Heeding the Call

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Heeding the Call An Historical Overview of Philanthropy in Rock
Lee, Ji
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[Gainesville, Fla.]
University of Florida
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1 online resource (122 p.)

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Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mass Communication
Journalism and Communications
Committee Chair:
McKeen, William L.
Committee Members:
Rodgers, Ronald
Wright, John W.
Fik, Timothy J.
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Subjects / Keywords:
Audio recordings ( jstor )
Charity ( jstor )
Fundraising ( jstor )
Music concerts ( jstor )
Music industry ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Musicians ( jstor )
Philanthropy ( jstor )
Popular music ( jstor )
Rock music ( jstor )
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
charity, philanthropy, pop, rock
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
Mass Communication thesis, Ph.D.


Sometimes, the social and political involvement of rock musicians goes beyond simple songwriting or protest and instead takes the form of a spectacular concert, recording or televised event, for the purpose of fundraising and raising public awareness in various social and global issues. Somewhat lost in these performances was the sense of rebellion, opposition, subversive attitude, or radical politics that have been associated with rock music since the birth of rock and roll in the 1950s by the public. While philanthropy from one field can have an impact on the other fields, some major efforts in rock music to help the welfare of others have often been overlooked. Thus, relatively few studies have been conducted to look back upon charity recordings or events in rock music. By examining key charity events in rock music employing historical analysis, my study aims to help understand philanthropy in rock music as a social and cultural trend. ( en )
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Adviser: McKeen, William L.
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by Ji Lee.

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2010 Ji Hoon Lee 2


To everyone who nurtured my inte llectual curiosity, academic intere sts, and sense of scholarship throughout my lifetime, making this dissertation possible 3


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my chair, Dr. William McKeen, and members of my supervisory committee for their mentoring and my family for their loving encour agement, which motivated me to complete my dissertation. They have guided me with motiva tion, encouragement, and words of wisdom. I am eternally grateful for their support and help throughout this journey. Thank you for everything. Sometimes, something happens to us, and the wo rds destiny and fate seem to accurately describe the strange occurrence. For me, Live Aidthe cross-continental mega charity rock concert and one of the main subjects explored in my studywas one of those magic moments. I still vividly remember the day of the concert, July 13, 1985; it wa s an eye-opening revelation that ultimately led me to become a rock and roll enth usiast, and to say that the concert changed my life is still a vast understatement. I had heard the music of Duran Duran, Judas Priest, Black Sabbath, Madonna, and Bob Dylan, but I had never seen any of them perform. However, the concert was not just about th e music but about savi ng peoples lives in Ethiopia, dying from hunger and famine. Even as a 10-year-old, I knew the purpose of the concert, and I remember praying for the welfare of the Ethiopians while watching the show. Live Aid was as much about feeling the magnitude of the issue as it was about watching those bigname stars perform. The experience still lives on today, and everything about the concert defines who and what I am today in one way or another. Believe it or not, I defended on the exact day of 25th anniversary of Li ve Aid, a fact that I was not aware of until the next morning. I got chills down my spine, the same feeling that I felt exactly 25 years ago while watching the show. I e-mailed my mentor and chair, William McKeen, and asked if it was des tiny or coincidence. Of course, he said it was obviously destiny. What a story, what timing, and what a fitting end to my journey. 4


TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................7 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ ....8 Prologue....................................................................................................................................8 Background of the Study........................................................................................................12 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................12 Justification for the Study................................................................................................13 Definition of Terms................................................................................................................16 Disposition and Arrangement.................................................................................................19 2. LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................20 Philanthropy and Altruism......................................................................................................20 Definitions of Altrui sm and Philanthropy.......................................................................20 Changes in Research Area...............................................................................................21 The Nature of Philanthropy.............................................................................................22 Charitable Fundraising......................................................................................................... ...22 Motivations for Charitable Giving..................................................................................23 Fundraising and Celebrities.............................................................................................24 Fundraising: A Global Media Trend...............................................................................25 Philanthropy in Music.............................................................................................................26 Musics Emotional Appeals............................................................................................27 Rock Musics Involvement in Philanthropy....................................................................28 Rock Musics Role in Raising Awareness......................................................................29 3. METHODS AND MATERIALS...........................................................................................31 Methods..................................................................................................................................31 Historical Analysis..........................................................................................................31 Decade-by-Decade Breakdown.......................................................................................31 Historic and Critical Appr oaches in Pop Music..............................................................32 Materials and Sources.............................................................................................................33 4. FROM THE EARLY ROCK AN D ROLL ERA THROUGH THE 1960S...........................35 The 1950s in Retrospect.........................................................................................................36 The 1960s in Retrospect.........................................................................................................38 Notable Events of the 1960s...................................................................................................41 The Monterey Internatio nal Pop Festival (1967)............................................................41 The Woodstock Festival (1969)......................................................................................42 5


Summary and Discussion.......................................................................................................45 5. THE 1970S: A TRUE BEGINNING......................................................................................47 The 1970s in Retrospect.........................................................................................................47 The Concert for Bangladesh by George Harrison and His Friends (1971)............................49 Other Notable Events of the 1970s.........................................................................................54 Rock Against Racism (1976)...........................................................................................55 No Nukes Concerts (1979)..............................................................................................56 The Music for UNICEF Concert (1979).........................................................................57 Summary and Discussion.......................................................................................................58 6. THE 1980S: A DECADE OF PROSPERITY........................................................................62 The 1980s in Retrospect.........................................................................................................62 Do They Know Its Christmas? by Band Aid (1984).........................................................64 We Are the World by USA for Africa (1984).....................................................................67 Live Aid: The Day the Music Changed the World (1985).....................................................73 Other Notable Events of the 1980s.........................................................................................78 Dionne Warwick and Friends (1985)..............................................................................79 Artists United Against Apartheid (1985)........................................................................80 Farm Aid (1985)..............................................................................................................81 Summary and Discussion.......................................................................................................83 7. THE 1990S AND BEY OND: A NEW ERA..........................................................................86 The 1990s and 2000s in Retrospect........................................................................................86 Notable Events of the 1990s...................................................................................................88 The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert for AIDS Awareness (1992)..............................89 Tibetan Freedom Concert (1996)....................................................................................90 Notable Events of the 2000s...................................................................................................91 The 9/11 Benefit Concerts (2001)...................................................................................92 Live 8 (2005)...................................................................................................................93 The Year 2010: A New Outlook.............................................................................................95 Summary and Discussion.......................................................................................................97 8. CONCLUSION.................................................................................................................. .....99 Assertions and Opinions.........................................................................................................99 Humanitarian Visionaries................................................................................................99 A Global/Media/Commercial Phenomenon..................................................................101 Recycling of Nostalgia..................................................................................................102 Limitations and Implications................................................................................................103 Epilogue................................................................................................................................105 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................107 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................122 6


Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy HEEDING THE CALL: AN HISTORICAL OVERV IEW OF PHILANTHROPY IN ROCK By Ji Hoon Lee August 2010 Chair: William McKeen Major: Mass Communication Sometimes, the social and political involve ment of rock musicians goes beyond simple songwriting or protest and instead takes the form of a spectacular concert, recording or televised event, for the purpose of fundrai sing and raising public awareness in various social and global issues. Somewhat lost in these performances was the sense of rebellion, opposition, subversive attitude, or radical politics that have been associated with rock music since the birth of rock and roll in the 1950s by the public. While philanthro py from one field can have an impact on the other fields, some major efforts in rock music to help the welfare of others have often been overlooked. Thus, relatively few studies have been conducted to look back upon charity recordings or events in rock music. By exam ining key charity events in rock music employing historical analysis, my study aims to help understand philanthropy in rock music as a social and cultural trend. 7


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Prologue There comes a time when we heed a certain call, when the world must come together as one. There are people dying, and it is time to lend a hand to life. The greatest gift of all (Jackson & Richie, 1984). The big day was January 28, 1985. Quincy Jones was the producer and conductor, and two of the most iconic pop culture figures of the time, namely, Michael Jackson and Lionel Ritchie, were the songwriters. Alongside them, no le ss than 47 North American popular musicians lined up to sing one of the most memorable choruses in the history of rock music. The participating musicians were some of the most popular and influential names in rock music in America, both legends and up-and-comi ng: Ray Charles, Bob Dylan, Harry Belafonte, Diana Ross, Dionne Warwick, Stevie Wonder, Pa ul Simon, Willie Nelson, Bruce Springsteen, Billy Joel, Tina Turner, Smokey Robinson, Huey Lewis, Cyndi Lauper, Kenny Loggins, James Ingram, and the list goes on and on. The project was USA for Africa, the super group formed to relieve the famine in Africa, and the song was We Are the World, one of the most well-known and successful contemporary popular songs of our time. Arguably, one of the biggest charity efforts in rock music history was happening ri ght before our eyes, a nd the entire world was watching. The impact of rock music is far-reaching and has had significant infl uence across the globe over the course of time, and the popularity and international scope of rock music may have resulted in a high level of social consciousness and awareness. Popular music, in general, has qualities prototypical of mass cu lture because it is commercially produced and disseminated through the mass media but at th e same time has led social changes. Think about how many 8


musicians and the industrys executives, producers and songwriters deployed their skills and talents in response to soci al and cultural upheavals. Beyond a mere music style, rock music has in fluenced our lives, attitudes and ways of thinking in a manner few other entertainment forms have. Rock music has come a long way since its early years in the 1950s; as the early generations of rock music fans grew older, the music became more accepted. The international popularity of ro ck music proved that it has become a big influence on our cultural be liefs and social attitudes (Brake, 1990). As the music evolved, some of the most wellknown and famous rock artists from all over the world have adopted issues ranging from environmental con cerns (Marvin Gayes Mercy Mercy Me), anti-racial movement (Bob Marleys Buffalo Soldier), violence and wars in the world (U2s Sunday Bloody Sunday), to econ omic policy (The Dead Kennedys Kill the Poor), encompassing different music genres. Ac cording to Shuker (1994 ), this ubiquitous popularity of rock music to the world has been inte rpreted as a form of cultural imperialism (p. 44), a process of cultural products of the first world moving on to the third-world local culture, as defined by Alexander (2003). Howeve r, their efforts did not stop there. Sometimes, this active social and political involvement of musici ans goes beyond simple songwriting or protest and instead takes the form of concerts, songs or televised events, for the purpose of fundraising and raising public awaren ess in social and global issues. However, somewhat lost in these performances was the se nse of rebellion, opposition, violence, or radical politics that have been associated with rock music by the public. Although rock music inherited the folk tradition of protest s ongs by making political commentary on topics such as war, poverty, religion, justice, civil rights, and the environment (Scheurer, 1989), this so-called political and social activism reached a mainst ream peak with the Do They Know Its 9


Christmas? single in 1984 and We Are the World in 1985, but with a different sense than in the past (Shepherd, 2003). Though the two singles we re not the first of their kind, they signaled the arrival of the philanthropic movement in rock music in a completely new way, showing that contemporary music can still carry compassionate and challenging ideals on a much higher level than anyone could have ever imagined. The two charity singles ultimately led to anot her global and cultural extravaganza, Live Aid, on July 13, 1985, a cross-continenta l benefit music concert for the dying and suffering people in Ethiopia. According to Ullestad (1987), it is generally regarded by many music fans that Live Aid was among the first and foremost global music me dia event of the highest order. He said that in Live Aid the music and the musicians were ra ther secondary to the event itself and that it was a unique opportunity that allowed us to reac h out from our rooms to the world and made it legitimate to care and calle d on us to act (p. 72). Still, the history goes back in time when it come s to the beginning of humanitarian efforts in rock music even though there seems to be constant debates as to which proj ect truly qualifies as the very first philanthropiceit her charity, benefit or non-prof itevent, depending on peoples own definitions of philanthropy. However, the point is not about who did it first. As Rieff (2005) contended, the point of even ts of this kind is to wake pe ople up to what is really going on in addition to raise funds for the people seeking help (p. G2). According to Campbell and Brody (2008), the massive fundraising efforts signaled the return of the consciousness of rock music, but with a huge differe nce compared to the early days of rock and roll. They contende d that in the 1960s, rock music sent a message to a generational revolution and provided the soundtrack for an a ssault on the establishment and by doing that, it also led by example (p. 423). As a result, it could leverage the celebrity of its artists in projects 10


that served a greater good. However, it was in the 1970s and 1980s that we in rock not only included the musicians, the music industry, and the audience, but also those whom they sought to help (p. 423). The success of their efforts was a strong signal of the enormous cultural presence of rock-era music in the latt er part of the 20th century (p. 423). Even though an endless number of charity projects and events have been organized to reach out to those people in need of helpdating back to the early days of popular music even before there was rock and rollmy study presents a deta iled look at some of the most notable and significant philanthropic fundraising ev ents in the latter half of the 20th century, with a focus on the decade of the 1970s and 1980s. It illustrates how the philanthropic movement has developed and progressed over the course of time and peak ed during the two decades. Some of the most prominent events discussed are The Concert for Bangladesh in 1971, Band Aid in 1984, USA for Africa in 1985, and Live Aid, also in 1985. These ev ents not only epitomized the success and the significance of charitable efforts in rock music in the 1970s and the 1980s but also set the tone for all future philanthropic music events and projects. My study is presented in the form of historical analysis, with the examination of key benefit and charity events in rock music, focusing not only on the events but also on the key humanitarians who used their star power and visi onary leadership to influence social, cultural, and political changes. Overall, my study offers a critical insight by detai ling the events idealism, legacies, impact, influences, reception, and critic ism. A key contention in my study is that rock music has worked to educate and enlighten the pub lic to raise awareness ov er the course of its history and to present similar possibilities in the new millennium. I chose the two decades (the 1970s and 1980s) as the main period of the discussion because the seminal philanthropic and charity events from this eranamely, The Concert for 11


Bangladesh, Band Aid, USA for Africa, and Live Aidworked at a leve l that built on feelings of compassion in order to encompass a social and global outpouring of concern across society (Ullestad, 1987). In this regard, these events, indeed, influenced the feelings and emotions of rock musics audience and allowed them to take part in lending a helping hand in world crises and tragedies. As Williams (1977) contended, thes e events affected meanings and values as they are actively lived and felt (p. 132). Background of the Study Purpose of the Study While philanthropy from one field can have an impact on the other fields, the endeavors in rock music to help the welfare of others have often been overlooked in the field of academia. Rock music has historically played an important pa rt in shaping the social cultural, and political history of the second half of th e last century, and it has constan tly reminded us that it can help lead social changes (Haycock & Anderson, 2006) Given the prominence and popularity of rock music and the musics openly political and social i nvolvement, a lack of res earch in terms of the involvement of humanitarianism in rock music is rather alarming. Whereas a number of charity recordings and concerts became hugely successful and influential, some of them have somehow missed the mark and remained lesser known to the general audience. Those less successful events often limited their audiences and media exposure to a certain degree, which ultimately failed the ob jectives of raising funds and public awareness for the charities targeted. However, those for gotten or lesser-known events do not make their place in history any less meaningful from a humanitarian standpoint. My study aims to detail the history of philanthr opic charity events that have showcased the generous nature of rock music by implementi ng a decade-by-decade breakdown structure, which illustrates how this trend has evolved over the course of time and in what ways. After all, despite 12


the fact some events failed to generate long-s tanding or formally recognized movements per se, all of the events discussed in my study put issues on the social and political agenda that would not themselves be engendered by the system a nd the official public sphere (McGuigan, 1998, p. 94). I aim to explore the altruistic and philanthropic power of rock and roll and its role in social and cultural change by exemplifying major charity events and main figures behind them with an emphasis on their humanitarianism. I ar gue that rock music can be used to help engage us to take part in social and cultural changes and rock musicians do more than just entertain. Another intention of my study is to look at these media ev ents to help better understand the history in the ever-changing musi c landscape. Within the historical process of rock music, some major philanthropic events have be en inextricably linked and are st ructurally similar in how they came together, in how they functioned, and in how they have generate d social and cultural impact. Observing and analyzing major philanthropi c events and figures in the history of rock music will enable us to see philanthropy in rock music as a cultural, social, and political statement and understand the trajectory of rock music in the new millennium. My study contends that rock music is an exampl e of popular culture that highli ghts the educative power to the masses and has ability to motivate and inspire them. Justification for the Study My study is significant from an academic standpoint because whereas a number of studies in the past have dealt with social and political e ffects in terms of rock musics influenceeither artists or events that exemplified the musics subversive power and political activismit takes a rather different yet unique appr oach by focusing on the charity and benefit projects that not only raised funds but also public awar eness on top of saving peoples li ves. In other words, the key events discussed in my study are more about aid and less about politics. Especially in the 1970s and1980s, rock music fans saw a step in a new di rection that showed mo re concern for human 13


rights, and it meant an emergen ce of humanitarian concern by rock musicians and audiences, without protest but with an impressive amount of support. They might have contained a little bit of political intention, but their goal was focused on compassion for the dying, the underprivileged, the oppressed, and the disenfranc hised. That is, they dealt less with party politics and protests than the previous decade wh en rock music was an outlet to voice political messages. From a social standpoint, my study lends a new social perspective because it was rather groundbreaking that these philanthrop ic charity events were mainly driven by humanitarian pulse and by political ideas or views because it is rather obvious that there is a fine line between purely philanthropic acts and soci o-political protests, not to menti on profit-making ventures. After all, as Cloonan and Street (1997) contended, it was with the events like The Concert for Bangladesh and Live Aid that historically negative rock musics historically negative rebel image was replaced with one of humanitarian responsibility. From a cultural perspective, my study brings gl obal insight into scholar ly discussion because most of the events illustrated in my study are concerned with world crises and tragedies in world history as a time capsule, such as refugees in Bangladesh, a famine in Ethiopia, and, more recently, a major earthquake in Haiti. According to Barraclough (1974), The central challenge of a renewed world history at the end of the 20th cen tury is to narrate the worlds pasts in an age of globalism (p. 1041). My study aims to fac ilitate the revival of world history through storytelling. Given the fact that the music industrys expansio n coincided with the ca pitalism of the era in the 1970s and 1980s and the business was more money-driven than ever (Oh, 2002), my study serves as a good example suggesting that the gr eed is good philosophy was still leaving a bit of 14


a spiritual vacuum in our culture at the time. In fact, according to Malm and Wallis (1992), the 1970s and 1980s were characterized by the almost simultaneous emergence of what could be termed national pop and rock music in countries throughout the world, which further asserts rock musics omnipresence and social conscience as opposed to strictly capitalistic and commercial enterprise. In addition, from a popular cu lture standpoint, currently, th ere are ongoing and ubiquitous re-evaluations of key philanthropic figures and events discussed in my study, such as George Harrison and Michael Jackson, especially in line with The Beatles r ecent resurgence in global popular culture with the much-hyped remastered b ack catalog CD releases and Jacksons sudden and tragic passing last year. Jackson was active in humanitarian activities, and the causes he sought out during his career included famine relief, research for HIV/AIDS and cancer, protecting children from abuse and prevention of alcohol abuse (S hriver, 2009, p. 16). Much similar to Jacksons status as an indispensable popular culture icon, not only was Harrison a revered music artist but a respecte d humanitarian. Inglis (2003) said that he was a much-loved musician, composer, and humanitarian who ne ver sought to change the world, but always yearned to understand it (p. 226). Furthermore, as far as philanthropy is concerned, there has been continued interest and endeavors in rock music throughout the 1990s and 2000s. Such events as The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concer t in 1992, The Concert for New York City in 2001, Live 8 in 2005, Live Earth in 2007, and the recent 25th anniversary re-recording of We Are the World in 2010 by todays music superstars in support of Haitian earthquake relief all suggest that the philanthropic m ovement in rock music is not ephemeral but a persistent phenomenon in our culture. 15


Definition of Terms Rock: Some may argue that an electric guitar, bass, drums, and a driving beat are the only constants in the world of rock music, but these rules have been stretched over the years as the genre has mutated to encompass everything from si nger-songwriters to heavy metal. I use rock in its widest conventional meaning, including a large variety of sub-styles of popular music (Christgau, 1994). We have to unde rstand that rock and pop are somewhat interchangeable, comprising all music identified primarily with modern industrial circui ts of mass distribution and use and containing intrinsically electrified tunes directed pr imarily at young people (Forns, 1990, p. 291). However, I will discuss this rather complicated field in general terms and use rock instead of pop because the latter can be too generic, broad, and ambiguous for this kind of study. Also, there are no clear guidelines in the usage of these musical vocabularies in scholarly work; thus, the term rock is used in most cases although eith er pop or rock and roll may be used by itself depending on the context or if placed in a quote. Philanthropy: What qualifies as philanthropic in my study is whether an event is of no pecuniary benefit or advantage to the performe rs but only to the inte nded receivers through charity work. In addition, an event has to be driven by humanitarian concern rather than by political motive even though all of these variables are hard to de fine and maybe even tougher to quantify. However, it is not difficult to see that some events in the past intended to express political views of some performe rs while other events stayed true to the meaning of charity events. Even if there were funds raised from the sale of concert tickets or records, the so-called politically charged music events are not entire ly philanthropic because of the lack of a charitable purpose and the involvement of political actions and ideas. Unfortunately, a major reason some of these philanthropic activities intended as moral ac tions end up less successful is 16


that they often appear to mask political ambiti ons or search for financial gain (Payton, 1988, p. 158). For instance, while the Artists United Agai nst Apartheids song Sun City in 1985 offered serious challenges to the status quo on the South African policy of apartheid, it was a subversive political protest song that failed to generate substantial commercial or cultural impact. It failed to make emotional connections with people around th e world, unable to match what We Are the World had accomplished on an international leve l only a few months prior. Danny Schechter, a journalist who was working at the time with ABC News 20/20, provided Steven Van Zandt with the idea for the song. He specifically suggested that the song Sun City was about political change but not about charity, free dom or famine (Schechter, 1997). In this regard, while some of these politically active events a nd projects are illustrated in my study in the form of a brief overview, they are not the main subjects of discussion in that they do not fully embrace the true meaning of philanthropy, as defined in my study What makes philanthropic charity events more significant than benefitseeking or political music events is simple. Whereas profit-making events are concerned with making money and political protests are concerned with raising public awareness in the specific political views of organizers and artists, the charity songs such as We Are the World and Do They Know Its Christmas? reached out to billions of people wo rldwide and asked them to join the cause. These endeavors were with the perceived importance of the cause, helping all the parties involved to set aside different political views and only address the cause at issue. According to Payton (1988), raising funds freque ntly involves emotion rather than objective and logical explanation or protest. He said that there is an app eal to an ill-defined sense of solidarity, a joining of hands across borders and across racial and ethnic lines to give participants 17


a sense of strength and momentum (p. 156). The ch arity event or recordi ng is where those in attendance or who buy records share in being en tertained by performers where the excess of income over expense is donated to charity, and it is designed to raise funds for the cause and at the same time to call broader public attention (p. 156-157). Charity: To fit the purpose of my study, I use the word charity to refer to an actual endeavor to raise funds. Charity usually invo lves the donation of money, goods, and other material resources, as an attempt in promoti ng human welfare. I use charity throughout my study to refer to rock musics philanthropic aid effort in a form of concerts, recordings, or televised events. In detail, there are two broad cat egories of philanthropy in rock music to be discussed in my study. First, a charity record (otherwise known as a charity single) is a song for a specific charitable cause, recorded by an artist or a group of artists. For instance, the Music for UNICEF Concert featured a couple of charity singles, namely, ABBAs Chiquitita (1979) and the Bee Gees Too Much Heaven (1979), with all the proceeds donated to The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF). Band Aids Do They Know Its Christmas? (1984) and USA for Africas We Are the World (1985 ) started the popularity of the ch arity single, which turned out to be a huge trend in the musi c industry throughout the 1980s. Second, a charity (or benefit) concert is a live concert (or festival) held by musicians and artists for a charitable cause, ta rgeted at a specific and immediat e humanitarian crisis or tragedy. This form of event raises money and public awareness to address the cause at issue. Charity concert usually features musicians performing without getting paid, with all the proceeds intended to go to targeted charities. 18


Disposition and Arrangement In terms of the organization of my study, the aim of this chapter is to give a comprehensive introduction to the research field and present my study and the research area to the reader. Chapter 2 is the literatu re review section, in which I focus on the research and scholarly findings of philanthropy in academia and then explore how philanthropy has been studied with a variety of perspectives in the past, ranging from such areas as business to popular culture, by reviewing existing literature. Chapter 3 pr ovides the reader with the met hodological approach and materials and sources used for my study. In the main study section (fro m Chapter 4 to Chapter 7), eac h chapter is highlighted by information and discussion on major philanthropic ch arity events of each decade, dating back to the mid 20th century, what we call the early days of rock and roll. The focus is on the history of rock musics social and political awarene ss and how philanthropy came to permeate rock musics culture over the course of time and what events have le ft a significant influence and impact in our society and culture. In Chapter 8, I conclude my study with assertions, limitations, and implications, based on the historical ov erview from the previous four chapters. 19


CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Philanthropy and Altruism The question of the existence of altruism and (or) philanthropy is not new. According to Batson and Shaw (1991), the majority view among philosophers and among biologists and psychologists, is that We are, at heart, purely eg oistic, that we care for ot hers only to the extent that their welfare affects ours (p. 107). They said the concept has been central in Western thought for a long time, from Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) and St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), through Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), the Duke de la Rochefoucauld (1613-1680), and Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), to Friedr ich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) (p. 107). Definitions of Altrui sm and Philanthropy Well over a century ago, Comte (1875) coined th e term altruism in juxtaposition to egoism, but his conception is overly da ted. Without changing the basic notion of the term, Batson and Shaw (1991) refined Comptes original concept by employing a more modem view of motives as goal-directed forces within th e individual. Employing this view of motivation, they suggested that the contemporary definition for altruism is a motivational state with the ultimate goal of increasing anothers welfare (p. 108). The above definition remains fairly accurate, but according to Krebs (1970), social and behavioral researchers have generally refrai ned from using the definitional issue, which involves establishing th e intention behind apparently ot her-oriented acts (p. 262). The everyday common definition defines that altruistic action is motivat ed by regard for others, but it does not go beyond to state that th is prevents one from consider ing oneself peripherally in the action. Even though the two terms, philanthropy and altruism, are often interchangeable in 20


practical use, I use philanthropy, which also has a long history in phi losophical and ethical thought, in my study because different interpretations of the terms are rooted in the history and traditions of particular countries. Originally coined as philanthropiawhich stands for loving what it is to be human philanthropy was considered to be the cruc ial factor to world ci vilization (McCully, 2008). The classic distinction of philanthropy draw n by Beveridge (1948) is that philanthropy is entirely selfless and demands further benevol ent actions. In other words, philanthropy is understood as somewhat benevolent attitude or stan ce, such as charitable giving or positive act. That is, whereas altruism is a motive, philanthr opy is an act, and an increasingly commanding one. Changes in Research Area As far as the academia is concerned, an extensive range of information on philanthropy can be found, with research on the subject appear ing in different areas, including philosophy, marketing, economics, social psychology, biologi cal psychology, sociology, political science, anthropology (Bekkers & Wiepking, 2007). However, Katz (1990) noted th at previous studies are rather limited to a specific discipline or a certain period of time. They contended since the 1980s, research in philanthropy has developed as a new, multidisciplinar y subject in social sciences (Katz, 1999). Although philanthropy has been studied in a wide range of fields even in social sciences, Sargeant and Woodliffe (2007) focused on the lite rature review on charitable giving from a marketing standpoint, as techniqu es of business to philanthropy as a public relations strategy have become a trend. Studies in social psychology have focused more on helping behavior than the concept itself (Piliavin & Charng, 1990; Schwartz, 1970). 21


In addition, a number of studies have recently poi nted out that helping behavior is a very broad category of actions. According to Bekkers and Wiepking (2007), the subject of philanthropy has been popular in mainstream social psychology by the end of the 1970s and continuously explored in the 1980s. Fittingly enough, the 1970s and 1980s are two of the most prolific decades when it comes to charity concerts and recordings in rock music as well (Bekkers & Wiepking, 2007). The Nature of Philanthropy According to Rohe (2002), philanthropy answers to the needs of either the current or the future, and the charitable giving to a crisis or di saster is an action of philanthropy. Also, it offers honor for the philanthropist but does not require foresight. Nonetheless, answering to future needs depends on the donors decision but doe s not always recognize the donor. The common ground is that philanthropy often involves variou s mechanisms, and often results in fundraising and donation (Bekkers & Wiepking, 2007). According to Rachlin (2002), philanthropy, is a temporally extended pattern of behavior. Like self-control, philanthropy or altruism may be learned and maintained over an individuals lifetime (p. 239). He said it does not require specia l inherited mechanism, a nd individual acts of philanthropy, which may not necessarily be benefit to the actor, can be still beneficial if the acts are repeated over and again. People can benefit fro m philanthropic behavior only when they are committed to a philanthropic pattern of acts and refuse to make decisions on a case-by-case basis (p. 239). Charitable Fundraising Frank (1996) argued that the most effectiv e approach to understand motivations for charitable giving lies in altruism, and charit able fundraising is the most common action of philanthropy. Although the term fundraising ca n be broadly defined to include political 22


fundraising and even raisi ng capital for business ventur es, it often refers to the efforts involved in raising support for charitable nonprofit organiza tions (Lindahl & Conley, 2002). According to Andreoni (1998), charitable fundraising is a vibrant, innovative and highly professional industry (p. 1186), and common in charitable fundraising is launchi ng the fund drive or event to generate funds, goods, or gifts from donors. He argued that the fundraise rs have a natural and important role in making a small amount of seed money grows into a su bstantial charity (p. 1186). Motivations for Charitable Giving Frank (1996) explained why people oftentimes make gestures of voluntary and selfless kindness as in fundraising events and indicated that these behavi ors are based on emotion rather than rationality. It is why we find otherwise self-minded individuals occasionally exhibiting philanthropic behaviors in a form of charitab le giving. Researchers have emphasized that a combination of psychological motives and soci ological influences (L indahl & Conley, 2002), and the participants have unspecified social conscience, and their selfless sense of duty may lead them to make philanthropic decision s as fundraising (Rose-Ackerman, 1982). Research that depends on statistical data a nd surveys has offered specific information on charitable giving. Knowledge on who gives what is useful for fundraising professionals and policy makers and often considered as more useful than knowledge on why people give (Srnka, Grohs, & Eckler, 2003). They posite d that religion, education, income, age, marital status, having children, gender, place of residence, race, and personality, and many other variables play an important role for fundraisers and polic y makers in targeting certain campaigns. Webber (2004) posited that charity fundraising ev ents share one defining attribute, which is private benefit of the participan t, whether it is a sense of pe rsonal achievement, an opportunity to show their generosity or simply having fun (p. 122). He said that the donors support and 23


giving might not be as important to them as th e private meaning they receive from holding or attending the event. He concl uded that fundraising events pr ovide a means for charities to broaden their donor bases beyond those whose mo tivation to support th e charity is their fundamental belief in the partic ular charitys cause (p. 122). Fundraising often target a broader group of supporters outside the charitys core philanthropically motivated base. A fundraising even t quickly allows the ch arity to go after those who may not be essentially interested in its cause but will enable it to donate funds to further its cause. Furthermore, we should not overlook awa reness as an objective of fundraising because events are organized to raise awareness for the cause, often without th e objective of maximizing funds raised because awareness from fundraising events increases in relevance and importance, free from achieving financial and m onetary goals (Webber, 2004, p. 124). Fundraising and Celebrities Celebrity activism for worthy causes has been taking place for a number of decades. In terms of raising public awareness and raising funds empirical studies in th e past suggested that celebrities are more effective a nd efficient as endorsers and fundr aisers. Celebrities help raise funds and public awareness for the cause in additi on to providing the public with a high level of personal involvement themselves (Wheeler, 2002). He also contended that celebrities connected to a variety of causes generate a high source credibility and intention to volunteer time and donate money (p. 44). According to a study by OMahony & Meenaghan (1997), the celebrities participating in charity fundraising became a media, social, and cultural pheno menon last century. They argued that celebrities offer credibility and dependability to the public. Huddart (2005) said that people do idolize their favorite actors and musicians, beli eving that they have the power and ability to inspire, to dictate fashion and diet, and to l ead us where we might not otherwise go (p. 7). 24


Richey and Ponte (2008) also noted that international aid celebrities embody a new positive, win-win approach to solve poverty and disease (p. 716). They also emphasized, More than simply exercising their networking capabilities aid celebrities act as emotional sovereigns (p. 719). Despite the fact any initiative they make with such hype and crass consumerism, especially when it is linked to a certain product, they would st ruggle to gain credibility as a legitimate contribution to international aid, the ce lebrities have the power to make consumption compassionate and at the same time conspicuous (p. 714). Atkin and Schiller (2002) argued that celebrities are able to grab attent ion to otherwise unattractive or upsetting topics, as exemplified by director Rob Reiners endorsement of the I Am Your Child campaign, which was aimed to en lighten the public on early brain development and to demonstrate the far-reaching effect of celebritys role in charity fundraising. Through association with Reiner, a one-hour, prime-time special on ABC was given to the campaign, in addition to a week-long series on brain devel opment on Good Morning America. The campaign also earned a spot on the cover of Newsweek. Rob Reiner was able to move the issue ahead in a way national research studies usually do not (p. 24). Fundraising: A Global Media Trend From a media perspective, charitable fundraisi ng is usually fueled by the media coverage. The extensive news coverage elevates the response level to fundraising app eal, especially if the reports have a strong human interest angle in the world (Bennett & Kottasz, 2000, p. 354). In other words, fundraising effort arises from the nature of a disaster or a social issue in line with public and global interest in tragic events (Payne, 1994). On a global level, Moeller (2006) posited that throughout the hi story, reports on the horrifying disasters or other international issues have been globalized with a plethora of the media technology. He said, The intensity of th is layered communicati on created a sense of 25


humanitarian solidarity, motivating many to car e about those in harms way (p. 178). A decision by the media to report a particular disast er transforms it from a local event into an international tragedy (Bennett & Kottasz, 2000, p. 352). The media cont ributed to global charitable fundraising and post-disaster relie f effort, as evidenced in recent history. Wagner (2004) contended that our world has become borderless society, and in our global community, people need to be more culturally aw are because as discerni ble borders come down and information flow as well as movement of pe oples occurs, cultural ba rriers go up and present new challenges and opportunities and learning a bout fundraising (p. 7). She argued that there exists a common factor within cultural differences shaping fundr aising practices. According to her, we can share the same view in the proce ss of considering culture and its importance in forming the foundation of philanthropy and fundraising anywhere in th e world (p. 8). As Anheier and Daly (2004) suggested in their study, the increasing scale of global philanthropy is a response to the prevalence of issues, problems a nd events that make us think about how we can make an impact beyond our own domestic contexts. The efforts can use philanthropic programs to open new markets and forge a unified global image (Simon, 1995, p 36). After all, in the age of globalism, as Rosen and Digh (2001) contended, Culture is no longer an obstacle to be overcom e. Rather, it is a critical leve r for competitive advantage (p. 74). Philanthropy in Music According to Plotinsky (1994), as early as in nineteenth-century America, music was a participatory activity, its perfor mers and audiences drawn from the entire community without distinctions of class, wealt h, or education (p. 371). Arous ing the philanthropic efforts of performers and audiences and enabling the exercise of a moral influence, music was explicitly understood to be an indispensable source of positiv e values (p. 371). This not only helped raised 26


funds for civic and cultural causes but even strengthened the communities and brought people together. As evidenced by Yonker, McGinty, and Donaldson (2002), relationship building is the foundation on which most fundraising takes place, and rock music can be a bonding force to raise funds through emotional re lationship-building process betw een musicians and performers. Music involves people who formed voluntary associ ations to meet needs that could not be met either in the marketplace or by government. That is, music plays an integral role in building a relationship between performers and listeners. Musics Emotional Appeals Lewis (1992) said that music is symbolic co mmunication that can be a theme, a rallying cry, and a protest around which we gather to sp eak out against social injustice (p. 135). He asserted that music is a medium chronicling the feeling and life experience of group of people, where an affective grounded aesthetic can be deve loped to enable personal and private feelings to be expressed and shared (p. 135). It is only natural, then, that rock music can bring people together in many different ways by evoking feelings and emotions. Lull (1987) described the experiential and affect ive conjunction and universal appeal of pop music by saying, Music is a passionate sequen cing of thoughts and feelings that expresses meaning in a manner that has no parallel in human life (p. 10). Music is universal language and a combination of personal, social, and cultural signification. Rock music, in this sense, is crucially important in the times of uncertainty and crisis and has been employed spontaneously in countless healing vigils and public demonstr ations and in highly organized media megaevents (Forman, 2002, p. 191). The potential of music to influence emotions is obvious, and research has indicated that mood can affect the motive of an individual to help others. One previ ous laboratory study by 27


Fried and Berkowitz (1979) showed that music ca n generate a positive feeling that facilitates helping and lead to social cohe sion by offering shared experiences However, the role of music has received little attention even though research on the effect of mood on helping has employed a variety of mood induction techniques and the po tential of music to influence emotions is obvious. Small (1998) introduced the concep t of musicking to describe active social processes of weaving our collective worlds of experience and affect together through music. He defined musicking as an activity by means of which we bri ng into existence a set of relationships of our world. Smalls focus is not solely on music or musical performance but, more expansively, broader extra-musical relationshi ps between person and person, be tween individual and society, between humanity and the natural world, even perhaps the supernatural world (p. 13). Rock Musics Involvement in Philanthropy According to Huddart (2005), not only did rock musicians am plify their messages in their music, but it also helped to raise funds, build organizations and forge coalitions in support of them (p. 8). He said that Bob Dylan, Pete Seeger, Joan Baez and Peter, Paul & Mary in the 1960s are as equally influential as the politicians they fought agai nst. According to him, they might have helped the proliferation and evolution of rock musics new style of activism during the 1960s. According to Cloonan and Street (1997), rock music in the 1970s and 1980s bore social responsibility, as it beca me part of the mainstream mass entertainment industry. They argued, Just as pop could sell cars or in surance, so it could sell compa ssion (p. 232). They said that pop stars began to change and were not represen tatives of teenagers anymore but instead became part of the family in joining the cause they believed in. They became part of showbiz and transferred the conscience that was part of rock to the worthy enterprise of fundr aising (p. 232). 28


Straw (1989) noted that the most overlooked cont ribution rock artists can make to politics is their money or ways how money might be raised. That is, they take actions than just protest and plead. He said that although some artists have stepped forward on occasion on behalf of other artists for an array of political issues, the most consistent contributi on among musicians involves their actual musical particip ation in fundraising records and concerts (p. 20). Rock Musics Role in Raising Awareness Forman (2002) said that the benefit and relief concerts and recordings provide entertainment, but they also present important contexts for collective mourning (p. 33). Yet the plurality of meaning accompanying these even ts, and arguably accompanying the music and artists they featured, also show s the sign of corporate capitalism. He emphasized that the major media charity events have displayed unprecedented cooperation among competing commercial and corporate entities, and not onl y a variety of musical genres but also many corporate record labels that stand to benefit from their artists public display. Westley (1991) also contended, one of keys to a successful performance for rock stars is to connect with fans with tremendous level of energy and motivation (p. 1029), and their background and career as rock stars gave them a direct experience of musics emotional power. They experienced on the direct link between musi c and emotion and then emotion into action of philanthropy. That is, they built upon their relation ships with people to raise awareness. Each production had qualities of a self-d esigning system, the artistry lying in the combination of particular skills and people, as much as in the combination of particular technologies and resources (p. 1024). According to Silk (1998), char itable fundraising transcends pl ace and space and extends care and caring from the context with which they are traditionally associated, which are face-to-face encounters within a shared physical locale. He specified that mass media and electronic networks 29


have played an integral part in extending the scope of be neficence beyond our nearest and dearest to embrace distant others. He contende d that Band Aid and Li ve Aid were classic examples of international spectaculars and exem plified a wide variety of fundraising activities. Huddart (2005) contended that the musicians from pre-rock and roll days such as Woody Guthrie and Paul Robeson did not directly res pond to social concerns using philanthropic behaviors. However, they were still the early prototypes who became founding fathers and led the proliferation and pop ularity of celebrity activism in la ter years, as evidenced by such contemporary rock artists as Bob Geldof and Bono. He also asserted that just as any music genre makes a development based on adaptation a nd progression, celebrity activism involves verticality (the adaptation of forms over time) and adaptive cy cles (encapsulating previous forms in a process that combines co ntinuity and learning) (p. 30). 30


CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND MATERIALS Methods Historical Analysis According to Marshall and Rossman (1998), a history is defined as an account of some past event or combination of events. In other words, historical analysis attempts to discover, review, and explain, based on records and accounts, what ha ppened in the past. In this method, historians make use of various historical resources such as magazine articles, news papers, interviews, and books. I employ a narrative framework for storytelli ng to discuss key elements of each event of the discussion in chronological order. Even thoug h each of the post-rock and roll decades (from the 1950s to present) will be discussed a brief decade-by-decade breakdown with historical and thematic background, my study is presented wi th an emphasis on the 1970s and 1980s, looking at the historical contexts and trends of majo r philanthropic events in rock music history. By using facts, information, and diverse views on the charity events of the discussion, I will illustrate their meaning and effects in the fullest sense, musically, socially and culturally. In addition, this decade-by-decade categorization w ill help illustrate how social and cultural circumstances and historical c ontexts, in line with the evolution of rock music and technology. There will be additional discussi on on different issues and questions for each decade, such as economical, political, and social landscapes of the era. Decade-by-Decade Breakdown Kotarba (2002) contended that journalists and other mass media workers have popularized the idea of the decade by using it as a simple and convenient framework for portraying history in a nostalgic framework. He illustrated that the journalistic use of the 10-year period has become a taken-for-granted feature of our public culture. In addition, every decade has had its 31


own personality and uniqueness to many historia ns, since it was formed by both the people and the events that dominated it. Identifying distinct decades necessarily involv es some oversimplification. Each decade is represented by well-known record ings and concerts that have been deemed historically significant and important. My st udy, thus, is not intended to e xhaustively subsume all thinking on the subject. Thus, some of the examples to be discussed are outside th e mainstream attention and therefore do not fit comfortably into my study. However, they will be discussed to the extent that they fit into the overall historical flow. This means that the historical timeline outlined here would not necessarily be relevant in different contexts or societies. This is why my study is presented in a form of overview rather than as an in-depth analysis. According to Shemilt (2000), history cannot be disa ggregated and plundered for bits and pieces that can validly and usefully inform the present ( p. 83). He said that an hi storical overview, as a big picture, gives perspective to how somethi ng has evolved over the course of time into the present by prompting us to take the long view and to look beyond what is happening to what might be going on, and also allows us to fit pr esent phenomena within a narrative and polythetic framework (p. 83). Historic and Critical Approaches in Pop Music For my study, in order to illustrate the prolifer ation of rock musics involvement in charity during its history, I specifically use a combin ation of two approaches that Lewis (1983) described as historic and critical (p. 133). The focus of the historic tradition is the influence of music in society with the music bein g reflective of social st ructures while looking at historical development of certain styles or trends in music. Th e critical approach sees popular music as a commercial product, which subordinates it to economic demands and divorces it from aesthetic considerations. In that regard, the focus of this approach is on the commercial aspects 32


of the music industry and the exploitative nature of popular music produc tion. Thus, I treat rock music as a social, cultural, and economic phenomenon. One more crucial factor to consider is rock musics current position as a worldwide phenomenon. My study expands the discussion from a global perspective. Geyer and Bright (1995) contended a body of scholarly work ha s been blooming, branching out from the discontents of Western civilizati on surveys and addressing world hist orical issues. They said that presenting the worlds pasts as history is a shared concern, and it emerges as the agenda for world history today (p. 1038). Thus, my study is not only about social phenomenon but also about global phenomenon because a majority of charity recordings and co ncerts were concerned with global issues ranging from Ethiopian famine to global warming. In a ddition, many of these events were promoted as gigantic global media events, which were seen or heard by millions and billions people worldwide. These events ultimately created an inte grated global space of human practice as they were transmitted over the entire world. Materials and Sources In the field of social science, a primary source is often an artifact, a document, an article, or other forms of information generated at the tim e of study and works as an original form of information on the topic. In contrast, a sec ondary source involves ge neralization, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or ev aluation of the original info rmation (Kragh, 1989). However, according to Delgadillo and Lynch (1999), in hist orical analysis the difference between primary and secondary sources is very subjective and contextual, dependi ng on how it is used (p. 253). In my study, I consider firsthand written evid ence and factual information that is direct, unmediated information about th e object of study to be pr imary (Dalton, 2004, p. 416). On the other hand, I consider opinionated, analyzed, and ev aluated information that is written accounts 33


of history based upon the evidence from primary sources to be secondary (p. 416). I have combined both primary and secondary sources to derive a new historical conclusion in the very end. My primary sources are interview notes and direct quotes from the industry personnel, artists, and producers involved in the projects, in addition to o fficial documents such as actual audio and video recordings of the events. Because of difficulty in getting in touch with the people involved in the events discussedwhich ke pt me from contacting them in person for their own accountsI rely heavily on th eir published interviews or quot es. My secondary sources are any documents that build upon primary sources a nd will be the main sources of my study. They include published accounts, published works, or published research. Some of the sources are the articles from major popular culture periodicals and magazines such as Time, Rolling Stone, and Billboard and major daily newspapers such as The New York Times, The Washington Post, USA Today, and Los Angeles Times 34


CHAPTER 4 FROM THE EARLY ROCK AND ROLL ERA THROUGH THE 1960S Popular culture is intertwined with many different social and cultural factors situated around us, and Garofalo (1999) posited that the evolution of rock music has been immensely affected by the technological advances that have determ ined the production, dissemination, and reception (p. 318). Compared with the past, we have different social, cultural, and political landscapes today, as well as new technology. Furthermore, th e complex processes of internationalization and globalization have profoundly al tered and transformed our ways of life and changed the way people perceive the world. Thus, in order to understand the history of philanthropic efforts in rock music over the course of its history as a mass culture to its current state as part of a global phenomenon and cross-national culture, we have to consider cultural development, technological progression, social and political struggles and economic ch anges as well. Tracing back some of the most historically significant a nd successful philanthropic charity even ts in rock music over time, then, can not only serve as a valuable history lesson that can help us see philanthropy in rock and roll as a social, cultural and global trend but as an ever-evolving, continuing phenomenon into the new millennium. Music as a form of social protest has been a recurrent theme in the critique of pop music, especially in line with th e music of political subcultures, such as the American left of the 1930s and 1940s (Lewis, 1983, p. 133). However, it was not until the 1950s and 1960s that popular music became commercially profitable business in line with the prosperity of the music industry and the mass media in general. Popular music in the 1950s and the 1960s was marked by a burst of innovation and diversity, such as progress in technology and diversity in music genres (Peterson & Berger, 1975). Regev (1994) noted, The use to whic h these components have been 35


put by the music industry has gradually define d a cultural context of contemporary music essentially different from the traditional one (p. 89). For one, Lopes (1992) emphasized the importa nt role of radio in popular music and contended that the shift in radio from a national mass market to lo cal, discrete markets in the mid 1950s, which coincided with the pop ularity of rock and roll, provi ded previously unimaginable exposure of new styles of music. In addition, he argued that the arrival of FM radio in the mid 1960s revitalized the viability of rock music, as it would be the case for MTV in the 1980s. In this sense, technology has always been the key fact or for the prosperity of the music industry. The two decades that were characterized by t echnology, consumerism a nd social anxiety of a changing society all affected th e development of rock music as a social, political, and cultural force, and in this chapter I brie fly overview rock music history with the musics involvement in social, political, and cultural changes leading up to the end of the 1960s and look at several historical highlights that might have given way the path for th e proliferation of the charity recordings and concerts in the next two d ecades (1970s-1980s). After all, because the new cultural context of the era formed the basis of ch ange in rock music, a brief summary of the two decades will shed light on the discussion of phila nthropy in rock as an emerging trend over time. The 1950s in Retrospect Haycock and Anderson (2006) noted the importa nce of rock and roll in many different aspects in society. They said that since the intr oduction of rock and roll in the post-World War economic boom in the United States, it has en tertained, informed and educated modern generations and significantly shap ed the social and cultural histor y of the last half of the 20th century (p. 3). The rising popular ity of rock and roll may be largely due to the advent of technologytelevision in particularbecause it sh aped the advent of rock music more than anything else. 36


Economically speaking, the paradigm of the music business changed during the 1950s, as rock music enhanced the fortunes of untutored artists, upstart independent record companies, and wildly eccentric deejays, tu rning the structure of the music business on its head (Garofalo, 1999). As Lydon (1970) noted, rock music was inte rtwined with the principles of capitalism. From the start, rock has been commercial in its ve ry essence. It was never an art form that just happened to make money, nor a commercial undertaking that sometimes became art. Its art was synonymous with its business (p. 53). This comment justifies the inseparable relations of rock music with business. Historically, rock musicians have constantly tried to address social issues directly as commentary or as calls to action since the rock and rolls emerge nce in the 1950s. The history of rock musics relationship with politics needs no introduction, and rock music and politics have often gone hand in hand, and oftentimes this antagonistic relationship ha s resulted in some interesting results while other times been neglecte d. However, what is important is its persistence over the course of time. As Garofalo (1999) sa id, The eruption of rock and roll in the 1950s changed the popular music landscape permanently and irrevocably, signaling the advent of broader social change to come (p. 336). While the concept of philanthropy in rock mu sic was still new back then, one historic concert took place on March 21, 1952, at the Cleveland Arena in Cleveland, Ohio. This concert perhaps opened a new chapter in music and perh aps became a defining part of popular culture. Rhythm and Blues artists Paul William, Tiny Grimes, the Rockin Highlanders, The Dominoes and others took to the stage to perform at The Moondog Coronation Ball, which came to be generally known as the first rock and roll show (Wolff, 2006). 37


Considering that most charity efforts in rock music are in a form of live concert (or music festival), this landmark concert might have laid the foundation and worked as a blueprint for all major music festivals and concer ts to come. As Waterman (1998) argued, concerts and festivals transform places from being everyday settings in to temporary environments that contribute to the production, processing and consumption of cultu re, concentrated in time and place (p. 54). In addition, Schowalter (2000) also noted that a rock festival is the occasion for the reception of music by a large group of fans and the subsequent and inextricable effects of the music (p. 87). The Moondog Coronation Ball was heavily promot ed and publicized by Alan Freed, the organizer and the person who coined the term rock and roll (Scheurer, 1989, p. 55), and it was only fitting that rock music was about to beco me a part of mass media culture that would permeate through the popular culture of the second half of the 20th century Moreover, this is a classic example of what Small (1998) define d as musicking, a process of weaving our collective worlds of experience a nd affect together through music, with the meaning not solely on music or musical performan ce but, more expansively, broade r extra-musical relationships between audience and performers. However, until the late 1950s, mainstream rock musicians stood by few but the safest social causes becaus e rock and roll music was seen as a potential threat to American society. The 1960s in Retrospect According to Anderson (1995), the decade of the 1960s was characterized by the counterculture, a movement that started in th e United States and spread around the Western world. It was an attempt to rej ect conventional social and cultu ral norms of the 1950s, the form of protest and resistance in some ways. Ha ycock and Anderson (2006) said, The 1960s saw issues that had been suppressed in the 1950s come to the foreground, and much of the publicity given to these can be attributed to the messages and influence of contemporary music (p. 4). 38


With the arrival of the 1960s came a new developm ent of social consciousness in rock music. According to Garofalo (1999), the rising popularity of folk rock music, and it was a highly politicized popular music form in the 1960s, as baby-boomers came of age and the music became identified with radical youth movement s throughout the world (p. 337). Lyrically, according to Szatmary (2003), the songs dealt with more serious issues going around our society, such as McCarthyism, the Civil Rights move ment, social justice, and the Cold War. Mainly in the United States, the 1960s was the decade that rock musicians established themselves as the agents of soci al change. Flick (1998) wrote that in the rebellious 1960s music and political activism seemingly went hand in hand and witnessed the marriage of artists and activism taking place. This union between rock and political activism had its creative and commercial peak during the 1960s when topical prot est songs were made famous by folk rock musicians. The protest movement in folk rock was a mu sical movement of singer-songwriters that found inspiration from Woody Guthrie and Pete S eeger, who were the prominent performers for a similarly political form of music in the wa ke of the Great Depression of the 1930s, and Bob Dylan, Joan Baez and Peter, Paul and Mary delivere d the tunes of the decade to the public during the peak of the Civil Rights movement (Matus ow, 1984). This is a clear indication that music and social awareness were woven together before rock and roll music was born, but, as rock music became part of the mass culture, it started to impact social and political change in addition to reflecting it. As Bob Dylan once said, I alwa ys thought that one man, the lone balladeer with the guitar, could blow an entire army off the st age if he knew what he was doing (as cited in Piazza, 2002, p. 28). 39


In the mid 1960s, folk rock musics social a nd political conscience reached its summit, as such high-profile politically active musicians bega n to write and perform in what has become to be known as the protest. Berger (2000) argued that such protest music voiced from a left-wing perspective (p. 57) and antagonized the power s-that-be, condemning and proposing possible solutions to social injustices. While music fr om this period and after did not always hint solutions, they functioned to educate, motivate, and raise consciousness (p. 57). In this sense, the folk rock movement that promoted the Civi l Rights movement shares its common thread with charity efforts in that it raised public awarene ss even if no fundraising for the cause took place. However, whereas some songs or artists communicated through radical and subversive political messages, actual philanthropic events organized to rais e money were rare occasions in the 1960s, and even if there were a few concerts held for charitable purposes, before 1967, the usual festival coverage had been local newspa per accounts of the events. The only national news coverage came when riots occurred at jazz fes tivals or rock and roll c oncerts (Peterson, 1973). This is a clear example of rock music as a fo rm of counterculture and threat to conservative America as late as the late 1960s. Also, it is impor tant in this regard to consider the social relations of rock music with the mass media. One major and significant shif t in the music industry was the so-called The British Invasion, which soon coincided with the globaliz ation of rock music. Although rock music has historically been one of Americas primary cultu ral exports, the British have paved the way for other foreigners in the United States and have had a massive global impact on pop music since the 1960s, with the bands such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, and The Who (Wells, 1987). This was the point that rock music began to achieve worldwide popularity and break boundaries and expressed the emotions that peop le were feeling (Schafer, 1971). 40


Meanwhile, in the United States, the artists th at practiced the counterculture and became key figures to the movement were enjoying main stream successes. The artists included such influential names as The Mamas & the Papas, Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jefferson Airplane, and Sly and the Family Stone, Jimi Hendrix, and The Doors (Strong, 2002). Their breakthrough success coupled with the Britishs successful i nvasion in America became a tempting marketing scheme for concert organizers and music executives, and their business plan finally paid off in two mega concerts, each w ith a different social and cultural identity. Notable Events of the 1960s According to Haycock and Anderson (2006), the two events that showcased rock musics political involvement were the Monterey Inte rnational Pop Festival in 1967 and Woodstock Festival in 1969. These festivals featured line-ups that struck a balance between artists from The United States and British Invasion bands, in a ddition to several from the Third World. These events not only played an integral role in educating young adult participants in the counterculture and motivating them to act against social injustices and in equalities (p. 4), but also became two of the very first wide-scale nonbenefit rock concerts of the era (Kitts, 2009). The Monterey International Pop Festival (1967) According to Grunenberg and Harris (2005), the Monterey International Pop Festival, which took place in July 1967 in Monterey, California, was the first concert promoted and attended on a large scale, with an audience si ze of up to 90,000 at its peak. Just like many other political events around the time, the Monterey Inte rnational Pop Festival was the gathering of the supporters of the counterculture movement. It set the blueprint fo r future music festivals to come, most notably Woodstock two years later. The event was truly multi-cultural because of the presence of international performers like Ravi Shankar (India) and Hugh Masekela (South Africa), with the concert bill encompassing 41


many music genres, including folk, blues, jazz soul, rock, psychedelic rock, pop and even classic music, featuring the line-up that comb ined popular rock artists of the time against groundbreaking new acts, which included the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Big Brother and the Holding Company, The Animals, Simon and Garf unkel, The Byrds, Otis Redding, and The Who. However, it is hardly known by the general public that the Monterey International Pop Festival was a benefit concert, arguably the first of its kind, to raise money for the Monterey International Pop Festival Foundation, a non-profit charity organization, which is still active in promoting artistic, mental, and physical health (Wikane, 2007). The fact flew under the radar because the event was organized in a hurry and lacked promotion. However, according to Sander (1973), Almost every aspect of th e Monterey International Pop Fes tival can be seen as a first (p. 93). Most of the artists played without getti ng paid, with all the proceeds donated to charity, and the concert was specifically utilized to co mmunicate political and hu manitarian concerns more broadly. The event, according to Peterson (1973), was a turning point in the development of rock festivals. The Woodstock Festival (1969) The Monterey International Pop Festival was topped two years later by the most famous music festival of the era, Woodstock. It is generally know n as one of the most famous and popular music concerts in rock mu sic history because of its gra nd scale, rich tradition, and numerous myths and stories surrounding the event. It represented the cu lmination of the 1960s counterculture, which was an alte rnative society with its own values and cultural forms (Perone, 2005). With the United States still in turmoil ove r the Vietnam War and Civil Rights movement, Woodstock, the event that defined the nations counterculture of the 1960s, took place on a small farm in upstate New York. During a rainy weeken d in August 1969, 32 artists played in front of 42


500,000 people, most of whom did not pay admission, although only about 10,000 or 20,000 people were expected (Collier, 1969). Woodstock was promoted under the slogan, Three Days of Peace and Music, and traditionally associated with positive feelings According to Hoberman (1994), Woodstock and its half million spectators has historically been viewed as an undeniable milestone and been described as a manifestation of cosmic consciousness more profound than the same years moon landing and even viewed by some as the sec ond coming of Christ (p. 10). Additionally, the very word counterculture connotes defiance and re sistance to authority and the establishment in the same way that the term Woodstock ge neration connotes a distinctive social culture (Schowalter, 2000, p. 90). However, unlike Monterey, Woodstock was pl anned as a profit-making business venture by John Roberts, Michael Lang, Joel Rosenman, and Artie Kornfeld from the very beginning. In the planning stage of the concert, they had already run the ad in The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal with the line, Young me n with unlimited capital l ooking for interesting, legitimate investment opportuni ties and business propositions (Spitz, 1979, p. 13). Ironically, the event turned into a free concert rather abruptly when the organizers found out it was attracting way more people than they had prepared fo r, and the late change in concert site hardly gave any other choice but to proceed with a fr ee concert. As Kitts (2009) put it, the concert walked the tight rope between co rporate and counterculture values (p. 721). In this sense, I argue that the entire decade of the 1960s was e xplored by both the musicians and the audiences as a time of social, political a nd cultural progress ion; for the recording industry, however, it was the starting point in commercia lism and corporate practice, wh ich would be the predominant theme in the following decade. 43


Even if Woodstock became a non-profit concert at the last minute, it wa s essentially a failed exercise in hip capitalism (Shepherd, 1993, p. 1) It was originally planned as a commercial venture to raise funds for a r ecording studio that might eventu ally form the basis of an entertainment conglomerate (Larsen & OReilly, 2009, p. 6), instead of helping people in need or raising public awareness in social issue as did the Monterey Internat ional Pop Festival only two years earlier. Mainly due to the fact that the promoters were only in terested in increasing their take from the initial stage, Kitts (2009) asserted, From any perspective, the Woodstock had none of Montereys innocence (p. 720) The change to turn the concert into a free one was not an individuali stic, voluntary decision. From a philanthropic standpoint, we have to note that Woodstock was only a non-profit event but not a charity event intended to raise funds for any charity organization. Nonetheless, it was one of the biggest festivals of all-time and a cultural touchstone that represented an attempt to humanize the social relations of mass culture (Garofalo, 199 2, p. 15-16), which would be a recurring theme in future charity events in the 1970s and the 1980s. Tipper Gore (1987) criticized the event almost two decades later, claiming that the druguse messages that the Woodstock generation of rock bands began to convey continue today and a development of the cycle of decay begun the late 1960s (p. 127). As such, Woodstock was always associated with negativity from the politi cal point of view and gave rock music a bad name to mainstream American culture despite th e fact it was a non-commercial event and tried to promote hope, community, and idealism (Schowa lter, 2000, p. 88). It was one of the occasions that reaffirmed the belief of Am erican mainstream culture that rock and roll was a threat to conservative American society. 44


Summary and Discussion Although the concerts and festival s discussed in this chapter ar e not generally regarded and understood as charity events, they still provided an interp retive history of the rise and decline of the 1960s counterculture spirit and serve as a prelude to the culture that would emerge in the 1970s and 1980s. It is especially true for the Mont erey International Pop Festival and Woodstock because they constructed the rock music concer t phenomenon in the 1960s, setting the stage for the future, most notably The Concert in Bang ladesh in 1971 and Live Aid in 1985 to be discussed in the next two chapters. From a commercial standpoint, it is intriguing to note that most of the major music festivals of the 1960sThe Monterey Inte rnational Pop Festival (1967) and Woodstock (1969), and even the infamous Altamont Festival (1969)have b een captured on either films or albums (or on both media), and as Kitts (2009) noted, much of what we know a nd think about these festivals comes from these films and recordings, which, as will be discussed shortly, are to be a marketing pattern for the future philanthropic events to follo w. The television and recording industries have packaged these events as historical commodities that competed with other cultural products on the market. However, Grossberg (1987) wrote that The hi story of rock and roll-if not rock and roll itselfis largely a set of images: musical and vi sual, live and recorded, personal and public, of performers and fans, of youths and adults, of f un and rebellion (p. 175). This means that free from commercial profits earned from the films and albums, these products also work as historical artifacts, capturing enthusiastic, clamorous a udiences engrossed in their music. Also, as Schowalter (2000) contended, these documents help explain how contemporary attacks on popular music might continue to re sonate with th e larger public. 45


So, I argue that whereas the music festivals of the 1960s were a meaningful social and cultural experience, they were also marketplaces that offered immeasurable promotional opportunities not only for the involved artists to raise their na me values but also for the purveyors of a variety of products and services fo r the audience, including the media. From the philanthropic point of view, while none of the even ts was largely heralded as a charity concert, the idea of non-profit concerts came into being and set the stage for the next decade to take note, the decade we can call a true beginning in charity rock. 46


CHAPTER 5 THE 1970S: A TRUE BEGINNING The 1970s in Retrospect In the 1970s, the rebellious edge of rock music in the previous decade diminished, having been promoted and produced as an acceptable commodity and purchased into the mainstream by the maturing baby-boomers (Haycock & Anders on, 2006, p. 4). It may have to do with the state of society in the early 1970s, which saw the conclusion of the Vietnam War and decrease in rock musics involvement in political activism. By the mid 1970s, the political involvement and consciousness that had popularized the counterculture movement seemed to be on the downhill as well (Bugliosi & Gentry, 1994). On a cultural level, journalist Tom Wolfe (1976) coined the te rm me decade (p. 27-48) in New York magazine, referring to the decade of the 1970s and what he saw was happening during the time. The term generally refers to the attit ude of Americans on self-awareness and away from human reciprocity awareness. Hi s observation is a clear contra st against the idealism of the 1960s, although it was not the only definitive term to describe the decade in general. The social trend of the era was also reflect ed on popular culture, as the 1 970s was certainly highlighted by a change from activism to hedonism (as evidenced by such rock sub-genres as disco and funk), and from production to consumption (as exemplified by a number of so-called multi-platinum selling albums of the era, such as Eagles Hotel California Fleetwood Macs Rumours and Peter Framptons Frampton Comes Alive! among many others). After the economic slump and oil shock of the early 1970s, a long process of decentralization in American economic, social and cultural organization began, and the music industry gradually responded w ith the demand of the new era (Schulman, 2001). As DiMaggio (1977) suggested, the organizati onal market perspective consid ers the potential for innovation 47


and diversity to be specific to each culture industry, depending on its organization and the dynamics of its market, and rock music exploded with more diversity than ever. With radio formats dominating the airwaves, moving radio st ations toward a more homogeneous style of music, the music industry also saw the biggest commercial success yet in the international market (Barnes, 1984). In the decade which saw the rise of disco, gl am rock, art rock, and mainstream rock, the revenues from the international sale of recorded music had su rpassed US $10 billion by 1978, the figure that was just over US $2 billion in 1969 (Garofalo, 1999). This was the decade that rock music, which originally developed and served so cial functions, was packaged and sold to the world as entertainment (p. 340). This clearly demonstrates that the increasing influence of Western culture and technology exerted a transfor mative influence across the globe, transpiring rock music to become a part of global system by itself. According to Ullestad (1987), rock resistance is overwhelmingly internal to the system of hegemony that structures social relations and s eldom rejects the dominant culture as such (p. 70). This may be one of the reasons that the poli tical idealism of the 1960s began to fade in line with the 1970s culture, which Garofalo (1999) de scribed as the loss of innocence (p. 338). This also has to do with the fact that the tastes for both the 1970s and 1980s rock were significantly associated with more conservative political orientations (Peterson & Christenson, 1987). Jaffee (1987) said protest rock grew out of vogue by the early 1970s, and politics did not make much of an impact in the United States during the most of the decade, as opposed to United Kingdom, where punk rock flourished in the late 1970s. It may be because while the 1960s music was intertwined with social changes and how emotiona lly close Americans were to it, there was far too much of it (Rodnitzky, 1999). Although some artists like John Lennon, 48


Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, and Marvin Gaye r ecorded socially releva nt songs in the early 1970s, these anti-war and left-winged political an thems owe to the 1960s more than the 1970s in terms of the issues at which they were challenging. Instead, there was a new social and global cause in the dawning of the 1970s that inspired a number of musicians. According to Mohaieme n (2008), the wide-spread global peace movement after the Vietnam War spawned the support for world crises and called out for humanitarian actions of rock musicians, and somebody had to answer the call. I l ook at The Concert for Bangladesh in 1971 as the main subject of the di scussion of the decade and briefly illustrate some other notable charity work that followed in th e footsteps of this first charity mega-event in the history of rock music. The Concert for Bangladesh by George Harrison and His Friends (1971) Looking back, the 1971 genocide in Bangladesh wa s a key marker in the media influence because there was little in ternational interest and support for the crisis before the massive media coverage began. Although media technology was changing fast through the 1950s and 1960s, the 1971 conflict ushered in a full spectrum use of media technol ogy (Mohaiemen, 2008, p. 36) in terms of international news coverage. She said th at when the Bangladesh crisis started, it was the media war that began as well, with a full-blow n coverage focusing on th e civil war. Ironically, George Harrison, too, used the power of the medi a to answer the call of the dying and suffering in Bangladesh. According to Farley (2001), Harrison was a godfather of the charity mega-concerts and helped popularize the combination of charity, gl obal awareness and rock music, which had not existed before. Established to help the refug ees and boat people from East Pakistan (now independent Bangladesh) in the midst of wa r and terror, The Concert for Bangladesh was arguably one of the first benefit concerts of this magnitude not only in rock music history but 49


also world history. He may have been the quiet Beatle, but he was never afraid to sound off on social issues that concerned him (para. 5). Harrison organized the event when his friend and teacher, Indian sitar player Ravi Shankar, told him about the crisis in East Pakistan and asked if he would be willing to do anything to help (De Curtis, 2005, p. 98). Having been educat ed about the seriousness of the tragedy, Harrison wasted no time and organized two conc erts in addition to wr iting and releasing a charity single titled Bangla-Desh right before the event took place. According to Shankar, George immediately, like magic, phoned up, fixe d Madison Square Garden and all of his friends (Huntley, 2004, p. 73). With the success of his solo career that had just launched, Harrison wanted the event to spark the interest of the public on East Pakistan and asked his musician friends for help, including Eric Cl apton, Bob Dylan, and Billy Preston (Ferguson, 2005). The famous plea by Harrison in his song Bangl a-Desh preceded the two concerts, setting a perfect tone for what many people consider as th e beginning of philanthropy in rock music. My friend came to me with sadness in his eyes, told me that he wanted help before his country dies. Although I couldnt feel the pain, I knew I had to try. Now I am asking all of you to help us save some lives (Harrison, 1971). This is one of nume rous historical instance s where what de Wahl (2008) defined as celebrity humanitarianism ( p. 51) reached out to people around the world rather successfully because the song became not only a proper promotion for the event but a heart-felt call to the world to bring attention to the crisis. The Concert for Bangladesh was held twice on the same day on August 1, 1971, and the participating musicians played in front of approximately 40,000 spectators who filled up Madison Square Garden in New York City (F ricke, 2005). It featured a group of well-known 50


performers of the time and appropriately perf ormed under the moniker of George Harrison and Friends. The line-up consisted of Harrison hims elf, Ravi Shankar, Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton, Billy Preston, Leon Russell, Badfinger, and a former colleague from The Beatles, Ringo Starr, among many others. Even without the help of th e two other ex-Beatles membersPaul McCartney and John LennonHarrison proved that it was his humanitari an vision, not the name values of the musicians, that made the event such a meani ngful and successful occasion. For instance, the album cover of the live album package sporte d a malnourished Banglad eshi child looking devastated, against which the re cord company objected, believi ng it was too explicit and could affect sales of the album. The executives insist ed on the photo of Harrison, but he refused and demanded that the child should be on the artwor k (Ferguson, 2005). This is a clear demonstration of Harrison putting the cause upfront. Harrison was a figure of visionary leadership. As Inglis (2003) asse rted, The Concert for Bangladesh was purely a spontaneo us and prototypical gesture ( p. 226). Huntley (2004) also said that with this concert, Harrison became the fi rst rock star philanthropist, long before it was fashionable, and set the template for every rock and roll altruist who followed in his wake (p. 13). More importantly, unlike prev ious extravaganzas, th e concert was not about egos and oneupmanship, and Harrisons presen ce throughout underlined the no tion that this was one-off gathering of musicians united in a single charitable purpose (p. 78). De Curtis (2005) said that the event was rightly enshrined in rock history as the model for every other superstar benefit concert of the last three decades (p. 98). It also showed the world that Harrison was more than willing to go out on a limb for a cause in which he truly believed (Giuliano, 1997, p. 131). According to Shappiro ( 2002), the concert could well be compared to 51


the best of the Woodstock moments, and musicians performed a wide variety of songs in an electric atmosphere that went well beyond a mere charity concert (p. 117). Ouellette and Cohen (2005) also posited that the star-studded package holds up well as a live greatest-hits collection (p. 70). When it comes to financial success, the main essence and ultimate goal of the project, the two concerts were highly successful. The ex act amount of US $243,418.50 generated from the sold-out concerts was a signifi cant amount at the time (De Cur tis, 2005, p. 98); the subsequent album and film added far more to the total. Or iginally, a check of the exact amount earned from the two concerts was immediately sent to Th e United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) for relief, and it was reported that a ll the parties involved were satis fied with the results, (Ferguson, 2005). The Concert for Bangladesh would become the template for future mega-events in rock music to follow, and George Harrison borrowe d the medias power and influence for further fundraising. A live album capturing the highlights of the two concer ts was released later in 1971 as a triple-LP box set. The record ended up wi nning the Grammy for the Album of the Year category in 1973. A concert film was also unleashed in 1972 and re-released for home video later in the year. De Curtis (2005) noted the album and movie raked in millions of dollars for UNICEF and raised awareness for the organi zation around the world, as well as among other musicians and their fans (p. 98). To commemorate the 30th anniversary of the ev ent, the double-CD reissu e hit the market in 2001. According to Ferguson (2005), Harrison had been working on a remastered and expanded deluxe edition right before his passing. For all th is accomplishment, this epic live event is 52


therefore acknowledged as the inspiration and fo rerunner to the major gl obal fundraising events of recent years (Oue llette & Cohen, 2005, p. 70). More than anything else, though, it was public aw areness raised on a global level regarding the grim situation in Bangladesh. Shankar said, It was magical, and within hours of the show, Bangladesh was known all over the world (Fri cke, p. 24). The music industry became a breeding ground for new insights to the farthest corners of the gl obe, and this concert aimed at raising funds for an well-established organization like UNICE F originated the concept of fundraising through rock-and-roll super-concerts for humanita rian causes (Chevigny, 2006, para. 7). The event, however, was not without its co ntroversies. As Garofalo (1992) observed, throughout the history of rock music benefit effort s, the issue of how th e funds are distributed what they are for and who will receive themof ten remains obscure. The concert was caught in a controversy because of the questions surround ing the distribution of the funds and proceeds raised. In addition, some other critics argued that George Harrison offere d little in the way of long-term humanitarian effort (Dettmar, 2010). According to Johnston (1985), by 1985 nearly US $12 million had been received by Bangladesh for relief, but it was soon discovered that the money was tied up in an Internal Revenue Service escrow account fo r 11 years because the concert or ganizers had not applied for tax-exempt status (p. R3). Even John Lennon, one of the ex-Beatles who refused to take part in the relief effort in 1971 spoke out nine years la ter that benefit shows are always rip-offs, by questioning where the money from the Bangladesh concert might have gone. He commented that he could not talk about it because it was still an ongoing problem at the time (Sheff, 1980). Allen Klein, head of the Beatles Apple film company, which produced the movie, insisted Apple 53


would make no money from the film version of the concert but would onl y recover advertising and production costs. A similar arrangement was ma de for the album version of the concert, but New York magazine alleged part of the proceeds remained unaccounted for despite the claim from Klein that the profits would be donated to UNICEF (Sweet Sounds, 1972, p. 127). However, most critics put the meaning of the event for being the very first historically important philanthropic effort and became the temp late for future charity concerts. Chandes and Pach (2009) argued that since th e event was the first of their kind, the utmost urgency was to raise funds, and knowing whether the collected funds would be effici ently spent, particularly in the distribution of help, was not the priorit y. Also, Payton (1988) noted, the rock musicians involved were without any expertis e at all in using that money to effect the changes they felt were necessary (p. 183). After all, as Forman (2002) argued, the funds raised for charity serve as the primary indicator of an events success or failure. Giuliano (1997) also contended that how much of that money actually translated into rice and medical supplies for the worn-torn nation is anybodys guess, but what will be remembered is the historic concert and spirit of coopera tion (p. 136). Although the concert was blighted by questionable and delayed distribut ion of money, the event spawned a series of charity concerts and recordings throughout the 1970s. The concert was back on the spotlight once again when the special DVD edition of the conc ert was released in 2005. Other Notable Events of the 1970s Because The Concert for Bangladesh was, inde ed, arguably the first large-scale charity concert on a global level and set the blueprint for future mega-events, there were few events in the decade that could come close to match the monstrous success of what George Harrison had accomplished in 1971. Even though there were a numb er of charity concerts in United Kingdom in the style of The Concert for Bangladesh, such as The Secret Policemans Balls in 1976, most 54


efforts did not get past the level of generating domestic buzz. However, a couple of events left a cultural and social impact around the world. Rock Against Racism (1976) One of the most successful and popular among the United Kingdoms series of charity concerts in the 1970s was Rock Against Racism (RAR), a movement originally organized to respond to racism and the growth of white na tionalist groups such as the National Front (Vulliamy, 2007). The crowning mo ment of the campaign was in spring 1978 when the crowd of 100,000 people attended the outdoor con cert to protest against the increasing racist movements in the country. The campaign lasted for more th an a few years, with the support from such popular musicians as The Clash, Generation X, and Buzzcocks who advocated anti-racism to educate the youth about the da nger and foolishness of racism (Green & Barker, 1997). The campaign offered open-air festivals and local-level live shows to encourage the audience to join the cause that racism was intole rable, a point well-made by the fact that black and white groups performed together (Cloona n & Street, 1997, p. 228) Although the campaign was not necessarily a fundraising ch arity event, this alliance of rock musicians was one of the precedents the future charity events drew upon a nd spawned similar spin-off music campaigns in the United Kingdom such as Rock Against Sexism and Rock Against Communism, which lasted from the late 1970s to the early 1980s (Griffin & Feldman, 2004). Rock Against Racism was reborn in 2004 and continues today under the campaign of Love Music Hate Racism; there were a number of soldout concerts in Belfast, Trafalgar Square and Victoria Park as well as some other stadiums and venues over the years (Wallace, 2004). In December 2007, the campaign marked the 30th anni versary of its foundation and held a similarthemed event in Victoria Park in April 2008. The event featured performances from major 55


contemporary acts and appearances by some of the music artists from the original Rock Against Racism era (Pearson, 2008). No Nukes Concerts (1979) In the United States, environmental concerns began to increase dramatically during this period (Jaffee, 1987), and Jackson Browne, John Hall, Bonnie Raitt, and Graham Nash established Musicians United for Safe Energy (MUS E). They rallied against the utilization of nuclear power, following the infamous Three Mile Island nuclear accident in March 1979 (Herman, 1979). MUSE, then, organized a series of five concerts under th e name of No Nukes Concerts in New York in September. The musi cians performing at the concerts included a number of famous rock musicians of the era, including Crosby, Stills, and Nash, James Taylor, Carly Simon, Bruce Springsteen and the E. Stre et Band, Tom Petty and th e Heartbreakers, The Doobie Brothers, and Poco. MUSE was at the time lauded and acclaimed as a high-water mark of inspiration and optimism about the abilit y of musicians, their audiences a nd persevering activists to do good (McLane, 1979, p. 14). Even the live album wa s released in 1980, followed by the film version of the concerts shortly after, in order to document the performances (Kreps, 2007). However, as a fundraising effort, just like a number of British charity projects that surfaced at the time, the project failed to generate a comparative affect an d rekindle global interest and media attention on the terms of The Concert for Bangladesh. As a long-term effort, though, No Nukes Concerts enjoyed longevity when the limelight was back on nearly thirty years since the formation of MUSE. Three of the or iginal founders, Browne, Raitt and Nash, gathered in Washington to continue the fight and put the issue back into public awareness. The three founders who organized the or iginal No Nukes Concerts delivered petitions 56


to Congress, urging lawmakers not to make it easier to finance nuc lear reactors, especially with the heightened concerns for terrorism and the global warming (Kiely, 2007, p. A2). The Music for UNICEF Concert (1979) The successful protocol of The Concert for Bangladesh was replicated in The Music for UNICEF Concert: A Gift of Song, in 1979, which was a bene fit concert held in the United Nations General Assembly in New York C ity on January 9, 1979 (Chevigny, 2006, para. 4). The Music for UNICEF Concert was headlined by so me of the biggest stars in the music industry in the late 1970s. The line-up featured ABBA, Bee Gees, Oliv ia Newton John, John Denver, Rod Stewart, Earth, Wind & Fire, Andy Gibb, and D onna Summer, with the performers supporting the worlds needy children and donating their pe rforming royalties from one song each to The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), the same charity organization that The Concert of Bangladesh raised the funds for (Strauss, 1997). The show coincided with the ar rival of the International Year of the Child, declared by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It was an immediate international success that brought a world-wide app eal, with the Bee Gees song donated for the cause, Too Much Heaven topping th e American charts in the same week of the event, and ABBAs Chiquita alone raising more than UK ,000 (Dixon, 2001). Music For The UNICEF Concert: A Gift of Song a double live album recorded during the concert, helped raise additional US $10 million (Bell, 1997). With the success of this concert and the incr eased concern in fundamental human rights, Joan Baez, arguably one of the first rock music ar tists that practiced social and political activism since the early 1960s, established Humanitas International in 1979. She printed full-page advertisements in major newspapers in the Unit ed States to respect f undamental human rights around the world, including Vietnamese boat peopl e (Huddart, 2005). Huddart (2005) wrote that 57


this move distanced some left-wing supporters but Baez, nonetheless, orga nized a series of live shows for Cambodia to raise emergency funds, wh ich eventually pulled in over US $1 million. If The Concert for Bangladesh signaled the beginning of the philanthropic movement in rock in the early 1970s, then The Music for UNICEF Concert may ha ve carried the spirit of charity rock into the late 1970s. Just as No Nukes was revitalized some 20 years later, in 1997 The Music for UNICEF Concert spawned the sequel to 1979. The second installment of this concert featured such contemporary artists as Celine Dion, Shania Twain, Aaron Neville, Wyclef Jean, Bryan Adams, Aaliyah, The Bacon Brothers, Mary Chapin Carpen ter, and Shawn Colvin. It was deja-vu of the original event, with each performer not just donating time, but also th e copyrights of a song (Gundersen, 1997, p. 10D). Summary and Discussion Whereas rock music became mainstream in the 1950s and 1960s as a sub-genre of popular music, with a number of musicians integrating political and social statements in their music and highlighted political activism, the 1970s saw a di fferent kind of social awareness and introduced the ideas of philanthropy and humanitarianism. Rock music was not a bout rebellion against social and political norms, as the music grew matu re with the passage of time. At the same time, with obvious changes in our society and culture rock music became a commodity. No wonder, any popular culture product is often defined as a commodity and commercially produced for profit although it may be more us efully defined by market, ideo logy, production, and aesthetics. As illustrated throughout the chapter, George Harrisons Concert for Bangladesh in 1971 became one of the concert highlights of the d ecade and ignited the philanthropic movement in rock music throughout the decade. Despite skeptical views, Harrison, one of the most spotlighted artists of the time, pulled out one of the grea test moments in rock music history with a 58


tremendous display of humanitarianism that st emmed from the concern for others. The event spawned a synergy effect uplifted by one of the most popular artists of our time and the audience from all around the glob e answering the call. Since the introduction of the charity rock concept in the 1960s with The Monterey International Pop Festival, several important pa tterns have emerged throughout the 1970s based on the overview of the decade when it comes to th e involvement of rock music in philanthropy is concerned. It was not just the changes within th e music industry that led to the prominence of charity concerts during the 1970s. Rather, it was a combination of different social and cultural factors interwoven together. First, the super-star format featuring some of the most well-known performers of the era helped charity concerts and recordings become a new trend. This is evidenced in several major events discussed in the chapter. For instance, The Concert in Bangladesh featured a group of performers like Eric Clapton, Billy Preston, B ob Dylan, Leon Russell, Badfinger, Ringo Starr, and, of course, George Harrison, who made the first concert appearance since the break-up of The Beatles. Second, these events also serve as a commodity but also a piece of history, ultimately extending the cultura l reach of the event while boosting overall revenues on a long-term basis. The Concert for Bangladesh was made available as a triple-LP box set and then as a film version for everyone to enjoy. With music sales still gr owing in the early 1970s, the record box set and the film were both critical and commercial succe ss. More importantly, th e success of the album and the film helped people around the world beco me familiar with the devastating situation in Bangladesh and join the cause. Still, all the procee ds from the sales of the products have gone to benefit the George Harrison Fund for UNICEF. 59


Third, the causes for aid and help have expande d over the course of the decade. What first began with a small concern for the crisis in Bangladesh later branched out to other concerns ranging from environmental issues to children s welfare, and human rights in general. Many issues were high on the rock musicians activism agenda from this point o n, and they were active from local to global issues, as eviden ced by Rock Against Racism and MUSE. While not discussed, there were other events displayed rock musicians growing humanitarianism and generosity on global issues. Bob Dylan, Arlo Guthrie, Pete Seeger and Peter, Paul & Mary participated in the Eveni ng for Salvador Allende in 1974, the concert in honor of Chilean president Salvador Allende, poet Pa blo Neruda, and musician Victor Jara, all of whom died during the coup led by Pinochet in September 1973 (Eliot, 1979). In addition, the Rolling Stones played a benefit concert after the Nicaraguan ear thquake in 1973 to raise money and bring public attention on the situation. The artists involved de monstrated their global-minded humanitarianism, despite the criticism that the concerts went barely r ecognized by the public and the funds raised were not considerable enough to help out the refugees and victims (Schumacher, 1996). Lastly, we have seen the original events of the 1970s resurfacing and creeping back into public awareness more recently in one way or another. For one, the album The Concert for Bangladesh was reissued in October 2005 and paired up with the simultaneous release of the original 1972 film on a two-disc special edition DVD. We also saw the group of musicians for the original No Nukes Concerts and Rock Agai nst Racism reuniting to continue their quest almost three decades later. The return may have to do with the current eco nomic and institutional changes, the sense of nostalgia, the cultural cycle, the demographics of the audience, but most of all, the continued 60


conscience and interest in huma nitarian support by the people i nvolved in the projects and the audience, both old and new. This retro trend is what Plasketes (2005) described as an endless loop of repeating, retrieving, re winding, recycling, r eciting, redesigning, a nd reprocessing of culture from one generation to another (p. 137). This reminds us that these efforts may be nothing new but not forgotten, either. The philant hropic efforts in the 1970s exemplify how far rock music has come since Monterey. 61


CHAPTER 6 THE 1980S: A DECADE OF PROSPERITY The 1980s in Retrospect According to Huddart (2005), the predominant fo rms of popular music in the decade of the 1980s posed little political threat overall. Given the political economy of rock music, the main audience of rock music shifted from the soci ally conscious baby-boomers to baby-busters and early Generation Xers who grew up in a histori cal span of relative geopolitical peace in the western world (Stephey, 2008). This might have resulted in the l ack of their political activism during the 1980s unlike the firs t generation of baby-boomers w ho had gone through social and political upheavals in the 1960s and 1970s. As far as the music industry is concerned, th e highly political punk ro ck subculture that expressed youthful rebellion and characterized anti-authoritarian ideologies in the late 1970s finally died out (Sabin, 1999). Instead, we saw a number of commercially profitable sub-genres of rock and pop music emerging, such as dance, new-wave, and contemporary rhythm and blues, which contained little political or social comm entary. Frith (1988) pointed out that the 1980s saw rock music shifting toward pop sens ibility (as opposed to rock sens ibility). Rather than sticking to authentic rock in terms of form, identity, and presenta tion, the bands like Culture Club, Human League, Spandau Ballet, Cyndi Lauper, and Eurythmics were far from the usual style and performance of their contemporar ies in traditional rock music such as Bruce Springsteen, Tom Petty, and John Mellencamp. On the other hand, there were sti ll some signs of the social an d political engagement by rock musicians in the 1980s. For one, there was a figh t against the campaign launched by the Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) in 1985, whose atte mpts included the Senate hearings and the censorship control to regulate rock music s freedom of expression. The founders of the 62


organization claimed that the music was responsible for the obscenity and violence that were permeating the United States (Chastagner, 1999). In addition, even though punk rock was no longer a dominant music style, the aftermath of punk paved the way for the so-called Second British Invasion bands. The bands like The Police, Elvis Costello, and The Smiths were socia lly and politically cons cious in terms of the lyrics. A number of such American independent ro ck bands as R.E.M. and Sonic Youth were as equally sociopolitical in what they represented lyrically, just like their British counterparts. They were truly against the social norms and were the eighties bands only in the sense of being against the eighties (Reynolds, 2006, p. 392-393). In addition, while not the most popular or commercially profita ble sub-genre of the 1980s, rap music represented significant innovations in musical form, meaning, and performance (Toop, 1984; Shaw, 1986). Historically, th e African-American tradition in popular music has always been interwoven with social and political activism. Rap music di splayed a unique subculture or message (Lopes, 1992, p. 67) and became a force of its own in the 1990s, achieving a significant success worldwide. In terms of the music industrys growth, tec hnology played a key ro le in the industrys success story, and in the 1980s, the potential of this process was pushed to a new level. As much as the compact disc revolutionized the music medi a format, the advances in satellite transmission not only created the possibility of instant exposure for music artist s with visual images but the simultaneous broadcast of performances on a worldwide scale (Garofalo, 1999). The launching of MTV is an apparent example of this new industry paradigm. Haycock and Anderson (2006) contended th at in an increasin gly globalized and interconnected world, many international mass media events construct and ma nage the flow of 63


images and messages that shape the perceptions a nd consciousness of consumers (p. 1). In other words, the 1980s was a crucial decade that demonstrated a shift in media landscape with the concept of global village becoming more prevalen t than ever. Besides MTV, such alternative multicultural media have become both fashiona ble and more visible in the 1980s (Ginsburg, 1991, p. 92). From an international perspective, the concept of global village was most dramatically realized in the phenomenon of mega-events, a se ries of socially conscious international concerts and all-star performan ces dubbed charity rock (Garofalo, 1992, p. 275). Dettmar (2010) said that in the 1980s the ro ck benefit events became its own selfpromulgating industry that has co ntinued to this day (p. 204). He said that the outpouring of creativity during this era meant th at it was only a matter of time before musicians and audience members began to ask whether that energy could be put into good use. Specifically, in the mid 1980s, the rock history was marked by new developm ents both at the organi zational and artistic levels with two major recordings and one concert (Prvos, 1987). Do They Know Its Christmas? by Band Aid (1984) In late 1984, a BBC television report by Michae l Buerk was aired, high lighting the deadly famine that had devastated the people of Ethiopia. Bob Geldof, singer and leader of Irish rock band Boomtown Rats, witnessed the news and quick ly reacted to save th ose people suffering and dying in hunger. It was the news media again that transpired a rock musician to step forward and do something for the world, as it was the case for The Concert for Bangladesh (Philo, 1993). Philo also emphasized that once the media treated the Ethiopian famine as a major issue, the results were dramatic; Bob Geldof simply extend ed the life of the story and the range of its impact upon the public (p. 123). Geldof immediately called his friend, Mi dge Ure of British rock band Ultravox, after watching the report, and together they quickly co-wrote a song. Geldof s connections in the 64


music business were critical to organizing a number of popular British and Irish musical talents to record a charity record (Elavsky, 2009). In fact, Geldof did more than ju st get the people; he collected 37 friends and acquaintances, including Sting of The Police, Phil Collins, Paul Young Spandau Ballet, Bananarama, U 2, Wham, Style Council, Ultravox, Status Quo and Culture Club, and Duran Duran. Most of these artists symbolized the power and influence of the visual phenomenon in rock music and represented th e age of MTV as international superstars. The quote by Bob Geldof is a reminder that humanitarian concerns were much more important than politics from as far as the motiv ation for Band Aid. He said, The point is a monstrosity of this kind is above politics, it isnt something to be argued over or thought about or rationalized. It doesnt matter who gives what aid or who is to blame. The point is 28 million people in the Horn of Africa may die within 12 months: that is th e point (as cite d in Harrington, 1984, p. B7). Thus, the issue at cause was saving people. When the participating musicians were ca lled upon, there was a tremendous amount of media scrutiny. Finally, on November 24, 1984, the song was recorded by 44 artists who filled up Sam West Studio in London. The final product Do They Know Its Christmas? came through the Band Aid Charitable Trust (BACT) with strategic goals to stimulate public awareness and primarily donations to fund immedi ate famine relief; the song was quickly mixed and released on November 29, 1984 (Wood, 1984). As for the songs success, the single sold one million copies in the initial week of release and stayed atop on the British charts for five c onsecutive weeks. It was the fastest and biggest selling record ever in England with more than two and a half million copies of singles sold by December of 1984. The Band Aid project has been helped by donations of advertising space in many magazines and papers and by retailers waiving profits from the sale of the records 65


(Harrington, 1984). The Band Aid Charitable Trust eventually raised more than US $144 million, most of which was spent on emerge ncy food for Ethiopia (Robinson, 2004). On the contrary, just as any other previous char ity event, Band Aid received a fair amount of criticism. Bradby (1989) contended the song has little to do with the people watching at home. He said that the distance between the givers and receivers of the aid is distinguished in a few lines of the song. For example, we are constituted as in our world of plenty, and you, having fun at Christmas, are contrasted with them, dying beneath the burning African sun. He said the title and chorus line, Do they know its Christmas ti me at all? display the rock musicians extraordinary ignorance about the Ethiopian religion. The lyrics also present a stereotypical notion of Africa, as if the continent had no rainfall or successful crops. For one, the song paradoxically dramatized the geographical and emotional distance between the donors and recipients by using they in the song and the idea of hegemony with the line feed the world. Its an irony that the song titled Do They K now Its Christmas? was meant to illuminate the cultures, hardships, and perspe ctives of the African populatio n. The songs lyrics suggesting nothing grows in Africa underscored how the life ways of approximately 700 million peoples in fifty-four countries representing for non-Afri cans, unimaginable multicultural, polyethnic, polyreligious, multipolitical, and mega economic groups are perpetually denigrated in the Western media (Chavis, 1998, p. 1). However, the praise on Band Aid and Bob Geldof still outshined the criticism. What is unique about Bob Geldofs philant hropic gesture is that he took his involvement into the next level by appraising the grim situation in Africa hi mself in early 1985. After the initial success of the Band Aids single, he was determined to ra ise more money, apparen tly enraged and saddened by the conditions in Ethiopia (Westley, 1991). He soon launched himself into organizing the 66


biggest charitable concert the worl d had ever seen, the Live Aid c oncert in 1985. In return for his achievement in humanitarian efforts, Bob Gel dof was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, received an honorary knighth ood by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, and won numerous awards and earned nominations (Wes tley, 1991). More than anyt hing else, he has and still continues to represent an extraordinary example of selfle ss dedication to a cause (p. 1014). We Are the World by USA for Africa (1984) When the worldwide popular music phenomenon known as Thriller (1982) had just become the best-selling album of all-time globally, Pareles (1984) gave the opinion that in the world of pop music, there is Michael Ja ckson and there is everybody els e (p. C11). However, in him there was something more than the musical, cult ural, and commercial presence that he carried with. Although We Are the World was initia ted by Harry Belafontea well-known American singer and social activist who had spent some tim e on conceiving a charity song to be recorded by a group of American music artistsit was Michael Jackson who took the magnitude and level of exposure and buzz to a whole new level, as he was arguably th e biggest international superstar in popular cult ure globally (p. 285). Before the writing of the song, Belafonte had already decided to donate all the proceeds from the soon-to-be recorded single to a ne w charity organization named United Support of Artists for Africa (USA for Africa), which also would become the monike r of the gathering of the musicians of the song. The plan of USA fo r Africa was conceived by Band Aids Do They Know Its Christmas?, which sparked the idea for Belafonte to record a ch arity single, featuring Americas most popular and influential music artists at the time and also as a counterpart to Band Aid to seek out help for those in needs in Africa (Taylor, 1 987, p. 3). The non-profit foundation was established to help starving people in Africa, specifically Ethiopia, where 67


approximately one million citizens starved to death during the country s 1984 and 1985 famine (Harden, 1987). Belafonte got in touch with entertainment mana ger and fundraiser Ken Kragen to discuss the project, and things took off from there. A number of legendary rock musiciansBruce Springsteen, Kenny Rogers, Stevie Wonder, Billy Joel, and Ray Charles, to name a fewwere soon enlisted to add some more name value to the project, with Quincy Jones being tapped as producer. Still, there were no bigger names than Michael Jackson as far as the popularity was concerned. The career path of Jackson has had major im plications for the treatment of African American musicians, but few were as important and significant as USA for Africa and We Are the World. The song, co-written by Jackson and Lionel Richie, produced by Quincy Jones, with organizational input from Harry Belafonte, was clearly a product of African American leadership. Furthermore, Jackson enabled the musi c industry to put its be st international foot forward by taking the huge leap in developi ng the phenomenon that came to be known as charity rock (Garofalo, 1992, p. 275). According to Campbell (1993), Jackson was the mastermind behind the project. Upon hearing about the project by Belafonte and Kragen, not only did he desire to sing the tune but to take part in its composition as well, because of his heavy involvement with various charities over the years. Although Jackson and Richie worked on the lyrics and melodies together, the older sister of Jackson, La Toya, sa id that her younger brother wrote percent of the lyrics and implied his quiet and somewhat anonymous human itarian involvement by saying that he never felt it was necessary to say that (as cited in Taraborrelli, 2004, p. 342). 68


During the last day of the r ecording session, Jackson was the first one to arrive at A&M Recording Studios in Hollywood to lay down his solo section and a vocal chorus (Breskin, 2004). The 45 top musicians in the United States participated in the final recording session. Upon the arrival at the studio, they were all me t with a sign on the door, Please check your egos at the door (Taraborrelli, 2004, p. 344), so that th ey could be reminded of the projects ultimate goal and its meaning as a charity project. The song became a tremendous success all over the world, and in the United States, it topped the Billboard Hot 100, Billboard R&B singles chart, and Billboard Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks chart, wh ere it remained on top for a month (George, 2004). The song earned a number of accolades af ter its release, including four awards at the 1986 Grammy Awards, furthering its already immense impact (Campbell, 1993). It also became Americas fastest-selling pop single record in history (Bennet, 1985) and one of the best-selling singles of all-time, with nearly 20 million copies sold and millions of dollars donated to famine relief (Taraborrelli, 2004, p. 344). According to Wilson (1986), by October 1986, it was revealed that the projects US $50 million goal had already been accomplished and ex ceeded. CBS Records that released the We Are the World single gave USA for Africa a ch eck for US $2.5 million, raising the grand total to US $51.2 million. Clark (2006) recently reported that since its release, We Are the World has raised US $63.1 million into the new millennium. Contrary to how money was distributed follo wing The Concert for Bangladesh, organizer Ken Kragen announced that USA for Africa was not going to distribute the funds all at once. Instead, he revealed that the foundation was l ooking into finding a long-term solution for Africas problems and pointed out that experts ha d indicated that it would take at least 10 to 20 69


years to make a slight difference to Africas long-term problems (as cited in Glave, 1985, p. 7A). This demonstrates the systematic im provement of charitable fundraising in the entertainment industry unlike the previous decade. In addition to its commercial and cultural impact, We Are the World has been widely viewed as a politically importa nt song, which effected an intern ational focus on Africa that was simply unprecedented and has been credited with creating a climate in which musicians from around the world felt inclined to follow (Garofalo, 1992, p. 29). This supports the assertion made earlier in the study that the goal of a charit y event in rock music is all about waking people up to what is happening around the world and rais ing public awareness on the cause at issue. According to Holden (1987), even in the best of ar tistic climates, the majo rity of rock music has always been conceived as dis posable light commercial entertainment, but since We Are the World, a new movement has been made within rock music to create songs that address humanitarian concerns (p. A28). Ironically, most criticism con cerning the USA for Africa proj ect was targeted at Jackson because of his heavy, ubiquitous, but quite bizarre involvement in the project. For one, he was criticized for having filmed and recorded his so lo work privately away from the other musicians involved. According to Garofalo (1992), his detr actors claimed that Jackson liked to feel different from everybody else (p. 29), even in this kind of charity project, and that he tried to concentrate on his part by buildi ng a fence around himself. Howeve r, his rather strange personal behaviors are well-documented, a nd his supporters reasoned that re cording right next to other superstars could leave him awestruck and una ble to perform at his best (p. 29). Koku (1995) noted that although donating to char ity is a nice gesture and brings positive publicity for an artist, there are also philanthropists who engage in philanthropic activities to 70


compete with everyone else for a unique image (p. 24). He argued that Michael Jackson, in spite of his philanthropic endeavors is known more for his crotch grabbing and one whitegloved hand in the music video than for his philanthropy (p. 24). Howe ver, most arguments directed at the song and Jackson are grounded upon the critics personal viewpoints on Jackson from musical and visual sta ndpoints without consideration of the massive international popularity and success it has received. Holden (1987) claimed that the song was inte nded as a simple and eloquent ballad but an artistic triumph that transcends it s official nature (p. A28). He an alyzed that the line, Theres a choice were making, penned by Jackson, possessed a sentimental edge because it was sung by those with superstar mystiques (p. A28). McGillis (1999) also said th at while no subsequent global emergency has sparked such zeal on the pa rt of celebrity fundraisers, the stakes had certainly been raised by the res ponse to the Ethiopian famine. He said that the songwriting of Jackson invokes the listeners strong emotional identification with the starving in Ethiopia (p. 20). Despite criticism that it had too many contem porary pop musicians as opposed to rock musicians from a musical standpoint, Marsh ( 2004) noted that We Are the World was influential in subverting the way music and m eaning were produced, showing that musically and racially diverse musicians could work toge ther both productively an d creatively (p. 519). He also emphasized that the song showed that people could change the world and focused international attention on Africa in a way that was simply unprecedented. The 20th anniversary of We Are the World wa s met with an international celebration in 2005, as radio stations all over the world recogni zed Jackson and the USA for Africas landmark song by simultaneously playing it on air (Lewis, 2005). On top of the simulcast, the song was 71


treated with the releas e of a double-disc DVD titled We Are the World: The Story Behind the Song. The co-organizer Ken Kragen noted that the decision behind the simulcast on radio and DVD was not for USA for Africa to praise themselves for doing a good job, but to stay true to the cause and use it to do some more good for the original charity (para. 6). In an interview that coincided with the anniversary, Harry Belafonte also asserted that the song had stood the test of tim e (Gangel, 2005, para. 28). Fittingly enough, the charity tune was performed by the star-studded cast at the public memorial se rvice for Jackson on July 7, 2009 and re-appeared on the American music charts for the first time since its original release in 1985. The song eventually peaked at number 50 on Bill board Hot Digital Songs chart (Trust, 2009). As for the career of Jackson since We Are th e World, he continued to reach out for the disenfranchised and underprivileged with his humanitarian leader ship and devoted much of his time by working with many charity organizations until his death. He established a charity foundation of his own, the Heal the World Founda tion, in 1992. The foundation was to benefit childrens charities and environmental groups, whic h eventually sent millions of dollars across the world for good causes (Harrington, 1992). His lifetime charitable donation until his death was reported to have topped US $300 million. With the list of 39 organization, he was cited by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2000 as the star who supported the most charity organizations (Shriver, 2009, p. 16). One of the most remarkable qua lities about the song is its pla ce in popular culture as one of the most enduring efforts in rock music histor y. With Do They Know Its Christmas? by Band Aid, We Are the World by USA for Africa helped provide the basis for th e Live Aid concert in 1985, the largest single event in human history in terms of audience size. Live Aid concert quickly followed the success of Band Aid and USA for Africa without losing any momentum. 72


Live Aid: The Day the Music Changed the World (1985) According to Cloonan and Street (1997), rock musics social responsibility was most dramatically represented by the success of Live Aid in 1985 (p. 228), a massive live concert organized to help the victims of famine in Et hiopia. Following the massive success of the two charity records, Live Aid introduced some of the most familiar names in rock music on the crosscontinental concert in London a nd Philadelphia on July 13, 1985. Th e event was broadcast across the globe in front of approximate ly one billion viewers and rega rded as the first live global concert event of its kind (Elavsky, 2009, p.384). Live Aid provide d a moment of opportunity, where globalization itself was a two-way process, setting the bar for al l subsequent musical benefit concerts to emerge (Garofalo, 1992). Denselow (1989) employed the terms post-Li ve Aid mood and Live Aid style charity concert (p. 249-250) to describe its massive success as a fundraiser, following the success of Band Aid and USA for Africa. In addition, Live Aid constituted the main precedent underlying all modern musical relief events. The primary achievement of the 1985 mega-event, apart from its inarguable technological innovations and globally synchron ized simulcast, was its massive success as a fundraiser (p. 250). In terms of the technology, Fe in (1985) said that Live Aid was the largest potential television audience, the biggest intercontinental satel lite hookup, the grandest stage, the most impressive list of rock-and-roll performers (p. 5). He also noted that the concert supplemented with footage from seven other concerts around the world and simultaneously broadcast on radio and television to more than 150 countries. Some credited the event as the point where the mainstream entertainment industry realized that the rock concert industry had overtaken them in technical expertise (Hilton, 2005, p. 16). 73


As a music event, Live Aid was a key moment that continues to hound emotional responses from us because of its impressive roster in addi tion to of its motives and goals. Even today, the legacy of Live Aid still lives on. The line-up of performers put together by Bob Geldof within several months of preparation looks impressive even though two of the most predominant talents of the decade, namely, Michael Jackson and Prince, were not able to perform and may have prompted the lack of black talent. Bob Geldof shot down the concern ove r this racial issue by saying, I explained that the purpose of Live Aid was to raise money. If a band sold a million records, it meant more people would watch than if they sold a thousand (Geldof, 1986, p. 290). The line-up featured more than 50 artists from all around the world, including such veteran musicians as Bob Dylan, Tina Turner, Mick Jagger, Patti LaBelle, Eric Clapton, Paul McCartney, Neil Young, Beach Boys, Santana, El ton John, David Bowie, and Joan Baez. The bill also included the hit-makers of the time, including Phil Collins, Sting, Duran Duran, Wham!, The Cars, Dire Straits, and Hall & Oates. Even more impressive was that not only were there a number of soon-to-be international superstars like Madonna, U2, INXS, and Sade, but also there were several acts reunited for this specific oc casion, namely, Led Zeppe lin, Black Sabbath, and The Who. There was something for everyone when it came to diversit y of the performers. Live Aid was a global media event that em phasized charity and philanthropy as well as global cooperation, thanks to th e ever-growing technology and urgenc y of the issue. As Huddart (2005) argued, its use of highly emotional televised images to stimulate donations subsequently changed the face of internationa l fundraising (p. 37). That is, the event gave the audience and performers a sense of togetherness and belongi ng in a way that they could feel good about themselves and show others, especially cons ervative ideologues, that rock music embraced humane and caring elements. 74


Ullestad (1987) contended while the positive view holds that Live Aid was a return of the spirit of rock and roll, a revi talization of the audience, musici ans and industry in a socially relevant way (p. 68), the other view suggests th at Live Aid was just the opposite. He said that the opposing side thought it was well-intentio ned charity and philanthropy without political significance other than that in dividual concern and sharing wa s kept within corporate and governmental channels (p. 68). In addition, accor ding to Shepherd (2003), while the concert successfully raised publi c awareness of world poverty and fu nds for Ethiopia, the concert was criticized for providing a stage for self-aggrandizement and increased profits for the rock stars involved (p. 209). Marsh (1986) al so added that the reawakeni ng of a section of the rock audience to its own social potential and a quantum leap in public awareness of the horrifying problems of poverty, hunger, homelessness and racism (p. 2). In this regard, as Garofalo (1992) argued, Live Aid resisted and challenged the id eas that the world was best served by greedy self-interest (p. 46). In addition, Live Aid took place in the middle of the MTV decade, with artistic integrity taking a back seat to visual at tractiveness. Some argued that the show was full of prefabricated pop musicians, meaningless reunions, and under-re hearsed nostalgia bands, which were more about raising their name values than raising awareness or m oney. As Dettmar (2010) noted, the Live Aid participants motivations may not have been as idealistic as they claimed because playing in front of an audience of millions of pe ople has its own advantages. He argued that most participants were rock supers tars eager to rehabilitate th eir images as selfish, greedy entertainers and fronted by artist s with little sense of what thei r show is actually benefiting (p. 204). 75


Some critics claimed that Live Aid is part of the problem and not a solution of any type. Their argument was further bolstered in April of 1986 when Norman Tebbitt from Margaret Thatchers administration received an overwhelming ovation and praise from the British music industry when he extolled Live Aid as a trium ph of international ma rketing (Frith, 1986, p. 20). This is another indication of the event being treated as no more than a marketing tool, far from its original goal of saving people s lives by raising awareness and funds. Another criticism that stemmed from Live Ai d is how the stereotypes about Africa have influenced us. According to Boggan (2002), al though Live Aid had a profound meaning on the nations psyche, the word Africa is often auto matically associated w ith war, starvation and grinding poverty. He cited a study from the Res earch for Voluntary Service Overseas, which concluded that the images from Live Aid stuck in peoples memories that more positive images printed and broadcast since have failed to make an impression (p. 7). Possibly, the biggest criticism of Live Aid has been how the money raised from the event has been spent. Fox News television host Bill OReilly (2005) criticized the event by questioning the whereabouts of the funds raised for Ethiopia. Arguing that most funds have been intercepted by the Ethiopian warlords, OReilly called Live Aid the noble intentions turned bad in Africa (para. 7). He also added that ch arity organizations themselves must carefully take care of money instead of leaving it to corrupt governments. Ot her critics have also no ted the danger of losing hard-earned donations to corrupt governments. According to Ri eff (2005), much of the funds raised by Live Aid might have gone to non-govern mental organizations in Ethiopia, which are suspected to be under control of the warlords. He said that th ere is no necessary connection between raising money for a good cause and that money being well spent, just as there is no 76


necessary connection between cari ng about the suffering of others and understanding the nature or cause of that suffering (p G2). Based on the overview of Live Aid, we can a pproach the marriage between philanthropy and crassness of this event with th e opposing views. However, what should not be overl ooked is that it was a group of musicians, not economists, who did know not hing more about the Ethiopian crisis than any of us and how the money would be distribute d than the average viewers of television news. They disapproved th e tragedy as morally intolerant and utilized their talents and the best technology available to them, hoping to raise a lot of money in a hurry although the funds raised did not quickly converted into some thing edible or held up somewhere else. Payton (1988) elaborated, Rock stars pr oved to know little about the logi stics but seemed to have only just recently discovered that Ethiopia is th e center of a terrible civil war (p. 182) Not only was Live Aid a historic event, but also it was a form of musical nostalgia to those who remember it. Live Aids long-term impact was reaffirmed when th e extensive four-disc DVD box set featuring the major performances was unleashed in 2005 when it coincided with the 20th anniversary of the concert. Edlund (200 4) wrote that the Live Aid DVD is useful as more than just a political reminder because as a time capsule, it is an indispensable document of the mid 1980s music and culture. He said, The DVD is worthwhile for the nostalgia trip alone. But even more so than the music and fashion, you may find yourself wishing to revisit the sense of purpose and the moral clarity Live Aid represented (p. 15). On November 1, 2004, the DVD hit the stores in the United States, under the nostalgic banner, Relive the Day the Music Changed th e World. The DVD box set of Live Aid sold approximately 100,000 copies in the United States in its first week of sa le, making it one of the best-selling titles, according to Nielsen SoundScan (Levine, 2004). In the United Kingdom, the 77


20th anniversary Live Aid was met with much mo re enthusiasm when the title was on the verge of becoming the fastest-selling music DVD in hist ory by selling 20,000 copies in just three days, outselling its nearest music DVD ri val by eight times (Ashton, 2004). The release of Live Aid on DVD proves that the nostalgia marketing is a ma jor business paradigm because nostalgia is recurring and reusable commodity in popular musi c. Based on the business practices in recent years, there has been a high demand in nostalgia -related products from the consumers and a proliferation in the use of popular culture from the past aimed at target segments (Holbrook & Schindler, 2003). More than 20 years after Live Aid, Bob Geldof summed up the accomplishment of Live Aid in his own words. He said, That event was almo st perfect in what it achieved. I couldnt see how anything could possibly be better than that glorious day 20 years ag o (as cited in Perry, 2007, para. 5). Geldofs strategy wa s very simple but far-reaching in that he rearranged what had been done before in a new, different way that none had gone before, as an attempt to reach out to the entire world and come out with convincing results. Other Notable Events of the 1980s Following the Live Aids US $150 million fundraising efforts, the second half of the 1980s saw some identical charity ventures. While this endless array of proj ects of the decade could easily be accused of trivializing human crises, it also opened up po ssibilities for cultural politics that were previously unmatched. However, most endeavors inspired by Band Aid, USA for Africa, and Live Aid soon flopped in terms of raising public awareness and money, mainly due to the fact that the th ree preceding events set the bar so high that the following efforts went unnoticed by the public. There were a couple of extensiv e concert tours, both of whic h were headlined by Sting, the ex-member of The Police, namely, A Conspiracy of Hope in 1986 and Human Rights Now! in 78


1988. The concert tours took place not for the sake of fundraising but for the celebration of the Amnesty Internationals 25th anniversary a nd its efforts on human rights (Henke, 1988). However, the concerts flew under the radar of the public so quie tly to the point in which the NBCs Today Show Host Bryant Gumbel announ ced the morning after the final show of A Conspiracy of Hope, I dont th ink any of us would quibble about the worth of the cause (as cited in Bell, 1986). Still, several relevant philanthropic charity e fforts in 1985 garnered a substantial amount of public interest. They all quickly fo llowed in the footsteps of the al l-star format of Live Aid that took place in 1985, the peak of ch arity events in rock music. While there were Farm Aid and Artists United Against Apartheid, which took a deci dedly more political turn in their presentation, there was an event that showcased the humane an d caring elements of ro ck music and called out for global cooperation. Dionne Warwick and Friends (1985) Thats What Friends Are For was a one-off collaboration that feat ured Dionne Warwick, Gladys Knight, Elton John and Stevie Wonder. Th e charity song was released at the end of 1985, copying the all-star format of Ba nd Aid and USA for Africa, just li ke many other projects at the time. All the profits off the single went to American Foundation for AIDS Research, which eventually raked in more than US $3 million fo r that specific cause. The song reached number one and stayed on top for four weeks on the Billboard Hot 100 in January 1986 and became the number one single of the year by Billboard magazine (Whitburn, 2006). Many critics praised the record for the musician s concern on the then relatively new disease and their effort to raise public awareness on the issue. For example, Brown (1986) commended the song by saying that it managed to be bot h endlessly catchy and universally moving, and benefits AIDS research in the bargain ( p. 11). Dionne Warwick reminded us of the true 79


meaning of philanthropy in one of the interviews by saying that her charitable interests are just a question of giving back what was given me (as cited in Howe, 1986, p. D1). The songs initial success led to an additio nal charity event on March 17, 1990, an AIDS benefit concert titled Th ats What Friends Are For. This major event also doubled as the celebration of the Arista Record s 15th anniversary and featur ed label performers like Air Supply, Patti Smith, Barry Manillow. Dionne Warw ick teamed up with Whitney Houston for the finale, Thats What Friends Are For (Gundersen, 1990, p. 2D). According to Holden (1990), all the proceeds, including advance ticket sales which had surpassed US $1.7 million, went to the Gay Mens H ealth Crisis and various AIDS organizations nationwide (p. C15). In the end, about 6,000 fans paid up to US $1,000 to attend the event to help the fight against AIDS. Fittingly enough, Aris ta Records founder and president Clive Davis called the event a party with a purpose (as cited in Gundersen, 1990, p. 2D). Artists United Against Apartheid (1985) With the performers royalties earmarked for the Africa Fund, the charity to aid families of political prisoners in South Africa and anti-apa rtheid efforts outside South Africa took place in October 1985. Steven Van Zandt and 50 musicians recorded Sun City under the project named the Artists United Against Apartheid (Pareles, 1985) At the time of the release of the single, Steven Van Zandt described the tune as the best political music Ive ev er heard (as cited by Barol, 1985, p. 94). Mondak (1988) posited that Sun City is uniqu e among protest songs because it features a diverse and extensive body of popul ar performers from rockers to rappers from all around the world. The performers include Bruce Springsteen, U2, Bob Dylan, Hall & Oates, and Pete Townshendmost of whom appeared either in Band Aid, USA for Africa, or Live Aid only a 80


few months prior. As illustrated by Schechter (2 007), the song offered inte lligently argued lyrics with logical precision to prompt political actions against apartheid in South Africa. However, the song simply did not fit the format of the charity trend of the decade and failed to receive any recognition worldwide. It barely cracked the Top 40 on the Billboard Hot 100 in November 1985, and less than half of American radio stations ended up playing the song. Some stations refused to play the song, due to the lyri cal content criticizing Pr esident Ronald Reagans policy of constructive engagement, which prevented efforts by the United Nations to impose sanctions against South Africa (M anzo, 1986). Ullestad (1987) said Sun City is the most immediate example of a rock song that goes against the tide and vigorously stre tches the limits of the political space of the dominant culture rejecting the accepted boundaries of both political and rock discourse (p. 70). As far as its significance, he speculated that Sun City would not have received the attention it did had it not been preceded by Live Aid. Despite the polarizing views on the project, Sun City by the Artists United Against Apartheid was a disappointment in terms of rais ing public awareness and raising funds. From a perspective of charity fundraisi ng, although some critics praised its unique political commentary, it failed to accomplish what other charity events at the time were able to achieve. Even though the song was highly motivated and inspired by humanita rian issue, it did not sell records, didnt get a whiff of airplay, and didnt impress the folks at MTV (McShane, 1995, p. 77). Farm Aid (1985) According to Payton (1988), one major dilemma of philanthropy is the priority given to needs near at hand when there is suffering elsewh ere (p. 163). He said that one answer is to balance them (p. 163). Building on the moment um of Live Aid, the sponsors of the United States section of the Live Aid concert did not hesitate to organize Hands Across America in 1986, which was aimed at the hardships of those in poverty in America, just as Live Aid was 81


targeted at the condition of the starving people in Africa. Furthermore, Live Aid gave rise to an annual mega-charity concert event, Farm Aid, but with a big controversy when Bob Dylan made a comment, Wouldnt it be great if we did so mething for our own farmers right here in America? (Farm Aid, 2010, para. 1) In his best-selling autobiography, Is that it? Geldof (1987) was hi ghly critical of the statement made by Bob Dylan at Live Aid, claiming that Dylan showed little understanding of the international concerns brought up by Live Ai d. Geldof made it clear that there was a huge difference between losing livelihood and losing life and also being nationalistic and humanitarian. That is, even Bob Geldof himself considered Farm Aid a political movement brought up by the American musicians. Originally held in Champaign, Chicago, Farm Aid has been taking place over the past 25 years. The three musicians who put together the first show in 1985Willie Nelson, Neil Young and John Mellencampare still among the major performers. This annual event now ranks as the longest-running concert series in the United States; as of 2009, the concerts have raised over US $35 million to support family farms and encourage small-scale ag ricultural practices throughout the United States (Dettmar, 2010). According to Garofalo (2005), Farm Aid used the power of music and activism to the audience of the United States. She said this a nnual event has been fighting to heighten public awareness about the plight of the American farmers and nega tive impact of corporate farming. Although Farm Aid has been held annually since 1985 with a mixture of a va riety of music styles and musicians, from a global perspective, it has had a limited exposure to the audience of North America. Whether it is the orga nizers original intention, the limited exposure may have marred its worldwide popularity. 82


Summary and Discussion The apparent influence of the media and shap ing of the public have changed in the 1980s with the extensive coverage of tragedies and crises across the world. The information flow between the Third World and the West and the mediating character of news values and priorities have changed the way we perceive the world and helped us share the pain and sorrow from the other side of the world. For instance, Live Aid ha s provided us of an important example of what it means when we talk about the power of the media. The main reason for less than spectacular reception of the post-Live Aid concerts or recordings during the era may be due to their l ack of connectivity to the audience across the globe. As Negus (1997) observed, th e real challenge is not to attempt to locate the inherent meaning in any given song but to determine how songs and music build relationships with listeners and strike a chord with meanings a nd beliefs as they move through time and space across the world. That is exact ly what We Are the World and Do They Know Its Christmas? were able to accomplish from a global standpoint while Sun City remains an obscure song to the audience worldwide. In addition, the reason Sun City and other politica lly-charged recordings and concerts failed to raise public awareness and funds was in part due to the massive popularity and success of the three major charity even ts that preceded it. Not only we re Band Aid, USA for Africa, and Live Aid filled with the star-studded power, but they were designed to be inclusive, pulling everyone in, as opposed to keeping certain pe ople out. Because of the nature of bringing everyone into the atmosphere with a goal of savi ng peoples lives and feeding them, the inclusive events downplayed politics. From a global perspective, Farm Aid was only unique to American people and not something that most people could gather around and support with compassion. What began as an 83


act of philanthropy turned into an ongoing yearly political action, a process that has more of a chance of making changes politically than rais ing funds and public awareness. Instead of galvanizing the campaigns popularity and attracting wider audiences to the issue, it remains a strictly American tradition. However, the 1980s was the epitome of charity rock in many different aspects. As Cloonan and Street (1997) said, the rock stars became part of show business and transferred the conscience that was part of rock to the worthy enterprise of fundraising (p. 232). This is the power of togetherness and belonging in the age of globalism. Th e African crisis has affected millions of people in their ways of thinking, and one unique quality a bout Live Aid, Band Aid, and USA for Africa is that they all enlisted th e efforts of celebrities and musicians commonly associated with rebellious attitudes and self-i ndulgence but not necessar ily with fundraising and caring. On a similar note, the proliferation of philant hropic music events catalyzed a response from virtually every sector of the mu sic industry, including managements, promoters, record-labels, and producers. More importantly, it was the musicians and audien ces from all around the world that worked together for the causes at issue. I asse rt that the all-star format of these events, which featured arguably some of the most popular acts of the 1980s, if not all-time, was a crucial factor that made many of these events su ch a massive worldwide success. The longevity of such successful projects as Live Aid, We Are the World, Do They Know Its Christmas?, and even Thats Wh at Friends Are Forall of which saw the resurrection of the original even ts in one way or another in la ter yearstranscended generation, space, culture, and nationality. These events dem onstrated the rock musics staying power, and its power goes beyond the music itself. Consideri ng that any form of low culture, including rock 84


music, has historically been regarded by the dominant position in the cultural field as inferior and non artistic (Regev, 1994, p. 98), the global mass a ppeal of charity events in the 1980s was a triumphant moment in our history. When it come s to the involvement of rock music in charity, the emotional appeal of the decade is perhaps best exemplified on the DVD package of Live Aid. The line reads, This DVD saves lives. 85


CHAPTER 7 THE 1990S AND BEYOND: A NEW ERA The 1990s and 2000s in Retrospect In general, the last two decades were char acterized by a combination of many different social, political, and cultural factors. They in clude the new media such as the Internet, the dissolution of communism, and the stable economy (Stiglitz, 2004). The theme of globalization continued to impact the world, and the end of th e Cold War signaled the beginning of a new era, as the contest between capitalism and socialism came to an end (Krause, 1997). Also, there has been a series of uncontrollable and unexpected events threatening the welfare of the humankind, such as terrorism, natural disasters, global warming and energy crisis (Gordon & Meunier, 2001). After its early stages of mainstream use in the 1980s and 1990s, the last two decades witnessed a great leap in technology. New technology became widely accepted by the most of the world, but simultaneously, it also gave rise to concerns about st ress and antisocialism, including the overuse of the Internet. Castelle s (2001) defined the new media as the cultural creation that affect the consciousness of society as a whole (p. 141). In the music industry, the economic issues and trends in rock music have shifted in the 1990s. Some of the changes include ticket pri ce increase, copyright protection, unprecedented merger of major labels, and t echnological advancement among many (Koster, 2008). Into the new millennium, the record industry constantly failed to respond to warning signs and to accept the obvious shift in technology, as evidenced by the MP3 and file-s haring (Knopper, 2009). In the 2000s, music consumers benefited largely from the technology with which music could be shared, either over the Internet or by the exchange of physical products. This has resulted in giving consumers unmatched and unprecedented c hoices in music experience and has opened up 86


the marketplace to musicians in which they previous ly had little or no place. At the same time, it has created controversies in c opyright issues and sharp dec line in music sales (Kusek & Leonhard, 2005). A study by Peitz and Waelbroeck (2005) on the us e of the Internet found out the increasing availability of the Internet is shifting the spar e time activities of consumers in favor of online activities over offline activities. This happens to mean the declination of physical human interaction in concerts and purch ase of physical music products, su ch as CDs and DVDs. This is a glooming sign, given the fact that most charity events in the pr evious decades raised funds and awareness primarily with the concerts and music products. In terms of the trend of rock music, the alternative and grunge movement, spearheaded by Nirvana, reached its peak in the 1990s and coincided with the Generation Xers notoriety, as the media pigeonholed American youth into the stereotypical image of the disaffected slacker (Azerrad, 1994). Even though the fi rst wave alternative rock bands from the early 1980s reflected upon the social state in the United States and United Kingdom (as displayed by such bands as R.E.M and U2), a number of alternativ e rock bands in the 1990s, often nicknamed the second generation bands, eventually became main stream. The record industry was tempted by their commercial possibilities, and the major labels actively sought out commercially viable artists (Charlton, 2003). As alternative rock became more of a stri ctly musical term, compromising with the corporate capitalism and lost touch with social consciousness into the new millennium, a new movement sneaked into the mainstream media. The music was characterized as part of postgrunge, post-punk or new wave revival in the earl y 2000s, generally categorized as modern rock (DeRogatis, 2003). Moreover, thanks to the pr osperity of digital technology and easy 87


accessibility online, more bands came from across the world, citing diverse influences and adopting differing styles (Abbey, 2006). Ironically, as if to define the characteris tics of Generation Xthe main audience and consumers of music during this time period the 1990s and the early 2000s saw little effort when it comes to charity concerts or recordings, in contrast to the omnipresence of charity rock in the previous two decades. Although Generation X is often labeled by historians, novelists and journalists in an attempt to capture the spirit or essence of an era (B rinkley, 1994, p. 1), a lack of charity work may have to do with the Generation Xers offhand manners of handling problems, whose indifference in social issues were considered stereotypical. The prototypical and historical definition of rock music in general, which seemed to go hand in hand with social and political activ ism, was no longer the case in the 1990s and the 2000s, as the music branched out to many different sub-genres that were ra rely associated with social or political awareness. For example, a fe w well-known concerts or tours during the time were rather commercially drive, such as W oodstock Woodstock 1999, Lollapalooza, and Ozzfest. In the two decades defined by teen pop, electronic dance music, hip-hop, in addition to alternative rock, there was little sense of social consciousness, not to mention philanthropy, until the second half of the 2000s until a se ries of charity events surface d. Still, most of those events were considered politically motivated than emotionally driven with humanitarian pulse. Notable Events of the 1990s The 1990s saw the summit of commercialism in th e concert business with such events as the second Woodstock in 1994 and the third Woodstock in 1999, also dubbed as Woodstock and Woodstock 1999, respectively. Unlike the first Woodstock, the two events in the 1990s did not resemble the non-profit event of 1969 in any way, as they were conceived and marketed as commercial ventures and they were heavy w ith corporate sponsorship (Laing, 2004, p. 3). 88


Woodstock 1999 was also notorious for the media re ports of violence and fires, far from the idealism of the original event of 1969 had promoted (Bennet, 2004). Arguably, the very first charity event that caught the medias attention in the 1990s was Voices That Care, a 1991 song written by David Foster and Peter Cetera. The song was to express support for U.S. troops in the Gulf War. However, it wa s more of a message of support from a broad cross section of cel ebritieswith a chorus sung by athl etes and entertainers such as Michael Jordan, Charles Barkley, Wayne Gretzk y, Kevin Costner, Brooke Shields, and Meryl Streepthan a pure rock song, desp ite the fact the inte nt was apolitical (G undersen, 1991, p. 1D). The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert for AIDS Awareness (1992) The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert was very uni que in that it was not only one of the first grand-scale tribute concerts that celebrated the li fe of the late Queen si nger Freddie Mercury, but also it was held to raise funds and public awaren ess for AIDS. In addition, this concert may have marked the end of an era where public awareness outweighed political interest in terms of its primary goal. All the funds rais ed from the event eventually went to AIDS research. The disease that claimed the life of Mercury must have hit the rock-music community hard, the one that for a while took pr ide in the slogan sex, drugs, and rock and roll. Along with Magic Johnson who had broke out the news in 19 91 that he was HIV-positive, the death of Mercury raised public awareness of AIDS on a mu ch higher level than before. At the time of Mercurys death in November of 1991, Hochman (1991) said that many rock performers were taking a close look at the seriousne ss of the disease and their re sponsibility in spreading AIDS awareness messages to their fans (p. B1). The tribute event that soon took place within several months of Mercurys death was an outdoor concert on April 20, 1992 at Londons Wemb ley Stadium. It took place in front of 72,000 people, and primarily held to enlighten people about AIDS (Gable, 1992, p. 3D). 89


Staying true to its main purpose, Jim Beard, ma nager of Queen, said before the event, The industry really hasnt done much about it. We feel we need to get the dangers of the disease out to people who may not be paying attention (a s cited in Watrous, 1992, p. 13). The concert was shown live on television and heard live on radi o around 76 countries in th e world and featured the three remaining Queen members along with guest singers and guita rists (Nicholson, 1992). The bill included Bob Geldof, E lton John, Roger Daltrey, David Bowie, George Michael, Paul Young, Robert Plant, and U2, most of whom were no strang ers to charity. The organizers allocated the estimated UK .5 million raised to various AIDS charity organizations, and some of the profits from the c oncert, which came from the TV and radio sales, merchandising, and donations, were also spent on the launching of The Mercury Phoenix Trust, the charity group named after the deceased singer (Sullivan, 1993). While Queen had never come across as a big deal in the 1990s, Mercurys deat h and the star-studded concert not only raised awareness for AIDS but also resurrected the ba nds popularity, making the re-release of Queens classic Bohemian Rhapsody a worldwid e hit all over again in 1992 (Chiu, 2005). Tibetan Freedom Concert (1996) Tibetan Freedom Concert was a series of rock music live concerts held in North America, Asia and Europe between 1996 and 2001 as an e ffort to endorse Tibetan independence from China. The concerts were initially set up by the rap trio Beastie B oys to raise funds for Milarepa Fund, the charity the trio organized for the specif ic cause. Not surprisingly, the idea for Tibetan Freedom Concert was conceive d by Live Aid (Frame, 1997). The first concert in June 1996 was held in San Francisco and featured the line-up that reflected the musical trend of the 1990s, such as Red Hot Chili Peppers, Smashing Pumpkins, and Rage Against the Machine. The initial concert went on to attract nearly 100,000 people and pulled in more than US $800,000 for Tibetan and social justice causes. Colton (1998) described 90


the event being too politically touchy (p. B1) in that it interfered with the independence movement of the country, with which the performe rs did not have any association or affiliation. A series of concerts which lasted for more than several years had the word politics written all over from the beginning since they were in support of the Dalai Lamas political maneuvers to split Tibet from China (Harrington, 1998, p. G1). A series of concerts have taken place until recently, generating international attention a bout Tibetan independence, specifically among young people. The concerts even helped orga nize a number of proTibet organizations worldwide, despite much criticis m that the dispersion of signifi cations regarding the issue across the different audiences made the concerts even more confusing, especially for the public of China and the people with the opposing view about the crisis (George, 1999). In the case of Tibetan Freedom Concert, the e nd-results were not as pleasing and meaningful as the major concerts of the previous d ecades. Despite all the support for the Tibetan independence movement, the Dalai Lama announced in 2008 that he had finally given up the talks for increased autonomy for Tibet within China. He said, My trust in the Chinese government has become thinner, thinner, thinner. I cannot take direct re sponsibility for dealing with the Chinese government any more. Now it is up to the people (as cited in Moore, 2008, para. 2). Notable Events of the 2000s Compared to the 1990s, the decade of the 2000s saw the return of mega-events, whose scales were larger than life when it comes to th e number of performers, size of the audience, and amount of funds raised. Only few events offere d an alternative perspe ctive, though, since they mostly dealt with the issues and causes previo usly brought up in the 1970s and 1980s, such as environmental concerns and political activism, as displayed in Live 8 a nd Live Earth. A notable 91


exception was a series of concerts put together to mourn the tragedy of 9/11 that possibly explored the issues of national identity ra ther than political or social activism. The 9/11 Benefit Concerts (2001) While the mega charity events of the 1970s and 1980s were international in scope, the devastation of 9/11 made the United States a central focus of rock music and its activism. In the aftermath of 9/11, rock musicians once again rallie d to the cause of a social issue. But these events seemed to mark a new role for rock music. If the mega-events of the 1980s were about helping others, the post-9/11 events such as Amer ica: A Tribute to Heroes, The Concert for New York City, and The United We Stand were mo re about healing and nation-building for most Americans, who were recovering fr om the shock of the aftermath. Since the attacks, several large-scale reli ef events have been produced, including the America: A Tribute to Heroes telethon, whic h raised an estimated US $150 million, the most money ever from a single musical benefit event since Live Aid (Schneider, 2001). Two concerts soon followed the telethon, The Concert for Ne w York City and United We Stand, on two consecutive days in late Octobe r. The estimates suggested that the financial revenues generated during the two days ultimately exceeded the initial telethons earnings (Forman, 2002). In addition to these efforts, U2s lead singer Bono and hip-hop producer Jermaine Dupri had originally joined forces to pr oduce a star-studded benefit record ing of Marvin Gayes classic tune Whats Goin On, with all proceeds from the single going to the Global AIDS Alliance. Following the terrorist attacks, the organizers included the UnitedWays September 11th Fund as a beneficiary. Michael Jackson, too, used his consid erable industry power to assemble a celebrity roster of performers to record What More Can I Give, the proceeds of which were distributed among undisclosed September 11 relief agencies. 92


Forman (2002) pointed out that since the te rrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, rock music has acquired new significance in re lation to the atrocities of th e terrorist actions (p. 191). He said that these benefit concerts and recordings provided entertainment without question, but at the same time, they presented important c ontexts for collective mourning and patriotic nationalist celebrations (p. 191). These events, as a whole, adde d a worthwhile cause to a long list of philanthropic actio ns by rock musicians. The Concert for New York City was cited as t he biggest array of talent since Live Aid (Rock Notes, 2001). It represented not only a vari ety of musical genres but also many corporate record labels that benefited from their artists public display in the midst of tragedy. Most of the post-9/11 charity efforts share the same common thread as the previous musical mega-events over the past 30 years because th e television and recording indus tries have packaged the postattack events as historical commodities (F orman, 2002, p. 197), which competed against other products on the market. Live 8 (2005) An all-star re-recording of the 1984 hit Do They Know Its Christmas? generated an extraordinary interest in Britain in 2004. Band Aid 20 was organized to help raise funds for the Band Aid Trusts famine relief. Just like two d ecades ago, all the proceeds from the re-recording went on to help starving Africans, especially those in Sudans Darfur region this time around, where fighting between rebels and government-b acked militias left 70,000 people dead and more than a couple of million people homeless in what Washington referred to as genocide (Robinson, 2004, p. 82). The Band Aid 20 charity single was recorded November 14 at Air Studios, with Nigel Godrich producing and Midge Ure in the role of executive producer. Paul McCartney, U2s Bono, Coldplays Chris Martin, Robbie Williams a nd U.K. chart-topping siblings Natasha and 93


Daniel Bedingfield were among the artists who contributed to the project (Brandle, 2004). Just like 20 years earlier, the song sparked the idea for another benefit event that would take place in line with the 20th anniversary of Live Aid. Fittingly enough, the 20th anniversar y of Live Aid coincided with Live 8, a series of benefit concerts in 11 cities around the world, taking pl ace in the G8 nations and South Africa in July 2005. The large-scale concerts were preceded the G8 Confer ence and Summit in Scotland (Harvey, 2005). The performers included such Live Aid alumni as Madonna, U2, and Sting, and the line-up also featured the children of the 1970s and 1980s, who grew up in a time when original Live Aid was broadcast. Some of t hose artists were Dido, G ood Charlotte, and Green Day, who matched up with such legends as Pink Floyd, Paul McCartney, and U2. In light of the humanitarian cr isis occurring in Sudan in 2005, Bob Geldof initiated renewed efforts to focus media and world attention on Africas ongoing socioeconomic problems. This time, however, his goal was not to raise money but rather to address the systemic imbalances and global economic inequities behind these issues in a political manner. Co nsciously exploiting the 20th anniversary of Live Aid, Geldof brought together a broa d coalition of humanitarian enterprises and hastily organized a series of music concerts as an effort to reposition the problems of African development as global problems (Elavsky, 2009). One bright spot of the event from a musical standpoint is that many performers spoke of being inspired by the original Live Aid and the le vel of commitment that it reflected. It was in every kids living room. It was the MTV gene rations glimpse of poverty and injustice in Africa, recalled Green Days frontman, Billie Joe Armstrong (as cited in Gardener, 2005, p. 1E). The original event still holds a significant meaning to those who remember the past, both 94


past and current generations, and this specifi c quote from Billie Joe Armstrong demonstrates that, as Hanamirian (2003) challenged, the past has everything to do with the present. However, a big fundamental concern hung ove r Live 8 as a political and commercial endeavor but not as a philanthropic effort. The event was corporate-heavy and advertised with the quote by Bob Geldof, We want people to st and up and be counted. We want every church, chapel, synagogue, mosque to open their doors a nd let these people in, soliciting political participation rather than charit y (as cited in Youngs, 2005, para. 28) Harper (2005) criticized the event for being too focused on money, rather than the problems of unequal trade and good governance in Africa itself (p. A7). Also, the commercial decision to utilize pre-dominantly white performers, with the exception of Youssou N Dourone of two Afri can natives on the billmight have elicited immediate public disinterest. Considering that th e original Live Aid lacked black performers on the bill, Live 8 may have symbolically positione d Western artists as world saviors once again. In addition, Elavsky (2009) cont ended that it was ironic that the ev ent advertised as a political event involved little more than watching an array of performers. Unfortunately, almost five years on, Live 8 a nd its agenda sit largely off the public. The event is barely on the public agenda as the event of importance, especially when there were more than 1,000 musicians performing with hundreds of media networks broadcasting the event, leaving much about it lackluster, not to mention its ultimate goal. Besides, the media attention was on more immediate respective concerns such as London bombings, Hurricane Katrina, and Iraq War. The Year 2010: A New Outlook On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a major earthquake, the nations most severe earthquake in over 200 years and caused widespread damage (D ugas, 2010, p. 1B). Ironically, 95


the backdrop of this mass tragedy was reminiscent of what people saw in Africa in 1984 because of the massive, global media coverage and atte ntion given to the trag edy. What a group of American musicians did to help the Haitians was al so identical to the aid process that had taken place 25 years earlier. Lionel Richie and Quincy Jones, who had or iginally thought of re surrecting the song We Are the World to celebrate the life of Michael Jackson, were devastated by the emergency of Haiti. In January 2010exactly 25 years after the landmark song was releasedRichie and Jones announced that the song would be instead re -recorded to raise funds for the Haitian people. The project was under the band name of Artists for Haiti, not unlike the occasion that had helped the famine relief in Africa a quarter of a century ago (Gundersen, 2010). It was deja-vu all over again. Only this time, it was a different group of musicians aligned for a different cause, but they were still singi ng the same song. The updated version of the beloved charity tune was officia lly called We Are the World 25 for Haiti. In order to gather the attention and interest of the worldwide audience, the song, with its official music video, premiered during the opening ce remonies of the Winter Olym pics in Vancouver, Canada, on February 12 (Richards, 2010). The aptly-titled official video for the song al so commemorated the 25th anniversary of the original recording and included the archive footage of Mich ael Jackson, the driving force behind the original version, performing his part of the song. He was joined by both old and new generations of talent-pool, incl uding some of those who had participated 25 years ago: Diana Ross, Dionne Warwick, Tina Turner, Cyndi Laupe r, and Kim Carnes. The bill also included Tony Bennett, Carlos Santana, Barbra Streisa nd, Josh Groban, Enrique Iglesias, Usher, and Wyclef Jean, the Haitian-born Am erican singer and rapper. 96


Not only was the new version of the song a sm ashing success in raising public awareness and funds, but also it reminded us that everything new is old again. At the time of the recording, many artists did not forget to elaborate on the le gacy of co-write r Michael Jackson. For instance, Celine Dion commented that the newly recorded ve rsion of We Are the World would not just help the Haitians in need but also serve as a testament of the passion Michael Jackson had for helping those in need (as ci ted in Vena, 2010, para. 5). Lionel Richie and Quincy Jones further commente d on the late singers legacy. They stated that if he were still al ive, he would have wanted to be just as involved as he had been a quarter of a century ago (para. 7). This clearly de monstrates how one mans simple, yet powerful humanitarian idealism 25 years ago is still aff ecting those who either remember it or only heard of it, possibly bridging the gap between differe nt generations, different cultures, different nationalities, and different races. Summary and Discussion Unlike the 1990s, the 2000s saw a number of char ity rock events emerge in line with their anniversaries in one way or anot her. In addition, the increased concerns in environmental issues resulted in somewhat politically charged even ts, as evidenced by Live 8 and Tibetan Freedom Concerts. These political concerts focused more on governments and world leaders than on the poor or the dying, eventually leading to the disp lay of political activis m than humanitarianism. One major pattern that developed during the seco nd half of the last decade is the resurgence of the charity events and recordings from the 1980s in a recycled format, such as Band Aid 20, Live 8 and Artists for Haiti. Whitcom b (1973), in his pop music reference book, After the Ball documents the effects of the so-called -year rule, reaching back into the 19th century, the dawn of what we now call pop music. Rob Ta nnenbaum, senior reviews editor for the music monthly Blender also said, We digest culture in 20-year cycles (as cited in Leopold, 2000, 97


para. 6); he contended that we can use 20 years as a marketing device and as a nostalgic cycle. These examples lead us to some clues as to why the 20-year cycle might work. Finally, the importance of a certain cause can help people to set aside disagreements and opposing views and join the cause together. More recently, it has been with natural disasters, deaths, poverty, and hunger that helped people to set aside disagreem ents and opposing views and join the cause together. With We Are th e World 25 for Haiti, it seems the philanthropic movement in rock music is back where it bel ongs, but with a new twist. The song showed the entire world that rock music can be an agent of social change, especially in times of hardships and disasters, but also it can empower th e next generation of rock music fans. 98


CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION My study has not attempted to disentangle all of the nuances and complexities of philanthropy in rock music because it is more about history and less about philosophy. It has focused on illustrating how historical and social circumstances and changes may have helped rock music to generate a series of charit able events and how such dynamics may have contributed to the development and the growth of broader and more integrative philanthropic work over the course of time. Many important shif ts and patterns have emerged in rock music even before it was called rock music. This histori cal analysis has revealed that each decade since the 1950s has been characterized by a distinctive cultural, social, and global orientation that emerged in response to different humanitarian needs and concerns. Based on the overview compiled so far, the following assertions can be made: Assertions and Opinions Humanitarian Visionaries First, each successful major charity event was conceived and organized by a visionary leader. Thanks to the humanitarian idealism of the visionaries like Harrison, Jackson and Geldof, rock music still carried compassionate and ch allenging ideals. The globa l popularity of Harrison, Jackson, and Geldof was mainly realized by the capacity of their music that transcended traditionally distinctive boundaries like age, gender, nationality, race, and even culture. They still went beyond music to reach out to the world, as they shared a profound and thoughtful vision as humanitarians: philanthropy. They achieved significant contributions by building upon their relati onships with people and using existing resources in new ways (Huddart, 2005, p. 19). I contend that their humanitarian endeavors advanced our worlds comprehens ion of the power of rock music. Like 99

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no other recording artists, they have made th e compelling and nurturing efforts, using popular music as a bold expression and showing that thei r creativity and leadership was an evidence of what they hoped to become. In that demonstra tion, they have furthered the common faith that there is hope for everyone even if they could not save the world. As Campbell and Brody (2008) posited, these hu manitarians brought the enormous cultural presence of rock music in the latter part of the 20th century. Their work put we back in rock as opposed to me (p. 423). They were true visionari es that put togetherne ss ahead of selfishness in times of hardship and crisis. Their intense moral convi ctions, their ability to play with social norms, and their selfless dedication all contributed to the success of the charity events in which they were involved. They were international ce lebrities and with thei r superstardom brought considerable power to educate and influence pe ople to take actions all over the world. Before The Concert for Bangladesh took place, Ravi Shankar said, Music itself doesnt help hungry people or those who suff er from floods. It is there to raise funds. It is a practical thing. It is not that the music is healing the peopl e. But this is the only thing a musician can do (Fricke, 2005, p. 24). Good purposes do not always result in equally impressive outcomes, as displayed by some of the lesser-known charity efforts through the years. These humanitarians used their outstanding promotion skills, persona l connections, and the power of technology to raise money for those in need. It may be, indeed, an overstatement to say that the musicians, the songs, and the concerts discussed in my study solved the problems happening in the world. However, they represented an extraordinary exam ple of philanthropy to a cause because they did what they felt they were obliged to do. The events such as The Concert for Banglades h and Live Aid or the songs as Do They Know Its Christmas? and We Are the World required taking initiatives and triggering a 100

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network, both for fundraising and artistic expressi on, in the service of non -profit objective. The concerts and songs were as successful as they were because not only they were headlined by superstar performers of their time, but also they were filled with a group of artists whose origins lay in the artistic and human motivations for the people in crisis than profit making or pursuit of political interests. A Global/Media/Commercial Phenomenon Second, as illustrated throughout my study, all th e events and projects drew international support with much commercial im pact and success. This was po ssible because rock music has become a global phenomenon during its history and people all over the world have responded with tremendous enthusiasm and support. The reason rock music became a global phenomenon in the first place was because of its dissemina tion through the media and its distribution as a commodity. According to Cloonan and Street (1997), these philanthropic events presented rock music not as the obsessive focus of youth subcultu res but as a respectab le part of the mass entertainment industry across the world (p. 228). Because of the attendance in concerts, strong sales figures of records, massi ve airplay on the air, and sate llite transmission, these events succeeded in drawing global actions from th e countries linked by the consumption and production of rock music because it was much eas ier to attempt a global solution than it would be in other industries. As illustrated throughout the study, there are ma ny instances with which extra profits and public awareness for a charitable cause can be ra ised beyond the original event, whether it be a recording or a concert. In this sense, almost all the events discussed in my study share a common factor in that they have all been packaged as music products in one way or another. The variety of products include theatrical c oncert movies, live television show s, radio shows, performances 101

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on the Internet, audio recordings and video releases of the perfo rmances. The release of CDs, DVDs, and other marketing arrangements ultimately extend the cultural reach of these events while boosting overall revenues. Frith (2001) noted that the music industrys ulti mate goal is fairly simple and to the point: making money out of music. The industry has a si gnificant role to play in pop music culture and has to respond to changes within it. Given the fact that charity c oncerts or recordings were part of the changes in the industry since the 1960s, the music industry worked with this role to construct a market for itself. What matters for music industry here is no t whether their records get good or bad reviews, but that their acts find a place in the appropriate music world (p. 39). Even if all the proceeds go to charity, in their presentation and packaging of products, charity concerts or recordings offer immeas urable promotional opportunities for the artists involved. As Garofalo (1992) observed, Live Aid, for example, demonstrated the full-blown integration of the star making machinery of the international music industry. These media extravaganzas amplify celebrity status among the participating musi cians to national and international levels and contribute to their own commercial success. Recycling of Nostalgia Another commercial element is nostalgia marketing. The use of nostalgia marketing in rock music could be said a larger part of a cultura l pattern. A number of events, most notably, The Concert in Bangladesh, USA for Africa, Band Aid, and Live Aid, serve as the examples of the nostalgia marketing because of th eir continued re-emergence in our culture in either one way or another. This is evidenced by anniversary spin -offs, re-recordings, and re-releases. Cook (2003) contended, For all its rebellious posturing, rock music is an intrin sically conservative affair that always harks back to a nostalgically imagined past (p. 98). 102

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Grainge (2000) noted that in the last several decades of the 20th century, nostalgia was commodified and aestheticized in American popul ar culture as never before (Grainge, 2000). The nostalgia marketing in pop culture is exemplif ied in a plethora of re-runs on television, retro format radio shows, and throwback jerseys in spor ts. He said that it is no coincidence that at a time when people are increasingly becoming uncertain and anxious about the future, such as in our current state filled with natural disasters, th e media are encouraging them to return to their past. Phillips and Nauright (1999) wrote that nostalg ia, as a form of identity, helps link group with individual identity as remembering past events operates at both individual and societal level and can also be used by dominant pow er groups to legitimate their position through promoting a sense of cultural security through cultur al practices common to many members of society (p. 25). That is, nostalgia has provided a comforting zone in this world of rapidly changing social, cultural and poli tical landscapes, with which most of us have a hard time catching up. The nostalgia factor has played an integral part in the resurgence of a number of charity concerts and recordings over the years. Limitations and Implications Since the economic power and t echnological advancements that drive the music industry have been historically centered in industrialized nations in the West (primarily the United Kingdom and the United States), these countries have tended to provide the models for the relationship between rock musicians and the indu stry that produces the music (Garofalo, 1999). The charity efforts discussed in my study ar e no exception. These two countries have lengthy histories of voluntary and commun ity activities, and of the crea tion of foundations and trusts, enlisting private funding for what are generally considered to be public purposes (Owen, 1965). They have been the two leading countries when it comes to philanthropic efforts in rock music. 103

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This brings a question of hegemony into the discussion. What about the receivers of the benefits? My study has not detaile d the discussion from the perspe ctive of receive rs of donations because of the lack of information that displaye d the views of the receive rs of the benefits. For instance, the victims of the tragedy in Ethiopia remain largely nameless. Would they even care about such events as Live Aid when their familie s and friends were dying and their lives were in danger? Even though rock music has gone global and it s relationship with society and politics has often been characterized by a nations culture, it was not marketed thr oughout the entire world, especially Africa or the Third World. What is the meaning of rock music for the Ethiopians? How would they react to the songs of USA for Africa or Band Ai d? What are their perceptions on the most popular rock and roll superstars such as Elvis Presley or The Beatles? In addition, based on the overview of the last couple of decades, there is a sense of diminishing returns after so ma ny fundraising efforts in the 19 70s and the 1980s. As discussed, there can be a number of different elements i nvolved. Since my study only looked at some of the major charity efforts fronted by popular names in rock music, we should not overlook the fact that, some politically and socially minded artists may prefer to act local ly and quietly, with a sharper sense of what their goals are (Dettm ar, 2010). The lack of media spotlight on their performance does not make their effort any less significant or less important to those receiving the aid. Another point to consider is the ever-changi ng nature in online act ivities brought about by the new media. The Internet has changed the way of people do their mu sic-related activities, possibly reducing the demand for concert-going or buying music. Th ese activities are directly related to fundraising, the foremost goal of charity music events. In what way will continued 104

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advancements in technology affect the music indus try in the future? More importantly, how will those developments affect ch arity efforts in rock? Another issue is the rapidlychanging musical taste pattern s of todays young generation. After all, each emerging generation is usually draw n to music that defines its generation. As that generation ages, it tends to maintain its preference for the music of its yo uth. In this regard, the early generations of rock music fans who have witnessed the golden age of charity rock are no longer the main consumers of music or agents of social change. Will the new generations of rock music fans answer the calls of those in need? From an academic standpoint, rock musics invo lvement in philanthropy is still a fledgling (or perhaps overlooked) historiograp hy with little notable scholarl y research and with a tendency to focus on existing knowledge in rock musics rela tions to politics and soci ety rather than serve new knowledge in rock musics relations to human itarianism. I hope that my historical overview will be useful to a great diversity of scholars, and a variety of disciplines. Lauded for its humanitarian concern and fundrai sing potential and lambasted fo r trivializing important issues, the marriage of rock music and philanthropy may ha ve been controversial and questionable from the moment it began, but at the same time, char ity rock opened up spaces that were unthinkable in any other popular culture form, transcendi ng time, place, nationality, age, and race. Epilogue Historically, rock musics philanthropic even ts were executed largely by volunteers who contributed their time, effort and performan ce. They involved those who formed voluntary associations to meet needs that could not be met either in the marketplace or by government, eventually building a strong rela tionship between audience and pe rformers on an international level. Through music an d the activities that surrounded the ev ents, an aura was born. What took place, therefore, was not just music for philanthropy but also music as philanthropy. 105

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In closing, it is natural to be cynical about benefit and charity concerts and recordings. As a matter of fact, when there have been so many charity efforts by rock musicians over the course of history, it is probably reasonable to be skepti cal or dismissive because we still have not actually fed the world, saved the dying, or kept natural disasters from happening. However, there remains some unexplainable mysterious aura th at these events have over our imagination. Does rock really make a difference? Does it re ally change the world? Or are musicians just trying to soothe their consciousne ss? One thing is for certain. Despite skeptical voices, all the musicians discussed in my study have shown us that they did not accept established musical rules as they were written and they did not ac cept the world as it was put before them. They considered music as an instrument of change. In the age of global village and media techno logy, the goal of making a better world requires mass movements, which can reach out to masses of people. In this sense, mass cultural forms and technologies hold out unlimite d possibilities, and rock music is no exception. For better or for worse, there will continue to be worldw ide interest in promoting the development of institutions and practices that c ontribute to a better world through rock music. Models for charity rock have drawn exclusively from the experiences of the philanthropic even ts illustrated in my study, and there will be more endeavors to come. Hi story, after all, repeats itself time after time. 106

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122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ji Hoon Lee is a Ph.D. candidate majoring in mass communication at Univ ersity of Florida. He is the instructor of MMC 1702Rock and Roll and American Society Part IIthe course outlining the history of rock and pop music and its impact and influence on American society and culture from the 1970s to 1990s. Although his research interests range from rhetorical studies to print journalism, he specializes in popular culture, including ro ck and pop music, film, sports, and entertainment in general. He graduated from The University of Texas at Austin with a Bachelor of Journalism degree and went on to earn his Master of Arts degree in communication stud ies at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, before joining the graduate progra m at University of Florida in 2006. On top of writing reviews and feature stories for several mu sic and popular culture magazines and student newspapers both in the United Stat es and Korea, he also has six years of professional experience as a copywriter, copyeditor, and translator. His work experience also in cludes three years of public relations, marketing, and adve rtising at Allianz, one of the biggest financial powerhouses in the world.