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1 EXAMINING BEHAVIORAL CHANGE AMONG SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT UNDERGRADUATES IN A SELECTED COLLEGE By S HERI D IAMOND L ITT A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE R EQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 20 10
2 20 10 Sheri Diamond Litt
3 To my husband, Marc and my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The journey of r eaching this long term goal could not have been possible without the inspiration, guidance and support of so many throughout the doctoral program.I am sincerely grateful to my committee chair, Dr. Dale F. Campbell for the encouragement and guidance he sh owed me throughout my dissertation writing. I would also like to thank and acknowledge Dr. David Honeyman, Dr. Lynne Leverty, and Dr. Craig Wood for their interest and expert advice as committee members and professors. Special thanks to my friends and c olleagues at University of Florida and Florida State College at Jacksonville. I extend my deepest appreciation for Mr. Martin Liu for his friendship, knowledge, and support. I owe special thanks to the late Dr. Duane Dumbleton, who encouraged me to move forward with my professional goals, and to Ms. Elizabeth Davis, who provided unconditional guidance and friendship. Most of all, I thank my family for their love, support, and appreciation toward lifelong learning and happiness. My husband Marc, who enco uraged me every step of the way and expected me to reach my goals. I am grateful to my children, Alex and Michael, for their love and confidence in me. I thank my wonderful parents, Ellen and Jay Diamond and Muriel and Sol Litt, who provided me love and guidance through this exceptional journey. I will always be grateful to each of them.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 9 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 16 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 16 Research Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 17 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 18 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 19 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 19 Summary of Chapter 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 20 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 21 C hange ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 21 C ompetencies ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 24 Employability Skills ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 26 Personality Testing ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 32 Leader Qualities and Types that Predict Work Behavior ................................ ....................... 35 Emotional In telligence ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 39 Leadership Development ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 42 Mentoring ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 Peer Relationships/Peer Mentoring ................................ ................................ ................. 46 Summary of Chapter 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 47 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ........................... 48 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 48 The Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 50 The Program ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 50 Population of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 50 The Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 52 Instruments ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 52 Reliability and Validity of the O ccupational P ersonality Q uestionairre .......................... 53 Definition of Variables ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 55 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 56 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 56 Pilot Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 56 Experimental Group ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 57
6 Control Group ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 58 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 59 Summary of Chapter 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 59 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 60 Aggregate Data Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................................ .................... 60 Research Question 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 61 Research Question 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 61 Research Question 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 62 Research Question 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 62 Research Question 5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 63 Summary of Chapter 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 64 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 69 Discussion of the Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 69 Research Question 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 69 Research Question 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 70 Research Question 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 70 Research Question 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 71 Research Question 5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 71 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ................................ .................. 72 Implications for Com munity College Baccalaureate Programs ................................ ............. 75 Co nclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 76 APPENDI x A GENERAL OPERATIONS MANAGER SKILLS, ABILITIES, AND WORK ACTIVITIES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 78 B ) RANKING OF BUSINESS PROGRAM RESPONSES TO A QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ............... 80 C BAS SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT CURRICULUM ................................ ......... 81 D BAS SUPERVISION AND MANAGE MENT COURSE SEQUENCE .............................. 82 E ESSENTIAL WORK ACTIVITIES ................................ ................................ ...................... 83 F OPQ32 MODEL SCALE ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 87 G EXPERIMENTAL GROUP SELF ASSESSMENT CHANGE PROJECT ......................... 88 H OPQ32 REPORT SAMPLE ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 90 I OPQ DOMAINS AND O*NET PARALLELS ................................ ................................ ...... 92 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 95
7 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 106
8 Abstract of Dissertation Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EXAMINING BEHAVIORAL CHANGE AMONG SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT UNDERGRADUATES IN A SELECTED COLLEGE By S heri D iamon d L itt May 2010 Chair: Dale F. Campbell Major: Higher Education Administration A baccalaureate education was once limited to an elite population of high school graduates in pursu it of guarantee d career success T oday more than 70% of high school grad uates opt to attend college to earn a baccalaureate degree due to economic, global, and technological changes. While th is percent has significantly risen employers are increasingly dissatisfied with the outcome of education. B usiness and ind ustry express satisf action with technical skills, but there is a shortage of graduates who possess soft and leadership skills critical relative to employment success. Because the attainment of a baccalaureate degree does not guarantee gainful e mployment with only 20% of college graduates employed in a job that requires a degree, other factors s pecifically leadership and soft skills w ill increase the likelihood of employment opportunit ies As the community college recognizes the importance of m eeting employer demands the study examined the outcomes of a leadership development program to determine if leadership deficits once identified, could be improved through a change initia ti ve that included a self change study mentoring, dual relationship s, and self help.
9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The focus of this work was to examine a community college supervision and management baccalaureate program and to explore a framework of the impact of individual change relative to soft skills development As a result of the competitive job market caused by economic, global, and technology challenges coupled with dissatisfaction among employers relative to soft skills deficiencies, can a baccalaureate program provide the education to better prep are students to transition into the workforce ? This section describes the research questions and pertinent definitions used in the study. The double digit unemployment statistics due to uncertain economic times is of paramount concern for college graduate s in search of successful, meaningful, long term employment a guarantee for gainful employ ment? While a college education has become the gold standard as countries compete in a global economy, how can gradu ates increase their potential for job attainment ? According to a report from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) (2008) fewer jobs in hand th an their 2008 counterparts A student survey shows that only 19.7 % of 2009 graduates who applied for a job actually have one In comparison, 51 % of graduates in 2007 and 26 % of those that graduated in 2008 who applied for job s had one by the time of grad uation This may be due, in part to the increase in nationwide unemployment, the global financial crisis, and the impact of these developments on the recruitment and hiring of new graduates by specific industries (International Association of Employment Web S ites, 2009) As the number of college graduates increased from 15,741,000 in 1996 to 19,993,000 in 2006 it is clear
10 degree as the minimum qualification toward career suc cess (Brown, 2009) Although j obs that had the highest percentage growth required the most education the greatest growth in numbers of jobs required the least amount of education and training (Educational Testing Service [ ETS ] 2000) Considering the co mpetition for employment combined with the increase of baccalaureate graduates, how can college graduates mitigate the probability of an unsuccessful job search? Gewertz (2007) explains that with an increasingly global and technological economy, earning a degree is not adequate P olicy and business leaders recognize that students are emerging from high school without the set of skills they need to thrive in college and the workplace Some experts refer to these competencies as soft or applied skills also known as twenty first century skills Moreover, p roblem solving, creativity, an ability to work well with others, and the capacity to evaluate information critically will be an expectation for employment success. A degree is no longer a guarantee for employment Variables such as a degree, work experience, and personal attributes are essential for college graduate success Collin and Young (2000) describe that in recent years employability has shifted from career structures of the past that focused on career progression for white collar workers ; today large organizations are leaner and flatter In addition, rapid restructuring has led to the need for employees to transfer skills regardless of the ir sector or company. Whil is one of several requirements to attain meaningful employment, several other qualifications will increase the probability The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching reports calate and th at the demand for employees with college degrees will increas e Although job demand is high, research indicates that college graduates lack critical leadership skills ( Barton, 2008).
11 A survey conducted by The Conference Board, Corporate Voice s for Working Families, the Partnership for the 21 st Century Skills, Corporate Voices for Working Families and the Society for Human Resource Management (2006) reported that employers were dissatisfied with employee talent entering the workforce (The Conf erence Board et al. 2006) The results of a national surv e y of 431 human resource employers evaluation of the work readiness skills of recent graduates from high school, two year c olleges, and four year colleges states workforce is here, an d is ill (The Conference Board et al. 2006, p. 5) This ominous report warns that employers are growing increasingly frustrated with new high school and college graduates entering the workforce The report also reveal s that college graduates lack applied skills necessary to be successful in the 21 st century Further, f indings suggest that more than 25% of college graduates lack leadership skills The Conference Board report (2006) r ecommend ed better coordination between the business sector a nd educators to remedy the problem. During a 2007 Capitol Hill briefing, a poll of 400 companies reported that employers were dissatisfied with graduates that seek their first job after graduating college due to skills deficiencies Twenty three percent to 27 % of respondents said college graduates were weak in writing and leadership skills Moreover fewer than 30 % of employers rated college graduates as "excellent" in skills that will become more important such as critical thinking, teamwork, creativity and diversity Approximately 46 % of employers deemed college graduates as exceptional in applied information technology According to Linda Barrington, director of research at the Conference Board, organizations are interested in graduates that can appl y knowledge and think critically ( Schoeff, 2007) In addition to the briefing, a white paper published by American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) (2006) was based on an online poll with 369 respondents to the question
12 7) The alarming findings revealed that 96% reported a skills gap in their organization Gaps were identified in the areas of communication/interpersonal skills at 50.14% and man agerial and supervisory skills deficits at a rate of 55.46 % ( ASTD, 200 6 p. 24 ) The report indicate s that leadership skills including supervision, team building, motivation, decision making and ethical judgment are of paramount concern In addition, emotional intelligence including self awareness, self discipline, persistence and empathy were also lacking Y et these skills were critical to With the emphasis on c areer readiness deficiencies, William D. Coplin, a college professor, wrote a book pointing out critical gaps, titled 10 Things Employers Want You to Learn in College: The Know How You Need to Succeed Coplin (2003) suggests that employers prefer to hire potential leaders and that leadership skills are essential employability skills As Coplin explains, students want to have leadership experience primarily because they think it will look good on their resume s or graduate school application s, and e mployers value leadership because it is associated with a willingness to improve oneself and optimis m about change In addition to leadership skills, Eldr e dge (2006) points out that as important as technical skills are, employers cite that another challenge in wo rkforce recruitment is a shortage of soft skill competencies S oft skills include the ability to interact and communicate appropriately with other people, as well as personality traits, social graces, friendliness and optimism Finally, work ethic, team work and self confidence are some of the attributes that are critical to employee success. According to Peddle (2000), entry level college graduates are deficient in the skills necessary to perform successfully in the workplace Since ents are expected been placed on post secondary educators to prepare graduates entering the workforce
13 Because e ducational leaders recognize the urgency of the unpreparedness of the workforce The College Learning for the New Global Economy report (2007) presented the global challenges that students face today (Association of American Colleges and Universities [AACU]) The report also identified factors tha t students need to experience a successful transition into the workforce in the twenty first century F our identified essential learning outcome categories begin in school and continue during college One category relative to this study includes intellec tual and practical skills divided into the following subcategories : Inquiry and analysis Critical and creative thinking Written and oral communication Quantitative literacy Information literacy Teamwork and problem solving These learning outcomes should be practiced extensively across the curriculum (AACU, 2007, p. 3) Hesketh (2000) explains that a primary purpose of higher education is to prepare s tudents to enter the workforce ; therefore, how can students, colleges and employers align competencies t o ensure that gainful employment is the goal ? Paulson (2001 ) warns that competency based learning is more prevalent in K 12 than postsecondary education due to the importance of becoming more responsive to business needs C ritics of competency based lea rning explain that the alignment moves institutions away from the obligation to provide a liberal education Despite the debate, the identification of workplace competencies is relevant although a challenging task for educators to embrace T o rectify al ignment, all constituents need to coordinate efforts to improve outcomes. With extensive competencies that include knowledge, ski lls and abilities relative to a manage r or supervisor position h ow can employer s en sure that soft skills and leadership compe tencies are evident in their new hires ? Carbonara (2001) emphasizes that companies need
14 to recruit employees with soft skills and leadership competencies but the challenge lies in how to recognize these individuals One idea suggests that the focus shou ld not only be on hiring employees with the right technical experience Instead the goal should be to find individuals with the right mind set Companies that hire based on the latter, hire for attitude and train for skill Therefore t he use of person ality assessment can assist in the identification of such attributes and has become increasingly useful in selection and professional development of employees To identify talent of incoming employees, midsize and large companies rely on personality and ab ility assessments during the pre employment process or as an orientation tool The assessments assist in identification of specific personality traits necessary for job success Overall, companies recognize that the right personality is critical for succ ess (Gutner, 2008). Goodstein and Lanyon (1999) literature review describes the favorable support fo r the utility of personality assessment s in the workplace D ue to the major changes in personality assessments they can now be used to predict manageri al success The changes are primarily attributed to technological advancement and include : the introduction of item development procedures, advancement of theory and concepts relative to traits and human behavior and the ubiquity of W eb based personality assessments Additionally, until recently, personality assessment was based on psychopathology, and while existing in the workplace, it is unlikely that mentally challenged individuals will present themselves in this environment Employers are more conc erned with whether a candidate will relate well with co workers, and possess leadership potential Therefore, clinically oriented instruments such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI ), are not useful to predict employee success Ins tead, the development of the Five Factor approach to personality assessment increased the value of personality testing in employee selection.
15 Because of the deficits in leadership skills, the question becomes, can leadership be taught or is it beyond the reach of most aspiring supervisors and managers ? Factors including genetics, family environment, bosses and training all impact the likelihood of leadership success The literature suggests that early life forces influence whether individuals will have the capability necessary to become an effective leader (Conger, 2004) While there is a plethora of leadership training available, changing behavior is a challeng e The message of change requires that the individual develop a new outlook Thos e that hold on to old beliefs when the world has changed can be self defeating Instead, flexibility and experimentation will assist in the advancement of success (Johnson, 1998). Carl Lewin (1947) was one of the most prolific change theorists in the twen tieth century He made significant contributions to research relative to change Central to th is theory is the idea that conflict resolution facilitat es learning contributions include Thought Field Theory, Group Dynamics, Action Research, and t he Three Step Change M odel While the comp ilation of work was viewed as a unified whole, it had been used to bring forth planned change regardless of the level of individual, group, or organization (Kritsonis, 2004 2005) Also a commitment to change beha vior was required Recognizing the necessity of a change process led to the development of the Three Step Model (Bargal & Bar, 1992) The essential steps of the model include: S tep 1: Unfreezing is described as the stability of human behavior which is b ased on a qua s i stationary equilibrium reinforced by driving and restricting forces In order to change, the equilibrium needs to become destabilized or unfrozen before old behaviors can become unlearned and new behavior can be implemented S tep 2: Moving is described as research, action, and additional research and these are necessary to enable individuals or groups to transition from a less acceptable to a more acceptable set of behaviors S tep 3: Refreezing occurs when there is new qua s i stationary eq uilibrium to prevent new behaviors from regressi ng The new behavior s must be congruent with the rest of the behavior, personality, and environment of the learner ( Lewin 1947).
16 To address the lacking leadership skills, a strategy is needed to ensure col lege graduates have acquired these skills prior to graduation Purpose of the S tudy Because of the urgency associated with the lack of leadership skills and soft skills in recent college graduates as evidenced in the literature, the purpose of this st udy was to examine if changing leadership behavior was possible level organizational behavior class at a community college The study was guided by a theoretical change model based on a theory developed by Alan Deutschm an, author of Change or Die (200 7 ) step process of relat ing repeat ing and refram ing to increase the likelihood of change As a result of learning students enrolled in college will become more aware of the process of change and how it can make improvements for future supervisory and management roles i n business and industry Anticipating and teaching about the change process is a precursor to students identifying leadership skills that need to be ch anged Through identif ication of personality strengths and weaknesses, students recognize d necessary improvements for change As Schein states start with some form of satisfaction or frustration generated by data that di sconfirm our expectations 19 95 p. 4 ) Research Questions Th is study addressed the following questions: 1. Is there a difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control group s on the three subscales: Relationship S cale, Thinking Styl e Scale, Feelings and Emotion s Scale, and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire ( OPQ) instrument as a whole ? 2. Is there a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s related to thinking style domain on the OPQ ? 3. Is there a d ifference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s related to feelings and emotions domain on the OPQ ?
17 4. Is there a difference in post test scores on the OPQ instrument in all domains related to working style preferences combined ? 5. Is ther e an overall difference in post tests scores between the treatment and control groups related to all domains on the OPQ? Research Hypothes e s Research Q uestion 1 : H 0 : There is no significant difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control g roups on the three subscales: Relationship Scale, Thinking Style Scale, Feelings and Emotions Scale, and the instrument as a whole. H 1 : There is a significant difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control groups on the three subscales: Re lationship Scale, Thinking Style Scale, Feelings and Emotions Scale, and the instrument as a whole. Research Q uestion 2: H 0 : Students will not exhibit a significant difference in the post test scores. H 2 : Students enrolled in a bachelor s level management class will improve on the R elationship Scale domain scores on the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test Research Q uestion 3: H 0 : Students will not exhibit a significant difference in the post test scores. H 3 : Students enrolled in a bachelor s level management class will improve on T hinking S tyle domain scores on the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test Research Q uestion 4: H 0 : Students will not exhibit a significant difference in the post test scores
18 H 4 : Students enrolled in a bachelor s level management class will improve on F eelings and E motions domain scores on the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test Research Q uestion 5: H 0 : Students wil l not exhibit a significant difference in the post test scores. H 5 : Students enrolled in a bachelor s level management class will improve on the overall scores of the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test Definition o f Terms The following section describes terms that are used throughout the chapters. Change : M odifying and improving on particular leadership skills College student : For the study, this term is defined as students enrolled degree program. Competencies : General descriptions of the abilities needed to perform a role in the organization Competencies are described in terms such that they can be measured It is useful to compare competencies to job descriptions Cross functional skills : De veloped capacities that facilitate performance of activities that occur across jobs including social skills, complex problem solving, technical skills, and resource management skills Emotional intelligence : The ability to work with others and the effecti veness in leading change Employability skills : Skills required not only to gain employment but also to progress within an enterprise to achieve Intellectual skills : A tran sferable set of skills that include critical thinking, analyzing, and evaluating and synthesizing information
19 Job analysis : R efers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job. Leadership skills : For purposes of the study, defined as any of the 32 scales on the OPQ leadership, managerial, and supervisory capabilities Occupational Personality Questionnaire ( OPQ ): A research instrument that measures personality attributes on 32 dimensions. Personality : A o behaving, thinking, and feeling Soft skills: A cluster of personality traits that include social skills, optimism, friendliness and the ability to interact and communicate positively and productively with other people. Sten unit : The abbreviation for s tandard of unit, a nominal measure from one to ten (Saville & Holdsworth, 1996, p. 1 4). Significance of the S tudy In response to the urgency set forth by the literature that college graduates lack the leadership skills to perform successfully on the job, colleges must take an active role T he study will assist students to recogni ze and develop a plan to change their own leadership deficits through personality assessments and will provide strategies to elicit change that will positively impact the qualit y of college graduates that enter the workforce In addition, the findings provide graduates, educators and employers with opportunit ies to recognize that it is possible to teach leadership skills in college The findings from the study identif y that w hen leadership training is conducted this results in increase d individual awareness of strengths and weaknesses and how personality assessments w ere used to measure gains in learning Limitations The research subjects were junior status college student degree organizational behavior course A convenient sample of these subjects was utilized in the data
20 collection Therefore the study is not generaliz able to students enrolled in organizational behavior courses at universities without first carefully comparing demographics such as age, race, socioeconomic status grade point average ( GPA ) and gender In addition, because study design included pre and post tests there w as attrition among participants who did not take the pos t test F urthermore, due to the small sample size, the experimental group was too limited to be generalized to a larger sample. Finally, while the participants we re volunteers, it is likely that self perception may lead to some bias. Summary of Chapter 1 C from the classroom to career Chapter two will review the literature relative to change, employability and leadership development The emphasis of chapter t hree will be to describe the methodology of the study, specifically the selection and description of the personality instrument creation of the job model and the individual improvement plan Chapter four will describe the selection of and the interpreta tion of the statistical analysis to measure the results of the study The final chapter will discuss the results, suggestions for future research and implications for higher education administrators
21 C HAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of th is chapter is to present a review of the scholarly literature on change, employability and leadership development This chapter is organized by seven headings: ( a) change (b) competencies, (c) employability skills, (d) personality testing, (e) l eader qualities and types, (f) emotional intelligence, and ( g ) leadership development change strategies Change Change is about ending the status quo and embracing a new beginning While important, individuals typically resist change primarily because of fear C hange is often associated with loss of responsibilities, fear of inadequacy, and fear of the unknown As a result, a myriad of emotions are exhibited including disbelief, annoyance, and disappoint While change is uncomfortable and challenging, it can promote growth and opportunity (Burns, Goethals, & Sorenson, 2004) Yukl and Lepsinger (2006) explain that while most people agree that change is necessary, it often creates anxiety and resistance. Therefo re, in order for people to support change, they must view it as necessary and possible. Leaders can promote change by explaining the urgent need to do so, along with providing support, encouragement, and resources. The core of developing anything, especi ally leaders includes change However, the construct of change is difficult to measure There have been some studies conducted to build the science of leadership development but there continues to be a need to measure the core competencies of leadershi p In addition, assessing constructs in work related situations may shed light on the cognitive and behavioral complexities (Day, Halpin, & Zaccaro, 2004) Organizations do not change unless people inside the organi zation change Therefore making self change is critical to organizational success The heart of organizations is generally not the systems or processes, but rather the human capital Individual transformation is the
22 critical ingredient toward deep chan ge (Quinn, 2004, p. 62) Additionally, c hange by nature is resistan ce bound In the normal state, individuals design controls to preserve equilibrium s that resist deep change, even when change is essential This programmed mind set can result in the s low death of an organization (Quinn, 2004, p. 64). The field of change is about using themes to rescue people who are stuck Change is described as true, lasting, deep seated and in the world of business, one of the greatest challenges While companies treat change as a technical issue, individuals must decide if they want to change; in other words, they have to make it happen (LaBarre, 2007) A s the pace of change accelerates with added technology and organizational challenges, personal change manageme nt skills become more important According to Frantz (2004), skills that include building vision, networking, communicating powerfully, dealing with differences, creating leverage to motivate people, and conceptualizing alternative strategic paths are ess ential. While employees are quick to learn technical skills, social skills and attitudes are not taught. Kotter (1996) suggested that people can change habits that they have developed over many years, sometimes in a short five day training session (p. 10 8). According to Kotter, these strategies do not provide the necessary follow up for employee success He describes an eight stage process: 1. Establishing as sense of urgency 2. Creating the guiding coalition 3. Developing vision and strategy 4. Communicating the c hange 5. Empowering broad based action 6. Generating short term wins 7. Consolidating change and producing more change 8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture Regardless of the change magnitude, successful change transitions through all eight s tages although so me stages are addressed simultaneously The consequence of skipping a single step can increase the likelihood of problems (Kotter, 1996, p 23) Only individuals can
23 decide to venture in a new direction adopt a new vision or take a risk because all ch ange is self change Because of this, humans have difficulty coping with change and describe the difficulties of undertaking change Leaders describe that it is more comfortable to deal with technical and financial challenges than to address self leaders hip challenges Three categories summarize why self leadership and change can be so challenging First, all change is self change and it is necessary to understand that change is a choice In addition, self change requires dealing with emotions. Final ly, change requires self leadership, which means that there is continual self control (Hesselbein, Goldsmith, Beckhard, & Drucker, 1996) Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) describe the following: Changing ha bits is hard work Whenever people try to change habits of how they think and act, they must reverse decades of learning that resides in heavily traveled, highly reinforced neural circuitry, built up over years of repeating that habit of oneself especially during stressful times or amid growing responsibiliti es (p 25) Motivation to change begins with the discovery of the ideal self that allows the individual to identify his or her vision for the future. It is important to write down the vision to make the change. Once the ideal self has been identified, examining talents and passions, as well as seeking out negative feedback from others through a 360 degree evaluation from supervisors, peers, and subordinates. Once completed, there is an opportunity to revie w the strengths and gaps. The next step involves the development of a practical plan to develop manageable learning goals. Then the brain is reconfigured by bringing bad habits in to self awareness, practicing new behaviors until they become natural. In addition, it is essential to have positive, supportive people around while developing the ideal self (Chapter 7) ( http://library.books24x7.co m.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/book/id_23566/viewer.asp?bookid=23566 &chunkid=697523809 ).
24 Change oriented behaviors require an ability to scan the environment to determine why change is needed based on threats and opportunities Change oriented behaviors are importa nt for seasoned executives as studies have correlated CEO transformational or charismatic Moreover, a ccording to Goffee and Jones (2001) the first quality of exceptional leaders is that they selec tively reveal their weaknesses Doing so allows employees to see that they are approachable, builds an atmosphere of trust and helps encourage commitment Furthermore, Frey (2001) indicates that people are averse to any type of change primarily because of fear and uncertainty and recommends that it is necessary to encourage employees to take more responsibility for success or failure in a company Then the question becomes : if change is essential, how does an individual recognize how to make change ? Com petencies One valuable approach when embarking on a self change in itiative is to determine the workplace competencies for the job and identify if the skill level of the individual is compatible in order to ensure alignment and a n understanding of the gaps A not e worthy staring point is to review the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), a computerized Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) that collects surveys from professional experts to report the most sought after knowledge, skills, and abilities in hundreds of occupations. The flexible database includes occupational competencies within the content model function that links work behaviors to worker attributes, bridging two behavioral taxonomies together. According to O*NET, an employee with the title of general operations manager considers soft skills very important, as illustrated in Appendix A (National Center for O*NET Development, 2009). The myriad possibilities within the high skill, high wage economy awakens employers to reconsider the kind s of people they want to hire providing motivation to assess workplace
25 competencies Organization changes such as technology, globalization and a knowledge economy require employees to pay particular attention to personality competencies and leadership skills necessary to fulfill managerial and professional roles Personal and social decorum along with technical knowledge requirements are now central to company productivity and profit (Brown & Hesketh, 2004 ) Therefore, it is essential to determine h ow undergraduate courses and programs can meet needs. Tobin and Pettingell (2008) define c ompetence (Chapter 2, p. 1) Likewise a set of competencies for a job role will increase the likelihood of a positive employment outcome Some companies go to great expense to define a set of competencies for every job in the company and use each job competency profile to judge people who hold or aspire to a particular job While the term competency is ubiquitous in education, it has also become a standard in business and is used for employee selection, compensation, training needs assessment, and strategic planning (Berman & Ritchie, 2006). Although limited literature is available, Hodges and Burchell (2003) suggest that there is competencies Workplace competencies combine technical knowledge, expertise, and abilities that are described as cognitive skills In addition, personal or behavioral characteristics include principles, values, and are of interest Successful employment requires the presence of both competencies ; however, there is an emphasis on personal attributes (Weisz, 1999 as cited in Hodg es & Burchell, 2003). H odges and Burchell (2003) recognized the importance of but also the challenges associated with identif ying and develop ing ssential competencies Curriculum developers want to understand views relative to graduate competencies consisting of w hat employers view as important and how competent graduates are when they
26 enter the workforce is meaningful information to help prepare students to transition successfully into the workforce The workplac e context of a competency includes a combination of cognitive skills (technical knowledge, expertise and abilities) in addition to behavioral characteristics (principles attitudes, values and motives), to determine an personality Therefor e Hodges and Burchell (2003) developed a questionnaire to rate the top 25 competencies and the importance ranking of each competency is illustrated in the chart in Appendix B Employability Skills As an individual recognizes the value of self change ini tiatives relative to career development it is essential that students are educated with the end in mind, meaning the job they intend to pursue, in addition to understanding what skills will be necessary beyond a baccalaureate degree to make the graduate m ore appealing for an employer. Therefore, it is necessary to review employability skills While employability skills are often associated with technical knowledge s ometimes referred to as hard skills i t is the behavioral competencies also known as so ft skills that appeal to employers Unfortunately a disconnect exists between what corporate recrui ters want in new hires and what business schools teach Mangan (2007) explains that a report by DePaul University emphasize d that recruiters want busine ss schools to focus on people oriented skills like leadership and communication However, s tudents complain that soft skills w ill not get them jobs, and pressure business schools to focus instead on functional or technical content Rubin and Dierdorff ( 2009 ) analyzed a 2006 U.S Department of Labor database from a study of 8,600 managers who represented 52 occupations Managers were asked what skills they valued most in new employees The DePaul researchers then compared those answers with the results of their own study of 373 MBA programs and responses from 118 business school
27 administrators The administrators agreed that people skills were important, yet those skills remain underrepresented in required courses The emphasis on the urgency for gra duates to develop leadership and soft skills is noteworthy as illustrated in the following quote : end up being as hard to employ as those who learn no skills at all Developing both social and technical abiliti es in the same routine, wit h the same degree of emphasis, a nd real world concreteness is the surest (as cited in Holdsworth & Gearhart, 2002). Furthermore, a s Purcell and Pitcher (1996) suggest ed i t is essential to recruit people who M anagerial leadership has shifted from bureaucratic to charismatic This change requires that employees have interpersonal skills and a range of managerial competenc ies includ ing interperso nal sensitivity, good communication skills, persuasiveness drive, resilience, adaptability, self confidence, good judgment and problem solving skills in addition to creativity and business awareness One desirable leadership trait c harisma is rare an d only found in certain human personalities usually combined with extreme charm and a magnetic personality along with innate and powerfully sophisticated personal communicability and persuasiveness L eaders such as Ghandi, John F Kennedy, Winston Churc hill, and Mao Zedong are among those who exemplify charisma, and it is an important personality attribute Fortunately it is believed that charisma can be taught and learned despite the persistent inability to accurately define or even fully understand it (Burns & Goethals, 2004). More than ever, e mployers are eager to locate graduates who possess these desirable skills According to the National Association of College s and Employers ( NACE ) ( 200 8 ) Job Outlook 2008 survey of 231 employers factors examin ed during the hiring process include GPA,
28 prior work experience and critical soft skill competencies In this study, 60% of consider ed a 3.0 as a minimum GPA 75% consider ed relative work experience and almost all respondents consider ed soft skills and personality attributes as essential Because of this, employers were asked to rank soft skills on a five point Likert scale R esults showed that the following were rated as important : 1. c ommunication skills 2. work ethic, 3. teamwork, 4. initiative, 5. an alytical skills, 6. flexibility, 7. adaptability, 8. interpersonal skills, 9. problem solving, 10. organizational skills, 11. s elf confidence, 12. d etail oriented Although soft skills are important employers report ed that communication skills, teamwork, and profess ionalism are also lacking in the workforce Marilyn Mackes NACE executive director explain ed that recruiters require more information on graduates soft skills b ecause communication skills a strong work ethic, teamwork skills initiative, and interperso nal skills a re some of the characteristics that employers look for in new hires Interviewers want to know Can you work with other people ? Do you have drive and motivation to do the job? ( D i Me glio, 2008 p 8 ) Robinson Garton, and Vaughn (2007) con ducted a study to assess the employability skills of graduates in the College Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources at the Univer sity of Missouri Assessment of perception levels and imm ediate supervisors perceptions were evaluated usi ng the Borich needs assessment model Results indicated that graduates perceived problem solving and analytic skills as most important (MWDS = 0 .74) In addition, eight additional employability skills had a mean greater than 0 .50 (see F igure 2 .2 )
29 Accor ding to supervisors, employability skills in need of curriculum enhancement using the Borich N eeds A ssessment M odel concluded that problem solving and analysis was the employability skill construct with the highest mean (MWDS = 1.08) An additional area s tudie d was the employability skills construct perceived by graduates and their supervisors using a quadrant analysis model The results were a 2 x 2 matrix represent ing the competencies of the entry level graduates Moreover, Peddle (2000) explains that employers are uncertain if colleges can develop employability skills most desired by employers Employability skills are also technical skills ( Hofstrand, 1996; Robinson 2006). In a survey of Fortune 10 00 compan ies executives conclude d that leadership and management skills were the most sought after attributes while technology skills were a distant third However, only one out of every three employee s was able to collaborate effectively with co workers The author suggested that future professional success w ill increasingly depend on personality traits such as high levels of teamwork a nd cooperation in the workplace ( Fisher 1996) The question becomes : how do employers assess leadership and soft skil ls of college graduates ? Some colleges and universities are interested in providing employers an opportunity to review academic and soft and leadership skills The University of Wisconsin 26 schools develop ed a plan to provide its students the opportun ity to be more marketable upon graduation This process involved using what is called dual transcripts, one for grades and one to assess critical areas such as leadership and soft skills The intent was to send transcripts to job recruiters so graduate school admissi ons could be assessed Proponents of the dual transcript say the resume would provide official verification of the student s abilities outside of academics ( Di M eglio, 2008)
30 Unfortunately w ithout the voice of business, education may continue to prepare students with outdated skill set s One of the challenges facing c olleges and universities is to ensure that perspective graduates acquire the softer and applie d skills in order to have a competitive edge in the job market Furthermore, s everal U.S and international authors point out the importance of developing skills beyond th ose required for a specific job S tudies undertaken in the past two decades support and underscore the value of soft skills ( Askov & Gordon 1999; Murnane & Levy 1996) Buhler (2008) explains that there is incongruence between the applied skills and soft skills Applied skills include t eamwork, leadership, a strong work ethic, social skills and communication Organizations need their employees to possess soft skills Surveys report that there is a deficiency in the skills identified as soft (versus hard ) The technical (or hard s kills ) that are mo st likely possessed by new job applicants today are technical skills but these applicants lack the creativity and innovation skills that needed and preferred by employers Employers report that they are better prepared to teach the tech nical skills on the job than they are to teach the soft skills (Askov & Gordon, 1999 ; Murnare & Levy, 1996) differs from the mid twentieth century as employment becom e s less job specific, with flexible assign ments and an increase in employees spending more time with one another and customers The changes have accelerated the urgency toward a more adaptable and flexible workforce Specific skills identified as essential include problem solving, goal setting, reasoning, critical thinking, and basic group effectiveness skills In addition employers identify the need for interpersonal relations teamwork skills a willingness to change and leadership skills regardless of position in the organization Finally according to the study, attitude was one of the most important decisions when hiring Attitude includes enthusiasm, motivation, a positive outlook and being people oriented.
31 A national study by American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) ( Carn evale, Gainer, & Meltzer 1990 ) emphasized six skill groups across all job families: 1. Basic Competency Skills : reading, writing, computation; 2. Communication Skills : speaking, listening; 3. Adaptability Skills : problem solving, thinking creatively; 4. Developmen tal Skills : self esteem, motivation goal setting, career planning; 5. Group Effectiveness Skills : interpersonal skills, teamwork, negotiation; and 6. Influencing Skills : understanding organizational culture, sharing leadership While more research is neces sary to develop curriculum that integrates technical a nd soft skills, employers can partner with colleges and universities to improve the preparedness of the new workforce This can be achieved via o pen communication shar ed research findings and collabo ration between educational institutions and workforce industries An additional skill that was emphasized in the literature is c ommunication skills essential to college graduates successful transition into the workplace The definition of communicatio n skills varies with the position In particular, having these skills includes avoiding street slang and using proper grammar for a customer service position or they might include the ability to sell, persuade others, think on fe et and succinctly make a point Leslie Bonner, a former bank human resources executive who is coordinator of organizational development for Solutions 21, a business consulting firm explains in her experience, communications skills are the No 1 aspect employers look for It s just like your appearance It s the first and most noticeable thing about you If you are a poor communicator, more than likely you re not going to make it through the inte rview process (McKay, 2005). In a study conducted by Tanyel and Mi tchell (1999), a self administered questionnaire that included 16 attributes was developed to identify the skill set s believed necessary for business school graduates to contribute effectively to an organization upon graduation According to the prospecti ve employer respondents, the most important attributes to be possessed by newly hired business school graduates are responsibility and accountability, ethical values, interpersonal
32 skills, oral communications, time management and punctuality, the ability t o work in teams, and decision making and analytical ability Furthermore, Tetreault (1997) observed that employability skills are lacking in the workplace because people are not prepared prior to entering Employers blame higher education institutions f or not preparing graduates for work beyond the classroom Despite who is to blame, it is imperative that graduates possess employability skills in order to acquire and retain employment and higher education institutions should prepare students with emplo yability skills. Moreover, Paulson (2001) explains that higher education has become responsive to the needs of business and industry by aligning competencies and performance based assessment with workforce demands Personality Testing Before an individua l can embark on a change initiative, it is essential to identify a metric as a starting point to assess strengths and weaknesses relative to leadership and soft skills competencies. C olleges can play a critical role in aligning curriculum and workplace c ompetencies through collaborative efforts of higher education and employers. Th r ough extensive dialogue a metric can be developed to measure and determine gains from the onset of college and again when students are ready to graduate. Because personality tests are often utilized in business and industry, colleges can begin to include such testing during tenure at college According to the literature, f or over a century, intelligence and personality tests have been used by companies to make selection and promotion decisions The foundations of personality research were constructed from the development of psychology researchers such as Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget and B. F Skinner (Holt, 2005 ) Furthermore, Jung identified that people are either introvert s or extroverts and they view the world through four functions that
33 include sensing, thinking, intuition, and feeling which is the framework of personality testing (McRae & Costa 1989). The debate surrounding p ersonality testing as a human resource method for selecti ng employees has been controversial until recently due to confusion over the definition of personality, how to evaluate personality, and what personality test s measure However, recent research has suggested more optimism in the value of pe rsonality testing for job selection By utilizing the appropriate set of psychometric properties, validity of the instrument can be useful in the prediction of employee behaviors Likewise the use of personality tests in conjunction with cognitive abili ty testing can enhance the validity of employee selection The emphasis on personnel psychology focuses on the development of theories of the psychological process that trigger and determine job performance making personality testing valid ( Scroggins, Thomas, & Morris, 2009). Personality tests developed to assess employee traits or personality abilities may be useful for predicting behaviors and outcomes across positions Personality tests or elative to skills and personality characteristics to determine if someone is suitable for a j ob ( as cited in Prien & Schippman, 2003 ) Salvano (2005), Kachik (2003), Sloan (2002) and others have demonstrated that it is possible to develop detailed leader profiles based on measurements of personality attributes. By doing so, future leaders will better understand the soft skill and leadership requirements and develop a change initiative in the event that essential attributes are lacking According to the Am erican Society for Personnel Administration, approximately 60% of large companies and 40% of small companies use personality tests for employee selection and development (as cited in Herman, 1994, p 94) Furthermore, Fink (2009) explains that personality assessments identify strengths and weaknesses and provide baseline information
34 about the availability of future potential Because different types of leaders are necessary for different types of jobs leadership style P e rsonality assessment s can provide a more accurate measurement of personality attributes necessary for leadership success Personality tests can be classified into three distinct categories that include inductive, deductive, or validation centric although t here are hundreds of tests in use (Saville & Holdsworth 199 6) Today, 80% of midsize and large companies use personality assessments for entry and mid level positions as part of pre employment screening or new employee orientation Test results are u sed to help companies mak e hiring decisions because the right personality translates into performance One company, Windy City Fieldhouse in Chicago uses a test to measure attention to detail since work related competencies emphasize the importance of minimizing errors in work as it relates to the job and ultimately impacts financial results (Gutner, 2008) Moreover, p ersonality is an accurate predictor of workplace success and has a paramount impact on productivity and job satisfaction While people believe that personality and behavior styles are difficult to change, compared to the other components of human capital, personality and behavior are the most easily modified ( Furnham 2005 ) Warren (2002) assert ed that m ost behavior patterns result from h abits and spontaneous reactions to situations, and not from self conscious, self directed efforts Making a small change can provide significant gains By becoming aware of a predisposition and making conscious effort to monitor the habit, an individual can learn to suppress negative behavior By changing one behavior, an otherwise aggressive, impatient person can dramatically reduce the number of times that he or she irritate s others and increase the opportunities to hear his or her co workers insigh ts regarding work related matters Most behavior patterns are driven strictly by habit and are not consciously directed Many people erroneously think that personality and behavior are
35 hardwired and cannot be changed While considerable effort is requ ired to break longtime patterns, altering behavior does not require dramatic personality changes B ecom ing conscious of how personality affects oneself and others can represent a giant step toward modifying behavior Just as a conductor uses a baton to q uiet the horn section and bring in the strings, individuals can learn to consciously orchestrate their behavior s Leader Qualities and Types that Predict Work Behavior Psychologists recognize the importance of certain perso nality traits that enhance a pers while other personality traits can have a negative impact The identification of predictive personality traits, as well as the use of statistical tests and psychometric methods, strengthen the likelihood of p redicting leader qualities that correlate to workplace success. While there was considerable skepticism related to the usefulness of personality assessment s assessment has increased the usefulness of personality testing ( Goodstein & Lanyon, 1999) According to the Five Factor Model (FFM) there are five broad categories at the top of the personality hierarchy including extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuro ticism, and open ness to experience (Bernard, Walsh, & Mills, 2005) There is considerable research linking these categories to workplace success. The Big Five personality factors were first introduced in the work of Louis Leon Thurstone (1934) More rece ntly, to be present across many studies and are the core elements across many studies and consist of five factors including: Factor 1: Extraversion or surgency Factor 2: Agreeableness Factor 3: Conscientiousness Factor 4: Emotional stability, or neuroticis m Factor 5: Culture, or more recently intellect or openness to experience
36 It is n oteworthy that these five personality factors reliably predict supervisors ratings of employees job and training proficienc ies (Scroggins, Thomas & Morris, 2009) Naquin a nd Holton (2002 ) stud ied the degree to which the FFM of personality, affectivity, and work commitment influenced motivation to improve work through learning A non enrolled in a training program participated Dispositional traits were studied to determine if there was a relationship between disposition and behavior Dispositional variables include d and value Because personality influences attitudes, attit udes affect motivation, ultimately affecting workforce performance Findings indicate that dispositional effects were antecedents to motivation to improve work through learning. According to Go o dstein and Lanyon (1999 ) conscientiousness is considered the best predictor of job success with a correlation of 0 .22 relative to on the job performance In addition, extroversion is a valid predictor across manager and sales occupations with a correlation of 0 .18 and 0 .15 respectively In addition to the FFM several personality constructs are notable to predict work behavior For example emotionality consists of two bipolar dimensions including negative / positive and aroused / unaroused ( Russell & Carroll, 1999 ) A study by Rode Arthaud Day Mooner, Near, and Baldwin (2008), address ing early career success examined the effect of ability (general mental ability and emotional intelligence) and personality (Big Five and proactive personality) on extrinsic and intrinsic indicators of career success Results i ndicated that gender, extroversion, and agreeableness are the strongest predictors of salary In addition, emotional stability and proactive personality predicted perceived job succes s, and extraversion was significantly related to career success Result s indicated that initial career success was related only to personality, suggesting that ability matters less on entry level jobs and practical
37 implication revealed that organizations may unintentionally hire, promote, and reward employees with the person ality but this does not necessarily translate into long term career success Additionally, high ability employees who are less charismatic may not be encouraged in their organization and seek out other employment opportunities. Crant and Bateman (2000) e xamined the relationship between proactive personality and perceptions of charismatic leadership A sample of 156 managers completed measures of proactive personality along with measures of the FFM of p ersonality and other individual differences The ma nagers immediate supervisors rated their charismatic leadership and in role behavior Results revealed that proactive personality is positively associated with supervisors independent ratings of charismatic leadership In addition, proactive individual s lead more effectively. One type of leadership model known as T ransactional operate s within an existing system or culture rather than trying to change followers by satisfying the current needs with focus on exchanges Overall their role is to strengt hen existing structures, strategies and culture within the organization A dichotomy style referred to as I nspirational includes high level s of imagination, loyalty, style of dress, or even a handshake can become a distinguishing factor of distinctness ( Goffee & Jones, 2001 p 164). According to it is difficult to study leadership development scientifically Because of this, there is limited true experimental research; instead, research designs are primarily quasi experimental, correlational and qualitative However companies recognize the value and return on investment and therefore strive to identify and develop leaders For these reasons, t op companies are committed to developing leadership at all levels of the organizat ion, and ensuring that critical talent is in place (Conger & Benjamin, 1999) In academia there are over 700 different leadership programs because of its importance to economic
38 prosperity While companies take care to recruit for the best talent such as the right skills, values, and personalities, there is no guarantee that all new hires will possess the necessary attributes for success Leadership development programs commonly begin with an assessment of business needs followed by a mapping of leaders hip competencies and have been used with some level of success (Conger & Benjamin, 1999) To respon d to the need for leadership development, the W.K Kellogg Foundation funded 31 projects focused on leadership d evelopment in college age young adults (Zimmerman Oster, Burkhardt, & W. K Kellogg Foundatio n 1999, p 20) The organization asserted that leadership must be broadened to include more than company exe cutives due to its economic and social impacts (p. 5) According to the foundation, society needs more and better leaders Moreover, e ffective leadership skills can be taught, and colleges should provide the setting to teach leadership skills and theori es One of the most interesting findings of the report concludes that many of the successful leadership programs include a self assessment and reflection component to improve self awareness through the inclusion of assessment tests, discussion s and refle ction activities ( (Zimmerman Oster et al. 1999, p. 21) Furthermore, m entoring, where a student was paired with an experienced leader for either weekly meetings or shadowing activities was considered valuable A journal writing experience where students reflected on their leadership development activities also proved effective ( (Zimmerman Oster et al. 1999, p. 21). Another noteworthy study in coll aboration with Fortune and the RBL Group, Hewitt Associates (2007) examined 563 global companies to determine the factors that address how successful companies produced great leaders The study concluded that six driving forces contributed to leadership s uccess In a slightly modified form, these forces include: 1. Weave leadership with strategy 2. Start at the C suite
39 3. Invest in the best 4. Institutionalize the leader development process 5. 6. Reinforce desired future behaviors Approximat ely 85% of top companies establish formal processes for hiring the best talent compared to 60% of other organizations For example, General Electric placed talented individuals in Corporate Entry Level Leadership programs to provide young professionals w ith real world experience, mentors, global networking, and formal classroom training (Gandossy & Verma, 2009) Finally, s ome researchers suggested one commonality across leadership development programs was fir st assessing business needs and then developing leadership competency maps ( Kravis deRoulet Leadership Conference 2003, p. 2 ). Hesselbein, Goldsmith, and Beckhard (1996) explained that people cannot be reengineered and organizations cannot require indiv iduals to select a new course of action that is uncomfortable or unfamiliar Leaders are more comfortable dealing with the technical portion of the job Overall it is more difficult to master soft skills such as empathy, feelings and emotions, and rela tionships even though these characteristics are essential part s of the leadership portfolio (p. 189) Recognizing that change is difficult is s ignificant to leadership Four themes describe the challenges integral to change: all change is self change, c hange is a choice, change involves emotions, and change requires self leadership As Astin and Astin (2001) explain, leadership requires change and a leader is the change agent. More specifically, everyone is a potential leader regardless of his or her position in the organizational hierarchy. Therefore change is an essential ongoing strategy toward professional development and success. Emotional Intelligence Throughout the literature, one common thread was the theme of emotional intelligence. With out a foundation of emotional intelligence is a self change initiative even possible?
40 emotions it is perceived as a critical attribute relative to personal and profe ssional success. While intelligence is a widely accepted predictor of academic performance and workforce success, measured by traditional intelligence tests, researchers argue that the se assessments are too narrow and that other intelligences are necessary to succeed in the workplace Eight alternative types of intelligences are also noteworthy for managerial success and include socio cultural, political, innovative and emotional intelligence (EI) (Furnham, 2005) One of the most widespread leadership co nstructs discussed in the literature is emotional feelings and emotions affect how well they influence people, the core of leadership ( Caruso & Salovey, 2004 ) Furthermore, le aders with a high level of emotional intelligence will generate creative and original arguments to influence others Moreover, emotions at work influence judgment, job satisfaction, helping behavior, creative problem solving, and decision making Spielb erger (2004) describes three major models of emotional intelligence that include the Mayer Salovey model which defines the construct as the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions to facilitate thinking; the Goleman model which include s emotional and social competencies that contribute to managerial performance; and the Bar On model which describes EI as a cross section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that impact intelligent behavior Bar On ( 1997) asserts that EI to perceive, and generate emotions in order to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional meanings, and to reflectively regulate emotions in ways that promote emotional and intellectual growth Bar On devel oped an instrument that became known as the Emotional Quotient Inventory ( EQ i ) which includes a
41 series of overlapping but distinctly different skills and attitudes grouped under five general theme areas and The five categories include: 1. Intrapersonal ( self awareness and self expression ) 2. Interpersonal ( social awareness and interaction ) 3. Stress Management ( emotional management and control ) 4. Adaptabili ty ( change management ) 5. General Mood ( self motivation ) Goleman ( 1998 ) explains that self awareness is central to emotional intelligence T he Delphic oracle of Ancient Greece, know thyself implies that self awareness means that there and drives Having an accurate self assessment means that one can realistically evaluate strengths and limitations (p. 6) categories self awareness and self regulation Self awareness also kno wn as emotional literacy s and feelings in real time Self regulation is the ability to balance rational and emotional brain operations Therefore, an emotionally intelligent person can cope with stress productively by reading the emotions of people around them a good leader s to employers because of a positive im pact on workplace behaviors Specifically, there have been claims of economic benefits when selecting personnel based on EI ( Cartwright & Pappas, 2008 ). Due to the correlation of high performance Goleman (1995) describes that one of the most compelling benefits of EI is its correlation to increased economic advantages of personnel selection that possess high levels of emotional intelligence For example insurance agents who score high on emotional competencies achieve twice the amount of sales compared to colleagues with low emotional intelligence
42 Most large companies have trained psychologists that develop competency models in order to recognize, train, and promote promising leadership talent P sychologists have also focused attention on the develo pment of models for lower level positions ( Cherniss & Goleman 2001 p 3) While the importance of self awareness and self regulation are paramount in leadership development, there are opposing viewpoints in the literature Buckingham (200 1 ) explains t hat individuals develop leadership skills by maximizing strengths B ecause it is too difficult to successful people find ways to manage around their weaknesses People can experience success and fulfillment in their wo rk because they intentionally played to their strengths As Buckingham states capitalize on your strengths, whatever they may be, and manage around your weaknesses, ( Buckingham & Clifton, 2001, p.27). However, w hile the research s urrounding strength based leadership is appealing, it can also be limiting With economic challenges relative to globalization a n d technological advancement, is it realistic to think that developing a strategy to manage around weaknesses will provide a lo ng term solution, especially consider ing the current state ? More pragmatic is a n alternative view that presents the notion of change that includes self change, deep change, resistance and organizational change. Leadership Development One of the reasons that organizations support leader ship development is to enhance human capital (Lepak & Snell, 1999) Many types of development have been identified Three meta categories include oriented behaviors relat ed to task, relations, and more recently change Task behaviors focus on improving efficiency, change oriented behaviors improve adaptation, and relations oriented behaviors improve human resources and relations All three behaviors impact organization al effectiveness (Yukl, 2008).
43 A review of the literature illustrates that the core elements of leadership development include a prelim i nary assessment of the aspiring leader to determine the knowledge, skills, abilities, and qualities necessary to change followed by a professional development plan Campbell, 2002). As the literature suggests, employers recognize that graduates need to focus on change oriented behavior that focuses on adaptation, especially due to the competitive job market. Salvano (200 5) describes that executive coaching, professional development and personal effort may prompt leaders to learn new skills and change their behaviors. Furthermore companies invest in a variety of strategies to promote change and improve competencies Whi le leadership development programs vary in terms of structure, delivery, and effectiveness two common themes were found throughout the literature : mentoring and peer relationships assist individuals with change. M entoring Mentoring has become popular i n professional practice Mentors provide psychosocial and career support for their protgs The origins of the word mentor is derived from the Ancient Mentor was the name of the friend that Odysseus, King of Ithaca, ent rusted his son to during the Trojan War (Hamilton, 194 2 ) More recently mentoring is described as an ongoing relationship between a younger, less experienced individual known as a protg and an older, more experienced individual known as the mentor wit h a purpose of dedication of long term success of the protg Mentors provide support, direction, and resources to the protg and as a result benefit the individual and the organization (Joiner, Bartram & Garreffa, 2004). According to the literature, mentoring is an essential part of a leader s role as it involves such as advice, feedback, focus and
44 support Every leader must mentor and especially mentor those associates whose performance they influence While not an easy task, it is important that a mentor takes an interest in the development of the subordinate ( Goldsmith, Lyons, & Freas, 2000) To address the value of mentoring, th ere has been significant research that explains the effectiv eness of modeling for acquiring and improving work related interpersonal skills and the valu e to fulfill c areer and psychological skills and needs Case studies and descriptive statistics suggest that mentors have a positive impact on their protgs rel ative to career development and advancement by providing guidance, counseling, and visibility to top management along with serving as role model s (Noe, 1988) A study conducted by Betts and Pepe ( 2005 ) investigated the perceived value of the mentoring /protg relationship An anonymous survey was conducted that contained 26 statements relative to the value of mentoring The results of the survey showed five distinct outcomes of the mentor/protg relationship These included success, awareness, attitudes, behaviors, and advancement A factor analysis was conducted on the individual survey questions and resulted in five orthogonal factors including suc cess, awareness, advancement, attitudes, and behavior The results indicated that success, awareness, and advancement were positive outcomes of the mentor relationship T he study also revealed that differences in age, years in the workforce and whether the mentor was assigned or selected by the protg did not have a significant effect on the values of mentoring However gender was distinguishable in that men perceived the value of the mentor/protg on every factor whereas women valued the mentor rel ationship on limited factors The primary purpose of mentors is to help prospective leaders gain a greater self awareness and to assist them with an understanding of energy and will This purpose is
45 accomplished through the use of assessments such as a v ariety of the Myers Briggs Temperament Inventory (MBTI) typing tool called the Keirsey Sorter (Shenkman, 2008) One worthwhile model addresses the notion of adaptability which involves an for future su ccess such as self relevant feedback, accurate self perceptions and the change of self concept when necessary Adaptability without identity can result in change for no apparent reason ( Briscoe & Hall, 1999 ) The traditional definition of a mentor as a more senior individual who uses his or her influence and experience to help with the advancement of a single protg or mentee is still relevant an empowering cultur e As Buckingham and Coffman (1999) suggest, the relationship with an immediate supervisor will determine how well the employee performs in the organization and how long an employee with stay in the organization As Zachary (2009) explains, employees wh o need mentoring the most rarely find mentors on their own Specifically, new employees who would benefit most from a mentor relationship have difficulty locating the right mentor Young employees especially have difficulty and may end up without a mento r at all because they do not want to be perceived as too aggressive The learning department at Deloitte & Touche implemented a mentoring program to develop high performing talent The initiative offers every employee the opportunity to coach and be coac hed and makes two way coaching a part of their organizational culture The program includes an individual learning plan A model maps competencies to professional development and links them to performance expectations including behavioral measures In addition, one of s the Cultural Navigator includes easy to use learning, consulting, and assessment solutions ( ASTD 2007).
46 Peer R elationships / P eer M entoring While the mentor relationship is a successful s trategy toward leader development, peer relationships are an additional development strategy of interest Personalities develop within a social nexus of relationships where the individual can learn new behaviors throughout life and career stages Relati onships with supervisors, peers, and subordinates can offer an alternative to the traditional mentor relationship The relational approach to careers is grounded in the assumption that interaction with others is critical to learning It emphasizes the i mportance of multiple viewpoints and connection with others to promote deeper meaning, purpose, and self understanding The relational approach considers how people learn and grow in work related experiences (Walsh, Bartunek & Lacey, 1998). Kram and Isabella ( 1985) studied 25 peer relationships at a large northeastern manufacturing plant to understand the nature of peer relationships in an organizational setting The results of the study revealed the value of peer relationships for developmental support and personal and professional growth throughout the career S ome peer relationships provide a career enhancing function while others also provide psychosocial support One reason this occurs is that an individual probably has a greater number of peers than mentors The hierarchical relationship is not present in peer relationships making it easier to communicate and collaborate Parker, Hall, and Kram (2008) examined t he nature of peer coaching and describe d it as a developmental tool that can enhance personal and professional development A discussion of the key characteristics of the effective peer coaching relationships was presented based on a n empirical test of t he impact of these characteristics with a survey of MBA students The presentation also introduced a theoretical model of peer coaching, along with propositions for
47 future research Results of the study conclude that peer coaching works best for a person through a t hree step process : (1) building the developmental relationship, (2) creating success in development, and (3) internalizing the learning tactic by applying the peer coaching process in future relationships. Siegel (2000) identified three peer re lationship types, each with unique characteristics The information peer offers a relationship where individuals benefit from exchanging information related to work and a limited amount of professional feedback However there is no career or psychosocia l support The collegial peer contributes a moderate level of trust and self disclosure along with information sharing, emotional support, career strategies and collegiality The special peer relationship encompasses a level of intimacy with self expre ssion and self disclosure providing career enhanc ement and psychosocial support Peer mentoring occurs when two equals engage in a mentoring relationship This type of mentoring differs from traditional mentor relationships in that there is an equality o f status, experience, expertise, or interest with each person playing two roles including mentor or mentee In alternative arrangements, there may be one mentor and one mentee Another approach is the peer mentoring group composed of members with sim ilar learning interests This type of arrangement is self directed and self managed (Zachary, 2009). Summary of Chapter 2 Chapter two described the literature relative to employability, change, and leadership development to support change It provided t he background to r e cognize the attributes that are essential for supervisors and managers to have workplace success. Furthermore, the literature also described the challenges associated with change and strategies for development such as mentoring and pee r relationships.
48 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLGY This chapter presents the purpose of the study, research questions, population, and instrumentation. In addition, data collection, research design, and methodology are discussed. As a researcher, my theoret ical perspective will be positivism, because my study was grounded by the belief that reality can be known and measured by statistical analysis. The epistemological framework was based on objectivism in that it explains how meaning is imposed on the objec t from the subject and was based on my twenty years of administrative experience in higher education, non profit organizations, and global corporations. My experiences and perspective were the catalyst for this study. In order to answer the research quest ions, the methodology included survey research with statistical analysis methods to interpret data collection. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to explore a theoretical framework of change to impact leadership abilities that were identi fied after the development of a job model for supervisors and managers and was reviewed with level organizational behavior course at a community college in the United States. Students were introduced to 32 leadership attr ibutes within three domains including relationships with others, thinking style, and feelings and emotions and were instructed to determine which one s needed development after reviewing a job model that emphasized which attributes were important for the ir intended careers The first model explored a theoretical framework of change. Three Step Change Model consists of unfreezing, moving, and refreezing, and aligns well with what I am trying to accomplish in my study (Bargal & Bar, 1992). Howe ver, this study will examine a more recent model that was designed based on the three keys to change, a theory developed by Alan
49 Deutschman, author of Change or Die (200 7 three step process of relate, repea t, and reframe can increase the likelihood of improved leadership development. Using these change processes as a premise, it is expected that students will become better prepared for future supervisory and management roles in business and industry, if the y make improvement in leadership skills while enrolled in college. The second model suggests that the awareness of leadership ability is essential in improving skill sets for students who desire to secure supervisory or management positions. Through aware ness of personality strengths and weaknesses, students can begin to recognize necessary improvements toward change. As Edgar Schein (2005) and change start with some form of satisfaction or frustration generated by data that disconfirm (p. 25). It is expected that through a combination of personality assessment and a change project intervention, gains will be made. Research questions were developed to determine the effect of leadership training on the addressed the following questions: 1. Is there a difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control groups on the three subscales: Relationship Scal e, Thinking Style Scale, Feelings and Emotions Scale, and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) instrument as a whole? 2. Is there a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control groups related to relationships with people doma in on the OPQ? 3. Is there a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control groups related to thinking style domain on the OPQ? 4. Is there a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control groups related to feelings and emotio ns domain on the OPQ? 5. Is there a difference in post test scores on the OPQ instrument in all domains related to working style preferences combined?
50 The Setting The population for the study included students enrolled in a supervision and management ba four centers, and serves 80,000 students annually. The comprehensive nature of the college offers applied baccalaureate degrees, associates degrees, technical ce rtificates, GED programs, and professional development training. The Program into supervisory and management positions. The the community college where the study was conducted that all students enter the program with an earned Associate of Arts (AA) or Associate of Sci ence (AS) prior to acceptance. The program was designed to deliver 60 credit hours over six semesters in an accelerated hybrid or online format in order accommodate working adults. Each course is eight weeks long. Successful completion of the program r esults in an earned Bachelor of Applied Science in Supervision and Management. The course curriculum includes 60 credit hours of general education courses, professional courses, and 3000 and 4000 level supervision and management specific courses. All stude nts are required to meet graduation requirements that include exit exams, eight credit hours of a foreign language, and a 2.0 minimum grade point average (GPA) (see Appendi x C ). Population of the Study Students who were interested in applying for the progr am were offered three deadlines during the fall, spring, and summer terms to submit the application and supplemental
51 documentation. Each term 90 students are accepted into the programs, based on the following requirements developed by the college and the department that manages the program: an Associate of Arts (AA) or Associate of Science (AS) degree from a regionally accredited college or university a minimum GPA of 2.5 or higher a letter of recommendation from a current employer an essay written by the student describing how the program will assist with future professional goals relative to supervision and management employment. Prior to the spring deadline, the minimum GPA requirement was reduced to a 2.0. The selection committee includes two academic deans and a program advisor. A rubric and point system were developed and used to objectively rank the applicants to determine which students would enter the program. During the first term, there were 120 applicants. Ninety of those students were accep ted into the program for the inaugural fall 2008 term. A demographic profile of the fall cohort showed that the group was 72% females, 28% males, an average age of 36, and had an average 3.22 GPA. Prior to acceptance into the program, 74% had earned an A A, 17% had earned an AS, and 10% had earned both an AA and AS. All but three of the students received these degrees at the same college where they enrolled in the baccalaureate program. A spring applicant pool was reviewed, and an additional 90 students w ere accepted into the program, based on the same criteria. A demographic profile of the spring cohort showed that there the group was 78% females, 22% males, an average age of 36, and had an average 3.05 GPA. In addition, 76% had earned an AA, 18% had ea rned an AS, and 6% had earned both an AA and AS. Once students were selected, they enrolled in one to four courses, depending upon their with a dean or advisor, to agree upon a schedule that would improve the likelihood of academic
52 success. Students were encouraged to take courses in sequential order, although there were no required pathways (see Appendix D ). The Participants Sixty three undergraduate students fr om two organizational behavior courses at a large community college participated in this study. Approximately 54% of the participants were enrolled in a n organizational behavior class in the 2008 fall term, and the remaining 46% were enrolled in a section during the 2009 spring term. Both organizational behavior courses provided the same curriculum. Informed consent was completed during class, where the researcher reviewed the protocol and asked for participants to voluntary partake in the study. The fall organizational behavior section consisted of 34 participants; however, two withdrew from the class for personal reasons. Therefore 32 remained and fully participated in the study. Twenty six were female, and six were male and both groups combined had an average age of 39 and a 3.23 overall GPA The spring management class consisted of 29 participants, with twenty three females and six males with both groups combined having an average age of 40 and a 3.12 overall GPA Instruments The Occupational Pe rsonality Questionnaire (OPQ), the instrument used to measure the outcome variables, was developed by Saville & Holdsworth, Inc. (SHL) in 1984. This instrument is intended for use in the workplace to assess workplace relevant competencies and supports bus inesses during the hiring process. The OPQ has been translated into 22 different foreign languages. Also, it has provided assistance to over 5,000 clients, including Fortune 500 companies, during the job selection process. Version OPQ32 was used for the study and includes a 32 dimension personality profile. The OPQ includes 230 occupational related questions that focus on the assessment of work behaviors. During the electronic assessment,
53 participants are provided a five point Likert scale that ranges People, Thinking Styles, and Feelings and Emotions. The combination of scores across categories allows researchers to create a bes t fit employment profile that assists with employee selection. Some of the critical areas that constitute a good job match are work related behaviors and preferred leadership style and team type, behaviors assessed with the OPQ. The OPQ also measures Soc ial Desirability, which can determine if respondents are consistent in responses rather than providing answers based on what the test administrator seeks. Each of the 32 personality dimensions are assigned a value between one and ten, and are presented in a sten score format (SHL, 199 0 ). Scores range from one through ten, with a mean of five and a half and a standard deviation of two. Scores that are farther from the mean (either high or low) are considered extreme. The more extreme a score is In a sten distrib ution, people generally score in the middle with 16% at the low end, and 16% at the high end (Wikipedia, 2009). Reliability and Validity of the OPQ Reliability and validity of the OPQ have been demonstrated in relation to personnel development ( Kachik, 200 3 ; S HL 199 0 ; Sloan, 2002 ). Data supports reliability of the instrument, including test/retest reliability and internal consistency (SHL, 199 0 ). The test/retest examined the correlation between the initial test and the follow up test taken one month late r. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.64 for Critical to 0.91 for Outgoing, with a mean of 0.84 (SHL, 1990 ). Because a preferred correlation coefficient should be 0.70 or higher, the data
54 confirms the reliability of the OPQ for assessment purposes. The validity measurements of the OPQ have been compared to the Myers Briggs Type Indicator and the Gordon Personality Profile. The comparison shows that there is criterion validity, therefore confirming that the OPQ is valid and measures what it is intend ed to measure (SHL, 1990 ). The OPQ is an instrument that employers recognize in the community where this study was conducted. Instrumentation was discussed at several advisory board meetings to evaluate the value of implementation of a personality instrum ent. Advisory boards serve the college and program by providing expertise in relation to employability skills and trends in opportunities in the local community. Advisory boards include personnel from large and small companies in the community; specifical ly, human resource executives representing sectors from healthcare, banking, insurance, transportation, and retail. Many of these individuals hire graduates from the community college in the study and recognize the OPQ as a valid and reliable instrument f or employee selection ( Business Advisory Board, 2007 ). Because the OPQ is used for a variety of job profiles and business sectors, a local provider of the OPQ facilitated a focus group session to meet with local employers and determine a job profile specifi cally for students enrolled in the local community college program. The OPQ was used to assess if students in the BAS program had acquired competencies deemed essential for employment. During the focus group session, the following characteristics were est ablished as competencies for BAS graduates: Create technical documents and other formal written materials. Communicate succinctly and persuasively with diverse stakeholders. Make decisions within an appropriate ethical framework. Manage and prioritize mu ltiple and often competing demands. Critically evaluate information for trends, errors, and potential problems. Motivate and inspire diverse populations for results. Engage others through people oriented leadership processes. Use current technologies to wo rk more effectively. Introduce, facilitate, and manage change.
55 Participate in an entire talent management cycle of selection, development, and performance evaluation. Use a wide range of resources to stay current with trends and issues that impact own role and organizational success. Following the focus group session, a job description report was developed to identify key activities and behaviors relevant to frontline supervisors and managers based on the subject oup session. The report includes background requirements, work activities, and interpersonal contact essential for successful job performance (see Appendix E ). In addition, an OPQ32 Model that incorporates relevant OPQ32i and OPQ32n scales to determine t he relevance of the 32 scales relative to the ideal job model. Each of the 32 scales determines whether an attribute is not relevant, low relevance, moderate relevance, or high relevance (see Appendix F ) Definition of Variables Students enrolled in the f all or spring organizational behavior class section were both given the OPQ assessment to determine their entry leadership attributes in leadership trait indices. The pre test was administered between weeks one and two of the course, and the post test was taken four weeks after the class ended, approximately at week twelve. The fall class section was the experimental group and was given an assignment based on Step Change Model: relate, repeat, reframe. An Individual Change Plan (ICP) wa s designed for students to journal their progress and served as the manipulated variable for the study. The ICP incorporated a combination of face to face mentoring from a current supervisor, a virtual support group made up of five to seven class members, and self help activities that included reading assignments related to the skills the students were working to enhance (see Appendix G ). pre test OPQ assessment results The awareness training took place in the classroom and was
56 lead by three industrial psychologists using a script from the OPQ training manual. The ICP was test score s on the OPQ. Research Design The spring class section was the control group and did not receive the ICP. However, they did participate in the awareness training session with industrial psychologists and take the pre and post OPQ assessments. Survey res earch was administered through use of the OPQ questionnaire that measures 32 personality characteristics of BAS students enrolled in a level management class. Statistical analysis includes descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and stati stical follow up procedures to determine if leadership can be learned through ICP or awareness training. Data Collection Pilot Study During fall 2008, the organizational behavior course was offered on two occasions, each in an eight week format. During t he first eight week term, a pilot study was conducted to test the reliability of the OPQ. Between weeks one and two of the class, the OPQ was administered to 34 students. Prior to taking the assessment, students were provided instructions to answer the q uestions honestly and relative to their current work environment. They were told that the assessment would be sent to their college e mail addresses, the test should be taken electronically, and that its length was approximately 45 minutes. One issue th at identified during the pilot was that some student e mail accounts would not allow the assessment to be sent, due to firewall protection. Those assessments had to be re sent to participants. On a few occasions, students did not recognize the e mail and had
57 During the second week, three industrial psychologists visited the class to discuss assessment results with the students. The OPQ Profile Report results w ere distributed to each student on a one page summary of the 32 scales (see Appendix H ). Afterward, students were divided into three groups and assigned an industrial psychologist to review and explain their OPQ results. The session lasted approximately a n hour and a half, with time for follow up questions Step Change Model. Students were also presented the Individual Change Plan (ICP), a PowerPoint presentation discussing the De utschman Model and deadlines to complete the assignment. During weeks four through seven, students submitted weekly progress reports outlined in the ICP. During week eight, the ICP was submitted for grading. Due to cost constraints, the post OPQ assessm ent was not administered during the pilot study. Due to experience and information gained during the pilot, the ICP was slightly modified to improve written instructions. A directions document described how to select a mentor, what was meant by a support group, and how to research self help articles. The review session with industrial psychologists was reduced to one hour. And a media file was recorded of one Expe rimental Group The experimental participants included 34 students during the second half of the fall 2008 term in an eight week session. Two students withdrew from the class for personal reasons; 32 students remained and fully participated in the study. Twenty six were female, and six were male ; the mean age and GPA were 39 and 3.23, respectively Students were given instructions regarding the OPQ, as outlined in the pilot, and were also provided directions concerning technical issues identified in the pilot study. During class,
58 three industrial psychologists visited and conducted group reviews of the OPQ32 scales and informed students of how they could review individual results. Participants reviewed their individual OPQ Profile Reports, which summar ized work style preferences on 32 dimensions. Sten scores on a scale of 1 to 10 reported attribute scores. responses. This portion of the assessment was desig ned to verify the validity of the assessment. The 32 participants reviewed the information from the OPQ report to develop an Individual Change Plan (ICP). The ICP required that each student identify two attributes that they were disappointed with in their scores but were considered essential to future success. Students were then instructed to develop an ICP based on assistance from a mentor, virtual support group, and self help activities to improve these two OPQ scores. Students were then shown a PowerPo int presentation describing the Three Step Change Model of relate, repeat, and reframe. Using this model, students were instructed to take the two attributes they identified for improvement and create goals and objectives to produce change. Students impl emented their ICPs though weekly classroom time and Blackboard group discussions, weekly meetings with a designated mentor, and reviews of literature that related to their two attributes. The OPQ was also administered as a post test, and participants were provided with a report detailing the findings of this assessment. Control Group The control participants included 29 students that attended the first half of the spring 2009 term of an eight week session immediately following the experimental class. Altho ugh there was no attrition during class, because the post test was administered at week 12, four weeks after class ended, four students did not complete the post test. Therefore 25 students remained as participants in the control group. Nineteen were fem ale, and six were male ; t he
59 mean age and GPA were 40 and 3.12, respectively Students received identical instructions regarding the OPQ and technical issues, as outlined in the pilot. The participants also received feedback from three industrial psycholo gists identical to the feedback provided to the experimental group. Unlike the experimental group, the control group did not develop an ICP; they were given an alternate assignment. The assignment was to locate a journal article that related to one of the attributes that the student wanted to develop. Furthermore, students did not view the PowerPoint presentation of the Three Step Change Model. Data Analysis The data analyzed were to determine if the implementation of an Individual Change Plan (ICP) would following an eight week change intervention. T tests w ere used to analyze the difference in student post test score between the treatment group and control group, with stude nt pre test scores as the covariance. The analysis was conducted by the software program SPSS 17.0. The differences in student post test scores as a whole were analyzed individually on three subscales: Feelings and Emotion, Relationship, and Thinking Sty le. Coefficient alpha was used and carried out by SPSS 17.0 for the three subscales, and the instrument as a whole to assess the internal reliability of the OPQ. Summary of Chapter 3 Chapter four described an explanation of the research methodology of the study including the purpose, population, instrumentation, research design and data collection methods in addition to the methods used for data analysis. Data analysis results are presented in the next chapter.
60 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of the stu dy was to examine the outcome of a course that addressed level management course at a community college in the United States. The study explored a theoretical framework of change by examining two m odels designed to impact leadership abilities. This chapter presents the findings of the study including descriptive statistics. Research questions were designed to determine if change in behavior was evident after the completion of a change project in an organizational behavior class. T test s w ere used to analyze the difference in student pre and post test scores between the treatment group and control group with respect to the four aspects: Relationship, Thinking Style, Feelings and Emotions, and the OPQ instrument in all domains related to working style preferences combined. The analysis was conducted by the software program SPSS 17.0. Coefficient alpha was used and carried out by SPSS 17.0 for the three subscales, and the instrument as a whole to as sess the internal reliability of the OPQ. Aggregate Data Descriptive Statistics The mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis of control group and experimental group are presented ( s ee T able 4 1). With the criteria of two (skewness and kurtosis st atistic divided by standard error) for skewness and kurtosis as the acceptance value for distribution s normality, all test score distributions except control group post test score on Feeling s and Emotio ns scale are distributed normally with no large devia tions for skewness or kurtosis. Therefore, the reader should be especially cautious of the interpretation about the data analysis result regarding student post test scores on the Feeling s and Emotion s scale.
61 Research Question 1 The review o f the literature indicated the importance of leadership and soft skills. Therefore t his research question centered on whether or not there is a difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control group s on the three subscales: Relationship Sca le, Thinking Style Scale, Feelings and Emotions Scale, and the instrument as a whole following a change intervention H 0 : There is no significant difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control group s on the three subscales: Relationship S cale, Thinking Style Scale, Feelings and Emotion s Scale, and the instrument as a whole. H a : There is significant difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control group s on the three subscales: Relationship Scale, Thinking Style Scale, Feelin gs and Emotion s Scale, and the instrument as a whole. T he pre test score differences between the control group and experimental group w e re measured using an Independent Samples T test. There w as no significant difference between these two groups with resp ect to their p re test score s in the three subscales: Relationship Scale (t (55) = 0.582, p = 0.563) ; Thinking Style Scale (t (55) = 0.660, p = 0.512) ; Feelings and Emotion s Scale (t (55) = 0.622, p = 0.537) ; and the scale as a whole (t (55) = 0.376 p = 0.708) ( s ee T able 4 2). This summarizes that both the control and experimental group were equivalent prior to the change intervention that was administered to the experimental group. Research Question 2 This research question centered on whether or not there is a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s related to interpersonal relationships H 0 : Students will not exhibit a significant difference in the post test scores.
62 H a : Students enrolled in a bachelor s level man agement class will improve on the Relationship Scale domain scores on the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test The post test score differences between the control group and experimental group were measured related to interpersonal relation using an Independent Samples T test. There w as no significant difference between these two groups with respect to their p ost test score s on the Relationship Scale (t (55) = 0.794, p = 0.431) ( s ee T able 4 3) Research Question 3 T his research question focused on whether or not there is a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s in relation to thinking style H 0 : Students will not exhibit a significant difference in the post test scores. H a : Students e nrolled in a bachelor s level management class will improve on T hinking S tyle domain scores on the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test T he post test score differences between the control group and experimental group in relation to their thinking style s were measured using an Independent Samples T test. There were no significant difference between these two groups with respect to their post test scores on the Thinking Style Scale (t (55) = 0.085, p = 0.933) ( s ee T abl e 4 3). Research Question 4 This research question focused on whether or not there is a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s related to feelings and emotions H 0 : Students will not exhibit a significant difference in th e post test scores.
63 H a : Students enrolled in a bachelor s level management class will improve on F eelings and E motions domain scores on the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test T he post test score differences between the control group and experimental group related to feelings and emotions were measured using an Independent Samples T test. There was no significant difference between these two groups with respect to their p ost test score s on the Feelings and Emotion S cale (t (55) = 0.250, p = 0.803) ( s ee T able 4 3). Research Question 5 This research question focused on whether or not there is a difference in post test scores on the OPQ instrument in all domains related to working style preferences combined. H 0 : Studen ts will not exhibit a significant difference in the post test scores. H a : Students enrolled in a bachelor s level management class will improve on the overall scores of the OPQ following an eight week change intervention as measured by a post test T he po st test score differences between the control group and experimental group on the OPQ instrument in all domains were measured related to working style preferences combined using an Independent Samples T test. There was no significant difference between th ese two groups with respect to their post test scores on the OP Q instrument as a whole (t (55) = 0.280, p = 0.781) ( s ee T able 4 3) R eliability coefficients were calculated for the three subscales: Relationship Scale, Thinking Style Scale, Feelings and Emotions Scale, and the instrument as a whole. Two batches of coefficients were obtained based on the two tests: student pre test and post test ( s ee T able 4 4 ) Relatively high reliability coefficients obtained for this instrument as a whole demonstrate that this instrument is an overall reliable measurement for working style preferences. However,
64 the low reliability coefficients for the Feelings and Emotions scale cast s doubt on its reliability as
65 Summary of Chapter 4 Chapter four described the results of the research questions relative to whether three domains including relationships with people, thinking style, and feelings and emotions could show change after an eight week orga nizational behavior class. While Furnham ( 2005 ) explained that people believe that personality and behavior styles are difficult to change, compared to the other components of human capital, personality and behavior are the most easily modified the resul ts of this research showed otherwise. Instead, the results show that modifying personality and behavior were not attainable using the change theory model in an eight week class.
66 Table 4 1 Comparison between control group and experimental g roup in pre and post tests Mean Std. Deviation Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error Total Score Experimental Group Pre Test Relationship 47.13 11.98 0.09 0.41 0.78 0.81 Thinking Style 60.38 12.60 0.37 0 .41 1.20 0.81 Feeling s & Emotion s 53.34 8.53 0.24 0.41 0.26 0.81 Total Score 160.84 25.44 0.32 0.41 0.47 0.81 Post Test Relationship 48.31 11.77 0.20 0.41 0.24 0.81 Thinking Style 61.59 8.51 0.09 0.41 0.92 0.81 Feeling s & Emotion s 55.44 8.02 0.52 0.41 0.64 0.81 Total Score 165.34 23.44 0.53 0.41 0.23 0.81 Total Score Control Group Pre Test Relationship 45.44 9.17 0.30 0.46 0.05 0.90 Thinking Style 58.32 10.36 0.42 0.46 0.13 0.90 Feeling s & Emotion s 54.76 8.54 0.19 0.46 0.78 0.90 Total Score 158.52 19.82 0.12 0.46 0.56 0.90 Post Test Relationship 46.12 8.14 0.55 0.46 0.59 0.90 Thinking Style 61.80 9.79 0.72 0.46 1.72 0.90 Feeling s & Emotion s 55.96 7.56 1.17 0.46 2.20 0.90
67 Table 4 2 Independent samples t est No tes: PreRScore Relationship scales PreTScore Thinking scales PreFScore Feelings and Emotions scales PreScore Aggregate of all scales Levene Test for Equality of Variances T test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df PreRScore Equal variances assumed 2.437 .124 .582 55 Equal variances not assumed .602 54.985 PreTScore Equal variances assumed .534 .468 .660 55 Equal variances not assu med .676 54.830 PreFScore Equal variances assumed .115 .736 .622 55 Equal variances not assumed .622 51.705 PreScore Equal variances assumed 1.771 .189 .376 55 Equal variances not assumed .388 55.000
68 Table 4 3 Independent samples t est Levene s Test for Equality of Variances T test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df PostRScor e Equal variances assumed 3.304 .075 .794 55 Equal variances not assumed .830 54.293 PostTScore Equal variances assumed .218 .643 .085 55 Equal variances not assumed .084 47.822 PostFScore Equal variances ass umed .768 .385 .250 55 Equal variances not assumed .252 53.037 PostScore Equal variances assumed 4.331 .042 .267 55 Equal variances not assumed .280 54.090 Notes: *Post RScore Relationship scales *Post TScore Thinking scales, *Post FScore Fee lings and Emotions scales,*Post Score Aggregate of all scales Table 4 4 Reliability c oefficients for scales Relationship scale alpha Thinking Style scale alpha Feelings and Emotions scale alpha Instrument alpha Pre test .667 .681 .388 .750 Post test .716 .551 .305 .728
69 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The objective of this study was to explore and empirically determine if a change intervention would impact leadership behaviors as personality characteristics and improve a ributes. In this chapter a discussion of the results, suggestions for future research and implications for faculty and administrators will conclude this study. Discussion of the Results Upon review of the literature and development of the study, the urge ncy for graduates to develop leadership and soft skill competencies was of paramount concern (as cited in Holdsworth & Gearhart, 2002). According to The Occupational Information Network (O*N ET ), a computerized Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) prof essional experts report the most sought after knowledge, skills, and abilities in hundreds of occupations ( National Center for O*NET Development, 2009 ). After a thorough evaluation of the job title M anager of O perations, it was evident that the occupation fell into three distinct domains that correlated well with the OPQ questionnaire ( see Appendix I ). As Warren (2002) explained a small change can improve significant gains and furthermore, if individuals can learn to change one negative behavior, this can significantly impact workplace success. Because supervisors and managers require essential skills, this study examined whether or not leadership and soft skills could be improved by following a change model based on the T hree Step C hange Model, a theor y developed by Alan Deutschman, author of Change or Die (2006). The OPQ was used to measure the change because of the construct alignment with the job model. A statistical analysis was used to determine if the change intervention increased the likelihood of improved leadership and soft skill attributes. Coplin (2003) suggests that employers prefer to hire potential leaders and that leadership skills are essential employability
70 skills. He explains that students want to have leadership experience primaril y because they think it will look good on their resumes or graduate school applications, and employers value leadership because it is associated with a willingness to improve oneself and demonstrates optimism about change. According to Furnham (2005), w hi le people believe that personality and behavior styles are difficult to change, compared to the other components of human capital, personality and behavior are the most easily modified the results of the study show otherwise. This study examined this beli ef and revealed that change is difficult within the structure of this study. Research Question One This research question centered on whether or not there is a difference in pre test scores between the treatment and control group s on the three subscales: Relationship Scale, Thinking Style Scale, Feelings and Emotions Scale, and the instrument as a whole as it relates to the job model. The purpose was to empirically test whether the change intervention had an impact on the three subscales. The results d id not find a significant difference between these two groups with respect to their pre test scores on the three subscales. In this instance, the data showed no difference between the treatment and control group s As Goleman Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) e xplain ed changing habits is difficult because it necessitates a reversal of learning developed over many years. In other words, an eight week change initiative may be too short in duration since change requires significant commitment relative to time an d effort. Perhaps a longer change initiative timeline would have produced more impressive resul ts. Eldredge (2006) pointed out that as important as technical skills are, employers cite that another challenge in workforce recruitment is a shortage of soft skill competencies. Soft skills include the ability to interact and communicate appropriately with other people.
71 Research Question Two As Eldr e dge (2006) explain ed it is essential to interact and communicate appropriately with other people. Examples of these skills such as social graces, friendliness, and teamwork are vital toward workplace success. The OPQ was used to measure the construct called relationships with people and included ten scales such as outspoken, socially confident, and persua siveness. The goal of r esearch question two was to determine if there is a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s related to relationships with people after a change related intervention. T tests w ere used to analyze the difference in student post test score between the treatment group and control group, with student pre test scores as the covariance. I did not find significant differences between the treatment group and control group s with respect to student post test s cores. As described in the literature, while most people agree that change is necessary, it often creates anxiety and resistance (Yukl & Lepsinger 2006). Therefore there may not have been enough time to implement the change s Research Question Three Ro binson Garton, and Vaughn (2007) studied employability skills of graduates in the College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources at the University of Missouri and results indicated that graduates perceived problem solving and analytic skills as crit ical. Therefore, this research question focused on whether or not there is a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s related to thinking style Within this domain, analytics, creativity, and forward thinking were examples o f the twelve scales represent ing this construct. In this case, the effect of treatment related to thinking style on student post test scores at the end of the semester, controlling for the differences in their pre test score from the beginning of the seme ster was tested. The results did not find significant differences between the
72 treatment and control group s with respect to student post test score s; however; the effect of difference in student pre test score on post test score was statistically signific ant. Perhaps this construct is too abstract for undergraduate students to be expected to develop. Moreover, fewer than 30 % skills that will become more important, such as critical thinking, teamwork, creativity, and diversity Research Question Four One of the most widespread leadership constructs discussed in the literature was emotional intelligence (EI) Caruso and Salovey (2004) ings and emotions affect how well they influence people, therefore providing the core of leadership Cartwright and Pappas (2007) explained t hat there is a relationship between EI More specifically, there have been claims a s to the economic benefits when selecting personnel based on EI. T aking all of this information into consideration, this research question focused on whether or not there is a difference in post test scores between the treatment and control group s related to feelings and emotions The OPQ domain referred to as feeling s and emotions include ten scales such as emotionally controlled, tough minded and relaxed to provide a definition of the construct. Using T tests to determine change of differences bet ween the treatment and control group s with respect to student post test score s I did not find significant differences. Because EI is central to leadership success, it should be more significantly studied and practiced in higher education, acro s s the curr iculum rather than limit ed to one course. Research Question Five As the literature described, personality tests are used by employers to assess personality abilities for prediction of employee behaviors. Additionally, since previously published research suggested that relative to skills and
73 personality characteristics to determine if someone is suitable for a job, there is interest from employers to incorporate personality tests as part of employee s creening (Highhouse, 2002; Jeanneret & Silzer, 1998 ; Prien & Schippman, 2003). Therefore this research question addressed a broad range of traits that included relationships with people, thinking style, and feelings and emotions to determine changes rela tive to all scales following a change intervention. The question focused on whether or not there is a difference in post test scores on the OPQ instrument in all domains related to working style preferences combined. I evaluated the effect of treatment o n student post test score s from the end of the semester, controlling for differences in their pre test score s from the beginning of the semester. I did not find significant difference between the treatment and control group s with respect to student post te st score s However the effect of difference in student pre test score s on post test score s that was statistically significant. It is recommended that I validity test the OPQ to determine if the instrument is designed to measure what I used it for in thi s study. Recommendations for Future Research There are several noteworthy suggestions for future research that offer some theoretical and practical implications relative to change and leadership development in supervision and management baccalaureate educa tion at community colleges. As the literature suggested, leadership and soft skills are imperative for students to successfully enter the workforce upon college graduation. Because employers describe a work readiness gap related to leadership and soft sk ills and expect that colleges and universities will provide meaningful opportunit ies to develop these skills, it will be valuable for college academics to determine how to implement a curriculum that aligns with employer expectations and ensure s that stude nts are prepared. Furthermore, if students lack the necessary skills, it will be valuable to incorporate the practice
74 of change, specifically self change through the use of a behavioral model and measure the change through the use of baseline, formative and summative assessments As the literature described, there has been much written concerning the value of change and developing leadership and soft skills ; however there needs to be more corroboration between the job model and its alignment with leader ship and soft skills. A worthwhile study would include a review of the O *NET directory and its relationship with soft skill and leadership competencies to identify the most important attributes then determin ing if those competencies could be successfully taught in a baccalaureate program. Another recommendation would include a longitudinal study to determine if graduates that possess soft and leadership skills are more successful in becoming gainfully employed by following graduate transition from col lege to the workforce. As the literature suggests, more research is necessary to develop curriculum that integrates technical and soft skills, and the value of employer and higher education collaboration to ensure that the workforce is better prepared aft er college graduati on ( Carnevale, Gainer, & Meltzer, 1990 ). An additional recommendation is for stakeholders including colleges, graduates, employers, accrediting agencies and policy makers to collaborate through continued dialogue to better align progr am and workplace competencies for seamless transition into the workforce. One approach to provide a forum for increase d collaboration is through college advisory boards to ensure that colleges meet the needs of business and industry. While desirable, th e challenge will be to implement teaching and learning opportunities and determine ways to teach and measure the added value of a college degree relative to the constructs of interest, specifically leadership attributes. Quantitative studies with a survey design can be used to measure learning gains, using an assessment instrument such as the OPQ that is valid in relation to selection. While the OPQ job model for this study was developed by an expert panel to ensure that
75 competencies we re in alignment wit h workforce preferences, further validity testing using statistical tests such as structural equation modeling will provide another measure for construct validity. Furthermore, with publically funded colleges and universities having to develop program a ssessment studies to ensure that learning is occurring, it will be beneficial to determine if leadership skills are effectively learned in higher education. Another recommendation will include a study that occur s across curriculum rather than within a spec ific course as with this study. Perhaps within a one year time frame, three courses could adopt the individual change project (ICP) and the progress reports could be s pread throughout the academic year, providing students more time to develop. In addit ion, a 360 degree feedback component is also recommended for students to receive additional feedback from employers W hile a student might not want to change his or her personality, it is possible to change behavior especially when employment is dependen t upon it. Because the research subjects were junior level organizational behavior course a convenient sample of these subjects was utilized in the data collection. Therefore the study is not generalizab le to students enrolled in organizational behavior courses at universities. Another potentially noteworthy study would compare community college and university students in similar programs to determine if the type of institution impacts change relative t o leadership and soft skills development. While more research is necessary to develop curriculum that integrates change development relative to technical and soft skills, employers can partner with colleges and universities to improve the preparedness of t he new workforce This can be achieved by open communication shar ed research findings and collaboration between educational institutions and workforce industries
76 One final recommendation would be to consider studying one domain that is tied into self awareness which according to the literature is critical to success. Perhaps more focus should first be on a domain related to emotional intelligence since the literature emphasizes this as a foundation for example, in Caruso and Salovey ( 2004 ) who st ate that emotional feelings and emotions affect how well they influence people, the core of leadership Without such a foundation can other soft and leadership skills even be developed ? Implications for Higher Education Administration The results of this study have contributed to the literature regarding the importance of change theory relative to the development of soft skills and leadership attributes while students are enrolled in c ollege. While c hange is about ending the status quo and embracing a new beginning, individuals typically resist change primarily because of fear Furthermore, because o rganizations do not change unless people inside the organization change self change i s critical to organizational success As Quinn ( 2004) explains, i ndividual transformation is the critical ingredient for deep change but is resistan ce bound Only individuals can decide to venture in a new direction adopt a new vision or take a risk because all change is self change Unfortunately it is difficult to implement primarily because all change is self change and it requires dealing with emotions and self control. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) describe the following: Changing habit s is hard work Whenever people try to change habits of how they think and act, they must reverse decades of learning that resides in hea vily traveled, highly reinforced neural circuitry, built up over years of repeating that habit of oneself especially during stressful times or amid growing responsibilities (p 25)
77 This is why the development and implementation of a change model can guide students through a process towards goals. for the T hree S tep C hange M odel, central to all change init iatives. Because c ommunity colleges educa te approximately half of college students in addition to beginning to offer baccalaureate degrees it is imperative to study whether or not community college s are malleable enough to provide success i n the area of change initiatives and soft skills and leadership skills mak ing their graduates more competitive when entering the workforce. Conclusion Changing behaviors is a challenging undertaking for college students as evidenced in this study. Whi le a ten week change initiative did not show results that were statistically significant, it did make students aware of the importance of developing soft and leadership skills through the development of a change initiative. While Warren (2002) asserted th at most behavior patterns result from habits and spontaneous reactions to situations, and not from self conscious, self directed efforts becoming aware of a predisposition and making a conscious effort to monitor the habit, an individual can learn to sup press negative behavior Kotter (1996) suggested that people can change habits that they have developed over many years, sometimes in a short five day training session Although Deutchman described the theoretical framework of change including a three ste p process, this research did not support the authors model. Another factor is student motivation. Because education describes learners as intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, it may be necessary to understand the motivational factors as a variable to consider when studying change. This study provided the framework to recognize the value of change theory initiatives and the importance of recognizing that while a college education, grade point average and
78 experience are essential in becoming gainfully employ ed having appropriate soft and leadership skills is equally essential. While assessing one s str e ngths and challenges relative to soft and leadership skills can be frustrating, disappointing, and sometimes seem unimportant this study revealed tha t these skills are paramount and that determining a baseline through a work styles personality assessment can be an ideal starting point to begin the process of change as students transition through their baccalaureate education. Furthermore, b y changin g one behavior, an otherwise aggressive, impatient person can dramatically reduce the number of times that he or she irritate s others and increase the opportunities to hear his or her co workers insights regarding work related matters Most behavior pa tterns are driven strictly by habit and are not consciously directed Many people erroneously think that personality and behavior are hardwired and cannot be changed While considerable effort is required to break longtime patterns, altering behavior d oes not require dramatic personality changes Becoming conscious of how personality affects oneself and others can represent a giant step toward modifying behavior Just as a conductor uses a baton to quiet the horn section and bring in the strings, indi viduals can learn to consciously orchestrate their behavior s
79 APPENDIX A GENERAL OPERATIONS M ANAGER SKILLS, ABILI TIES, AND WORK ACTIV ITIES Skills / Ability / Work Activity Description Active Listening Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times Reading Comprehension Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents Speaking T alking to others to convey information effectively Critical Thinking Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems Monitoring Monitoring/Assessing performance of your self, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action Coordination Social Perceptiveness Active Learning Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem solving and decision making Complex Problem Solving Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate optio ns and implement solutions Judgment and Decision Making Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one Oral Comprehension The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented t hrough spoken words and sentences Oral Expression The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand Problem Sensitivity The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not invol ve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem Written Comprehension The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing Written Expression The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand Speech Clarity The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you Deductive Reasoning The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense Speech Recognition The ability to identify and under stand the speech of another person Information Ordering The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations ) Inductive Reasoning The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events) Getting Information Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources Making Decisions and Solving Problems Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems Coordinating the Work Activities of Others Getting members of a group to work togethe r to accomplish tasks
80 Scheduling Work and Activities Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others Skills / Ability / Work Activity Description Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems Monitoring and Controlling Resources Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money Selling or Influencing Others Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions Communicating with Persons Outside the Organization Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e Mail. Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with o thers, and maintaining them over time Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates Providing information to supervisors, co workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e mail, or in person
81 APPENDIX B (2003) RANKING OF BU SINESS PROGRAM GRADU ATE COMPETENCIES, AS CAL CULATED BASED ON EMP A QUESTIONNAIRE
82 APPENDIX C BAS SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT C URRICULUM Requirements Credit hours Associate Degree Credit (From non Gen. Ed. Core Electives, Professional Core or Professional Electives) 42 Additional General Education Core must be made up of the following courses: Communications (2000 Level or higher) Humanities ( 2000 Level or higher) Mathematics (2000 Level or higher) Natural Sciences Two general education natural science courses including one with a lab. One course must be at the 2000 level or higher. Social and Behavioral Sciences (2000 Level or higher) At le ast one course from the behavioral sciences. 36 Supervision and Management Core Courses BUL 3130 Business Law and Ethics Credit Hours: 3 FIN 3400 Financial Management Credit Hours: 3 GEB 3212 Business Writing Credi t Hours: 3 MAN 3240 Organizational Behavior Credit Hours: 3 M AN 3353 Management Theory and Practices Credit Hours: 3 15 Supervision and Management Specialization Courses ISM 4011 Introduction to Management Informatio n Systems Credit Hours: 3 GEB 4891 Strategic Management and Decision Making Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4120 Leadership and Group Dynamics Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4162 Customer Relations for Managers Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4301 Human Resources Management Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4504 Operation al Decision Making Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4900 Capstone Project in Supervision and Management Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4930 Selected Topics in Management Credit Hours:3 MAN 4940 Internship Credit Hours: 3 27
83 APPE NDIX D BAS SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT C OURSE S EQUENCE Requirements Credit hours Associate Degree Credit (From non Gen. Ed. Core Electives, Professional Core or Professional Electives) 42 Additional General Education Core must be made up of the follow ing courses: Communications (2000 Level or higher) Humanities (2000 Level or higher) Mathematics (2000 Level or higher) Natural Sciences Two general education natural science courses including one with a lab. One course must be at the 2000 level or higher. Social and Behavioral Sciences (2000 Level or higher) At least one course from the behavioral sciences. Includes any general education accepted from your A.S., A.A. or higher degree. Refer to A.S. degree General Education Requirements 36 Supervision and Management Core Courses BUL 3130 Bu siness Law and Ethics Credit Hours: 3 FIN 3400 Financial Management Credit Hours: 3 GEB 3212 Business Writing Credit Hours: 3 MAN 3240 Organizational Behavior Credit Hours: 3 MAN 3353 Management Theory and Practices Credit Hours: 3 15 Supervision and Management Specialization Courses ISM 4011 Introduction to Management Information Systems Credit Hours: 3 GEB 4891 Strategic Management and Decision Making Credit Hour s: 3 MAN 4120 Leadership and Group Dynamics Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4162 Customer Relations for Managers Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4301 Human Resources Management Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4504 Operational Decision Making Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4900 Capstone Project in Supervision a nd Management Credit Hours: 3 MAN 4930 Selected Topics in Management Credit Hours:3 MAN 4940 Internship Credit Hours: 3 27 Total 120 Foreign Language Requirement seeking students must meet a foreign language requirement prior to graduation. Students may fulfill the requirement by completing eight semester hours of the same foreign language or sign language or by passing two years of the same high school foreign language with a
84 College Level Examination Program (CLEP) level one and two scores in French, German, and Spanish will APPENDIX E ESSENTIAL WORK ACTIVITIES E SSENTIAL W ORK A CTIVITIES Essential activitie s are defined as task statements with ratings equal to or greater than 60 on a 100 point scale of task criticality. Criticality ratings take into account the importance of the task in meeting job objectives and the time spent performing the task. These r atings were provided by people who know this job well. See WPS Technical Report for details. B1: SUPERVISING / DIRECTING Directly supervising people at work Give instruction to non supervisors Giving verbal instructions to colleagues Maintaining a phy sical presence to make sure all is well Issuing directions in an emergency Directing others to repeat a task not satisfactorily done Supervising to ensure compliance with laws/regulations Supervising people at a distance (e.g., other locations) E1: ASSES SING / EVALUATING Evaluating quality of output of a production system Testing a system for correct function Critically examining information for accuracy / quality Evaluating information for purposes of recommendation Evaluating the written work of othe rs Identifying points of danger, fire or crime risk Assessing items prior to acquisition Evaluating alternatives prior to choice A3: CONTROLLING / DIRECTING Controlling the use of people in meeting objectives Requiring work to be redone to meet specif ications Authorizing actions Ensuring work is within a pre specified budget Following up with people to expedite work completion Directing the implementation of agreed policy Ensuring agreements (legal and / or binding) are adhered to Laying down procedure s for maintenance or safety Controlling non people resources to meet objectives
85 B3: MOTIVATING Creating a good team spirit Encouraging cooperation between team members Appealing to people to increase their motivation Sustaining interest of others in projects or continuing tasks Stimulating interest in activities Encouraging a faster rate of work Persuading an individual to carry out an unappealing task Emphasizing the importance of reaching a work objective Warning people in order to increase their m otivation Understanding the personal needs or motives of others B5: DISCIPLINING / HANDLING DISPUTES / GRIEVANCES Reducing tension between people Defending another individual's position Avoiding emotional involvement in disputes Resolving disputes Lis tening to grievances Disciplining people Physically restraining people Handling disciplinary problems firmly Issuing formal warnings Pointing out poor standard of work Maintaining discipline in a work environment Giving verbal warnings in order to correct behavior Being sympathetic A1: PLANNING Setting priorities for utilizing resources Planning short term (task) objectives Revising plans to account for changed circumstances Planning a logical sequence of events or tasks Creating schedules Creating a r oster or list of duties Anticipating problems
86 A2: IMPLEMENTING / COORDINATING Organizing resources to meet an objective Allocating resources (people, materials) between jobs Allocating resources in emergencies Ensuring the efficient coordination of activities Allocating duties to others Initiating action in emergency F3: INFORMING / DISCUSSING / INTERVIEWING Discussing issues for clarification or explanation Making constructive written criticism Making constructive verbal criticism Informing wo rkers or staff of management policies Interviewing formally to establish facts Providing spoken information about a problem/issue Providing written information about a problem/issue Making a verbal report to a supervisor or manager Answering critical quest ions about activities Interviewing formally using structured questionnaire Challenging instructions or orders E8: LEARNING / RESEARCHING Keeping abreast of developments in a specialist field Undertaking informal training or coaching Learning new syste ms, methods or processes E2: ANALYZING / DIAGNOSING Identifying patterns or trends within data Analyzing numerical information Analyzing written information Diagnosing problems in physical process or machinery Diagnosing problems in non physical syste m/procedure Breaking down a procedure into logical steps
87 B2: APPRAISING / EVALUATING Evaluating behavior in progress Evaluating the work of others on completion Undertaking on the job training of others Creating confidence among those learning new skills Demonstrating procedures to help others Evaluating the work of others in progress Evaluating the past performance of individuals Appraising the personal development of individuals Helping others to produce ideas Considering appropriate staff develo pment action Appraising individuals for recruitment or promotion A4: REVIEWING / EVALUATING Checking adherence to schedules Evaluating the cost of a project or venture Evaluating numerical data on organization or dept. Evaluating written reports on or ganization or dept. Reviewing progress of a case or project Identifying problems in a project design Reviewing efficiency of an operation Reviewing systems or processes to assess adequacy Reviewing to assess compliance with rules, laws, etc.
88 APPENDIX F OPQ32 MODEL S CALE OPQ32 Model Scale Not Relevant Low Relevance Moderate Relevance High Relevance RP1 Persuasive RP2 Controlling RP3 Outspoken RP4 Independent Minded RP5 Outgoing RP6 Affiliative RP7 Socially Confident RP8 Modest RP9 Democratic RP10 Caring TS1 Data Rational TS2 Evaluative TS3 Behavioral TS4 Conventional TS5 Conceptual TS6 Innovati ve TS7 Variety Seeking TS8 Adaptable TS9 Forward Thinking TS10 Detail Conscious TS11 Conscientious TS12 Rule Following FE1 Relaxed FE2 Worrying FE3 Tough Minded FE4 O ptimistic FE5 Trusting FE6 Emotionally Controlled FE7 Vigorous FE8 Competitive FE9 Achieving FE10 Decisive
89 APPENDIX G E XPERIMENTAL GROUP SELF ASSESSMENT CHANGE PR OJECT Individual Assignment Worth 15 point (15% of your overall grade for the class) This is an exciting assignment, one that will not only assist you in t he present but also in the future If you read the Wall Street Journal you can see how personality assessments are ubiquitous, and it may not be unusual as part of the selection process the next time you seek employment. Keeping this in mind, the assignment will support you in developing a strategy to improve your OPQ scales and ultimately provide you with career growth opportunity. The actual assignment is on a different document (See Self Assessmen t Change Project). These are instructions that I generally would review in class, but since this section is online, I have provided some guidelines. A few important points to keep in mind: 1. General: While I have provided individual due dates for each part of the assignment, this will be a self paced project. 2. Grading: I am a hard grader on this assignment and can identify when someone does not take the assignment seriously, so make sure that you stay focused. If you want maximum points, you will need to d o quality work. 3. How to Submit: You will submit the assignment through the assignments tab. Refer to the Due Dates. 4. Writing Style: You will follow the APA Guidelines that are outlined in the syllabus and under the documents button. Review the paper The Im portance of HR within Fred Meyer that you consider purchasing the official APA Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or checking it out from the library. This is the best way for you to fully understand how to write scholarly. 5. Sample Paper: Refer to the sample Self Assessment Change Project (Sally Smith Questions 1 5) to give you an idea of what I am looking for. Your assignment is a little different than this one, but this resource will assist you in better understanding what is expected. 6. Support Group: Your support group is the members of your virtual office; therefore, you should be communicating with them weekly to discuss your progress. You will inse rt the actual communications into your final paper.
90 7. Selecting Two Sten Scores: It is not unusual for students to wonder how to select the sten scores for the assignment. While I am happy to provide you with guidance, it is even better when you consult with your employer. By doing so, you can ask them which of the scales are most important for someone seeking a supervision or management position. These are always different, depending on your company and the type of job you are interested in the future. Please be future thinking. You want to be prepared for the next job, not your current one. So, for example, if Data Rational is really important, and you did not score well in that category, that might be something you want to work on. 8. Mentor: Your men tor should preferably be your immediate supervisor, as they can best provide insight as to what is important for professional growth. Sometimes students say trus t and like, perhaps someone that will help you network toward your next job. Be strategic! If you are not currently employed, you can ask an instructor to serve as your mentor. 9. Contemporary Research: Please refer to scholarly articles, journals, and Web sites no Wikipedia, dictionary, or Web sites that are not evidenced based Please enjoy the project; it will get you to think a lot about yourself.
91 APPENDIX H OPQ32 REPORT SAMPLE RELATIONSHIPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7 r arely pressures others to change their views, dislikes selling, less comfortable using negotiation Persuasive enjoys selling, comfortable using negotiation, likes to change other INFLUENCE 5 happy to let others take charge, dislikes telli ng people what to do, unlikely to take the lead Controlling likes to be in charge, takes the lead, tells others what to do, takes control 2 holds back from criticizing others, may not express own views, unprepared to put forward own opinions Outspoke n freely expresses opinions, makes disagreement clear, prepared to criticize others 6 accepts majority decisions, prepared to follow the consensus Independent Minded prefers to follow own approach, prepared to disregard majority decisions 4 quiet a nd reserved in groups, dislikes being center of attention Outgoing lively and animated in groups, talkative, enjoys attention SOCIABILITY 3 comfortable spending time away from people, values time spent alone, seldom misses the company of others Affil iative company of others 5 feels more comfortable in less formal situations, can feel awkward when first meeting people Socially Confident feels comfortable when first meeting people, at ease in formal situations 7 makes strengths and achievements known, talks about personal success Modest dislikes discussing achievements, keeps quiet about personal success EMPATHY 4 prepared to make decisions without consultation, prefers to make d ecisions alone Democratic consults widely, involves others in decision making, less likely to make decisions alone 4 selective with sympathy and support, remains detached Caring sympathetic and considerate towards othe rs, helpful and supportive, THINKING STYLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 prefers dealing with opinions and feelings rather than facts and figures, likely to avoid using statistics Data Rational likes working with numbers, enjoys analyzing statistical information, bases decisions on facts and figures ANALYSIS 6 does not focus on potential limitations, dislikes critically analyzing information, rarely looks for errors or mistakes Evaluative critically evaluates information looks for potential limitations, focuses upon errors 1 tends not to analyze people Behavioral tries to understand motives and behaviors, enjoys analyzing people 6 prefers changes to work method s, prefers new approaches, less conventional Conventional prefers well established methods, prefers a more conventional approach CREATIVITY AND CHANGE 5 prefers to deal with practical rather than theoretical issues, dislikes dealing with abstract con cepts Conceptual interested in theories, enjoys discussing abstract concepts 6 more likely to build on than generate ideas, less inclined to be creative and inventive Innovative generates new ideas, enjoys being creative, thinks of original solution s 2 prefers routine, is prepared to do repetitive work, does not seek variety Variety Seeking prefers variety, tries out new things, likes changes to regular routine, can become bored by repetitive work 4 behaves consistently across situations, unli kely to behave differently with different people Adaptable changes behavior to suit the situation, adapts approach to different people 5 more likely to focus upon immediate than long term issues, less likely to take a strategic perspective Forward Th inking takes a long term view, sets goals for the future, more likely to take a strategic perspective STRUCTURE 6 unlikely to become preoccupied with detail, less organized and systematic, dislikes tasks involving detail Detail Conscious focuses on deta il, likes to be methodical, organized and systematic, may become preoccupied with detail 5 sees deadlines as flexible, prepared to leave some tasks unfinished Conscientious focuses on getting things finished, persists until the job is done 8 not re stricted by rules and procedures, prepared to break rules, tends to dislike bureaucracy Rule Following follows rules and regulations, prefers clear guidelines, finds it difficult to break rules FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
92 4 tends to f eel tense, finds it difficult to relax, can find it hard to unwind after work Relaxed finds it easy to relax, rarely feels tense, generally calm and untroubled EMOTION 4 feels calm before important occasions, less affected by key events, free from worr y Worrying feels nervous before important occasions, worries about things going wrong 6 sensitive, easily hurt by criticism, upset by unfair comments or insults Tough Minded not easily offended, can ignore insults, may be insensitive to personal criti cism 5 concerned about the future, expects things to go wrong, focuses on negative aspects of a situation Optimistic expects things will turn out well, looks to the positive aspects of a situation, has an optimistic view of the future 2 wary of othe unlikely to be fooled by people Trusting trusts people, sees others as reliable and honest, believes what others say 9 openly expresses feelings, finds it difficult to conceal feelings, displays emoti on clearly Emotionally Controlled can conceal feelings from others, rarely displays emotion 6 likes to take things at a steady pace, dislikes excessive work demands Vigorous thrives on activity, likes to keep busy, enjoys having a lot to do DYNAMISM 6 dislikes competing with others, feels that taking part is more important than winning Competitive has a need to win, enjoys competitive activities, dislikes losing 6 sees career progression as less important, looks for achievable rather than highly ambitious targets Achieving ambitious and career centered, likes to work to demanding goals and targets 4 tends to be cautious when making decisions, likes to take time to reach conclusions Decisive makes fast decisions, reaches conclusions quickly, l ess cautious 7 has been more self critical in responses, is less concerned to make a good impression Social Desirability has been less self critical in responses, is more concerned to make a good impression OPQ32n (U.S. English) US General Population 2005
93 APPENDIX I OPQ DOMAINS AND O*NET PARALLELS OPQ Scales O*Net Crosswalk and Reference Persuasive Selling or influencing others______________W 54 Persuasion_____________________________S 60 Resolving c onflicts & n egotiating _________W 73 Controlling Management of p ersonal r esources _________S 74 Guiding d irecting m otivating _____________W 81 Outspoken Provide c onsultation & a dvice _____________W 59 Independent Minded Independ ence________________________WS 79 Independence________________________WV 72 Outgoing Communicating w ith s upervisors p eers s ub _W 87 Affiliative Establishing and m aintaining relationships __W 82 Communicating with person outside Org___ ___W 77 Social o rientation ______________________W 69 Socially Confident Communicating with person outside Org______W 77 Modest N/A Democratic Active l istening ________________________S 81 Getting information__________ ___________W 91 Caring Service o rientation ______________________S 67 Assisting and c aring for others___________WS 82 Data Rational Mathematics___________________________S 61 Mathematical reasoning__________________A 50
94 Ev aluative Reading c omprehension __________________S 79 Critical t hinking ________________________S 77 Complex problem solving________________W 80 Making decisions and solving problems_____W 80 Analyzing data and information_________ __W 64 Behavioral Social p erseptiveness ____________________S 70 Conventional Conventional___________________________I 78 Conceptual Deductive reasoning_____________________A 66 Inductive reasoning______________________A 66 Active l e arning _________________________S 69 Innovative Fluency of i deas ________________________A 60 Originality_____________________________A 60 Thinking creatively______________________W 63 Variety Seeking Adaptability ,f lexibility ____________ _____WS 78 Perform a dministrative a ctivities _____W 72 Adaptable Monitoring____________________________S 76 Oral e xpression ________________________A 81 Speech r ecognition _____________________A 78 Forward Thinking Organizing p lanning & p rioritizing work____W 79 Scheduling w ork and a ctivities ___________W 72 Developing o bjectives and s trategies _______W 72 Detail Conscious Identify object, actions, events____________W 76 Process information_____________________W 75 Attention to detail_____________________WS 90 Conscientious Selective a ttention _____________________A 60
95 Dependability______ ___________________WS 92 Persistance___________________________WS 76 Rule Following Evaluating i nfo rmation to compl y ____W 74 Note s: W Work activity S Skills WS Work styles A Abilities I Interest
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107 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sheri D. Litt received her B achelor of F ine A rts from Pratt Institute in 1990. She also holds a Master s of Social Work from Florida State University and graduated in December 1993. Prior to relocating to Florida, Ms. Litt lived in New York for twenty years, followed by five years in Maryland working for multinational corporations, nonprofit organizations, and educational institutions of higher education at the community college and universit y level. Litt joined the Florida Community College System in August 2001, where she was hired as a full time faculty member. Soon after receiving tenure in 2004, she became the Associate Dean of Workforce Development at Florida Community College at Jackso nville. Some of her recent accomplishments include serving as Integrative College wide Leader for the Supervision and Management program, the 2009 Administrative and Professional Collaborative chair and one of a four person team that developed the colleg a formal program to develop future leaders that also provides monthly social activities.