Citation
Using Scratch for Learner-Constructed Multimedia

Material Information

Title:
Using Scratch for Learner-Constructed Multimedia A Design-Based Research Inquiry of Constructionism in Practice
Creator:
Boyer, Jeffrey
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (189 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Curriculum and Instruction (ISC)
Teaching and Learning
Committee Chair:
Dawson, Kara M.
Committee Members:
Cavanaugh, Catherine S.
Vandiver, Frances M.
Hayes, Lynda F.
Graduation Date:
8/7/2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic learning ( jstor )
Collaborative learning ( jstor )
Educational environment ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Learning motivation ( jstor )
Mathematics ( jstor )
Multimedia materials ( jstor )
Research design ( jstor )
Skis ( jstor )
Sprites ( jstor )
Teaching and Learning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
constructionism, design, multimedia, research, scratch
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) thesis, Ph.D.

Notes

Abstract:
This design-based research study investigates the impact on learning when young learners design multimedia that demonstrates an understanding of math content. During this study, 5th graders used Scratch, a contemporary computer program designed for young people to create multimedia, to demonstrate their understanding of the properties of geometric solids. This process requires that young learners engage in content and think about how they can represent specific content in a Scratch multimedia artifact rather than simply memorizing the content for a test. The results of this study indicate that having 5th graders design multimedia using Scratch yields a mixed impact on learning depending on learning preferences of the individual learner. Though increases in content learning were not identified based on a traditional form of assessment in the two case studies presented in this manuscript, it is reasonable to acknowledge that this approach may serve as an alternative form of formative or summative assessment. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local:
Adviser: Dawson, Kara M.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jeffrey Boyer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Embargo Date:
10/8/2010
Resource Identifier:
004979868 ( ALEPH )
706489316 ( OCLC )
Classification:
LD1780 2010 ( lcc )

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128


casualties. They're not dumb kids that can't do it or
can't learn. I feel like this shows it too. This is a
hard program, and they did it. And so it there would
be a way to just use this as a platform to show that
these kids can do this type of stuff.
Did you ever feel like that maybe No, there wasn't.
they wouldn't be able to do this in
the beginning? Did you have a
concern that maybe this might be
stretching them?
Anything else you want to add? Nope, I think I'm good.
How do you think Jennifer Great. I think she was one of the leaders, a very
handled this project? quiet leader, but that doesn't mean, that's not bad. I
think she really shined, and I think she really felt
good about herself doing it too. And I think she had
a very varied, intricate story line, lots of, I don't
know, changes and characters. Good. Made a lot
of sense. Really, I think took into account the
person who was going to be watching her stuff.
Very girly. Two girl characters.
You've talked a lot about Dominic. I think Dominic got lost in the project, and I think
How do you think Dominic that was a mix of a lot of things. A mix of him not
handled the project? maybe fully understanding the math behind it, not
fully understanding his thoughts or how to tackle
projects or persevere, just figure things out, and I
think it's just a representation of what goes on in
Dominic's life.









fully understanding the math behind it, not fully understanding his thoughts or how to

tackle projects or persevere."

Collectively, both case studies provide a mixed response for addressing the

following research question: How effective is learner-constructed multimedia at

increasing learning gains in the properties of geometric solids for academically at-risk

learners?

Dominic's case provides evidence that indicates that LCM using Scratch may not be

effective at increasing learning gains in the properties of geometric solids for certain

types of learners. Generally, designing a Scratch artifact was frustrating for Dominic,

and there is no supporting evidence to indicate that Dominic developed an increased

understanding of the properties of geometric solids.

Jennifer's case provides mixed evidence that this pedagogical approach increased

her understanding of the properties of geometric solids. A decrease in scores from pre-

test to post-test does not provide support for increasing learning gains. However,

Jennifer's Scratch artifact included accurate content representing some of the properties

of geometric solids. This provides evidence that she understands and can express

aspects of the properties of geometric solids. It also suggests that she engaged in this

specific content during the design and construction of her Scratch multimedia artifact.

In conclusion, these case studies reveal that the educational community should

consider the relationship between the learning preferences of the individual and the

nature of the pedagogical approach to ensure that learning is maximized. Not all

learners will thrive when a particular pedagogical strategy is employed. Dominic's and

Jennifer's experiences within this study support this claim. Both experienced a similar









end, you could identify
which geometric solid it
is. No problem. So
then here we have what
is the area of the base
of the prism. You said
8.
What do you think it is? I guess right Learning math
reflection
So how do you find I forgot. Learning math
area? reflection
But over here you have It's 8 Learning math
the area of the base is reflection
16. So it looks like
It's 8. So you can count I thought it was 8 16 Learning math
the cubes. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, reflection
6, 7, 8. But here you
put 16. So one of my
questions is what
happened here. You
forgot?
8 plus 8 is 16? OK, Yes Learning math
then look at here. reflection
What's the height of the
prism. You have 2 and
then you have 2. Is it
2?
Yeah, because you can I said 16. Learning math
count, so that was no reflection
problem. What is the
volume of the problem
And then over here I I think it's 10. Learning math
can't tell if it's 16 or if reflection
that's 10.
I'm not sure how you I think this is right. Learning math
went from here to here reflection
but when we
This one's right. Yeah Learning math
reflection
Yeah, you're right OK, which one's the one I did first? Learning math
because you take reflection
This one's first, this Oh, OK Learning math
one's second reflection
Then you did. You're I think I improved more on this one Learning math
right because you take (pre-test). reflection
the area of the base


166









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-i?~ -"
-_-_











110'
chage^^ x by^
set ^^ x to a
change ^ y by^


Figure 4-1. The Scratch's palette of motion command blocks

In spite of Dominic's self-reported confusion and frustration, he shared that he

enjoyed using Scratch. In particular, he enjoyed "making all the new sprites and editing

them" and "that there were so many sprites to use like a dragon and ghost and you can

create your own sprites like raining milk". In fact, his Scratch artifact included a dragon









progress in learning journals, which the teacher could review to ascertain individual

progress.

Summary of Design Principles

This research study revealed four design principles that provide guidelines and

insight for teachers who choose to integrate LCM into their existing practice. The

design principles include:

* Use multiple approaches to learn Scratch
* Scaffold the design experience
* Explicitly and repeatedly state learning goals
* Assess artifacts regularly

These design principles also serve to inform the next iteration of DBR examining the

impact of LCM on learning content. These four principles should be explicitly integrated

into a future design of an innovative learning environment that allows learners to

construct multimedia to represent their understanding of specific content.









CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODS

Introduction

This research study addresses the dearth of research evident when youth

construct multimedia projects using Scratch, a contemporary multimedia-authoring tool,

to demonstrate their understanding of math content in an academic setting. A body of

research exists that identifies numerous benefits when youth engage in multimedia

construction. In addition, evidence exists for using Scratch as a tool for expression in

informal environments such as after school centers, community technology centers and

Scratch's online community. This study seeks to capitalize on the affordances of

Scratch as a design tool in a formal learning environment. Thus, the purpose of this

study is to identify learning gains when young learners design and construct multimedia

to demonstrate understanding of specific math content. Specifically, the target

population for this study is young academically at-risk learners. With the purpose and

population in mind, this study addresses the following research questions:

* How effective is learner-constructed multimedia at increasing learning gains in the
properties of geometric solids for academically at-risk learners?

* What are the design principles for creating an innovative learning environment that
integrates learner-constructed multimedia for academically at-risk learners?

This chapter provides an overview of this study's research design and addresses Step 2

of the design-based research (DBR) framework identified in chapter 1 of this

manuscript. It also articulates the specific procedures conducted within the research

design to complete the study. The chapter includes the following sections: theoretical

framework, researcher bias, research design, research context, data sources and

collection, data analysis procedures, trustworthiness and limitations of this study.









there. So, how do all said what were the shapes in the
these cats, ghosts, land background.
shark, dragon, how
does those relate to
teaching someone
about geometric solids.
So the shapes are in Uh, do I ever, well, when it's done I Learning math
the background. Do say "what shape is that?" and they're reflection
you ever talk about the trying to guess it.
shapes?
So explain that to me Cause when I'm done I want to Learning math
again make sure if they're paying attention. reflection
So when you were Uh-huh (yes) Learning math
done, when you reflection
watched this, so you
asked, did you ask the
2nd graders "what shape
is this?"
So that wasn't part of Yeah Learning math
your project, that was reflection
just something you just
asked them?


OK. That's fair. We
asked you some
questions before the
project started and then
last week near the end
of the project, you
answered those same
questions. You might
not have remembered
it. OK, let's take a look.
I'll show you what I'm
talking about. So this is
what you did when we
started the project.
Remember looking at
this? And this is what
you did last week? So
we want to compare
answers. So, cylinder,
cylinder, pyramid,
pyramid, cone, cone,
rectangular prism,
rectangular prism. In
the beginning and at the


Is that right or wrong?


Learning math
reflection


165









LCM Promotes Collaboration

Mrs. H. noted that a significant implication of this environment was the opportunity

for collaboration: "collaboration with each other when they were having to create, but

then also when they were having to revise.... Somebody would say how do you do

that? Somebody else would say just do hide and then broadcast or whatever. That's

collaborate."

Throughout the design process, participants were encouraged to learn from each

other's experiences. If a participant wanted to include a particular action (e. g., hiding

and showing sprites so they appear in the proper scenes) but was unsure how to build

the script for that action, the practitioner or researcher partnered that participant with

another participant who had previously integrated that action and script into his/her

project. This type of collaboration resulted in multiple instances of 'cross-contamination'

when a particular action and script integrated into one participant's Scratch artifact

would become part of another participant's Scratch artifact after the two participants

collaborated.

Near the end of the project, participants also collaborated in a peer review

process. Participants reviewed each other's Scratch artifacts to ensure that they

worked properly. Participants also reviewed the artifacts for spelling, punctuation and

convention errors. This type of collaboration resulted in more polished Scratch artifacts

but also allowed participants to demonstrate and share their expertise in Scratch.

There is a reasonable amount of research evidence in the existing education

literature to support including opportunities for peer collaboration in schools. Schunk

(1989) observed that young learners observing each other's progress increased their

own confidence. Slavin (1987) reported that working with peers promoted engagement


114









Liu, M., & Rutledge, K. (1997). The effect of a 'learner as multimedia designer'
environment on at-risk high school students' motivation and learning of design
knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 145-177.

Lehrer, R., Erickson, J., & Connell, T. (1994). Learning by designing hypermedia
documents. Computers in the Schools, 10(1/2), 227-254.

Ma, Y., & Harmon, S. W. (2009). A case study of design-based research for creating a
vision prototype of a technology-based innovative learning environment. Journal of
Interactive Learning Research, 20(1), 75-93.

MacDonald, B., & Walker, R. (1977). Case study and the social philosophy of
educational research. In D. Hamilton et al. (Eds.), Beyond the numbers game.
London: Macmillan Education.

Maloney, J., Peppier, K., Kafai, Y. B., Resnick, M., & Rusk, N. (2008). Programming by
choice: Urban youth learning programming with Scratch. Paper presented at the
annual meeting of the Association of Computing Machinery's Special Interest
Group on Computer Science Education. Portland, OR, March 2008.

Marston, D. (2005). Tiers of intervention in responsiveness to intervention: Prevention
outcomes and learning disabilities identification patterns. Journal of Learning
Disabilities, 38(6), 539-544.

Matthews, W. J. (2003). Constructivism in the classroom: Epistemology, history, and
empirical evidence. Teacher Education Quarterly, 30(3), 51-64.

Mauthner, M. (1997). Methodological aspects of collecting data from children: Lessons
from three research projects. Children & Society, 11(1), 16-28.

McFarlane, A., Williams, J. M., & Bonnett, M. (2000). Assessment and multimedia
authoring a tool for externalising understanding. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 16(3), 201-212

McGrath, D., Cumaranatunge, C., Ji, M., Chen, H., Broce, W., & Wright, K. (1997).
Multimedia science projects: Seven case studies. Journal of Research on
Computing in Education, 30(1), 18-38.

Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded
sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


184









significant importance, students represent content in a more expert-like manner and

have opportunities to represent content in multiple ways when designing multimedia.

Through the act of designing a multimedia artifact that represents a student's

understanding of content, s/he deeply engages in content and develops multiple skills

that will have long-term potential benefits.

Table 2-2. Summary of outcomes when learners design hypermedia/multimedia
Outcome Author(s)
Students become motivated. Beichner (1994); Liu & Rutledge (1997);
McGrath, Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen,
Broce & Wright (1997); Liu & Pederson
(1998); Orey, Fan, Scott, Thuma,
Robertshaw, Hogle, Tzeng & Crenshaw
(2000); Brown (2007)

Students spend additional time Liu & Rutledge (1997)


outside of class to work on projects.

Students develop research skills:
finding, analyzing, evaluating and
synthesizing information.

Students represent content in an
expert-like manner.

Students represent content in
multiple ways.

Students develop metacognitive and
reflective skills.

Students develop design skills



Students engage in content.


Lehrer, Erickson & Connell (1994);
Beichner (1994); Erickson (1997)


Spoehr (1993); Liu & Pederson (1998)


Hay, Guzdial, Jackson, Boyle & Soloway
(1994); Chen & McGrath (2003)

Liu & Pederson (1998); Chen & McGrath
(2003); Brown (2007)

Carver, Lehrer, Connell & Erickson
(1992); Erickson (1997); Liu & Pederson
(1998); Liu & Hsiao (2002)

Lehrer, Erickson & Connell (1994);
Beichner (1994); McGrath,
Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen, Broce &
Wright (1997); Mitchell, Andreata &
Capella (2004)









tell me anything you want to tell me about didn't care, like in the sounds I said it
the project? like I didn't care.
Oh, so you would want to redo your sounds? Not all over cause, I was speaking like I
didn't care
Right, didn't put a lot of emotion into it Except for the last part
The last part, yeah, you definitely put a lot Uhm... uhm... uhm... maybe... uhm... I
emotion in the last line however you said just know what's going to happen if I
that "the shape test", which is pretty funny. don't tell you this and then later when
Anything else I should know about working then maybe Monday comes I'll have
on the project, anything else you want to tell something I want to tell you then it will
me about this be too late, so I'm trying to think of
something.
I appreciate that Uhm...well... maybe it's about how mine
is really different from everybody else's.
Everybody else's seemed better
because they're saying "what shape is
this" then you type it in.
While I'm thinking about it, would you want I'd feel too embarrassed
to share this with your 5th grade classmates?

Learning:
Well, right, but I'm saying if someone was Yeah.
teaching you, would it help you to do one
simple thing at a time?
Just pops up in your head? OK. Do you like A little
math?
Do you think you're good at math? No, no
So to you that seemed better Well... not... no. I don't really like doing
that
You don't like doing what? The part when you say "what's this
shape"
Yeah, so Well, maybe it would be fun
Do you like to tell stories Yes
Do you write stories a lot? Yes
So what you did seems something that Really?
you're good at then.
To me. Cause you had this very elaborate Well, I did
story and nobody else really had a story like
you had a story, so I thought it was
interesting that you just said that other kids
asked what shape is this but you said well I
don't really like that. So, it seems like to me
in your project you did what you like to do
Isn't that OK you did it the way you like to do Well, yeah, it's OK.
it?
The way you like to do it? Well, yeah, it's OK


176











A vertex is a point
that is connected by
edges.




H".






-p A





Figure 4-5. Text bubble about a vertex in Jennifer's Scratch project


This shape has 7
vertexs that you can
see and 1 that you
can't see.
.::. ... .






















Figure 4-6. Text bubble about a prism's vertexes in Jennifer's Scratch project






90
.:.. E:, N X r :











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interview with each of the case study participants. Each of these data sources provides

evidence for the case studies presented below.

Case Study #1: Dominic

Dominic is a friendly, polite African American 5th grade male from a professional

family. Mrs. H. describes him as a student with low perseverance but high self-

reflection. Mrs. H. notes that he frustrates easily when encountering challenges, but he

is quite aware of his emotions and does not hesitate to share them. Before this

research project began, Dominic often stayed beyond the scheduled time for the math

intervention class to talk with Mrs. H. about personal issues. Dominic has been a part

of the intervention class since the beginning of the school year. He was placed in the

class because of low performance on standardized tests. Dominic's fraternal twin

brother is also in the intervention class.

Based on an analysis of the interview between Dominic and this researcher, three

themes emerged that document Dominic's thinking during this project and provide

evidence for addressing the research question concerned with learning. The three

themes identified include (1) Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch, (2)

Dominic's response to this project, and (3) Dominic's response to his learning. These

themes were further supported with evidence from both the practitioner's and

researcher's observation notes.

Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch

Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch can be best summarized in his

own words: "Scratch is really confusing and frustrating." He found Scratch difficult to

learn because "it was hard to know what to do because there was so much stuff." By

"stuff", Dominic is referring to the number of command blocks that are displayed on









story in his mind that is only loosely related to the idea of teaching someone else about
geometric solids. He uses the vocabulary of geometric solids but only on a superficial
level. He is unable to translate his story into Scratch without assistance from either the
researcher or practitioner.

N worked on a scene consisting of a dialogue between 2 characters about riding
dragons. This scene does not related to math content.
T added a cylinder to his project.
C finalized a dialogue between a prism and a cylinder, but the conversation is not
related to math content. His project has numerous spelling and punctuation errors.

5/24/10 (G was absent today)
R: N needed assistance today with the flying dragon scene. This scene is not related to
math content.
T needed assistance coordinating dialogue between 2 sprites. The timing was off.
D recorded the desert part of his script. He needed assistance setting up his 3rd scene
(the woods). He expressed frustration that he is only able to make small changes to his
project each day. He expressed that he doesn't understand why he is saving a new
project each day (participants save a new version of their project each day) when he is
not making much progress. He expressed some frustration that he is getting as much
help as he needs. He also wants to know when he can work on a project for fun and
not a project about shapes.
C needed assistance with fixing an error he couldn't identify. The project kept asking
the question repeatedly even if the correct response was entered by the user. The error
was due to a misspelling (cyinder-cylinder).
F is finished with his project from his perspective.
C did not ask for assistance nor accepted it when offered. He expressed that he was
wrapping up his project.

5/25/10
Those that were finished with their projects shared their projects with each other and
received feedback.

5/27/10
Proofing each other's projects

5/28/10
Proofing each other's projects

6/1/10
Checked for punctuation, spelling and conventions.
Co., Ca., F & S reviewed each others' project.
R worked with D. P worked with G. To finish projects









how learners use Scratch in formal K-12 educational environments to learn required

curriculum content.

Implications for Practice

There are several implications for current practices when teachers and schools

consider integrating LCM using Scratch as a pedagogical approach. These implications

include:

* LCM allows multiple learning paths for students.
* LCM encourages self-directed learning.
* LCM promotes collaboration.
* LCM creates an alternative method of assessment.
* LCM changes the role of the teacher from giver of knowledge to coach.

Each of these implications is discussed below.

LCM Allows Multiple Learning Paths for Students

One of the implications evident from this study is that integrating LCM in schools

creates an opportunity for learners to engage in math content in an alternative manner

to rote learning. Mrs. H. reflected that "instead of just them being the consumers of the

knowledge and then just spitting it back out on a test and regurgitating it, they actually

had to think outside of themselves and think how would somebody be engaged in

learning about this shape". The environment featured in this study created an

opportunity for learners to become producers rather than consumers. Participants

designed a Scratch artifact that expressed their understanding of the properties of

geometric solids. Therefore, participants needed to think about which specific content

they wanted to include in their Scratch artifacts and to make decisions about how that

content would be expressed in their artifacts. This approach created multiple paths for

participants to design their artifacts. There was no single common path that all

participants used.


109









2nd graders? Did they get bored?


know if they got bored because I'm not
them but, I don't know if it was as good
as everyone else's cause they're all
moving and having conversation like
Nathaniel's. He was like it impressed
me like fine let's go on the dragons.
Duh-duh-duh. Dud-duh-duh. Fine let's
go. Yee-haw. And that's what
happened. And mine's not amazing as
that. Mine's just blah, blah, blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah. Blah, blah, blah, blah,
blah, BLAH, blah. And then blah, blah,
BLAH, blah. Yeah.


So first scene of your project, your telling a That's wrong. See how everything is
story. PLAY FIRST SCENE. messed up.
What's messed up here Well, he's supposed to be facing left.
He's supposed to be right there.
There's some cats in the wrong place and WATCHING WOODS SCENE: Oh,
they're facing the wrong directions come on. Ugh
He's supposed to be behind? That's supposed to be grabbing its tail.
Did that get changed? Was it like that Yes.
yesterday?
How does the land shark See. Everything is messed up.
That looks right to me You know those aren't supposed to be
like that
Would you ever want to use Scratch again? Uhm...yeah, I do. And I want to make it
better than the first one I want to make it
more better. My voice could be talking
and they could be moving and stuff.
You kept telling me during the project that Yeah
"when are we going to do a project that's not
about shapes".
Did you not like the shapes? Well, the shapes, I, well, no, I kind of
liked it.
OK. But you kept wanting to move on to a Yeah
different project?
How come? Well, the shapes. I thought it was kind
of weird when they were saying, they
looked like adults but they were saying
they were going to see a movie about
shapes.
What was the idea for your you know you I don't know. It just pops up in my head
had this story. How did you come up with all
those different ideas?
Anything else you want to share with me The things I didn't like was just, I guess
about the project? Here's your chance to I should have done better, I said it like I


175









designing a multimedia artifact could serve as one of several assessment tools that

teachers employ to capture and document what learners really know and understand.

In fact, McFarlane, Williams and Bonnett (2000) supported the student use of

multimedia authoring software as a form of alternative assessment though there is a

dearth of research that indicates how to assess a multimedia artifact for evidence of

learning.

LCM Changes the Role of the Teacher from Giver of Knowledge to Coach

Mrs. H. clearly observed how her role in this project changed from a "giver of

knowledge" to a "coach" (Carver, Lehrer, Connell & Erickson, 1992). When students

become more self-directed and have ample choice and control over a project, the role of

the teacher must change to accommodate the way students work. Mrs. H. noted that

during the design phase of this project, it was not possible for "everybody [to be] lock

step, we're all going to do this at the same time". Rather, it was "way more

individualized". Mrs. H. reflected:

Instead of me saying everybody on their paper draw a cone. OK. Now let's all
label the cone. Instead of that... most of them included something about a cone or
a different shape and they got to choose how they were going to talk about the
faces or the bases. And they still did that skill; they just did it because however
they chose to do it. It wasn't me having everybody do the same thing at the same
time.

When students become self-directed, the teacher's role changes because, as Mrs. H.

observed, the "learner is driving the train, and [the] teacher is behind the scenes."

It may be assumed that when a teacher moves away from the role of giver of

knowledge that learning may break down since there is no transfer of content from the

teacher to the learners. Yet, it is important to acknowledge that teachers still play

critical roles in ensuring that learners learn required content in their roles as coaches.









noticed as part of this project that
you thought, oh, that's a key, you
know, piece of this kind of work.
I think that actually makes sense Not that that's a design
because
Well, it is part A theme
A theme, that's a way to think Yeah
about it. A theme of the project is
that we're creating opportunity for
intervention students to have
alternative ways of learning
content. So that would be a
theme. Would you agree with
that?
Are there any other themes, Self-directed learning
elements, features, you can call it
whatever you want to call it, that
you observed as part of this
project?
Tell me more about that So they got to choose how they were going to
display their knowledge. They weren't having to fit
into a box.
So choice? Yes. Collaboration, in lots of different ways.
Collaboration with us as their coaches, collaboration
with each other when they were having to create,
but then also when they were having to revise and
they were having to kind of, somebody would say
"how do you do that". Somebody else would say
"just do hide and then broadcast" or whatever.
That's collaborate. And then collaborate with the
2nd graders to collaborating to show a final product.
I would like to think of a math theme, but I don't
really know. I mean. Alternative assessment in
mathematics theme, kind of.
Even though we did use a use And I also think teacher as coach is a theme. It's
sort of a traditional pre post, but not teacher as giver of knowledge. Learner is
their individual projects could be driving the train, and teacher is behind the scenes.
evaluated, could be assessed.
Is there anything else? Am I missing one?
No. This isn't a right or wrong. Sorry.
That's OK. Is there anything else I just think it was really powerful for me to see that
I should know about the Tier 3 students can do something like this, and I
experience? Is there anything wish that that knowledge could be shared to
else you want to share that I didn't everybody because I feel like that something that
ask you about that you want to tell just pisses me off in this position with these kids is
me about this experience? that they're getting, I feel like they're instructional









In the role of teacher as coach, teachers must have an informed understanding of

individual learner's needs to be able to provide appropriate support as learners progress

through a project, such as when learners design a multimedia artifact that represents an

understanding of specific content.

Summary of Implications

Based on case study analyses and an analysis of the interview between Mrs. H.

and this researcher, several implications exist when teachers integrate LCM as a

pedagogical approach for academically at-risk learners. Collectively, these implications

are important aspects to consider when implementing this pedagogical approach. The

implications identified in this study include:

* LCM allows multiple learning paths for students.
* LCM encourages self-directed learning.
* LCM promotes collaboration.
* LCM creates an alternative method of assessment.
* LCM changes the role of the teacher from giver of knowledge to coach.

When designing a multimedia artifact using Scratch, learners can select from multiple

learning paths if they are given a common goal but provided with choice and control for

how to reach that goal. Choice and control also encourage self-directed learning as

learners work to realize their designs. As self-directed learners, learners become active

participants in the learning process, and teachers provide support as needed as they

take on a coaching role. Collaboration among peers is also encouraged as learners

work on their designs. Completed multimedia artifacts can serve as an alternative form

of a summative assessment depending on how the design goal is structured.

Suggestions for Further Research

The current study serves as the first iteration of the DBR process. The design

principles identified by this study serve as a design framework for the next iteration.


118









Impact on Jennifer's learning

Based on Jennifer's response during the post-experience interview, field notes

from the practitioner and researcher and an analysis of her Scratch artifact, it is evident

that the pedagogical approach of having learners design a project in Scratch that

integrates math content yielded mixed results with respect to Jennifer's learning about

geometric solids. Jennifer's Scratch artifact integrated accurate content representing

the properties of several geometric solids, so her project does represent her

understanding of this specific content and could be used as an assessment of her

learning. However, her performances on the pre- and post-test indicate that she did not

acquire new learning (see Table 4-3). Of the 13 points possible on the pre- and post-

test, Jennifer scored a 9 on the pre-test (mean for the group is 6.9), and she scored a 6

on the post-test (mean for the group is 7.6). Jennifer was not able to calculate the

volume of a prism on the post-test though she was able to successfully complete the

same calculation on the pre-test. She also failed to include proper unit labels for

several of the calculations. Thus, Jennifer's case provides conflicting evidence on the

effectiveness of learner-constructed multimedia on increasing learning gains in the

properties of geometric solids for learners similar to Jennifer.

Table 4-3. Overview of Jennifer's pre- and post-test results
Test items Pre Post
Able to identify geometric solids? Yes Yes
Able to calculate area of a prism's face? Yes Yes
Able to determine the height of a prism? Yes Yes
Able to calculate the volume of a prism? Yes No
Able to calculate the surface area of a prism? No No
Able to explain how to calculate the surface area No No
of a prism?
Overall score 9/13 6/13









opportunities for learners to engage and interact with content in rich and complex ways,

learners are more likely to develop a more sophisticated understanding of such content.

One such method for creating such opportunities is by learning through design.

More specifically, learning through design refers to the process of learning content

during a design task that promotes engagement with content. Thus, students design

and create artifacts that demonstrate knowledge of the content to be learned. Artifacts

can exist in multiple forms of media or multimedia: reaction papers, blog posts, videos,

podcasts, etc. According to Sennett (2008), "making is thinking" (p. ix). The act of

designing and creating an artifact that represents what a learners knows and can do

related to some content may provide evidence of understanding and thinking about that

content. In fact, this may represent more than just superficial thinking. Rather, it may

reflect a deeper level of thinking that goes beyond memorization or recall and reaches

into the realm of higher order thinking associated with Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

skills such as evaluating and creating (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956; Anderson &

Krathwohl, 2001).

Today's youth have unprecedented access to powerful multimedia-authoring tools.

Deep, rich conceptual learning can occur when learners design multimedia that

represents their understanding of content knowledge. This view is consistent with

constructionist pedagogy, a pedagogical theory that emphasizes the construction of

personally meaningful artifacts using technology that can be shared with others (Papert,

1993). For example, Kafai (1995) worked with 10-year-old youth to design games in

Logo that would teach knowledge of fractions to younger students. She reported that

these youth developed their own representations of fractions while learning









learning time particularly beyond traditional class time is an indicator of high levels of

motivation for the prescribed task, which leads to a reasonable assumption that

constructing multimedia may be inherently motivating for learners. Brown also

described evidence of higher-order thinking as described by Resnick (1987). She

reported that students:

followed a non-algorithmic path, faced knowledge, skill and process complexity,
generated multiple solutions, coped with uncertainty, demonstrated nuanced
judgment with media selection and adaptation, were required to self-regulate their
thinking, and put considerable effort into structuring information (Brown, 2007, p.
107).

This is an impressive list of skills, and teachers would be quite pleased if students

developed these skills during any learning experience. These higher-order skills were

not explicitly taught as part of the multimedia construction process but are significant by-

products of it. This study provides support for integrating multimedia construction as a

pedagogical strategy since motivation increases and higher-order thinking develops as

learners construct multimedia.

Garthwait (2007) reported increased writing skills in middle school students after

designing hypermedia projects for younger students. 7th grade students used

HyperStudio to create a hypermedia document about African animals for 2nd grade

students. Garthwait observed that 7th graded students became adept at writing for a

specific audience. This study highlights how additional skills (i.e., writing skills) develop

as learners design hypermedia.

Collectively, these studies indicate evidence for using multimedia construction to

produce a variety of outcomes (see Table 2-2). These outcomes include increasing

motivation to learn, which promotes increased engagement with content, and

developing a number of skills including research, design and thinking skills. Of









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

USING SCRATCH FOR LEARNER-CONSTRUCTED MULTIMEDIA:
A DESIGN-BASED RESEARCH INQUIRY OF CONSTRUCTIONISM IN PRACTICE
By

Jeffrey Thomas Boyer

August 2010

Chair: Kara Dawson
Major: Curriculum and Instruction

This design-based research study investigates the impact on learning when young

learners design multimedia that demonstrates an understanding of math content.

During this study, 5th graders used Scratch, a contemporary computer program

designed for young people to create multimedia, to demonstrate their understanding of

the properties of geometric solids. This process requires that young learners engage in

content and think about how they can represent specific content in a Scratch multimedia

artifact rather than simply memorizing the content for a test. The results of this study

indicate that having 5th graders design multimedia using Scratch yields a mixed impact

on learning depending on learning preferences of the individual learner. Though

increases in content learning were not identified based on a traditional form of

assessment in the two case studies presented in this manuscript, it is reasonable to

acknowledge that this approach may serve as an alternative form of formative or

summative assessment.









acknowledged that students "demonstrated growth over the year in the cognitive skills

of research and design" (p. 20). Teachers perceived that students developed skills in

finding, organizing and representing information while designing hypermedia

documents. This study provides several design principles for implementing a design

community within a classroom, and these design principles contribute to the design of

the innovative learning environment implemented in the current research study.

Liu and Rutledge (1997) assessed the impact of a learner-as-designer

environment on high school students, 60% of which were considered academically at-

risk. The researchers compared student motivation between a control group of students

in a computer application class and a treatment group of students in a similar class that

was structured as a learner-as-designer environment. This environment created

opportunities for students to design multimedia that would be used by external

audiences such as the school or a local museum. Liu and Rutledge reported that

motivation for learning was significantly higher in the treatment group. These students

also exhibited more on-task behaviors and were willing to spend additional time outside

of the regular class time to work on multimedia projects. In addition, self-efficacy

significantly increased for the treatment group. This study contributes additional support

to the notion that designing multimedia is an intrinsically motivating process. An

increase in on-task behaviors and a willingness to work on design projects outside of

scheduled class time provides considerable support for integrating multimedia design

projects to encourage engagement with content.

McGrath, Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen, Broce and Wright (1997) completed several

case studies of science-related multimedia projects integrated into elementary and









designing in Scratch (Day 14 of the project), this researcher observed that Dominic

"does not seem to be making progress on his artifact though he certainly can add and

modify sprites and add backgrounds. He uses the 'say' blocks to tell a part of his

imaginative story, but he is not able to synchronize the dialogue into a coherent

message or connect his story to math content."

On the 15th day of the project (the 5th day of designing in Scratch), Mrs. H.

observed and noted that Dominic's artifact did not address geometric solids. The

following day (Day 16 of the project and the 6th day of designing in Scratch), Mrs. H.

worked with Dominic to capture his thinking on paper. Dominic had brainstormed a

story idea for his artifact but had a difficult time transferring his ideas into a working

project. Mrs. H. worked with Dominic to capture the story that would unfold throughout

his multimedia artifact. Dominic shared his story with Mrs. H. while she recorded his

script on paper. Below is the text of his script. Italicized words represent improvisations

that Dominic made while recording the voiceover for his artifact. These words are not

part of the original script recorded by Mrs. H. while Dominic narrated. The underlined

words represent Dominic's attempt at integrating content vocabulary about the

properties of geometric solids into his artifact.

It all started at the theater. They were going to see a play about shapes. When
they were watching the play, they were transported to the shape desert. When
they got to the desert, the desert dragon showed himself. The cats asked the
desert dragon to take them home because he has transporting powers. The
dragon thought the cats lived in a creepy forest so that's where he transported
them back to and the land shark. When the cats got to the forest, they ran into
ghosts. The boss ghost captured the girl cat. The ghosts that worked for the boss
ghosts captured the other cats in a ghostly cylinder. The second in command
ghost transported everyone except for the girl cat to the geometric sea and once
again the land shark too. While the cats were in the geometric sea, they saw a lot
of shapes. The cats found a transporting sphere that transports them back to the
theater. The dragon from the desert comes to help them because the sphere is









elements provides an immediate impact for the design of future research whether

conducted by this researcher or by others.

Fourth, DBR should provide rich descriptions of the context and the interactions

that occur within the context. Rich descriptions of the context are necessary to ensure

reliability and applicability for other contexts. Daily debriefing notes between the

practitioner and researcher and daily researcher reflections while analyzing multimedia

artifacts provide the rich descriptions. During the implementation of this study, the

practitioner and researcher collaboratively debriefed after each class meeting to discuss

and assess each participant's progress on the design task, to determine how either the

researcher or practitioner could assist participants during the next class meeting and to

assess the implementation of the research project. These debriefing notes provided a

data source for analysis (see Appendix B for an example). The researcher also

independently documented his daily reflection of participants' progress while examining

each participant's multimedia artifact (see Appendix C for an example). These

reflections also provide a data source for analysis. Collectively, these data sources

provide rich descriptions of this study's context and of the interactions that occurred.

Fifth, DBR should utilize appropriate research methods. A researcher selects a

research method based on how well a particular method addresses a study's research

questionss. The research method, in turn, determines the sources of data. This study

explores the following research questions:

* How effective is learner-constructed interactive multimedia at increasing learning
gains in the properties of geometric solids for academically at-risk learners?

* What are the design principles for creating an innovative learning environment that
integrates learner-constructed interactive multimedia for academically at-risk
learners?









felt like you did learn some geometric solids
from this project?
So how to draw those Yeah
shapes?
Yeah, you drew a Well, I did learn that... not really. I Embarrassed by
number of shapes. I was just saying that I was a little project
see a cone, rectangular embarrassed when I was saying my
prism, cylinders even a project because everything was
pyramid there. You've messed up the time I did it cause
learned how to draw that was in the wrong place, that
them. Anything else was in the wrong place, that was in
you think you learned in the wrong place. Everything was in
this project? the wrong place.
You mean when you Yes, everything was in the wrong Embarrassed when
were showing it to the place. showing to 2nd graders
2nd graders?
Everything was in the Maybe not everything. Not in the Project isn't working
wrong place? right position. They're all supposed correctly; didn't finish
to be. He needs to be bigger.
They're all supposed to be facing.
Oh, so some of the See look. See
sizes are not right
So he's facing the Yeah, that's one.
wrong direction?
OK. OK. Well, do you want to see?
We'll go through it in a Uhm... probably... uhm... maybe... ma
minute, OK? Anything ybe learning how to do it.
else you learned?
Anything else you can
think of that you learned
while doing this project?
Learning how to do Yes. Learned how to use
Scratch? Scratch
Yeah, you learned how Yeah. Learned how to draw
to do Scratch a little bit and edit sprites in
because you said you, Scratch
one thing you liked was
drawing the sprites and
editing the sprites, so
you definitely learned
how to do that, right?
Did you learn how to Yeah Learned how to record
record your voice? his voice in Scratch
I think you're, in fact, Well, yeah. I think. Only student to record
the only person that voice in Scratch
recorded their voice, project


149









Scratch. This research study uses Scratch as the design tool for multimedia

construction. Scratch was designed for use by children age 8 and up, though

adolescents and adults may also find that is a valuable design tool. The Scratch

interface is kid-friendly (see Figure 2-2). Designing in Scratch involves adding sprites

(objects that represent characters, props and other elements) and editing the stage

(background). In Figure 2-2, there is a cat sprite on a stage that consists of a solid

white background. Creating actions for the sprites or stage consists of dragging

command blocks from a palette and stacking them together. A stack of command

blocks forms a script, and the script describes the actions or behavior of a sprite (see

Figure 2-3). The script portrayed in Figure 2-3 shows 9 unique command blocks. The

command blocks are color-coded to represent different types of commands. For

example, the palette of motion commands is displayed on the left-hand side in Figure 2-

2. In Figure 2-3, there are five different types of command blocks: control (yellow),

looks (purple), sensing (light blue), sound (pink) and operators (green). Reading

through the command blocks helps the user understanding which behavior or action will

occur. The command blocks represent lines of code found in traditional computer

programming languages. However, Scratch replaces the text of other programming

languages with graphic blocks, and each block represents a specific command.

The script in Figure 2-3 begins when the space key is pressed. Pressing the

space key acts as a trigger to begin the script. The 'show' block ensures that the sprite

with this script is visible. The 'say' block states the entered text in the form of a talk

bubble above the sprite. The text remains visible on the screen for 5 seconds as

identified in the block. The 'repeat until' block ensures that the stack inside the block









addition, there are 2 blocks that are integrated into any script (one of these is the say
block mentioned earlier on the sitting female sprite; the other appears to be a misplaced
'when space key pressed' block on the prism sprite).


5 Scratch
0 0 0


* 4)) C.4l (100%) Thu 12:53 PM Echo


OS2010- Scratch
*-; d File Edlt Snare Help

r &B-
I -.r ^;I Scnptf ^ Costumes ^ Sounds
I.-.. u .d


r \ -^ r-' t I^y~ '
k" o- I g I


5/21/10
G is close to finishing up her project. She had D interact with her project today. G was
able to fix design errors in her project once D worked through it or the researcher asked
her about the sound clip even though P has tried to get her to identify the errors
independently. Thinking outside one's self is difficult for young learners. D interacted
with G's project and G observed that D did not know how to proceed in several
instances throughout the project. She was able to observe how an individual user will
encounter her project and noticed that she need to provide additional prompting in order
for the user to successfully interact with her project. As soon as D finished interacting
with her project, G immediately began adding additional blocks to existing scripts to
provide appropriate prompts for the user. She did not need assistance from either the
researcher or the practitioner. Another example of G's willingness to be responsible for
her learning stems from an interaction between G and the researcher. The researcher
observed that G added a script to her project that plays a sound effect when the 'a' key
is pressed. G's project contained a question and answer script that asks the user a
question about the number of bases in a cone. If the user enters a correct answer,


142









Table 4-4. Overview of analysis of Scratch projects
Unit of analysis Dominic Jennifer Other
participants'
means
Number of sprites 22 11 4.3
Number of backgrounds 5 4 2.2
Number of scripts 84 40 9.5
Number of blocks used in scripts 207 116 56.3
Number of block types used in scripts 11 12 11.5

Both Dominic and Jennifer included many more scripts and commands blocks

than the other participants. However, the high number of scripts and command blocks

in Dominic's artifact can be largely attributed to assistance from either Mrs. H. or this

researcher. He did not independently add the scripts and blocks. Mrs. H. or this

researcher demonstrated how to create scripts that matched the intended behaviors for

his artifact. In fact, five entries in this researcher's observation notes and two entries in

Mrs. H.'s notes include references to Dominic's choice to create sprites (a skill he

enjoyed and demonstrated competence) rather than independently designing, testing

and revising his Scratch artifact. In contrast, only a small portion of the scripts and

commands blocks in Jennifer's artifact can be attributed to assistance from an adult.

Most of the scripts and command blocks added to Jennifer's artifact are a direct result of

Jennifer's independent actions or through collaboration with a peer. This contrast was

noted in this researcher's reflections on the 10th day of designing in Scratch (Day 20 of

the project):

There is a fascinating dynamic playing out in this learning environment that
juxtaposes two different types of learners. Throughout this project, Jennifer has
demonstrated that she is an active participant in the learning process while
Dominic demonstrates the characteristics of a passive learner. Jennifer is able to
work independently. When confronted with an issue while designing her artifact,
she will 'tinker' with blocks and attempt to resolve the issue independently.
Dominic is dependent on directions and insight from a teacher. Dominic would
tinker with blocks (especially the sound blocks) while waiting for either the









During the current academic year, she serves in an instructional support position

that is divided between providing professional development to elementary teachers and

working with Tier 3 reading and math students. Tier 3 students are identified as

needing intensive, individualized interventions to remediate skill deficits based on data

gathered from formal assessments such as state-level standardized tests or school-

administered screening tests (Marston, 2005). Identifying students as Tier 3 refers to

the Response-to-Intervention (Rtl) framework. Schools adopting an Rtl framework work

to create learning environments where "instruction is layered over time in response to

students increasing needs" (Vaughn, 2003, p. 2). Tier 3 intervention represents the

most intensive layer.

Sample Selection

In conducting a qualitative case study, it is necessary to perform two levels of

sampling to identify the unit of analysis (Merriam, 1998). First, the case is selected.

Then, purposeful sampling is conducted within the case. For this research study, the

selected case is the population of Tier 3 students for math in 5th grade at the local

university's K-12 developmental research school. This population of academically at-

risk learners needs additional targeted instruction to be successful in academic settings.

Traditional teaching methods may not work with this population, yet approaches that

create innovative learning opportunities may increase motivation and augment learning.

Tier 3 students in 5th grade were selected because Scratch, the design tool used by

participants in this study, was created for young people ages 8 and up which matches

the 5th grade demographic.

Once the case was selected, purposeful sampling was conducted within the case.

The initial case population for this research study is a school's Tier 3 students in 5th









stuff. Like when you were saying *** at
*** and turn around cause look at all
these stuff glide 1 sens x -29 and y -10
and change x by 10 and all this other
stuff.
Sure. So all those blocks, maybe there are Yeah
just too many blocks showing so it gets
confusing?
OK. So because there are a lot of blocks I don't really know.
there, what do you think would be the best
way to learn how to use Scratch? Or what
would be the best way for you to learn how
to use Scratch?
You don't really know? What would have Maybe get some professional help
been the best way to help you learn
Scratch?
Get some professional help? Yeah
What do you mean by that? Maybe a person who's done Scratch for
awhile or a person who maybe created
it.
Oh, maybe the person who created it. Do Yeah
you think they would be able to help you?
What about in a classroom? How could we You mean the 5th grade classroom?
learn Scratch in the classroom because we
probably wouldn't be able to bring in
Sure, in the 5th grade classroom. What Maybe one simple thing at a time.
would be the best way to learn Scratch? If
you were going to work with your because
you know something about Scratch now.
How would you teach your classmates about
Scratch?
OK. Maybe one simple thing at a time. Do I guess but if I didn't know it, how could
you think that would help you too? I teach it?
And what do you mean by one simple thing? Like the first thing after another like
creating the sprites. Then, well, first,
the motion, then the looks, sound, pen,
control, sensing, operation, variables.
So are you saying we should go through Well, not all of these. That would take
each block to teach you one block at a time? forever.
That would take a long time? Yeah, just like motion and that and that
and that and that and then looks
OK, so maybe do a few blocks from each of Uh-huh (yes)
those categories?
Maybe the ones you'd use the most? Yeah
We'll go through it in a minute, OK? Uhm... probably... uhm... maybe... mayb
Anything else you learned? Anything else e learning how to do it.


173









Scratch versus in other learning
contexts.
How do you think your students
reacted to creating something for
2nd graders to use?
You were surprised they chose to
show it to 2nd graders rather than
their peers?


And that wasn't necessary part of
the goal. It just said to someone
else. We didn't specify 2nd
graders. They chose that later.
So that may have also been part
of them not focusing on 2nd grade.
How was student motivation to
work on this project affected by
having to design for someone
else.


Well, that was interesting watching them. I didn't
think they would have to do it to 2nd graders. I really
thought they were going to want to 5th graders.
I really was. I don't really know, I guess I know
what that's about, it was just kind of a fear of being
judged by their peers. But I expected them to want
to show that to their peers. But I don't really know
how much planning it for 2nd graders really that they
took into account. I think, I think they thought about
that towards the end when they were revising. I
think as they were creating, I don't know how much
of the audience, them being 2nd graders, really
played into how they made their projects.
I don't know if the designing for someone else
affected the motivation, but I think just the fact that
they were getting to create and do this type of math
and learning through this program affected the
motivation. They came in and they were
immediately started working. They don't ever do
that before. Ever. And if you go watch them in their
rooms, they're the least attentive and most checked
out in their regular classrooms. So for them to
come in and just, bam, get down to work was huge.
I think that wasn't because they were creating for
someone else. I think it was because they were
engaged in the project itself.


The project or in Scratch, do you Scratch. I think it was Scratch. I think the computer
think? too.
So student motivation was Yes.
impacted by using Scratch?
Do you think student learning was I think so. That would be something I would want to
impacted by using Scratch based probably further explore and maybe push a little bit
on your observations? more. I don't really know how to do that. But I think
that if we were to ask these kids about geometric
solids 5 years down the road, they will know it more
than if we were to ask them when they have there
traditional type of instruction. So I don't really know
if it's going to show right now, but I think it would
show later on. I feel like it went somewhere
different in their brain because of what they were
doing.
Tell me more about that, about it Well, I feel like it kind of embedded itself further
went somewhere else in their down in there into a memory, a place in their
brain. memory that's different. I don't know what type of


124









that are routinely used as a traditional summative assessment at the school site.

Changes in scores between the pre- and post-test provide data for identifying learning

gains during this event and for responding to research question #1.

Researcher and Participant Interviews

Two participants selected for the case studies completed a post-experience

interview with the researcher to determine how academically at-risk learners perceive

how constructing multimedia contributes to their learning and motivation (Van Manen,

2001; Seidman, 2006). Appendix E includes the semi-structured Interview Guide used

during the interviews. Each interview was recorded and transcribed (Poland, 2002).

These transcripts provide valuable data for addressing research questions #1 and #2.

Researcher Reflections on Scratch Multimedia Artifacts

During Phase 2 of this study (the design phase), each participant used Scratch to

design and construct a multimedia artifact that represented his/her understanding of the

properties of geometric solids. After each design session, this researcher examined

each Scratch artifact and noted the progress of each participant. In a spreadsheet, this

researcher recorded the number of sprites, the number of backgrounds, the number of

scripts, the number of command blocks used in scripts and the number of command

block types used in scripts. Collectively, these data serve as quantifiable measures of

each participant's progress (see Appendix G). In addition, this researcher recorded his

reflections on participant's progress while analyzing each Scratch artifact (see Appendix

C for an example). These reflections provide qualitative data for measuring each

participant's progress.









in this research study included direct instruction, differentiated instruction and peer

collaboration.

Jennifer's case provides an example of the three types of instruction in action.

Jennifer demonstrated competence adding existing sprites from the Scratch library to

her multimedia artifact and designing her own unique sprites relevant to her artifact.

These skills were part of the direct instruction that all participants received before

participants were allowed to design in Scratch. Jennifer expressed an interest in having

multiple scenes in her artifact through which a user would navigate, so she needed to

learn how to use the 'show' and 'hide' command blocks so that the proper sprites would

be visible or hidden depending in the appropriate scenes. Jennifer learned how to

integrate these command blocks with instruction from this researcher, an instance of

differentiated instruction specific to Jennifer. Sarah, one of Jennifer's peers, observed

Jennifer's artifact and wanted to include a similar action in her project. Jennifer

observed that Sarah's artifact included a question and answer script and decided that

she would like a similar action in her project. So Jennifer and Sarah collaborated to

learn the actions from each other.

Dominic's case provides an additional example of the three types of instruction in

action. Dominic demonstrated competence modifying existing sprites from the Scratch

library and designing his own unique sprites. Recall that these specific skills were

intentionally taught before the design phase of the study began. In addition, Dominic

was the only participant to learn and integrate voice recordings. When Dominic

expressed an interest in narrating the story he conceived for his multimedia artifact,

both this researcher and Mrs. H. assisted him in learning how to record his voice and


102









Researcher and Practitioner Interview

At the end of the project, the researcher interviewed the practitioner (Mrs. H.) to

determine the design principles necessary for engaging in additional iterations of this

DBR and for evaluating the effectiveness of this event as a pedagogical strategy. Thus,

the transcript of this interview (see Appendix A) provides a data source for addressing

both research questions posed in this study. The semi-structured interview guide used

during this interview is shown in Appendix E.

Debriefing Notes

Daily notes recorded by the researcher to document debriefing sessions between

the researcher and Mrs. H. that occurred immediately after each design session were

used to document the design and implementation of this innovative learning

environment. The debriefing notes included descriptions of the participants, the events

and the interactions between these objects. These notes also include direct quotes

made by participants or notes that capture the core of what is verbalized during the

observations. In addition, field notes include comments made by the researcher while

in the process of observing. These extensive field notes, in conjunction with debriefing

notes between the practitioner and researcher, provide sources of data for informing the

design of future iterations of this DBR and for developing a healthy response to

research question #2.

Content-Based Pre- and Post-Tests

Participants completed a pre- and post-test of content measures to determine

initial understanding and growth in conceptual understanding of standards-based

content (see Appendix D). The practitioner identified the pre- and post-test curriculum-

based content measure from the existing Everyday Mathematics curriculum resources









& Monroy-Hernandez, 2009; Resnick, Maloney, Monroy-Hernandez, Rusk, Eastmond,

Brennan, Millner, Rosenbaum, Silver, Silverman, & Kafai, 2009). However, little

documentation exists for using Scratch in formal K-12 classroom environments to

promote gains in content learning and not just programming skills. The Scratch website

includes a research page that identifies research articles and conference presentations

that document how young learners use Scratch. Yet, no listed manuscript documents

the use of Scratch in classroom contexts. In addition, an exhaustive search of the

university's library databases did not reveal any articles documenting Scratch's use in a

school-based classroom. The current research study attempts to contribute to this

dearth of available literature documenting Scratch's impact on content learning in K-12

classrooms. More specifically, this study seeks to identify learning and motivation gains

when 5th graders design multimedia about the properties of geometric solids using

Scratch.

Properties of Geometric Solids

Developing an understanding of the properties of geometric solids is an

expectation of the 5th grade curriculum (NCTM, 2006). Students should be able to

describe three-dimensional shapes by their number of faces, edges and vertices. In

addition, students should be able to calculate volume and surface area of such shapes.

Understanding surface area and volume may be problematic for students if a learning

goal for this content is reduced to memorizing formulas to calculate either quantity (Ben-

Chaim, Lappan & Houng, 1985; Battista, Clements, Arnoff, Battista & Borrow, 1998).

Creating opportunities for learners to design a multimedia artifact using Scratch that

expresses the properties of geometric solids may serve as an effective pedagogical

approach that ensures that learners are not limited to memorizing this content. While









Each principle will be integrated into the next iteration of this study. In addition, further

research is needed in several areas.

Rather than assuming that a particular pedagogical approach works equally well

for all students, the research community must identify the types of learners that benefit

the most from a particular approach. We must acknowledge that learners benefit along

a continuum for a particular pedagogical approach or strategy. A strategy may work

particularly well for certain types of students though it may have no impact on other

types of students. Identifying specific approaches for specific learners will ensure that

an individual's learning needs are met. Though this study did not identify learning

preferences of the participants, future iterations of this study should attempt to ascertain

these preferences in order to understand which types of learners benefit the most from

a LCM approach.

The research community also needs to further document the outcomes for

learners when they use Scratch to design multimedia artifacts that represent their

understanding of specific content. This study represents a single contribution to

understanding this particular phenomenon, but substantially more studies are needed to

develop a clearer understanding. We also need to determine effective procedures for

assessing learning evident in Scratch multimedia artifacts. Little research currently

exists to assess learning when learners design multimedia artifacts. With additional

research in this area, traditional pre- and post-tests may no longer be necessary to

solely capture a learner's understanding of content. Additional forms of assessment,

such as assessing a learner's multimedia artifact, could complement data generated

from pre- and post-tests.


119










voice recordings, so he expressed that he should have included more inflections in the

voiceovers. Dominic's responses provide evidence that his artifact does not meet his

own expectations. His concerns about his artifact may stem from inadequate progress

made over the course of this study (see Figure 4-2 for a screenshot of Dominic's

project).


L 'KJ,.. p, 11'.jp .J h2-j I-AJ j J | .d j .niHe.W] Dealnt kc60310 L


SEl m 175 i -13 d|- 0 -
C= l~~~t ISnt T[suaronr ~ ~ "_~~~--


IJ L L J L 22


Figure 4-2. A screenshot of Dominic's Scratch project

Dominic had a difficult time finishing his Scratch artifact. He relied heavily on the

practitioner and researcher to make progress on his artifact. When neither was

available, Dominic would use Scratch in ways in which he already felt confident and

competent, such as drawing and editing sprites or recording his voice. He would not

explore command blocks independently or seek help from his peers. On the 4th day of


-- tM


t- ,

t- 'mw

P.nti & U









of the prism. You said
8.
What do you think it is? I guess right
So how do you find I forgot.
area?
But over here you have It's 8
the area of the base is
16. So it looks like
It's 8. So you can count I thought it was 8 16
the cubes. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8. But here you
put 16. So one of my
questions is what
happened here. You
forgot?
8 plus 8 is 16? OK, Yes
then look at here.
What's the height of the
prism. You have 2 and
then you have 2. Is it
2?
Yeah, because you can I said 16.
count, so that was no
problem. What is the
volume of the problem
And then over here I I think it's 10.
can't tell if it's 16 or if
that's 10.
I'm not sure how you I think this is right.
went from here to here
but when we
This one's right. Yeah
Yeah, you're right OK, which one's the one I did first?
because you take
This one's first, this Oh, OK
one's second
Then you did. You're I think I improved more on this one Thinks he did better
right because you take (pre-test). on pre-test
the area of the base
times the height
You think you improved Yeah, that one (post-test) I did
more. You think you did horrible.
better on this one (pre-
test).
Well, I don't think you Yes
did horrible. I think that


153









D literally hit a wall: he placed his head on the door and rested it. He's feeling frustrated
because he's comparing his project to others. He doesn't feel confident that he will be
able to share his project with others.

G needs more time.

6/2/10
Ca., S, T & N are absent today.
P worked with F and Co to proof their projects, particularly spelling and punctuation.
R worked with G and D to complete projects.
D is capable and confident importing sprites, shrinking or growing sprites, editing sprite
costumes, changing a sprite's directions. He has numerous sprites in his project (more
than any other participant). He needs consistent help with the programming aspects of
his project. He does not try to work independently. He will wait until either the
researcher and practitioner is able to help him.

6/3/10 (G was absent today)
Ca., S, Co., T and N proofed their projects.
D attempted to complete his project. He consistently changes where the sprites are
displayed for each scene rather than focusing on the programming. He still needs to
record the voiceover for his sea scene and the final theatre scene. He did record these
2 final voiceovers. The R helped him synchronize his completed project.
Nathaniel removed an irrelevant scene from his project then wanted to add another
geometric solid to his project. He also needed to slow down the dialogue to ensure that
2nd graders could read the text displayed on the screen.
N: "Where's the thing hide?" R: "It's under looks."
Connor worked on coordinating a dialogue between a cylinder and a prism.
Ca., S and T are finished.


132









and interpreting information, articulating and communicating knowledge, and using

computers as cognitive tools" (p. 248). These skills were not intentionally encouraged

as part of the design process, but they are a beneficial outcome of the design process.

Of most significance, the researchers noted that students observed that knowledge was

"a result of their constructive efforts rather than as a set of givens from their teacher and

text" (p. 248). Thus, designing hypermedia (or multimedia) is a constructionist task

rather than an instructionist one. Learners construct knowledge representations of the

content addressed in their hypermedia (or multimedia) during the design process rather

than the teacher or textbook providing representations for learners to memorize.

Hay, Guzdial, Jackson, Boyle and Soloway (1994) analyzed 83 multimedia

documents created in MediaText by high school students to meet assignment

expectations in four different courses. Though the expectations for the multimedia

documents varied across courses, the researchers reported that learners developed a

"richer understanding of the concepts" (p. 315) of the course assignments because

learners were able to provide multiple representations of content using multiple media

formats in their multimedia compositions. Therefore, learners may create more

meaningful representations of course content by representing content in multiple forms

through the use of various forms of media. This study generates relevant implications

for the current study by emphasizing that learners may create meaningful

representations of content as they construct multimedia that represents the content.

Beichner (1994) observed nine middle school students as they learned science

content through designing and creating multimedia information screens for a local zoo

using hybrid software of HyperCard and SuperCard. Because students were designing









Based on Jennifer's case, it is encouraging to discover that using Scratch to

design and construct a multimedia artifact may impact Jennifer's learning. Jennifer

reported that this project allowed her "to do math but in a fun way". Once again, it is

important to acknowledge that learners differ in how specific pedagogical approaches

will impact them, and it is reasonable to assume that there are additional learners that

share Jennifer's learning preferences. Thus, it is imperative to understand and identify

which types of learners may benefit from a particular pedagogical approach.

Cross-Case Analysis: Dominic and Jennifer

Each participant case was shared separately above. This section provides a

cross-case analysis that identifies themes evident across both cases (a variable-

oriented strategy) and attempts to develop an understanding of how the themes are

represented by each case (a case-oriented strategy).

An analysis of the Scratch artifacts created by participants reveals that Dominic

and Jennifer included substantially more sprites, more command blocks and more

scripts in their projects than the non-case study participants (see Table 4-4). Dominic's

artifact included numerous sprites. This is not surprising considering that Dominic's

artifact consisted of multiple scenes. He also reported that he enjoyed drawing and

editing sprites. In addition, he would draw and edit sprites if he did not know how to

make progress on his artifact. Jennifer also included numerous sprites though her

artifact contained fewer sprites when compared to Dominic's artifact but contained more

sprites when compared to the other participants' artifacts. Jennifer's artifact also

consisted of multiple scenes, and she also reported that she enjoyed adding sprites to

her project.









Creating multiple learning paths ensures that learners have the opportunity to

learn in a manner that reflects the ways they prefer to learn. This implication is also

related to another implication relevant to this environment: self-directed learning.

LCM Encourages Self-Directed Learning

Participants in this project were afforded a fair amount of choice and control in the

design of their Scratch artifacts. The overall goal of designing a Scratch artifact that

includes the properties of geometric solids was a common expectation for all

participants. However, how they chose to address that goal varied significantly across

the participants. One participant chose a narrative approach. The participant recorded

his voice, telling a story he had written over the course of several scenes. A second

participant included a series of scenes that each shared information about the

properties of a specific geometric solid then asked the user to respond to a question

about that information and to answer it correctly before transitioning to the next scene.

Several participants used a quiz-like format that included a series of questions about

geometric solids without including background information. All three of these

approaches met the expectation of addressing the properties of geometric solids to

some extent though some participants integrated more content than others.

Self-directed learning was also evident through the level of engagement displayed

by participants. Mrs. H. noted that participants arrived at each session and

"immediately started working. They don't ever do that.... Ever. And if you go watch

them in their rooms, they're the least attentive and most checked out in their regular

classrooms. So for them to come in and just, bam, get down to work was huge." While

there is not sufficient evidence to determine the exact cause of this engagement and


112









students also demonstrated motivation while designing. Orey et al. also reported that

students developed collaboration skills.

Liu and Hsiao (2002) observed increased understanding of the design process

when middle schools students became multimedia designers. Student designers could

articulate the significance of the stages of a design process: planning, designing and

testing. Student designers also increased their peer learning skills. Students

collaborated with peers through the design process and came to rely on their peers to

distribute efforts for the design tasks. This study provides evidence that collaboration

skills and design skills develop as students design multimedia.

Chen and McGrath (2003) observed tenth-grade students designing hypermedia

documents using Storyspace 1.2. Pairs of students worked together to produce a

hypermedia document about water to meet assignment expectations for a science

course. Chen and McGrath reported that students preferred hypermedia construction to

traditional ways of representing information because it appealed to individual learning

styles. Students articulated that they could choose multiple ways to represent content.

Chen and McGrath also found evidence of deeper learning based on student comments

that demonstrated metacognition and reflection. In addition, the authors reported that

students in the roles of hypermedia designers developed "effective cognitive and

knowledge representational skills" (p. 57). This study provides evidence that when

students design hypermedia, they develop important metacognitive and reflective skills

and learn to represent content in multiple ways.

Mitchell, Andreata and Capella (2004) asked students in 5 different courses of an

education doctoral program to design a multimedia learning experience for future









During the post-experience interview, Jennifer also considered changes that she

would like to make in her artifact. She acknowledged, "I would make it a little bit longer

and change the characters." When asked about changing the characters in her project,

she replied, "cause it was mostly all girls". In fact, her project included 3 sprites

representing young females. She may have realized that boys could also use her

Scratch artifact, yet they were not represented in her artifact. Once again, she may be

considering the audience for her artifact. With respect to making her artifact longer, she

expressed that she would "keep on going with the game then after the game I'd

probably go to another scene and then maybe follow another scene and another

scene". The game she references is the last scene in her artifact, which involves

several shapes asking the user how many sides they have. Based on her response, it

is reasonable to assume that Jennifer is capable of creating additional scenes in

Scratch since she has the skills necessary to do so. Another improvement she wanted

to make was to make her artifact more interactive. During the interview, she wondered

aloud that "maybe if they could click on it" referring to having the user click on a shape,

then the shape asks a question about its properties.

Jennifer expressed that she did not want to share her Scratch artifact with her 5th

grade peers. She did not feel that 5th graders would be an appropriate audience

because "they probably already know this. It's probably more for little kids. They'd

learn a little bit more." This response provides additional evidence for how Jennifer

carefully considered the audience for her artifact. She believed that the math content

integrated into her Scratch artifact is more appropriate for younger learners rather than

her peer group because they already understand this specific content.









Learning Through Multimedia Design

The metaphors of student-as-designer and learner-as-designer have been used

throughout education literature (Harel, 1991; Ehrmann & Balestri, 1992; Beichner, 1994;

Lehrer, Erickson & Connell, 1994; Liu & Rutledge, 1997; Wilhelm, Friedemann &

Erickson, 1998; Chen & McGrath, 2003; Kimber & Wyatt-Smith, 2006). Indeed, this

literature has identified multiple benefits when learners participate in the design

process, and there are numerous studies that identify positive outcomes when learners

design hypermedia or multimedia artifacts (see Table 2-1). Notice that there were no

appropriate studies found past 2007. This researcher identified these studies through

an exhaustive review of specific journals such as the Journal of Educational Multimedia

and Hypermedia and of the university's library databases. Search terms included

"multimedia", "construction", "student created", "learner created", "student constructed",

"student designed", "multimedia design", "multimedia designer" and "multimedia

construction". In addition, once a suitable article was identified, this researcher used

Google Scholar to follow the citation trail of the article to identify more current articles

that cited the previously identified article.

Table 2-1. Overview of benefits of learners designing hypermedia/multimedia
Author(s) Summary of benefits
Carver, Lehrer, Connell & Students develop design skills; students
Erickson (1992) demonstrate high mental effort and involvement
Spoehr (1993) Students organize knowledge in an expert-like
manner
Lehrer, Erickson & Students demonstrate high mental effort and
Connell (1994) involvement; off-task behaviors are reduced;
students develop skills to search for, interpret,
articulate and communicate information
Hay, Guzdial, Jackson, Students create multiple representations of content
Boyle & Soloway (1994)









APPENDIX A
INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT BETWEEN PRACTITIONER AND RESEARCHER

This appendix includes the transcript of the post-project debriefing interview recorded
between the practitioner and researcher.


Researcher
How did your students react to
using Scratch? If you want to give
specific examples, feel free. If
you want to generalize, feel free.
Try to give any evidence that you
can or your observations or
thinking. Feel free to explain that.


Practitioner (Mrs. H.)
I think they reacted in a lot of different ways. And I
think they reacted in different ways based on where
we were in the project too. So I think at first, they
were all super excited about learning really
differently, learning beyond just the whiteboard and
the markers and pencil and paper, going more
digital. I think they're really excited about that. And
then I think when it turned into, well it's time for
them to really include some math stuff, it's not just
about learning, playing with the computer. It's time
to include some math stuff. I think some people
were like wait a second, but then I think they
pushed through that. So then I think the reaction
may be at first was like well I don't, wait, now it has
to get actually down to some work. But then I think
they pushed through it because it was so engaging.
So I think that really didn't matter. And then I think
as they started really getting into it, I'd say for a
good period, everybody was really actively
engaged, really responding very positively. And
then I think once it started getting towards the end
and it was time to finish, that's when I think I started
to see some people, the reactions starting to split a
little bit more. I think some people disengaged
because they didn't, they hit kind of a level of OK, I
don't really know how to keep going. I think some
people kept persevering and just kept kind of
altering their project and adding another room and
then just adding layers to it, which was great. And
then I think some people like Dominic, it just, it just
got to be like this mountain, and he didn't have any
clue how to get up the mountain. He knew. He
kind of knew that he was on a mountain because of
the little panic attacks, but he had no real strategy
to get up the mountain. And so I think his reaction
is one that was more negative, but I think that's one
out of the whole group, so I don't think that was how
everybody was.


120


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trustworthiness. Trustworthiness ensures that research results can be trusted with a

high level of confidence (Merriam, 1998).

Validity

A case study's validity ensures that the findings evident within the study match the

reality of the context. Merriam (1998) identified six strategies for ensuring sufficient

validity in qualitative case study designs: triangulation, member checks, long-term

observation, peer examination, collaborative modes of research and researcher's

biases. Triangulation involves "using multiple investigators, multiple sources of data, or

multiple methods to confirm the emerging findings" (Merriam, 1998, p. 204). This case

study design incorporated multiple sources of data (observational field notes, interview

transcripts, content measures and artifacts of interactive multimedia) during the data

analysis procedures to ensure that conclusions represented the data.

Member checks involve the interview participants in determining the plausibility of

the interpretations developed by the researcher (Guba & Lincoln, 1989; Miles &

Huberman, 1994; Moustakas, 1994). In this study, a member check was conducted

with the practitioner (Mrs. H.) after her interview transcript was analyzed to ensure that

conclusions arrived at by the researcher represented the data provided by her.

Engaging in long-term observation increases validity by providing sufficient time

for the researcher to collect data. For this case study, the researcher observed the

participants daily over a period of seven weeks.

Peer examination occurs when colleagues have the opportunity to provide

comments as the researcher develops findings based on the data. For this study, once

a case was analyzed, the researcher shared preliminary findings with a supervising









learner is active and engaged in the learning process. Constructionism, a pedagogical

paradigm first articulated by Seymour Papert, extends this idea into 'learning by making'

to emphasize the importance of generating a shareable artifact over simply engaging in

an activity.

We understand "constructionism" as including, but going beyond what Piaget
would call "constructivism." The word with the v expresses the theory that
knowledge is built by the learner, not supplied by the teacher. The word with the n
expresses the further idea that this happens especially felicitously when the
learner is engaged in the construction of something external or at least
shareable...a sand castle, a machine, a computer program, a book. This leads us
to a model using a cycle of internationalization of what is outside, then
externalization of what is inside and so on. (Papert, 1990, p. 3)

Constructionism shares with the more familiar constructivism the belief that learning is

the process of building knowledge structures through experiences. Constructionists

extend this theory and argue that learning is particularly robust when learners have the

opportunity to construct a shareable artifact (Harel & Papert, 1991). Constructionism

contrasts with instructionism, a more dominant pedagogical approach in education.

I like to formulate a major theoretical issue as "constructionism vs. instructionism."
This does not suggest that instruction is bad or useless. Instruction is not bad but
overrated as the locus for significant change in education. Betterlearning will not
come from finding ways for the teacher to instruct but from giving the learner better
opportunities to construct. (Papert, 1990, emphasis in original, p. 3)

In practice, constructionists provide opportunities for learners to design and construct

shareable artifacts, and constructionism places the locus of control for learning with the

learner. In contrast, instructionism maintains the locus of control for learning with the

teacher. Thus, a teacher adopting a constructionist approach to learning would create

opportunities for learners to design and construct artifacts that represent understanding

of content. In addition, these artifacts could be composed using multimedia tools, and

there is a reasonable amount of historical evidence to support this approach.









APPENDIX F
TRANSCRIPT AND ANALYSIS OF DOMINIC'S INTERVIEW

This appendix includes the transcript and 8-step analysis of the post-experience
interview recorded with Dominic, one of the case study participants.

Researcher questions Participant responses Record brief notes
while reading
transcript (Step 1)
Did you enjoy using Well, yes. Enjoyed Scratch
Scratch?
What about using Well, the part was making all the Enjoyed creating and
Scratch did you like? new sprites and editing them, like editing sprites
that cat right there I made her
a tongue and eyelashes, made her
look like a girl not a boy cat because
I think every cat in here is a boy.
So you liked taking the Yeah
existing sprites and
changing them, right?
OK. What else did you Well, that there were so many Enjoyed existing
like about using sprites to use like a dragon and library of sprites within
Scratch? ghost and you can create your own Scratch
sprites like raining milk.
OK. So you like that Yes.
you could design your
own sprites and
you also like that there
were lots of other
sprites that were part of
Scratch that you could
use?
Yes. OK. Good. Do I say it was difficult. Scratch is difficult
you think it was easy or
difficult to learn how to
use Scratch?
It was difficult to learn Yes.
how to use Scratch?
What made it difficult to Well, pretty much it was hard to Scratch is difficult
learn how to use? know what to do because there was because of too many
so much stuff. Like when you were command blocks
saying *** at *** and turn around
cause look at all these stuff glide 1
sens x -29 and y -10 and change x
by 10 and all this other stuff.
Sure. So all those Yeah


146









thing at a time. Do you could I teach it?
think that would help
you too?
Well, right, but I'm Yeah. Dominic may like it
saying if someone was when taught in small
teaching you, would it steps
help you to do one
simple thing at a time?
And what do you mean Like the first thing after another like Learn to create sprites
by one simple thing? creating the sprites. Then, well, first, first (he enjoyed), then
the motion, then the looks, sound, work through
pen, control, sensing, operation, categories of
variables. command blocks
So are you saying we Well, not all of these. That would Don't teach all
should go through each take forever, command blocks
block to teach you one
block at a time?
That would take a long Yeah, just like motion and that and Teach a few
time? that and that and that and then looks command blocks in
each category
OK, so maybe do a few Uh-huh (yes)
blocks from each of
those categories?
Maybe the ones you'd Yeah Teach most
use the most? commonly used
command blocks
OK. That's reasonable. Learning math?
Do you think designing
in Scratch helps you
learn? Do you think you
learn something while
designing in Scratch
while working on this
project?
Sure let's talk about Umm... I really don't. Some of that Already knows about
learning math. Do you stuff I already know like a pyramid. I content
think you can learn don't know that much about
math while working on pyramids but cylinder and cone I
this project? already know about those two.
OK. So you already Yes
knew about some of the
math you used?
So you didn't really No Didn't learn math
learn about math in this
project?
Is there anything you Well, how to draw some of them Learned how to draw


148









generated. This step tests the initial framework of themes against the data and yields a

revised framework of themes that addresses the data.

Fifth, the researcher narrowed the number of themes by grouping similar themes

into categories. This step generates a manageable list of categories. Categories and

their associated themes are identified in Appendix F.

Sixth, categories are converted into abbreviated codes. This step facilitates the

process of coding the data. Next, the researcher organized the data based on the

categorical codes. That is, individual phrases or sentences from the data were pulled

from the transcripts and regrouped with similar data based on the categorical codes

attached to the data. These regroupings provided evidence for making meaning from

the transcriptions and field notes. Lastly, if needed, data is recorded.

The process described above was applied to each of the transcripts generated

from the post-experience interviews with the 2 case study participants and with the

practitioner. This process resulted in the production of two separate cases. With the

availability of two cases, the researcher also conducted a cross-case study.

Cross-Case Analysis

This research study includes two case studies. Merriam (1998) identified two

stages of analysis when multiple cases are present within a study. First, the within-case

analysis occurs to generate "a comprehensive case in and of itself' (Merriam, 1998, p.

194). Next, cross-case analysis begins. This study identified two participants to serve

as independent cases for the within-case analysis with the intent of generating two

separate case studies. This researcher adopted Tesch's (1990) textual data analysis

for the within-case analysis as described above.









remained the same. She now has a total of 16 scripts. She did not alter the scripts on
the stage, prism, gobo and cone. She added 2 small scripts to the standing female to
ensure that she is visible at the beginning but is not visible when the scene changes
(when the space key is pressed). It is now apparent that the pair of short horizontal
lines represent pieces of chalk for the chalkboard scene. G created 2 small scripts to
hide the chalk at the beginning and make the chalk visible when the scene changes. G
created 2 scripts for the sitting female sprite. She has hidden this sprite at the
beginning but made it visible when the scene changes. The sprite then states "this is a
cone and it has one curved surface and one base with one apex". G also added 2
scripts to the chair sprite to ensure that it is not visible in the beginning but is visible
when the scene changes. Across all 16 scripts, she has 41 blocks, and she has used 9
different types of blocks. In addition, she has one block on the stage that is not part of a
script. Though the number of scripts and blocks has increased, the number of different
types of blocks has remained the same.

G hasn't addressed how the user will know to press the space key to transition to the
next scene. In addition, some of the text displays too quickly, so it may be difficult to
read for struggling readers. G worked independently today. She needed no help.

Scratch 4 ) 4) (99%) Wed 11:39AM Echo
Er 00 GenesisOS1310- Scratch
--f4 d ^ File Edit Snare Help

L 1 FEE) -3 V. -| & .H ti
L^rCJJ| lf trI m I p Y Costume Y Sounds









because you know
something about
Scratch now. How
would you teach your
classmates about
Scratch?
OK. Maybe one simple I guess but if I didn't know it, how Learning Scratch
thing at a time. Do you could I teach it? reflection
think that would help
you too?
Well, right, but I'm Yeah. Learning reflection
saying if someone was
teaching you, would it
help you to do one
simple thing at a time?
And what do you mean Like the first thing after another like Learning Scratch
by one simple thing? creating the sprites. Then, well, first, reflection
the motion, then the looks, sound,
pen, control, sensing, operation,
variables.
So are you saying we Well, not all of these. That would Learning Scratch
should go through each take forever, reflection
block to teach you one
block at a time?
That would take a long Yeah, just like motion and that and Learning Scratch
time? that and that and that and then looks reflection
OK, so maybe do a few Uh-huh (yes) Learning Scratch
blocks from each of reflection
those categories?
Maybe the ones you'd Yeah Learning Scratch
use the most? reflection
OK. That's reasonable. Learning math? Clarification: Irrelevant
Do you think designing to research questions
in Scratch helps you
learn? Do you think you
learn something while
designing in Scratch
while working on this
project?
Sure let's talk about Umm... I really don't. Some of that Learning math
learning math. Do you stuff I already know like a pyramid. I reflection
think you can learn don't know that much about
math while working on pyramids but cylinder and cone I
this project? already know about those two.
OK. So you already Yes Learning math
knew about some of the reflection









combined with participant responses during interviews and with data from an analysis of

participant Scratch projects, there is reasonable support for considering the impact of

this approach if the learning styles of individuals are supported. Dominic's learning style

was not supporting during this project. The design of this project did not provide the

required support for Dominic to be successful rather than frustrated. A linear process

that included specific, short-term goals may have benefited Dominic. A similar process

may have also benefited Jennifer. However, she accomplished considerably more in

her project than Dominic even though they both worked in the same educational

environment. Jennifer appeared to thrive when she was granted choice and control in

the design of her artifact. She shared with the researcher that she "got to do math but

in a fun way." She independently created several scenes for her artifact based on her

vision for how her artifact should be used. For Dominic, choice and control seemed to

serve as barriers for his learning that he needed to overcome. Dominic could not

independently create the scenes he wanted to include based on his vision. Jennifer

could independently implement the plan for the design of her artifact with occasional

adult support while Dominic needed almost constant adult support to ensure that he

progressed.

Summary of Case Study Findings

In summary, both case study participants participated in the same innovative

learning environment that created an opportunity for academically at-risk learners to

design a multimedia artifact using Scratch that represents their understanding of the

properties of geometric solids, yet both participants seemed headed in different

directions. Mrs. H. observed how Jennifer emerged as "one of the leaders" who "really

felt good about herself' while Dominic "got lost in the project" because of "not maybe









Content-Based Pre- and Post-Tests ................................ ... .................. 59
Researcher and Participant Interviews ................................... ...... ............ ....60
Researcher Reflections on Scratch Multimedia Artifacts...............................60
D ata A na lysis P ro ce d ure s .................................................................................. 6 1
T e x tu a l D a ta A n a ly s is .................................................................................. 6 1
C ro ss-C a se A n a ly s is .................................................................................... 6 3
Pre- and Post-Test A nalysis......................................... ........................... 64
Scratch Artifact Analysis ........ ........................................................... ...... 64
Trustw orthiness ............................. .... ................................... 65
V a lid ity .............. ..... ............ ................. .............................................6 6
Reliability................ .............................. 67
Generalizability ................................................. 68
Lim stations of This Study ........................ ........ .......... .. ............................68

EVALUATION AND TESTING OF A SOLUTION IN PRACTICE.............................. 70

In tro d u c tio n .......... .. .. .. ............. .......... ....... ...........................................7 0
Sum mary of Participant Data .......... .............. .......................... ......... ....70
Im pact on Learning................................................ 71
Case Study #1: Dom inic .......... .. ........ ...................................................... 72
Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch ................................... 72
Dominic's response to this project ....................................76
Dominic's response to his learning ................................82
Impact on Dominic's learning ......... ..... ............. .... ......... 83
Case Study #2: Jennifer ........................................ ......... .. ..... ............. 84
Jennifer's response to learning and using Scratch .............................. 85
Jennifer's response to this project .................................... ..... 89
Im pact on Jennifer's learning ................ ...................................93
Cross-Case Analysis: Dominic and Jennifer .........................94
Summary of Case Study Findings ......................................................... .......... 97

DOCUMENTATION AND REFLECTION TO PRODUCE DESIGN PRINCIPLES ....... 100

Introduction ............................ .................................. ....... ......... 100
Design Principles.............. ........... ............ ...........100
Use Multiple Approaches to Learn Scratch................ ...............101
Scaffold the Design Experience................................... .......................... 103
Explicitly and Repeatedly State Learning Goals ................. .......... ........ 105
Assess Artifacts Regularly ........................... ..................... ................ 106
Sum mary of Design Principles ............... .......... ............... ............... 107

C O N C L U S IO N ......... .................. ............................................. 10 8

Sum m ary of Findings...................................... ... ... ...................... 108
Situating This Study within Existing Literature................................................. 108
Im plications for Practice .. .......................................................................109
LCM Allows Multiple Learning Paths for Students ...................................109


6









USING SCRATCH FOR LEARNER-CONSTRUCTED MULTIMEDIA: A DESIGN-
BASED RESEARCH INQUIRY OF CONSTRUCTIONISM IN PRACTICE
















By

JEFFREY THOMAS BOYER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010









how to use Scratch?


I think once they started to see the features and
started to notice, oh I can make things glide, make
things move with arrows, they started to, I think,
come up with even more of a story line or a concept
based on their schema of games and stuff. So I
think they took to it very naturally.


Are there ways that are better to I don't know. That's a good question. I think based
learn Scratch than others, do you on this population I would probably lean towards
think based on this population? watch me, now you do it, watch me, now you do it,
and I think we did that, but not as structured maybe
as they would normally get instructed because of
them. And I don't think that was bad.
You don't think it was bad that No, I don't think that's bad.
they didn't get as much structure?
But you think more structure might For certain kids like Dominic.
have helped them?
Anybody else? No. I mean I think individually that's really when we
were coaching them that's really what was
happening, but it was just not everybody lock step,
we're all going to do this at the same time. It was
just way more individualized.
How do you think having students Because I think it helps them think about the
create something in Scratch helps concepts on a completely different level than they
them learn? would have to think about just identifying them with
a piece of paper and a pencil or if I were just doing
it on the board and they had to verbally say it, I
think it helps them think about it in such a deeper
way.
What do you mean by a deeper Well, I mean, I don't really know how I feel about
way? Bloom's but it's beyond just identify or analyze or
those types of things. They have to actually think
about how someone else may think about a shape
and how can I get this person to say cone, and now
I actually have to draw a cone, and now I actually
have to now create something around this cone to
make someone else engage in this, to not give
them the answer. You had to really think on so
many different levels beyond pointing to a cone and
saying "yep I know that that's a cone" or "yep cones
have this". I don't know if that really made sense.
You said something about I think they had to use critical thinking skills that
different ways of thinking. Maybe maybe they typically wouldn't have had to use if
expand a little bit more some of they were learning about shapes or geometric
the different ways of thinking you solids just in a regular way.
thought they had to wrestle with
while designing in Scratch.


122









sprite, a ghost sprite and three sprites of cylinders containing milk to portray raining

milk. Dominic became quite skilled at drawing and editing sprites. His artifact included

22 sprites total (the mean for the non-case study participants is 4.3). He drew 10

original sprites and edited 12 existing sprites using Scratch's paint editor. On the 12th

day of the project (the second day of designing), this researcher recorded in his field

notes that Dominic "has spent quite a bit of time adding and editing sprites to his project

but has spent very little time working on scripts which determine the actions and

behaviors in the project." The following day this researcher noted that "Dominic has

quite an imagination but he spends much of our meeting time adding characters to his

artifact that are only loosely related to math content." If Dominic needed assistance on

his artifact and if neither the practitioner nor the researcher were available to help him,

he would spend time creating or editing existing sprites rather than exploring command

blocks or testing out scripts for his artifact. On the third day of designing (the 13th day of

this project), this researcher recorded that withoutot assistance or prompting from the

practitioner or researcher, he does not make significant progress."

Dominic also became proficient at recording sounds in Scratch. Dominic was the

only participant to record his voice and integrate this voiceover into his artifact. He

learned this skill on the 9th day of designing (Day 19 of the project). After learning this

skill, he would record random talking or noises while waiting for assistance rather than

making independent progress on his artifact or trying to resolve an issue by himself.

When asked how he thought someone should learn Scratch, he expressed "one

simple thing at a time". By "thing", he is referring to the command blocks; he shared

that someone should learn only a few command blocks from each of the different









LIST OF REFERENCES


Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching
and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives:
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Battista, M. T., Clements, D. H., Arnoff, J., Battista, K., & Borrow, C. V. A. (1998).
Students' spatial structuring of 2D arrays of squares. Journal for Research in
Mathematics Education, 29(5), 503-532.

Bloom, B. S., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The
classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university
examiners. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York: Longmans.

Beichner, R. J. (1994). Multimedia editing to promote science learning. Journal of
Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 3(1), 55-70.

Bell, M., Bretzlauf, J., Dillard, A., Hartfield, R., Isaacs, A., McBride, J., Pitvorec, K.,
Saecker, P., & Winningham, N. (2007). Everday mathematics (3rd ed.). New York:
Wright Group/McGraw-Hill.

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media content creation community: Israeli learners in a Scratch programming
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Proceedings of the Chais Conference on Instructional Technologies Research
2009. Raanana: The Open University of Israel.

Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in
creating complex interventions in classroom settings. The Journal of the Learning
Sciences, 2(2), 141-178.

Brown, C. (2007). Learning through multimedia construction a complex strategy.
Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 16(2), 93-124.

Carver, S. M., Lehrer, R., Connell, T., & Erickson, J. (1992). Learning by hypermedia
design: Issues of assessment and implementation. Educational Psychologist,
27(3), 385-404.

Chen, P., & McGrath, D. (2003). Knowledge construction and knowledge representation
in high school students' design of hypermedia documents. Journal of Educational
Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(1), 33-61.

Collins, A. (1992). Toward a design science of education. In E. Scanlon & T. O'Shea
(Eds.), New directions in educational technology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Design-based Research Collective. (2003). Design-based research: An emerging
paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8.









you can think of that you learned while doing
this project?
Learning how to do Scratch? Yes.
Yeah, you learned how to do Scratch a little Yeah.
bit because you said you, one thing you
liked was drawing the sprites and editing the
sprites, so you definitely learned how to do
that, right?
Did you learn how to record your voice? Yeah
I think you're, in fact, the only person that Well, yeah. I think.
recorded their voice, right?

Project:
Yeah, you drew a number of shapes. I see Well, I did learn that... not really. I was
a cone, rectangular prism, cylinders even a just saying that I was a little
pyramid there. You've learned how to draw embarrassed when I was saying my
them. Anything else you think you learned project because everything was messed
in this project? up the time I did it cause that was in the
wrong place, that was in the wrong
place, that was in the wrong place.
Everything was in the wrong place.
You mean when you were showing it to the Yes, everything was in the wrong place.
2nd graders?
Everything was in the wrong place? Maybe not everything. Not in the right
position. They're all supposed to be.
He needs to be bigger. They're all
supposed to be facing.
Oh, so some of the sizes are not right See look. See
So he's facing the wrong direction? Yeah, that's one.
I think you were. You learned that and I I didn't even know we were going to
don't think anybody else learned about that. show it to 2nd graders.
When you were designing this, were you
thinking about designing for 2nd graders?
You didn't realize we were going to show it No
to 2nd graders?
OK. That's fair. Do you remember the Yeah
original goal of the project?
What was the goal of the project? Make it creative?
To make it creative. I don't know if that was one of them. I
don't know if that was one of them.
OK. So think back to why did you design I was trying to make it creative and
what you designed. What was this trying to make them move and make them have
show? a conversation but instead I was the
only one talking. I thought the 2nd
graders would get bored.
Well, so what happened yesterday with the Well, they were looking at it. I don't


174









elaborate story in mind that is only loosely related to geometric solids; asked G if cone
may be in the wrong position; F added a jetpack sprite from the Scratch sprite library
that includes several scripts; his intent is to have the user control the jetpack while
responding to the questions.

P: another student looked at G's project yesterday but wasn't sure how to proceed, so G
added a say to direct the user; D asked when we could use Scratch to design about
something other than shapes.

5/21/10
Ca. and S needed to finish testing so they did not participate today. D did not progress
unless the researcher or practitioner is working with him. He will practice recording.

G was able to fix design errors in her project once D worked through it or the researcher
asked her about the sound clip even though P has tried to get her to identify the errors
independently. Thinking outside one's self is difficult for young learners.

D demonstrated that he can manipulate the direction of a sprite and change the size of
a sprite using the grow and shrink tools.

There is a fascinating dynamic playing out in this learning environment that juxtaposes
two different types of learners. Throughout this project, G has demonstrated that she is
an active participant in the learning process while D demonstrates that characteristics of
a passive learner. G is able to work independently. When confronted with an issue
while designing her project, she will 'tinker' with blocks and attempt to resolve the issue
independently. D is dependent on directions and insight from a teacher. D would tinker
with blocks (especially the sound blocks) while waiting for either the researcher or
practitioner to help him make progress on his project. Often, he needed input from the
teacher to help clarify his thinking about the intent of his project. D interacted with G's
project and G observed that D did not know how to proceed in several instances
throughout the project. She was able to observe how an individual user will encounter
her project and noticed that she need to provide additional prompting in order for the
user to successfully interact with her project. As soon as D finished interacting with her
project, G immediately began adding additional blocks to existing scripts to provide
appropriate prompts for the user. She did not need assistance from either the
researcher or the practitioner. Another example of G's willingness to be responsible for
her learning stems from an interaction between G and the researcher. The researcher
observed that G added a script to her project that plays a sound effect when the 'a' key
is pressed. G's project contained a question and answer script that asks the user a
question about the number of bases in a cone. If the user enters a correct answer,
positive feedback in the form of text is displayed on the screen. When G interacts with
her project, she would press the 'a' key when she entered the correct response. The
researcher observed this behavior and asked her how the sound would play if she was
in a different room when a user was interacting with her project. She immediately
began addressing this issue without prompting or assistance from the researcher or
practitioner. D continues to struggle with his project. He has developed an elaborate


130









Number of sprites 22 11 4.3
Number of backgrounds 5 4 2.2
Number of scripts 84 40 9.5
Number of blocks used in scripts 207 116 56.3
Number of block types used in scripts 11 12 11.5
Pre-test score 7 9 6.9
Post-test score 6 6 7.6

This data reveals that the 2 case study participants included considerably more sprites,

backgrounds, scripts and command blocks than the other participants, though the

number of command block types used in their Scratch artifacts remained consistent

across the participant group. The 2 case study participants were the only participants to

score lower on the post-test when compared to the pre-test. The non-case study

participants scored higher on the post-test with the exception of one participant who

scored the same on both.

The next section showcases 2 case studies with the intent of developing an

understanding of the impact of LCM on learning.. These case studies are followed by a

cross-case analysis.

Impact on Learning

One research question posed by this researcher seeks to understand the impact

on learning when learners construct multimedia using Scratch. To address this

research question, this researcher, in collaboration with the practitioner, selected two

participants for in-depth case studies to determine the impact on their learning as

described in Chapter 3. Each case study participant completed a curriculum-based pre-

and post-test on the properties of geometric solids. In addition, each case study

participant designed a multimedia artifact using Scratch. These artifacts were analyzed

after each design session. This researcher also recorded, transcribed and analyzed an









learning environment with the common pedagogical approach of LCM, yet their

experiences yielded distinctly separate outcomes for each learner.









Based on these questions, this study was accomplished through case study methods (a

qualitative research approach), and the data for this DBR study included observational

field notes, participant-constructed artifacts, interview transcripts and outcome

measures of content knowledge. Eight (8) academically at-risk 5th grade students

participated in this study. Each participant completed outcome measures of math

content knowledge about the properties of geometric solids in the form of pre- and post-

tests to determine learning gains in math content. Each participant designed a

multimedia artifact using Scratch that was analyzed by the researcher for evidence of

math content. Two participants were identified through maximum variation sampling to

serve as cases for in-depth case studies. The researcher conducted interviews with

these participants to determine their perception of learning gains while designing

multimedia that expressed their understanding of the properties of geometric solids.

The researcher also conducted interviews with the practitioner to document the design

principles integrated into this ILE. Another source of data that contributed to the design

principles are the reflective field notes recorded by the researcher.

Conducting Design-Based Research

The five characteristics of DBR described above help generate an understanding

of the DBR paradigm but do not necessarily provide a systematic process for

conducting DBR. Reeves (2000) articulated a four-step process for conducting DBR:

* analysis of practical problems by researchers and practitioners
* development of solutions with a theoretical framework
* evaluation and testing of solutions in practice
* documentation and reflection to produce design principles

Reeves' four-step process is comparable to the Design-Based Research Collective's

four-stage process for an iteration of DBR described above (design, enactment,









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDG M ENTS ....................... ......... ......... .................................... 4

L IS T O F T A B LE S .................................................. 8

LIST OF FIGURES ............ ......... ... .................. 9

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............... ............... ..... ............... 10

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION .................. ..... ... .................. ....................... 12

Research Problem ..... ......... .. ......... .......... ........12
Design-Based Research.............................................. 13
Characteristics of Design-Based Research................................ .............14
Conducting Design-Based Research ............... ...... ...................... 19
R e s e a rc h P u rp o s e .............................................................................................. 2 0
D design of T his M manuscript .......................................... ......... ............... ............... 22

LITERATURE REVIEW ............... .......... .......... .......... ..........................24

Introduction .............................................. 24
Theoretical Framework................. ..... .........................24
A Foundation in Constructivism and Constructionism....................................27
A Historical Perspective on Multimedia..................... .. .. ........ ......... 29
Learning Through Multimedia Design......... ......... ...... ..... ... ................ 30
M ultim edia Construction Tools ..................... ................ ...... .......... 42
Properties of G eom etric Solids.......................................... ............................ 46
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................ 4 7

R ESEA R C H M ETH O D S ......... .......... .......... ................................ ................ 48

Introduction .............................................. 48
Theoretical Framework......................... ................. .......... 49
R e s e a rc h e r B ia s ................................................................................................. 4 9
R e s e a rc h D e s ig n ....................................................................................5 0
Research Context ................................. .... ................ 52
Research Site ................................................... .....................52
P practitioner P rofile............... .... .................................................. ............ ....... 52
Sample Selection .................................................. 53
Research Environment .......................... .......... ........ ............. 54
Data Sources and Collection ............ ............................. ............... 58
Researcher and Practitioner Interview ......................... ..................59
Debriefing Notes ............... ........ ........................... 59









programming concepts and strategies. This work epitomizes the potential impact that

multimedia-authoring tools can have on young learners.

Research indicates that increasing learner motivation and cognitive engagement

will promote achievement (Turner & Paris, 1995; Guthrie & Wigfield, 1997; Guthrie &

Wigfield, 2000; Guthrie, 2001; Roe, 2001; Kamil, 2003). Today's young academically

at-risk learners may not respond to traditional instructional approaches. Therefore, we

must consider innovative approaches to motivating and engaging these young learners.

One such approach places young learners in the roles of designers of multimedia.

Having learners construct multimedia is one strategy that facilitates the

development of thinking skills (Spoehr, 1993; Lehrer, Erickson & Connell, 1994; Hay,

Guzdial, Jackson, Boyle & Soloway, 1994). Yet, it may be an underutilized strategy in

most schools. Only 43% of teachers who regularly use media in their classrooms highly

value student-created multimedia (PBS, 2009). Tools for constructing multimedia

typically include a steep learning curve or a high cost, which may indicate causes for the

lack of diffusion of this strategy. Yet, Scratch, a contemporary design tool with a

shallow learning curve and available for free, may provide greater opportunities for

diffusion and integration into classroom contexts. Therefore, the purpose of this study is

to identify learning gains when young academically at-risk learners design and construct

multimedia using Scratch to express what they know about math content, particularly

content addressing the properties of geometric solids.

Design of This Manuscript

The remaining chapters of this manuscript provide a detailed account of the

design, implementation, analysis and findings for this study. Chapter 2 addresses the

theoretical framework and situates this study within the existing literature. Chapter 3









Critical thinking skills is kind of
general. Can you be more
specific about thinking skills,
critical thinking skills?


So then related to that question,
this focus on critical thinking, so
how was learning about math
different for your students when
they used Scratch as opposed to
how they traditionally have
learned that content?
Give me an example of that
choice.


So it was about how they're
learning about math differently,
you know, using Scratch versus,
you know, your normal instruction
or even classroom instruction.


So it sounds like the engagement
on the part, student engagement
is different whey they're using


When I say critical thinking skills, I think about
communication, analyzing in a different way. Really
having to analyze things, not just figure out an
answer, but really having to analyze things. I guess
when I say critical thinking I also think about
perseverance as well. That's not really a thinking
skill, but I think it's a behavior that comes when you
are thinking critically. I'm trying to think of another
specific skill that would be under critical thinking. I
mean I could pull out any tons of different verbs, but
I don't really know, comparing. It's critical thinking!
It's hard to explain.
Well because I think they got to engage in it in the
ways that they chose to engage in it, so I think
choice is a huge piece behind it.


So an example would be instead of me saying
"everybody on their paper draw a cone. OK. Now
let's all label the cone." Instead of that, they got to,
most of them included something about a cone or a
different shape and they got to choose how they
were going to talk about the faces or the bases.
And they still did that skill, they just did it because
however they chose to do it. It wasn't me having
everybody do the same thing at the same time.
They got to match their personality to it. I forgot the
question.
I also think having to think about how to explain it to
someone else is also another level of the critical
thinking and how they had to learn it differently.
Because instead of just them being the consumers
of the knowledge and then just spitting it back out
on a test and regurgitating it, they actually had to
think outside of themselves and think how would
somebody be engaged in learning about this shape.
Well, I'm going to do it by having cats spinning
around. Or I'm going to do it by having two sisters
standing there doing a game show. I think that is
completely different than if they just had to sit there,
take it in and spit it back out on a test.
I think. I don't have that measured. That's what I
saw. Just based on the anecdotal data.


123









Do you think you're No, no Perceives he's not
good at math? good at math
Do you think that you Maybe? Not sure if you can
could learn math using learn math using
Scratch? Scratch
Maybe how? The things I'm writing down are What he included in
things I already know, so how could his project is what he
it teach me? already knows about
the content
Great question. I don't Yeah Knows that he was
know the answer. So demonstrating what
what you were doing he knows about math
was demonstrating what
you know about math in
this project?
Anything else you want The things I didn't like was just, I Reflecting on his
to share with me about guess I should have done better, I project: he should
the project? Here's said it like I didn't care, like in the have tried harder on
your change to tell me sounds I said it like I didn't care. his recordings
anything you want to tell
me about the project?
Oh, so you would want Not all over cause, I was speaking
to redo your sounds? like I didn't care
Right, didn't put a lot of Except for the last part
emotion into it
The last part, yeah, you Uhm... uhm... uhm... maybe... uhm... I
definitely put a lot just know what's going to happen if I
emotion in the last line don't tell you this and then later
however you said that when then maybe Monday comes I'll
"the shape test", which have something I want to tell you
is pretty funny. then it will be too late, so I'm trying
Anything else I should to think of something.
know about working on
the project, anything
else you want to tell me
about this
I appreciate that Uhm...well... maybe it's about how Reflecting on project:
mine is really different from his is different from
everybody else's. Everybody else's other students (other
seemed better because they're students ask
saying "what shape is this" then you questions of user, his
type it in. tells a story)
So to you that seemed Well... not... no. I don't really like Doesn't like the
better doing that question approach
You don't like doing The part when you say "what's this
what? shape"


156










her project that use 67 blocks. In addition, she has 3 blocks on sprites that are not part
of any scripts.

G has created a new scene that will incorporate something about surface area, though it
is not functioning completely yet. She has included scripts to coordinate the hiding and
showing of her sprites and to display the appropriate background for each scene
included in her project.

i Scratch ( 1 4))) i (99%) Wed 12:42 PM Echo
Er 00 GenesisOS1910- Scratch
-f d ^ F File Edit Snare Help _
6.S s ^' i 51910






_*







2 22











5/20/10
Researcher encouraged G to move the cone to a different location on the stage so that
it would be visible when the female sitting sprite describes the properties of a cone.
Previously, the text appeared in front of the cone, so only a small portion of the top of
the cone was visible. G added a say block that states the name (ally) of the young
standing female sprite at the beginning of the project. G added another background to
her project. The background is a stage with spotlights. G now has 4 scenes in her
project: the beach, the chalkboard, a living room and a stage. The project provides a
prompt to transition between the first 2 scenes, does not provide a prompt to transition
to the 3rd scene though the say block with a prompt is located in the scripts area
(however, it is not attached to a script), does provide a prompt to transition to the last
scene. G now has 28 scripts that use 80 blocks from 10 different block types. In









maybe you just kind of
forgot. And then here
but I want to show you
something. Look here.
8 and 9. You just put
question marks, which
looks to me like you
didn't try, but here, you
tried, you put answers
and you said I just
looked at the surface.
So at least you tried,
you tried something
right?
So do you think you I think I did better on the first one.
improved on the second
one compared to the
first?
I would say maybe just Yes
a little bit better. It's
pretty similar, don't you
think?
Is there anything else Scratch is really confusing and Scratch is confusing
you want to tell me frustrating. and frustrating
about using Scratch or
doing this kind of
project?
Scratch is confusing I was wondering why when I got to
and frustrating. the 2nd graders it was doing all this
stuff to me
Like what do you When we we're doing this project Had issues with
mean? without the 2nd graders, nothing was computer when he
happening, it was just normal, but shared his project with
then once I got the 2nd graders, all 2nd graders
these lunatic stuff started to
happened like the computer shut off,
these Chinese words appeared and
everything got mixed up.
Yeah, that was strange No
yesterday, wasn't it?
How we had to shut
down you computer,
that was, because that
hadn't happened to you
this whole time?
Then it suddenly did. Yes


154








not powerful enough but the land shark decides to live in the sea. They all got
transported back to the theater. When they got back to the theater, they found the
girl cat with the boss ghost. The boss ghost then says, "You just passed the
shape test!"
Dominic developed an elaborate story as the foundation for his multimedia artifact.
However, this story only superficially addresses specific content about the properties of
geometric solids. He integrated content-specific vocabulary into his artifact (cylinder,
geometric, sphere) but does not define or describe the properties of those terms. His
Scratch artifact does include hand-drawn representations of a sphere, cylinder, cone,
pyramid and several rectangular prisms (See Figure 4-3). However, these
representations are rough approximations of each geometric solid. They also serve
only as props for the artifact; they are not specifically referenced or described during the
artifact.










=V









memory that's called. I don't think that's working
memory, but long term retrieval, I don't know. I feel
like it was way more of a significant event of
learning in their life, which then in turn will help
them really know it versus just learning it with pencil
and paper in their regular way.
Regular way meaning? Without Scratch, without creating some project
around a secure skill. Just kind of sitting and
getting.
Direct instruction? Yeah.
What did you observe about the I loved watching the sharing. That was probably
sharing today that you thought one of my favorite parts of the whole thing. So what
was a positive? did I observe? I just felt like they really brought
themselves down to the 2nd graders and they were
asking them questions and scaffolding their
learning, giving them high fives and talking them
through their projects and some of them started
showing them extra parts of Scratch and showing it
off a little bit. For me, watching them feel happy
and proud of their work is something that I think is,
that's everything. That should happen with
everything, and it doesn't.
Are there any negative aspects of No.
the sharing that you observed?
Overall, it was overwhelmingly Yeah, I can't think of something that would be
positive? negative out of it.
You felt like the 5th graders, do I think so. I think if I were their classroom teacher
you think the 5th graders also and had more of a, I think, stronger connection
believe that it was a positive relationship to them, I would be able to answer that
experience? better, but since I only see them for 20 minutes, it's
hard for me to really get a read, but I think that they
were happy. Dominic gave me a hug as we walked
out. You could just tell by the smiles, but I don't
have any specific quotes to go along with that.
If we were to do this all over Well. I don't know if anything really needs to be
again, what would you change different meaning that it could be better. I think
about the implementation of the things maybe to explore if this were to get done
project? What should be different again would maybe be giving some structure to the
about what happened this time? kids that started just chasing their tail. I don't know
if that would look more of like a rubric or just a
graphic organizer to help them think. Maybe a
graphic organizer for all of them up front to help
them scenes or something. But then again I
wouldn't want to structure it to be like "you must
include a rectangular prism, a cone, you must
include certain things". But on the other hand, I do


125









use Scratch?
Do you think they'd like Some kids but some kids would
to learn Scratch? think it would be a waste of their
time
Why do you think some Cause they're not grateful
kids would think it would
be a waste of their
time?
Cause they're not Probably not.
grateful? Anything else
you want to share with
me?

General notes recorded while rereading transcript (Step 2)
Enjoyed creating and editing sprites
Like the library of sprites in Scratch
Scratch is difficult, frustrating and confusing; too many blocks
Thinks it would be helpful to learn one block at a time and to learn just a few
blocks from each of the categories. He may like to learn this way
Didn't learn math from this experience; already knew the math; did learn how to
draw geometric solids
Learned how to draw and edit sprites and record voice in Scratch
Not proud of project; embarrassed; many sprites are in the wrong location or
facing the wrong direction; compared his project to his brother's project and to
peers; didn't finish his project; could have tried harder; doesn't want to share with
5th graders
Reflective on his project; wondering about his story idea
Superficial representation of math content
Would like to use Scratch in the future; improve his project
Likes stories
Reflects on how he likes to learn

Generated themes based on general notes (Step 3)

Dominic's reaction to using Scratch
Enjoyed creating and editing sprites
Like the library of sprites in Scratch
Scratch is difficult, frustrating and confusing; too many blocks
Would like to use Scratch in the future; improve his project
Dominic reflecting on learning Scratch
Thinks it would be helpful to learn one block at a time and to learn just a few
blocks from each of the categories. He may like to learn this way
Learned how to draw and edit sprites and record voice in Scratch
Dominic reflecting on learning math during this project
Didn't learn math from this experience; already knew the math; did learn how to
draw geometric solids


158









categories, preferably the most commonly used blocks. This may be an indication that

he felt overwhelmed when first learning about Scratch. The participants were not

introduced to command blocks separately. Rather, they identified a behavior or action

that they wanted to include in their artifacts then received assistance in identifying the

appropriate command blocks or stack of command blocks that would yield the desired

behavior. This 'just in time' approach may not have worked for Dominic since he

suggests an alternative approach for learning Scratch that focuses on exploring

individual command blocks.

Overall, Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch is a mixed response.

While he shared that he found Scratch confusing and frustrating, he enjoyed creating

and editing sprites using Scratch's paint editor. In fact, this researcher repeatedly

observed and noted Dominic's ability with these skills in his Scratch artifact, so he

clearly learned how to use this aspect of Scratch. He was also the only participant to

include a voiceover in his artifact.

Dominic's response to this project

During the post-experience interview, Dominic shared that he was not proud of his

Scratch artifact and that he "was a little embarrassed... because everything was messed

up the time I did it cause that was in the wrong place, that was in the wrong place, that

was in the wrong place. Everything was in the wrong place." When asked if he would

like to share his artifact with his 5th grade peers, he declined and said that he would

"feel too embarrassed". He also acknowledged that if he were given another

opportunity to design in Scratch that he would "want to make it better than the first one".

He reflected that "I guess I should have done better, I said it like I didn't care, like in the

sounds I said it like I didn't care." He felt like he did not provide much emotion in his









times the height
You think you improved Yeah, that one (post-test) I did Learning math
more. You think you did horrible, reflection
better on this one (pre-
test).
Well, I don't think you Yes Learning math
did horrible. I think that reflection
maybe you just kind of
forgot. And then here
but I want to show you
something. Look here.
8 and 9. You just put
question marks, which
looks to me like you
didn't try, but here, you
tried, you put answers
and you said I just
looked at the surface.
So at least you tried,
you tried something
right?
So do you think you I think I did better on the first one. Learning math
improved on the second reflection
one compared to the
first?
I would say maybe just Yes Learning math
a little bit better. It's reflection
pretty similar, don't you
think?
Is there anything else Scratch is really confusing and Scratch reaction
you want to tell me frustrating.
about using Scratch or
doing this kind of
project?
Scratch is confusing I was wondering why when I got to Scratch reaction
and frustrating. the 2nd graders it was doing all this
stuff to me
Like what do you When we we're doing this project Computer issues
mean? without the 2nd graders, nothing was during sharing with 2nd
happening, it was just normal, but graders: Irrelevant to
then once I got the 2nd graders, all research questions
these lunatic stuff started to
happened like the computer shut off,
these Chinese words appeared and
everything got mixed up.
Yeah, that was strange No Computer issues









grade, which consists of 8 students. There are 2 females (one mixed race and one

Hispanic) and 6 males (2 black, 1 Hispanic and 3 white). The researcher in conjunction

with the practitioner selected two individual cases in order to conduct maximum

variation sampling, a type of purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998). Maximum variation

sampling attempts to capture levels of diversity within the studied phenomenon. For

this study, the diversity was determined by observing the participants during the early

part of this research study while participants learned how to use Scratch. One student,

Dominic, frustrated quickly while learning how to use Scratch. Another student,

Jennifer, quickly acquired new skills in Scratch and emerged as a leader in

demonstrating how to complete tasks in Scratch to the other students. Because of the

maximum variation with respect to learning about Scratch between these 2 students,

the researcher and the practitioner selected Dominic and Jennifer as the participants for

a case study. Thus, the unit of analysis for this study is a Tier 3 5th grade student.

Research Environment

The Tier 3 5th grade students in this school meet daily as a group with the Mrs. H.

for about 25 minutes at the beginning of the school day. They are pulled from their

regular classrooms and meet in Mrs. H.'s office. During this time, Mrs. H. provides

additional instruction related to math content. This instruction is in addition to the math

instruction provided in their regular classrooms. While these students are working on

math skills with Mrs. H., the other 5th graders are working on writing skills.

The researcher and practitioner (Mrs. H.) collaboratively designed a prototype of

an innovative learning environment that integrates learner-constructed multimedia.

Initially, the researcher and practitioner identified appropriate content that the

practitioner's 5th grade students would address when constructing multimedia using









constructivism) evident within the education literature (Phillips, 1995). This study is

concerned with how an individual constructs knowledge through experiences, such as

the experience of designing multimedia that represents an understanding of content

knowledge. Therefore, psychological constructivism, in contrast to social

constructivism, forms the foundation for this study because the unit of interest for this

form of constructivism is the individual (Richardson, 2003). Piaget's perspective has

had considerable influence on contemporary views of psychological constructivism

(Matthews, 2003). Piaget expressed "that knowledge does not result from a mere

recording of observations without a structuring activity on the part of the subject"

(Piaget, 1980, p. 23). Thus, making meaning for the learner entails developing schema,

or mental models, that represent understandings of experiences. In an educational

environment, learners can construct representations and understanding of content

through a diverse range of experiences including teacher-delivered lectures or hands-on

experiments.































Figure 2-3. A script created in Scratch

As stated on the Scratch website, "[a]s young people create and share Scratch

projects, they learn important mathematical and computational ideas, while also

learning to think creatively, reason systematically, and work collaboratively." Based on

this description, it is reasonable to assume that when learners use Scratch to design

multimedia, they will develop thinking and collaboration skills.

The use of Scratch is well documented in after school programs and community

technology centers (Peppler & Kafai, 2005; Kafai, Peppier & Chiu, 2007; Peppier &

Kafai, 2007a; Peppier & Kafai, 2007b; Maloney et al., 2008). There is an online

community associated with Scratch, and this feature of Scratch separates it from other

kid-friendly programming tools such as Squeak or Alice. Documenting ways in which

the community of Scratch users engage with Scratch and collaborate with each other is

also evident within the literature (Monroy-Hernandez & Resnick, 2008; Blau, Zuckerman









researcher, to address the real-world problem of increasing math achievement for

academically at-risk learners. DBR's foundation in education began with the concept of

design experiments first articulated by Brown (1992) and Collins (1992). These design

experiments in education were modeled after the design processes evident within other

design fields such as aeronautics and artificial intelligence (Collins, 1992).

Several authors have articulated a call for DBR in the field of educational

technology to create technology-based innovative learning environments (Reeves,

Herrington & Oliver, 2004; Wang & Hannafin, 2005; Ma & Harmon, 2009). This call

stems from a lack of usable knowledge to guide instruction, particularly technology's

role in improving instruction (Reeves, 1995; Richey, 1998).

Characteristics of Design-Based Research

The Design-based Research Collective (2003) proposed 5 characteristics of

appropriate design-based research. When using DBR as a research framework, this

type of study:

* should promote the design of innovative learning environments and the
development of learning theories;

* should be an iterative process consisting of 4 stages: design, enactment, analysis,
redesign;

* should produce educationally-relevant knowledge for classroom applications;

* should provide rich descriptions of content and interactions; and

* should use appropriate research methods related to question.

For each of the characteristics, this researcher provides a brief summary followed by an

explanation of how each characteristic is addressed in this study.

First, DBR should actively and simultaneously promote the design of innovative

learning environments and the development of learning theories. In this study, the









Explicitly and Repeatedly State Learning Goals

Before participants began designing their Scratch artifacts, Mrs. H. and this

researcher shared the learning goal for the design process. The learning goal was

explicitly stated and recorded on the wall where it remained throughout the duration of

this study. Though the learning goal was explicitly stated at the beginning of the project,

it was not consistently readdressed during the extent of this study. This may provide

some account for why there is not a significant impact on learning observed. If learners

are not repeatedly made aware of the learning target when designing multimedia, then

they may forget their purpose for learning and their multimedia artifact may not fully

represent or address the learning goal.

Dominic's Scratch artifact only included superficial references to the properties of

geometric solids. This indicates that at some point during the design process he was

aware that his artifact should include some information about the properties of

geometric solids. However, had the learning goal been repeatedly restated, Dominic's

Scratch artifact may have addressed a deeper level of content. During the post-

experience interview between Dominic and this researcher, this researcher asked

Dominic if he could recall the goal of the design process. Dominic stated that he did,

but he could not articulate the original goal.

Jennifer's Scratch artifact addressed more content on the properties of geometric

solids than Dominic's artifact. It is reasonable to assume that Jennifer was also aware

that her artifact should include information about the properties of geometric solids and

that she was able to retain this learning goal longer than Dominic. Jennifer may also

have benefited from multiple reminders about the learning goal. They may have helped


105









Dominic reflecting on how he learns
Likes stories
Reflects on how he likes to learn
Dominic's reaction to his project
Not proud of project; embarrassed; many sprites are in the wrong location or
facing the wrong direction; compared his project to his brother's project and to
peers; didn't finish
Reflective on his project; wondering about his story idea

Codes from Themes and Coding Data (Step 4)

(Code: Theme)
Scratch reaction: Dominic's reaction to using Scratch
Learning Scratch reflection: Dominic reflecting on learning Scratch
Learning math reflection: Dominic reflecting on learning math during this project
Learning reflection: Dominic reflecting on how he learns
Project reaction: Dominic's reaction to his project

Researcher Participant Coding Data
Did you enjoy using Well, yes. Scratch reaction
Scratch?
What about using Well, the part was making all the Scratch reaction
Scratch did you like? new sprites and editing them, like
that cat right there I made her
a tongue and eyelashes, made her
look like a girl not a boy cat because
I think every cat in here is a boy.
So you liked taking the Yeah Scratch reaction
existing sprites and
changing them, right?
OK. What else did you Well, that there were so many Scratch reaction
like about using sprites to use like a dragon and
Scratch? ghost and you can create your own
sprites like raining milk.
OK. So you like that Yes. Scratch reaction
you could design your
own sprites and
you also like that there
were lots of other
sprites that were part of
Scratch that you could
use?
Yes. OK. Good. Do I say it was difficult. Learning Scratch
you think it was easy or reflection
difficult to learn how to
use Scratch?


159









It was difficult to learn Yes. Learning Scratch
how to use Scratch? reflection
What made it difficult to Well, pretty much it was hard to Learning Scratch
learn how to use? know what to do because there was reflection
so much stuff. Like when you were
saying *** at *** and turn around
cause look at all these stuff glide 1
sens x -29 and y -10 and change x
by 10 and all this other stuff.
Sure. So all those Yeah Learning Scratch
blocks, maybe there are reflection
just too many blocks
showing so it gets
confusing?
OK. So because there I don't really know. Learning Scratch
are a lot of blocks there, reflection
what do you think would
be the best way to learn
how to use Scratch? Or
what would be the best
way for you to learn
how to use Scratch?
You don't really know? Maybe get some professional help Learning Scratch
What would have been reflection
the best way to help you
learn Scratch?
Get some professional Yeah Learning Scratch
help? reflection
What do you mean by Maybe a person who's done Scratch Learning Scratch
that? for awhile or a person who maybe reflection
created it.
Oh, maybe the person Yeah Learning Scratch
who created it. Do you reflection
think they would be able
to help you?
What about in a You mean the 5th grade classroom? Clarification: Irrelevant
classroom? How could to research questions
we learn Scratch in the
classroom because we
probably wouldn't be
able to bring in
Sure, in the 5th grade Maybe one simple thing at a time. Learning Scratch
classroom. What would reflection
be the best way to learn
Scratch? If you were
going to work with your


160









Scratch. The content selected for this inquiry is the properties of geometric solids. This

content was selected because it is emphasized in curriculum standards endorsed by

several organizations (see Table 3-1). Addressing this content occurred in the

practitioner's pacing guide at the time when the researcher was available to conduct this

inquiry. The school site previously adopted Everday Mathematics (Bell, Bretzlauf,

Dillard, Hartfield, Isaacs, McBride, Pitvorec, Saecker & Winningham, 2007) for its math

curriculum, and the timing of this research project coincided with the teaching of Unit 11

in the text. Knowing the properties of geometric solids is one of the secure skills for this

unit. In addition, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has identified this

content as one of three curricular focal points for 5th grade. This content is also

identified as a Big Idea in the State of Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State

Standards. Specifically, there are two benchmarks that address this content: Analyze

and compare the properties of two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional solids

polyhedraa), including the number of edges, faces, vertices, and types of faces

(MA.5.G.3.1) and describe, define, and determine surface area and volume of prisms by

using appropriate units and selecting strategies and tools (MA.5.G.3.2).

Table 3-1. Content rationale
Organization Content expectations
Everday Mathematics, Unit 11 secure skill: Know the properties of
University of Chicago geometric solids
School Mathematics Project

National Council of Grade 5 Curriculum Focal Point for Geometry and
Teachers of Mathematics Measurement and Algebra: Describing three-
dimensional shapes and analyzing their
properties, including volume and surface area









scene?
You have to ask him. You mean the dragons go like this?
Yeah he got rid of it. Why?
You'll have to ask him. So what did he make?
I don't know why.
Well, he had the Oh.
conversation going at
the beginning.
I want to look at your OK.
project with you so let's
go through your project.
So first scene of your That's wrong. See how everything is Project does not look
project, your telling a messed up. the way it is supposed
story. PLAY FIRST to look
SCENE.
What's messed up here Well, he's supposed to be facing left.
He's supposed to be right there.
There's some cats in WATCHING WOODS SCENE: Oh, Frustrated that sprites
the wrong place and come on. Ugh are in the wrong
they're facing the wrong places
directions
He's supposed to be That's supposed to be grabbing its Sprite is in the wrong
behind? tail. place
Did that get changed? Yes. Didn't finish the
Was it like that project (yesterday was
yesterday? the last day to work on
projects)
How does the land See. Everything is messed up. Frustrated
shark
That looks right to me You know those aren't supposed to
be like that
Well, we talked about Wait. What do you mean? Well, he Trying to rationalize
that yesterday. What went there because it's the sea and I why there is a land
about the land shark. guess he doesn't like it. Are land shark in a project
How does the land sharks real? about geometric solids
shark related to
geometric solids?
I don't think so. I like Well, the shapes are there and I said Shapes are part of
the end by the way. I to pay well the last part when they project
like how you used your were done that I just wanted to make
fluctuation in your voice sure they were paying attention I
there. So, how do all said what were the shapes in the
these cats, ghosts, land background.
shark, dragon, how
does those relate to
teaching someone









included superficial references to geometric solids in his Scratch artifact. He created

sprites of several geometric solids and included them in his artifact but did not reference

them or elaborate on them. They existed as props in several scenes. As a summative

assessment of his learning, a teacher might conclude that Dominic does not have a

meaningful understanding of the properties of geometric solids because he was not able

to articulate any properties of geometric solids in his Scratch artifact though he did use

several related vocabulary terms. In contrast, Jennifer, the other case study participant,

explicitly stated the properties of two geometric solids in her Scratch artifact. She was

able to articulate these properties based on her understanding of this specific content.

In the design of her Scratch artifact, she is applying this understanding by articulating

the properties. As a summative assessment of Jennifer's learning, a teacher might

conclude that she does have a meaningful understanding of some of the properties of

two geometric solids because she articulated aspects of the properties of a cone and

rectangular prism.

Recall that neither Dominic nor Jennifer showed gains on the post-test when

compared to the results of the pre-test. If the post-test used in this study was used as a

traditional summative assessment of Dominic's and Jennifer's learning, then neither

individual demonstrated learning gains for the content addressed by the post-test. Yet,

such a limited approach does not necessarily capture the full range of a learner's

understanding for a particular content area. Jennifer's Scratch artifact clearly contained

content related to the properties of geometric solids that were not assessed by the post-

test. In reality, no single assessment, including a multimedia artifact, can fully

document a learner's understanding of specific content. As a form of assessment,


116














Constructionist
pedagogy LCIM


Constructivist provides theoretical provides pedagogical learner-constructed
learning theory foundation for framework for interactive multimedia

Knowledge as ,,.'
design pedagogy has lead to


Outcomes



Increased Increased Increased
motivation skills content learning



Research
Thinking skills Design skills skills



Figure 2-1. The theoretical framework for this study

Within a pedagogical framework, LCM has a foundation in constructionist

pedagogy, which is an application of constructivist learning theory. Constructionist

pedagogy emphasizes that learners develop an understanding of content especially well

when given opportunities to design and construct a personally relevant and shareable

artifact (Papert, 1991). Relatedly, LCM also has a foundation in the concept of learning

through design. Perkin's knowledge as design pedagogy encourages an active use of

knowledge through the creation of products to represent student understanding (1986).

Student-created products about subject matter demonstrate students' ability to apply

knowledge and synthesize understanding through the design of a product rather than









yesterday, wasn't it? during sharing with 2nd
How we had to shut graders: Irrelevant to
down you computer, research questions
that was, because that
hadn't happened to you
this whole time?
Then it suddenly did. Yes Scratch reaction
So you said it was
frustrating.
Would you ever want to Uhm...yeah, I do. And I want to Scratch reaction;
use Scratch again? make it better than the first one I Project reaction
want to make it more better. My
voice could be talking and they could
be moving and stuff.
OK I don't know if I can do it again Irrelevant to research
because I'll be in 6th grade. questions
Well, you can use Free? I can do it on my computer? Irrelevant to research
Scratch. The nice thing questions
about Scratch it's free
You can download it on How? Irrelevant to research
your computer. questions
You just have to Yeah. Irrelevant to research
download it from the questions
Scratch website. Have
your parents help you.
Say "I want to find
Scratch", and you can
do it for free. So you'd
be interested in using
Scratch again.
You kept telling me Yeah Project reaction
during the project that
"when are we going to
do a project that's not
about shapes".
Did you not like the Well, the shapes, I, well, no, I kind of
shapes? liked it.
OK. But you kept Yeah Project reaction
wanting to move on to a
different project?
How come? Well, the shapes. I thought it was Project reaction
kind of weird when they were saying,
they looked like adults but they were
saying they were going to see a
movie about shapes.
What was the idea for I don't know. It just pops up in my Project reaction


168








SScratch 4)) (I (99%) Wed 12:25 PM Echo
Er 00 Genesis051710- Scratch
--f. d j File Edit Snare Help_ .
























5/18/10


5/19/10
G added a new sprite of a different standing female available in the Scratch sprite
library. G provided a 'say' block to prompt the user to press the space key to transition
to the next scene (a different room). A student who is not part of this learning group
I.ir.. '.,, r...T -. I v













ia- I







came near the endcaus of the meeting time to work with the presenactitioner. While this student
5/19/10
G added a new sprite of a different standing female available in the Scratch sprite
library. G provided a 'say' block to prompt the user to press the space key to transition
to the next scene (a different room). A student who is not part of this learning group
came near the end of the meeting time to work with the practitioner. While this student
was waiting, the practitioner had G share her project with the student. Once the
opening scene took place, the student did not know how to proceed until G told her to
press the space key. Once G realized that a user cannot proceed without prompting,
she added the prompt as described above. The cone is not visible when the text
appears that describes the properties of the cone. G previously created a third
background which indicates a new scene. She also has added several scripts to
various sprites to coordinate when sprites will be visible or not visible depending on the
scene. For example, the new sprite she added today is hidden at the beginning of the
project but will appear when the user presses the up arrow key. She added a 'say for x
secs' block that states "press the up arrow to go play a game". The researcher
challenged her to include something about surface area in her project. It appears that
she intends to have the user play a game in the new scene. She now has 24 scripts in


140









how to do that, right?
Did you learn how to Yeah Learning Scratch
record your voice? reflection
I think you're, in fact, Well, yeah. I think. Learning Scratch
the only person that reflection
recorded their voice,
right?
I think you were. You I didn't even know we were going to Project reaction
learned that and I don't show it to 2nd graders.
think anybody else
learned about that.
When you were
designing this, were you
thinking about designing
for 2nd graders?
You didn't realize we No Project reaction
were going to show it to
2nd graders?
OK. That's fair. Do you Yeah Project reaction
remember the original
goal of the project?
What was the goal of Make it creative? Project reaction
the project?
To make it creative. I don't know if that was one of them. Project reaction
I don't know if that was one of them.
OK. So think back to I was trying to make it creative and Project reaction
why did you design make them move and make them
what you designed. have a conversation but instead I
What was this trying to was the only one talking. I thought
show? the 2nd graders would get bored.
Well, so what happened Well, they were looking at it. I don't Project reaction
yesterday with the 2nd know if they got bored because I'm
graders? Did they get not them but, I don't know if it was
bored? as good as everyone else's cause
they're all moving and having
conversation like Nathaniel's. He
was like it impressed me like fine
let's go on the dragons. Duh-duh-
duh. Dud-duh-duh. Fine let's go.
Yee-haw. And that's what
happened. And mine's not amazing
as that. Mine's just blah, blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah, blah. Blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah, BLAH, blah. And
then blah, blah, BLAH, blah. Yeah.
Well so everybody has Why? Irrelevant to research


163



























2010 Jeffrey Thomas Boyer









Data such as outcome measures, observational field notes and interviews are collected

during this stage then utilized in the analysis stage. The analysis stage includes

analyzing and evaluating the ILE as a pedagogical strategy. During the redesign stage,

findings from the analysis stage provide insight into the next iteration of the design. A

limitation of this approach is the amount of time spent documenting this iterative

process. Because of time limitations associated with the school site's calendar, only a

single iteration of this process was completed (Ma & Harmon, 2009). However, the

attributes of the redesign stage are well documented, and future research opportunities

will continue this process.









Si Scratch
r Sa GenesisOS1410- Scratch
S-f- d File Edlt Snare Help


* 9 4)) 4 (99%) Wed 12:07 PM Echo


' *
s [vnUSlW ^"


I | L_ t uBmSu

lIZBSET~ I ( Strmplt Y CoitumeY SoundsI


5/17/10
G did not create additional sprites today but did create an additional background, a
living room scene. G reconnected the trigger to a stack of blocks that created the
opening scene on the standing female. She also removed some unnecessary blocks
from that sprite. She added a script to the gobo sprite that states "well i've got to go
now bye guys" when the space key is pressed. However, this script conflicts with a
similar script on the sprite. G now has 18 scripts that contain 54 blocks that represent
10 different types of blocks. In addition, she has 5 blocks on sprites and the stage that
are not part of any scripts.

G still hasn't addressed how the user will know to press the space key to transition to
the next scene or know how to cue the music or corrected the speed of the text as
described previously.


139









blocks, maybe there are
just too many blocks
showing so it gets
confusing?
OK. So because there
are a lot of blocks there,
what do you think would
be the best way to learn
how to use Scratch? Or
what would be the best
way for you to learn
how to use Scratch?


I don't really know.


You don't really know? Maybe get some professional help
What would have been
the best way to help you
learn Scratch?
Get some professional Yeah
help?
What do you mean by Maybe a person who's done Scratch Get help from an
that? for awhile or a person who maybe experienced Scratch
created it. user (did not perceive
researcher or
practitioner as an
experienced user)
Oh, maybe the person Yeah
who created it. Do you
think they would be able
to help you?
What about in a You mean the 5th grade classroom?
classroom? How could
we learn Scratch in the
classroom because we
probably wouldn't be
able to bring in
Sure, in the 5th grade Maybe one simple thing at a time. Teach in small steps
classroom. What would
be the best way to learn
Scratch? If you were
going to work with your
because you know
something about
Scratch now. How
would you teach your
classmates about
Scratch?
OK. Maybe one simple I guess but if I didn't know it, how









It is likely that participants chose to express their understanding of the properties

of geometric solids in a manner that reflected how they prefer to learn. For example,

during the interview between Dominic and this researcher, Dominic shared that he

enjoyed writing and telling stories. His Scratch artifact was clearly story based. It

included a recorded narration of a story he created, and it was the only Scratch artifact

that included a voice recording. Though Dominic's Scratch artifact superficially

referenced the properties of geometric solids, his narrative approach to designing his

artifact may represent how he prefers to learn. If all participants were expected to follow

a common path while designing their Scratch artifact, Dominic may not have been able

to design a narrative artifact.

Another aspect of allowing multiple learning paths relates to approaches for

learning Scratch, the multimedia-authoring tool used in this research study. There are

multiple ways to learn how to use a new tool such as Scratch. One approach, as Mrs.

H. shared, involves "watch me, now you do it, watch me, now you do it". This approach

consists of a cycle of modeling by the teacher followed by guided practice for the

student. When the participants were first learning Scratch, this direct instruction was

the approach adopted by the practitioner and researcher. However, after sharing some

of the most common actions in Scratch, other approaches to learning Scratch were

employed. Participants were encouraged to explore Scratch independently to

determine which command blocks were required for their scripts, and the practitioner

and researcher provided 'just-in-time' instruction depending on the individual needs of

the participants. In addition, participants collaborated with each other to share

expertise.


110









constructing multimedia to demonstrate their knowledge about specific math content.

Particularistic case studies also provide information about successfully replicating the

event in similar contexts and study a defined event that can contribute to a generalized

understanding of the phenomenon-at-large (Olson in Hoaglin, Mosteller, Light, Stoto &

McPeek, 1982).

Second, the disciplinary orientation of this case study is psychological.

Psychological case studies target the individual and his or her behavior within an event

(Merriam, 1998). This case study targets two young academically at-risk learners and

documents their behaviors and learning as they design and construct multimedia to

demonstrate their knowledge about specific math content.

Last, the intent of this case study is descriptive. It will provide a detailed overview

of a pedagogical event. Descriptive case studies are valuable for "presenting basic

information about areas of education where little research has been conducted"

(Merriam, 1998, p. 38). There is evidence that learners benefit from constructing

multimedia. In addition, using Scratch has been documented in informal learning

environments. However, there is a dearth of research at the intersection of these two

practices: using Scratch to construct multimedia in a formal learning environment. This

descriptive case study provides important information to fill in this gap in research.

Collectively, these additional descriptors help define this case study. The research

represented in this manuscript is a particularistic, psychological and descriptive case

study. This description informs the reader that this case study describes individuals and

their behaviors within a specific event.









Theoretical Framework

As described in Chapter 2, constructivist learning theory, constructionist pedagogy

and knowledge-as-design pedagogy provide the theoretical framework for this inquiry.

Creating opportunities for learners to construct personally relevant multimedia artifacts

that represent their understanding of content epitomizes a constructionist approach to

learning. Constructionist pedagogy (Papert, 1980) is based on constructivism, the

learning theory that posits that learners build knowledge structures through

experiences. Constructionists extend this theory and argue that learning is particularly

robust when learners have the opportunity to construct a shareable artifact (Harel &

Papert, 1991; Kafai & Resnick, 1996).

Researcher Bias

The theoretical framework that provides the foundation for this study also indicates

this researcher's bias on how individuals learn best. This researcher strongly believes

that learning is most effective when a learner must engage in content with the intent of

designing and constructing a shareable artifact that expresses what s/he understands

about that content. This artifact can exist in multiple forms: a hand-drawn concept map,

an online presentation, a word processing document or a multimedia display. Each

artifact requires that the learner spend time and effort engaging in content by making

meaning from the content, finding ways to organize the content into a meaningful

representation and designing and constructing an artifact that represents the learner's

understanding of the content. This belief about learning identifies this researcher as a

constructionist, and it is essential to acknowledge this bias (Hatch, 2002).




Full Text

PAGE 1

1 U S I N G S C R A T C H F O R L E A R N E R C O N S T R U C T E D M U L T I M E D I A : A D E S I G N B A S E D R E S E A R C H I N Q U I R Y O F C O N S T R U C T I O N I S M I N P R A C T I C E B y JE F F R E Y T H O M A S B O Y E R A D I S S E R T A T I O N P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2 0 1 0

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2 2 0 1 0 Je f f r e y T h o m a s B o ye r

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3 T o B e t sy a n d E l l a

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4 A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I a m so g r a t e f u l t o M r s. H f o r h e r w i l l i n g n e ss t o co l l a b o r a t e w i t h m e o n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y. H e r co n t r i b u t i o n s m a d e t h i s w o r k m e a n i n g f u l i n so m a n y w a ys. T h i s d i sse r t a t i o n w o u l d a l so n o t b e p o ssi b l e w i t h o u t t h e su p p o r t a n d i n si g h t o f m y c o m m i t t e e i n cl u d i n g K a r a D a w so n C a t h y C a v a n a u g h F r a n V a n d i ve r a n d L yn d a H a ye s.

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5 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S p a g e A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 L I S T O F F I G U R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 C H A P T E R I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 R e se a r ch P r o b l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 C h a r a ct e r i st i cs o f D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 C o n d u ct i n g D e si g n B a se d R e s e a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 R e se a r ch P u r p o se . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 D e si g n o f T h i s M a n u scr i p t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 T h e o r e t i ca l F r a m e w o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 A F o u n d a t i o n i n C o n st r u ct i vi sm a n d C o n st r u ct i o n i sm . . . . . . . . . 2 7 A H i st o r i ca l P e r sp e ct i ve o n M u l t i m e d i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 L e a r n i n g T h r o u g h M u l t i m e d i a D e si g n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 M u l t i m e d i a C o n st r u ct i o n T o o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 P r o p e r t i e s o f G e o m e t r i c S o l i d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 T h e o r e t i ca l F r a m e w o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 R e se a r ch e r B i a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 R e se a r ch D e si g n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 R e se a r ch C o n t e xt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 R e se a r ch S i t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 P r a ct i t i o n e r P r o f i l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 S a m p l e S e l e ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 R e se a r ch E n vi r o n m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 D a t a S o u r ce s a n d C o l l e ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 R e se a r ch e r a n d P r a ct i t i o n e r I n t e r vi e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 D e b r i e f i n g N o t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9

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6 C o n t e n t B a se d P r e a n d P o st T e st s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 R e se a r ch e r a n d P a r t i ci p a n t I n t e r vi e w s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 R e se a r ch e r R e f l e ct i o n s o n S cr a t c h M u l t i m e d i a A r t i f a ct s . . . . . . . . 6 0 D a t a A n a l ysi s P r o ce d u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1 T e xt u a l D a t a A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1 C r o ss C a se A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 P r e a n d P o st T e st A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 S cr a t ch A r t i f a ct A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 T r u st w o r t h i n e ss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 V a l i d i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 R e l i a b i l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7 G e n e r a l i za b i l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8 L i m i t a t i o n s o f T h i s S t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8 E V A L U A T I O N A N D T E S T I N G O F A S O L U T I O N I N P R A C T I C E . . . . . . . . 7 0 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0 S u m m a r y o f P a r t i ci p a n t D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0 I m p a ct o n L e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 C a se S t u d y # 1 : D o m i n i c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch . . . . . . . . . 7 2 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o h i s l e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 I m p a ct o n D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 C a se S t u d y # 2 : Je n n i f e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch . . . . . . . . . 8 5 Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e ct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 I m p a ct o n Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 C r o ss C a se A n a l ysi s: D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 S u m m a r y o f C a se S t u d y F i n d i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7 D O C U M E N T A T I O N A N D R E F L E C T I O N T O P R O D U C E D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S . 1 0 0 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0 D e si g n P r i n ci p l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0 U se M u l t i p l e A p p r o a ch e s t o L e a r n S cr a t c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 1 S ca f f o l d t h e D e si g n E xp e r i e n ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 3 E xp l i ci t l y a n d R e p e a t e d l y S t a t e L e a r n i n g G o a l s . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 5 A sse ss A r t i f a ct s R e g u l a r l y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6 S u m m a r y o f D e si g n P r i n ci p l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 7 C O N C L U S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 S u m m a r y o f F i n d i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 S i t u a t i n g T h i s S t u d y w i t h i n E xi st i n g L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 I m p l i ca t i o n s f o r P r a ct i ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 L C M A l l o w s M u l t i p l e L e a r n i n g P a t h s f o r S t u d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9

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7 L C M E n co u r a g e s S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 L C M P r o m o t e s C o l l a b o r a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 L C M C r e a t e s a n A l t e r n a t i ve M e t h o d o f A sse s sm e n t . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5 L C M C h a n g e s t h e R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r f r o m G i ve r o f K n o w l e d g e t o C o a c h 1 1 7 S u m m a r y o f I m p l i ca t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 S u g g e st i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e se a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 A P P E N D I X I N T E R V I E W T R A N S C R I P T B E T W E E N P R A C T I T I O N E R A N D R E S E A R C H E R . . 1 2 0 D E B R I E F I N G N O T E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T A N A L Y S I S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 3 C U R R I C U L U M B A S E D P R E A N D P O S T T E S T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 4 I N T E R V I E W G U I D E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 5 T R A N S C R I P T A N D A N A L Y S I S O F D O M I N I C S I N T E R V I E W . . . . . . . . . 1 4 6 D A T A C O L L E C T E D F R O M S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T S . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 0 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 1 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 9

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8 L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e p a g e 2 1 O ve r vi e w o f b e n e f i t s o f l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g h y p e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a . . . . . 3 0 2 2 S u m m a r y o f o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a . . . 4 1 3 1 O ve r vi e w o f t h e ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f t h i s ca s e st u d y . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 3 1 C o n t e n t r a t i o n a l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 3 2 O ve r vi e w o f d a i l y a ct i vi t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 3 3 S o u r ce o f D a t a T a b l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 3 4 D a t a a n a l ysi s st e p s f o r t e xt u a l d a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 4 1 S u m m a r y o f p a r t i ci p a n t d a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0 4 2 O ve r vi e w o f D o m i n i c s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 4 3 O ve r vi e w o f Je n n i f e r s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e su l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 4 4 O ve r vi e w o f a n a l ysi s o f S cr a t c h p r o j e ct s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5 4 5 O ve r vi e w o f p r e a n d p o s t t e st r e su l t s f o r se l e ct e d ca se s . . . . . . . . 9 6

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9 L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i g u r e p a g e 1 1 T h e D e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch p r o ce ss ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) . . . . . . . 1 7 2 1 T h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s st u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 2 2 T h e S cr a t ch i n t e r f a ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 2 3 A scr i p t cr e a t e d i n S cr a t c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 3 1 T h e f r o n t a n d b a ck o f t h e S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t ch ca r d . . . . . . . . . 5 7 4 1 T h e S cr a t ch s p a l e t t e o f m o t i o n co m m a n d b l o cks . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4 4 2 A scr e e n sh o t o f D o m i n i c s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 4 3 D o m i n i c s h a n d d r a w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s . . . . . . . . 8 0 4 4 A scr e e n sh o t o f Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6 4 5 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a ve r t e x i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct . . . . . . . . . 9 0 4 6 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a p r i sm s ve r t e xe s i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct . . . . . 9 0 4 7 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct . . . 9 1

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1 0 L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S D B R D e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch I L E I n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t L C M L e a r n e r co n s t r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a R t I R e sp o n se t o I n t e r ve n t i o n

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1 1 A b st r a ct o f D i sse r t a t i o n P r e se n t e d t o t h e G r a d u a t e S ch o o l o f t h e U n i ve r si t y o f F l o r i d a i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f D o ct o r o f P h i l o so p h y U S I N G S C R A T C H F O R L E A R N E R C O N S T R U C T E D M U L T I M E D I A : A D E S I G N B A S E D R E S E A R C H I N Q U I R Y O F C O N S T R U C T I O N I S M I N P R A C T I C E B y Je f f r e y T h o m a s B o ye r A u g u st 2 0 1 0 C h a i r : K a r a D a w so n M a j o r : C u r r i cu l u m a n d I n st r u ct i o n T h i s d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch st u d y i n ve st i g a t e s t h e i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g w h e n yo u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f m a t h co n t e n t D u r i n g t h i s st u d y, 5 t h g r a d e r s u se d S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m d e si g n e d f o r yo u n g p e o p l e t o c r e a t e m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n st r a t e t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. T h i s p r o c e ss r e q u i r e s t h a t y o u n g l e a r n e r s e n g a g e i n co n t e n t a n d t h i n k a b o u t h o w t h e y c a n r e p r e se n t sp e ci f i c co n t e n t i n a S cr a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct r a t h e r t h a n si m p l y m e m o r i zi n g t h e co n t e n t f o r a t e st T h e r e su l t s o f t h i s st u d y i n d i ca t e t h a t h a vi n g 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch yi e l d s a m i xe d i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g d e p e n d i n g o n l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s o f t h e i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r T h o u g h i n cr e a se s i n c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g w e r e n o t i d e n t i f i e d b a se d o n a t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m o f a sse ssm e n t i n t h e t w o c a se st u d i e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s m a n u scr i p t i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t t h i s a p p r o a ch m a y se r ve a s a n a l t e r n a t i ve f o r m o f f o r m a t i ve o r su m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t

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1 2 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m I n cr e a si n g m a t h a ch i e ve m e n t h a s r e m a i n e d a l o n g t e r m co n c e r n o f t h e A m e r i ca n e d u ca t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y ( F o r g i o n e 1 9 9 8 ; S ch o e n f e l d 2 0 0 4 ) R e ce n t l y, i n i t i a t i v e s f o cu si n g o n i m p r o vi n g sci e n ce t e ch n o l o g y, e n g i n e e r i n g a n d m a t h e m a t i cs ( S T E M ) e d u ca t i o n h a ve e xp a n d e d t o e n su r e t h a t st u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n co m p e t e w i t h g l o b a l p e e r s ( F i t zp a t r i ck, 2 0 0 7 ) A co m p o n e n t o f t h i s r e n e w e d i n t e r e st i n S T E M e d u ca t i o n i s a n a t t e m p t t o i n cr e a s e m a t h a ch i e ve m e n t f o r t h e K 1 2 st u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n E n su r i n g t h a t st u d e n t s h a ve a d e e p co n ce p t u a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f st a n d a r d s b a se d m a t h co n t e n t i s a g o a l o f t h e A m e r i ca n e d u ca t i o n a l syst e m ( N C T M 2 0 0 6 ) F i n d i n g w a ys t o e n g a g e a n d m o t i va t e yo u t h p a r t i cu l a r l y a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk y o u t h i n e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h m a t h co n t e n t i s c r i t i ca l f o r e n su r i n g d e e p co n t e n t l e a r n i n g ( S i n g h G r a n vi l l e & D i ka 2 0 0 2 ) O n e m e t h o d f o r e xt e n d i n g e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t p l a ce s l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e o f a m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r ; t h a t i s, l e a r n e r s c r e a t e m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f c o n t e n t T h i s p r a ct i ce f o r m s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e co n ce p t o f l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a ( L C M ) D e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a a b o u t co n t e n t r e q u i r e s e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t a n d co n t e m p o r a r y m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n t o o l s a r e i n t r i n si ca l l y m o t i va t i n g a n d e n g a g i n g f o r y o u n g l e a r n e r s. P r e vi o u sl y, t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a ch e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h a t a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i s o n e o f t h r e e c u r r i cu l u m f o ca l p o i n t s f o r 5 t h g r a d e r s. T h e r e f o r e t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s.

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1 3 I n t h i s st u d y, t h i s r e s e a r ch e r d e si g n s, i m p l e m e n t s a n d e va l u a t e s a n i n n o v a t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t ( I L E ) i n co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a sch o o l b a se d p r a ct i t i o n e r t h a t i n t e g r a t e s L C M a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y. T h u s, t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t si m u l t a n e o u sl y f e a t u r e s y o u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s u si n g co m p u t e r s a s d e si g n t o o l s, yo u n g l e a r n e r s l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g a vi su a l p r o g r a m m i n g t o o l S cr a t ch t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a n d yo u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f m a t h co n t e n t ( i e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s) T h i s st u d y u s e s d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch ( D B R ) a s i t s g u i d i n g f r a m e w o r k. T h e g o a l s o f a n e d u c a t i o n a l r e se a r ch e r a d o p t i n g D B R m e t h o d s a r e t o e n g i n e e r i n n o v a t i ve e d u ca t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t s a n d si m u l t a n e o u sl y c o n d u ct e xp e r i m e n t a l st u d i e s o f t h o se i n n o va t i o n s ( B r o w n 1 9 9 2 p 1 4 1 ) T h u s, t h i s st u d y a t t e m p t s t o d e si g n i m p l e m e n t a n d d o cu m e n t a n I L E t h a t i n t e g r a t e s L C M a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y a n d f e a t u r e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s i d e n t i f i e d a b o ve T h i s r e se a r ch e r a l so a n a l yze s a n d e va l u a t e s t h i s I L E a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y f o r i n cr e a si n g co n t e n t l e a r n i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s D e s i g n B a s e d R e s e a r c h D B R b e g i n s w i t h a co m p l e x, r e a l w o r l d p r o b l e m ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h e n t h r o u g h a n i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss, r e se a r ch e r s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h p r a ct i t i o n e r s d e si g n a n d st u d y a so l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m A ke y f e a t u r e o f D B R i s i t s co l l a b o r a t i v e n a t u r e A r e se a r ch e r d o e s n o t p r o vi d e a r e s e a r ch p r o t o co l t o a p r a ct i t i o n e r t h a t s h o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h i n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s c o n t e xt R a t h e r r e se a r ch e r s a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r s co l l a b o r a t e t o i d e n t i f y a n e d u ca t i o n a l l y r e l e va n t p r o b l e m t h e n w o r k co o p e r a t i ve l y t o d e si g n i m p l e m e n t a n d e va l u a t e a s o l u t i o n t o t h a t p r o b l e m i n a n e d u c a t i o n a l co n t e xt T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s a so l u t i o n co l l a b o r a t i ve l y d e si g n e d b y a p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d

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1 4 r e se a r ch e r t o a d d r e ss t h e r e a l w o r l d p r o b l e m o f i n cr e a si n g m a t h a ch i e ve m e n t f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s. D B R s f o u n d a t i o n i n e d u ca t i o n b e g a n w i t h t h e co n c e p t o f d e si g n e xp e r i m e n t s f i r st a r t i cu l a t e d b y B r o w n ( 1 9 9 2 ) a n d C o l l i n s ( 1 9 9 2 ) T h e se d e si g n e xp e r i m e n t s i n e d u ca t i o n w e r e m o d e l e d a f t e r t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss e s e vi d e n t w i t h i n o t h e r d e si g n f i e l d s su c h a s a e r o n a u t i cs a n d a r t i f i ci a l i n t e l l i g e n ce ( C o l l i n s, 1 9 9 2 ) S e ve r a l a u t h o r s h a v e a r t i cu l a t e d a c a l l f o r D B R i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u ca t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y t o cr e a t e t e ch n o l o g y b a se d i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s ( R e e ve s, H e r r i n g t o n & O l i ve r 2 0 0 4 ; W a n g & H a n n a f i n 2 0 0 5 ; M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h i s ca l l st e m s f r o m a l a ck o f u sa b l e kn o w l e d g e t o g u i d e i n s t r u ct i o n p a r t i cu l a r l y t e ch n o l o g y s r o l e i n i m p r o vi n g i n s t r u ct i o n ( R e e ve s, 1 9 9 5 ; R i ch e y, 1 9 9 8 ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f D e s i g n B a s e d R e s e a r c h T h e D e si g n b a se d R e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve ( 2 0 0 3 ) p r o p o se d 5 c h a r a ct e r i st i cs o f a p p r o p r i a t e d e si g n b a se d r e se a r c h W h e n u s i n g D B R a s a r e se a r ch f r a m e w o r k, t h i s t yp e o f st u d y: sh o u l d p r o m o t e t h e d e si g n o f i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s a n d t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s; sh o u l d b e a n i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss co n si st i n g o f 4 st a g e s: d e si g n e n a c t m e n t a n a l ysi s, r e d e si g n ; sh o u l d p r o d u ce e d u ca t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t kn o w l e d g e f o r cl a ssr o o m a p p l i ca t i o n s; sh o u l d p r o vi d e r i ch d e scr i p t i o n s o f co n t e n t a n d i n t e r a ct i o n s; a n d sh o u l d u se a p p r o p r i a t e r e se a r ch m e t h o d s r e l a t e d t o q u e st i o n F o r e a ch o f t h e ch a r a ct e r i st i cs, t h i s r e s e a r ch e r p r o vi d e s a b r i e f su m m a r y f o l l o w e d b y a n e xp l a n a t i o n o f h o w e a ch ch a r a ct e r i s t i c i s a d d r e sse d i n t h i s st u d y. F i r st D B R sh o u l d a ct i ve l y a n d si m u l t a n e o u sl y p r o m o t e t h e d e si g n o f i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s a n d t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s. I n t h i s st u d y, t h e

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1 5 r e se a r ch e r d o cu m e n t s t h e d e si g n o f a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t p l a ce s yo u n g l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d p r o d u ce r s r a t h e r t h a n a s sp e ct a t o r s a n d co n su m e r s ( Je n ki n s 2 0 0 6 ) S p e ci f i ca l l y, a c a d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e r s a ct i ve l y p a r t i ci p a t e i n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss t o p r o d u ce m u l t i m e d i a t h a t i s u se d t o e xp r e ss w h a t t h e y kn o w a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s a n d co u l d b e u se d t o t e a ch o t h e r s a b o u t t h e co n t e n t I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e se a r c h e r p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t o r e i n f o r ce a co n s t r u ct i o n i st a p p r o a ch t o p e d a g o g y t h a t e m p h a si ze s t h a t co n ce p t u a l l e a r n i n g i n co n t r a st t o r o t e l e a r n i n g o ccu r s w h e n l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct p e r so n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l a r t i f a ct s t h a t a r e sh a r e a b l e w i t h i n a co m m u n i t y o f l e a r n e r s ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 3 ) S e co n d D B R sh o u l d b e a n i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s: d e si g n e n a ct m e n t a n a l ysi s a n d r e d e si g n T h e s e f o u r st a g e s a r t i cu l a t e d b y t h e D e si g n b a se d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve ( 2 0 0 3 ) r e p r e s e n t a si m i l a r p r o ce ss t o t h e st e p s p o r t r a ye d i n F i g u r e 1 1 R e e v e s ( 2 0 0 0 ) a r t i cu l a t e d t h e st e p s i d e n t i f i e d a cr o ss t h e t o p r o w o f b o xe s. L a t e r M a & H a r m o n ( 2 0 0 9 ) e x p a n d e d o n t h e se st e p s a n d i n cl u d e d a d d i t i o n a l su b st e p s f o r e a ch T h e D e si g n b a se d R e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve s d e si g n st a g e co r r e sp o n d s t o R e e v e s a n d M a & H a r m o n s st e p s 1 a n d 2 : a n a l ysi s o f a p r a ct i ca l p r o b l e m b y r e se a r c h e r s a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r s a n d d e ve l o p m e n t o f a so l u t i o n w i t h a t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k. T h e e n a ct m e n t a n d a n a l ysi s st a g e s co m b i n e t o r e p r e se n t st e p 3 : e va l u a t i o n a n d t e st i n g o f so l u t i o n s i n p r a ct i ce F i n a l l y, t h e r e d e si g n st a g e co r r e sp o n d s t o st e p 4 : d o c u m e n t a t i o n a n d r e f l e c t i o n t o p r o d u ce d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s D u r i n g t h e d e si g n st a g e t h e r e s e a r ch e r i n co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e p a r t i ci p a t i n g t e a ch e r d e si g n s t h e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t e n su r i n g t h a t cr i t i c a l e l e m e n t s a r e i n cl u d e d i n t h e d e si g n T h e e n a ct m e n t st a g e r e p r e se n t s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e si g n w i t h t h e p a r t i ci p a t i n g t e a ch e r s st u d e n t s.

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1 6 D a t a su ch a s o u t co m e m e a s u r e s, o b se r v a t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s a n d i n t e r vi e w s a r e co l l e ct e d d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e t h e n u t i l i ze d i n t h e a n a l ysi s s t a g e T h e a n a l ysi s st a g e i n cl u d e s a n a l yzi n g a n d e va l u a t i n g t h e I L E a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y D u r i n g t h e r e d e si g n st a g e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e a n a l ysi s st a g e p r o vi d e i n si g h t i n t o t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h e d e si g n A l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s a p p r o a ch i s t h e a m o u n t o f t i m e sp e n t d o cu m e n t i n g t h i s i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss. B e ca u se o f t i m e l i m i t a t i o n s a sso ci a t e d w i t h t h e sc h o o l si t e s ca l e n d a r o n l y a si n g l e i t e r a t i o n o f t h i s p r o ce ss w a s co m p l e t e d ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) H o w e ve r t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e r e d e si g n st a g e a r e w e l l d o cu m e n t e d a n d f u t u r e r e se a r ch o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l co n t i n u e t h i s p r o ce ss.

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1 7 F i g u r e 1 1 T h e d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch p r o ce ss ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h i r d D B R sh o u l d p r o d u ce u sa b l e kn o w l e d g e ( L a g e m a n n 2 0 0 2 ) t h a t p r o vi d e s r e l e va n t i m p a ct f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a ct i t i o n e r s. S i n ce t h i s st u d y t a ke s p l a ce i n a cl a ssr o o m co n t e xt a n d n o t i n a n a r t i f i ci a l l a b o r a t o r y se t t i n g t h e o u t co m e s d o cu m e n t e d r e p r e se n t a u t h e n t i c r e su l t s t h a t a r e r e a d i l y u s a b l e f o r t r a n sf e r t o si m i l a r co n t e xt s. I n a d d i t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e r e d e si g n st a g e t h i s st u d y se e ks t o i d e n t i f y d e si g n e l e m e n t s e sse n t i a l f o r t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R p r o c e ss. T h i s kn o w l e d g e o f e sse n t i a l d e si g n

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1 8 e l e m e n t s p r o vi d e s a n i m m e d i a t e i m p a ct f o r t h e d e si g n o f f u t u r e r e s e a r ch w h e t h e r co n d u ct e d b y t h i s r e se a r c h e r o r b y o t h e r s. F o u r t h D B R sh o u l d p r o vi d e r i ch d e sc r i p t i o n s o f t h e co n t e xt a n d t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s t h a t o ccu r w i t h i n t h e co n t e xt R i ch d e scr i p t i o n s o f t h e co n t e xt a r e n e c e ssa r y t o e n su r e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d a p p l i ca b i l i t y f o r o t h e r co n t e xt s. D a i l y d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s b e t w e e n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r a n d d a i l y r e se a r ch e r r e f l e c t i o n s w h i l e a n a l yzi n g m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s p r o vi d e t h e r i ch d e scr i p t i o n s. D u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y, t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r co l l a b o r a t i ve l y d e b r i e f e d a f t e r e a ch cl a ss m e e t i n g t o d i scu ss a n d a sse ss e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss o n t h e d e si g n t a sk, t o d e t e r m i n e h o w e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r co u l d a ssi st p a r t i ci p a n t s d u r i n g t h e n e xt cl a ss m e e t i n g a n d t o a sse ss t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e se a r ch p r o j e ct T h e se d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s p r o vi d e d a d a t a so u r ce f o r a n a l ysi s ( s e e A p p e n d i x B f o r a n e xa m p l e ) T h e r e se a r ch e r a l so i n d e p e n d e n t l y d o cu m e n t e d h i s d a i l y r e f l e ct i o n o f p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss w h i l e e xa m i n i n g e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x C f o r a n e xa m p l e ) T h e s e r e f l e ct i o n s a l s o p r o vi d e a d a t a so u r ce f o r a n a l ysi s. C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se d a t a so u r ce s p r o vi d e r i c h d e scr i p t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y s co n t e x t a n d o f t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s t h a t o cc u r r e d F i f t h D B R sh o u l d u t i l i ze a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s. A r e se a r ch e r s e l e ct s a r e se a r ch m e t h o d b a s e d o n h o w w e l l a p a r t i cu l a r m e t h o d a d d r e sse s a st u d y s r e se a r ch q u e st i o n ( s ) T h e r e se a r ch m e t h o d i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e s t h e so u r ce s o f d a t a T h i s st u d y e xp l o r e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i ve i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d i n t e r a ct i v e m u l t i m e d i a a t i n c r e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s ?

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1 9 B a se d o n t h e s e q u e st i o n s, t h i s st u d y w a s a cc o m p l i sh e d t h r o u g h ca se st u d y m e t h o d s ( a q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r ch a p p r o a ch ) a n d t h e d a t a f o r t h i s D B R st u d y i n cl u d e d o b s e r va t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s, p a r t i ci p a n t co n s t r u ct e d a r t i f a ct s, i n t e r vi e w t r a n scr i p t s a n d o u t c o m e m e a su r e s o f co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e E i g h t ( 8 ) a c a d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s p a r t i ci p a t e d i n t h i s st u d y. E a ch p a r t i ci p a n t co m p l e t e d o u t co m e m e a s u r e s o f m a t h co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n t h e f o r m o f p r e a n d p o st t e st s t o d e t e r m i n e l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n m a t h co n t e n t E a ch p a r t i ci p a n t d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t w a s a n a l yze d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r f o r e vi d e n ce o f m a t h co n t e n t T w o p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h m a xi m u m va r i a t i o n s a m p l i n g t o se r ve a s ca s e s f o r i n d e p t h ca se s t u d i e s. T h e r e se a r c h e r co n d u ct e d i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e se p a r t i ci p a n t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p e r ce p t i o n o f l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h i l e d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h a t e xp r e sse d t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e r e se a r ch e r a l so co n d u ct e d i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r t o d o cu m e n t t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h i s I L E A n o t h e r so u r ce o f d a t a t h a t co n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s a r e t h e r e f l e ct i ve f i e l d n o t e s r e co r d e d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r C o n d u c t i n g D e s i g n B a s e d R e s e a r c h T h e f i ve ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f D B R d e sc r i b e d a b o ve h e l p g e n e r a t e a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e D B R p a r a d i g m b u t d o n o t n e c e ssa r i l y p r o vi d e a syst e m a t i c p r o ce ss f o r co n d u ct i n g D B R R e e v e s ( 2 0 0 0 ) a r t i cu l a t e d a f o u r st e p p r o ce ss f o r co n d u ct i n g D B R : a n a l ysi s o f p r a ct i ca l p r o b l e m s b y r e se a r ch e r s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s d e ve l o p m e n t o f so l u t i o n s w i t h a t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k e va l u a t i o n a n d t e st i n g o f so l u t i o n s i n p r a ct i ce d o cu m e n t a t i o n a n d r e f l e ct i o n t o p r o d u ce d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s R e e ve s f o u r st e p p r o ce ss i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve s f o u r st a g e p r o ce ss f o r a n i t e r a t i o n o f D B R d e s cr i b e d a b o ve ( d e si g n e n a ct m e n t

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2 0 a n a l ysi s a n d r e d e si g n ) R e e v e s st e p s o f a n a l yzi n g a p r a c t i ca l p r o b l e m a n d d e ve l o p i n g a so l u t i o n a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve s d e si g n st a g e I n a d d i t i o n t h e D e si g n B a s e d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve s st a g e s o f e n a ct m e n t a n d a n a l ysi s a r e co m b i n e d w i t h i n R e e ve s e va l u a t i o n a n d t e st i n g st e p B u i l d i n g o n R e e ve s p r o ce ss, M a a n d H a r m o n ( 2 0 0 9 ) r e f i n e d a p r o ce d u r e f o r co n d u ct i n g a n i t e r a t i o n o f a D B R i n q u i r y t h a t i n cl u d e s a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s o n t h i s r e se a r ch p r o ce ss ( s e e F i g u r e 1 1 ) T h i s r e se a r ch e r se l e ct e d M a & H a r m o n s p r o ce ss b e ca u se i t p r o vi d e s a s t r u ct u r e d p r o ce ss t o co n d u ct a si n g l e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R cycl e A s a n e m e r g i n g sch o l a r i t i s h e l p f u l t o h a v e a r e se a r ch f r a m e w o r k t h a t p r o vi d e s su p p o r t f o r e n g a g i n g i n r e se a r ch T h i s p r o ce d u r e p r o vi d e s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r co n d u ct i n g t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y o n t h e i m p a ct o f l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a o n l e a r n i n g f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s I n a d d i t i o n t h i s p r o ce d u r e p r o vi d e s t h e st r u ct u r e f o r t h i s m a n u scr i p t T h e f o u r st e p s f i r st a r t i cu l a t e d b y R e e ve s ( 2 0 0 0 ) a n d a d o p t e d b y M a a n d H a r m o n ( 2 0 0 9 ) a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h i s m a n u s cr i p t R e s e a r c h P u r p o s e I n t h e t e a ch i n g a n d l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t w h o e ve r d o e s t h e m o st w o r k d o e s t h e m o st l e a r n i n g T h a t i s, w h o e ve r e n g a g e s a n d i n t e r a ct s m o r e w i t h t h e co n t e n t w i l l l e a r n m o r e q u a n t i t a t i ve l y a n d q u a l i t a t i ve l y. T h e sa g e o n t h e st a g e c a n sp e n d n u m e r o u s h o u r s r e se a r c h i n g a n d p r e p a r i n g f o r a cl a ss l e ct u r e T h i s i n d i vi d u a l e n g a g e s a n d i n t e r a ct s w i t h t h e co n t e n t a n d d e ve l o p s a so p h i st i ca t e d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n t e n t H o w e ve r t h e l e a r n e r s, t h e a u d i e n ce o f t h e l e c t u r e d o n o t i n ve s t n e a r l y a s m u c h co g n i t i ve ski l l t o e n g a g e a n d i n t e r a ct w i t h t h e l e ct u r e co n t e n t a n d t h e r e f o r e d e ve l o p o n l y a su p e r f i ci a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n t e n t T h e r e f o r e i f a n e d u ca t o r cr e a t e s

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2 1 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o e n g a g e a n d i n t e r a ct w i t h co n t e n t i n r i ch a n d co m p l e x w a ys, l e a r n e r s a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o d e v e l o p a m o r e s o p h i st i ca t e d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f su ch co n t e n t O n e su ch m e t h o d f o r c r e a t i n g su ch o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s b y l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d e si g n M o r e sp e ci f i ca l l y, l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d e si g n r e f e r s t o t h e p r o ce ss o f l e a r n i n g co n t e n t d u r i n g a d e si g n t a sk t h a t p r o m o t e s e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t T h u s, st u d e n t s d e si g n a n d cr e a t e a r t i f a ct s t h a t d e m o n st r a t e kn o w l e d g e o f t h e co n t e n t t o b e l e a r n e d A r t i f a c t s ca n e xi st i n m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f m e d i a o r m u l t i m e d i a : r e a c t i o n p a p e r s, b l o g p o st s vi d e o s, p o d ca st s, e t c A cco r d i n g t o S e n n e t t ( 2 0 0 8 ) m a ki n g i s t h i n ki n g ( p i x) T h e a ct o f d e si g n i n g a n d cr e a t i n g a n a r t i f a c t t h a t r e p r e se n t s w h a t a l e a r n e r s kn o w s a n d ca n d o r e l a t e d t o so m e co n t e n t m a y p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce o f u n d e r st a n d i n g a n d t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h a t co n t e n t I n f a ct t h i s m a y r e p r e se n t m o r e t h a n j u st su p e r f i ci a l t h i n ki n g R a t h e r i t m a y r e f l e ct a d e e p e r l e ve l o f t h i n ki n g t h a t g o e s b e y o n d m e m o r i za t i o n o r r e ca l l a n d r e a c h e s i n t o t h e r e a l m o f h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g a sso ci a t e d w i t h B l o o m s t a x o n o m y o f co g n i t i ve ski l l s su ch a s e va l u a t i n g a n d c r e a t i n g ( B l o o m & K r a t h w o h l 1 9 5 6 ; A n d e r so n & K r a t h w o h l 2 0 0 1 ) T o d a y s yo u t h h a ve u n p r e ce d e n t e d a cce ss t o p o w e r f u l m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l s. D e e p r i ch co n ce p t u a l l e a r n i n g ca n o ccu r w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f c o n t e n t kn o w l e d g e T h i s vi e w i s co n si st e n t w i t h co n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y, a p e d a g o g i ca l t h e o r y t h a t e m p h a si ze s t h e co n st r u ct i o n o f p e r so n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l a r t i f a ct s u si n g t e ch n o l o g y t h a t ca n b e sh a r e d w i t h o t h e r s ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 3 ) F o r e xa m p l e K a f a i ( 1 9 9 5 ) w o r ke d w i t h 1 0 ye a r o l d yo u t h t o d e si g n g a m e s i n L o g o t h a t w o u l d t e a ch kn o w l e d g e o f f r a ct i o n s t o yo u n g e r st u d e n t s. S h e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e se yo u t h d e ve l o p e d t h e i r o w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f f r a ct i o n s w h i l e l e a r n i n g

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2 2 p r o g r a m m i n g co n ce p t s a n d st r a t e g i e s. T h i s w o r k e p i t o m i ze s t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p a ct t h a t m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l s ca n h a ve o n y o u n g l e a r n e r s R e se a r ch i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n e r m o t i va t i o n a n d c o g n i t i ve e n g a g e m e n t w i l l p r o m o t e a ch i e ve m e n t ( T u r n e r & P a r i s, 1 9 9 5 ; G u t h r i e & W i g f i e l d 1 9 9 7 ; G u t h r i e & W i g f i e l d 2 0 0 0 ; G u t h r i e 2 0 0 1 ; R o e 2 0 0 1 ; K a m i l 2 0 0 3 ) T o d a y s yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s m a y n o t r e s p o n d t o t r a d i t i o n a l i n st r u ct i o n a l a p p r o a ch e s. T h e r e f o r e w e m u st co n si d e r i n n o v a t i ve a p p r o a ch e s t o m o t i v a t i n g a n d e n g a g i n g t h e se yo u n g l e a r n e r s. O n e su ch a p p r o a c h p l a ce s y o u n g l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f d e si g n e r s o f m u l t i m e d i a H a vi n g l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a i s o n e st r a t e g y t h a t f a ci l i t a t e s t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f t h i n ki n g ski l l s ( S p o e h r 1 9 9 3 ; L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l 1 9 9 4 ; H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e & S o l o w a y, 1 9 9 4 ) Y e t i t m a y b e a n u n d e r u t i l i ze d st r a t e g y i n m o st sch o o l s. O n l y 4 3 % o f t e a ch e r s w h o r e g u l a r l y u se m e d i a i n t h e i r cl a ss r o o m s h i g h l y va l u e s t u d e n t cr e a t e d m u l t i m e d i a ( P B S 2 0 0 9 ) T o o l s f o r co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a t yp i ca l l y i n cl u d e a st e e p l e a r n i n g c u r ve o r a h i g h co st w h i ch m a y i n d i ca t e ca u se s f o r t h e l a ck o f d i f f u si o n o f t h i s st r a t e g y Y e t S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y d e si g n t o o l w i t h a sh a l l o w l e a r n i n g cu r ve a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r f r e e m a y p r o vi d e g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i f f u si o n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o cl a ssr o o m co n t e xt s. T h e r e f o r e t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s d e si g n a n d co n s t r u ct m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch t o e xp r e ss w h a t t h e y kn o w a b o u t m a t h c o n t e n t p a r t i cu l a r l y co n t e n t a d d r e ssi n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. D e s i g n o f T h i s M a n u s c r i p t T h e r e m a i n i n g ch a p t e r s o f t h i s m a n u scr i p t p r o vi d e a d e t a i l e d a cco u n t o f t h e d e si g n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n a l ysi s a n d f i n d i n g s f o r t h i s st u d y. C h a p t e r 2 a d d r e sse s t h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k a n d si t u a t e s t h i s st u d y w i t h i n t h e e xi st i n g l i t e r a t u r e C h a p t e r 3

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2 3 d o cu m e n t s t h e r e se a r c h m e t h o d s u s e d t o co n d u ct t h i s st u d y w i t h i n a K 1 2 se t t i n g C h a p t e r 4 p r o vi d e s a n o v e r vi e w o f t h e e va l u a t i o n a n d t e s t i n g o f a l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r co n s t r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a t h r o u g h t h e p e r sp e c t i ve s o f t w o i n d i vi d u a l ca se st u d i e s. C h a p t e r 5 p r o vi d e s d o cu m e n t a t i o n a n d r e f l e ct i o n o n t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s n e ce ssa r y t o i m p l e m e n t l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a s i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r C h a p t e r 6 su m m a r i z e s t h i s st u d y s f i n d i n g s, si t u a t e s t h i s st u d y s f i n d i n g s i n t h e e xi st i n g l i t e r a t u r e a n d sh a r e s i m p l i ca t i o n s f o r l e a r n e r s, t e a ch e r s, sch o o l s a n d t h e r e s e a r ch co m m u n i t y.

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2 4 C H A P T E R 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s ch a p t e r p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k a n d b a ckg r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n n e ce ss a r y f o r u n d e r st a n d i n g t h i s s t u d y s co n t e xt T h i s ch a p t e r a l so si t u a t e s t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y i n t h e e xi st i n g e d u ca t i o n r e se a r ch l i t e r a t u r e I n a d d i t i o n t h i s ch a p t e r s co n t e n t a d d r e sse s S t e p 1 2 o f t h e D B R f r a m e w o r k: r e vi e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k I n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a i s a co n t e m p o r a r y st r a t e g y f o r e n g a g i n g st u d e n t s i n co n t e n t A cco r d i n g t o a r e c e n t su r ve y o f 1 2 0 0 K 1 2 t e a ch e r s, 7 6 % u s e d i g i t a l m e d i a f r e q u e n t l y o r r e g u l a r l y i n t h e i r cl a ssr o o m s, a n d 4 3 % o f t h e se m e d i a u si n g t e a ch e r s h i g h l y va l u e st u d e n t p r o d u ce d m u l t i m e d i a ( P B S 2 0 0 9 ) C o n t r a r y t o o t h e r a p p r o a ch e s t h a t i n t e g r a t e m u l t i m e d i a i n t o cl a ss r o o m p r a ct i ce l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a ( L C M ) p l a ce s l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d p r o d u ce r s r a t h e r t h a n sp e ct a t o r s a n d co n su m e r s ( Je n ki n s 2 0 0 6 ) I n t e g r a t i n g L C M i s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y f o r p r o m o t i n g co n t e n t l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e d e si g n o f a d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct t h a t e xp r e sse s w h a t a st u d e n t kn o w s. S p e ci f i ca l l y, l e a r n e r s p a r t i ci p a t e i n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss t o p r o d u ce a d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n c o n su m i n g co n t e n t t h r o u g h i n st r u ct i o n a l m u l t i m e d i a L C M ca n b e u n d e r st o o d t h r o u g h se ve r a l p e r s p e ct i ve s: t h e o r e t i ca l p e d a g o g i ca l a n d h i st o r i c a l ( se e F i g u r e 2 1 ) F r o m a t h e o r e t i ca l p e r sp e ct i v e L C M i s g r o u n d e d i n co n st r u ct i vi st t h e o r i e s o f kn o w i n g T h e u se o f t h e w o r d t h e o r i e s i s i n t e n t i o n a l t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t t h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f c o n st r u ct i vi sm ( e g r a d i c a l

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2 5 co n st r u ct i vi sm ) e vi d e n t w i t h i n t h e e d u ca t i o n l i t e r a t u r e ( P h i l l i p s, 1 9 9 5 ) T h i s st u d y i s co n ce r n e d w i t h h o w a n i n d i vi d u a l c o n st r u c t s k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h e xp e r i e n ce s, su c h a s t h e e xp e r i e n ce o f d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e T h e r e f o r e p sych o l o g i ca l co n st r u ct i vi sm i n co n t r a st t o s o ci a l co n st r u ct i vi sm f o r m s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s st u d y b e ca u se t h e u n i t o f i n t e r e st f o r t h i s f o r m o f co n st r u ct i vi sm i s t h e i n d i vi d u a l ( R i ch a r d so n 2 0 0 3 ) P i a g e t s p e r sp e ct i ve h a s h a d co n si d e r a b l e i n f l u e n ce o n co n t e m p o r a r y v i e w s o f p sych o l o g i ca l c o n st r u ct i vi sm ( M a t t h e w s 2 0 0 3 ) P i a g e t e xp r e ss e d t h a t kn o w l e d g e d o e s n o t r e su l t f r o m a m e r e r e co r d i n g o f o b se r va t i o n s w i t h o u t a st r u c t u r i n g a ct i vi t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e su b j e ct ( P i a g e t 1 9 8 0 p 2 3 ) T h u s, m a ki n g m e a n i n g f o r t h e l e a r n e r e n t a i l s d e ve l o p i n g sch e m a o r m e n t a l m o d e l s, t h a t r e p r e se n t u n d e r st a n d i n g s o f e xp e r i e n ce s. I n a n e d u ca t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t l e a r n e r s ca n co n s t r u ct r e p r e se n t a t i o n s a n d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t t h r o u g h a d i ve r s e r a n g e o f e xp e r i e n ce s i n cl u d i n g t e a ch e r d e l i ve r e d l e c t u r e s o r h a n d s o n e xp e r i m e n t s.

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2 6 F i g u r e 2 1 T h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s st u d y W i t h i n a p e d a g o g i ca l f r a m e w o r k, L C M h a s a f o u n d a t i o n i n co n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y, w h i ch i s a n a p p l i ca t i o n o f co n st r u ct i vi st l e a r n i n g t h e o r y. C o n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y e m p h a si ze s t h a t l e a r n e r s d e v e l o p a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f co n t e n t e sp e ci a l l y w e l l w h e n g i ve n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct a p e r s o n a l l y r e l e va n t a n d sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a ct ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 1 ) R e l a t e d l y, L C M a l so h a s a f o u n d a t i o n i n t h e co n c e p t o f l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d e si g n P e r ki n s kn o w l e d g e a s d e si g n p e d a g o g y e n co u r a g e s a n a ct i v e u se o f kn o w l e d g e t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f p r o d u ct s t o r e p r e s e n t st u d e n t u n d e r st a n d i n g ( 1 9 8 6 ) S t u d e n t cr e a t e d p r o d u ct s a b o u t su b j e ct m a t t e r d e m o n st r a t e st u d e n t s a b i l i t y t o a p p l y kn o w l e d g e a n d syn t h e si z e u n d e r st a n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e d e si g n o f a p r o d u ct r a t h e r t h a n

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2 7 si m p l y r e g u r g i t a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n a t e st P e r ki n s a r g u e d t h a t st u d e n t s w h o sp e n d m o st o f t h e i r t i m e co n su m i n g kn o w l e d g e h o w e ve r w e l l se r v e d u p i t m a y b e a r e n o t co n st r u ct i n g t h e i r o w n p r o d u ct s o f m i n d ( 1 9 8 6 p 9 6 ) T h a t i s, st u d e n t s m a y a cq u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n ( o r co n su m e i t ) b u t t h e y m a y n o t b e a b l e t o u se kn o w l e d g e f o r a p p l i ca t i o n p u r p o se s ( o r p r o d u ce i t i n a d e si g n p r o d u c t ) P e r ki n s cl e a r l y a r t i cu l a t e d t h a t d e si g n i n g a p r o d u ct t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f k n o w l e d g e p r o m o t e s d e e p e r u n d e r st a n d i n g t h a n co n su m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h e n r e g u r g i t a t i n g i t b a ck o n a t e st H i st o r i ca l l y, m u l t i m e d i a h a s b e e n u s e d a s a n i n st r u ct i o n a l t o o l w h e r e b y l e a r n e r s co n su m e m u l t i m e d i a t o l e a r n a b o u t co n t e n t I n st r u ct i o n a l d e si g n e r s o r t e a ch e r s cr e a t e t h e m u l t i m e d i a co n t e n t t h a t l e a r n e r s c o n su m e Jo n a sse n W i l so n W a n g & G r a b i n g e r ( 1 9 9 3 ) o b se r ve d t h a t d e si g n e r s o f i n st r u ct i o n a l m a t e r i a l s l e a r n t h e m o st f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s. T h u s, i t se e m s l i ke l y t h a t i n st r u ct i o n a l d e si g n e r s a n d t e a ch e r s l e a r n m o r e co n t e n t t h r o u g h d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h a n l e a r n e r s d o f r o m co n su m i n g i t P e o p l e w h o d e si g n m a t e r i a l s a r e n e ce ss a r i l y e n g a g e d i n a d e e p e r a n a l ysi s a n d a r t i cu l a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e ct i n o r d e r t o t e a ch i t w h i ch r e su l t s i n t h e i r b e t t e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e su b j e ct a s o p p o se d t o l e a r n e r s w h o o n l y r e a d o r i n t e r a ct w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s ( Jo n a sse n P e ck & W i l so n 1 9 9 9 p 1 5 3 ) T h i s n o t i o n f o r m s t h e j u s t i f i ca t i o n f o r cr e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e s e n t s w h a t l e a r n e r s kn o w a b o u t co n t e n t A F o u n d a t i o n i n C o n s t r u c t i v i s m a n d C o n s t r u c t i o n i s m A s d e scr i b e d a b o ve co n st r u ct i vi sm i s a l e a r n i n g t h e o r y t h a t p o si t s t h a t kn o w l e d g e i s co n st r u ct e d b y t h e l e a r n e r a n d n o t si m p l y t r a n sm i t t e d f r o m t e a ch e r t o l e a r n e r C o n st r u ct i vi sm i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s d i sco ve r y l e a r n i n g t o i n d i ca t e t h a t l e a r n i n g t a ke s p l a ce t h r o u g h d i sco v e r y a s o n e i n d i vi d u a l l e a d s a n o t h e r t o d i sco v e r co n c e p t s ( S t a g e r 2 0 0 2 ) I t i s o f t e n a sso ci a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f l e a r n i n g b y d o i n g w h i ch i m p l i e s t h a t t h e

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2 8 l e a r n e r i s a ct i ve a n d e n g a g e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss. C o n st r u ct i o n i sm a p e d a g o g i ca l p a r a d i g m f i r st a r t i cu l a t e d b y S e ym o u r P a p e r t e xt e n d s t h i s i d e a i n t o l e a r n i n g b y m a ki n g t o e m p h a si ze t h e i m p o r t a n ce o f g e n e r a t i n g a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a c t o ve r si m p l y e n g a g i n g i n a n a ct i vi t y. W e u n d e r st a n d c o n st r u c t i o n i sm a s i n cl u d i n g b u t g o i n g b e yo n d w h a t P i a g e t w o u l d ca l l co n st r u ct i vi sm T h e w o r d w i t h t h e v e xp r e sse s t h e t h e o r y t h a t kn o w l e d g e i s b u i l t b y t h e l e a r n e r n o t su p p l i e d b y t h e t e a ch e r T h e w o r d w i t h t h e n e xp r e sse s t h e f u r t h e r i d e a t h a t t h i s h a p p e n s e sp e ci a l l y f e l i ci t o u sl y w h e n t h e l e a r n e r i s e n g a g e d i n t h e co n st r u ct i o n o f so m e t h i n g e xt e r n a l o r a t l e a st sh a r e a b l e a sa n d c a st l e a m a ch i n e a co m p u t e r p r o g r a m a b o o k. T h i s l e a d s u s t o a m o d e l u si n g a cycl e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i za t i o n o f w h a t i s o u t si d e t h e n e xt e r n a l i za t i o n o f w h a t i s i n si d e a n d so o n ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 0 p 3 ) C o n st r u ct i o n i s m sh a r e s w i t h t h e m o r e f a m i l i a r co n st r u ct i vi sm t h e b e l i e f t h a t l e a r n i n g i s t h e p r o c e ss o f b u i l d i n g kn o w l e d g e st r u ct u r e s t h r o u g h e xp e r i e n c e s. C o n s t r u ct i o n i st s e xt e n d t h i s t h e o r y a n d a r g u e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s p a r t i cu l a r l y r o b u st w h e n l e a r n e r s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o co n st r u ct a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a ct ( H a r e l & P a p e r t 1 9 9 1 ) C o n st r u ct i o n i sm co n t r a st s w i t h i n st r u ct i o n i sm a m o r e d o m i n a n t p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch i n e d u ca t i o n I l i ke t o f o r m u l a t e a m a j o r t h e o r e t i ca l i ssu e a s co n st r u c t i o n i sm vs. i n s t r u ct i o n i sm T h i s d o e s n o t su g g e st t h a t i n st r u c t i o n i s b a d o r u se l e ss. I n st r u ct i o n i s n o t b a d b u t o ve r r a t e d a s t h e l o cu s f o r si g n i f i ca n t ch a n g e i n e d u ca t i o n B e t t e r l e a r n i n g w i l l n o t co m e f r o m f i n d i n g w a ys f o r t h e t e a ch e r t o i n st r u ct b u t f r o m g i vi n g t h e l e a r n e r b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o co n st r u ct ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 0 e m p h a si s i n o r i g i n a l p 3 ) I n p r a ct i ce co n st r u ct i o n i st s p r o vi d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e s i g n a n d c o n st r u c t sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a c t s, a n d c o n st r u ct i o n i sm p l a ce s t h e l o cu s o f co n t r o l f o r l e a r n i n g w i t h t h e l e a r n e r I n co n t r a st i n st r u ct i o n i sm m a i n t a i n s t h e l o cu s o f c o n t r o l f o r l e a r n i n g w i t h t h e t e a ch e r T h u s a t e a c h e r a d o p t i n g a co n st r u ct i o n i st a p p r o a ch t o l e a r n i n g w o u l d c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e si g n a n d co n s t r u ct a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t I n a d d i t i o n t h e se a r t i f a ct s co u l d b e co m p o se d u si n g m u l t i m e d i a t o o l s, a n d t h e r e i s a r e a so n a b l e a m o u n t o f h i st o r i ca l e vi d e n ce t o su p p o r t t h i s a p p r o a ch

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2 9 A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e o n M u l t i m e d i a M u l t i m e d i a b e ca m e w i d e l y r e g a r d e d a s a n i n s t r u ct i o n a l t o o l d u r i n g t h e 1 9 9 0 s ( B r o w n 2 0 0 7 ) F o r t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y, t h i s r e se a r ch e r d e f i n e s m u l t i m e d i a a s a d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct t h a t s h a r e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f m e d i a M e d i a co m m o n l y e xi st i n a u d i t o r y o r vi su a l f o r m s su c h a s t e xt sp e e ch m u si c, so u n d s, i m a g e s o r a n i m a t i o n s. O t h e r r e se a r ch e r s d e f i n i t i o n s o f m u l t i m e d i a a n d h yp e r m e d i a f o r m t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f m u l t i m e d i a u se d t h i s st u d y. M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t t a & C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 ) d e scr i b e d m u l t i m e d i a a s a n e d u ca t i o n a l p r e se n t a t i o n m a d e u si n g a u d i o a n d i m a g e s ( p 3 9 6 2 ) a n d e m p h a si ze d t h a t t h e a m o u n t o f t e xt i s r e d u ce d w i t h i n m u l t i m e d i a E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) a r t i c u l a t e d h yp e r m e d i a a s a w a y o f a u t h o r i n g o n t h e c o m p u t e r t h a t co m b i n e s t e x t g r a p h i cs, so u n d a n d a n i m a t i o n ( p 5 ) W i sn u d e l ( 1 9 9 4 ) i d e n t i f i e d m u l t i m e d i a a s t h e co o r d i n a t e u s e o f se v e r a l t yp e s o f m e d i a ( p 6 ) a n d c o m p a r e d a n d co n t r a st e d i t w i t h h yp e r m e d i a H yp e r m e d i a l i ke m u l t i m e d i a i n c o r p o r a t e s sy m b o l i c e xp r e ssi o n s b e y o n d t e xt s i n cl u d i n g g r a p h i cs, a n i m a t i o n s, s t i l l i m a g e s, a n d vi d e o H yp e r m e d i a e n a b l e s u se r s t o r e t r i e ve ch u n ks o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n d e m a n d U n l i ke m u l t i m e d i a h yp e r m e d i a e n vi r o n m e n t s co n t a i n a n i n h e r e n t st r u c t u r e o r n e t w o r k, w i t h l i n ks o r c o n n e ct i o n s a n d r e l a t i o n sh i p s b e t w e e n ch u n ks o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( p 6 ) T h u s, m u l t i m e d i a a n d h y p e r m e d i a sh a r e a c o m m o n a s p e ct : b o t h i n t e g r a t e m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f m e d i a t o e xp r e ss i n f o r m a t i o n T h e y d i f f e r i n t h e i r l i n e a r i t y: m u l t i m e d i a i s l i n e a r a n d h yp e r m e d i a i s n o n l i n e a r W h i l e t h i s d i st i n ct i o n m a y h a ve b e e n r e l e v a n t i n t h e p a st co n t e m p o r a r y t o o l s a l l o w u s e r s t o c o n st r u c t b o t h l i n e a r a n d n o n l i n e a r a r t i f a ct s. I n a d d i t i o n h yp e r m e d i a a n d m u l t i m e d i a a r e o f t e n u se d i n t e r ch a n g e a b l y w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e I n t h e cu r r e n t st u d y, t h i s r e se a r ch e r e xcl u si ve l y u se s t h e t e r m m u l t i m e d i a t o r e f e r t o t h e d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct s cr e a t e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s.

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3 0 L e a r n i n g T h r o u g h M u l t i m e d i a D e s i g n T h e m e t a p h o r s o f st u d e n t a s d e si g n e r a n d l e a r n e r a s d e si g n e r h a ve b e e n u s e d t h r o u g h o u t e d u ca t i o n l i t e r a t u r e ( H a r e l 1 9 9 1 ; E h r m a n n & B a l e st r i 1 9 9 2 ; B e i ch n e r 1 9 9 4 ; L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l 1 9 9 4 ; L i u & R u t l e d g e 1 9 9 7 ; W i l h e l m F r i e d e m a n n & E r i ckso n 1 9 9 8 ; C h e n & M cG r a t h 2 0 0 3 ; K i m b e r & W ya t t S m i t h 2 0 0 6 ) I n d e e d t h i s l i t e r a t u r e h a s i d e n t i f i e d m u l t i p l e b e n e f i t s w h e n l e a r n e r s p a r t i ci p a t e i n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, a n d t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s st u d i e s t h a t i d e n t i f y p o si t i ve o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a o r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s ( se e T a b l e 2 1 ) N o t i ce t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o a p p r o p r i a t e st u d i e s f o u n d p a st 2 0 0 7 T h i s r e s e a r ch e r i d e n t i f i e d t h e se s t u d i e s t h r o u g h a n e xh a u st i ve r e vi e w o f sp e ci f i c j o u r n a l s su ch a s t h e Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a a n d o f t h e u n i ve r si t y s l i b r a r y d a t a b a se s S e a r ch t e r m s i n cl u d e d m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n st u d e n t cr e a t e d l e a r n e r cr e a t e d st u d e n t c o n st r u c t e d st u d e n t d e si g n e d m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r a n d m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n I n a d d i t i o n o n ce a su i t a b l e a r t i cl e w a s i d e n t i f i e d t h i s r e s e a r ch e r u se d G o o g l e S ch o l a r t o f o l l o w t h e ci t a t i o n t r a i l o f t h e a r t i cl e t o i d e n t i f y m o r e c u r r e n t a r t i cl e s t h a t ci t e d t h e p r e vi o u sl y i d e n t i f i e d a r t i cl e T a b l e 2 1 O ve r vi e w o f b e n e f i t s o f l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a A u t h o r ( s) S u m m a r y o f b e n e f i t s C a r ve r L e h r e r C o n n e l l & E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 2 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p d e si g n ski l l s; st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e h i g h m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t S p o e h r ( 1 9 9 3 ) S t u d e n t s o r g a n i ze kn o w l e d g e i n a n e xp e r t l i ke m a n n e r L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) S t u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e h i g h m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t ; o f f t a sk b e h a vi o r s a r e r e d u ce d ; st u d e n t s d e ve l o p ski l l s t o s e a r ch f o r i n t e r p r e t a r t i cu l a t e a n d co m m u n i ca t e i n f o r m a t i o n H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e & S o l o w a y ( 1 9 9 4 ) S t u d e n t s cr e a t e m u l t i p l e r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f co n t e n t

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3 1 T a b l e 2 1 C o n t i n u e d B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s, e sp e ci a l l y w h e n d e si g n i n g f o r a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce ; s t u d e n t s d e e p l y e n g a g e i n co n t e n t w h i l e a n a l yzi n g e va l u a t i n g syn t h e si zi n g a n d r e p r e se n t i n g co n t e n t r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p r e se a r ch a n d d e si g n ski l l s L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s e xh i b i t m o t i va t i o n t o l e a r n i n cr e a se o n t a sk b e h a vi o r s, a r e w i l l i n g t o sp e n d a d d i t i o n a l t i m e o u t si d e o f cl a ss a n d i n c r e a se s e l f e f f i ca cy M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s; st u d e n t s t a ke i n t e r e st i n c o n t e n t a n d i n c r e a se r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s; st u d e n t s i n cr e a se co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e a n d d e v e l o p d e si g n co l l a b o r a t i o n a n d m e t a co g n i t i ve ski l l s O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g & C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s i f t a sk i s n o t t o o st r u ct u r e d ; st u d e n t s d e v e l o p co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s L i u & H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p d e si g n ski l l s; st u d e n t s d e ve l o p co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s C h e n & M cG r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) S t u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a ys a n d d e ve l o p m e t a co g n i t i ve a n d r e f l e ct i ve ski l l s M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t a & C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 ) S t u d e n t s e n g a g e i n co u r se c o n t e n t B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s; st u d e n t s d e ve l o p m u l t i p l e h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g ski l l s G a r t h w a i t ( 2 0 0 7 ) S t u d e n t s i n cr e a se w r i t i n g ski l l s C a r ve r L e h r e r C o n n e l l a n d E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 2 ) d e ve l o p e d a d e si g n ski l l s m o d e l t h a t p l a ce s l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r s. T h e se d e si g n ski l l s i n cl u d e d p r o j e ct m a n a g e m e n t ski l l s, r e se a r c h ski l l s, o r g a n i zi n g a n d r e p r e se n t a t i o n ski l l s, p r e se n t a t i o n ski l l s a n d r e f l e ct i o n ski l l s. T h e r e s e a r ch e r s co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h se co n d a r y t e a ch e r s t o d e ve l o p t e a c h i n g u n i t s t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t h e se s ki l l s d u r i n g h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n p r o j e c t s. B a se d o n a n a n a l ysi s o f st u d e n t d i sco u r se C a r ve r e t a l r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s b e ca m e a u t o n o m o u s w i t h r e sp e ct t o d e si g n ski l l s o ve r t h e co u r s e o f t h e p r o j e ct I n a d d i t i o n st u d e n t q u e st i o n n a i r e s r e ve a l e d i n c r e a se d m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t i n t e r e st

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3 2 co l l a b o r a t i o n p l a n n i n g a n d i n d i vi d u a l i za t i o n ( p 3 9 4 ) T h i s st u d y c o n t r i b u t e s e vi d e n ce t o su p p o r t t h e vi e w t h a t d e si g n i n g h y p e r m e d i a d e ve l o p s d e si g n ski l l s. I n a d d i t i o n t h i s st u d y d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t st u d e n t s d e e p l y e n g a g e i n co n t e n t w h e n d e si g n i n g a b o u t t h e co n t e n t a s t h e y se a r ch a n a l yze e va l u a t e a n d syn t h e si s i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e co n t e n t S p o e h r ( 1 9 9 3 ) d o cu m e n t e d b e n e f i t s w h e n h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s f r o m r e se a r c h p r o j e ct s u si n g h yp e r m e d i a S h e i d e n t i f i e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d a p r o f i ci e n cy t o o r g a n i ze kn o w l e d g e a b o u t a su b j e ct i n a m o r e e x p e r t l i ke f a sh i o n ( p 9 ) w h e n g i ve n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o co n st r u ct h y p e r m e d i a T h i s i s a si g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g a s e d u ca t o r s se e k t o f i n d m e a n i n g f u l w a ys f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e ve l o p r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f co n t e n t T h e a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i ze k n o w l e d g e i n a so p h i st i ca t e d m a n n e r w h e n d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t t h i s a p p r o a ch h a s a c o n si d e r a b l e i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g co n t e n t L e h r e r E r i ckso n a n d C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) a ske d 9 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s t o co n st r u ct a h yp e r m e d i a p r e se n t a t i o n o n a n A m e r i ca n h i st o r y t o p i c w i t h t h e i n t e n t t h a t t h e h yp e r m e d i a p r e se n t a t i o n co u l d b e u se d b y p e e r s a s a n e d u ca t i o n a l t o o l I n t e a m s o f 5 st u d e n t g r o u p s u se d H yp e r A u t h o r t o co n st r u ct t h e i r h yp e r m e d i a p r e se n t a t i o n s. T h e r e se a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d h i g h l e ve l s o f m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t w h i c h i n d i ca t e s a h i g h l e v e l o f e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. A n o t h e r i n d i ca t o r f o r a h i g h l e ve l o f e n g a g e m e n t a m o n g st u d e n t s w a s e vi d e n t i n a r e m a r ka b l e d e cr e a se i n o f f t a sk b e h a vi o r s o ve r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss ( f r o m 3 0 % i n t h e b e g i n n i n g t o 3 % a t t h e e n d ) I n a d d i t i o n r e se a r ch e r s o b se r ve d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d s e ve r a l u se f u l ski l l s t h a t c o u l d t r a n s f e r t o o t h e r co n t e xt s: f i n d i n g

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3 3 a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a r t i cu l a t i n g a n d c o m m u n i ca t i n g kn o w l e d g e a n d u si n g co m p u t e r s a s co g n i t i ve t o o l s ( p 2 4 8 ) T h e se ski l l s w e r e n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y e n co u r a g e d a s p a r t o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, b u t t h e y a r e a b e n e f i ci a l o u t co m e o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. O f m o st si g n i f i ca n ce t h e r e se a r ch e r s n o t e d t h a t st u d e n t s o b se r v e d t h a t kn o w l e d g e w a s a r e su l t o f t h e i r co n st r u ct i ve e f f o r t s r a t h e r t h a n a s a se t o f g i ve n s f r o m t h e i r t e a c h e r a n d t e xt ( p 2 4 8 ) T h u s, d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a ( o r m u l t i m e d i a ) i s a c o n st r u ct i o n i st t a sk r a t h e r t h a n a n i n st r u ct i o n i st o n e L e a r n e r s co n st r u ct kn o w l e d g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e co n t e n t a d d r e sse d i n t h e i r h yp e r m e d i a ( o r m u l t i m e d i a ) d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss r a t h e r t h a n t h e t e a ch e r o r t e xt b o o k p r o vi d i n g r e p r e se n t a t i o n s f o r l e a r n e r s t o m e m o r i ze H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e a n d S o l o w a y ( 1 9 9 4 ) a n a l yze d 8 3 m u l t i m e d i a d o cu m e n t s cr e a t e d i n M e d i a T e xt b y h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s t o m e e t a ssi g n m e n t e xp e ct a t i o n s i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t co u r se s. T h o u g h t h e e xp e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e m u l t i m e d i a d o cu m e n t s va r i e d a cr o ss c o u r se s, t h e r e se a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t l e a r n e r s d e v e l o p e d a r i ch e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n ce p t s ( p 3 1 5 ) o f t h e c o u r se a ssi g n m e n t s b e c a u se l e a r n e r s w e r e a b l e t o p r o vi d e m u l t i p l e r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f c o n t e n t u si n g m u l t i p l e m e d i a f o r m a t s i n t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a co m p o si t i o n s. T h e r e f o r e l e a r n e r s m a y cr e a t e m o r e m e a n i n g f u l r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f c o u r se co n t e n t b y r e p r e se n t i n g c o n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e f o r m s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f va r i o u s f o r m s o f m e d i a T h i s st u d y g e n e r a t e s r e l e va n t i m p l i ca t i o n s f o r t h e c u r r e n t st u d y b y e m p h a si zi n g t h a t l e a r n e r s m a y c r e a t e m e a n i n g f u l r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f co n t e n t a s t h e y co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e co n t e n t B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) o b se r v e d n i n e m i d d l e sch o o l st u d e n t s a s t h e y l e a r n e d sci e n ce co n t e n t t h r o u g h d e si g n i n g a n d c r e a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a i n f o r m a t i o n scr e e n s f o r a l o ca l zo o u si n g h yb r i d so f t w a r e o f H yp e r C a r d a n d S u p e r C a r d B e ca u se st u d e n t s w e r e d e si g n i n g

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3 4 m u l t i m e d i a f o r a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce B e i ch n e r r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s f o u n d t h e t a sk m o t i va t i n g b e ca u se i t h a d i m p o r t a n ce o u t si d e t h e cl a ssr o o m ( p 6 7 ) T h r o u g h o u t t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, st u d e n t s e n g a g e d i n sci e n ce co n t e n t t h e n i d e n t i f i e d t h e e sse n t i a l a sp e ct s o f t h a t co n t e n t t o sh a r e w i t h i n t h e m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct f o r t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n ce T h i s p r o ce ss d e ve l o p s ski l l s a sso ci a t e d w i t h B l o o m s t a xo n o m y o f co g n i t i ve ski l l s su ch a s a n a l yzi n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g ( B l o o m & K r a t h w o h l 1 9 5 6 ; A n d e r so n & K r a t h w o h l 2 0 0 1 ) A n a l yzi n g e va l u a t i n g a n d syn t h e si zi n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f sh a r i n g i t w i t h a n a u d i e n ce r e q u i r e s e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h c o n t e n t B e i ch n e r e n co u r a g e d t h i s t y p e o f st u d e n t w o r k b e c a u se st u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n co n t e n t e n j o y t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss, a n d r e co g n i ze t h a t t h e y h a v e cr e a t e d so m e t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e t h a t i s, w o r t h t h e i r t i m e a n d e f f o r t ( p 6 7 ) T h i s st u d y d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s, p a r t i cu l a r l y w h e n st u d e n t s d e si g n f o r a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce I n a d d i t i o n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss r e q u i r e s t h a t st u d e n t s e n g a g e w i t h c o n t e n t i n m e a n i n g f u l w a ys; st u d e n t s c o n st r u c t r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f c o n t e n t a s t h e y a n a l yze e va l u a t e a n d syn t h e si ze i n f o r m a t i o n E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) o b s e r ve d m i d d l e sch o o l st u d e n t s a n d t h e i r t e a ch e r s i n a cl a ssr o o m st r u ct u r e d a s a co m m u n i t y o f d e si g n e r s ( p 5 ) T h i s e n vi r o n m e n t i n cl u d e d se ve r a l a sp e ct s t h a t f o st e r e d t h e d e si g n c o m m u n i t y: st u d e n t s w o r ke d o n su st a i n e d h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n p r o j e ct s; st u d e n t s sh a r e d d i scu sse d a n d r e f l e ct e d o n t h e i r h yp e r m e d i a p r o j e ct s; a n d t e a c h e r s b e ca m e d e ce n t r a l i ze d a n d d i st r i b u t e d i n st r u ct i o n e va l u a t i o n a n d kn o w l e d g e a c r o ss t h e cl a ssr o o m co m m u n i t y ( p 6 ) E r i ckso n f o cu se d h e r r e s e a r ch o n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e t e a ch e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o st u d e n t l e a r n i n g w i t h i n t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t r a t h e r t h a n m e a s u r i n g st u d e n t l e a r n i n g d i r e ct l y. P a r t i ci p a t i n g t e a ch e r s

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3 5 a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d g r o w t h o ve r t h e ye a r i n t h e co g n i t i ve ski l l s o f r e se a r ch a n d d e si g n ( p 2 0 ) T e a ch e r s p e r ce i ve d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d ski l l s i n f i n d i n g o r g a n i zi n g a n d r e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s T h i s s t u d y p r o vi d e s se v e r a l d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g a d e si g n co m m u n i t y w i t h i n a cl a ssr o o m a n d t h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e si g n o f t h e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t r e se a r c h st u d y. L i u a n d R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) a sse sse d t h e i m p a ct o f a l e a r n e r a s d e si g n e r e n vi r o n m e n t o n h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s, 6 0 % o f w h i ch w e r e co n si d e r e d a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk. T h e r e se a r ch e r s co m p a r e d st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n b e t w e e n a co n t r o l g r o u p o f st u d e n t s i n a co m p u t e r a p p l i ca t i o n cl a ss a n d a t r e a t m e n t g r o u p o f st u d e n t s i n a si m i l a r cl a ss t h a t w a s st r u ct u r e d a s a l e a r n e r a s d e si g n e r e n vi r o n m e n t T h i s e n vi r o n m e n t c r e a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r st u d e n t s t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h a t w o u l d b e u se d b y e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce s su c h a s t h e sch o o l o r a l o ca l m u se u m L i u a n d R u t l e d g e r e p o r t e d t h a t m o t i va t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g w a s si g n i f i ca n t l y h i g h e r i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p T h e se s t u d e n t s a l so e xh i b i t e d m o r e o n t a sk b e h a vi o r s a n d w e r e w i l l i n g t o sp e n d a d d i t i o n a l t i m e o u t si d e o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a ss t i m e t o w o r k o n m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s. I n a d d i t i o n se l f e f f i ca cy si g n i f i ca n t l y i n cr e a se d f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p T h i s st u d y co n t r i b u t e s a d d i t i o n a l su p p o r t t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a i s a n i n t r i n si ca l l y m o t i va t i n g p r o ce ss. A n i n cr e a se i n o n t a sk b e h a vi o r s a n d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o w o r k o n d e si g n p r o j e ct s o u t si d e o f sch e d u l e d cl a ss t i m e p r o vi d e s co n si d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r i n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n p r o j e ct s t o e n co u r a g e e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce a n d W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) co m p l e t e d se ve r a l ca se st u d i e s o f sci e n ce r e l a t e d m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o e l e m e n t a r y a n d

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3 6 se co n d a r y cl a ssr o o m s. T h e r e s e a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d o n t h r e e a sp e ct s o f t h e s e p r o j e ct s: l e a r n i n g a n d a t t i t u d e s, g e n d e r a n d r e sp o n si b i l i t y. M cG r a t h e t a l f o u n d t h a t st u d e n t s w e r e m o t i va t e d a n d e n t h u si a st i c a b o u t d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a a n d d e m o n st r a t e d h i g h l e ve l s o f i n t e r e st i n t h e sci e n ce co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p r o j e c t s. H o w e ve r st u d e n t s a t t i t u d e s a b o u t sci e n c e w e r e n o t i m p a ct e d a s a r e su l t o f d e s i g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a A s a r e su l t o f d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a o n sci e n ce t o p i cs, st u d e n t s l e a r n e d sci e n ce b u t a l so d e ve l o p e d p l a n n i n g r e se a r ch i n g w r i t i n g a n d co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. M cG r a t h e t a l a l so f o u n d t h a t g e n d e r h a d n o i m p a ct o n e n t h u si a s m f o r t h e p r o j e ct o r o n l e a r n i n g o f co n t e n t o r ski l l s. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e s e a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d i n c r e a se d r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g E vi d e n c e f o r i n cr e a se d r e sp o n si b i l i t y i n cl u d e d s t u d e n t s w i l l i n g t o w o r k o n m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s o u t si d e o f t h e sch o o l d a y, st u d e n t s w i l l i n g t o p e r se ve r e w h e n f r u st r a t e d d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, st u d e n t s co n ce r n e d w i t h h o w t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s w o u l d a p p e a r t o a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce a n d st u d e n t s r e a l i zi n g t h a t o t h e r s w e r e r e l yi n g o n t h e i r e f f o r t s. O v e r a l l t h i s se t o f c a se st u d i e s p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t t h e p r o ce ss o f d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a n o t o n l y e n co u r a g e s e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t t o p r o m o t e l e a r n i n g o f co n t e n t b u t su p p o r t s t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f m e a n i n g f u l ski l l s t h a t w i l l h a ve va l u e t h r o u g h o u t st u d e n t s l i v e s. L i u a n d P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) co m p a r e d m o t i va t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g o f d e si g n k n o w l e d g e f o r t w o cl a sse s o f f o u r t h g r a d e r s: o n e cl a ss w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p w h i l e t h e o t h e r w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e n o n d e si g n e r g r o u p W h i l e b o t h g r o u p s a u t h o r e d h yp e r m e d i a p r o j e ct s o n sci e n ce co n t e n t st u d e n t s i n t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p w o r k e d co l l a b o r a t i ve l y t o co n st r u ct h yp e r m e d i a w h i l e st u d e n t s i n t h e n o n d e si g n e r g r o u p w o r ke d i n d e p e n d e n t l y. L i u a n d P e d e r so n r e p o r t e d n o si g n i f i ca n t d i f f e r e n ce s b e t w e e n

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3 7 g r o u p s f o r m o st a sp e ct s o f m o t i va t i o n w h i c h i s a co n si st e n t f i n d i n g w i t h i n t h e r e se a r c h l i t e r a t u r e G e n e r a l l y, st u d e n t s f i n d h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r i n g m o t i va t i n g H o w e ve r t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p d e m o n st r a t e d i n cr e a se d a b i l i t y t o m a ke j u d g m e n t s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t e a ch e r I n a d d i t i o n b o t h g r o u p s co m p l e t e d a p r e a n d p o s t t e st o f sci e n ce c o n t e n t kn o w l e d g e a n d b o t h g r o u p s si g n i f i ca n t l y i n cr e a se d t h e i r sci e n ce co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e o ve r t h e c o u r se o f t h e p r o j e c t S t u d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s d e ve l o p e d t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l s, b u t st u d e n t s i n t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p a l so d e ve l o p e d ski l l s su ch a s p l a n n i n g p r o j e ct m a n a g e m e n t r e f l e ct i o n ( g e t t i n g f e e d b a ck f r o m t h e p e e r s a n d t h e a u d i e n c e ) a n d w o r ki n g i n g r o u p s t o a ch i e ve a co m m o n g o a l ( p 1 7 7 ) N o t su r p r i si n g l y, st u d e n t s i n t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p d e m o n st r a t e d si g n i f i ca n t l y b e t t e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f p l a n n i n g a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n ( p 1 7 7 ) T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a i s m o t i va t i n g l e a d s t o i n cr e a s e d co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e p r o d u ce s h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r i n g ski l l s a n d d e v e l o p s co l l a b o r a t i o n a n d m e t a co g n i t i ve ski l l s. O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g a n d C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) sh a r e d se ve r a l a n e cd o t e s a b o u t y o u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a i n cl a ss r o o m s f o r g i f t e d a n d a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk st u d e n t s. T h e r e s e a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a m o t i va t e d st u d e n t s. S t u d e n t s w e r e w i l l i n g t o w o r k o n m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r sch o o l a n d o n sch o o l h o l i d a ys. T h i s e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t r e q u i r e s m o t i va t i o n H o w e ve r st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d l e ss m o t i va t i o n d u r i n g m o r e st r u ct u r e d a ct i vi t i e s. T h e r e se a r ch e r s a t t r i b u t e d t h i s p h e n o m e n o n t o a l a ck o f ch o i ce o r co n t r o l e vi d e n t w i t h i n st r u ct u r e d a ct i vi t i e s ( T u r n e r & P a r i s, 1 9 9 5 ) O f si g n i f i ca n ce a c a d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk

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3 8 st u d e n t s a l so d e m o n st r a t e d m o t i va t i o n w h i l e d e si g n i n g O r e y e t a l a l so r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. L i u a n d H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) o b s e r ve d i n cr e a se d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss w h e n m i d d l e sc h o o l s st u d e n t s b e ca m e m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r s. S t u d e n t d e si g n e r s co u l d a r t i cu l a t e t h e si g n i f i ca n c e o f t h e st a g e s o f a d e si g n p r o c e ss: p l a n n i n g d e si g n i n g a n d t e st i n g S t u d e n t d e si g n e r s a l so i n cr e a s e d t h e i r p e e r l e a r n i n g ski l l s. S t u d e n t s co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h p e e r s t h r o u g h t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss a n d ca m e t o r e l y o n t h e i r p e e r s t o d i st r i b u t e e f f o r t s f o r t h e d e si g n t a sks. T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s a n d d e si g n ski l l s d e v e l o p a s st u d e n t s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a C h e n a n d M cG r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) o b se r ve d t e n t h g r a d e st u d e n t s d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s u si n g S t o r ys p a ce 1 2 P a i r s o f st u d e n t s w o r ke d t o g e t h e r t o p r o d u ce a h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t a b o u t w a t e r t o m e e t a s si g n m e n t e x p e ct a t i o n s f o r a sci e n ce co u r se C h e n a n d M cG r a t h r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d h yp e r m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l w a ys o f r e p r e se n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b e ca u s e i t a p p e a l e d t o i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n i n g st yl e s. S t u d e n t s a r t i cu l a t e d t h a t t h e y co u l d ch o o se m u l t i p l e w a ys t o r e p r e s e n t co n t e n t C h e n a n d M cG r a t h a l so f o u n d e vi d e n ce o f d e e p e r l e a r n i n g b a se d o n st u d e n t co m m e n t s t h a t d e m o n st r a t e d m e t a co g n i t i o n a n d r e f l e c t i o n I n a d d i t i o n t h e a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s i n t h e r o l e s o f h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n e r s d e ve l o p e d e f f e ct i v e co g n i t i ve a n d kn o w l e d g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ski l l s ( p 5 7 ) T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t w h e n st u d e n t s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a t h e y d e ve l o p i m p o r t a n t m e t a c o g n i t i ve a n d r e f l e ct i ve ski l l s a n d l e a r n t o r e p r e s e n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a y s. M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t a a n d C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 ) a ske d st u d e n t s i n 5 d i f f e r e n t co u r se s o f a n e d u ca t i o n d o ct o r a l p r o g r a m t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r f u t u r e

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3 9 st u d e n t s w h o w o u l d b e n o vi ce s i n t h e co n t e n t o f t h e co u r se s. S t u d e n t s d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u c t u si n g L i ve S l i d e S h o w t h a t i n t e g r a t e d a n a u d i o t r a ck e xp l a i n i n g co u r se m a t e r i a l w i t h i m a g e s. A f t e r co n d u ct i n g st u d e n t i n t e r vi e w s t o d e t e r m i n e p e r ce p t i o n s o f t h e va l u e o f i n t e g r a t i n g l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a M i t c h e l l A n d r e a t a a n d C a p e l l a r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s e xp e r i e n ce l e d t o i n cr e a s e d st u d e n t e n g a g e m e n t w i t h c o u r se c o n t e n t A cco r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r ch e r s, t h i s e n g a g e m e n t st e m m e d f r o m i n cr e a s e d m o t i va t i o n t h r o u g h s t u d e n t s cr e a t i n g p e r so n a l co n n e ct i o n s t o co u r se co n t e n t a n d t h r o u g h a n a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f ch a l l e n g e B e ca u se s t u d e n t s r e co r d e d t h e i r vo i ce a s p a r t o f t h e m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct t h e y a r t i cu l a t e d a m o r e p e r so n a l co n n e ct i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t o ve r t r a d i t i o n a l w a y s o f e xp r e ssi n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( e g w r i t i n g a p a p e r ) I n a d d i t i o n st u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e ch a l l e n g e o f i n t e g r a t i n g a u d i o a n d i m a g e s t o c o m m u n i ca t e co u r se co n t e n t w a s m o t i va t i n g b e ca u se t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d t o t h i n k a b o u t n e w w a ys o f d e l i ve r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n T h i s st u d y h i g h l i g h t s h o w l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a i n cr e a se s e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co u r se c o n t e n t f o r st u d e n t s a s t h e y n e g o t i a t e w a ys t o e xp r e ss e sse n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n t h e m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct T h o u g h t h i s st u d y r e p o r t s o n e vi d e n ce o b t a i n e d f r o m d o ct o r a l st u d e n t s, i t i s a r e a so n a b l e a ssu m p t i o n t o co n cl u d e t h a t st u d e n t s o n t h e o p p o si t e e n d o f t h e e d u ca t i o n a l co n t i n u u m m a y si m i l a r l y b e n e f i t f r o m i n c r e a se d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) a l so f o u n d i n cr e a se d e n g a g e m e n t a n d m o t i va t i o n a l o n g w i t h d e m o n st r a t e d h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g ski l l s w h e n e l e m e n t a r y st u d e n t s a n d p r e se r vi ce e l e m e n t a r y t e a ch e r s co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a u si n g H yp e r S t u d i o A cr o ss b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s, B r o w n n o t e d t h a t [ h ] i g h t a sk e n g a g e m e n t w a s e vi d e n c e d b y e xt e n d e d p e r i o d s o f i n vo l ve m e n t b e yo n d cl a ss ( p 1 0 6 ) A w i l l i n g n e ss t o e n g a g e i n e x p a n d e d

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4 0 l e a r n i n g t i m e p a r t i cu l a r l y b e yo n d t r a d i t i o n a l cl a ss t i m e i s a n i n d i ca t o r o f h i g h l e ve l s o f m o t i va t i o n f o r t h e p r e sc r i b e d t a sk, w h i ch l e a d s t o a r e a so n a b l e a ssu m p t i o n t h a t co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a m a y b e i n h e r e n t l y m o t i va t i n g f o r l e a r n e r s. B r o w n a l so d e scr i b e d e vi d e n ce o f h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g a s d e scr i b e d b y R e sn i ck ( 1 9 8 7 ) S h e r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s: f o l l o w e d a n o n a l g o r i t h m i c p a t h f a ce d kn o w l e d g e ski l l a n d p r o ce ss c o m p l e xi t y, g e n e r a t e d m u l t i p l e so l u t i o n s co p e d w i t h u n ce r t a i n t y, d e m o n st r a t e d n u a n ce d j u d g m e n t w i t h m e d i a se l e ct i o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n w e r e r e q u i r e d t o se l f r e g u l a t e t h e i r t h i n ki n g a n d p u t co n si d e r a b l e e f f o r t i n t o st r u ct u r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( B r o w n 2 0 0 7 p 1 0 7 ) T h i s i s a n i m p r e ssi ve l i st o f ski l l s, a n d t e a ch e r s w o u l d b e q u i t e p l e a se d i f st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d t h e se ski l l s d u r i n g a n y l e a r n i n g e xp e r i e n ce T h e se h i g h e r o r d e r ski l l s w e r e n o t e xp l i ci t l y t a u g h t a s p a r t o f t h e m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n p r o c e ss b u t a r e si g n i f i ca n t b y p r o d u ct s o f i t T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s su p p o r t f o r i n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n a s a p e d a g o g i ca l s t r a t e g y si n ce m o t i va t i o n i n c r e a s e s a n d h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g d e ve l o p s a s l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a G a r t h w a i t ( 2 0 0 7 ) r e p o r t e d i n cr e a se d w r i t i n g s ki l l s i n m i d d l e sch o o l s t u d e n t s a f t e r d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a p r o j e ct s f o r yo u n g e r st u d e n t s. 7 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s u s e d H yp e r S t u d i o t o c r e a t e a h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t a b o u t A f r i ca n a n i m a l s f o r 2 n d g r a d e st u d e n t s. G a r t h w a i t o b se r v e d t h a t 7 t h g r a d e d st u d e n t s b e ca m e a d e p t a t w r i t i n g f o r a sp e ci f i c a u d i e n ce T h i s s t u d y h i g h l i g h t s h o w a d d i t i o n a l ski l l s ( i e w r i t i n g ski l l s) d e ve l o p a s l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se st u d i e s i n d i ca t e e vi d e n c e f o r u si n g m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n t o p r o d u ce a va r i e t y o f o u t co m e s ( se e T a b l e 2 2 ) T h e se o u t co m e s i n cl u d e i n cr e a si n g m o t i va t i o n t o l e a r n w h i ch p r o m o t e s i n cr e a se d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h c o n t e n t a n d d e ve l o p i n g a n u m b e r o f ski l l s i n cl u d i n g r e se a r ch d e si g n a n d t h i n ki n g ski l l s. O f

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4 1 si g n i f i ca n t i m p o r t a n ce st u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n a m o r e e xp e r t l i ke m a n n e r a n d h a ve o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a ys w h e n d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a T h r o u g h t h e a ct o f d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s a s t u d e n t s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t s/ h e d e e p l y e n g a g e s i n co n t e n t a n d d e ve l o p s m u l t i p l e ski l l s t h a t w i l l h a ve l o n g t e r m p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s. T a b l e 2 2 S u m m a r y o f o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a O u t co m e A u t h o r ( s) S t u d e n t s b e co m e m o t i va t e d B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; L i u & P e d e r s o n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g & C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) ; B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) S t u d e n t s sp e n d a d d i t i o n a l t i m e o u t si d e o f cl a ss t o w o r k o n p r o j e ct s. L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p r e se a r ch ski l l s: f i n d i n g a n a l yzi n g e va l u a t i n g a n d syn t h e si zi n g i n f o r m a t i o n L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n a n e xp e r t l i ke m a n n e r S p o e h r ( 1 9 9 3 ) ; L i u & P e d e r s o n ( 1 9 9 8 ) S t u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a ys. H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e & S o l o w a y ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; C h e n & M c G r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p m e t a co g n i t i ve a n d r e f l e ct i ve ski l l s. L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; C h e n & M cG r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) ; B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p d e si g n ski l l s C a r ve r L e h r e r C o n n e l l & E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 2 ) ; E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; L i u & H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) S t u d e n t s e n g a g e i n co n t e n t L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t a & C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 )

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4 2 T a b l e 2 2 C o n t i n u e d S t u d e n t s r e d u ce o f f t a sk b e h a vi o r s L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s i n cr e a se se l f e f f i ca cy. L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s t a ke r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g & C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) ; L i u & H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p w r i t i n g ski l l s. G a r t h w a i t ( 2 0 0 7 ) T h e o u t c o m e s i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e st u d i e s i n T a b l e 2 2 p r o vi d e t h e f o u n d a t i o n a n d r a t i o n a l e f o r d e si g n i n g a n I L E t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a s a p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch S t e p 2 o f M a a n d H a r m o n s ( 2 0 0 9 ) D B R p r o ce ss i s t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f a so l u t i o n w i t h a t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k. I n t e g r a t i n g l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a s e r ve s a s t h e so l u t i o n f o r t h i s D B R st u d y. N e xt i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o co n si d e r t h e t o o l t h a t l e a r n e r s w i l l u se t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a M u l t i m e d i a C o n s t r u c t i o n T o o l s T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f t o o l s t h a t h a ve b e e n u se d f o r m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n T h e se i n cl u d e H yp e r C a r d H yp e r A u t h o r H yp e r S t u d i o M i cr o so f t P o w e r P o i n t I n sp i r a t i o n A d o b e P h o t o s h o p L i v e S l i d e S h o w M a cr o m e d i a D i r e ct o r i M o vi e W i n d o w s M o vi e M a ke r a n d A d o b e D r e a m w e a ve r A l l h a ve t h e i r a f f o r d a n ce s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s O n e t o o l o f co n si d e r a b l e i n t e r e st i s S cr a t ch S cr a t ch w a s d e ve l o p e d b y t h e L i f e l o n g K i n d e r g a r t e n G r o u p a t t h e M I T M e d i a L a b o r a t o r y a s a m e a n s f o r p r o d u ci n g i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a t h r o u g h t h e u se o f a si m p l e vi s u a l f r e e p r o g r a m m i n g t o o l ( se e R e sn i ck, 2 0 0 6 ; P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 7 a ; M a l o n e y, P e p p l e r K a f a i R e sn i ck & R u sk, 2 0 0 8 )

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4 3 S c r a t c h T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y u se s S cr a t ch a s t h e d e si g n t o o l f o r m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n S cr a t ch w a s d e si g n e d f o r u se b y ch i l d r e n a g e 8 a n d u p t h o u g h a d o l e sce n t s a n d a d u l t s m a y a l so f i n d t h a t i s a va l u a b l e d e si g n t o o l T h e S cr a t ch i n t e r f a ce i s ki d f r i e n d l y ( se e F i g u r e 2 2 ) D e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h i n vo l ve s a d d i n g sp r i t e s ( o b j e ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t ch a r a ct e r s, p r o p s a n d o t h e r e l e m e n t s ) a n d e d i t i n g t h e st a g e ( b a ckg r o u n d ) I n F i g u r e 2 2 t h e r e i s a ca t s p r i t e o n a st a g e t h a t co n si st s o f a so l i d w h i t e b a ckg r o u n d C r e a t i n g a ct i o n s f o r t h e sp r i t e s o r st a g e co n si st s o f d r a g g i n g co m m a n d b l o cks f r o m a p a l e t t e a n d st a cki n g t h e m t o g e t h e r A st a ck o f c o m m a n d b l o cks f o r m s a scr i p t a n d t h e scr i p t d e scr i b e s t h e a ct i o n s o r b e h a vi o r o f a sp r i t e ( s e e F i g u r e 2 3 ) T h e scr i p t p o r t r a ye d i n F i g u r e 2 3 sh o w s 9 u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o cks. T h e co m m a n d b l o cks a r e co l o r co d e d t o r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f co m m a n d s. F o r e xa m p l e t h e p a l e t t e o f m o t i o n co m m a n d s i s d i sp l a ye d o n t h e l e f t h a n d si d e i n F i g u r e 2 2 I n F i g u r e 2 3 t h e r e a r e f i v e d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f co m m a n d b l o cks: co n t r o l ( ye l l o w ) l o o ks ( p u r p l e ) s e n si n g ( l i g h t b l u e ) so u n d ( p i n k) a n d o p e r a t o r s ( g r e e n ) R e a d i n g t h r o u g h t h e co m m a n d b l o cks h e l p s t h e u se r u n d e r st a n d i n g w h i ch b e h a vi o r o r a ct i o n w i l l o ccu r T h e co m m a n d b l o cks r e p r e s e n t l i n e s o f co d e f o u n d i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e s. H o w e v e r S cr a t c h r e p l a ce s t h e t e xt o f o t h e r p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e s w i t h g r a p h i c b l o cks, a n d e a c h b l o c k r e p r e s e n t s a s p e ci f i c co m m a n d T h e scr i p t i n F i g u r e 2 3 b e g i n s w h e n t h e sp a c e ke y i s p r e ss e d P r e ssi n g t h e sp a ce ke y a ct s a s a t r i g g e r t o b e g i n t h e sc r i p t T h e sh o w b l o ck e n su r e s t h a t t h e s p r i t e w i t h t h i s scr i p t i s vi si b l e T h e sa y b l o ck st a t e s t h e e n t e r e d t e xt i n t h e f o r m o f a t a l k b u b b l e a b o ve t h e s p r i t e T h e t e xt r e m a i n s vi si b l e o n t h e scr e e n f o r 5 se co n d s a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e b l o ck. T h e r e p e a t u n t i l b l o ck e n su r e s t h a t t h e st a ck i n si d e t h e b l o ck

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4 4 co n t i n u e s t o l o o p u n t i l a sp e ci f i c co n d i t i o n i s m e t I n t h i s ca se t h e st a ck w i l l r e p e a t u n t i l a u se r o f t h e p r o j e ct e n t e r s a va l u e o f 1 w h e n p r o m p t e d T h e a sk b l o ck cr e a t e s a t e xt b o x a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e st a g e w h e r e a u se r c a n u se t h e ke yb o a r d t o e n t e r a r e s p o n se T h e t yp e d r e s p o n se i s st o r e d a s a va r i a b l e ca l l e d a n sw e r N o t i ce t h a t i f t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se i s e n t e r e d a s o u n d p l a ys f o l l o w e d b y t w o se p a r a t e t e xt b u b b l e s. I f a n i n co r r e ct r e sp o n se i s e n t e r e d t h e u s e r i s e n c o u r a g e d t o t r y a g a i n u si n g a t e xt b u b b l e F i g u r e 2 2 T h e S cr a t ch i n t e r f a ce

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4 5 F i g u r e 2 3 A sc r i p t cr e a t e d i n S c r a t ch A s st a t e d o n t h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e [ a ] s yo u n g p e o p l e cr e a t e a n d sh a r e S cr a t ch p r o j e ct s, t h e y l e a r n i m p o r t a n t m a t h e m a t i ca l a n d co m p u t a t i o n a l i d e a s, w h i l e a l s o l e a r n i n g t o t h i n k c r e a t i ve l y, r e a so n sys t e m a t i c a l l y, a n d w o r k c o l l a b o r a t i ve l y. B a se d o n t h i s d e scr i p t i o n i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t w h e n l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t c h t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h e y w i l l d e ve l o p t h i n ki n g a n d co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. T h e u se o f S cr a t ch i s w e l l d o cu m e n t e d i n a f t e r sch o o l p r o g r a m s a n d co m m u n i t y t e ch n o l o g y ce n t e r s ( P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 5 ; K a f a i P e p p l e r & C h i u 2 0 0 7 ; P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 7 a ; P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 7 b ; M a l o n e y e t a l 2 0 0 8 ) T h e r e i s a n o n l i n e co m m u n i t y a sso ci a t e d w i t h S cr a t ch a n d t h i s f e a t u r e o f S cr a t ch s e p a r a t e s i t f r o m o t h e r ki d f r i e n d l y p r o g r a m m i n g t o o l s s u ch a s S q u e a k o r A l i ce D o cu m e n t i n g w a ys i n w h i ch t h e co m m u n i t y o f S cr a t ch u se r s e n g a g e w i t h S cr a t ch a n d c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r i s a l so e vi d e n t w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( M o n r o y H e r n n d e z & R e sn i ck, 2 0 0 8 ; B l a u Z u cke r m a n

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4 6 & M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, 2 0 0 9 ; R e sn i ck, M a l o n e y, M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, R u sk, E a st m o n d B r e n n a n M i l l n e r R o se n b a u m S i l ve r S i l ve r m a n & K a f a i 2 0 0 9 ) H o w e ve r l i t t l e d o cu m e n t a t i o n e xi st s f o r u si n g S cr a t ch i n f o r m a l K 1 2 cl a ssr o o m e n vi r o n m e n t s t o p r o m o t e g a i n s i n c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g a n d n o t j u st p r o g r a m m i n g ski l l s. T h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e i n cl u d e s a r e se a r ch p a g e t h a t i d e n t i f i e s r e se a r ch a r t i cl e s a n d co n f e r e n ce p r e se n t a t i o n s t h a t d o cu m e n t h o w yo u n g l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t c h Y e t n o l i st e d m a n u scr i p t d o cu m e n t s t h e u se o f S cr a t ch i n cl a ss r o o m co n t e xt s I n a d d i t i o n a n e xh a u st i ve s e a r ch o f t h e u n i ve r si t y s l i b r a r y d a t a b a se s d i d n o t r e ve a l a n y a r t i cl e s d o c u m e n t i n g S cr a t ch s u se i n a sch o o l b a se d cl a ssr o o m T h e cu r r e n t r e se a r c h st u d y a t t e m p t s t o co n t r i b u t e t o t h i s d e a r t h o f a va i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e d o cu m e n t i n g S cr a t ch s i m p a ct o n co n t e n t l e a r n i n g i n K 1 2 cl a ssr o o m s. M o r e sp e ci f i ca l l y, t h i s st u d y se e k s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n g a i n s w h e n 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s u si n g S cr a t ch P r o p e r t i e s o f G e o m e t r i c S o l i d s D e ve l o p i n g a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i s a n e xp e ct a t i o n o f t h e 5 t h g r a d e cu r r i cu l u m ( N C T M 2 0 0 6 ) S t u d e n t s sh o u l d b e a b l e t o d e scr i b e t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l sh a p e s b y t h e i r n u m b e r o f f a ce s, e d g e s a n d ve r t i ce s. I n a d d i t i o n st u d e n t s sh o u l d b e a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e vo l u m e a n d su r f a c e a r e a o f su c h sh a p e s. U n d e r st a n d i n g su r f a ce a r e a a n d vo l u m e m a y b e p r o b l e m a t i c f o r st u d e n t s i f a l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r t h i s co n t e n t i s r e d u ce d t o m e m o r i zi n g f o r m u l a s t o ca l cu l a t e e i t h e r q u a n t i t y ( B e n C h a i m L a p p a n & H o u n g 1 9 8 5 ; B a t t i st a C l e m e n t s, A r n o f f B a t t i st a & B o r r o w 1 9 9 8 ) C r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t e xp r e sse s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s m a y se r ve a s a n e f f e ct i ve p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a c h t h a t e n su r e s t h a t l e a r n e r s a r e n o t l i m i t e d t o m e m o r i zi n g t h i s co n t e n t W h i l e

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4 7 d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch l e a r n e r s m u st co n si d e r h o w t h e y w i l l r e p r e se n t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e y m u st m a k e d e ci si o n s a b o u t w h a t t h e y w i l l i n cl u d e i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s a n d d e t e r m i n e h o w t h e y w i l l r e p r e se n t t h e se p r o p e r t i e s. T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t l e a r n e r s a c t i ve l y e n g a g e w i t h t h e sp e ci f i c co n t e n t U si n g S cr a t ch m a y a l so m o t i va t e r e l u ct a n t l e a r n e r s t o e n g a g e i n t h i s c o n t e n t b e ca u se S cr a t ch m a y b e i n t r i n si ca l l y m o t i va t i n g f o r yo u n g l e a r n e r s. S u m m a r y B a se d o n p r e vi o u s st u d i e s t h a t h a ve i d e n t i f i e d m u l t i p l e o u t c o m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h i s st u d y se e ks t o f u r t h e r u n d e r st a n d t h e i m p a ct o f L C M o n l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n w h e n l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y d e si g n t o o l T h i s st u d y cr e a t e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i ci p a n t s t o r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct c r e a t e d i n S cr a t c h W h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch p a r t i ci p a n t s d e t e r m i n e d w h i ch p r o p e r t i e s t o a d d r e ss a n d h o w t o a d d r e ss t h e m T h r o u g h t h i s d e ci si o n m a ki n g p r o ce ss, p a r t i ci p a n t s e n g a g e d w i t h sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t b e yo n d r o t e m e m o r i z a t i o n W h i l e e xi st i n g st u d i e s d o cu m e n t t h e b e n e f i t s o f L C M u si n g o t h e r m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n t o o l s, t h i s st u d y co n t r i b u t e s n e w u n d e r st a n d i n g f o r u si n g S cr a t ch a s a m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n t o o l

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4 8 C H A P T E R 3 R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y a d d r e sse s t h e d e a r t h o f r e se a r ch e vi d e n t w h e n yo u t h co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s u si n g S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l t o d e m o n st r a t e t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f m a t h co n t e n t i n a n a ca d e m i c se t t i n g A b o d y o f r e se a r ch e xi st s t h a t i d e n t i f i e s n u m e r o u s b e n e f i t s w h e n yo u t h e n g a g e i n m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n I n a d d i t i o n e vi d e n ce e xi st s f o r u si n g S cr a t ch a s a t o o l f o r e xp r e ssi o n i n i n f o r m a l e n vi r o n m e n t s su c h a s a f t e r sch o o l ce n t e r s, co m m u n i t y t e ch n o l o g y ce n t e r s a n d S cr a t ch s o n l i n e co m m u n i t y T h i s s t u d y se e ks t o ca p i t a l i ze o n t h e a f f o r d a n ce s o f S cr a t ch a s a d e si g n t o o l i n a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t T h u s, t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n yo u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n a n d co n s t r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n st r a t e u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t S p e ci f i ca l l y, t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y i s yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s. W i t h t h e p u r p o se a n d p o p u l a t i o n i n m i n d t h i s st u d y a d d r e ss e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i ve i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? T h i s ch a p t e r p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h i s st u d y s r e se a r ch d e si g n a n d a d d r e sse s S t e p 2 o f t h e d e si g n b a s e d r e se a r ch ( D B R ) f r a m e w o r k i d e n t i f i e d i n c h a p t e r 1 o f t h i s m a n u scr i p t I t a l so a r t i cu l a t e s t h e s p e ci f i c p r o ce d u r e s co n d u ct e d w i t h i n t h e r e se a r ch d e si g n t o co m p l e t e t h e st u d y. T h e ch a p t e r i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g se ct i o n s : t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k, r e s e a r ch e r b i a s, r e se a r ch d e si g n r e se a r ch co n t e xt d a t a s o u r ce s a n d co l l e ct i o n d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s, t r u st w o r t h i n e ss a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y.

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4 9 T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k A s d e scr i b e d i n C h a p t e r 2 co n s t r u ct i vi st l e a r n i n g t h e o r y co n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y a n d kn o w l e d g e a s d e si g n p e d a g o g y p r o vi d e t h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s i n q u i r y. C r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o co n st r u c t p e r so n a l l y r e l e va n t m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t e p i t o m i ze s a c o n st r u ct i o n i st a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g C o n st r u c t i o n i st p e d a g o g y ( P a p e r t 1 9 8 0 ) i s b a s e d o n c o n st r u ct i vi sm t h e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y t h a t p o si t s t h a t l e a r n e r s b u i l d k n o w l e d g e st r u ct u r e s t h r o u g h e xp e r i e n ce s C o n st r u ct i o n i st s e x t e n d t h i s t h e o r y a n d a r g u e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r o b u st w h e n l e a r n e r s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o co n st r u ct a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a ct ( H a r e l & P a p e r t 1 9 9 1 ; K a f a i & R e sn i ck, 1 9 9 6 ) R e s e a r c h e r B i a s T h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k t h a t p r o vi d e s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s st u d y a l so i n d i ca t e s t h i s r e se a r ch e r s b i a s o n h o w i n d i vi d u a l s l e a r n b e st T h i s r e se a r ch e r st r o n g l y b e l i e ve s t h a t l e a r n i n g i s m o s t e f f e ct i v e w h e n a l e a r n e r m u st e n g a g e i n co n t e n t w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f d e si g n i n g a n d co n st r u ct i n g a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a c t t h a t e xp r e sse s w h a t s/ h e u n d e r s t a n d s a b o u t t h a t co n t e n t T h i s a r t i f a ct ca n e xi st i n m u l t i p l e f o r m s : a h a n d d r a w n co n ce p t m a p a n o n l i n e p r e se n t a t i o n a w o r d p r o ce ssi n g d o c u m e n t o r a m u l t i m e d i a d i sp l a y. E a ch a r t i f a ct r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s p e n d t i m e a n d e f f o r t e n g a g i n g i n co n t e n t b y m a ki n g m e a n i n g f r o m t h e co n t e n t f i n d i n g w a ys t o o r g a n i ze t h e co n t e n t i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l r e p r e se n t a t i o n a n d d e si g n i n g a n d co n s t r u ct i n g a n a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n t e n t T h i s b e l i e f a b o u t l e a r n i n g i d e n t i f i e s t h i s r e s e a r ch e r a s a co n st r u ct i o n i st a n d i t i s e sse n t i a l t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h i s b i a s ( H a t ch 2 0 0 2 )

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5 0 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n T h e r e se a r ch d e si g n m o st a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a d d r e ssi n g t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s st a t e d a b o ve i s a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y. M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) d e f i n e d a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y a s a n i n t e n si ve h o l i st i c d e sc r i p t i o n a n d a n a l ysi s o f a si n g l e i n st a n c e p h e n o m e n o n o r so ci a l u n i t ( p 2 1 ) F o r t h i s s t u d y, t h i s r e se a r c h e r co n d u ct e d a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se s t u d y o f t h e l e a r n i n g e ve n t o f a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk yo u t h co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch t o r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i cs so l i d s i n a n a ca d e m i c se t t i n g T h e t e r m c a se st u d y i s o f t e n u s e d a s a g e n e r i c co n ce p t so i t i s h e l p f u l f o r r e se a r ch e r s t o sp e ci f y t h e d e si g n o f a ca s e st u d y b a se d o n a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i st i cs o f t h e d e si g n T h e ca se st u d y d e si g n i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h i s st u d y ca n b e f u r t h e r d e f i n e d b a se d o n i t s sp e ci a l f e a t u r e s, i t s d i sci p l i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n a n d i t s i n t e n t ( se e T a b l e 3 1 ) T h e se t h r e e a sp e ct s o f a ca se st u d y d e si g n p r o vi d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e f o cu s, t h e o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y a n d t h e o u t co m e s o f t h e ca s e st u d y, r e sp e ct i ve l y. T a b l e 3 1 O ve r vi e w o f t h e ch a r a ct e r i s t i cs o f t h i s ca se st u d y C h a r a ct e r i st i cs ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) D e scr i p t i o n o f t h i s ca se st u d y S p e ci a l f e a t u r e s: p a r t i cu l a r i st i c, d e scr i p t i ve o r h e u r i st i c P a r t i cu l a r i st i c: t h i s ca s e st u d y f o cu se s o n a sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i ca l e ve n t D i sci p l i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n : e t h n o g r a p h i c, h i st o r i ca l p sych o l o g i ca l o r so ci o l o g i ca l P sych o l o g i ca l : t h i s ca se st u d y t a r g e t s t h e i n d i vi d u a l I n t e n t : d e scr i p t i ve i n t e r p r e t i ve e va l u a t i ve D e scr i p t i ve : t h i s ca s e st u d y p r o vi d e s a d e t a i l e d o ve r vi e w F i r st t h i s c a se st u d y i s p a r t i cu l a r i st i c, a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e sp e ci a l f e a t u r e s ch a r a ct e r i zi n g t h e st u d y. P a r t i cu l a r i st i c ca s e st u d i e s f o c u s o n a p a r t i cu l a r si t u a t i o n e ve n t p r o g r a m o r p h e n o m e n o n ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 2 9 ) a n d t h i s st u d y s f o cu s i s o n t h e sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i ca l e ve n t o f yo u n g a ca d e m i c a l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g a n d

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5 1 co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a b o u t sp e ci f i c m a t h c o n t e n t P a r t i cu l a r i st i c ca se st u d i e s a l so p r o vi d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t su cce ss f u l l y r e p l i ca t i n g t h e e ve n t i n si m i l a r co n t e xt s a n d st u d y a d e f i n e d e ve n t t h a t ca n co n t r i b u t e t o a g e n e r a l i ze d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n a t l a r g e ( O l so n i n H o a g l i n M o st e l l e r L i g h t S t o t o & M cP e e k, 1 9 8 2 ) S e co n d t h e d i sci p l i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h i s c a s e st u d y i s p sych o l o g i ca l P sych o l o g i ca l ca se st u d i e s t a r g e t t h e i n d i vi d u a l a n d h i s o r h e r b e h a vi o r w i t h i n a n e ve n t ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) T h i s c a se st u d y t a r g e t s t w o yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s a n d d o cu m e n t s t h e i r b e h a vi o r s a n d l e a r n i n g a s t h e y d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n st r a t e t h e i r kn o w l e d g e a b o u t sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t L a st t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s ca se s t u d y i s d e sc r i p t i v e I t w i l l p r o vi d e a d e t a i l e d o ve r vi e w o f a p e d a g o g i ca l e v e n t D e sc r i p t i ve ca se st u d i e s a r e va l u a b l e f o r p r e se n t i n g b a si c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a r e a s o f e d u ca t i o n w h e r e l i t t l e r e se a r ch h a s b e e n c o n d u ct e d ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 3 8 ) T h e r e i s e vi d e n ce t h a t l e a r n e r s b e n e f i t f r o m c o n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a I n a d d i t i o n u si n g S cr a t ch h a s b e e n d o cu m e n t e d i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s. H o w e v e r t h e r e i s a d e a r t h o f r e se a r ch a t t h e i n t e r se ct i o n o f t h e se t w o p r a ct i ce s: u si n g S cr a t ch t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a i n a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t T h i s d e scr i p t i ve ca s e st u d y p r o vi d e s i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o f i l l i n t h i s g a p i n r e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se a d d i t i o n a l d e scr i p t o r s h e l p d e f i n e t h i s ca s e st u d y. T h e r e se a r ch r e p r e se n t e d i n t h i s m a n u scr i p t i s a p a r t i cu l a r i s t i c, p sych o l o g i ca l a n d d e sc r i p t i ve ca se st u d y. T h i s d e scr i p t i o n i n f o r m s t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h i s ca se st u d y d e scr i b e s i n d i vi d u a l s a n d t h e i r b e h a vi o r s w i t h i n a sp e ci f i c e v e n t

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5 2 R e s e a r c h C o n t e x t T h i s se ct i o n p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e r e s e a r ch co n t e xt i n w h i ch t h i s st u d y o ccu r r e d T h e f o l l o w i n g s u b se ct i o n s f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e r e se a r c h co n t e x t R e s e a r c h S i t e T h e K 1 2 sc h o o l ch o s e n f o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y i s t h e l o ca l u n i ve r si t y s K 1 2 d e ve l o p m e n t a l r e s e a r ch sch o o l T h i s sch o o l h a s d e m o g r a p h i cs t h a t m a t ch t h e d e m o g r a p h i cs o f t h e su r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n T h u s, i t i n cl u d e s a d i ve r se p o p u l a t i o n a cr o ss n u m e r o u s ca t e g o r i e s su c h a s r a ce a n d so ci o e co n o m i c st a t u s. O t h e r r e a so n s f o r se l e ct i n g t h i s si t e i n cl u d e t h a t a m i ssi o n o f t h e sch o o l i s t o d e ve l o p i n n o va t i ve s o l u t i o n s t o e d u ca t i o n a l co n ce r n s ( sch o o l w e b si t e ) a n d t h a t t h e sc h o o l m a i n t a i n s a c o l l a b o r a t i ve r e l a t i o n sh i p w i t h t h e a ss o ci a t e d c o l l e g e o f e d u ca t i o n T h e sch o o l i s a l so cu r r e n t l y d e ve l o p i n g a m a t h i n t e r ve n t i o n m o d e l f o r st u d e n t s w h o a r e n o t p e r f o r m i n g w e l l i n m a t h a s i d e n t i f i e d b y s t a n d a r d i ze d t e st sco r e s. T h u s, u si n g t h i s si t e t o e va l u a t e a n a l t e r n a t i ve p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch b e n e f i t s t h e sch o o l a s w e l l a s t h e l a r g e r e d u ca t i o n a l co m m u n i t y. P r a c t i t i o n e r P r o f i l e A n i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f D B R i s co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n a r e se a r ch e r a n d a p r a ct i t i o n e r T h i s r e se a r ch e r co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h M r s. H a p r a ct i t i o n e r b a se d a t t h e sch o o l si t e se l e ct e d f o r t h i s st u d y M r s H p r e vi o u sl y e a r n e d a b a c h e l o r s d e g r e e i n e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d a m a st e r s d e g r e e i n sp e ci a l e d u c a t i o n f r o m a n a ccr e d i t e d t e a ch e r e d u ca t i o n p r o g r a m a t a l a r g e s o u t h e a st e r n p u b l i c u n i ve r si t y S h e i s cu r r e n t l y w o r ki n g p a r t t i m e t o w a r d s a n e d u ca t i o n d o ct o r a t e i n cu r r i cu l u m t e a c h i n g a n d t e a ch e r e d u ca t i o n M r s. H i s a l so i n h e r 6 t h ye a r o f t e a ch i n g P r e vi o u sl y, sh e h a s t a u g h t 2 n d 3 rd a n d 5 t h g r a d e s.

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5 3 D u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t a ca d e m i c ye a r sh e se r ve s i n a n i n st r u c t i o n a l su p p o r t p o si t i o n t h a t i s d i vi d e d b e t w e e n p r o vi d i n g p r o f e ssi o n a l d e ve l o p m e n t t o e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s a n d w o r ki n g w i t h T i e r 3 r e a d i n g a n d m a t h st u d e n t s T i e r 3 st u d e n t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s n e e d i n g i n t e n si ve i n d i vi d u a l i ze d i n t e r ve n t i o n s t o r e m e d i a t e ski l l d e f i ci t s b a se d o n d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m f o r m a l a sse ss m e n t s s u ch a s st a t e l e ve l st a n d a r d i ze d t e st s o r sch o o l a d m i n i st e r e d scr e e n i n g t e st s ( M a r st o n 2 0 0 5 ) I d e n t i f yi n g s t u d e n t s a s T i e r 3 r e f e r s t o t h e R e sp o n s e t o I n t e r v e n t i o n ( R t I ) f r a m e w o r k. S ch o o l s a d o p t i n g a n R t I f r a m e w o r k w o r k t o cr e a t e l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s w h e r e i n st r u ct i o n i s l a ye r e d o ve r t i m e i n r e sp o n s e t o st u d e n t s i n c r e a si n g n e e d s ( V a u g h n 2 0 0 3 p 2 ) T i e r 3 i n t e r ve n t i o n r e p r e se n t s t h e m o st i n t e n si ve l a ye r S a m p l e S e l e c t i o n I n co n d u ct i n g a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y, i t i s n e ce ssa r y t o p e r f o r m t w o l e ve l s o f sa m p l i n g t o i d e n t i f y t h e u n i t o f a n a l ysi s ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) F i r st t h e ca se i s s e l e ct e d T h e n p u r p o s e f u l sa m p l i n g i s co n d u ct e d w i t h i n t h e ca se F o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y, t h e se l e ct e d ca se i s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f T i e r 3 st u d e n t s f o r m a t h i n 5 t h g r a d e a t t h e l o ca l u n i ve r si t y s K 1 2 d e ve l o p m e n t a l r e se a r ch sch o o l T h i s p o p u l a t i o n o f a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s n e e d s a d d i t i o n a l t a r g e t e d i n st r u ct i o n t o b e s u cce ssf u l i n a c a d e m i c s e t t i n g s. T r a d i t i o n a l t e a ch i n g m e t h o d s m a y n o t w o r k w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n ye t a p p r o a ch e s t h a t cr e a t e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s m a y i n cr e a se m o t i va t i o n a n d a u g m e n t l e a r n i n g T i e r 3 st u d e n t s i n 5 t h g r a d e w e r e se l e c t e d b e c a u se S cr a t ch t h e d e si g n t o o l u se d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h i s st u d y w a s cr e a t e d f o r yo u n g p e o p l e a g e s 8 a n d u p w h i ch m a t ch e s t h e 5 t h g r a d e d e m o g r a p h i c. O n ce t h e ca s e w a s se l e ct e d p u r p o se f u l sa m p l i n g w a s co n d u ct e d w i t h i n t h e ca se T h e i n i t i a l ca s e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y i s a sch o o l s T i e r 3 st u d e n t s i n 5 t h

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5 4 g r a d e w h i c h co n si st s o f 8 st u d e n t s. T h e r e a r e 2 f e m a l e s ( o n e m i xe d r a ce a n d o n e H i sp a n i c) a n d 6 m a l e s ( 2 b l a ck 1 H i sp a n i c a n d 3 w h i t e ) T h e r e se a r ch e r i n co n j u n ct i o n w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r se l e ct e d t w o i n d i vi d u a l ca se s i n o r d e r t o c o n d u ct m a xi m u m va r i a t i o n sa m p l i n g a t yp e o f p u r p o se f u l sa m p l i n g ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) M a xi m u m v a r i a t i o n sa m p l i n g a t t e m p t s t o ca p t u r e l e ve l s o f d i ve r si t y w i t h i n t h e st u d i e d p h e n o m e n o n F o r t h i s st u d y, t h e d i ve r si t y w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y o b se r vi n g t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y w h i l e p a r t i ci p a n t s l e a r n e d h o w t o u s e S cr a t ch O n e st u d e n t D o m i n i c, f r u st r a t e d q u i ckl y w h i l e l e a r n i n g h o w t o u se S cr a t c h A n o t h e r st u d e n t Je n n i f e r q u i ckl y a cq u i r e d n e w ski l l s i n S cr a t c h a n d e m e r g e d a s a l e a d e r i n d e m o n st r a t i n g h o w t o co m p l e t e t a sks i n S cr a t ch t o t h e o t h e r st u d e n t s. B e ca u se o f t h e m a xi m u m v a r i a t i o n w i t h r e sp e ct t o l e a r n i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch b e t w e e n t h e se 2 s t u d e n t s t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r se l e ct e d D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r a s t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s f o r a ca se st u d y. T h u s t h e u n i t o f a n a l ysi s f o r t h i s st u d y i s a T i e r 3 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t R e s e a r c h E n v i r o n m e n t T h e T i e r 3 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s i n t h i s sch o o l m e e t d a i l y a s a g r o u p w i t h t h e M r s. H f o r a b o u t 2 5 m i n u t e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s ch o o l d a y. T h e y a r e p u l l e d f r o m t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ssr o o m s a n d m e e t i n M r s. H s o f f i c e D u r i n g t h i s t i m e M r s. H p r o vi d e s a d d i t i o n a l i n st r u ct i o n r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t T h i s i n st r u c t i o n i s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m a t h i n st r u ct i o n p r o vi d e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ss r o o m s. W h i l e t h e se st u d e n t s a r e w o r ki n g o n m a t h ski l l s w i t h M r s. H t h e o t h e r 5 t h g r a d e r s a r e w o r ki n g o n w r i t i n g ski l l s. T h e r e se a r ch e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r ( M r s. H ) c o l l a b o r a t i ve l y d e si g n e d a p r o t o t yp e o f a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u c t e d m u l t i m e d i a I n i t i a l l y, t h e r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r i d e n t i f i e d a p p r o p r i a t e co n t e n t t h a t t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s 5 t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s w o u l d a d d r e s s w h e n co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a u si n g

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5 5 S cr a t ch T h e co n t e n t se l e ct e d f o r t h i s i n q u i r y i s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. T h i s co n t e n t w a s s e l e ct e d b e ca u se i t i s e m p h a si ze d i n cu r r i c u l u m st a n d a r d s e n d o r se d b y se ve r a l o r g a n i za t i o n s ( se e T a b l e 3 1 ) A d d r e ssi n g t h i s co n t e n t o ccu r r e d i n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s p a ci n g g u i d e a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e r e se a r ch e r w a s a va i l a b l e t o co n d u ct t h i s i n q u i r y. T h e sch o o l si t e p r e vi o u sl y a d o p t e d E ve r d a y M a t h e m a t i cs ( B e l l B r e t zl a u f D i l l a r d H a r t f i e l d I sa a cs, M cB r i d e P i t vo r e c, S a e cke r & W i n n i n g h a m 2 0 0 7 ) f o r i t s m a t h cu r r i cu l u m a n d t h e t i m i n g o f t h i s r e se a r ch p r o j e ct co i n ci d e d w i t h t h e t e a ch i n g o f U n i t 1 1 i n t h e t e xt K n o w i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i s o n e o f t h e se cu r e ski l l s f o r t h i s u n i t I n a d d i t i o n t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a c h e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h i s co n t e n t a s o n e o f t h r e e cu r r i cu l a r f o ca l p o i n t s f o r 5 t h g r a d e T h i s c o n t e n t i s a l so i d e n t i f i e d a s a B i g I d e a i n t h e S t a t e o f F l o r i d a s N e xt G e n e r a t i o n S u n sh i n e S t a t e S t a n d a r d s. S p e ci f i c a l l y, t h e r e a r e t w o b e n ch m a r ks t h a t a d d r e ss t h i s co n t e n t : A n a l yze a n d co m p a r e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o d i m e n si o n a l f i g u r e s a n d t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l so l i d s ( p o l yh e d r a ) i n cl u d i n g t h e n u m b e r o f e d g e s, f a ce s, ve r t i ce s, a n d t yp e s o f f a c e s ( M A 5 G 3 1 ) a n d d e scr i b e d e f i n e a n d d e t e r m i n e su r f a ce a r e a a n d vo l u m e o f p r i sm s b y u si n g a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t s a n d se l e ct i n g st r a t e g i e s a n d t o o l s ( M A 5 G 3 2 ) T a b l e 3 1 C o n t e n t r a t i o n a l e O r g a n i za t i o n C o n t e n t e xp e ct a t i o n s E ve r d a y M a t h e m a t i cs, U n i ve r si t y o f C h i ca g o S ch o o l M a t h e m a t i cs P r o j e ct U n i t 1 1 se cu r e ski l l : K n o w t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a ch e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs G r a d e 5 C u r r i cu l u m F o ca l P o i n t f o r G e o m e t r y a n d M e a su r e m e n t a n d A l g e b r a : D e scr i b i n g t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l s h a p e s a n d a n a l yzi n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s, i n cl u d i n g vo l u m e a n d s u r f a ce a r e a

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5 6 T a b l e 3 1 C o n t i n u e d S t a t e o f F l o r i d a N e xt G e n e r a t i o n S u n sh i n e S t a t e S t a n d a r d s S u b j e ct A r e a : M a t h e m a t i cs G r a d e L e ve l : 5 B o d y o f K n o w l e d g e : G e o m e t r y B i g I d e a : B I G I D E A 3 D e scr i b e t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l s h a p e s a n d a n a l yze t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s, i n cl u d i n g vo l u m e a n d s u r f a ce a r e a B e n ch m a r k N u m b e r : M A 5 G 3 1 B e n ch m a r k D e sc r i p t i o n : A n a l yz e a n d c o m p a r e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o d i m e n si o n a l f i g u r e s a n d t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l s o l i d s ( p o l yh e d r a ) i n cl u d i n g t h e n u m b e r o f e d g e s, f a c e s, ve r t i ce s a n d t yp e s o f f a ce s. B e n c h m a r k N u m b e r : M A 5 G 3 2 B e n ch m a r k D e sc r i p t i o n : D e scr i b e d e f i n e a n d d e t e r m i n e su r f a ce a r e a a n d vo l u m e o f p r i sm s b y u si n g a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t s a n d se l e ct i n g st r a t e g i e s a n d t o o l s. P a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e f i r st i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s i n t h e i r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss r o o m s a s p a r t o f t h e E ve r yd a y M a t h e m a t i cs cu r r i cu l u m M r s H p r o vi d e d a d d i t i o n a l i n st r u ct i o n ( i n t e r v e n t i o n ) a n d r e vi e w o n t h i s sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t b e f o r e 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n e d a S c r a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct B o t h t yp e s o f i n st r u ct i o n o cc u r r e d b e f o r e t h e o n se t o f t h e cu r r e n t st u d y. D u r i n g t h e s t u d y, p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e xp e ct e d t o d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t d e m o n st r a t e s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e d e si g n p r o ce ss o ccu r r e d i n t w o g e n e r a l p h a se s: l e a r n i n g h o w t o u s e S cr a t ch ( P h a se 1 ) a n d d e si g n i n g a p r o j e ct u si n g S cr a t c h ( P h a se 2 ) E a ch p h a se co u l d b e f u r t h e r d i vi d e d i n t o su b p h a s e s t h a t b e t t e r r e p r e se n t t h e sp e ci f i c a ct i vi t i e s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s ( se e T a b l e 3 2 ) D u r i n g P h a se 1 p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e i n t r o d u ce d t o S cr a t ch P a r t i ci p a n t s u se d S cr a t ch ( V e r si o n 1 4 ) i n st a l l e d o n A p p l e i B o o k G 4 l a p t o p s r u n n i n g t h e M a c O S X V e r si o n 1 0 4 1 1 o p e r a t i n g syst e m T h e y e xp l o r e d S cr a t ch s i n t e r f a ce a n d b e ca m e f a m i l i a r w i t h

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5 7 so m e o f i t s f e a t u r e s. T h e S cr a t c h d e ve l o p e r s cr e a t e d S cr a t ch C a r d s, w h i ch a r e a co l l e ct i o n o f 1 2 ca r d s t h a t i n d i vi d u a l l y t e a ch a sp e ci f i c ski l l i n S cr a t ch F o r e xa m p l e t h e S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t c h C a r d ( se e F i g u r e 3 1 ) i d e n t i f i e s t h e st e p s r e q u i r e d t o h a ve a sp r i t e d i sp l a y a t e xt b u b b l e o n t h e sc r e e n D u r i n g P h a se 1 t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r sh a r e d t h e A n i m a t e I t M o vi n g A n i m a t i o n a n d S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t ch C a r d s w i t h p a r t i ci p a n t s t o l e a r n t h e sp e ci f i c ski l l i n t r o d u ce d b y e a ch c a r d T h e p a r t i ci p a n t s ch o se w h i ch S cr a t ch C a r d s t h e y w o u l d l i ke t o l e a r n F i g u r e 3 1 T h e f r o n t a n d b a ck o f t h e S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t ch ca r d D u r i n g P h a se 2 p a r t i ci p a n t s p l a n n e d d e si g n e d p r o d u ce d a n d t e st e d w a ys t o r e p r e se n t t h e i r kn o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n S cr a t ch T h e s e st e p s a r e si m i l a r t o t h e m u l t i m e d i a d e ve l o p m e n t p r o ce ss u se d b y p r o f e ssi o n a l

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5 8 d e si g n e r s ( L i u Jo n e s & H e m st r e e t 1 9 9 8 ) D u r i n g t h i s p h a se p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e i n t r o d u ce d t o t h e p r o j e ct a n d b e g a n t o b r a i n st o r m w a ys t o e xp r e ss t h e i r kn o w l e d g e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. P a r t i ci p a n t s a d d e d sp r i t e s a n d b a ckg r o u n d s f r o m t h e e xi st i n g l i b r a r i e s i n S cr a t ch o r c r e a t e d t h e i r o w n T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p h a se p a r t i ci p a n t s a l so t e st e d a n d r e vi se d t h e i r p r o j e ct T a b l e 3 2 O ve r vi e w o f d a i l y a ct i vi t i e s D a y P h a se D e scr i p t i o n s o f cl a ss e ve n t s D a y 1 P h a se 1 I n t r o d u ct i o n t o S cr a t ch ; o ve r vi e w o f i n t e r f a c e D a y 2 P h a se 1 C r e a t i n g sp r i t e s i n S cr a t ch D a y 3 P h a se 1 U si n g t h e sa y b l o ck i n S cr a t ch D a y 4 P h a se 1 U si n g t h e a r r o w ke ys t o m o ve a sp r i t e i n S cr a t ch D a y 5 P h a se 1 U si n g sp r i t e co st u m e s i n S c r a t ch D a y 6 P h a se 1 S w i t ch i n g a sp r i t e s co s t u m e i n S cr a t ch D a y 7 P h a se 1 D r a w i n g g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s i n S cr a t ch D a y 8 D a t a co l l e ct i o n C o m p l e t e p r e t e st o n g e o m e t r i c so l i d s D a y 9 P h a se 2 R e vi e w p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s D a y 1 0 P h a se 2 I n t r o d u ct i o n t o d e si g n p r o j e ct u si n g S cr a t ch D a ys 1 1 2 1 P h a se 2 D e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h D a ys 2 2 2 5 P h a se 2 P e e r r e vi e w i n g a n d r e vi si n g D a y 2 6 D a t a co l l e ct i o n C o m p l e t e p o st t e st o n g e o m e t r i c so l i d s D a t a S o u r c e s a n d C o l l e c t i o n T h i s se ct i o n p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e so u r ce s o f d a t a e m p l o y e d t o a d d r e ss t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s p o se d i n t h i s st u d y. T h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e so u r ce s o f d a t a f o r t h i s st u d y ( se e T a b l e 3 3 f o r a S o u r ce o f D a t a C h a r t ) E a ch so u r ce o f d a t a i s f u r t h e r d e scr i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g su b se ct i o n s. T a b l e 3 3 S o u r ce o f D a t a T a b l e D a t a so u r ce R e se a r ch q u e st i o n 1 R e se a r ch q u e st i o n 2 I n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r X X D e b r i e f i n g n o t e s b e t w e e n r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r X P r e a n d p o st e x p e r i e n c e co n t e n t t e st s X I n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d r e se a r ch e r X X R e se a r ch e r r e f l e c t i o n s o n p a r t i ci p a n t co n st r u c t e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s X X

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5 9 R e s e a r c h e r a n d P r a c t i t i o n e r I n t e r v i e w A t t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct t h e r e se a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r ( M r s. H ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s n e ce s sa r y f o r e n g a g i n g i n a d d i t i o n a l i t e r a t i o n s o f t h i s D B R a n d f o r e va l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i ve n e ss o f t h i s e ve n t a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y. T h u s, t h e t r a n sc r i p t o f t h i s i n t e r vi e w ( se e A p p e n d i x A ) p r o vi d e s a d a t a s o u r ce f o r a d d r e ssi n g b o t h r e s e a r ch q u e st i o n s p o se d i n t h i s st u d y T h e se m i st r u c t u r e d i n t e r vi e w g u i d e u s e d d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r vi e w i s sh o w n i n A p p e n d i x E D e b r i e f i n g N o t e s D a i l y n o t e s r e c o r d e d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r t o d o c u m e n t d e b r i e f i n g se ssi o n s b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d M r s. H t h a t o cc u r r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e a ch d e si g n s e ssi o n w e r e u se d t o d o cu m e n t t h e d e si g n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t T h e d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s i n cl u d e d d e scr i p t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s, t h e e ve n t s a n d t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e o b j e ct s. T h e se n o t e s a l so i n cl u d e d i r e ct q u o t e s m a d e b y p a r t i ci p a n t s o r n o t e s t h a t ca p t u r e t h e co r e o f w h a t i s ve r b a l i ze d d u r i n g t h e o b se r va t i o n s. I n a d d i t i o n f i e l d n o t e s i n cl u d e c o m m e n t s m a d e b y t h e r e se a r ch e r w h i l e i n t h e p r o ce ss o f o b se r vi n g T h e se e xt e n si ve f i e l d n o t e s, i n co n j u n ct i o n w i t h d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s b e t w e e n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r c h e r p r o vi d e s o u r ce s o f d a t a f o r i n f o r m i n g t h e d e si g n o f f u t u r e i t e r a t i o n s o f t h i s D B R a n d f o r d e ve l o p i n g a h e a l t h y r e sp o n se t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n # 2 C o n t e n t B a s e d P r e a n d P o s t T e s t s P a r t i ci p a n t s co m p l e t e d a p r e a n d p o st t e st o f co n t e n t m e a su r e s t o d e t e r m i n e i n i t i a l u n d e r st a n d i n g a n d g r o w t h i n c o n ce p t u a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f st a n d a r d s b a se d co n t e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x D ) T h e p r a ct i t i o n e r i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st cu r r i cu l u m b a se d co n t e n t m e a su r e f r o m t h e e xi st i n g E ve r yd a y M a t h e m a t i cs cu r r i cu l u m r e so u r ce s

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6 0 t h a t a r e r o u t i n e l y u se d a s a t r a d i t i o n a l s u m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t a t t h e sch o o l si t e C h a n g e s i n sco r e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st p r o vi d e d a t a f o r i d e n t i f yi n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s d u r i n g t h i s e ve n t a n d f o r r e sp o n d i n g t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n # 1 R e s e a r c h e r a n d P a r t i c i p a n t I n t e r v i e w s T w o p a r t i ci p a n t s se l e c t e d f o r t h e c a se st u d i e s co m p l e t e d a p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w w i t h t h e r e se a r ch e r t o d e t e r m i n e h o w a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s p e r c e i ve h o w co n st r u c t i n g m u l t i m e d i a c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e i r l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n ( V a n M a n e n 2 0 0 1 ; S e i d m a n 2 0 0 6 ) A p p e n d i x E i n cl u d e s t h e se m i st r u ct u r e d I n t e r vi e w G u i d e u se d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r vi e w s. E a ch i n t e r vi e w w a s r e c o r d e d a n d t r a n scr i b e d ( P o l a n d 2 0 0 2 ) T h e se t r a n scr i p t s p r o vi d e va l u a b l e d a t a f o r a d d r e ssi n g r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s # 1 a n d # 2 R e s e a r c h e r R e f l e c t i o n s o n S c r a t c h M u l t i m e d i a A r t i f a c t s D u r i n g P h a se 2 o f t h i s st u d y ( t h e d e si g n p h a s e ) e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t u se d S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a n d c o n st r u ct a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d h i s/ h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. A f t e r e a ch d e s i g n se ssi o n t h i s r e se a r ch e r e xa m i n e d e a ch S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct a n d n o t e d t h e p r o g r e ss o f e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t I n a sp r e a d sh e e t t h i s r e se a r ch e r r e co r d e d t h e n u m b e r o f s p r i t e s, t h e n u m b e r o f b a ckg r o u n d s, t h e n u m b e r o f scr i p t s, t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o cks u se d i n scr i p t s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f co m m a n d b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n scr i p t s C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e s e d a t a se r ve a s q u a n t i f i a b l e m e a s u r e s o f e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss ( se e A p p e n d i x G ) I n a d d i t i o n t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d h i s r e f l e ct i o n s o n p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss w h i l e a n a l yzi n g e a ch S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x C f o r a n e x a m p l e ) T h e se r e f l e ct i o n s p r o vi d e q u a l i t a t i ve d a t a f o r m e a su r i n g e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss.

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6 1 D a t a A n a l y s i s P r o c e d u r e s T h i s se ct i o n i n cl u d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s u se d t o a n a l yze t h e d a t a c o l l e ct e d d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. T h i s se ct i o n i s f u r t h e r d i vi d e d i n t o 4 su b s e ct i o n s t h a t e a ch a d d r e sse s a se p a r a t e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e F i r st t h i s r e se a r ch e r d e scr i b e s t h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e u se d t o a n a l yze t h e t r a n sc r i p t s f r o m i n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h e r e se a r c h e r a n d t h e 2 ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. S e co n d t h e p r o ce d u r e u se d t o c o n d u ct a c r o ss ca s e a n a l ysi s o f t h e 2 se p a r a t e ca se s i s d o c u m e n t e d N e xt t h e p r o ce ss f o r co m p a r i n g sco r e s o n t h e cu r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st i s i d e n t i f i e d F i n a l l y, t h i s r e s e a r ch e r sh a r e s t h e a n a l ysi s p r o ce ss f o r e xa m i n i n g t h e S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s d e si g n e d a n d c o n st r u ct e d b y t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. T e x t u a l D a t a A n a l y s i s T e sch ( 1 9 9 0 ) p r o vi d e d a syst e m a t i c e i g h t st e p p r o ce ss f o r a n a l yzi n g d a t a i n t h e f o r m o f t e xt ( S e e T a b l e 3 4 ) T h e r e se a r ch e r a p p l i e d t h i s syst e m a t i c p r o ce ss t o a n a l yze t r a n scr i p t s co l l e ct e d f r o m i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d w i t h 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s ( se e A p p e n d i x F f o r a n e xa m p l e o f t h i s p r o ce ss ) T h e p r o ce ss d e scr i b e d b e l o w w a s a p p l i e d se p a r a t e l y t o t e xt f r o m b o t h t r a n sc r i p t s b a se d o n i n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e 2 c a se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s T h i s d a t a a n a l ysi s g e n e r a t e d a se p a r a t e ca se st u d y f o r b o t h p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d i s u se d t o a d d r e ss o n e o f t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i ve i s L C M a t i n c r e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? T h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e w a s a l so a p p l i e d t o t h e t e xt f r o m t h e t r a n sc r i p t o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r T h i s r e se a r ch e r u se d t h i s p a r t i cu l a r a n a l ysi s t o a d d r e ss t h e s e co n d

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6 2 r e se a r ch q u e st i o n : W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o v a t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s L C M f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s ? T a b l e 3 4 D a t a a n a l ysi s st e p s f o r t e xt u a l d a t a S t e p A ct i vi t y 1 R e a d t h r o u g h t e x t t o d e v e l o p i n i t i a l u n d e r st a n d i n g ; cr e a t e b r i e f n o t e s 2 R e r e a d t e x t t o d e v e l o p m e a n i n g ; c r e a t e n o t e s 3 I d e n t i f y l i st o f t h e m e s b a se d o n n o t e s 4 T r a n sl a t e t h e m e s i n t o c o d e s; l a b e l t e xt w i t h c o d e s 5 G r o u p t h e m e s i n t o ca t e g o r i e s 6 C o n ve r t ca t e g o r i e s i n t o co d e s 7 O r g a n i ze d a t a b a s e d o n c a t e g o r i ca l co d e s 8 R e co d e d a t a i f n e e d e d T h e f i r st st e p i s t o ca r e f u l l y r e a d t h r o u g h a l l o f t h e t r a n scr i p t s w i t h t h e p u r p o se o f d e ve l o p i n g a g e n e r a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e d a t a T h e r e se a r ch e r r e co r d e d e a r l y t h i n ki n g a n d o b se r va t i o n s i n t h e f o r m o f b r i e f n o t e s. T h i s f i r st st e p a ssi st s t h e r e se a r ch e r i n d e ve l o p i n g a n i n i t i a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e d a t a S e co n d e a ch o f t h e t r a n sc r i p t s i s r e r e a d A f t e r e a ch r e a d i n g t h e r e se a r ch e r t o o k n o t e s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f ca p t u r i n g t h e o ve r a l l m e a n i n g o f t h e t e xt a n d n o t t h e s p e ci f i c d e t a i l e m b e d d e d w i t h i n t h e t e xt T h i s st e p e n su r e s a ca r e f u l r e a d i n g o f t h e t r a n sc r i p t s a n d f o cu se s t h e r e se a r c h e r o n d e ve l o p i n g a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e u n d e r l yi n g m e a n i n g o f e a ch p i e c e o f t e x t u a l d a t a N e xt t h e r e se a r c h e r i d e n t i f i e d a n i n i t i a l l i st o f t h e m e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e n o t e s cr e a t e d d u r i n g t h e p r e vi o u s st e p T h e se t h e m e s se r ve d a s t h e i n i t i a l f r a m e w o r k f o r m a ki n g m e a n i n g o f t h e d a t a T h e f o u r t h st e p i n vo l ve s t r a n sl a t i n g t h e t h e m e s i n t o a b b r e vi a t e d c o d e s. T h e r e se a r ch e r t h e n r e t u r n e d t o t h e t r a n scr i p t s a n d l a b e l e d e a ch se n t e n ce p h r a se o r se n t e n ce w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e co d e P h r a s e s o r se n t e n ce s t h a t co u l d n o t b e l a b e l e d w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e co d e i n d i ca t e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l co d e s a n d t h e m e s sh o u l d b e

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6 3 g e n e r a t e d T h i s st e p t e st s t h e i n i t i a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e m e s a g a i n st t h e d a t a a n d yi e l d s a r e vi se d f r a m e w o r k o f t h e m e s t h a t a d d r e sse s t h e d a t a F i f t h t h e r e se a r ch e r n a r r o w e d t h e n u m b e r o f t h e m e s b y g r o u p i n g si m i l a r t h e m e s i n t o ca t e g o r i e s. T h i s st e p g e n e r a t e s a m a n a g e a b l e l i st o f ca t e g o r i e s. C a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e i r a sso ci a t e d t h e m e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n A p p e n d i x F S i xt h ca t e g o r i e s a r e c o n ve r t e d i n t o a b b r e vi a t e d co d e s. T h i s st e p f a ci l i t a t e s t h e p r o ce ss o f c o d i n g t h e d a t a N e xt t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r g a n i ze d t h e d a t a b a se d o n t h e ca t e g o r i ca l c o d e s. T h a t i s, i n d i vi d u a l p h r a se s o r se n t e n ce s f r o m t h e d a t a w e r e p u l l e d f r o m t h e t r a n scr i p t s a n d r e g r o u p e d w i t h si m i l a r d a t a b a se d o n t h e ca t e g o r i ca l co d e s a t t a ch e d t o t h e d a t a T h e se r e g r o u p i n g s p r o vi d e d e vi d e n c e f o r m a ki n g m e a n i n g f r o m t h e t r a n sc r i p t i o n s a n d f i e l d n o t e s. L a st l y, i f n e e d e d d a t a i s r e c o d e d T h e p r o ce ss d e sc r i b e d a b o ve w a s a p p l i e d t o e a ch o f t h e t r a n scr i p t s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r T h i s p r o c e ss r e s u l t e d i n t h e p r o d u ct i o n o f t w o s e p a r a t e ca se s W i t h t h e a va i l a b i l i t y o f t w o ca s e s, t h e r e se a r ch e r a l so c o n d u ct e d a cr o ss ca se st u d y. C r o s s C a s e A n a l y s i s T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y i n cl u d e s t w o ca se s t u d i e s M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) i d e n t i f i e d t w o st a g e s o f a n a l ysi s w h e n m u l t i p l e ca s e s a r e p r e se n t w i t h i n a s t u d y. F i r st t h e w i t h i n c a se a n a l ysi s o ccu r s t o g e n e r a t e a co m p r e h e n si ve ca se i n a n d o f i t se l f ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 1 9 4 ) N e xt cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s b e g i n s. T h i s st u d y i d e n t i f i e d t w o p a r t i ci p a n t s t o se r v e a s i n d e p e n d e n t ca s e s f o r t h e w i t h i n ca se a n a l ysi s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f g e n e r a t i n g t w o se p a r a t e ca se st u d i e s. T h i s r e se a r ch e r a d o p t e d T e sch s ( 1 9 9 0 ) t e xt u a l d a t a a n a l ysi s f o r t h e w i t h i n ca se a n a l ysi s a s d e scr i b e d a b o v e

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6 4 T h e n e xt st a g e o f a n a l ysi s f o r a m u l t i p l e ca s e st u d y i s cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s. C r o ss ca se a n a l ysi s a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r ch e r t o e n h a n ce g e n e r a l i za b i l i t y ( M i l e s & H u b e r m a n 1 9 9 4 p 1 7 3 ) a n d t o d e e p e n u n d e r st a n d i n g a n d e xp l a n a t i o n ( p 1 7 3 ) T h i s a p p r o a ch g e n e r a t e s u n d e r st a n d i n g b e y o n d t h e u n i q u e n e ss o f a n i n d i vi d u a l ca se a n d m a y l e a d t o a m o r e u n i ve r s a l a n d l e ss p a r t i cu l a r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f i n t e r e s t M i l e s & H u b e r m a n a d vo c a t e d f o r a n i n t e r a ct i ve syn t h e si s ( p 1 7 6 ) w h e n co n d u ct i n g a cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s. A n i n t e r a ct i ve sy n t h e si s co m b i n e s d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s t h a t se p a r a t e l y f o cu s o n a n a l yzi n g v a r i a b l e s e vi d e n t a cr o ss ca s e s ( va r i a b l e o r i e n t e d st r a t e g i e s ) o r o n a n a l yzi n g t h e i n d i vi d u a l q u a l i t i e s o f e a ch c a se ( c a se o r i e n t e d st r a t e g i e s ) C o n d u ct i n g a n i n t e r a ct i ve syn t h e si s f i r st r e l i e s o n t h e p r e se n t a t i o n o f se p a r a t e ca se s. N e xt t h e m e s e vi d e n t a cr o ss ca se s a r e d e scr i b e d ( a v a r i a b l e o r i e n t e d st r a t e g y) T h e se t h e m e s a r e t h e n f r a m e d a n d su p p o r t e d w i t h i n e a ch ca se ( a ca se o r i e n t e d s t r a t e g y) P r e a n d P o s t T e s t A n a l y s i s S co r e s f r o m t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st w e r e co m p a r e d f o r e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t T h e sa m p l e si ze f o r t h i s st u d y i s t o o s m a l l t o m e a s u r e st a t i st i ca l si g n i f i ca n ce b e t w e e n t h e t w o m e a su r e s. H o w e ve r a n i n cr e a s e i n sco r e s i n d i ca t e d t h a t a p a r t i ci p a n t d i d g a i n so m e u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s d u r i n g t h e e xp e r i e n ce S c r a t c h A r t i f a c t A n a l y s i s I n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y, e a c h p a r t i ci p a n t d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch t h a t r e p r e se n t e d h i s/ h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e se S cr a t c h m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s se r ve a s a d a t a so u r ce a n d ca n b e a n a l yze d H o w e ve r t h e r e e xi st s o n l y a si n g l e p r e c e d e n t f o r a n a l yzi n g S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s. M a l o n e y e t a l ( 2 0 0 8 ) a n a l yze d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s f o r e vi d e n ce o f p r o g r a m m i n g co n ce p t s. T h e y

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6 5 e xa m i n e d l e a r n e d co n st r u ct e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s a n d i d e n t i f i e d co m m a n d b l o cks i n cl u d e d i n e a ch S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t T h e y a r g u e d t h a t t h e u se o f a p a r t i cu l a r co m m a n d b l o ck i n d i ca t e d a s p e ci f i c p r o g r a m m i n g co n ce p t U n f o r t u n a t e l y, t h i s a p p r o a ch i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e cu r r e n t st u d y b e ca u s e t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s p o se d i n t h i s st u d y a r e n o t co n ce r n e d w i t h p r o g r a m m i n g co n c e p t s l e a r n e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s. R a t h e r t h e S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s n e e d e d t o b e a n a l yze d t o d e t e r m i n e a n i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g W i t h t h i s p u r p o se i n m i n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r e xa m i n e d e a c h S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct d a i l y. I n a sp r e a d s h e e t h e r e c o r d e d t h e n u m b e r o f sp r i t e s, t h e n u m b e r o f b a ck g r o u n d s, t h e n u m b e r o f scr i p t s, t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o cks u se d i n sc r i p t s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n sc r i p t s. I n a d d i t i o n h e a l so l i st e d t h e u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o cks u se d i n scr i p t s f o r e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x G f o r a n e x a m p l e ) N e xt h e r e c o r d e d h i s r e f l e ct i o n s o n e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss n o t i n g e vi d e n ce o f co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g p r o g r e ss b a se d o n t h e d a t a r e co r d e d i n t h e sp r e a d sh e e t T h e d a t a co n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e sp r e a d sh e e t co u l d se r ve a s a m e a su r e o f t h e co m p l e xi t y o f a p a r t i ci p a n t s a r t i f a ct I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t a n i n cr e a se i n a n y o f t h e se va l u e s o ve r t i m e i n d i ca t e s t h a t a n a r t i f a ct i s e vo l vi n g a n d b e co m i n g m o r e co m p l e x. T h e r e f l e ct i o n s d o cu m e n t t h i s r e se a r ch e r s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s p r e a d sh e e t d a t a C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e sp r e a d sh e e t d a t a a n d r e f l e ct i o n s p r o vi d e d a d d i t i o n a l e vi d e n ce f o r co m p l e t i n g t h e w i t h i n c a se a n d cr o ss ca se a n a l yse s. T r u s t w o r t h i n e s s M e e t i n g su f f i ci e n t l e ve l s o f va l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y a r e co n c e r n s f o r a l l t yp e s o f r e se a r ch b u t t h e se co n st r u ct s a r e m e a su r e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n q u a l i t a t i ve a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e st u d i e s. V a l i d i t y, r e l i a b i l i t y a n d g e n e r a l i za b i l i t y a l l co n t r i b u t e t o a q u a l i t a t i ve s t u d y s

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6 6 t r u st w o r t h i n e ss. T r u st w o r t h i n e ss e n su r e s t h a t r e se a r c h r e su l t s ca n b e t r u st e d w i t h a h i g h l e ve l o f co n f i d e n ce ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) V a l i d i t y A ca se st u d y s va l i d i t y e n s u r e s t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s e vi d e n t w i t h i n t h e st u d y m a t ch t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e co n t e x t M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) i d e n t i f i e d si x st r a t e g i e s f o r e n su r i n g su f f i ci e n t va l i d i t y i n q u a l i t a t i ve c a se st u d y d e si g n s: t r i a n g u l a t i o n m e m b e r ch e cks, l o n g t e r m o b se r va t i o n p e e r e xa m i n a t i o n c o l l a b o r a t i ve m o d e s o f r e se a r ch a n d r e s e a r ch e r s b i a se s. T r i a n g u l a t i o n i n vo l ve s u si n g m u l t i p l e i n ve st i g a t o r s, m u l t i p l e s o u r ce s o f d a t a o r m u l t i p l e m e t h o d s t o co n f i r m t h e e m e r g i n g f i n d i n g s ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 2 0 4 ) T h i s c a se st u d y d e si g n i n c o r p o r a t e d m u l t i p l e s o u r ce s o f d a t a ( o b se r va t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s, i n t e r vi e w t r a n scr i p t s co n t e n t m e a s u r e s a n d a r t i f a ct s o f i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a ) d u r i n g t h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s t o e n su r e t h a t co n cl u si o n s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d a t a M e m b e r ch e cks i n v o l ve t h e i n t e r vi e w p a r t i ci p a n t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p l a u si b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e ve l o p e d b y t h e r e se a r c h e r ( G u b a & L i n co l n 1 9 8 9 ; M i l e s & H u b e r m a n 1 9 9 4 ; M o u st a ka s, 1 9 9 4 ) I n t h i s s t u d y, a m e m b e r ch e ck w a s c o n d u ct e d w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r ( M r s. H ) a f t e r h e r i n t e r vi e w t r a n scr i p t w a s a n a l yze d t o e n su r e t h a t co n cl u si o n s a r r i ve d a t b y t h e r e se a r ch e r r e p r e se n t e d t h e d a t a p r o vi d e d b y h e r E n g a g i n g i n l o n g t e r m o b s e r va t i o n i n cr e a s e s va l i d i t y b y p r o vi d i n g su f f i ci e n t t i m e f o r t h e r e se a r ch e r t o co l l e ct d a t a F o r t h i s ca s e st u d y, t h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s d a i l y o ve r a p e r i o d o f s e ve n w e e k s. P e e r e xa m i n a t i o n o ccu r s w h e n c o l l e a g u e s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o vi d e co m m e n t s a s t h e r e se a r ch e r d e ve l o p s f i n d i n g s b a se d o n t h e d a t a F o r t h i s st u d y, o n ce a ca se w a s a n a l yze d t h e r e se a r ch e r sh a r e d p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s w i t h a su p e r vi si n g

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6 7 f a cu l t y m e m b e r t o e n su r e t h a t ca se s a n a l ysi s w a s p r o ce e d i n g i n a n a p p r o p r i a t e m a n n e r C o l l a b o r a t i ve m o d e s o f r e s e a r ch p r o vi d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s t u d y s p a r t i ci p a n t s t o co n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e se a r c h p r o c e ss. S i n ce t h i s st u d y u se s a D B R f r a m e w o r k, co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r i s a n e sse n t i a l co m p o n e n t o f t h e ca se st u d y. T h e r e s e a r ch e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r h a d e xt e n d e d t i m e t o co l l a b o r a t e a n d t o d e si g n t h e e xp e r i e n ce a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r se r ve d a s a p a r t i ci p a n t a n d a s a s o u r ce o f d a t a i n t h e ca se st u d y. B r a cke t i n g t h e r e se a r ch e r s b i a se s f o r ce s t h e r e se a r ch e r t o cl a r i f y a ssu m p t i o n s, w o r l d vi e w a n d t h e o r e t i ca l o r i e n t a t i o n ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 2 0 5 ) so t h a t r e a d e r s u n d e r st a n d a r e se a r ch e r s b i a se s. B r a ck e t i n g a ckn o w l e d g e s t h a t b i a s e s a r e i n h e r e n t i n a l l h u m a n e n d e a vo r s a n d e n su r e t h a t t h e y a r e m a d e p u b l i cl y a va i l a b l e T h e t h e o r e t i ca l o r i e n t a t i o n w a s d e sc r i b e d a b o ve a n d cl e a r l y r e p r e se n t s t h i s r e s e a r ch e r s b i a se s R e l i a b i l i t y R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e st u d y t o b e r e p l i ca t e d M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) sh a r e d t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s f o r p r o m o t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y i n q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y d e si g n s: i n ve st i g a t o r s p o si t i o n t r i a n g u l a t i o n a n d a u d i t t r a i l F i r st t h e r e se a r c h e r sh o u l d cl e a r l y d e scr i b e h i s o r h e r r o l e a n d d e ci si o n m a ki n g w i t h i n t h e st u d y. T h i s ch a p t e r o ve r a l l co n t r i b u t e s t o a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f t h e r e se a r c h e r i n t h i s ca se st u d y. D e ci si o n s m a d e b y t h e r e se a r ch e r a r e cl e a r l y a r t i cu l a t e d i n p r e vi o u s s e ct i o n s. S e co n d t r i a n g u l a t i o n co n t r i b u t e s t o va l i d i t y a s d e scr i b e d a b o v e a n d a l so co n t r i b u t e s t o t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a c a se st u d y d e si g n T h i r d p r o vi d i n g a f u l l a n d t h o r o u g h a cco u n t o f h o w d a t a i s a n a l yze d g e n e r a t e s a n a u d i t t r a i l ( R o d g e r s & C o w l e s, 1 9 9 3 ) T h i s d o c u m e n t a t i o n e n s u r e s t h a t o t h e r s ca n u n d e r st a n d t h e l o g i c f o l l o w e d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r i n r e a c h i n g co n cl u si o n s

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6 8 b a se d o n t h e d a t a T h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n sh o u l d b e su f f i ci e n t l y t h o r o u g h su c h t h a t o t h e r s co u l d a r r i v e a t si m i l a r co n cl u si o n s b a se d o n t h e a n a l ysi s co n d u ct e d A p p e n d i ce s C D E a n d F p r o vi d e a n a u d i t t r a i l f o r t h e a n a l yse s co n d u ct e d i n t h i s ca se s t u d y. G e n e r a l i za b i l i t y G e n e r a l i za b i l i t y i s a n i n d i ca t i o n o f t h e e xt e n t t o w h i ch co n cl u si o n s d r a w n f r o m t h i s st u d y ca n b e a p p l i e d t o o t h e r co n t e xt s. M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) a r t i cu l a t e d t h r e e st r a t e g i e s f o r e n su r i n g g e n e r a l i za b i l i t y i n q u a l i t a t i ve ca se s t u d y d e si g n : r i ch t h i ck d e scr i p t i o n s, t yp i ca l i t y a n d m u l t i si t e d e si g n s A s a r t i cu l a t e d a b o ve t h i s i s a d e scr i p t i ve ca se st u d y. A n o u t co m e o f a d e sc r i p t i ve ca s e st u d y i s a r i ch t h i ck d e scr i p t i o n o f a n e ve n t A r i ch t h i ck d e s cr i p t i o n p r o vi d e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e a d e r s t o d e t e r m i n e i f f i n d i n g s ca n b e a p p l i e d i n t h e i r co n t e xt s. T yp i ca l i t y h i g h l i g h t s h o w r e p r e se n t a t i ve t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s a r e f o r a p a r t i cu l a r p o p u l a t i o n T h i s ca se st u d y s p a r t i ci p a n t s a r e w e l l d e scr i b e d a n d t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s e l e ct i o n i d e n t i f i e d t h e q u a l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r p a r t i ci p a t i o n i n t h i s st u d y. M u l t i si t e d e si g n s ca n u se d i f f e r e n t si t e s, ca se s, [ o r ] si t u a t i o n s ( p 2 1 2 ) w i t h i n t h e st u d y t o r e p r e se n t d i ve r si t y w i t h i n t h e e ve n t t o b e st u d i e d T h i s ca se st u d y u se s p u r p o s e f u l sa m p l i n g t o i d e n t i f y t w o c a se s t h a t r e p r e se n t m a xi m u m v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n L i m i t a t i o n s o f T h i s S t u d y T h e r e a r e s e ve r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y. T h i s st u d y a t t e m p t s t o p r o vi d e a r i ch d e scr i p t i o n o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s, co n t e xt e ve n t s a n d t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e o b j e ct s. Y e t i n t e r vi e w s, d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s a n d r e se a r ch e r r e f l e ct i o n s m a y n o t f u l l y a cco u n t f o r a n p a r t i ci p a n t s b e h a vi o r s. T h i s r e p r e se n t s a g e n e r a l l i m i t a t i o n o f ca s e st u d i e s b e st a r t i cu l a t e d b y M a cD o n a l d & W a l k e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) w h e n t h e y o b se r v e d t h a t a t a l l l e ve l s o f t h e syst e m w h a t p e o p l e t h i n k t h e y r e d o i n g w h a t t h e y sa y t h e y a r e d o i n g w h a t

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6 9 t h e y a p p e a r t o b e d o i n g a n d w h a t i n f a ct t h e y a r e d o i n g m a y b e so u r ce s o f co n si d e r a b l e d i scr e p a n cy ( p 1 8 6 e m p h a si s i n o r i g i n a l ) A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s st u d y i s t h e ch a l l e n g e o f i n t e r vi e w i n g yo u n g l e a r n e r s. H e t h e r i n g t o n a n d P a r ke ( 1 9 8 6 ) cl a i m e d t h a t ch i l d r e n a r e m o r e d i f f i cu l t t o i n t e r vi e w t h a n a d u l t s; ch i l d r e n a r e l e ss a t t e n t i ve a r e sl o w e r t o r e sp o n d a n d h a v e m o r e d i f f i cu l t y u n d e r st a n d i n g q u e st i o n s t h a n a d u l t s ( p 2 4 ) C h i l d r e n m a y p r o vi d e m o n o syl l a b i c r e sp o n se s o r a n sw e r I d o n t kn o w d u r i n g i n t e r vi e w s ( M a u t h n e r 1 9 9 7 ) T h e se r e sp o n se s a r e d i f f i cu l t t o i n t e r p r e t a n d m a y n o t p r o vi d e s u f f i ci e n t e vi d e n ce t o su p p o r t a p a r t i cu l a r f i n d i n g I t i s a l so n e ce ss a r y t o c o n si d e r t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e r e se a r c h co n t e x t e m b e d d e d w i t h i n t h e sch o o l si t e u se d i n t h i s st u d y. T h e sm a l l g r o u p st r u ct u r e f o r t h e 5 t h g r a d e l e a r n e r s i n t h i s p a r t i cu l a r sch o o l m a y n o t e xi st i n o t h e r sc h o o l se t t i n g s. T h u s, i t m a y b e q u i t e d i f f i cu l t t o r e p l i ca t e t h i s st u d y i n a d d i t i o n a l sch o o l si t e s. T h e u n i q u e ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f t h i s si t e m a y a l so l i m i t g e n e r a l i za t i o n s b e yo n d t h i s sch o o l A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e r e se a r ch e r s b i a s a n d i t s i m p a ct o n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a co l l e ct e d d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. T h i s r e se a r c h e r s b i a s p r o vi d e d a p e r sp e ct i ve t h r o u g h w h i ch a l l d a t a w a s i n t e r p r e t e d

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7 0 C H A P T E R 4 E V A L U A T I O N A N D T E S T I N G O F A S O L U T I O N I N P R A C T I C E I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s st u d y se e ks t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n a n d c o n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. B a se d o n t h i s p u r p o s e t h i s st u d y p o se d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i v e i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? I n t h i s ch a p t e r t h i s r e se a r ch e r f i r st su m m a r i z e s t h e d a t a co l l e ct e d f r o m a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s t h e n r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r st r e se a r ch q u e st i o n u si n g d a t a f r o m ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s r e sp o n se s d u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w s, p a r t i ci p a n t s p e r f o r m a n ce s o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s f r o m t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s T h e n e xt ch a p t e r a d d r e sse s t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e se co n d r e s e a r ch q u e st i o n S u m m a r y o f P a r t i c i p a n t D a t a E i g h t 5 t h g r a d e r s p a r t i ci p a t e d i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y. E a ch cr e a t e d a S cr a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t e x p r e sse d h i s/ h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h i s r e se a r c h e r d a i l y a n a l yze d e a ch a r t i f a ct a n d r e co r d e d s p e ci f i c d a t a a b o u t e a ch a s d e sc r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 I n a d d i t i o n e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t co m p l e t e d a p r e a n d p o st t e st a d d r e ssi n g t h i s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t T a b l e 4 1 co n t a i n s a s u m m a r y o f t h i s d a t a T a b l e 4 1 S u m m a r y o f p a r t i c i p a n t d a t a U n i t o f a n a l ysi s C a se st u d y: D o m i n i c C a se st u d y: Je n n i f e r O t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s m e a n s

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7 1 N u m b e r o f sp r i t e s 2 2 1 1 4 3 N u m b e r o f b a ckg r o u n d s 5 4 2 2 N u m b e r o f scr i p t s 8 4 4 0 9 5 N u m b e r o f b l o cks u s e d i n scr i p t s 2 0 7 1 1 6 5 6 3 N u m b e r o f b l o ck t yp e s u s e d i n scr i p t s 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 P r e t e st sco r e 7 9 6 9 P o st t e st sco r e 6 6 7 6 T h i s d a t a r e ve a l s t h a t t h e 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s i n cl u d e d co n si d e r a b l y m o r e s p r i t e s, b a ckg r o u n d s, scr i p t s a n d c o m m a n d b l o cks t h a n t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s, t h o u g h t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s r e m a i n e d c o n si st e n t a cr o ss t h e p a r t i ci p a n t g r o u p T h e 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t s t o sco r e l o w e r o n t h e p o st t e st w h e n co m p a r e d t o t h e p r e t e st T h e n o n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r o n t h e p o st t e st w i t h t h e e xce p t i o n o f o n e p a r t i ci p a n t w h o sco r e d t h e sa m e o n b o t h T h e n e xt se ct i o n sh o w ca se s 2 c a se st u d i e s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f d e ve l o p i n g a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e i m p a ct o f L C M o n l e a r n i n g T h e se ca se st u d i e s a r e f o l l o w e d b y a cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s. I m p a c t o n L e a r n i n g O n e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n p o se d b y t h i s r e s e a r ch e r se e ks t o u n d e r st a n d t h e i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g w h e n l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch T o a d d r e ss t h i s r e se a r ch q u e st i o n t h i s r e se a r c h e r i n co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s e l e ct e d t w o p a r t i ci p a n t s f o r i n d e p t h ca se st u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i m p a ct o n t h e i r l e a r n i n g a s d e scr i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 E a ch ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t co m p l e t e d a c u r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st o n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. I n a d d i t i o n e a c h ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch T h e se a r t i f a ct s w e r e a n a l yze d a f t e r e a c h d e si g n se ssi o n T h i s r e se a r c h e r a l so r e co r d e d t r a n scr i b e d a n d a n a l yze d a n

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7 2 i n t e r vi e w w i t h e a c h o f t h e ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. E a ch o f t h e se d a t a so u r ce s p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce f o r t h e c a se st u d i e s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w C a s e S t u d y # 1 : D o m i n i c D o m i n i c i s a f r i e n d l y, p o l i t e A f r i ca n A m e r i ca n 5 t h g r a d e m a l e f r o m a p r o f e ssi o n a l f a m i l y. M r s H d e sc r i b e s h i m a s a st u d e n t w i t h l o w p e r se v e r a n c e b u t h i g h se l f r e f l e ct i o n M r s. H n o t e s t h a t h e f r u st r a t e s e a si l y w h e n e n co u n t e r i n g ch a l l e n g e s b u t h e i s q u i t e a w a r e o f h i s e m o t i o n s a n d d o e s n o t h e si t a t e t o sh a r e t h e m B e f o r e t h i s r e se a r ch p r o j e c t b e g a n D o m i n i c o f t e n st a ye d b e yo n d t h e sch e d u l e d t i m e f o r t h e m a t h i n t e r ve n t i o n cl a ss t o t a l k w i t h M r s H a b o u t p e r so n a l i ssu e s. D o m i n i c h a s b e e n a p a r t o f t h e i n t e r ve n t i o n cl a ss si n ce t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e sch o o l y e a r H e w a s p l a ce d i n t h e cl a ss b e ca u se o f l o w p e r f o r m a n ce o n st a n d a r d i ze d t e st s. D o m i n i c s f r a t e r n a l t w i n b r o t h e r i s a l so i n t h e i n t e r ve n t i o n cl a ss. B a se d o n a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n D o m i n i c a n d t h i s r e s e a r ch e r t h r e e t h e m e s e m e r g e d t h a t d o cu m e n t D o m i n i c s t h i n ki n g d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct a n d p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce f o r a d d r e ssi n g t h e r e s e a r c h q u e st i o n co n ce r n e d w i t h l e a r n i n g T h e t h r e e t h e m e s i d e n t i f i e d i n cl u d e ( 1 ) D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch ( 2 ) D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e c t a n d ( 3 ) D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e t o h i s l e a r n i n g T h e se t h e m e s w e r e f u r t h e r su p p o r t e d w i t h e vi d e n ce f r o m b o t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s a n d r e se a r ch e r s o b s e r va t i o n n o t e s D o m i n i c s r e s p o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u s i n g S c r a t c h D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch ca n b e b e st su m m a r i ze d i n h i s o w n w o r d s: S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g H e f o u n d S cr a t c h d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n b e c a u se i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u c h st u f f B y st u f f D o m i n i c i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o cks t h a t a r e d i sp l a ye d o n

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7 3 S cr a t ch s i n t e r f a ce ( se e F i g u r e 4 1 f o r a scr e e n sh o t o f t h e m o t i o n co m m a n d b l o cks a va i l a b l e i n S cr a t ch ) T h e n u m b e r o f o p t i o n s a va i l a b l e t o h i m m a y h a ve o ve r w h e l m e d h i m a n d p r e ve n t e d h i m f r o m p r o g r e ssi n g w h e n l e a r n i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch M r s. H a l so o b se r ve d D o m i n i c s co n f u si o n a n d f r u st r a t i o n O n t h e t h i r d d a y o f l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch M r s. H r e co r d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n h e r d a i l y n o t e s: D o m i n i c h i t a w a l l a n d co u l d n t p e r se ve r e t h r o u g h a p r o b l e m h e r a n i n t o H e w a n t e d m e t o j u st t e l l h i m h o w t o g e t o u t o f t h e si t u a t i o n H e d i d n t w a n t t o t r y t o f i g u r e i t o u t o n h i s o w n a t a l l V e r y i n t e r e st i n g H e l e f t a b i t u p se t t o d a y. M r s. H a l so n o t e d D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n o n t h e 8 t h d a y o f l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch ( D o m i n i c g o t a l i t t l e f r u st r a t e d t o d a y ) a n d o n t h e 1 0 t h d a y o f l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch : D o m i n i c w a s ve r y v o ca l a b o u t w a n t i n g t o g o b a ck t o l e a r n i n g m a t h t h i s r e g u l a r w a y i n st e a d o f w i t h S cr a t ch b e ca u se h e f e e l s l i ke h e s n o t r e a d y f o r h i s t e st

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7 4 F i g u r e 4 1 T h e S cr a t ch s p a l e t t e o f m o t i o n c o m m a n d b l o cks I n sp i t e o f D o m i n i c s se l f r e p o r t e d co n f u si o n a n d f r u st r a t i o n h e sh a r e d t h a t h e e n j o ye d u si n g S cr a t ch I n p a r t i cu l a r h e e n j o y e d m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m a n d t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u se l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n s p r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k I n f a ct h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d a d r a g o n

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7 5 sp r i t e a g h o st sp r i t e a n d t h r e e sp r i t e s o f cyl i n d e r s co n t a i n i n g m i l k t o p o r t r a y r a i n i n g m i l k. D o m i n i c b e c a m e q u i t e ski l l e d a t d r a w i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s. H i s a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d 2 2 sp r i t e s t o t a l ( t h e m e a n f o r t h e n o n c a se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s i s 4 3 ) H e d r e w 1 0 o r i g i n a l sp r i t e s a n d e d i t e d 1 2 e xi st i n g s p r i t e s u si n g S cr a t ch s p a i n t e d i t o r O n t h e 1 2 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e se co n d d a y o f d e si g n i n g ) t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s t h a t D o m i n i c h a s sp e n t q u i t e a b i t o f t i m e a d d i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s t o h i s p r o j e c t b u t h a s sp e n t ve r y l i t t l e t i m e w o r ki n g o n scr i p t s w h i ch d e t e r m i n e t h e a ct i o n s a n d b e h a vi o r s i n t h e p r o j e ct T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y t h i s r e se a r c h e r n o t e d t h a t D o m i n i c h a s q u i t e a n i m a g i n a t i o n b u t h e sp e n d s m u ch o f o u r m e e t i n g t i m e a d d i n g ch a r a c t e r s t o h i s a r t i f a ct t h a t a r e o n l y l o o s e l y r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t I f D o m i n i c n e e d e d a ssi st a n ce o n h i s a r t i f a ct a n d i f n e i t h e r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r n o r t h e r e se a r ch e r w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o h e l p h i m h e w o u l d sp e n d t i m e cr e a t i n g o r e d i t i n g e xi st i n g sp r i t e s r a t h e r t h a n e xp l o r i n g co m m a n d b l o cks o r t e st i n g o u t scr i p t s f o r h i s a r t i f a ct O n t h e t h i r d d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( t h e 1 3 t h d a y o f t h i s p r o j e ct ) t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d t h a t [ w ] i t h o u t a ssi st a n c e o r p r o m p t i n g f r o m t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r o r r e se a r ch e r h e d o e s n o t m a ke s i g n i f i ca n t p r o g r e ss. D o m i n i c a l so b e c a m e p r o f i ci e n t a t r e c o r d i n g s o u n d s i n S cr a t c h D o m i n i c w a s t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o r e co r d h i s vo i ce a n d i n t e g r a t e t h i s vo i ce o ve r i n t o h i s a r t i f a c t H e l e a r n e d t h i s ski l l o n t h e 9 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( D a y 1 9 o f t h e p r o j e ct ) A f t e r l e a r n i n g t h i s ski l l h e w o u l d r e c o r d r a n d o m t a l ki n g o r n o i se s w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r a ssi st a n ce r a t h e r t h a n m a ki n g i n d e p e n d e n t p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct o r t r yi n g t o r e so l v e a n i ssu e b y h i m se l f W h e n a ske d h o w h e t h o u g h t s o m e o n e sh o u l d l e a r n S cr a t c h h e e x p r e sse d o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e B y t h i n g h e i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e co m m a n d b l o cks ; h e sh a r e d t h a t so m e o n e sh o u l d l e a r n o n l y a f e w co m m a n d b l o cks f r o m e a c h o f t h e d i f f e r e n t

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7 6 ca t e g o r i e s, p r e f e r a b l y t h e m o s t co m m o n l y u se d b l o cks. T h i s m a y b e a n i n d i ca t i o n t h a t h e f e l t o ve r w h e l m e d w h e n f i r st l e a r n i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch T h e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e n o t i n t r o d u ce d t o co m m a n d b l o cks se p a r a t e l y. R a t h e r t h e y i d e n t i f i e d a b e h a vi o r o r a ct i o n t h a t t h e y w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e i n t h e i r a r t i f a ct s t h e n r e ce i ve d a ssi st a n ce i n i d e n t i f yi n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e co m m a n d b l o cks o r st a ck o f co m m a n d b l o cks t h a t w o u l d yi e l d t h e d e si r e d b e h a vi o r T h i s j u st i n t i m e a p p r o a ch m a y n o t h a ve w o r ke d f o r D o m i n i c si n ce h e su g g e st s a n a l t e r n a t i ve a p p r o a ch f o r l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h a t f o cu se s o n e xp l o r i n g i n d i vi d u a l co m m a n d b l o cks. O ve r a l l D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch i s a m i xe d r e sp o n se W h i l e h e sh a r e d t h a t h e f o u n d S cr a t c h co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g h e e n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g s p r i t e s u si n g S cr a t ch s p a i n t e d i t o r I n f a ct t h i s r e se a r ch e r r e p e a t e d l y o b se r ve d a n d n o t e d D o m i n i c s a b i l i t y w i t h t h e se ski l l s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s o h e cl e a r l y l e a r n e d h o w t o u se t h i s a sp e ct o f S cr a t ch H e w a s a l so t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o i n cl u d e a vo i ce o v e r i n h i s a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o j e c t D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e w a s n o t p r o u d o f h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t a n d t h a t h e w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d b e c a u se e ve r yt h i n g w a s m e sse d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t c a u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce W h e n a ske d i f h e w o u l d l i ke t o sh a r e h i s a r t i f a ct w i t h h i s 5 t h g r a d e p e e r s, h e d e cl i n e d a n d s a i d t h a t h e w o u l d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a ss e d H e a l so a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t i f h e w e r e g i ve n a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e si g n i n S cr a t c h t h a t h e w o u l d w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r s t o n e H e r e f l e ct e d t h a t I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a ve d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e l i ke i n t h e so u n d s I sa i d i t l i k e I d i d n t ca r e H e f e l t l i ke h e d i d n o t p r o vi d e m u ch e m o t i o n i n h i s

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7 7 vo i ce r e co r d i n g s, so h e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e sh o u l d h a ve i n cl u d e d m o r e i n f l e c t i o n s i n t h e vo i ce o ve r s. D o m i n i c s r e s p o n se s p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct d o e s n o t m e e t h i s o w n e xp e ct a t i o n s. H i s co n c e r n s a b o u t h i s a r t i f a ct m a y st e m f r o m i n a d e q u a t e p r o g r e ss m a d e o ve r t h e c o u r se o f t h i s st u d y ( se e F i g u r e 4 2 f o r a sc r e e n sh o t o f D o m i n i c s p r o j e ct ) F i g u r e 4 2 A sc r e e n sh o t o f D o m i n i c s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct D o m i n i c h a d a d i f f i cu l t t i m e f i n i sh i n g h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct H e r e l i e d h e a vi l y o n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r t o m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct W h e n n e i t h e r w a s a va i l a b l e D o m i n i c w o u l d u se S cr a t ch i n w a ys i n w h i ch h e a l r e a d y f e l t co n f i d e n t a n d co m p e t e n t su ch a s d r a w i n g a n d e d i t i n g s p r i t e s o r r e c o r d i n g h i s vo i ce H e w o u l d n o t e xp l o r e co m m a n d b l o cks i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r se e k h e l p f r o m h i s p e e r s. O n t h e 4 t h d a y o f

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7 8 d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch ( D a y 1 4 o f t h e p r o j e ct ) t h i s r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h a t D o m i n i c d o e s n o t se e m t o b e m a ki n g p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct t h o u g h h e ce r t a i n l y ca n a d d a n d m o d i f y sp r i t e s a n d a d d b a ck g r o u n d s. H e u se s t h e sa y b l o cks t o t e l l a p a r t o f h i s i m a g i n a t i ve st o r y, b u t h e i s n o t a b l e t o syn ch r o n i ze t h e d i a l o g u e i n t o a co h e r e n t m e ssa g e o r co n n e ct h i s st o r y t o m a t h co n t e n t O n t h e 1 5 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e 5 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h ) M r s. H o b se r ve d a n d n o t e d t h a t D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct d i d n o t a d d r e ss g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y ( D a y 1 6 o f t h e p r o j e ct a n d t h e 6 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch ) M r s. H w o r ke d w i t h D o m i n i c t o ca p t u r e h i s t h i n ki n g o n p a p e r D o m i n i c h a d b r a i n st o r m e d a st o r y i d e a f o r h i s a r t i f a ct b u t h a d a d i f f i cu l t t i m e t r a n sf e r r i n g h i s i d e a s i n t o a w o r ki n g p r o j e ct M r s. H w o r ke d w i t h D o m i n i c t o ca p t u r e t h e s t o r y t h a t w o u l d u n f o l d t h r o u g h o u t h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t D o m i n i c s h a r e d h i s st o r y w i t h M r s. H w h i l e sh e r e co r d e d h i s scr i p t o n p a p e r B e l o w i s t h e t e xt o f h i s sc r i p t I t a l i ci ze d w o r d s r e p r e se n t i m p r o vi s a t i o n s t h a t D o m i n i c m a d e w h i l e r e co r d i n g t h e vo i ce o ve r f o r h i s a r t i f a c t T h e se w o r d s a r e n o t p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l scr i p t r e co r d e d b y M r s. H w h i l e D o m i n i c n a r r a t e d T h e u n d e r l i n e d w o r d s r e p r e se n t D o m i n i c s a t t e m p t a t i n t e g r a t i n g co n t e n t vo ca b u l a r y a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n t o h i s a r t i f a ct I t a l l st a r t e d a t t h e t h e a t e r T h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a p l a y a b o u t sh a p e s W h e n t h e y w e r e w a t ch i n g t h e p l a y, t h e y w e r e t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e sh a p e d e s e r t W h e n t h e y g o t t o t h e d e se r t t h e d e se r t d r a g o n sh o w e d h i m se l f T h e c a t s a ske d t h e d e se r t d r a g o n t o t a k e t h e m h o m e b e ca u s e h e h a s t r a n s p o r t i n g p o w e r s T h e d r a g o n t h o u g h t t h e c a t s l i ve d i n a cr e e p y f o r e st so t h a t s w h e r e h e t r a n s p o r t e d t h e m b a ck t o a n d t h e l a n d sh a r k W h e n t h e c a t s g o t t o t h e f o r e st t h e y r a n i n t o g h o st s. T h e b o ss g h o st c a p t u r e d t h e g i r l ca t T h e g h o st s t h a t w o r ke d f o r t h e b o ss g h o st s ca p t u r e d t h e o t h e r ca t s i n a g h o st l y cyl i n d e r T h e se c o n d i n co m m a n d g h o st t r a n sp o r t e d e ve r yo n e e xce p t f o r t h e g i r l ca t t o t h e g e o m e t r i c se a a n d o n ce a g a i n t h e l a n d sh a r k t o o W h i l e t h e c a t s w e r e i n t h e g e o m e t r i c se a t h e y sa w a l o t o f sh a p e s. T h e ca t s f o u n d a t r a n sp o r t i n g s p h e r e t h a t t r a n s p o r t s t h e m b a ck t o t h e t h e a t e r T h e d r a g o n f r o m t h e d e se r t co m e s t o h e l p t h e m b e ca u s e t h e s p h e r e i s

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7 9 n o t p o w e r f u l e n o u g h b u t t h e l a n d sh a r k d e ci d e s t o l i ve i n t h e se a T h e y a l l g o t t r a n sp o r t e d b a ck t o t h e t h e a t e r W h e n t h e y g o t b a ck t o t h e t h e a t e r t h e y f o u n d t h e g i r l ca t w i t h t h e b o ss g h o st T h e b o ss g h o st t h e n sa ys, Y o u j u st p a ss e d t h e sh a p e t e st D o m i n i c d e ve l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e st o r y a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct H o w e ve r t h i s st o r y o n l y s u p e r f i ci a l l y a d d r e ss e s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H e i n t e g r a t e d co n t e n t s p e ci f i c vo ca b u l a r y i n t o h i s a r t i f a ct ( cyl i n d e r g e o m e t r i c, sp h e r e ) b u t d o e s n o t d e f i n e o r d e s cr i b e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h o se t e r m s H i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t d o e s i n cl u d e h a n d d r a w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f a sp h e r e cyl i n d e r c o n e p yr a m i d a n d se ve r a l r e c t a n g u l a r p r i s m s ( S e e F i g u r e 4 3 ) H o w e ve r t h e se r e p r e se n t a t i o n s a r e r o u g h a p p r o xi m a t i o n s o f e a ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d T h e y a l so se r ve o n l y a s p r o p s f o r t h e a r t i f a ct ; t h e y a r e n o t s p e ci f i ca l l y r e f e r e n ce d o r d e sc r i b e d d u r i n g t h e a r t i f a ct

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8 0 F i g u r e 4 3 D o m i n i c s h a n d d r a w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s B y D a y 2 0 o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e 1 0 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch ) D o m i n i c w a s st i l l n o t m a ki n g su b st a n t i a l p r o g r e ss p a r t i cu l a r l y w h e n co m p a r e d t o h i s p e e r s. M r s. H n o t e d : E ve r yb o d y w a s r e a l l y r o cki n a n d r o l l i n e xce p t D o m i n i c. H e r e a l l y st r u g g l e d w o r ki n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o d a y. S i m i l a r l y, t h i s r e se a r ch e d r e co r d e d : D o m i n i c i s d e p e n d e n t o n d i r e c t i o n s a n d i n si g h t f r o m a t e a ch e r D o m i n i c w o u l d t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks ( e sp e ci a l l y t h e so u n d b l o cks ) w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r t o h e l p h i m m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct O f t e n h e n e e d e d i n p u t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o h e l p cl a r i f y h i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e i n t e n t o f h i s a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c co n t i n u e s t o st r u g g l e w i t h h i s a r t i f a ct H e h a s d e ve l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e st o r y i n h i s m i n d t h a t i s o n l y l o o se l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a o f t e a ch i n g so m e o n e e l se a b o u t g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. H e u s e s t h e vo ca b u l a r y o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s b u t o n l y o n a su p e r f i ci a l l e ve l H e i s u n a b l e t o t r a n sl a t e h i s st o r y i n t o S cr a t ch w i t h o u t a ssi st a n c e f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a c t i t i o n e r T h i s w a s a co n si st e n t t h e m e o b se r ve d b y M r s H a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r D o m i n i c o n l y m a d e su b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e ss i f M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ssi st e d h i m H e w o u l d n o t t a ke i n i t i a t i ve t o e xp l o r e S cr a t c h i n d e p e n d e n t l y. H e a l so w o u l d n o t se e k h e l p f r o m p e e r s e ve n i f t h e y c o u l d co n t r i b u t e B y D a y 2 2 o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e 1 2 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h ) D o m i n i c a p p e a r e d t o n o t i ce t h a t h e w a s n o t m a ki n g a s m u ch p r o g r e ss a s h i s p e e r s. T h i s r e se a r ch e r r e co r d e d : D o m i n i c e xp r e ss e d f r u st r a t i o n t h a t h e i s o n l y a b l e t o m a ke sm a l l ch a n g e s t o h i s p r o j e ct e a c h d a y. H e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e d o e s n t u n d e r s t a n d w h y h e i s sa vi n g a n e w f i l e e a ch d a y ( p a r t i ci p a n t s sa ve a n e w ve r si o n o f t h e i r a r t i f a ct e a ch d a y) w h e n h e i s n o t m a ki n g m u ch p r o g r e ss H e e xp r e ss e d so m e f r u st r a t i o n t h a t h e i s n o t g e t t i n g a s m u ch h e l p a s h e n e e d s. H e a l so w a n t s t o kn o w w h e n h e ca n w o r k o n S cr a t ch f o r f u n a n d n o t a p r o j e ct a b o u t sh a p e s. D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n m a y st e m f r o m r e a l i zi n g t h a t h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s a r e n e a r l y co m p l e t e y e t h e st i l l h a s m o r e w o r k o n h i s a r t i f a ct a n d t h a t h e o n l y m a ke s a sm a l l a m o u n t o f p r o g r e ss e a ch d a y

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8 1 W h i l e r e vi e w i n g h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t w i t h t h i s r e se a r c h e r D o m i n i c e xp r e sse d I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u se t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g co n ve r sa t i o n l i ke [ h i s b r o t h e r s] D o m i n i c o f t e n co m p a r e d h i m se l f t o h i s b r o t h e r I f h i s b r o t h e r w a s p r a i se d f o r a n a sp e ct o f h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c sh o w e d f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct w a s n o t r e c o g n i ze d E a r l y i n t h e d e si g n p h a se t h i s r e se a r ch e r p r a i se d D o m i n i c s b r o t h e r f o r cr e a t i n g a cl e ve r co n ve r sa t i o n b e t w e e n t w o ch a r a ct e r s u si n g t e xt b u b b l e s. T h i s m a y h a ve co n t r i b u t e d t o D o m i n i c s r e m a r ks a b o ve b e ca u se h e sp e ci f i ca l l y m e n t i o n s t h e co n ve r sa t i o n i n h i s b r o t h e r s a r t i f a ct M r s H h a d o b se r v e d si m i l a r b e h a vi o r i n D o m i n i c i n t h e p a st A n y p o si t i ve p r a i se f o r D o m i n i c s b r o t h e r co u l d l e a d t o a n e g a t i ve a t t i t u d e i n D o m i n i c. D o m i n i c a l so a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e ve r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e s a yi n g w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s t h e n yo u t yp e i t i n D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m h i s p e e r s. H i s a r t i f a ct w a s t h e o n l y S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t o i n cl u d e a n a r r a t e d st o r y ( s e e scr i p t a b o ve ) A l l o f h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s i n cl u d e d t e x t b u b b l e s f o r o n e o r m o r e c h a r a ct e r s. D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct d i d n o t i n cl u d e a n y t e x t b u b b l e s. F i ve o f h i s p e e r s ( o f 7 t o t a l ) i n t e g r a t e d a scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a l l o w s t h e u s e r t o e n t e r t e xt i n a t e xt b o x, a n d t h e n p r o vi d e s f e e d b a ck b a se d o n t h e e n t e r e d t e xt D o m i n i c ch o se n o t t o u se a si m i l a r sc r i p t i n h i s p r o j e ct C l e a r l y, D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct i s d i f f e r e n t a n d h e a ckn o w l e d g e s i t Y e t h e a l so p e r ce i ve s t h a t h i s p e e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s a r e b e t t e r b e ca u se h i s a r t i f a c t i s so d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i r s a n d d o e s n o t i n cl u d e t h e a b i l i t y t o t yp e i n a r e sp o n se I n su m m a r y, D o m i n i c w a s n o t p l e a s e d w i t h h i s f i n a l S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct H e p e r c e i ve d t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct d i d n o t w o r k p r o p e r l y, a n d t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t m e e t h i s e xp e ct a t i o n s f o r

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8 2 h o w h e i n t e n d e d h i s p r o j e ct t o w o r k. H e a l so p e r ce i ve d t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct w a s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m h i s p e e r s a n d t h a t i t d i d n o t i n cl u d e se ve r a l a sp e ct s t h a t w e r e co m m o n t o h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s. T h u s, h e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct w a s n o t a s g o o d a s h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s. D o m i n i c s r e s p o n s e t o h i s l e a r n i n g D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e d i d n o t t h i n k h e l e a r n e d a n y n e w m a t h co n t e n t d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct o t h e r t h a n h o w t o d r a w g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H e b e l i e ve d t h a t t h e m a t h co n t e n t h e i n cl u d e d i n h i s a r t i f a ct a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w D o m i n i c s sc o r e s o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st su p p o r t h i s t h i n ki n g ( se e T a b l e 4 2 ) O f t h e 1 3 p o i n t s p o ssi b l e o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st D o m i n i c sco r e d a 7 o n t h e p r e t e st ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 6 9 ) a n d h e sc o r e d a 6 o n t h e p o st t e s t ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 7 6 ) D o m i n i c w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e a r e a o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm s f a c e o n t h e p o st t e st t h o u g h h e w a s a b l e t o s u cce ssf u l l y c o m p l e t e t h e sa m e ca l cu l a t i o n o n t h e p r e t e st T a b l e 4 2 O ve r vi e w o f D o m i n i c s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e su l t s T e st i t e m s P r e P o st A b l e t o i d e n t i f y g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e a r e a o f a p r i sm s f a ce ? Y e s N o A b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e i g h t o f a p r i sm ? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm ? N o N o A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e su r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o A b l e t o e xp l a i n h o w t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i sm ? N o N o O ve r a l l sco r e 7 / 1 3 6 / 1 3 W i t h r e sp e ct t o h i s l e a r n i n g D o m i n i c e xp r e ss e d t h a t h e l i ke d t o w r i t e a n d t e l l st o r i e s. T h i s i n t e r e st i s cl e a r l y p a r a l l e l e d i n h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct H e d e v e l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e scr i p t f o r h i s a r t i f a ct t h e n n a r r a t e d i t R e ca l l t h a t h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct co n t r a st s w i t h h i s p e e r s b e ca u se i t i s so cl e a r l y st o r y b a se d H e a l so a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t h e d i d

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8 3 n o t l i ke t h e q u e st i o n a n sw e r a ct i o n u se d b y m a n y o f h i s p e e r s i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s ( I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t ) D o m i n i c s r e s p o n se s m a y b e a n i n d i ca t i o n o f h i s l e a r n i n g st yl e H e m a y p r e f e r t o l e a r n t h r o u g h n a r r a t i ve r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r d i scu ssi o n s. W h e n g i ve n ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l t o d e si g n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct h e ch o se a n a r r a t i ve a p p r o a c h r a t h e r t h a n a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r a p p r o a ch se l e ct e d b y m o st o f h i s p e e r s. I m p a c t o n D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g B a se d o n D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e s d u r i n g t h e p o s t e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w h i s p e r f o r m a n ce o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st f i e l d n o t e s f r o m t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e s e a r ch e r a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i t i s e vi d e n t t h a t t h e p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o f h a vi n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n a p r o j e ct i n S cr a t ch t h a t i n t e g r a t e s m a t h co n t e n t d i d n o t co n t r i b u t e t o D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. O n s e ve r a l o cc a si o n s, h e b e ca m e f r u st r a t e d w i t h t h e p r o j e ct a n d u si n g S cr a t ch I n f a ct d u r i n g o n e o f D o m i n i c s i n st a n ce s o f f r u st r a t i o n h e q u e st i o n e d M r s. H a b o u t w h e n t h e g r o u p w o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e r e g u l a r w a y o f l e a r n i n g m a t h A l t h o u g h h e r e p o r t e d e n j o yi n g S cr a t ch h e w a s n o t su cce ssf u l u si n g S cr a t ch t o a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H i s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e s o n l y su p e r f i ci a l r e f e r e n ce s t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d d o e s n o t a d e q u a t e l y e xp r e ss a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. I n a d d i t i o n D o m i n i c sco r e d l o w e r o n t h e p o st t e st w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e p r e t e st T h u s, D o m i n i c s ca s e p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a m a y n o t b e e f f e ct i ve a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r l e a r n e r s si m i l a r t o D o m i n i c. T h o u g h D o m i n i c l e a r n e d a f e w si m p l e a ct i o n s i n S cr a t ch a n d co u l d r e p e a t t h o se a ct i o n s a s n e e d e d ( e g cr e a t i n g a sp r i t e e d i t i n g a sp r i t e r e c o r d i n g h i s vo i ce ) h e w a s

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8 4 n o t a b l e t o l e a r n m o r e a d va n ce d f e a t u r e s o f S cr a t ch r e l a t e d t o h i s a r t i f a ct e ve n w h e n t h e se a ct i o n s w e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d se ve r a l t i m e s t o h i m b y t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r o r r e se a r ch e r T h e n u m b e r o f o p t i o n s a va i l a b l e i n S cr a t ch m a y h a ve o ve r w h e l m e d h i m o r h e m a y n o t h a ve h a d t h e n e c e ssa r y ski l l s t o s u cce s sf u l l y l e a r n h o w t o u se a n e w m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g t h a t t o o l a n d i n t e g r a t e m a t h co n t e n t i n t o t h e d e si g n o f t h e a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c s p e e r s i n t h i s p r o j e c t w e r e m o r e su cce ssf u l l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. O ve r a l l i t i s d i sco u r a g i n g t o d i sco ve r t h a t u si n g S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct d i d n o t i m p a ct D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g H o w e ve r i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n e r s d i f f e r i n h o w sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch e s w i l l i m p a ct t h e m a n d i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t t h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n e r s t h a t s h a r e D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n c e s. T h u s, i t i s i m p e r a t i ve t o u n d e r st a n d a n d i d e n t i f y w h i ch t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s m a y b e n e f i t f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch C a s e S t u d y # 2 : J e n n i f e r Je n n i f e r i s a sh y H i sp a n i c 5 t h g r a d e f e m a l e H e r t e a ch e r s d e sc r i b e h e r a s q u i e t a n d a r e o f t e n u n su r e h o w m u ch sh e u n d e r st a n d s m a t e r i a l b e ca u se sh e d o e s n o t ve r b a l i ze m u ch S h e h a s a h i st o r y o f p o o r sc h o o l a t t e n d a n ce Je n n i f e r d i d n o t b e g i n t h e sch o o l ye a r i n t h e i n t e r ve n t i o n g r o u p S h e e n t e r e d t h e g r o u p m i d ye a r a f t e r sh e w a s r e co m m e n d e d b y a t e a ch e r b a se d o n h e r cl a s sr o o m p e r f o r m a n c e a n d a ch i e ve m e n t d a t a Je n n i f e r r e p o r t s t h a t sh e l i ke s sch o o l ( I l o ve t o l e a r n ca u se t h e n I ki n d o f g e t t h e su b j e ct m o r e ) a n d t h a t sh e i s g o o d a t m a t h i n so m e a r e a s, su c h a s a d d i n g a n d f r a ct i o n s a n d e xp o n e n t s

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8 5 B a se d o n a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n Je n n i f e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r t w o t h e m e s e m e r g e d t h a t d o cu m e n t Je n n i f e r s t h i n ki n g d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct a n d p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce f o r a d d r e ssi n g t w o o f t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s. T h e t w o t h e m e s i d e n t i f i e d i n cl u d e ( 1 ) Je n n i f e r s r e s p o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch a n d ( 2 ) J e n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e ct O b se r v a t i o n n o t e s b y t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r p r o vi d e a d d i t i o n a l d a t a t h a t su p p o r t t h e t h e m e s e vi d e n t i n Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n s e s. J e n n i f e r s r e s p o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u s i n g S c r a t c h Je n n i f e r r e p o r t e d t h a t sh e e n j o ye d u si n g S cr a t ch S h e l i ke d m a ki n g t h e sh a p e s [ cr e a t i n g s p r i t e s] a n d u si n g t h e b a ckg r o u n d s a n d sh e a l so l i ke d w o r ki n g w i t h t h e co m m a n d b l o cks t o c r e a t e scr i p t s b e ca u se t h e y a l l o w e d t h e s p r i t e s i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t o m o v e a n d t h e y ca n d o [ i t ] b y t h e m s e l ve s A scr e e n sh o t o f Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i s se e n i n F i g u r e 4 4 J e n n i f e r s a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d 1 1 sp r i t e s ( m e a n f o r t h e n o n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s i s 4 3 ) S h e u se d 1 1 6 co m m a n d b l o cks a c r o ss 4 0 s e p a r a t e scr i p t s ( m e a n s f o r t h e n o n c a se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s a r e 5 6 3 a n d 9 5 r e sp e ct i ve l y)

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8 6 F i g u r e 4 4 A sc r e e n sh o t o f Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct W h e n co m p a r e d w i t h h e r p e e r s, sh e cl e a r l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e l e a r n e d h o w t o cr e a t e sp r i t e s a n d scr i p t s. B o t h M r s. H a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r r e p e a t e d l y o b s e r ve d t h a t Je n n i f e r m a d e co n si st e n t p r o g r e ss o n h e r a r t i f a ct w i t h o u t h e l p f r o m a n a d u l t O n t h e f i r st d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( t h e 1 1 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ) t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n h i s o b se r v a t i o n n o t e s: I m p l e a se d w i t h Je n n i f e r s p r o g r e ss t o d a y. S h e q u i ckl y d e ve l o p e d h e r a r t i f a ct i d e a S h e a t t e m p t e d t o c r e a t e a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t o b e a t r a p e zo i d a l p r i sm S h e h a s st a r t e d scr i p t i n g a n d i n t e g r a t e d a n i n t e r a ct i ve a sp e ct t o h e r a r t i f a ct b y a l l o w i n g t h e u se r so m e l e ve l o f co n t r o l w h e n t h e u se r e n t e r s t e xt ( a n a m e ) a n d t h e a r t i f a ct r e sp o n d s a cco r d i n g l y ( h e l l o n a m e ) T h i s m a y r e p r e se n t a l o w e r l e ve l o f i n t e r a ct i o n b u t i n t e r a ct i o n i s st i l l e vi d e n t Je n n i f e r i s a t t e m p t i n g t o p e r so n a l i ze t h e a r t i f a ct f o r i t s u se r s.

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8 7 T h i s o b se r va t i o n d o cu m e n t s Je n n i f e r s a t t e m p t t o i n cl u d e a scr i p t i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t h a t a sks t h e u se r s n a m e a l l o w s t h e u se r t o t yp e i n a n a m e t h e n co m b i n e s h e l l o w i t h t h e u se r s n a m e i n a t e xt b u b b l e o n t h e scr e e n Je n n i f e r w a s t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o i n cl u d e t h i s a ct i o n i n h e r a r t i f a ct a n d w h e n a s ke d w h y sh e ch o se t o i n cl u d e t h i s sc r i p t i n h e r a r t i f a ct sh e r e p l i e d t h a t i t w o u l d p r o b a b l y m a ke t h e m f e e l h a p p y W h e n r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch d u r i n g P h a se 1 o f t h e p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r sh a r e d a t f i r s t i t w a s ki n d o f h a r d b u t t h e n I g o t u se d t o i t S h e e xp r e ss e d t h a t l e a r n i n g h o w t o u se a l l t h e t o o l s f o r w h a t I co u l d d o m a d e S cr a t ch d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t o n ce s h e l e a r n e d h o w t o u s e a sp e ct s o f S cr a t ch sh e f e l t co n f i d e n t a n d co m p e t e n t u si n g S cr a t ch E a r l y i n t h e d e si g n p h a se o f t h e p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r w a n t e d t o cr e a t e a n a d d i t i o n a l sce n e b u t sh e d i d n o t w a n t t h e sp r i t e s f r o m t h e f i r st sce n e t o b e vi si b l e so sh e a ske d f o r h e l p T h i s r e se a r c h e r d e m o n st r a t e d h o w t o u se t h e h i d e a n d sh o w co m m a n d b l o c ks i n S cr a t ch so t h a t t h e p r o p e r sp r i t e s w o u l d b e vi si b l e d u r i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sce n e S h e q u i ckl y i n t e g r a t e d t h e se a ct i o n s i n t o h e r a r t i f a ct T w o s e ssi o n s l a t e r Je n n i f e r sh a r e d h o w t o u se t h e h i d e a n d sh o w co m m a n d b l o cks a n d sw i t ch b a ckg r o u n d s t o t r a n si t i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t sc e n e s w i t h a p e e r w h o t h e n sh a r e d w i t h Je n n i f e r h o w t o i n co r p o r a t e a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r scr i p t M r s. H o b se r v e d t h i s co l l a b o r a t i o n a n d n o t e d : sa w so m e g r e a t co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n Je n n i f e r a n d S a r a t o d a y. Je n n i f e r r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e w a s a ca p a b l e S cr a t ch d e si g n e r A n e xa m p l e o f Je n n i f e r s co m p e t e n ce u si n g S cr a t ch w a s r e co r d e d i n t h i s r e s e a r ch e r s o b se r va t i o n n o t e s: I o b se r ve d t h a t J e n n i f e r a d d e d a scr i p t t o h e r a r t i f a ct t h a t p l a ys a so u n d e f f e ct w h e n t h e a k e y i s p r e ss e d Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct co n t a i n s a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r

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8 8 scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h e n u m b e r o f b a s e s i n a co n e I f t h e u se r e n t e r s a c o r r e c t a n sw e r p o si t i ve f e e d b a c k i n t h e f o r m o f t e xt i s d i sp l a y e d o n t h e scr e e n W h e n J e n n i f e r i n t e r a ct s w i t h h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t sh e p r e sse s t h e a ke y a f t e r s h e e n t e r s t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se [ t o p l a y t h e so u n d e f f e ct ] I o b s e r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r a n d a ske d h e r h o w t h e so u n d w o u l d p l a y i f sh e w e r e i n a d i f f e r e n t r o o m w h e n a u se r w a s i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r a r t i f a ct [ a n d a n sw e r e d t h e q u e st i o n co r r e ct l y] S h e i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d r e ssi n g t h i s i ssu e w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g o r a ssi st a n ce f r o m t h i s r e se a r ch e r o r M r s. H Je n n i f e r s a b i l i t y t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e vi se t h e s cr i p t s i n h e r a r t i f a ct t o e n su r e t h a t t h e y w o r ke d p r o p e r l y i s a cl e a r i n d i ca t i o n o f h e r co n f i d e n ce a n d co m p e t e n ce u si n g S cr a t c h A n o t h e r e xa m p l e o f Je n n i f e r s a b i l i t y t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e vi s e scr i p t s ca m e d u r i n g t h e 8 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( t h e 1 8 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ) T h i s r e s e a r ch e r r e c o r d e d t h i s e xa m p l e i n h i s n o t e s: A st u d e n t w h o i s n o t p a r t o f t h i s l e a r n i n g g r o u p ca m e n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e m e e t i n g t i m e t o w o r k w i t h M r s. H W h i l e t h i s st u d e n t w a s w a i t i n g M r s. H h a d Je n n i f e r sh a r e h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t O n ce t h e o p e n i n g sc e n e t o o k p l a ce t h e st u d e n t d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d u n t i l Je n n i f e r t o l d h e r t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y. O n ce Je n n i f e r r e a l i ze d t h a t a u se r w o u l d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g sh e a d d e d a sa y b l o ck t o t h e e xi st i n g scr i p t t o p r o m p t t h e u se r t o p r e ss t h e s p a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt s ce n e N e i t h e r M r s. H n o r t h i s r e se a r c h e r n e e d e d t o e xp l a i n h o w t o c h a n g e t h e e xi st i n g scr i p t t o e n su r e t h a t u se r co u l d p r o ce e d t h r o u g h t h e a r t i f a ct J e n n i f e r o b se r ve d h o w a u se r i n t e r a ct e d w i t h h e r a r t i f a c t d i sco ve r e d t h a t a u se r co u l d n o t p r o ce e d w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g a n d t h e n m a d e t h e n e c e ssa r y ch a n g e s t o t h e e xi st i n g sc r i p t t o a d d r e ss t h e i ssu e T h i s e x a m p l e p r o vi d e s a d d i t i o n a l su p p o r t f o r Je n n i f e r s co m p e t e n ce i n u si n g S cr a t ch O ve r a l l Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch i s p o si t i v e S h e r e p o r t e d t h a t sh e e n j o ye d u si n g S cr a t ch a n d sh e r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e w a s co m p e t e n t d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h O n s e v e r a l o cca si o n s sh e i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e vi s e d t h e scr i p t s i n h e r a r t i f a ct w h e n co n f r o n t e d w i t h a n i ssu e t o e n su r e t h a t h e r a r t i f a ct

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8 9 w o r ke d p r o p e r l y. I n a d d i t i o n sh e a l so e xp r e s se d t h a t sh e w o u l d l i ke t o co n t i n u e u si n g S cr a t ch f o r o t h e r p r o j e c t s d u r i n g t h e p o st e x p e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w J e n n i f e r s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o j e c t Je n n i f e r r e sp o n s e t o t h i s p r o j e ct i s b e st su m m a r i ze d i n h e r o w n w o r d s: I g o t t o d o m a t h b u t i n a f u n w a y H e r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t cl e a r l y d e m o n st r a t e s h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. B o t h o f t h e i m a g e s i n F i g u r e s 4 5 a n d 4 6 s h o w Je n n i f e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t J e n n i f e r w a s n o t i n st r u ct e d t o i n cl u d e t h i s t e xt i n h e r a r t i f a c t ; sh e ch o se i t i n d e p e n d e n t l y. S h e a l so d i d n o t a sk e i t h e r a n a d u l t o r a p e e r f o r h e l p w i t h t h e w o r d i n g o f t h i s t e xt W h i l e Je n n i f e r w a s w o r ki n g o n t h i s p a r t i cu l a r scr i p t t h i s r e s e a r ch e r o b s e r ve d t h a t sh e o r i g i n a l l y t yp e d t h i s s h a p e h a s 7 ve r t e xs H e i n t e n d e d t o a sk h e r a b o u t t h i s e r r o r ( a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm h a s 8 v e r t e xe s ) d u r i n g t h e n e xt s e ssi o n H o w e v e r sh e ch a n g e d t h e t e x t d u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t se ssi o n t o i n cl u d e a n d 1 t h a t yo u ca n t se e b e ca u s e t h e r e i s a ve r t e x t h a t i s n o t vi si b l e a s t h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm i s d r a w n N e i t h e r M r s. H n o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ssi st e d h e r w i t h t h i s ch a n g e so sh e w a s a b l e t o se l f co r r e ct i n d e p e n d e n t l y. T h i s t e xt r e p r e se n t s h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f a ve r t e x a n d t h e n u m b e r o f v e r t e xe s f o r a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm W h e n a ske d h o w sh e l e a r n e d t h i s co n t e n t sh e r e p l i e d I l e a r n e d i t i n m a t h i n t h e cl a ssr o o m T h u s, sh e u se d S cr a t ch t o r e p r e se n t h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t sh e l e a r n e d d u r i n g h e r m a t h cl a ss. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o ccu r s i n t h e n e xt sce n e o f h e r a r t i f a ct ( s e e F i g u r e 4 7 ) T h i s sce n e e m b e d s m a t h c o n t e n t sp e ci f i c t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e a n d t h e t e xt b u b b l e d i sp l a y e d i n t h i s sc e n e a ccu r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e

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9 0 F i g u r e 4 5 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a ve r t e x i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct F i g u r e 4 6 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a p r i sm s v e r t e xe s i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct

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9 1 F i g u r e 4 7 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct D u r i n g t h e f i r st t w o sc e n e s o f h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct Je n n i f e r w a s d e l i b e r a t e i n p a i r i n g a vi su a l ( e g a d r a w i n g o f a co n e ) w i t h a t e xt b u b b l e t h a t d e sc r i b e s t h e vi su a l T h i s w a s a n i n t e n t i o n a l a sp e ct o f t h e d e si g n o f h e r a r t i f a ct b e ca u se sh e b e l i e ve d t h a t l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d m o r e b y l o o ki n g a t t h e p i ct u r e s Je n n i f e r s a p p r o a ch m a y r e p r e se n t h o w s h e p r e f e r s t o l e a r n b u t i t a l so d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t sh e i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e n e e d s o f t h e a u d i e n c e w h o m a y u se h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct Je n n i f e r ca r e f u l l y co n si d e r e d h e r a u d i e n ce a n d s h e l i ke n e d t h e a ct o f d e si g n i n g a S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct f o r a n a u d i e n ce t o m a ki n g a su r p r i se f o r so m e b o d y e l se H e r a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d se ve r a l q u e st i o n s f o r a u s e r t o a n sw e r I f a u s e r a n sw e r e d p r o p e r l y, s/ h e r e ce i ve d p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck a n d a so u n d e f f e ct w o u l d p l a y. W h e n a ske d w h y sh e i n cl u d e d f e e d b a ck, sh e r e sp o n d e d s o t h e y [ u se r s] ca n b e e xci t e d t h e y g o t t h e r i g h t a n sw e r H e r e a g a i n sh e co n si d e r s t h e a u d i e n ce a n d w a n t s t h e m t o f e e l e xci t e d w h e n t h e y a n sw e r p r o p e r l y.

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9 2 D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w Je n n i f e r a l so co n si d e r e d ch a n g e s t h a t sh e w o u l d l i ke t o m a ke i n h e r a r t i f a ct S h e a ckn o w l e d g e d I w o u l d m a ke i t a l i t t l e b i t l o n g e r a n d ch a n g e t h e c h a r a ct e r s. W h e n a sk e d a b o u t ch a n g i n g t h e c h a r a ct e r s i n h e r p r o j e ct sh e r e p l i e d ca u s e i t w a s m o st l y a l l g i r l s I n f a ct h e r p r o j e ct i n cl u d e d 3 sp r i t e s r e p r e se n t i n g yo u n g f e m a l e s. S h e m a y h a ve r e a l i ze d t h a t b o ys co u l d a l so u se h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t ye t t h e y w e r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n h e r a r t i f a ct O n ce a g a i n sh e m a y b e co n si d e r i n g t h e a u d i e n ce f o r h e r a r t i f a ct W i t h r e sp e ct t o m a ki n g h e r a r t i f a ct l o n g e r sh e e xp r e sse d t h a t sh e w o u l d ke e p o n g o i n g w i t h t h e g a m e t h e n a f t e r t h e g a m e I d p r o b a b l y g o t o a n o t h e r sce n e a n d t h e n m a yb e f o l l o w a n o t h e r sce n e a n d a n o t h e r sce n e T h e g a m e sh e r e f e r e n c e s i s t h e l a s t sce n e i n h e r a r t i f a ct w h i ch i n v o l ve s se ve r a l sh a p e s a ski n g t h e u se r h o w m a n y si d e s t h e y h a ve B a se d o n h e r r e sp o n se i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ss u m e t h a t Je n n i f e r i s ca p a b l e o f cr e a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l sce n e s i n S cr a t ch si n ce sh e h a s t h e ski l l s n e ce ssa r y t o d o so A n o t h e r i m p r o ve m e n t sh e w a n t e d t o m a ke w a s t o m a k e h e r a r t i f a c t m o r e i n t e r a c t i ve D u r i n g t h e i n t e r vi e w sh e w o n d e r e d a l o u d t h a t m a y b e i f t h e y co u l d cl i ck o n i t r e f e r r i n g t o h a vi n g t h e u se r cl i ck o n a s h a p e t h e n t h e s h a p e a sks a q u e st i o n a b o u t i t s p r o p e r t i e s. Je n n i f e r e x p r e sse d t h a t s h e d i d n o t w a n t t o sh a r e h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct w i t h h e r 5 t h g r a d e p e e r s. S h e d i d n o t f e e l t h a t 5 t h g r a d e r s w o u l d b e a n a p p r o p r i a t e a u d i e n ce b e ca u se t h e y p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y k n o w t h i s. I t s p r o b a b l y m o r e f o r l i t t l e ki d s. T h e y d l e a r n a l i t t l e b i t m o r e T h i s r e sp o n s e p r o vi d e s a d d i t i o n a l e vi d e n ce f o r h o w J e n n i f e r ca r e f u l l y co n si d e r e d t h e a u d i e n ce f o r h e r a r t i f a ct S h e b e l i e ve d t h a t t h e m a t h co n t e n t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o h e r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct i s m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r yo u n g e r l e a r n e r s r a t h e r t h a n h e r p e e r g r o u p b e ca u se t h e y a l r e a d y u n d e r st a n d t h i s sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t

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9 3 I m p a c t o n J e n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g B a se d o n Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se d u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w f i e l d n o t e s f r o m t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i t i s e vi d e n t t h a t t h e p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o f h a vi n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n a p r o j e ct i n S cr a t c h t h a t i n t e g r a t e s m a t h co n t e n t yi e l d e d m i xe d r e su l t s w i t h r e sp e ct t o Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i n t e g r a t e d a ccu r a t e co n t e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f se ve r a l g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s, so h e r p r o j e ct d o e s r e p r e se n t h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t a n d co u l d b e u se d a s a n a ss e ssm e n t o f h e r l e a r n i n g H o w e ve r h e r p e r f o r m a n c e s o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st i n d i ca t e t h a t sh e d i d n o t a cq u i r e n e w l e a r n i n g ( se e T a b l e 4 3 ) O f t h e 1 3 p o i n t s p o ssi b l e o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st Je n n i f e r sco r e d a 9 o n t h e p r e t e st ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 6 9 ) a n d sh e sco r e d a 6 o n t h e p o st t e st ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 7 6 ) J e n n i f e r w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm o n t h e p o st t e st t h o u g h sh e w a s a b l e t o s u cce ssf u l l y co m p l e t e t h e sa m e ca l cu l a t i o n o n t h e p r e t e st S h e a l so f a i l e d t o i n cl u d e p r o p e r u n i t l a b e l s f o r se ve r a l o f t h e ca l cu l a t i o n s. T h u s, Je n n i f e r s ca se p r o vi d e s c o n f l i ct i n g e vi d e n ce o n t h e e f f e ct i ve n e ss o f l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a o n i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r l e a r n e r s si m i l a r t o Je n n i f e r T a b l e 4 3 O ve r vi e w o f Je n n i f e r s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e su l t s T e st i t e m s P r e P o st A b l e t o i d e n t i f y g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e a r e a o f a p r i sm s f a ce ? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e i g h t o f a p r i sm ? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm ? Y e s N o A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o A b l e t o e xp l a i n h o w t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o O ve r a l l sco r e 9 / 1 3 6 / 1 3

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9 4 B a se d o n Je n n i f e r s ca se i t i s e n co u r a g i n g t o d i sco ve r t h a t u si n g S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a n d c o n st r u ct a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct m a y i m p a c t Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g Je n n i f e r r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s p r o j e ct a l l o w e d h e r t o d o m a t h b u t i n a f u n w a y O n c e a g a i n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a ck n o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n e r s d i f f e r i n h o w sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch e s w i l l i m p a ct t h e m a n d i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t t h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n e r s t h a t sh a r e Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s T h u s, i t i s i m p e r a t i ve t o u n d e r st a n d a n d i d e n t i f y w h i ch t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s m a y b e n e f i t f r o m a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch C r o s s C a s e A n a l y s i s : D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r E a ch p a r t i ci p a n t ca se w a s s h a r e d se p a r a t e l y a b o ve T h i s se ct i o n p r o vi d e s a cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s t h a t i d e n t i f i e s t h e m e s e vi d e n t a cr o ss b o t h c a se s ( a va r i a b l e o r i e n t e d s t r a t e g y) a n d a t t e m p t s t o d e ve l o p a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f h o w t h e t h e m e s a r e r e p r e se n t e d b y e a ch ca se ( a c a se o r i e n t e d st r a t e g y) A n a n a l ysi s o f t h e S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s c r e a t e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s r e ve a l s t h a t D o m i n i c a n d Je n n i f e r i n cl u d e d su b st a n t i a l l y m o r e sp r i t e s, m o r e co m m a n d b l o cks a n d m o r e scr i p t s i n t h e i r p r o j e ct s t h a n t h e n o n ca s e st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s ( se e T a b l e 4 4 ) D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d n u m e r o u s sp r i t e s. T h i s i s n o t su r p r i si n g co n si d e r i n g t h a t D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct co n si st e d o f m u l t i p l e sce n e s. H e a l so r e p o r t e d t h a t h e e n j o ye d d r a w i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s. I n a d d i t i o n h e w o u l d d r a w a n d e d i t sp r i t e s i f h e d i d n o t k n o w h o w t o m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct J e n n i f e r a l so i n cl u d e d n u m e r o u s sp r i t e s t h o u g h h e r a r t i f a ct co n t a i n e d f e w e r sp r i t e s w h e n co m p a r e d t o D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct b u t co n t a i n e d m o r e sp r i t e s w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s a r t i f a ct s. J e n n i f e r s a r t i f a c t a l so co n si st e d o f m u l t i p l e sce n e s, a n d sh e a l so r e p o r t e d t h a t sh e e n j o ye d a d d i n g s p r i t e s t o h e r p r o j e ct

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9 5 T a b l e 4 4 O ve r vi e w o f a n a l ysi s o f S cr a t c h p r o j e ct s U n i t o f a n a l ysi s D o m i n i c Je n n i f e r O t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s m e a n s N u m b e r o f sp r i t e s 2 2 1 1 4 3 N u m b e r o f b a ckg r o u n d s 5 4 2 2 N u m b e r o f scr i p t s 8 4 4 0 9 5 N u m b e r o f b l o cks u s e d i n scr i p t s 2 0 7 1 1 6 5 6 3 N u m b e r o f b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n scr i p t s 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 B o t h D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r i n cl u d e d m a n y m o r e scr i p t s a n d co m m a n d s b l o cks t h a n t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s. H o w e v e r t h e h i g h n u m b e r o f scr i p t s a n d c o m m a n d b l o cks i n D o m i n i c s a r t i f a c t ca n b e l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r H e d i d n o t i n d e p e n d e n t l y a d d t h e scr i p t s a n d b l o cks. M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r c h e r d e m o n st r a t e d h o w t o c r e a t e scr i p t s t h a t m a t c h e d t h e i n t e n d e d b e h a vi o r s f o r h i s a r t i f a ct I n f a ct f i ve e n t r i e s i n t h i s r e se a r c h e r s o b se r va t i o n n o t e s a n d t w o e n t r i e s i n M r s. H s n o t e s i n cl u d e r e f e r e n ce s t o D o m i n i c s ch o i ce t o cr e a t e s p r i t e s ( a ski l l h e e n j o ye d a n d d e m o n st r a t e d co m p e t e n ce ) r a t h e r t h a n i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e si g n i n g t e st i n g a n d r e vi si n g h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct I n co n t r a st o n l y a sm a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e sc r i p t s a n d co m m a n d s b l o cks i n Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o a ssi st a n ce f r o m a n a d u l t M o st o f t h e scr i p t s a n d co m m a n d b l o cks a d d e d t o Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct a r e a d i r e ct r e su l t o f Je n n i f e r s i n d e p e n d e n t a ct i o n s o r t h r o u g h co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a p e e r T h i s co n t r a st w a s n o t e d i n t h i s r e se a r ch e r s r e f l e ct i o n s o n t h e 1 0 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S c r a t ch ( D a y 2 0 o f t h e p r o j e c t ) : T h e r e i s a f a sci n a t i n g d yn a m i c p l a yi n g o u t i n t h i s l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t j u xt a p o se s t w o d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r h a s d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e i s a n a ct i v e p a r t i ci p a n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss w h i l e D o m i n i c d e m o n st r a t e s t h e c h a r a ct e r i st i cs o f a p a ssi ve l e a r n e r J e n n i f e r i s a b l e t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y. W h e n co n f r o n t e d w i t h a n i ssu e w h i l e d e si g n i n g h e r a r t i f a ct sh e w i l l t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks a n d a t t e m p t t o r e s o l ve t h e i ssu e i n d e p e n d e n t l y. D o m i n i c i s d e p e n d e n t o n d i r e c t i o n s a n d i n si g h t f r o m a t e a ch e r D o m i n i c w o u l d t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks ( e sp e ci a l l y t h e so u n d b l o cks ) w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r e i t h e r t h e

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9 6 r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r t o h e l p h i m m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct O f t e n h e n e e d e d i n p u t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o h e l p cl a r i f y h i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e i n t e n t o f h i s a r t i f a ct T h i s r e f l e c t i o n su m m a r i ze s a ke y d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. D o m i n i c a n d Je n n i f e r w e r e t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t s t o h a ve l o w e r sco r e s o n t h e p o st t e st w h e n co m p a r e d t o t h e p r e t e st ( S e e T a b l e 4 5 ) O n e p a r t i ci p a n t s sco r e s r e m a i n e d t h e sa m e b e t w e e n t e st s. T h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t i ci p a n t s i n cr e a se d t h e i r sco r e s. D o m i n i c w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e a r e a o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m s f a ce o n t h e p o st t e s t t h o u g h h e w a s a b l e t o su cce ssf u l l y c o m p l e t e t h e sa m e ca l cu l a t i o n o n t h e p r e t e st Je n n i f e r w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a r e c t a n g u l a r p r i sm o n t h e p o st t e st t h o u g h sh e d i d su cce ssf u l l y ca l cu l a t e t h e v o l u m e o n t h e p r e t e st T h e se r e s u l t s a r e p e r p l e xi n g I t i s d i f f i cu l t t o u n d e r st a n d h o w a l e a r n e r ca n su cc e ssf u l l y d e m o n st r a t e a ski l l o n o n e o cca si o n b u t c a n f a i l t o r e p l i ca t e t h e ski l l a t a l a t e r o cca si o n T h i s su g g e s t s t h a t i t m a y b e n e ce ssa r y t o p r o vi d e m u l t i p l e a ss e ssm e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o a d e q u a t e l y d o cu m e n t w h e t h e r o r n o t l e a r n e r s h a ve e f f e ct i ve l y a cq u i r e d sp e ci f i c ski l l s. T a b l e 4 5 O ve r vi e w o f p r e a n d p o st t e st r e s u l t s f o r se l e ct e d ca se s D o m i n i c Je n n i f e r T e st i t e m s P r e P o st P r e P o st A b l e t o i d e n t i f y g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e a r e a o f a p r i sm s f a ce ? Y e s N o Y e s Y e s A b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e i g h t o f a p r i sm ? Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm ? N o N o Y e s N o A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e su r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o N o N o A b l e t o e xp l a i n h o w t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o N o N o O ve r a l l sco r e 7 / 1 3 6 / 1 3 9 / 1 3 6 / 1 3 D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s p r e a n d p o st t e st d a t a p r o vi d e i n co n cl u si ve e vi d e n ce f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a n i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a r e p r e se n t i n g t h e m a t h co n t e n t i n S cr a t ch H o w e v e r w h e n t h i s d a t a i s

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9 7 co m b i n e d w i t h p a r t i ci p a n t r e sp o n se s d u r i n g i n t e r vi e w s a n d w i t h d a t a f r o m a n a n a l ysi s o f p a r t i ci p a n t S cr a t ch p r o j e ct s, t h e r e i s r e a so n a b l e su p p o r t f o r c o n si d e r i n g t h e i m p a ct o f t h i s a p p r o a ch i f t h e l e a r n i n g st yl e s o f i n d i vi d u a l s a r e su p p o r t e d D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g st yl e w a s n o t su p p o r t i n g d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct T h e d e si g n o f t h i s p r o j e ct d i d n o t p r o vi d e t h e r e q u i r e d su p p o r t f o r D o m i n i c t o b e su cc e ssf u l r a t h e r t h a n f r u st r a t e d A l i n e a r p r o ce ss t h a t i n cl u d e d sp e ci f i c, sh o r t t e r m g o a l s m a y h a ve b e n e f i t e d D o m i n i c. A si m i l a r p r o ce ss m a y h a ve a l s o b e n e f i t e d Je n n i f e r H o w e ve r sh e a cco m p l i sh e d co n si d e r a b l y m o r e i n h e r p r o j e ct t h a n D o m i n i c e v e n t h o u g h t h e y b o t h w o r ke d i n t h e sa m e e d u ca t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t Je n n i f e r a p p e a r e d t o t h r i ve w h e n sh e w a s g r a n t e d ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l i n t h e d e si g n o f h e r a r t i f a ct S h e sh a r e d w i t h t h e r e se a r c h e r t h a t sh e g o t t o d o m a t h b u t i n a f u n w a y. S h e i n d e p e n d e n t l y cr e a t e d se v e r a l sce n e s f o r h e r a r t i f a ct b a se d o n h e r vi si o n f o r h o w h e r a r t i f a ct s h o u l d b e u se d F o r D o m i n i c, ch o i c e a n d c o n t r o l s e e m e d t o se r ve a s b a r r i e r s f o r h i s l e a r n i n g t h a t h e n e e d e d t o o ve r co m e D o m i n i c co u l d n o t i n d e p e n d e n t l y cr e a t e t h e sce n e s h e w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e b a se d o n h i s vi si o n Je n n i f e r co u l d i n d e p e n d e n t l y i m p l e m e n t t h e p l a n f o r t h e d e si g n o f h e r a r t i f a ct w i t h o cca si o n a l a d u l t su p p o r t w h i l e D o m i n i c n e e d e d a l m o st co n st a n t a d u l t su p p o r t t o e n su r e t h a t h e p r o g r e ss e d S u m m a r y o f C a s e S t u d y F i n d i n g s I n su m m a r y, b o t h ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s p a r t i ci p a t e d i n t h e sa m e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t cr e a t e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s, ye t b o t h p a r t i ci p a n t s se e m e d h e a d e d i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e ct i o n s. M r s. H o b se r v e d h o w Je n n i f e r e m e r g e d a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s w h o r e a l l y f e l t g o o d a b o u t h e r se l f w h i l e D o m i n i c g o t l o s t i n t h e p r o j e ct b e ca u se o f n o t m a y b e

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9 8 f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g t h e m a t h b e h i n d i t n o t f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g h i s t h o u g h t s o r h o w t o t a ckl e p r o j e ct s o r p e r se ve r e C o l l e ct i ve l y, b o t h ca s e st u d i e s p r o vi d e a m i xe d r e sp o n s e f o r a d d r e ssi n g t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n : H o w e f f e ct i ve i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s ? D o m i n i c s ca se p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t i n d i ca t e s t h a t L C M u si n g S cr a t c h m a y n o t b e e f f e ct i ve a t i n c r e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r c e r t a i n t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s G e n e r a l l y, d e si g n i n g a S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t w a s f r u st r a t i n g f o r D o m i n i c, a n d t h e r e i s n o s u p p o r t i n g e vi d e n ce t o i n d i ca t e t h a t D o m i n i c d e ve l o p e d a n i n cr e a se d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. Je n n i f e r s ca s e p r o vi d e s m i xe d e vi d e n ce t h a t t h i s p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch i n c r e a se d h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. A d e cr e a se i n sc o r e s f r o m p r e t e st t o p o st t e st d o e s n o t p r o vi d e su p p o r t f o r i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s. H o w e ve r Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d a ccu r a t e c o n t e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g s o m e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h i s p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t sh e u n d e r st a n d s a n d ca n e x p r e ss a sp e ct s o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. I t a l so su g g e st s t h a t s h e e n g a g e d i n t h i s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct i o n o f h e r S cr a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct I n co n cl u si o n t h e se ca s e st u d i e s r e ve a l t h a t t h e e d u ca t i o n a l co m m u n i t y sh o u l d co n si d e r t h e r e l a t i o n sh i p b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s o f t h e i n d i vi d u a l a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch t o e n s u r e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s m a xi m i ze d N o t a l l l e a r n e r s w i l l t h r i ve w h e n a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y i s e m p l o ye d D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n t h i s st u d y su p p o r t t h i s cl a i m B o t h e xp e r i e n ce d a si m i l a r

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9 9 l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t w i t h t h e co m m o n p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o f L C M ye t t h e i r e xp e r i e n ce s yi e l d e d d i st i n c t l y se p a r a t e o u t co m e s f o r e a ch l e a r n e r

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1 0 0 C H A P T E R 5 D O C U M E N T A T I O N A N D R E F L E C T I O N T O P R O D U C E D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s ch a p t e r a d d r e sse s t h e f i n a l r e se a r ch q u e st i o n : W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r cr e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a ( L C M ) f o r a ca d e m i c a l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? A n a p p r o p r i a t e r e sp o n s e t o t h i s q u e st i o n sh o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g L C M f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i s k l e a r n e r s. T o a d d r e ss t h i s q u e st i o n t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n a l yze d d a t a c o l l e ct e d f r o m t h e t w o ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s p r e se n t e d i n t h e p r e vi o u s ch a p t e r a n d i n t e r vi e w e d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r M r s. H t o d i scu ss t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t b e n e f i t e d l e a r n e r s i n t h e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e d L C M ( se e A p p e n d i x A f o r a t r a n scr i p t o f t h i s i n t e r vi e w ) T h i s r e se a r c h e r a n a l yze d t h e t r a n scr i p t u si n g T e sch s ( 1 9 9 0 ) e i g h t st e p p r o ce ss d e sc r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 t o e xt r a c t t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s. T h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s se r ve a s o u t co m e s o r f i n d i n g s f o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y a n d i n f o r m t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R p r o ce ss a n d t h e e d u ca t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y. D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s S e ve r a l d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s e m e r g e d f r o m a n a l y se s o f t h e t w o ca se s p r e se n t e d i n t h e p r e vi o u s ch a p t e r i n c o n j u n ct i o n w i t h a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w w i t h M r s. H t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r R e ca l l t h a t M r s. H r e f l e ct e d t h a t Je n n i f e r e m e r g e d a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s w h i l e D o m i n i c a p p e a r e d t o g e t l o st i n t h e p r o j e ct I t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ss u m e t h a t o t h e r l e a r n e r s sh a r e co m m o n ch a r a ct e r i st i cs w i t h J e n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c, so t h e i r e xp e r i e n ce s w i t h i n t h i s st u d y ca n i n f o r m t h e e d u ca t i o n a l co m m u n i t y a b o u t a b r o a d e r p o p u l a t i o n o f l e a r n e r s. T h e f o l l o w i n g d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s e m e r g e d o ve r t h e co u r se o f t h i s st u d y: U se m u l t i p l e a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n S cr a t ch S ca f f o l d t h e d e si g n e xp e r i e n ce

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1 0 1 E xp l i ci t l y a n d r e p e a t e d l y st a t e l e a r n i n g g o a l s A sse ss a r t i f a ct s r e g u l a r l y E a ch o f t h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i s d i scu ss e d b e l o w U s e M u l t i p l e A p p r o a c h e s t o L e a r n S c r a t c h L e a r n i n g h o w t o u se a m u l t i m e d i a t o o l i s a p r e r e q u i si t e f o r d e si g n i n g w i t h t h e t o o l S p e ci f i ca l l y, i t i s n e ce ssa r y t o h a ve so m e l e ve l o f co m p e t e n ce w i t h S cr a t ch b e f o r e d e si g n i n g a n a r t i f a c t u si n g S cr a t ch T h e r e i s n o si n g l e a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h a t ca n m e e t t h e n e e d s o f a l l l e a r n e r s. Y e t t h i s st u d y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t se ve r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch u s e d t o g e t h e r e n su r e d t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t s d e ve l o p e d co m p e t e n c e u si n g S cr a t ch T h e se a p p r o a ch e s i n cl u d e d i r e c t i o n i n st r u ct i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n a n d p e e r co l l a b o r a t i o n B o t h D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s e xp e r i e n ce s p r o vi d e e xa m p l e s o f h o w t h e se t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s a ssi st e d t h e m i n l e a r n i n g h o w t o u se S cr a t ch B o t h Je n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c h a d t i m e t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t c h b e f o r e u si n g i t t o d e si g n a n a r t i f a ct T h e i r i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g i n S cr a t ch w a s st r u c t u r e d t o e n s u r e t h a t b a si c co m p e t e n ci e s w e r e l e a r n e d su ch a s h o w t o a d d o r c r e a t e a sp r i t e o r h o w t o a d d co m m a n d b l o cks t o a scr i p t T h e s e ski l l s a r e n e ce ssa r y t o cr e a t e a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a r t i f a ct s i n S cr a t ch a n d t h e se ski l l s w e r e e xp l i ci t l y t a u g h t t o t h e e n t i r e g r o u p o f p a r t i ci p a n t s. A d d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n w a s p r o vi d e d j u st i n t i m e o n ce p a r t i ci p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d a n a ct i o n o r b e h a vi o r t h e y w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s b u t d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o d o s o T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a p p r o a c h a l l o w s l e a r n e r s t o cu st o m i ze t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. P a r t i ci p a n t s a l so co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h e a ch o t h e r t o l e a r n n e w a sp e ct s o f S cr a t ch I f o n e p a r t i ci p a n t l e a r n e d a n e w ski l l i n S cr a t ch t h e n t h i s n e w e xp e r t i s e co u l d b e sh a r e d w i t h p e e r s. T h e r e f o r e t h e a p p r o a ch t o l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch

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1 0 2 i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y i n cl u d e d d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n a n d p e e r co l l a b o r a t i o n Je n n i f e r s ca s e p r o vi d e s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e t h r e e t yp e s o f i n st r u ct i o n i n a ct i o n Je n n i f e r d e m o n st r a t e d co m p e t e n ce a d d i n g e x i st i n g sp r i t e s f r o m t h e S cr a t c h l i b r a r y t o h e r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct a n d d e si g n i n g h e r o w n u n i q u e sp r i t e s r e l e v a n t t o h e r a r t i f a ct T h e se ski l l s w e r e p a r t o f t h e d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n t h a t a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s r e ce i ve d b e f o r e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e a l l o w e d t o d e si g n i n S cr a t ch Je n n i f e r e xp r e sse d a n i n t e r e s t i n h a vi n g m u l t i p l e sce n e s i n h e r a r t i f a c t t h r o u g h w h i ch a u se r w o u l d n a vi g a t e so sh e n e e d e d t o l e a r n h o w t o u se t h e sh o w a n d h i d e co m m a n d b l o cks so t h a t t h e p r o p e r sp r i t e s w o u l d b e vi si b l e o r h i d d e n d e p e n d i n g i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sce n e s. Je n n i f e r l e a r n e d h o w t o i n t e g r a t e t h e se c o m m a n d b l o cks w i t h i n st r u ct i o n f r o m t h i s r e s e a r ch e r a n i n st a n ce o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n s p e ci f i c t o Je n n i f e r S a r a h o n e o f Je n n i f e r s p e e r s, o b se r ve d Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct a n d w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e a si m i l a r a ct i o n i n h e r p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r o b se r ve d t h a t S a r a h s a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d a q u e s t i o n a n d a n sw e r sc r i p t a n d d e ci d e d t h a t sh e w o u l d l i ke a si m i l a r a ct i o n i n h e r p r o j e ct S o Je n n i f e r a n d S a r a h co l l a b o r a t e d t o l e a r n t h e a ct i o n s f r o m e a ch o t h e r D o m i n i c s ca se p r o vi d e s a n a d d i t i o n a l e xa m p l e o f t h e t h r e e t yp e s o f i n st r u ct i o n i n a ct i o n D o m i n i c d e m o n st r a t e d co m p e t e n ce m o d i f yi n g e xi st i n g s p r i t e s f r o m t h e S cr a t ch l i b r a r y a n d d e si g n i n g h i s o w n u n i q u e s p r i t e s. R e ca l l t h a t t h e s e sp e ci f i c ski l l s w e r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y t a u g h t b e f o r e t h e d e si g n p h a se o f t h e st u d y b e g a n I n a d d i t i o n D o m i n i c w a s t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o l e a r n a n d i n t e g r a t e vo i ce r e co r d i n g s. W h e n D o m i n i c e xp r e sse d a n i n t e r e st i n n a r r a t i n g t h e st o r y h e co n ce i ve d f o r h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct b o t h t h i s r e se a r c h e r a n d M r s. H a ssi st e d h i m i n l e a r n i n g h o w t o r e co r d h i s vo i ce a n d

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1 0 3 i n t e g r a t e t h e r e co r d i n g s i n t o h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct T h i s ski l l w a s n o t t a u g h t t o t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s b e ca u se t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s d i d n o t e xp r e ss a n i n t e r e st i n i n t e g r a t i n g vo i ce r e co r d i n g s i n t o t h e i r p r o j e ct s so D o m i n i c r e ce i ve d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n s t r u ct i o n sp e ci f i c t o t h i s ski l l D o m i n i c o b se r ve d t h a t Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d m u l t i p l e sce n e s a n d e xp r e ss e d a n i n t e r e st i n h a vi n g m u l t i p l e sce n e s i n h i s a r t i f a c t a s w e l l Je n n i f e r co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h D o m i n i c t o t e a ch h i m h o w t o u s e t h e h i d e a n d s h o w co m m a n d b l o cks j u st a s sh e d i d w i t h S a r a h I n su m m a r y, b o t h Je n n i f e r s a n d D o m i n i c s e x p e r i e n ce s d e m o n s t r a t e h o w t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch u s e d co l l e ct i v e l y a ssi st e d t h e m i n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch U si n g m u l t i p l e a p p r o a c h e s m a y e n su r e m o r e e f f e ct i ve l e a r n i n g o v e r a d o p t i n g a si n g l e a p p r o a c h P r o vi d i n g j u st d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n m a y n o t a l l o w l e a r n e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o cu st o m i ze t h e i r a r t i f a ct s. L i m i t i n g l e a r n i n g t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n m a y b e a n u n w i e l d y b u r d e n o n t h e t e a ch e r a s s/ h e a t t e m p t s t o i n d i vi d u a l i ze l e a r n i n g f o r a l l st u d e n t s. W h e n so l e l y r e l yi n g o n p e e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n l e a r n e r s m a y n o t d e ve l o p su f f i c i e n t co m p e t e n c e b e ca u se t h e r e m a y n o t b e e n o u g h e xp e r t i se w i t h i n t h e p e e r g r o u p W h e n a l l t h r e e a p p r o a ch e s a r e i n t e g r a t e d d i r e c t i n st r u ct i o n a l l o w s l e a r n e r s t o d e ve l o p b a si c co m p e t e n cy w h i l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n a n d p e e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n cr e a se co m p e t e n cy a n d a l l o w f o r cu st o m i za t i o n S c a f f o l d t h e D e s i g n E x p e r i e n c e B o t h Je n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c d e si g n e d a S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct ye t t h e i r i n d i vi d u a l c a se s su p p o r t t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e t h a t i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o sca f f o l d t h e d e si g n e xp e r i e n ce t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r D o m i n i c m a y h a ve b e n e f i t e d f r o m a d d i t i o n a l sca f f o l d i n g t h a t w a s n o t p r o vi d e d d u r i n g t h e d e si g n st a g e o f t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y. T o o m u ch ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l a n d t o o f e w ch e ckp o i n t s t o m e e t t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e si g n

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1 0 4 p r o ce ss m a y h a ve c o n t r i b u t e d t o D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. M r s. H r e f l e ct e d t h a t D o m i n i c st r u g g l e d b e ca u se t h e r e w a sn t e n o u g h st r u ct u r e f o r h i m S h e a l so r e f l e ct e d t h a t D o m i n i c n e e d e d se q u e n t i a l sca f f o l d i n g t h a t i n cl u d e d sp e ci f i c s t e p s t h a t h e n e e d e d t o ch e ck o f f D u r i n g a n i n t e r vi e w t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ske d D o m i n i c a b o u t t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t c h D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e t h o u g h t i t s h o u l d b e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e I n h i s r e sp o n se D o m i n i c m a y b e e xp r e ssi n g h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n n o t o n l y h o w t o l e a r n S cr a t ch b u t a l s o h o w h e p r e f e r s t o l e a r n i n g e n e r a l D o m i n i c m a y n e e d t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g n e w i n sm a l l st e p s. A d d i t i o n a l sca f f o l d i n g co u l d r e d u ce D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n H o w e ve r w h i l e Je n n i f e r m a y h a v e a l so b e n e f i t e d f r o m a d d i t i o n a l sca f f o l d i n g sh e a p p e a r e d t o t h r i ve w i t h t h e a m o u n t o f ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l o f f e r e d d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. R e c a l l t h a t M r s. H n o t e d t h a t Je n n i f e r e m e r g e d a s a l e a d e r a m o n g t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. S h e co u l d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t r o u b l e sh o o t a n d r e vi se h e r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w h e n sh e e n co u n t e r e d a n i ssu e S h e co u l d a l so sh a r e h e r e xp e r t i se a b o u t S cr a t ch w i t h h e r p e e r s. I n f a ct s e ve r a l a c t i o n s e vi d e n t i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t e ve n t u a l l y f o u n d t h e i r w a y i n t o se ve r a l o f h e r p e e r s a r t i f a ct s. D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s n e a r l y p o l a r p e r f o r m a n ce s d u r i n g t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y su g g e st t h a t sca f f o l d i n g i s a n e ce ssa r y c o m p o n e n t t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a b u t t h e sca f f o l d i n g a n d su p p o r t m u st b e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r D o m i n i c m a y r e q u i r e s u b st a n t i a l l y m o r e sca f f o l d i n g t h a n Je n n i f e r I t i s l i ke l y t h a t l e a r n e r s m a y b e n e f i t a l o n g a co n t i n u u m o f sca f f o l d i n g w i t h so m e l e a r n e r s r e q u i r i n g m o r e sca f f o l d i n g a n d o t h e r s r e q u i r i n g l e ss sca f f o l d i n g

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1 0 5 E x p l i c i t l y a n d R e p e a t e d l y S t a t e L e a r n i n g G o a l s B e f o r e p a r t i ci p a n t s b e g a n d e si g n i n g t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s, M r s. H a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r sh a r e d t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. T h e l e a r n i n g g o a l w a s e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d a n d r e c o r d e d o n t h e w a l l w h e r e i t r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h i s st u d y. T h o u g h t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l w a s e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct i t w a s n o t co n si st e n t l y r e a d d r e sse d d u r i n g t h e e xt e n t o f t h i s st u d y. T h i s m a y p r o vi d e so m e a cco u n t f o r w h y t h e r e i s n o t a si g n i f i ca n t i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g o b se r ve d I f l e a r n e r s a r e n o t r e p e a t e d l y m a d e a w a r e o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a r g e t w h e n d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h e n t h e y m a y f o r g e t t h e i r p u r p o s e f o r l e a r n i n g a n d t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct m a y n o t f u l l y r e p r e se n t o r a d d r e ss t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct o n l y i n cl u d e d s u p e r f i ci a l r e f e r e n ce s t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h i s i n d i ca t e s t h a t a t so m e p o i n t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss h e w a s a w a r e t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct sh o u l d i n cl u d e s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H o w e ve r h a d t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l b e e n r e p e a t e d l y r e st a t e d D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t m a y h a ve a d d r e sse d a d e e p e r l e ve l o f co n t e n t D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n D o m i n i c a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ske d D o m i n i c i f h e co u l d r e ca l l t h e g o a l o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. D o m i n i c st a t e d t h a t h e d i d b u t h e co u l d n o t a r t i cu l a t e t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct a d d r e sse d m o r e co n t e n t o n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s t h a n D o m i n i c s a r t i f a c t I t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t Je n n i f e r w a s a l so a w a r e t h a t h e r a r t i f a c t sh o u l d i n cl u d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d t h a t sh e w a s a b l e t o r e t a i n t h i s l e a r n i n g g o a l l o n g e r t h a n D o m i n i c. Je n n i f e r m a y a l so h a ve b e n e f i t e d f r o m m u l t i p l e r e m i n d e r s a b o u t t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l T h e y m a y h a ve h e l p e d

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1 0 6 h e r f o cu s o n i m p o r t a n t a sp e ct s o f t h e co n t e n t o r h a ve e n co u r a g e d h e r t o i n cl u d e a d d i t i o n a l co n t e n t T h o u g h t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss d o cu m e n t e d i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y w a s n o t r e p e a t e d l y r e st a t e d w h i l e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e d e si g n i n g t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s, i t w a s e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e st u d y. Y e t e xp l i ci t l y st a t i n g a l e a r n i n g g o a l i s n e ce ss a r y b u t n o t s u f f i ci e n t f o r e n su r i n g t h a t a l l st u d e n t s m e e t a l e a r n i n g g o a l T h e l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct sh o u l d co n si st e n t l y b e a d d r e sse d t o e n su r e t h a t l e a r n e r s a r e w o r k i n g t o w a r d s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t a r g e t A s s e s s A r t i f a c t s R e g u l a r l y O n e o f t h e a n a l yse s c o n d u ct e d b y t h i s r e se a r ch e r w a s a n a n a l ysi s o f e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct T h i s a n a l ysi s w a s co n d u ct e d a f t e r e a ch d e si g n se ssi o n T h i s r e se a r ch e r co l l e ct e d d a t a f r o m e a ch a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x G ) a n d r e co r d e d o b se r va t i o n s o f e a c h p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) T h i s d a i l y a n a l ysi s e n su r e d t h a t t h i s r e se a r ch h a d so m e d e g r e e o f a w a r e n e ss o f e a c h p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. I f i n a ccu r a t e co n t e n t a p p e a r e d i n a S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct o r i f a S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w a s n o t w o r ki n g p r o p e r l y, M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r c o u l d a d d r e ss t h e i ssu e w i t h t h e p a r t i ci p a n t H o w e v e r t h i s i s o n l y p o ssi b l e i f so m e o n e i s a w a r e o f a n y i ssu e s, a n d i t i s o n l y p o ssi b l e t o b e a w a r e o f i ssu e s i f s o m e o n e h a s a sse sse d t h e a r t i f a c t s. R e g u l a r l y a sse ssi n g a r t i f a ct co u l d b e co n si d e r e d a d a u n t i n g t a sk i f a t e a c h e r i s r e sp o n si b l e f o r a l a r g e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s H o w e ve r h a vi n g st u d e n t s co l l e ct a n d r e co r d t h e i r o w n d a t a i n a co m m u n i t y s p r e a d s h e e t co u l d m i t i g a t e t h i s co n ce r n T h u s, a t e a ch e r c o u l d r e vi e w t h e sp r e a d s h e e t t o d e t e r m i n e p r o g r e ss t h e n e x a m i n e i n d i vi d u a l S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s a s n e e d e d S t u d e n t s c o u l d a l so r e co r d a n d r e f l e ct o n t h e i r d a i l y

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1 0 7 p r o g r e s s i n l e a r n i n g j o u r n a l s, w h i ch t h e t e a ch e r co u l d r e vi e w t o a sce r t a i n i n d i vi d u a l p r o g r e ss S u m m a r y o f D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y r e v e a l e d f o u r d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s t h a t p r o vi d e g u i d e l i n e s a n d i n si g h t f o r t e a ch e r s w h o ch o o se t o i n t e g r a t e L C M i n t o t h e i r e xi st i n g p r a ct i ce T h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i n cl u d e : U se m u l t i p l e a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n S cr a t ch S ca f f o l d t h e d e si g n e xp e r i e n ce E xp l i ci t l y a n d r e p e a t e d l y st a t e l e a r n i n g g o a l s A sse ss a r t i f a ct s r e g u l a r l y T h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s a l so s e r ve t o i n f o r m t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f D B R e xa m i n i n g t h e i m p a ct o f L C M o n l e a r n i n g co n t e n t T h e se f o u r p r i n ci p l e s sh o u l d b e e xp l i ci t l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a f u t u r e d e si g n o f a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t a l l o w s l e a r n e r s t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t

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1 0 8 C H A P T E R 6 C O N C L U S I O N S u m m a r y o f F i n d i n g s B a se d o n t h e a n a l yse s o f i n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n a n a l ysi s o f p a r t i ci p a n t co n st r u ct e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s, a n a n a l ysi s o f t h i s r e se a r c h e r s r e f l e ct i ve o b se r va t i o n n o t e s a n d d a t a f r o m a cu r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st t h i s st u d y r e ve a l s t h a t l e a r n i n g g a i n s m a y o r m a y n o t o ccu r w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch D a t a c o l l e ct e d a n d a n a l yz e d i n t h i s s t u d y yi e l d i n co n cl u si v e e vi d e n ce f o r a n i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g Y e t t h i s d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s n o i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g O n e r e a so n a b l e e xp l a n a t i o n f o r w h y n o i m p a ct w a s m e a su r e d m a y b e a r e su l t o f t h e co n t e n t b a se d m e a su r e u se d f o r t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. R e ca l l t h a t b o t h ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s, J e n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c, sco r e d l o w e r o n t h e p o st t e st t h a n t h e p r e t e st T h i s m e a su r e m a y n o t h a v e a d e q u a t e l y ca p t u r e d p a r t i ci p a n t s co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e e xp e r i e n ce S i t u a t i n g T h i s S t u d y w i t h i n E x i s t i n g L i t e r a t u r e R e ca l l f r o m C h a p t e r 2 t h a t t h e r e i s a r e a so n a b l e a m o u n t o f e vi d e n ce w i t h i n t h e e xi st i n g l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i d e n t i f i e s p o si t i ve o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. H o w e v e r t h e r e e xi st s l i t t l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n t h a t ca p t u r e s h o w l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a i n a cl a ssr o o m s e t t i n g t h o u g h t h e u se o f S cr a t ch i n a f t e r sch o o l p r o g r a m s co m m u n i t y t e c h n o l o g y ce n t e r s a n d S cr a t ch s o n l i n e co m m u n i t y i s d o cu m e n t e d T h i s st u d y d o cu m e n t s h o w y o u n g l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch i n a cl a ssr o o m co n t e xt t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f r e q u i r e d m a t h co n t e n t T h i s st u d y co n t r i b u t e s t o t h e cu r r e n t vo i d o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d o cu m e n t s

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1 0 9 h o w l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch i n f o r m a l K 1 2 e d u c a t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t s t o l e a r n r e q u i r e d cu r r i cu l u m co n t e n t I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e T h e r e a r e s e ve r a l i m p l i ca t i o n s f o r cu r r e n t p r a c t i ce s w h e n t e a c h e r s a n d sch o o l s co n si d e r i n t e g r a t i n g L C M u si n g S cr a t ch a s a p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch T h e se i m p l i ca t i o n s i n cl u d e : L C M a l l o w s m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s f o r st u d e n t s. L C M e n co u r a g e s s e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g L C M p r o m o t e s co l l a b o r a t i o n L C M cr e a t e s a n a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d o f a sse ss m e n t L C M ch a n g e s t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a ch e r f r o m g i v e r o f kn o w l e d g e t o co a ch E a ch o f t h e se i m p l i ca t i o n s i s d i scu sse d b e l o w L C M A l l o w s M u l t i p l e L e a r n i n g P a t h s f o r S t u d e n t s O n e o f t h e i m p l i ca t i o n s e vi d e n t f r o m t h i s st u d y i s t h a t i n t e g r a t i n g L C M i n sch o o l s cr e a t e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n e r s t o e n g a g e i n m a t h co n t e n t i n a n a l t e r n a t i ve m a n n e r t o r o t e l e a r n i n g M r s. H r e f l e ct e d t h a t i n s t e a d o f j u st t h e m b e i n g t h e c o n su m e r s o f t h e kn o w l e d g e a n d t h e n j u st sp i t t i n g i t b a ck o u t o n a t e st a n d r e g u r g i t a t i n g i t t h e y a ct u a l l y h a d t o t h i n k o u t si d e o f t h e m se l ve s a n d t h i n k h o w w o u l d so m e b o d y b e e n g a g e d i n l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h i s sh a p e T h e e n vi r o n m e n t f e a t u r e d i n t h i s st u d y cr e a t e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n e r s t o b e co m e p r o d u ce r s r a t h e r t h a n c o n su m e r s. P a r t i ci p a n t s d e si g n e d a S c r a t ch a r t i f a ct t h a t e xp r e sse d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s T h e r e f o r e p a r t i ci p a n t s n e e d e d t o t h i n k a b o u t w h i ch sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t t h e y w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s a n d t o m a ke d e ci si o n s a b o u t h o w t h a t co n t e n t w o u l d b e e xp r e sse d i n t h e i r a r t i f a c t s. T h i s a p p r o a ch c r e a t e d m u l t i p l e p a t h s f o r p a r t i ci p a n t s t o d e si g n t h e i r a r t i f a c t s. T h e r e w a s n o si n g l e co m m o n p a t h t h a t a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s u se d

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1 1 0 I t i s l i ke l y t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t s ch o se t o e xp r e ss t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n a m a n n e r t h a t r e f l e ct e d h o w t h e y p r e f e r t o l e a r n F o r e x a m p l e d u r i n g t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n D o m i n i c a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e e n j o ye d w r i t i n g a n d t e l l i n g st o r i e s. H i s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w a s cl e a r l y st o r y b a s e d I t i n cl u d e d a r e co r d e d n a r r a t i o n o f a st o r y h e cr e a t e d a n d i t w a s t h e o n l y S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t t h a t i n cl u d e d a vo i ce r e co r d i n g T h o u g h D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct su p e r f i ci a l l y r e f e r e n ce d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s, h i s n a r r a t i ve a p p r o a ch t o d e si g n i n g h i s a r t i f a ct m a y r e p r e se n t h o w h e p r e f e r s t o l e a r n I f a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e xp e c t e d t o f o l l o w a co m m o n p a t h w h i l e d e si g n i n g t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c m a y n o t h a v e b e e n a b l e t o d e si g n a n a r r a t i ve a r t i f a ct A n o t h e r a sp e ct o f a l l o w i n g m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s r e l a t e s t o a p p r o a c h e s f o r l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h e m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l u se d i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y. T h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e w a ys t o l e a r n h o w t o u s e a n e w t o o l s u ch a s S cr a t ch O n e a p p r o a ch a s M r s. H sh a r e d i n vo l ve s w a t c h m e n o w yo u d o i t w a t ch m e n o w yo u d o i t T h i s a p p r o a c h co n si st s o f a cycl e o f m o d e l i n g b y t h e t e a c h e r f o l l o w e d b y g u i d e d p r a ct i ce f o r t h e st u d e n t W h e n t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e f i r st l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h i s d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n w a s t h e a p p r o a ch a d o p t e d b y t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r H o w e ve r a f t e r s h a r i n g so m e o f t h e m o st co m m o n a ct i o n s i n S cr a t c h o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch w e r e e m p l o ye d P a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e n co u r a g e d t o e xp l o r e S cr a t ch i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o d e t e r m i n e w h i ch co m m a n d b l o cks w e r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r scr i p t s, a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r p r o vi d e d j u st i n t i m e i n st r u ct i o n d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i n d i vi d u a l n e e d s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. I n a d d i t i o n p a r t i ci p a n t s co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h e a ch o t h e r t o sh a r e e xp e r t i se

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1 1 1 R e g a r d l e ss o f t h e a p p r o a ch f o r l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch n o si n g l e a p p r o a ch o r l e a r n i n g p a t h w o r ks f o r a l l l e a r n e r s. S o m e l e a r n e r s n e e d t h e a d d i t i o n a l st r u ct u r e o f t h e cycl e o f m o d e l i n g a n d g u i d e d p r a ct i ce a n d d o n o t t h r i v e w h e n g i ve n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t i n k e r D o m i n i c r e p r e se n t s t h i s t yp e o f l e a r n e r H e w o u l d o n l y m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w h e n a n a d u l t w a s a va i l a b l e t o g u i d e h i m O t h e r s f e e l co n st r a i n e d b y t h e cycl e o f m o d e l i n g a n d g u i d e d p r a ct i ce a n d l e a r n m o r e w h e n a l l o w e d t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y f i g u r e o u t h o w S cr a t c h w o r ks. O n e o f t h e n o n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s e m e r g e d a s a l e a d e r w h i l e l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch H e i n d e p e n d e n t l y t e st e d a n d r e vi se d scr i p t s a n d t r i e d o u t va r i o u s co m m a n d b l o cks u n t i l t h e scr i p t s w o r k e d t h e w a y h e i n t e n d e d t h e m t o w o r k, t h e n h e w o u l d sh a r e h i s n e w l e a r n i n g w i t h h i s p e e r g r o u p O f a l l t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s, t h i s i n d i vi d u a l i n cl u d e d 1 6 u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o ck s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 1 1 5 w i t h a r a n g e o f 5 1 6 ) T h i s d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t t h i s i n d i vi d u a l w a s w i l l i n g t o t i n k e r i n S cr a t ch a n d t o f i g u r e o u t h o w ce r t a i n co m m a n d b l o cks w o r k e d W h e n a t e a c h e r c r e a t e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o f o l l o w m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s, s/ h e e n co u r a g e s c h o i ce S ch i e f e l e ( 1 9 9 1 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t ch o i ce e n co u r a g e s l e a r n e r s t o e xp e n d m o r e e f f o r t o n l e a r n i n g a n d u n d e r st a n d i n g co n t e n t T u r n e r a n d P a r i s ( 1 9 9 5 ) a r g u e d t h a t ch o i ce ca n b e a st r o n g m o t i va t o r O p e n e n d e d a c t i vi t i e s cr e a t e n u m e r o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r ch o i ce a n d p r o vi d e s t u d e n t s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o m o l d t a sks t o i n t e r e st s a n d va l u e s, t h u s su p p o r t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s t o m a ke m e a n i n g w h i l e e n g a g i n g t h e m a f f e ct i ve l y ( T u r n e r & P a r i s, 1 9 9 5 p 6 6 5 )

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1 1 2 C r e a t i n g m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s e n s u r e s t h a t l e a r n e r s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n i n a m a n n e r t h a t r e f l e ct s t h e w a ys t h e y p r e f e r t o l e a r n T h i s i m p l i ca t i o n i s a l so r e l a t e d t o a n o t h e r i m p l i ca t i o n r e l e va n t t o t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t : s e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g L C M E n c o u r a g e s S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r n i n g P a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h i s p r o j e ct w e r e a f f o r d e d a f a i r a m o u n t o f ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l i n t h e d e si g n o f t h e i r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s. T h e o ve r a l l g o a l o f d e si g n i n g a S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t h a t i n cl u d e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s w a s a co m m o n e xp e ct a t i o n f o r a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s. H o w e ve r h o w t h e y ch o se t o a d d r e ss t h a t g o a l va r i e d si g n i f i ca n t l y a cr o ss t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. O n e p a r t i ci p a n t c h o se a n a r r a t i ve a p p r o a ch T h e p a r t i ci p a n t r e c o r d e d h i s vo i ce t e l l i n g a s t o r y h e h a d w r i t t e n o ve r t h e co u r se o f se ve r a l sce n e s. A se co n d p a r t i ci p a n t i n cl u d e d a se r i e s o f sce n e s t h a t e a ch sh a r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a sp e ci f i c g e o m e t r i c so l i d t h e n a ske d t h e u s e r t o r e sp o n d t o a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t o a n sw e r i t co r r e ct l y b e f o r e t r a n si t i o n i n g t o t h e n e xt sce n e S e ve r a l p a r t i ci p a n t s u se d a q u i z l i ke f o r m a t t h a t i n cl u d e d a se r i e s o f q u e st i o n s a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s w i t h o u t i n cl u d i n g b a ckg r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n A l l t h r e e o f t h e se a p p r o a c h e s m e t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f a d d r e ssi n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s t o so m e e xt e n t t h o u g h so m e p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t e g r a t e d m o r e co n t e n t t h a n o t h e r s. S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g w a s a l so e vi d e n t t h r o u g h t h e l e ve l o f e n g a g e m e n t d i sp l a ye d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s. M r s. H n o t e d t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t s a r r i ve d a t e a ch se ssi o n a n d i m m e d i a t e l y st a r t e d w o r ki n g T h e y d o n t e ve r d o t h a t E ve r A n d i f y o u g o w a t ch t h e m i n t h e i r r o o m s, t h e y r e t h e l e a st a t t e n t i ve a n d m o st ch e cke d o u t i n t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ssr o o m s. S o f o r t h e m t o co m e i n a n d j u s t b a m g e t d o w n t o w o r k w a s h u g e W h i l e t h e r e i s n o t su f f i ci e n t e vi d e n ce t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e xa ct ca u s e o f t h i s e n g a g e m e n t a n d

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1 1 3 co n si d e r i n g t h a t t h e r e m a y b e i n f l u e n ce s f r o m o t h e r f a ct o r s, i t i s st i l l r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t e n g a g e m e n t m a y i n cr e a s e w h e n l e a r n e r s a r e r e sp o n si b l e f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g Je n n i f e r s e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct p r o vi d e s su p p o r t f o r t h i s a ssu m p t i o n w h i l e D o m i n i c s e xp e r i e n ce r e f u t e s i t M r s. H r e co g n i ze d Je n n i f e r a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w h i l e D o m i n i c g o t l o st i n t h e p r o j e ct T h i s m a y i n d i ca t e t h a t se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g o n l y b e n e f i t s l e a r n e r s w h e n t h e y h a ve n e ce ssa r y ski l l s t o b e se l f d i r e ct e d S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g m a y b e a l e a r n e d ski l l ; o n e t h a t n e e d s t o b e d e ve l o p e d o ve r t i m e Je n n i f e r r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e co u l d b e a se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r so d u r i n g h e r p a st e xp e r i e n ce s, sh e d e v e l o p e d t h e n e c e ssa r y ski l l s t o b e a su cc e ssf u l se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r D o m i n i c, h o w e ve r m a y n o t h a ve h a d t h e n e ce ssa r y ski l l s t o b e a se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r S o w h e n h e w a s p l a ce d i n a n e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t e n co u r a g e d se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g h e b e ca m e f r u st r a t e d a n d c o n f u se d r a t h e r t h a n t h r i vi n g H e r e q u i r e d n e a r co n s t a n t g u i d a n ce f r o m e i t h e r M r s. H o r t h e r e se a r ch e r t o m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g e n co u r a g e s co n t r o l o f l e a r n i n g w i t h t h e l e a r n e r R ya n a n d G r o l n i ck ( 1 9 8 6 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s i n cl a ss r o o m s w h e r e t h e co n t r o l o f l e a r n i n g i s sh a r e d b e t w e e n t h e st u d e n t a n d t h e t e a ch e r d e m o n st r a t e i n cr e a se d i n t e r e st i n sch o o l w o r k a n d p e r c e i ve d co m p e t e n ce t h a n s t u d e n t s i n t e a ch e r co n t r o l l e d cl a ss r o o m s T u r n e r & P a r i s ( 1 9 9 5 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t [ s] h a r e d co n t r o l p r o vi d e s st u d e n t s w i t h b o t h t h e t o o l s a n d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t a k e r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g ( p 6 6 7 ) E n co u r a g i n g s e l f d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g m a y r e q u i r e t h a t l e a r n e r s h a ve a d d i t i o n a l ski l l s i n p l a ce b e f o r e b e c o m i n g a su cce ssf u l s e l f d i r e c t e d l e a r n e r O n e ski l l t h a t m a y b e b e n e f i ci a l f o r se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g i s co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h p e e r s.

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1 1 4 L C M P r o m o t e s C o l l a b o r a t i o n M r s. H n o t e d t h a t a si g n i f i ca n t i m p l i ca t i o n o f t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t w a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r co l l a b o r a t i o n : co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h e a ch o t h e r w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o cr e a t e b u t t h e n a l so w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o r e vi se S o m e b o d y w o u l d sa y h o w d o yo u d o t h a t ? S o m e b o d y e l se w o u l d sa y j u s t d o h i d e a n d t h e n b r o a d ca st o r w h a t e v e r T h a t s co l l a b o r a t e T h r o u g h o u t t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e n co u r a g e d t o l e a r n f r o m e a ch o t h e r s e xp e r i e n ce s I f a p a r t i ci p a n t w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e a p a r t i cu l a r a ct i o n ( e g h i d i n g a n d sh o w i n g s p r i t e s so t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e p r o p e r sce n e s ) b u t w a s u n su r e h o w t o b u i l d t h e scr i p t f o r t h a t a ct i o n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r o r r e s e a r ch e r p a r t n e r e d t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t w i t h a n o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t w h o h a d p r e vi o u sl y i n t e g r a t e d t h a t a ct i o n a n d scr i p t i n t o h i s/ h e r p r o j e ct T h i s t yp e o f co l l a b o r a t i o n r e su l t e d i n m u l t i p l e i n st a n c e s o f cr o ss co n t a m i n a t i o n w h e n a p a r t i cu l a r a ct i o n a n d scr i p t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o o n e p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct w o u l d b e co m e p a r t o f a n o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s S c r a t ch a r t i f a ct a f t e r t h e t w o p a r t i ci p a n t s co l l a b o r a t e d N e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct p a r t i ci p a n t s a l so c o l l a b o r a t e d i n a p e e r r e vi e w p r o ce ss. P a r t i ci p a n t s r e vi e w e d e a ch o t h e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s t o e n su r e t h a t t h e y w o r ke d p r o p e r l y. P a r t i ci p a n t s a l so r e vi e w e d t h e a r t i f a ct s f o r s p e l l i n g p u n ct u a t i o n a n d co n ve n t i o n e r r o r s. T h i s t yp e o f co l l a b o r a t i o n r e su l t e d i n m o r e p o l i sh e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s b u t a l so a l l o w e d p a r t i ci p a n t s t o d e m o n st r a t e a n d sh a r e t h e i r e xp e r t i s e i n S cr a t ch T h e r e i s a r e a so n a b l e a m o u n t o f r e se a r ch e vi d e n ce i n t h e e xi st i n g e d u ca t i o n l i t e r a t u r e t o su p p o r t i n cl u d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e e r co l l a b o r a t i o n i n sch o o l s. S ch u n k ( 1 9 8 9 ) o b se r ve d t h a t yo u n g l e a r n e r s o b se r vi n g e a ch o t h e r s p r o g r e ss i n cr e a se d t h e i r o w n co n f i d e n c e S l a vi n ( 1 9 8 7 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t w o r ki n g w i t h p e e r s p r o m o t e d e n g a g e m e n t

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1 1 5 o n t a sks. T u r n e r a n d P a r i s ( 1 9 9 5 ) a r g u e d t h a t so ci a l g u i d a n ce a n d co o p e r a t i o n i n cl a ssr o o m s a r e a l so f u n d a m e n t a l t o m o t i va t i o n ( p 6 6 8 ) W h i l e t h e co l l a b o r a t i o n d e scr i b e d a b o ve yi e l d e d p o si t i ve r e su l t s, co l l a b o r a t i o n ca n a l so r e su l t i n a n e g a t i ve co n se q u e n ce L a t e i n t h e p r o j e ct o n e p a r t i ci p a n t d i sc o ve r e d a n e xi st i n g sp r i t e i n t h e S cr a t ch l i b r a r y o f a j e t p a ck t h a t i n cl u d e d se ve r a l p r e m a d e scr i p t s t h a t a l l o w a u se r t o m o ve t h e j e t p a ck s p r i t e a r o u n d t h e scr e e n u si n g t h e ke yb o a r d s a r r o w k e ys. H e a d d e d t h e j e t p a ck sp r i t e t o h i s p r o j e c t e ve n t h o u g h i t h a d n o r e l a t i o n sh i p t o t h e d e si g n a n d co n t e n t o f h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct H e si m p l y f o u n d i t e n t e r t a i n i n g T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y, 3 p a r t i ci p a n t s i n cl u d i n g t h e o n e w i t h t h e j e t p a ck sp r i t e co l l a b o r a t e d t o p e e r r e vi e w e a ch o t h e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s. N o t su r p r i si n g l y, t h e o t h e r 2 p a r t i ci p a n t s a d d e d t h e sa m e j e t p a ck sp r i t e t o t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s a f t e r t h i s co l l a b o r a t i o n e ve n t h o u g h i t w a s a n i r r e l e va n t a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r a r t i f a ct s. L C M C r e a t e s a n A l t e r n a t i v e M e t h o d o f A s s e s s m e n t D u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct p a r t i ci p a n t s co m p l e t e d a c u r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st t h a t w a s t a ke n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e t e st b a n k o f t h e m a t h cu r r i cu l u m u se d i n t h i s sch o o l T h i s t yp e o f a sse ssm e n t w a s t h e m o s t co m m o n t yp e o f s u m m a t i ve a sse ss m e n t u s e d i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e Y e t t h e S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s cr e a t e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s co u l d a l so se r ve a s a su m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t o f p a r t i ci p a n t s l e a r n i n g E a ch S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s, a n d p a r t i ci p a n t s e xp r e sse d t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s co n t e n t t o va r yi n g d e g r e e s i n t h e se a r t i f a ct s. T h e r e f o r e t h e se S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s co u l d r e p r e se n t a f o r m o f su m m a t i ve a ss e ssm e n t t h a t d o cu m e n t s st u d e n t s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f r e q u i r e d c o n t e n t B a se d o n S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h i s p r o j e ct d e m o n st r a t e d va r i o u s l e ve l s o f u n d e r st a n d i n g F o r e x a m p l e D o m i n i c, o n e o f t h e ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s o n l y

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1 1 6 i n cl u d e d su p e r f i ci a l r e f e r e n ce s t o g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct H e cr e a t e d sp r i t e s o f se v e r a l g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d i n cl u d e d t h e m i n h i s a r t i f a ct b u t d i d n o t r e f e r e n ce t h e m o r e l a b o r a t e o n t h e m T h e y e xi st e d a s p r o p s i n se ve r a l sce n e s. A s a su m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t o f h i s l e a r n i n g a t e a ch e r m i g h t c o n cl u d e t h a t D o m i n i c d o e s n o t h a ve a m e a n i n g f u l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s b e ca u se h e w a s n o t a b l e t o a r t i cu l a t e a n y p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t h o u g h h e d i d u se se ve r a l r e l a t e d vo c a b u l a r y t e r m s I n co n t r a st Je n n i f e r t h e o t h e r ca s e st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct S h e w a s a b l e t o a r t i cu l a t e t h e se p r o p e r t i e s b a se d o n h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t I n t h e d e si g n o f h e r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct sh e i s a p p l yi n g t h i s u n d e r st a n d i n g b y a r t i cu l a t i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s. A s a su m m a t i ve a sse ss m e n t o f Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g a t e a ch e r m i g h t co n cl u d e t h a t sh e d o e s h a v e a m e a n i n g f u l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f so m e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s b e ca u se s h e a r t i c u l a t e d a sp e ct s o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a c o n e a n d r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm R e ca l l t h a t n e i t h e r D o m i n i c n o r Je n n i f e r sh o w e d g a i n s o n t h e p o st t e s t w h e n co m p a r e d t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e t e st I f t h e p o st t e st u se d i n t h i s st u d y w a s u se d a s a t r a d i t i o n a l s u m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t o f D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g t h e n n e i t h e r i n d i vi d u a l d e m o n st r a t e d l e a r n i n g g a i n s f o r t h e co n t e n t a d d r e sse d b y t h e p o st t e st Y e t su ch a l i m i t e d a p p r o a ch d o e s n o t n e ce ssa r i l y ca p t u r e t h e f u l l r a n g e o f a l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g f o r a p a r t i cu l a r co n t e n t a r e a J e n n i f e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct cl e a r l y co n t a i n e d co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s t h a t w e r e n o t a sse sse d b y t h e p o st t e st I n r e a l i t y, n o si n g l e a sse ss m e n t i n cl u d i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct ca n f u l l y d o cu m e n t a l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t A s a f o r m o f a sse ss m e n t

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1 1 7 d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct co u l d s e r ve a s o n e o f se v e r a l a ss e ssm e n t t o o l s t h a t t e a ch e r s e m p l o y t o ca p t u r e a n d d o cu m e n t w h a t l e a r n e r s r e a l l y kn o w a n d u n d e r st a n d I n f a ct M c F a r l a n e W i l l i a m s a n d B o n n e t t ( 2 0 0 0 ) su p p o r t e d t h e st u d e n t u s e o f m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g so f t w a r e a s a f o r m o f a l t e r n a t i ve a ss e ssm e n t t h o u g h t h e r e i s a d e a r t h o f r e s e a r ch t h a t i n d i ca t e s h o w t o a sse s s a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct f o r e vi d e n ce o f l e a r n i n g L C M C h a n g e s t h e R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r f r o m G i v e r o f K n o w l e d g e t o C o a c h M r s. H cl e a r l y o b se r ve d h o w h e r r o l e i n t h i s p r o j e ct ch a n g e d f r o m a g i ve r o f kn o w l e d g e t o a co a ch ( C a r v e r L e h r e r C o n n e l l & E r i ckso n 1 9 9 2 ) W h e n st u d e n t s b e co m e m o r e s e l f d i r e ct e d a n d h a v e a m p l e c h o i ce a n d co n t r o l o ve r a p r o j e ct t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a ch e r m u st ch a n g e t o a cc o m m o d a t e t h e w a y st u d e n t s w o r k. M r s. H n o t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p h a se o f t h i s p r o j e ct i t w a s n o t p o ssi b l e f o r e ve r yb o d y [ t o b e ] l o ck st e p w e r e a l l g o i n g t o d o t h i s a t t h e sa m e t i m e R a t h e r i t w a s w a y m o r e i n d i vi d u a l i ze d M r s. H r e f l e ct e d : I n st e a d o f m e sa yi n g e ve r y b o d y o n t h e i r p a p e r d r a w a co n e O K N o w l e t s a l l l a b e l t h e co n e I n st e a d o f t h a t m o st o f t h e m i n cl u d e d so m e t h i n g a b o u t a co n e o r a d i f f e r e n t sh a p e a n d t h e y g o t t o ch o o se h o w t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t t h e f a ce s o r t h e b a se s A n d t h e y st i l l d i d t h a t ski l l ; t h e y j u st d i d i t b e ca u s e h o w e ve r t h e y ch o se t o d o i t I t w a sn t m e h a vi n g e ve r y b o d y d o t h e sa m e t h i n g a t t h e s a m e t i m e W h e n st u d e n t s b e co m e se l f d i r e ct e d t h e t e a c h e r s r o l e c h a n g e s b e ca u s e a s M r s. H o b se r ve d t h e l e a r n e r i s d r i vi n g t h e t r a i n a n d [ t h e ] t e a c h e r i s b e h i n d t h e sce n e s I t m a y b e a ssu m e d t h a t w h e n a t e a ch e r m o ve s a w a y f r o m t h e r o l e o f g i ve r o f kn o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n i n g m a y b r e a k d o w n si n c e t h e r e i s n o t r a n sf e r o f co n t e n t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o t h e l e a r n e r s. Y e t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t t e a ch e r s st i l l p l a y cr i t i ca l r o l e s i n e n su r i n g t h a t l e a r n e r s l e a r n r e q u i r e d co n t e n t i n t h e i r r o l e s a s c o a ch e s.

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1 1 8 I n t h e r o l e o f t e a ch e r a s co a ch t e a ch e r s m u st h a ve a n i n f o r m e d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r s n e e d s t o b e a b l e t o p r o vi d e a p p r o p r i a t e su p p o r t a s l e a r n e r s p r o g r e ss t h r o u g h a p r o j e ct su ch a s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t S u m m a r y o f I m p l i c a t i o n s B a se d o n ca se st u d y a n a l yse s a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n M r s. H a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r se v e r a l i m p l i ca t i o n s e xi st w h e n t e a ch e r s i n t e g r a t e L C M a s a p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se i m p l i ca t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t a sp e ct s t o co n si d e r w h e n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h i s p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a c h T h e i m p l i ca t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n cl u d e : L C M a l l o w s m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s f o r st u d e n t s. L C M e n co u r a g e s s e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g L C M p r o m o t e s co l l a b o r a t i o n L C M cr e a t e s a n a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d o f a sse ss m e n t L C M ch a n g e s t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a ch e r f r o m g i v e r o f kn o w l e d g e t o co a ch W h e n d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch l e a r n e r s ca n se l e ct f r o m m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s i f t h e y a r e g i ve n a c o m m o n g o a l b u t p r o vi d e d w i t h c h o i ce a n d co n t r o l f o r h o w t o r e a ch t h a t g o a l C h o i ce a n d co n t r o l a l so e n co u r a g e se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g a s l e a r n e r s w o r k t o r e a l i ze t h e i r d e si g n s. A s se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r s, l e a r n e r s b e co m e a ct i ve p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss a n d t e a ch e r s p r o vi d e su p p o r t a s n e e d e d a s t h e y t a ke o n a c o a ch i n g r o l e C o l l a b o r a t i o n a m o n g p e e r s i s a l so e n co u r a g e d a s l e a r n e r s w o r k o n t h e i r d e si g n s. C o m p l e t e d m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s ca n se r ve a s a n a l t e r n a t i ve f o r m o f a su m m a t i ve a sse ss m e n t d e p e n d i n g o n h o w t h e d e si g n g o a l i s st r u ct u r e d S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h e cu r r e n t s t u d y se r ve s a s t h e f i r st i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R p r o c e ss. T h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i d e n t i f i e d b y t h i s st u d y se r ve a s a d e si g n f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n

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1 1 9 E a ch p r i n ci p l e w i l l b e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h i s st u d y. I n a d d i t i o n f u r t h e r r e se a r ch i s n e e d e d i n se ve r a l a r e a s. R a t h e r t h a n a ssu m i n g t h a t a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch w o r ks e q u a l l y w e l l f o r a l l st u d e n t s, t h e r e se a r ch c o m m u n i t y m u st i d e n t i f y t h e t y p e s o f l e a r n e r s t h a t b e n e f i t t h e m o st f r o m a p a r t i cu l a r a p p r o a ch W e m u s t a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n e r s b e n e f i t a l o n g a co n t i n u u m f o r a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o r st r a t e g y. A st r a t e g y m a y w o r k p a r t i cu l a r l y w e l l f o r ce r t a i n t yp e s o f st u d e n t s t h o u g h i t m a y h a ve n o i m p a c t o n o t h e r t yp e s o f st u d e n t s. I d e n t i f yi n g sp e ci f i c a p p r o a c h e s f o r sp e ci f i c l e a r n e r s w i l l e n su r e t h a t a n i n d i vi d u a l s l e a r n i n g n e e d s a r e m e t T h o u g h t h i s st u d y d i d n o t i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s f u t u r e i t e r a t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o a sce r t a i n t h e se p r e f e r e n ce s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r st a n d w h i c h t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s b e n e f i t t h e m o st f r o m a L C M a p p r o a ch T h e r e se a r ch co m m u n i t y a l so n e e d s t o f u r t h e r d o cu m e n t t h e o u t co m e s f o r l e a r n e r s w h e n t h e y u se S cr a t ch t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t T h i s st u d y r e p r e se n t s a si n g l e co n t r i b u t i o n t o u n d e r st a n d i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p h e n o m e n o n b u t su b st a n t i a l l y m o r e s t u d i e s a r e n e e d e d t o d e ve l o p a cl e a r e r u n d e r st a n d i n g W e a l so n e e d t o d e t e r m i n e e f f e ct i v e p r o c e d u r e s f o r a sse ssi n g l e a r n i n g e vi d e n t i n S cr a t c h m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. L i t t l e r e se a r ch cu r r e n t l y e xi st s t o a sse ss l e a r n i n g w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. W i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e se a r ch i n t h i s a r e a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e a n d p o st t e st s m a y n o l o n g e r b e n e ce ssa r y t o so l e l y ca p t u r e a l e a r n e r s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f co n t e n t A d d i t i o n a l f o r m s o f a ss e ssm e n t su ch a s a sse ssi n g a l e a r n e r s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct co u l d co m p l e m e n t d a t a g e n e r a t e d f r o m p r e a n d p o s t t e st s.

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1 2 0 A P P E N D I X A I N T E R V I E W T R A N S C R I P T B E T W E E N P R A C T I T I O N E R A N D R E S E A R C H E R T h i s a p p e n d i x i n cl u d e s t h e t r a n scr i p t o f t h e p o st p r o j e ct d e b r i e f i n g i n t e r vi e w r e c o r d e d b e t w e e n t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r R e s e a r c h e r P r a c t i t i o n e r ( M r s H ) H o w d i d yo u r st u d e n t s r e a ct t o u si n g S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w a n t t o g i ve sp e ci f i c e xa m p l e s f e e l f r e e I f yo u w a n t t o g e n e r a l i ze f e e l f r e e T r y t o g i ve a n y e vi d e n ce t h a t yo u ca n o r yo u r o b s e r va t i o n s o r t h i n ki n g F e e l f r e e t o e x p l a i n t h a t I t h i n k t h e y r e a ct e d i n a l o t o f d i f f e r e n t w a ys A n d I t h i n k t h e y r e a ct e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a ys b a se d o n w h e r e w e w e r e i n t h e p r o j e ct t o o S o I t h i n k a t f i r st t h e y w e r e a l l su p e r e xci t e d a b o u t l e a r n i n g r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t l y, l e a r n i n g b e yo n d j u st t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e m a r k e r s a n d p e n ci l a n d p a p e r g o i n g m o r e d i g i t a l I t h i n k t h e y r e r e a l l y e xci t e d a b o u t t h a t A n d t h e n I t h i n k w h e n i t t u r n e d i n t o w e l l i t s t i m e f o r t h e m t o r e a l l y i n cl u d e so m e m a t h s t u f f i t s n o t j u st a b o u t l e a r n i n g p l a yi n g w i t h t h e co m p u t e r I t s t i m e t o i n cl u d e so m e m a t h st u f f I t h i n k s o m e p e o p l e w e r e l i ke w a i t a s e co n d b u t t h e n I t h i n k t h e y p u sh e d t h r o u g h t h a t S o t h e n I t h i n k t h e r e a c t i o n m a y b e a t f i r st w a s l i ke w e l l I d o n t w a i t n o w i t h a s t o g e t a ct u a l l y d o w n t o so m e w o r k. B u t t h e n I t h i n k t h e y p u sh e d t h r o u g h i t b e ca u se i t w a s so e n g a g i n g S o I t h i n k t h a t r e a l l y d i d n t m a t t e r A n d t h e n I t h i n k a s t h e y st a r t e d r e a l l y g e t t i n g i n t o i t I d sa y f o r a g o o d p e r i o d e v e r yb o d y w a s r e a l l y a ct i ve l y e n g a g e d r e a l l y r e sp o n d i n g ve r y p o si t i ve l y. A n d t h e n I t h i n k o n ce i t st a r t e d g e t t i n g t o w a r d s t h e e n d a n d i t w a s t i m e t o f i n i sh t h a t s w h e n I t h i n k I s t a r t e d t o se e so m e p e o p l e t h e r e a ct i o n s st a r t i n g t o s p l i t a l i t t l e b i t m o r e I t h i n k so m e p e o p l e d i se n g a g e d b e ca u se t h e y d i d n t t h e y h i t ki n d o f a l e ve l o f O K I d o n t r e a l l y k n o w h o w t o ke e p g o i n g I t h i n k s o m e p e o p l e ke p t p e r s e ve r i n g a n d j u st ke p t ki n d o f a l t e r i n g t h e i r p r o j e ct a n d a d d i n g a n o t h e r r o o m a n d t h e n j u st a d d i n g l a ye r s t o i t w h i ch w a s g r e a t A n d t h e n I t h i n k so m e p e o p l e l i ke D o m i n i c, i t j u st i t j u st g o t t o b e l i ke t h i s m o u n t a i n a n d h e d i d n t h a v e a n y c l u e h o w t o g e t u p t h e m o u n t a i n H e kn e w H e ki n d o f kn e w t h a t h e w a s o n a m o u n t a i n b e ca u se o f t h e l i t t l e p a n i c a t t a cks, b u t h e h a d n o r e a l st r a t e g y t o g e t u p t h e m o u n t a i n A n d so I t h i n k h i s r e a ct i o n i s o n e t h a t w a s m o r e n e g a t i ve b u t I t h i n k t h a t s o n e o u t o f t h e w h o l e g r o u p so I d o n t t h i n k t h a t w a s h o w e ve r yb o d y w a s

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1 2 1 S o yo u t a l ke d e a r l i e r a b o u t a r a n g e o f r e a c t i o n s t o u si n g S cr a t ch I n i t i a l l y, e v e r yo n e i s i n t e r e st e d cu r i o u s. A n d t h e n w h e n t h e p r o j e ct i s i n t r o d u c e d t h e g o a l t o d e si g n a b o u t m a t h w h o d i d yo u t h i n k r e a ct e d ? D i d t h e y a l l r e a ct n e g a t i ve l y o r w e r e t h e r e sp e ci f i c st u d e n t s ? I w o u l d sa y C a l e b m a yb e ki n d o f r e a ct e d l i ke w a i t a se co n d I t h i n k, I d o n t r e m e m b e r sp e ci f i ca l l y, I w i sh I co u l d r e m e m b e r sp e ci f i c t i m e s o r sp e ci f i c i n st a n ce s o r q u o t e s b u t I d o n t I m j u st g o i n g b a se d o n w h a t I ki n d o f f e e l a n d I t h i n k t h a t D i e t r i ch m a yb e h a d t h a t r e a ct i o n t o o B u t I d o n t I t h i n k e ve r yb o d y e l se w a s f i n e E ve r yb o d y e l se j u st ki n d o f o h O K t h e n w e l l d o t h a t A n d t h e n yo u a l so t a l ke d a b o u t h o w o n ce w e g o t g o i n g t o o ve r co m e t h a t i n i t i a l r e a ct i o n t o b r i n g i n g i n t h e m a t h t h e n e ve r yb o d y w a s d o i n g f i n e A n d yo u m e n t i o n e d n e a r t h e e n d w e h a d so m e r e a ct i o n a s w e l l m a yb e so m e n e g a t i ve r e a ct i o n t o ki n d o f f i n i sh i n g u p W h o d o yo u t h i n k, a s w e st a r t e d g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e p r o j e ct w h o d o yo u t h i n k r e a l l y r e a ct e d p o si t i ve l y t o t h e p r o j e ct a n d w h o d o yo u t h i n k r e a ct e d n e g a t i ve l y t o t h e p r o j e ct ? I t h i n k a l m o st e ve r yb o d y r e a ct e d p o si t i ve l y, so S a b r i n a C o n n o r Je n n i f e r F e r n a n d o I w o u l d g i ve T r o y ki n d o f a i n t h e m i d d l e b u t I t h i n k i n g e n e r a l I m e a n h e w a s a ct i ve l y e n g a g e d a n d h e d i d w h a t h e n e e d e d t o d o I j u st t h i n k t o w a r d s t h e e n d t h a t s w h e n h e st a r t e d t o ki n d o f f a l l o f f C a l e b sa m e t h i n g P r e t t y a ct i ve l y e n g a g e d b u t t h e n t o w a r d s t h e e n d st a r t e d t o f a l l o f f B u t S a b r i n a J e n n i f e r N a t h a n i e l a n d F e r n a n d o I t h i n k w e r e p r e t t y s o l i d a l l t h e w a y t h r o u g h D i d yo u m e n t i o n D o m i n i c? N o D o m i n i c w a s n o t so l i d a l l t h e w a y t h r o u g h I t h i n k h e w a s so l i d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g ki n d o f i n D o m i n i c s w a y. B u t a t t h e e n d h e j u st ki n d o f f e l l a p a r t H e l p l e ss. D o yo u t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a n y i d e a w h a t t h e ca u se o f t h a t m i g h t b e t h a t h e l p l e ss f e e l i n g t h a t D o m i n i c h a s? I t h i n k a n xi e t y i s a b i g p a r t o f i t f o r h i m A n xi e t y a b o u t ? H e h a s a h i g h e r l e ve l o f a n xi e t y i n l i f e I d o n t t h i n k i t s j u st a n xi e t y a b o u t t e c h n o l o g y o r a n xi e t y a b o u t m a t h o r sch o o l I t h i n k i t s j u st a n xi e t y. I t h i n k t h a t s j u st D o m i n i c. H e w o u l d h a ve a n xi e t y a b o u t g e t t i n g u p i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d b r u sh i n g h i s t e e t h a n d t h a t s j u st D o m i n i c S o I t h i n k, b u t i f w a s so m e t h i n g p a r t i cu l a r t o t h e p r o j e c t I t h i n k i t w a s b e ca u se t h e r e w a sn t e n o u g h st r u ct u r e f o r h i m M a y b e h e d i d n t h a ve t h i n g s t h a t h e n e e d e d t o c h e ck o f f a n d d o t h i s f i r st a n d se q u e n t i a l D o t h i s. D o t h i s. O r I d o n t kn o w I j u st t h i n k h e g o t h e st a r t e d ch a si n g h i s t a i l a n d g o t l o s t i n t h e w h o l e t h i n g w h i ch ca u s e d e ve n m o r e a n xi e t y. D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u r st u d e n t s t o l e a r n I t h i n k i t w a s p r e t t y e a sy f o r t h e m t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S c r a t ch I t h i n k t h e y r e n a t u r a l l y i n q u i si t i v e a n d

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1 2 2 h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I t h i n k o n ce t h e y st a r t e d t o se e t h e f e a t u r e s a n d st a r t e d t o n o t i ce o h I ca n m a ke t h i n g s g l i d e m a ke t h i n g s m o ve w i t h a r r o w s, t h e y st a r t e d t o I t h i n k, co m e u p w i t h e ve n m o r e o f a st o r y l i n e o r a co n ce p t b a se d o n t h e i r sch e m a o f g a m e s a n d s t u f f S o I t h i n k t h e y t o o k t o i t ve r y n a t u r a l l y. A r e t h e r e w a ys t h a t a r e b e t t e r t o l e a r n S cr a t ch t h a n o t h e r s d o yo u t h i n k b a se d o n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n ? I d o n t kn o w T h a t s a g o o d q u e st i o n I t h i n k b a se d o n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n I w o u l d p r o b a b l y l e a n t o w a r d s w a t ch m e n o w yo u d o i t w a t ch m e n o w yo u d o i t a n d I t h i n k w e d i d t h a t b u t n o t a s s t r u ct u r e d m a yb e a s t h e y w o u l d n o r m a l l y g e t i n st r u ct e d b e ca u s e o f t h e m A n d I d o n t t h i n k t h a t w a s b a d Y o u d o n t t h i n k i t w a s b a d t h a t t h e y d i d n t g e t a s m u ch st r u ct u r e ? N o I d o n t t h i n k t h a t s b a d B u t yo u t h i n k m o r e st r u ct u r e m i g h t h a ve h e l p e d t h e m ? F o r ce r t a i n ki d s l i ke D o m i n i c. A n yb o d y e l se ? N o I m e a n I t h i n k i n d i vi d u a l l y t h a t s r e a l l y w h e n w e w e r e co a ch i n g t h e m t h a t s r e a l l y w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g b u t i t w a s j u st n o t e ve r yb o d y l o ck st e p w e r e a l l g o i n g t o d o t h i s a t t h e sa m e t i m e I t w a s j u st w a y m o r e i n d i vi d u a l i ze d H o w d o yo u t h i n k h a vi n g st u d e n t s cr e a t e so m e t h i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s t h e m l e a r n ? B e ca u se I t h i n k i t h e l p s t h e m t h i n k a b o u t t h e co n ce p t s o n a co m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t l e ve l t h a n t h e y w o u l d h a ve t o t h i n k a b o u t j u st i d e n t i f yi n g t h e m w i t h a p i e ce o f p a p e r a n d a p e n ci l o r i f I w e r e j u st d o i n g i t o n t h e b o a r d a n d t h e y h a d t o ve r b a l l y sa y i t I t h i n k i t h e l p s t h e m t h i n k a b o u t i t i n su ch a d e e p e r w a y. W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y a d e e p e r w a y? W e l l I m e a n I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w h o w I f e e l a b o u t B l o o m s b u t i t s b e yo n d j u st i d e n t i f y o r a n a l yze o r t h o se t yp e s o f t h i n g s T h e y h a ve t o a ct u a l l y t h i n k a b o u t h o w s o m e o n e e l se m a y t h i n k a b o u t a s h a p e a n d h o w ca n I g e t t h i s p e r so n t o s a y co n e a n d n o w I a ct u a l l y h a ve t o d r a w a co n e a n d n o w I a ct u a l l y h a ve t o n o w cr e a t e so m e t h i n g a r o u n d t h i s co n e t o m a ke so m e o n e e l s e e n g a g e i n t h i s, t o n o t g i v e t h e m t h e a n sw e r Y o u h a d t o r e a l l y t h i n k o n s o m a n y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s b e yo n d p o i n t i n g t o a c o n e a n d sa yi n g ye p I kn o w t h a t t h a t s a co n e o r ye p co n e s h a ve t h i s I d o n t k n o w i f t h a t r e a l l y m a d e s e n se Y o u sa i d so m e t h i n g a b o u t d i f f e r e n t w a ys o f t h i n ki n g M a yb e e xp a n d a l i t t l e b i t m o r e so m e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t w a ys o f t h i n ki n g y o u t h o u g h t t h e y h a d t o w r e s t l e w i t h w h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch I t h i n k t h e y h a d t o u se cr i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s t h a t m a yb e t h e y t yp i ca l l y w o u l d n t h a ve h a d t o u se i f t h e y w e r e l e a r n i n g a b o u t sh a p e s o r g e o m e t r i c so l i d s j u st i n a r e g u l a r w a y.

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1 2 3 C r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s i s ki n d o f g e n e r a l C a n yo u b e m o r e sp e ci f i c a b o u t t h i n ki n g ski l l s, cr i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s? W h e n I sa y cr i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s, I t h i n k a b o u t co m m u n i ca t i o n a n a l yzi n g i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y. R e a l l y h a vi n g t o a n a l yze t h i n g s n o t j u st f i g u r e o u t a n a n sw e r b u t r e a l l y h a vi n g t o a n a l yze t h i n g s. I g u e ss w h e n I sa y cr i t i c a l t h i n ki n g I a l so t h i n k a b o u t p e r se ve r a n ce a s w e l l T h a t s n o t r e a l l y a t h i n ki n g ski l l b u t I t h i n k i t s a b e h a vi o r t h a t co m e s w h e n yo u a r e t h i n ki n g cr i t i ca l l y. I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f a n o t h e r sp e ci f i c ski l l t h a t w o u l d b e u n d e r c r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g I m e a n I co u l d p u l l o u t a n y t o n s o f d i f f e r e n t ve r b s, b u t I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w co m p a r i n g I t s c r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g I t s h a r d t o e xp l a i n S o t h e n r e l a t e d t o t h a t q u e s t i o n t h i s f o cu s o n c r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g so h o w w a s l e a r n i n g a b o u t m a t h d i f f e r e n t f o r yo u r st u d e n t s w h e n t h e y u se d S cr a t ch a s o p p o se d t o h o w t h e y t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a ve l e a r n e d t h a t co n t e n t ? W e l l b e ca u se I t h i n k t h e y g o t t o e n g a g e i n i t i n t h e w a ys t h a t t h e y ch o se t o e n g a g e i n i t s o I t h i n k ch o i ce i s a h u g e p i e ce b e h i n d i t G i ve m e a n e xa m p l e o f t h a t ch o i ce S o a n e xa m p l e w o u l d b e i n st e a d o f m e sa yi n g e ve r yb o d y o n t h e i r p a p e r d r a w a c o n e O K N o w l e t s a l l l a b e l t h e c o n e I n st e a d o f t h a t t h e y g o t t o m o st o f t h e m i n cl u d e d so m e t h i n g a b o u t a co n e o r a d i f f e r e n t s h a p e a n d t h e y g o t t o ch o o se h o w t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t t h e f a ce s o r t h e b a se s. A n d t h e y st i l l d i d t h a t ski l l t h e y j u s t d i d i t b e ca u se h o w e ve r t h e y ch o se t o d o i t I t w a sn t m e h a vi n g e ve r yb o d y d o t h e sa m e t h i n g a t t h e sa m e t i m e T h e y g o t t o m a t ch t h e i r p e r so n a l i t y t o i t I f o r g o t t h e q u e st i o n S o i t w a s a b o u t h o w t h e y r e l e a r n i n g a b o u t m a t h d i f f e r e n t l y, yo u kn o w u si n g S cr a t ch ve r su s, yo u kn o w yo u r n o r m a l i n st r u ct i o n o r e ve n cl a ss r o o m i n st r u ct i o n I a l so t h i n k h a vi n g t o t h i n k a b o u t h o w t o e xp l a i n i t t o so m e o n e e l se i s a l so a n o t h e r l e ve l o f t h e cr i t i c a l t h i n ki n g a n d h o w t h e y h a d t o l e a r n i t d i f f e r e n t l y. B e ca u se i n st e a d o f j u st t h e m b e i n g t h e co n su m e r s o f t h e kn o w l e d g e a n d t h e n j u st sp i t t i n g i t b a ck o u t o n a t e st a n d r e g u r g i t a t i n g i t t h e y a ct u a l l y h a d t o t h i n k o u t si d e o f t h e m se l ve s a n d t h i n k h o w w o u l d so m e b o d y b e e n g a g e d i n l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h i s s h a p e W e l l I m g o i n g t o d o i t b y h a vi n g c a t s sp i n n i n g a r o u n d O r I m g o i n g t o d o i t b y h a vi n g t w o si st e r s st a n d i n g t h e r e d o i n g a g a m e s h o w I t h i n k t h a t i s co m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n i f t h e y j u st h a d t o si t t h e r e t a ke i t i n a n d sp i t i t b a ck o u t o n a t e st S o i t so u n d s l i ke t h e e n g a g e m e n t o n t h e p a r t st u d e n t e n g a g e m e n t i s d i f f e r e n t w h e y t h e y r e u si n g I t h i n k. I d o n t h a ve t h a t m e a su r e d T h a t s w h a t I sa w Ju st b a se d o n t h e a n e c d o t a l d a t a

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1 2 4 S cr a t ch ve r su s i n o t h e r l e a r n i n g co n t e xt s. H o w d o yo u t h i n k yo u r s t u d e n t s r e a ct e d t o cr e a t i n g so m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u s e ? W e l l t h a t w a s i n t e r e st i n g w a t ch i n g t h e m I d i d n t t h i n k t h e y w o u l d h a ve t o d o i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s I r e a l l y t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o w a n t t o 5 t h g r a d e r s Y o u w e r e su r p r i se d t h e y ch o s e t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p e e r s? I r e a l l y w a s. I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w I g u e ss I k n o w w h a t t h a t s a b o u t i t w a s j u st ki n d o f a f e a r o f b e i n g j u d g e d b y t h e i r p e e r s. B u t I e xp e ct e d t h e m t o w a n t t o sh o w t h a t t o t h e i r p e e r s. B u t I d o n t r e a l l y k n o w h o w m u ch p l a n n i n g i t f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s r e a l l y t h a t t h e y t o o k i n t o a cc o u n t I t h i n k, I t h i n k t h e y t h o u g h t a b o u t t h a t t o w a r d s t h e e n d w h e n t h e y w e r e r e vi si n g I t h i n k a s t h e y w e r e c r e a t i n g I d o n t k n o w h o w m u ch o f t h e a u d i e n ce t h e m b e i n g 2 n d g r a d e r s, r e a l l y p l a ye d i n t o h o w t h e y m a d e t h e i r p r o j e ct s. A n d t h a t w a sn t n e ce ssa r y p a r t o f t h e g o a l I t j u st sa i d t o so m e o n e e l se W e d i d n t s p e ci f y 2 n d g r a d e r s T h e y ch o se t h a t l a t e r S o t h a t m a y h a ve a l so b e e n p a r t o f t h e m n o t f o cu si n g o n 2 n d g r a d e H o w w a s st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n t o w o r k o n t h i s p r o j e ct a f f e ct e d b y h a vi n g t o d e si g n f o r so m e o n e e l s e I d o n t kn o w i f t h e d e si g n i n g f o r so m e o n e e l se a f f e ct e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n b u t I t h i n k j u st t h e f a ct t h a t t h e y w e r e g e t t i n g t o cr e a t e a n d d o t h i s t yp e o f m a t h a n d l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h i s p r o g r a m a f f e ct e d t h e m o t i va t i o n T h e y c a m e i n a n d t h e y w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y st a r t e d w o r ki n g T h e y d o n t e ve r d o t h a t b e f o r e E ve r A n d i f yo u g o w a t ch t h e m i n t h e i r r o o m s, t h e y r e t h e l e a st a t t e n t i ve a n d m o st ch e cke d o u t i n t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ss r o o m s. S o f o r t h e m t o co m e i n a n d j u st b a m g e t d o w n t o w o r k w a s h u g e I t h i n k t h a t w a sn t b e ca u se t h e y w e r e c r e a t i n g f o r so m e o n e e l se I t h i n k i t w a s b e ca u se t h e y w e r e e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o j e ct i t s e l f T h e p r o j e ct o r i n S cr a t ch d o yo u t h i n k? S cr a t ch I t h i n k i t w a s S cr a t ch I t h i n k t h e co m p u t e r t o o S o st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n w a s i m p a ct e d b y u si n g S cr a t c h ? Y e s. D o yo u t h i n k st u d e n t l e a r n i n g w a s i m p a ct e d b y u si n g S cr a t c h b a se d o n yo u r o b se r va t i o n s? I t h i n k so T h a t w o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g I w o u l d w a n t t o p r o b a b l y f u r t h e r e xp l o r e a n d m a yb e p u sh a l i t t l e b i t m o r e I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w h o w t o d o t h a t B u t I t h i n k t h a t i f w e w e r e t o a sk t h e se ki d s a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s 5 ye a r s d o w n t h e r o a d t h e y w i l l kn o w i t m o r e t h a n i f w e w e r e t o a sk t h e m w h e n t h e y h a ve t h e r e t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e o f i n s t r u ct i o n S o I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w i f i t s g o i n g t o s h o w r i g h t n o w b u t I t h i n k i t w o u l d sh o w l a t e r o n I f e e l l i ke i t w e n t s o m e w h e r e d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r b r a i n b e ca u se o f w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g T e l l m e m o r e a b o u t t h a t a b o u t i t w e n t so m e w h e r e e l se i n t h e i r b r a i n W e l l I f e e l l i ke i t ki n d o f e m b e d d e d i t se l f f u r t h e r d o w n i n t h e r e i n t o a m e m o r y, a p l a ce i n t h e i r m e m o r y t h a t s d i f f e r e n t I d o n t kn o w w h a t t yp e o f

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1 2 5 m e m o r y t h a t s ca l l e d I d o n t t h i n k t h a t s w o r ki n g m e m o r y, b u t l o n g t e r m r e t r i e va l I d o n t kn o w I f e e l l i ke i t w a s w a y m o r e o f a si g n i f i ca n t e ve n t o f l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r l i f e w h i ch t h e n i n t u r n w i l l h e l p t h e m r e a l l y kn o w i t ve r su s j u st l e a r n i n g i t w i t h p e n ci l a n d p a p e r i n t h e i r r e g u l a r w a y. R e g u l a r w a y m e a n i n g ? W i t h o u t S cr a t ch w i t h o u t cr e a t i n g s o m e p r o j e c t a r o u n d a se cu r e ski l l Ju st ki n d o f si t t i n g a n d g e t t i n g D i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n ? Y e a h W h a t d i d yo u o b se r ve a b o u t t h e sh a r i n g t o d a y t h a t yo u t h o u g h t w a s a p o si t i ve ? I l o ve d w a t ch i n g t h e sh a r i n g T h a t w a s p r o b a b l y o n e o f m y f a vo r i t e p a r t s o f t h e w h o l e t h i n g S o w h a t d i d I o b se r ve ? I j u s t f e l t l i ke t h e y r e a l l y b r o u g h t t h e m se l ve s d o w n t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s a n d t h e y w e r e a ski n g t h e m q u e st i o n s a n d sc a f f o l d i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g g i vi n g t h e m h i g h f i v e s a n d t a l ki n g t h e m t h r o u g h t h e i r p r o j e ct s a n d so m e o f t h e m s t a r t e d sh o w i n g t h e m e xt r a p a r t s o f S cr a t ch a n d s h o w i n g i t o f f a l i t t l e b i t F o r m e w a t ch i n g t h e m f e e l h a p p y a n d p r o u d o f t h e i r w o r k i s so m e t h i n g t h a t I t h i n k i s, t h a t s e ve r yt h i n g T h a t s h o u l d h a p p e n w i t h e ve r yt h i n g a n d i t d o e sn t A r e t h e r e a n y n e g a t i ve a sp e ct s o f t h e sh a r i n g t h a t y o u o b s e r ve d ? N o O ve r a l l i t w a s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p o si t i ve ? Y e a h I ca n t t h i n k o f so m e t h i n g t h a t w o u l d b e n e g a t i ve o u t o f i t Y o u f e l t l i ke t h e 5 t h g r a d e r s, d o yo u t h i n k t h e 5 t h g r a d e r s a l so b e l i e ve t h a t i t w a s a p o si t i ve e xp e r i e n ce ? I t h i n k so I t h i n k i f I w e r e t h e i r cl a ssr o o m t e a ch e r a n d h a d m o r e o f a I t h i n k, st r o n g e r co n n e ct i o n r e l a t i o n sh i p t o t h e m I w o u l d b e a b l e t o a n sw e r t h a t b e t t e r b u t si n ce I o n l y se e t h e m f o r 2 0 m i n u t e s, i t s h a r d f o r m e t o r e a l l y g e t a r e a d b u t I t h i n k t h a t t h e y w e r e h a p p y. D o m i n i c g a ve m e a h u g a s w e w a l ke d o u t Y o u co u l d j u st t e l l b y t h e sm i l e s, b u t I d o n t h a ve a n y sp e ci f i c q u o t e s t o g o a l o n g w i t h t h a t I f w e w e r e t o d o t h i s a l l o ve r a g a i n w h a t w o u l d yo u c h a n g e a b o u t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e ct ? W h a t sh o u l d b e d i f f e r e n t a b o u t w h a t h a p p e n e d t h i s t i m e ? W e l l I d o n t kn o w i f a n yt h i n g r e a l l y n e e d s t o b e d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g t h a t i t co u l d b e b e t t e r I t h i n k t h i n g s m a yb e t o e x p l o r e i f t h i s w e r e t o g e t d o n e a g a i n w o u l d m a yb e b e g i vi n g so m e st r u ct u r e t o t h e ki d s t h a t st a r t e d j u st ch a si n g t h e i r t a i l I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w o u l d l o o k m o r e o f l i ke a r u b r i c o r j u st a g r a p h i c o r g a n i ze r t o h e l p t h e m t h i n k. M a yb e a g r a p h i c o r g a n i ze r f o r a l l o f t h e m u p f r o n t t o h e l p t h e m sce n e s o r s o m e t h i n g B u t t h e n a g a i n I w o u l d n t w a n t t o st r u ct u r e i t t o b e l i ke y o u m u st i n cl u d e a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm a c o n e yo u m u st i n cl u d e ce r t a i n t h i n g s B u t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d I d o

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1 2 6 w a n t t h e m t o i n cl u d e t h a t st u f f so I d o n t kn o w I w o u l d h a ve t o t h i n k a b o u t t h a t I t h i n k f o r ce r t a i n ki d s t h o u g h I t h i n k I w o u l d i n cl u d e so m e t h i n g l i ke t h a t b u t I d o n t t h i n k e ve r yb o d y w o u l d n e e d t h a t b e ca u se I t h i n k t h e y w o u l d g e t i t j u st b y so m e i n d i vi d u a l i ze d co a c h i n g t h e y d p i ck u p w h a t t h e g o a l i s. S o kn o w i n g yo u r ki d s a b i l i t i e s, kn o w i n g yo u r st u d e n t s a b i l i t i e s t h e n d e t e r m i n e s l e ve l o f s u p p o r t w h e t h e r i t s g r a p h i c o r g a n i ze r s, r u b r i cs, e t c. t o m e e t t h e g o a l s o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h I t h i n k f o r p a r e n t s t h o u g h t h e y w o u l d w a n t t o kn o w j u st b e ca u se t h i s i s h o w i t i s, a b o u t g r a d e s a n d h o w yo u w o u l d g e t a n A o n t h a t a n d h o w d o yo u g e t a B so t h a t w o u l d b e a n i n t e r e st i n g t h i n g t o e xp l o r e l i ke h o w d o yo u q u a n t i f y t h e se p r o j e ct s w i t h a l e t t e r g r a d e H o w w o u l d y o u g r a d e i t ? I d o n t kn o w H o w d o t h e y g e t f e e d b a ck a n d k n o w t h a t ye a h t h i s, yo u kn o w yo u d o n t w a n t t o t e l l t h e m t h a t i s cr a p p y. Y o u g e t a n F b e ca u se t h a t s st u p i d I s t h e r e a w a y t o g i v e t h e m m o r e d i r e c t f e e d b a ck a n d sa y, I d o n t kn o w i t t h a t s ve r b a l o r t h a t s w r i t t e n d o w n o r w h a t W h a t d o yo u t h i n k w e r e t h e d e si g n e l e m e n t s t h a t w e r e a p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e ct ? W h a t d o yo u t h i n k a b o u t t h e d e si g n f e a t u r e s? W h a t w e r e t h e d e si g n st r u ct u r e s t h a t so r t o f g u i d e d t h i s p r o j e ct ? W h a t s a d e si g n s t r u ct u r e ? A d e si g n e l e m e n t a d e si g n st r u ct u r e a r e s o r t o f w h a t a r e t h e ke y e l e m e n t s t h a t m a ke t h i s p r o j e ct w o r k? I m p r o b a b l y n o t e xp l a i n i n g t h i s a s w e l l a s I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t I t s, y o u kn o w w h a t w e r e t h e f e a t u r e s i n t h e p a st 6 w e e ks o r s o t h a t w e ve b e e n t o g e t h e r ? W h a t w e r e so m e o f t h e ke y a sp e ct s o f w h a t w a s g o i n g o n ? F o r e xa m p l e o n e e l e m e n t i s ki d s a s d e si g n e r s o r l e a r n e r s a s d e si g n e r s. T o m e t h a t s a d e si g n e l e m e n t o f t h i s w h e r e w e r e p u t t i n g ki d s, 5 t h g r a d e r s, i n t h e r o l e o f a d e si g n e r o f m e d i a a m e d i a d e si g n e r T h e y c r e a t e d m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch a b o u t co n t e n t S o a r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r d e si g n f e a t u r e s t h a t yo u n o t i ce d o r d e si g n e l e m e n t s t h a t y o u S o I i m m e d i a t e l y t h i n k o f a n d I d o n t kn o w i f t h i s i s t h i s i s r e a l l y, b u t so m e t h i n g a b o u t i n t e r ve n t i o n st u d e n t s, st u d e n t s w h o st r u g g l e A l l o w i n g st u d e n t s w h o st r u g g l e a d i f f e r e n t w a y o f l e a r n i n g s o m e t h i n g l i ke t h a t

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1 2 7 n o t i ce d a s p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e ct t h a t yo u t h o u g h t o h t h a t s a k e y, yo u kn o w p i e ce o f t h i s ki n d o f w o r k. I t h i n k t h a t a ct u a l l y m a ke s se n se b e ca u se N o t t h a t t h a t s a d e si g n W e l l i t i s p a r t A t h e m e A t h e m e t h a t s a w a y t o t h i n k a b o u t i t A t h e m e o f t h e p r o j e ct i s t h a t w e r e c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r ve n t i o n st u d e n t s t o h a ve a l t e r n a t i ve w a ys o f l e a r n i n g co n t e n t S o t h a t w o u l d b e a t h e m e W o u l d yo u a g r e e w i t h t h a t ? Y e a h A r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r t h e m e s, e l e m e n t s, f e a t u r e s, yo u c a n ca l l i t w h a t e ve r yo u w a n t t o ca l l i t t h a t yo u o b se r v e d a s p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e ct ? S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g T e l l m e m o r e a b o u t t h a t S o t h e y g o t t o ch o o se h o w t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o d i sp l a y t h e i r k n o w l e d g e T h e y w e r e n t h a vi n g t o f i t i n t o a b o x. S o ch o i ce ? Y e s. C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n l o t s o f d i f f e r e n t w a ys. C o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h u s a s t h e i r co a ch e s, co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h e a ch o t h e r w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o c r e a t e b u t t h e n a l so w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o r e vi se a n d t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o ki n d o f s o m e b o d y w o u l d sa y h o w d o yo u d o t h a t S o m e b o d y e l se w o u l d sa y j u st d o h i d e a n d t h e n b r o a d c a st o r w h a t e v e r T h a t s co l l a b o r a t e A n d t h e n co l l a b o r a t e w i t h t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s t o co l l a b o r a t i n g t o s h o w a f i n a l p r o d u ct I w o u l d l i ke t o t h i n k o f a m a t h t h e m e b u t I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w I m e a n A l t e r n a t i v e a sse ssm e n t i n m a t h e m a t i cs t h e m e ki n d o f E ve n t h o u g h w e d i d u se a u se so r t o f a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p o st b u t t h e i r i n d i vi d u a l p r o j e ct s co u l d b e e va l u a t e d c o u l d b e a sse sse d A n d I a l so t h i n k t e a ch e r a s co a c h i s a t h e m e I t s n o t t e a ch e r a s g i v e r o f k n o w l e d g e L e a r n e r i s d r i vi n g t h e t r a i n a n d t e a ch e r i s b e h i n d t h e sce n e s. I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se ? A m I m i ssi n g o n e ? N o T h i s i sn t a r i g h t o r w r o n g S o r r y. T h a t s O K I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t t h e e xp e r i e n ce ? I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h a t I d i d n t a sk yo u a b o u t t h a t yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s e xp e r i e n ce ? I j u st t h i n k i t w a s r e a l l y p o w e r f u l f o r m e t o se e t h a t T i e r 3 st u d e n t s c a n d o s o m e t h i n g l i ke t h i s, a n d I w i sh t h a t t h a t kn o w l e d g e co u l d b e sh a r e d t o e ve r yb o d y b e ca u se I f e e l l i ke t h a t so m e t h i n g t h a t j u st p i sse s m e o f f i n t h i s p o si t i o n w i t h t h e se ki d s i s t h a t t h e y r e g e t t i n g I f e e l l i ke t h e y r e i n st r u ct i o n a l

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1 2 8 ca su a l t i e s. T h e y r e n o t d u m b ki d s t h a t ca n t d o i t o r ca n t l e a r n I f e e l l i ke t h i s sh o w s i t t o o T h i s i s a h a r d p r o g r a m a n d t h e y d i d i t A n d so i t t h e r e w o u l d b e a w a y t o j u st u se t h i s a s a p l a t f o r m t o sh o w t h a t t h e se ki d s ca n d o t h i s t y p e o f st u f f D i d yo u e ve r f e e l l i ke t h a t m a yb e t h e y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o d o t h i s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g ? D i d yo u h a ve a co n ce r n t h a t m a yb e t h i s m i g h t b e st r e t ch i n g t h e m ? N o t h e r e w a sn t A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o a d d ? N o p e I t h i n k I m g o o d H o w d o yo u t h i n k Je n n i f e r h a n d l e d t h i s p r o j e ct ? G r e a t I t h i n k sh e w a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s, a v e r y q u i e t l e a d e r b u t t h a t d o e sn t m e a n t h a t s n o t b a d I t h i n k sh e r e a l l y sh i n e d a n d I t h i n k sh e r e a l l y f e l t g o o d a b o u t h e r se l f d o i n g i t t o o A n d I t h i n k sh e h a d a ve r y va r i e d i n t r i ca t e st o r y l i n e l o t s o f I d o n t kn o w ch a n g e s a n d c h a r a ct e r s. G o o d M a d e a l o t o f se n se R e a l l y, I t h i n k t o o k i n t o a cco u n t t h e p e r so n w h o w a s g o i n g t o b e w a t ch i n g h e r st u f f V e r y g i r l y. T w o g i r l ch a r a ct e r s. Y o u ve t a l ke d a l o t a b o u t D o m i n i c. H o w d o yo u t h i n k D o m i n i c h a n d l e d t h e p r o j e ct ? I t h i n k D o m i n i c g o t l o st i n t h e p r o j e ct a n d I t h i n k t h a t w a s a m i x o f a l o t o f t h i n g s. A m i x o f h i m n o t m a yb e f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g t h e m a t h b e h i n d i t n o t f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g h i s t h o u g h t s o r h o w t o t a c kl e p r o j e ct s o r p e r s e ve r e j u st f i g u r e t h i n g s o u t a n d I t h i n k i t s j u st a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w h a t g o e s o n i n D o m i n i c s l i f e

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1 2 9 A P P E N D I X B D E B R I E F I N G N O T E S 5 / 1 2 / 1 0 P r a ct i t i o n e r ( P ) : t o d a y w a s a b i g sh i f t ; f e l t g r o u p w a s ch a r g e d u p t o d a y; m o vi n g f o r w a r d o n t h e p r o j e ct ; p r o j e ct s a r e co m i n g t o g e t h e r ; s t o r i e s a r e d e ve l o p i n g R e se a r ch e r ( R ) : p r o j e c t s a r e m e a t i e r : d e t a i l s s u ch a s h i d i n g / sh o w i n g ; c h a n g i n g b a ckg r o u n d s a n d cr e a t i n g n e w sce n e s; a n sw e r i n g r e p e a t ; s p r i t e s m o vi n g t h e n t a l ki n g ; n e e d t o t e a ch h o w t o r e se t p o si t i o n s i f sp r i t e s a r e m o vi n g d u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct 5 / 1 3 / 1 0 ( C o a b s e n t t o d a y) P : p r o u d o f S : sh o w e d i n d e p e n d e n ce r e cr e a t e d si m i l a r b e h a vi o r t h a t w a s w o r ke d o u t co l l a b o r a t i ve l y w i t h P t h e d a y b e f o r e ; F i s m o r e a w a r e o f h i s e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t g a ve cr e d i t f o r t h o u g h t h e w a s i n h i s o w n w o r l d b u t h e i s l i st e n i n g t o h i s p e e r s R : o b se r ve d m o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e ; a t t i m e s, I w a s j u st w a t ch i n g s t u d e n t s w o r k; st u d e n t s d i d n t n e e d h e l p ; D n e e d s t o b e r e f o cu se d ; se e m s t o sp e n d m o r e t i m e d r a w i n g ; ve r y ca r e f u l d r a w i n g s p r o vi d e f i n e d e t a i l s; N s e e m e d t o sp e n d m o r e t i m e d r a w i n g 5 / 1 4 / 1 0 P : sa w co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n S a n d G e vi d e n ce o f r e ci p r o ci t y; C a s e e m e d o f f t a sk t o d a y; N w a n t e d h e l p b u t d i d n t g e t i t b e ca u se o f t i m e ; C o w a n t e d t o d e m o n st r a t e h i s p r o j e ct t o b o t h o f u s; F i s o f t e n o f f t a sk, d a z e d i n h i s cl a ssr o o m i s f o cu s e d o n t h e t a sk, ca p a b l e o f n o t g o i n g i n t o t h e d a ze d o u t zo n e R : D m o r e f o cu se d w i t h i n t e g r a t i n g co n t e n t ; s p e n t a l o t o f t i m e d r a w i n g sp r i t e s a n d f o cu se d o n a st o r y ; st i l l n e e d s h e l p d e v e l o p i n g h i s st o r y t o i n t e g r a t e 5 / 1 7 / 1 0 P : w o r ke d w i t h D t o s t o r yb o a r d a n d scr i p t o u t h i s p r o j e ct ; h i s p r o j e c t i s b a se d o n a s t o r y h e cr e a t e d R : w o r ke d w i t h G t o i n t e g r a t e a l e sso n a b o u t c a l cu l a t i n g su r f a ce a r e a o f a r e c t a n g u l a r p r i sm 5 / 1 8 / 1 0 N o p r o j e ct t i m e ; 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s p r e se n t e d t h e i r 2 0 t h ce n t u r y p r o j e ct 5 / 1 9 / 1 0 P : N d i d r e a l l y w e l l o n h i s 2 0 t h ce n t u r y p r o j e ct ye st e r d a y a n d r e ce i ve d a l o t o f p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck, s o D m a y h a ve f e l t a l i t t l e j e a l o u s o f h i s b r o t h e r s su cce ss; h a s o b s e r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r b e f o r e ; w h e n l e a vi n g cl a ss r o o m t o d a y, D w a s f r u st r a t e d w i t h h i s p r o j e ct a n d t h i n ks t h a t h i s p r o j e ct i s n o t ve r y g o o d sa i d m i n e s n o t b e t t e r t h a n N s b u t t h i s a t t i t u d e m a y st e m f r o m y e st e r d a y 5 / 2 0 / 1 0 ( O n l y G F a n d D a t t e n d e d t o d a y; S N C o C a & T w e r e a b s e n t ) R : a b l e t o sp e n d m o st o f t h e t i m e w o r ki n g w i t h D ; h e h a d a m u ch b e t t e r a t t i t u d e t o d a y; w i l l i n g t o w o r k b u t r e l i e d o n r e s e a r ch e r f o r p r o m p t i n g o n n e xt st e p s ; st i l l h a s a n

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1 3 0 e l a b o r a t e st o r y i n m i n d t h a t i s o n l y l o o se l y r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s; a sk e d G i f co n e m a y b e i n t h e w r o n g p o si t i o n ; F a d d e d a j e t p a ck sp r i t e f r o m t h e S cr a t ch s p r i t e l i b r a r y t h a t i n cl u d e s s e ve r a l sc r i p t s; h i s i n t e n t i s t o h a ve t h e u se r co n t r o l t h e j e t p a ck w h i l e r e sp o n d i n g t o t h e q u e st i o n s. P : a n o t h e r s t u d e n t l o o ke d a t G s p r o j e ct ye st e r d a y b u t w a sn t su r e h o w t o p r o ce e d so G a d d e d a s a y t o d i r e ct t h e u se r ; D a ske d w h e n w e co u l d u se S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a b o u t so m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n s h a p e s. 5 / 2 1 / 1 0 C a a n d S n e e d e d t o f i n i sh t e st i n g so t h e y d i d n o t p a r t i ci p a t e t o d a y. D d i d n o t p r o g r e ss u n l e ss t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r i s w o r ki n g w i t h h i m H e w i l l p r a ct i ce r e co r d i n g G w a s a b l e t o f i x d e si g n e r r o r s i n h e r p r o j e ct o n ce D w o r ke d t h r o u g h i t o r t h e r e se a r ch e r a ske d h e r a b o u t t h e so u n d cl i p e v e n t h o u g h P h a s t r i e d t o g e t h e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e e r r o r s i n d e p e n d e n t l y. T h i n ki n g o u t si d e o n e s se l f i s d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u n g l e a r n e r s. D d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t h e ca n m a n i p u l a t e t h e d i r e ct i o n o f a sp r i t e a n d c h a n g e t h e si ze o f a sp r i t e u si n g t h e g r o w a n d sh r i n k t o o l s. T h e r e i s a f a sci n a t i n g d yn a m i c p l a yi n g o u t i n t h i s l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t j u xt a p o se s t w o d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o j e ct G h a s d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e i s a n a ct i ve p a r t i cp a n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e ss w h i l e D d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f a p a ssi ve l e a r n e r G i s a b l e t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y. W h e n co n f r o n t e d w i t h a n i ssu e w h i l e d e si g n i n g h e r p r o j e ct s h e w i l l t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks a n d a t t e m p t t o r e so l ve t h e i ssu e i n d e p e n d e n t l y. D i s d e p e n d e n t o n d i r e ct i o n s a n d i n si g h t f r o m a t e a ch e r D w o u l d t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks ( e sp e ci a l l y t h e so u n d b l o cks ) w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r t o h e l p h i m m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s p r o j e ct O f t e n h e n e e d e d i n p u t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o h e l p cl a r i f y h i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e i n t e n t o f h i s p r o j e ct D i n t e r a ct e d w i t h G s p r o j e ct a n d G o b s e r ve d t h a t D d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o c e e d i n se v e r a l i n st a n ce s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e ct S h e w a s a b l e t o o b se r ve h o w a n i n d i vi d u a l u se r w i l l e n co u n t e r h e r p r o j e ct a n d n o t i ce d t h a t sh e n e e d t o p r o vi d e a d d i t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g i n o r d e r f o r t h e u se r t o su cc e ssf u l l y i n t e r a ct w i t h h e r p r o j e ct A s so o n a s D f i n i sh e d i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct G i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l b l o cks t o e xi st i n g scr i p t s t o p r o vi d e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o m p t s f o r t h e u se r S h e d i d n o t n e e d a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r A n o t h e r e xa m p l e o f G s w i l l i n g n e ss t o b e r e sp o n si b l e f o r h e r l e a r n i n g st e m s f r o m a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n G a n d t h e r e s e a r ch e r T h e r e se a r c h e r o b se r ve d t h a t G a d d e d a scr i p t t o h e r p r o j e ct t h a t p l a ys a s o u n d e f f e ct w h e n t h e a k e y i s p r e sse d G s p r o j e c t co n t a i n e d a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h e n u m b e r o f b a se s i n a co n e I f t h e u s e r e n t e r s a co r r e ct a n sw e r p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck i n t h e f o r m o f t e x t i s d i sp l a y e d o n t h e scr e e n W h e n G i n t e r a ct s w i t h h e r p r o j e ct sh e w o u l d p r e ss t h e a ke y w h e n sh e e n t e r e d t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se T h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r a n d a ske d h e r h o w t h e so u n d w o u l d p l a y i f sh e w a s i n a d i f f e r e n t r o o m w h e n a u se r w a s i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct S h e i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d r e ssi n g t h i s i ssu e w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g o r a ssi st a n ce f r o m t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r D co n t i n u e s t o st r u g g l e w i t h h i s p r o j e ct H e h a s d e ve l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e

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1 3 1 st o r y i n h i s m i n d t h a t i s o n l y l o o se l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a o f t e a ch i n g so m e o n e e l se a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H e u se s t h e v o ca b u l a r y o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s b u t o n l y o n a s u p e r f i ci a l l e ve l H e i s u n a b l e t o t r a n sl a t e h i s st o r y i n t o S cr a t ch w i t h o u t a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r N w o r ke d o n a sce n e c o n si st i n g o f a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n 2 c h a r a ct e r s a b o u t r i d i n g d r a g o n s. T h i s sc e n e d o e s n o t r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t T a d d e d a cyl i n d e r t o h i s p r o j e ct C f i n a l i ze d a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n a p r i sm a n d a cyl i n d e r b u t t h e co n ve r sa t i o n i s n o t r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t H i s p r o j e ct h a s n u m e r o u s sp e l l i n g a n d p u n ct u a t i o n e r r o r s. 5 / 2 4 / 1 0 ( G w a s a b s e n t t o d a y) R : N n e e d e d a ssi st a n ce t o d a y w i t h t h e f l yi n g d r a g o n sc e n e T h i s sce n e i s n o t r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t T n e e d e d a ssi st a n c e co o r d i n a t i n g d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n 2 sp r i t e s. T h e t i m i n g w a s o f f D r e co r d e d t h e d e se r t p a r t o f h i s sc r i p t H e n e e d e d a ssi st a n ce se t t i n g u p h i s 3 rd sce n e ( t h e w o o d s ) H e e xp r e sse d f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t h e i s o n l y a b l e t o m a ke s m a l l ch a n g e s t o h i s p r o j e ct e a c h d a y. H e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e d o e s n t u n d e r s t a n d w h y h e i s sa vi n g a n e w p r o j e ct e a c h d a y ( p a r t i ci p a n t s sa ve a n e w ve r si o n o f t h e i r p r o j e ct e a ch d a y) w h e n h e i s n o t m a ki n g m u ch p r o g r e ss. H e e xp r e ss e d so m e f r u st r a t i o n t h a t h e i s g e t t i n g a s m u ch h e l p a s h e n e e d s. H e a l so w a n t s t o kn o w w h e n h e ca n w o r k o n a p r o j e ct f o r f u n a n d n o t a p r o j e ct a b o u t sh a p e s. C n e e d e d a s si st a n ce w i t h f i xi n g a n e r r o r h e c o u l d n t i d e n t i f y. T h e p r o j e ct ke p t a ski n g t h e q u e st i o n r e p e a t e d l y e ve n i f t h e co r r e ct r e s p o n se w a s e n t e r e d b y t h e u se r T h e e r r o r w a s d u e t o a m i ssp e l l i n g ( cyi n d e r cyl i n d e r ) F i s f i n i sh e d w i t h h i s p r o j e ct f r o m h i s p e r sp e ct i ve C d i d n o t a sk f o r a ssi st a n ce n o r a cce p t e d i t w h e n o f f e r e d H e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e w a s w r a p p i n g u p h i s p r o j e ct 5 / 2 5 / 1 0 T h o se t h a t w e r e f i n i sh e d w i t h t h e i r p r o j e ct s sh a r e d t h e i r p r o j e ct s w i t h e a ch o t h e r a n d r e ce i ve d f e e d b a ck. 5 / 2 7 / 1 0 P r o o f i n g e a c h o t h e r s p r o j e ct s 5 / 2 8 / 1 0 P r o o f i n g e a c h o t h e r s p r o j e ct s 6 / 1 / 1 0 C h e cke d f o r p u n ct u a t i o n sp e l l i n g a n d co n ve n t i o n s. C o C a F & S r e vi e w e d e a c h o t h e r s p r o j e ct R w o r ke d w i t h D P w o r ke d w i t h G T o f i n i sh p r o j e ct s

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1 3 2 D l i t e r a l l y h i t a w a l l : h e p l a ce d h i s h e a d o n t h e d o o r a n d r e s t e d i t H e s f e e l i n g f r u st r a t e d b e ca u se h e s co m p a r i n g h i s p r o j e ct t o o t h e r s. H e d o e sn t f e e l co n f i d e n t t h a t h e w i l l b e a b l e t o sh a r e h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o t h e r s. G n e e d s m o r e t i m e 6 / 2 / 1 0 C a S T & N a r e a b se n t t o d a y. P w o r ke d w i t h F a n d C o t o p r o o f t h e i r p r o j e ct s p a r t i cu l a r l y sp e l l i n g a n d p u n c t u a t i o n R w o r ke d w i t h G a n d D t o co m p l e t e p r o j e ct s. D i s ca p a b l e a n d co n f i d e n t i m p o r t i n g s p r i t e s, s h r i n ki n g o r g r o w i n g sp r i t e s e d i t i n g sp r i t e co st u m e s, ch a n g i n g a sp r i t e s d i r e ct i o n s. H e h a s n u m e r o u s sp r i t e s i n h i s p r o j e c t ( m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t ) H e n e e d s co n si st e n t h e l p w i t h t h e p r o g r a m m i n g a sp e ct s o f h i s p r o j e ct H e d o e s n o t t r y t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y. H e w i l l w a i t u n t i l e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r i s a b l e t o h e l p h i m 6 / 3 / 1 0 ( G w a s a b se n t t o d a y) C a S C o T a n d N p r o o f e d t h e i r p r o j e ct s D a t t e m p t e d t o co m p l e t e h i s p r o j e c t H e c o n si st e n t l y ch a n g e s w h e r e t h e sp r i t e s a r e d i sp l a ye d f o r e a ch sc e n e r a t h e r t h a n f o cu si n g o n t h e p r o g r a m m i n g H e st i l l n e e d s t o r e co r d t h e vo i ce o v e r f o r h i s se a sce n e a n d t h e f i n a l t h e a t r e sce n e H e d i d r e co r d t h e se 2 f i n a l vo i ce o ve r s. T h e R h e l p e d h i m sy n ch r o n i ze h i s co m p l e t e d p r o j e ct N a t h a n i e l r e m o ve d a n i r r e l e va n t sc e n e f r o m h i s p r o j e ct t h e n w a n t e d t o a d d a n o t h e r g e o m e t r i c so l i d t o h i s p r o j e ct H e a l so n e e d e d t o sl o w d o w n t h e d i a l o g u e t o e n su r e t h a t 2 n d g r a d e r s co u l d r e a d t h e t e x t d i sp l a ye d o n t h e scr e e n N : W h e r e s t h e t h i n g h i d e ? R : I t s u n d e r l o o ks. C o n n o r w o r ke d o n co o r d i n a t i n g a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n a cyl i n d e r a n d a p r i s m C a S a n d T a r e f i n i sh e d

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1 3 3 A P P E N D I X C S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T A N A L Y S I S 5 / 3 / 1 0 G cr e a t e d a co st u m e f o r t h e e xi st i n g ca t s p r i t e a n d a d d e d 2 sp r i t e s t o h e r p r o j e ct S h e cr e a t e d a co st u m e o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm f o r t h e d e f a u l t ca t sp r i t e T h i s sp r i t e n o w h a s 3 co st u m e s b u t t w o o f t h e s e co st u m e s a r e d e f a u l t co st u m e s. T h e r e c t a n g u l a r p r i s m co st u m e i s cu r r e n t l y d i sp l a ye d T h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm d r a w n b y G a p p e a r s t o b e a t r a p e zo i d a l p r i sm r a t h e r t h a n a r e g u l a r r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m S h e a d d e d a sp r i t e o f a yo u n g f e m a l e w h o i s st a n d i n g a n d a f a n t a sy ch a r a ct e r l a b e l e d a s a g o b o B o t h sp r i t e s a r e f r o m t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e l i b r a r y. S h e h a s n o t a l t e r e d t h e st a g e ; sh e i s c u r r e n t l y u si n g t h e d e f a u l t w h i t e b a ckg r o u n d S h e h a s cr e a t e d 2 sc r i p t s. O n e scr i p t i s f o r t h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm W h e n t h e p r o j e c t i s st a r t e d ( g r e e n f l a g ) t h e p r i sm st a t e s H e l l o T h e se co n d scr i p t i s f o r t h e yo u n g f e m a l e W h e n t h e p r o j e ct st a r t s, t h e f e m a l e a sks W h a t s yo u r n a m e ? a n d w a i t s f o r a r e s p o n se t o b e t yp e d i n t o a t e xt b o x. A f t e r t h e u se r t y p e s i n t e xt a n d p r e s se s e n t e r o r u s e s t h e m o u se t o cl i ck o n ch e ck m a r k l o ca t e d i n t h e t e xt b o x, t h e f e m a l e st a t e s h e l l o < t e xt > f o l l o w e d b y t w o st a t e m e n t s : t h i s i s a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm a n d a n d t h i s i s m y f r i e n d g o b o H o w e ve r t h e f i r st o f t h e se 2 st a t e m e n t s i s o n l y f l a sh e d o n t h e scr e e n b e ca u s e G u se d t h e sa y b l o ck r a t h e r t h a n t h e sa y f o r x se cs b l o ck S cr a t ch p r o ce sse s sc r i p t s i n a l i n e a r f a sh i o n W h e n t h e r e a r e 2 o r m o r e sa y b l o cks i n s e q u e n ce S cr a t ch d i sp l a ys t h e t e xt f r o m t h e f i r st sa y b l o ck t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y d i sp l a ys t h e t e xt f r o m t h e n e xt sa y b l o ck, w h i ch m a ke s t h e t e xt f r o m t h e f i r st sa y b l o ck u n r e a d a b l e G w i l l n e e d t o r e p l a ce t h e sa y b l o cks w i t h sa y f o r x se cs b l o cks t o e n su r e t h a t t h e t e xt i s d i sp l a ye d p r o p e r l y a n d i s r e a d a b l e b y t h e u se r I n b o t h scr i p t s, sh e u se d 9 b l o cks t o t a l a n d s h e u se d 6 d i f f e r e n t b l o ck t yp e s. I m p l e a se d w i t h G s p r o g r e ss t o d a y. S h e q u i ckl y d e ve l o p e d h e r p r o j e ct i d e a S h e a t t e m p t e d t o cr e a t e a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t o b e a t r a p e zo i d a l p r i sm S h e h a s st a r t e d scr i p t i n g a n d i n t e g r a t e d a n i n t e r a ct i ve a sp e ct t o h e r p r o j e ct b y a l l o w i n g t h e u se r s o m e l e v e l o f co n t r o l w h e n t h e u s e r e n t e r s t e xt a n d t h e p r o j e ct s r e s p o n d s a cco r d i n g l y. T h i s m a y r e p r e se n t a l o w e r l e ve l o f i n t e r a c t i o n b u t i n t e r a ct i o n i s st i l l e vi d e n t G i s a t t e m p t i n g t o p e r so n a l i ze t h e p r o j e ct f o r i t s u se r s.

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1 3 4 5 / 1 0 / 1 0 G i s st i l l u si n g t h e s a m e sp r i t e s. S h e d i d a d d a n e w b a ckg r o u n d o f a b e a ch sce n e t o h e r p r o j e ct G c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p h e r scr i p t s. S h e r e m o ve d t h e sa y b l o ck f r o m t h e p r i sm so i t n o l o n g e r st a t e s H e l l o B e ca u se sh e u se d a sa y b l o ck r a t h e r t h a n a sa y f o r x se cs b l o ck t h e t e xt r e m a i n e d o n t h e scr e e n i n d e f i n i t e l y. S h e d i d l e a ve t h e w h e n f l a g cl i cke d b l o ck i n t h e scr i p t s a r e a so sh e m a y p l a n t o h a ve t h e p r i s m co m p l e t e a d i f f e r e n t a ct i o n G u p d a t e d t h e scr i p t o n t h e f e m a l e b y ch a n g i n g t h e sa y b l o cks t o sa y f o r x se cs b l o cks s o t h a t t h e t e x t d i sp l a ys a p p r o p r i a t e l y. S h e n o w h a s t h e y o u n g g i r l st a t i n g : t h i s i s m y f r i e n d o r a n g e a n d t h i s i s a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm a ve r t e x i s a p o i n t t h a t i s co n n e ct e d b y e d g e s. t h i s sh a p e h a s 7 ve r t e xs t h a t yo u c a n se e a n d 1 t h a t yo u ca n t se e l e t s g o t o a d i f f e r e n t r o o m t o s e e o u r n e xt sh a p e E a ch o f t h e se st a t e m e n t s i s d i sp l a ye d o n t h e scr e e n f o r 5 se c o n d s. W h i l e G w a s w o r ki n g o n t h i s sc r i p t t h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h a t s h e o r i g i n a l l y t yp e d t h i s sh a p e h a s 7 v e r t e xs H e i n t e n d e d t o a sk h e r a b o u t t h i s e r r o r d u r i n g t h e n e xt m e e t i n g H o w e ve r sh e c h a n g e d t h e t e xt d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g so s h e w a s a b l e t o se l f co r r e ct N e i t h e r t h e r e s e a r ch e r n o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a d d r e sse d t h i s co n ce r n w i t h h e r S h e m a y h a ve r e ce i ve d a cl u e f r o m t h e m e e t i n g sp a ce s w h i t e b o a r d w h i ch d i d i n cl u d e a d r a w i n g o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm w i t h i t s 8 ve r t i ce s i d e n t i f i e d G a l so cr e a t e d a scr i p t f o r t h e g o b o S h e u se d t h e w h e n s p a ce ke y p r e sse d b l o ck t o t r i g g e r t h e g o b o t o st a t e H e l l o I n b o t h sc r i p t s, sh e u se d 1 2

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1 3 5 b l o cks t o t a l a n d sh e u se d 7 d i f f e r e n t b l o ck t y p e s. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s o n e b l o ck o n t h e p r i sm sp r i t e t h a t i s n o t p a r t o f a scr i p t I h e l p e d G w i t h h e r t e xt d i sp l a y i ssu e b e c a u se sh e w a s u si n g s a y b l o cks r a t h e r t h a n sa y f o r x se cs b l o cks. S h e q u i ckl y u p d a t e d h e r scr i p t a n d a d d e d t o i t I m i m p r e sse d w i t h h o w sh e se l f co r r e ct e d h e r ve r t e x e r r o r d u r i n g o u r m e e t i n g t i m e T h i s t o o k n o p r o m p t i n g f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r 5 / 1 1 / 1 0 G w a s a b se n t t o d a y. S h e w a s p a r t i ci p a t i n g i n F A I R t e st i n g 5 / 1 2 / 1 0 G i s u si n g t h e s a m e sp r i t e s a n d h a s a d d e d a d d i t i o n a l sp r i t e s S h e cr e a t e d 2 sp r i t e s: o n e t h a t i s a n o u t l i n e o f a c o n e a n d a n o t h e r t h a t i s a p a i r o f sh o r t h o r i zo n t a l l i n e s S h e a l so a d d e d a ch a l kb o a r d sc e n e a s a n a d d i t i o n a l b a ckg r o u n d a n d r e m o ve d t h e d e f a u l t w h i t e b a ckg r o u n d f r o m h e r p r o j e ct S h e cr e a t e d 2 sm a l l sc r i p t s f o r t h e st a g e O n e scr i p t s se t s t h e b e a c h sce n e a s t h e o p e n i n g b a ckg r o u n d T h e o t h e r scr i p t ch a n g e s t h e b a ckg r o u n d t o t h e ch a l kb o a r d w h e n t h e sp a ce ke y i s p r e sse d S h e a l so i n cl u d e d a w h e n u p a r r o w ke y p r e sse d b l o ck i n t h e scr i p t s a r e a b u t t h e r e a r e n o a d d i t i o n a l b l o cks a t t a ch e d t o i t T o t h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm s h e a d d e d t w o s m a l l scr i p t s t o i n d i ca t e t h a t t h e

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1 3 6 p r i sm sh o u l d b e vi si b l e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t sh o u l d n o t b e vi si b l e o n ce t h e sp a ce ke y i s p r e sse d G d i d n o t a l t e r t h e sc r i p t s o n t h e yo u n g f e m a l e o r g o b o T o t h e co n e s p r i t e sh e a d d e d t h e vi si b l e / n o t vi si b l e sc r i p t s si m i l a r t o t h e sc r i p t s f o r t h e p r i sm H o w e ve r sh e r e ve r se d t h e b e h a vi o r T h e co n e i s n o t vi si b l e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t d o e s b e co m e vi si b l e w h e n t h e s p a ce ke y i s p r e sse d G a l so cr e a t e d a sm a l l sc r i p t f o r t h e p a i r o f l i n e s t h a t m a ke s t h e m d i sa p p e a r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct G h a s n o c r e a t e d 9 scr i p t s f o r h e r p r o j e c t A cr o ss a l l sc r i p t s, sh e h a s u s e d 2 6 b l o cks, a n d sh e u se d 9 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s o n e b l o c k o n t h e st a g e t h a t i s n o t p a r t o f a scr i p t G i s cl e a r l y m a ki n g p r o g r e ss. S h e i s w o r ki n g t o cr e a t e a n a d d i t i o n a l sce n e f o cu s e d o n a co n e T h e r e se a r ch e r d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w t o sh o w a n d h i d e sp r i t e s u si n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b l o cks a n d s h e q u i ckl y i n t e g r a t e d t h i s a ct i o n i n t o h e r p r o j e ct I t s n o t cl e a r ye t h o w a u s e r w i l l kn o w t h a t t h e s p a ce b a r n e e d s t o b e p r e sse d i n o r d e r t o a d va n ce t o t h e n e x t sce n e 5 / 1 3 / 1 0 G i s u si n g t h e s a m e sp r i t e s a n d cr e a t e d 2 a d d i t i o n a l sp r i t e s. O n e sp r i t e i s f r o m t h e S cr a t ch l i b r a r y; i t i s a si t t i n g ve r si o n o f t h e sa m e yo u n g f e m a l e sh e u se d p r e vi o u sl y. S h e u se d t h e p a i n t e d i t o r t o cr e a t e a sp r i t e t h a t r e se m b l e s a ch a i r a n d h a s p l a c e d t h e ch a i r so t h a t t h e p r e vi o u s sp r i t e a p p e a r s t o b e si t t i n g o n i t H e r b a ck g r o u n d s h a ve

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1 3 7 r e m a i n e d t h e sa m e S h e n o w h a s a t o t a l o f 1 6 scr i p t s. S h e d i d n o t a l t e r t h e scr i p t s o n t h e st a g e p r i sm g o b o a n d co n e S h e a d d e d 2 sm a l l scr i p t s t o t h e s t a n d i n g f e m a l e t o e n su r e t h a t sh e i s vi si b l e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t i s n o t vi si b l e w h e n t h e sce n e ch a n g e s ( w h e n t h e sp a ce ke y i s p r e ss e d ) I t i s n o w a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e p a i r o f sh o r t h o r i zo n t a l l i n e s r e p r e se n t p i e c e s o f ch a l k f o r t h e ch a l k b o a r d sc e n e G cr e a t e d 2 sm a l l scr i p t s t o h i d e t h e ch a l k a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d m a ke t h e ch a l k vi si b l e w h e n t h e sce n e c h a n g e s G cr e a t e d 2 scr i p t s f o r t h e si t t i n g f e m a l e sp r i t e S h e h a s h i d d e n t h i s sp r i t e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t m a d e i t vi si b l e w h e n t h e sc e n e ch a n g e s. T h e sp r i t e t h e n st a t e s t h i s i s a co n e a n d i t h a s o n e cu r ve d su r f a ce a n d o n e b a se w i t h o n e a p e x G a l so a d d e d 2 scr i p t s t o t h e ch a i r s p r i t e t o e n su r e t h a t i t i s n o t vi si b l e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t i s vi si b l e w h e n t h e sce n e ch a n g e s. A cr o ss a l l 1 6 sc r i p t s, sh e h a s 4 1 b l o cks, a n d sh e h a s u se d 9 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s o n e b l o ck o n t h e st a g e t h a t i s n o t p a r t o f a scr i p t T h o u g h t h e n u m b e r o f scr i p t s a n d b l o c ks h a s i n cr e a s e d t h e n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks h a s r e m a i n e d t h e sa m e G h a sn t a d d r e sse d h o w t h e u se r w i l l kn o w t o p r e ss t h e s p a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt sce n e I n a d d i t i o n so m e o f t h e t e xt d i sp l a ys t o o q u i ckl y, s o i t m a y b e d i f f i cu l t t o r e a d f o r st r u g g l i n g r e a d e r s. G w o r ke d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o d a y. S h e n e e d e d n o h e l p

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1 3 8 5 / 1 4 / 1 0 G d i d n o t c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l s p r i t e s o r b a ck g r o u n d s t o d a y. S h e sp e n t m o st o f t h e m e e t i n g t i m e w o r ki n g o n a scr i p t t h a t a sks a q u e st i o n o f t h e u se r t h e n p r o vi d e s p o si t i ve o r n e g a t i ve f e e d b a ck d e p e n d i n g o n t h e r e sp o n se T h e q u e st i o n i s a ske d b y t h e si t t i n g f e m a l e i n t h e ch a l kb o a r d sc e n e a n d i s p r e ce d e d b y a d e sc r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e T h e u se r m u st e n t e r a r e sp o n se u n t i l t h e co r r e c t o n e i s p r o vi d e d S h e o r i g i n a l l y cr e a t e d t h i s scr i p t o n t h e s t a n d i n g f e m a l e sp r i t e T h e r e se a r ch e r sh o w e d h e r h o w t o m o ve t h e sc r i p t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p r i t e G d i sco n n e ct e d t h e o r i g i n a l o p e n i n g sc r i p t o n t h e st a n d i n g f e m a l e f r o m i t s co r r e sp o n d i n g t r i g g e r so t h e o p e n i n g sce n e n o l o n g e r f u n ct i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e l y. S h e a l so a d d e d a m u si c so u n d e f f e ct t h a t i s t r i g g e r e d w h e n t h e u se r p r e sse s t h e a ke y. A cr o ss a l l 1 6 scr i p t s sh e h a s 4 2 b l o cks, a n d sh e h a s u se d 1 0 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s 2 2 b l o cks o n s p r i t e s a n d t h e st a g e t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f a n y sc r i p t s. T h e m a j o r i t y ( 1 8 ) o f t h o se b l o cks a r e f o u n d i n 2 st a cks l o ca t e d o n t h e st a n d i n g sp r i t e O n e st a ck w a s se p a r a t e d f r o m i t s t r i g g e r T h e o t h e r st a ck w a s o r i g i n a l l y cr e a t e d o n t h e w r o n g sp r i t e b u t w a s l a t e r co p i e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sp r i t e G st i l l h a sn t a d d r e sse d h o w t h e u se r w i l l kn o w t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt sce n e o r co r r e ct e d t h e sp e e d o f t h e t e xt a s d e scr i b e d ye st e r d a y. T h e u se r w i l l a l so n o t kn o w h o w t o t r i g g e r t h e m u si c. G i n t e g r a t e d a q u e s t i o n / a n sw e r scr i p t t h a t w a s d e m o n st r a t e d b y t h e r e s e a r ch e r f o r a n o t h e r st u d e n t s p r o j e ct ( F ) G co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h S t o sh a r e e xp e r t i se G sh a r e d h o w t o h i d e a n d sh o w sp r i t e s a n d sw i t ch b a ckg r o u n d s t o t r a n si t i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t sce n e s S sh a r e d h o w t o a sk a q u e st i o n f o r t h e u se r t o e n t e r a r e sp o n se a n d r e ce i ve a p p r o p r i a t e f e e d b a ck. B o t h G a n d S s p r o j e ct s d e m o n st r a t e t h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n si n ce e a ch p r o j e ct co n t a i n s a n a sp e c t o f t h e o t h e r s p r o j e ct

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1 3 9 5 / 1 7 / 1 0 G d i d n o t c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l s p r i t e s t o d a y b u t d i d cr e a t e a n a d d i t i o n a l b a ck g r o u n d a l i vi n g r o o m sc e n e G r e co n n e ct e d t h e t r i g g e r t o a st a ck o f b l o cks t h a t cr e a t e d t h e o p e n i n g sce n e o n t h e st a n d i n g f e m a l e S h e a l so r e m o ve d so m e u n n e c e ssa r y b l o cks f r o m t h a t sp r i t e S h e a d d e d a sc r i p t t o t h e g o b o sp r i t e t h a t st a t e s w e l l i ve g o t t o g o n o w b ye g u ys w h e n t h e sp a c e ke y i s p r e sse d H o w e ve r t h i s scr i p t co n f l i ct s w i t h a si m i l a r scr i p t o n t h e s p r i t e G n o w h a s 1 8 sc r i p t s t h a t co n t a i n 5 4 b l o cks t h a t r e p r e se n t 1 0 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s 5 b l o cks o n sp r i t e s a n d t h e st a g e t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f a n y sc r i p t s. G st i l l h a sn t a d d r e sse d h o w t h e u se r w i l l kn o w t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt sce n e o r kn o w h o w t o cu e t h e m u si c o r co r r e ct e d t h e sp e e d o f t h e t e xt a s d e scr i b e d p r e vi o u sl y.

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1 4 0 5 / 1 8 / 1 0 N o m e e t i n g b e ca u se o f 5 t h g r a d e 2 0 t h ce n t u r y p r o j e ct p r e se n t a t i o n s. 5 / 1 9 / 1 0 G a d d e d a n e w sp r i t e o f a d i f f e r e n t st a n d i n g f e m a l e a va i l a b l e i n t h e S c r a t ch sp r i t e l i b r a r y. G p r o vi d e d a sa y b l o ck t o p r o m p t t h e u se r t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e x t sce n e ( a d i f f e r e n t r o o m ) A st u d e n t w h o i s n o t p a r t o f t h i s l e a r n i n g g r o u p ca m e n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e m e e t i n g t i m e t o w o r k w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r W h i l e t h i s st u d e n t w a s w a i t i n g t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r h a d G sh a r e h e r p r o j e ct w i t h t h e st u d e n t O n ce t h e o p e n i n g sce n e t o o k p l a ce t h e st u d e n t d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d u n t i l G t o l d h e r t o p r e ss t h e s p a ce ke y. O n ce G r e a l i ze d t h a t a u se r ca n n o t p r o ce e d w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g sh e a d d e d t h e p r o m p t a s d e sc r i b e d a b o ve T h e co n e i s n o t vi si b l e w h e n t h e t e xt a p p e a r s t h a t d e scr i b e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e c o n e G p r e vi o u sl y c r e a t e d a t h i r d b a ckg r o u n d w h i ch i n d i c a t e s a n e w sce n e S h e a l so h a s a d d e d s e ve r a l sc r i p t s t o va r i o u s sp r i t e s t o co o r d i n a t e w h e n s p r i t e s w i l l b e vi si b l e o r n o t vi si b l e d e p e n d i n g o n t h e sce n e F o r e xa m p l e t h e n e w sp r i t e sh e a d d e d t o d a y i s h i d d e n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct b u t w i l l a p p e a r w h e n t h e u se r p r e sse s t h e u p a r r o w ke y S h e a d d e d a sa y f o r x se cs b l o ck t h a t st a t e s p r e ss t h e u p a r r o w t o g o p l a y a g a m e T h e r e s e a r ch e r ch a l l e n g e d h e r t o i n cl u d e so m e t h i n g a b o u t su r f a ce a r e a i n h e r p r o j e ct I t a p p e a r s t h a t sh e i n t e n d s t o h a ve t h e u s e r p l a y a g a m e i n t h e n e w sce n e S h e n o w h a s 2 4 sc r i p t s i n

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1 4 1 h e r p r o j e ct t h a t u se 6 7 b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s 3 b l o cks o n sp r i t e s t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f a n y scr i p t s G h a s cr e a t e d a n e w sce n e t h a t w i l l i n co r p o r a t e so m e t h i n g a b o u t su r f a ce a r e a t h o u g h i t i s n o t f u n ct i o n i n g co m p l e t e l y ye t S h e h a s i n cl u d e d scr i p t s t o co o r d i n a t e t h e h i d i n g a n d sh o w i n g o f h e r sp r i t e s a n d t o d i sp l a y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b a ckg r o u n d f o r e a ch sce n e i n cl u d e d i n h e r p r o j e ct 5 / 2 0 / 1 0 R e se a r ch e r e n co u r a g e d G t o m o ve t h e co n e t o a d i f f e r e n t l o ca t i o n o n t h e st a g e so t h a t i t w o u l d b e vi si b l e w h e n t h e f e m a l e si t t i n g sp r i t e d e scr i b e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e P r e vi o u sl y, t h e t e x t a p p e a r e d i n f r o n t o f t h e co n e s o o n l y a sm a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e t o p o f t h e co n e w a s vi si b l e G a d d e d a sa y b l o ck t h a t st a t e s t h e n a m e ( a l l y) o f t h e yo u n g st a n d i n g f e m a l e sp r i t e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct G a d d e d a n o t h e r b a ckg r o u n d t o h e r p r o j e ct T h e b a ckg r o u n d i s a st a g e w i t h s p o t l i g h t s. G n o w h a s 4 sce n e s i n h e r p r o j e ct : t h e b e a c h t h e c h a l kb o a r d a l i vi n g r o o m a n d a s t a g e T h e p r o j e ct p r o vi d e s a p r o m p t t o t r a n si t i o n b e t w e e n t h e f i r st 2 sce n e s d o e s n o t p r o vi d e a p r o m p t t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e 3 rd sce n e t h o u g h t h e sa y b l o ck w i t h a p r o m p t i s l o ca t e d i n t h e scr i p t s a r e a ( h o w e ve r i t i s n o t a t t a ch e d t o a sc r i p t ) d o e s p r o vi d e a p r o m p t t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e l a st sce n e G n o w h a s 2 8 scr i p t s t h a t u se 8 0 b l o c ks f r o m 1 0 d i f f e r e n t b l o ck t yp e s. I n

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1 4 2 a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e 2 b l o cks t h a t a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a n y scr i p t ( o n e o f t h e se i s t h e sa y b l o ck m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r o n t h e si t t i n g f e m a l e s p r i t e ; t h e o t h e r a p p e a r s t o b e a m i sp l a ce d w h e n sp a ce ke y p r e sse d b l o ck o n t h e p r i sm sp r i t e ) 5 / 2 1 / 1 0 G i s cl o se t o f i n i sh i n g u p h e r p r o j e ct S h e h a d D i n t e r a ct w i t h h e r p r o j e ct t o d a y. G w a s a b l e t o f i x d e si g n e r r o r s i n h e r p r o j e ct o n ce D w o r ke d t h r o u g h i t o r t h e r e s e a r ch e r a ske d h e r a b o u t t h e s o u n d cl i p e ve n t h o u g h P h a s t r i e d t o g e t h e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e e r r o r s i n d e p e n d e n t l y. T h i n ki n g o u t si d e o n e s se l f i s d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u n g l e a r n e r s. D i n t e r a ct e d w i t h G s p r o j e ct a n d G o b se r ve d t h a t D d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d i n se ve r a l i n st a n ce s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t S h e w a s a b l e t o o b se r ve h o w a n i n d i vi d u a l u se r w i l l e n co u n t e r h e r p r o j e c t a n d n o t i ce d t h a t sh e n e e d t o p r o vi d e a d d i t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g i n o r d e r f o r t h e u se r t o su cce ssf u l l y i n t e r a ct w i t h h e r p r o j e ct A s so o n a s D f i n i sh e d i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct G i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l b l o cks t o e xi st i n g sc r i p t s t o p r o vi d e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o m p t s f o r t h e u s e r S h e d i d n o t n e e d a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r A n o t h e r e xa m p l e o f G s w i l l i n g n e ss t o b e r e sp o n si b l e f o r h e r l e a r n i n g st e m s f r o m a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n G a n d t h e r e s e a r ch e r T h e r e se a r c h e r o b se r ve d t h a t G a d d e d a scr i p t t o h e r p r o j e ct t h a t p l a ys a s o u n d e f f e ct w h e n t h e a k e y i s p r e sse d G s p r o j e c t co n t a i n e d a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h e n u m b e r o f b a se s i n a co n e I f t h e u s e r e n t e r s a co r r e ct a n sw e r

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1 4 3 p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck i n t h e f o r m o f t e x t i s d i sp l a y e d o n t h e scr e e n W h e n G i n t e r a ct s w i t h h e r p r o j e ct sh e w o u l d p r e ss t h e a ke y w h e n sh e e n t e r e d t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se T h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r a n d a ske d h e r h o w t h e so u n d w o u l d p l a y i f sh e w a s i n a d i f f e r e n t r o o m w h e n a u se r w a s i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct S h e i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d r e ssi n g t h i s i ssu e w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g o r a ssi st a n ce f r o m t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r

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1 4 4 A P P E N D I X D C U R R I C U L U M B A S E D P R E A N D P O S T T E S T

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1 4 5 A P P E N D I X E I N T E R V I E W G U I D E S S e m i S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w G u i d e f o r C a s e S t u d y P a r t i c i p a n t s I w a n t t o t a l k t o yo u a b o u t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e d e si g n i n g a b o u t m a t h i n S cr a t ch I w a n t y o u t o b e h o n e st I f y o u d o n o t f e e l co m f o r t a b l e a n sw e r i n g a q u e st i o n yo u d o n o t n e e d t o a n sw e r t h e q u e st i o n 1 D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 2 W a s i t e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 3 W h a t i s t h e b e s t w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? 4 D o yo u t h i n k t h a t cr e a t i n g so m e t h i n g i n S cr a t c h h e l p s yo u l e a r n ? H o w ? 5 D i d d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p yo u l e a r n m a t h ? 6 D i d yo u r sco r e o n t h e m a t h p o st t e st i m p r o ve f r o m t h e p r e t e st ? W h y o r w h y n o t ? 7 D i d yo u e n j o y c r e a t i n g s o m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u se ? E xp l a i n 8 D o e s d e si g n i n g s o m e t h i n g f o r so m e o n e e l se t o u se e n co u r a g e yo u t o w o r k h a r d e r ? E xp l a i n 9 I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u w a n t m e t o kn o w a b o u t t h i s e xp e r i e n c e t h a t I d i d n t a sk yo u ? T h a n k yo u so m u c h f o r t a l ki n g w i t h m e Y o u v e b e e n ve r y h e l p f u l S e m i S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w G u i d e f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r I w a n t t o t a l k t o yo u a b o u t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e 1 H o w d i d yo u r st u d e n t s r e a ct t o u s i n g S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 2 W a s i t e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u r s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t c h ? E xp l a i n 3 W h a t i s t h e b e s t w a y t o t e a ch st u d e n t s h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? 4 H o w d o yo u t h i n k t h a t h a vi n g st u d e n t s c r e a t e so m e t h i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s t h e m l e a r n ? H o w ? 5 H o w w a s l e a r n i n g a b o u t m a t h d i f f e r e n t f o r yo u r st u d e n t s b e ca u s e t h e y u s e d S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 6 H o w d o yo u t h i n k yo u r s t u d e n t s r e a ct e d t o c r e a t i n g so m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u se ? E xp l a i n 7 H o w w a s st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n t o w o r k h a r d a f f e ct e d b e ca u s e t h e y w e r e cr e a t i n g so m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u se ? E xp l a i n 8 I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u w a n t m e t o kn o w a b o u t t h i s e xp e r i e n c e t h a t I d i d n t a sk yo u ? T h a n k yo u so m u c h f o r t a l ki n g w i t h m e Y o u v e b e e n ve r y h e l p f u l

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1 4 6 A P P E N D I X F T R A N S C R I P T A N D A N A L Y S I S O F D O M I N I C S I N T E R V I E W T h i s a p p e n d i x i n cl u d e s t h e t r a n scr i p t a n d 8 st e p a n a l ysi s o f t h e p o s t e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w r e c o r d e d w i t h D o m i n i c, o n e o f t h e ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. R e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n s P a r t i c i p a n t r e s p o n s e s R e c o r d b r i e f n o t e s w h i l e r e a d i n g t r a n s c r i p t ( S t e p 1 ) D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l ye s. E n j o ye d S cr a t ch W h a t a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch d i d yo u l i ke ? W e l l t h e p a r t w a s m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m l i ke t h a t ca t r i g h t t h e r e < ye s> I m a d e h e r a t o n g u e a n d e y e l a sh e s, m a d e h e r l o o k l i ke a g i r l n o t a b o y ca t b e c a u se I t h i n k e ve r y ca t i n h e r e i s a b o y. E n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s S o yo u l i ke d t a ki n g t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e s a n d ch a n g i n g t h e m r i g h t ? Y e a h O K W h a t e l se d i d yo u l i ke a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u s e l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n sp r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k. E n j o ye d e xi st i n g l i b r a r y o f s p r i t e s w i t h i n S cr a t ch O K S o yo u l i ke t h a t yo u co u l d d e si g n yo u r o w n sp r i t e s < ye a h > a n d yo u a l so l i ke t h a t t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f o t h e r sp r i t e s t h a t w e r e p a r t o f S cr a t ch t h a t y o u co u l d u se ? Y e s. Y e s. O K G o o d D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I sa y i t w a s d i f f i cu l t S cr a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t I t w a s d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? Y e s. W h a t m a d e i t d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se ? W e l l p r e t t y m u ch i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u ch st u f f L i ke w h e n yo u w e r e sa yi n g a t a n d t u r n a r o u n d ca u se l o o k a t a l l t h e se s t u f f g l i d e 1 se n s x 2 9 a n d y 1 0 a n d ch a n g e x b y 1 0 a n d a l l t h i s o t h e r st u f f S c r a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t b e ca u se o f t o o m a n y co m m a n d b l o cks S u r e S o a l l t h o se Y e a h

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1 4 7 b l o cks, m a yb e t h e r e a r e j u st t o o m a n y b l o cks sh o w i n g so i t g e t s co n f u si n g ? O K S o b e ca u se t h e r e a r e a l o t o f b l o cks t h e r e w h a t d o yo u t h i n k w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? O r w h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y f o r yo u t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w Y o u d o n t r e a l l y kn o w ? W h a t w o u l d h a ve b e e n t h e b e st w a y t o h e l p y o u l e a r n S cr a t ch ? M a yb e g e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p G e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p ? Y e a h W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y t h a t ? M a yb e a p e r so n w h o s d o n e S cr a t ch f o r a w h i l e o r a p e r so n w h o m a yb e cr e a t e d i t G e t h e l p f r o m a n e xp e r i e n ce d S cr a t ch u se r ( d i d n o t p e r ce i ve r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r a s a n e xp e r i e n ce d u se r ) O h m a yb e t h e p e r so n w h o cr e a t e d i t D o yo u t h i n k t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o h e l p yo u ? Y e a h W h a t a b o u t i n a cl a ssr o o m ? H o w co u l d w e l e a r n S cr a t c h i n t h e cl a ssr o o m b e ca u se w e p r o b a b l y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o b r i n g i n Y o u m e a n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m ? S u r e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m W h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w e r e g o i n g t o w o r k w i t h yo u r b e ca u se yo u kn o w so m e t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch n o w H o w w o u l d yo u t e a c h yo u r cl a ssm a t e s a b o u t S cr a t ch ? M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e T e a ch i n s m a l l st e p s O K M a yb e o n e si m p l e I g u e ss b u t i f I d i d n t k n o w i t h o w

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1 4 8 t h i n g a t a t i m e D o y o u t h i n k t h a t w o u l d h e l p yo u t o o ? co u l d I t e a c h i t ? W e l l r i g h t b u t I m sa yi n g i f so m e o n e w a s t e a ch i n g yo u w o u l d i t h e l p yo u t o d o o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e ? Y e a h D o m i n i c m a y l i ke i t w h e n t a u g h t i n sm a l l st e p s A n d w h a t d o yo u m e a n b y o n e si m p l e t h i n g ? L i ke t h e f i r st t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r l i ke cr e a t i n g t h e sp r i t e s. T h e n w e l l f i r st t h e m o t i o n t h e n t h e l o o ks so u n d p e n co n t r o l se n si n g o p e r a t i o n va r i a b l e s. L e a r n t o cr e a t e sp r i t e s f i r st ( h e e n j o ye d ) t h e n w o r k t h r o u g h ca t e g o r i e s o f co m m a n d b l o cks S o a r e yo u s a yi n g w e sh o u l d g o t h r o u g h e a ch b l o ck t o t e a c h yo u o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e ? W e l l n o t a l l o f t h e se T h a t w o u l d t a ke f o r e v e r D o n t t e a ch a l l co m m a n d b l o cks T h a t w o u l d t a ke a l o n g t i m e ? Y e a h j u st l i ke m o t i o n a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h e n l o o ks T e a ch a f e w co m m a n d b l o cks i n e a ch ca t e g o r y O K so m a yb e d o a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h o se ca t e g o r i e s? U h h u h ( y e s) M a yb e t h e o n e s y o u d u se t h e m o st ? Y e a h T e a ch m o st co m m o n l y u s e d co m m a n d b l o cks O K T h a t s r e a so n a b l e D o yo u t h i n k d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s y o u l e a r n ? D o y o u t h i n k y o u l e a r n so m e t h i n g w h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? L e a r n i n g m a t h ? S u r e l e t s t a l k a b o u t l e a r n i n g m a t h D o yo u t h i n k y o u ca n l e a r n m a t h w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? U m m I r e a l l y d o n t S o m e o f t h a t st u f f I a l r e a d y kn o w l i ke a p yr a m i d I d o n t kn o w t h a t m u c h a b o u t p yr a m i d s b u t cyl i n d e r a n d c o n e I a l r e a d y kn o w a b o u t t h o se t w o A l r e a d y kn o w s a b o u t co n t e n t O K S o yo u a l r e a d y kn e w a b o u t s o m e o f t h e m a t h yo u u se d ? Y e s S o yo u d i d n t r e a l l y l e a r n a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? N o D i d n t l e a r n m a t h I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u W e l l h o w t o d r a w so m e o f t h e m L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w

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1 4 9 f e l t l i ke yo u d i d l e a r n f r o m t h i s p r o j e ct ? so m e g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s S o h o w t o d r a w t h o se sh a p e s? Y e a h Y e a h yo u d r e w a n u m b e r o f sh a p e s. I se e a co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm cyl i n d e r s e ve n a p yr a m i d t h e r e Y o u ve l e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w t h e m A n yt h i n g e l se yo u t h i n k yo u l e a r n e d i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l I d i d l e a r n t h a t n o t r e a l l y. I w a s j u st sa yi n g t h a t I w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d w h e n I w a s s a yi n g m y p r o j e ct b e c a u se e v e r yt h i n g w a s m e sse d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t ca u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E m b a r r a sse d b y p r o j e ct Y o u m e a n w h e n yo u w e r e sh o w i n g i t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s? Y e s, e ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E m b a r r a sse d w h e n sh o w i n g t o 2 n d g r a d e r s E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce ? M a yb e n o t e ve r yt h i n g N o t i n t h e r i g h t p o si t i o n T h e y r e a l l s u p p o se d t o b e H e n e e d s t o b e b i g g e r T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g P r o j e ct i sn t w o r ki n g co r r e ct l y; d i d n t f i n i sh O h so so m e o f t h e si ze s a r e n o t r i g h t S e e l o o k. S e e S o h e s f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ? Y e a h t h a t s o n e O K O K W e l l d o yo u w a n t t o se e ? W e l l g o t h r o u g h i t i n a m i n u t e O K ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u l e a r n e d ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u c a n t h i n k o f t h a t yo u l e a r n e d w h i l e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct ? U h m p r o b a b l yu h m m a yb e m a yb e l e a r n i n g h o w t o d o i t L e a r n i n g h o w t o d o S cr a t ch ? Y e s. L e a r n e d h o w t o u se S cr a t ch Y e a h yo u l e a r n e d h o w t o d o S cr a t ch a l i t t l e b i t b e ca u se yo u sa i d yo u o n e t h i n g y o u l i ke d w a s d r a w i n g t h e sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e s p r i t e s, s o yo u d e f i n i t e l y l e a r n e d h o w t o d o t h a t r i g h t ? Y e a h L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w a n d e d i t sp r i t e s i n S cr a t ch D i d yo u l e a r n h o w t o r e co r d y o u r vo i c e ? Y e a h L e a r n e d h o w t o r e co r d h i s vo i ce i n S cr a t ch I t h i n k yo u r e i n f a ct t h e o n l y p e r so n t h a t r e co r d e d t h e i r vo i ce W e l l ye a h I t h i n k. O n l y st u d e n t t o r e c o r d vo i ce i n S cr a t ch p r o j e ct

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1 5 0 r i g h t ? I t h i n k yo u w e r e Y o u l e a r n e d t h a t a n d I d o n t t h i n k a n yb o d y e l se l e a r n e d a b o u t t h a t W h e n yo u w e r e d e si g n i n g t h i s, w e r e yo u t h i n ki n g a b o u t d e si g n i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s? I d i d n t e ve n kn o w w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s. D i d n t kn o w h e w o u l d s h a r e h i s p r o j e ct w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s Y o u d i d n t r e a l i ze w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s? N o O K T h a t s f a i r D o yo u r e m e m b e r t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h C l a i m s t o r e m e m b e r t h e p r o j e c t g o a l W h a t w a s t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? M a ke i t cr e a t i ve ? T h o u g h t g o a l w a s t o m a ke a c r e a t i ve p r o j e ct T o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m N o t su r e i f g o a l i s t o m a ke a c r e a t i ve p r o j e ct O K S o t h i n k b a ck t o w h y d i d yo u d e si g n w h a t yo u d e si g n e d W h a t w a s t h i s t r yi n g t o sh o w ? I w a s t r yi n g t o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve a n d m a ke t h e m m o ve a n d m a ke t h e m h a ve a co n v e r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d I w a s t h e o n l y o n e t a l ki n g I t h o u g h t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w o u l d g e t b o r e d W a n t e d t o h a ve sp r i t e s m o v e a n d h a ve a co n v e r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d r e co r d e d h i s vo i ce W e l l so w h a t h a p p e n e d ye st e r d a y w i t h t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s ? D i d t h e y g e t b o r e d ? W e l l t h e y w e r e l o o ki n g a t i t I d o n t kn o w i f t h e y g o t b o r e d b e c a u se I m n o t t h e m b u t I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u se t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g co n ve r sa t i o n l i ke N a t h a n i e l s. H e w a s l i ke i t i m p r e ss e d m e l i ke f i n e l e t s g o o n t h e d r a g o n s. D u h d u h d u h D u d d u h d u h F i n e l e t s g o Y e e h a w A n d t h a t s w h a t h a p p e n e d A n d m i n e s n o t a m a zi n g a s t h a t M i n e s j u st b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h A n d t h e n b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h Y e a h C o m p a r e d h i s p r o j e ct t o h i s b r o t h e r s; h e i s i m p r e sse d b y h i s b r o t h e r s p r o j e c t ; h e t h i n ks h i s p r o j e ct i s n o t a s g o o d W e l l so e ve r yb o d y h a s a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a ch t o d o i n g i t a n d d i d yo u kn o w t h a t N a t h a n i e l g o t r i d o f t h a t d r a g o n W h y? D o e sn t u n d e r st a n d w h y h i s b r o t h e r r e m o ve d a sce n e a b o u t d r a g o n s t h a t h e r e a l l y l i ke s

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1 5 1 sce n e ? Y o u h a ve t o a sk h i m Y o u m e a n t h e d r a g o n s g o l i ke t h i s? Y e a h h e g o t r i d o f i t W h y? Y o u l l h a ve t o a sk h i m I d o n t kn o w w h y S o w h a t d i d h e m a ke ? W e l l h e h a d t h e co n ve r sa t i o n g o i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g O h I w a n t t o l o o k a t yo u r p r o j e ct w i t h yo u so l e t s g o t h r o u g h yo u r p r o j e ct O K S o f i r st sce n e o f yo u r p r o j e ct yo u r t e l l i n g a st o r y. P L A Y F I R S T S C E N E T h a t s w r o n g S e e h o w e ve r y t h i n g i s m e sse d u p P r o j e ct d o e s n o t l o o k t h e w a y i t i s su p p o se d t o l o o k W h a t s m e sse d u p h e r e W e l l h e s su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g l e f t H e s su p p o se d t o b e r i g h t t h e r e T h e r e s s o m e ca t s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce a n d t h e y r e f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n s W A T C H I N G W O O D S S C E N E : O h co m e o n U g h F r u st r a t e d t h a t sp r i t e s a r e i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce s H e s su p p o se d t o b e b e h i n d ? T h a t s su p p o se d t o b e g r a b b i n g i t s t a i l S p r i t e i s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce D i d t h a t g e t c h a n g e d ? W a s i t l i ke t h a t ye st e r d a y? Y e s. D i d n t f i n i sh t h e p r o j e ct ( y e st e r d a y w a s t h e l a st d a y t o w o r k o n p r o j e ct s) H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k S e e E ve r yt h i n g i s m e sse d u p F r u st r a t e d T h a t l o o ks r i g h t t o m e Y o u kn o w t h o se a r e n t s u p p o se d t o b e l i ke t h a t W e l l w e t a l ke d a b o u t t h a t ye st e r d a y. W h a t a b o u t t h e l a n d sh a r k. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? W a i t W h a t d o yo u m e a n ? W e l l h e w e n t t h e r e b e ca u s e i t s t h e s e a a n d I g u e ss h e d o e sn t l i ke i t A r e l a n d sh a r ks r e a l ? T r yi n g t o r a t i o n a l i ze w h y t h e r e i s a l a n d sh a r k i n a p r o j e ct a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s I d o n t t h i n k s o I l i ke t h e e n d b y t h e w a y. I l i ke h o w yo u u se d yo u r f l u ct u a t i o n i n y o u r vo i c e t h e r e S o h o w d o a l l t h e se ca t s, g h o st s, l a n d sh a r k, d r a g o n h o w d o e s t h o se r e l a t e t o t e a ch i n g so m e o n e W e l l t h e sh a p e s a r e t h e r e a n d I s a i d t o p a y w e l l t h e l a st p a r t w h e n t h e y w e r e d o n e t h a t I j u st w a n t e d t o m a ke su r e t h e y w e r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n I sa i d w h a t w e r e t h e sh a p e s i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d S h a p e s a r e p a r t o f p r o j e ct

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1 5 2 a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. S o t h e sh a p e s a r e i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d D o yo u e ve r t a l k a b o u t t h e sh a p e s? U h d o I e ve r w e l l w h e n i t s d o n e I sa y w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ? a n d t h e y r e t r yi n g t o g u e ss i t A sks w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ve r b a l l y b u t i t i s n o t p a r t o f h i s p r o j e ct S o e xp l a i n t h a t t o m e a g a i n C a u se w h e n I m d o n e I w a n t t o m a ke su r e i f t h e y r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n S o w h e n yo u w e r e d o n e w h e n yo u w a t ch e d t h i s, s o yo u a ske d d i d yo u a sk t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s? U h h u h ( y e s) S o t h a t w a sn t p a r t o f yo u r p r o j e ct t h a t w a s j u st so m e t h i n g yo u j u st a ske d t h e m ? Y e a h O K T h a t s f a i r W e a ske d yo u so m e q u e st i o n s b e f o r e t h e p r o j e ct st a r t e d a n d t h e n l a st w e e k n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct yo u a n sw e r e d t h o se sa m e q u e st i o n s. Y o u m i g h t n o t h a ve r e m e m b e r e d i t O K l e t s t a ke a l o o k. I l l sh o w yo u w h a t I m t a l ki n g a b o u t S o t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d w h e n w e st a r t e d t h e p r o j e ct R e m e m b e r l o o ki n g a t t h i s? A n d t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d l a st w e e k ? S o w e w a n t t o co m p a r e a n sw e r s. S o cyl i n d e r cyl i n d e r p yr a m i d p yr a m i d c o n e c o n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm I n t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d a t t h e e n d yo u co u l d i d e n t i f y w h i ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d i t i s. N o p r o b l e m S o t h e n h e r e w e h a v e w h a t i s t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se I s t h a t r i g h t o r w r o n g ? C o n ce r n e d a b o u t g e t t i n g co r r e ct a n sw e r

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1 5 3 o f t h e p r i sm Y o u s a i d 8 W h a t d o yo u t h i n k i t i s? I g u e ss r i g h t S o h o w d o yo u f i n d a r e a ? I f o r g o t B u t o ve r h e r e yo u h a ve t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se i s 1 6 S o i t l o o ks l i ke I t s 8 I t s 8 S o yo u ca n co u n t t h e cu b e s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B u t h e r e y o u p u t 1 6 S o o n e o f m y q u e st i o n s i s w h a t h a p p e n e d h e r e Y o u f o r g o t ? I t h o u g h t i t w a s 8 1 6 8 p l u s 8 i s 1 6 ? O K t h e n l o o k a t h e r e W h a t s t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p r i sm Y o u h a ve 2 a n d t h e n yo u h a ve 2 I s i t 2 ? Y e s Y e a h b e ca u se yo u ca n co u n t so t h a t w a s n o p r o b l e m W h a t i s t h e vo l u m e o f t h e p r o b l e m I sa i d 1 6 A n d t h e n o ve r h e r e I ca n t t e l l i f i t s 1 6 o r i f t h a t s 1 0 I t h i n k i t s 1 0 I m n o t su r e h o w yo u w e n t f r o m h e r e t o h e r e b u t w h e n w e I t h i n k t h i s i s r i g h t T h i s o n e s r i g h t Y e a h Y e a h yo u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke O K w h i ch o n e s t h e o n e I d i d f i r st ? T h i s o n e s f i r st t h i s o n e s se co n d O h O K T h e n yo u d i d Y o u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se t i m e s t h e h e i g h t I t h i n k I i m p r o ve d m o r e o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) T h i n ks h e d i d b e t t e r o n p r e t e st Y o u t h i n k yo u i m p r o ve d m o r e Y o u t h i n k yo u d i d b e t t e r o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) Y e a h t h a t o n e ( p o st t e s t ) I d i d h o r r i b l e W e l l I d o n t t h i n k y o u d i d h o r r i b l e I t h i n k t h a t Y e s

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1 5 4 m a yb e yo u j u st ki n d o f f o r g o t A n d t h e n h e r e b u t I w a n t t o sh o w yo u so m e t h i n g L o o k h e r e 8 a n d 9 Y o u j u st p u t q u e st i o n m a r ks, w h i ch l o o ks t o m e l i ke yo u d i d n t t r y, b u t h e r e yo u t r i e d yo u p u t a n sw e r s a n d yo u sa i d I j u st l o o ke d a t t h e su r f a ce S o a t l e a st yo u t r i e d yo u t r i e d s o m e t h i n g r i g h t ? S o d o yo u t h i n k y o u i m p r o ve d o n t h e se co n d o n e co m p a r e d t o t h e f i r st ? I t h i n k I d i d b e t t e r o n t h e f i r st o n e I w o u l d sa y m a yb e j u st a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r I t s p r e t t y si m i l a r d o n t yo u t h i n k? Y e s I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch o r d o i n g t h i s ki n d o f p r o j e ct ? S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g I w a s w o n d e r i n g w h y w h e n I g o t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s i t w a s d o i n g a l l t h i s st u f f t o m e L i ke w h a t d o y o u m e a n ? W h e n w e w e r e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o u t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, n o t h i n g w a s h a p p e n i n g i t w a s j u st n o r m a l b u t t h e n o n ce I g o t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, a l l t h e se l u n a t i c s t u f f st a r t e d t o h a p p e n e d l i ke t h e c o m p u t e r sh u t o f f t h e se C h i n e se w o r d s a p p e a r e d a n d e ve r yt h i n g g o t m i xe d u p H a d i ssu e s w i t h co m p u t e r w h e n h e sh a r e d h i s p r o j e ct w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s Y e a h t h a t w a s s t r a n g e ye st e r d a y, w a sn t i t ? H o w w e h a d t o s h u t d o w n yo u co m p u t e r t h a t w a s, b e c a u se t h a t h a d n t h a p p e n e d t o yo u t h i s w h o l e t i m e ? N o T h e n i t su d d e n l y d i d Y e s

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1 5 5 S o yo u sa i d i t w a s f r u st r a t i n g W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t ch a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o A n d I w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r st o n e I w a n t t o m a k e i t m o r e b e t t e r M y vo i ce co u l d b e t a l ki n g a n d t h e y c o u l d b e m o vi n g a n d st u f f W a n t s t o m a k e a b e t t e r p r o j e ct i n S cr a t ch w a n t s t o i n t e g r a t e m o ve m e n t O K I d o n t kn o w i f I ca n d o i t a g a i n b e ca u se I l l b e i n 6 t h g r a d e W e l l yo u ca n u se S cr a t ch T h e n i ce t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t c h i t s f r e e F r e e ? I ca n d o i t o n m y co m p u t e r ? Y o u ca n d o w n l o a d i t o n yo u r co m p u t e r H o w ? Y o u j u st h a ve t o d o w n l o a d i t f r o m t h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e H a ve yo u r p a r e n t s h e l p yo u S a y I w a n t t o f i n d S cr a t ch a n d yo u ca n d o i t f o r f r e e S o yo u d b e i n t e r e s t e d i n u si n g S cr a t ch a g a i n Y e a h Y o u ke p t t e l l i n g m e d u r i n g t h e p r o j e c t t h a t w h e n a r e w e g o i n g t o d o a p r o j e ct t h a t s n o t a b o u t sh a p e s Y e a h D u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct h e w a n t e d t o d o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct n o t a b o u t sh a p e s D i d yo u n o t l i ke t h e sh a p e s? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I w e l l n o I ki n d o f l i ke d i t O K B u t yo u ke p t w a n t i n g t o m o ve o n t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct ? Y e a h W a n t e d t o d o a n e w p r o j e ct H o w co m e ? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I t h o u g h t i t w a s ki n d o f w e i r d w h e n t h e y w e r e s a yi n g t h e y l o o ke d l i ke a d u l t s b u t t h e y w e r e sa yi n g t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a m o vi e a b o u t sh a p e s. R e f l e ct i n g o n h i s st o r y i d e a W h a t w a s t h e i d e a f o r yo u r yo u k n o w yo u h a d t h i s st o r y. H o w d i d yo u co m e u p w i t h a l l t h o se d i f f e r e n t i d e a s? I d o n t kn o w I t j u st p o p s u p i n m y h e a d Ju st p o p s u p i n yo u r h e a d ? O K D o yo u l i ke m a t h ? A l i t t l e L i ke s m a t h a l i t t l e

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1 5 6 D o yo u t h i n k yo u r e g o o d a t m a t h ? N o n o P e r ce i ve s h e s n o t g o o d a t m a t h D o yo u t h i n k t h a t yo u co u l d l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch ? M a yb e ? N o t su r e i f yo u ca n l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch M a yb e h o w ? T h e t h i n g s I m w r i t i n g d o w n a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w so h o w co u l d i t t e a ch m e ? W h a t h e i n cl u d e d i n h i s p r o j e ct i s w h a t h e a l r e a d y kn o w s a b o u t t h e co n t e n t G r e a t q u e st i o n I d o n t kn o w t h e a n sw e r S o w h a t yo u w e r e d o i n g w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t yo u kn o w a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? Y e a h K n o w s t h a t h e w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t h e kn o w s a b o u t m a t h A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? H e r e s yo u r ch a n g e t o t e l l m e a n yt h i n g yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e ct ? T h e t h i n g s I d i d n t l i ke w a s j u st I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a ve d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t c a r e l i ke i n t h e so u n d s I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e R e f l e ct i n g o n h i s p r o j e ct : h e sh o u l d h a ve t r i e d h a r d e r o n h i s r e co r d i n g s O h so yo u w o u l d w a n t t o r e d o y o u r s o u n d s? N o t a l l o ve r ca u se I w a s s p e a ki n g l i ke I d i d n t ca r e R i g h t d i d n t p u t a l o t o f e m o t i o n i n t o i t E xce p t f o r t h e l a st p a r t T h e l a st p a r t y e a h yo u d e f i n i t e l y p u t a l o t e m o t i o n i n t h e l a st l i n e h o w e ve r yo u sa i d t h a t t h e sh a p e t e st w h i ch i s p r e t t y f u n n y. A n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t w o r ki n g o n t h e p r o j e c t a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s U h m u h m u h m m a y b e u h m I j u st kn o w w h a t s g o i n g t o h a p p e n i f I d o n t t e l l yo u t h i s a n d t h e n l a t e r w h e n t h e n m a yb e M o n d a y co m e s I l l h a ve so m e t h i n g I w a n t t o t e l l yo u t h e n i t w i l l b e t o o l a t e s o I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f s o m e t h i n g I a p p r e c i a t e t h a t U h m w e l l m a yb e i t s a b o u t h o w m i n e i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e ve r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e sa yi n g w h a t s h a p e i s t h i s t h e n yo u t yp e i t i n R e f l e ct i n g o n p r o j e ct : h i s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r st u d e n t s ( o t h e r st u d e n t s a sk q u e st i o n s o f u se r h i s t e l l s a st o r y ) S o t o yo u t h a t se e m e d b e t t e r W e l l n o t n o I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t D o e sn t l i ke t h e q u e st i o n a p p r o a c h Y o u d o n t l i ke d o i n g w h a t ? T h e p a r t w h e n yo u sa y w h a t s t h i s sh a p e

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1 5 7 Y e a h so W e l l m a yb e i t w o u l d b e f u n D o yo u l i ke t o t e l l st o r i e s Y e s L i ke s t o t e l l st o r i e s D o yo u w r i t e st o r i e s a l o t ? Y e s W r i t e s st o r i e s S o w h a t yo u d i d s e e m s so m e t h i n g t h a t yo u r e g o o d a t t h e n R e a l l y? T o m e C a u se yo u h a d t h i s ve r y e l a b o r a t e st o r y a n d n o b o d y e l se r e a l l y h a d a st o r y l i ke yo u h a d a st o r y, so I t h o u g h t i t w a s i n t e r e st i n g t h a t y o u j u st sa i d t h a t o t h e r ki d s a ske d w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s b u t yo u s a i d w e l l I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke t h a t S o i t se e m s l i ke t o m e i n yo u r p r o j e ct yo u d i d w h a t yo u l i ke t o d o W e l l I d i d R e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n h o w h i s p r o j e ct r e f l e ct s t h a t I sn t t h a t O K yo u d i d i t t h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K T h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K W h i l e I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t w o u l d yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h i s w i t h yo u r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss m a t e s? I d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a sse d D o e s n o t w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h p e e r s Y o u d f e e l e m b a r r a sse d t o sh a r e t h a t w i t h t h e m ? H o w co m e ? E ve r yo n e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n E ve r yb o d y i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n ? N o t e ve r yo n e E ve r yo n e s m e a n a n d r o u g h a n d t o u g h a n d I d o n t w a n t t o d o i t I l l b e sca r e d O K a n d w e r e n o t g o i n g t o d o i t so I d o n t w a n t yo u t o t h i n k I m g o i n g t o d o i t I j u st w a n t e d t o kn o w w h a t yo u t h i n k I w o u l d d o b u t I l l b e t o o sca r e d Y e a h I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t A n d d o yo u t h i n k o t h e r 5 t h g r a d e r s sh o u l d l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch T h e y co u l d T h e y co u l d l e a r n h o w t o Y e a h

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1 5 8 u se S cr a t ch ? D o yo u t h i n k t h e y d l i ke t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? S o m e ki d s b u t s o m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e W h y d o yo u t h i n k so m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e ? C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h m e ? P r o b a b l y n o t G e n e r a l n o t e s r e c o r d e d w h i l e r e r e a d i n g t r a n s c r i p t ( S t e p 2 ) E n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s L i ke t h e l i b r a r y o f s p r i t e s i n S cr a t ch S cr a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t f r u st r a t i n g a n d co n f u si n g ; t o o m a n y b l o cks T h i n ks i t w o u l d b e h e l p f u l t o l e a r n o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e a n d t o l e a r n j u st a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h e ca t e g o r i e s. H e m a y l i ke t o l e a r n t h i s w a y D i d n t l e a r n m a t h f r o m t h i s e xp e r i e n ce ; a l r e a d y kn e w t h e m a t h ; d i d l e a r n h o w t o d r a w g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w a n d e d i t s p r i t e s a n d r e c o r d vo i ce i n S cr a t ch N o t p r o u d o f p r o j e ct ; e m b a r r a sse d ; m a n y s p r i t e s a r e i n t h e w r o n g l o ca t i o n o r f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ; co m p a r e d h i s p r o j e ct t o h i s b r o t h e r s p r o j e ct a n d t o p e e r s; d i d n t f i n i sh h i s p r o j e ct ; co u l d h a ve t r i e d h a r d e r ; d o e sn t w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h 5 t h g r a d e r s R e f l e ct i ve o n h i s p r o j e ct ; w o n d e r i n g a b o u t h i s st o r y i d e a S u p e r f i ci a l r e p r e se n t a t i o n o f m a t h co n t e n t W o u l d l i ke t o u se S cr a t ch i n t h e f u t u r e ; i m p r o v e h i s p r o j e ct L i ke s st o r i e s R e f l e ct s o n h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n G e n e r a t e d t h e m e s b a s e d o n g e n e r a l n o t e s ( S t e p 3 ) D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch E n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s L i ke t h e l i b r a r y o f s p r i t e s i n S cr a t ch S cr a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t f r u st r a t i n g a n d co n f u si n g ; t o o m a n y b l o cks W o u l d l i ke t o u se S cr a t ch i n t h e f u t u r e ; i m p r o v e h i s p r o j e ct D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch T h i n ks i t w o u l d b e h e l p f u l t o l e a r n o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e a n d t o l e a r n j u st a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h e ca t e g o r i e s. H e m a y l i ke t o l e a r n t h i s w a y L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w a n d e d i t s p r i t e s a n d r e c o r d vo i ce i n S cr a t ch D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct D i d n t l e a r n m a t h f r o m t h i s e xp e r i e n ce ; a l r e a d y kn e w t h e m a t h ; d i d l e a r n h o w t o d r a w g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s

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1 5 9 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s L i ke s st o r i e s R e f l e ct s o n h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct N o t p r o u d o f p r o j e ct ; e m b a r r a sse d ; m a n y s p r i t e s a r e i n t h e w r o n g l o ca t i o n o r f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ; co m p a r e d h i s p r o j e ct t o h i s b r o t h e r s p r o j e ct a n d t o p e e r s; d i d n t f i n i sh R e f l e ct i ve o n h i s p r o j e ct ; w o n d e r i n g a b o u t h i s st o r y i d e a C o d e s f r o m T h e m e s a n d C o d i n g D a t a ( S t e p 4 ) ( C o d e : T h e m e ) S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n : D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n : D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n : D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n : D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n : D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct R e s e a r c h e r P a r t i c i p a n t C o d i n g D a t a D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l ye s. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n W h a t a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch d i d yo u l i ke ? W e l l t h e p a r t w a s m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m l i ke t h a t ca t r i g h t t h e r e < ye s> I m a d e h e r a t o n g u e a n d e y e l a sh e s, m a d e h e r l o o k l i ke a g i r l n o t a b o y ca t b e c a u se I t h i n k e ve r y ca t i n h e r e i s a b o y. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n S o yo u l i ke d t a ki n g t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e s a n d ch a n g i n g t h e m r i g h t ? Y e a h S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n O K W h a t e l se d i d yo u l i ke a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u s e l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n sp r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n O K S o yo u l i ke t h a t yo u co u l d d e si g n yo u r o w n sp r i t e s < ye a h > a n d yo u a l so l i ke t h a t t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f o t h e r sp r i t e s t h a t w e r e p a r t o f S cr a t ch t h a t y o u co u l d u se ? Y e s. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n Y e s. O K G o o d D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I sa y i t w a s d i f f i cu l t L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 0 I t w a s d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? Y e s. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W h a t m a d e i t d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se ? W e l l p r e t t y m u ch i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u ch st u f f L i ke w h e n yo u w e r e sa yi n g a t a n d t u r n a r o u n d ca u se l o o k a t a l l t h e se s t u f f g l i d e 1 se n s x 2 9 a n d y 1 0 a n d ch a n g e x b y 1 0 a n d a l l t h i s o t h e r st u f f L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n S u r e S o a l l t h o se b l o cks, m a yb e t h e r e a r e j u st t o o m a n y b l o cks sh o w i n g so i t g e t s co n f u si n g ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O K S o b e ca u se t h e r e a r e a l o t o f b l o cks t h e r e w h a t d o yo u t h i n k w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? O r w h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y f o r yo u t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n Y o u d o n t r e a l l y kn o w ? W h a t w o u l d h a ve b e e n t h e b e st w a y t o h e l p y o u l e a r n S cr a t ch ? M a yb e g e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n G e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y t h a t ? M a yb e a p e r so n w h o s d o n e S cr a t ch f o r a w h i l e o r a p e r so n w h o m a yb e cr e a t e d i t L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O h m a yb e t h e p e r so n w h o cr e a t e d i t D o yo u t h i n k t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o h e l p yo u ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W h a t a b o u t i n a cl a ssr o o m ? H o w co u l d w e l e a r n S cr a t c h i n t h e cl a ssr o o m b e ca u se w e p r o b a b l y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o b r i n g i n Y o u m e a n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m ? C l a r i f i ca t i o n : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s S u r e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m W h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w e r e g o i n g t o w o r k w i t h yo u r M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 1 b e ca u se yo u kn o w so m e t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch n o w H o w w o u l d yo u t e a c h yo u r cl a ssm a t e s a b o u t S cr a t ch ? O K M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e D o y o u t h i n k t h a t w o u l d h e l p yo u t o o ? I g u e ss b u t i f I d i d n t k n o w i t h o w co u l d I t e a c h i t ? L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W e l l r i g h t b u t I m sa yi n g i f so m e o n e w a s t e a ch i n g yo u w o u l d i t h e l p yo u t o d o o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n A n d w h a t d o yo u m e a n b y o n e si m p l e t h i n g ? L i ke t h e f i r st t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r l i ke cr e a t i n g t h e sp r i t e s. T h e n w e l l f i r st t h e m o t i o n t h e n t h e l o o ks so u n d p e n co n t r o l se n si n g o p e r a t i o n va r i a b l e s. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n S o a r e yo u s a yi n g w e sh o u l d g o t h r o u g h e a ch b l o ck t o t e a c h yo u o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e ? W e l l n o t a l l o f t h e se T h a t w o u l d t a ke f o r e v e r L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n T h a t w o u l d t a ke a l o n g t i m e ? Y e a h j u st l i ke m o t i o n a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h e n l o o ks L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O K so m a yb e d o a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h o se ca t e g o r i e s? U h h u h ( y e s) L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n M a yb e t h e o n e s y o u d u se t h e m o st ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O K T h a t s r e a so n a b l e D o yo u t h i n k d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s y o u l e a r n ? D o y o u t h i n k y o u l e a r n so m e t h i n g w h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? L e a r n i n g m a t h ? C l a r i f i ca t i o n : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s S u r e l e t s t a l k a b o u t l e a r n i n g m a t h D o yo u t h i n k yo u ca n l e a r n m a t h w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? U m m I r e a l l y d o n t S o m e o f t h a t st u f f I a l r e a d y kn o w l i ke a p yr a m i d I d o n t kn o w t h a t m u c h a b o u t p yr a m i d s b u t cyl i n d e r a n d c o n e I a l r e a d y kn o w a b o u t t h o se t w o L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n O K S o yo u a l r e a d y kn e w a b o u t s o m e o f t h e Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 2 m a t h yo u u se d ? S o yo u d i d n t r e a l l y l e a r n a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? N o L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u f e l t l i ke yo u d i d l e a r n f r o m t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l h o w t o d r a w so m e o f t h e m L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o h o w t o d r a w t h o se sh a p e s? Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h yo u d r e w a n u m b e r o f sh a p e s. I se e a co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm cyl i n d e r s e ve n a p yr a m i d t h e r e Y o u ve l e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w t h e m A n yt h i n g e l se yo u t h i n k yo u l e a r n e d i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l I d i d l e a r n t h a t n o t r e a l l y. I w a s j u st sa yi n g t h a t I w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d w h e n I w a s s a yi n g m y p r o j e ct b e c a u se e v e r yt h i n g w a s m e sse d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t ca u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n Y o u m e a n w h e n yo u w e r e sh o w i n g i t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s? Y e s, e ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce ? M a yb e n o t e ve r yt h i n g N o t i n t h e r i g h t p o si t i o n T h e y r e a l l s u p p o se d t o b e H e n e e d s t o b e b i g g e r T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O h so so m e o f t h e si ze s a r e n o t r i g h t S e e l o o k. S e e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n S o h e s f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ? Y e a h t h a t s o n e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K O K W e l l d o yo u w a n t t o se e ? C l a r i f i ca t i o n : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s W e l l g o t h r o u g h i t i n a m i n u t e O K ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u l e a r n e d ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u c a n t h i n k o f t h a t yo u l e a r n e d w h i l e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct ? U h m p r o b a b l yu h m m a yb e m a yb e l e a r n i n g h o w t o d o i t L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n L e a r n i n g h o w t o d o S cr a t ch ? Y e s. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h yo u l e a r n e d h o w t o d o S cr a t ch a l i t t l e b i t b e ca u se yo u sa i d yo u o n e t h i n g y o u l i ke d w a s d r a w i n g t h e sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e s p r i t e s, s o yo u d e f i n i t e l y l e a r n e d Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 3 h o w t o d o t h a t r i g h t ? D i d yo u l e a r n h o w t o r e co r d y o u r vo i c e ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n I t h i n k yo u r e i n f a ct t h e o n l y p e r so n t h a t r e co r d e d t h e i r vo i ce r i g h t ? W e l l ye a h I t h i n k. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n I t h i n k yo u w e r e Y o u l e a r n e d t h a t a n d I d o n t t h i n k a n yb o d y e l se l e a r n e d a b o u t t h a t W h e n yo u w e r e d e si g n i n g t h i s, w e r e yo u t h i n ki n g a b o u t d e si g n i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s? I d i d n t e ve n kn o w w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s. P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n Y o u d i d n t r e a l i ze w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s? N o P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K T h a t s f a i r D o yo u r e m e m b e r t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W h a t w a s t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? M a ke i t cr e a t i ve ? P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K S o t h i n k b a ck t o w h y d i d yo u d e si g n w h a t yo u d e si g n e d W h a t w a s t h i s t r yi n g t o sh o w ? I w a s t r yi n g t o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve a n d m a ke t h e m m o ve a n d m a ke t h e m h a ve a co n v e r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d I w a s t h e o n l y o n e t a l ki n g I t h o u g h t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w o u l d g e t b o r e d P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W e l l so w h a t h a p p e n e d ye st e r d a y w i t h t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s ? D i d t h e y g e t b o r e d ? W e l l t h e y w e r e l o o ki n g a t i t I d o n t kn o w i f t h e y g o t b o r e d b e c a u se I m n o t t h e m b u t I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u se t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g co n ve r sa t i o n l i ke N a t h a n i e l s. H e w a s l i ke i t i m p r e ss e d m e l i ke f i n e l e t s g o o n t h e d r a g o n s. D u h d u h d u h D u d d u h d u h F i n e l e t s g o Y e e h a w A n d t h a t s w h a t h a p p e n e d A n d m i n e s n o t a m a zi n g a s t h a t M i n e s j u st b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h A n d t h e n b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W e l l so e ve r yb o d y h a s W h y? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h

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1 6 4 a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a ch t o d o i n g i t a n d d i d yo u kn o w t h a t N a t h a n i e l g o t r i d o f t h a t d r a g o n sce n e ? q u e st i o n s Y o u h a ve t o a sk h i m Y o u m e a n t h e d r a g o n s g o l i ke t h i s? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y e a h h e g o t r i d o f i t W h y? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u l l h a ve t o a sk h i m I d o n t kn o w w h y S o w h a t d i d h e m a ke ? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s W e l l h e h a d t h e co n ve r sa t i o n g o i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g O h I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s I w a n t t o l o o k a t yo u r p r o j e ct w i t h yo u so l e t s g o t h r o u g h yo u r p r o j e ct O K I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s S o f i r st sce n e o f yo u r p r o j e ct yo u r t e l l i n g a st o r y. P L A Y F I R S T S C E N E T h a t s w r o n g S e e h o w e ve r y t h i n g i s m e sse d u p P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W h a t s m e sse d u p h e r e W e l l h e s su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g l e f t H e s su p p o se d t o b e r i g h t t h e r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T h e r e s s o m e ca t s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce a n d t h e y r e f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n s W A T C H I N G W O O D S S C E N E : O h co m e o n U g h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n H e s su p p o se d t o b e b e h i n d ? T h a t s su p p o se d t o b e g r a b b i n g i t s t a i l P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n D i d t h a t g e t c h a n g e d ? W a s i t l i ke t h a t ye st e r d a y? Y e s. P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k S e e E ve r yt h i n g i s m e sse d u p P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T h a t l o o ks r i g h t t o m e Y o u kn o w t h o se a r e n t s u p p o se d t o b e l i ke t h a t P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W e l l w e t a l ke d a b o u t t h a t ye st e r d a y. W h a t a b o u t t h e l a n d sh a r k. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? W a i t W h a t d o yo u m e a n ? W e l l h e w e n t t h e r e b e ca u s e i t s t h e s e a a n d I g u e ss h e d o e sn t l i ke i t A r e l a n d sh a r ks r e a l ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I d o n t t h i n k s o I l i ke t h e e n d b y t h e w a y. I l i ke h o w yo u u se d yo u r f l u ct u a t i o n i n y o u r vo i c e W e l l t h e sh a p e s a r e t h e r e a n d I s a i d t o p a y w e l l t h e l a st p a r t w h e n t h e y w e r e d o n e t h a t I j u st w a n t e d t o m a ke su r e t h e y w e r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n I L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 5 t h e r e S o h o w d o a l l t h e se ca t s, g h o st s, l a n d sh a r k, d r a g o n h o w d o e s t h o se r e l a t e t o t e a ch i n g so m e o n e a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. sa i d w h a t w e r e t h e sh a p e s i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d S o t h e sh a p e s a r e i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d D o yo u e ve r t a l k a b o u t t h e sh a p e s? U h d o I e ve r w e l l w h e n i t s d o n e I sa y w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ? a n d t h e y r e t r yi n g t o g u e ss i t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o e xp l a i n t h a t t o m e a g a i n C a u se w h e n I m d o n e I w a n t t o m a ke su r e i f t h e y r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o w h e n yo u w e r e d o n e w h e n yo u w a t ch e d t h i s, s o yo u a ske d d i d yo u a sk t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s? U h h u h ( y e s) L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o t h a t w a sn t p a r t o f yo u r p r o j e ct t h a t w a s j u st so m e t h i n g yo u j u st a ske d t h e m ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n O K T h a t s f a i r W e a ske d yo u so m e q u e st i o n s b e f o r e t h e p r o j e ct st a r t e d a n d t h e n l a st w e e k n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct yo u a n sw e r e d t h o se sa m e q u e st i o n s. Y o u m i g h t n o t h a ve r e m e m b e r e d i t O K l e t s t a ke a l o o k. I l l sh o w yo u w h a t I m t a l ki n g a b o u t S o t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d w h e n w e st a r t e d t h e p r o j e ct R e m e m b e r l o o ki n g a t t h i s? A n d t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d l a st w e e k ? S o w e w a n t t o co m p a r e a n sw e r s. S o cyl i n d e r cyl i n d e r p yr a m i d p yr a m i d c o n e co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm I n t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d a t t h e I s t h a t r i g h t o r w r o n g ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 6 e n d yo u co u l d i d e n t i f y w h i ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d i t i s. N o p r o b l e m S o t h e n h e r e w e h a v e w h a t i s t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se o f t h e p r i sm Y o u s a i d 8 W h a t d o yo u t h i n k i t i s? I g u e ss r i g h t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o h o w d o yo u f i n d a r e a ? I f o r g o t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n B u t o ve r h e r e yo u h a ve t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se i s 1 6 S o i t l o o ks l i ke I t s 8 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I t s 8 S o yo u ca n co u n t t h e cu b e s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B u t h e r e y o u p u t 1 6 S o o n e o f m y q u e st i o n s i s w h a t h a p p e n e d h e r e Y o u f o r g o t ? I t h o u g h t i t w a s 8 1 6 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n 8 p l u s 8 i s 1 6 ? O K t h e n l o o k a t h e r e W h a t s t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p r i sm Y o u h a ve 2 a n d t h e n yo u h a ve 2 I s i t 2 ? Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h b e ca u se yo u ca n co u n t so t h a t w a s n o p r o b l e m W h a t i s t h e vo l u m e o f t h e p r o b l e m I sa i d 1 6 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n A n d t h e n o ve r h e r e I ca n t t e l l i f i t s 1 6 o r i f t h a t s 1 0 I t h i n k i t s 1 0 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I m n o t su r e h o w yo u w e n t f r o m h e r e t o h e r e b u t w h e n w e I t h i n k t h i s i s r i g h t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n T h i s o n e s r i g h t Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h yo u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke O K w h i ch o n e s t h e o n e I d i d f i r st ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n T h i s o n e s f i r st t h i s o n e s se co n d O h O K L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n T h e n yo u d i d Y o u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se I t h i n k I i m p r o ve d m o r e o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 7 t i m e s t h e h e i g h t Y o u t h i n k yo u i m p r o ve d m o r e Y o u t h i n k yo u d i d b e t t e r o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) Y e a h t h a t o n e ( p o st t e s t ) I d i d h o r r i b l e L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n W e l l I d o n t t h i n k y o u d i d h o r r i b l e I t h i n k t h a t m a yb e yo u j u st ki n d o f f o r g o t A n d t h e n h e r e b u t I w a n t t o sh o w yo u so m e t h i n g L o o k h e r e 8 a n d 9 Y o u j u st p u t q u e st i o n m a r ks, w h i ch l o o ks t o m e l i ke yo u d i d n t t r y, b u t h e r e yo u t r i e d yo u p u t a n sw e r s a n d yo u sa i d I j u st l o o ke d a t t h e su r f a ce S o a t l e a st yo u t r i e d yo u t r i e d s o m e t h i n g r i g h t ? Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o d o yo u t h i n k y o u i m p r o ve d o n t h e se co n d o n e co m p a r e d t o t h e f i r st ? I t h i n k I d i d b e t t e r o n t h e f i r st o n e L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I w o u l d sa y m a yb e j u st a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r I t s p r e t t y si m i l a r d o n t yo u t h i n k? Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch o r d o i n g t h i s ki n d o f p r o j e ct ? S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g I w a s w o n d e r i n g w h y w h e n I g o t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s i t w a s d o i n g a l l t h i s st u f f t o m e S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n L i ke w h a t d o y o u m e a n ? W h e n w e w e r e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o u t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, n o t h i n g w a s h a p p e n i n g i t w a s j u st n o r m a l b u t t h e n o n ce I g o t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, a l l t h e se l u n a t i c s t u f f st a r t e d t o h a p p e n e d l i ke t h e c o m p u t e r sh u t o f f t h e se C h i n e se w o r d s a p p e a r e d a n d e ve r yt h i n g g o t m i xe d u p C o m p u t e r i ssu e s d u r i n g sh a r i n g w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s Y e a h t h a t w a s s t r a n g e N o C o m p u t e r i ssu e s

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1 6 8 ye st e r d a y, w a sn t i t ? H o w w e h a d t o s h u t d o w n yo u co m p u t e r t h a t w a s, b e c a u se t h a t h a d n t h a p p e n e d t o yo u t h i s w h o l e t i m e ? d u r i n g sh a r i n g w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s T h e n i t su d d e n l y d i d S o yo u sa i d i t w a s f r u st r a t i n g Y e s S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t ch a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o A n d I w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r st o n e I w a n t t o m a k e i t m o r e b e t t e r M y vo i ce co u l d b e t a l ki n g a n d t h e y c o u l d b e m o vi n g a n d st u f f S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n ; P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K I d o n t kn o w i f I ca n d o i t a g a i n b e ca u se I l l b e i n 6 t h g r a d e I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s W e l l yo u ca n u se S cr a t ch T h e n i ce t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t c h i t s f r e e F r e e ? I ca n d o i t o n m y co m p u t e r ? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u ca n d o w n l o a d i t o n yo u r co m p u t e r H o w ? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u j u st h a ve t o d o w n l o a d i t f r o m t h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e H a ve yo u r p a r e n t s h e l p yo u S a y I w a n t t o f i n d S cr a t ch a n d yo u ca n d o i t f o r f r e e S o yo u d b e i n t e r e s t e d i n u si n g S cr a t ch a g a i n Y e a h I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u ke p t t e l l i n g m e d u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct t h a t w h e n a r e w e g o i n g t o d o a p r o j e ct t h a t s n o t a b o u t sh a p e s Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n D i d yo u n o t l i ke t h e sh a p e s? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I w e l l n o I ki n d o f l i ke d i t O K B u t yo u ke p t w a n t i n g t o m o ve o n t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct ? Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n H o w co m e ? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I t h o u g h t i t w a s ki n d o f w e i r d w h e n t h e y w e r e s a yi n g t h e y l o o ke d l i ke a d u l t s b u t t h e y w e r e s a yi n g t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a m o vi e a b o u t sh a p e s. P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W h a t w a s t h e i d e a f o r I d o n t kn o w I t j u st p o p s u p i n m y P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n

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1 6 9 yo u r yo u k n o w yo u h a d t h i s st o r y. H o w d i d yo u co m e u p w i t h a l l t h o se d i f f e r e n t i d e a s? h e a d Ju st p o p s u p i n yo u r h e a d ? O K D o yo u l i ke m a t h ? A l i t t l e L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u t h i n k yo u r e g o o d a t m a t h ? N o n o L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u t h i n k t h a t yo u co u l d l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch ? M a yb e ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n M a yb e h o w ? T h e t h i n g s I m w r i t i n g d o w n a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w so h o w co u l d i t t e a ch m e ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n G r e a t q u e st i o n I d o n t kn o w t h e a n sw e r S o w h a t yo u w e r e d o i n g w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t yo u kn o w a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? H e r e s yo u r ch a n c e t o t e l l m e a n yt h i n g yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e ct ? T h e t h i n g s I d i d n t l i ke w a s j u st I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a ve d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t c a r e l i ke i n t h e so u n d s I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O h so yo u w o u l d w a n t t o r e d o y o u r s o u n d s? N o t a l l o ve r ca u se I w a s s p e a ki n g l i ke I d i d n t ca r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n R i g h t d i d n t p u t a l o t o f e m o t i o n i n t o i t E xce p t f o r t h e l a st p a r t P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T h e l a st p a r t y e a h yo u d e f i n i t e l y p u t a l o t e m o t i o n i n t h e l a st l i n e h o w e ve r yo u sa i d t h a t t h e sh a p e t e st w h i ch i s p r e t t y f u n n y. A n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t w o r ki n g o n t h e p r o j e c t a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s U h m u h m u h m m a y b e u h m I j u st kn o w w h a t s g o i n g t o h a p p e n i f I d o n t t e l l yo u t h i s a n d t h e n l a t e r w h e n t h e n m a yb e M o n d a y co m e s I l l h a ve so m e t h i n g I w a n t t o t e l l yo u t h e n i t w i l l b e t o o l a t e s o I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f s o m e t h i n g P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t U h m w e l l m a yb e i t s a b o u t h o w m i n e i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e ve r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n

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1 7 0 sa yi n g w h a t s h a p e i s t h i s t h e n yo u t yp e i t i n S o t o yo u t h a t se e m e d b e t t e r W e l l n o t n o I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n Y o u d o n t l i ke d o i n g w h a t ? T h e p a r t w h e n yo u sa y w h a t s t h i s sh a p e L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h so W e l l m a yb e i t w o u l d b e f u n L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u l i ke t o t e l l st o r i e s Y e s L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u w r i t e st o r i e s a l o t ? Y e s L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n S o w h a t yo u d i d s e e m s so m e t h i n g t h a t yo u r e g o o d a t t h e n R e a l l y? L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n T o m e C a u se yo u h a d t h i s ve r y e l a b o r a t e st o r y a n d n o b o d y e l se r e a l l y h a d a st o r y l i ke yo u h a d a st o r y, so I t h o u g h t i t w a s i n t e r e st i n g t h a t y o u j u st sa i d t h a t o t h e r ki d s a ske d w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s b u t yo u s a i d w e l l I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke t h a t S o i t se e m s l i ke t o m e i n yo u r p r o j e ct yo u d i d w h a t yo u l i ke t o d o W e l l I d i d L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n I sn t t h a t O K yo u d i d i t t h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n T h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n W h i l e I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t w o u l d yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h i s w i t h yo u r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss m a t e s? I d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a sse d P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n Y o u d f e e l e m b a r r a sse d t o sh a r e t h a t w i t h t h e m ? H o w c o m e ? E ve r yo n e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s E ve r yb o d y i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n ? N o t e ve r yo n e E ve r yo n e s m e a n a n d r o u g h a n d t o u g h a n d I d o n t w a n t t o d o i t I l l b e sca r e d I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s O K a n d w e r e n o t g o i n g t o d o i t so I d o n t w a n t yo u t o t h i n k I m g o i n g t o d o i t I j u st w a n t e d t o I w o u l d d o b u t I l l b e t o o sca r e d I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s

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1 7 1 kn o w w h a t yo u t h i n k Y e a h I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t A n d d o yo u t h i n k o t h e r 5 t h g r a d e r s sh o u l d l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch T h e y co u l d I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s T h e y co u l d l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? Y e a h I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s D o yo u t h i n k t h e y d l i ke t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? S o m e ki d s b u t s o m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s W h y d o yo u t h i n k so m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e ? C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h m e ? P r o b a b l y n o t I r r e l e va n t t o r e s e a r c h q u e st i o n s G r o u p s i m i l a r t h e m e s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s ( S t e p 5 ) T h i s st e p n a r r o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t h e m e s b y g r o u p i n g si m i l a r t h e m e s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s. T h e r e w e r e 5 t h e m e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e d a t a i n S t e p 3 T h e se 5 t h e m e s w e r e g r o u p e d i n t o 3 c a t e g o r i e s. P r e v i o u sl y i d e n t i f i e d t h e m e s : 1 D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch 2 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch 3 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct 4 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s 5 D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct C a t e g o r i e s ( b a se d o n g r o u p i n g si m i l a r t h e m e s ) : 1 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch a D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch b D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch 2 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e c t a D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct 3 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o h i s l e a r n i n g a D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct b D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s C o n v e r t c a t e g o r i e s i n t o c a t e g o r i c a l c o d e s ( S t e p 6 ) 1 S cr a t ch : D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch 2 P r o j e ct : D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e ct 3 L e a r n i n g : D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o h i s l e a r n i n g

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1 7 2 O r g a n i ze d a t a b a s e d o n c a t e g o r i c a l c o d e s ( S t e p 7 ) S cr a t ch : D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l ye s. W h a t a b o u t u si n g S cr a t c h d i d yo u l i ke ? W e l l t h e p a r t w a s m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m l i ke t h a t ca t r i g h t t h e r e < ye s> I m a d e h e r a t o n g u e a n d e ye l a sh e s, m a d e h e r l o o k l i ke a g i r l n o t a b o y c a t b e ca u se I t h i n k e ve r y c a t i n h e r e i s a b o y. S o yo u l i ke d t a ki n g t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e s a n d ch a n g i n g t h e m r i g h t ? Y e a h O K W h a t e l se d i d yo u l i ke a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u se l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n sp r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k. O K S o yo u l i ke t h a t y o u co u l d d e si g n yo u r o w n sp r i t e s < ye a h > a n d yo u a l so l i ke t h a t t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f o t h e r sp r i t e s t h a t w e r e p a r t o f S cr a t ch t h a t yo u co u l d u se ? Y e s. I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch o r d o i n g t h i s ki n d o f p r o j e ct ? S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g I w a s w o n d e r i n g w h y w h e n I g o t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s i t w a s d o i n g a l l t h i s st u f f t o m e L i ke w h a t d o y o u m e a n ? W h e n w e w e r e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o u t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, n o t h i n g w a s h a p p e n i n g i t w a s j u st n o r m a l b u t t h e n o n ce I g o t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, a l l t h e se l u n a t i c st u f f st a r t e d t o h a p p e n e d l i ke t h e c o m p u t e r sh u t o f f t h e s e C h i n e se w o r d s a p p e a r e d a n d e ve r yt h i n g g o t m i xe d u p Y e a h t h a t w a s s t r a n g e ye st e r d a y, w a sn t i t ? H o w w e h a d t o s h u t d o w n yo u co m p u t e r t h a t w a s, b e c a u se t h a t h a d n t h a p p e n e d t o yo u t h i s w h o l e t i m e ? N o T h e n i t su d d e n l y d i d S o yo u s a i d i t w a s f r u st r a t i n g Y e s W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t c h a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o Y e s. O K G o o d D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I sa y i t w a s d i f f i cu l t I t w a s d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u s e S cr a t ch ? Y e s. W h a t m a d e i t d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u s e ? W e l l p r e t t y m u ch i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u ch

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1 7 3 st u f f L i ke w h e n yo u w e r e sa yi n g a t a n d t u r n a r o u n d ca u se l o o k a t a l l t h e se st u f f g l i d e 1 se n s x 2 9 a n d y 1 0 a n d ch a n g e x b y 1 0 a n d a l l t h i s o t h e r st u f f S u r e S o a l l t h o se b l o cks, m a yb e t h e r e a r e j u st t o o m a n y b l o cks sh o w i n g so i t g e t s co n f u si n g ? Y e a h O K S o b e ca u se t h e r e a r e a l o t o f b l o cks t h e r e w h a t d o yo u t h i n k w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? O r w h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y f o r yo u t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w Y o u d o n t r e a l l y kn o w ? W h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e b e st w a y t o h e l p y o u l e a r n S cr a t ch ? M a yb e g e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p G e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p ? Y e a h W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y t h a t ? M a yb e a p e r so n w h o s d o n e S cr a t ch f o r a w h i l e o r a p e r so n w h o m a yb e cr e a t e d i t O h m a yb e t h e p e r so n w h o cr e a t e d i t D o yo u t h i n k t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o h e l p yo u ? Y e a h W h a t a b o u t i n a cl a ssr o o m ? H o w co u l d w e l e a r n S cr a t ch i n t h e cl a ss r o o m b e ca u s e w e p r o b a b l y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o b r i n g i n Y o u m e a n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m ? S u r e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss r o o m W h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w e r e g o i n g t o w o r k w i t h yo u r b e c a u se yo u kn o w so m e t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch n o w H o w w o u l d yo u t e a ch yo u r cl a ssm a t e s a b o u t S cr a t ch ? M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e O K M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e D o yo u t h i n k t h a t w o u l d h e l p yo u t o o ? I g u e ss b u t i f I d i d n t k n o w i t h o w co u l d I t e a ch i t ? A n d w h a t d o yo u m e a n b y o n e si m p l e t h i n g ? L i ke t h e f i r st t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r l i ke cr e a t i n g t h e sp r i t e s. T h e n w e l l f i r st t h e m o t i o n t h e n t h e l o o ks so u n d p e n co n t r o l se n si n g o p e r a t i o n va r i a b l e s. S o a r e yo u s a yi n g w e sh o u l d g o t h r o u g h e a ch b l o ck t o t e a ch y o u o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e ? W e l l n o t a l l o f t h e se T h a t w o u l d t a ke f o r e ve r T h a t w o u l d t a ke a l o n g t i m e ? Y e a h j u st l i ke m o t i o n a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h e n l o o ks O K so m a yb e d o a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a c h o f t h o se ca t e g o r i e s? U h h u h ( y e s) M a yb e t h e o n e s y o u d u se t h e m o st ? Y e a h W e l l g o t h r o u g h i t i n a m i n u t e O K ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u l e a r n e d ? A n yt h i n g e l se U h m p r o b a b l yu h m m a yb e m a yb e l e a r n i n g h o w t o d o i t

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1 7 4 yo u ca n t h i n k o f t h a t yo u l e a r n e d w h i l e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct ? L e a r n i n g h o w t o d o S cr a t ch ? Y e s. Y e a h yo u l e a r n e d h o w t o d o S cr a t ch a l i t t l e b i t b e ca u se y o u sa i d yo u o n e t h i n g yo u l i ke d w a s d r a w i n g t h e sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e sp r i t e s, so yo u d e f i n i t e l y l e a r n e d h o w t o d o t h a t r i g h t ? Y e a h D i d yo u l e a r n h o w t o r e co r d yo u r vo i ce ? Y e a h I t h i n k yo u r e i n f a ct t h e o n l y p e r s o n t h a t r e c o r d e d t h e i r vo i ce r i g h t ? W e l l ye a h I t h i n k. P r o j e ct : Y e a h yo u d r e w a n u m b e r o f sh a p e s. I s e e a co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm cyl i n d e r s e ve n a p yr a m i d t h e r e Y o u ve l e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w t h e m A n yt h i n g e l se yo u t h i n k yo u l e a r n e d i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l I d i d l e a r n t h a t n o t r e a l l y. I w a s j u st sa yi n g t h a t I w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d w h e n I w a s s a yi n g m y p r o j e ct b e c a u se e v e r yt h i n g w a s m e ss e d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t c a u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce Y o u m e a n w h e n yo u w e r e sh o w i n g i t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s? Y e s, e ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce ? M a yb e n o t e ve r yt h i n g N o t i n t h e r i g h t p o si t i o n T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e H e n e e d s t o b e b i g g e r T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g O h so so m e o f t h e si ze s a r e n o t r i g h t S e e l o o k. S e e S o h e s f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ? Y e a h t h a t s o n e I t h i n k yo u w e r e Y o u l e a r n e d t h a t a n d I d o n t t h i n k a n yb o d y e l s e l e a r n e d a b o u t t h a t W h e n yo u w e r e d e si g n i n g t h i s, w e r e yo u t h i n ki n g a b o u t d e si g n i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s ? I d i d n t e ve n kn o w w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s. Y o u d i d n t r e a l i ze w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s? N o O K T h a t s f a i r D o yo u r e m e m b e r t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h W h a t w a s t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o j e ct ? M a ke i t cr e a t i ve ? T o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m O K S o t h i n k b a ck t o w h y d i d yo u d e si g n w h a t yo u d e si g n e d W h a t w a s t h i s t r yi n g t o sh o w ? I w a s t r yi n g t o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve a n d m a ke t h e m m o ve a n d m a ke t h e m h a v e a co n ve r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d I w a s t h e o n l y o n e t a l ki n g I t h o u g h t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w o u l d g e t b o r e d W e l l so w h a t h a p p e n e d ye st e r d a y w i t h t h e W e l l t h e y w e r e l o o ki n g a t i t I d o n t

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1 7 5 2 n d g r a d e r s? D i d t h e y g e t b o r e d ? kn o w i f t h e y g o t b o r e d b e c a u se I m n o t t h e m b u t I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u s e t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g c o n ve r s a t i o n l i ke N a t h a n i e l s. H e w a s l i ke i t i m p r e sse d m e l i ke f i n e l e t s g o o n t h e d r a g o n s D u h d u h d u h D u d d u h d u h F i n e l e t s g o Y e e h a w A n d t h a t s w h a t h a p p e n e d A n d m i n e s n o t a m a zi n g a s t h a t M i n e s j u st b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h A n d t h e n b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h Y e a h S o f i r st sce n e o f yo u r p r o j e ct yo u r t e l l i n g a st o r y. P L A Y F I R S T S C E N E T h a t s w r o n g S e e h o w e ve r y t h i n g i s m e sse d u p W h a t s m e sse d u p h e r e W e l l h e s su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g l e f t H e s su p p o se d t o b e r i g h t t h e r e T h e r e s s o m e ca t s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce a n d t h e y r e f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n s W A T C H I N G W O O D S S C E N E : O h co m e o n U g h H e s su p p o se d t o b e b e h i n d ? T h a t s su p p o se d t o b e g r a b b i n g i t s t a i l D i d t h a t g e t c h a n g e d ? W a s i t l i ke t h a t ye st e r d a y? Y e s. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k S e e E ve r yt h i n g i s m e sse d u p T h a t l o o ks r i g h t t o m e Y o u kn o w t h o se a r e n t s u p p o se d t o b e l i ke t h a t W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t c h a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o A n d I w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r st o n e I w a n t t o m a ke i t m o r e b e t t e r M y vo i ce c o u l d b e t a l ki n g a n d t h e y co u l d b e m o vi n g a n d st u f f Y o u ke p t t e l l i n g m e d u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct t h a t w h e n a r e w e g o i n g t o d o a p r o j e ct t h a t s n o t a b o u t sh a p e s Y e a h D i d yo u n o t l i ke t h e sh a p e s? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I w e l l n o I ki n d o f l i ke d i t O K B u t yo u ke p t w a n t i n g t o m o ve o n t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct ? Y e a h H o w co m e ? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I t h o u g h t i t w a s ki n d o f w e i r d w h e n t h e y w e r e sa yi n g t h e y l o o ke d l i ke a d u l t s b u t t h e y w e r e sa yi n g t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a m o vi e a b o u t sh a p e s. W h a t w a s t h e i d e a f o r yo u r y o u kn o w yo u h a d t h i s st o r y. H o w d i d y o u co m e u p w i t h a l l t h o se d i f f e r e n t i d e a s? I d o n t kn o w I t j u st p o p s u p i n m y h e a d A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? H e r e s yo u r ch a n ce t o T h e t h i n g s I d i d n t l i ke w a s j u st I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a v e d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I

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1 7 6 t e l l m e a n yt h i n g yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? d i d n t ca r e l i ke i n t h e s o u n d s I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e O h so yo u w o u l d w a n t t o r e d o yo u r so u n d s ? N o t a l l o ve r ca u se I w a s s p e a ki n g l i ke I d i d n t ca r e R i g h t d i d n t p u t a l o t o f e m o t i o n i n t o i t E xce p t f o r t h e l a st p a r t T h e l a st p a r t y e a h yo u d e f i n i t e l y p u t a l o t e m o t i o n i n t h e l a st l i n e h o w e ve r yo u sa i d t h a t t h e sh a p e t e st w h i ch i s p r e t t y f u n n y. A n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t w o r ki n g o n t h e p r o j e ct a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s U h m u h m u h m m a y b e u h m I j u st kn o w w h a t s g o i n g t o h a p p e n i f I d o n t t e l l yo u t h i s a n d t h e n l a t e r w h e n t h e n m a y b e M o n d a y co m e s I l l h a ve so m e t h i n g I w a n t t o t e l l yo u t h e n i t w i l l b e t o o l a t e so I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f so m e t h i n g I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t U h m w e l l m a yb e i t s a b o u t h o w m i n e i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e v e r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e sa yi n g w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s t h e n y o u t yp e i t i n W h i l e I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t w o u l d yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h i s w i t h yo u r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssm a t e s? I d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a sse d L e a r n i n g : W e l l r i g h t b u t I m sa yi n g i f so m e o n e w a s t e a ch i n g yo u w o u l d i t h e l p yo u t o d o o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e ? Y e a h Ju st p o p s u p i n yo u r h e a d ? O K D o yo u l i ke m a t h ? A l i t t l e D o yo u t h i n k yo u r e g o o d a t m a t h ? N o n o S o t o yo u t h a t se e m e d b e t t e r W e l l n o t n o I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t Y o u d o n t l i ke d o i n g w h a t ? T h e p a r t w h e n yo u sa y w h a t s t h i s sh a p e Y e a h so W e l l m a yb e i t w o u l d b e f u n D o yo u l i ke t o t e l l st o r i e s Y e s D o yo u w r i t e st o r i e s a l o t ? Y e s S o w h a t yo u d i d s e e m s so m e t h i n g t h a t yo u r e g o o d a t t h e n R e a l l y? T o m e C a u se yo u h a d t h i s ve r y e l a b o r a t e st o r y a n d n o b o d y e l se r e a l l y h a d a st o r y l i ke yo u h a d a s t o r y, s o I t h o u g h t i t w a s i n t e r e st i n g t h a t yo u j u st sa i d t h a t o t h e r ki d s a ske d w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s b u t yo u sa i d w e l l I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke t h a t S o i t se e m s l i ke t o m e i n yo u r p r o j e ct yo u d i d w h a t yo u l i ke t o d o W e l l I d i d I sn t t h a t O K yo u d i d i t t h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K T h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K

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1 7 7 S u r e l e t s t a l k a b o u t l e a r n i n g m a t h D o yo u t h i n k yo u ca n l e a r n m a t h w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? U m m I r e a l l y d o n t S o m e o f t h a t st u f f I a l r e a d y k n o w l i ke a p y r a m i d I d o n t kn o w t h a t m u ch a b o u t p y r a m i d s b u t cyl i n d e r a n d co n e I a l r e a d y kn o w a b o u t t h o se t w o O K S o yo u a l r e a d y kn e w a b o u t so m e o f t h e m a t h yo u u se d ? Y e s S o yo u d i d n t r e a l l y l e a r n a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? N o I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u f e l t l i ke y o u d i d l e a r n f r o m t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l h o w t o d r a w so m e o f t h e m S o h o w t o d r a w t h o se s h a p e s? Y e a h D o yo u t h i n k t h a t yo u c o u l d l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch ? M a yb e ? M a yb e h o w ? T h e t h i n g s I m w r i t i n g d o w n a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w so h o w c o u l d i t t e a ch m e ? G r e a t q u e st i o n I d o n t k n o w t h e a n sw e r S o w h a t yo u w e r e d o i n g w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t yo u kn o w a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? Y e a h W e l l w e t a l ke d a b o u t t h a t ye st e r d a y. W h a t a b o u t t h e l a n d sh a r k. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s ? W a i t W h a t d o yo u m e a n ? W e l l h e w e n t t h e r e b e ca u s e i t s t h e s e a a n d I g u e ss h e d o e sn t l i ke i t A r e l a n d sh a r ks r e a l ? I d o n t t h i n k s o I l i ke t h e e n d b y t h e w a y. I l i ke h o w yo u u se d yo u r f l u ct u a t i o n i n yo u r vo i ce t h e r e S o h o w d o a l l t h e s e ca t s, g h o st s, l a n d sh a r k, d r a g o n h o w d o e s t h o se r e l a t e t o t e a ch i n g so m e o n e a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. W e l l t h e sh a p e s a r e t h e r e a n d I s a i d t o p a y w e l l t h e l a st p a r t w h e n t h e y w e r e d o n e t h a t I j u st w a n t e d t o m a ke s u r e t h e y w e r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n I sa i d w h a t w e r e t h e s h a p e s i n t h e b a ck g r o u n d S o t h e sh a p e s a r e i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d D o yo u e v e r t a l k a b o u t t h e sh a p e s? U h d o I e ve r w e l l w h e n i t s d o n e I sa y w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ? a n d t h e y r e t r yi n g t o g u e ss i t S o e xp l a i n t h a t t o m e a g a i n C a u se w h e n I m d o n e I w a n t t o m a ke su r e i f t h e y r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n S o w h e n yo u w e r e d o n e w h e n y o u w a t ch e d t h i s, so yo u a sk e d d i d y o u a sk t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w h a t s h a p e i s t h i s? U h h u h ( y e s) S o t h a t w a sn t p a r t o f y o u r p r o j e ct t h a t w a s j u st so m e t h i n g yo u j u st a ske d t h e m ? Y e a h O K T h a t s f a i r W e a ske d yo u so m e q u e st i o n s b e f o r e t h e p r o j e ct st a r t e d a n d t h e n l a st w e e k n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct yo u a n sw e r e d t h o s e sa m e q u e st i o n s Y o u m i g h t n o t h a ve r e m e m b e r e d i t O K l e t s I s t h a t r i g h t o r w r o n g ?

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1 7 8 t a ke a l o o k. I l l sh o w yo u w h a t I m t a l ki n g a b o u t S o t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d w h e n w e st a r t e d t h e p r o j e ct R e m e m b e r l o o ki n g a t t h i s? A n d t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d l a st w e e k? S o w e w a n t t o co m p a r e a n sw e r s. S o cyl i n d e r cyl i n d e r p yr a m i d p y r a m i d co n e co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m I n t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d a t t h e e n d yo u c o u l d i d e n t i f y w h i ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d i t i s. N o p r o b l e m S o t h e n h e r e w e h a ve w h a t i s t h e a r e a o f t h e b a s e o f t h e p r i s m Y o u sa i d 8 W h a t d o yo u t h i n k i t i s? I g u e ss r i g h t S o h o w d o yo u f i n d a r e a ? I f o r g o t B u t o ve r h e r e yo u h a ve t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se i s 1 6 S o i t l o o ks l i ke I t s 8 I t s 8 S o yo u ca n co u n t t h e cu b e s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B u t h e r e y o u p u t 1 6 S o o n e o f m y q u e st i o n s i s w h a t h a p p e n e d h e r e Y o u f o r g o t ? I t h o u g h t i t w a s 8 1 6 8 p l u s 8 i s 1 6 ? O K t h e n l o o k a t h e r e W h a t s t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p r i s m Y o u h a ve 2 a n d t h e n yo u h a v e 2 I s i t 2 ? Y e s Y e a h b e ca u se yo u ca n co u n t s o t h a t w a s n o p r o b l e m W h a t i s t h e vo l u m e o f t h e p r o b l e m I sa i d 1 6 A n d t h e n o ve r h e r e I ca n t t e l l i f i t s 1 6 o r i f t h a t s 1 0 I t h i n k i t s 1 0 I m n o t su r e h o w yo u w e n t f r o m h e r e t o h e r e b u t w h e n w e I t h i n k t h i s i s r i g h t T h i s o n e s r i g h t Y e a h Y e a h yo u r e r i g h t b e ca u se y o u t a ke O K w h i ch o n e s t h e o n e I d i d f i r st ? T h i s o n e s f i r st t h i s o n e s se co n d O h O K T h e n yo u d i d Y o u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se t i m e s t h e h e i g h t I t h i n k I i m p r o ve d m o r e o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) Y o u t h i n k yo u i m p r o ve d m o r e Y o u t h i n k yo u d i d b e t t e r o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e s t ) Y e a h t h a t o n e ( p o st t e s t ) I d i d h o r r i b l e W e l l I d o n t t h i n k y o u d i d h o r r i b l e I t h i n k t h a t m a yb e yo u j u st ki n d o f f o r g o t A n d t h e n h e r e b u t I w a n t t o sh o w yo u so m e t h i n g L o o k h e r e 8 a n d 9 Y o u j u st p u t q u e st i o n m a r ks, w h i ch l o o ks t o m e l i ke yo u d i d n t t r y, b u t h e r e yo u t r i e d yo u p u t a n sw e r s a n d yo u sa i d I j u st l o o ke d a t t h e su r f a ce S o a t l e a st yo u t r i e d y o u t r i e d so m e t h i n g r i g h t ? Y e s S o d o yo u t h i n k y o u i m p r o ve d o n t h e se co n d o n e co m p a r e d t o t h e f i r st ? I t h i n k I d i d b e t t e r o n t h e f i r st o n e

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1 7 9 I w o u l d sa y m a yb e j u st a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r I t s p r e t t y si m i l a r d o n t yo u t h i n k ? Y e s R e c o d e d a t a ( S t e p 8 ) T h i s st e p w a s n o t n e ce ssa r y.

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1 8 0 A P P E N D I X G D A T A C O L L E C T E D F R O M S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T S D a y N u m b e r o f s p r i t e s N u m b e r o f b a c k g r o u n d s N u m b e r o f s c r i p t s N u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o c k s i n s c r i p t s N u m b e r o f u n i q u e c o m m a n d b l o c k s i n s c r i p t s U n i q u e c o m m a n d b l o c k s u s e d i n s c r i p t s 1 4 2 0 0 0 N o n e 2 7 2 0 0 0 N o n e 3 8 2 2 6 3 f o r e v e r ; s a y ; w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d 4 9 3 2 5 3 s a y ; w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; w a i t 5 1 2 5 2 4 2 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s a y f o r s e c s 6 8 6 2 4 2 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s a y f o r s e c s 7 1 1 7 3 6 2 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d 8 1 4 7 1 5 3 1 7 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; s h o w ; h i d e ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e 9 1 7 7 2 8 5 8 7 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; s h o w ; h i d e ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e 1 0 1 7 7 3 0 6 6 7 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; s h o w ; h i d e ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e 1 1 1 8 7 3 6 8 4 9 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w 1 2 1 8 7 4 1 7 6 9 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w 1 3 1 8 7 5 2 1 2 9 1 0 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w ; s e t s i z e t o 1 4 2 2 7 6 6 1 5 2 1 0 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w ; s e t s i z e t o 1 5 2 2 7 8 4 2 0 7 1 1 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; s h o w ; h i d e ; b r o a d c a s t ; s e t s i z e t o

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1 8 1 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S A n d e r so n L W & K r a t h w o h l D R ( E d s. ) ( 2 0 0 1 ) A t a xo n o m y f o r l e a r n i n g t e a ch i n g a n d a sse ssi n g : A r e vi si o n o f B l o o m s T a xo n o m y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e ct i ve s: C o m p l e t e e d i t i o n N e w Y o r k: L o n g m a n B a t t i st a M T C l e m e n t s, D H A r n o f f J. B a t t i st a K & B o r r o w C V A ( 1 9 9 8 ) S t u d e n t s sp a t i a l st r u ct u r i n g o f 2 D a r r a ys o f sq u a r e s. J o u r n a l f o r R e se a r ch i n M a t h e m a t i cs E d u c a t i o n 2 9 ( 5 ) 5 0 3 5 3 2 B l o o m B S & K r a t h w o h l D R ( 1 9 5 6 ) T a xo n o m y o f e d u ca t i o n a l o b j e ct i ve s: T h e cl a ssi f i ca t i o n o f e d u ca t i o n a l g o a l s, b y a co m m i t t e e o f co l l e g e a n d u n i ve r si t y e xa m i n e r s. H a n d b o o k 1 : C o g n i t i ve d o m a i n N e w Y o r k: L o n g m a n s. B e i ch n e r R J. ( 1 9 9 4 ) M u l t i m e d i a e d i t i n g t o p r o m o t e s ci e n ce l e a r n i n g J o u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 3 ( 1 ) 5 5 7 0 B e l l M B r e t zl a u f J D i l l a r d A H a r t f i e l d R I sa a cs, A M cB r i d e J. P i t vo r e c, K S a e cke r P & W i n n i n g h a m N ( 2 0 0 7 ) E ve r d a y m a t h e m a t i cs ( 3 rd e d ) N e w Y o r k: W r i g h t G r o u p / M cG r a w H i l l B l a u I Z u cke r m a n O & M o n r o y H e r n n d e z A ( 2 0 0 9 ) C h i l d r e n s p a r t i ci p a t i o n i n a m e d i a co n t e n t cr e a t i o n co m m u n i t y : I sr a e l i l e a r n e r s i n a S cr a t ch p r o g r a m m i n g e n vi r o n m e n t I n Y E sh e t A l ka l a i A C a sp i S E d e n N G e r i Y Y a i r ( E d s. ) P r o ce e d i n g s o f t h e C h a i s C o n f e r e n ce o n I n st r u ct i o n a l T e c h n o l o g i e s R e se a r c h 2 0 0 9 R a a n a n a : T h e O p e n U n i ve r si t y o f I s r a e l B r o w n A L ( 1 9 9 2 ) D e si g n e xp e r i m e n t s: T h e o r e t i ca l a n d m e t h o d o l o g i ca l c h a l l e n g e s i n cr e a t i n g co m p l e x i n t e r ve n t i o n s i n cl a ssr o o m s e t t i n g s. T h e Jo u r n a l o f t h e L e a r n i n g S ci e n ce s, 2 ( 2 ) 1 4 1 1 7 8 B r o w n C ( 2 0 0 7 ) L e a r n i n g t h r o u g h m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n a co m p l e x st r a t e g y. Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 1 6 ( 2 ) 9 3 1 2 4 C a r ve r S M L e h r e r R C o n n e l l T & E r i ck so n J. ( 1 9 9 2 ) L e a r n i n g b y h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n : I ssu e s o f a sse ss m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n E d u ca t i o n a l P sych o l o g i st 2 7 ( 3 ) 3 8 5 4 0 4 C h e n P & M cG r a t h D ( 2 0 0 3 ) K n o w l e d g e c o n st r u ct i o n a n d kn o w l e d g e r e p r e se n t a t i o n i n h i g h sch o o l s t u d e n t s d e si g n o f h y p e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s. Jo u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 1 2 ( 1 ) 3 3 6 1 C o l l i n s, A ( 1 9 9 2 ) T o w a r d a d e si g n sci e n ce o f e d u ca t i o n I n E S ca n l o n & T O S h e a ( E d s. ) N e w d i r e ct i o n s i n e d u ca t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y B e r l i n : S p r i n g e r V e r l a g D e si g n b a se d R e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve ( 2 0 0 3 ) D e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch : A n e m e r g i n g p a r a d i g m f o r e d u ca t i o n a l i n q u i r y. E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r ch e r 3 2 ( 1 ) 5 8

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1 8 2 E h r m a n n S C & B a l e st r i D P ( 1 9 9 2 ) L e a r n i n g t o d e si g n d e si g n i n g t o l e a r n : A m o r e cr e a t i ve r o l e f o r t e ch n o l o g y. I n D P B a l e st r i S C E h r m a n n & D L F e r g u so n ( E d s. ) L e a r n i n g t o d e si g n d e si g n i n g t o l e a r n : U si n g t e ch n o l o g y t o t r a n sf o r m t h e cu r r i cu l u m ( p p 1 2 0 ) W a sh i n g t o n D C : T a yl o r & F r a n ci s. E r i ckso n J. ( 1 9 9 7 ) B u i l d i n g a co m m u n i t y o f d e si g n e r s: R e st r u ct u r i n g l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h st u d e n t h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n Jo u r n a l o f R e se a r ch i n R u r a l E d u ca t i o n 1 3 ( 1 ) 5 2 7 F i t zp a t r i ck, E ( 2 0 0 7 ) I n n o va t i o n A m e r i ca : A f i n a l r e p o r t N a t i o n a l G o ve r n o r s A sso ci a t i o n : W a sh i n g t o n D C F o r g i o n e P ( 1 9 9 8 ) A ch i e ve m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s: P r o g r e ss si n ce a N a t i o n a t R i sk? U S D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n N a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r E d u ca t i o n a l S t a t i st i cs, C e n t e r f o r E d u ca t i o n R e f o r m a n d E m p o w e r A m e r i ca : W a sh i n g t o n D C G a r t h w a i t A ( 2 0 0 7 ) M i d d l e sch o o l h y p e r m e d i a co m p o si t i o n : A q u a l i t a t i ve c a se st u d y. Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 1 6 ( 4 ) 3 5 7 3 7 5 G u b a E G & L i n c o l n Y S ( 1 9 8 9 ) F o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n e va l u a t i o n N e w b u r y P a r k, C A : S a g e G u t h r i e J. T ( 2 0 0 1 ) C o n t e xt s f o r e n g a g e m e n t a n d m o t i va t i o n i n r e a d i n g R e a d i n g O n l i n e A va i l a b l e o n l i n e a t h t t p : / / w w w r e a d i n g o n l i n e o r g / a r t i cl e s/ h a n d b o o k/ g u t h r i e / i n d e x. h t m l G u t h r i e J. T & W i g f i e l d A ( E d s. ) ( 1 9 9 7 ) R e a d i n g e n g a g e m e n t : M o t i va t i n g r e a d e r s t h r o u g h i n t e g r a t e d i n s t r u ct i o n N e w a r k, D E : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A sso ci a t i o n G u t h r i e J. T & W i g f i e l d A ( 2 0 0 0 ) E n g a g e m e n t a n d m o t i va t i o n i n r e a d i n g I n M L K a m i l P B M o se n t h a l P D P e a r so n & R B a r r ( E d s. ) H a n d b o o k o f r e a d i n g r e se a r ch ( V o l 3 p p 4 0 3 4 2 2 ) M a h w a h N J: L a w r e n ce E r l b a u m H a t ch J. A ( 2 0 0 2 ) D o i n g q u a l i t a t i ve r e s e a r ch i n e d u ca t i o n se t t i n g s A l b a n y, N Y : S t a t e U n i ve r si t y o f N e w Y o r k P r e ss. H a y, K E G u zd i a l M Ja ckso n S B o yl e R A & S o l o w a y, E ( 1 9 9 4 ) S t u d e n t s a s m u l t i m e d i a c o m p o se r s. C o m p u t e r s a n d E d u c a t i o n 2 3 ( 4 ) 3 0 1 3 1 7 H a r e l I ( 1 9 9 1 ) C h i l d r e n d e si g n e r s: I n t e r d i sci p l i n a r y co n st r u ct i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g a n d kn o w i n g m a t h e m a t i cs i n a co m p u t e r r i ch sch o o l N o r w o o d N J: A b l e x P u b l i sh i n g C o r p o r a t i o n H a r e l I & P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 1 ) C o n st r u c t i o n i sm N o r w o o d N J: A b l e x P u b l i sh i n g C o r p o r a t i o n H e t h e r i n g t o n E M & P a r ke R D ( 1 9 8 6 ) C h i l d p sych o l o g y: A co n t e m p o r a r y vi e w p o i n t ( 3 rd e d ) N e w Y o r k : M cG r a w H i l l

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1 8 3 H o a g l i n D C M o st e l l e r F L i g h t R J. S t o t o M A & M cP e e k, B ( 1 9 8 2 ) D a t a f o r d e ci si o n s: I n f o r m a t i o n st r a t e g i e s f o r p o l i cym a ke r s. C a m b r i d g e M A : A b t B o o ks. Jo n a sse n D H P e ck, K L & W i l so n B G ( 1 9 9 9 ) L e a r n i n g w i t h t e c h n o l o g y: A co n st r u ct i vi st p e r sp e ct i v e U p p e r S a d d l e R i ve r N e w Je r se y: P r e n t i ce H a l l I n c. Jo n a sse n D H W i l so n B G W a n g S & G r a b i n g e r R S ( 1 9 9 3 ) C o n st r u c t i vi st u se s o f e xp e r t syst e m s t o su p p o r t l e a r n i n g Jo u r n a l o f C o m p u t e r B a se d I n st r u ct i o n 2 0 ( 3 ) 8 6 9 4 Je n ki n s, H ( 2 0 0 6 ) C o n ve r g e n ce cu l t u r e : W h e n o l d a n d n e w m e d i a co l l i d e L o n d o n : N e w Y o r k U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. K a f a i Y B P e p p l e r K A & C h i u G M ( 2 0 0 7 ) H i g h t e ch p r o g r a m m e r s i n l o w i n c o m e co m m u n i t i e s: C r e a t i n g a co m p u t e r cu l t u r e i n a co m m u n i t y t e ch n o l o g y ce n t e r I n C S t e i n f e l d B P e n t l a n d M A cke r m a n n & N C o n t r a ct o r ( E d s. ) P r o ce e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n ce o n C o m m u n i t i e s a n d T e ch n o l o g y ( p p 5 4 5 5 6 2 ) N e w Y o r k: S p r i n g e r K a m i l M L ( 2 0 0 3 ) A d o l e ssce n t s a n d l i t e r a cy : R e a d i n g f o r t h e 2 1 s t ce n t u r y. W a sh i n g t o n D C : A l l i a n ce f o r E xce l l e n t E d u c a t i o n K a f a i Y B ( 1 9 9 5 ) M i n d s i n p l a y: C o m p u t e r g a m e d e si g n a s a co n t e xt f o r ch i l d r e n s l e a r n i n g H i l l sd a l e N J: L a w r e n ce E r l b a u m A s so ci a t e s. K a f a i Y & R e sn i ck, M ( 1 9 9 6 ) C o n st r u ct i o n i sm i n p r a ct i c e : D e si g n i n g t h i n ki n g a n d l e a r n i n g i n a d i g i t a l w o r l d M a h w a h N J: L a w r e n ce E r l b a u m K i m b e r K & W ya t t S m i t h C ( 2 0 0 6 ) U si n g a n d cr e a t i n g kn o w l e d g e w i t h n e w t e ch n o l o g i e s: a ca se f o r st u d e n t s a s d e si g n e r s. L e a r n i n g M e d i a a n d T e ch n o l o g y 3 1 ( 1 ) 1 9 3 4 L a g e m a n n E C ( 2 0 0 2 ) A n e l u si ve sci e n c e : T h e t r o u b l i n g h i st o r y o f e d u ca t i o n r e se a r ch C h i ca g o : U n i ve r si t y o f C h i ca g o P r e s s. L e h r e r R E r i ckso n J & C o n n e l l T ( 1 9 9 4 ) L e a r n i n g b y d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s C o m p u t e r s i n t h e S ch o o l s, 1 0 ( 1 / 2 ) 2 2 7 2 5 4 L i u M & H si a o Y ( 2 0 0 2 ) M i d d l e sch o o l st u d e n t s a s m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r s: A p r o j e ct b a se d l e a r n i n g a p p r o a c h Jo u r n a l o f I n t e r a ct i v e L e a r n i n g R e se a r ch 1 3 ( 4 ) 3 1 1 3 3 7 L i u M Jo n e s, C & H e m s t r e e t S ( 1 9 9 8 ) I n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n a n d p r o d u ct i o n p r o ce sse s. J o u r n a l o f R e se a r ch o n C o m p u t i n g i n E d u ca t i o n 3 0 ( 3 ) 2 5 4 2 8 0 L i u M & P e d e r se n S ( 1 9 9 8 ) T h e e f f e ct o f b e i n g h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n e r s o n e l e m e n t a r y sch o o l st u d e n t s m o t i va t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g o f d e si g n k n o w l e d g e Jo u r n a l o f I n t e r a ct i ve L e a r n i n g R e se a r ch 9 ( 2 ) 1 5 5 1 8 2

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1 8 4 L i u M & R u t l e d g e K ( 1 9 9 7 ) T h e e f f e ct o f a l e a r n e r a s m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r e n vi r o n m e n t o n a t r i sk h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s m o t i va t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g o f d e si g n kn o w l e d g e Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l C o m p u t i n g R e se a r ch 1 6 ( 2 ) 1 4 5 1 7 7 L e h r e r R E r i ckso n J & C o n n e l l T ( 1 9 9 4 ) L e a r n i n g b y d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s C o m p u t e r s i n t h e S ch o o l s, 1 0 ( 1 / 2 ) 2 2 7 2 5 4 M a Y & H a r m o n S W ( 2 0 0 9 ) A ca s e st u d y o f d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch f o r cr e a t i n g a vi si o n p r o t o t y p e o f a t e ch n o l o g y b a se d i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t Jo u r n a l o f I n t e r a ct i ve L e a r n i n g R e se a r ch 2 0 ( 1 ) 7 5 9 3 M a cD o n a l d B & W a l ke r R ( 1 9 7 7 ) C a se st u d y a n d t h e so ci a l p h i l o so p h y o f e d u ca t i o n a l r e se a r ch I n D H a m i l t o n e t a l ( E d s. ) B e yo n d t h e n u m b e r s g a m e L o n d o n : M a cm i l l a n E d u ca t i o n M a l o n e y, J. P e p p l e r K K a f a i Y B R e sn i ck M & R u sk, N ( 2 0 0 8 ) P r o g r a m m i n g b y ch o i ce : U r b a n yo u t h l e a r n i n g p r o g r a m m i n g w i t h S cr a t ch P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A sso ci a t i o n o f C o m p u t i n g M a ch i n e r y s S p e ci a l I n t e r e st G r o u p o n C o m p u t e r S ci e n ce E d u ca t i o n P o r t l a n d O R M a r ch 2 0 0 8 M a r st o n D ( 2 0 0 5 ) T i e r s o f i n t e r ve n t i o n i n r e s p o n si ve n e ss t o i n t e r v e n t i o n : P r e ve n t i o n o u t co m e s a n d l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i d e n t i f i ca t i o n p a t t e r n s. Jo u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i sa b i l i t i e s, 3 8 ( 6 ) 5 3 9 5 4 4 M a t t h e w s, W J. ( 2 0 0 3 ) C o n st r u ct i vi sm i n t h e cl a ssr o o m : E p i st e m o l o g y, h i st o r y, a n d e m p i r i ca l e vi d e n ce T e a ch e r E d u ca t i o n Q u a r t e r l y, 3 0 ( 3 ) 5 1 6 4 M a u t h n e r M ( 1 9 9 7 ) M e t h o d o l o g i ca l a sp e ct s o f co l l e ct i n g d a t a f r o m ch i l d r e n : L e sso n s f r o m t h r e e r e se a r ch p r o j e ct s. C h i l d r e n & S o ci e t y, 1 1 ( 1 ) 1 6 2 8 M cF a r l a n e A W i l l i a m s, J. M & B o n n e t t M ( 2 0 0 0 ) A sse ss m e n t a n d m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g a t o o l f o r e xt e r n a l i si n g u n d e r st a n d i n g Jo u r n a l o f C o m p u t e r A ssi st e d L e a r n i n g 1 6 ( 3 ) 2 0 1 2 1 2 M cG r a t h D C u m a r a n a t u n g e C Ji M C h e n H B r o ce W & W r i g h t K ( 1 9 9 7 ) M u l t i m e d i a sci e n ce p r o j e ct s: S e ve n c a se st u d i e s. Jo u r n a l o f R e se a r ch o n C o m p u t i n g i n E d u ca t i o n 3 0 ( 1 ) 1 8 3 8 M e r r i a m S B ( 1 9 9 8 ) Q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r ch a n d ca se st u d y a p p l i ca t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n S a n F r a n ci sco : Jo sse y B a ss. M i l e s, M B & H u b e r m a n A M ( 1 9 9 4 ) Q u a l i t a t i ve d a t a a n a l ysi s: A n e xp a n d e d so u r ce b o o k ( 2 n d e d ) T h o u s a n d O a ks C A : S a g e

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1 8 5 M i t ch e l l M A n d r e a t t a P a n d C a p e l l a E ( 2 0 0 4 ) I n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a : D e m o n st r a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t g e n e r a t e d m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct s m a d e w i t h i n r e g u l a r co n t e n t d r i ve n co u r se s. I n L C a n t o n i a n d C M cL o u g h l i n ( E d s. ) P r o c e e d i n g s o f W o r l d C o n f e r e n ce o n E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a H yp e r m e d i a a n d T e l e co m m u n i ca t i o n s 3 9 6 2 3 9 6 7 L u g a n o S w i t ze r l a n d : A sso ci a t i o n f o r t h e A d va n ce m e n t o f C o m p u t e r s i n E d u ca t i o n ( A A C E ) M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, A & R e sn i ck, M ( 2 0 0 8 ) E m p o w e r i n g ki d s t o cr e a t e a n d sh a r e p r o g r a m m a b l e m e d i a I n t e r a ct i o n s, 1 5 ( 2 ) 5 0 5 3 M o u st a ka s, C ( 1 9 9 4 ) P h e n o m e n o l o g i ca l r e s e a r ch m e t h o d s T h o u sa n d O a ks, C A : S a g e N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a c h e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs. ( 2 0 0 6 ) C u r r i cu l u m f o c a l p o i n t s f o r p r e ki n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h g r a d e 8 m a t h e m a t i cs : A q u e st f o r co h e r e n ce R e s t o n V A : N C T M I n c. O r e y, M F a n H S co t t E T h u m a T R o b e r t sh a w B H o g l e J. T ze n g S & C r e n sh a w K ( 2 0 0 0 ) S t o r i e s a b o u t ch i l d r e n a n d t e a ch e r s a s t h e y cr e a t e m u l t i m e d i a d o cu m e n t s i n a u n i ve r si t y i n f l u e n c e d sm a l l ci t y sch o o l a n d a l a r g e i n n e r ci t y sch o o l M e r i d i a n : A M i d d l e S ch o o l C o m p u t e r T e c h n o l o g i e s J o u r n a l 3 ( 1 ) P a p e r t S ( 1 9 8 0 ) M i n d st o r m s. N e w Y o r k : B a si c B o o ks. P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 0 ) C o n st r u c t i o n i st l e a r n i n g C a m b r i d g e M A : M I T M e d i a L a b o r a t o r y. P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 1 ) S i t u a t i n g co n s t r u ct i o n i sm I n I H a r e l & S P a p e r t ( E d s. ) C o n st r u ct i o n i s m N o r w o o d N J: A b l e x P u b l i sh i n g C o r p o r a t i o n P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 3 ) T h e c h i l d r e n s m a ch i n e N e w Y o r k: B a si c B o o ks. P B S ( 2 0 0 9 ) D i g i t a l l y i n cl i n e d su r ve y. A va i l a b l e o n l i n e a t h t t p : / / w w w p b s. o r g / t e a ch e r s/ f i l e s/ p d f / a n n u a l p b s su r ve y r e p o r t p d f P e p p l e r K A & K a f a i Y B ( 2 0 0 5 ) C r e a t i ve co d i n g : P r o g r a m m i n g f o r p e r s o n a l e xp r e ssi o n A va i l a b l e o n l i n e a t h t t p : / / scr a t c h m i t e d u / f i l e s/ C r e a t i ve C o d i n g p d f P e p p l e r K A & K a f a i Y B ( 2 0 0 7 a ) F r o m S u p e r G o o t o S cr a t ch : E xp l o r i n g c r e a t i ve d i g i t a l m e d i a p r o d u ct i o n i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g L e a r n i n g M e d i a a n d T e ch n o l o g y, 3 2 ( 2 ) 1 4 9 1 6 6 P e p p l e r K A & K a f a i Y B ( 2 0 0 7 b ) W h a t vi d e o g a m e m a ki n g ca n t e a ch u s a b o u t l i t e r a cy a n d l e a r n i n g : A l t e r n a t i v e p a t h w a ys i n t o p a r t i ci p a t o r y cu l t u r e P r o c e e d i n g s o f D i G R A 2 0 0 7 C o n f e r e n ce P e r ki n s, D N ( 1 9 8 6 ) K n o w l e d g e a s d e si g n H i l l sd a l e N J: L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A sso ci a t e s, I n c.

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1 8 6 P i a g e t J. ( 1 9 8 0 ) T h e p sych o g e n e si s o f kn o w l e d g e a n d i t s e p i st e m o l o g i ca l si g n i f i ca n ce I n M P i a t t e l l i P a l m a r i n i ( E d ) L a n g u a g e a n d l e a r n i n g C a m b r i d g e M A : H a r va r d U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. P h i l l i p s, D C ( 1 9 9 5 ) T h e g o o d t h e b a d a n d t h e u g l y: T h e m a n y f a ce s o f co n st r u ct i vi s m E d u ca t i o n a l R e s e a r ch e r 2 4 ( 6 ) 5 1 2 P o l a n d B D ( 2 0 0 2 ) T r a n sc r i p t i o n q u a l i t y. I n J F G u b r i u m & J. A H o l st e i n ( E d s. ) H a n d b o o k o f i n t e r vi e w r e se a r ch : C o n t e xt a n d m e t h o d ( p p 6 2 9 6 4 9 ) T h o u s a n d O a ks, C A : S a g e P u b l i ca t i o n s. R e e ve s, T C ( 1 9 9 5 ) Q u e st i o n i n g t h e q u e st i o n s o f i n st r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y r e se a r ch P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e A sso ci a t i o n f o r E d u ca t i o n a l C o m m u n i ca t i o n s a n d T e ch n o l o g y ( A E C T ) A n a h e i m C A R e e ve s, T C H e r r i n g t o n J & O l i ve r R ( 2 0 0 4 ) A d e ve l o p m e n t r e s e a r ch a g e n d a f o r o n l i n e co l l a b o r a t i ve l e a r n i n g E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y R e se a r ch a n d D e ve l o p m e n t 5 2 ( 4 ) 5 3 6 5 R e e ve s, T C ( 2 0 0 0 ) E n h a n ci n g t h e w o r t h o f i n st r u ct i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y r e se a r ch t h r o u g h d e si g n e x p e r i m e n t s a n d o t h e r d e ve l o p m e n t r e se a r ch st r a t e g i e s P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i ca n E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r c h A sso ci a t i o n N e w O r l e a n s, L A R e sn i ck, L B ( 1 9 8 7 ) L e a r n i n g i n sch o o l a n d o u t E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r c h e r 1 6 ( 9 ) 1 3 2 0 R e sn i ck, M ( 2 0 0 6 ) C o m p u t e r a s p a i n t b r u sh : T e ch n o l o g y, p l a y, a n d t h e cr e a t i ve so ci e t y. I n S i n g e r D G o l i ko f f R a n d H i r sh P a se k, K ( e d s. ) P l a y = L e a r n i n g : H o w p l a y m o t i va t e s a n d e n h a n ce s ch i l d r e n s co g n i t i ve a n d so ci a l e m o t i o n a l g r o w t h N e w Y o r k : O xf o r d U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. R e sn i ck, M M a l o n e y, J. M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, A R u sk, N E a st m o n d E B r e n n a n K M i l l n e r A R o se n b a u m E S i l ve r J. S i l ve r m a n B & K a f a i Y ( 2 0 0 9 ) S cr a t ch : P r o g r a m m i n g f o r a l l C o m m u n i ca t i o n s o f t h e A C M 5 2 ( 1 1 ) 6 0 6 7 R i ch a r d so n V ( 2 0 0 3 ) C o n st r u ct i vi st p e d a g o g y. T e a ch e r s C o l l e g e R e co r d 1 0 5 ( 9 ) 1 6 2 3 1 6 4 0 R o d g e r s, B L & C o w l e s, K V ( 1 9 9 3 ) T h e q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r ch a u d i t t r a i l : A co m p l e x co l l e ct i o n o f d o cu m e n t a t i o n R e s e a r ch i n N u r s i n g & H e a l t h 1 6 ( 3 ) 2 1 9 2 2 6 R o e M ( 2 0 0 1 ) C o m b i n i n g e n a b l e m e n t a n d e n g a g e m e n t t o a ssi s t st u d e n t s w h o d o n o t r e a d a n d w r i t e w e l l I n J. A R yci k & J. L I r vi n ( E d s. ) W h a t a d o l e sce n t s d e se r ve : A co m m i t m e n t t o st u d e n t s l i t e r a cy l e a r n i n g ( p p 1 0 1 9 ) N e w a r k, D E : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A sso ci a t i o n

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1 8 7 R i ch e y, R C ( 1 9 9 8 ) T h e p u r su i t o f u se a b l e k n o w l e d g e i n i n st r u ct i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y. E d u ca t i o n a l T e ch n o l o g y R e se a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t 4 6 ( 4 ) 7 2 2 R ya n R M & G r o l n i ck, W S ( 1 9 8 6 ) O r i g i n s a n d p a w n s i n t h e cl a ss r o o m : S e l f r e p o r t a n d p r o j e ct i ve a sse ss m e n t s o f i n d i vi d u a l d i f f e r e n ce s i n ch i l d r e n s p e r ce p t i o n s Jo u r n a l o f P e r so n a l i t y a n d S o ci a l P sych o l o g y, 5 0 ( 3 ) 5 5 0 5 5 8 S ch i e f e l e U ( 1 9 9 1 ) I n t e r e st l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n E d u ca t i o n a l P sych o l o g i st 2 6 ( 3 / 4 ) 2 9 9 3 2 3 S ch o e n f e l d A H ( 2 0 0 4 ) T h e m a t h w a r s. E d u ca t i o n a l P o l i cy, 1 8 ( 1 ) 2 5 3 2 8 6 S ch u n k, D H ( 1 9 8 9 ) S o ci a l c o g n i t i ve t h e o r y a n d se l f r e g u l a t e d l e a r n i n g I n B J. Z i m m e r m a n & D H S ch u n k ( E d s. ) S e l f r e g u l a t e d l e a r n i n g a n d a ca d e m i c a ch i e ve m e n t ( p p 8 3 1 1 0 ) N e w Y o r k: S p r i n g e r V e r l a g S e i d m a n I ( 2 0 0 6 ) I n t e r vi e w i n g a s q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r c h : A g u i d e f o r r e se a r c h e r s i n e d u ca t i o n a n d t h e so ci a l sci e n ce s N e w Y o r k: T e a ch e r s C o l l e g e P r e ss. S e n n e t t R ( 2 0 0 8 ) T h e cr a f t s m a n L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. S i n g h K G r a n vi l l e M & D i ka S ( 2 0 0 2 ) M a t h e m a t i cs a n d sci e n ce a ch i e ve m e n t : E f f e ct s o f m o t i va t i o n i n t e r e st a n d a ca d e m i c e n g a g e m e n t Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r ch 9 5 ( 6 ) 3 2 3 3 3 2 S l a vi n R E ( 1 9 8 7 ) C o o p e r a t i ve l e a r n i n g : W h e r e b e h a vi o r a l a n d h u m a n i st i c a p p r o a c h e s t o cl a ss r o o m m o t i va t i o n m e e t E l e m e n t a r y S ch o o l Jo u r n a l 8 8 ( 1 ) 2 9 3 7 S p o e h r K T ( 1 9 9 3 ) P r o f i l e s o f h y p e r m e d i a a u t h o r s: H o w st u d e n t s l e a r n b y d o i n g P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i ca n E d u ca t i o n R e se a r ch A sso ci a t i o n A t l a n t a G A A p r i l 1 9 9 3 S t a g e r G S ( 2 0 0 2 ) C o m p u t a t i o n a l l y r i ch co n st r u ct i o n i sm a n d a t r i sk l e a r n e r s. P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e S e ve n t h W o r l d C o n f e r e n c e o n C o m p u t e r s i n E d u ca t i o n C o p e n h a g e n Ju l y 2 0 0 1 T e sch R ( 1 9 9 0 ) Q u a l i t a t i ve r e s e a r ch : A n a l ys i s t yp e s a n d s o f t w a r e t o o l s L o n d o n : F a l m e r P r e ss. T u r n e r J. & P a r i s, S G ( 1 9 9 5 ) H o w l i t e r a cy t a sks i n f l u e n ce c h i l d r e n s m o t i va t i o n f o r l i t e r a cy. T h e R e a d i n g T e a ch e r 4 8 ( 8 ) 6 6 2 6 7 3 V a n M a n e n M ( 2 0 0 1 ) R e se a r ch i n g l i ve d e xp e r i e n ce C o b o u r g O n t a r i o : T r a n sco n t i n e n t a l P r i n t i n g I n c

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1 8 8 V a u g h n S ( 2 0 0 3 D e ce m b e r ) H o w M a n y T i e r s A r e N e e d e d f o r R e sp o n se t o I n t e r ve n t i o n t o A ch i e ve A cce p t a b l e P r e ve n t i o n O u t co m e s? P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l R e se a r ch C e n t e r o n L e a r n i n g D i sa b i l i t i e s R e sp o n si ve n e ss t o I n t e r v e n t i o n S ym p o si u m K a n sa s C i t y, M O W a n g F & H a n n a f i n M ( 2 0 0 5 ) D e si g n b a s e d r e se a r ch a n d t e ch n o l o g y e n h a n c e d l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s. E d u c a t i o n a l T e ch n o l o g y R e se a r ch a n d D e ve l o p m e n t 5 3 ( 4 ) 5 2 3 W i l h e l m J. D F r i e d e m a n n P & E r i ckso n J. ( 1 9 9 8 ) H yp e r L e a r n i n g : S t u d e n t s i n q u i r i n g l e a r n i n g a n d sh a r i n g w i t h t e ch n o l o g y C o l u m b u s, O H : S t e n h o u s e P u b l i sh e r s. W i sn u d e l M ( 1 9 9 4 ) C o n st r u ct i n g h yp e r m e d i a a r t i f a ct s i n m a t h a n d sci e n ce cl a ssr o o m s. J o u r n a l o f C o m p u t e r s i n M a t h e m a t i cs a n d S ci e n ce T e a ch i n g 1 3 ( 1 ) 5 1 5

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1 8 9 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H Je f f r e y B o ye r i s a t e a c h e r a n d a l e a r n e r i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u ca t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y. H e b e g a n h i s t e a ch i n g c a r e e r a s a m i d d l e sch o o l sci e n ce a n d m a t h t e a ch e r a t C a st l e R o ck M i d d l e S ch o o l i n B i l l i n g s, M T N e xt Je f f r e y t a u g h t h i g h sc h o o l sci e n c e co u r s e s a n d se r ve d a s a d i st r i ct l e ve l t e ch n o l o g y a n d cu r r i cu l u m co a ch f o r P K Y o n g e D e ve l o p m e n t a l R e se a r c h S ch o o l i n G a i n e svi l l e F L M o st r e ce n t l y, h e w a s a vi si t i n g l e ct u r e r a n d a d o ct o r a l ca n d i d a t e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y p r o g r a m o f t h e S ch o o l o f T e a ch i n g & L e a r n i n g a t t h e U n i ve r si t y o f F l o r i d a s C o l l e g e o f E d u ca t i o n A s a vi si t i n g l e ct u r e r Je f f r e y t a u g h t a t e c h n o l o g y i n t e g r a t i o n co u r se t h a t i s r e q u i r e d co u r se w o r k f o r U F s e l e m e n t a r y a n d e a r l y ch i l d h o o d t e a ch e r p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s. A s a l e a r n e r a n d a r e se a r ch e r i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y, Je f f r e y i n v e st i g a t e s t h e i m p a ct o n co n t e n t l e a r n i n g w h e n l e a r n e r s c o n st r u ct i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a A s a t e a ch e r h e i s p a ssi o n a t e a b o u t p r e p a r i n g f u t u r e t e a ch e r s t o u se t e ch n o l o g y i n m e a n i n g f u l w a ys w i t h t h e i r st u d e n t s.


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