- Permanent Link:
- Former High School Student-Athletes' Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment to Community College
- Raye, Christopher
- Place of Publication:
- [Gainesville, Fla.]
- University of Florida
- Publication Date:
- Physical Description:
- 1 online resource (103 p.)
- Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
- Degree Grantor:
- University of Florida
- Degree Disciplines:
- School Psychology
Special Education, School Psychology and Early Childhood Studies
- Committee Chair:
- Waldron, Nancy L.
- Committee Members:
- Joyce, Diana
- Graduation Date:
- Subjects / Keywords:
- Academic achievement ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Emotional adjustment ( jstor )
High school athletics ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
High schools ( jstor )
School adjustment ( jstor )
Social adjustment ( jstor )
Student athletes ( jstor )
Special Education, School Psychology and Early Childhood Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
adjustment, athlete, athletic, college, community, high, identity, school, transition
City of Gainesville ( local )
- Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
born-digital ( sobekcm )
School Psychology thesis, Ph.D.
- The end of high school marks the time when the most number of individuals will end their participation playing sports at a competitive level. For those pursuing higher education, it has been viewed as a stressful experience for many freshmen. Former high school athletes that enter college as students and not student-athletes potentially face a dual adjustment having to adjust to the college experience and to no longer being a competitive athlete. Athletic identity is one of the most influential factors relating to the quality of adjustment out of competitive athletics with elite-level athletes. Those with a strong and exclusive athletic identity take longer to adapt, experience more negative emotions, and require more coping upon ending their career. Although the majority of research has focused on elite-level athletes, there has been little research on the adjustment experiences of former high school athletes to higher education. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) whether former high school athletes differ from non-athletes in their academic, social, and emotional adjustment to the college, (2) the extent to which high school athletic identity and academic skills predict college adjustment, (3) the effect athletic identity has on predicting whether former high school athletes miss multiple aspects of being student-athletes, and (4) whether first-semester and veteran students differ in their adjustment to college. A total of 420 community college students participated in this study (N = 228 former high school athletes, N = 189 former high school non-athletes). Former high school athletes were found to have better social and emotional adjustment to college in comparison to non-athletes. Gender differences existed, such that females reported better academic adjustment, and males reported better emotional adjustment. High school athletic identity predicted a significant portion of the variance in students social and emotional adjustment, and high school academic skills predicted academic adjustment. High school athletic identity also predicted roughly a quarter of the variance in former high school athletes reports of missing multiple aspects of being a student-athlete. No significant differences in adjustment were found between first-time college students and those who had previously been enrolled. ( en )
- General Note:
- In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
- General Note:
- Includes vita.
- Includes bibliographical references.
- Source of Description:
- Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
- Source of Description:
- This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
- Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
- Adviser: Waldron, Nancy L.
- Electronic Access:
- RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-04-30
- Statement of Responsibility:
- by Christopher Raye.
- Source Institution:
- University of Florida
- Holding Location:
- University of Florida
- Rights Management:
- Copyright Raye, Christopher. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
- Embargo Date:
- Resource Identifier:
- 697794253 ( OCLC )
- LD1780 2010 ( lcc )
High School Athletics Participation and Athletic Identity Athlete Popularity
Nature of Athletic Involvement
Athletic Career Termination Sport Specific Conceptual Model
Findings wit h Elite Athletes
Arnetts Theory of Emerging Adulthood
Predictors of Adjustment College expectations
Physical activity levels
School belongingness and involvement
Former High School Athletes Adjustment to College
Participants an d Settings
SD SD SD
Athletic Identity strongly disagree strongl y agree
Academic Skills poor excellent College Adjustment
applies very closely to me doesnt apply to me at all
Questionnaire not at all very much
SD n Note N
SD n Note N
Question 1 Do former high school athletes differ from former high sch ool nonathletes in their adjustment to community college? F p M SD M SD F p M SD M SD
F p F p F p F p M SD M SD F p M SD M SD F p F p F p F p F p F p M SD M SD F p
Question 2 What effect does high school athletic identity and academic skills hav e on adjustment to community college of former high school athletes? F p F p R p
p p F p R F p R R p F p F p R p p p F p R F p R p
p F p R F p p p Question 3 What effect does high school athletic identity have on the level of missing multiple aspects of being a student -a thlete of former high school athletes ? F F p R
Question 4 Do first semester students differ from veteran students in their adjustment to community college? F p F p F p M SD M SD F p M SD M SD F p M SD M SD
F p F p F p F p F p F p
M SD M SD M SD M SD Note N N N N M SD M SD F Note N N p p
M SD M SD F Note N N p p
SACQ Academic Control Variables Study Variables R R F SACQ Social Control Variables Study Variables R R F SACQ Emotional Control Variables Study Varia bles R R F
SACQ Attachment Co ntrol Variables Study Variables R R F SACQ Total Control Variables Study Variables R R F Note N p p
M SD M SD M SD Note Not at all Very much N N N Control Variables Athletic Variable R R F Note N p p
M SD M SD M SD M SD Note N N N N M SD M SD F Note N N p p
M SD M SD F Note N N p p
Summary and Implications of Key Findings
scholar athletes scholars athletes nonscholar nonathletes
Directions for Future Research
Informed Consent Protoco l Title: Former High School Athletes Adjustment to College Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to assess whether former high school athletes and nonathletes differ in their adjustment to college, as well as investigate the extent to which athletic identity and academic skills predict adjustment to college. This information can be used in future research and for making recommendations to high schools and colleges about the transitional and adjustment experiences of students. What you will be asked to do in the study: If you participate in this study, you will be asked to complete several instruments. You will be asked to answer questions about your adjustment to college and athletic identity, as well as provide information about your background and high school experiences. Time required: 20 minutes Risks and Benefits: This study involves very few discomforts or risks. You will be asked to answer questions that require some thinking. Some of the questions may be challenging for you to answer or you may have emotional feelings towards some of the questions. You will not necessarily benefit directly by participating in this study. If you experience any discomforts from participating please contact the Santa Fe College Counseling Center at (352) 395-5508, Building S, Room 254. Compensation: No compensation is offered for participation in this study. Confidentiality: Your responses will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. You will not be asked to put your name anywhere on the study materials. Therefore, your name will not, and cannot, be linked to any of your responses. Your name will not be used in any report.
Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You must be at least 18 years old to participate in this study. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Christopher M. Raye, M.Ed., Doctoral Candidate, School Psychology, University of Florida, 1403 Norman Hall, P.O. Box 117047, Gainesville, FL 32611 (352) 273-4284 Nancy Waldron, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School Psychology, University of Florida, 1403 Norman Hall, P.O. Box 117047, Gainesville, FL 32611 (352) 273-4284 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (352) 392-0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. I am at least 18 years old. Parti cipant: ___________________________________________ Date: ____________
COLLEGE QUESTIONNAIRE Directions : Please answer the following questions about your current experiences in college Read each question carefully and mark a ( ) in the box or circle the number corresponding to your answer. In some questions, you may be asked to provide a written response. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What is your ethnicity ? White African American Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish ori gin Asian Other please specify ______________________________ 3. What is your age? __________ years -old 4. What year did you graduate from high schoo l? 2009 2008 2007 Other please specify ___________________ (year) 5. While in high school, were you ever dual enrolled in any college classes ? Yes how many college classes did you take? _______ (# of classes) No 6. Is this your first semest er of college since graduating high school ? Yes No when did you first begin college? _______________________ (semester /year)
7. How many credit hours are you currently enrolled in this semester ? _____ # of credit hours 8. How many total college credit hours have you earned (not including the credits you are currently taking) ? _____ # of credit hours 9. What is your planned major at this time? ___________________________________________________ Undecided 10. Do you currently have a job? Yes how many hours per week do you typically work? _______________ (hours) No 11. What is your father Did not complete high school s highest level of education? High school diploma/GED Some college College graduate Graduate school/professional degree 12. What is your moth er Did not complete high school s highest level of education? High school diploma/GED Some college College graduate Graduate sch ool/professional degree 13. What is your current living arrangement? I live with my parents/family members I live by myself I live with a friend(s) I live with others, but they are not necessarily my friends
14. How much emotional support do you feel you have from family college? while attending None Some A lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15. How much emotional support do you feel you have from friends college? while attending None Some A lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. How much em otional support do you feel you need college? from others while attending None Some A lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. How willing would you be to seek emotional support from a counselor if you were having difficulties adjusting to college life? Not at all willing Somewhat willing Very willing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. How would you rate your current feelings of belongingness to your college in comparison to what you felt during high school? A lot less The same A lot more 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. How would you rate your current physical activity level in comparison to what it was during high school? A lot less The same A lot more 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20. Do you currently participate i n an organized intramural /recreational sports league? Yes No CONTINUE answering questions on the next page
HIGH SCHOOL QUESTIONNAIRE Directions : Please answer the following questions based on your experiences while in high school Read each question carefully and mark a ( ) in the box or circle the number corresponding to your answer. In some questions, you may be asked to provide a written response. 21. What was your cumulative high school grade point average (GPA)? _____________ GPA 22. What grades did you typically earn in your core academic classes during high school? Fs Ds & Fs Ds Cs & Ds Cs Bs & Cs Bs As & Bs As (check one box) Questions 23 29. Rate your performance in the following academic skills during your SENIOR year in high school : Poor Average Excellent 23. Staying organized 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 24. Taking good class notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25. Paying attention in class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26. Completing homework assignments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27. Preparing/studying class material 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28. Doing well on quizzes, tests, and exams 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29. My overall academic capabilities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all Somewhat Very much 30. How important was it to you to be a good STUDENT academically in high school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 31. While in high school, how interested/ motivated were you in pursuing college? Not at all Somewhat Very much 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
32. While in high school, to what extent did you discuss your expectations about college with family/friends? Not at all Somewhat Very much 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all Somewhat Very much 33. At the completion of hi gh school, to what extent did you feel prepared to attend college? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Questions 34 40. Answer the following questions regarding your athletic identity during your SENIOR year in high school : Strongly disagree Strongly agree 34. I considered myself an athlete 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 35. I had many goals related to sports 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 36. Most of my friends were athletes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 37. Sports was the mos t important part of my life 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 38. I spent more time thinking about sports than anything else 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 39. I felt bad about myself when I did poorly in sports 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 40. I would have been depressed if I were injured and could not compete in sports 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 41. Did you play a high school sponsored sport during high school? No STOP HERE Yes You are done with the survey thank you for participating! CONTINUE answering the remaining questions on the next page
HIGH SCHOOL SPORT PARTI CI PATION QUESTIONNAIRE Directions : Answer the following questions ONLY IF you answered YES to question #41 Please answer the questions based on your participation in sports while in high school Read each question carefully and mark a ( ) in the box or circle the number corresponding to your answer. In some questions, you may be asked to provide a written response. 42. Indicate the grade(s) and sports(s) you played in high school (check all that apply and list all sports ): 9th grade sp ort(s):___________________________________________________ 10th grade sport(s):__________________________________________________ 11th grade sport(s):__________________________________________________ 12th grade sport(s):__________________________________________________ 43. Did you participate/compete in a sport outside of high school (e.g., club team, recreational league, ODP, AAU, etc.)? Yes No Not at all Somewhat Very much 44. How intense was your involvement in high school athletics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all Somewhat Very much 45. How important was it to you to be a good ATHLETE in high school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46. While in high school, to what extent did you feel that your participation in sport(s) negatively impacted your academic performance? Not at all Somewhat Very much 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 47. While in high school, to what extent did you desire to play a varsity sport in college? Not at all Somewhat Very much 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 48. Are you currently a member of a school sponsored sport team representing your college? Yes STOP HERE No You are done with the survey thank you for participating! CONTINUE answering the remaining questions on the next page
SPORT ADJUSTMENT Q UESTIONNAIRE Directions : Answer the following questions ONLY IF you answered NO to question #48 Please answer the questions based on your present feelings/circumstances Read each question carefully and circle the number corresponding to your answer. Questions 49 56. As a result of no longer participating competitively as a student athlete at the school you attend, to what extent do you miss Not at all Somewhat Very much 49. being a part of a team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 50. engaging in a competitive activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 51. having the structure of physical activity, practice, or training 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 52. having an activity to be with friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 53. being able to represent your school through sport(s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 54. the lifestyle of being an athlete 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 55. the recognition you received from others for being an athlete 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 56. having an activity to fill your time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 You are done with this survey thank you for participating!
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