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The Impact of New Town Development

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041755/00001

Material Information

Title: The Impact of New Town Development An Analysis of Ave Maria, FL and the Rural Lands Stewardship Area Program
Physical Description: 1 online resource (101 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Dillaha, Christopher
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: area, ave, collier, conservation, county, development, florida, land, maria, program, rural, stewardship
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As we continue to deal with the crippling effects that suburban development has left on our central cities, a new type of greenfield development has emerged, new towns. This development type attempts to incorporate the traditional urban form that is found in our central cities. New towns have been presented as a smart alternative to suburban sprawl. But what are the risks? In most cases these developments are still located on, or beyond, the urban fringe. What are the implications for the existing communities? What are the implications for transportation networks? This research analyzes the new town of Ave Maria, located in Collier County Florida. A vehicle miles traveled (VMT) model is used to quantify the transportation related impacts of Ave Maria. This model measures VMT based on the current and future land use characteristics of Ave Maria. Additionally, a policy analysis of the Rural Lands Stewardship Area Program (RLSAP) is conducted. The policy analysis examines the approval process of Ave Maria at the state, local, and regional levels. This study makes recommendations on the policy decisions that were applied to Ave Maria. The recommendations focus on the relationship between transportation networks and land use, as well as impacts on the natural environment. This study recommends that there must be better correspondence between state, local, and regional agencies. The intent of land stewardship in Florida must be present in relevant legislation at all levels of government. Additionally, this study finds that the Ave Maria development should generate less VMT production than most of Collier County. With that being said, however, Ave Maria serves as an attractor for outlying communities. This could cause increased traffic within the Rural Land Stewardship Area (RLSA). While Ave Maria may act as a model for VMT reduction, its location remains controversial.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Christopher Dillaha.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Steiner, Ruth L.
Local: Co-adviser: Jourdan, Dawn.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-10-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041755:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041755/00001

Material Information

Title: The Impact of New Town Development An Analysis of Ave Maria, FL and the Rural Lands Stewardship Area Program
Physical Description: 1 online resource (101 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Dillaha, Christopher
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: area, ave, collier, conservation, county, development, florida, land, maria, program, rural, stewardship
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As we continue to deal with the crippling effects that suburban development has left on our central cities, a new type of greenfield development has emerged, new towns. This development type attempts to incorporate the traditional urban form that is found in our central cities. New towns have been presented as a smart alternative to suburban sprawl. But what are the risks? In most cases these developments are still located on, or beyond, the urban fringe. What are the implications for the existing communities? What are the implications for transportation networks? This research analyzes the new town of Ave Maria, located in Collier County Florida. A vehicle miles traveled (VMT) model is used to quantify the transportation related impacts of Ave Maria. This model measures VMT based on the current and future land use characteristics of Ave Maria. Additionally, a policy analysis of the Rural Lands Stewardship Area Program (RLSAP) is conducted. The policy analysis examines the approval process of Ave Maria at the state, local, and regional levels. This study makes recommendations on the policy decisions that were applied to Ave Maria. The recommendations focus on the relationship between transportation networks and land use, as well as impacts on the natural environment. This study recommends that there must be better correspondence between state, local, and regional agencies. The intent of land stewardship in Florida must be present in relevant legislation at all levels of government. Additionally, this study finds that the Ave Maria development should generate less VMT production than most of Collier County. With that being said, however, Ave Maria serves as an attractor for outlying communities. This could cause increased traffic within the Rural Land Stewardship Area (RLSA). While Ave Maria may act as a model for VMT reduction, its location remains controversial.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Christopher Dillaha.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Steiner, Ruth L.
Local: Co-adviser: Jourdan, Dawn.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-10-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041755:00001


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1 THE IMPACT OF NEW TOWN DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF AVE MARIA, FL AND THE RURAL LANDS STEWARDSHIP AREA PROGRAM By CHRISTOPHER P ATRICK DILLAHA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGEREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Christopher P atrick Dillaha

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3 To my family and friends

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I would like to thank my par ents for teaching me that hard work pays off. Secondly, I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Ruth Steiner and Dr. Dawn Jourdan. They have both provided an abundant amount of advice and encouragement throughout this thesis process. Additionall y, I would like to thank Dr. Paul Zwick and Russe l l Provost, both of whom have helped me improve upon my GIS skills throughout this process. Next, I would like to thank all of my previous teachers who have made me the student that I am today. Without you r guidance and motivation, I may not be pursuing this degree. I would like to thank my fellow classmates. Their opinions and support have been invaluable. Lastly, I would like to thank the University of Florida and the entire Department of Urban and Regi onal Planning for a great graduate school experience.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 19 New Urbanism ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 21 Transportation and New Towns ................................ ................................ .............. 21 Conservation Developments ................................ ................................ ................... 21 Economics of Rural Development ................................ ................................ ........... 24 Growth Management ................................ ................................ .............................. 25 Areas of Critical Concern ................................ ................................ ........................ 26 Land Stewardship ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 26 Climate Change and VMT ................................ ................................ ....................... 27 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 29 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 30 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 30 Study Approach ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 30 Policy Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 30 GIS Simulations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 33 Land Suitability Analysis ................................ ................................ ................... 33 VMT Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 36 Suitable Site VMT Simulation ................................ ................................ ........... 38 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 39 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 41 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 41 Policy Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 41 ACSC Legislation ................................ ................................ ............................. 41 RLSAP Legislation ................................ ................................ ........................... 43

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6 Department of Community Affairs ................................ ................................ .... 44 ACSC ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 44 RLSAP ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 44 Collier County Growth Management Plan ................................ ........................ 48 ACSC Land Development Regulations ................................ ...................... 48 Rural Lands Stewardship Area Overlay Program ................................ ...... 50 Stewardship Credit System ................................ ................................ ........ 52 Collier County Land Development Code ................................ .......................... 54 ACSC ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 54 RLSA Overlay ................................ ................................ ............................ 55 Transportation Element ................................ ................................ .............. 58 Ave Maria DRI Review ................................ ................................ ..................... 59 DRI Review P rocess ................................ ................................ .................. 59 Application for Development Approval ................................ ....................... 61 Sufficiency Response ................................ ................................ ................ 62 Development Order ................................ ................................ .................... 62 DRI Monitoring Report ................................ ................................ ............... 63 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 63 GIS Simulations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 64 Land Suitability Analysis ................................ ................................ ................... 64 VMT Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 65 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 66 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 75 Policy Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 75 GIS Simulati ons ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 80 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 81 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 83 APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL FIGURES ................................ ................................ ......................... 85 Suitability Analysis Findings ................................ ................................ .................... 85 VMT Model Findings ................................ ................................ ............................... 87 Suitab le Site VMT Simulation ................................ ................................ ................. 93 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 96 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 101

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Suitability Weights ................................ ................................ .............................. 39 4 1 Stewardship Index Worksheet Part 1 ................................ ................................ 67 4 2 Stewardship Index Worksheet Part 2 ................................ ................................ 68 4 3 Land Use Matrix ................................ ................................ ................................ 69 4 4 Projected Internal Trip Capture for PM Pe ak Hour Trips: Phase 1 (2011) .......... 70 4 5 Projected Internal Trip Capture for PM Peak Hour Trips: Phase 2 (2016) .......... 70 4 6 Actual Intern al Trip Capture for PM Peak Hour Trips ................................ ......... 70 4 7 VMT Model Results Summary Table ................................ ................................ .. 71

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Map of the State of Florida ................................ ................................ ................. 18 1 2 Map of Collier County ................................ ................................ ......................... 18 3 1 Aggregated Land Use by neighborhoo d ................................ ............................. 40 4 1 Stewardship Index Map ................................ ................................ ...................... 72 4 2 Collier County Stewardship Overaly Map ................................ ........................... 73 4 3 Collier County DRI Suitability Index Map ................................ ............................ 74 A 1 Study Area Suitability Map. ................................ ................................ ................. 85 A 2 Study Area Reclassified S uitability Map. ................................ ............................ 86 A 3 Collier County Reclassified Suitability Map. ................................ ........................ 86 A 4 Study Area Home Based Work Production 2009. ................................ ............ 87 A 5 Study Area Home Based Work Production 2014, Phase 1. ............................. 87 A 6 Study Area Home Based Work Production 2019, Phase 2. ............................. 88 A 7 Study Area Home Based Other Production 2009. ................................ ........... 88 A 8 Study Area Home Based Other Production 2014, Phase 1. ............................ 89 A 9 Study Area Home Based Other Production 2019, Phase 2. ............................ 89 A 10 Study Area Home Based Work Attraction 2009. ................................ .............. 90 A 11 Study Area Home Based Work Attraction 2014, Phase 1. ............................... 90 A 12 Study Area Home Based Work Attraction 2019, Phase 2. ............................... 91 A 13 Study Area Home Based Other Attraction 2009. ................................ ............. 91 A 14 Study Area Home Based Other Attraction 2014, Phase 1. .............................. 92 A 15 Study Area Home Based Other Attraction 2019, Phase 2. .............................. 92 A 16 Suitable Site with DRI Suitability Index. ................................ .............................. 93 A 17 Suitable Site Home Based Work Production. ................................ ..................... 93

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9 A 18 Sutiable Site Home Based Other Production. ................................ ..................... 94 A 19 Suitable Site Home Based Work Attraction. ................................ ....................... 94 A 20 Suitable Site Home Based Other Attraction. ................................ ....................... 95

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S ACSC Area s of C ritical State Concern CBD Central Business District DCA Department of Community Affairs DRI Development of Regional Impact FDOR Florida Department of Revenue FDOT Florida Department of Transportation FGDL Florida Geographic Data Library FLUE Future Land U se Element FSA Flowway Stewardship Area GIS Geographic Information System GMA Growth Management Act GMP Growth Management Plan HBOA Home Based Other Attraction HBOP Home Based Other Production HBWA Home Based Work Attraction HBWP Home Based Work Production HSA Habitat Stewardship Area IDW Inverse Distance Weighted ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers LDC Land Development Code LOS Level of Service MSA Metropolitan Statistic Area RLS Rural Lands Study RLSA Rural Lands Stewardship Area

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11 RLSAP Rural Lands S tewardship Area Program SRA Stewardship Receiving Area SSA Stewardship Sending Area SWFRPC Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council VMT Vehicle Miles Traveled WRA Water Retention Area

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the Univer sity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning THE IMPACT OF NEW TOWN DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF AVE MARIA, FL AND THE RURAL LAND S STEWARDSHIP AREA PROGRAM By Ch ristopher Patrick Dillaha May 2010 Chair: Ruth Steiner Cochair: Dawn Jourdan Major: Urban and Regional Planning As we continue to deal with the crippling effects that suburban development has left on our central cities, a new type of greenfiel d developm ent has emerged, new t owns. This development type attempts to incorporate the traditional urban form that is found in our central cities. New towns have been presented as a smart alternative to suburban sprawl. But what are the risks? In most cases t he se developments are still located on or beyond the urban fringe. What are the implications for the existing communities? What are the implications for transportation networks? T his research analyze s the new town of Ave Maria, located in Collier County Florida. A vehicle miles traveled (VMT) model is used to quantify the transportation related impacts of Ave Maria. This model measure s VMT based on the current and future land use characteristics of Ave Maria. A dditionally, a policy analysis of the R ural Lands Stewardship Area Program (RLSAP) is conducted. The policy analysis examine s the approval process of Ave Maria at the state, local, and regional levels. This study make s recommendations on the policy decisions that were applied to Ave Maria. T he

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13 recommendations focus on the relationship between transp ortation networks and land use, as well as impacts on the natural environment. This study recommends that there must be better correspondence between state, local, and regional agencies. The inte nt of land stewardship in Florida must be present in relevant legislation at all levels of government. Additionally, this study finds that the Ave Maria development should generate less VMT production than most of Collier County. With that being said, ho wever, Ave Maria serve s as an attractor for outlying communities. This could cause increased traffic within the Rural Land Stewardship Area ( RLSA ) While Ave Maria may act as a model for VMT reduction, its location remains controversial.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTR ODUCTION early Spanish settlement of Saint Augustine to the modern day metropolis of Miami, development patterns in Florida have changed dramatically. While change is typica lly welcomed, it can come with unintended consequences. Over the past century the state of Florida has experienced an explosion in population at the expense of the natural environment (McManus & Braun 1992) The Everglades and many coastal ecosystems h ave been severely damaged as a result (McManus & Braun 1992) Low density, automobile oriented, suburban development has been viewed by many as the biggest problem. Presently we find ourselves at a crossroads as development patterns are shifting once mo re. With increasing opposition to sprawling suburban development, new urbanist approaches are beginning to be utilized as an alternative to sprawl. These developments are commonly being implemented in the form of new towns. New Towns are large developme nts that typically encompass a multitude of uses that would be expected in a functional, self contained town (Crean, 1972, pg. 5) New Towns are usually classified as developments of reg ional impact (DRI) because their impact s are projected to extend well beyond the immediate area. DRIs are regulated by the Department of Community Affairs (DCA) and have a more stringe nt approval process as a result While new towns are viewed as a positive solution to sprawl, they have their drawbacks as well. Oftenti mes new towns are built on greenfield sites, at isolated

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15 locations, away from existing urban areas. This poses the threat of further environmental degradation, as well as increased automobile dependency. This research exam in e s the new town of Ave Maria, l ocated in Collier County, F lorida Ave Maria encompasses approximately 5,000 acres, qualifying it as a DRI (Ave Maria Development 2009) The town of Ave Maria is centered around Ave Maria University, the first Roman Catholic University to be built in th e last 40 years (Ave Maria Development 2009) At build out, the town will have approximately 11,000 residential units, of which 700 will be low income (Ave Maria Development 2009) Ave Maria will also have over 700,000 square feet of commercial space, as well as medical facilities, a hotel, golf course, public and private schools and other public facilities (Ave Maria Development 2009). Ultimately, Ave Maria will operate as a functional, all inclusive town. From a regional perspective, Ave Maria is l ocated in southwest Florida (See Figure 1 1) More specifically the town is located in the north central quadrant of Collier County, between Naples and Immokalee (See Figure 1 2) This area of Collier County is heavily agricultural and is also located ad jacent to the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp. The site of Ave Maria was previously a strawberry farm (Smith, 2004). The town is located in prime Florida Panther habitat and has come under fire from many environmentalists. Ave Maria is located in t he Naples Marco Island Metropolitan Statistic Area (MSA), as defined by the U S Census Bureau. The Naples Marco Island MSA consists solely of Collier County. The MSA is bordered by the Cape Coral Fort Myers MSA to the north and the South Florida MSA to the east. As of the 2000 Census, Collier County had a population of 251,377 (U S Census Bureau 2009 ).

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16 Based on 2008 estimates, however, the population of Collier County is estimated to have grown to 315,839 (U S Census Bureau 2009 ). This represents a 2 5.4% increase 14.7% during the same time period (U S Census Bureau 2009 ) Ave Maria is organized like a traditional city; with a central urban core know n as La Piazz a. This area of the town contains new urbanist characteristics that promote pedestrian activity and social interaction. At the center of the core is a Roman Catholic l (Ave Maria Development 2009). Ave Maria University is directly adjacent to the central core of the town. Outside of La Piazza, Ave Maria is organized into several distinct neighborhoods. Each neighborhood has its own unique style, with each neighborh ood being designed by a specific homebuilder. The individual neighborhoods also have set aside land for public spaces, including schools that will be operated by the Collier County School Board (Ave Maria Development 2009). New towns, like Ave Maria, are typically built in rural areas (Moudon Weisman, & Kim 1990, pg. 99) beyond the urban fringe. Because of this new towns can suffer from many of the same ills that plague suburban development. The dispersion caused by new towns can potentially impact t raffic from a regional perspective. The design of Ave Maria, however, is intended to reduce traffic by increasing the internal capture. If Ave Maria can offer amenities in many different sectors, within a close proximity to the consumers, there should be little incentive for the residents of Ave Maria to travel elsewhere. Furthermore, if densities are high enough and there is a good mix of land uses, alternative form of transit, such as walking and biking, could be utilized.

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17 Though Ave Maria has made a valiant attempt to reduce its impact on Collier infrastructure and existing cities does not bode well for local transportation systems. The location of cities typically o ccurs for a reason, be it economic, geographic, or transit related. At this point the justification for Ave Maria can only be linked to economics While this is a legitimate justification, it may not be the most responsible one. The purpose of this proj ect is t o examine the impact of Ave Maria on Collier County. This research is three pronged. First, a policy analysis of the regulatory environment governing Ave Maria is conducted. This analysis investigates how Ave Maria fits into the planning framewo rk. The research focuses on several key areas covering transportation, the environment, and public policy. In particular, this research examines the Rural Lands Stewardship Area Program (RLSAP). The goal is to understand how the program works, and how t he program influences the location of development, which can ultimately impact transportation networks and the environment. Next, a travel model is conducted usin g Geographic Information System (GIS) software. The model estimate s vehicle miles travel ed ( VMT) for Collier County. Lastly, a suitability analysis is conducted as a means to quantify the location of Ave Maria The suitability analysis is used to make a connection between the policy analysis and the travel model.

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18 Figure 1 1. Map of the Stat e of Florida, with the location of Collier County [ Source: weblo.com, 2010] Figure 1 2. Map of Collier County. Ave Maria is highlighted by the black box. [ Source: Google 2010 ]

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19 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introductio n The concept of creating a town from scratch is an intriguing one. The purpose is simple, in that there is more to be desired than the status quo. Cities across the country and around the world are flawed in various fashions. The idea of new towns in th e modern sense was first developed at the beginning of the twentieth century by Ebenezer Howard. In his book, Garden Cities of To Morrow (Originally titled A Peaceful Path to Real Reform), Howard (1965) offers an alternative to traditional urban dwelling. At the time cities were considered to be unsanitary and crowded places, while the country was considered to be a place of natural beauty, however, it lacked opportunity. n called for a central city, with satellite cities arranged around the central city. Separating the individual cities was open space, used for agriculture and land conservation. The satellite cities were connected to the central city via train, with the train stations acting as the node of the individual towns. Additionally, the cities were designed to incorporate parks and gardens within individual neighborhoods, and thus the combination of town and country was born. A series of greenbelt towns flourish ed across the United Kingdom in the decades (Steiner, 1981) economically self sufficient garden cities of Ebenezer Howard, but satellite suburbs that were made possible because of the universal and economically availability of the

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20 envisioned town linked by transit, with the trans it stops acting as the node of each town. Most of these new greenbelt towns lacked transit. The greenbelt communities of the early twentieth century set the stage for the modern day suburb. A notable greenbelt community of the 1920s is Radburn, New Jerse y, an automobile oriented new town that serves as a suburb of the New York Metropolitan Area. Radburn is viewed by many as a model for the modern day suburb and is credited with having some of the first cul de sacs in the country (Fotsch, 2007, pg. 38). Radburn was designed with an agglomeration of individual neighborhoods, known as superblocks. The superblocks consisted of landscaped open spaces that were surrounded by homes, with the streets separated from the open space. The intent was for the pedest rian to be separated from the automobile, primarily for safety reasons (Gause, 2002, pg. 21). Planned towns are not only physically different from typical development; they possess a strong social aspect as well. New towns are appealing because they allo w the controlling party to restructure society in accord with his or her values (Corden, 1977, pg. 15). New towns, functioning as a complete community, provide social opportunities that are not found in a monotonous suburb Since new towns do not develop organically, but are planned and created as a complete unit, the initial developer has a good deal of centralized control over the town (Corden, 1977, pg. 16). New towns today incorporate many of the same principles presented by Howard over a century ago While our lifestyles may have evolved, a demand still exists for well planned neighborhoods with a strong since of place. The new urbanism movement is one of the leading forces behind new town development today.

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21 New Urbanism The new urbanism label ha s been applied to many new town developments over the past few decades. The movement originated in the 1980s as an alternative to typical suburban sprawl. New urbanism is based on the following ten principles: walkability, connectivity, mixed housing, mi xed use and diversity, quality architecture and urban design, increased density, traditional neighborhood structure, green transportation, sustainability, and quality of life (New Urbanism, 2010). These principles act as guidelines for creating vibrant ne ighborhoods and towns with a strong sense of place. The new urbanism principles are vague, however, in that they do n ot specify the degree in which each principle must be followed. Transportation and New Towns New towns are designed around new urbanist i deals and while they are oftentimes considered new urbanist, new towns tend to lack a thorough transportation element. Master planned communities are not conducive to supporting public transportation systems because they are usually located at the fringe of metropolitan areas (Moudon et al., 1990, pg. 99). Developing transit systems to provide service to these remote locations is oftentimes considered too costly Moudon et al. (1990) emphasizes that master planned communities, if properly designed, can reduce automobile dependency with a minimal reliance on transit. In communities with higher densities and a good mix of uses, pedestrian travel can serve as a viable mode of transportation. Conservation Developments Another development type that can be classified as a new town is a conservation development or a cluster development. These development types have many similarities to Howard s (1965) Garden City. Conservation subdivisions are residential

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22 developments where at least 50% of the land is desi gnated as undivided open space (Arendt & Harper 1996). This type of development typically occurs on the urban fringe and in rural areas, where greenfields are abundant. The premise of a conservation development is to protect the natural environment and to improve the quality of life for local residents. Conservation developments are designed on a density neutral approach, meaning that the density standards remain the same for a specified zoning district. Conservation developments differ from conventiona l developments in many ways. Conventional developments rarely set aside any open space Developers usually attempt to maximize the buildable area in an effort to maximize profits. Conventional developments are inherently less compact than conservation d evelopments and thus have larger lots. However, larger lots do not necessarily equate to higher property values or better quality of life. From an environmental p er spective conservation developments are composed of native flora and fauna, while convent ional subdivisions are usually landscaped and do not necessarily contain native plant species (APA, 2006) Conservation developments are designed in a similar fashion to golf course neighborhoods (Arendt & Harper 1996) Before the neighborhood can be plo tted, the conservation area has to be defined. Conservation areas are divided into two categories of importance, primary and secondary conservation areas. Primary conservation areas are considered the most confined and typically include wetlands, floodpl ains, and steep slopes. Secondary conservation areas include a variety of other natural areas such as woodlands, farmlands, river and stream corridors, wildlife

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23 habitats, and other natural areas. Secondary conservation areas are more prone to being develo ped. Conservation developments offer many obvious environmental benefits; however, they can be economically successful as well. Conservation developments cost less to develop than conventional developments because they are more compact. This means that t hey require less infrastructure and materials. Sprawling conventional developments require longer streets, sidewalks, sewer lines, and other utilities. People are also willing to pay more for land that is situated near open space (Fleckenstein, n.d.) Homes in conservation subdivisions, despite smaller lot sizes, can sell for significantly more than those in convention al developments as much as 33% more by n.d., pg. 2 ). The higher quality of life, that open space provid es, gives conservation developments the edge over typical developments. In Florida, conservation developments have begun to catch on. Some of the first conservation subdivisions are being designed around the Tallahassee area, in the Florida Panhandle (F leckenstein n.d. ) Conservation subdivisions are flourishing in this particular region because of an environmentally sensitive area known as the Red Hills region. This region, which stretches from north central Florida to southwest Georgia, is an area o are in fact sprawl, they have been prohibited from the heart of the region. Instead, conservatio n subdivisions are permitted on the fringe of the region as a buffer between urban and rural land.

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24 Economics of Rural Development While this research is not an economically based analysis, it is important to understand the implications that development c an have on rural areas. The bid rent theory best explains the change that occurs when a large scale DRI like Ave Maria is built in a rural setting. In urban settings the willingness to pay for land depends on its accessibility rather than its fertility ( explains that the price of land is highest at the central business district (CBD) and its value will decrease based on the distance from the CBD. In looking at how new towns impact local land markets, it is important to understand why new towns locate in isolated rural areas Ricks (1970), suggests that most developers are primarily conce rned with low land costs. T he lower the land costs the greater the distance from the developed urbanized area. However, this distance can increase other costs for the developer. Construction costs would increase because of the greater distance to bring labor and materials from the existing urbanized area. Development costs would increase because of the need for more roads and utilities, as well as giving land for schools and fire protection. Marketing costs would increase in order to get prospective buyers to visit and approve the location of the new town. Overhead costs would increase due to higher interest costs due to the speculative nature of the area. More planning would be required based on the location of the development, and sales would likely be slower as well. With that being said, many developers still opt for greenfield sites. The development pressures put o n rural land markets has triggered a response in the state o f Florida and across the country in various ways. In 1972 t he state adopted the Land Conservation Act, which established a land conservation program to conserve

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25 and protect environmentally endang ered lands in Florida (Schaefer, 1999, pg. 4). Additional legislation created the Areas of Critical State Concern (ACSC) in 1972, the Growth Management Act (GMA) in 1985, and the Rural Lands Stewardship Area Program (RLSAP) in 2001. A ll of this legislati on is aimed at controlling the amount of development in rural areas. Growth Management In order to understand the policy approach of the DCA it is important to understand Comprehensive Planning and Land Development Regulation Act was adopted in 1985 by the Florida Legislature and later became known as the Growth Management Act (GMA) The GMA requires all 67 counties and 410 municipalities in Florida to implement Local Government Compre hensive Plans The Comprehensive Plans are a means of guiding future growth and development (DCA, 2009). A critical aspect of the Act is its concurrency provision that requires services and facilities to be available concurrent with development impacts Concurrency covers transportation, potable water, sewer, drainage, park and recreation, solid waste, and schools ( Florida Legislature, 2009 a ). The basis of concurrency is that public facilities will be provided as needed, in order to attain and sustain t he adopted level of service (LOS) standard. LOS is established by local governments for transportation infrastructure, with the exception of the Florida Interstate Highway System (DCA, 2005). Florida first began to implement growth management and planning measure in the 9.5 million people in 1980 (Connerly Chapin, & Higgins 2007, pg. 23). The GMA and

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26 previous planning acts were aimed at controlling growth and protec ting the natural environment. Areas of Critical Concern An area of critical state concern was one of the early planning tools used to protect the most environmentally sensitive lands. The state of Washington enacted a critical area legislation which is co nsidered to be one of the most comprehensive programs of its kind. The Washington program requires that every local government in Washington adopt regulations protecting several types of critical areas, including wetlands and groundwater recharge areas (W Management Act establishes a statewide framework for identifying and protecting critical areas. The Washington system is different from the Florida system. In Florid a areas of critical concern are designated by the state legislature not the local government. In both cases however, a critical area is generally established as an area containing regional important resources that are unique to the area. Land Stewardship Land stewardship in Florida has evolved over the last half century. Efforts to preserve the Everglades as well as other land conservation programs have been enacted at the federal, state and local levels. Additionally, the state has attempted to preserve agricultural lands. In 1982 the state addr essed the immense reduction in agricultural lands. At that time the state had its agricultural land converted to nonagricultural uses at a rate of almost 215,000 acres per year (Florida & McGinnis 1982, pg. 122). Since that time various growth regulatio ns have been utilized as a means to slow the consumption of rural and agricultural lands.

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27 The 1972 Land Conservation Act was one of the first major land acquisition program in Florida. Starting with a $40 million for a land acquisition bond program, thi s conservation program has grown into the largest state land acquisition program in the country (Connerly et al. 2007, pg. 244 245). Florida Forever is the current land acquisition program in the state of Florida. The primarily goal of this program is t o preserve pristine Florida landscapes, particularly those landscapes that are threatened by urbanization (Connerly et al. 2007, pg. 246). The push to conserve environmental lands has gone beyond quality of life issues. The threat of global warming and impending sea level rise has sparked a new interest in the green movement. Climate Change and VMT Climate change has been a hot topic over the past decade, in the wake of intense storms and melting icecaps. Studies have found that global average temperat ure s have risen by 0.6 degrees Celsius over the last century, and that human activity over the past temperature increase could range from 1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius ( Austin, 2003, pg. 3). High levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere have been identified as the cause for rising global temperatures. The biggest threat of increasing temperatures is a rise in sea level as a result of the melting polar icecaps. This should be of particular which are slightly above sea level. The automobile is a major source of CO2 emissions, and is therefore viewed as one of the leading causes of climate change. Emission of CO2 results primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, which includes diesel and gasoline. The United States

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28 leads the world in total CO 2 emissions. The transp ortation sector accounts for 33% of CO2 emissions in the U S (Ewing, 2008, pg. 2). With that being said, in order to combat climate change we must find a way to reduce the CO2 emissions in the U S transportation sector Ewing (2008) argues that there are three things that need to happen in order to reduce CO2 in the transportation sector. First, vehicle fuel economy must increase. Second, the carbon content of the fuel itself must be reduced. Third, the amou nt of driving or vehicle miles travel ed (VMT) must be reduced. VMT is the variable that planners and developers have control of. Development practices going forward will be critical in reducing VMT. VMT is project ed to rise for the foreseeable future. In fact VMT will likely offset fuel efficiency improvements as a result of technological advancements to vehicles (Ewing, 2008, pg. 2). VMT has grown three times faster than the U S population and almost twice as fast as vehicle registration since 1980 (Ewing, 2008, pg. 2). Ewing (2008) argues that the increasing amount of driving can be attributed to t he built environment. The majority of development for the last half century has been automobile oriented, low density development. This has caused people to be separated from the places that they work and play. Though VMT is projected to increase, there are measures that can be taken as a means to reduce VMT Research conducted by Keith Bartholomew (2009) indicate s that in a compact land use transportation scenario that VMT could be reduced by 17% by the year 2050. Batholomew conducted a meta analysis of 80 scenario planning projects that had been completed between 1989 and 2003 Each planning project used

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29 land use as a variable. From these scenarios Bartholomew created a regional VMT model. Using coefficients from the model Bartholomew conservativel y estimated the VMT reduction of 17% below scenarios assuming a continuation of current land use trends (Bartholomew, 2009, pg. 13). During the study Bartholomew observed a correlation between VMT and density. Simply put, as density increases, VMT decreas es. B artholomew acknowledged that density is not the only contributor in reducing VMT. O ther factors including connectivity and mixed land use affects VMT as well. The observed relationship between VMT and density was plotted on a graph. While some of t he results were scattered, a regression line clearly showed the reduction in VMT. Conversely, in a few scenarios density decreased. As a result VMT increased. Summary The protection of the natural environment will be a great challenge for generations t o come. Controlling d evelopment pressure s in rural areas will remain a challenge for planners and policy makers alike. The land use decisions that planners make today can have long lasting affects well into the future. Through innovative planning techni ques and regulations, we can hope to establish a better typ e of development pattern. New urbanism principles establish a well rounded model for land development regulations to follow. These regulations greatly impact the relationship between la nd use and transportation. This relationship is one of the most crucial elements of good urban form. While these principles are important, there implementation must be carefully orchestrated. Planners must maintain an understanding of the hierarchy of e cologically sensitive lands, and regulate development accordingly.

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30 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction This study i nvestigate s Ave Maria and i ts impacts on Collier County. In order to get a clear understanding of this development it is important to understand the regulatory environment in which Ave Maria was implemented. What makes this study interesting is that Ave Maria is the first DRI to u tilize the RLSAP. Additionally, Ave Maria is located adjacent to the Big Cypress Swamp, habitat to the Florida p anther and an Area of Critical State Concern (ACSC) In many ways this development can be viewed as a learning experience for all of the partie s involved in the approval process. Study Approach This research use s a case study approach to evaluate the impacts of Ave Maria, by looking at the regulatory requirement that were enforced during the DRI approval process. This study conduct s a comprehe nsive policy analysis of the RLSAP and ACSC using retrospective cross sectional data as a means to qualify the program s The analysis examine s the program s at the state, local, and regional levels. Additionally, a series of simulation usi ng GIS are condu cted as a means to quantify some impacts of Ave Maria and to further evaluate the RLSAP. Policy Analysis The policy analysis seeks to evaluate the regulatory standards that were applied to the Ave Maria DRI. As such, this analysis examine s the RLSAP and the ACSC regulations at the state, local, and regional levels In order to qualify how these regulations are applied to Ave Maria the researcher must first understand the original intent of the regulations.

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31 First, t his study examine s the relevant Flori da Statutes for the RLSAP and the ACSC as a means to clearly understand the intended goals and objectives of these regulations. The RLSAP and the ACSC are described in Florida Statues 163.3177 (11)(a) and 380.05 respectively. Next, the analysis systemati cally evaluate s how the legislative intent of the RLSAP and the ACSC are interpreted by the DCA and Collier County Though the RLSAP is implemented by Collier County, the DCA offers guidance on the structuring of the program and ultimately must approve of the program as implement ed by Collier County The DCA documents pertaining to the RLSAP and the ACSC were evaluated and compared with the goals and objectives of the legisla ture. The DCA documents include: Procedures for the Designation of a Rural Land Stewardship Area (Florida Department of State, 2010d ) Rural Land Stewardship Area (Florida Department of State, 2010b ), Approval of Local Comprehensive Plan for Big Cypress Area of Critical State Concern ( Florida Department of State, 2010c ), the Town of Ave Maria Development of Regional Impact Application for Development Approval, and the Rural Land Stewardship Area Program 2007 Annual Report to the Legislature At the local level Collier County defines and implements development regulations pertaining to the RLSAP and the ACSC within its Comprehensive Planning Department. This department defines its land development regulations in the Future Land Use Element (FLUE) of the Collier County Growth Management Plan and in the Collier County Land Development Code (LDC) These documents are also evaluated for consistency with the legislative goals and objectives for the RLSAP and the ACSC The growth management plan provides the framework for implementing the RLSAP in

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32 Collier County. I n analyzing the growth management plan this study will be exam ining the function of the RLSAP A goal of this research is to get an understanding of how the program is intended to work. The research will be analyzing the RLSAPs indexing system, which is used to assi gn ecologi values to parcels the RLSAP can manipulate where development will occur. The location of development is part of the method in which this analysis will measure the impacts of Ave Maria. The final aspect of t he po licy analysis is the application to Ave Maria. Now that this study has clearly defined the purpose of the RLSAP and the ACSC, as defined by multiple government entities, it can be applied to the Ave Maria DRI review process. For this portion of the analysis documents from several agencies are analyzed; including the Town of Ave Maria Development of Regional Impact Applic ation for Development Approval, the Development Orders for the Ave Maria DRI, the 2008 DRI Monitoring Report for Ave Maria, and th e Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council Staff Sufficiency Review for the Town of Ave Maria. Additionally because transportation impacts are a significant impact of a large scale project, the Florida Site Impact Handbook will be referenced in order to understand the policies governing the analysis of the Ave Maria DRI After all of the documents are analyzed and an understanding of the Ave Maria DRI approval has been achieved, the researcher can begin to draw so me conclusion. The study is seeking to determine how the RLSAP affects the location of new town development. The location of the development can ultimately impact regional traffic

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33 patterns and potentially the local environment. Secondly, the study is lo oking at the manner in which the RLSAP handles transportation issues related to DRI development. GIS Simulations Following the policy analysis a series of simulations are conducted using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a means to help quantify t he impacts of Ave Maria and to qualify the RLSAP. The first simulation will utilize a basic land suitability analysis model as a means to quantify the suitability of land for a DRI in Collier County. Following the suitability analysis a VMT model is used as a means to simulate the traffic impacts of Ave Maria. The VMT simulation yields estimate s for vehicle trip length in Collier Co unty. Additional VMT simulations are performed to simulate trip length for different phases of the Ave Maria DRI. A third simulation is conducted using the VMT model with the results of the land suitability analysis. Land Suitability Analysis The land suitability analysis is conducte d using ArcMap software. Data for this analysis was provided by the Florida Geographic Data Library (FGDL), developed by the GeoPlan Center at the University of Florida. The suitability analysis seeks to determine suitable locations for a DRI with similar characteristics to Ave Maria. The analysis primarily uses state data, meaning that featur es external to Collier County are also factored into the analysis. To begin the analysis the researcher must first decide what data is relevant to this analysis. This analysis is limited by the data provided by the FGDL. The basic data provided for Coll ier County includes the county boundary, land use data, and roads. Next, relevant state level data is imported. The state data includes most of the

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34 variables that will be factored into the suitability surface. The variables must be identified as low sui tability or high suitability. The variables for suitability for a DRI are identified as follows : Areas in close proximity to o Major r oads have high suitability o Developed lands have high suitability o S chools have high suitability o F ire stations have high suitability o Po lice stations have high suitability o H ospitals have high suitability o S hopping centers have high suitability o Sewer treatment facilities have low suitability o Correctional facilities have low suitability o Wetlands and other environmentally s ensitive lands have low suitability Areas located within o Conservation lands are not suitable o Developed lands are not suitable o Open water is not suitable o Roads are not suitable o Brownfield sites are not suitable The suitability analysis employs sever al tools as a means to classify the land within Collier County. After all of the data is added, the variables, excluding conservation lands, are applied to a Euclidean distance function. Euclidean distance is used to measure proximity to the variables. Next, the Euclidean distance outputs are reclassified using the reclassify tool The reclassification is a method used to organize the values of the Euclidean distance function into more manageable numbers. Reclassif ication puts all of the distance valu es of the variables on the same scale. The distance values are classified into equal intervals with 9 classes. The 9 classes are used to measure suitability on a 1 9 scale, with 1 being least suitable and 9 being most suitable. For the positive external ities (schools, shopping, etc.), the ninth interval is classified as the closest location to the respective variables. For negative externalities

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35 (prisons, brownfileds, etc.), the first interval is classified as the closest location to the respective vari able. The result of the reclassification is separate suitability layers for the individual variables I n order to produce an overall DRI land suitability map for Collier County the suitability layers must weighted and then combined The weights are used to prioritize the variables, which will give some variables more importance than others. For the purposes of this project the variables are ranked based on the personal opinion. Though this method reduces the quality of the analysis, it is s till an effective way of generating a basic suitability layer. The weighted values are displayed in table 3 1, with proximity to developed lands having the most weight and proximity to sewer treatment having the least. In order to apply the weights to ea ch variable and to then combine the weighted variables, a weighted sum function is executed. The weighted sum function summarizes all of the variables together into one output, based on each variable s weight. Before the weighted sum function can be run, however, a mask must be added to the output. A mask is used to take out specific areas that are not included in the suitability analysis for a DRI. In this analysis the areas to be masked include d : roads, developed land, open water, and conservation land s. The mask is created by reclassifying the satellite imagery data. The satellite imagery data highlights the physical attributes of all of the parcels in Collier County. Using the select by attributes feature the researcher is able to select the attri butes to be used in the mask. Those selected attributes are reclassified into a new output, and used as the mask for the

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36 w eighted sum function. Once the weighted sum function is executed, the land suitability map is complete. Since the suitability outp ut map can have a wide range of results, a final suitability map was created to show suitability indexed of greater than or equal to six. This was done to eliminate land with low suitability and to graphically provide a more detailed spectrum of color for the remaining parcels in the final suitability map. The final suitability map was created using the single output map algebra tool. The input used was the initial suitability map. The output of this function is a suitability map with indexed values gre ater than or equal to six. The results of the suitability map s are applied to part of the VMT Model, and help to reinforce the discussion of the policy analysis. VMT Model The second simulation measure d trip length in Collier County. As with the land s uitability analysis, this simulation was also conducted using ArcMap. The VMT Model being used for this simulation was created by Steiner et al. (2010) For a detailed description of how the model functions, refer to Vehicle Miles of Travel Based Traffic Impact Assessment (Steiner et al., 2010) The VMT Model calculates trip length based on many variables pertaining to land use characteristics and road way networks. The input data for the model was acquired from the Florida Department of Revenue (FDOR) an d Collier County Information Technology FDOR provided the parcel data for Collier County. Collier County Information Technology provided the 2009 roadway network, the Ave Maria DRI boundaries, and the county boundary. The VMT model measured four differe nt types of trip length; Home Based Work Production (HBWP), Home Based Work Attraction (HBWA), Home Based Other

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37 Production (HBOP), and Home Based Other Attraction (HBOA). HBWP is best described as the length of a trip that originates from home and conclud es at work, with the production being the home. HBWA is the length of a trip that originates from the home and concludes at work, with the attraction being the place of employment. HBOP is a trip that originates at home and concludes somewhere besides wo rk, for example at a shopping center, with the production being the home. HBOA is a trip that originates at home and concludes somewhere besides work, with the attraction being the location other than work. The results of the model are calculated using a series of formulas as described in Vehicle Miles of Travel Based Traffic Impact Assessment (Steiner et al., 2010) The results are organized in the attribute table of a shape file. For this simulation the researcher used the Inverse Distance Weighted (I DW) tool to manipulate the results graphically. IDW is used to average the values of data points. One of the constraints of the VMT Model is that Ave Maria is not built out. This constraint is reflected in the parcel data, which will ultimately be refle cted in the results of the model. Because of this situation the researcher felt it was appropriate to also run the VMT Model based on Phase 1 and Phase 2 build out, estimates for Ave Maria. The estimates were obtained from the Application for Developmen t Approval document, used in the policy analysis. The variables of interests for the development phases are residential units, office square footage, retail square footage, institution al square footage, an d recreational square footage. A limitation of th is method is that any changes in the roadway network cannot be reflected, as that information is not yet available. Additionally, this model is only measuring change on the Ave Maria site; it is not possible to predict change s on

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38 adjacent parcels. By rer unning the model this study will be able to estimate changes in trip length over time. In order to run the model using the estimates, some of the data in the attributes table had to be manipulated. The data used to predict trip length is spatially organiz ed into theoretical neighborhoods, which are evenly distributed across Collier County. Each neighborhood contains land use, roadway data, and other calculated fields that are determined by the model. The Ave Maria DRI is situated in seven different neigh borhoods. For this portion of the simulation, the researcher used a site plan of Ave Maria as a way to aggregate different land uses into certain neighborhoods. The spatial arrangement of land use b y neighborhood is displayed in F igure 3 1. As the resea rcher manipulated the data to reflect the development phases, the new square footage and unit data had to be split among the three neighborhoods. Once the fields were manipulated the model was run again to reflect the potential changes on the Ave Maria s ite. The IDW tool was again used to graphically portray the results. Suitable Site VMT Simulation The final GIS simulation combined the results of the land suitability analysis with the VMT Model. The purpose of this simulation is to predict trip length if Ave Maria had theoretically been built at a more suitable site. R esults from the suitability analysis were used to determine equally suitable, if not more suitable, locations for a DRI in Collier County The researcher chose a location with high suita bility and with a relatively close proximity to the Naples Central Business District In this simulation the researcher picked seven neighborhoods at the new suitable location which was relatively undeveloped An undeveloped site was chosen because it m ust be able to contain a 5,000 acre DRI. The researcher manipulated the neighborhood data to reflect Ave

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39 Maria at Phase 2 buildout only. The purpose of this simulation is to compare trip length based on the location of the development, not based on the p rogress of the development. The new neighborhoods were manipulated in the same fashion as the original DRI neighborhoods, with one exception. Since the new neighborhoods had a minimal amount of existing roads and intersections that data was also changed to reflect the road network in Ave Maria. The results were graphically displayed using the IDW tool. The results of the GIS simulations were used to reinforce the policy analysis. Conclusion Using a two part approach of, policy analysis, and GIS simula tions, the researcher can summarize the impacts of the Ave Maria DRI. Comparing the finding of the policy analysis with the findings of the GIS simulations, the researcher can quantify and qualify some of the impacts of Ave Maria. This study will attempt to portray how land use decisions can impact our transportation systems and the natural environment. The following chapter includes the findings of the policy analysis and GIS simulations Table 3 1. Suitability Weights Rank Variable Weight 1 Urban Ar eas 0.167 2 Major Roads 0.152 3 Wetlands/Sensitive Lands 0.136 4 Fire Station 0.121 5 Schools 0.106 6 Prison 0.091 7 Shopping 0.076 8 Police 0.061 9 Brownfield 0.045 10 Hospitals 0.030 11 Sewer Treat 0.015

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40 Figure 3 1 Aggregated Land Use by neighborhood. Note: the neighborhoods are displayed as they would spatially appear

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41 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS This research focuses on the land use regulations that were applied to the Ave Maria DRI. The regulations are implemented in the Collier County Gr owth Management The research seeks to understand and measure some of the impacts on Collier County that have occurred as a result of the regulations. This chapter reports the fi ndings of this research. Introduction The Ave Maria DRI is a unique development by Florida standards for several reasons. Ave Maria is the first development approved under the RLSAP. Additionally, Ave Maria is located adjacent to the Big Cypress Area of Critical State, a neighboring ecosystem of the Florida Everglades. Both the RLSAP and the ACSC carry with them accompanying regulations and standards, which make the development process much more rigorous. This policy analysis explores the regulatory en vironment in which Ave Maria was implemented. Policy Analysis ACSC Legislation The ACSC Program was created in the Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972 (Schaefer, 1999, pg. 5) The Florida Legislature established that an ACSC may b e designated only for areas containing : E nvironmental or natural resources of regional or statewide importance, including state or federal parks, forests, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas, aquatic preserves, major rivers and estuaries, state environmen tally endangered lands, Outstanding Florida Waters, and aquifer recharge areas ( Florida Legislature, 2009b )

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42 Additionally, the initial legislation deemed the DCA as the corresponding government department to oversee the ACSCs. Following the initial ACSC legislation, the Big Cypress ACSC was officially created through the Big Cypres s Conservation Act of 1973 ( Florida Legislature, 2009c ). The intent of the act is to : C onserve and protect the natural resources and scenic beauty of the Big Cypress Area of Fl orida. The Legislature found that the Big Cypress Area is an area containing and having a significant impact upon environmental and natural resources of regional and statewide importance and that designation of the area as an area of critical state concern is desirable and necessary to accomplish the purposes of The Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972 ( Florida Legislature, 2009c ) Within the Big Cypress ACSC, land development regulation s are defined in Chapter 28 25 of the Florida Adm inistrative Code. Said regulations include, site alteration, drainage, transportation, and structure installation regulations. These regulations are enforced in local comprehensive plans, where applicable, and discussed in detail later in this chapter. All land development regulations are administered by the local government, Collier County, as if the regulations are part of the loca l land development regulations. If there is a conflict between the Big Cypress ACSC regulations and other regulations fro m another government jurisdiction, the more restrictive of the regulations will be implemented ( Florida Department of State, 2010f ). Additionally, any comprehensive plans, comprehensive plan elements, and functional plans and development codes affecting t he Critical Area must maintain the realization of the Big Cypress Critical Area regulations and objectives ( Florida Department of State, 2010e ). This legislation set the regulatory guidelines for the ACSC, and essentially put control in the hands of the D CA

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43 and the local governments, who are now responsible for carrying out the intent of the legislation. RLSAP Legislation The RLSAP was officially established in 2001 by the Florida Legislature in Section 163.3177(11) (d) of the Florida Statues. The legis lation provides that counties may : D esignate rural land stewardship areas, to include all or portions of lands classified in the future land use element as predominantly agricultural, rural, open, open rural, or a substantively equivalent land use. Within these areas, planning and economic incentives encourage the implementation of innovative and flexible planning and development strategies and creative land use planning techniques (Florida Legislature, 2009 a ) The legislative intent of the RLSAP is to fur ther the following principles of rural sustainability: R estoration and maintenance of the economic value of rural land; control of urban sprawl; identification and protection of ecosystems, habitats, and natural resources; promotion of rural economic acti vity; maintenance of the viability of Florida's agricultural economy; and protection of the character of rural areas of Florida ( Florida Legislature, 2009a ) A rural land stewardship area (RLSA) must be at least 10,000 acres and must be located outside of m unicipalities and established urban growth boundaries. Additionally, the RLSA must be established by a plan amendment, which is then subject for review by the DCA. Upon approval of the RLSA plan amendment, the county will be required to establish a syste m of transferable rural land use credits (Florida Legislature, 2009a) The details of the Collier County system will be described later in this chapter. The RLSAP legislation set a general f ramework for counties to follow. The DCA has defined the regul ations for a RLSA and is responsible for guiding local government in the implementation process. The following sections of this chapter will discuss the DCA regulations and the Collier County RLSA

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44 D epartment of Community Affairs ACSC The DCA is the gover nment body responsible for all activities concerning an ACSC. Local governments located in an ACSC are required to issue and render development orders to the DCA for review Development orders must be rendered for z oning, r ezoning, s pecial use or special exception, v ariance, p lat approval, m ajor development review, c ommunity impact assessment, b uilding permit, f ill permit, e xcavation permit, l andclearing or landscaping permit, or a ny change or amendment to a previously issued development orde r ( Florida De partment of State, 2010a ). T he Collier County Growth Management Plan as it relates to the Big Cypress ACSC was approved by the DCA in 1986 ( Florida Department of State, 2010c ). The DCA is primarily concerned with the land development regulations that were originally defined by the Florida Legislature in 1972. If a DRI is proposed within an ACSC, the DCA will revert to ACSC land development regulations which will supersede the DRI regulations (Florida Legislature, 2009) A gray area exists, however, conc erning impacts. Developments located outside of an ACSC do not have to conform to the ACSC land development regulations. role in the RLSAP, which was used as a regulatory tool in the implementation of Ave Mari a. RLSAP The RLSAP is monitored by the DCA. The program is intended to control grow th in rural areas and to preserve the most environmentally and agriculturally sensitive lands (DCA, 2007, pg.1). The DCAs defined goals for the program are as follows:

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45 R es toration and maintenance of the economic value of rural land; control of urban sprawl; identification and pro tection of ecosystems, habitats and natural resources; promotion of rural economic activity; maintenance of the and protection of the char acter of rural areas of Florida (DCA, 2007, pg. 1) These goals mimic those of the Florida Legislature. The DCA assists counties with the implementation of the RLSAP. If a county wishes to designate an area for rural land stewar dship the DCA has a series of requirement that the county must follow. The DCA has created a RLSA Interagency Technical Advisory Team, which assists counties in the implementation process. The DCAs team consists of members from: Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Department of Environmental Protection Department of Transportation Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission A ffected regional planning council(s) A ffected water management district(s) The team will conduct site visits an d participate in public workshops. The workshops will address the process of creating a RLSA, the planning issues that will likely arise, and the technical assistance that will be available from the state planning agencies If the DCA feels that the prop osed RLSAP meets the 10,000 acre threshold requirement and promotes the goals, as defined by the Florida Legislature, then the DCA will notify the county that it may proceed with a plan amendment ( Florida Department of State, 2010d ) The DCA has created a basic framework for RLS that counties must follow in order to be granted approval. T he DCA has established that RLS wil l be achieved through a system of transferable rural land use credits ( Florida Department of State, 2010b ) These credits are based on the ecological value of the land. Ecological values must be

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46 determined through a Land Value Analysis process. This process investigates all ecological and agricultural resources Additionally the analysis considers landscape ecology, existing conserva tion designations, and potential land development threats These considerations are used to assign values to all of the land within a RLSA. The highest values are assigned to the most sensitive lands. The stewardship credit system is based on the land v alues. Each credit represents a defined number of residential units. A RLSA is comprised of Stewardship Sending Areas (SSA), land designated for conservation, and Stewardship Receiving Areas (SRA), land designated for compact development. Using the stewa rdship credit system, a developer can transfer credits from an SSA to an SRA in order to increase the density or intensity of a parcel within the SRA. The DCA stresses that the stewardship credit system must be structured to achieve the purpose of the RLS A planning process ( Florida Department of State, 2010b) While the DCA has provided the framework for creating a stewardship credit system the actual computation of the credit values is done at the county level. The DCA has established that development w ithin an SRA must utilize creative land use planning techniques, in the form of development that has a compact, functional mix of land uses; timing and phasing requirements necessary to achieve a functional mix; energy efficient land use patterns; the inte rnal capture of vehicle trips; and minimization of vehicle miles traveled and greenhouse gas emissions ( Florida Department of State, 2010b) Th e DCA has acknowledges that development within an SRA will oftentimes come in the form of a new town The DCA defines a new town as :

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47 A new urban activity center and community designated on the future land use map and located within a rural area or at the rural urban fringe, clearly functionally distinct or geographically separated from existing urban areas and oth er new towns. A new town shall be of sufficient size, population and land use composition to support a variety of economic and social activities consistent with an urban area designation. New towns shall include basic economic activities; all major land us e categories, with the possible exception of agricultural and industrial; and a centrally provided full range of public facilities and services. A new town shall be based on a master development plan, and shall be bordered by land use designations which pr ovide a clear distinction between the new town and surrounding land uses ( Florida Department of State, 2010b) Since new towns will be the primary development type within an SRA, the DCA has created several policies with which new towns must comply The plan amendment designating a new town shall include a master development plan that establishes the size of the new town, the amount, location, type, density and intensity of development, and the design standards to be utilized in the new town. A fut ure land use map amendment to designate a new town shall be internally consistent with the RLSA provisions of the comprehensive plan. New towns shall be surrounded by greenbelts, except for any connecting rural road corridors and to the extent that new to wns are adjacent to existing or planned urban development or incorporated areas. Any increase in the density or intensity of land use required to achieve the proposed new town may occur only through the use of stewardship credits assigned or transferred t o the Designated Receiving Area either prior to or subsequent to the designation of the new town on the future land use map ( Florida Department of State, 2010b) as the Cou own version of RLS, through an analysis of the Future Land Use Element of the Collier county Growth Management Plan.

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48 Collier County Growth Management Plan ACSC Land Development Regulations The land development regulations for the Big Cypress ACSC are defined in the Future Land Use Element of the Collier County Growth Management Plan. Collier County has adopted the land development regulations for the Big Cypress ACSC put forth in Chapter 28 25 of the Florida Administrative Code. The land development regulations cover site alteration, drainage, transportation, and structure installation. The FLUE limits site alteration to 10% of the total site size, with installation of non permeable surfaces restricted to 50% of any such area However, a minimum of 2,500 square feet may be altered on any permitted site. Non permeable surfaces greater than 20,000 square feet are required to provide for release of surface water runoff, in a manner than approximates the natural surface. Any vegetation lost due to site alterations must be re vegetated within 180 days. The re vegetation must be accomplished with native plant species. Mangrove trees and salt marsh grasses may not be destroyed or altered. Fill or dredge areas must be aligned with the direction of local surface water flow. Finger canals cannot be constructed within the ACSC. Lastly, the site alteration regulations do not apply to the agricultural use of land or for the conversion of land to agricultural use (Collier County 2008 a ) New and existing drai nage facilities within the Big Cypress ACSC cannot be constructed or modified to discharge water into any coastal waters. New drainage facilities must release water in a way that approximates the natural surface water flow. As with site alteration, the d rainage regulations do not apply to drainage facilities constructed or modified in order to use land for agricultural purposes or to convert land to agricultural use (Collier County 2008 a ).

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49 Transportation facilities that retain, divert, or block the flow of surface water within the Big Cypress ACSC must re establish sheet flow. Mitigation techniques include the use of interceptor spreader systems or equivalent structures. Stream, strand, or slough water must be allowed to pass a transportation facility t hrough the use of bridges, culverts, pilling construction, or equivalent structures. Transportation facilities must be constructed parallel to local surface flow (Collier County 2008 a ). Transpor tation facility size and type within the Big Cypress ACSC i s not discussed in the FLUE. This is significant because Collier County could potentially allow for large transportation facilities to be built within the Big Cypress ACSC. Structures within the ACSC must be placed in a way that will not adversely affect the flow of surface water. The minimum lowest floor elevation for a structure must be at or above the 100 year flood level. The structure installation regulations do not apply to structures used for agricultural purposes (Collier County 2008 a ). The Big Cypress ACSC includes several land designations including, conservation, agricultural/rural, estates, and urban. Any development that is approved within the Big Cypress ACSC will be reviewed by the DCA, with the potential for appeal to the Administrative Commission. The conservation designation is intended to protect the vital natural resources of Collier County. The vast majority of conservation land is publicly owned. The conservation designation does not allow any residential densities on publicl y owned land (Collier County 2008 a ). The agricultural/rural designation is applied to areas that lack public facilities and services, are remote from the existing development pattern, and are environmentally

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50 sensitive or are in agricultural production. U rban uses are not promoted. As such residential uses are restricted to one unit per five acres. As will be discussed later, the RLSAP allows for densities and intensities to be manipulated within an agricultural/rural land use designation (Collier County 2008 a ) The estates land use designation includes lands that have been subdivided into semi rural residential parcels. This designation is applied to the Golden Gate Estates Subdivision. A small, undeveloped, portion of the subdivision lies within the A CSC (Collier County 2008 a ). The urban uses are the result of a preexisting development agreement between the State of Florida and private landowners. Urban uses allow for the most intense forms of development. The amount of urban land within the Big Cyp ress ACSC is extremely limited the Big Cypress ACSC have attempted to limit development within the area. The next r the RLSAP. Rural Lands Stewardship Area Overlay Program The RLSAP in Collier County was implemented in 2002 as a means of controlling development in the agricultural sector of Collier County, known as the Agricultural Area Assessment. In the initial Rur al Lands Study (RLS), conducted in 2001, the stewardship area was officially defined and named the Immokalee Area Study. The stewardship area covers 195,000 acres in north central Collier County, around the town of Immokalee. Within the study area, 112,0 00 acres are agriculture, 55,000 acres are wetlands, and 20,000 acres are uplands. The challenge is that 182,000 acres are privately owned lands, leaving about 13,000 acres in the public domain. The population

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51 living within the study area was just over 1 ,000 residents as of the 2000 census (Collier County, 2001) The leading force behind the creation of the study area was the fear that development pressures from adjacent areas could spill over and potential l y destroy the environmentally sensitive wetlands and Florida Panther habitat that exists within the study area. The reason for this fear is that population growth has been significant in adjacent areas. The Orange Tree/Estates Area, which lies just to the west of the study area, saw the population ris e from 1,000 residents in 1990 to over 5,000 residents in 2000 (Collier County, 2001) A good portion of the development in Orange Tree occurred in the form of low density, large lot, single family homes. Additionally, the town of Immokalee, which is enc ompassed by but excluded from, the study area, saw its population increase from 13,000 in 1990 to 18,000 in 2000 (Collier County, 2001) The FLUE of the Collier County Growth Management Plan defines the goals, objectives, and policies of the RLSAP. The goal of the Collier RLSAP is to : A ddress the long term needs of residents and property owners within the Immokalee Area Study boundary of the Collier County Rural and activitie s, to prevent the premature conversion of agricultural land to non agricultural uses, to direct incompatible uses away from wetlands and upland habitat, to enable the conversion of rural land to other uses in appropriate locations, to discourage urban spra wl, and to encourage development that utilizes creative land use planning techniques (Collier County, 2008 a pg. 94 ) The RLSAP in Collier County is an incentive based land use overlay system, which is referred to as the Rural Lands Stewardship Area (RLSA) Overlay. According to the FLUE, this system is based on the principles of rural land stewardship that were originally defined by the Florida Legislature in Chapter 163.3177 (11) of the Florida Statutes (Collier County, 2008 a ) As outlined by the DCA, the Collier RLSA Overlay

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52 uses a transferable land use credit system that utilizes SSAs and SRAs as a method of regulating land use. Because this system is optional, until a property owner decides to participate in the stewardship program by reclassi fying land into an SSA or SRA there will be no change to the underlying density and intensity of allowable uses of land within the RLSA ( Collier County, 2008 a ). These underlying standards are known as the Baseline Standards. The specific densities and land uses allowed will be discussed in the analysis of the LDC. Most of the land within the study area is zoned as agriculture. When the Collier County RLSA Overlay was created several Stewardship Overlay Designations were created as a way to ident ify specialized features within the study area. The overlay designations include: Flowway Stewardship Areas (FSA), Habitat Stewardship Areas (HSA), Water Retention Areas (WRA), and Areas of Critical State Concern (ACSC). FSAs are wetland areas that allow water to flow, typically from north to south, into the Everglades. HSAs are areas which contain diversified wildlife habitats, including the Florida Panther. WRA are areas that are used for water retention and are typically controlled by the South Flori da Water Management District. As has been previously mentioned, ACSC pro tect resources and public facilities of major statewide significance. In this case part of the Big Cypress ACSC is located within the RLSA including areas not protected by the Big C ypress National Preserve. These overlay designations a re weighed heavily in calculating stewardship credits Stewardship Credit System The Collier County RLSA Overlay seeks to curb development by restricting increases in density and intensity of parcels w ithin the study area, unless landowners participate in the program by utilizing the Stewardship Credit System. The Stewardship Credit System is a hybrid Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) system which uses an

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53 index to assign natural resource values to i ndividual parcels within the stud y area. The Stewardship Credits are calculated based on values assigned to land use as well as a dditional index factors that were generated from the Land Value Analysis, as required by the DCA. Tables 4 1 and 4 2 show the stewardship credit worksheet used to assign parcel values. In completing the stewardship credit worksheet, t he stewardship natural resource index is used to measure the natural resource value for lands within the RLSA. The natural resource value is fou nd by measuring six different aspects of a parcel and assigning an index facto r based on each aspect The sum of the six factors is the index value for the parcel The characteristics include stewardship overlay designations, sending area proximity, list ed species habitat, soil and surface water, restoration potential, and land use/land cover (Collier County, 2008 a ). The natural resource index values for all parcels in the RLSA were graphically displayed in the natural resource index map ( see Figure 4 1 ) Credits from any lands designated as an SSA, will be based upon the Natural Resource Index values at the time of designation (Collier County, 2008 a ) The natural reso urce value is then factored into the stewardship credit matrix, which is used to calcul ate the stewardship credits. The stewardship credit matrix identifies eight ty pes of land use layers that c an be applied to a given parcel within the RLSA Overlay. Each Layer listed below includes a number of conditional uses allowed under the Baseline St andards (s ee Table 4 3 ). A landowner wanting to have his/her land designated as an SSA must determine how many of the Land Use Layers that they want to have removed from the designated lands. If a layer is removed, all baseline

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54 uses and activities are elim inated. Layers are removed sequentially and cumulatively in the order listed below starting with the residential layer (Collier County, 2008 a ) The Layer s are assigned a percentage of a base credit in the worksheet. The assigned percentage for each layer being removed is added together and then multiplied by the Index value This is done on a per acre basis in order to come to a total Stewardship Credit Value of the parcel(s) being designated as an SSA (Collier County, 2008 a ). Land Use Layers o Residential Land Uses o General Conditional U ses o Earth Mining and Processing Uses o Recreational Uses o Agriculture Group 1 o Agriculture Support Uses o Agriculture Group 2 o Conservation, Restoration and Natural Resources Collier County Land Development Code ACSC The Col lier County Land Development Code (LDC) recognizes the Big Cypress ACSC as a special treatment (ST) overlay zoning district. The ST designation is applied to areas that require conservation, protection, and preservation of ecological and recreational valu es. The Big Cypress ACSC is regulated under the ACSC ST designation The purpose of the regulations is to : C onserve and protect the natural, environmental, and economic resources of the Big Cypress area. Furthermore, these regulations are to provide a lan d and water management system that will preserve water quality, provide for the optimum utilization of the limited water resources of the area, facilitate orderly and well planned development, and protect the health, safety and welfare of residents of the state (Collier County, 2009 a ) The l and development regulations for the ACSC ST zoning designation are referred to as the design standards for development in the LDC. The design standards

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55 implemented by the LDC are the same as the land development regula tions established in the Florida Administrative Code The regulations include, site alteration, drainage, transportation, and structure installation (Collier County, 2009b) The land development regulations are further explained in the following section, as there is an overlap with the ACSC ST and the RLSA Overlay. RLSA Overlay The Collier County RLSA Overlay was defined in the LDC in conformity with the Growth Management Plan. The Collier County LDC recognizes the RLSA as the RLSA Zoning Overlay Distric t which is officially designated as RLSAO (Collier County, 2009b) The L DC establishes the land development regulations for three types of land uses allowed in the RLSA; baseline land use standards, SSA land use standards, and SRA land use standards. The baseline standards are applied to all land within the RLSA Overlay that ha s not been designated as an SSA or SRA. The majority of the land within the RLSA Overlay zoned for agriculture, and is designated as a Rural Agricultural District (A). Aside from b asic agricultural uses, the baseline standards for the A district allows for one residential unit per five acres of land (Collier County, 2009a). Other permitted uses include, conservation use, oil and gas exploration subject to state permits, family care facilities, communications towers, and schools (Collier County, 2009a) Additionally, the RLSA Overlay includes approximately 18,000 acres of the Big Cypress ACSC. The baseline standards defined in the land development code states that all ACSC regulati ons continue to apply to ACSC lands within the RLSA Dis trict regardless of designation (Collier County, 2009b).

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56 The SSA land use designation can apply to any privately owned lands within the RLSA District that are identified on the RLSA Overlay Map (See Fi gure 4 2 ) as FSA, HSA, WRA, Restoration, or Open, including lands within the ACSC (Collier County, 2009b) When lands identified as an FSA are designated as an SSA, the residential, general conditional, earth mining and processing, and recreation uses lay ers as listed in the Land Use Matrix must be removed as allowable land uses (Collier County, 2009b). HSA and WRA lands must eliminate the residential uses layer in order to be designated as an SSA. Any remaining use layers are still allowed within each d esignation. SRAs w ithin the Collier County RLSA Overlay have been broken down into four types: Towns, Villages, Hamlets, and Compact Rural Developments; with Towns being the largest and Compact Ru ral Developments the smallest (Collier County, 2009b) Eac h type of development contains specific land development regulations as defined in the LDC. The Collier RLSA defines a T own as an are a between 1,000 and 4,000 acres. The base density for a town is 1 to 4 dwelling units per acre, however, the density can b e increased with the addition of workforce housing. Towns must have services and infrastructure capable of facilitat ing urban populations. They must s upport development that is compact, human scale, mixed use, and provides a balance of land uses that wil l help to increase livability and reduce automobile trips Towns require the most diversified uses, most facilities and services, and the highest standards on recreation and open space. Towns contain a full range of single family and multifamily housing types, styles, and lot sizes. Towns must have a mixed use town center that will serve as a center for community facilities and support services Towns must also contain

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57 schools an d open space. A Town must contain a minimum of o ne community park The s i ze of the park must be at least 200 square feet per dwelling unit Towns are the only development type not allowed within the Big Cypress ACSC (Collier County, 2009b) Villages are primarily residential communities and are sized between 100 and 1,000 acre s. The base density for a Village is 1 4 units per acre. Village must offer diversified housing types and a mix of uses that are appropriately to the scale and character of the village. Villages are required to have a mixed use village center. Like tow ns, villages will contain schools and green space (Collier County, 2009b). Hamlets are defined as small rural residential areas consisting of single family homes and convenience oriented services. Hamlets range in size from 40 to 100 acres. The base den sity for a Hamlet is to 2 dwelling units per acre. Hamlets serve as an alternative to traditional five acre lots, which are allowed in the baseline standards. Hamlets require a common neighborhood greenspace and an elementary school may also be appropr iate, but is not required (Collier County, 2009b). Compact Rural Developments (CRDs) are a type of SRA that will allow flexibility with regard to mix of land uses and design standards. A CRD will generally comply with the standards of a Village or a Hamle t (Collier County, 2009b). According to the Collier County LDC, Villages, Hamlets, and CRDs are permit ted within the Big Cypress ACSC and are subject to location and size limitations. Any SRA that is established within the ACSC must be done so using credi ts that were generated solely from SSAs within the ACSC. Additionally, Hamlets and CRDs of 100 acres or less are the only type of development allowed in the ACSC east of the Okaloacoochee

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58 Slough (See Figure 4 2) The only type of SRA allowed in the ACSC west of the Okaloacoochee Slough are Villages and CRDs less than 300 acres and Hamlets (Collier County, 2009b). According to the LDC, the RLSA is not intended to increase the developmen t potential of lands within the Big Cypress ACSC. Rather, the RLSA is used to promote compact development as an alternative to the low density Baseline Standards already allowed within the ACSC. Additionally, none of the RLSA Overlay policies can supersede the Big Cypress ACSC regula tory standards including those that stri ctly limit nonagricultural clearing (Collier County, 2009b). This review has focused on the land use regulations of the RLSA Overlay. The next section of this analysis will focus on the transportation requirement for development occurring in the SRAs. Tr ansportation Element The transportation element for SRAs within the Collier County RLSA Overlay addresses aut omobile, pedestrian, and public transit For Towns, a utomobile facilities are required to have an interconnected system of collector and local ro ads; and are required to have a connection to collector or arterial roadways. Pedestrian facilities are required to have interconnected sidewalk and pathway system. Transit facilities are also required for towns, however, the specifics on the number of r outes and frequency of service is not specified. Towns are the only development type within the study area that is required to have transit access. Additionally, the LDC has stated that Towns should be designed in such a way as to reduce the number of au tomobile trips (Collier County, 2009b) Villages are required to have an interconnected system of collector and local roads. A system of sidewalks and pathways are required as well. Transit and

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59 equestrian trails are optional for Villages. CRDs greater than 100 acres have the same transportation requirements as Villages (Collier County, 2009b). Hamlets are required to have basic connectivity among local roads. Pedestrian facilities are also required in the form of pedestrian pathways. Equestrian trails are option al for Hamlets. Transit service is not available for Hamlets CRDs less than 100 acres have the same transportation requirements as Hamlets (Collier County, 2009b). The Collier County RLSA Overlay has established basic transportation requirem ents for development occurring within an SRA. Now that an understanding of the Collier County RLSA Overlay has been established, this research will report its findings of the Ave Maria DRI review process. Ave Maria DRI Review The Ave Maria DRI was the fir st development approved under the Collier County RLSA Overlay Program. Ave Maria occupies 5,000 acres of land south of Immokalee between Oil Well Rd and Immokalee Rd (See Figure 4 2) At buildout, Ave Maria will consist of 11,000 residential units, 690,0 00 square feet of retail, 510,000 square feet of office space, and a 6,000 student university. Ave Maria utilized several SSA s to generate stewardship credits. In total Ave Maria used 28,000 stewardship credits to conserve 17,000 acres of environmentally sensitive land ( DCA, 2007 ) The SSA s contain s land designated as HSA, FSA, WRA, and ACSC. The locations of the SSAs are spread across the study area (See Figure 4 2). The following section of this chapter discusses the DRI review process DRI Review Pr ocess The DRI review process is a multistep process involving several government

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60 agencies. The first step in the approval process is a DRI/Application for Development Approval (ADA) Preapplication Conference between the applicant (developer) and the Regio nal Planning Council (RPC). Other parties, including the DCA, typically attend this conference as well. The purpose of the conference is for the RPC and DCA to express their expectations for the site impact analysis that will be conducted by the applican t (FDOT, 1997) The applicant will then complete the ADA in accordance with expectations agreed to at the preapplication conference. The ADA is reviewed by the RPC staff and is also distributed to the affected agencies, including the DCA. The ADA inclu des estimated traffic impacts of the proposed DRI. The RPC will determine the sufficiency of the information provided by the applicant The RPC may require the applicant to submit additional information in order to obtain sufficiency (FDOT, 1997) In th e next step the RPC will issue an Assessment Report. This report provides detailed recommendations to the local government on the regional impacts of the proposed DRI. This report is used in creating and adopting the final Development Order (DO) for the DRI. The DO is the binding order which officially approves the DRI (FDOT, 1997). Once the DO has been issued, and the development is underway, the applicant will be required to issue an annual DRI Monitoring Report. This report gives yearly updates on th e progress of the development. Included in the Monitoring Report is an Annual Traffic Monitoring Report (FDOT, 1997). This report is critical in assessing impacts as development progresses. The following sections of this chapter will show the findings o f the Ave Maria DRI review documents.

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61 Application for Development Approval The Ave Maria DRI ADA document is the first document revie wed in the DRI approval process. According to the ADA, Ave Maria is being planned in accordance with the RLSA in north cen tral Collier County. The Town will encompass 4,995 acres and is planned in accor d with the Collier County GMP (DCA, 2004). Most of the Ave Maria site was previously used for agriculture which consisted of 3,357 acres of row crops, 583 acres of improved pasture, 327 acres of sod farms, and 133 acres of fallow crop land. In total, over 87% of the site was previously agricultural land (DCA, 2007). With that being said however there are approximately 800 acres of wetlands on the site. Of the 800 acres, 439 acres of wetlands are going to be maintained by the South Florida Water Management District. The remaining 377 acres of wetlands will be filled for development or excavated for surface water management lakes (DCA, 2004). Traffic projections were made using the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) calculation methods. The projections were based on the two phases of the development. Phase 1, which was anticipated to be complete by 2011, should consists of about half of the residential and retai l development. It is estimated that phase 1 would have a 62.0% capture rate (DCA, 2004) A breakdown of the capture estimates are provided in Table 4 4 Phase 2, which is the final phase, would be completed by 2016. It is estimated that phase 2 will ha ve about the same overall rate of capture as phase 1, at 62.1% (DCA, 2004) However, some of the individual land uses are estimated to yield different capture rates. For instance, the capture rate for the shopping/service land use is expected to increase from 69.7% in 2011 to 76.8% in 2016 ( c ompare Table 4 4 with Table 4 5 ).

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62 The applicant suggests that the high internal capture rate is the result of the significant collection of commercial and support services that are programmed to satisfy the majority o f the daily along the external highway network (DCA, 2004). Many of the employment opportunities created within The Town of Ave Maria can and will be satisfied by town residents and students located within the development where they can be easily reached via internal local roads and non motorized pathways for bicyclists and pedestrians (DCA, 2004). Sufficiency Response Following th e ADA, the Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council (SWFRPC) requested a sufficiency response from the applicant. The sufficiency response was used to clarify vague details from the initial ADA. The sufficiency response questioned the proposed 62% int ernal capture rate for Ave Maria. The SWFRPC indicated that the estimates were extremely high and exceeded typical accepted industry thresholds (SWFRPC, 2004). The RPC felt that university students who live on campus would frequently drive to Naples for discount retail and entertainment thus reducing the internal capture. Development Order In the summer of 2005 Collier County issued the DO for the Ave Maria DRI. The DO approved Ave Maria under the condition that specific requirements be met. The DO dic tated that the applicant is responsible for all on site related transportation improvements (Collier County, 2005) Additionally, the DO indicated that Ave Maria will significantly impact 13 regional roadway segments and 13 regional intersections that wil l likely operate below the level of service (LOS) standards (Collier County, 2005) This is

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63 largely in part because the existing transportation network in the vicinity of the Ave Maria DRI primarily consists of rural two lane roadways. As a result of the transportation deficiencies, the developer is required to pay impact fees as a method of offsetting the costs of upgrading the roadway facilities. DRI Monitoring Report In July of 2008, an annual DRI Monitoring Report was issued for the Town of Ave Ma ria. Using the ITEs peak hour trip generation rates, the total number of trips was estimated at 1,128 (Ave Maria Development, 2008) Traffic counts taken in July of 2008 at both project entrances indicated a p.m. peak hour total of 124 trips. T herefore, 11% of the ITE trips were external, thus yielding an internal capture rate of 89% (Ave Maria Development, 2008) significantly higher than the estimated 62% ( Table 4 6 ). As part of the traffic mitigation requirement Barron Collier Companies must pay impact fees totaling $87.4 million by the end of buildout, with 50% of the impact fees due at the time of the developments approval. The impact fees are primarily used to upgrade road networks, many of which are located in rural locations of the study area. In September of 2007, several years after the initial development approval, the developer filed for a 3 year extension on the entire DRI project. This means that phase 1 has been pushed back to 2014, phase 2 to 2019, and the final impact fees have been pushed back as to 2019 as well. Conclusion The policy analysis provided an in depth look at the regulatory environment that was used to implement Ave Maria. The transportation and environmental impacts are with a development of this magnitude are s ignificant The final aspect of this res earch

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64 will attempt to portray additional transportation impacts through the use of GIS modeling simulations. GIS Simulations Land Suitability Analysis The land suitability analysis provided a basic suitability map for DRI suitability within Collier County. Based on the inputs described in the methodology, the resulting suitability index ranged from 3.14 (low suitability) to 7.92 (high suitability). The original suitability map for northern Collier County is displa yed in Figure A 1, in Appendix A of this document. A reclassified map was created, eliminating the low suitability index values (see Figure A 2) The reclassified map measured suitability indices between 6 and 7.9 thus eliminating the most remote areas of Collier County The reclassified map for the developed portions of Collier County is displayed in Figure 4 3 The DRI suitability index on the Ave Maria site ranges from 6.1 to 6.3. This is relatively low compared to the rest of the developing areas of the county, much of which had index values above 7. The eastern two thirds of Collier County were masked from the analysis, due to the presence of conservation lands. Additionally, much of the coastal areas of the county were masked due to the presenc e of existing development. Figure A 2 in Appendix A shows a closeup of the Ave Maria s ite. T his area of the county is dotted with small lakes and wetlands. The Ave Maria site is located on a patch of agricultural land with a large wetland to the west. T his map reveals that there are more suitable sites to the north and west of the Ave Maria site, with sites to the south and east being less suitable. The higher suitabilities are associated with the abundance of services located in and around Immokalee (n orth) and the suburbs of Naples (west).

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65 VMT Model The VMT Model measure trip length for several types of home based trips, as described in the methodology. The results of the VMT Model are displayed in a summary table ( See Table 4 7 ). Additionally, all of the corresponding maps are located in Appendix A of this document. The model found that based on the current parcel data, trip length for Ave Maria was longer than more well established urban areas. On average, both Naples and Immokalee had shorter tri p lengths for all four home based trip types than Ave Maria. As the data was manipulated to reflect the multiple phases of development the trip lengths for Ave Maria decreased as the development incorporated a better mix of land uses HBWA, HBOP, and H BOA saw reduced trip lengths across the board as phasing ensued. The HBWP trip lengths decreased between the current conditions and phase one, but increased between phase one and two. Based on the results of the DRI suitability analysis, the VMT model wa s applied to a more suitable site within Collier County. The site chosen is represented in figure A 16 of Appendix A. The suitability index for this site ranged from 7.1 to 7.4, significantly higher than the current Ave Maria site. The site is located adjacent to Interstate 75, about 5 miles east of the Naples CBD. Being that the site has to accommodate a 5,000 acre DRI, it is located on a greenfield on the edge of the urbanized area. What makes this site different from the Ave Maria site is that it i s directly adjacent to existing urban uses. The Ave Maria site, on the other hand, is isolated. Additionally, this proposed sites location along Interstate 75 could have interesting results on the VMT Model. The results of the VMT Model for the suitable site are displayed in Table 4 7 alongside the VMT results of the current Ave Maria site. The suitable site used the

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66 same land use and roadway parameters as phase 2 of the current Ave Maria development. When compared with phase 2 VMT, the suitable site h as mixed results. HBWP trips were around 2 miles longer for the suitable site, while HBOP trips for the suitable site were identical with the phase 2 VMT results. HBWA trips were slightly longer for the suitable site and HBOA were shorter. The cause of these inconsistencies is unknown at this point. Additional research on the VMT Model and/or on the trip characteristics of the areas needs to be investigated. Conclusion When compared with the policy analysis, the GIS Simulations help to better describe t he impacts that Ave Maria may have on Collier County. While the VMT Model does not directly measure internal capture the researcher can infer that with an isolated site like Ave Maria, as the trip lengths decrease, the internal capture increases. Secondl y, the basic DRI suitability analysis brings conflicts with the motives and intent of the RLSAP. The find ing s of this research will be further dissected in the following chapter.

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67 Table 4 1. Stewardship Index Worksheet Part 1 [ Ad apted fr om Collier County. (2010 a ). Attachment A Stewardship Credit Worksheet Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?do cumentid=23083 ]

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68 Table 4 2. Stewardship Index Worksheet Part 2 [ Adapted from Collier County. (2010 a ). Attachment A Stewardship Credit Worksheet Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=23083 ]

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69 Table 4 3. Land Use Matrix P Principle Use C U Cond itional Use A Accessory Use [ Reprinted with permission from Collier County. (2010b). Attachment B Land Use Matrix Retrieved January 28, 2010 from http://www.collie rgov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=19556 ]

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70 Table 4 4. Projected Internal Trip Capture for PM Peak Hour Trips : Phase 1 (2011) Uses Internal In Internal Out External In External Out Total In Total Out Capture Rate Residential & Ho tel 1120 505 879 643 1999 1148 51.6 Schools, Churches, College, Library 199 584 170 103 369 687 74.1 Offices, Banks 62 247 4 76 66 323 79.4 Shopping/Services 578 623 242 280 820 903 69.7 Total 1959 1959 1295 1102 3254 3061 62 .0 [ Adapted from DCA (20 04). The Town of Ave Maria Development of Regional Impact Application for Development Approval Obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs FTP Server. Retrieved November 18 2009, from ftp://ftp.dca.state.fl.us/public ] Table 4 5. Projected Internal Trip Capture for PM Peak Hour Trips : Phase 2 (2016) Uses Internal In Internal Out External In External Out Total In Total Out Capture Rate Residential & Hotel 1868 896 1602 1140 347 0 2036 5 0.2 Schools, Churches, College, Library 338 1126 431 198 769 1324 69.9 Offices, Banks 108 407 3 132 111 539 79.2 Shopping/Services 1038 923 180 414 1218 1337 76.8 Total 3352 3352 2216 1 884 5568 5236 6 2.1 [ Adapted from DCA (20 0 4). The Town of Ave Maria Development of Regional Impact Application for Development Approval Obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs FTP Server. Retrieved November 18 2009, from ftp://ftp.dca.state.fl.us/public ] Table 4 6. Actual Internal Trip Capture for PM Peak Hour Trips Total Pk Hr Trips (2 Way) DRI Predicted Pk Hr Internal Capture DRI Predicted Pk Hr External Percent Counted External Pk Hr Traffic (2 Way) Entering Exiting Development Constructed To Date 1128 62% 38% 428 195 233 Actual Traffic Counts 124 27 97 Resultant Capture 1128 89% 11% 124 [ Adapted from Ave Maria D evel opment ( 2 008). 2008 DRI Monitor ing Report for the Town of Ave Maria Obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs FTP Server. Retrieved November 18 2009, from ftp://ftp.dca.state.fl.us/public ]

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71 Table 4 7 VMT M odel Results Summary Table Current (2009) Phase 1 (2014) Phase 2 (2019) Suitable Site* HBWP 3.9 3.4 4.3 6.2 HBOP 3.2 1.8 1.5 1.5 HBWA 7.7 6.4 4.4 5.2 HBOA 11.6 5.8 5.1 4.3 Results are trip length in miles, and are representative of the lowest observed trip length. *The suitable site is based on Phase 2 development estimates.

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72 Figure 4 1 Stewardship Index Map [ Adapted from Collier County. (2010c). RLSA Natural Resource Index Map Series Entire Study Area Map Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid= 6726 ]

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73 Figure 4 2 Collier County Stewardship Overaly Map [ Reprinted with permission from Collier County. (2008b). RLSA Overlay Map Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=25551 ]

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74 Figure 4 3 Collier County DRI Suitability Index Map

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75 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Policy Analysis The findings of the policy analysis y ielded several important issues First, the legislative intent of the program was convoluted at the local level Next, the Collier RLSAP must be questioned for allowing development in and near the Big Cypress ACSC. Also, t he system for allo cati ng SSAs and SRAs must also be examined. Lastly, the VMT and internal capture results should be explored further. T he initial intent of the legislature for rural land stewardshi p was carried out by the DCA and Collier County with the best of intentions The goal of this program is to allow compact development in rural areas, while maintaining environmentally and agriculturally sensitive lands. Ultimately, this program is more than just rural land preservation ; it i s rural land development. The issue with this program is that it is labeled as a land conservation tool. Though it does conserve land; land development accounts for a significant aspect of this program. The Collier County RLSAP has created a system for land conservation and deve lopment that falls within the basic framework outlined by the Florida Legislature and the DCA. Unfortunately, the original legislation was relatively vague and open to interpretation. As a result, the Collier County RLSAP does not fall within the true na ture of rural sustainability, as described by the legislature. The RLSAP was created in 2001 and applied to the Collier County RLSA Overlay in 2002. Though the intent of the program is to preserve environmentally sensitive lands, the findings of this research indicate that this program may actually threaten the

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76 area in more ways than one. The RLSAP could cause problems for Collier County and southwest Florida from an environmental and transportation aspect. From an environmental perspective the first concern with this program is that it allows development in and around the ACSC. This area, as the name implies, is the most vulnerable area in Collier County. To allow development of any size within this RA standards, small Villages and Hamlets could located within the bounds of the Big Cypress ACSC. While the regulatory structure in place would make development within the ACSC difficult, it would not be impossible. To make matters worse, any development that were to occur within the ACSC would surely be reliant on larger towns, such as Ave M aria and Immokalee for basic services. This would result in population dispersion across the RLSA and the ACSC, which would lead to increased trip lengths across the area. Thus far, Ave Maria is the only SRA to be approved under the Collier County RLSAP. Additionally, about half of the SSAs used to generate credits for Ave Maria come from the Big Cypress ACSC. In a sense the program is workin g, in that the ACSC land is being preserved first. In the long term, however, it is not clear if the ACSC will be completely immune from development It is also difficult to surmise how the ACSC might have develop ed in the absence of the RLSAP. Currentl y, there is only minimal agricultural development with the ACSC. This can be attributed to the stringent land development regulations and a lack of demand for development in the area. The RLSAP runs the risk of promoting development with the ACSC by allo wing development in the area. This will undoubtedly increase demand for development of all lands,

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77 including ACSC lands, within the study area. The potential demand for land development may not have occurred otherwise if not for the RLSAP. Though towns ar e not al lowed within the ACSC they could potentially locate adjacent to it. Ave Maria is not located wi thin the ACSC; however, it is located directly adjacent to a flowway, which flows into the ACSC. The RLSAP does a poor job at justifying this type of intense development next to an environmentally sensitive area. The RLSAP should create a buffering system for environmentally sensitive lands. This program should attempt to allow development in an appropriate manner tha t will have a minimal impact on the natural environment. Allowing an intense development adjacent to sensitive lands is not the intended purpose of this program. The issue of buffering can be traced to the formation of SSA s and SRA s Sending areas can be established anywhere within the study area. There is no requirement to cluster sending areas to ensure large scale preservation. This could cause a patchwork effect of preserved and developed land, which would not support a contiguous assortment of environmental lands particularly the lands classified as open land Since open land is given the least value, it will be the first land to be developed. Ultimately, the existing ecologically sensitive lands would be preserved first. This will leave little room or incentive for habitat restoration. Additionally, SRAs do not have to be surrounded by, or adjacent to, an SSA. Given the current agricultural zoning regulations of 1 unit per 5 acres, it is possible that landowners not participating in th e RLSAP could develop their land. This means that low density development could form at the periphery of a new town like Ave Maria, and the DCA and Collier County could not prevent it from happening. Collier County needs

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78 to reevaluate the allocation of S SAs and SRAs. The Collier RLSAP should require two types of SSA: buffering and contiguous. The buffering SSAs would be required to surround an SRA. The remained of the SSAs would have to be clustered together as a means of creating a contiguous ecologic al network. Additionally, a ratio between the two SSA types could be established. As it currently stands, SRA or baseline standard development could occur directly adjacent to Ave Maria. The Collier County RLSAP comes up short from a transportation per spective as well. The transportation element for new town development is heavily reliant on the automobile. With regards to transportation, most of the impact fees will end up paying for roadway improvements, much of which is in rural areas. Additionall y, the requirements for transit are not specific enough. The RLSAP does not specify the number of routes or the frequency of service that will be provided. To make matters worse most of the transit element will be implemented after the development is wel l underway and therefore accountability is minimal. The roadway networks, on the other hand, will be constructed before and during the development of the town. As far as internal capture is concerned, it is possible that the observed numbers are not giv ing an accurate reflection of the development. As previously stated the projected internal capture rate for Ave Maria is 62% and the observed rate in 2008 was 89%. The research has determined that these numbers are not painting a clear picture primarily because the Ave Maria development is behind schedule, with Phase 1 being pushed back to 2014. The 2008 DRI Monitoring Report for Ave Maria revealed that only 351 residential dwelling units have been completed to date. Additionally, 126,000 square feet of commercial, 6 university buildings supporting 500 students, 3 parks, and

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79 1 golf course have been completed Phase 1 was estimated to have 6,000 residential units and 367,000 square feet of commercial by 2011. Since this development is so far off schedu le it has likely skewed the internal capture numbers. Another cause for concern is that the internal capture estimates are for peak hours only. Ave Maria caters to retirees and college students People within these two demographic classes likely do mini mal amounts of traveling during peak hours, thus further altering the estimates While Ave Maria likely has a better than average internal capture, based on its design characteristics, the 89% estimate is unusually high. In fact, t he demographics of the town help to explain the high rate of trip capture. The final critique of the RLSAP relates to the indexing system. The system puts values on parcels based on environmental elements. There is no weighting on access to infrastructure, specifically trans portation infrastructure. Further, there is no weighting for proximity to existing urban areas. Th is method facilitate s leapfrog development, like Ave Maria. If Collier County wants to get serious about land preservation, they should create an index for urbanization. If the DCA really wants to preserve rural Florida they need to reevaluate this system. In many ways the RLSAP is basically conceding portions of the Big Cypress Swamp to development A more effective approach would be to have two separate stewardship areas, one for sending and the other for receiving. The SRAs could be located in and around existing urban areas and the SSAs could be located in the rural areas of the county. If such a system were in place the DCA would be able to direct g rowth more effectively and to more suitable areas like Naples or Immokalee. Obviously there would be many hurdles to clear in order to create such a system.

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80 GIS Simulations The analysis has shed some light on the land development situation in Collier Cou Big Cypress ACSC makes it less suitable for development than areas with closer proximity to existing urban areas The RLSA lacks the infrastructure to facilitate large scale development. As a result, extensive upgrades to roadway networks must be made. This is evident in the DRI suitability index layer. relative long trip lengths. This can again be related to th e fact that Ave Maria is currently behind schedule Though the trip model does not directly measure internal capture, the researcher can infer that as the trip lengths decrease, the internal capture increases. The phased projections of the VMT model shows that as Ave Maria develops its will be able to increase its internal capture rate, thus reducing VMT. The biggest limitation of the phases projects were that they did not take into account population growth beyond the boundaries of Ave Mar ia. If low density development occurs on agricultural parcels, as was identified in the policy analysis, it could dramatically affect VMT in the area. HBWA and HBOA would surely increase, as residents from rural areas would likely depend on Ave Maria for essential services. Aside from unregulated agricultural development, compact Villages, Hamlets, and CRDs could also affect VMT in and around Ave Maria. The VMT Model applied to the suitable site provided inconclusive results. More research needs to be c onducted in order to understand the mixed results. The alternatives sites close location to the Naples CBD and to highly population residential

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81 areas could easily increase VMT. The disparity occurs in that the results are not consistent. Trip le ngth for HBWP and HBWA increase; while HBOP is stagnant and HBOA decreases. Summary A clear correlation exists between the land use regulation put forth by the RLSA P and the impacts that will be felt throughout the area as a result of the Ave Maria DRI and the acc ompanying developments to follow. This study has indicated that a development with a strong mix of land uses, appropriate density, scale, and connectivity can reduce VMT in a given area. The research does not find any faults with the design of Ave Maria. However, the location of this development and its relationship with the existing urban environment is ill conceived. At the most basic level the Collier County RLSAP has good intentions; the preservation of sensitive lands, while maintaining property ri ghts for landowners within the study area. As has been pointed out, however, there were several flaws in the implementation of this program. These flaws will lead to unintended development patterns that may threaten the natural ecosystems of the area. F uture research should be conducted as Ave Maria and the Collier RLSAP run their course The development of future SRAs and their relationship with the natural e nv ironment should be closely monitored. Additionally, the VMT estimates for Ave Maria should b e reevaluated for nonpeak hour trip s Ave Maria is the first test of the Collier RLSAP. As additional developments are implemented, a more accurate evaluation of this program can be given. Th ere were several limitations of this research, which will leave room for further exploration. The biggest challenge is that Ave Maria is significantly behind schedule. Thus, the population is relatively low, and significantly lower than it will be once the

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82 development is completed. This makes it difficult to estima te internal capture While the VMT model helped to shed some light on possible internal capture numbers, it was also limited by the fact that it could not account for future development outside of Ave Maria.

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83 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Poor planning coupled wit h a lack of priorities has created an incomplete system of land stewardship. As the program runs its course, it will undoubtedly leave a scar on portions of the Big Cypress ACSC In a sense the project was flawed from the beginning. The name Rural Land Stewardship Area Program implies that the program is solely about land stewardship, which is clearly not the case. In fact, one of the goals of the program is to promote rural economic activity, which implies development of some sort. The research c an conclude that there will be unintended consequences that will emerge due to this program. Low density rural development will most likely be the first visible side effect, as the creation of Ave Maria will likely cause a spike in adjacent land values. This will increase the demand for low density, single family home development, which is currently allowed under the agricultural zoning designation. Another likely result is that low density development will follow the rural roadway network that lead s to and from Ave Maria. Many of these roads are slated for expansion. This will create a system of high capacity roadways that will transect the study area, further fragmenting the environmental systems. By m odifying the SSA and SRA regulations, many of the se problems could be remedied. The Ave Maria development, though isolated, may have shorter trip lengths and better internal capture than most areas in Collier County. This can primarily be and walkability. In a sense, the poor location of the development could also improve internal capture, by

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84 eliminating competing attractions. As the RLSA develops, however, internal capture will likely decrease as adjacent areas become populated This study has sought to answer some of the questions than many in the planning and policy community may have about the potential implications of the RLSAP The findings of this research will be important to planners and policy ma kers at the state and local levels, as well as the citizens of this state. This analysis is important because it is investigating a program that could have dramatic effects on the way in which development is conducted throughout the state of Florida going forward. T he RLSAP was created with good intentions, but the implementation of the program was poorly planned. At best this program acts as a compromise between environmentalist, developers, and individual landowners. Unfortunately this program will not curb development in the rural areas of Collier County as it was intended; it will merely seek to control it. Conversely, Collier County has an opportunity to remedy some of the flaws of the RLSAP. In many ways Ave Maria will serve as the trial run of th e program. The lessons learned from this re search can be applied to fix some of the initial mistakes of the RLSAP Given the current economic conditions, SRAs will likely be slow to develop. This will give Collier County an opportunity to reevaluate the RLSAP while development is slow With some simple modifications to the SRA and SSA regulations this program could function much more effectively.

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85 APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL FIGURES Suitability Analysis Findings Figure A 1. Study Area Suitability Map.

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86 Figure A 2. Study Area Reclassified Suitability Map. Figure A 3. Collier County Reclassified Suitability Map.

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87 VMT Model Findings Figure A 4. Study Area Home Based Work Production 2009. Figure A 5. Study Area Home Based Work Production 2014, Phase 1.

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88 Figure A 6. Study Area Home Based Work Production 2019, Phase 2. Figure A 7. Study Area Home Based Other Production 2009.

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89 Figure A 8. Study Area Home Based Other Production 2014, Phase 1 Figure A 9. Study Area Home Based Other Production 2019, Phase 2.

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90 Figure A 10. Study Area Home Based Work Attraction 2009. Figure A 11. Study Area Home Based Work Attraction 2014, Phase 1.

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91 Figure A 12. Study Area Home Based Work Attraction 2019, Phase 2. Figure A 13. Study Ar ea Home Based Other Attraction 2009.

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92 Figure A 14. Study Area Home Based Other Attraction 2014, Phase 1. Figure A 15. Study Area Home Based Other Attraction 2019, Phase 2.

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93 Suitable Site VMT Simulation Figure A 16. Suitable Site with DRI Sui tability Index. Figure A 1 7 Suitable Site Home Based Work Production.

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94 Figure A 1 8 Sutiable Site Home Based Other Production. Figure A 1 9 Suitable Site Home Based Work Attraction.

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95 Figure A 20 Suitable Site Home Based Other Attraction.

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96 LIST OF REFERENCES American Planning Association. (2006). Planning and Urban Design Standards Wiley Graphic Standards. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. Arendt, R., & Harper, H. (1996). Conservation Design for Subdivisions: A Practical Guide to Creating Ope n Space Networks Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Austin, D. (2003). Changing drivers: The impact of climate change on competitiveness and value creating in the automotive industry Zurich, Switzerland: Sustainable Asset Management. Ave Maria Developme nt (2009). Ave Maria: Naples, Florida. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.avemaria.com/ Ave Maria D evel opment ( 2 008). 2008 DRI Monitoring Rep ort for the Town of Ave Maria Obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs FTP Server. Retrieved November 18 2009 from ftp://ftp.dca.state.fl.us/public Barthol omew, K. (2009). Land Use Transportation Scenarios and Future Vehicle Travel and Land Consumption. Journal of the American Planning Association 75 (1), 13 27. Collier County. (2001). Stage 2 Existing Land Use, Population, and Transportation Data Overview. Rural Lands Study Retri eved October 17, 2009 from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=14557 Collier County. (2005). Development Order NO. 05 01 Obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs FTP Server. Retrieved November 18 2009 from ftp://ftp.dca.state.fl.us/public Collier County. (2008 a ). Future Land Use Element of Collier County Growth Management Plan Retrieved January 26, 2010 from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=26009 Collier County. (2008b). RLSA Overlay Map Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=25551 Collier County. (2009 a ). Chapter 2 Zoning Districts and Uses. Collier County Land Development Code Retrieved January 27, 2010 from http://www.municode.com Collier County. (2009b) Chapter 4 Site Design and Development Standards. Collier County Land Development Code Retrieved January 27, 2010 from http://municode.co m

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97 Collier County. (2010 a ). Attachment A Stewardship Credit Worksheet Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documenti d=23083 Collier County. (2010b). Attachment B Land Use Matrix Retrieved January 28, 2010 from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=19556 Collier County. (2010c). RLSA Natural Resource Index Map Series Entire Study Area Map Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=6726 Connerly, C. E., Chapin, T. S., & Higgins, H. T. (2007). Growth management in Florida: Planning for paradise Urban planning and environ ment. Aldershot, England: Ashgate. Corden, C. (1977). Planned Cities: New Towns in Britain and America. Beverly Hills, CA; London, England: Sage Publications. Crean, M. J. (1972). New towns Boulder: Business Research Division, Graduate School of Bus iness Administration, University of Colorado. Department of Community Affairs. (2004). The Town of Ave Maria Development of Regional Impact Application for Development Approval Obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs FTP Server. Re trieved November 18 2009 from ftp://ftp.dca.state.fl.us/public Department of Community Affairs. (2005). Concurrency Retrieved October 27, 2009 from http://www.dca.state.fl.us/FDCP/DCP/compplanning/Files/Concurrency1.pdf Department of Community Affairs. (2007). Rural Land Stewardship Area Program 2007 Annual Report to the Legislature Retrieved July 22, 2009 from http://www.dca.state.fl.us/fdcp/dcp/RuralLandStewardship/Files/RLSA2007Repor tLegislature.pdf Department of Com munity Affairs. (2009). Growth Management and Comprehensive Planning. Retri eved November 12, 2009 from http://www.dca.state.fl.us/FDCP/DCP/compplanning/index.cfm Ewing, R. H. (2008). Growing cooler: Evidence on urban development and climate change Washington, D.C.: ULI. Fleckenstein, N. ( n.d. ). Conservation Subdivisions Coming to the Panhandle Retrieved September 14, 2008 from http://www.floridahabitat.org/wiki/pdf/conservation%20subdivision%20article.pdf

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98 Florida, & McGinnis, H. (1982). An evaluation of Florida's agricultural lands conversion problem Tallahassee, Fla.: Exec utive Office of the Governor Florida Department of Transportation. (1997). Site Impact Handbook. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/s ystems/sm/siteimp/PDFs/site.pdf Florida Legislature. (20 09 a). Florida Statutes, Chapter 163: Required and optional elements of comprehensive plan; studies and surveys Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes Florida Legislature. (2009 b ). Florida Statutes, Chapter 380: Areas of critical state concern Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statut es Florida Legislature. (2009 c). Florida Statutes, Chapter 380: Big Cypress Area. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes Fotsch, P. M. (2007). Watching the Traffic Go By: Transportation and Isolation in Urban America Austin Texas : University of Texas Press. Gause, J. A. (2002). Great planned communities ULI development handbook series. Washington, DC: ULI the Urban Land Institute. Google. (2010). Google Maps. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from http://maps.google.com Howard, E., & Osborn, F. J. (1965). Garden Cities of To Morrow Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press. McManus, R., & Braun, M. (1992). Florida. Sierra 77 (2), 68. Retrieved January 26, 2010 from Academic Search Premier database. Moudon, A. V., Wiseman, B., & Kim, K. j. (1990). Master planned communities: Shaping exurbs in the 1990s Seattle, Wash: Urban Design Program, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Washington. New Urbanism. (2010). Principles of Urbanism. Retrieved January 26, 2010 from http://www.newurbanism.org/newurbanism/principles.html 9). Urban Economics. 7 th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Ricks, B. (1970). New Town Development and the Theory of Location. Land Economics 46(1), 5 11, Retrieved November 15, 2009, from JSTOR. Schaefer, J. M. (1999). Laws that protect Florida's wi ldlife Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida Cooperati ve Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture

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99 Sciences, EDIS. Retrieved January 26, 2010 from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/p dffiles/UW/UW07600.pdf Smith, D. (2004 December 19 ). Ave Maria project sets precedent for conservation. Naples Daily News Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.naplesnews.com/news/2004/dec/19/ndn_ave_maria_project_sets_pre cedent_for_conservat/ Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council. (2004). Application for Development Approval Sufficiency Response Obtained from the Florida Department of Community Affairs FTP Server. Retrieved November 18 2009 from ftp://ftp.dca.state.fl.us/public State of Florida, Department of State (2010 a ) Florida Ad ministrative Code Chapter 9J 1 Bureau of State Land Planning Development O rder Requirements for Areas of Critical State Concern. Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, Department of State. Retrieved January 28, 2010 from https://www.flrules.org State of Florida, Department of State. (2010b) Florida Administrative Co de Chapter 9J 5 Minimum criteria for a review of local government comprehensive plans and plan amendments, evaluation and appraisal reports, land development regulations and determinations of compliance Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, Department o f State. Retrieved January 28, 2010 from https://www.flrules.org State of Florida, Department of State. (2010c) Florida Administrative Code Chapter 9J 7 Approval of Local Comprehensive Plan for Big Cypress Area of Critical State Concern. Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, Department of State. Retrieved January 28, 2010 from https://www.flrules.org State of Florida, Department of State. (2010d) Florida Administrative Code Chapter 9J 11 Governing the Procedures for the Submittal and Review of Local Government Comprehensive Plans and Amendments Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, D epartment of State. R etrieved January 28, 2010 from https://www.flrules.org State o f Florida, Department of State. (2010 e ). Florida Administrative Code Chapter 28 24 Land Planning Part II Developments Presumed to be of Regional Impact Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, Department of State. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from https://www.flrules.org State of Florida, Department o f State. (2010f ). Florida Administrative Code Chapter 28 25 Land Planning Part III Boundary and Regulations for Big Cypress Area of Critical State Concern Tallahas see, FL: State of Florida, Department of State. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from https://www.flrules.org Steiner, F. R. (1981). The Politics of New Town Planning: The Newfields, Ohio story Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.

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100 Steiner, R., Srinivasan, S., Provost, R., Anderson, N., Delarco, L. (2010). Vehicle Miles of Travel Based Traffic Impact Assessment ( Project Number: 2008 007 ) Gainesville, FL: Center for Multimodal Solutions for Congestion Mitigation. U S Census Bureau. (2009). State and County Quick Facts Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/12021.html Weblo.com. (2010). Collier County Department of Transportatio n Photo Galler y. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from http://www.weblo.com/property/real_estate/asset_image/1181099/22890620/Colli er_Count y_Department_of_Transportation/ Weitz, J. (2000). Sprawl busting: State programs to guide growth Chicago, Ill: American Planning Association.

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101 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Christopher P atrick Dillaha was born in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1985. He was primaril y raised in Vero Beach, Florida. Christopher graduated from Vero Beach High School in 2004. In the spring of 2008 Christopher graduated magna cum laude from enrolled degree in urban and regional planning. As an undergraduate Christopher worked as a research assistant for the Center for Urban and Environmental Solutions in Fort Lauderdale, Florida As a graduate Christopher worked for a private planning firm during the summer of 2009. After graduation Christopher hopes to work in transportation and/or land use planning.