement. New requirements were imposed on the
211 latter group, such as an enrollment fee of approximately S/.100 in Carhuayoc and voluntary services for a certain time ; these were criticized as evidence of the selfishness or the exclusivity of old members. The legitimacy of membership was also questioned especially when a new organization was created through by the project as in the case of the IDESI in Carhuayoc. As already mentioned, established local artisans decried the enrol lment of dozens of project participants in the A ssociation of the A rtisans of Ango raju de Carhuayoc claiming that it served individual rather than collective interests and that its members lacked professional skills and experience. Thus, membership instig ated tensions when it challenged existing power relations
212 CHAPTER 5 DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMA TIC AND PARADOXES OF PARTICIPATION At the beginning of this dissertation, I identified two primary concerns of anthropological scholarship with respect to the subject of planned development. On the one hand, such erudition advances various analys e s of the concept of development. In this regard the ambiguity embedded in the concept as well as its underlying assum ptions are often questioned (Cooper and Packard 1997; Crewe and Harrison 1988; Escobar 1995; Ferguson 1990; 1997). The metaphor of anti politics machine conceived by James Ferguson (1990) in his book on the World Bank s development projects in Lesotho The Anti Politics Machine: Development, Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho ably exemplifies the formulat ion of the concept of development as problematic when analyz ing particular types of structural change. From Ferguson s perspective, d evelopment is executed by the application of a set of apparatus es that entail not only the discursive reconstruction of the target society but also the implementation of the remedial measures prescribed by diagnostic discourses. The imagery of poverty, und er development, remoteness, and agrarianism of the Lesotho society is, in this sense created and imposed as an entry point for intervention which inevitably contradicts the complicated realities of the target society. Conceived as a tool for specific dir ections of social changes, development intervention in the scheme of Ferguson s machine analogy, is thus motivated not necessarily by its stated objectives but more by the side effects through which state power is channeled and expanded in local contexts. His approach has contributed to placing the question of power at the forefront of development thinking and to deepening the treatment of development disc our s e s which has been subsequently taken up by ethnographic research e rs either to explore the colonialist implication s of development undertaking s (Escobar 1995) or the discrepancies and
213 conflicts generated by the discourses surrounding them (Crewe 1997; Gardner 1997; Nyamwaya 1997; Woost 1997 ; compare Abram and Waldren 199 8; Hobart 1993; Kaufmann 1997). From a slightly different angle but often guided by similar analytic tools of the previous position, planned development has been questioned and criticized because of its divisive social consequences The se critiques suppor ted by detailed ethnographic research, are largely grounded on the perception that development intervention is not made in a political vacuum (Pottier 2003). Instead, battlefields of knowledge and power in which manifold actors struggle wit h each other (Arce and Long 2000). From this perspective, the actors engaged in the development process are not necessary driven by identical motivations or rationale s, and the power dynamics among and within groups are constantly subject to change. In thi s scheme, the uneven or exclusionary results of development intervention have been explored through the analysis of the notion of participation. For instance, Cleaver (1999) argues that this concept is supported more by its moral or ethical implications ra ther than by its empirically tested validity. He notes that the moral assumption underlying the concept of participation enable s it to serve as a technical tool facilitating the top down development model with little reference to the unequal power dynamics of the target society. The exclusionary tendency of the technique of participation is often cloaked in its moral rhetoric This perspective is particularly suggestive to this research given the prevalent notion of participation in c ommunity development projects implemented in its research areas and the gravity of conflicts provoked by development intervention in them In consideration of these concerns about planned development, I formulate two research questions that seek to reveal the interaction of development intervention in San Marcos with the social reality In the first part of Chapter 5 I explore the construction of the discourse of
214 development by heterogeneous parties involved in the development intervention Four co re groups are identified : the mining company the NGOs, the local government and the local community. In this section I also explore any notable discrepancies between the performance of community development projects and their stated objectives poverty reduction, commercialization, and institutional strengthening I rely on the conceptual tools and suggestions of anthropological studies that apply a post structural approach to the notion of development (Arce and Long 2000; Crewe and Harrison 1988; Escoba r 1995, 1992; Ferguson 1999 1990; Grillo and Stirrat 1997; Little and Painter 1995; Pottier et al. 2003; Stein 2003). In the second part, I reflect on the notion of participation in order to show the interaction of the development intervention in San Marcos and its social order which is shaped by gender and the rural urban divide. The GAM data and research hypotheses in C hapter 4 are re examined in order to explore their theoretical and practical implications in relatio n to the concept of participation. I previously observed that decision making on the use and distribution of development funding derived from mining revenues has become more bureaucratic and specialized at each stage of development practice. I explore the c ase studies on planned development in varied local contexts paying particular attention to settings with transnational mining operation s (Filer 1999; Finn 1998; Kuecker 2007; Pottier 1997; Sillitoe and Wilson 2003) so as to assess their applicability to social change in San Marcos. I also explicate the implications of my argument in C hapter 4 namely that participation in development projects in San Marcos d id not lead to changes in women s status nor create new gender role s Studies on gender and develop ment (Babb 1985; Kabeer 1994; Mehta 2002; Mosedale 2005; Moser et al. 1999) and the livelihood s of peasant women in the Andes (Alcalde 2006; Barrig 2001; Bastos 2007; Deere
215 2005 1982; Deere and Leon 1981; Elena et al. 1993; Mayer 2002; Mayer and Glave 1999 ) provide valuable insights into the theoretical and practical meanings of my previous observations. Development Problematic in San Marcos The definition of core stakeholder groups tied to the social practices of the corporate mining industry is still open to question. Although the triad stakeholder model of the company, the state, and the local community is rather conventionally employed in the analysis of the social consequences of this industry (Ballard and Banks 2003; Kemp 2009; Laplante and Spears 2008), the growing importance of newly emerging actors such as the NGOs ( divided broadly into activist and development organizations ) multilateral organizations, or global financing agencies makes the model increasingly questionable. Realizing that the analytical context affects the definition of core stakeholder groups I identify four of these groups the Antamina mining company (CMA), the development NGOs, the local government, and the local community in San Marcos As studies of the social practices o f the corporate mining industry (Ballard and Banks 2003; Hyndman 2001; Jenkins 2004; Kapelus 2002; Kirsch 2002) point out, these key actors are profoundly heterogeneous among and within themselves both in terms of their access to resources and in their va lues and perspectives In this section I examine the presentation of developmental ideas by each stakeholder in San Marcos indicating the affect of internal and external divisions on its development narrative. Stakeholder Groups and Development Discours es Antamina mining company: In C hapter 2, I described the reliance of CMA on the CSR and sustainable responsibility frameworks as part of its strategy for community relations Since these frameworks are not constrained by specific guidelines or regulatory regimes, their application was more explicitly and comprehensively made at the discursive rather than at the policy level. The adoption of CSR rhetoric emphasized the voluntary commitment of the
216 company to development 1 In this scheme, the role of CMA in the local context is identified as facilitator (CMA 2000: 18) or strategic partner in improving the living conditions of our neighbors and achieving economic development. 2 What is notable in these narr atives is the absence of conceptual specification for such major terms as sustainability, mutual benefits, integration, community need, or improvement all plainly taken from the CSR literature. For instance, instead of providing details of community need, CMA s social report relies on statistical data indicating that a majority of the population (93 % among 6,200 households) is in need of at least one of the basic needs (CMA 2000: 18). The lack of specification becomes more problematic whe n it comes to the concept of improvement. Throughout its sustainability reports, the notion of development is narrated as the equivalent of change. The previous condition of the so called target society is roughly presented as a remote area of Peru isol ated from the process of development (CMA 2000: 8) one that cannot be changed without the intervention of external actors namely the company. In a similar vein, the actions are not presented within a specific road map and the goals of such actions are set in general terms that cannot be measured. 3 1 The emphasis on the company s bona fide intention is also observed in its definition of CSR which is presented as company s willingness to voluntarily and proactively assume obligations with the different social sectors to obtain mutual benefits. (CMA 2000:5) 2 Source: http://www.an tamina.com/04_social/En_index.html last accessed, A ugust 2010. 3 The evasiveness of the concept of development is also observed in the following phrases of CMA s social assessment reports. In its incipient report, it states that a soci al license is earned from the people it is not written on paper, but can be seen peoples faces when they talk about their development. (CMA 2000:6) The approval of social license, which is presented as an ultimate goal of CMA s social policy in the report, is thus to be subjectively gauged. As the notion of development being introduced i s a subjective concept, performances with respect to the development commitment become very difficult to evaluate something which enables CMA to make the following claim : e have achieved positive, sustainable, measurable and perceptible changes as regards quality of life, level of confidence and integration with the Ancash community (CMA 2004:11) No particular indexes or information attached to the report substantiate s this claim
217 Development NGOs: Th is category is comprised of national or local non profit organizations with specialties in agriculture education, health, tourism, and so on 4 The primary contractor of these NGOs is the local division s of CMA s Community Relation s Office (CRO) or the Ancash Association (AA), a subsidiary foundation of CMA As previously indicated the contractor established the selection criteria or contract ual terms of these NGOs with little input from other stakeholders. The separate contract s and the varied specialties of this group make its composition particularly heterogeneous. The NGOs lack any essential common interest or motivation. C ollabora tion among them is rare, and their gatherings are strictly social meetings organized by CMA or leisure activities such as football or volleyball match es The status of NGOs as a stakeholder is fragile, since its legitimacy is determined by contract and can be challenged or negated by the opposition of the other parties, usually the local government or the local community 5 The character of the NGOs in San Marcos was shaped by two different needs. On the one hand, they were pressured to come up with measurable project achievement s within a limited time period in order to secure their contract s and to legitimize their engagement s On the other hand, it was imperative that the y avoid any tensions or conflicts with the other stakeholders. These pressures largely determined the scope and approach that the NGOs took in local community development projects Specifically they intensified the tendency to translate 4 In T able 2 1 of Chapter 2 I summarized the overall list of NGOs that provided services for the operation of community development projects in San Marcos during 1999 and 2006 While a total number of 10 NGOs appea rs in T able 2 1, the number has constantly increased as the administration of the FMA began in 2007 and additional NGOs were contracted to operate new projects initiated by it that are not included in the table. 5 In the previous discussions of this diss ertation I described how local government or local communities criticized the legitimacy of NGO workers. The critique was mostly concerned with the perception that mining derive d revenues would have been distributed to local people if it had not been paid to the NGO workers. While this critique reflects that local actors were excluded during the contract negotiations for these NGOs, it is also grounded on the local antipathy to the expatriate status of NGO workers who were described as having come int o the town to take advantage of the mining bonanza the lack of information and education of local people and then who would carry resources to outside cities.
218 development intervention into apolitical and technical channels (Cleaver 1999; Ferguson 1990 : 192). Improvements in living conditions or in institutional capacit ies were perceived as rising out of technical assistance such as providing innovative seeds or plants, transfer ring new techniques, and creating task oriented workshops. The project assessment reports, which are generally presented by the NGO to its contractor, support the above argument since they grossly measured achievements in workshops, field visits, project participants, and project derived products. For instance, whether a participant showed up once every several months or constantly he or she was counted in the same way In these reports, there were no additional explanations for the relat ionship between participation and project derived change and both were interchanged without the specification of a logical relationship On the other hand, the pressure imposed on NGOs to come up with immediate and noticeable changes induced them to emph as ize commercialization particularly with regard to productive activities. As I described in C hapter 4, NGO workers usually presented commercialization as the ultimate goal of their project intervention. Although it was perceived as the most sustainable w ay of encouraging participation, commercialization was especially appealing to the project operators because its outcome s could be relatively easily substantiated (for instance, through indexes in income changes or in access to external markets ) Local go vernment: As I described in C hapter 3, political systems in San Marcos had long been under the sway of two rival factions, headed by two former land owning families. Stricken by the violent presence of Shining Path external economies the influence of the state in local society was weak which permitted the leadership of major political institutions including the position of district mayor to remain under the control of these two factions for several decades. Altho ugh the arrival of CMA and subsequent changes it engendered
219 favored the emergence of new political actors either returning migrants or the college trained, professional officers of the municipality political institutions have still suffered from feeble organizational structure s, which ha ve perpetuated gamonal style (regional boss) leadership with little monitoring The gamonal style leadership at the municipality where the mayor wields ultimate control over decisions and power is markedly hierarchical became particularly problematic as mining derived revenues began to flow to the municipality. Beginning in 2006 t he mining canon was allocated to San Marcos of an unprecedented size, both locally and nationally and it engendered a mixture of expectations as well as concerns especially as to whether the municipality was capable of managing these revenues for development purposes. In this altered atmosphere, the municipality assumed a multiplicity of new respons ibilities such as identifying local needs, prioritizing these and translating them into feasible projects Its lack of experience and modest capacity resulted in a serious delay in the execution of the mining canon ; by 2007 its overall execution was belo w 5 % (see Figure 2 2 in C hapter 2 of this dissertation ). The growing grievances of local people and a series of collective movements to remove the mayor led the latter to come up with a measure designed to produce quick and visible results. A review of the major development projects that were proposed or implemented by the municipality since 2008 reveals the interaction of imminent political pressures and the centralized municipal power structure in generating projects that served the interests and priorities of a few powerful individuals rather than those of the local population and of other government entities. On the one hand, the need for a broad and visible development project led to a temporary employment venture, which was called the Pla n P loto ( for three months ), then renamed as PMIP ( until the end of 2008 ), and finally the PIP ( Instalacin de un Sistema Forestal para recuperar la
220 cobertura vegetal de las reas con aptitud forestal ) 6 As is well noted, highland Peru is deeply penetrated by the money economy and its population, even the poorest stratum of the peasantry, is heavily dependent on cash (Deere 1990; Deere and Leon 1981; Figueroa 1984). The dependency on cash income is also an important feature of San Marcos although more tha n 70 % of its population is categorized as subsistent peasant. In this context, the temporary employment project and the ensuing income generated by it served as a quick and effective measure to appease local hunger for benefits regardless of its negative impact on traditional producti ve activities. 7 In reviewing this project, it is revealing how few specifics have been provided regarding the planning and evaluation process es. Not only the general public, but also the district staff and the majority of the government officers including the then deputy mayor of the district could not provide any clear explanations of or of the changes that flowed from it On the other hand since 2008 the then district mayor embark ed on two mega projects : first, the construction of a hydro electric plant by which San Marcos would generate its own electricity and sell it to other department s for a profit, a scheme that was deemed necessary for the post mine period; second, the constru ction of a hospital of the second level a facility that is not available even in Huaraz, capital city of the department of Ancash. The plan was ambitiously 6 The plan for the PIP was elaborated by MACROGESTION, a counseling company based at Lima. In this changed scheme, the demand for local labor force as well as labor recruiting and remunerative system of the previous projects (Pilot Plan or PMIP) was to be maintained. A new purpose was proposed in which the labor force will be used not simply for the maintenance of infrastructure but also for urban and rural forestation. By the time I left the field the field in December 2008, a couple of pilot projects of PIP were being carried out at rural villages. 7 Despite the prevailing critiques about the ne gative impacts of the project on agriculture, the then district mayor provides quite a contrasting interpretation concerning the rural economy. For instance, he argues that in Lima, for instance, to the mayor Casta eda, it is important to invest in stairw ays with banisters, in the so called human settlement, that is the form of how they perceive development in the c apital. To us, it is not true. Maintaining our roads and streets is the most important because it permits us to reach our farms and carry agric ultural products to the market ( Translated from Spanish by the author of the present dissertation). Source: http://senalalternativa.blogspot.com/2009/02/en distrito de san marcos huaraz.html last accessed, A ugust 2010.
221 proclaimed and a sudden visit by President Alan Garc a to the Opayacu hamlet of San Marcos on the November 11th, 2008 to celebrate the construction of the electrification system was presented as an evidence Very few specifics have been given regarding the progress of these two mega projects. Moreover, they have been sharply ques tioned by the local people and the development practitioners of San Marcos who considered it outlandish to spend the majority of the mining derived revenues on the construction of such immense facilities which would require an extraordinary investment fo r the ir construction future operation, and upkeep The idea of constructing a hydro electric system through which San Marcos supplies electricity to outside departments sounded simply nonsensical to local people who were accustomed to living with unannou nced, daily power outages that lasted for hours or even days Both projects were d riven by the desire of the then district mayor to make an outstanding achievement during his term by the construction of facilities symbolic of capitalist modernity ; with tim e these became more dubious as no further progress has been made on them at the point of writing of this dissertation. 8 Local community: The local community is the most extensive and indefinite stakeholder group engaged in the social practices of corporate mining industry (Ballard and Bank 2003: 297). Although I previously relied on the rural urban divide and gender relations to examine the distinctive socio economic attributes of San Marcos, development expectations are not 8 While I was writing the dissertation, I was informed that the then district mayor of San Marcos passed away in a traffic accident on November 1 9, 2009 during his trip to Lima. The position of the district mayor was handed over to the then deputy mayor of San Marcos. According to the regional media, the district municipality of San Marcos was waiting for a drastic transformation when the new mayor takes office in the following month. The transformation refers not only to organizational restructuring but also to change s of governmental personnel including managerial and clerical staff. Along with the inauguration of a new district mayor, it is expe cted that new priorities will be set for the development projects in San Marcos. The drastic measures taken by a new mayor to transform the organization lead me to suspect that many of the projects which were previously proposed by the former mayor would n ot be continued in the new regime, although nothing is confirmed yet. For more details, visit http://www.diario y a.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=237%3Acambio total de gerentes en municipio de san marcos&catid=46%3Apunto de vista&Itemid=117 last accessed, A ugust 2010.
222 nec essarily shaped by these variables ; they are also affected by such factors as the interaction with the mining operation, membership, age, education, and so on Realizing the heterogeneity of the local community, I examine development by identifying several prominent popular tendencies which I discerned in the field as I was exploring the question. First of all, when I asked to local people what development signified to them and what should be done to achieve it most res ponded in terms of more economic opportunities. The se did not necessarily signify material compensation. On the contrary money compensation was often negatively described since it was considered tricky and unstable Moreover, obtaining employment in the mine, the most frequently and intensely demanded benefit by local people, was seldom mentioned when the question was placed in the development framework. Instead, economic opportunity tended to be visualized through the gamut of the respondents vocational experiences For instance, to the townspeople it signified having a better trade by modernizing transportation, and hence reducing its cost s, or by creating a new clientele group made up either of mineworkers or tourists. On the other hand, in rural vil lages most people sought an improved agro pastoral infrastructure such as new irrigation canal s or modern irrigation and reservoir systems. The lack of an irrigation system was predominantly backward agriculture. Commerciali zation was however, perceived as completely impractical. Thus, the distinct economic structure s of the rural villages and the commercial town shaped the local of economic opportunity. Overall neither peasants nor townspeople imagined the possibility of a radical transformation in their social or occupation al statuses. Although the settled and established populations of both town and countryside had a relatively fixed notion of economic opportunity the younger generation frequently and e xplicitly
223 spoke of social mobility in discussing this concept As I mentioned in C hapter 3, permanent migration to the coastal cities has been an important phenomenon for several decades among those younger than thirty Th is has involve d not merely a search for enhanced economic opportunities ; i nstead, it was often deemed a means to acquire more schooling and skills, both of which would lead to decent job and the founding of a family in more productive and dynamic settings than in the former rural dist rict. As Leinaweaver (2008) succinctly points out, the aspiration for a different life style which is deemed to be accessible in other cities or in foreign countries was expressed through the term of get ahead, or overcome ( superar ). also embraced by the term of becoming a professional a goal that require s high er education in the coastal cities as its precondition 9 The objectives of getting ahead or becoming a professional motivated two distinctive types of demand within the framew ork of development. First, it was translated into the local demand for improved educational opportunities. In this context, I recollect feeling stunned the first time that I heard people demanding the construction of university within the town. To me who could not help but apply my viewpoint as a n outsider, it sounded unrealistic to build such an institution in a town with rather wretched elementary and secondary schools. However, as I constantly encountered diverse strata of local people making the s ame demand, I gradually became aware that many of them were sending most of what they earned to their children who have left for cities seeking education and economic opportunit ies. Consequently, I regarded the demand from a different angle and it began to make 9 In this respect, I had a chance to make an interesting and relevant observation during the fieldwork In November 2008, I attend ed a couple of workshops organized by ACUDIP ( Asociacin Cultu r al para el Desarrollo Integral Participativo ), an umbrella organization for the operation of the project FOCADER. The workshop was designed for the young people of the project participation villages. With the proposed purpose of empowering young people by encouraging them to have a positive attitude toward their potential the workshop providers asked those attending it to rank their aspirations and present their future dream s Of the total 18 attendants, the majority of whom were women, 17 answered that their priority was to become a professional even though few of them specified what they meant by the term or how they would achieve it. Only one respondent gave the highest priority to family wellbeing.
224 sense to me. However the aspiration of getting ahead among young people discouraged their interest in any long term based development plan. Instead, it propelled them to search for quick and effective measure s to become rich throug h the mining bonanza so that they could journey to the coastal cities. This tendency was particularly problematic since it caused the young to be blind to the performances of the mining company or local government and discouraged them from collective ende avors for sound development goals The above review of the conceptualization of development of each stakeholder group reflects that respective stakeholder groups were driven by separate and even incompatible priorities in narrating their ideas and prioriti es of development. Controversy over the Project Outcomes In this next section, I examine the differing receptions by each stakeholder group and influential external parties to the outcomes of the community development projects in San Marcos. This analysis enable s me to explore the complexity of arriving at such appraisal s, which tend to be oversimplif ied either as successes or failures (Crewe and Harrison 1988: 4). It also permits me to determine if discrepancies exist between the stated objectives of community development projects and their outcomes, a phenomenon discussed in several previous studies (Crewe and Harrison 1988; Ferguson 1990; Hobart 1993). Reactions to CMA opment programs have been mixed. The business community largely judged them as successes, and it has viewed the company, one of the most favored winners of numerous awards and distinctions as a model of corporate social responsibility. Not only such Peruv ian institutions as SNMPE ( Sociedad Nacional de Minera, Petrleo, y Energa ), Per 2021, RPP ( Radio Programas del Peru ), and CONFIEP ( Confederacin Nacional de Instituciones Empresariales Privadas ), but also Canadian ones, Manufact urers & Exporters), CIDA (Canadian International
225 Development Agency), and the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, 10 have lauded its efforts. In contrast to this complimentary reception, the media and researchers have been less enthusiastic. Suspicions concerning the effectiveness of the planned development were grounded not necessarily on the performance of individual projects but more on the lack of perceptible changes in the region. Development intervention was expected to bring about either improvements in livi ng conditions of the local people 11 or greater social harmony, reflected in part by fewer confrontations among the stakeholders engaged in the mining operation. 12 Discord over development outcomes was obvious among the four core stakeholder groups. As for C MA its annual social report was devoted to elaborating the successful fulfillment of its social intervention. These documents are highly self 10 CME and CIDA identify three factors that enabled successful social policy of CMA. According to the statement issued by these institutions, CMA applied its making, particularly from women; forward thinking policies and commitment http://www.cme mec.ca/national/excellence/caic/Finalists_Projects.pdf last acces sed, A ugust 2010) 11 For instance, the media coverage of San Marcos by the two major Peruvian conditions were measured through the statistical indexes of poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, or the pr ovision of basic small district located in Ancash, which has less than 10,000 residents but deserves bragging about being one of those which ha ve more money in Peru. Its income doubles those of the city of Cajamarca, triples Ayacucho, and even exceeds those of various districts of Lima such as San Martn de Porres and Comas Ironically, the degree of i ts development does not reflect such a situation given that 80 % of its population does not have portable water and even electronic service does not reach everyone. If there is such an amount of money, why do they still suffer from th is considered as a town in extreme poverty with 51 % of malnutrition rate according t o Foncodes. Its population forms a part of 42.6 % of the poor who live in Ancash La Repblica, August 19, 2008) 12 ntensity of social conflicts was min e consulted the host community from the outset it formulated a Community Development Plan and established a Foundation to invest in the community with projects in health and education, agriculture, herding, tourism, and cultural development. Antamina nto its code of conduct yet, despite all these efforts, Antamina soon began to confront distrust and discontent o n the part of local communities the company has invested over US $60 million in its CSR effort and has been heralded plante and Spears 2008:110 111)
226 sustainable, measurable and perceptible changes as regards quality of life, level of confidence and integration with the Ancash community (CMA 2005: 9) . We have successfully applied our social plans consistently with our Social Resp onsibility Policy (CMA 2006: 8) . We have been able to accomplish all of o ur social initiatives carried out during 2007 (CMA 2007a: which define the development initiative through this term can be misleading, since it refers to a multiplicity of heterogeneous things, such as community relations affairs that are contingent on varied factors; and legal obligations, such as the canon and royalty payments or the regular identified as the donor of mining derived revenues, the amount of which is legally stipulated or negotiated with the central government, as in the ca se of the Antamina Mining Fund. In other words, the company could claim to have fulfilled i ts obligations once it can show that it had allocated these revenues, whether or not they were adequately utilized. As CMA restrained its role to that of a donor, t he responsibility for spending the revenues fell increasingly on the development NGOs and the local government, even though their modes of intervention were far different. An examination of the actions of these two groups is, however, not simple, since ver y little detailed information has been offered to the public by them on the outcome of individual projects. Surprisingly enough, none of the NGOs disclosed their project self assessments to the public or to the project participants, either verbally or in w riting. All the evaluation reports were confidentially kept by the contractors and project operators, whether intentionally or not. These reticent or even secretive attitudes were also observed among municipal officials, who have not published any assessme nt reports regarding the Plan Ploto or
227 the PMIP of the year 2008. What is more, different criteria were selectively applied to appraise project outcomes, which explain why the same outcomes frequently triggered contrasting evaluations, as in the cases of several controversial projects, such as the Cochao farm or the participants or resources, considered these projects successful, but practitioners, who emphasized project sustainability, social impacts, and the achievement of commercialization, regarded them as failures. This lack of coherence and transparency allowed project providers, including CMA the NGOs, and the local government, to efficiently evade the issue of i ndividual project accomplishment relative to the stated goals. The failure of projects to fulfill their proposed objectives was, however, quite intensely and comprehensively raised by local people. Their critiques largely centered on the lack of perceptible changes, despite CMA spent much as US $46 million over the last ten years for development purposes (Mogrovejo et al 2007: 125). Two factors need to be examined to understand this local opposition. First of all, it is evident that CMA ot generate any noticeable changes, given the nature of the projects that it implemented in the region. As previously discussed, these tended to be fragmented in their coverage, since their target populations were ultimately determined by the form and inte nsity of their interactions with the mining operations. Project intervention concentrated on a few peasant communities, including Carhuayoc, Huaripampa, and Santa Cruz del Pichiu, which were directly engaged in the mining undertaking, either through land s ale transactions or environmental conflicts. Moreover, CMA development projects tended to be short term; project contracts that rarely exceeded one year and were renewed annually. With such brief contractual durations, some of the initially pro posed
228 project objectives in the field of productive activities, such strengthening institutions or reinforcing commercialization, were unrealistic, since such goals required structural changes in the rural economy that could not be obtained through several months of technical assistance or educational training. Moreover, the people of San Marcos faced a difficult task in evaluating the achievements of the development projects. As mentioned above, the population was divided in terms of its ideas and expectat ions. The task of translating development ideas into specific actions and goals was a challenge not only to development practitioners but also to residents, operations as wer e the other stakeholder groups. In addition, the lack of transparency in the administration of projects aggravated popular confusions and suspicions; local people felt excluded from the planning and appraisal processes. They viewed unwanted projects as a m eans by which resources were funneled to the staffs of the NGOs and CMA In this context, the relatively positive local reception of PMIP was partially grounded on a deep seated antipathy to the NGO operated projects, since the latter did not entail the in tervention of these non profit organizations. The contrasting attitudes toward project outcomes impl y that the respective parties were driven by separate expectations and intentions in their development engagements, something revealed by their conceptuali zation of development. As Crewe and Harrison (1988: 190) note, of indi not carry, in fact, much weight among these stakeholder groups. Instead, a development project was in a sense fulfilling its own role as long as CMA could act as t he donor of mining derived
229 revenues and manage to elaborate its development commitment in the framework of corporate social responsibility and as long as the local government could obtain legitimacy by showing its capacity to spend money under the name of development. Even though development projects as a whole were perceived as a failure by local people, it was still true these initiatives operated as a major channel through which mining derived resources were distributed to the local society and they cont inued because people got regularly and constantly engaged in them. Then, the following questions should be asked. How did individual project obtain and maintain the engagement of local people? And, what type of changes did development projects generate no t only for the project participants but also for non participants? The next part is devoted to exploring these questions, in light of the rhetoric and practice of pa rticipation. While reflecting on them, I re examine the GAM data and research hypotheses th at I presented in Chapter 4, in order to specifically determine how the technique of participation correlated with social order in San Marcos that I identified through the two variables of the rural urban divide and gender relations. Paradoxes of Participatory Development Model take root in mainstream development thinking Cernea notes (1991: 2), largely driven by the increasing recognition by development practitioners and researchers of the failure of development projects shaped by the old model, one 1995: 32). Characterized by top down approaches that emphasized knowledge and technology, the old model is increasingly seen as incomplete and unsustainable in itself. An alternative or complementary approach has been proposed, which po sits the necessary inclusion of project recipients throughout the entire project
230 cycle so as to turn project driven changes into transformative experiences that are sustainable even after the end of the intervention. In this scheme, which conceives of chan ge not simply as the outcome of technical engineering but also as social enlightenment (Cernea 1991: 29), the concept of participation forms an essential part of certain moral values, such as equity, empowerment, or sustainability, that it embodies. Seen i n this way, participation seeks to prevent or at least moderate the negative impacts of the previous project model, under which intervention ended up representing the interests of the few who better controlled resources and aggravating the social exclusion of the powerless. The moral implications embedded in the concept of participation have, however, been identified by several scholars as a weakness leading to contradictory consequences. Such critiques are mostly concerned with the disjuncture between the rhetoric of participation, which is cloaked in the ethical connotations of empowerment (Cleaver 1999: 598) and its practice, which is tied merely to increased efficiency (Cooke and Kothari 2001; Crewe and Harrison 1988: 73; Nelson and Wright 1995; Woost 20 02, 1997). In light of these theoretical observations, I now review the local perceptions of project failure. As previously discussed, project performances were mostly well received by project donors or practitioners but not by the local population. These contrasting interpretations of the same outcomes imply that project recipients felt that the intervention did not reflect their needs and interests, even when the former groups judged funding and planning to be adequate. This perceptual gap indicates that the participatory development model adopted by CMA the NGOs, and the local government in San Marcos failed to produce the changes that the model posited. Specifically, project participants did not gain a sense of inclusion and empowerment in the developm ent intervention, as posited by the general scheme. Two different dimensions of the development projects in San Marcos will be examined in order to show how participation
231 operated paradoxically in the district. First, I reveal the uneven application of the participatory development model throughout the project cycle, in order to demonstrate that participation functioned as an exclusionary technique. Second, I indicate that participation did not entail the empowerment of project participants. For this purpos e, I analyze the GAM data and research hypotheses presented in Chapter 4 in terms of gender relations and the rural urban divide of San Marcos. Top D own Imposed Mechanisms of Participation: Was Participation Inclusive? A brief review of official documents of CMA and the project executors illustrates the centrality of the participation concept in the definition of development strategies. In the case of CMA participatory development was initially presented as its key development model in its EIA (1998: 8 4) and was further elaborated in its succeeding annual reports. In these reports, participation is defined as permitting people to prioritize the actions which are considered relevant for their needs (CMA 2001: 7) during the process of monitoring, surveill ance, and budgeting for economic and social and environmental activities (CMA 2001: 28). P articipation in these narratives is depicted not only as a pre requisite for consensus building and democratic decision making (CMA 2005: 49) both crucial for the proposed development goals (CMA 2007a: 9) but also as a n end in itself obtained through the intervention of CMA (CMA 2005: 8). Likewise, the NGOs documents regard participation as central and interpret it in relation to gender equity, sustainability, a nd organizational strengthening (IDMA 2005: 60, 62) while elaborating their project technique as participative methodology (FOCADER 2007: 24, 2008: 22; IDMA 2006: 12). These organizations took several measures to encourage local engagement at each sta ge of the development process, including the creation of local monitoring committee s, such as the Environmental Committee of San Marcos, the San Marcos Environmental Conservation Commission, the Huascarn Working Group (GTH), and the Environmental
232 Protecti on Association of the Ayash Basin ; the establishment of public discussion sessions such as t he annual Development Roundtable ( M esa de la C oncertacin ) which was later replaced by the annual workshop for Participative Budgeting and the public project comp etitions of AA in the field of education and tourism and of FMA in the field of productive activities. Designed as a mechanism to enhance communications among diverse stakeholder at each moment of the development intervention, these systems created and institutionalized a new space for local involvement. They faced, however, severe operational and communication challenges the underlying cause of these being the lack of relevant experiences of the local population and other stakeholder groups This mining society was a closed community both reserved toward and distrustful of outsiders. This attribute was reflected in the recruiting process of the CRO staff. The majority of its personnel in San Marcos ha d experience in other mines most with a specialty in labor negotiations, but few members of the CRO office were formally trained to handle what rural development in the Andean society. Development intervention in the context of corporate minin g was an unknown field to the development practitioners including those of the NGOs and AA The expression of particular expectations and motives, conflicts in San Marcos were not easily compared to the previous experiences of development specialists. In addition the heterogeneity within and among stakeholder groups created yet another impediment. As Ballard and Banks ably note (2003: 290), the mining corporation is far from a monolithic entity. Instead, it is steered by contesting priorities and perspect ives especially in relation to the company s role in the social development of affected communities. Th is division, which was sometimes described as a contrast between the old mining and the new mining of Peru (Bebbington 2007: 5; Szablowski 2004: 302), a ppeared at diverse levels including differences between the headquarters in Lima and the CRO offices and AA Policies were easily discarded and modified
233 with alterations in headship of the CRO office which often became a cause of conflicts. Likewise as I already discussed other stakeholder groups were quite heterogeneous in their interests and priorities. Divided by contrasting ideas and desires, the space designed for dialogue often turned into a battlefield, where people repeatedly debated the same s ubject for entire meetings, leaving without agreement but beset with anger and frustration. For instance, the annual Development Roundtables which were held until 2006 clearly demonstrated the profundity and breath of the discord among local people Duri ng the Development Roundtable in 2006 which I attended during my fieldwork, d iscussion agendas were barely addressed in the session, which were dominated by reproaches and by disillusionment with CMA and the local authorities. A lack of leadership or autho rity aggravated these confrontations. Instead, local authorities or CMA employees remained away, both because they lacked the expertise to deal with these situations and because they did not want to meddle Criticized extensively for inefficiency, the annu al Development Roundtable was replaced in 200 7 by the annual workshop of Participative Budgeting My observation of this workshop in 2007 reveals however, that the same problems reappeared and prohibited it from operating as expected. In this new system, the conflicts were mitigated, since the sessions were organized at the community level where the local authorities more effectively moderated them. Nonetheless, the meeting ended up with a multiplicity of demands and proposi tions which at the district level exceeded 400 proposals. The workshops succeed ed in allowing local people to come up with their own issues; h owever, because of a lack of leadership or filtering criteria these were not ordered by priority. The list of pr opositions was delivered to the project office of the municipality. No system informed the population on the implementation of these propositions That is to say there was no linkage or coherence among
234 existing institutions a shortcoming that severely un dermined the effectiveness of systems originally devised as mechanism s of local participation during the planning stage s of development projects. The limited scope of this research partly prohibited me from studying the consequences of other participative mechanisms, including environmental committee s and a public contest of development projects organized by CMA s subsidiaries such as AA and the FMA Despite this restraint I can present some tentative observations. As a whole, the projects approved throu gh the contest were small and short. The educational projects approved by AA dealt mostly with the financing of school utilities or events. The situation was not very different with the public contest of FMA since the funds it offered to individuals were tiny and appealed to a limited range of contestants, only those with sufficient education to present plans summarized under the rubrics of sustainability, feasibility, impacts, executive plan, and relevance to social responsibility (CMA 2007b). It is rathe r obvious that the participation generated through these systems would be limited and partial Thus, these fundamental limitations, from contest ed priorities, to distrust, poor leadership, lack of experience and the absence of coordinating institutions il lustrate the difficulty of creating inclusive participation especially when local society is already affected by its own cleavages In other words, participation cannot be prescribed as a magic solution, especially when it is imposed from above to social divisions that are institutionalized and perpetuated by the heterogeneity among and within stakeholder groups. Impact of the Project Participation on Gender Relations: Was Participation Empowering? The conceptual and policy shift from the WID (Women in Development) to the GAD (Gender and Development) framework illustrates that gender has been a core unit through which critiques of participatory development approaches have been elaborated. The primary concerns
235 proposed by the gender analysis of planned development can be summarized into the following two points: First, some have argued that development projects tend to be more exclusionary to women than men because of the gender inequality and exclusionary tendency of projects (Babb 1985; Cleaver strategic interests, has led to a question of the correlation between participation and changes in their access to and control of resources, especially when adequate measures are not taken to counterbalance pre existing gender relations ( Hamilton 1 998, 14; Moser et al. 1999; Visvanathan 199 7 ). In consideration of these concerns, I proposed two research hypotheses in Chapter 4: Women are more likely to be excluded from community development projects than velopment projects is different in its mode and intensity, depending on the type of socio economic organization in which they are involved, both of which I tested through the GAM framework. In this part, I further explore the implications of my findings an d research hypotheses in relation to the critiques of the participative development approach, by examining two questions: Was planned development intervention more exclusionary to women than men? Did project participation entail changes in gender relations that could be considered as empowering? Was development intervention exclusionary to women compared to men ? As the findings in Chapter 4 all indicate, women constituted an equal or more important group of participants than men throughout the implementation stage of development projects, both in rural villages and in the commercial town of San Marcos. The important participatio n of women in the four researched projects corroborates the observation that women and men in San Marcos shared
236 responsibilities somewhat evenly for productive household labor. The data analysis in Chapter 4 indicates, however, that women and men participa ted differently in development projects, and that these divergences are linked to the pre existing gender division of labor. The greater or equal project participation of women in San Marcos implies these schemes were not necessarily more exclusionary to them than to men, especially during the implementation stages of the project cycle. A comparison of the mode and intensity of engagement of the sexes during the other stages, including the identification, designing, and monitoring processes, presents, howe ver, a rather different picture. As previously discussed, local engagement in the development intervention was mostly concentrated in the initial and implementation phase s with no instrument to funnel local participants into the appraisal stage, a fact that reduced the transparency of development projects, especially in terms of budgeting. 13 Given such restricted channels of local engagement, it can be argued that the role of local people in planned development was essentially limited. In other words, dev elopment intervention in San Marcos was exclusionary to local people as a whole when it came to the decision making. This restrictive tendency however, seems to have been more severe toward women because of their more marginal social status. As I discuss social status in San Marcos is reflected in male communal membership (in several peasant communities); male dominance of communal organizations, including the high ranking positions 13 The lack of transparency i n project budgeting and financing was one of the major sources of local grievances. For instance, during my fieldwork, several students who were participating in the CMA funded educational project at ISTP ( Instituto Superior Tecnolgico Pblico ) the singl e higher educational institution in San Marcos, informed me of their suspicion that the project budget was not executed as it was proposed. The suspicion arose when one of the students in the project came across a document, which had been kept confidential on the planned expenses of the project and discovered a number of discrepancies in the figures. According to the informant s account, many of the proposed expenditures were never carried out nor were recipient students informed of them Rumors of embezzl ement soon spread and these centered on the project coordinator Soon, students of the institution received a warning from the school that anyone who attempts to access project documents without permission would be evicted from the program, which effectiv ely dissuaded the students with suspicions from bringing up the issue publicly.
237 of the municipality, the Directive B oard ( Junta Directiva ) of campesino communities, and the producers carried over into the development projects. As in regular communal meetings, such as the annual Develop ment Roundtable or the annual workshop of Participative Budgeting were rarely heard. In addition, male leadership was barely challenged, even when the majority of project participants were women. The project of the IDESI in Carhuayoc well i llustrates the maintenance of male leader ship; in it, a single male participant served as a leader of the leadership was upheld in a slightly different way in the project of ACUDIP in Carhuayoc and Huaripampa, where local men were recruited as project technicians to supervise female participants and to facilitate communications with the project staff. Hired as technicians, they shared responsibilities with the project staf f throughout the project cycle, including planning and clubs of several communities as its primary target groups. This gender divided engagement in the project cycle implies that the project participation of women was constrained by prevailing gender roles, which allowed men more access and control of decision making. This observation leads to the following question: What type of ion, although restricted to the implementation stage of the project cycle, generate, particularly with respect to gender relations? Did women s project participation entail changes in gender relations and, can such changes, if any, be considered as empowering ? In Chapter 4, I analyzed the differences in the project participation of women in terms of the socio economic organizations to which they belonged, the issue that formed the second research hypothesis of this study. I noted that the
238 participation. Now, I turn to the issue of discerning if the level of female involvement permitted by this economic context encouraged ge nder relations that were empowering to women. A review of the GAM data in Table s 4 1 Table 4 2, and Table 4 3 of Chapter 4 indicates that it is extremely difficult to identify any notable changes in gender ro le or gender status as a result of such partici pation in the projects of IDMA, ACUDIP, and IDESI. Certainly, these projects i and technical assistance in agriculture and textile production. The project intervention allowed participants to obtain some of raw materials at lower cost, construct biohuertos (home gardens) inside their houses, and install cages for guinea pigs. It also diversified and expanded the public space of the recipient communities by offering educa tional programs, including workshops, exchange trips, and the demonstrative farm. Considering the weak representation of peasant women in communal gatherings, this diversified social space permitted female participants to socialize and share ideas with les s interference by their male partners. The maintenance of the biohuerto increased the responsibilities of female participants for animal keeping. However, none of these changes counts as a real alteration in established gender relations; women were, if at all, only marginally empowered by them. On the other hand, t he PMIP profoundly affected participants at diverse levels. The circulation of money through temporary employment immediately boosted local businesses and intensified the market dependency of the rural economy. The incorporation of peasant women and elderly people into the labor force modified the household division of labor. The GAM data in Table s 4 4 and 4 5 indicate that household members collaborated with one another, both in rural villages an d in the commercial town, to make up for absence of females. That is to say the
239 complementari t y of gender roles grew. Despite this increased flexibility, the gender determined division of labor was largely maintained. For instance, the cultivation of the chacra was still chose to hire a peon (paid manual worker) to work them. Moreover, when women were not available for household chores, children, if available, and no t men took the primary responsibility for them. In addition, the incorporation of peasant women and the elderly into the paid workforce promoted the emergence of a new consumer group. However, the bi weekly payment from PMIP was not a dependable source of household income, since work shifts were unstable and could be delayed for several weeks and salaries were too small to permit savings. Although not substantiated by statistical data, I speculate that the money earned in PMIP was spent mostly on food and o ther basic necessities and a few small luxuries, an observation that can be verified through changes in diet and the increased purchase of electronics. These aspects of PMIP suggest that the project triggered notable changes in gender roles, particularly i n rural villages as it incorporated peasant women and the elderly as a paid labor force. The income channeled through the project also signified that significant changes were made in the access to cash among project participants It is, however, dubious wh ether this project led to alterations in gender status. Above all, the project did not improve the quality of labor of its participants. In other words, peasant women and the elderly were still the least favored groups on the general labor market. Furtherm ore, the greater decision making power of women in the allocation of resources were directed either to household or personal consumption, and simply indicate that they were getting more dependent on the resources distributed by the project as were their male partners.
240 Contradict ory Dimensions of Participat ory Development Approach As the review of project documents of CMA and the NGOs in San Marcos show, the pa rticipat ory development model of these stakeholder groups was not only a means but also a goal. Through it, development intervention was to be inclusive (associated with the value of equity) and sustainable (associated with the value of self esteem and empowerment). The review of local participation in the planned development of San Marcos rev eals, however, that the application of participatory development model in the local context was by far complicated and contradictory. My analysis showed that participation was constrained by several external factors, such as conflicts among and within stak eholder groups and lack of relevant experiences or knowledge, which were exclusionary to local people and which favored control from abov e The project intervent ion was not necessarily worse for women than men. The prevailing gender cen tered more on changes in the access to resources than on their control. The contesting perceptions of performance in San Marcos by project providers and local people reveal much about the participatory development approach and form part of what Cleaver ca massive financial resources in the development scheme did little to alleviate local conflicts in San Marcos. Large discrepancies between proposed development goal s and actual practices, already noted in other ethnographic contexts (Crewe and Harrison 1988: 188), existed. In particular the relegation of the local population to the position of passive aid recipients without real power leads to my next question: How d id the people of San Marcos respond to these contradictory dimensions of planned development. Did they collaborate in order to gain more
241 control over ongoing changes after the arrival of Antamina? Or, did the presence of the Antamina Mining Company and its development intervention provoke the social disintegration of San Marcos, as several studies indicate (Filer 1990; Kapelus 2002; Kirsch 2002; Kuecker 2007 ; Sillitoe and Wilson 2003)? The final chapter of this dissertation Chapter 6, reflects on these que stions.
242 CHAPTER 6 EPILOGUE : REFLECTIONS ON THE POLITICS OF DEVELOPM ENT IN SAN MARCOS The latest confrontation between Carhuayoc and CMA reveals the severity of tensions in San Marcos. As I briefly described in C hapter 4, in September 2008, the representatives of Carhuayoc filed a complaint to the relevant Peruvian authorities denouncing the environmental contaminations in the area of Neguip hamlet and the illegitimate use of water of the Condorcocha lagoon in Ne guip. As the media reported, no official response was given to these claims, 1 and the conflict entered a new phase a year later as approximately 400 community members of Carhuayoc demonstrated near the Yanacancha mining site. The protest led to a violent c lash with the police, who employed tear gas and pellet guns to disperse the protestors, leaving seven peasants injured. 2 The protest and the negotiations following it illuminate several important dimensions of the local conflict in San Marcos. First, they reveal that environmental issues were integrated with other social concerns, catalyzing the local mobilization. As Vladimir Gil notes, environmental degradation in San Marcos was seldom questioned alone but rather in relation to more extensive local claim s (2005: 391). In the protest of Carhuayoc, the subject of contamination was certainly te the interview with a representative of an activist group in San Marcos. 3 The negotiation, however, encompassed a more extensive agenda that included such social issues as the renegotiation of the contract of the 1 For details, read article available at: http://www.diariolaprimeraperu.com/online/huaraz/noticia.php?IDnoticia=6728 last accessed, August 2010. 2 Source: http://www.cnr.org.pe/nueva_web/nota.shtml?x=253 last accessed, August 2010. 3 Source : http://www.inforegion.pe/portada/38847/lideres comunales de provincia de san marcos denunci an ruptura de mesa de dialogo con minera antamina last accessed August 2010.
243 communal company of Angoraju and the fulf illment of social development in Carhuayoc. 4 The agreement, obtained through successive bargaining tables ( mesa de dilogo ) between local representatives and CMA, promised a separate development plan for Carhuayoc. 5 It is based, therefore, on a scheme in w hich environmental concerns were assuaged by compensational social measures. This close connection between environmental and social issues in San Marcos, local people The latter group has complained constantly of contamination, but it has lacked the technical means to substantiate its claims and the legal terms to define them. Moreover, the pollution guidelines of the central government did not conform to those of the local community. At base, both CMA and the local community are dependent on the use of same environment for their survival; it is at the center of their relationship. The entanglement of environmental and social issues can thus be understood as a strategy to come up with the most plausible measures of reciprocity, conceived through immediate compensations, without impairing mutual dependence. The centrality of the environmental disputes partly explains, however, why Carhuayoc, considered to be one of the most favored local communities was at the center of conflict with the mine. As I previously discussed the distribution of mine derived revenues was far from equitable. In this regard, the community members of Carhuayoc showed more unity in de manding compensations, given environmental and territorial disputes with the company In comparison, in Huaripampa environmental conflicts, as that of Ayash Huaripampa and CMA, did not motivate collective community actions because of interna l social and political 4 For further details, read news article at: http://www.cnr.org.pe/noticia.php?id=27732 http://www.larepublica.pe/regionales/14/10/2009/acusan minera antamina de ordenar represion comuneros last accessed August 2010. 5 Source: http://www.radionacional.com.pe/index.php?option=com_content&task=view_notp&ncid=15&id=29006&Itemid=1 last accessed, August 2010.
244 divisions. As noted in C hapter 3, collective communal mobilization was determined not only by specific contentious issues but also by the internal relations of its population. Social Disintegration or Community Reinforcement? The pro test of Carhuayoc certainly reveals the widespread local disapproval of the performance of the social development projects of CMA during the last decade. The mobilization and ensuing negotiation processes show that local claims for development were defined and channeled through the boundary of a community. In other words, the community operated as the basic unit by which local people indentified their interests and determined their choices in the interaction with CMA. In this sense, the community should be understood as an important resource for local mobilization Its centrality has, however, created conflict. To articulate grievances about mining benefits, residents have rather flexibly identified their affiliations depending on the context. For instance, the trade rs in the commercial town, who identi f y themselves as sanmarquino s /a s (people of San Marcos) criticized the agriculture biased social development projects of CMA. Their identity as resident s of the district of San Marco s was highlighted to question the division between townspeople and peasants, which was deemed as a source of unequal distribution of mining revenues. The uneven access to mine derived resources based on community membership also created social strains. The conflicts were particularly intense in Carhuayoc and Santa Cruz del Pichiu where community membership was more strictly restricted by gender, age, duration of residence, marital status, and devotion to community services. These tensions should be underst ood as a local strategy, equivalent to what Ballard and Banks strategies of inclusion and exclusion (2003: 298), to better represent community interests with the mine. However, they raise a question concerning the nature of social changes in San Mar cos since the beginning of mining Do such local strategies of inclusion and exclusion reflect local compliance with the inequalit ies in the distribution of
245 mining benefits ? If so, they are likely to accelerate the social disintegration of the district, as several other studies of corporate mining areas suggest (Kapelus 2002; Kirsch 2002; Kuecker 2007; Sillitoe and Wilson 2003) Or, do they embody the resourcefulness of the people in San Marcos to better control the changes triggered by the presence of the mine? The contrasting dimension s of community, a place of both solidarity and of contestation, are subject s of a growing discussion, especially in the context of social aspects of corporate mining industry (Ballard and Banks 2003; Jenkins 2004; Kapelus 200 2). As several scholars argue, it is inaccurate to consider a community a fixed entity impermeable to socio economic change. Instead, community needs are the outcome of rigorous negotiation s among multiple actors (Li 2000) ; they emerge from the often cont entious experience s of its people (Jenkins 2004: 26). To consider conflict within and among communities in San Marcos as a sign of social disintegration, can be misleading since this position overlooks the fact that community in the Peruvian Andes is the product of a long historical transformation running from reduccion of the colonial period to the rural cooperatives after the Agrarian reform in 1969 (Mayer 2002: 35 36). Given that community has traditionally operated as a basic unit for the management o f common wealth in rural villages (Mayer 2002: 40), it is reasonable to state that it operated as a unit of local alliance in San Marcos through which negotiations with CMA took place. This assertion does not deny the persistence of organizational weakness in San Marcos that affects cooperation within its localities, particularly when negotiating with the company Local people frequently refer to the organization deficit as an idiosyncrasy of San Marcos an oblique reference to the dominance of politics b y the two former land owning families. Initially, controlling as a patron during the hacienda system, these former land owning families have competed each other to keep control of local resources. The domination of these families has been perpetuated throu gh
246 diverse channels including the construction of fictive kin relationships and the monopoly of leadership positions at various levels of local organizations. The ir influence noticeably declined with the sale of the majority of their lands to CMA in 1998 and the investment of their profits outside the district As discussed in Chapter 3, the local election of the district mayor in 2006 was emblematic of such changes through which a person without any tie to these families was voted for. Nonetheless, this rivalry still seems to affect the political dynamics of San Marcos. Controlling many local institutions in the commercial town of San Marcos, these two groups have rather flexibly formulated their relationship selectively allying or opposing each other d epending on circumstances to retain power at the local level Their continued heavy presence has undermined local organizational power since it effectively marginalized local people without preferential ties, including returning migrants and the young, f rom the local institutions As Z rate and Durand (2005) note in their comparative analysis of the Antamina and Yanacocha cases, such institutional weakness has been particularly challenging because it has tended to deepen the divisive impacts of planned development, thus accelerating conflicts in the local context. The closing part of this dissertation explores how people in San Marcos have coped with the challenge of development triggered by the presence o f the Antamina. Politics of Development in San Marcos A review of the literature on planned development illustrates that anthropologists have been unreserved in pointing out the tendency of development intervention to fail (Cernea 19 91 ; Dichter 2003; Ferg uson 1990; Hobart 1993; Stein 2003). Even though this perception prevails, at least in anthropological literature on development, the talk of failure or success of development has been in fact of secondary importance in these studies partially because it t ends to oversimplify the contrast between success and failure of development (Crewe and Harrison 1988:
247 4). Similarly, Ferguson elaborates the complexity of such judgments through his analogy of anti politics machine (1990). Through this analogy, he sugge sts that development intervention may not be necessarily motivated by its proposed goals but more by the consideration for its side effects which he specifically identifie s as the depoliticizing of the question of poverty and the expansion and entrenchment of state power (1990: 256). In light of these concerns, I have been cautious in the present dissertation about questioning whether the development intervention in San Marcos has succeeded or failed Moreover, I have been aware that the validi ty of my judgment on this matter might be questionable given that th e study focuses on a particular facet of the planned development in San Marcos which is still ongoing with new actors and practices constantly appearing Accordingly, instead of trying to come up with a definite conclusion on the development performances at the field site, I have attempted to analyze the complex and contradictory experience s of the actors engaged in the practice. For this reason, I have concentrated on the discrepancy betw een the narratives and practices of development in San Marcos. The comparative analysis of four stakeholder groups in Chapter 5 reveals the heterogene ity of their ideas and priorities when it comes to the subject of development. CMA regarded development a s the equivalent of change or transformation. Characterizing the local society as isolated from the process of development before the commencement of mining (CMA 2000: 8) the company has represent ed itself as the crucial development actor In contrast, the narratives of NGOs tended to be technical in nature and presented with little conceptual elaboration The previously designed project models that ha ve good reputation s for successful p erformances in other local settings. Each project comes as a standardized package (Ferguson 1990: 71) with programmed features
248 throughout the entire project procedures. Time constraint s and instability triggered by short contract s, were additional factors pressuring the NGOs in San Marcos to rely on pre designed project model s with little attention to local peculiarities. As another major administrator of development revenues, the local government in San Marcos had been hampered by the incapacity to translate local needs into a feasible project. The political interests of few high ranking officers seeking visible signs of progress, have led to the investment of large sums on controversial infrastructure projects such as PMIP, the co nstruction of a state of the art hospital or a hydro electric plant. The local people of San Marcos constitute the most extensive and indefinite stakeholder group. Their conflicting needs and aspirations notwithstanding I have noted that their priorities generally focused on obtaining better and more stable livelihoods Expectations of development were strongly associated with better conditions for subsistence activities. In contrast, the young sought social mobility, either th r ough employment or education which would enable them to start careers in coastal cities. These incompatible development priorities of the stakeholder groups led to differing interpretations of performance Moreover, as I have shown in C hapter 5 this divergence was further deepened by the exclusionary tendenc ies of the development project itself which I examined in terms of participation by the project cycle and gender relations. The analysis of participation by the project cycle indicated that local people as a whole were excluded f rom decision making of development for multiple reasons such as top down imposed mechanisms of communication, lack of relevant experiences, weak leadership to coordinate individual and institutional differences, etc. On the other hand, the exclusionary ten dency of development projects on women were somewhat mixed. The GAM data in C hapter 4 reveal that gender relations operated as a decisive factor shaping the mode and intensity of project participation in
249 San Marcos. Contrary to my first hypothesis that wo m en are more likely to be excluded from community development projects than men several dimensions of gender relations including the division of labor and the female communal organization s, seemed to have promoted greater participation in projects by women than by m en. However, this participation appears not to have generated any notable changes in women s status, particularly because their role in the project was strictly limited to the receipt of services or goods with little access to the control of resources. The above discussion demonstrates that a string of development measures under taken in San Marcos did not in practice serve as a magic solution to local division and divergence, which was aggravated after the opening of the mine. Instead, the ma ssive revenues generated by mining became another source of local conflicts, which were unprecedented in their kind and intensity. With t he arrival of CMA the issue of development was suddenly presented as a reality. Although the performance of planned de velopment has provoked varied responses, development intervention seems to be inevitable in San Marcos, posing a constant challenge to all the parties involved as long as the mine continues Development has been the most important tool to CMA through which it has legitimatized its social license to continue operating in the local setting. A range of resources distributed in the scheme of development have also been deemed indispensable to people in San Marcos who have relied upon diverse survival strategies to meet their subsistence needs that cannot be fulfilled sole by subsistence agriculture. Confronted to this challenge, people in San Marcos have adopted varied strategies, and c ommunity identity has underpinned most of them. Although the administrative un it of community became a principal reference point for collective activities, the boundary was also flexibly modified on circumstances. To have a certain degree of flexibility in the definition of collective identities,
250 people have selectively adopted stra tegies of inclusion and exclusion For this purpose, a series of criteria were enacted to legitimatize diverse levels of belonging, including residence, gender, age, birthplace, marital status, etc. Among these criteria, the type of residence was considere d as one of the most decisive factors to determine the eligibility as a sanmarquino To people who have experienced tumultuous transformations, from the final years of the hacienda system to the agricultural reform s of the 1970s to the guerilla war of the 1980s, higher credibility has been given to those who maintained ties with their hometown either through permanent residence or through kinship relationships. The credibility of returning migrants has often been questioned, generating conflicts betwe en permanent residents and them From the perspective of such migrants the local government or CMA has been primarily responsible for discrimination, both favoring the settled population They believe that the local government should have tapped their edu cation and experience, which would have been of great utility in its relations with the company. However, local residents have portrayed the returning migrants as opportunists, returning to profit from new riches without contributing to the district From the perspective of returning migrants who often received higher education with presentable professions in the city, their education and experience were something to be prioritized which would enable them to better represent local interests in the interacti on with the mine and local government, which, however, was seldom recognized as such by long time residents. The long time residents emphasis on royalty to hometown can be better understood given the circumstances that the fame of the mine has been attrac ting people from all walks of life. Confronted by the increasing presence of outsiders, it is understandable that this group has emphasize d hometown loyalty, which is bound to be subjective but could still be measured by a range of local standards
251 As the above dispute illuminates, the language of distrust was an effective tool by which the people in San Marcos delineated the boundar ies of their alliance s and differentiated themselves from those who do not share their interests. Although distrust was mostl y explicitly directed toward outsiders who were brought to the town without any kinship ties, it also shaped the expression of grievances about political authorities who have been repeatedly charged with mismanaging mining revenues and corruption The te rm thus functions as a way to expose the self interest of local political elites. Those in power have been seen as examples of corruption or selfishness which became an explanation for why they cannot be trusted. Distrust was also a local expression of the bitter experience of marginalization from centralized power systems. People often described the time before Antamina as a period when San Marcos was a bandoned and forgotten by the state. After ward, CMA and the local administrators of the mining revenues held responsible for marginalizing local people from the decision making of development. The language of distrust grounded on moral values seems to h ave been a convenient way for local residents to differentiate themselves from those under discussion. It also enabled local people to criticize the status quo without radically challenging it. These local strategies of inclusion and exclusion elaborated through the language of distrust suggest that solidarity was not at the root of collective activities in San Marcos but rather, as Szablowski notes (2004: 276) it was a scare resource The i nequality in the distribution of mining benefits was contested t hrough collective activities, often providing rationale for local mobilization. However, these activities did not necessarily generat e equitable results. Instead, claims for benefits were ultimately determined by the perception of legitimacy which was sim ultaneously cohesive and divisive. These contrasting aspects of collective activit y explain in part why people in San Marcos have relied upon multiple strategies, flexibly formulating
252 alliances by circumstances, to reflect their interests and to control th e ongoing changes triggered by the mine. In 2009, CMA pro posed a plan to expand the mineral extractions of its mining operations in San Marcos by as much as 40 % If the plan is put into effect the mine will have a longer life cycle estimated to last unti l the year 2029 and a greater impact at the local and the national levels. 6 As long as the CMA s mining project continue s it is very likely that the planned development of San Marcos as a compensational measure of its operation will also continue As I have tried to show in dissertation development intervention in San Marcos is a very complicated process involving heterogeneous actors. D evelopment projects have produced unpredictable results and the technique of participation does not necessarily prom ote inclusion as it initially claim ed The complexity of the development undertaking, however, implies that it can become a source of contrasting experiences and outcomes in different circumstances. How can the exclusionary tendency of development interven tion be reduced so that local people have more power over decisions ? An understanding of the interaction of intervention with the social order is essential in answering this question. While the question remains unanswered it seems obvious that future chan ges, how ever they may turn out, will originate from, and depend in part on, the people of San Marcos. 6 http://www.larepublica.pe/cristal de mira/23/11/2009/antamina invirtiendo con nu estros impuestos http://www.primerapaginaperu.com/article/mineria/2846 last accessed in August 2010.
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267 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jungwon Kang was born in Seoul, South Korea. She graduated in 1999 with a B.A. in religious studies from t h e Seoul National University in South Korea. In 2000, she started the master s program in the Graduate School of International Studies at the Seoul National University, majori ng in Latin American Studies. In August 2002, she started the doctoral program in a nthropology at the University of Florida.