Citation
Perceived Parenting Styles Influence on Contraceptive Use among Adolescents

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Title:
Perceived Parenting Styles Influence on Contraceptive Use among Adolescents a Retrospective Study on Young Adults Behavior
Creator:
Vargas, Carmen
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (97 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Family, Youth and Community Sciences
Committee Chair:
Baugh, Eboni
Committee Members:
Forthun, Larry F.
Dodd, Virginia J.
Graduation Date:
4/29/2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adolescents ( jstor )
Birth control ( jstor )
Human sexual behavior ( jstor )
Mothers ( jstor )
Parenting ( jstor )
Parenting style ( jstor )
Parents ( jstor )
Pills ( jstor )
Sexual intercourse ( jstor )
Young adults ( jstor )
Family, Youth and Community Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
abstinence, contraceptive, parenting, parents, sex, styles
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Family, Youth and Community Sciences thesis, M.S.

Notes

Abstract:
After many years of steadily decreasing, teenage pregnancy rates have are on the increase. This complex issue has many factors to take into account. This study aims to examine relationships between perceived parenting styles during one s adolescence and its relation to contraceptive use as a young adult, specifically to avoid unplanned pregnancy. The sample population is made up of n=270 undergraduate university students ranging in ages of 18-24. The theory of planned behavior was used as a framework to this research and key constructs were used to identify independent and dependent variables. The questionnaire consisted of the following areas: perceived parenting style, contraceptive self efficacy, attitudes towards contraception, communication with parent, frequency of sexual activity, contraceptive use and demographic variables. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Results indicate pills and condoms were reported to be the most widely used forms of contraception for the sample. Additionally, positive and open parent-child communication channels about contraceptives and sex, and contraceptive self efficacy was directly correlated to increased contraceptive use and lower frequency of sexual activity. Recommendations for the future suggest parental communication lines stay open between parents and their children. Research also suggests strengthening awareness of contraceptives and their benefits of use among sexually active or soon to be sexually active young persons by seeking out reliable and effective forms of contraception. Furthermore, examining partner influence more closely and the independent living situation of many college students may help to understand this complex issue. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local:
Adviser: Baugh, Eboni.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Carmen Vargas.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Vargas, Carmen. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
696158161 ( OCLC )
Classification:
LD1780 2010 ( lcc )

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1 PERC E IVED PARE N TI N G STYLES I N FLUE N C E O N CO N TRACEPTIVE USE AMON G ADOLESCE N T S: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY O N YOU N G ADULTS BEHAVIOR By CARME N GLORIA VARGAS A THESIS PRESE N TED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE U N IVERSITY OF FLORIDA I N PARTIAL FULFILLME N T OF THE REQUIREME N TS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIE N CE U N IVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Carmen gloria Vargas

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3 To my family for providi ng me with the guida n ce a nd co nfide n ce to succeed

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4 ACKN OWLEDGME N TS Completing this thesis and my education has been a challenging but rewarding task. For this, I would f irst a nd foremost like to tha nk my thesis advisor, Dr. Eboni Baugh, whose guida n ce and frie ndship has bee n i nvaluable to me. She gave me motivatio n a nd empowered me to believe i n myself. I will carry that lesso n i n life. Much appreciatio n is also due to Dr. Larry Forthun whose expertise in the subject and in statistics assisted me i n this process. I must also thank Dr. Virginia Dodd for contributing her expert thoughts and opinions to my research. Without them, this research would not be the quality work that it is. Their patience and direction helped shape and complete this difficult task. I would also like to tha nk Dr. Mark Bre nna n for i ntroduci ng me to the world of research and also for having convi nced me that graduate school would be worth it Looking back I a m glad I stayed and finished what was started. On a personal note, I must thank my family for pushi ng me whe n I felt I could not give a n y more My parents were a part of my everyday in school even five hours away and I share this accomplishment with them. To my sister, please know that anything is possible. My familys love, respect a nd high expectatio ns keep me going every day Fi nally, I would like to tha nk my frie nds a nd all the FYCS graduate stude nts, faculty and staff for their co n fide nce boosters a nd for always believi n g i n me I am forever grateful for their eter n al support.

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5 TABLE OF CO N TE N TS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF TERMS .............................................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................12 Backgrou nd .............................................................................................................................12 Justification for Study .............................................................................................................13 Purpose of Study .....................................................................................................................15 Research Qu estions .........................................................................................................15 Hypotheses ......................................................................................................................16 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................17 Parenting Styles ......................................................................................................................17 Contraceptive Options ............................................................................................................21 Previous Research on Parenting and Contraceptive Use .................................................22 Influential Factors on Contraceptive Use ........................................................................23 Barriers to Contraceptive Use .........................................................................................24 Negative Impacts for the Adole scent Mother ..................................................................25 Negative Impacts for the Adolescent Father ...................................................................27 Economic and social impacts ..........................................................................................28 Recall Major Components of Research ...........................................................................29 Theoretical Approach .............................................................................................................29 Theory of Planned Behavior ............................................................................................29 Major Terms of Theory Defined .....................................................................................30 Proposed Linkages Between Components ......................................................................31 Bridging the Gaps ...................................................................................................................33 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS ...........................................................................................34 Purpose of Study .....................................................................................................................34 Design .....................................................................................................................................34 Instrument ...............................................................................................................................36 The Parenting Style Inventory II .....................................................................................36 The Contraceptive Self Efficacy Scale ............................................................................37

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6 The Contraceptive Utilities, Intention and Knowledge Scale .........................................37 Most Influential Paren t ....................................................................................................38 Communication with Parent ............................................................................................39 Sexual Frequency ............................................................................................................39 Contracept ive Information ...............................................................................................39 Procedure ................................................................................................................................40 4 RESULTS ...............................................................................................................................43 Descriptive Results .................................................................................................................43 Bivariate Analyses ..................................................................................................................45 Summary .................................................................................................................................49 5 DISCUSSION .........................................................................................................................50 Revisiting Research Questions ...............................................................................................50 Implications of Research ........................................................................................................59 Implications f or the Future .....................................................................................................62 Summary .................................................................................................................................64 APPENDIX A FORMS ...................................................................................................................................65 Permission to en ter classrooms for sampling .........................................................................65 Informed Consent Form .........................................................................................................66 Questionnaire ..........................................................................................................................68 B FREQUENCY ANALYSES ..................................................................................................82 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................92 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................97

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7 LIST OF TABLES T able page 41 Summary s tatistics for demographic variables ..................................................................44 42 Tukey B post hoc analysis .................................................................................................45 43 Tukey B post hoc analysis .................................................................................................46 44 Pearson correlations for CSE x CU for each .....................................................................46 45 P earson correlations for PR x CSE x CU for each .............................................................48 46 Pearson correlations for PR x CSE x SF ............................................................................48 B 1 Most i nfluential parent o pen r esponse ...............................................................................82 B 2 Perceived p arenting s tyle ...................................................................................................83 B 3 Scored PSI II p arenting s tyle .............................................................................................83 B 4 CUIKS Type of birth control used .....................................................................................84 B 5 CUIKS Perceived severity of pregnancy ...........................................................................84 B 6 Parent knowledge of participants contraceptive use .........................................................85 B 7 Talk with parent about contraceptives ...............................................................................86 B 8 Answers to openresponse question ...................................................................................87 B 9 Sexual a ctivity question .....................................................................................................88 B 10 If ever used contraception ..................................................................................................88

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 21 Parenting s tyles c hart .........................................................................................................19 22 Theory of planned behavior c oncept m ap (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). ...............................30 B 1 Research questions and l inks to TPB .................................................................................91

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9 LIST OF TERMS Adolescent For the purposes of this study, a person is referred to as an adolescent if they are between the ages of 1 5 to 19 years old, this can also be referred to as middle adolescence CSE A n abbreviatio n for the Co ntraceptive Self Efficacy Scale CUIKS A n abbreviatio n for the Co ntraceptive Utilities, I nte ntio n a nd K nowledge Scale Heterosexual Roma ntically interested in someo ne of the opposite sex Homosexual Roma ntically interested i n someo ne of the same sex Most I nflue ntial A term for a parent who was most i nflue ntial to the participa nt which can i nclude a biological mother, biological father, biological gra ndpare nt, ad optive mother, adoptive father, legal guardia n, etc. Parents For the purposes of this study the word pare nts will be used to mea n family of origi n. This could mea n two biological pare nts, one parent, step parents, adoptive pare nts, gra ndpare nts, guardia ns, or a n y combi natio n of the above PSI II A n abbreviatio n for the Pare ntin g Style I nve ntory II TPB Theory of Planned Behavior You ng adult A perso n who is i n the study sample mea ni n g between the ages of 18 24

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10 Abstract of Thesis Prese nted to the Graduate School of the U niversity of Florida i n Partial Fulfillme nt of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science PERCEIVED PARE N TI N G STYLES I N FLUE N CE O N CO N TRACEPTIVE USE AMON G ADOLESCE N TS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY O N YOU N G ADULTS BEHAVIOR By Carmen gloria Vargas May 2010 Chair: Ebo ni J. Baugh Major: Family, Youth a n d Community Scie nces After many years of steadily decreasing, t ee nage preg na ncy rates have are o n the i ncrease. T his complex issue has ma n y factors to take i nto accou nt. T hi s study aims to examine relatio nships betwee n perceived pare ntin g styles duri ng o nes adolescence and its relatio n to co ntraceptive use as a you ng adult specifically to avoid unplanned pregnancy The sample population is made up of n= 270 undergraduate u niversity stude nts ra ngi n g i n ages of 1824. The theory of pla nn ed behavior was used as a framework to this research a nd key co nstructs were used to ide ntify independe nt a nd depe nde nt variables. The questionnaire co nsisted of the followi n g areas: perceived pare nti ng style, co ntraceptive self efficacy, attitudes towards co ntraceptio n, communication with pare nt, frequency of sex ual activity, co ntraceptive use a nd demographic variables. Data were analyzed usi ng A N OVA a nd Pearson correlatio ns. Results i ndicate pills and condoms were reported to be the most widely used forms of contraception for the sample. Additionally, positive and open parent child communication channels about contraceptives and sex, and contraceptive self efficacy was directly correlated to i ncreased contraceptive use and lower frequency of sexual activity. R ecommendatio ns for the future suggest parental communication lines stay open betwe en parents and their children. Research also suggests strengthening awareness of contraceptives and their benefits of use

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11 among sexually active or soon to be sexually active young persons by seeking out reliable and effective forms of contraception. Furthermore, examining partner influence more closely and the independent living situation of many college stude nts may help to understand this complex issue

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12 CHAPTER 1 I N TRODUCTIO N Backgrou n d At the age of fiftee n, Vero nica decided she w ould become sexually active with her boyfrie nd. They excha nged the, I Love You words to each other, a nd had been faithful to one a nother for a whole 6 mo nths. They wa nted to take their relatio nship to the next level and expressed their desire to be more i ntimate with o ne another. Vero nica k nows sex can lead to preg na ncy a nd while her boyfrie nd has access to co ndoms, she prefers to have a nother form of birth control to ease her mind. She has health i nsura nce and a family doctor, but is not sure how her parents will ha ndle k nowi ng that she pla ns o n havi ng sex. Her parents are strict a nd co nservative, and have high expectatio ns of her. Vero nica k nows she has to ask the doctor for a prescript io n to take birth control, but cannot bri n g herself to talk about sex with her pare nts S he a nd her boyfrie nd choose to use co ndoms sometimes. Vero nica is at risk for a n unpla nned preg na ncy. A dolescent s a nd their parents share a special relatio nship. P arental influe nces have a stro ng impact on adolescents who may reject or accept directio n from the pare nts. Although parental involveme nt declines duri ng the early adolescent years due to the chil ds autonomy (Darli n g, Cumsille & Martinez, 2008; Frisco, 2005), parents are the most i nflue ntial on their teens' decisio ns about sex (The N atio nal Campaig n, 2010). Each parent is differe nt a nd chooses to discipline and communicate with their child i n different ways The same goes for talki n g about co ntraceptives Sometimes, educatio nal i nstitutio ns take o n the role of discussi ng sexual educatio n with adolesce n ts. Teens that do not get i nformatio n about contraceptives or sex from a parent or school ofte n he ar thi ngs from their peers or the media. I f adolescents feel a lack of connection to their parents, they may become over reliant on peers or romantic partners for

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13 interpersonal communications (Hahm, Lee, Zerden, Ozonoff, Amodeo, & Adkins, 2008). Outside i nflue nces can have an effect o n a n adolescents behavior, maki n g it importa nt to exami ne their mai n source of i nformatio n on the topic of sex. The purpose of this research is to exami ne the relatio nships betwee n parents and their children during adolescence and its affect of contraceptive use in young adulthood. Justificatio n for Study Adolescents are becomi ng sexually active at you n g ages. The Centers for Disease Co ntrol a nd Preve ntio n (2005) reports that 47% of U.S. high school stude nts have had sexual i ntercourse. A pproximately 80% of young people i n the U.S. experie nce sexual activity duri ng their teenage years, usually the mid to late adolesce nt years (Si ngh & Darroch, 1999) It is importa nt to exami ne co ntraceptive use amo n g this population as u nprote cted sex can lead to sexually tra nsmitted i nfectio ns (STIs) a nd the pote ntial for u nwa nted pregna ncies (CDC, 2008a). I n one study, the authors stated, Whe n adolescents do choose to become sexually active, they ofte n fail to use appropriate contraceptio n. (Elfe nbei n & Felice, 2003, p.784). Accordi n g to the CDC (2008a) one third of girls i n the U nited States get pre g n a nt before the age of twenty I n 2006, approximately 435,000 i nfa nts were bor n to tee nage mothers between the ages of 15 to 19. Furthermore, over 80% of births to wome n aged 15 to 19 were uni nte nded (CDC, 2008a; Whitaker &Gilliam, 2008) highlighti ng that a vast majority of tee ns are either not usi ng co ntracept ives or n ot usi ng them properly. Elfe nbei n & Felice (2003) report, approximately o ne half of all preg na n cies occur withi n the first six mo nths after i nitiatio n of sexual activity. (p.784). More tha n 90% of 15 19 year olds disclosed their preg na ncies were uni nte nded (Klei n, 2005). This problem affects males and females as well as the chil dre n that are bor n to adolescent parents who do not fare well experienci n g i ncreased risk of academic

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14 difficulties, early sexual activity a nd are more likely to become adolescent parents themselves (Klei n, 2005). U ni nte nded preg n a ncies are associated with ma n y problems for adolesce nt parents Adolescent mothers face lower likelihood of graduati ng high school (CDC, 2008a), have a higher risk of delayi n g pre natal care (Teen Preg na ncy Shelter, 2008) a nd are faced with man y health risks such as morbidity for b oth the mother a nd i nfa nt (CDC, 2008a). Ofte n times, babies bor n to adolescent mothers are out of wedlock. Si ngle headed households face higher likelihood of poverty which is twice as risky for a n adolescen t who already has less chance of graduati ng high s chool after a n i n fa n t is bor n (Ami n & Ahmed, 2004; Graefe & Lichter, 2002 ; Suri, 1994). Similarly adolescent fathers do not typically attain high educatio n levels, have limited pote ntial to i ncrease ear ni n gs, usually experien ce high rates of substa nce use a nd get i n trouble with the law Additionally, most adole scent fathers d o not remain romantically involved with the adolescent mother (Elfe n bei n & Felice, 2003). Also, it is importa nt to co nsider that some adolescent preg na n cies e nd i n abortion or miscarri age (Ala n Guttmacher I n stitute, 2002). Teenagers are not waitin g to have sex and after a lo ng period of decli ni n g rates, preg n a ncy rates are o n the i ncrease agai n (Ala n Guttmatcher I nstitute, 2010; N atio nal Campaig n to Prevent Teen a nd U npla nned Preg na n cy, 2010). According to the Guttmatcher Institute (2002) U.S. teenagers have higher preg n a ncy rates, birth rates and abortion rates tha n adolescents i n other developed countries. The definition of a family or parents can be different for individuals. In this research, the main focus is on pa rents and the family of origin, or, the family in which a person is brought up in. They carry the main responsibility for caring for an individual including providing food, shelter and care. The family of origin als o provides the foundation for family values, traditions

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15 and standards on acceptable behavior. Children learn health beliefs from their parents and for most, usually last into adulthood (Luther, 2007). It is for this reason that parenting style and influenc es are of particular interest when considering their role on the lives of their children. Purpose of Study T he current research will focus on the relatio nship betwee n perceived pare n ting styles a nd co ntraceptive use by college stude nts Additio nally, the behavioral choices of college stude nts subseque nt to pare ntal style will be examined. The goal of this research study is to examine how a n adolescents perceptions of the parentin g style of their most influential parent affects their co ntraceptive use as a you n g adult I n ge n eral, does a certai n perceived parentin g style duri ng adolescen ce i nflue nce the youths decisio n to use co ntraceptives as a you n g adult ? Research will seek to discover what parenting style works best with adolescents regardi n g co ntr aceptive use and sexual activity Th is i nformatio n is useful to pare nts a nd may help guide them whe n decidi ng what approach to take whe n discussi ng this topic with their adolescent child. The main variables for the current research are: parenting style, co ntraceptive use, attitudes, frequency of sexual activity, self efficacy, and communication. The variables were selected based off their existence in previous literature as well as key constructs as part of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Hypotheses were fo rmulated based off previous literature as well as expected results. Research Questio n s RQ1 Does perceived parentin g style have a relatio nship with youn g adults frequency of sexual intercourse? RQ2 Does perceived parentin g style have a relatio nship with you n g adults attitudes towards co ntraceptio n? RQ3 Is there a relatio nship betwee n you n g adults self efficacy and co ntraceptive use?

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16 RQ4 Does perceived parentin g style have a relatio nship with contraceptive use amo ng you n g adults? RQ5 What ki nd of relati onship exists betwee n communication with pare nt, you ng adults co ntraceptive self efficacy o n you n g adults co ntraceptive use? RQ6 What is the stre ngth between communication with pare nt, youn g adults co n traceptive self efficacy o n frequency of sexual inte rcourse? Hypotheses H1 Frequency of sexual intercourse amo n g you n g adults will differ based o n Parentin g Styles. H2 Attitudes towards co ntraceptive use will be more favorable amo n g you n g adults who perceive their most i nflue ntial pare nt as authoritative or permissive. H3 Co ntraceptive self efficacy will be positively related to use of co ntraceptives. H4 Co ntraceptive use will be reported more amo n g you ng adults who perceive their pare nts to be authoritaria n or authoritative. H5 Parents willing ness to disc uss co ntraceptive use will be positively correlated with you n g adults co ntraceptive self efficacy and reported co ntraceptive use. H6 Parents willingness to discuss co ntraceptive use will be positively correlated with you n g adults co ntraceptive self effic acy a nd negatively correlated with frequency of sexual intercourse

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17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Pare n ti n g Styles For the curre nt research, four mai n parenting styles will be examined: (1) Authoritaria n, (2) Authoritative (3) Permissive a nd (4) N eglec t ful. These pare nting styles, outli ned by Dia n a Baumri nd (1966; 1967; 1991a; 1991b; 2005) categorize parental behavior styles i nto four mai n types based on the level of demandi n g ness a nd responsive ness of the p are nt. Authoritaria n parents are highly dema ndi n g but low i n emotional respo nse. They are obedie nce oriented a nd set clear rules with minimal expla natio n (Baumri nd, 1991). Pare nts who are authoritarian are said to be discipli narians, like a police officer. The authoritarian parent does not e ncourage a reciprocal verbal excha n ge but gives orders a nd can be co ntrolling. They believe that the child should accept their word as what is right without questio n (Baumri nd, 1966). Authoritaria n parents rely o n physical punishme nt which restricts the childs aut onomy. Childre n from authoritaria n parents te nd to be more a nxious a nd show poor reaction to frustratio n. The good thing about childre n of authoritarian parents is that they usually fare better i n school tha n childre n of other pare nting styles a nd are u nlikely to commit a ntisocial behaviors such as drug a nd alcohol use, va ndalism, or participate in ga n g activity (Garg, Levin, Urajnik, & Kappi, 2005; McGillicuddy De Lisi & De Lisi, 2007; Pellerin, 2005; Spera, 2005) Accordi n g to Baumri nd (1966; 1967; 1991a ; 1991b; 2005) a uthoritative pare nts are highly demandi n g a nd highly respo nsive The y are assertive and supportive, not i ntrusive, restrictive or pu nitive with their childre n. Parents that are authoritative are said to be like a good coach. The authoritat ive parent e n courages a reciprocal verbal excha n ge a n d shares r easo ni n g behi nd family rules (Baumri nd, 1966). The authoritative parent is warm, commu nicates well with their child, respects their childs indepe nde n ce and gives their childre n options with th e

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18 freedom to choose for themselves. Auto nomy is e ncouraged amo n g the childre n from these types of pare nts. Childre n who come from authoritative pare nts are co n fide nt about their abilities to complete challen gi n g tasks, are well developed i n their emotio nal well bei n g, a nd have well developed social skills (Garg, Levin, Urajnik, & Kappi, 2005; McGillicuddy De Lisi & De Lisi, 2007; Pellerin, 2005; Spera, 2005). Permissive parents are highly respo nsive but have low demands These types of pare nts are lenie nt a nd allow their childre n to self regulate through expla natio n of rules (Baumri nd, 1966). The permissive pare nt can also be i ndulge n t placi ng more emphasis o n bei ng the childs frie nd tha n their parent. The permissive parent places few demands on their ch ild a nd usually gives i n to what the child wa nts. Childre n from permissive pare nts have poor emotional well bei ng, little to no patie nce for challen gi n g tasks, a nd typically display a ntisocial behaviors (Baumrind, 1966; Baumrind 1971) N eglectful pare nts are low i n demand a nd low i n respo nse. They do not provide structure, are not supportive, a nd do not mo nitor their childre n. N eglec tful pare nts sometimes aba ndon their duties as parents completely as they are u ni nvolved i n their childs life (Baumri nd, 1991). Often parents of neglectful children are unaware of the needs of their children which can result in harmful outcomes for the children physically, emotionally and mentally (Luther, 2007). Parents are possibly the most important facilitators of child s ocialization (Boon, 2007) and when parents are neglectful towards their children, their child fare worse in various aspects of life such as low academic achievement, poor family relatio ns, low motivation delinquent behaviors and increased suicide risk For a n example of how Baumri nds pare nting styles (1966; 1967; 1991a; 1991b; 2005) compare to each other, see Figure 21.

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19 Figure 2 1. This figure uses Bla nchard a nd Hersheys situatio nal leadership theory ( N orthouse, 2007) as a framework. The situational leadership chart is similar to the pare nting styles chart created i n that the x axis represents directive behaviors (demandi n g ness) a nd the y axis represents supportive (responsive n ess) behaviors. Research o n parenting styles Exte nsive literature h as been co nducted to exami ne Baumri nds (1966; 1967; 1991a; 1991b; 2005) four Pare ntin g Styles a nd their relatio nship to other variables. Research has focused o n p arentin g styles a nd their relatio nship to a childs scholastic achievement a nd academic i nvol vemen t ( Boo n, 2007; Garg, Levi n, Uraj nik & Kauppi, 2005; Mohammed A s sadi et al., 2007; Spera, 2006; Spera, 2005), i nter naliziatio n of values a nd self esteem (Marti nez & Garcia, 2008) a nd socializing (Pelleri n, 2005) Research co nsiste ntly reports that chi ldre n whose parents are not respon sive or dema ndi n g generally have poor outcomes Parents have been observed for their status i n society i n relatio n to type of pare nting style where middle class parents were found to be mostly authoritative but when a marr ied couple had one spouse being authoritative, the other was permissive. It discussed parenting styles for each type of parent in a married couple (Warash & Demasi, 2008). Parents have also been exami ned i n regards to effect o n marital satisfactio n wh e n ea ch display two differe nt parentin g styles where college students viewed family relations as most positive when parents were

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20 portrayed as authoritative or permissive Participants viewed family relations as negative when they perceived their parents as negl ectful or authoritarian (McGillicuddy DeLisi, & DeLisi, 2007) Parentin g styles have also been studied for their relatio nship to college stude nts email commu nicatio n to their families (Trice, 2002) where students from authoritative families had more emai l communication but sought less spe cific academic and social advice, whereas s tudents from authoritarian parents made email communication typically for advice. Students from permissive families had the least amount of email communication with their parents and hardly asked for advice Furthermore, t he relationships between parenting styles and disordered perso nality traits has also been examined where researchers found that patients with personality discords perceived less parental care, similar to the char acteristics of neglectful parents (Yu et al., 2007). Eve n whe n pare nting styles are exami ned for their relatio nship to childhood obesity, authoritative pare nting has the best recommended outcomes since guidance is in place but also allows for the child to be independent and take what they have learned and apply it themselves (Luther, 2007). Certai n aspects of parenting have been exami ned i n regards to t heir relatio n ship to co ntraceptive use, such as parental mo nitoring a n d psychological control Rodgers (1999) determi ned for females, more parental psychological co ntrol was linked to the cha nce that a sexually active adolescen t would take more risks. Psychological control or lack of psychological autonomy hinders social maturation which is necessary for adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their sexual behavior. Research also found that parental monitoring can provide protection from sexual risk (Rodgers, 1999). I n a nother study, higher pare ntal mo nitoring also led to a n i ncrease of co ntracep tive use (Bersami n, Todd, Fisher, Hill, Gruebe & Walker, 2008). Parental control and monitoring are related to parenting styles in the way that parents who are more demanding may display controlling behaviors and may monitor their

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21 children more closely. E xamples of parental mo nitoring i nclude bei ng well i nformed o n the adolescents activities, aski ng about frie nds, a nd i nquiri ng about daily behavior. For both studies, i ncreased parental mo nitoring yielded more positive results. W he n parents a nd their child re n are co nnected, as well as when parents mo nitor a nd regulate their childre n, the risk of adolesce nt pre g na ncy is lower ed (Miller, 2002). Psychological control fits into parenting styles in the amount of autonomy the child gets. Typically, stricter parents limit childrens autonomy and make decisions for the child or have heavily weighing influences and opinions. Psychological control of children is different than monitoring. Monitoring would be knowing your childs whereabouts, not necessarily controllin g their thoughts and opinions. Co n traceptive Optio n s There are man y types of co ntraceptives available for avoidi ng u ni nte ntio nal preg na ncies (CDC, 2008a; Foster, Biggs, Ralph, Arons, & Bri ndis, 2008; Whittaker & Gilliam, 2008). Some options i nclude i ntra uteri ne devices, hormo nal pills, patches, i njectio ns, vagi nal ri ng, arm impla nt, diaphragm, spermicide a nd tubal ligatio n (CDC, 2008b). Previously, a brand of the arm implant, Norplant has been replaced by the new brand, Implanon. Intrauterine devices a nd arm implants must be put in place by a doctor, while hormonal injections must be prescribed by a doctor, but can be given by a nurse or by the patient at home. Oral contraceptives have been around for many years and are still popular for use among femal es. Patches are changed once a week, while one of the most popular vaginal rings, the nuva ring, is changed every three weeks. A female can use all of these methods of contraceptio n on her ow n without the conse nt of her sexual part ner. The use of co ntracep tives helps females reduce the risks of preg na ncy but not disease. Adolescent males typically use co ndoms as their primary form of co ntraceptio n. Other options i nclude spermicide a vasectomy, a nd the withdrawal method. As it is unlikely for males

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22 between the ages of 18 24 to have a vasectomy an d the withdrawal method is not a reliable form of co ntraceptio n, co ndoms with spermicidal included are usually the most used type of reliable co ntraceptio n amo ng males. Adolescent males can purchase co ndoms or get t hem from a cli nic, drug store, family members or frie nds. Previous Research o n Paren ti n g an d Co n traceptive Use Previous studies have explored pare nting a nd its relatio nship to adolesce nt sexual behaviors. Some research has suggested that adolescents perceive their mothers would disapprove of their involvement in sexual activities yet in contrast perceive their mothers to be likely to approve contraceptive use. This study noted perceptions of contraceptive use was not predictive of sexual behaviors and that adolescents do not equate approval to use contraceptives with approval to engage in sexual intercourse ( Hahm, Lee, Zerde n, Oz noff, Amodeo & Adki ns, 2008). Another research study concluded that parental communication along with television watching enhanced awareness and discussions about contraceptives (Bersami n, Todd, Fisher, Hill, Grube & Walker, 2008). The articles recommended high quality pare nt child commu nicatio n i n order to tra nsmit pare ntal attitudes towards sexuality. Comparable studies fou nd that when mothers disapprove of risky sexual behavior, adolesce nt sexual i ntercourse will occur an yway. E ffective commu nicatio n styles a nd positive pare n tal relatio nships also are associated with fewer preg na ncies. I n mothers a nd daughters who i ncrease their commu nicatio n about the risks i nvolved with sex, daughters report a lower freque n cy of sexual i ntercourse and i n creased co ntraceptive use (Bersami n et al., 2008). Similarly, a nother study exami ned females perceptio ns of their pare nts a nd found that for fe males, i ncreased parental psychological co ntrol was li nked to higher cha nces of sexual risk behavior amo ng sexually active females while higher parental mo nitorin g resulted i n less risk taking (Rodgers, 1999).

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23 Research co nsiste ntly suggests that more pare ntal commu nicatio n delays the i nitiatio n of sex (Crosby et al ., 2001; Dittus & Jaccard, 2001) a nd i ncreased parental mo nitoring yields fewer part ners and more co ntraceptive use (Bersami n et al., 2006; Bersami n et al., 2008; Rodgers, 1999). Additionally, i ncreased supervisio n resulted i n less sex ual frequency a nd fewer part ners (Crosby et al ., 2001). I n research aimed at racial a nd eco nomic differe n ces, low i ncome African American adolescents a n d those whose mothers were low i n warmth a nd monitoring were fou nd to have higher risky sexual behavior, academic achievement, a nd exter nalizi ng/i nter nalizing behaviors (Pittma n & Chase La ndsale, 2001). I n flue n tial Factors on Co n traceptive Use R esearch has fou nd that disparities by race/eth nicity a nd educatio n were th e stro ngest predictors of contraceptive use (Foster et el., 2004) The authors found that two primary reaso ns for co ntraceptive non use were, co ncer n about side effects a nd unsatisfactory co ntraceptive method options A nother study conduc ted by the same au thors explored reaso ns for delayi n g preg na ncy amo n g low i n come participa nts a nd how birth control ca n assist i n the preve ntio n of uni nte ntio nal preg n a ncy. M otivatio ns for delayi n g pregna ncy were related to fi na nces or educatio n a nd recommen datio n on choosi ng a co n traceptive that is co nsiste nt with their desired time period of preg n a ncy preve ntio n (Foster, Biggs, Ralph, Arons, & Bri ndis, 2008). Whitaker a nd Gilliam (2008) foun d that most adolescent wome n were relyi n g o n oral co ntraceptive pills a nd/or condom s The authors recommend somethi ng more lo n g term, perma ne nt, a nd highly effective. Frost, Si ngh a nd Fi ner (2007) looki ng at factors that co ntribute to co ntraceptive use and non use fou nd that predictors of i nco nsiste ncy were havi n g less tha n a college educatio n bei n g older, havi n g sporadic sexual i ntercourse, not bei ng i n a steady relatio nship, a nd bei n g unsatisfied with health providers i nability to a nswer contraceptive related questio ns. Research

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24 that included family i nflue nce reports that u nprotect ed sexual i ntercourse was related to family opposition to the use of contraceptio n (Ayoola, N ettlema n & Brewer, 2007). Other research highlights the pare ntal relatio nship as a n i nflue nce i n co ntraceptive use. N ormative beliefs, especially parental opi nio ns were most importa nt for girls decisio n to use oral co ntraceptive s (Myklestad & Rise, 2008). Additio nally, motivatio n to comply with pare nts a nd perceived parental support related to the decisio n to employ a co ntraceptive method, a nd the likelihood of co ntraceptive use to prevent preg na n cy was high (Jorge nse n & So nsteg ard, 1984) Fi nally, mater nal demandi n g n ess predicts co ndom use as higher among African American adolescents and decreased condom use for White adolescents, i ndicati ng racial differen ces i n commu nicatio n regardi n g co ntraceptives (Cox, 2006). Barriers to Co n traceptive Use Ide ntifyin g a nd eliminati ng barriers to co ntraceptive use are two goals of the CDC (2005). O ne of these barriers could be that parents of sexually active adolescents or soonto be sexually active adolescen ts may not commu nicate effectively to their childre n about sex or the options available regardi ng co ntraceptives. The relatio nship a n adolescent has with their pare nts could become a barrier to usi ng co ntraceptives if there is a lack of i nformatio n. Adolesce nts a nd parents discussi n g these topics may help to preve n t negative outcomes such as u nwa nted preg na ncies and STIs. Aside from the commu nicative barriers between parents a nd adolescents, there are also barriers to obt ai ni n g co ntraceptives. Man y adolescents do not have access to co ntraceptives. Females n eed a prescriptio n for ma n y forms of co ntraceptio n which may become difficult without pare ntal co nse nt. Additio nally, co nfide ntiality laws allow patie nts to speak with a doctor i n private which may result in a n issue between a n adolescent a nd her pare nts. Without a doctor

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25 it ca n be difficult for adolescent females to obtai n co ntraceptives therefore limiting likelihood of use. I n additio n to access to co ntraceptives, co st may be a n issue (Ala n Guttmacher I nstitute 2002). Without medical i nsura nce to help cover the cost of co ntraceptives, it could get expe nsive. If the adolescent is spari ngly havi n g sexual i ntercourse, the n regular co ntraceptive use may not be a priorit y. This especially can be an issue for females for certai n forms of birth co ntrol as co nsiste ncy is needed i n order to i ncrease effective ness. Regular and common contraceptives include pills, shots or other hormonal contraceptives. I n previous research, m ultiple reaso ns are suggested for co ntraceptive non use which i nclude the possibility that you n g perso ns may lack the k nowledge, do not fully understand the risks associated, or face barriers to medical care. Some barriers to medical care were listed as f i na ncial difficulties in payi n g for co ntraceptives, fear of loss of privacy, a n d eve n the possibility that the perso n would actually not mind becomi n g preg na nt (Elfe nbei n & Felice, 2003). N egative Impacts for the Adolescen t Mother U ni nte ntio nal preg na nci es are associated with man y problems for adolesce nts such as the possibility it may e nd i n abortion or m iscarriage. Adolescents between the ages of 1517 are more likely to opt for a n abortion rather than to carry the preg n a ncy to term in compariso n to the ir 18 19 year old peers (Ala n Guttmacher I nstitute, 2002). Abortions a n d miscarriages can have lo n g term detrime ntal effects o n a n adolesce nt me ntally, emotio nally a nd sometimes physically. O ne of the problems adolesce nt mothers face is a lower likelihood of graduati ng high school (CDC, 2008a). The Tee n Preg na ncy Shelter (2008) reports 80% of females who become mothers before the age of eightee n do not fi nish high school. Additionally, u ni nte nded preg na ncies are associated with a higher risk of delayi n g pre natal care (CDC, 2008a). The Tee n

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26 Preg n a ncy Shelter (2008) estimates about 70% of all preg na nt adolescents d o not receive enough pre natal care eve n though this is the group that needs it the most. Moreover, there is a higher risk of i ncreased morbidity fo r mothers with u n i nte nded preg na ncies (CDC, 2008a). The adolesce nt body still developi ng may not be equipped to house a growi ng fetus which poses higher medical risks for the mother a nd baby. The Teen Preg na ncy Shelter (2008) reports risks to babies of adolescen t mothers are substa ntially greater a nd that 9% of teen mothers have low birth weight babies. The likelihood of morbidity to low birth weight babies is substa ntially higher duri n g their first mo nth of life tha n normal weight babies. Most babies bor n to adolescent mothers are out of wedlock. Ofte n times a n unwed adolescent mother will be left to care for a child without the biological father bein g prese nt (Ami n & Ahmed, 2004; Graefe & Lichter, 2002 ; Suri, 1994). Si ngle headed households face more pro blems such as low i ncome, lack of help with child reari n g, a nd higher stress. Bei n g a si n gle, u nwed adolescent mother comes with a high risk of livi ng i n poverty (CDC, 2008a). Florida Departme nt of Health Vital Records (2008) estimates two of three teena ge mothers live in poverty a nd that teen agers i n Florida accou nted for just over 25% of births to u nwed mothers i n 2004. The problem of poverty a nd low i ncome are related to high school graduation rates which are low amo n g adolescent parents N ot havi ng a high school diploma limits career opportu nities maki ng it difficult to obtain a high payi ng job. High payi n g jobs usually require some sort of educational degree or additio nal trai ni ng. The higher the level of educatio n a perso n obtai ns, the more money the y make o n average over the course of the lifespa n (CheesemanDay & N ewburger, 2002; Suri, 1994). If a n adolesce nt mother does not fi nish high school, get a higher education degree, or additional trai ni ng, the n there is a high probability she will live in poverty.

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27 The same argument arises i n the media with examples such as the movies Ju no a nd K nocked Up (2007) where youn g u nwed females i ncur u ni nte nded pregna ncies but these movies are criticized for dow nplayi n g the significa nt challe n ges someo n e i n thei r situatio n would face i n real life. Critics argue not e nough emphasis is placed on casual sex resulti ng i n preg n a ncy (Tracy, 2008). More rece nt media has shifted atte n tio n to real life problems involvi ng tee nagers a nd preg na n cy. A separate televisio n docume ntary titled, The Preg na n cy Pact was based o n a true story a nd tells the story of a tow n with tee n girls who allegedly made a pact to i nte ntio nally get pregna nt. MTV also airs a televisio n show called 16 a nd Preg n a nt an d Teen Mom to show the realit y of becomi ng pregn a nt at such a you n g age a nd the difficulties that these you n g couples face. The media certainly play s a role i n how culture a nd society view certai n aspects of life such as preg na ncy a n d one must be aware of growi ng tre nds si nce they usu ally create a shift i n society about what is acceptable (The N atio nal Campaig n, 2010). N egative Impacts for the Adolescen t Father Ma n y problems that face adolescent mothers also exist for adolesce nt fathers. Ofte n times they have lower educatio nal achieveme nt have limited pote ntial for higher income, have high rates of substa n ce use an d get i n trouble with the law. Ofte n times they are chro nic juve nile offe nders a nd co ntinually display academic failure (Fagot, Pears, Capaldi, Crosby & Leve, 1998). As st ated previously, most babies bor n to adolesce nt mother and father s are out of wedlock. Ofte n times the biological father is not present for the babys life (Ami n & Ahmed, 2004; Elfe nbei n & Felice, 2003; Graefe & Lichter, 2002 ; Suri, 1994). Sometimes, co nta ct between the father and i n fa nt disappear completely (Fagot et al., 1998). Although some research suggests that unwed nonreside ntial fathers can be very i nvolved duri n g pregna n cy a nd birth

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28 (Joh nso n, 2001). most do not maintai n a lo ng term relatio nship wit h their childre n a nd the roma ntic relatio nship with the childs mother is ge nerally not perma n e nt (Elfe nbei n & Felice, 2003). Roma ntic involveme nt is a key determina n t of pater nal i nvolveme nt, a nd those who are roma ntically involved a n d cohabitati ng are far more i nvolved tha n those who are unmarried a nd not cohabitati ng or u nmarried a nd no roma ntic involveme nt (Joh nso n, 2001). Eco n omic a n d social impacts The problem of uni nte ntio nal preg na n cy affects adolescent parents a nd may impact family frie nds, a nd society at large. Adolescent pare nts are partially responsible for i ncreased costs for both i ndividuals a nd i nstitutio ns i n society. Teen preg na ncies can cost an ywhere from 2550 billio n dollars a nnually (The Teen Preg na n cy Shelter, 2008), a figure which only i ncludes direct payme nts. The N atio nal Campaig n to Preve nt Teen Preg na n cy (2010) estimates costs associated with teen preg na ncies and births i n Florida alo ne to be 77 millio n dollars a nnually not i ncludi ng e ducatio n, food subsidies, i ncarceratio n WI C a nd other programs. Low cha nces of fi nishi ng high school result i n limited career optio ns a nd i ncreased risk for livi ng i n poverty as well as the need for gover nme ntal assista nce. This affects the taxpayers as well as recipients of gover nme ntal assista nc e. Greater numbers of people who require gover nme ntal assista nce produces i ncreased dema nd for those resources. If more people require gover nme ntal assista nce, policies may have to be reviewed i n order to re establish criteria o n who is eligible to receive gover nme nt aid. Curre ntly i n the U nited States, there are those who have negative attitudes towards teenage preg na n cy, especially if the tee n is u nwed. I n creasi ng numbers of u nwed, preg n a nt teenagers with less tha n a high school education may co ntribute to the dese nsitizatio n of society on this topic, maki ng it a n acceptable optio n for tee ns. Adolesce nts may see this growin g tre nd,

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29 become more accepti n g to the idea of bei n g a n un wed adolescent parent, a nd may choose to get preg na nt or not put e nough emph asis o n usi ng reliable co ntraceptive methods. Recall Major Components of Research Previous research has been done on certain aspects of parenting such as communication, monitoring and control to examine contraceptive use. Existing literature has also looked at the relationships between Parenting Styles as outlined by Baumrind in connection to academic achievement, gang activity, school involvement, etc Extensive prior research on contraceptive use had been previously examined as a decision making process therefore, t he current research looks at contraceptive use and parenting styles using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The parenting styles were explored to fit into the normative belief construct. Theoretical Approach The decisio n to use co ntraceptives i s a complicated o ne i nvolvi ng ma n y factors such as knowledge of its purpose knowledge on how to properly use it, a nd bei n g able to obtai n it. Although it is impossible to completely u nderstan d all the factors of this complex decisio n maki ng process, the r esearcher attempts to do so by usi n g t he theory of pla nned behavior as a framework to this research. Theory of Planned Behavior The theory of pla nn ed behavior explai ns decisio n maki ng to achieve an outcome behavior. The theory applies to con scious decisio ns to e ngage i n specific behaviors t o achieve a precise outcome (Ajze n, n.d.; Ajz e n & Fishbei n, 1980). Major compone nts of the theory i n clude behavioral beliefs, attitude towards behavior, normative beliefs, subjective n orms, perceived behavioral co ntrol w hich i ncludes s elf efficacy, co ntrol beliefs and volitional control i nte ntio n a nd behavior.

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30 Figure 2 2. Theory of Pla nned Behavior Concept Map (Ajzen & Fishbei n, 1980). Major Terms of Theory Defi n ed Behavioral beliefs ge n eral opi nio n on what behavior s are desirable or not. Attitude towards behavior perso nal opi nio n on whether a specific behavior is desirable or not based on pre existing beliefs N ormative beliefs Outsiders opi nio ns (people importa nt to the individual maki ng the decisio n) o n what is a desirable behavior Subjective norms i ndividuals personal opi nio ns o n what behaviors are normal, what that perso n believes they should do Perceived behavioral co ntrol level of difficulty a person believes it takes to perform a specific behavior Self ef ficacybelief that o ne can accomplish the behavior a nd do it right Co ntrol beliefs beliefs o n factors out of on es co n trol that will preve nt successful outcome of completi ng a behavior Volitional control actual willingness to control and perform a behavior

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31 I nte ntio nthe co nscious process of decidi n g to e n gage i n a specific behavior Behavior actually doi n g a specific behavior, followi ng through with the i nte ntio n Proposed Linkages Between Components Behavioral beliefs are the big, ge neral ideas o n wha t behaviors are desirable. Behavioral beliefs i nflue nce the attitude towards a behavior ( Ajze n & Fishbei n, 1980). The attitude towards a behavior is how the behavior is viewed whether positive or negative ( Ajze n, n.d.). Attitudes can also be looked at as f avorable or u nfavorable. For example, if a perso n believes that bei n g a n unwed preg n a nt mother is a bad idea, that perso n is likely to have a positive attitude towards absti ne nce or a positive attitude towards the use of contraceptives N ormative beliefs are those beliefs en forced by outside sources such as people/orga nizatio ns importa nt to the individual ( Ajze n, n.d.). N ormative beliefs influe nce subjective norms which is the i ndividuals opi nio n of what they should/should not do. Sometimes it can be peer influence but for this study, parents styles and communication were explored as a normative belief. If pare nts believe that contraceptive use is a good way to preve nt preg na ncy a nd the child believes they should take contraceptives to preve n t u nwa nted pr eg na ncy; it is likely they will follow their pare nts wishes because they also feel it is what they should do. Parental beliefs and wishes may be different for each family, but norms are set based on what kind of information the parent relays. They must se t the standards and expectatio ns, and relay that information to their children. Perceived behavioral co n trol is how difficult a perso n perceives a behavior to be a nd their perceptio ns o n the ability to perform the behavior That is depe nde nt upon their beliefs to carry it out successfully (self efficacy) and co ntrol behaviors Control behaviors a re factors believed to make it possible to complete a behavior or those factor s out of ones co ntrol that would be a barrier to completing a behavior ( Ajze n, n.d.). Volitional control refers to the persons

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32 willingness to control the behavior. A person can believe they are able to successfully carry out a behavior but at the same time not be willing to do the behavior. For example, with condom use, especially whe n partner influence is considered, a person can have high self efficacy in their ability to use a condom but may not be willing to, or their partner may not be willing to. This theory provides a solid theoretical basis for this research because of the ke y co nstructs that apply to the major variables. The decisio n to e ngage i n usi n g co ntraceptives (outcome behavior) is affected by co nscious efforts o n whether or not the i n dividual should use them (subjective norms) i nflue nced by the parents ( normative beliefs) a nd is also i nflue nced by the perso ns attitude towards co ntraceptive use as well as their self efficacy, or ability to successfully use them The choice to use a co ntraceptive is a highly sensitive subject a nd may not be a n outcome behavior if the ad olescent perceives parental disapproval or if the communication methods of a certain parenting style do not relay expectations or norms P arental i nflue nce has a critical impact o n the decisio n to use co ntraceptives regularly. From this study the research er hope s to gai n a better u nderstandi n g of adolescents subjective norms a nd the parental i nflue n ce ( normative beliefs ) over co ntraceptive use ( outcome behavior ). Co ntraceptive self efficacy alo n g with sexual frequency will be exami ned i n relatio n to pare nting styles o n co ntraceptive use as a fi nal outcome behavior. Parenting styles are incorporated into the normative belief construct as exploratory research. Typically normative beliefs are the beliefs of those closest to the individual, such as parents, fa mily, and peers. For the current research, parenting styles were used as normative beliefs. Aside from parenting styles, other components of parenting such as communication, will be included in the normative belief construct. This research will co ntribute to understandi n g pare ntal commu nicatio n with their adolescents about contraceptive use as well as decision making on contraceptive use. It is hoped that factors contributing to contraceptive use and nonuse will be learned about

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33 Bridgi n g the Gaps The su bject of co ntraceptive use is a very perso nal decisio n a nd is i nflue nced by multiple factors. While there i s existi ng research exami ni ng pare ntin g styles a nd the relatio nship with adolescent sexual debut, sexual behavior a nd co ntraceptive use, none have st udied how the four parentin g styles specifically a ffect duri n g adolesce nce which then i nflue nce the decision to use co ntraceptives as a young adult The current research will focus o n pare ntal i nflue nce duri n g adolescen ce a nd the subseque nt effect o n their college age childrens co ntraceptive use as a means of preve nting u n wa nted preg n a ncy.

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34 CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS Purpose of Study The goal of this research was to exami ne the relationship between pare ntin g style s duri n g adolescen ce, co ntraceptive use and frequency of sexual activity as a you n g adult In addition, contraceptive self efficacy and communication with parent were assessed in relation to contraceptive use as well as sexual frequency Desig n A cross sectio nal desig n was used i n this res earch s pecifically, a retrospective pa nel desig n. This type of desig n asks p articipa nts to recall somethi ng from the past (deVaus, 2001), i n this study college student perceptions of pare ntin g style ( Baumrind 1966; 1967; 1991a; 1991b; 2005) The research explore d co ntraceptive use of you n g adults a nd exami ne d whether there were differ e nce s between each of the four parentin g styles. A cross sectio nal desig n was chosen because the goal of the research was to explore college stude nts co ntraceptive use at t his one poi nt in time The research questio ns ask ed w hich of the i ndepe nde nt varia bles (parentin g style) had the greatest impact o n the outcome variable (co ntraceptive use). T he differe nces were pre existing, therefore, a cross sectio nal desig n was chosen as the most appropriate desig n as it rel ies heavily upon existing differe n ces (deVaus, 2001). Sample an d population. A theoretical populatio n is defi ned as the audience you would ideally like to ge n eralize your research fi ndi ngs to as a whole Typically, research is co nducted i n hopes of reachi n g a larger audie n ce beyo nd those who actually participate i n the research study (Trochium, 2006; Kraska & N euman, 2008). I n research, a sample is take n to ge neralize to the e ntire population. T he theoretical populat io n for this research is adolescents a nd youn g adults

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35 The accessible populatio n is a sector of the theoretical populatio n that the researcher has access to use as the sample (Trochium, 2006; Kraska & N euman, 2008). These are pote ntial participa nts you ca n reaso nably a ccess i n order to collect data. The accessible populatio n for this study is U niversity of Florida curre ntly e nrolled un dergraduate stude nts. After obtai ni ng approval from the I nstitutio nal Review Board, t he researcher collect ed data from class es i n the colleges of Agricultural a nd Life Sciences, Liberal Arts and Sciences, a nd Health Sciences These colleges were chosen due to the diversity of ge nder and major selectio n of stude nts. U niversity of Florida undergraduate college stude n ts represent the theoretical populatio n because you n g adults i n the tradi tio nal college age ran ge ca n recall the age ran ge of i nterest (15 19). U ndergraduate stude nts are t ypically between the ages of 18 24 therefore only those participa nts age d 18 to 24 were i ncluded i n the study Stude nts older tha n 24 may have more difficulty rememberi ng thi ngs from the age ran ge of i nterest therefore 24 was determi ned to be the cut off age. As a result, 7 participa nts a nswers were elimi nated from data analysis for bei n g over the cut off age and a nother 7 participa nts a nswers were elimi nated from data analysis for not disclosi ng a n age at all This was done to eliminate answers from anyone who may be older than 25 years old and under 18 years old. It is importa nt to note that part icipa nts i n this study include d stude nts who were both sexually active and students who reported never having previously engaged in sexual intercourse or having a sexual intercourse partner Therefore, due to the ma n y be nefits offered by co ntraceptive use, males, females, sexually active and respondents who ha ve never engaged in sexual intercourse were i ncluded i n the research study. Stude nts who have used contraceptives a nd those who have not were also i ncluded i n the study. Co ntraceptives s erve ma n y purposes, the primary i nte nded use is to preve nt u nwa nted preg na ncies. O ther reaso ns for co ntraceptive use i nclude protectio n agai nst sexually tra nsmitted

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36 i nfectio ns, the regulatio n of hormones and me nstruatio n, relief of pai nful symptoms related to me nstruation, a nd help with ac ne or various other health related issues I n strume n t A self completio n questionnaire was distributed to participa nts duri n g class sessio ns The questionnaire included three previously published scales as well as some questio ns creat ed by the researcher. I n the i nstrume nt is the Pare nting Style I nve ntory II which may be abbreviated i n this research as PSI II (Darli ng, 1997), the Contraceptive Self Efficacy Scale abbreviated CSE (Levi nso n, 1984) a nd the Contraceptive Utilities, I nte ntio n a nd K nowledge Scale abbreviated CUIKS (Co ndelli, 1984). Each scale was carefully chosen to apply to the theoretical co nstructs bei ng exami ned i n the current research. C ro nbachs alphas or other reliability test results are listed to show reliability tes ts. The Pare n ti n g Style I n ve n tory II The Parentin g Style I nve ntory II (Darli n g, 1997) asks participa nts to select a n a nswer as it correspo nds to a series of fiftee n statements. It is desig ned to give a fi nal result of a certai n parentin g type. I n it are t wo subscales measuri n g pare ntal respo nsive n a nd demandi ng n There is typically also a component for auton not included in the current research (Darling, 1997) In comparison to the alphas reported by Darling (1997), a f ter data collection it was know n that the respo nsive ness subscale measured a = .814 a nd the demandi n g nOverall all items included in the parentin g style output scale for curre nt research measured a reliability of I n the PSI II, items 2, 5, 11, 13, a nd 15 measure responsive n ess, items 3, 4, 6, 9, a nd 10 measure auto nomy, a nd items 1, 7, 8, 12, a nd 14 measure demandi n g ness. All items used a scale from 1 ( stro n gly disagree ) to 5 ( stro ngly agree) I tems 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, a nd 14 should be reverse scored. O nly subscales of dema ndi ng n ess a nd respo nsive ness were used to create a fi n al

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37 parentin g style result usi ng a median split method to score a nswers. A median split method was used to assign parenting styles where for each subscale, a median is obtained and anything above the median is considered high and anything below the median is considered low. The Co n traceptive Self Efficacy Scale The Co ntraceptive Self Efficacy Scale (Levi nso n, 1984) the curre nt research n accepted for most research, the primary researcher argues the origi nal i nte nt of the scale which was for sexually active females, while the current research i ncluded males and those who reported never previously engaging in sexual intercourse. It is possible that males and those who have never engaged in sexual intercourse would answer these questions differently due to the fact that this scale was made to tailor to sexually active women. Males or those who have never engaged in sexual intercourse may not feel all items apply to them, which may make those participants feel forced answer choices as opposed to honest answers For this scale, a higher score represe nts higher co ntraceptive self efficacy Respo nde nts a nswer is their score for that item except for items that need to be reverse scored (items 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, a nd 15). A summative score is to be used for a n alysis. The Co n traceptive Utilities, I n te n tio n an d K n owledge Scale The attitudes portion of the Co ntraceptive Utilities, I nte ntio n a nd K nowledge scale (Co ndelli, 1984) score was listed to have a reliability of .62 per Condelli utilizing the Kuder Richardso n method. The data shows a low reliability due to the varied nature of topics covered i n the scale. For curre n Not all items were used in the current research whi ch improved the reliability. This set of questions asks People who are importa nt to you may have feeli n gs about the type of birth control you might use. For each type of birth control method below, please i ndicate how the people who are most importa nt to you

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38 would feel about your usi ng that form of co ntraceptio n. (Circle the number from 1 to 5 that best represents their feelings). Item 6 asks about foams/co ndoms, item 7 asks about diaphragm, item 8 asks about IUD a nd item 9 asks about birth control pills This part should be scored as is a nd a summative score created for analysis. Other questions used from this scale was item 5 which asks Below are a number of stateme nts about how you or your part ner might feel about becomi ng pregna nt withi n the next year. Please place a check i n fro nt of the o ne that best represents how you feel. This is scored as 7= it would be the worst thi ng that could happe n to me, 6= it would be very bad, 5= it would be sort of bad but not terrible, 4= it would be OK, 3= it would be sort of good but not terrific, 2= it would be very good a nd 1=it would be the best thi ng that could ever happe n to me. Item 2 of the CUIKS is a n ope nrespo nse questio n that asks the participa nt to list their or their partners form of co ntraceptio n. A nsw ers to those ope n respo nse items are listed i n the results sectio n i n the next chapter. Most I n flue n tial Pare n t I n current research, the word parent was used to describe biological paren ts, adoptive parents, or a n y major authority figure such as a guard ia n. Si nce family structure ca n be so dy namic and could consist of a variety of combi natio ns, participa nts were asked at the very begi nni n g of the i nstrume nt to ide ntify their most influe ntial pare nt i n ope nrespo nse, fill in the bla nk format. P articipa nt was e ncouraged to pick the one perso n who had the most impact or was the o ne guardian that had the most influe nce. For pare ntin g styles, mother, father and most i nflue ntial pare nt i n g style are i nquired about givi n g the four types listed as optio ns with descriptio ns. T he questio ns ask about a mother or mother figure while the questions pertai ni ng to a father ask about the father or a father figure Relatio nship with pare nt is made up of six questions which are scored as 1 for the first

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39 option to 5 for the last optio n. A score of zero is given for the answer, No mother/mother figure, No father/father figure, and No most influential parent Summative scores are used for a nalysis. Communication with Parent A series of six questions, listed in the questionnaire under Relationship with Parent are summed to give a score for relationship with parent. Ultimately it is intended to measure parent child communication and knowledge regarding contraceptives Having no mother/father/most influential parent is coded as zero. The answer, I dont use contraceptives is coded as 1, and scores increase to the highest of 5 for, My parent knows I use contraceptives, they insist. Sexual Frequency Sexual activity questio n 7 asks Which of the following statements b est describes your past regarding sexual intercourse? Answer choices are scored as 5= I have never engaged in sexual intercourse, I am a virgin, 4= I have had sex before but not currently, 3= I seldom have sexual intercourse, 2= I sometimes have sexual in tercourse, and 1= I have sexual intercourse frequently. High scores would mean not bei n g frequently engaging in sexual intercourse where low scores mean high frequently of engaging in sexual intercourse Co n traceptive I n formation I n the questio nnaire were items regardi n g co ntraceptive i nformatio n. I n that particular section number 10 asks if the participa nt has ever used the form of contraceptio n or if they have never used it. N umber 11 asks for curre nt primary type of contraceptio n. Item 12 is reverse sc ored to where 5=I use contraceptives all the time to 1=I never use co ntraceptives. Demographic i nformatio n such as gender, age, marital status, race, level i n school a nd i ncome was also obtai ned i n order to describe the sample that completed the i nstrume nt a nd participated i n this research

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40 The i ndepe nde nt variables for a nalysis are parenting style, CSE score, and relatio nship with pare nt measured by the set of questions that ask about parental communication. Output variables for current research are sexua l frequency score, CUIKS score, a n d co ntraceptive use score for each type of co ntraceptio n. Parenting style output will be one of four styles : authoritaria n, authoritative, permissive or neglectful. Procedure I nstructors for the three selected courses we re co n tacted via email requesti ng permissio n to e nter classrooms and collect data duri n g the last twe nty mi nutes of class O nce granted permissio n, the questionnaires were passed out to stude nts i n their seats. The questio nnaire was a bubble and openrespo nse a nswer booklet a nd was distributed to participa nts i n a sealed e nvelope. Participa nts were asked to read the co n se nt form a nd keep a copy of it if they agreed to participate. N o sig ned copy of i nformed co nse nt form was collected as approved by the IRB0 2 office. Participants were asked to retur n the completed questionnaire i n the envelope provided. Havi ng a n e nvelope helped to e nsure privacy by havi ng somethi n g to cover a nswers with while still completing the i nstrume nt a nd protect the co nfide ntiality of a nswers to the se nsitive subject. Stude nts were allowed to look at the questionnaire before decidi n g whether they wish to opt out of participatin g. Two stude nts i n separate data collectio n sites opted to not complete the i nstrume nt without pe nalty. O nce all data was collected, completed questionnaires were brought back to the researchers office where a nswers were e ntered by the primary researcher and prepared for data an alysis by e nsuri ng no typos were made and eliminati n g a n yo n e not know n to be between 1824 years old. Limitatio n s a n d problems A cross sectio nal desig n is used to exami ne differences amo ng existing groups at one poi nt in time (de Vaus, 2001). However, it can not change behaviors or attitudes since there is no intervention (Bryma n, 2004). The r etrospective desig n of

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41 this research which asks the participa nt t o recall thi ngs from their past ca n also contribute to some limitatio ns a nd problems The questionnaire asks the participant to think back to the ages of 15 to 19.The ability to accurately remember thought s and opinions duri n g adolescent is a possible limitation since opinions may have changed. It does not account for possible sexual behavior that may have incurr ed prior to the age of fifteen. Another limitation to the research is the wa y the parenting style inventory was scored. A median split was used where scores are split at the median and anything above the median is categorized as high and anything below the median is considered low. This will force participants into categories tha t are no t necessarily reflective of the true answer, but is one of the best methods for scoring parenting styles When using a median split method, some information can be lost regarding individual differences and causes problems in comparing findings. Howe ver, the best reason a median split method is used is to simplify results. It makes analysis easier to do so that the researcher can use ANOVA instead of individual differences using regression/correlations ( MacCallum, Zhang, Preacher & Rucker, 2002) In t he current research, when a parent is listed as neglectful, it does not truly mean they were a neglectful parent but that is the category where the answer was forced into in comparison to the other responses. Furthermore, ma n y of the scales used as part o f the research i nstrume nt such as the Co ntraceptive Self Efficacy Scale and the Co ntraceptive Utilities, I nte ntio n a nd K nowledge Scale were desig ned to be used only with sexually active females. The current research i ncludes males, females sexually active and those who reported never previously engaging in sexual intercourse so their i nte n ded audie nce was reached but additio nal populations of males were i ncluded. This would be a limitation if false answers were given in the instance that males felt the questions did not apply to them but they answered anyway A nother possible problem is the i nstrume nt was created assumi ng the participa nt was i n a heterosexual relatio nship. Two

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42 completed i nstrume nts were fou nd to be problematic si nce two participa nt s self disclosed their homosexual ity This could pose a problem since homosexual intercourse does not pose a threat to pregnancy. Future research may want to accou n t for possible homosexual participa nts or tailor the research to strictly adhere to heterosexual par ticipa nts. Lastly, Baumrinds parenting styles do not apply to all cultures or circumstances, therefore generalizations are not possible with research in regards to parenting styles due to cultural differences that may exist among participants

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43 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The primary purpose of this research was to exami ne if there was a relatio n ship betwee n parentin g styles and co ntraceptive use. It exami ned various aspects of pare nts such as their commu nicatio n regarding contraceptives demandi ng ness, and respo ns ive n ess, as well as the individuals contraceptive self efficacy It also looked at various aspects of co ntraceptives use such as past and curre nt methods, freque n cy of use, a nd reaso ns for use. Sexual attitudes, activity a nd behavior were exami ned as well to get a better overall picture of related topics. Computer based statistical software was used for data analyses, specifically PASW Statistics 18, the latest versio n of SPSS. Descriptive analyses allowed an overview of participa nt demographics, freque n c y a nalyses looked at the response variation of certai n questions the n analysis of variance ( A N OVA) a nd Pearson correlatio ns were ru n to test hypotheses ANOVAs were used to measure a categorical variable with a continuous variable, and Pearson correlation s were used with the qualitative or continuous variables. These statistical tests combi ned allow the researcher to fully exami ne each research questio n i n this study. Descriptive Results Data was collected from a total of 284 participa nts but 14 completed surveys were not used i n data analyses because the participa nt either did not list their age or were 25 and older Therefore, the study sample is based o n 270 respo nde nts ( n=270) If a respo nde nt selected more tha n one respo nse or neglected to a nswer a qu e stio n, the item was marked as missi ng and coded as 99 so it would be excluded from analyses Sample demographics Demographic statistics were collected as part of this instrume nt to describe the participa nts who make up the sample which is helpful whe n exami ni ng the a n alyses that follow. Participa nts were asked about their sex, age, marital status, race, year i n school,

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44 family income for 2008, a nd education. The average age for this study sample was 19.96 (SD = 1.287). A majority of participa nts were fem ale (76.3%, or n=206) a nd the rest were males (23.7%, or n=64). Other demographic i nformatio n can be seen i n Table 4 1 Table 4 1. Summary statistics for demographic variables Characteristi c Freque ncy Valid Percent _______ Marital Status Si ngle 249 93.3 Livi ng with part n er, but n ot married 14 5.2 Married 3 1.1 Divorced/separated 1 0.4 Widowed 0 0.0 Total 267 100.0 Race White or Caucasian 150 55.8 Black or African America n 62 23.0 Hisp a n ic or Latin o 30 11.2 Asia n or Pacific Islander 15 5.6 N ative American or Alaska n N ative 2 0.7 Biracial 9 3.3 Other 1 0.4 Total 269 100.0 Year Freshman 19 7.0 Sophomore 90 33.3 Ju nior 95 35.2 Se nior 64 23.7 Graduate stude nt 2 0.7 Total 270 100.0 Parents 2008 Income U nder $19,999 23 8.8 $20,000$39,000 45 17.2 $40,000$59,999 46 17.6 $60,000$79,999 41 15.6 $80,000 or more 107 40.8 Total 262 100.0 Students Highest Level Education High school/GED 50 18.7 Some college/post high school 108 40.3 Completed a n Associates/2 year degree 102 38.1 Completed a Bachelors/4 year degree 7 2.6 C ompleted a graduate or professio n al 1 0.4 Total 268 100.0

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45 Aside from demographic variables, f reque n cy a n alyses were co nducted on all major variables to exami ne how respo nses differed amo ng participa nts All frequencies can be found in Appendix B Bivariate A n alyses After freque n cy a n alyses were ru n, A N OVA a nd Pearson correlatio n a n alyses were performed depe ndi n g o n the i ndepe nde nt a nd depe nde nt variables for each research questio n. A N OVA, a special case of multiple regressio n, compares means usi n g the F statistic. The F statistic estimates variability betwee n groups a nd withi n groups (Agresti, 2009) All results are reported i n this sectio n. RQ1: Does perceived parenting style have a relationship with young adults frequency of sexual int ercourse? H1: Frequency of sexual intercourse among young adults will differ based on Parenting Styles. A N OVA was ru n usi n g the parentin g style output as the i ndepe nde nt or factor variable a nd the frequency of sexual intercourse score as the depe nde nt vari able. Significant results displayed differences between parenting styles on frequency of sexual intercourse F(3, 260) = 2.76, p<.05. Post hoc analysis using the Tukey B method confirms statistically significant differences exist between the authoritarian group and the neglectful group. Table 4 2. Tukey B post hoc a nalysis Groups N M M SD Neglectful 39 2.77 1.799 Permissive 94 3.26 3.26 1.684 Authoritative 105 3.58 3.58 1.568 Authoritarian 26 3.65 1.384 RQ 2: Does perceived parenting style have a relationship with young adults atti tudes towards contraception ? H2: Attitudes towards contraceptive use will be more favorable among young adults who perceive their most influential parent as authoritative or permissive.

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46 A N OVA was ru n usi n g pare ntin g style as the i ndepe nde nt or factor vari able and the attitude towards co ntraceptio n from the Co ntraceptive Utilities, I nte ntio n, a nd K nowledge Scale was used as the depe nde nt or outcome variable A sig nifica nt difference was fou nd between parentin g styles on attitudes towards co ntraceptio n, F(3, 221) =6.03, p<.01. Post hoc a nalysis usi ng the Tukey B method confirmed significant differe n ces amo ng the authoritaria n/authoritative a nd neglectful parenting style groups Table 4 3. Tukey B post hoc a nalysis Groups N 1 2 SD Authoritaria n 25 11.64 4.29 Authoritative 86 12.3837 4.20 Permissive 80 13.8125 13.8125 4.31 N eglectful 34 15.3529 3.09 RQ3: Is there a relationship between young adults self efficacy and contraceptive use? H3: Co n traceptive self e fficacy will be positively related to use of co n traceptives. Correlatio ns help to ide ntify clear and directio nal relatio nships. It is importa nt to keep i n mind that correlatio n does not imply causatio n (Agresti, 2009), simply a directional relatio nship a nd whether they are positively or negatively related Table 4 4. Pearson correlations for CSE x CU for each CSE pills condom patch shot planB wd I ud dia spe CSE 1 pills .314** 1 condom .536** .481** 1 patch .117 .181** .027 1 shot .100 .181** .027 .537** 1 planB .224** .341** .372** .076 .133* 1 wd .384** .469** .579** .088 .135* .446** 1 iud .083 .047 .061 .431** .431** .081 .016 1 dia .061 .052 .141 .570** .570** .043 .084 .771** 1 spe .141* .097 .135* .415** .176** .050 .131 .271** .373** 1 ** Significant at the .01 level

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47 Pearso ns correlatio ns between contraceptive self efficacy and each type of co ntraceptive produced sig nifica nt results. The most sig nifica nt correlatio ns fou nd were with co ntraceptive self efficacy and pills r (228)= .314, p<0.01, condoms r (227)= .536, p<0.01, pla n B or the mor ni ngafter pill r (223) = .224, p <0.01, a nd withdrawal method r (223)= .382, p <0.01. RQ4: Does perceived parenting style have a relationship with contraceptive use among young adults? H4: Co n traceptive use will be reported more amo n g you n g adults who perceive their p ar e n ts to be authoritaria n or authoritative. Result of A N OVA showed no sig nifica nt differe n ces between pare ntin g style a nd co ntracep tive use for each type of co ntraceptio n. This is true for all types; birth co ntrol pills, co ndoms, birth control patch, the shot, pla n B or the mor ni ngafter pill, withdrawal method, IUD, diaphragm, a nd spermicide An additional twoway ANOVA was conducted to explore the impact of gender and parenting style and contraceptive use. The interaction effect between gender and parenting style was not statistically significant, F( 3, 239) 1.04, p= .375. RQ5: What ki n d of relatio n ship exists between communication with pare n t, you n g adults co n traceptive self efficacy o n you n g adults co n traceptive use? H5: Pare n t willin g n ess to discuss co n traceptives will be positively correlated with you n g adults co n traceptive self efficacy a n d reported co n traceptive. Pearso ns Correlatio ns were ru n between three variables: communication with pare nt, co ntraceptive self efficacy and co ntraceptive use. Results showed a positive correlatio n between communication with pare nt a nd co ntraceptive self efficacy r (250) = .453, p<0.01. Addit io nally, co ntraceptive self efficacy has a positive correlatio n with pills r (228)= .314, p<0.01, co ndoms r (227) = .536, p<0.01, pla n B or the mor ni n g after pill r (22 3)= .224, p<0.01 a nd withdrawa l method r (225)= .384, p<0.01.

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48 Sig nifica nt correlatio ns exist between communication with pare nt a nd pills r ( 229) = .435, p<0.01, co ndoms r ( 229) = .457, p<0.01, pla n B or the mor ni ng after pill r ( 225)= .259, p<0.01 a nd the withdrawal method r ( 225)= .312, p<0.01. Table 4 5. Pearson correlations for PR x CSE x CU for ea ch PR CSE pills condom patch shot planB wd iud dia spe PR 1 CSE .453** 1 pills .435** .314** 1 condom .457** .536** .481** 1 patch 0.100 .117 .181** .027 1 shot 0.080 .100 .181** .027 .537** 1 planB .25 9** .224** .341** .372** .076 .133* 1 wd .312** .384** .469** .579** .088 .135* .446** 1 iud 0.090 .083 .047 .061 .431** .431** .081 .016 1 dia 0.051 .061 .052 .141 .570** .570** .043 .084 .771** 1 spe .214** .141* .097 .135* .415** .176** .050 .131 .271** .373** 1 ** Significant at the .01 level RQ6: What is the stre n gth between communication with pare n t a n d you n g adults co n traceptive self efficacy o n frequency of sexual intercourse? H6: Pare n ts willin g ness to discuss co n tracep tives will be positively correlated with you n g adults co n traceptive self efficacy a n d be n egatively correlated with frequency of sexual activity. Pearso ns Correlatio ns were ru n between communication with pare nt, co ntraceptive self efficacy and frequency of sexual intercourse to explore the stre n gth of the relatio nship betwee n the three variables. Table 4 6. Pearson correlations for PR x CSE x S F PR CSE SF 7 PR 1 CSE .453** 1 SF 7 .384** .529** 1 ** Significant at the .01 level The correlatio n table shows a sig nificant relatio nship betwee n communication with pare nt a nd co ntraceptive self efficacy r (250)= .453, p< .01 communication with parent a nd frequency

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49 of sexual intercourse score r (252) = .384, p< .01, a nd co ntraceptive self efficacy and frequency of sexual intercourse r (250) = .529, p< .01. Therefore, a positive correlatio n exists between communication with parent with pare nt a nd co ntraceptive self efficacy, and both have a n inverse relatio nship with frequency of sexual intercourse Sum mary This chapter presented the results of data analyses for research questio ns. First, descriptive statistics were ru n to describe the sample. Then, bivariate an alyses usi ng A N OVA a nd Pearson correlatio ns were ru n to a nswer the research questio ns. All of the results have implicatio ns for a nsweri n g the research questio ns. A discussio n of these fi ndi ngs will be prese nted i n the next chapter.

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50 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSIO N The transitio n from adolesce nce to adulthood is a particularly i nteresti ng time in a perso ns life I t can be challen gi n g a nd is a time where pare ntal expectations may or may not be met Adolescents a nd youn g adults are faced with ma n y importa nt decisio ns, a n opportune time to do as parent s have advised or choose to do thi ngs their ow n way. The cho ice to become sexually active is often present ed sometime betwee n adolescence and youn g adulthood (Singh & Darroch, 1999) a nd sexual activity without co ntraceptive use can be highly risky as u ni nte nded preg na n cy has man y co nsequences The purpose of this s tudy was to exami ne how a n adolescents perception of their family of origin parents style is related to their co ntraceptive use as a you n g adult. Co ntraceptive use, as measured by ever havi ng used a n y form of co ntraceptio n i n the past signifies awareness of co ntraceptive be nefits a n d their purpose. One can not over generalize or assume awareness of contraceptive benefits and their purpose for all youth but for those who have ever used contraceptives in the past, typically they are aware of contraceptives, their use and benefits. This chapter first revisits the rese arch questio ns a nd hypotheses D ata a nalyses are also revisited and conclusions are made regarding results for a nsweri ng the research questio ns The n, a brief discussio n of other fi ndi ngs will be reviewed give n that the complex research topic has associatio ns that must be co nsidered as part of the ongoing discussion regarding sexual intercourse and contraceptives Fi nally, t he implicatio ns a nd fi ndi n gs of this research are discussed a nd suggestion s are made for future research. Revisitin g Research Questio n s The followi ng research questio ns were stated i n the first chapter, a nd are listed with their respective hypotheses

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51 RQ 1: Does perceived parenting style have a relationship with young adults fr equency of sexual intercourse? H1: Frequency of sexual intercourse among young adults will differ based on Parenting Styles. There is a significant relationship between parenting style and sexual activity. Although this was not the primary research questio n of i nterest, sexual activity precedes preg na n cy a nd was i nquired about give n that the two topics are closely related. An A N OVA was performed and statistically significant differences were detected between frequency of sexual intercourse and certain paren ting styles Post hoc analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the authoritarian parent and the neglectful parent. M ean scores of sexual intercourse frequency were higher for young adults with authoritarian parents ( M =3.65, SD =1.384) than neglectful parents ( M =2.77, SD =1.799). A higher score on frequency of sexual intercourse indicate s lower incidence of sexual intercourse The lower scor es are coded to indicate higher frequency of sexual activity Therefore, the mean scores for auth oritarian parents is higher indicating low frequency of sexual intercourse and the mean scores for neglectful parents was lower indicating high er frequency of sexual intercourse Results support the hypothesis One explanation could be that authoritarian parents may be m ore demanding, making it plausible t heir children would be less likely to engage in frequent sexual intercourse. Concurrent with previous literature higher parental monitoring found in authoritarian parenting can le a d to lower risk behavi ors which correspond to the current findings (Rodgers, 1999; Miller, 2002). The author suggests c hildren of demanding parents often know they have consequences for their actions and would not act if they perceived parental disapproval of sexual intercourse Those with lower mean scores indicating higher frequency of sexual intercourse from children of neglectful parents may not fear parental disapproval and/or do not have high parental monitoring like children of

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52 authoritarian parents. It is also a possibi lity that children of neglectful parents may be replacing absent parental attention with that of a sexual partner. RQ 2 : Does perceived parenting style have a relationship with young adults attitudes towards contraception? H2: Attitudes towards contracep tive use will be more favorable among young adults who perceive their most influential parent as authoritative or permissive. Sig nifica nt differe n ces were fou nd between perceived parentin g styles a nd current attitudes towards co ntraceptio n. A uthoritaria n a nd authoritative pare nts had similar scores while parents i n the neglectful category showed the biggest differe nce. Post hoc a nalyses revealed p ermiss ive parent as close to mean scores for the authoritaria n/authoritative groups, a nd the neglectful group. T herefore, results of the a nalysis suggest that permissive parenting styles do not differ from the other three groups i n relatio n to attitude towards co ntraceptio n. The results do not support the hypothesis since it was originally hypothesized that authorit ative or permissive parents would have yielded more favorable results. College students from a uthoritarian and authoritative parenting types seem to have less favorable opinion on contraceptives. Those participants in the neglectful p arent category appear to have more favorable opinions. Children of authoritative and authoritarian parents may view contraceptive use as less favorable as family opposition influence s the use of contraception (Ayoola, Nettleman & Brewer, 2007). These children may not want disa pproval from parents who are more demanding. This disapproval could be in relation to contraceptive use, sexual intercourse, or other aspects of life in which a parent would approve or disapprove of the persons behavior. Typically, children act in accordance to their parents expectations and upbringing especially when the parent is more demanding. RQ 3: Is there a relationship between young adults self efficacy and contraceptive use?

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53 H3: Co n traceptive self efficacy will be positively related to use of con traceptives. Two of the major constructs i n the theory of pla nn ed behavior look at on es belief about their ability to carry out a behavior a nd how that i n tur n affects their actual outcome behavior. For this particular questio n, a perso ns belief about their ability to use co n traceptives effectively was exami ned i n relatio n ship to whether or not they have actually used co ntraceptives i n the past a nd which ones Birth co ntrol pills, co ndoms, pla n B or the mor ni n g after p ill, a nd the withdrawal method had the highest positive correlatio ns to perceived co ntraceptive use It is somewhat surprising that contraceptive self efficacy would be highly correlated to the withdrawal method specifically since it would be logical that someone with higher CSE wo uld use a more reliable method. T he research only asks if the participant has ever or never used the form of contraception. It is also possible that a participant can use two or even three forms at the same time such as the female partner being on oral contracepti ves the male partner using a condom, and he also uses the withdrawal method as a precaution. Findings presented are not to say that the withdrawal method is the primary form used, it is simply highly correlated to contraceptive self efficacy. It is important to note that sometimes the withdrawal method is not recognized as a formal type of contraception and can be hard to control for by the partners engaging in sexual intercourse. The researcher is not surprised to find high correlations with pills and condoms as these are typically much more available and widely used. Correlations also show withdrawal to be highly correlated with condoms and pills meaning all three uses are possible and likely. Furthermore, in previous research, condom use was viewed as more favorably by those who had used condoms in their most recent sexual intercourse (McDermott & Noland, 2004). Therefore, it is likely for favorability towards the use of contraception to increase as occurrence of use increases. Simultaneously, self effica cy about condom use would increase as

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54 experience with actual condom use increases because the belief about carrying out the behavior successfully has proven to be true. The hypothesis is supported by the findings RQ 4: Does perceived parenting style have a relationship with contraceptive use among young adults? H4: Co n traceptive use will be reported more amo n g you n g adults who perceive their p ar e n ts to be authoritaria n or authoritative. This research questio n was the mai n i nterest of the study; it gets at the very basic essentials of the title. Perceived parenting styles are exami ned with relatio n to co ntraceptive use. U nfortu nately, no statistically sig nifica nt differe n ces were fou nd betwee n parentin g style a nd co ntraceptive use for each type of co ntracept io n. This u nexpected result could be a product of various possibilities, one bei ng that parentin g styles as a construct of normative beliefs to the outcome behavior of co n traceptive use does not coincide well Additionally, questionnaire items could have been worded differently and been much more specific. For example, sexual intercourse was intended to mean vaginal sexual intercourse which is what makes unplanned pregnancy possible but vaginal was not specified; therefore personal interpretations could have included oral or anal sexual intercourse. A nother possible reaso n that no sig nifica nt differe n ces were fou nd could be attributed to the high number of participa nts who i ndicated not havi ng a n y current form of co ntraceptio n ( n=84, or 35.3%) Ma n y of th e participa nts reported never having a sexual partner ( n=104, or 38.5%) a nd therefore may justify this as a reason for not usi ng co ntraceptives even though sometimes contraceptives are taken for other reasons It was hoped that contraceptive use would be higher given the multitude of benefits associated with contraceptive use, although they also have side effects which would deter people from using them unless they are necessary. Cost also plays a factor in non use but overall, no conclusions can be made g iven the lack of relationship between the two.

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55 RQ 5: What kind of relationship exists between communication with parent, young adults contraceptive self efficacy on young adults contraceptive use? H5: Parents willingness to discuss contraceptive use will be positively correlated with young adults contraceptive self efficacy and reported contraceptive use. The set of questions pertai ni ng to communication with pare nt ask about the ability for o ne to discuss contraceptives with their pare nt a nd how much i nfo rmatio n the parent actually k nows about the persons use. Communicatio n is a key factor i n parentin g with childre n a nd ofte n times the amou nt of i nformatio n tra nsmitted from pare nt to child ca n greatly i nflue nce various walks of life includi ng the childs self efficacy as well as their co nfide n ce to carry out a behavior such as co ntraceptive use. Recall from the literature review that previous research recommends high quality parent child communication in order to transmit parental attitude towards sexualit y. Furthermore, research found that in mothers and daughters who increase their communication about the risks involved with sex, daughters report a lower frequency of sexual intercourse and increased contraceptive use (Bersamin et al., 2008) S ig nifica nt c orrelatio ns were fou nd betwee n communication with pare nt, co ntraceptive self efficacy and co ntraceptive use which support the hypothesis Correlatio ns are o nly show n two variables at a time, but each variable did correlate to the other two, therefore all t hree variables were positively correlated to each other. Separately, co ntraceptive self efficacy is correlated with co ntraceptive use for four types of co ntraceptio n. The four types of co ntraceptio n, birth control pills, co ndoms, pla n B or the mor ni ng afte r pill, a nd the withdrawal method, were all the most highly correlated to both communication with parent a nd co ntraceptive self efficacy. RQ 6: What is the strength between communication with parent, young adults contraceptive self efficacy on frequency of sexual intercourse? H6: Parents willingness to discuss contraceptive use will be positively correlated with young adults contraceptive self efficacy and negatively correlated with frequency of sexual intercourse.

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56 Similar to research questio n 5, communication with pare nt a nd co ntraceptive self efficacy is exami ned but for this research question specifically, frequency of sexual intercourse is the outcome variable. Agai n, communication with pare nt a nd co ntraceptive self efficacy are positively correlated However, both variables are negatively correlated with frequency of sexual intercourse The hypothesis is supported by the results for this question. A negative correlatio n to sexual frequency is a good t hi ng. C odi ng was i nte nded to produce a low score m eani n g high sexual frequency A high score mea ns low sexual frequency Therefore a better relatio nship with a parent produces lower sexual frequency H igher co nt raceptive self efficacy yields less sexual frequency Similarly, co n traceptive self efficacy i s negatively correlated with frequency of sexual intercourse i ndepe nde ntly of relatio nship with pare nt. Fi ndi n gs suggest pare nts keep a good relationship with their child and empower them to be co nfide nt in their abilities to make good decisions o n thi ngs such as co ntraceptive use. Going back to findings of Bersamin et al. (2008), daughters who increased their communication with their mothers about risks involved with sex reported lower frequency of sexual intercourse and increased contraceptive use. Qualit y of parent child communication channels consistently result in better outcomes for both parties. Other fi n di n gs Analyses of certain items on the questionnaire showed some interesting discussion points although not specifically relevant to the research questions. For example, at the very beginning of the instrument participants were asked to identify their most influential parent. While many respondents overlooked this openresponse item, the vast majority of those who did respond listed their mother ( n= 119, or 71.7%) as the most influential parent. It is unsure as to what this can be attributed to other than the maternal instinct and attachment usually formed between a mother and child. It is also possible that since most participants were female, most would identify with their mother as their most influential parent.

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57 One item on the CUIKS asks about perceived severity of pregnancy. Hardly anyone indicated it would be good to get pregnant or perceive it as the best thing that could ever happen ( n=5, or 2.2%). With the age range of this sample and considering that all participants were students, it would seem as if though becoming pregnant would in some way hinder or interrupt the life goals of a college student. Mostly all responses ranged from zero part ners to twelve partners, no responses were listed between 13 22 partners, and only a small percentage of the sample (1.7%) indicated having somewhere between 23 30 partners. The gap in number of sexual partners suggests that participants are generally care ful about engaging in sexual intercourse or may be disclosing socially desirable responses Even the author was surprised to find the mean number of sexual partners among those who are sexually active to be 3.78 partners. It was the assumption that most co llege students have casual sex frequently with many partners. This is not the case among this study sample. College students are sometimes stereotyped to have multiple partners. Paul, McManus & Hayes (2000) did a research study on hookups with and without sexual intercourse on n=555 undergraduate students and found that n=120 had never experienced a hookup and n=266 had experienced at least one hook up none which included sexual intercourse, while only n=169 had experienced at least one hookup including sex ual intercourse. By the standards of the current research, 70% would not be at risk for unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, individuals who were romantically involved especially those in longer, committed relationships, had no hookups. In a separate resear ch study, misconceptions about college students sexual activity was examined Less than half the male and female sample reported having had sexual intercourse in the past month from the time of data collection as opposed to the much higher perception of prevalence. The conclusions of the study were that those who hold the idea that everybody is doing it were found to be at higher risk for becoming sexually active themselves as opposed to

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58 the actual lower and lesser numbers of sexual intercourse than perceived (Page, Hammermeister, & Scanlan, 2000). This provides an example of results contrary to the popular belief that all college students are sexually promiscuous. Participants were asked when it is acceptable to engage in sexual intercourse given the r elationship with the potential partner. An overwhelming majority of participants responded by disclosing they have never had a sexual intercourse partner meaning they are sexually inactive. This is highly unexpected in comparison to literature which states approximately 80% of youn g people i n the U.S. experie nce sexual activity duri ng their tee nage years, usually the mid to late adolescent years (Si n gh & Darroch, 1999). The source of information on contraceptives was introduced in the first chapter explai ning children who do not get information from their parents will hear things in the media, at school or from peers. Most participants indicated first getting information about contraceptives from a doctor or school suggesting institutions have primarily informed this sample. Parents and friends came in second on source of information which suggests a secondary communication but that information was not initially received in the personal level. The most commonly reported reason for contraceptive use was to prevent pregnancy. This sample appears to be aware of the purposes contraceptives serve. Even though most of the sample is sexually inactive, they are aware of the benefits for using contraceptives. Whether they choose to use contracepti ves or not is a per sonal choice An important factor to consider regarding the topic of sexual activity and contraceptive use is the influence of the parent. Sometimes, parents may lack the necessary knowledge to accurately relay information to their children. One also has to wonder if a parent who disapproves of sexual debut or sexual activity for a teenager would actually discuss contraceptives. Sometimes it is believed that a behavior is acceptable if it is brought up in

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59 discussion. A parent could discuss contraceptives a dding in the ir feelings of disapproval towards engaging in sexual intercourse. Open communication is recommended for parents and their children, which would include being realistic about expectations as well as relaying accurate and honest information about all aspects. Adolescents are at a most peculiar time in their lives where most would not admit to agreeing with their parents on much. However, contrary to popular belief, most would be very accepting and willing of openminded parents with whom they could discuss such sensitive subjects. Adolescence is a time period where parents have the opportunity to really be heard because even when it appears their child is not listening, they always hear what you have to say. Even though teens may give the impress ion of not listening to their parents and instead following their peers, parents are encouraged to make their beliefs, attitudes, expectations, and feelings about sexual intercourse explicitly known to their children (Bersamin, Todd, Fisher, Hill Grube & W alker, 2008). Implicatio n s of Research The findings of this research can contribute generous information to the theoretical framework Results of the research suggest practical advice for parents, youth and medical professionals The theory of planned beha vior relates normative beliefs and their impact on subjective norms. It also relates self efficacy to an outcome behavior. For this research, parents communication and their style are the normative beliefs and the young adults opinions are the subjective norms. Concurrent with previous research, parental monitoring which can be related to level of demandingness, attributed to perceived parental disapproval of contraceptives resulting in less use by the young adult This would indicate parental opinions influencing ones own opinion in accordance with the theory Additionally, self efficacy was highly and positively

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60 correlated to contraceptive use and negatively correlated to sexual intercourse frequency Self efficacy is one of the most important construct s in the theory as well as these research findings. Self efficacy is probably the most influential factor when considering contraceptive use just as it is one of the major components to the theory of planned behavior. Findings from this research are con current with existing literature regarding relationships with parents and contraceptive use. Increased communication with parent has shown to have better overall outcomes for children. The topic of sexual intercourse can be an uncomfortable and awkward topic, but is necessary. Parents should consider being the first to bring up the topic before children believe things they hear from others Rumors, misconceptions and false information all surround discussions about sexual intercourse. If parents disapprove of sexual intercourse at an early age, they can and should rel a y that information but should also consider discussing contraceptives in general. In the instance that a young person is faced with the opportunity to engage in sexual intercourse, they can dec ide whether to follow through with it or not. If they do, they will have knowledge about preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Explicit opinions and accurate information can both be explained. Beliefs should be honestly communicated bet ween parents and their children. Parents are urged to initiate conversation about the topic to relay their opinion about it and to convey their message to their children. The information presented could prove to be useful in a variety of aspects. First of all, it would be helpful when determining the type of sexual education to provide in school settings. Abstinence only education is a controversial topic where many policy makers and educators argue there should be a more comprehensive education program in place. Personal recommendations advise against an abstinence only education as it may appear unrealistic and inapplicable to todays youth. Additionally, the media can and should continue to focus on

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61 current research that realistically displays life as a pregnant or parenting teen. For example, recent programming on the popular Music Television Network (or MTV) began with the reality show 16 & Pregnant then later added, Teen Mom as a follow up to the lives of the featured families once the baby was bor n. The Teen Mom show displays life, struggles, and adversities the young couples must face. Programming such as this allows for ability to offer insight on the personal choice to engage in sexual intercourse and use contraceptives. Family planning clinic s as well as physicians can benefit from the current research by considering the types of contraceptives that are most widely used. The same types of contraceptives can be enforced or consideration of alternative methods can be discussed. Ultimately, relia ble and effective contraceptives can be recommended and prescribed by physicians and family planning clinics to those choosing to use contraceptives for the purpose of protection against unplanned pregnancy, disease, and other health complications. Since most adolescents who are at risk of unplanned pregnancy are still in high school and middle school, parents of children in those grade levels should really place emphasis on opencommunication. Prevention is worth much more than intervention so talking about sex, contraceptives, and the risks involved which may result in unplanned pregnancy or disease, and relaying shared responsibility on both parts, remains beneficial. It is important for parents to have plentiful knowledge in these areas to educate and t ransmit accurate information to their children. Although the sample provided useful information, college students are not the only population that needs reminders of the dangers and consequences involved with unplanned pregnancy, adolescents face great ris k and need to know the information and research about current trends Parents, educators and peers should focus attention on empowering youth to believe in themselves and their ability to control their own health. Confidence has a lot to do with a

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62 persons ability to carry out certain behaviors and to believe in themselves not only to carry out responsible behaviors but also to be able to control themselves from potentially harmful situations. Results of the research showed higher scores on relationship with parent were also linked to higher contraceptive self efficacy and lower sexual activity. Ultimately, these are the kind of results one would want to see from a young individual. Implicatio n s for the Future If this study were to be replicated in the future a few changes are suggested to enhance the data that can be collected. Generally, being more specific about behavior would give more precise answers. For example, specify vaginal sexual intercourse and be explicit about disregarding oral and anal sexual intercourse. Specifying and defining the term virgin might help clarify any misconceptions. Being more detailed about the time frame of questions would be helpful, for instance, asking about total number of sexual intercourse partners over a lifetime. Al so, disguising certain aspects, such as the parenting style names, might result in a more honest opinion by participants. The following are some suggestions for future research. Throughout the questionnaire, the term sexual intercourse was intended to specifically mean vaginal sexual intercourse which would apply to the main problem of unplanned pregnancy. It is possible that respondents may have interpreted the term sexual intercourse in their own way to exclude oral s ex or even anal sex. To clarify, i t was the authors intention to specific vaginal sexual intercourse which is something that can be reinforced in future research. Another suggestio n for future research would be to explore reasons why certai n co ntraceptives are used less often tha n others. For example, the patch, shot and IUDs were reportedly never used by more than n=221 even though over time these are some of the most effective and reliable forms of co ntraceptio n whe n used properly. Typically, IUDs are only recommended for women who have already had a child which could be a reason why

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63 participants in this age range may have never used one In the future, the questionnaire may want to consider if the participant has ever been pregnant and how many times, and if the pregnancy was carried t o term. Asking number of current children could also be included in a questionnaire to not assume no children have already been born to the participant. The u se of a diaphragm or spermicide may be outdated a nd not very popular among the age ra n ge, a n d if t hat is the case the n i ncentives to use some of the more popular and reliable types (pills and co ndoms ) can be rei nforced. T he mor ni n gafter or the plan B pill a nd the withdrawal method were some other primarily used forms of contraception but should not be a primary method, they are back up or secondary methods The mor ni ng after pill should only be used when typical contraceptives fail Males should explore the option of other contraceptives since the withdrawal method is not a reliable form. Condom use is highly effective when used properly every time. It would be particularly interesting to get a university wide sample of number of sexual partners and compare groups between year in school to see if senior level students were more apt to have a higher numb er of sexual partners than freshman. This is not something done in the current research but would make for interesting group comparisons in place of parenting styles. Another possible idea for future research would be to actually ask these types of questi ons to the actual adolescent population despite the difficulties associated with minor populations. This way the retrospective design would not be a limitation. Future research could also focus solely on sexually active participants, although, the subject of research can help bring awareness to those who are not currently active but may become active in the near future. Asking about ones a ge of sexual debut would allow the possibility of richer information. The possibility of a longitudinal study is anothe r suggestion for future research which would allow for matched samples and comparative data.

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64 Summary Parents are a big influence in a childs life. During adolescence when autonomy increases, parental direction and upbringing starts to show its effects wh en a person does for themselves based off the guidance provided. Cultural differences are important when considering typical behaviors of individuals as well as relationships between the parents and children. Nonetheless, health risks affect globally and c ontraceptive use is highly imperative especially with the topic of sexual intercourse. Unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse poses a threat for unplanned pregnancy as well as disease at any age. Parents, peers, partners, and the media, have a place on an individuals perception and attitude towards acceptable behaviors. Institutions such as doctors offices and schools also play a vital role on sexual education and health education. Furthermore, i ndividuals must also take the initiative and account for per sonal responsibility to seek out information and make responsible decisions regarding their lives and the health of others. Parents and families of origin carry the responsibility of caring for and protecting their children including on the topic of reproduction.

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65 APPE N DIX A FORMS Permissio n to e n ter classrooms for sampli n g Hello , My name is Carmengloria Vargas. I am a graduate stude nt in the Department of Family, Youth a nd Community Scie nces. I am co ntacti n g you to request your permission to e nter your classroom a nd ask stude nts i n your course to complete my questio nnaire. Participatio n is voluntary a nd is greatly appreciated. I need to have stude nts fill out my questio nnaire so t hat I may complete my Masters Thesis. My research, Perceived Parentin g Styles a nd Contraceptive Use Amo ng Adolescents has been approved by UFIRB #2009U 408. I would be happy to provide you more i nformatio n on my research prior to e nter i ng your classroom, if you allow it. Please let me k now if I may get participa nts from your course. I pla n on doi ng data collectio n starting September 1 September 10. It should take no more tha n 20 mi nutes of class time. I will come whatev er day is best for you. I tha nk you i n adva nce for your time a nd co nsideratio n. Carmen gloria Vargas M.S. Ca ndidate glow248@ufl.edu 3522733513 office Dr. Eboni Baugh Thesis Me ntor Family, Youth a nd Community Scie nces

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66 I n formed Co n se n t F orm

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82 APPENDIX B FREQUENCY ANALYSES A nswers to select items are listed here and are broke n dow n by the number a nd valid percent of participa nts selecting give n a nswer choices. Valid percent excludes missing cases and only lists percentage s for responses to that item. Most Influential Parent The ope nrespo nse questio n where participa nts were asked to list a most influe ntial parent yielded 5 differe nt types of responses. About 104 participa nts (or 38.5% of all respo nde nts) did not list a most i nflue ntial pare nt. The respo nses for those who did a nswer this item are listed i n table B 1. Table B 1. Most I nflue n tial Pare nt OpenRespo nse Most I nflue ntial Pare nt Freque ncy Valid Percent Mother 119 71.7 Father 36 21.7 Gra ndpare nt 8 3.0 Au nt 2 1.2 Church me ntor 1 0.6 Total 166 100.0 Perceived Parenting Style These three sets of questio ns list the four types of pare ntin g styles with a descriptio n for each where participa nts w ere asked to select their perceived style for that parent. For mother, a total of 7 participa nts (or 2.6% of the overall sample) neglected to a nswer this item. For a father, there were 5 respo nde nts (1.9% of overall sample) who neglected to answer this ite m. For the most influe ntial pare nt, 5 participa nts (or 1.9% of the overall sample) did n ot a nswer this item.

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83 Table B 2. Perceived Parenting Style Perceived Parentin g Style Freque ncy Valid Percent MOTHER/MOTHER FIGURE N o mother/mother figure 8 3.0 Authoritaria n 36 13.7 Authoritative 172 65.4 Permissive 44 16.7 N eglectful 3 1.1 Total 263 100.0 FATHER/FATHER FIGURE N o father/father figure 30 11.3 Authoritaria n 41 15.5 Authoritative 140 52.8 Permissive 45 17.0 N eglectful 9 3.4 Total 265 100.0 MOST I N FLUE N TIAL PARE N T N o i nflue ntial pare nt 2 0.8 Authoritaria n 36 13.6 Authoritative 192 72.5 Permissive 35 13.2 N eglectful 0 0 T otal 265 100.0 Parenting Style Inventory II The Parentin g Style I nve ntory II was i ncluded i n this research i nstrume nt to determine the participa nts actual parents style. Results are listed i n table B 3. Table B 3. Scored PSI II Pare ntin g Styl e Parenting Style I nve ntory Results Freque ncy Valid Percent MOST I N FLUE N TIAL PARE N T Authoritaria n 28 10.4 Authoritative 106 39.4 Permissive 95 35.3 N eglectful 40 14.9 Total 269 100.0

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84 Perception of contracep tive use I n the CUIKS, a n item asks, What form of birth control have you decided to use? If none, what form of birth control has your part ner decided to use? A nswers to this ope nrespo nse item are listed i n Table B 4. Table B 4. CUIKS Type of birth control used A nswers to ope nrespo nse item Freque ncy Valid Percent Self or part ners form of birth co ntrol Pills 58 31.9 Co ndoms 57 31.3 Pills & Co ndoms 31 17.0 N one 20 11.0 Absti ne nce 6 3.3 Withdrawal 3 1.6 N uva ri n g 3 1.6 IUD 2 1.1 Depo Provera shot 1 0.5 Co ndoms & Withdrawal 1 0.5 Total 269 100.0 O ne item o n this scale addresses perceived severity of preg na n cy which asks participa nts to select o ne category that best represents how they or their part ner may feel about beco ming preg na nt withi n the next year. Respo nses are o n a seve n poi nt scale. Forty one participa nts (15.2% of the overall sample) did not respond to this item. For those who did, the makeup of the respo nses is listed in Table B 5. Table B 5. CUIKS Perceived severity of preg n a n cy A nswer freque n cy Freque ncy Valid Percent It would be the worst thi ng that could happe n to me 79 34.5 It would be very bad 85 37.1 It would be sort of bad but not terrible 32 14.0 It would be O.K. 14 6.1 It would be sort of good but not terrific 14 6.1 It would be very good 3 1.3 It would be the best thi ng that could ever happe n to me 2 0.9 Total 229 100.0

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85 Relationship with Parent Participa nts were asked to check a catego ry i ndicating how much i nformatio n their mother/mother figure, father/father figure a nd most i nflue ntial pare nt k nows about their co ntraceptive use. There is some missi ng i nformatio n for these items ( n=23 for mother, n=24 for father, and n=27 for most i nfl ue ntial pare nt). Table B 6. Parent k nowledge of participa nts co ntraceptive use Respo nses Freque ncy Valid Percent MOTHER/MOTHER FIGURE I do n t use co ntraceptives 78 31.6 My mother does nt k now I use co ntraceptives 42 17.0 My mo ther k nows I use contraceptives 52 21.1 My mother told me to use contraceptives 24 9.7 My mother knows I use contraceptives, she i nsists 43 17.4 N o mother/mother figure 8 3.2 Total 247 100.0 FATHER/FATHER FIGURE I do n t use co ntraceptives 76 30.9 My father does n t k now I use co ntraceptives 65 26.4 My father k nows I use co ntraceptives 45 18.3 My father told me to use co ntraceptives 17 6.9 My father k nows I use co ntraceptives, he i nsists 22 8.9 N o father/father figure 21 8.5 Total 246 100 MOST I N FLUE N TIAL PARE N T I do n t use co ntraceptives 75 30.9 My pare nt does nt k now I use co ntraceptives 42 17.3 My pare nt k nows I use contraceptives 53 21.8 My p are nt told me to use co ntraceptives 33 13.6 My pare nt k nows I use contraceptives, they i nsist 38 15.6 N o i nflue ntial pare nt 2 0.8 Total 243 100.0

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86 The next sets of questio ns ask if the participa nt ca n talk about contracept ives to their mother/mother figure, father/father figure a nd most i nflue ntial pare nt. There were some participa nts who neglected to a nswer this item (for mother n=15 or 5.6% of the overall sample, for father n=16 or 5.9%, a nd for most i nflue ntial pare nt n= 18 or 6.7%). Table B 7. Talk with pare nt about contraceptives Respo nses Freque ncy Valid Percent MOTHER/MOTHER FIGURE I do n t use co ntraceptives 44 17.3 I ca nt talk to my mother about it 37 14.5 I thi nk that I can talk to my mother, but I have not 44 17.3 Yes we can talk about co ntraceptives 59 23.1 We have talked about co ntraceptives 64 25.1 N o mother/mother figure 7 2.7 Total 255 100.0 FATHER/FATHER FIGURE I do n t use co ntraceptives 45 16.7 I cant talk to my father about it 75 29.5 I thi nk that I can talk to my father, but I have not 53 20.9 Yes we can talk about co ntraceptives 34 13.4 We have talked about co ntraceptives 25 9.8 N o father/father figure 21 8.3 Total 254 100.0 MOST I N FLUE N TIAL PARE N T I do n t use co ntraceptives 46 18.3 I ca nt talk to them about it 43 17.1 I thi nk that I can talk to my them, but I have not 45 17.9 Yes we can talk about co ntraceptives 62 24.6 We have talked about co ntraceptives 54 21.4 N o i nflue ntial pare nt 2 0.8 Total 247 100.0 Sexual Frequency Participa nts were given five choices and were asked to select o ne answer which best describes their past regardi ng sexual i nterco urse. Response choices ran ged from 5=I have never e ngaged i n sexual i ntercourse, I am a virgi n to 1=I have sexual i ntercourse freque ntly. Responses

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87 were reported as: I have never en gaged i n sexual i ntercourse, I am a virgi n ( n=109, or 38.4%); I have sexual i ntercourse freque ntly ( n=61, or 21.5%); I have had sex before but curre ntly ( n =51, or 18%); I sometimes have sexual i ntercourse ( n =43, or 15.1%); a nd I seldom have sexual i ntercourse ( n=12, or 4.2%). There was o ne questio n that asks participa nts to list their total number of sexual i ntercourse part ners. A nswers varied from zero part ners, i ndicati n g the participa nt was a virgi n, to 30 part ners. The majority of responses fell somewhere between 0 12 part ners but a select few a nswers did ra n ge from 2330 par t ners ( n= 4, or 1.7%). The average number of sexual part ners amo ng those sexually active was 3.78 part n ers. Ma n y respo nde nts did not a nswer this item wh ich left some missing data ( n =39, or 14.4%). Table B 8. A nswers to ope nrespo nse questio n N umber of sexual part ners Freque ncy Valid Percent 0 84 36.4 1 59 25.5 2 24 10.4 3 10 4.3 4 13 5.6 5 9 3.9 6 4 1.7 7 10 4.3 8 3 1.3 9 6 2.6 10 3 1.3 12 2 0.9 23 1 0.4 25 2 0.9 26 1 0.4 Total 231 100.0 I n order to gai n i nsight as to whe n it is acceptable to e ngage i n sexual i ntercourse, participa nts were asked to pick o ne answer from a list of choices. Respo nses ra n ge from nev er

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88 havi ng a sexual part ner at all to reporting a n established relatio nship is not needed to e n gage i n sexual i ntercourse. Table B 9 displays the various responses. Table B 9. Sexual Activity questio n Relatio nships & I ntercourse Item Freque ncy Valid Pe rcent I have never had a sexual i ntercourse part ner 104 38.5 I have sexual i ntercourse when i n a serious relatio nship 85 32.7 I have sexual i ntercourse whe n i n a casual relatio nship 12 4.6 I have sexual i ntercourse i n serious a nd casual relatio nships 43 16.5 I do n t have to be i n a relatio nship to have sexual i ntercourse 16 6.2 Total 260 100.0 Contraception Differe nt types of co ntraceptio n were asked about to determi ne if they have ever b een used by the participa nt. Participa nts were to i ndicate whether they had ever used it or if they had never used it by selecti ng one answer for each type of co ntraceptio n listed. Table B 10. If ever used co ntraceptio n Type of co ntraceptio n Ever Vali d Percent N ever Valid Percent Birth co ntrol pills 107 45.3 129 54.7 Co ndoms 142 60.4 93 39.6 Birth co ntrol patch 9 3.9 221 96.1 Depo Provera shot 9 3.9 221 96.1 Mor ni ng after/Pla n B 44 19.0 187 81.0 Withdrawal 81 35.1 150 64.9 IUD 5 2.2 225 97.8 Diaphragm 3 1.3 227 98.7 Spermicidal 21 9.1 211 90.9 Current primary method of contraception Curre nt type of co ntr aceptio n bei ng used (if a n y) was i nquired about. Participa nts were asked to select o n e option from a list of optio ns. Th e majority of participa nts ( n=84, or 35.3%) i ndicated no form of co ntraceptio n. For those who do use contraceptio n, birth control pi lls are

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89 curre ntly i n use by 31.1 % of the sample ( n =74) while co ndoms are primarily used by 29.4 % of the sample ( n=70) The remai ni ng types of co ntraceptio n currently i n use i nclude the withdrawal or pull out met hod ( n=5, or 2.1%), the nuva ri n g ( n=3, or 1.3%), a nd a n IUD ( n=2, or 0.8 %). Thirty two participa nts n eglected to respo nd to this item. Time of use The frequency of co ntraceptive use was asked about. Participa nts were asked, Which of the followi ng statements best describes your use of co ntraceptives? a nd were to select o ne a nswer from a list of choices. Respo nses were listed as: I use co ntraceptives all the time ( n=113, or 48.7%), I n ever use co ntraceptives ( n =75 or 32.3%), I o nly use co ntraceptives at the mome nt when I e n gage i n sexual i ntercourse ( n=23, or 9.9 %), I use c ontraceptives sporadically ( n=11, or 4.7%), a nd I use co ntraceptives whe n I have a steady part ner ( n = 10, or 4.3%). About 14.1% ( n=38 ) participa nts neglected to respo nd to this item. First source of information As part of the researchers i nstrume nt, a n i nquiry was made regardi n g the first source of i nformatio n regardi ng co ntraceptives. Participants were to select o nly o ne a nswer from a list of choices. The questio n asks, Where did you first get i nformatio n about co ntraceptives? Most participa nts respo nded w ith my doctor or school ( n=112, or 44.8%) a nd my pare nts or frie nds ( n=104, or 41.6%). The remai ni ng participa nts i ndicated first gettin g i nformatio n for themselves, ( n= 18, or 7.2%), te n participa nts said other (4.0%), a nd five participa nts said none (2.0 %). Reasons for contraceptive use during sexual intercourse The research i nstrume nt asks reaso ns o n why the participa nt uses co ntraceptives duri ng sexual i ntercourse. Participa nts were give n a list of choices and were allowed to select all the reaso ns that apply. The top three most reported a n swe rs were to preve nt preg n a ncy (59.4%), to

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90 protect myself (52.6%), a nd to reduce risk of STDs (41.8%). Other reaso ns were selected but the three listed had the highest number of re sponses.

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91 Research Questions Links Figure B 1. Research Questions and Links to TPB

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93 Bersami n, M., Todd, M., Fisher, D. A., Hill, D. L., Grube, J. W., & Walker, S. (2008). Pare ntin g practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudi nal study. Jour nal of Marriage & Family, 70(1), 97112. Boo n, H. J. (2007). Low a nd high achievi n g australia n seco ndary school stude nts: Their parentin g, motivatio ns a nd academic achievement. Australia n Psychologist, 42(3), 212225. Ce nters for Disease Co ntrol a nd Preve ntio n. (2005). Co ntraceptive use: U nite d States and territories, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveilla nce System, 2002. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5406a1.htm Ce nters for Disease C ontrol a nd Preve ntio n. (2008a). Adolesce nt reproductive health. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/Adolesce ntReproHealth/index.htm C e nters for Disease Co ntrol a nd Preve ntio n. (2008b). U ni nte nded pregnan cy preventio n: Co ntraceptio n. Retrieved December 5, 2008 from http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehe alth/U ni nte ndedPreg na ncy/Co ntraceptio n.htm CheesemanDay, J., & N ewburger, E.C. (2002). The big payoff: educational attainme nt a nd sy nthetic estimates of work life ear ni n gs. Curre nt Population Reports. Retrieved o nline from http://www.ce nsus.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23210.pdf Cox, M. F. (2006). Racial differe n ces i n parenting dime nsio ns a nd adolesce nt co ndom use at sexual debut. Public Health N ursi ng, 23(1), 2 10. Crosby, R. A., DiCleme n te, R. J ., Wi ngood, G. M., Sionean, C., Cobb, B. K., Harri n gto n, K., Davies, S. L., Hook, E. W., & Kim Oh, M. (2001). Correlates of usi ng dual methods for sexually transmitted diseases a nd preg na ncy preve ntio n amo ng high risk Africa n American female teens. Jour nal of Adolesce nt Health, 28, 410414. Darli ng, N ., Cumsille, P., & Mart nez, M. L. (2008). I ndividual differe nces i n adolescents beliefs about the legitimacy of pare ntal authority a nd their ow n obligatio n to obey: A lo ngitudi nal i nvestigatio n. Child Develo pme nt, 79(4), 11031118. de Vaus, D.A. (2001). Research desig n i n social research. Lo ndon: Sage Publicatio ns. Dittus, P. J., & Jaccard, J. (2000). Adolesce nts perceptio n of mater nal disapproval of sex: Relatio nships to sexual outcomes. Jour nal of Adoles cent Health, 26, 268278. Elfe nbei n, D. S., & Felice, M.E. (2003). Adolesce nt preg n a ncy. The Pediatric Clinics of N orth America, 50, 781800.

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94 Fagot, B. I., Pears, K. C., Capaldi, D. M., Crosby, L., & Leve, C. S. (1998). Becomi n g a n adolescent father: Pre cursors a nd pare nting. Developmental Psychology, 34 (6), 12091219. Florida Departme nt of Health. (2008). State of Florida vital record. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from http://ww w.doh.state.fl.us/Pla nni ng%5Feval/Vital%5FStatistics/ Foster, D., Bley, J., Mika nda, J., I nduni, M., Aron s, A., Baumri nd, N ., et al. (2004). Co ntraceptive use and risk of uni nte nded preg n a ncy i n Califor nia. Co ntraceptio n, 70(1), 3139. Retrieved October 20, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.contraceptio n.2004.01.012 Foster, D., Biggs, M., Ralph, L., Arons, A., & Bri ndis, C. (2008). Family pla nni ng a nd life pla nni ng: Reproductive i nte ntio ns amo ng i ndividuals seeki n g reproductive health. Wome ns Health Issues, 18, 351359. Frisco, M. L. (2005). Pare ntal involveme nt a nd you ng wome n 's co ntraceptive use. Jour nal of Marriage and Family, 67(1), 110121. Frost, J., Si ngh, S., & Fi n er, L. (2007). Factors associated with contraceptive use and nonuse, U nited States, 2004. Perspe ctives o n Sexual & Reproductive Health, 39(2), 9099. Retrieved October 18, 2008, doi:10.1363/3909007 Garg, R., Levi n, E., Uraj nik, D., & Kauppi, C. (2005). Pare ntin g style a nd academic achievement for east i ndia n a nd can adian adolescents. Jour nal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(4), 653661. Graefe, D.R., & Lichter, D.T. (2002). Marriage among u nwed mothers: Whites, Blacks a nd Hispanics compared. Perspectives o n Reproductive a nd Sexual Health, 34(6), 286293. Hahm, H., Lee, J., Zerde n, L., Ozonoff, A., A modeo, M., & Adki ns, C. (2008). Lon gitudi nal effects of perceived mater nal approval o n sexual behaviors of asia n a nd pacific isla nder (API) you n g adults.37(1), 7484. Johnso n, W. E. (2001). Parental involveme nt amo ng u nwed fathers. Childre n and Youth Serv ices Review, 23 (6/7), 513536. Jorge nse n, S. R., & Sonstegard, J. S. (1984). Predicti ng adolescent sexual a nd co ntraceptive behavior: A n applicatio n a nd test of the fishbei n model. Jour nal of Marriage & Family, 46(1), 43. Klei n, J. D. (2005). Adolesce nt p reg na ncy: Curre n t tre nds a nd issues. Pediatrics, 116, 281286. Kraska, P.B., & N euman, W.L. (2008). Crimi nal Justice a nd Crimi nology Research Methods. Bosto n: Pearso n Education.

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95 Luther, B. (2007). Looki ng at childhood obesity through the le ns of baumri nd's pare nting typologies. Orthopaedic N ursi ng, 26(5), 270278. MacCallum, R. C., Zhang, S., Preacher, K. J., & Rucker, D. (2002). On the practice if dichotomization of quantitative variables. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 1940. Marti nez, I., & Garcia, J. F (2008). I nter nalizatio n of Values and self esteem amo ng Brazilia n teenagers from authoritative, i ndulge nt, authoritaria n, a nd neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43(169), 1329. McDermott, R. J., & Noland, V.A. (2004). Condom use history as a determinant of university students condom evaluative index. Psychological Reports, 94, 889893. McGillicuddy De Lisi, A. V., & De Lisi, R. (2007). Perceptio ns of family relatio ns when mothers a nd fathers are depicted with different pare nting styles. Jour nal of Ge netic Psychology, 168(4), 425442. Miller, B. C. (2002). Family i nflue nces o n adolescent sexual and co ntraceptive behavior. Jour nal of Sex Research, 39(1), 22 26. Myklestad, I., & Rise, J. (2008). Predicti n g i nte ntio ns to perform protective sexual behaviours a mo ng norwegia n adolescents. Sex Educatio n, 8(1), 107124. The N atio nal Campaig n to Preve nt Teen a nd U npla nned Preg na ncy. Retrieved Ja nuary 31, 2010, from http://www.the natio nalcampaig n.org N orthouse, P.G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice Thousa nd Oaks, CA: Sage Publicatio ns. Paul, E. L., McManus, B., & Hayes, A. (2000). Hookups: Characteristics and correlates of college students spontaneous and anonymous sexual experiences. Journal of Sex Research, 37(1), 76 88. Pelleri n, L. A. (2005). Applyi n g baumri nd's pare n ting typology to high schools: Toward a middle ra n ge theory of authoritative socializatio n. Social Scie nce Research, 34 (2), 283303. Pitmma n, L. D., & Chase La nsdale, P. L. (2001). Africa n America n adolescent girls in impoverished communities: Pare nting style a nd adolescent outcomes. Jour n al of Research o n Adolescence, 11(2), 199224. Rodgers, K. B. (1999). Pare ntin g processes related to sexual risk taki ng behaviors of adolescent males and females. Jour n al of Marriage & Family, 61(1), 99109. Si ngh, S., & Darroch, J. E. (1999). Tre nds i n sexual activity amo n g adolescent America n wome n: 19821995. Family Pla nni ng Perspectives, 31 (5), 212219.

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96 Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relatio nship among pare ntin g practices, parentin g styles, a nd adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 125 146. Spera, C. (2006). Adolesce nts' perceptio ns of pare ntal goals, practices, a nd styles i n relatio n to their motivatio n a nd achievement. Jour nal of Early Adolesce n ce, 26 (4), 456 490. Suri, K.B. (1994). The problem of tee nage preg n a ncy: A n educatio nal imperative. Jour nal of Multicultural Social Work, 3(3), 3548. Teen Preg n a ncy Shelter. (2008). Statistics on Adolesc e nt Preg na n cy. Retrieved December 13, 2008, from http://www.tee nshelter.org/data.htm Tracy, B. (2008). Hollywoods role i n teen preg na ncy. Retrieved December 14, 2008, from http://www.cbs news.com/stories/2008/01/24/eve ni ng news/main3750572.shtml Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Sampli ng Termi nology. Retrieved o n N ovember 20, 2008, from http://www.socialresearchmethods. net/kb/sampterm.php Whitaker, A., & Gilliam, M. (2008). Contraceptive care for adolescents. Clinical Obstetrics & Gy necology, 51(2), 268 280. Retrieved December 11, 2008, from Academic Search Pre mier database. Yu, R., Wa ng, Z., Qia n, F., Ja ng, K. L., Livesly, W. J., Paris, J., et al. (2007). Perceived parentin g styles a nd disordered personality traits i n adolescent a nd adult stude nts a nd i n perso nality disorder patie nts. Social Behavior and Perso nality, 35(5), 587598.

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97 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Carmen gloria Vargas was bor n a nd raised i n Hollywood, Florida After graduati ng from McArthur High School, she atte nded the U niversity of Ce ntral Florida in Orla ndo, FL a nd Broward College i n Pembroke Pi nes, FL before fi nishi ng a B.S. i n Family, Youth a nd Commu nity Scie nces at the U niversity of Florida i n December 2007 She immediately co ntinued on to her Master of Scien ce degree stayi n g i n Gai nesville, FL After graduatio n i n May of 2010 she will pursue a care er i n her hometow n area of South Florida to make a n impact o n families a nd youth by utilizi ng the k nowledge and experie nce gai ned through her u niversity studies.