Citation
Real Estate Investments in Retail Developments

Material Information

Title:
Real Estate Investments in Retail Developments A Case Study in the Vienna - Bratislava Region
Creator:
Cabrera, Ivan
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (99 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.U.R.P.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Urban and Regional Planning
Committee Chair:
Blanco, Andre
Committee Co-Chair:
Silver, Christopher
Graduation Date:
8/7/2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Area development ( jstor )
Cities ( jstor )
Financial investments ( jstor )
Geographic regions ( jstor )
Real estate ( jstor )
Real estate economics ( jstor )
Real estate markets ( jstor )
Shopping ( jstor )
Shopping centers ( jstor )
Shopping malls ( jstor )
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
agglomeration, austria, bratislava, burgenland, commercial, curtain, development, dispersion, distances, ic, iron, lower, malls, real, region, regional, shopping, slovakia, urban, vienna
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.

Notes

Abstract:
The removal of the Iron Curtain (IC) reopened borders between Austria and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republics (CSFR), the former Czechoslovakia. Slovakia?s economic transition to free market capitalism was driven by privatization (Bergman, 1995). As a result, the real estate market remained stagnant, and there was little real estate investment until several years later, when property ownership changed from centralized, public ownership to a system of private ownership. Private investments first went to housing markets, before shifting to the emerging market in commercial real estate. Vienna and Bratislava are the capitals of Austria and Slovakia, located only 65 kilometers apart with approximately 1.6 million and 427,000 inhabitants, respectively. Both capitals have the highest agglomeration of population and economic activity in their respective countries, and are part of the Vienna Bratislava region along with the Austrian states of Burgenland and Lower Austria. Studies have shown a significant growth and change in real estate investments in the capitals of the former socialist block. This region deserves attention, particularly now, that the capital of Slovakia, Bratislava, has experienced real estate investments in shopping centers, and the Vienna region?s development in the area of shopping center has continue the same as before the fall of the IC As the shopping center industry tends to agglomerate, this study analyses the spatial location and direction of investments in shopping center developments and demonstrates the agglomeration and dispersion of such centers in each capital and in the region between them. This study also attempts to prove that the region between both metropolises has certain unfavorable characteristics which discourage shopping center development. This study also refers to commuting for shopping purposes within the region. A cited survey indicated that approximately less than 10 % of the commuting dynamics are related to shopping activities, but are not necessarily linked to shopping center destinations. This study also estimated the linear distances between the shopping centers in Vienna, Bratislava, and the remaining area of study in order to illustrate the extent of spatial agglomeration. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local:
Adviser: Blanco, Andre.
Local:
Co-adviser: Silver, Christopher.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-02-28
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ivan Cabrera.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Embargo Date:
2/28/2011
Resource Identifier:
004979987 ( ALEPH )
707467082 ( OCLC )
Classification:
LD1780 2010 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text





CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Introduction

The real estate market in the Central and Easter European (CEE) countries has

experience significant growth and consolidation in the last decade. This growth is the

result of investors' interest in taking advantage of new opportunities to shift their

investments into the new market that emerged after the dissolution of the Eastern bloc

socialist regimes. Most evidence being observed is from the capital cities of these

countries where real estate investments in retail developments are generally an

opportunity for investments with a high rate of return. These cities are the site of

continuous spatial changes due as shopping centers arise in urban and peripheral

areas. Additionally, the retail industry tends toward agglomeration or dispersion as a

consequence of different endogenous forces. As a result, these new retail

developments have altered the urban fabric in the CEE metropolises.

This paper details whether agglomeration or dispersion in the industry occurred or

is occurring after the dissolution of the Iron Curtain (IC). After 1989, the spatial

distribution of retail developments in the Vienna Bratislava region was conditioned by

continuous waves of real estate investments in the housing, office and commercial

markets. This thesis focuses on a descriptive analysis of the Vienna-Bratislava region;

particularly how and whether real estate investments in retail buildings have

agglomerated or dispersed in and between the cities of Vienna and Bratislava and in the

regions along the transportation corridors after the removal of the IC. The result of this

analysis provides insight on the development patterns and trends in the evolution of the

shopping center's development and investments. These outcomes may enable an









The fact that real estate investments in shopping centers were stagnant, in the

Bratislava region, allowed investors to potentially lure the Slovak and other foreign

shoppers, especially when the traveling barriers were removed. Although, no study was

conducted from 1989 to 2000 to quantify the effect in shopper's attraction by shopping

centers in the Vienna region, it can be assumed that, the two developments above

mention were planned, to some extent, following this scheme. These centers

represented a new world of shopping options available for Slovak residents as they had

access to other types of markets and products in addition to those in Bratislava. Almost

11 years after the IC, Bratislava experienced a trend of shopping center development in

an average of 4 centers in less than a decade.

Shopping Center Agglomeration

There are spatial agglomerations of shopping center in the study area. These

agglomerations are not necessarily the result of the removal of the IC, but are more

related to the evolution process in the retail industry.

The integrated map of shopping center development in the study area (Figure 4-4)

shows that there is significant agglomeration of real estate retail developments in both

metropolises. On one hand, the Vienna region -21 centers- is facing the second stage,

of the shopping center evolution process, which in this case is represented by

dispersion of developments towards peripherals areas; whereas, the Bratislava region -

4 centers currently and 1 under construction- is still in the primary stage based on the

number of developments. Even though, the Vienna region includes LA and Burgenland

-3 and 1 centers respectively-, which also more than double the city in land

dimensions, both Austrian states have a dependency in the urban centers and may not

have enough market potential or population density to support more retail









Shopping Center Target and Trip Purposes

This study has also concluded that recent shopping center developments in the

study area have a specific target. This target relates to the local population demands.

Seemingly, centers are located to supply local residents and where there is a high

market potential. Therefore, the target is not the attraction of shoppers from other

regions; rather, the target seems to satisfy local demand. One reason is the

agglomeration of shopping centers in both cities and their reliance on the transportation

system; in addition to the trips purpose describe in the next paragraph.

Although, this research was limited to investigating the trips related to shopping at

malls from one to the other region, it does point to the ratio of shopping trips related to

the total commuting trips with different purposes. The percentages related to shopping,

using both private and public means of transportation, were lower than 10% in each

case. The cited study did not clarify whether the shopping activity takes place in a mall

or somewhere else. In addition, as this research was limited to investigating the

shopping behavior of residents in each region, it does not address the preferences for

shopping at malls in one region or another. Although no study or survey was conducted

from 1989 to 2000 to quantify the purpose of trips related to shopping, it can be

assumed that shopping, if not the primary purpose, was considered as part of trip

purposes of commuters and shoppers between both regions.

Further Studies

Currently, research on retail industry agglomeration as a factor for regional

integration and behavior of urban and rural shoppers in the Vienna Bratislava region is

lacking. Further research could examine whether or not investments in shopping









APPENDIX
MATRIX OF DISTANCES

This section attempts to support the claim of agglomeration of shopping centers in

the study area. Based on the spatial coordinates of the location of each shopping center

in the Vienna and Bratislava regions, a straight distance from center to center was

calculated resulting in the following table. The distance is express in Kilometers.

The analysis of distances has been divided in four sections, based on the mall

geographical location:

1. Vienna region
2. City of Vienna
3. City of Bratislava
4. Vienna Bratislava region

The Vienna region classification includes Vienna, LA, and Burgenland. The

variation of the distances corresponds to the relationship of 21 malls located in the city

with those located in LA or Burgenland. A shopper would travel approximately a

maximum (max.) and a minimum (min.) distance of 54 and 42 km, respectively. This

case is represented by the malls Auhofcenter and McArthur Glen Designer Outlet,

which are the far away from each other.

The city of Vienna with its 23 districts classification identifies a very interesting

variation of distances among the 17 malls located within the city's boundaries. In this

case, a shopper would travel approximately a max. and min. distance of 19 and one

third of a km, respectively. The locations of malls show significant agglomerations at

different districts. The shortest distance ranges from approximately one third of a km to

8 km. For example, five malls are in close proximity to each other of less than 1km, 10

malls of less than 3 km and 1 mall of more than 8 km. The maximum distances among

malls oscillate between 19 and 10 km.









Shopping Center Context

Shopping Center Structure in the Vienna Region

Vienna's traditional retail structure is based on local shopping streets. These

shops keep the quality of life and identity of each district in Vienna. However, in recent

decades, the new trend in shopping has shifted from the local shops to shopping

centers and specialized supermarkets. The new real estate investments utilize the

advantages of their peripheral locations, such as more affordable real estate prices,

higher selling space area ratio, parking facilities, etc. These retail developments are

considered a threat to the local shops in the inner city retail structure (Strategic Plan for

Vienna, 2000 p. 31).

Within the Vienna region, most of the shopping center developments feature all

the described characteristics of the American model of shopping centers, but

additionally an important trait of accessibility. Although these developments offer

parking space; they are seemingly not solely car-oriented developments as the majority

of them are reachable using the existing public transportation system. The type of

shops, services, and entertainment options are usually based on the demands of local

consumers. The themes are akin to those shopping centers in America and other parts

of Western Europe.

Post-Socialist Real Estate Investments

The real estate market developed until the beginning of the new millennium, when

CEE became a target market for FDI. The ex-socialist cities started to face

transformations and the commercial property market began to boom. The existing

commercial stock market was not suitable for new businesses. At this time, the real

estate market offered new products in more attractive locations. Likewise, investors









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning

REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS IN RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS:
A CASE STUDY IN THE VIENNA BRATISLAVA REGION

By

Ivan Javier Cabrera

August 2010

Chair: Andres Blanco
Cochair: Christopher Silver
Major: Urban and Regional Planning

The removal of the Iron Curtain (IC) reopened borders between Austria and the

Czech and Slovak Federal Republics (CSFR), the former Czechoslovakia. Slovakia's

economic transition to free market capitalism was driven by privatization (Bergman,

1995). As a result, the real estate market remained stagnant, and there was little real

estate investment until several years later, when property ownership changed from

centralized, public ownership to a system of private ownership. Private investments first

went to housing markets, before shifting to the emerging market in commercial real

estate.

Vienna and Bratislava are the capitals of Austria and Slovakia, located only 65

kilometers apart with approximately 1.6 million and 427,000 inhabitants, respectively.

Both capitals have the highest agglomeration of population and economic activity in

their respective countries, and are part of the Vienna Bratislava region along with the

Austrian states of Burgenland and Lower Austria.

Studies have shown a significant growth and change in real estate investments in

the capitals of the former socialist block. This region deserves attention, particularly












































Legend
Shopping Centers upto 1989 (IC)
Shopping Centers from 1989 to 1999
o Shopping Centers from 1999 to 2009
O Future Malls .
airports
0 24,50f9,000 98,000 Decimal Degrees



Figure 4-4. Shopping centers up to 2010

Source: Own









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

This extract is from the book "The Spatial Economy" coauthored by Paul Krugman,

winner of the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, stated that "Agglomeration [...]

occurs at many levels, from the local shopping districts that serve residential areas

within cities to specialized economic regions like Silicon Valley or the City of London

that serve the world market as a whole. [...] Yet although agglomeration is a clearly

powerful force, it is not all-powerful: London is big, but most Britons live elsewhere, in a

system of cities with widely varying sizes and roles. It should not, in other words, be

hard to convince economists that economic geography [...] is both an interesting and

important subject". This summarizes the importance of analysis of the endlessly

changing phenomenon of economic spatial agglomeration

This study has provided an insight on the development patterns, trends, and the

evolution of the real estate investments in shopping centers in the Vienna Bratislava

region after the removal of the IC. Large-scale retail development information has been

collected before 1989 up to 2010. In addition, this study attempted to spatially

demonstrate, using GIS, whether the shopping center developments agglomerate or

dispersed as a consequence of opening borders.

As the historical events of this region are closely related to this research, the

results of this study will be shown following three important events: Socialism, removal

of the IC, and integration into the EU of both countries.









developments. From the integrated map, some questions, that may need further

research attention, have risen: whether each region or city poses potential for further

shopping center development in terms of structure and market potential.

The spatial direction of the centers in the city of Vienna is mainly towards the East,

North and South central areas considering District I as the city center. Figure 5-1 shows

the shopping center location and the percent of population changes by district. In the

Lower Austria and Burgenland, there is no specific direction, except for those two

developments previously mentioned. For the city of Bratislava, the direction of centers is

towards the East area from the city center or District I.

In addition, the ratio of shopping centers to population, in both cities, is almost

equal based on demographic characteristics and economic indicators. Although, the

developments seemingly have not reached their limits in space or sufficed the demand

of shoppers, the certainty for further potential development in the study area is still

inconclusive.

EU Integration

Even thought, the accession of both countries to the EU was nine years apart, the

effects of this event in the real estate retail investments are not visible. It can be

concluded from this study that this integration brought more concentration of shopping

centers in both urban centers. The economic disparities still present are less than those

from after the removal of the IC and the subsequent years. Purchasing power,

household income and other economic indicators demonstrate that this accession

supports the agglomeration of centers in both capitals.

















































Legend
Shopping Centers from 1989 to 1999
airports
0 25,0050,000 100,000 Decimal Degrees
I;;i i i i i i I N


Figure 4-2. Shopping centers between 1989 and 1999

Source: Own









Soviet bloc. On the other hand, Austria also faced political changes, but its capitalist

economy survived the transition after the end of the war. The establishment of banks

and industry was under a system of "social partnership" and its trade market remained

stable (Maier et al., 1991).

At this time, the direction of both economies took different paths. By 1951, the

communist restructuring of Czechoslovakia forced its economy into weapons

production, heavy industry, etc. At the same time, the economic environment led Austria

to recreate linkages to the Western nations. The trade among Eastern states

dramatically decreased as most of the trade was with the Soviet Union; whereas trade

on the Western side fluctuated over the years.

During the socialist regime, the shopping center developments concentrated in the

city of Vienna with only one center in the Lower Austria region. The Shopping City Sud

center is outside of the city limits towards the South and was considered the largest mall

in Europe for several years. This mall was one of the first developments in Vienna to

have an anchor store. Based on the literature about agglomeration and dispersion, this

center was the first development that dispersed at a different location than the urban

center. The purpose was also to target other consumers that did not necessarily have to

commute to the city for shopping activities.

After the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the economic connections between Austria

and Czechoslovakia have faded and taken different directions. It would not be until 1989

that both countries would stand face to face again.

Bratislava after 1989

After the dissolution of the former state of Czechoslovakia, the Slovak Republic

became a democratic and legal state in January 1, 1993. The Slovak Republic shares









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 Location of the study area.................................... 19

1-2 H historical events in the study area ................................................. ...................... 20

2-1 Agglom eration spillovers ........... ..... .......... ...... ..... ... .................. .. 36

2-2 Definitions of shopping center ........ ..... .......... ................ ..... ........... 37

3-1 Study region: Vienna Bratislava core area.............................................. ........ 58

3-2 Shopping center investments by country 2004......... ....... ..... ............... 59

3-3 Shopping center comparisons ........ ..... .......... ................ ...... .......... 59

4-1 Shopping centers before 1989 ...... ........ ........... ............... ..... ........... 77

4-2 Shopping centers between 1989 and 1999....... .... .................................... 78

4-3 Shopping centers between 1999 and 2009............................... ..... ........... 79

4-4 Shopping centers up to 2010 ............................. ............ .... 80

4-5 Economic indicators: A)Demographic density of inhabitants per km2; B)
Primary income of private household PPCS per habitant ............... ................ 81

4-6 C crossing points ............. .. ..... .... ....... ........ ................. ........... 82

5-1 Shopping center location by district in the city of Vienna ............... ................ 90









To gain more insight into the details of the regional economic conditions in the

area of study, a group of indicators are used as context to describe possible related

influences of development and growth in the agglomerations of shopping centers. The

gross regional domestic product (GRDP) and primary income of private households are

usually indicators of development and growth usually at national and regional levels.

The shopping center development reflects the investment and development

opportunities linked to the GDP and purchasing power of population. The aim of this

type of development is to obtain investment returns for the investors and supply the

consumers' demands.

"Regional gross domestic product is expressed in gross domestic product
(GDP), which is a key measure of a nation's economic development and
growth. Economic growth is expressed in purchasing power parities, which
take account of different price levels among a group of different member
states allowing for a fairer comparison. Purchasing power parities (PPPs)
indicates how many units a given quantity of goods and services costs in
different countries. Using PPPs to convert expenditure express in national
currencies into an artificial common currency, the purchasing power
standard (PPS), eliminates the effect of price level differences across
countries created by fluctuations in currency exchange rates" (Eurostat,
2009).

Chronological Development

Shopping Center Inventory

The information about the year of construction, area in square meters, and

location was acquired via email, internet, and visiting the offices. The following provides

a glimpse of the existing shopping centers in the study area. Table 4-2 shows the

shopping center inventory



To understand the development of shopping centers through the time in the study

area, the data will be summarized by decade. The years of analysis will be 1989, 1999,









similar. As a result, both cities competed against other cities with similar economic

profiles and offers for investment and development. This pattern changed as a part of

the economic and social transformation and integration of the Slovak Republic into the

EU (Finka, 2005 p. 131). The growing real estate market in Bratislava and its suburban

areas supported the office and housing developments. As a result, the competitiveness

of the city made it comparable to the real estate market in Vienna. Slovakia's accession

to the EU in 2004 helped to remove barriers to competition between Vienna and

Bratislava that had affected the relationship between both cities in the past. "Labor

market, transportation, services, and retail business were some of these state policies"

(Finka, 2005 p. 131).

Transition Period

As a result of the analysis of the literature, availability of information, a question

still remains unanswered regarding this case study in particular. Why did real estate

retail developments occur 11 years after the removal of the IC? An attempt to answer

this question is followed by Tykkylainen (1995), who concludes that "data for detailed

analysis of market size, complexity, location, competition, and demographics were

either not available or not easily mapped" (p. 59). Investors in post-socialist countries

experienced a lack of data sources for market analysis and location as they were mostly

replaced by field observations compared to the Western countries data sources

(Tykkylaninen, 1995). Additionally, Balcerowicz (1995) notes that "it took time during the

transition period for the state dominated economy to change from socialism to

capitalism" (p. 146); moreover, the change in property ownership rights from

government to private owners took more time as well, and once these changes were

over, the sites became available.









as the former control center of the Empire, was the state with the most industrial and

economic infrastructure. Such infrastructure was designed for a nation much bigger

than 6.5 million inhabitants. The territory of this state included significant agricultural

land, which was transferred to Hungary and the control of other important resources to

Czechoslovakia. Hungary had a territory composed mainly of agricultural land. The

trade with other nations was reorganized so it no longer depended on the other

successor states. On the other hand, Czechoslovakia presented an easy transition into

autonomy. The region of Moravia and Bohemia in the northern part conserved a

significant portion of the industrial infrastructure of the monarchy, as well as, other local

resources. The Slovakia region had the agricultural area; however, Hungary controlled

the industrial activity in the region. At this time, the trade practice for the successor

states expanded and looked for new foreign investment with other nations. However, a

world economic crisis, from 1929 to 1933, endangered the economies of Austria,

Hungary and Czechoslovakia (Maier et al., 1991).

Towards socialist and capitalist systems

In 1930, Austria and the northeastern part of Czechoslovakia became part of the

German block. As a result, Germany's investment was the largest in most of the

Austrian and Czechoslovakian economies, which were exposed to a larger market.

Germany managed industrial and trade development. This represented a turbulent

transition for both countries lasting a few years. After the end of the WWII,

Czechoslovakia faced a new restructuration and the government, at that time, had

connections to the Soviet Union. In 1946, the communist government won the elections

and opened a window for a future transition. By 1948, Czechoslovakia was part of the










Table 3-6. Major connection linkages in the study area
Type Network Route Year of Construction
Roadway Supra-regional Ostautobahn (A4) 2004
Roadway R l Vienna-Parndorf-Kittsee-Petrzalka- 1
Roadway Regional Bai1999
Bratislava
Roadway Regional Vienna-Hainburg-Berg -Petrzalka- B r
Roadway Regional Bratislava Before 1989
Railway Regional Vienna-Kittsee-Petrzalka-Bratislava 2000
Railway Regional Vienna Marchegg Bratislava Before 1989
Waterway Supra-regional Danube waterway Before 1989
Vienna Schwechat
Airway Supra-regional Vienna Schwhat Before 1989
Bratislava Ivanka
Source: Werkstattberichte, 2003
































To My Family









LIST OF TABLES

Table page

2-1 Classification of shopping centers- Hines (1988)......... ........... ................ 35

2-2 Austrian classification of retail stores ......... ........... ............ .. ............. 35

3-1 D districts in B ratislava .............................. ........... ............ ................. 54

3-2 Districts in Vienna............................................................................. 54

3-3 Lower Austria and Burgenland- Municipalities and Towns............................... 55

3-4 V ien na B ratislava R eg ion......................................... ......................................... 56

3-5 Vienna Bratislava Area of Study................................ ........ .................. 56

3-6 Major connection linkages in the study area............................ ................ 57

4-1 C lassification of source data ..................................................................... .. .... 73

4-2 Shopping Centers List.. ...................................... ...... ............ ............... .. 73

4-3 Commuting ratios between both cities and other areas (entrance)................... 74

4-4 Commuting ratios between both cities and other areas (private
tra n s p o rta tio n ) ................................................................. ................. 7 4

4-5 Trip purpose classification by transportation mode ......................................... 75

A-1 Matrix of distances ................. ............ ........ ...... ...... .. ............... 93









Environment Green Belt

The city of Vienna has a vast natural green space. Not only are there parks in the

inner city but also the landscape and open space in the surroundings represent almost

50% of the total city's spatial land. The City Council approved "the Green Belt Master

Plan" for the city in 1995. This document "foresees the conservation of track of land or

contiguous portions of land as recreational areas and ecologically valuable zones,

which are to be kept free of buildings" (Strategic Plan for Vienna, 2000 p. 33).

A variety in landscapes and geographical configurations surround the region. The

Danube River, the Alps, and the Pannonia plain are some geographical structures

located in this region.. This array of landscapes may represent an area for potential

development (Finka, 2005 p. 124).

History of the Area

A few decades after the naissance of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1890's, the

example of the Austrian banks haute finance were considered the initial sources for

promoting and financing economic development.(Berend et al., 1974). During the

1890's, Viennese banks were holding the accounts of the major companies in Austria.

Creditanstalt was still holding the accounts even years after (Cowen et al., 1996).

Additionally, Marz (1984) adds that during this time, investments in the capital market, in

addition to banks, supported new enterprises and large-scale company merges. Not

only was the industrial development supported by the bankers, but also wholesale trade

started booming within the Empire.

As a result of the end of the WWI, the former monarchy was divided into new

nations, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, also called "successor states". Each of

the new states faced a turbulent economic and political transition. At this time, Austria,











Table 3-3 Continued
Estate Municipality


Towns
Kittsee
M6nchhof
Neudorf
Neusiedl am See
Pama
Parndorf
Podersdorf am See
Weiden am See
Winden am See
Zurndorf


Table 3-4. Vienna Bratislava Region
Region Area in Km' Population in h/Km2
Vienna 415 1,673,057 4,031
Burgenland 3,965 280,082 71
Lower Austria 19,174 1,587,651 83
Vienna Region 23,554 3,540,760 4,185
Bratislava* 367.58 427,403* 1,163
Vienna Bratislava
Region 23,922 3,956,342 5,348
*2008
Source: Statistik Austria
Statisticky urad Slovenskej Republiky
2006, Area, Population, and Population Density




Table 3-5. Vienna Bratislava Area of Study


Region


Area in Km2


Vienna 23 districts


Burgenland
Eisenstadt
Neusiedl Am See
Subtotal Burgenland

Districts Lower Austria
Bruck an Der Laitha
Ganserndorf
Wiener Neustadt-Land
Wien-Umgebung
Subtotal Lower Austria
Vienna study Region
Bratislava
Vienna Bratislava Study Region
Source: Statistik Austria
Statisticky urad Slovenskej Republiky
2008, Area, Population, and Population


453.1**
1,038.7**
1,491.8


495.0**
1271.3**
969.7**
484.5**
3,221
5,127
367.58
5,495


Population

1,673,057


Population Density
in selected area


39,601*
53,502
93,103


43,720
93.382
74,103
110,471
228,387
1,951,715
427,403
2.379,118


12,562
27631


25,783
36,771
4,126
28,791
95,471


*2006 data
Density of the Study Region


Total


in
/Km2

4,031


71
4,164
1,163
5,327














































Legend
airports
-- Roads
-i-i- Rail Tracks

0 25,50(51,000 102,000 Decimal Degrees



Figure 3-1. Study region: Vienna Bratislava core area

Source: Own








* At city and regional
level
* Bolster exports of
goods and
substitutes
previously imported


Agglomeration
of Shopping
centers


Public utilities
-Share Services
infrastructure


Share
market


* Customers base
* Purchasing power
* Competition


Figure 2-1. Agglomeration spillovers


Source: Own


Multiplier
effect









Poland was the leading CEE country in real estate shopping center investments by

2004. It even had greater investments than the Netherlands, Italy and France, though it

remained behind the UK. The Czech Republic showed in the fifth place (CBRE, 2004).

See Figure 3-4. for shopping center investments by country in 2004.

Slovakia was considered a less developed large scale retail market along with

Romania, the Baltic states, and others countries (Stanilov, 2007). Hence, shopping

center investments in Slovakia were not significant compared to the rest of the

European countries.

The pattern of retail development in the CEE states took place in the business

districts in national capitals and secondary cities. Retail agglomerations were located in

the urban periphery and consequently competition became a determinant location factor

for new retail developments. Investors reacted to the trends in the more developed

markets in the CEE countries and sought new spatial distribution. The inner cities had

become the targets for large-scale retail developments as the competitions was less

than that in the business districts ibidd. p.92)

Slovakia was not at the top of capital concentration in real estate investments

among the CEE countries. By 2005, Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic

accounted for almost 90 percent of the total investments in real estate markets

(Stanilov, 2007, p. 76). In the years following the removal of the IC, Vienna and

Bratislava did not compete with each other for real estate development investment due

to the significant disparities in their economic structures and development opportunities.

The economic structure of Slovakia started to open to Western markets, but not in the

investment market, and the opportunities for investors from these two cities were not









realized that real estate property investments could be profitable in metropolitan areas

of Central European states. These areas would represent high return on investment in

real estate investments. The post-socialist states could now offer higher rates of steady

economic growth, new institutional markets, and stable political systems. Most of the

real estate transactions were cross-border operations. Some of the main investors in

the CEE were from Austria, Germany, and the U.S. The percentage of this type of

transactions increased through the upcoming years as the foreign investment in real

estate drastically shifted to commercial property. (Stanilov, 2007 p. 73-75)

By 2001, real estate investments were mainly in the office market, but investor's

interest significantly shifted to the retail sector (large shopping centers) during the same

year. Cities were the first targets for these new investments as they experienced

change in the population's purchasing power. As a result, the retail investments market

increased all over Europe. This emerging market in commercial investments, unleashed

spatial transformation in the post-socialist cities in Europe. The real estate market was

affected by land use and social changes as well. Urban spatial distributions during the

socialist period did not work the same as the specific location uses used in Western

countries, where some land uses had priority over others in terms of location. Instead,

these distributions were managed by the central system with no space or market priority

whatsoever (Stanilov, 2007).

During the socialist period, the commercial uses were reduced in size and located

in the central areas of cities to make them more manageable for the system. With the

new wave of real estate investments, a new pattern of commercial distribution occurred

in the business areas; especially with the formation of commercial streets located at the









Literature about the Case Study

Shopping Center Evolution

Europe and other parts of world experience the structured retail center and

consequently benefit from investment opportunities (Hines, 1988). Shopping centers

had existed in earlier centuries but with different names, such as "flea markets" and

"galleries". Consumers visited these designed and integrated places seeking retail

goods and services. Investors in these markets have invested more capital in more

convenient shopping buildings with parking through the years. Currently, investors build

different types of shopping centers based on shopping demands in diverse urban

locations. Some investors focus exclusively in retail facilities.

The characteristics of shopping centers around the world usually follow the

example of American shopping centers. Country Club Plaza, built in 1923 in Kansas

City, was the first automobile-oriented shopping development. These type of new

developments featured automobile parking spaces, a concentration of retail stores

under one ceiling, leased spaced, and the assumption that customers would use cars to

reach the center. These developments are also considered planned shopping centers.

The evolution of the shopping center concept also involved another development in

addition to retail shops: the "department store". This store was used as an anchor to

attract more customers to the center. It was not until 1956 that the concept of the

climate controlled shopping center would be introduced by Victor Gruen, an Austrian

refugee. Southdale Shopping Center, the first shopping center with an indoor, artificial

climate was built that same year in Edina, Minnesota (Pavlinek, 2004).

Different Scenarios about the Case Study Based on the Theoretical Framework









1,OD)
1,200
1j 0 ,

60-



2OOO


I I Illl


Figure 3-2. Shopping center investments by country 2004

Source: CB Richard Ellis


Figure 3-3. Shopping center comparisons

Source: Own


USA Vienna region Bratislava region
Accessibility Depend on private LA and Bu. Region depend In the City: easily
transportation; except mostly public and private accessible by public
cities with outstanding transportation; In the City: transportation
public system easily accessible
Parking space Usually on-site On-site and off-site (close On-site
locations
Location Depending on the area Outside the city center, Outside the city center
except for those in LA and
Bu.
Facilities (use) Usually only retail Usually only retail, but Retail with mix-use
some with mix-use
Anchor facilities Department stores Department stores, and Department stores,
Hypermarkets, Cinemas Hypermarkets, and other
Market Local and regional Mostly local, but used to be Local and regional
regional and international
Hours Regular hours on Extended hours, even the
weekdays, and until 5 on weekend
Saturday
LA and Bu= Lower
Austria and Burgenland









Zatrochova (2005) describes one of the meanings of shopping malls in Central

Europe as they "are characterized as a complex of premises usually on the outskirts of

a town, in the centre of which can be one or more shopping halls" (Zatrochova, 2005

p.32). Zatrochova also refers to two types of malls (or hypermarkets) based on size and

states that these developments should also provide parking space as part of the facility.

Large hypermarkets usually have a selling area greater than 5,000 m2; the small ones

from 2,500 to 5,000 m2. Additionally, she also describes the "factory outlet"

development as a new shopping concept for former socialist CEE countries. In general,

shopping centers include a wide variety of shops such as, coffee, restaurants, cinemas,

boutiques, recreational activities, etc. The purpose of all these amenities focuses on

attracting and maintaining customers for long periods of time. Additionally, she classifies

them based on the location. Shopping centers located in the suburban regions focus

also on amusement sites in addition to the main purpose of shopping; the "intra-urban"

centers are places for leisure and social interaction. These developments require

infrastructure such as transportation and parking spaces, which may be preexisting if

the shopping center is located within the town centers, where public transportation and

pedestrian facilities already exist.

Finally, Figure 2-1 includes all the different definitions and characteristics of

shopping centers from different international and local organizations and scholars used

to determine the focus of the mall for this case study. The definitions and classifications

are from the Urban Land Institute, the International Council of Shopping Center

(European definition), the Small and Medium Enterprise Research Institute from Austria,

and a Central European definition by Monika Zatrochova.









now, that the capital of Slovakia, Bratislava, has experienced real estate investments in

shopping centers, and the Vienna region's development in the area of shopping center

has continue the same as before the fall of the IC

As the shopping center industry tends to agglomerate, this study analyses the

spatial location and direction of investments in shopping center developments and

demonstrates the agglomeration and dispersion of such centers in each capital and in

the region between them. This study also attempts to prove that the region between

both metropolises has certain unfavorable characteristics which discourage shopping

center development. This study also refers to commuting for shopping purposes within

the region. A cited survey indicated that approximately less than 10 % of the commuting

dynamics are related to shopping activities, but are not necessarily linked to shopping

center destinations.

This study also estimated the linear distances between the shopping centers in

Vienna, Bratislava, and the remaining area of study in order to illustrate the extent of

spatial agglomeration.









Stadtentwicklung Wien, 2005, Urban Development Plan Vienna Short Report, Vienna
City Administration, Municipal Department 18, (accessed July 14, 2009)

Statistics Austria, Resident population as per census day < population census >
http://www.statistik.at/isis/current/jar/isis_gui_plugin_guestnosslen.shtml, (accessed
April 15, 2009)

Swoboda, B., Morschett, D., Rudolph, T., Schnedlitz, P., Schramm-Klein, H., digital
Forschungsplattform, A.D., 2009, European Retail Research, Gabler Verlag/GWV
Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden

Tykkylainen, Markku, 1995, Locan and Regional Development During the 1990's
Transition in Eastern Europe, Vermont, Ashgate Publishing Company

Wang Qiong, 2005, Economies of Scale in Shopping Center Industry, Royal Institute of
Technology, Department of Infrastructure, Stockholm

Werkstattberichte, 2003, Vienna Bratislava Region, Vienna City Administration,
Municipal Department 18
Wien, Transportation, http://www.wien.gv.at/english/transportation/publictrans.htm
(accessed July 13, 2009)

WIFO & WIIW, 2007, Centrope Business & Labour Report. Vienna

Zatrochova, M., 2005, The Global Market and Commercial Centres as a Component,
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, p. 30-36









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature Review Overview

This literature review presents the theoretical framework for this case study and

an overview of the literature which addresses real estate retail investments in shopping

centers or malls in the Vienna Bratislava region. This information will be considered in

both a historical and contemporary context. This section will also include definitions of

key terms. While the vast literature reviews the entire history of European economic

geography, recent literature is inconclusive and vague regarding real estate shopping

center investments in this region..

Because this case study focuses on the real estate investments in shopping

center, office and industrial investments are not discussed.

Theoretical Framework

Economic Theories and Geography

Krugman (1991) explains that a significant factor when analyzing economic

geography in Europe is that international trade is evolving to regional economies and

the spatial location of the economic activities among countries is a merit on its own.

To describe this case within a group of traditional economic theories pattern is not

adequately feasible. However, this chapter will make an effort to place the case study

under an economic theoretical framework.

Regional growth is influenced by the location of development of firms and

business, in this case retail development. In this regard, location theories focus on firms'

goals at minimizing cost by choosing locations that increase their chances to reach a

marketplace for business and firms. There are many variables that play a role in









This thesis claims that the retail investment activities tend to agglomerate where

there is market potential, demand for products, certain population characteristics,

transportation linkages and other factors which set the conditions for such development

patterns.

This thesis also explores the development pattern of real estate investment in and

between Vienna and Bratislava, so that developments may ultimately enhance the

potential for economic development and opportunities for new real estate retail

investments in the economic context of either agglomerations or dispersion.

Software programs and qualitative methodologies often are used in the social

sciences to analyze the importance of developmental patterns, real estate opportunities,

and growth projections. These methods are use in localities experiencing the same

political, economic and environmental circumstances. Instead of attempting to quantify

(analyze) some aspect of the land use by real estate retail investments in this region,

the aim of this study is to describe the possible factors linked to the pattern of

concentration or dispersion of shopping center developments in and between both

cities. The significant literature related to economic development in Central Europe is

vast and has been produced by many scholars, research institutes, international

organizations, and European Commissions. The focus of the articles and reports

encompass among other topics: labor, social, cultural and economic trends at different

levels (local, national, regional and supra-regional). However, the literature does not

fully address real estate developments in retail buildings. Some articles are related to

the development of real estate investments, Stanilov (2007), focused on the changes in

commercial and industrial property markets in post-socialist metropolises. Gunther et









On the other hand, the transportation infrastructure that links both cities requires

enhancements. The Vienna Bratislava route via Hainburg an der Donau was the road

linkage during the time of socialist rule. This road is a two lane road and is not suitable

for heavy trucks with more than 7.5 tons. The connection road to Bratislava via Kittsee

runs for two thirds of the distance on the A4 Ostautobahn highway (Werkstattberichte,

2003). Several projects are under construction aiming to improve the linkages between

both metropolis and towards other regions included in the study area. Some of these

projects have been addressed by the national and regional transportation authorities.

Figure 3-2 and Figure 3-3 describes the existing and ongoing infrastructure expansion

projects for the accessibility via roadway and railway respectively.

The city of Bratislava also counts on an efficient public transportation system with

buses, trams and trolley-bus lines. The core zone of the city is covered by the "Doprany

podnik Bratislava" transportation company. The system connects the city center to other

parts of the city, such as DObravka, RaCa, Zlate piesky, and Ru2inov) only by tram;

other parts of the city are also accessible by bus and trolley-bus (DPB, 2009).

Additionally, another way travel between cities is the Twin City Linnier catamarans

on the Danube. The Danube waterway is also considered an important transportation

linkage. Boats are the means of transporting people between the two cities. The airports

are approximately one hour away from each other with transportation available from one

airport to another. Schwetchat is an important hub airport due to its connection to Easter

European destinations. Ivanka's airport will open a new passenger terminal by June,

2010 (Airportbratislava, 2009).









market, and hours of operation. Figure 3-3 compares these traits among shopping

centers in the Vienna Bratislava region and those in the US.









CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

This section will describe the analysis of different information and scenarios in

order to determine whether or not shopping center agglomeration or dispersion

occurred in the study area. For this purpose, some of the economic indicators for each

region will be considered as a context related to shopping centers development.

It is important to mention that some of the economic data shown is based on the

European System of Integrated Economic Accounts (ESA) methodology from the

European Commission Eurostat webpage. The classification of the source data is

described in table 4.1. based on the following categories: NUTS I is at national level,

Nuts II at Supra-Regional Level, Nuts III regional level. The information used in this

study case is mostly Nuts I and II. Table 4-1 shows the classification of source data.

The economic data was available for different years from 1996 to 2007. In some

instances the data for the Vienna region differs from the Bratislava regions due to its

availability and estimates. In each case, the information shown will be noted if the data

is not consistent for both regions.

Economic Indicators

Based on the economic indicators, Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-6 correspond to what

the literature research and economic models demonstrate regarding the relationship

between economic development and regional wages and growth in market potential.

Redding et al. (2004) found that market access is positively related to per capital

income. Hanson (2005) later stated that "demand linkages appear to be strongly

associated with wages whether one looks across countries or across regions inside

countries" (p. 21).









activities; whereas Lower Austria and Burgenland, surrounding the city, are considered

the smaller places with supporting resources for the central places.

In addition, Berman et al. (1979) refers to retail agglomerations or retail clusters as

groups of outlets geographically located in an area. These types of retail

agglomerations can be planned (shopping centers) or unplanned (shopping streets) and

upsurge "co-operation" among retailers (Brandenburger et al., 1996). To understand the

co-operation, there are two approaches: one is when retailers share infrastructure,

requiring direct cooperation; and two, when retailers share customers and spending and

must compete (Reutterer et al., 2008). So far, the aim is to understand the city and the

regional context of the agglomerations in shopping centers under the spatial and

morphological changes in the area of study.

Another important element in the spatial setting of agglomerations and economic

activities is the mobility factor, which requires some explanation. The relationship

between transportation cost and scale economies results partly as a factor of city

formation (Krugman 1991). Fujita et al. (1999) demonstrate in other economic models

that combining scale economies and the importance of transportation costs result in

demand for spatial linkages and consequently in agglomerations. In the literature, the

demand for spatial linkages is also referred as market access (Redding et al., 2004).

Hanson (2005) explores further the market potential function stating that other factors

also contribute to spatial agglomerations, such as technology spillovers, human capital

externalities, or exogenous amenities (Redding et al., 2004)

Another element is sharing advantages as a driving force for a central cluster or

nodes, and in some instances the competitive market plays a second role. In this









Currently, the international economy and the real estate market in particular are in

turmoil. Investments in real estate developments have been stopped in the last couple

of years as the international economic crisis reaches its highest point. In most CEE

countries, however, new retail developments are occurring towards new directions











Table 4-3. Commuting ratios between both cities and other areas (entrance)
Origin Pers. 24 h % % Pers. 24 h Goal
Entrance
Bratislava I-


Rest


Total


6,697
1,267
7,964


84%
16%


46%
54%


3,694
4,270
7,964


Exit


Vienna
Rest


Vienna 3,645 50% 87% 6,429 Bratislava
Rest 3,704 50% 13% 920 Rest
Total 7,349 7,349
Trans-frontier Traffic- Private transportation
Source: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung (original version in German;own translation)


Table 4-4. Commuting ratios between both cities and
transportation)
Origin Pers. 24 h %
Entrance
Bratislava I-


Rest


Total


1,860
35
1,895


98%
2%


other areas (private

% Pers. 24 h


84%
16%


Exit


1,590
305
1,895


Vienna 1,859 85% 99% 2,183 Bratislava
Rest 340 15% 1% 16 Rest
Total 2,199 2,199
Trans-frontier Traffic- Public transportation
Source: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung (original version in German;own translation)


Goal


Vienna
Rest









The literature also points to the Von Thunen's theory of location as he sees "land

rent as a function of access to the region's center, where population and the bulk of

economic activity takes place. The highest rents go to land that provides this access"

(Maki et al., 2000, p. 49). For the purposes of this paper, this theory will not be

analyzed.

The new markets theory posits that there is significant unexploited market

potential in the areas surrounding the city center and those in rural locations. These

areas' nearness to other clusters and proximity to concentrations of activity in downtown

areas make them optimal "markets for retailing" (Blakely et al., 2002). This relates to the

investment and development of retail buildings in the region in between both cities as

development has occurred not only within each city, but also within the inner-city areas.

The inference that the shopping center industry in Vienna attracted shoppers from

Bratislava and other post-socialist regions after opening the borders connects to this

theory. From this theory, the location of a business or firm also relies on other areas of

study by regional economists. In terms of geography, Dawson (1993) refers to "an

integrated space economy" as the economy in which the only limitation on economic

activities is the physical environment.

"Economic geographers have made a central contribution in their turn through their

work on the effects of proximity, distance, and local context-on, let us call them, the

softer sources of innovation" (Amin et al., 2002, p.7). Using these considerations, this

case study focuses on what economic geographers also analyze and call

"agglomerations". The following paragraphs attempt to cover how the related literature

applies to this case.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS................................... .. ............................ 4

L IS T O F T A B LE S ...................... ................ .................................................. 7

L IS T O F F IG U R E S ...................... ................ .............. ................................. 8

A B S T R A C T ........... .. ......... .. .............. .. ...................................................... 9

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................. ............................ .............. ........... 11

In tro d u c tio n ............. .. ....... .. .............. .. ..................................................... 1 1
Shopping Center Industry................................................ ......... 12
S tu d y A re a ........................... .............. .. .....13..........
History of the Study Area ....................................................................... .................................14
E U C o n te x t ............. ......... .. .............. .. ...................................................... 1 4
O b je c tiv e s ............. ......... .. .............. .. ....................................................... 1 5

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ............... 21

Literature Review Overview ................ ................................ 21
Theoretical Fram work ......................................................................... .. ...... .......... 21
Economic Theories and Geography ................... .................. 21
Retail Agglomerations ................ ... ......... ................24
Market Potential ......................... .......... .........29
Literature about the Case Study .................... ......... .......... 30
Shopping Center Evolution ...... .................... .... .........30
Literature about Definitions ................ ......... .... .........32
Agglomeration Economies .......................... ........... 32
R region .............. ...................................... ........ ........................ 33
Shopping Center ...... ............................ ........ 33

3 CASE STUDY ...................... ........................ 38

Vienna ......... ............................. ............... 39
Lower Austria .............. ................................................. 40
B u rg e n la nd .............. ................. ................................................................... 4 0
B ra tis la v a .............. ..... ............ ................. ...................................................4 0
Population .............. .............................................. ..... ..... ......... 41
Infrastructure ......... ......................................... 41
Environment Green Belt ......................... ...... .........43
History of the Area ........... .. ................. .......... 43
Bratislava after 1989 ................................. ............45










Table 2-1. Classification of shopping centers- Hines (1988)
Type of Characteristics Num. of Driving Location Transport
Center stores Distance Structures
(mins.)
Community Anchored by a supermarket 10 to 15 10 to 15 Corners at the intersection of
and a discount department 2 or more streets
store and other tenants
Regional Planned and developed by a 30 to 50 15 to 20 At the intersection of 2 or
single entity. A second more major highways of
department store (i.e. discount freeways
department store) integrated
into the center
Super 3 or more full-line department 100 or 30 to 45 Central business district or
Regional Stores more outlying suburban area. At
the intersection of at least 2
major highways





Table 2-2. Austrian classification of retail stores
Classification
of Retail Sales Area
Stores Type in m2 Description


Classic shop



Specialty
Supermarket
(replacement of
the neighborhood
shop


Consumer markets


Department


Discount market


Shop ("aunt Emma-Laden") from its
market share has become almost
<=200 negligible
The Specialists is one of the younger forms of
retailing and is conceptually between dealer and
consumer market. The site is located mostly in
200-600 strategic junctions with good parking space

This shop offers a full range of food with approx.
5,000 to 8000 articles in the mid-price and quality
400-800 situation
As the locations of the consumer markets are
800-1500 suburban lying on inexpensive land with good
1500-5000 transport links
The product range is wide, deep and under one
roof summarized; the article number is the largest
>=3000 in the retail market

Assortment of goods to offer, which at low through
500-700 high handling leads to high turnover


Online
Shopping Direct
Indirect
Source: SME's Research Institute
Research focus: Consumer markets and department categories


Trading









Retail Agglomerations

"The term "agglomeration" is less ambiguous than "concentration", which is used

to describe different phenomena (Fujita et al., 1996, p. 3). It was introduced in location

theory by Weber (1909, ch. 1)".There many types of agglomeration included in this

phenomena that deserve examination; however, this case study identifies and relates to

one type: when agglomerations of shops, boutiques, and restaurants cluster within a

specific neighborhood in a single location ibidd, 1996). Fujita et al. (1996) explain that

"the equilibrium spatial configuration of economic activities can be viewed as the

outcome of a process involving two opposing types of forces, that is, agglomeration (or

centripetal) forces and dispersion (or centrifugal) forces" ibidd, p. 3). From these forces,

two types of economic development interplay based on the scale and size: large and

small.

Additionally, Maki (2000) notes three types of agglomeration forces: large-scale

economies, localization economies, and urbanization economies. A firm can enjoy two

types of agglomeration economies: internal economies and external economies (relative

to the firm) (Parr, 2001). The agglomeration economies definition is listed under the

definitions section in this chapter. For the purpose of this research, consideration is

given to external economies and to agglomeration economies based on these. Parr

(2001) states that agglomeration economies can be examined from three different

perspectives: scale, scope, and complexity.

External economies occur when a firm is affected by the presence of another firm

or firms. External economies cannot occur without the existence of multiple firms.

Firstly, in the case of external economies of scale, the benefits derived by a firm are

directly related to the size of that firm's industry (Parr, 2001) For example, the benefits









Population

Tables 3-4 and 3-5 show the population, area, and density characteristics of the

Vienna Bratislava region and the area of study.

Infrastructure

Further cohesion of the EU is also sought with the Trans-European Networks

(TEN) system and its extension into the Central and Easter counties. This network

emerged by the end of 1980's with the aim of having freedom of movement in an open

market for goods, people, and services. In this context, the study area includes some of

the TEN highways connecting this area with other adjacent regions. Vienna's

geographical location makes it an important transportation hub and a link to some of the

main transportation routes between Central and Eastern Europe. The accessibility of

each metropolitan area from the other, as well as from peripheral regions, has changed

since the removal of the IC.

The transportation network is extensive and covers growing settlement areas and

regions; its capacity is enough for high volumes of traffic at different levels: local,

regional and supra-regional. Table 3-6 shows the major connection linkages in the study

area.

The City of Vienna has an exemplary public transportation system. The core zone

of the city is covered by the "Wiener Linien" transportation company with "subways,

trams, buses and street cars (Werkstattberichte, 2003, p. 41). The transportation from

the city to the hinterland also has reliable linkages. The public transportation is part of

Austria's Eastern regions transportation association (Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region

VOR). This region includes the city parts of Lower Austria and Burgenland (Wien,

2009).



















II
C] **

'-'N-


Figure 1-1. Location of the study area

Source: Own















19


L









choosing a location by investors. Labor force and cost, availability of suppliers,

transportation, environmental protection, communications, energy, are variables that

may affect the quality and sustainability of a location (Blakely et al., 2002). "Both von

Thunen's (1826) land use model and Weber's (1909) plant location model address

these sorts of location issues. Neither model, however, addresses directly the

investment decision and its importance in industry location" (Maki et al., 2000, p. 24).

Business location decisions thus involve investment decisions. The former are

influenced by demand and supply and both of these by population and workforce on

both sides. On the other hand, the latter investment decisions are driven by the prime

location of the future development.

Further more in the literature, Maki et al. (2000) considers the flow of products,

people, and communications as important factors when analyzing nodal regions. Retail

developments in the Vienna Bratislava region demonstrate the concept of nodal regions

as both capitals are considered centers. These centers are easily reached from many

directions because the transportation structure allows it. Therefore, the strongest flows

are between both metropolises; and the importance of the demarcation of regional

boundaries shifts focus onto the poles or centers. Outside the centers are areas called

"transitional areas". Some of the advantages of these areas are the lower cost of sites

and labor. The proximity of a center area to a transitional area allows access the

population in the first area to take advantage of the activities in the second area with a

lower transportation cost and vice versa (Maki et al., 2000, p. 13). In this way, Lower

Austria and Burgenland may be considered transitional areas due to their close location

to the city center areas and their favorable land price structure.













Table A-1. Matrix of distances
Name 1
1 Auhofcenter
2 Columbus Center Betriebs 12.07
3 Donauzentrum 16.61
4 Einkaufszentrum Simmering 15.22
5 EZS Einkaufszentrum 14.73
6 Galleria Einkaufszentrum 13.15
7 Gasometer City 15.34
8 General Center 9.82
9 Gerngross City Center 10.10
10 Huma Einkaufspark 19.26
11 Lugner City 8.69
12 Millennium City 13.12
13 Q19 12.20
14 Gewerbepark Stadlau 18.92
15 Shopping Center Nord 15.03
16 STC Stadion Center 15.01
17 Trillerpark 15.64
18 Fischapark 43.17
19 Shopping City Sud 12.84
20 Shopping Bruck 47.41
21 McArthur Glen Designer Outlet 54.10
1 SK Polus City Center 68.61
2 SK Aupark Janko Kra? Park 66.47
3 SK Avion 71.75
4 SK Shopping Palace 72.29


Average Vienna region
Max Vienna region
Min Vienna region

Average Vienna City
Max Vienna City

Average Bratislava City
Max Bratislava City
Min Bratislava City

Average Vienna Bratislava
Max Vienna Bratislava


2
12.07

8.01
3.15
8.81
2.32
3.42
2.66
2.58
7.19
3.90
6.56
7.96
9.86
9.57
4.47
10.40
42.05
8.74
35.61
42.33
56.76
54.49
59.90
60.54


3
16.61
8.01

7.70
3.26
5.69
6.41
8.04
7.71
8.51
8.60
3.56
5.23
2.32
3.79
3.81
4.23
49.76
16.73
35.68
42.35
52.95
51.24
56.08
56.40


4
15.22
3.15
7.70

9.60
3.21
1.30
5.67
5.49
4.06
6.92
7.71
9.57
8.94
10.37
3.95
11.13
42.16
9.92
32.52
39.25
53.73
51.40
56.86
57.54


6
13.15
2.32
5.69
3.21
6.77

2.53
3.35
3.06
6.55
4.47
4.66
6.40
7.56
7.54
2.23
8.35
44.24
11.04
35.32
42.06
55.46
53.34
58.60
59.16


7
15.34
3.42
6.41
1.30
8.43
2.53

5.56
5.32
4.05
6.78
6.66
8.60
7.66
9.20
2.70
9.93
43.46
11.06
32.81
39.55
53.38
51.15
56.51
57.14


8
9.82
2.66
8.04
5.67
7.80
3.35
5.56

0.34
9.57
1.25
5.49
6.28
10.22
8.48
5.38
9.32
43.28
9.69
38.19
44.92
58.80
56.65
61.94
62.50


9 10
10.10 19.26
2.58 7.19
7.71 8.51
5.49 4.06
7.52 11.33
3.06 6.55
5.32 4.05
0.34 9.57
9.35
9.35
1.45 10.81
5.20 10.05
6.06 12.12
9.89 8.71
8.21 12.03
5.06 5.85
9.04 12.64
43.51 43.27
9.92 12.91
38.01 28.77
44.75 35.51
58.52 49.70
56.38 47.35
61.66 52.83
62.21 53.54


18.21 11.03 11.81 11.33 12.23 10.50 10.99 11.21 11.07 12.98
54.10 42.33 49.76 42.16 50.84 44.24 43.46 44.92 44.75 43.27
8.69 2.32 2.32 1.30 0.78 2.23 1.30 0.34 0.34 4.05


11
8.69
3.90
8.60
6.92
7.88
4.47
6.78
1.25
1.45
10.81

5.65
6.01
10.86
8.49
6.35
9.30
43.66
10.11
39.44
46.17
59.92
57.81
63.06
63.60


12
13.12
6.56
3.56
7.71
2.32
4.66
6.66
5.49
5.20
10.05
5.65

2.09
5.85
3.04
4.21
3.88
48.54
15.02
38.35
45.07
56.45
54.67
59.58
59.93


14 15
18.92 15.03
9.86 9.57
2.32 3.79
8.94 10.37
5.04 0.78
7.56 7.54
7.66 9.20
10.22 8.48
9.89 8.21
8.71 12.03
10.86 8.49
5.85 3.04
7.34 2.85
5.32
5.32
5.42 6.52
5.44 0.84
51.10 51.58
18.48 18.06
34.42 39.45
41.03 46.12
50.84 56.02
49.22 54.48
53.96 59.14
54.24 59.35


11.75 11.29 12.29 13.07 12.73
46.17 48.54 49.56 51.10 51.58
1.25 2.09 2.09 2.32 0.78


13.23 6.05 6.09 6.71 6.13 5.17 6.11 5.84 5.67 8.95 6.32 5.30 6.18 7.61 6.59 5.31
19.26 12.07 16.61 15.22 14.73 13.15 15.34 10.22 10.10 19.26 10.86 13.12 12.20 18.92 15.03 15.01


26.46 18.53 18.59 18.29 19.41 17.88 17.96 19.01 18.85 19.04 19.65 18.71 19.83 19.31 19.85 17.77
72.29 60.54 56.40 57.54 59.22 59.16 57.14 62.50 62.21 53.54 63.60 59.93 61.58 54.24 59.35 57.30


16
15.01
4.47
3.81
3.95
5.77
2.23
2.70
5.38
5.06
5.85
6.35
4.21
6.27
5.42
6.52

7.24
45.95
13.06
34.38
41.11
53.67
51.65
56.80
57.30

10.70
45.95
2.23









context, the Vienna Bratislava region denotes, to some extent, retail agglomerations.

Although, some of these developments are considered planned, especially in the city

centers, where there is a wide variety of shopping dynamics and choices. Berman et al.

(1979) considers site location a significant characteristic of a retail agglomeration;

therefore, it is important to analyze the attractiveness of the study region to new retail

locations.

Additionally, O'Sullivan (1981) states that clusters of production and service, in this

case retail agglomerations, are a result of the centralizing tendency linked to population

and exchange actions as a whole. The Vienna-Bratislava region has two cores within a

border region. The two capitals, as active centers of the region and in their respective

countries, offer employment resources and infrastructure sites for development. The

population in both cities (approximately 2 million) plays a role as a center and a labor-

market for many European headquarters including public administration buildings

(WIFO, 2007). Consequently, central clustering as described by O'Sullivan (1981) is

applicable to both cities, since each of them holds an efficient network infrastructure,

population and a transportation network making them accessible for its inhabitants and

advantages for other industries as well. Both Vienna and Bratislava share the

advantages above mentioned, and so they also can potentially be called "urban retail

cluster". Urban retail locations offer the proximity of man to man and to trading activities.

So, inhabitants of such urban locations are attracted by the lower costs and high returns

of production and consumption (O'Sullivan, 1981). Taking this into consideration, one

can describe two ways of locating an industry: industries that locate in centers of

production and consumption due to existing advantages but not as close to one to









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Ivan Javier Cabrera was born in Mexico City. He graduated from the Instituto

Politecnico Nacional in 1998 with a degree in accounting. Upon graduation Ivan went to

work for the next two years as a tax consultant at PricewaterhouseCoopers in Mexico

City. In 2000, he worked in the tax department for a group of airports in Mexico (OMA)

in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. In 2001, he studied English at Santa Fe College.

In 2003, he worked as a tax consultant at KPMG in Mexico City. In 2004, he worked as

accounting staff for Infinite Energy, a natural gas company in Gainesville, Florida. In

2007, he worked as a financial manager for LifeTek Orthobiologics, in Gainesville,

Florida. He enrolled in the Urban and Regional Planning master's program at the

University of Florida, the same year. During his time at the University of Florida he

became part of the Network for European and United States Regional and Urban Studies

(NEURUS) research exchange program for which he was awarded a grant. He performed

his research at the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU), in Vienna

Austria. In 2009, he did an internship at the Gainesville Community Redevelopment

Agency in Gainesville, Florida. He also worked with professors in the evaluation and

appraisal reports (EAR) for Bradford County in Florida. In 2010, he worked in EAR for

the city of Alachua, in Alachua Florida. He looks forward to continuing to put his

knowledge and experiences in use to better economic development and redevelopment

practices benefitting residents, communities and cities.









main arterials ibidd p. 76). The urban fabric of the cities cores had become retail

investment receptive and showed to some extent external economies of scale.

Evolution of Development of the Retail Buildings

Purchasing power in the CEE countries, mainly for the population concentrated in

the urban areas, increased due to new economic conditions after the removal of the IC

and the integration to the EU. The existing small retail buildings promptly became

insufficient compared to the opportunities yielded by the buying power of metropolitan

residents. During this period, the yields of investment from residential and office real

estate sectors were declining, and investors sought new investing options in the retail

sector. Additionally, the retail investment markets seemed more compelling and more

resistant to economic fluctuations for both developers and investors. This market had a

boost in CEE countries compared to a steady trend in the Western European states.

The large shopping centers were an emerging and successful real estate sector for

investment in CEE states. However, it was not until after 1995 that the first significant

retail developments took place in the CEE metropolises. A significant increment in these

successful developments occurred after 2000. Stanilov (2000) identifies two main

reasons regarding the quick booming of these developments. On the one hand, the

excessive bombarding of marketing and product availability for the post-socialist

population, in addition to the appearance of innovative retail buildings (compared to the

decayed retail structures during the socialist period). On the other hand, the openness

of urban planning approaches contributed to the new growth in retail property

investment. The new spatial development management supported the spread of large

retail developments (ICSC, 2002).












Table A-1. Continued
Name
1 Auhofcenter
2 Columbus Center Betriebs
3 Donauzentrum
4 Einkaufszentrum Simmering
5 EZS Einkaufszentrum
6 Galleria Einkaufszentrum
7 Gasometer City
8 General Center
9 Gerngross City Center
10 Huma Einkaufspark
11 Lugner City
12 Millennium City
13 Q19
14 Gewerbepark Stadlau
15 Shopping Center Nord
16 STC Stadion Center
17 Trillerpark
18 Fischapark
19 Shopping City Slid
20 Shopping Bruck
21 McArthur Glen Designer Outlet
1 SK Polus City Center
2 SKAupark- Janko Kra? Park
3 SKAvion
4 SK Shopping Palace

Average Vienna region
Max Vienna region
Min Vienna region

Average Vienna City
Max Vienna City


Average Bratislava City
Max Bratislava City
Min Bratislava City

Average Vienna Bratislava
Max Vienna Bratislava


17
15.64
10.40
4.23
11.13
1.59
8.35
9.93
9.32
9.04
12.64
9.30
3.88
3.54
5.44
0.84
7.24

52.42
18.90
39.77
46.41
55.90
54.43
59.01
59.19


18
43.17
42.05
49.76
42.16
50.84
44.24
43.46
43.28
43.51
43.27
43.66
48.54
49.56
51.10
51.58
45.95
52.42

33.59
49.58
53.23
78.89
74.82
81.51
83.37


19
12.84
8.74
16.73
9.92
17.34
11.04
11.06
9.69
9.92
12.91
10.11
15.02
15.97
18.48
18.06
13.06
18.90
33.59

36.92
43.39
61.33
58.56
64.42
65.37


20
47.41
35.61
35.68
32.52
38.93
35.32
32.81
38.19
38.01
28.77
39.44
38.35
40.43
34.42
39.45
34.38
39.77
49.58
36.92

6.74
29.32
25.26
31.93
33.80


21
54.10
42.33
42.35
39.25
45.61
42.06
39.55
44.92
44.75
35.51
46.17
45.07
47.14
41.03
46.12
41.11
46.41
53.23
43.39
6.74

26.88
22.41
29.07
31.29


1 2 3 4
68.61 66.47 71.75 72.29
56.76 54.49 59.90 60.54
52.95 51.24 56.08 56.40
53.73 51.40 56.86 57.54
55.85 54.25 58.97 59.22
55.46 53.34 58.60 59.16
53.38 51.15 56.51 57.14
58.80 56.65 61.94 62.50
58.52 56.38 61.66 62.21
49.70 47.35 52.83 53.54
59.92 57.81 63.06 63.60
56.45 54.67 59.58 59.93
58.16 56.47 61.29 61.58
50.84 49.22 53.96 54.24
56.02 54.48 59.14 59.35
53.67 51.65 56.80 57.30
55.90 54.43 59.01 59.19
78.89 74.82 81.51 83.37
61.33 58.56 64.42 65.37
29.32 25.26 31.93 33.80
26.88 22.41 29.07 31.29
4.62 3.14 4.48
4.62 6.71 8.89
3.14 6.71 2.72
4.48 8.89 2.72


13.33 44.04 16.37 34.42 40.33
52.42 53.23 43.39 49.58 54.10
0.84 33.59 8.74 6.74 6.74

7.21 46.38 13.52 37.03 43.74
15.64 52.42 18.90 47.41 54.10


3.06 5.06 3.14
4.62 8.89 6.71
3.14 4.62 2.72


20.34 49.74 23.74 33.72 38.26 46.54 44.91 49.10 49.83
59.19 83.37 65.37 49.58 54.10 78.89 74.82 81.51 83.37










Table 3-3. Lower Austria and Burgenland- Municipalities and Towns
Estate Municipality Towns Total


Lower
Austria


Eisenstadt


Neusiedl Am See


Bruck and der Leitha














Ganserndorf





















Wiener Neustadt-Land

Wien-Umgebung


Eisenstadt


Frauenkirchen
Gattendorf


Berg
Bruck an der Leitha
GOttlesbrunn-Arbesthal
Gbtzendorf an der Leitha
Hainburg a.d.Donau
Haslau-Maria Ellend
Hbflein
Hundsheim
Petronell-Carnuntum
Prellenkirchen
Rohrau
Wolfsthal

Aderklaa
Andlersdorf
Eckartsau
Engelhartstetten
Ganserndorf
Glinzendorf
GroB-Enzersdorf
GroB-Schweinbarth
GroBhofen
Haringsee
Lassee
Leopoldsdorf im Marchfelde
Mannsdorf an der Donau
Marchegg
Markgrafneusiedl
Orth an der Donau
Parbasdorf
Raasdorf

Wbllersdorf-Steinabruckl

Ebergassing
Fischamend
Klein-Neusiedl
Schwadorf
Schwechat
Zwblfaxing


Burgenland









development, etc. (Pavlinek, 2004). The Bratislava region still lacked real estate

investment in shopping centers due to the existing economic disparities in purchasing

power of the population and RGDP compared to the Vienna region.

Shopping Centers from 1999 to 2009

This decade marked the presence of shopping centers on the side of the former

socialist territory. The emerging retail developments took place not only on the Vienna

region at this time, but also the Bratislava region finally experienced the developments

in its metropolitan region. Both metropolis had had experienced uneven regional

development over the long-term.

Figure 4-3 presents the shopping center development during this decade.

Interestingly, both sides of the region had equal number of developments. The sizes

and characteristics of the centers are almost comparable. The growth of developments

had a significant impact in the regional spatial retail industry in this Central European

region.

Just after the turn of the century, the metropolitan part of Bratislava experienced

the first ever shopping center called Polus City Center. This development took place in

the third district (Okres) of Bratislava. Nove Mesto, Raca, and Vajnory are the boroughs

within this district. District III is second to last regarding population concentration in the

Bratislava region (I-V districts). One year after, Aupark, the second shopping center was

built towards the South Central part of the region, in the District V within approximately

less than five km straight distance from one to another center. The highest

concentration of population from the entire Bratislava region is concentrated in this

district. The next development Avion took place in the borough of Ruzinov, District II.

This center doubled in sized compared to the first two and its location represents a









border region. Both cities are active centers in the region and in their respective

countries; they offer employment and infrastructures sites for development. The

population in the Vienna and Bratislava region (approximately 2 million) plays a role as

a central labor-market for many European headquarters including public administration

buildings (Centrope, 2007). Aside from the city of Vienna, other regions included in this

research are the Austrian Southern states of: Lower Austria and Burgenland, "which are

already being marketed as a joint location under the name Vienna Region" (STEP,

2005, p. 18); and from the Slovak Republic, the city of Bratislava.

The scope of analysis involves: the capital city of Vienna with its 23 districts, the

state of Burgenland with two municipalities encompassing 13 towns, the estate of Lower

Austria with four municipalities encompassing 37 towns, and the capital city of

Bratislava with its five districts. Tables 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3 detail the names of the towns

and municipalities included.

Figure 3-1 shows the transportation corridors which serve as spatial boundaries to

delimit the focus of the study area. The railway to the North and the motorway to the

South are the main transportation infrastructures used to reach these cities. The

municipality and town selection was based on a spatial buffer of 3 to 5 km from the road

and rail corridors.

Vienna

The geographical and spatial location of Vienna makes it more than an

intermediary between the West and East. It is a doorway for CEE countries to the EU.

Vienna has a high gross domestic product (GDP) per capital (approximately 180% of the

EU average) and ranks in the top five regions (NUTS II) among the EU (Centrope,

2007).









infrastructure and purchasing power. These are some elements that will determine

whether or not dispersion from the cities is occurring in the focus region.

Secondly, agglomeration of shopping centers in the city of Vienna. For this

scenario to happen, the city must show a significant regional growth supported by the

location of firms and must be identified as a nodal region. It must be determined

whether or not external economies of scale, scope or complexity are occurring. Finally,

the role of the factor mobility and the market potential in terms of population, wages,

demand and transportation costs, must be determined.

Thirdly, agglomeration of shopping centers in the city of Bratislava. This scenario

includes the transition period and the current period in terms of retail industry

development. Therefore, in order to display agglomeration, the city of Bratislava must

present the same characteristics above described for the city of Vienna scenario.

The last scenario is the occurrence of agglomeration in both cities. The conditions

for this scenario would entail both cities presenting regional growth; having market

potential to sustain the retail industry; population; purchasing power; one or more

modalities of the external economies; nodal characteristics; transportation infrastructure;

and urban growth development patterns.

Literature about Definitions

Agglomeration Economies

Parr (2001) defines agglomeration economies as "cost savings to the firm which

result from the concentration of production at a given location, either on the part of the

individual firm or by firms in general" (p. 718).









2009, and finally the future developments not yet built as these decades include a

series of historical facts in the study region. In 1989, Slovakia was still part of the

socialist regime, and before this year, the study area was not pictured in an economic

map setting due to the IC. As a result, this barrier impeded political and economic

relations between both countries. The decade from 1989 to 1999 represents the

opening of the borders, the transition period of Slovakia, the accession of Austria to the

EU, and when both states started to build up relationships again at different levels. The

last decade from 1999 to 2009 corresponds to a time when both countries are part of

the EU and other programs. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology was

used to show the development patterns in each city and the Lower Austria and

Burgenland regions as well. The GIS polygons data sets (or layer) were obtained from

the Research Institute for Spatial and Real Estate Economics at the Vienna University

of Economics and Business, with one data set for each country: Austria and the Slovak

Republic. Additionally, another data set for The City of Vienna and its 23 districts was

also obtained.

The selection of the regions from each country data set was as follows:

* Austria: The City of Vienna (23 districts), Lower Austria, and Burgenland.

* Slovak Republic: The City of Bratislava (5 districts)


An extraction of the selected regions in the original data sets was created to show

the study area, and new data sets were created, one for the Vienna region and other for

the Bratislava region. New feature classes (points) were created to show each one of

the developments within the new datasets. The resulting maps spatially demonstrate









in the financial services industry can derived from the whole marketing and cooperation

activities among the other firms within the industry. Secondly, in external economies of

scope, the benefits to a firm are conditioned by the existence of other firms from other

industries. Here a firm "share the inputs with other firms" ibidd, 719). And thirdly, in

external economies of complexity, a firm benefits from having economic interaction with

other firms in other industries regarding the coordination of inputs and outputs.

These external economies may present two patterns of location. In the first type,

the relevant activities may tend to disperse to different locations; whereas in the second

type, the opposite occurs: the relevant activities concentrate at a specific location.

Additionally, in other settings, the proximate location of supply and demand ease the

contact to one another.(Parr, 2001).

On the other hand, the extensive study of city centers or metropolitan areas as

they are called by other scholars, leads to other applicable concepts also involve in this

case study. Christaller (1966) refers to a hierarchy in local and regional areas of trading

in the retail and service industry. Moreover, "the central place and urban hierarchy refer

to the dispersed population around each central place and the retail stores and service

establishments this population supports" (Maki et al., 2000, p. 50). Maki (2000) further

explains the patterns of retailing location referred by Parr in the previous paragraph. On

the one hand, certain types of retailing concentrate where different types of firms are

established, but all are also complementary to one another in terms of purchasing

behavior; on the other hand, these types of retailing concentrate at a specific location,

such as business districts or shopping streets. Thus, microcenters of industry









The city of Bratislava reveals a more concentrated proximity among the centers. A

shopper would travel the max. and min. distance of approximately 8 and 3 km. The

average distance among all centers is 4 km.

The Vienna Bratislava region identifies a variation of distances. The maximum

distances range from 49 to 83 km., whereas the lowest from 17 to 50 km.

In summary, the range of distances in the metropolitan areas shows proximity

enough to argue that the economic phenomenon of agglomeration is present. On the

one hand, there is a spillover that creates economies of scale and has also a multiplier

effect in the retail industry; the provision of economic benefits to the community

regarding jobs and tax revenues and competition among centers. On the other hand,

consumers benefit from shopping options and larger selection of goods.











Table 4-5. Trip purpose classification by transportation mode
Purpose of traveling Public and Private modes
Group F Towards domestic
Road Berg, Kittsee Int. Kittsee Nal.


Rail


Commuting


Commerce


Shopping and errand traffic





Leisure traffic



Holiday traffic


Marchegg, Kittsee Private transportation Public transportation
Frequency per week Frequency per week
1 2 to 4 5 >5 Total 1 2 to 4 5 >5 Total
To work 2,408 529 1,014 73 4,024 100 90 406 3 599
Rush
hour from work 46 29 434 8 517 35 13 44 92

Total 2,454 558 1,448 81 4,541 31% 135 103 450 3 691 27%

To school/training 109 25 64 198 26 91 301 16 434
from
Education school/training 3 3 34 6 68 108

traffic Total 109 25 67 201 1% 60 97 369 16 542 21%

Execution time 1,516 336 66 27 1,945 13% 170 64 15 249 10%

Private settlement 3,539 381 141 39 4,100 28% 326 43 25 6 400 16%

Purchasing 1,122 142 10 6 1,280 9% 104 14 118 5%

Total 4,661 523 151 45 5,380 36% 430 57 25 6 518 20%

Sports 650 95 7 4 756 208 10 218

to/from 2nd home 24 28 14 66 7 5 12

Total 674 123 21 4 822 6% 215 15 230 9%

Holiday 1,891 30 1,921 13% 266 44 4 314 12%

TOTAL 11,305 1,595 1,753 157 14,810 1,276 380 859 29 2,544


Source: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung (original version in German;own translation)









reflected different information regarding trips related for shopping if the study was

conducted when there were no or started to have shopping centers in the city of

Bratislava.

Is There Any Difference Between the Shopping Centers in Both Regions?

The shopping centers facilitate a wide variety of shops while offering a pleasant

environment for shoppers becoming major entertainment centers. The decision of

shoppers regarding the place for shopping is correlated to the distance to the shopping

center.

Developments on both sides of the study area denote the underlying success

factor of customer satisfaction. Leisure facilities, promotional activities, economic

advantages, and merchandise policy also play an important role in the selection for

shopping and are also present in both regions. The first shopping centers developments

in the Vienna region normally did not have an anchor store and some of them have had

redevelopment projects or major extensions. The extensions represent more area for

sales, shops, and often times for an anchor store or new leisure facilities. The newer

developments normally have one or more anchor stores or hypermarkets attached to

the main building. The newest developments, in addition to hypermarkets or anchor

stores, also offer cinemas, leisure facilities, casinos and even fitness centers. Some of

the latest developments also include office space as another convenient feature,

however. Due to the traits of shoppers affecting the design and preference for shopping,

the new development trends of shopping centers, in the study area, are changing the

traditional blueprint into a mix use development.

The accessibility of the centers is a matter of using the public transportation in the

Vienna region, except to the developments (Shopping City Sud, Fischapark, and









of the Eastern region of Austria will be analyzed. The survey covers eight regions on the

Eastern border. For the purpose of this analysis, the border crossing related to the

Vienna Bratislava region will be analyzed. As this survey was not customized for the

purpose of this shopping center analysis, it covers a broader area. Private

transportation, railways and bus transportation are the transportation modes included in

the report. This region has a ratio of commuting twice as high as those from other

regions (i.e. from Vienna to Budapest (<50%), Gyor (<10%) in Hungary, and Brno

(>10%), and Prague (>15%) in the Czech Republic. Figure 4-6 demonstrates the total

area covered by this survey and the crossing points.

The mode with the highest ratio is using private (66%), rail (30%), and bus (4%)

transportation at all crossing points. International transportation in the region is

classified in private and public (rail and bus) transportation. With regards to the Vienna

Bratislava region, this border is crossed mainly by private (79%) compared to public

(21%) mode of transportation. The main crossing points are Berg (51%), Kittsee Int.

(26%) and Kittsee Nat. (12%). From these numbers, we can conclude the importance of

the transportation links within this region.

Following is Table 4-3 shows the significance in the flow from one metropolis to

the other. From private (entrance) mode of transportation, the main bulk of commuters

travel almost at same rates between Vienna and the other destinations within the scope

of the survey; whereas, at the time of exiting, almost all commuters travel to Bratislava

(87%) and the remaining towards other locations.

Regarding public modes of transportation, Bratislava (98%) is the main origin of

commuters and Vienna (84%) their main destination. This can be due to the modal split










Jackson, K.T., 1996, All the World's a Mall: Reflections on the Social and Economic
Consequences of the American Shopping Center, Journal of the American History
Review, v. 101, 4, p. 1111-1121

Krugman P., 1991 Geography and Trade, Cambridge, MIT Press

Krugman P., 1991 Increasing Returns and Economic Geography, Journal of Political
Economy, 99, 3, UChicago Press

Losch, August, 1964, The Economics of Location, New Heaven, Conn., Yale University
Press

Maier G., Masek M., 1991, The Removal of the" Iron Curtain" and its Regional Impact
upon Austria and the CSFR, Journal of Jahrbuch f"ur Regionalwissenschaft 12, 1-13

Maki, W.R. and Lichty, R.W., 2000, Urban Regional Economics: Concepts, Tools,
Applications, Iowa, US, Iowa State University Press

Marz, E, 1984, Austrian Banking and Financial Policy: Creditanstalt at a Turning Point,
1913-1923, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London

Mulligan, G, 1984, Agglomeration and Central Place Theory: A Review of the Literature,
Journal of International Regional Science Review, volume 9, number 1, p. 1-42

O'Sullivan P., 1981, Geographical Economics, New York, Halsted Press.

Pavlinek, P., 2004, Regional Development Implications of Foreign Direct Investment In
Central Europe, Journal of European Urban and Regional Studies, v. 11, n. 1, p. 47-70

Rehackova, T., Pauditsova, E., 2004, Evaluation of urban green spaces in Bratislava,
Boreal Environment Research, 9, 6, p. 469-477, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki

Redding, S. and Venables, A.J., 2004, Economic Geography and International
Inequality, 62, 1, p. 53-82, Elsevier

Reutterer T., Teller C., 2008, the Evolving Concept of Retail Attractiveness: What
Makes Retail Agglomerations Attractive When Customers Shop at Them, Journal of
Retailing and Customer Services 15, no. 3, 127-143.

SCS, Facts and Figures http://www.scs.at/scs/topnavcenter/unternehmen/facts.php
(accessed July 14, 2009)

Stanilov, K, 2007, The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in
Central and Eastern Europe After Socialism, Springer









midpoint in between the previous developments. The location of this shopping center is

also strategically placed near to the Ivanka International airport and only approximately

between three and seven km. away from previous shopping centers.

District II had its second shopping center by 2004. The Shopping Palace

development has a supermarket as an anchor and is at a really close distance with less

than three km from Avion center. This district has the second largest overall

concentration of inhabitants in Bratislava.

On the other side of the map, the metropolitan area of Vienna experienced another

shopping center development in the Simmering (11th) district as its second shopping

center. In 2005, two new developments took place in the Meidling (12th) and Dobling

(19th) districts respectively; both districts have an average population concentration.

Finally, the most recent development was in Leopoldstadt (2nd) District. Two of these

four developments were not greater than 30,000 m2 and the rest approximately 15,000
m2
m .

Another development was built in the LA area. The location of this center is close

to the boundary with the Burgenland area and to the outlet center.

Shopping centers up to 2010

This map depicts the spatial distribution of shopping center developments in the

study area. On the side of Vienna, the developments are situated in different areas but

mainly towards the southeastern part of the city. On the other side, the City of Bratislava

shows developments towards the east as well. No agglomerations are shown in

between both metropolises, except the three developments in between both cities.

However, a significant agglomeration of developments is seen in the city of Vienna

compared to young agglomeration of shopping centers depicted in the city of Bratislava.









as both cities are hubs in transportation. At the time of exiting, the percentages changed

due to the origin and destination. See tables 4-3 and 4-4 for public and private

transportation commuting ratios.

Finally, Table 4-4 shows the different trip purposes along the main transportation

corridors between both cities. The first part of the table shows commuters traveling

towards the Vienna region using private transportation. Commuting to work and private

settlement are the two most common purposes of trips (31% and 28% respectively).

The shopping trips account for almost 10%. For commuters using public transportation,

work and school are the most common purpose of trips (27% and 21% respectively).

Shopping trips are even lower accounting for 5%. Based on the percentages for

shopping trips, 1 or none out of ten commuters will purchase in the Vienna region, and

the odds they will make their purchases in a shopping center are even lower.

The second part demonstrates commuter traveling outward from the city of Vienna

using the same transportation corridors. The purposes of the trips are proportioned

similarly. Work on public and private mode is still the most common trip; private errands

the second most common trip on private transportation; whereas, school and private

errands share the same percentage on public modes. Shopping trips are even lower on

public and private (8% and 5% respectively).

In summary, commuters, from from one region to the other, have a wide variety of

purposes to make a trip, other than shopping. Seemingly, the aim to travel within these

transportation corridors is for different reasons other than shopping. This may indicate

that the purpose of the shopping centers is merely to satisfy the local demand, rather

than to attract outsiders to their location. Perhaps, the results of this study would have









CHAPTER 3
CASE STUDY

With more than only spatial locations in common, the twin cities of Vienna and

Bratislava have experienced similar structural, political and spatial changes over time.

Several years after the World War II, Austria became part of the Western bloc and

Czechoslovakia part of the Soviet bloc. The division of both countries took them to

different paths in their economic history.

The Vienna-Bratislava region is included in the Centrope region as one of the

prominent regions focusing on cross-border development to encourage regional

competitiveness and sustainable development at a local and regional level. The spatial

location of both cities (approximately. 60 km apart) makes it a challenging region to

analyze. For the purposes of this research, it is important to delimit the specific region of

study. This region covers a broad area which includes Southern parts of Moravia in the

Czech Republic, the region of Trnava in Slovakia, and the counties of Gy6r-Moson-

Sopron and Van in Hungary. Additionally, a diverse set of languages are spoken in this

region accompanied by a variety of cultures. The most common spoken languages are:

German, Slovak, Czech, Hungarian, Croatian, and Turkish (Finka, 2007 p. 124). This

region also offers the case of partnership between cities. "Partnerships between border

regions have for many years been one of the prime concerns of EU funding

programmes" (Giffinger et al, undated).

Delimitation of the Area
For the purpose of this research, it is important to delimit the specific region of

scope. The study region is located between two federal states in the European

continent: Austria and Slovakia. The Vienna Bratislava axis is the core area of the














Table 4-5. Continued
Purpose of traveling Public and Private modes
Group F Outwards domestic
Road Berg, Kittsee Int. Kittsee Nal.
Rail Marchegg, Kittsee


Commuting







Commerce


Shopping and errand
traffic





Leisure traffic



Holiday traffic


Private transportation
Frequency per week


Public transportation
Frequency per week
2 to


1 2 to 4 5 >5 Total 1 4 5 >5 Total

To work 582 185 175 6 948 34 41 175 1 251
Rush
hour from work 835 542 1,064 187 2,628 108 151 318 49 626

Total 1,417 727 1,239 193 3,576 29% 142 192 493 50 877 31%

To school/training 8 7 15 11 5 13 29
from
Education school/training 5 33 113 26 177 43 68 369 5 485

traffic Total 13 33 120 26 192 2% 54 73 382 5 514 18%

Execution time 1,451 328 16 15 1,810 15% 132 38 12 182 6%

Private settlement 2,137 440 136 41 2,754 22% 355 92 24 43 514 18%

Purchasing 785 181 3 3 972 8% 129 7 136 5%

Total 2,922 621 139 44 3,726 30% 484 99 24 43 650 23%

Sports 1,226 62 38 1,326 212 22 1 2 237

to/from 2nd home 13 12 3 28 7 7

Total 1,239 74 3 38 1,354 11% 219 22 1 2 244 9%

Holiday 1,637 3 8 1,648 13% 329 29 358 13%

TOTAL 8,679 1,783 1,520 324 12,306 1,360 453 912 100 2,825









and the future land uses supporting this type of developments in addition to a policy

evaluation from both regions enforcing future development that ultimately will connect

both regions and cities.

































S2010 Ivan Javier Cabrera









REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS IN RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS:
A CASE STUDY IN THE VIENNA BRATISLAVA REGION




















By

IVAN JAVIER CABRERA


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010











Table 3-1. Districts in Bratislava
Estate District Number
Bratislava I
II



III



IV






V







Table 3-2. Districts in Vienna
Estate District Name
Vienna Innere Stadt
Leopoldstadt
Landstrale
Wieden
Margareten
Mariahilf
Neubau
Josefstadt
Alsergrund
Favoriten
Simmering
Meidling
Hietzing
Penzing
Rudolfsheim-FOnfhaus
Ottakring
Hernals
Wahring
Dobling
Brigittenau
Floridsdorf
Donaustadt
Liesing


Borough
Star6 Mesto
Ruinov
Vrakuha
Podunajsk6 Biskupice
Nov6 Mesto
Rata
Vajnory
Karlova Ves
Dubravka
Lama6
Devin
Devinska Nova Ves
Zahorska Bystrica
Petrialka
Jarovce
Rusovce
Cunovo




Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23









Additionally, the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) document includes

policies to promote sustainable development within the EU territory. Policies and goals

of the ESDP cover different regions at different levels among all EU members. Some of

these goals address a variety of issue areas including: economic cohesion, population,

transport, and environment protection among the old and accessed countries (European

Commission, 1999). The aim for co-operation among Eastern and Western members of

the EU is clearly a constant subject for EU regional integration. Holistic spatial

development in a dynamic region with enormous economic potential, like the Vienna

Bratislava region, must therefore be worth analyzing.

Objectives

This research has specific aims:

1. Assess the shopping center agglomerations or dispersions before and after the
removal of the Iron Curtain on retail development investments in each city and the
region between them. Determine the trend and spatial direction of shopping center
developments in the study area after the removal of the Iron Curtain.

2. Document chronologically the shopping center developments in the study area.

3. Determine whether or not the removal of the IC had an impact on agglomeration or
dispersion of retail development investments.

4. Use the findings of this case study to build an empirical base for future prediction of
real estate investment trends, economic development, and retail planning decisions
for this and other comparable cases (Warsaw, Prague, Budapest, Berlin, etc.).

A few studies documenting the commercial-retail agglomeration in this region have

been completed. Following are some characteristics that make this region quite

particular: the changes of the sovereign governments, spatial characteristics and

boundaries, economic platforms before and after World War II, different trading

systems, physical and economic restrictions existing within the region, and different

development visions throughout the time.









al. (2008) addressed the case of real estate developments in office/work centers in and

between Vienna and Bratislava. Swoboda et al. (2008) focused on the hypermarkets

and food retail chains at different subcategories of retailing in Austria. Drtina (1995)

referred to the internationalization of retail distribution patterns in the Czech and Slovak

republics. Real estate retail developments, if different from those referred to in the

existing literature, must be discussed and explored in order to empirically document and

analyze the spatial evidence. The literature review provides the theoretical framework

and part of the perspective for studying real estate retail investments. It considers

historical and contemporary contexts, suitable to the study region, existing retail

agglomerations and future development patterns of retail locations.

The methodology used is a case study and follows the literature review section.

Due to time constraints and availability of data, the data analyzed relies on some

statistical sources, economic indicators, and is also based on other transportation

studies and spatial visualizations.

The Vienna-Bratislava region is a unique case study and a deeper explanation of

the development of the retail investments and reasons for choosing it will be explained

further under the case study section.

While using an empirical data collection method, the outcomes of the analysis of

the case study points to different directions. This examination includes to some extent a

relative relationship of the case study to economic theories included in the literature

regarding agglomeration and dispersion of retail developments. On the other hand, it

also reveals inconsistencies between what is discussed in the literature and the

particularities of this study case, which are discussed in the fourth and final chapter.









investors started to assess capital investment opportunities in the new markets.

However, the economic and political residuals from the socialist system in one side of

the study region delayed the current flourishing real estate market in retail opportunities.

Investments in the shopping center industry rose significantly in different markets

throughout the European continent from 1999 to 2004. An increment of 68% of the total

investment in shopping centers was from cross border investment in Europe. Poland

and the Czech Republic were among the top five countries with more than 90% of

investments from outside home markets. Austria experienced relatively low levels of

investment in shopping center stock during the same period (CBRE, 2004), and the

Slovak Republic did not even rank in this category.

The spatial geographical territory of the Vienna Bratislava region has faced

continuous reintegration in the periods before and after the collapse of the socialist

regimes. Existing development poles suffered changes from core to peripheral roles.

The character of borders and the integration of local, national, regional economies have

improved the territorial space for development (Finka, 2005). For the purpose of this

research, the study of the development of shopping centers will be limited to an area in

the Vienna Bratislava region as it also is considered an active case of partnership

between border regions. (Giffinger et al., undated).

It is important to mention that the term "retail buildings", when use in this study,

also refers to shopping centers or malls.

Study Area

The Vienna-Bratislava region is located at the center of Central and Eastern

Europe and represents a link between Eastern and Western countries. This region has

the most closely located capitals in the World, with only approximately 60 km. between









Shopping Center Context ................................................... ............ .. ......... 47
Shopping Center Structure in the Vienna Region.................. ...................47
Post-Socialist Real Estate Investm ents ................................. .................. .....47
Evolution of Development of the Retail Buildings ..................................49
Transition Period ................................................... ........................... 51
Economic Crisis on Real Estate Market ................ ............................................. 52
Shopping C enter C om prisons ............................................................ ................ 52

4 A NA LY S IS A N D FIN D IN G S ................................................................. ................ 60

Economy ic Indicators .................................................................... ....... 60
Chronological Developm ent .............................................................. .. ...... ... 61
Shopping C enter Inventory ...................................................... .. ............ ... 61
Shopping C enters up to 1989..................................... ......................... .......... 63
Shopping Centers from 1989 to 1999 ................ ............................................ 64
Shopping Centers from 1999 to 2009 ............................................................65
S hopping centers up to 20 10 ................................................................... ..... 66
Q questions for A analysis ....................................................... ....... ................... ... 67
What are the Conditions for Development in and between Both
M etropolises? ..................................... ....... ... ...... .................. 67
Does the Distance between Both Metropolises and Trip Purpose Matter for
Shopping Center Developm ents? ............... ...... ... ............ ................. 68
Is There Any Difference Between the Shopping Centers in Both Regions?......71

5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS ........................................ ........................ 83

S ocia lis m ......... ................................... ........................... 84
Removal of the IC .................. ......... ................84
Shopping Center Agglomeration ............ ........... ................................ ...... .......... 85
EU Integration .................. ................................. ........... ... .... ......... 86
Shopping Center Target and Trip Purposes................. ......... ................ 87
F u rth er S tud ies ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. .......... ................................ 8 7

APPENDIX: MATRIX OF DISTANCES ...................................... ................91

LIST OF REFERENCES ............. ............................. ........... .... .... ................. 95

B IO G R A P H IC A L S K E T C H ..................................................................................... .... 99












6





























Lged
Vienna_AI_Pop_per_District M 12.111112 19.888889
Pop_Chance 19-888890- 27666667
| I -1 9.000000 -11.222222 27.666668 35-444444
-11 222221 -3.444444 35.444445 43.222222
-34444443 433333 43222223 51 o00D00
4.333334- 12.111111


0 2,100 4,200 8,400 Unknown Units
I I I I I I I I I


Figure 5-1. Shopping center location by district in the city of Vienna

Source: Own


,\
N







































Legend
o Shopping Centers from 1999 to 2009
a airports


0 24,5019,000 98,000 DecimalDegrees
I I il l i I


Figure 4-3. Shopping centers between 1999 and 2009

Source: Own


N
N









Vienna is a highly attractive international city that promotes a cultural and urban

environment. It has a beautiful city landscape and high-quality recreational facilities in

and around the city; "about 50% of the city territory are parks and green areas"

(Strategy Plan for Vienna, 2000, p. 12). Even given that the high proportion of green

space, Vienna's territory is considered urban.

Lower Austria

This region has a heterogeneous land and is the biggest territory in Austria. It is

ranked third in manufacturing industry in the country. The unemployment rates are

average compared to other regions in Austria. The GDP is slightly below the EU

average (Centrope, 2007).

Burgenland

This region is the least wealthy compared to the other two. A significant portion of

the Southern part of its territory is considered rural. The GDP of this region is below the

EU average. Burgenland receives EU funding. Due to the type of temporary

employment in the peripheral regions of this state, the unemployment rate is high

(Centrope, 2007).

Bratislava

The city of Bratislava is considered an employment and infrastructure hub in the

Slovak Republic. Its geographical and spatial location next to the Vienna region makes

it more appealing for foreign direct investment (FDI). Bratislava has the highest GDP

per capital compared to the other regions in the Republic (Centrope, 2007). The city's

territory is mostly urban with some small heterogeneous land areas. This region has a

high employment rate and low unemployment rate.









Economic Crisis on Real Estate Market

During the 90's, the Slovak real estate market was stagnant and did not boom until

the turn of the century when a growing demand in all real estate sectors was present.

Stanilov (2007) talks about the change in ownership of assets by private entities and the

land rent as two determinant elements for the "process of urban spatial readjustment" in

a new real estate environment (p.1). International investors were seeking new emerging

markets during the second half of the 1990's; consequently, a significant portion of

foreign investment went to the commercial property market. Developers and real estate

companies partnered together to begin building retail developments in the capital of

Bratislava.

The effects of the removal of the IC brought on a number of features during the

post-communist transition in Central and Eastern Europe. Balcerowicz (1995) points out

that even though the changes in political and economic systems started at the same

time, there were not a simultaneous transitions between both types of changes as it

took longer for the economic than the political system, even considering the political and

economic reform that had occurred under socialist regimes. Drtina (2005) said that

positive economic changes in Slovakia happened before the EU accession, even

though they coincide. However, with the accession, Slovakia has not had important

economic results (Ivanicka et al., 2009).

Shopping Center Comparisons

Shopping centers were first introduced in Europe in the 1950s. Most of the

developers around the world follow the American model when experiencing

developments of this type. Certain traits are essential in the shopping center

development, such as accessibility, parking space, location, facilities or use, target











Table 4-1. Classification of source data
Level Minimum Maximum

NUTS 1 3 million 7 million
NUTS 2 800 000 3 million
NUTS 3 150000 800000
Source: Eurostat, 2009 NUTS: Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics



Table 4-2. Shopping Centers List
Name District Approx. m2 Year of construction


City of Vienna
Donauzentrum
General Center
EZS Einkaufszentrum
Huma Einkaufspark
Shopping Center Nord
Lugner City
Auhofcenter
Gewerbepark Stadlau
Genrngross City Center
Millennium City
Gasometer City
Columbus Center Betriebs
Q19
STC Stadion Center
Einkaufszentrum Simmering
Galleria Einkaufszentrum
Trillerpark
Lower Austria
Shopping City Sud
Fischapark
Shopping Bruck
Burgenland
McArthur Glen Designer Outlet
City of Bratislava
Polus City Center
Aupark
Avion
Shopping Palace
Future Shopping Center: Twin City
Source: Own


9,500
5,000
13,000
44,000
32,700
26,500
25,000
75,000
31,600
50,000
23,240
16,000
15,000
27,000
NA
NA
NA

176,000
21,200
25,000

37,000


40,000
44,000
84,000
35,000
91,660


1975
1977
1984
1987
1989
1990
1995
1996
1997
1999
2001
2005
2005
2007
NA
NA
NA

1976
1996
2001

1990


2000
2001
2002
2004
2008-2012









borders with other Eastern and Central countries: to the north is the Czech Republic

and Poland, to the west Austria, to the south Hungary and to the East Ukraine.

Bratislava is the capital city of the Slovak Republic and divided into five districts. By

1996, the capital became part of the Bratislava Region along with Malacky, Pezinok and

Senec districts as a part of the territorial-administrative division. This territorial division is

classified as a NUTS III region. By 1998, territorial self government was initiated

(Bachtler et al., 2000 p. 179). Bachtler et al. (2000) considered this as a "component of

the emerging decentralized system" (p. 180).

Bucek, (1998) points out that during the restructuring of the country into new

regions, problems of regional disparities were faced. As the regional policy was

centralized before 1989, the new regional policy focused in monitoring the growing

disparities and the problems within regions. During the 1990s, the Bratislava region was

considered to have as twice as much infrastructure compared to the rest of the regions,

as well as high levels of research and development and qualified labor, and the highest

foreign direct investment (FDI) in the country (62% of the total in Slovakia). By 2002, the

Bratislava region reached a FDI of 67.8% of the total Slovak FDI stock (Pavlinek, 2004,

p. 51, also Finka et al., 2005). Additionally, the metropolitan area of Bratislava has the

largest hinterlands, along with Kosice. The location of Bratislava next to the EU

members demands future development potential and cross border co-operation.

Bachtler (2000) makes the point that co-operation between the cities of Vienna and

Bratislava creates a space for agglomeration based on labor, economic, infrastructural

and physical perspectives.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and most, I would like to thank my parents for teaching me that with faith

there is no impossible and supporting me in this journey; my sisters and rest of family

for their continued love, support and to all for reminding me of the important things in

life. I thank Professor Andres Blanco for his valuable guidance, constructive comments,

time, and effort on serving on my committee. I also thank Dean Chris Silver for serving

on my committee and supporting me on the Network for European and United States

Regional and Urban Studies (NEURUS) program. I also would like to thank and

acknowledge Dr. Gunther Maier for believing in this project and making it possible, and

also to Dr. Edward Bergman; to both for their time, knowledge and insight, both from the

Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU) in Austria. I also thank Slavomir

Ondos, Ursula Grafeneder, and Barbara Gaal for their help during my time at WU.

Finally, I thank Charles McCamey, Marissa Ann Secreto, and Renzo Rosales for their

love, support, company, and guidance during this journey. Research on this topic was

supported financially by Immofinanz, Group, in Vienna, Austria.




























om co, ......... N G n.L N-o N
A B









Figure 4-5. Economic indicators: A)Demographic density of inhabitants per km2; B)
Primary income of private household PPCS per habitant

Source: Own
Legend I

029: in. .97

m-s Nl ] 07*

A B

Figure 4-5. Economic indicators: A)Demographic density of inhabitants per km2; B)
Primary income of private household PPCS per habitant

Source: Own









another, and those with close association to similar industries ibidd, 1981). As both cities

share the agglomeration advantages, the development of shopping centers in the

regions outside the cities has evolved at a different pace and displays a pattern of

development worth studying.

Market Potential

Economic geographers have used market potential measures "to describe the

proximity advantages of different locations and to predict trends in actual location". As

noted the in literature the market potential function is as follows "the potential of some

site as a weighted sum of the purchasing power of all other sites, with the weights being

a declining function of distance" (Fujita, et al., 1999, p. 32-33). Studies in economic

geography refer to spatial agglomeration and to product-market linkages between

regions. Harris (1954), the originator of the market potential function, stated that the

demand of goods and services produced in one location equals the sum of purchasing

power in other locations related to the transportation costs. Fujita et al. (1999) added

that the closer the concentrations of consumer and industrial demand, the higher

nominal wages tend to be. More recently, Hanson (2005) reaffirms the theoretical work

from Harris (1954) stating that the size of a market and differences in income are

interrelated.

In sum, based on the theoretical framework, Figure 2-1 shows some of the

spillovers from agglomeration of shopping center, which are applicable to this case

study.











































Legend


* Shopping Centers upto 1989 (IC)
* airports


0 24,5099,000 98,000 Decimal Degrees
I i I Il


Figure 4-1. Shopping centers before 1989

Source: Own


A
N









the trends of development. Each point represents a shopping center development within

the time period.

Shopping Centers up to 1989

This cut-off year represents one of the most important historical years for this

study area as it is the year of the collapse of socialist state in CEE countries. Up to this

year, all developments that fit the selection criteria (>5,000 m2) will be spatially shown in

a map. The development trend of shopping centers was only shown in the Vienna

region side. The city of Vienna was the main region for development with 5 shopping

centers, and the Lower Austria region with only one shopping center located close to

the city's south boundary (See Figure 4-1).

Two out of the five shopping centers developments in the city were located on the

Floridsdorf (21st) District. This district was the second in overall population increment

from 1981 to 1991. Favoriten (10th) District had the largest demographic concentration

from all the districts during this period of time. Following it is: Donaustadt (22nd) and

Leopoldstadt (2nd). The rest of the shopping centers took place in Donaustadt (22nd),

Mariahilf (6th), and Simmering (11th) districts respectively. Table 3-2 details the area and

year of construction. Shopping City Sud was the biggest shopping center in Europe for

several years. This center was built in 1976 and represents an important retail

development in the Lower Austria province. Its location attracts customers from home

and abroad (SCS, 2009). This is the first development that was outside of the city

boundaries taking place in the town of Vosendorf.

On the other hand, Bratislava did not have any shopping center developments as

the retail activity was still controlled by the centralized government. Additionally, FDI in

the Slovak Republic was not possible yet, being restricted by the socialist regime.









Vienna and Bratislava. Its location is "important as the geographical, spatial, cultural

and geopolitical intersection at the heart of Europe" (Finka, 2005, p. 123). This region

has approximately 4 million inhabitants, an area of 30,000 km., and approximately 46%

and 34% of their respective national GDPs, respectively ibidd, p. 124). See Figure 1-1

for a map of the study area.

History of the Study Area

Figure 1-2 briefly highlights the most important historical events involving this area

of study. During 1890's, the study area was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In

1922, as a result of World War I, the empire dissolved into three states: Austria,

Hungary and Czechoslovakia. By the end of WW II, in 1946, Czechoslovakia's political

structure fell under communist influence, and in 1948 Czechoslovakia became part of

the Soviet bloc. This resulted in what is called the IC, which was dissolved by 1989.

After this year, Austria and Czechoslovakia were again able to trade between each

other. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two new states: the Czech Republic and the

Slovak Republic. In 1995, Austria became part of the European Union (EU) and ceased

using the Austrian schilling in favor of the Euro in 1999. It took many years for the

Slovak Republic to achieve EU membership, which it did in 2004. By 2009, the Slovak

Republic had joined the Euro zone and discarded its currency, the koruna.

EU Context

The collapse of the political regime in Central and Eastern Europe and the EU's

acceptance of some of these states have resulted in the formulation of projects and

application of various programs issued by the European Commission and governments

of different regions. In this context, the Vienna Bratislava region became part of different

programs, such as the Central European Region (Centrope) and Twin cities.









Shopping Centers from 1989 to 1999

Between these years, the developments occurred again only on the Austrian side.

By this time, former socialist residents of the study region had an option to commute to

the Vienna region for shopping.

There were seven shopping centers developments during this decade. Five of

them were located within the City of Vienna's boundaries. The chronological

development was in the Rudolfsheim-Funfhaus (15th), Penzing (14th), Donaustadt (22nd),

Neubau (7th), and Brigittenau (20th) districts. One more development took place in the

LA region farther South from the city. Another important development took place in the

Burgenland region with close proximity to the transportation corridor that links both

cities. This shopping center seemed to be strategically located to attract customers from

home and abroad, and was developed right after the removal of the IC having the

theme of an outlet store. Customers from Slovakia and other regions in Austria and

Hungary had access to this development. See Figure 4-2.

During this period of time, the Donaustadt (22nd) district received its second large-

scale retail building and showed the highest increase in population between 1991 to

2001. The highest demographic change between these two years took place in the

Simmering (11th), Floridsdorf (21st), Favoriten (10th) and Liesing (23rd) districts

respectively, while the population decreased in the remaining districts.

Even though, the real estate investments in shopping center and FDI slowly

started to flourish in the post-socialist metropolises, and the highest stock of investment

went to the Central Europe (CE) countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic and

Slovakia), the inflows of FDI to the Slovak Republic were the lowest among the CE

states in the following industries: industrial, manufacturing, green field, research and









Socialism

This period had its mark on this region as the shopping center development

occurred only in the Vienna region. This study shows that the trend of developments

was of 6 centers from 1975 to 1989; one more than the average for the following

decades. Even though, investors and shopping centers did not know whether they

would ever target consumers in the other side of the IC, they did suffice the local

shoppers' needs. Moreover, the location of these centers were reached using the

existing transportation infrastructure as developments are within the city boundaries

with only one exception outside of the city.These spatial setting and development trend

are supported by the descriptions of the elements in the central place theory from

Mulligan and Maki included in the literature review.

Removal of the IC

Based on the literature review on the tendency of agglomeration in the shopping

center industry, there should be real estate retail developments happening in the area

between both cities due to available land (cost) and transportation infrastructure after

the removal of the IC. Moreover, these developments also should attract other centers

in order to have agglomeration of retail activity in this region.

From the hypothesis, the opening of the borders did not influence the real estate

investments in the average number of shopping centers in this region. This study found

that from 1989 onward the Vienna region has experience an average of 5 center

developments in each decade. However, it was observed that only two retail

investment centers -Fischapark in LA and McArthur Glen Designer Outlet in

Burgenland were developed with a close proximity to the road corridors connecting

both Vienna and Bratislava regions.









Region

In order to understand the study area and how this region has been spatially

evolving in terms of investments in retail buildings it is important to state that the term

region refers to a unit in which external economies drive both localization and core-

periphery patterns. These patterns apply without considering that political limits define

the importance of the unit (Krugman, 1991). The Vienna Bratislava region is one of

many examples which illustrate Krugman's statement. This region has a long political

and economic history even before the removal of the Iron Curtain. Significant historical

events have changed the morphological context of the Eastern and Western areas in

the region. For the purposes of this study, the historical analysis begins with WWI.

Shopping Center

Hines (1988) describes five types of shopping centers in the real estate industry:

1. Neighborhood
2. Community
3. Regional
4. Superregional
5. Specialty

The specialty includes: the festival, marketplace, off-price or discount, and

specialty center. Table 2-1 shows the focus of this case study: Community

Regional and Super-regional centers will be the focus for this case study.


Countries categorize shopping centers or malls based on geographical conditions,

population characteristics, and social context. Therefore no international categorizations

exist (Wang, 2005) However, the International Council of Shopping Centers has a

classification of the configurations of types of shopping developments based on different

criteria (ICSC, 2009). Table 2-2 shows the Austrian classification of retail shops.









Shopping Bruck in LA; McArthur Glen Designer Outlet in Burgenland) located outside

the city, which required a modal split or the use of private transportation. On the other

hand, the developments in the city of Bratislava are easily as they are located within the

coverage area of the public transportation system. For example, Shopping Palace offers

free shuttle bus service (back and forth) from Novy Most, a close bus stop.

Another important aspect about shopping in two different countries, in this case

regions, is usually the exchange rate. The conversion of one currency to another may

resultsult in greater purchasing power. Shoppers benefit from saving or purchasing

more in one place versus the other when there is a difference in prices. For example,

people living on the Mexico US border tend to shop at the malls in the US because

they find a wider variety of products, as well as better quality and cheaper items

compared to those in Mexican malls. In the case of Vienna and Bratislava, both

countries are part of the EU, and the difference in prices may not be relatively significant

in the attraction of shoppers from one region to the other. However, shops may lure

local and regional shoppers with effective marketing practices. The "sale" and

"clearance" marketing strategies are powerful attractions to shoppers even when they

do not need to purchase anything.

In addition to the shopping location, the shopper's preference may also be

influenced by the convenience of shopping in terms of service hours. Due to labor

regulations, the centers in the Vienna region normally are closed on Sundays and have

a reduced shift on Saturdays; in contrast to the centers in the Bratislava region, which

are open daily with extended hours of service compared to those in the Vienna region.









understanding of the existing and future retail development forecasts. Shopping center

industry relates to retail agglomerations or new directions of investment, which are also

determined by changes in population, economic indicators, purposes of commuting, and

the opening of social, cultural, and economic barriers.

Shopping Center Industry

Several definitions of shopping centers have evolved since the 1920s when this

term "shopping center" was first introduced in the United States (US). The Urban Land

Institute (ULI) provides the internationally accepted definition "A group of retail and other

commercial establishments that is planned, developed, and managed as a single

property. On-site parking is provided, the centre's size and orientation generally

determined by the market characteristics of the trade area served by the centre". From

this definition, Hines (1988) classifies shopping centers into five basic types of shopping

centers: neighborhood, community, regional, superregional, and specialty. Additionally,

two main configurations are observed: mall and strip centre; "Malls are typically

enclosed, with a climate-controlled walkway between two facing strip stores" (Wang,

2005 p. 5). For the purpose of this research, the analysis will concentrate on

community, regional, and superregional shopping centers or malls following the

definitions and characteristics described in Figure 2-1 in the following chapter.

The shopping center industry was not in the economic picture for CEE socialist

countries due to the control of retail activity by the central system. Foreign investors in

the real estate market did not perceive any possibility of directing capital into these

states. Not until after the end of the socialist regime, privatization of buildings and the

use of land rent play important roles in leading the process of urban readjustments

along with a new market oriented environment (Stanilov, 2007, p. 73). By then,









As urban centers, Vienna and Bratislava can be analyzed using the following

measures. Both cities show a high market potential where real estate investors and

developers choose to invest in areas where high wages prevail and good access to

markets exist. Both are also locations where markets tend to improve in zones

considered as hubs for economic development and opportunities in general.

In summary, the literature on which this case study relies on can be described in

four possible scenarios which include one or more elements that play a role in a spatial

setting of agglomeration or dispersion.

1. Agglomeration in between cities (dispersion from the cities)

2. Agglomeration in the city of Vienna

3. Agglomeration in the city of Bratislava

4. Agglomeration in both cities

The first scenario is when agglomeration takes place in the region between the city

of Vienna and Bratislava, also identified as dispersion from the urban cores.

Considering that a significant part of this study focuses on whether or not this scenario

has occurred, it important to identify the elements that would have to be involved in the

agglomeration of shopping centers in this region. Primarily, for agglomeration to occur,

this region must present the characteristics of a transitional area, such as lower cost of

sites and labor; proximity to the city center; market potential and role of the physical

environment. Questions regarding the external economies must also be answered:

which type of external economy is presented based on the existing industry structure;

and economy of scope, scale or complexity. These factors must be considered in

addition to the characteristics that define this region such as population, transportation









European Commission, 1999, European Spatial Development Perspective,
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities,
http://europa.eu.int/comm/regional_policy/sources/docoffic/officialreports/pdf/sum_en. p
df (accessed December 19, 2008)

Eurostat, GDP at Regional Level,
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/GDP_at_regional_level#
Whatisregional_gross_domestic_product.3F (accessed July 27, 2009)

Finka MaroS, 2005, Vienna-Bratislava Region. Between Cooperation and Competition,
Competition between Cities in Central Europe: Opportunities and Risks of Cooperation,
ROAD, Bratislava, p. 123 -135

Finka M, Janacek, R, Petrikova D., 2005, Slovakia: Transforming Industrial Regions and
Preparing for EU Regional Policy in Muller B., Finka M., Lintz G., p. 195-212, Springer
Berlin Heidelberg

Fujita, M. and Thisse, J.F., 1996, Economics of Agglomeration, Journal of the Japanese
and International Economies, 10, 4, p 339-378

Fujita, M., Krugman, P., Venables, A., 1999, The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and
International Trade, MIT Press, Cambridge

Giffinger, R. and Wimmer, H., undated, Cities between Competition and Cooperation in
Central Europe, undated

Harris, C.D., 1954, The Market as a Factor in the Localization of Industry in the United
States, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 44, 4, p. 315 348,
Routledge

Hanson, G.H., 2005, Maktet Potential, Increasing Returns and Geographic
Concentration, Journal of International Economics, 67, 1, p. 1-24, Elsevier

Hines, M.A., 1988, Shopping Center Development and Investment, p. 49-53 New York,
Wiley

ICSC, The Development of Shopping Centers in Europe 2002,
http://www.icsc.org/international/EuropeReviewFINAL.pdf (accessed on September
10th, 2009)

ICSC, Shopping Center Definitions,
http://www.icsc.org/srch/about/impactofshoppingcenters/SC_Definitions.pdf (accessed
on July 27th, 2009)

Ivanicka, K, Spirkova, D., 2009, Impact of Economic Crisis on Slovak Real Estate
Market, 16th Annual European Real Estate Society Conference, Stockholm, 2009








Urban Land Institute (internationally accepted definition)
"A group of retail and other commercial establishments that is planned, developed, and managed as a
single property. On-site parking is provided, the centre's size and orientation generally determined by the
market characteristics of the trade area served by the centre".

International Council of Shopping Centers (pan-European definition)
"The modern shopping centre is a retail property that is planned, built and managed as a single entity. The
traditional format is an all-purpose centre that could be either enclosed or open-air and classified by size. The
specialised format include the retail park, factory outlet centre and the theme-oriented centre". "..... a shopping
centre has a minimum gross leasable area of 5,000 square metres" (ICSC, 2008)

Austrian Retail Shops classification
*Based on the size with >=3,000 m2 The product range is wide, deep and under one roof; the article number is
the largest in the retail market (Austrian SME's Research Institute)

Central Europe
"are characterized as a complex of premises usually on the outskirts of a town, in the centre of which can be
one or more shopping halls...It is essential that the hypermarket should provide a sufficient number of parking
lots...Smaller hypermarkets.. .while large ones have a selling area of more than 5,000 m" atrochova, 2005)

Planned, developed, and managed as a single entity under one roof with a leasable
area equal of greater than 5,000 m2


Figure 2-2. Definitions of shopping center
Source: Own









centers leads to a co-operation relationship in the Vienna Bratislava region as one of

many regional integration goals by the EU applied to European regions.

The transportation survey cited in this study could be expanded and applied to a

specific smaller geographic area, but may require a structured research approach and

methodology. Additional research is needed regarding a study about commuting and

shopping behavior. This focus study will detail the shopper attraction and commuting

from one to the other region for shopping at malls in the entire study area. For example,

a survey of shoppers could examine the preferences or benefits of shopping in malls of

one region versus the other. However, one of the drawback of using survey or

questionnaires is the amount of time required to conduct the surveys in both regions.

The assumption of existing agglomeration of shopping centers in the city of Vienna

and Bratislava can also be further explored in three ways. Firstly, additional research

could examine whether or not the existing investment in real estate creates a spillover

effect in other real estate investments or other areas of development. For instance, a

study to determine if the existing or new shopping center developments have an effect

on land values on the area where they are located. Secondly, a study could also

determine whether and how the existing shopping center developments benefit from

any economies of scale in the shopping center industry. Thirdly, a study to determine if

there are any spillover effects from the shopping center industry in the local economy in

terms of retail revenues as a widely accepted measure of performance.

According to the local governments and their development plans for each region,

commercial zones have been designated for further development. However, it is

important to analyze the requirements and incentives for shopping center developments









Mountains in the Northern part of the city and the Danubian Lowland (Podunajska

ni2ina) (Rehackiva et al., 2004).

Additionally, the rural regions and towns in the rest of the territorial land of both

regions and those along the transportation links have "a high degree of dependence on

the urban agglomerations" (Werkstattberichte, 2003, p. 136). The demographic

characteristics within the municipalities in LA and Burgenland are another factor related

to development in between the metropolis. The towns and municipalities in LA and

Burgenland lack the population density and market potential to support large scale retail

developments. However, at this level, LA and Burgenland show almost equal primary

income of private households among the three states for the Vienna region in 2007; but

a disparity rises in the GRDP, the GRDP of Vienna being almost double that of LA and

Burgenland. This poses a critical disadvantage in the between region and supports the

growth of shopping center development in the poles. Figure 4-5 shows: a) the

demographic density of inhabitants per km2 and b) the income per household in each

region.

Another crucial aspect for shopping center development is the regulatory and

policy approach, which will be considered as an item on the agenda for future research.

Does the Distance between Both Metropolises and Trip Purpose Matter for
Shopping Center Developments?

Even though there are many conditions to be considered as factors for shopping

center development in between the area of both metropolises, an important element is

analysis of traffic destinations on the transportation corridors linking both cities.

To evaluate the correct answer to this question, a survey of shoppers in both

regions would be needed; instead, a summary from a passenger survey at the borders









Both regions show similar numbers of developments in the last decade. The

development in green is an ongoing development in District I of the city of Bratislava.

See Figure 4-4.

Questions for Analysis

Some questions will be addressed in this section with the intention of explaining

the conditions of shopping center development in between both regions and to support

the analysis. The relationship of the questions with the study area is considered

important for answering the research question and understanding the overall context of

this case study.

What are the Conditions for Development in and between Both Metropolises?

To assess the opportunities for development in the region between both cities, we

must take into account that regional conditions prevailing from the geographic

conditions between both cities reflect many aspects of development, such as land use

and transportation linkages among other urban and rural schemes. In the Vienna

region, a significant proportion of the total land area is under one of the many land use

categorizations of the green, agricultural or conflict areas. Since 1905, a historical green

area called Forest and Meadow Belt (Wald-and Wiesengurtel), was secured with the

Viennese Green Belt program. The Vienna Woods, the Prater, public areas, parks, and

agricultural areas are part of the program. The other part of the protected areas is

covered by national parks, such as Danube water meadows, and Neusiedler Lake-

Seewinkel (cross-border project with Hungary) (Werkstattberichte, 2003). One quarter

of the whole region (without the city of Vienna) is considered protected zones with

environmental impacts and areas of conflict. In the Bratislava region, forests, private

gardens, and forest parks also cover a significant part of the land: the Male Karpaty













Austro-
Hungarian
Empire
Wholesale trade


ComnunisI
Government
Soviet bloc


Iron Curtain


Figure 1-2. Historical events in the study area

Source: Own


EU
acesion
Slovakia


Kanim
taEum









LIST OF REFERENCES

Berman B., Evans J.R., 1979, Retail management: a strategic approach, New York,
Macmillan

Brandenburger A., Nalebuff B., 1996, Co-opetition, New York, Doubleday

Amin, A. and Thrift, N, 2002, What kind of economic theory for what kind of economic
geography?, Journal Antipode, 32, 1, pages 4-9, John Wiley \& Sons

Airportbratislava, retrieved from http://www.airportbratislava.sk/5/287html (accessed on
August 1, 2009)

Balcerowicz, L., 1995, Capitalism, Socialism, Transformation, Budapest, Central
European University Press

Bachtler J., Downes R., Gorzelak G., 2000, Transition, cohesion and regional policy in
Central and Eastern Europe, Ashgate Publishing Company

Berend, T.I., Ranki, G., 1974, Economic Development in East-Central Europe in the 19th
and 20th Centuries, New York, Columbia University Press

Blakely, E.J., Bradshaw, T.K., 2002, Planning Local Economic Development, Sage
Publications

CB Richard Ellis, January 2005, Global Market Review

Centrope, Business Report, 2007, http://www.centrope.info/baernew/stories/7025
(accessed on February 16, 2009)

Christaller, W, 1966, Central Places in Southern Germany. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
Prentice-Hall

Committee on Spatial Development, 1999, European Spatial Development Perspective,
European Commission, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European
Communities

Cowen, M., Shenton, R.W., 1996, Doctrines of Development, CRC Press

Dawson, A.H, 1993, A Geography of European Integration, Belhaven

Dixit, A.K. and Norman, V.D., 1980, Theory of International Trade: A Dual, General
Equilibrium Approach, Cambridge Univ Pr, p. 1-9

Dopravny Podnik Bratislava, 2009, http://www.dpb.sk/en (accessed on March 31, 2009)









(shopping districts or malls) will locate where potential consumers, commerce and other

compatible activities concentrate.

In the literature on agglomerations, alternative economic theories may be

applicable. Blakely et al. (2002) point out that central place theory attempts to describe

various growth patterns in central and peripheral regions. Based on this, each urban

center is supported by smaller places, which provide resources to the productive center.

At the same time, the smaller places are also supported by even smaller places which

supply markets for the larger places. In terms of retailing, urban cores are the preferred

location of retail stores, which have the goal of supplying the local and regional

consumer's demands (Maki, 2000). In the literature, studies about central place are also

linked to urban hierarchies.

Furthermore, Mulligan (1984) states that central place theory focuses on how

retailing activities locate among urban centers and how these centers are located in a

spatial setting. Additionally, these centers denote different degrees of centrality. Maki

(2000) describes how urban development from a trading perspective identifies three

elements: labor force and agriculture as a way of obtaining food; existence of

economics of scale; and competition in the market. This theory also relates to the size

and localization of cities, which also identifies similar elements such as, high density;

human interaction, trading centers on major corridors, and the relationship of the

previous elements with transportation infrastructure.

Based on the central place theory and its applicability to this case study, both

cities serve as central places with concentrations of labor, industrial and economic








CZ


Aniign LdL I


Bratislava


161


BgId



Figure 4-6. Crossing points
Source: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung




Full Text

PAGE 1

1 REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS IN RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN THE VIENNA BRATISLAVA REGION By IVAN JAVIER CABRERA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE R EQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

PAGE 2

2 2010 Ivan Javier Cabrera

PAGE 3

3 To My Family

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and most, I would like to thank my parents for teaching me that with faith t here is no impossible and supporting me in this journey; my sisters and rest of family for their continued love, support and to all for reminding me of the important things in life. I thank Professor Andres Blanco for his valuable guidance, constructive comments, time, and effort on serving on my committee. I also thank Dean Chris Silver for serving on my committee and supporting me on the Network for European and United States Regional and Urban Studies (NEURUS) program. I also would like to thank and ackn owledge Dr. Gnther Maier for believing in this project and making it possible, and also to Dr. Edward Bergman; to both for their time, knowledge and insight, both from the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU) in Austria. I also thank Slavomir Ondos, Ursula Grafeneder and Barbara Gaal for their help during my time at WU. Finally, I thank Charles McC amey, Marissa Ann Secreto, and Renzo Rosales for their love, support, company, and guidance during this journey. Research on this topic was support ed financially by Immofinanz, Group, in Vienna Austria.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................. 8 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................... 9 C HAPT ER 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 11 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 11 Shopping Center Industry ........................................................................................... 12 Study Area .................................................................................................................. 13 H istory of the Study Area ............................................................................................ 14 EU Context .................................................................................................................. 14 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 15 2 LITERATU RE REVIEW .............................................................................................. 21 Literature Review Overview ....................................................................................... 21 Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................... 21 Economic Theories and Geography .................................................................... 21 Retail Agglomerations .......................................................................................... 24 Market Potential ................................................................................................... 29 Literature about the Case Study ................................................................................ 30 Shopping Center Evolution ......................................................................................... 30 Literature about Definitions ........................................................................................ 32 Agglomeration Economies ................................................................................... 32 Region .................................................................................................................. 33 Shopping Center .................................................................................................. 33 3 CASE STUDY ............................................................................................................. 38 Vienna ......................................................................................................................... 39 Lower Austria .............................................................................................................. 40 Burgenland .................................................................................................................. 40 Bratislava .................................................................................................................... 40 Population ................................................................................................................... 41 I nfrastructure ............................................................................................................... 41 Environment Green Belt .......................................................................................... 43 History of the Area ...................................................................................................... 43 Bratislava after 1989 ................................................................................................... 45

PAGE 6

6 Shopping Center Context ........................................................................................... 47 Shopping Center Structure in the Vienna Region ............................................... 47 Post -Socialist Real Estate Investments .............................................................. 47 Evolution of Development of the Retail Buildings ............................................... 49 Transition Period ......................................................................................................... 51 Economic Crisis on Real Estate Market .................................................................... 52 Shopping Center Comparisons .................................................................................. 52 4 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS ....................................................................................... 60 Economic Indicators ................................................................................................... 60 Chronological Development ....................................................................................... 61 Shopping Center Inventory .................................................................................. 61 Shopping Centers up to 1989 .............................................................................. 63 Shopping Centers f rom 1989 to 1999 ................................................................. 64 Shopping Centers from 1999 to 2009 ................................................................. 65 Shopping centers up to 2010 ............................................................................... 66 Questions for Analysis ................................................................................................ 67 What are the Conditions for Development in and between Both Metropolises? .................................................................................................... 67 Does the Distance between Both Metropolises and Trip Purpose Matter for Shopping Center Developments? .................................................................... 68 Is There Any Difference Between the Shopping Centers in Both Regions? ...... 71 5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS ...................................................................... 83 Socialism ..................................................................................................................... 84 Removal of the IC ....................................................................................................... 84 Shopping Center Agglomeration ................................................................................ 85 EU Integration ............................................................................................................. 86 Shopping Center Target and Trip Purposes .............................................................. 87 Further Studies ........................................................................................................... 87 APPENDIX: MATRIX OF DISTANCES ............................................................................ 91 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................................................ 99

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 -1 Classification of shopping centers Hines (1988) ................................................. 35 2 -2 Austrian classification of retail stores ................................................................... 35 3 -1 Districts in Bratislava ............................................................................................. 54 3 -2 Distr icts in Vienna .................................................................................................. 54 3 -3 Lower Austria and BurgenlandMunicipalities and Towns .................................. 55 3 -4 Vienna Bratislava Region ...................................................................................... 56 3 -5 Vienna Bratislava Area of Study ......................................................................... 56 3 -6 Major connection linkages in the study area ........................................................ 57 4 -1 Classification of source data ................................................................................. 73 4 -2 Shopping Centers List ........................................................................................... 73 4 -3 Commuting ratios between both cities and other areas (entrance) ..................... 74 4 -4 Commuting ratios between both cities and other areas (private transportation) ........................................................................................................ 74 4 -5 Trip purpose classification by transportation mode ............................................. 75 A-1 Matrix of distances ................................................................................................ 93

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 -1 Location of the stud y area ...................................................................................... 19 1 -2 Historical events in the study area ......................................................................... 20 2 -1 Agglomeration spillovers ........................................................................................ 36 2 -2 Definitions of shopping center ............................................................................... 37 3 -1 Study region: Vienna Bratislava core area ......................................................... 58 3 -2 Shopping center investments by country 2004 ..................................................... 59 3 -3 Shopping center comparisons ............................................................................... 59 4 -1 Shopping centers before 1989 ............................................................................... 77 4 -2 Shopping centers between 1989 and 1999 ........................................................... 78 4 -3 Shopping centers between 1999 and 2009 ........................................................... 79 4 -4 Shopping centers up to 2010 ................................................................................. 80 4 -5 Economic indicators: A)Demographic density of inhabitants per km2; B) Primary income of private household PPCS per habitant .................................... 81 4 -6 Crossing points ....................................................................................................... 82 5 -1 Shopping center location by district in the city of Vienna ..................................... 90

PAGE 9

9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS IN RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN THE VIENNA BRATISLAVA REGION By Ivan Javier Cabrera August 2010 Chair: Andres Blanco C o chair: Christopher Silver Major: Urban and Regional Planning The removal of the Iron Curtain (IC) reopened borders between Austria and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republics (C SFR), the former Czechoslovakia. Slovakias economic transition to free market capitalism was driven by privatization (Bergman, 1995). As a result, the real estate market remained stagnant, and there was little real estate investment until several years later, when property ownership changed from centralized, public ownership to a system of private ownership. Private investments first went to housing markets, before shifting to the emerging market in commercial real estate. Vienna and Bratislava are the ca pitals of Austria and Slovakia, located only 65 kilometers apart with approximately 1.6 million and 427,000 inhabitants, respectively. Both capitals have the highest agglomeration of population and economic activity in their respective countries, and are p art of the Vienna Bratislava region along with the Austrian states of Burgenland and Lower Austria. Studies have shown a significant growth and change in real estate investments in the capitals of the former socialist block. This region deserves attention, particularly

PAGE 10

10 now, that the capital of Slovakia, Bratislava, has experienced real estate investments in shopping centers, and the Vienna regions development in the area of shopping center has continue the same as before the fall of the IC As the shoppin g center industry tends to agglomerate, this study analyses the spatial location and direction of investments in shopping center developments and demonstrates the agglomeration and dispersion of such centers in each capital and in the region between them. This study also attempts to prove that the region between both metropolises has certain unfavorable characteristics which discourage shopping center development. This study also refers to commuting for shopping purposes within the region. A cited survey in dicated that approximately less than 10 % of the commuting dynamics are related to shopping activities, but are not necessarily linked to shopping center destinations. This study also estimated the linear distances between the shopping centers in Vienna, B ratislava, and the remaining area of study in order to illustrate the extent of spatial agglomeration.

PAGE 11

11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction The real estate market in the Central and Easter European (CEE) countries has experience significant growth and cons olidation in the last decade. This growth is the result of investors interest in taking advantage of new opportunities to shift their investments into the new market that emerged after the dissolution of the Eastern bloc socialist regimes. Most evidence b eing observed is from the capital cities of these countries where real estate investments in retail developments are generally an opportunity for investments with a high rate of return. These cities are the site of continuous spatial changes due as shoppin g centers arise in urban and peripheral areas. Additionally, the retail industry tends toward agglomeration or dispersion as a consequence of different endogenous forces. As a result, these new retail developments have altered the urban fabric in the CEE m etropolises. This paper details whether agglomeration or dispersion in the industry occurred or is occurring after the dissolution of the Iron Curtain (IC). After 1989, the spatial distribution of retail developments in the Vienna Bratislava region was conditioned by continuous waves of real estate investments in the housing, office and commercial markets. This thesis focuses on a descriptive analysis of the ViennaBratislava region; particularly how and whether real estate investments in retail buildings h ave agglomerated or dispersed in and between the cities of Vienna and Bratislava and in the regions along the transportation corridors after the removal of the IC. The result of this analysis provides insight on the development patterns and trends in the e volution of the shopping centers development and investments. These outcomes may enable an

PAGE 12

12 understanding of the existing and future retail development forecasts. Shopping center industry relates to retail agglomerations or new directions of investment, which are also determined by changes in population, economic indicators, purposes of commuting, and the opening of social, cultural, and economic barriers. Shopping Center Industry Several definitions of shopping centers have evolved since the 1920s when this term shopping center was first introduced in the United States (US). The Urban Land Institute (ULI) provides the internationally accepted definition A group of retail and other commercial establishments that is planned, developed, and managed as a si ngle property. On-site parking is provided, the centres size and orientation generally determined by the market characteristics of the trade area served by the centre. From this definition, Hines (1988) classifies shopping centers into five basic types o f shopping centers: neighborhood, community, regional, superregional, and specialty. Additionally, two main configurations are observed: mall and strip centre; Malls are typically enclosed, with a climate-controlled walkway between two facing strip stores (Wang, 2005 p. 5). For the purpose of this research, the analysis will concentrate on community, regional, and superregional shopping centers or malls following the definitions and characteristics described in Figure 2-1 in the following chapter. The shopping center industry was not in the economic picture for CEE socialist countries due to the control of retail activity by the central system. Foreign investors in the real estate market did not perceive any possibility of directing capital into these stat es. Not until after the end of the socialist regime, privatization of buildings and the use of land rent play important roles in leading the process of urban readjustments along with a new market oriented environment (Stanilov, 2007, p. 73). By then,

PAGE 13

13 inves tors started to assess capital investment opportunities in the new markets. However, the economic and political residuals from the socialist system in one side of the study region delayed the current flourishing real estate market in retail opportunities. Investments in the shopping center industry rose significantly in different markets throughout the European continent from 1999 to 2004. An increment of 68% of the total investment in shopping centers was from cross border investment in Europe. Poland and the Czech Republic were among the top five countries with more than 90% of investments from outside home markets. Austria experienced relatively low levels of investment in shopping center stock during the same period (CBRE, 2004), and the Slovak Republic did not even rank in this category. The spatial geographical territory of the Vienna Bratislava region has faced continuous reintegration in the periods before and after the collapse of the socialist regimes. Existing development poles suffered changes fro m core to peripheral roles. The character of borders and the integration of local, national, regional economies have improved the territorial space for development (Finka, 2005). For the purpose of this research, the study of the development of shopping centers will be limited to an area in the Vienna Bratislava region as it also is considered an active case of partnership between border regions. (Giffinger et al., undated). It is important to mention that the term retail buildings, when use in this study also refers to shopping centers or malls. Study Area The Vienna-Bratislava region is located at the center of Central and Eastern Europe and represents a link between Eastern and Western countries. This region has the most closely located capitals in the World, with only approximately 60 km. between

PAGE 14

14 Vienna and Bratislava. Its location is important as the geographical, spatial, cultural and geopolitical intersection at the heart of Europe (Finka, 2005, p. 123). This region has approximately 4 million inhabitants, an area of 30,000 km., and approximately 46% and 34% of their respective national GDPs, respectively (ibid, p. 124). See Figure 11 for a map of the study area. History of the Study Area Figure 12 briefly highlights the most important historical events involving this area of study. During 1890s, the study area was part of the Austro -Hungarian Empire. In 1922, as a result of World War I, the empire dissolved into three states: Austria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. By the end of WW II, in 1946, Czechoslovakias political structure fell under communist influence, and in 1948 Czechoslovakia became part of the Soviet bloc. This resulted in what is called the IC, which was dissolved by 1989. After this year, Austria and Czechoslovakia were again able to trade between each other. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two new states: the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. In 1995, Austria became part of the European Union (EU) and ceased using the Austrian schilling in favor of the Euro in 1999. It took many years for the Slovak Republic to achieve EU membership, which it did in 2004. By 2009, the Slovak Republic had joined the Euro zone and discarded its currency, the koruna. EU Context The collapse of the political regime in Central and Eastern Europe a nd the EUs acceptance of some of these states have resulted in the formulation of projects and application of various programs issued by the European Commission and governments of different regions. In this context, the Vienna Bratislava region became par t of different programs, such as the Central European Region (Centrope) and Twin cities.

PAGE 15

15 Additionally, t he European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) document includes policies to promote sustainable development within the EU territory. Policies and goals of the ESDP cover different regions at different levels among all EU members Some of these goals address a variety of issue areas including: economic cohesion, population, transport, and environment protection among the old and accessed countries (Eu ropean Commission, 1999). The aim for co operation among Eastern and Western members of the EU is clearly a constant subject for EU regional integration. Holistic spatial development in a dynamic region with enormous economic potential, like the Vienna Bra tislava region, must therefore be worth analyzing. Objectives This research has specific aims: 1 Assess the shopping center agglomerations or dispersions before and after the removal of the Iron Curtain on retail development investments in each city and the region between them. Determine the trend and spatial direction of shopping center developments in the study area after the removal of the Iron Curtain. 2 Document chronologically the shopping center developments in the study area. 3 Determine whether or not th e removal of the IC had an impact on agglomeration or dispersion of retail development investments. 4 Use the findings of this case study to build an empirical base for future prediction of real estate investment trends, economic development, and retail plan ning decisions for this and other comparable cases (Warsaw, Prague, Budapest, Berlin, etc.). A few studies documenting the commercial -retail agglomeration in this region have been completed. Following are some characteristics that make this region quite pa rticular: the changes of the sovereign governments, spatial characteristics and boundaries, economic platforms before and after World War II, different trading systems, physical and economic restrictions existing within the region, and different developmen t visions throughout the time.

PAGE 16

16 This thesis claims that the retail investment activities tend to agglomerate where there is market potential, demand for products, certain population characteristics, transportation linkages and other factors which set the co nditions for such development patterns. This thesis also explores the development pattern of real estate investment in and between Vienna and Bratislava, so that developments may ultimately enhance the potential for economic development and opportunities f or new real estate retail investments in the economic context of either agglomerations or dispersion. Software programs and qualitative methodologies often are used in the social sciences to analyze the importance of developmental patterns, real estate opp ortunities, and growth projections. These methods are use in localities experiencing the same political, economic and environmental circumstances. Instead of attempting to quantify (analyze) some aspect of the land use by real estate retail investments in this region, the aim of this study is to describe the possible factors linked to the pattern of concentration or dispersion of shopping center developments in and between both cities. The significant literature related to economic development in Central Europe is vast and has been produced by many scholars, research institutes, international organizations, and European Commissions. The focus of the articles and reports encompass among other topics: labor, social, cultural and economic trends at different le vels (local, national, regional and supra-regional). However, the literature does not fully address real estate developments in retail buildings. Some articles are related to the development of real estate investments, Stanilov (2007), focused on the chang es in commercial and industrial property markets in post -socialist metropolises. Gunther et

PAGE 17

17 al. (2008) addressed the case of real estate developments in office/work centers in and between Vienna and Bratislava. Swoboda et al. (2008) focused on the hypermarkets and food retail chains at different subcategories of retailing in Austria. Drtina (1995) referred to the internationalization of retail distribution patterns in the Czech and Slovak republics. Real estate retail developments, if different from those referred to in the existing literature, must be discussed and explored in order to empirically document and analyze the spatial evidence. The literature review provides the theoretical framework and part of the perspective for studying real estate retail i nvestments. It considers historical and contemporary contexts, suitable to the study region, existing retail agglomerations and future development patterns of retail locations. The methodology used is a case study and follows the literature review section. Due to time constraints and availability of data, the data analyzed relies on some statistical sources, economic indicators, and is also based on other transportation studies and spatial visualizations. The Vienna-Bratislava region is a unique case study and a deeper explanation of the development of the retail investments and reasons for choosing it will be explained further under the case study section. While using an empirical data collection method, the outcomes of the analysis of the case study points to different directions. This examination includes to some extent a relative relationship of the case study to economic theories included in the literature regarding agglomeration and dispersion of retail developments. On the other hand, it also reveals i nconsistencies between what is discussed in the literature and the particularities of this study case, which are discussed in the fourth and final chapter.

PAGE 18

18 Currently, the international economy and the real estate market in particular are in turmoil. Invest ments in real estate developments have been stopped in the last couple of years as the international economic crisis reaches its highest point. In most CEE countries, however, new retail developments are occurring towards new directions

PAGE 19

19 Figure 11. Lo cation of the study area Source: Own

PAGE 20

20 Figure 12. Historical events in the study area Source: Own

PAGE 21

21 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review Overview This literature review presents the theoretical framework for this case study and an overview of the literature which addresses real estate retail investments in shopping centers or malls in the Vienna Bratislava region. This information will be considered in both a historical and contemporary context. This section will also include definitions of key te rms. While the vast literature reviews the entire history of European economic geography, recent literature is inconclusive and vague regarding real estate shopping center investments in this region.. Because this case study focuses on the real estate inve stments in shopping center, office and industrial investments are not discussed. Theoretical Framework Economic Theories and Geography Krugman (1991) explains that a significant factor when analyzing economic geography in Europe is that international trade is evolving to regional economies and the spatial location of the economic activities among countries is a merit on its own. To describe this case within a group of traditional economic theories pattern is not adequately feasible. However, this chapter w ill make an effort to place the case study under an economic theoretical framework. Regional growth is influenced by the location of development of firms and business, in this case retail development. In this regard, location theories focus on firms goals at minimizing cost by choosing locations that increase their chances to reach a marketplace for business and firms. There are many variables that play a role in

PAGE 22

22 choosing a location by investors. Labor force and cost, availability of suppliers, transportat ion, environmental protection, communications, energy, are variables that may affect the quality and sustainability of a location (Blakely et al., 2002). Both von Thunens (1826) land use model and Webers (1909) plant location model address these sorts of location issues. Neither model, however, addresses directly the investment decision and its importance in industry location (Maki et al. 2000, p. 24). Business location decisions thus involve investment decisions. The former are influenced by demand an d supply and both of these by population and workforce on both sides. On the other hand, the latter investment decisions are driven by the prime location of the future development. Further more in the literature, Maki et al. (2000) considers the flow of pr oducts, people, and communications as important factors when analyzing nodal regions. Retail developments in the Vienna Bratislava region demonstrate the concept of nodal regions as both capitals are considered centers. These centers are easily reached from many directions because the transportation structure allows it. Therefore, the strongest flows are between both metropolises; and the importance of the demarcation of regional boundaries shifts focus onto the poles or centers. Outside the centers are areas called transitional areas. Some of the advantages of these areas are the lower cost of sites and labor. The proximity of a center area to a transitional area allows access the population in the first area to take advantage of the activities in the sec ond area with a lower transportation cost and vice versa (Maki et al., 2000, p.13). In this way, Lower Austria and Burgenland may be considered transitional areas due to their close location to the city center areas and their favorable land price structure

PAGE 23

23 T he literature also points to the Von Thunens theory of location as he sees land rent as a function of access to the regions center, where population and the bulk of economic activity takes place. The highest rents go to land that provides this access (Maki et al., 2000, p. 49). For the purposes of this paper, t his theory wil l not be analyzed. The new markets theory posits that there is significant unexploited market potential in the areas surrounding the city center and those in rural locations Thes e areas nearness to other clusters and proximity to concentrations of activity in downtown areas make them optimal markets for retailing (Blakely et al., 2002). This relates to the investment and development of retail buildings in the region in between both cities as development has occurred not only within each city, but also within the inner -city areas. The inference that the shopping center industry in Vienna attracted shoppers from Bratislava and other post -socialist regions after opening the borders connects to this theory. From this theory, the location of a business or firm also relies on other areas of study by regional economists. In terms of geography, Dawson (1993) refers to an integrated space economy as the economy in which the only limitat ion on economic activities is the physical environment. Economic geographers have made a central contribution in their turn through their work on the effects of proximity, distance, and local context on, let us call them, the softer sources of innovation (Amin et al., 2002, p.7). Using these considerations, this case study focuses on what economic geographers also analyze and call agglomerations. The following paragraphs attempt to cover how the related literature applies to this case.

PAGE 24

24 Retail Agglomerations The term agglomeration is less ambiguous than concentration, which is used to describe different phenomena (Fujita et al. 1996, p. 3). It was introduced in location theory by Weber (1909, ch.1) There m any types of agglomeration included in thi s p henomena that deserve examination; however, this case study identifies and relates to one type: when agglomerations of shops, boutiques and restaurants cluster within a specific neighborhood in a single location (ibid, 1996). Fujita et al. (1996) expla in that the equilibrium spatial configuration of economic activities can be viewed as the outcome of a process involving two opposing types of forces, that is, agglomeration (or centripetal) forces and disp ersion (or centrifugal) forces (ibid, p. 3). Fro m these forces, two types of economic development interplay based on the s cale and size: large and small. Additionally, Maki (2000) notes three types of agglomeration forces: large-scale economies, localization economies, and urbanization economies. A firm can enjoy two types of agglomeration economies: internal economies and external economies (relative to the firm) (Parr, 2001). The agglomeration economies definition is listed under the definitions section in this chapter. For the purpose of this research, consideration is given to external economies and to agglomeration economies based on these. Parr (2001) states that agglomeration economies can be examined from three different perspectives: scale, scope, and complexity. External economies occur when a firm is affected by the presence of another firm or firms. External economies cannot occur without the existence of multiple firms. Firstly, in the case of external economies of scale, the benefits derived by a firm are directly related to the size of that firms industry (Parr, 2001) For example, the benefits

PAGE 25

25 in the financial services industry can derived from the whole marketing and cooperation activities among the other firms within the industry. Secondly, in external economies of scope, the benefits to a firm are conditioned by the existence of other firms from other industries. Here a firm share the inputs with other firms (ibid, 719). And thirdly, in external economies of complexity, a firm benefits from having economic interaction with other firms i n other industries regarding the coordination of inputs and outputs. These external economies may present two patterns of location. In the first type, the relevant activities may tend to disperse to different locations; whereas in the second type, the op posite occurs: the relevant activities concentrate at a specific location. Additionally, in other settings, the proximate location of supply and demand ease the contact to one another.(Parr, 2001). On the other hand, the extensive study of city centers or metropolitan areas as they are called by other scholars, leads to other applicable concepts also involve in this case study. Christaller (1966) refers to a hierarchy in local and regional areas of trading in the retail and service industry. Moreover, the central place and urban hierarchy refer to the dispersed population around each central place and the retail stores and service establishments this population supports ( Maki et al., 2000, p. 50). Maki (2000) further explains the patterns of retailing location referred by Parr in the previous paragraph. On the one hand, certain types of retailing concentrate where different types of firms are established, but all are also complementary to one another in terms of purchasing behavior; on the other hand, these types of retailing concentrate at a specific location, such as business districts or shopping streets. Thus, microcenters of industry

PAGE 26

26 (shopping districts or malls) will locate where potential consumers, commerce and other com patible activities concentrat e. In the literature on agglomerations, alternative economic theories may be applicable. Blakely et al. (2002) point out that central place theory attempts to describe various growth patterns in central and peripheral regions. Based on this, each urban center is supported by smaller places, which provide resources to the productive center. At the same time, the smaller places are also supported by even smaller places wh ich supply markets for the larger places. In terms of retailing, urban cores are the pref erred location of retail stores, which have the goal of supplying the local and regional consumers demands (Maki, 2000) In the literature, s tudies about central place are also linked to urban hierarchies. Furthermore, Mulligan (1984) states that central place theory focuses on how retailing activities locate among urban centers and how these centers are located in a spatial setting. Additionally, these centers denote different degrees of centrality. Maki (2000) describes how urban development from a trading perspective identifies three elements: labor force and agriculture as a way of obtaining food; existence of economics of scale; and competition in the market. This theory also relates to the size and localization of cities, which also identifies similar elements such as, high density; human interaction, trading centers on major corridors, and the relationship of the previous elements with transportation infrastructure. Based on the central place theory and its applicability to this case study, both cit ies serve as central places with concentrations of labor, industrial and economic

PAGE 27

27 activities; whereas Lower Austria and Burgenland, surrounding the city, are considered the smaller places with supporting r esources for the central places. In addition, Berma n et al. (1979) refer s to retail agglomerations or retail clusters as groups of outlets geographically located in an area. These types of retail agglomerations can be planned (shopping centers) or unplanned (shopping streets) and upsurge co operation among retailers (Brandenburger et al. 1996). To understand the co operation, there are two approaches: one is when retailers share infrastructure requiring direct cooperation; and two, when retailers share customers and spending and must compete (Reutterer et al. 2008). So far, the aim is to understand the city and the regional context of the agglomerations in shopping centers under the spatial and morphological changes in the area of study. Another important element in the spatial setting of agglomerations and economic activities is the mobility factor, which requires some explanation. The relationship between transportation cost and scale economies results partly as a factor of city formation (Krugman 1991). Fujita et al. (1999) demonstrate in other econom ic models that combining scale economies and the importance of transportation costs result in demand for spatial linkages and consequently in agglomerations. In the literature, the demand for spatial linkages is also referred as market access (Redding et al., 2004). Hanson (2005) explores further the market potential function stating that other factors also contribute to spatial agglomerations, such as technology spillovers, human capital externalities, or exogenous amenities ( Redding et al. 2004) Another element is sharing advantages as a driving force for a central cluster or nodes, and in some instances the competitive market plays a second role. In this

PAGE 28

28 context, the Vienna Bratislava region denotes, to some extent, retail agglomerations. Although, some of these developments are considered planned, especially in the city centers, where there is a wide variety of shopping dynamics and choices. Berman et al. (1979) considers site location a significant characteristic of a retail agglomeration; therefore, it is important to analyze the attractiveness of the study region to new retail locations. Additionally, OSullivan (1981) states that clusters of production and service, in this case retail agglomerations, are a result of the centralizing tendency linked to population and exchange actions as a whole. The Vienna-Bratislava region has two cores within a border region. The two capitals, as active centers of the region and in their respective countries, offer employment resources and infrastructure sites for dev elopment. The population in both cities (approximately 2 million) plays a role as a center and a labor market for many European headquarters including public administration buildings (WIFO, 2007). Consequently, central clustering as described by OSullivan (1981) is applicable to both cities, since each of them holds an efficient network infrastructure, population and a transportation network making them accessible for its inhabitants and advantages for other industries as well. Both Vienna and Bratislava s hare the advantages above mentioned, and so they also can potentially be called urban retail cluster. Urban retail locations offer the proximity of man to man and to trading activities. So, inhabitants of such urban locations are attracted by the lower c osts and high returns of production and consumption (OSullivan, 1981). Taking this into consideration, one can describe two ways of locating an industry: industries that locate in centers of production and consumption due to existing advantages but not as close to one to

PAGE 29

29 another, and those with close association to similar industries (ibid, 1981). As both cities share the agglomeration advantages, the development of shopping centers in the regions outside the cities has evolved at a different pace and disp lays a pattern of development worth studying. Market Potential Economic geographers have used market potential measures to describe the proximity advantages of different locations and to predict trends in actual location. As noted the in literature the m arket potential function is as follows the potential of some site as a weighted sum of the purchasing power of all other sites, with the weights being a declining function of distance (Fujita, et al., 1999, p. 32-33). Studies in economic geography refer to spatial agglomeration and to product market linkages between regions. Harris (1954), the originator of the market potential function, stated that the demand of goods and services produced in one location equals the sum of purchasing power in other locat ions related to the transportation costs. Fujita et al. (1999) added that the closer the concentrations of consumer and industrial demand, the higher nominal wages tend to be. More recently, Hanson (2005) reaffirms the theoretical work from Harris (1954) s tating that the size of a market and differences in income are interrelated. In sum, based on the theoretical framework, Figure 21 shows some of the spillovers from agglomeration of shopping center, which are applicable to this case study.

PAGE 30

30 Literature abou t the Case Study Shopping Center Evolution Europe and other parts of world experience the structured retail center and consequently benefit from investment opportunities (Hines, 1988). Shopping centers had existed in earlier centuries but with different n ames, such as flea markets and galleries. Consumers visited these designed and integrated places seeking retail goods and services. Investors in these markets have invested more capital in more convenient shopping buildings with parking through the years. Currently, investors build different types of shopping centers based on shopping demands in diverse urban locations. Some investors focus exclusively in retail facilities. The characteristics of shopping centers around the world usually follow the exam ple of American shopping centers. Country Club Plaza, built in 1923 in Kansas City, was the first automobileoriented shopping development. These type of new developments featured automobile parking spaces, a concentration of retail stores under one ceiling, leased spaced, and the assumption that customers would use cars to reach the center. These developments are also considered planned shopping centers. The evolution of the shopping center concept also involved another development in addition to retail sh ops: the department store. This store was used as an anchor to attract more customers to the center. It was not until 1956 that the concept of the climate controlled shopping center would be introduced by Victor Gruen, an Austrian refugee. Southdale Shopping Center, the first shopping center with an indoor, artificial climate was built that same year in Edina, Minnesota (Pavlinek, 2004). Different Scenarios about the Case Study Based on the Theoretical Framework

PAGE 31

31 As urban centers, Vienna and Bratislava can be analyzed using the following measures. Both cities show a high market potential where real estate investors and developers choose to invest in areas where high wages prevail and good access to markets exist. Both are also locations where markets tend to improve in zones considered as hubs for economic development and opportunities in general. In summary, the literature on which this case study relies on can be described in four possible scenarios which include one or more elements that play a role in a spatial setting of agglomeration or dispersion. 1 Agglomeration in between cities (dispersion from the cities) 2 Agglomeration in the city of Vienna 3 Agglomeration in the city of Bratislava 4 Agglomeration in both cities The first scenario is when agglomeration takes place in the region between the city of Vienna and Bratislava, also identified as dispersion from the urban cores. Considering that a significant part of this study focuses on whether or not this scenario has occurred, it important to identify the el ements that would have to be involved in the agglomeration of shopping centers in this region. Primarily, for agglomeration to occur, this region must present the characteristics of a transitional area, such as lower cost of sites and labor; proximity to t he city center; market potential and role of the physical environment. Questions regarding the external economies must also be answered: which type of external economy is presented based on the existing industry structure; and economy of scope, scale or complexity. These factors must be considered in addition to the characteristics that define this region such as population, transportation

PAGE 32

32 infrastructure and purchasing power. These are some elements that will determine whether or not dispersion from the cit ies is occurring in the focus region. Secondly, agglomeration of shopping centers in the city of Vienna. For this scenario to happen, the city must show a significant regional growth supported by the location of firms and must be identified as a nodal regi on. It must be determined whether or not external economies of scale, scope or complexity are occurring. Finally, the role of the factor mobility and the market potential in terms of population, wages, demand and transportation costs, must be determined. T hirdly, agglomeration of shopping centers in the city of Bratislava. This scenario includes the transition period and the current period in terms of retail industry development. Therefore, in order to display agglomeration, the city of Bratislava must pres ent the same characteristics above described for the city of Vienna scenario. The last scenario is the occurrence of agglomeration in both cities. The conditions for this scenario would entail both cities presenting regional growth; having market potential to sustain the retail industry; population; purchasing power; one or more modalities of the external economies; nodal characteristics; transportation infrastructure; and urban growth development patterns. Literature about Definitions Agglomeration Economi es Parr (2001) defines agglomeration economies as cost savings to the firm which result from the concentration of production at a given location, either on the part of the individual firm or by firms in general (p. 718).

PAGE 33

33 Region In order to understand the study area and how this region has been spatially evolving in terms of investments in retail buildings it is important to state that the term region refers to a unit in which external economies drive both localization and coreperiphery patterns. These pa tterns apply without considering that political limits define the importance of the unit (Krugman, 1991). The Vienna Bratislava region is one of many examples which illustrate Krugmans statement. This region has a long political and economic history even before the removal of the Iron Curtain. Significant historical events have changed the morphological context of the Eastern and Western areas in the region. For the purposes of this study, the historical analysis begins with WWI. Shopping Center Hines (1988) describes five types of shopping centers in the real estate industry: 1 Neighborhood 2 Community 3 Regional 4 Superregional 5 Specialty The specialty includes: the festival, marketplace, off -price or discount, and specialty center. Table 21 shows the focus of this case study: Co mmunity Regional and Super -regional centers will be the focus for this case study. Countries categorize shopping centers or malls based on geographical conditions, population characteristics, and social context. Therefore no internation al categorizations exist (Wang, 2005) However, the International Council of Shopping Centers has a classification of the configurations of types of shopping developments based on different criteria (ICSC, 2009). Table 2 -2 shows the Austrian classification of retail shops.

PAGE 34

34 Zatrochova (2005) describes one of the meanings of shopping malls in Central Europe as they are characterized as a complex of premises usually on the outskirts of a town, in the centre of which can be one or more shopping halls (Zatrochova, 2005 p.32). Zatrochova also refers to two types of malls (or hypermarkets) based on size and states that these developments should also provide parking space as part of the facility. Large hypermarkets usually have a selling area greater than 5,000 m2; the small ones from 2,500 to 5,000 m2. Additionally, she also describes the factory outlet development as a new shopping concept for former socialist CEE countries. In general, shopping centers include a wide variety of shops such as, coffee, restaurant s, cinemas, boutiques, recreational activities, etc. The purpose of all these amenities focuses on attracting and maintaining customers for long periods of time. Additionally, she classifies them based on the location. Shopping centers located in the subur ban regions focus also on amusement sites in addition to the main purpose of shopping; the intra urban centers are places for leisure and social interaction. These developments require infrastructure such as transportation and parking spaces, which may b e preexisting if the shopping center is located within the town centers, where public transportation and pedestrian facilities already exist. Finally, Figure 2 1 includes all the different definitions and characteristics of shopping centers from different international and local organizations and scholars used to determine the focus of the mall for this case study. The definitions and classifications are from the Urban Land Institute, the International Council of Shopping Center (European definition), the S mall and Medium Enterprise Research Institute from Austria, and a Central European definition by Monika Zatrochova.

PAGE 35

35 Table 2 1. Classification of shopping centers Hines (1988) Type of Center Characteristics Num. of stores Driving Distance (mins.) Locatio n Transport Structures Community Anchored by a supermarket and a discount department store and other tenants 10 to 15 10 to 15 Corners at the intersection of 2 or more streets Regional Planned and developed by a single entity. A second department store ( i.e. discount department store) integrated into the center 30 to 50 15 to 20 At the intersection of 2 or more major highways of freeways Super Regional 3 or more full line department Stores 100 or more 30 to 45 Central business district or outlying suburban area. At the intersection of at least 2 major highways Table 2 2. Austrian classification of retail stores Classification of Retail St ores Type Sales Area in m 2 Description Trading Classic shop <=200 Shop ( "aunt Emma Laden" ) from its market s hare has become almost negligible Specialty 200 600 The Specialists is one of the younger forms of retailing and is conceptually between dealer and consumer market. The site is located mostly in strategic junctions with good parking space Supermarket (replacement of the neighborhood shop 400 800 This shop offers a full range of food with approx. 5,000 to 8000 articles in the mid price and quality situation Consumer markets 800 1500 1500 5000 As the locations of the consumer markets are suburban lying on inexpensive land with good transport links Department >=3000 The product range is wide, deep and under one roof summarized; the article number is the largest in the retail market Discount market 500 700 Assortment of goods to offer, which at low through high handling leads to high turnover Online Shopping Direct Indirect Source: SME's Research Institute Research focus: Consumer markets and department categories

PAGE 36

36 Figure 21 Agglomeration spillovers Source: Own

PAGE 37

37 Figure 22 Definitions of shopping center Source: Own

PAGE 38

38 CHAPTER 3 C ASE STUDY With more than only spatial locations in common, the twin cities of Vienna and Bratislava have experienced similar structural, political and spatial changes over ti me. Several years after the World War II, Austria became part of the Western bloc and Czechoslovakia part of the Soviet bloc. The division of both countries took them to different paths in their economic history. The Vienna-Bratislava region is included in the Centrope region as one of the prominent regions focusing on cross -border development to encourage regional competitiveness and sustainable development at a local and regional level. The spatial location of both cities (approximately. 60 km apart) make s it a challenging region to analyze. For the purposes of this research, it is important to delimit the specific region of study. This region covers a broad area which includes Southern parts of Moravia in the Czech Republic, the region of Trnava in Slovak ia, and the counties of Gy r -MosonSopron and Van in Hungary. Additionally, a diverse set of languages are spoken in this region accompanied by a variety of cultures. The most common spoken languages are: German, Slovak, Czech, Hungarian, Croatian, and Turkish (Finka, 2007 p. 124). This region also offers the case of partnership between cities. Partnerships between border regions have for many years been one of the prime concerns of EU funding programmes (Giffi nger et al, undated). Delimitation of the Area For the purpose of this research, it is important to delimit the specific region of scope. The study region is located between two federal states in the European continent: Austria and Slovakia. The Vienna Bratislava axis is the core area of the

PAGE 39

39 border region. Both cities are act ive centers in the region and in their respective countries; they offer employment and infrastructures sites for development. The population in the Vienna and Bratislava region (approximately 2 million) plays a role as a central labor market for many Europ ean headquarters including public administration buildings (Centrope, 2007). Aside from the city of Vienna, other regions included in this research are the Austrian Southern states of: Lower Austria and Burgenland, which are already being marketed as a joint location under the name Vienna Region (STEP, 2005, p. 18); and from the Slovak Republic, the city of Bratislava. The scope of analysis involves: the capital city of Vienna with its 23 districts, the state of Burgenland with two municipalities encompas sing 13 towns, the estate of Lower Austria with four municipalities encompassing 37 towns, and the capital city of Bratislava with its five districts. Tables 31, 3-2, and 33 detail the names of the towns and municipalities included. Figure 31 shows the transportation corridors which serve as spatial boundaries to delimit the focus of the study area. The railway to the North and the motorway to the South are the main transportation infrastructures used to reach these cities. The municipality and town sel ection was based on a spatial buffer of 3 to 5 km from the road and rail corridors. Vienna The geographical and spatial location of Vienna makes it more than an intermediary between the West and East. It is a doorway for CEE countries to the EU. Vienna has a high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (approximately 180% of the EU average) and ranks in the top five regions (NUTS II) among the EU (Centrope, 2007).

PAGE 40

40 Vienna is a highly attractive international city that promotes a cultural and urban environment. It has a beautiful city landscape and highquality recreational facilities in and around the city; about 50% of the city territory are parks and green areas (Strategy Plan for Vienna, 2000, p.12). Even given that the high proportion of green space, Vi ennas territory is considered urban. Lower Austria This region has a heterogeneous land and is the biggest territory in Austria. It is ranked third in manufacturing industry in the country. The unemployment rates are average compared to other regions in A ustria. The GDP is slightly below the EU average (Centrope, 2007). Burgenland This region is the least wealthy compared to the other two. A significant portion of the Southern part of its territory is considered rural. The GDP of this region is below the EU average. Burgenland receives EU funding. Due to the type of temporary employment in the peripheral regions of this state, the unemployment rate is high (Centrope, 2007). Bratislava The city of Bratislava is considered an employment and infrastructure hub in the Slovak Republic. Its geographical and spatial location next to the Vienna region makes it more appealing for foreign direct investment (FDI). Bratislava has the highest GDP per capita compared to the other regions in the Republic (Centrope, 2007). The citys territory is mostly urban with some small heterogeneous land areas. This region has a high employment rate and low unemployment rate.

PAGE 41

41 Population Tables 3 -4 and 35 show the population, area, and density characteristics of the Vienna Bratislava r egion and the area of study. Infrastructure Further cohesion of the EU is also sought with the Trans -European Networks (TEN) system and its extension into the Central and Easter counties. This network emerged by the end of 1980s with the aim of having freedom of movement in an open market for goods, people, and services. In this context, the study area includes some of the TEN highways connecting this area with other adjacent regions. Viennas geographical location makes it an important transportation hub and a link to some of the main transportation routes between Central and Eastern Europe. The accessibility of each metropolitan area from the other, as well as from peripheral regions, has changed since the removal of the IC. The transportation network is extensive and covers growing settlement areas and regions; its capacity is enough for high volumes of traffic at different levels: local, regional and supra -regional. Table 3 -6 shows the major connection linkages in the study area. The City of Vienna has a n exemplary public transportation system. The core zone of the city is covered by the Wiener Linien transportation company with subways, trams, buses and street cars (Werkstattberichte, 2003, p. 41). The transportation from the city to the hinterland al so has reliable linkages. The public transportation is part of Austrias Eastern regions transportation association (Verkehrsverbund Ost -Region VOR). This region includes the city parts of Lower Austria and Burgenland (Wien, 2009).

PAGE 42

42 On the other hand, the t ransportation infrastructure that links both cities requires enhancements. The Vienna Bratislava route via Hainburg an der Donau was the road linkage during the time of socialist rule. This road is a two lane road and is not suitable for heavy trucks with more than 7.5 tons. The connection road to Bratislava via Kittsee runs for two thirds of the distance on the A4 Ostautobahn highway (Werkstattberichte, 2003). Several projects are under construction aiming to improve the linkages between both metropolis an d towards other regions included in the study area. Some of these projects have been addressed by the national and regional transportation authorities. Figure 32 and Figure 33 describes the existing and ongoing infrastructure expansion projects for the a ccessibility via roadway and railway respectively. T he c ity of Bratislava also counts on an efficient public transportation system with buses, trams and trolley -bus lines. The core zone of the city is covered by the Dopran podnik Bratislava transportati on company. The system connects the city center to other parts of the city, such as and Ruinov ) only by tram; other parts of the city are also accessible by bus and trolley bus (DPB, 2009). Additionally, another way travel between cities is the Twin City Linnier catamarans on the Danube. The Danube waterway is also considered an important transportation linkage. Boats are the means of transporting people between the two cities. The airports are approximately one hour away from each other with transportation available from one airport to another. Schwetchat is an important hub airport due to its connection to Easter European destinations. Ivankas airport will open a new passenger terminal by June, 2010 (Airportbratislava, 2009)

PAGE 43

43 Environment Green Belt The city of Vienna has a vast natural green space. Not only are there parks in the inner city but also the landscape and open space in the surroundings represent almost 50% of the total citys spatial land. The City Council approved the Green Belt Master Plan for the city in 1995. This document foresees the conservation of track of land or contiguous portions of land as recreational areas and ecologically valuable zones, which are to be kept free of buildings (Strategic Plan for Vienna, 2000 p. 33). A variety in landscapes and geographical configurations sur round the region. The Danube River, the Alps, and the Pannonia plain are some geographical structures located in this region.. This array of landscapes may represent an area for potential development (Finka, 2005 p. 124). History of the Area A few decades after the naissance of the Austro -Hungarian Empire in 1890s, the example of the Austrian banks haute finance were considered the initial sources for promoting and financing economic development.(Berend et al. 1974). During the 1890s, Viennese banks were holding the accounts of the major companies in Austria. Creditanstalt was still holding the accounts even years after (Cowen et al., 1996). Additionally, Marz (1984) adds that during this time, investments in the capital market, in addition to banks, sup ported new enterprises and large-scale company merges. Not only was the industrial development supported by the bankers, but also wholesale trade started booming within the Empire. As a result of the end of the WWI, the former monarchy was divided into new nations, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, also called successor states. Each of the new states faced a turbulent economic and political transition. At this time, Austria,

PAGE 44

44 as the former control center of the Empire, was the state with the most indust rial and economic infrastructure. Such infrastructure was designed for a nation much bigger than 6.5 million inhabitants. The territory of this state included significant agricultural land, which was transferred to Hungary and the control of other importan t resources to Czechoslovakia. Hungary had a territory composed mainly of agricultural land. The trade with other nations was reorganized so it no longer depended on the other successor states. On the other hand, Czechoslovakia presented an easy transition into autonomy. The region of Moravia and Bohemia in the northern part conserved a significant portion of the industrial infrastructure of the monarchy, as well as, other local resources. The Slovakia region had the agricultural area; however, Hungary cont rolled the industrial activity in the region. At this time, the trade practice for the successor states expanded and looked for new foreign investment with other nations. However, a world economic crisis, from 1929 to 1933, endangered the economies of Aust ria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia (Maier et al., 1991). Towards socialist and capitalist systems In 1930, Austria and the northeastern part of Czechoslovakia became part of the German block. As a result, Germanys investment was the largest in most of the Au strian and Czechoslovakian economies, which were exposed to a larger market. Germany managed industrial and trade development. This represented a turbulent transition for both countries lasting a few years. After the end of the WWII, Czechoslovakia faced a new restructuration and the government, at that time, had connections to the Soviet Union. In 1946, the communist government won the elections and opened a window for a future transition. By 1948, Czechoslovakia was part of the

PAGE 45

45 Soviet bloc. On the other h and, Austria also faced political changes, but its capitalist economy survived the transition after the end of the war. The establishment of banks and industry was under a system of social partnership and its trade market remained stable (Maier et al., 1 991). At this time, the direction of both economies took different paths. By 1951, the communist restructuring of Czechoslovakia forced its economy into weapons production, heavy industry, etc. At the same time, the economic environment led Austria to recr eate linkages to the Western nations. The trade among Eastern states dramatically decreased as most of the trade was with the Soviet Union; whereas trade on the Western side fluctuated over the years. During the socialist regime, the shopping center developments concentrated in the city of Vienna with only one center in the Lower Austria region. The Shopping City Sud center is outside of the city limits towards the South and was considered the largest mall in Europe for several years. This mall was one of t he first developments in Vienna to have an anchor store. Based on the literature about agglomeration and dispersion, this center was the first development that dispersed at a different location than the urban center. The purpose was also to target other consumers that did not necessarily have to commute to the city for shopping activities. After the Austro -Hungarian Empire, the economic connections between Austria and Czechoslovakia have faded and taken different directions. It would not be until 1989 that both countries would stand face to face again. Bratislava after 1989 After the dissolution of the former state of Czechoslovakia, the Slovak Republic became a democratic and legal state in January 1, 1993. The Slovak Republic shares

PAGE 46

46 borders with other Eas tern and Central countries: to the north is the Czech Republic and Poland, to the west Austria, to the south Hungary and to the East Ukraine. Bratislava is the capital city of the Slovak Republic and divided into five districts. By 1996, the capital became part of the Bratislava Region along with Malacky, Pezinok and Senec districts as a part of the territorial administrative division. This territorial division is classified as a NUTS III region. By 1998, territorial self government was initiated (Bachtler et al., 2000 p. 179). Bachtler et al. (2000) considered this as a component of the emerging decentralized system (p. 180). Bucek, (1998) points out that during the restructuring of the country into new regions, problems of regional disparities were faced As the regional policy was centralized before 1989, the new regional policy focused in monitoring the growing disparities and the problems within regions. During the 1990s, the Bratislava region was considered to have as twice as much infrastructure comp ared to the rest of the regions, as well as high levels of research and development and qualified labor, and the highest foreign direct investment (FDI) in the country (62% of the total in Slovakia). By 2002, the Bratislava region reached a FDI of 67.8% of the total Slovak FDI stock (Pavlinek, 2004, p. 51, also Finka et al., 2005). Additionally, the metropolitan area of Bratislava has the largest hinterlands, along with Kosice. The location of Bratislava next to the EU members demands future development pot ential and cross border co operation. Bachtler (2000) makes the point that co operation between the cities of Vienna and Bratislava creates a space for agglomeration based on labor, economic, infrastructural and physical perspectives.

PAGE 47

47 Shopping Center Conte xt Shopping Center Structure in the Vienna Region Viennas traditional retail structure is based on local shopping streets. These shops keep the quality of life and identity of each district in Vienna. However, in recent decades, the new trend in shoppin g has shifted from the local shops to shopping centers and specialized supermarkets. The new real estate investments utilize the advantages of their peripheral locations, such as more affordable real estate prices, higher selling space area ratio, parking facilities, etc. These retail developments are considered a threat to the local shops in the inner city retail structure (Strategic Plan for Vienna, 2000 p. 31). Within the Vienna region, most of the shopping center developments feature all the described c haracteristics of the American model of shopping centers, but additionally an important trait of accessibility. Although these developments offer parking space; they are seemingly not solely car oriented developments as the majority of them are reachable using the existing public transportation system. The type of shops, services, and entertainment options are usually based on the demands of local consumers. The themes are akin to those shopping centers in America and other parts of Western Europe. Post Soc ialist Real Estate Investments The real estate market developed until the beginning of the new millennium, when CEE became a target market for FDI. The ex -socialist cities started to face transformations and the commercial property market began to boom. The existing commercial stock market was not suitable for new businesses. At this time, the real estate market offered new products in more attractive locations. Likewise, investors

PAGE 48

48 realized that real estate property investments could be profitable in metropolitan areas of Central European states. These areas would represent high return on investment in real estate investments. The post -socialist states could now offer higher rates of steady economic growth, new institutional markets, and stable political sy stems. Most of the real estate transactions were cross border operations. Some of the main investors in the CEE were from Austria, Germany, and the U.S. The percentage of this type of transactions increased through the upcoming years as the foreign investm ent in real estate drastically shifted to commercial property. (Stanilov, 2007 p. 73-75) By 2001, real estate investments were mainly in the office market, but investors interest significantly shifted to the retail sector (large shopping centers) during t he same year. Cities were the first targets for these new investments as they experienced change in the populations purchasing power. As a result, the retail investments market increased all over Europe. This emerging market in commercial investments, unl eashed spatial transformation in the post -socialist cities in Europe. The real estate market was affected by land use and social changes as well. Urban spatial distributions during the socialist period did not work the same as the specific location uses us ed in Western countries, where some land uses had priority over others in terms of location. Instead, these distributions were managed by the central system with no space or market priority whatsoever (Stanilov, 2007). During the socialist period, the com mercial uses were reduced in size and located in the central areas of cities to make them more manageable for the system. With the new wave of real estate investments, a new pattern of commercial distribution occurred in the business areas; especially with the formation of commercial streets located at the

PAGE 49

49 main arterials (ibid p. 76). The urban fabric of the cities cores had become retail investment receptive and showed to some extent external economies of scale. Evolution of Development of the Retail Buildings Purchasing power in the CEE countries, mainly for the population concentrated in the urban areas, increased due to new economic conditions after the removal of the IC and the integration to the EU. The existing small retail buildings promptly became i nsufficient compared to the opportunities yielded by the buying power of metropolitan residents. During this period, the yields of investment from residential and office real estate sectors were declining, and investors sought new investing options in the retail sector. Additionally, the retail investment markets seemed more compelling and more resistant to economic fluctuations for both developers and investors. This market had a boost in CEE countries compared to a steady trend in the Western European sta tes. The large shopping centers were an emerging and successful real estate sector for investment in CEE states. However, it was not until after 1995 that the first significant retail developments took place in the CEE metropolises. A significant increment in these successful developments occurred after 2000. Stanilov (2000) identifies two main reasons regarding the quick booming of these developments. On the one hand, the excessive bombarding of marketing and product availability for the post -socialist population, in addition to the appearance of innovative retail buildings (compared to the decayed retail structures during the socialist period). On the other hand, the openness of urban planning approaches contributed to the new growth in retail property inv estment. The new spatial development management supported the spread of large retail developments (ICSC, 2002).

PAGE 50

50 Poland was the leading CEE country in real estate shopping center investments by 2004. It even had greater investments than the Netherlands, Italy and France, though it remained behind the UK. The Czech Republic showed in the fifth place (CBRE, 2004). See Figure 3-4. for shopping center investments by country in 2004. Slovakia was considered a less developed large scale retail market along with Ro mania, the Baltic states, and others countries (Stanilov, 2007). Hence, shopping center investments in Slovakia were not significant compared to the rest of the European countries. The pattern of retail development in the CEE states took place in the busin ess districts in national capitals and secondary cities. Retail agglomerations were located in the urban periphery and consequently competition became a determinant location factor for new retail developments. Investors reacted to the trends in the more de veloped markets in the CEE countries and sought new spatial distribution. The inner cities had become the targets for large -scale retail developments as the competitions was less than that in the business districts (ibid. p.92) Slovakia was not at the top of capital concentration in real estate investments among the CEE countries. By 2005, Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic accounted for almost 90 percent of the total investments in real estate markets (Stanilov, 2007, p. 76). In the years following the removal of the IC, Vienna and Bratislava did not compete with each other for real estate development investment due to the significant disparities in their economic structures and development opportunities. The economic structure of Slovakia started to open to Western markets, but not in the investment market, and the opportunities for investors from these two cities were not

PAGE 51

51 similar. As a result, both cities competed against other cities with similar economic profiles and offers for investment and devel opment. This pattern changed as a part of the economic and social transformation and integration of the Slovak Republic into the EU (Finka, 2005 p. 131). The growing real estate market in Bratislava and its suburban areas supported the office and housing d evelopments. As a result, the competitiveness of the city made it comparable to the real estate market in Vienna. Slovakias accession to the EU in 2004 helped to remove barriers to competition between Vienna and Bratislava that had affected the relationsh ip between both cities in the past. Labor market, transportation, services, and retail business were some of these state policies (Finka, 2005 p. 131). Transition Period As a result of the analysis of the literature, availability of information, a questi on still remains unanswered regarding this case study in particular. Why did real estate retail developments occur 11 years after the removal of the IC? An attempt to answer this question is followed by Tykkylainen (1995), who concludes that data for deta iled analysis of market size, complexity, location, competition, and demographics were either not available or not easily mapped (p. 59). Investors in post -socialist countries experienced a lack of data sources for market analysis and location as they wer e mostly replaced by field observations compared to the Western countries data sources (Tykkylaninen, 1995). Additionally, Balcerowicz (1995) notes that it took time during the transition period for the state dominated economy to change from socialism to capitalism (p. 146); moreover, the change in property ownership rights from government to private owners took more time as well, and once these changes were over, the sites became available.

PAGE 52

52 Economic Crisis on Real Estate Market During the 90s, the Slovak real estate market was stagnant and did not boom until the turn of the century when a growing demand in all real estate sectors was present. Stanilov (2007) talks about the change in ownership of assets by private entities and the land rent as two determ inant elements for the process of urban spatial readjustment in a new real estate environment (p.1). International investors were seeking new emerging markets during the second half of the 1990s; consequently, a significant portion of foreign investment went to the commercial property market. Developers and real estate companies partnered together to begin building retail developments in the capital of Bratislava. The effects of the removal of the IC brought on a number of features during the post -commun ist transition in Central and Eastern Europe. Balcerowicz (1995) points out that even though the changes in political and economic systems started at the same time, there were not a simultaneous transitions between both types of changes as it took longer f or the economic than the political system, even considering the political and economic reform that had occurred under socialist regimes. Drtina (2005) said that positive economic changes in Slovakia happened before the EU accession, even though they coinci de. However, with the accession, Slovakia has not had important economic results (Ivanicka et al. 2009) Shopping Center Comparisons Shopping centers were first introduced in Europe in the 1950s. Most of the developers around the world follow the American model when experiencing developments of this type. Certain traits are essential in the shopping center development, such as accessibility, parking space, location, facilities or use, target

PAGE 53

53 market, and hours of operation. Figure 3-3 compares these traits among shopping centers in the Vienna Bratislava region and those in the US.

PAGE 54

54 Table 3 1. Districts in Bratislava Estate District Number Borough Bratislava I Star Mesto II Ruinov Podunajsk Biskupice III Nov Mesto Vajnory IV Karlova Ves Dbravka Devn Devnska Nov Ves Zhorsk Bystrica V Petralka Jarovce Rusovce Table 3 2. Districts in Vienna Estate District Name Number Vienna Innere Stadt 1 Leopoldstadt 2 Landstrae 3 Wieden 4 Margareten 5 Mariahilf 6 Neubau 7 Josefstadt 8 Alsergrund 9 Favoriten 10 Simmering 11 Meidling 12 Hietzing 13 Penzing 14 Rudolfsheim Fnfhaus 15 Ottakring 16 Hernals 17 Whring 18 Dbling 19 Brigittenau 20 Floridsdorf 21 Donaustadt 22 Liesing 23

PAGE 55

55 Table 3 3. Lower Austria and BurgenlandM unicipalities a nd T owns Estate Municipality Towns Total Lower Austria Bruck and der Leitha Berg Bruck an der Leitha Gttlesbrunn Arbesthal Gtzendorf an der Leitha Hainburg a.d.Donau Haslau Maria Ellend Hflein Hundshe im Petronell Carnuntum Prellenkirchen Rohrau Wolfsthal 12 Ganserndorf Aderklaa Andlersdorf Eckartsau Engelhartstetten Gnserndorf Glinzendorf Gro Enzersdorf Gro Schweinbarth Grohofen Haringsee Lassee Leopoldsdorf im Marchfelde Mannsdorf an der Donau Marchegg Markgrafneusiedl Orth an der Donau Parbasdorf Raasdorf 18 Wiener Neustadt Land Wllersdorf Steinabr ckl 1 Wien Umgebung Ebergassing Fischamend Klein Neusiedl Schwadorf Schwechat Zwlfaxing 6 Burgenland Eisenstadt Eisenstadt 1 Neusiedl Am See Frauenkirchen Gattendorf

PAGE 56

56 Table 3 3 Continued Estate Municipality Towns Total Kittsee Mnchhof Neudorf Neusiedl am See Pama Parndorf Podersdorf am See Weiden am See Winden am See Zurndorf 12 Table 3 4. Vienna Bratislava Region Region Are a in Km 2 Population in h/Km 2 Vienna 415 1,673,057 4,031 Burgenland 3,965 280,082 71 Lower Austria 19,174 1,587,651 83 Vienna Region 23,554 3,540,760 4,185 Bratislava* 367.58 427,403* 1,163 Vienna Bratislava Region 23,922 3,956,342 5,348 *2008 Source: Statistik Austria Statisticky urad Slovenskej Republiky 2006, Area, Population, and Population Density Table 3 5. Vienna Bratislava Area of Study Region Area in Km2 Population Population Density in selected area in /Km2 Vienna 23 districts 415 1,673,057 4,031 Burgenland Eisenstadt 453.1** 39,601* 12,562 Neusiedl Am See 1,038.7** 53,502 27631 Subtotal Burgenland 1,491.8 93,103 62 Districts Lower Austria Bruck an Der Laitha 495.0** 43,720 25,783 Gnserndorf 1271.3** 93.382 36,771 Wiener Neustadt Land 969.7** 74,103 4,126 Wien Umgebung 484.5** 110,471 28,791 Subtotal Lower Austria 3,221 228,387 95,471 71 Vienna study R egion 5,127 1,951,715 4,164 Bratislava 367.58 427,403 1,163 Vienna Bratislava Study Region 5,495 2,379,118 5,327 Source: Statistik Austria Statisticky urad Slovenskej Republiky *2006 data 2008, Area, Population, and Population Density of the Study Region

PAGE 57

57 Table 3 6 Major connection linkages in the study area Type Network Route Year of Construction Roadway Supra regional Ostautobahn (A4) 2004 Roadway Regional Vienna Parndorf Kittsee Petrzalka Bratislava 1999 Roadway Regional Vienna H ainburg Berg Petrzalka Bratislava Before 1989 Railway Regional Vienna Kittsee Petrzalka Bratislava 2000 Railway Regional Vienna Marchegg Bratislava Before 1989 Waterway Supra regional Danube waterway Before 1989 Airway Supraregional Vienna Schw echat Bratislava Ivanka Before 1989 Source: Werkstattberichte, 2003

PAGE 58

58 Figure 31. Study region: Vienna Bratislava core area Source: Own

PAGE 59

59 Figure 32. Shopping center investments by country 2004 Source: CB Richard Ellis Figure 33. Shopping cen ter comparisons Source: Own

PAGE 60

60 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS This section will describe the analysis of different information and scenarios in order to determine whether or not shopping center agglomeration or dispersion occurred in the study area. For thi s purpose, some of the economic indicators for each region will be considered as a context related to shopping centers development. It is important to mention that some of the economic data shown is based on the European System of Integrated Economic Accounts (ESA) methodology from the European Commission Eurostat webpage. The classification of the source data is described in table 4.1. based on the following categories: NUTS I is at national level, Nuts II at Supra-Regional Level, Nuts III regional level. The information used in this study case is mostly Nuts I and II. Table 4-1 shows the classification of source data. The economic data was available for different years from 1996 to 2007. In some instances the data for the Vienna region differs from the Bratislava regions due to its availability and estimates. In each case, the information shown will be noted if the data is not consistent for both regions. Economic Indicators Based on the economic indicators, Figure 4 5 and Figure 46 correspond to what the literature research and economic models demonstrate regarding the relationship between economic development and regional wages and growth in market potential. Redding et al. (2004) found that market access is positively related to per capita income. Hanson (2005) later stated that demand linkages appear to be strongly associated with wages whether one looks across countries or across regions inside countries (p. 21).

PAGE 61

61 To gain more insight into the details of the regional economic conditions in the area of study, a group of indicators are used as context to describe possible related influences of development and growth in the agglomerations of shopping centers. The gross regional domestic product (GRDP) and primary income of private households are usually in dicators of development and growth usually at national and regional levels. The shopping center development reflects the investment and development opportunities linked to the GDP and purchasing power of population. The aim of this type of development is t o obtain investment returns for the investors and supply the consumers demands. Regional gross domestic product is expressed in gross domestic product (GDP), which is a key measure of a nations economic development and growth. Economic growth is express ed in purchasing power parities, which take account of different price levels among a group of different member states allowing for a fairer comparison. Purchasing power parities (PPPs) indicates how many units a given quantity of goods and services costs in different countries. Using PPPs to convert expenditure express in national currencies into an artificial common currency, the purchasing power standard (PPS), eliminates the effect of price level differences across countries created by fluctuations in c urrency exchange rates (Eurostat, 2009). Chronological Development Shopping Center Inventory The information about the year of construction, area in square meters, and location was acquired via email, internet, and visiting the offices. The following prov ides a glimpse of the existing shopping centers in the study area. Table 42 shows the shopping center inventory To understand the development of shopping centers through the time in the study area, the data will be summarized by decade. The years of analysis will be 1989, 1999,

PAGE 62

62 2009, and finally the future developments not yet built as these decades include a series of historical facts in the study region. In 1989, Slovakia was still part of the socialist regime, and before this year, the study area was not pictured in an economic map setting due to the IC. As a result, this barrier impeded political and economic relations between both countries. The decade from 1989 to 1999 represents the opening of the borders, the transition period of Slovakia, the acc ession of Austria to the EU, and when both states started to build up relationships again at different levels. The last decade from 1999 to 2009 corresponds to a time when both countries are part of the EU and other programs. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology was used to show the development patterns in each city and the Lower Austria and Burgenland regions as well. The GIS polygons data sets (or layer) were obtained from the Research Institute for Spatial and Real Estate Economics at the Vienna University of Economics and Business, with one data set for each country: Austria and the Slovak Republic. Additionally, another data set for The City of Vienna and its 23 districts was also obtained. The selection of the regions from each country dat a set was as follows: Austria: The City of Vienna (23 districts), Lower Austria, and Burgenland. Slovak Republic: The City of Bratislava (5 districts) An extraction of the selected regions in the original data sets was created to show the study area, and new data sets were created, one for the Vienna region and other for the Bratislava region. New feature classes (points) were created to show each one of the developments within the new datasets. The resulting maps spatially demonstrate

PAGE 63

63 the trends of devel opment. Each point represents a shopping center development within the time period. Shopping Centers up to 1989 This cut off year represents one of the most important historical years for this study area as it is the year of the collapse of socialist stat e in CEE countries. Up to this year, all developments that fit the selection criteria (>5,000 m2) will be spatially shown in a map. The development trend of shopping centers was only shown in the Vienna region side. The city of Vienna was the main region f or development with 5 shopping centers, and the Lower Austria region with only one shopping center located close to the citys south boundary (See Figure 4-1). Two out of the five shopping centers developments in the city were located on the Floridsdorf (2 1st) District. This district was the second in overall population increment from 1981 to 1991. Favoriten (10th) District had the largest demographic concentration from all the districts during this period of time. Following it is: Donaustadt (22nd) and Leopoldstadt (2nd). The rest of the shopping centers took place in Donaustadt (22nd), Mariahilf (6th), and Simmering (11th) districts respectively Table 32 detail s the area and year of construction. Shopping City Sud was the biggest shopping center in Europ e for several years. This center was built in 1976 and represents an important retail development in the Lower Austria province. Its location attracts customers from home and abroad (SCS, 2009). This is the first development that was outside of the city bo undaries taking place in the town of Vsendorf On the other hand, Bratislava did not have any shopping center developments as the retail activity was still controlled by the centralized government. Additionally, FDI in the Slovak Republic was not possible yet, being restricted by the socialist regime.

PAGE 64

64 Shopping Centers from 1989 to 1999 Between these years, the development s occurred again only on the Austrian side. B y this time, former socialist residents of the study region had an option to commute to the Vienna region for shopping. There were seven shopping centers developments during this decade. Five of them were located within the City of Viennas boundaries. The chronological development was in the Rudolfsheim -Funfhaus (15th), Penzing (14th), Donaustad t (22nd), Neubau (7th), and Brigittenau (20th) districts. One more development took place in the LA region farther South from the city. Another important development took place in the Burgenland region with close proximity to the transportation corridor th at links both cities. This shopping center seemed to be strategically located to attract customers from home and abroad, and was developed right after the removal of the IC having the theme of an outlet store. Customers from Slovakia and other regions in A ustria and Hungary had access to this development. See Figure 4 -2. During this period of time, the Donaustadt (22nd) district received its second large scale retail building and showed the highest increase in population between 1991 to 2001. The highest demographic change between these two years took place in the Simmering (11th), Floridsdorf (21st), Favoriten (10th) and Liesing (23rd) districts respectively, while the population decreased in the remaining districts. Even though, the real estate investments in shopping center and FDI slowly started to flourish in the post -socialist metropolises, and the highest stock of investment went to the Central Europe (CE) countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia), the inflows of FDI to the Slovak Republ ic were the lowest among the CE states in the following industries: industrial, manufacturing, green field, research and

PAGE 65

65 development, etc. (Pavlinek, 2004). The Bratislava region still lacked real estate investment in shopping centers due to the existing economic disparities in purchasing power of the population and RGDP compared to the Vienna region. Shopping Centers from 1999 to 2009 This decade marked the presence of shopping centers on the side of the former socialist territory. The emerging retail developments took place n ot only on the Vienna region at this time, but also the Bratislava region finally experienced the developments in its metropolitan region. Both metropolis had had experienced uneven regional development over the long -term. Figure 43 presents the shopping center development during this decade. Interestingly, both sides of the region had equal number of developments. The sizes and characteristics of the centers are almost comparable. The growth of developments had a significant impact in the regional spatial retail industry in this Central European region. Just after the turn of the century, the metropolitan part of Bratislava experienced the first ever shopping center called Polus City Center. This development took place in the third dis trict (Okres) of Bratislava. Nove Mesto, Raca, and Vajnory are the boroughs within this district. District III is second to last regarding population concentration in the Bratislava region (I -V districts). One year after, Aupark, the second shopping center was built towards the South Central part of the region, in the District V within approximately less than five km straight distance from one to another center. The highest concentration of population from the entire Bratislava region is concentrated in thi s district. The next development Avion took place in the borough of Ruzinov, District II. This center doubled in sized compared to the first two and its location represents a

PAGE 66

66 midpoint in between the previous developments. The location of this shopping cent er is also strategically placed near to the Ivanka International airport and only approximately between three and seven km. away from previous shopping centers. District II had its second shopping center by 2004. The Shopping Palace development has a super market as an anchor and is at a really close distance with less than three km from Avion center. This district has the second largest overall concentration of inhabitants in Bratislava. On the other side of the map, the metropolitan area of Vienna experienced another shopping center development in the Simmering (11 th ) district as its second shopping center. In 2005, two new developments took place in the Meidling (12 th ) and D bling (19th ) districts respectively; both districts have an average population concentration. Finally, the most recent development was in Leopoldstadt (2nd ) District. Two of these four developments were not greater than 30,000 m2 and the rest approximately 15,000 m2. Another development was built in the LA area. The location of this center is close to the boundary with the Burgenland area and to the outlet center. Shopping centers up to 2010 This map depict s the spatial distribution of shopping center developments in th e study area. On the side of Vienna, the developments are situated in different areas but mainly towards the southeastern part of the city. On the other side, the City of Bratislava shows developments towards the east as well. No agglomerations are shown i n between both metropolises, except the three developments in between both cities. However, a significant agglomeration of developments is seen in the city of Vienna compared to young agglomeration of shopping centers depicted in the city of Bratislava.

PAGE 67

67 Bo th regions show similar numbers of developments in the last decade. The development in green is an ongoing development in District I of the city of Bratislava. See Figure 4-4. Questions for Analysis Some questions will be addressed in this section with th e intention of explaining the conditions of shopping center development in between both regions and to support the analysis. The relationship of the questions with the study area is considered important for answering the research question and understanding the overall context of this case study. What are the Conditions for Development in and between Both Metropolises ? To assess the opportunities for development in the region between both cities, we must take into account that regional conditions prevailing from the geographic conditions between both cities reflect many aspects of development, such as land use and transportation linkages among other urban and rural schemes. In the Vienna region, a significant proportion of the total land area is under one of the many land use categorizations of the green, agricultural or conflict areas. Since 1905, a historical green area called Forest and Meadow Belt (Waldand Wiesengurtel), was secured with the Viennese Green Belt program. The Vienna Woods, the Prater, publ ic areas, parks, and agricultural areas are part of the program. The other part of the protected areas is covered by national parks, such as Danube water meadows, and Neusiedler Lake Seewinkel (cross border project with Hungary) (Werkstattberichte, 2003). One quarter of the whole region (without the city of Vienna) is considered protect ed zones with environmental impacts and areas of conflict In the Bratislava region, forests, private gardens, and forest parks also cover a significant part of the land: the Male Karpaty

PAGE 68

68 Mountains in the Northern part of the city and the Danubian Lowland ( Podunajsk nina) (Rehackiva et al., 2004). Additionally, the rural regions and towns in the rest of the territorial land of both regions and those along the transportation links have a high degree of dependence on the urban agglomerations (Werkstattberichte, 2003, p. 136). The demographic characteristics within the municipalities in LA and Burgenland are another factor related to development in between the metropolis. The towns and municipalities in LA and Burgenland lack the population density and market potential to support large scale retail developments. However, at this level, LA and Burgenland show almost equal primary income of private households among the three sta tes for the Vienna region in 2007; but a disparity rises in the GRDP, the GRDP of Vienna being almost double that of LA and Burgenland. This poses a critical disadvantage in the between region and supports the growth of shopping center development in the p oles. Figure 45 shows: a) the demographic density of inhabitants per km2 and b) the income per household in each region. Another crucial aspect for shopping center development is the regulatory and policy approach, which will be considered as an item on t he agenda for future research. Does the Distance between Both Metropolises and Trip Purpose Matter for Shopping Center Developments? Even though there are many conditions to be considered as factors for shopping center development in between the area of bo th metropolises, an important element is analysis of traffic destinations on the transportation corridors linking both cities. To evaluate the correct answer to this question, a survey of shoppers in both regions would be needed; instead, a summary from a passenger survey at the borders

PAGE 69

69 of the Eastern region of Austria will be analyzed. The survey covers eight regions on the Eastern border. For the purpose of this analysis, the border crossing related to the Vienna Bratislava region will be analyzed. As thi s survey was not customized for the purpose of this shopping center analysis, it covers a broader area. Private transportation, railways and bus transportation are the transportation modes included in the report. This region has a ratio of commuting twice as high as those from other regions (i.e. from Vienna to Budapest (<50%), Gyor (<10%) in Hungary, and Brno (>10%), and Prague (>15%) in the Czech Republic. Figure 46 demonstrates the total area covered by this survey and the crossing points. The mode with the highest ratio is using private (66%), rail (30%), and bus (4%) transportation at all crossing points. International transportation in the region is classified in private and public (rail and bus) transportation. With regards to the Vienna Bratislava r egion, this border is crossed mainly by private (79%) compared to public (21%) mode of transportation. The main crossing points are Berg (51%), Kittsee Int. (26%) and Kittsee Nat. (12%). From these numbers, we can conclude the importance of the transportat ion links within this region. Following is Table 4 -3 shows the significance in the flow from one metropolis to the other. From private (entrance) mode of transportation, the main bulk of commuters travel almost at same rates between Vienna and the other de stinations within the scope of the survey; whereas, at the time of exiting, almost all commuters travel to Bratislava (87%) and the remaining towards other locations. Regarding public modes of transportation, Bratislava (98%) is the main origin of commuter s and Vienna (84%) their main destination. This can be due to the modal split

PAGE 70

70 as both cities are hubs in transportation. At the time of exiting, the percentages changed due to the origin and destination. See tables 43 and 4 -4 for public and private transp ortation commuting ratios. Finally, Table 4 4 shows the different trip purposes along the main transportation corridors between both cities. The first part of the table shows commuters traveling towards the Vienna region using private transportation. Commuting to work and private settlement are the two most common purposes of trips (31% and 28% respectively). The shopping trips account for almost 10%. For commuters using public transportation, work and school are the most common purpose of trips (27% and 21 % respectively). Shopping trips are even lower accounting for 5%. Based on the percentages for shopping trips, 1 or none out of ten commuters will purchase in the Vienna region, and the odds they will make their purchases in a shopping center are even lower. The second part demonstrates commuter traveling outward from the city of Vienna using the same transportation corridors. The purposes of the trips are proportioned similarly. Work on public and private mode is still the most common trip; private errands the second most common trip on private transportation; whereas, school and private errands share the same percentage on public modes. Shopping trips are even lower on public and private (8% and 5% respectively). In summary, commuters, from from one region to the other, have a wide variety of purposes to make a trip, other than shopping. Seemingly, the aim to travel within these transportation corridors is for different reasons other than shopping. This may indicate that the purpose of the shopping centers is merely to satisfy the local demand, rather than to attract outsiders to their location. Perhaps, the results of this study would have

PAGE 71

71 reflected different information regarding trips related for shopping if the study was conducted when there were no or s tarted to have shopping centers in the city of Bratislava. Is There Any Difference Between the Shopping Centers in Both Regions? The shopping centers facilitate a wide variety of shops while offering a pleasant environment for shoppers becoming major enter tainment centers. The decision of shoppers regarding the place for shopping is correlated to the distance to the shopping center. Developments on both sides of the study area denote the underlying success factor of customer satisfaction. Leisure facilities promotional activities, economic advantages, and merchandise policy also play an important role in the selection for shopping and are also present in both regions. The first shopping centers developments in the Vienna region normally did not have an anch or store and some of them have had redevelopments projects or major extensions. The extensions represent more area for sales, shops, and often times for an anchor store or new leisure facilities. The newer developments normally have one or more anchor stor es or hypermarkets attached to the main building. The newest developments, in addition to hypermarkets or anchor stores, also offer cinemas, leisure facilities, casinos and even fitness centers. Some of the latest developments also include office space as another convenient feature, however. Due to the traits of shoppers affecting the design and preference for shopping, the new development trends of shopping centers, in the study area, are changing the traditional blueprint into a mix use development. The a ccessibility of the centers is a matter of using the public transportation in the Vienna region, except to the developments (Shopping City Sud, Fischapark, and

PAGE 72

72 Shopping Bruck in LA; McArthur Glen Designer Outlet in Burgenland) located outside the city, whi ch required a modal split or the use of private transportation. On the other hand, the developments in the city of Bratislava are easily as they are located within the coverage area of the public transportation system. For example, Shopping Palace offers f ree shuttle bus service (back and forth) from Novy Most, a close bus stop. Another important aspect about shopping in two different countries, in this case regions, is usually the exchange rate. The conversion of one currency to another may resultsult in greater purchasing power. Shoppers benefit from saving or purchasing more in one place versus the other when there is a difference in prices. For example, people living on the Mexico US border tend to shop at the malls in the US because they find a wider variety of products, as well as better quality and cheaper items compared to those in Mexican malls. In the case of Vienna and Bratislava, both countries are part of the EU, and the difference in prices may not be relatively significant in the attraction of shoppers from one region to the other. However, shops may lure local and regional shoppers with effective marketing practices. The sale and clearance marketing strategies are powerful attractions to shoppers even when they do not need to purchase an ything. In addition to the shopping location, the shoppers preference may also be influenced by the convenience of shopping in terms of service hours. Due to labor regulations, the centers in the Vienna region normally are closed on Sundays and have a red uced shift on Saturdays; in contrast to the centers in the Bratislava region, which are open daily with extended hours of service compared to those in the Vienna region.

PAGE 73

73 Table 4 1. Classification of source data Level Minimum Maximum NUTS 1 3 million 7 million NUTS 2 800 000 3 million NUTS 3 150 000 800 000 Source: Eurostat, 2009 NUTS: Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics Table 4 2 Shopping Centers List Name District Approx. m2 Year of construction City of Vienna Donauzentrum 22 9,500 1975 Generali Center 6 5,000 1977 EZS Einkaufszentrum 21 13,000 1984 Huma Einkaufspark 11 44,000 1987 Shopping Center Nord 21 32,700 1989 Lugner City 15 26,500 1990 Auhofcenter 14 25,000 1995 Gewerbepark Stadlau 22 75,000 1996 Genrngross C ity Center 7 31,600 1997 Millennium City 20 50,000 1999 Gasometer City 11 23,240 2001 Columbus Center Betriebs 12 16,000 2005 Q19 19 15,000 2005 STC Stadion Center 2 27,000 2007 Einkaufszentrum Simmering 11 NA NA Galleria Einkaufszentrum 3 NA NA Tr illerpark 21 NA NA Lower Austria Shopping City Sud 176,000 1976 Fischapark 21,200 1996 Shopping Bruck 25,000 2001 Burgenland McArthur Glen Designer Outlet 37,000 1990 City of Bratislava Polus City Center 3 40,000 2000 Aupar k 5 44,000 2001 Avion 2 84,000 2002 Shopping Palace 2 35,000 2004 Future Shopping Center: Twin City 1 91,660 20082012 Source: Own

PAGE 74

74 Table 4 3 Commuting ratios between both cities and other areas (entrance) Origin Pers. 24 h % % Pers. 24 h Goal Entrance Bratislava I V 6,697 84% 46% 3,694 Vienna Rest 1,267 16% 54% 4,270 Rest Total 7,964 7,964 Exit Vienna 3,645 50% 87% 6,429 Bratislava Rest 3,704 50% 13% 920 Rest Total 7,349 7,349 Trans frontier Traffic Priv ate transportation Source: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung (original version in German;own translation) Table 4 4 Commuting ratios between both cities and other areas (private transportation) Origin Pers. 24 h % % Pers. 24 h Goal Entrance Brat islava I V 1,860 98% 84% 1,590 Vienna Rest 35 2% 16% 305 Rest Total 1,895 1,895 Exit Vienna 1,859 85% 99% 2,183 Bratislava Rest 340 15% 1% 16 Rest Total 2,199 2,199 Trans frontier Traffic Public transport ation S ource: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung (original version in German;own translation)

PAGE 75

75 Table 4 5. Trip purpose classification by transportation mode Purpose of traveling Public and Private modes Group F Toward s domestic Ro ad Berg, Kittsee Int. Kittsee Nal. Rail Marchegg, Kittsee Private transportation Public transportation Frequency per week Frequency per week 1 2 to 4 5 >5 Total 1 2 to 4 5 >5 Total To work 2,408 529 1,014 73 4,024 100 9 0 406 3 599 Rush hour from work 46 29 434 8 517 35 13 44 92 Commuting Total 2,454 558 1,448 81 4,541 31% 135 103 450 3 69 1 27% To school/training 109 25 64 198 26 91 301 16 434 Education from school/training 3 3 34 6 68 108 traffic Total 109 25 67 201 1% 60 97 369 16 542 21% Commerce Execution time 1,516 336 66 27 1,945 13% 170 64 15 249 10% Private set tlement 3,539 381 141 39 4,100 28% 326 43 25 6 400 16% Shopping and errand traffic Purchasing 1,122 142 10 6 1,280 9% 104 14 118 5% Tot al 4,661 523 151 45 5,380 36% 430 57 25 6 518 20% Sports 650 95 7 4 756 208 10 218 Leisure traffic to/from 2nd home 24 28 14 66 7 5 12 Total 674 123 21 4 822 6% 215 15 230 9% Holiday traffic Holiday 1,891 30 1,921 13% 266 44 4 314 12% TOTAL 11,305 1,595 1,753 157 14,810 1,276 380 859 29 2,544 Source: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung (original version in German;own translation)

PAGE 76

76 Ta ble 4 5. Continued Purpose of traveling Public and Private modes Group F Outwards domestic Road Berg, Kittsee Int. Kittsee Nal. Rail Marchegg, Kittsee Private transportation Public transportation Frequency pe r week Frequency per week 1 2 to 4 5 >5 Total 1 2 to 4 5 >5 Total To work 582 185 175 6 948 34 41 175 1 251 Rush hour from work 835 542 1,064 187 2,628 108 151 318 49 626 Commuting Total 1,417 727 1,239 193 3,576 29% 142 192 493 50 877 31% To school/training 8 7 15 11 5 13 29 Education from school/training 5 33 113 26 177 43 68 369 5 485 traffic Total 13 33 120 26 192 2% 54 73 382 5 514 18% Commerce Execution time 1,451 328 16 15 1,810 15% 132 38 12 182 6% Private settlement 2,137 440 136 41 2,754 22% 355 92 24 43 514 18% Shopping and errand traffic Purchasing 785 181 3 3 972 8% 129 7 136 5% Total 2,922 621 139 44 3,726 30% 484 99 24 43 650 23% Sports 1,226 62 38 1,326 212 22 1 2 237 Leisure traffic to/from 2nd home 13 12 3 28 7 7 Total 1,239 74 3 38 1,354 11% 219 22 1 2 244 9% Holiday traffic Holiday 1,637 3 8 1,648 13% 329 29 3 58 13% TOTAL 8,679 1,783 1,520 324 12,306 1,360 453 912 100 2,825

PAGE 77

77 Figure 41. Shopping centers before 1989 Source: Own

PAGE 78

78 Figure 42. Shopping centers between 1989 and 1999 Source: Own

PAGE 79

79 Figure 43. Shopping cent ers between 1999 and 2009 Source: Own

PAGE 80

80 Figure 4-4. Shopping centers up to 2010 Source: Own

PAGE 81

81 A B Figure 45. Economic indicators: A)Demographic density of inhabitants per km2; B) Primary income of private household PPCS per habitant Source: Own

PAGE 82

82 Figure 46. Crossing points S ource: Snizek +Partner Verkehrsplanung Vienna LA Burgenland Bratislava

PAGE 83

83 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS This extract is from the book The Spatial Economy coauthored by Paul Krugman, winner of the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize i n Economics, stated that Agglomeration [] occurs at many levels, from the local shopping districts that serve residential areas within cities to specialized economic regions like Silicon Valley or the City of London that serve the world market as a whole. [] Yet although agglomeration is a clearly powerful force, it is not all powerful: London is big, but most Britons live elsewhere, in a system of cities with widely varying sizes and roles. It should not, in other words, be hard to convince economists t hat economic geography [] is both an interesting and important subject This summarizes the importance of analysis of the endlessly changing phenomenon of economic spatial agglomeration This study has provided an insight on the development patterns tre nds and the evolution of the real estate investments in shopping centers in the Vienna Bratislava region after the removal of the IC. Large-scale retail development information has been collected before 1989 up to 2010. In addition, this study attempted t o spatially demonstrate, using GIS, whether the shopping center developments agglomerate or dispersed as a consequence of opening borders. As the historical events of this region are closely related to this research, the results of this study will be shown following three important events: Socialism, removal of the IC, and integration into the EU of both countries.

PAGE 84

84 Socialism This period had its mark o n this region as the shopping center development occurred only in the Vienna region. This study shows that the trend of developments was of 6 centers from 1975 to 1989; one more than the average for the following decades. Even though, investors and shopping centers did not know whether they would ever target consumers in the other side of the IC, they did suff ice the local shoppers needs. Moreover, the location of these centers were reached using the existing transportation infrastructure as developments are within the city boundaries with only one exception outside of the city. These spatial setting and development trend are supported by the descriptions of the elements in the central place theory from Mulligan and Maki included in the literature review. Removal of the IC Based on the literature review on the tendency of agglomeration in the shopping center industry, there should be real estate retail developments happening in the area between both cities due to available land (cost) and transportation infrastructure after the removal of the IC. Moreover, these developments also should attract other center s in order to have agglomeration of retail activity in this region. From the hypothesis, the opening of the borders did not influence the real estate investments in the average number of shopping centers in this region. This study found that from 1989 onw ard the Vienna region has experience an average of 5 center developments in each decade. However, it was observed that only two retail investment centers Fischapark in LA and McArthur Glen Designer Outlet in Burgenland were developed with a close proxi mity to the road corridors connecting both Vienna and Bratislava regions.

PAGE 85

85 The fact that real estate investments in shopping centers were stagnant, in the Bratislava region, allowed investors to potentially lure the Slovak and other foreign shoppers, especi ally when the traveling barriers were removed. Although, no study was conducted from 1989 to 2000 to quantify the effect in shoppers attraction by shopping centers in the Vienna region, it can be assumed that, the two developments above mention were plann ed, to some extent, following this scheme. These centers represented a new world of shopping options available for Slovak residents as they had access to other types of markets and products in addition to those in Bratislava. Almost 11 years after the IC, Bratislava experienced a trend of shopping center development in an average of 4 centers in less than a decade. Shopping Center Agglomeration There are spatial agglomerations of shopping center in the study area. These agglomerations are not necessarily th e result of the removal of the IC, but are more related to the evolution process in the retail industry. The integrated map of shopping center development in the study area (Figure 44) shows that there is significant agglomeration of real estate retail d evelopments in both metropolises. On one hand, the Vienna region 21 centers is facing the second stage, of the shopping center evolution process, which in this case is represented by dispersion of developments towards peripherals areas; whereas, the Brat islava region 4 centers currently and 1 under construction is still in the primary stage based on the number of developments. Even though, the Vienna region includes LA and Burgenland 3 and 1 centers respectively which also more than double the city i n land dimensions, both Austrian states have a dependency in the urban centers and may not have enough market potential or population density to support more retail

PAGE 86

86 developments. From the integrated map, some questions, that may need further research attention, have risen: whether each region or city poses potential for further shopping center development in terms of structure and market potential. The spatial direction of the centers in the city of Vienna is mainly towards the East, North and South central areas considering District I as the city center. Figure 5-1 shows the shopping center location and the percent of population changes by district. In the Lower Austria and Burgenland, there is no specific direction, except for those two developments previo usly mentioned. For the city of Bratislava, the direction of centers is towards the East area from the city center or District I. In addition, the ratio of shopping centers to population, in both cities, is almost equal based on demographic characteristic s and economic indicators. Although, the developments seemingly have not reached their limits in space or sufficed the demand of shoppers, the certainty for further potential development in the study area is still inconclusive. EU Integration Even thought, the accession of both countries to the EU was nine years apart, the effects of this event in the real estate retail investments are not visible. It can be concluded from this study that this integration brought more concentration of shopping centers in both urban centers. The economic disparities still present are less than those from after the removal of the IC and the subsequent years. Purchasing power, household income and other economic indicators demonstrate that this accession supports the agglomerat ion of centers in both capitals.

PAGE 87

87 Shopping Center Target and Trip Purposes This study has also concluded that recent shopping center developments in the study area have a specific target. This target relates to the local population demands. Seemingly, centers are located to supply local residents and where there is a high market potential. Therefore, the target is not the attraction of shoppers from other regions; rather, the target seems to satisfy local demand. One reason is the agglomeration of shopping centers in both cities and their reliance on the transportation system; in addition to the trips purpose describe in the next paragraph. Although, this research was limited to investigating the trips related to shopping at malls from one to the other region, it does point to the ratio of shopping trips related to the total commuting trips with different purposes. The percentages related to shopping, using both private and public means of transportation, were lower than 10% in each case. The cited study di d not clarify whether the shopping activity takes place in a mall or somewhere else. In addition, as this research was limited to investigating the shopping behavior of residents in each region, it does not address the preferences for shopping at malls in one region or another Although no study or survey was conducted from 1989 to 2000 to quantify the purpose of trips related to shopping, it can be assumed that shopping, if not the primary purpose, was considered as part of trip purposes of commuters and shoppers between both regions. Further Studies Currently, research on retail industry agglomeration as a factor for regional integration and behavior of urban and rural shoppers in the Vienna Bratislava region is lacking. Further research could examine whe ther or not investments in shopping

PAGE 88

88 centers leads to a cooperation relationship in the Vienna Bratislava region as one of many regional integration goals by the EU applied to European regions. The transportation survey cited in this study could be expanded and applied to a specific smaller geographic area, but may require a structured research approach and methodology. Additional research is needed regarding a study about commuting and shopping behavior. This focus study will detail the shopper attraction and commuting from one to the other region for shopping at malls in the entire study area. For example, a survey of shoppers could examine the preferences or benefits of shopping in malls of one region versus the other. However, one of the drawback of using survey or questionnaires is the amount of time required to conduct the surveys in both regions. The assumption of existing agglomeration of shopping centers in the city of Vienna and Bratislava can also be further explored in three ways. Firstly, additional research could examine whether or not the existing investment in real estate creates a spillover effect in other real estate investments or other areas of development. For instance, a study to determine if the existing or new shopping center developments have an effect on land values on the area where they are located. Secondly, a study could also determine whether and how the existing shopping center developments benefit from any economies of scale in the shopping center industry. Thirdly, a study to d etermine if there are any spillover effects from the shopping center industry in the local economy in terms of retail revenues as a widely accepted measure of performance. According to the local governments and their development plans for each region, comm ercial zones have been designated for further development. However, it is important to analyze the requirements and incentives for shopping center developments

PAGE 89

89 and the future land uses supporting this type of developments in addition to a policy evaluation from both regions enforcing future development that ultimately will connect both regions and cities.

PAGE 90

90 Figure 51. Shopping center location by district in the city of Vienna S ource: Own

PAGE 91

91 APPENDIX MATRIX OF DISTANCES This section attempts to support t he claim of agglomeration of shopping centers in the study area. Based on the spatial coordinates of the location of each shopping center in the Vienna and Bratislava regions, a straight distance from center to center was calculated resulting in the follow ing table. The distance is express in Kilometers. The analysis of distances has been divided in four sections, based on the mall geographical location: 1 Vienna region 2 City of Vienna 3 City of Bratislava 4 Vienna Bratislava region The Vienna region classificat ion includes Vienna, LA, and Burgenland. The variation of the distances corresponds to the relationship of 21 malls located in the city with those located in LA or Burgenland. A shopper would travel approximately a maximum (max.) and a minimum (min.) distance of 54 and 42 km, respectively. This case is represented by the malls Auhofcenter and McArthur Glen Designer Outlet, which are the far away from each other. The city of Vienna with its 23 districts classification identifies a very interesting variation of distances among the 17 malls located within the citys boundaries. In this case, a shopper would travel approximately a max. and min. distance of 19 and one third of a km, respectively. The locations of malls show significant agglomerations at different districts. The shortest distance ranges from approximately one third of a km to 8 km. For example, five malls are in close proximity to each other of less than 1km, 10 malls of less than 3 km and 1 mall of more than 8 km. The maximum distances among malls oscillate between 19 and 10 km.

PAGE 92

92 The city of Bratislava reveals a more concentrated proximity among the centers. A shopper would travel the max. and min. distance of approximately 8 and 3 km. The average distance among all centers is 4 km. The Vienna Bratislava region identifies a variation of distances. The maximum distances range from 4 9 to 83 km., whereas the lowest from 17 to 50 km. In summary, the range of distances in the metropolitan areas shows proximity enough to argue that the economic phenomenon of agglomeration is present. On the one hand, there is a spillover that creates economies of scale and has also a multiplier effect in the retail industry; the provision of economic benefits to the community regarding jobs and tax revenues and competition among centers. On the other hand, consumers benefit from shopping options and larger selection of goods.

PAGE 93

93 Table A-1 Matrix of distances Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 Auhofcenter 12.07 16.61 15.22 14.73 13.15 15.34 9.82 10.10 19.26 8.69 13.12 12.20 18.92 15.03 15.01 2 Columbus Center Betriebs 12.07 8.01 3.15 8.81 2.32 3.42 2.66 2.58 7.19 3.90 6.56 7.96 9.86 9.57 4.47 3 Donauzentrum 16.61 8.01 7.70 3.26 5.69 6.41 8.04 7.71 8.51 8.60 3.56 5.23 2.32 3.79 3.81 4 Einkaufszentrum Simmering 15.22 3.15 7.70 9.60 3.21 1.30 5.67 5.49 4.06 6.92 7.71 9.57 8.94 10.37 3.95 5 EZS Einkaufszentrum 14.73 8.81 3.26 9.60 6.77 8.43 7.80 7.52 11.33 7.88 2.32 2.56 5.04 0.78 5.77 6 Galleria Einkaufszentrum 13.15 2.32 5.69 3.21 6.77 2.53 3.35 3.06 6.55 4.47 4.66 6.40 7.56 7.54 2.23 7 Gasometer City 15.34 3.42 6.41 1.30 8.43 2.53 5.56 5.32 4.05 6.78 6.66 8.60 7.66 9.20 2.70 8 Generali Center 9.82 2.66 8.04 5.67 7.80 3.35 5.56 0.34 9.57 1.25 5.49 6.28 10.22 8.48 5.38 9 Gerngross City Center 10.10 2.58 7.71 5.49 7.52 3.06 5.32 0.34 9.35 1.45 5.20 6.06 9.89 8.21 5.06 10 Huma Einkaufspark 19.26 7.19 8.51 4.06 11.33 6.55 4.05 9.57 9.35 10.81 10.05 12.12 8.71 12.03 5.85 11 Lugner City 8.69 3.90 8.60 6.92 7.88 4.47 6.78 1.25 1.45 10.81 5.65 6.01 10.86 8.49 6.35 12 Millennium City 13.12 6.56 3.56 7.71 2.32 4.66 6.66 5.49 5.20 10.05 5.65 2.09 5.85 3.04 4.21 13 Q19 12.20 7.96 5.23 9.57 2.56 6.40 8.60 6.28 6.06 12.12 6.01 2.09 7.34 2.85 6.27 14 Gewerbepark Stadlau 18.92 9.86 2.32 8.94 5.04 7.56 7.66 10.22 9.89 8.71 10.86 5.85 7.34 5.32 5.42 15 Shopping Center Nord 15.03 9.57 3.79 10.37 0.78 7.54 9.20 8.48 8.21 12.03 8.49 3.04 2.85 5.32 6.52 16 STC Stadion Center 15.01 4.47 3.81 3.95 5.77 2.23 2.70 5.38 5.06 5.85 6.35 4.21 6.27 5.42 6.52 17 Trillerpark 15.64 10.40 4.23 11.13 1.59 8.35 9.93 9.32 9.04 12.64 9.30 3.88 3.54 5.44 0.84 7.24 18 Fischapark 43.17 42.05 49.76 42.16 50.84 44.24 43.46 43.28 43.51 43.27 43.66 48.54 49.56 51.10 51.58 45.95 19 Shopping City Sd 12.84 8.74 16.73 9.92 17.34 11.04 11.06 9.69 9.92 12.91 10.11 15.02 15.97 18.48 18.06 13.06 20 Shopping Bruck 47.41 35.61 35.68 32.52 38.93 35.32 32.81 38.19 38.01 28.77 39.44 38.35 40.43 34.42 39.45 34.38 21 McArthur Glen Designer Outlet 54.10 42.33 42.35 39.25 45.61 42.06 39.55 44.92 44.75 35.51 46.17 45.07 47.14 41.03 46.12 41.11 1 SK Polus City Center 68.61 56.76 52.95 53.73 55.85 55.46 53.38 58.80 58.52 49.70 59.92 56.45 58.16 50.84 56.02 53.67 2 SK Aupark Janko Kr? Park 66.47 54.49 51.24 51.40 54.25 53.34 51.15 56.65 56.38 47.35 57.81 54.67 56.47 49.22 54.48 51.65 3 SK Avion 71.75 59.90 56.08 56.86 58.97 58.60 56.51 61.94 61.66 52.83 63.06 59.58 61.29 53.96 59.14 56.80 4 SK Shopping Palace 72.29 60.54 56.40 57.54 59.22 59.16 57.14 62.50 62.21 53.54 63.60 59.93 61.58 54.24 59.35 57.30 Average Vienna region 18.21 11.03 11.81 11.33 12.23 10.50 10.99 11.21 11.07 12.98 11.75 11.29 12.29 13.07 12.73 10.70 Max Vienna region 54.10 42.33 49.76 42.16 50.84 44.24 43.46 44.92 44.75 43.27 46.17 48.54 49.56 51.10 51.58 45.95 Min Vienna region 8.69 2.32 2.32 1.30 0.78 2.23 1.30 0.34 0.34 4.05 1.25 2.09 2.09 2.32 0.78 2.23 Average Vienna CIty 13.23 6.05 6.09 6.71 6.13 5.17 6.11 5.84 5.67 8.95 6.32 5.30 6.18 7.61 6.59 5.31 Max Vienna City 19.26 12.07 16.61 15.22 14.73 13.15 15.34 10.22 10.10 19.26 10.86 13.12 12.20 18.92 15.03 15.01 Average Bratislava City Max Bratislava City Min Bratislava City Average Vienna Bratislava 26.46 18.53 18.59 18.29 19.41 17.88 17.96 19.01 18.85 19.04 19.65 18.71 19.83 19.31 19.85 17.77 Max Vienna Bratislava 72.29 60.54 56.40 57.54 59.22 59.16 57.14 62.50 62.21 53.54 63.60 59.93 61.58 54.24 59.35 57.30

PAGE 94

94 Table A-1 Continued Name 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 1 Auhofcenter 15.64 43.17 12.84 47.41 54.10 68.61 66.47 71.75 72.29 2 Columbus Center Betriebs 10.40 42.05 8.74 35.61 42.33 56.76 54.49 59.90 60.54 3 Donauzentrum 4.23 49.76 16.73 35.68 42.35 52.95 51.24 56.08 56.40 4 Einkaufszentrum Simmering 11.13 42.16 9.92 32.52 39.25 53.73 51.40 56.86 57.54 5 EZS Einkaufszentrum 1.59 50.84 17.34 38.93 45.61 55.85 54.25 58.97 59.22 6 Galleria Einkaufszentrum 8.35 44.24 11.04 35.32 42.06 55.46 53.34 58.60 59.16 7 Gasometer City 9.93 43.46 11.06 32.81 39.55 53.38 51.15 56.51 57.14 8 Generali Center 9.32 43.28 9.69 38.19 44.92 58.80 56.65 61.94 62.50 9 Gerngross City Center 9.04 43.51 9.92 38.01 44.75 58.52 56.38 61.66 62.21 10 Huma Einkaufspark 12.64 43.27 12.91 28.77 35.51 49.70 47.35 52.83 53.54 11 Lugner City 9.30 43.66 10.11 39.44 46.17 59.92 57.81 63.06 63.60 12 Millennium City 3.88 48.54 15.02 38.35 45.07 56.45 54.67 59.58 59.93 13 Q19 3.54 49.56 15.97 40.43 47.14 58.16 56.47 61.29 61.58 14 Gewerbepark Stadlau 5.44 51.10 18.48 34.42 41.03 50.84 49.22 53.96 54.24 15 Shopping Center Nord 0.84 51.58 18.06 39.45 46.12 56.02 54.48 59.14 59.35 16 STC Stadion Center 7.24 45.95 13.06 34.38 41.11 53.67 51.65 56.80 57.30 17 Trillerpark 52.42 18.90 39.77 46.41 55.90 54.43 59.01 59.19 18 Fischapark 52.42 33.59 49.58 53.23 78.89 74.82 81.51 83.37 19 Shopping City Sd 18.90 33.59 36.92 43.39 61.33 58.56 64.42 65.37 20 Shopping Bruck 39.77 49.58 36.92 6.74 29.32 25.26 31.93 33.80 21 McArthur Glen Designer Outlet 46.41 53.23 43.39 6.74 26.88 22.41 29.07 31.29 1 SK Polus City Center 55.90 78.89 61.33 29.32 26.88 4.62 3.14 4.48 2 SK Aupark Janko Kr? Park 54.43 74.82 58.56 25.26 22.41 4.62 6.71 8.89 3 SK Avion 59.01 81.51 64.42 31.93 29.07 3.14 6.71 2.72 4 SK Shopping Palace 59.19 83.37 65.37 33.80 31.29 4.48 8.89 2.72 Average Vienna region 13.33 44.04 16.37 34.42 40.33 Max Vienna region 52.42 53.23 43.39 49.58 54.10 Min Vienna region 0.84 33.59 8.74 6.74 6.74 Average Vienna CIty 7.21 46.38 13.52 37.03 43.74 Max Vienna City 15.64 52.42 18.90 47.41 54.10 Average Bratislava City 3.06 5.06 3.14 4.03 Max Bratislava City 4.62 8.89 6.71 8.89 Min Bratislava City 3.14 4.62 2.72 2.72 Average Vienna Bratislava 20.34 49.74 23.74 33.72 38.26 46.54 44.91 49.10 49.83 Max Vienna Bratislava 59.19 83.37 65.37 49.58 54.10 78.89 74.82 81.51 83.37

PAGE 95

95 LIST OF REFERENCES Berman B., Evans J.R., 1979, Retail management: a strategic approach, New York, Macmillan Brandenburger A., Nalebuff B., 1996, Co opetition, New York, Doubleday Amin, A. and Thrift, N, 2002, What kind of economic theory for what kind of economic geography?, Journal Antipode, 32, 1, pages 4 -9, John Wile y \ & Sons Airportbratislava, retrieved from http://www.airportbratislava.sk/5/287html (accessed on August 1, 2009) Balcerowicz, L., 1995, Capitalism, Socialism, Transformation, Budapest, Central Eur opean University Press Bachtler J., Downes R., Gorzelak G., 2000, Transition, cohesion and regional policy in Central and Eastern Europe, Ashgate Publishing Company Berend, T.I., Ranki, G., 1974, Economic Development in East -Central Europe in the 19th an d 20th Centuries, New York, Columbia University Press Blakely, E.J., Bradshaw, T.K., 2002, Planning Local Econ omic Development, Sage Publications CB Richard Ellis, January 2005, Global Market Review Centrope, Business Report, 2007, http://www.centrope.info/baernew/stories/7025 (accessed on February 16, 2009) Christaller, W 1966, Central Places in Southern Germany. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall Committee on Spatial Development, 1999, European Spatial Development Perspective, European Commission, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Cowen, M., Shenton, R.W., 1996, Doctrines of Development, CRC Press Dawson, A.H, 1993, A Geography of European Integration, Belhaven Dixit, A.K. and Norman, V.D., 1980, Theory of International Trade: A Dual, General Equilibrium Approach, Cambridge Univ Pr, p. 19 Dopravny Podnik Bratislava, 2009, http://www.dpb.sk/en (accessed on March 31, 2009)

PAGE 96

96 European Commission, 1999, European Spatial Development Perspective, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, http://europa.eu.int/comm/regional_policy/sources/docoffic/official/reports/pdf/sum_en.p df (accessed December 19, 2008) Eurostat, GDP at Regional Level, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/GDP_at_regional_level# What_is_regional_gross_domestic_product.3F (accessed July 27, 2009) Finka M a ro 2005, Vienna Bratislava Region. Between Cooperation and Competition, Competition between Cities in Central Europe: Opportunities and Risks of Cooperation, ROAD, Bratislava p. 123 -135 Finka M, Janacek, R, Petrikova D., 2005, Slovakia: Transforming Industrial Regions and Preparing for EU Regi onal Policy in Mller B., Finka M., Lintz G., p. 195 212, Springer Berlin Heidelberg Fujita, M. and Thisse, J.F., 1996, Economics of Agglomeration, Journal of the Japanese and Internation al Economies, 10, 4, p 339378 Fujita, M., Krugman, P., Venables, A ., 1999, The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade, MIT Press, Cambridge Giffinger, R. and Wimmer, H., undated, Cities between Competition and Cooperation in Central Europe, undated Harris, C.D., 1954, The Market as a Factor in the Localization of Industry in the United States, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 44, 4, p. 315 348, Routledge Hanson, G.H., 2005, Maktet Potential, Increasing Returns and Geographic Concentration, Journal of International Economics, 67, 1, p. 1 24, Elsevier Hines, M.A., 1988, Shopping Center Development and Investment, p. 4953 New York, Wiley ICSC, The Development of Shopping Centers in Europe 2002, http://www.icsc.org/international/EuropeReviewFINAL.pdf (accessed on September 10th, 200 9) ICSC, Shopping Center Definitions, http://www.icsc.org/srch/about/impactofshoppingcenters/SC_Definitions.pdf (accessed on July 27th, 2009) Ivanicka, K, Spirkova, D ., 2009, Impact of Economic Crisis on Slovak Real Estate Market, 16 th Annual European Real Estate Society Conference, Stockholm, 2009

PAGE 97

97 Jackson, K.T., 1996, All the Worlds a Mall: Reflections on the Social and Economic Consequences of the American Shopping Center, Journal of the American History Review, v. 101, 4, p. 11111121 Krugman P., 1991 Geography and Trade, Cambridge, MIT Press Krugman P., 1991 Increasing Returns and Economic Geography, Journal of Political Economy, 99, 3, UChicago Press Lsch, Au gust, 1964, The Economics of Location, New Heaven, Conn., Yale University Press Maier G., Masek M., 1991, The Removal of the" Iron Curtain" and its Regional Impact upon Austria and the CSFR, Journal of Jahrbuch f"ur Regionalwissenschaft 12, 113 Maki, W. R. and Lichty, R.W., 2000, Urban Regional Economics: Concepts, Tools, Applications, Iowa, US, Iowa State University Press Marz, E, 1984, Austrian Banking and Financial Policy: Creditanstalt at a Turning Point, 19131923, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London M ulligan, G, 1984, Agglomeration and Central Place Theory: A Review of the Literature, Journal of International Regional Science Review, volume 9, number 1, p. 1-42 OSullivan P., 1981, Geographical Economics, New York, Halsted Press. Pavlinek, P., 2004, Regional Development Implications of Foreign Direct Investment In Central Europe, Journal of European Urban and Regional Studies, v. 11, n. 1, p. 47-70 Rehackova, T., Pauditsova, E., 2004, Evaluation of urban green spaces in Bratislava, Boreal Environment Research, 9, 6, p. 469477, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki Redding, S. and Venables, A.J., 2004, Economic Geography and International Inequality, 62, 1, p. 53 82, Elsevier Reutterer T., Teller C., 2008, the Evolving Concept of Retail Attractiv eness: What Makes Retail Agglomerations Attractive When Customers Shop at Them, Journal of Retailing and Customer Services 15, no. 3, 127 -143. SCS, Facts and Figures http://www.scs.at/s cs/topnavcenter/unternehmen/facts.php (accessed July 14, 2009) Stanilov, K, 2007, The Post -Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe After Socialism, Springer

PAGE 98

98 Stadtentwicklung Wien, 2005, Urban Development Plan V ienna Short Report, Vienna City Administration, Municipal Department 18, (accessed July 14, 2009) Statistics Austria, Resident population as per census day < population census > http://www.statistik.at/isis/current/jar/isis_gui_plugin_guest_no_ssl_en.shtml (accessed April 15, 2009) Swoboda, B., Morschett, D., Rudolph, T., Schnedlitz, P., Schramm -Klein, H., digitale Forschungsplattform, A.D., 2009, European Retail Research, Gabler Verlag/GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden Tykkylainen, Markku, 1995, Locan and Regional Development During the 1990s Transition in Eastern Europe, Vermont, Ashgate Publishing Company Wang Qiong, 2005, Economies of Scale in Shopping Cent er Industry, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Infrastructure, Stockholm Werkstattberichte, 2003, Vienna Bratislava Region, Vienna City Administration, Municipal Department 18 Wien, Transportation, http://www.wien.gv.at/english/transportation/publictrans.htm (accessed July 13, 2009) WIFO & WIIW, 2007, Centrope Business & Labour Report. Vienna Zatrochova, M., 2005, The Global Market and Commercial Centres as a Component, Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, p. 3036

PAGE 99

99 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ivan Javier Cabrera was born in Mexico City. He graduated from the Instituto Politecnico Nacional in 1998 with a degree in accounting. Upon graduation I van went to work for the next two years as a tax consultant at PricewaterhouseCoopers in Mexico City In 2000, he worked in the tax department for a group of airports in Mexico (OMA) in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon In 2001, he studied English at Sant a Fe College. In 2003, he worked as a tax consultant at KPMG in Mexico City. In 200 4 he worked as accounting staff for Infinite Energy, a natural gas company in Gainesville, Florida. In 2007, he worked as a financial manager for LifeT ek Orthobiologics, in Gainesville, Florida. H e enrolled in the Urban and Regional Planning masters program at the University of Florida the same year During h is time at the University of Florida he became part of the N etwork for European and United Stat es Regional and Urban Studies (N EURUS ) research exchange pr ogram for which he was awarded a grant. He performed his research at the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU), in Vienna Austria. In 2009, he did an internship at the Gainesville Commun ity Redevelopment Agency in Gainesville, Florida. He also worked with professors in the evaluation and appraisal reports (EAR) for Bradford County in Florida. In 2010, he worked in EAR for the city of Alachua, in Alachua Florida. He looks forward to contin uing to put his knowledge and experiences in use to better economic development and redevelopment practices benefitting residents, communities and cities.