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Esterase Isolation, Expression, and Population Analyses of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (Diptera

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Title:
Esterase Isolation, Expression, and Population Analyses of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (Diptera Culicidae) of Manatee County, FL
Creator:
Eans, Shainnel
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (48 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Entomology and Nematology
Committee Chair:
Smartt, Chelsea T.
Committee Members:
Tabachnick, Walter J.
Frommer, Robert
Graduation Date:
8/8/2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Female animals ( jstor )
Insecticide resistance ( jstor )
Insecticides ( jstor )
Manatees ( jstor )
Midgut ( jstor )
Mosquito control ( jstor )
Phosphoric acid esters ( jstor )
Population control ( jstor )
RNA ( jstor )
Thorax ( jstor )
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
culex, esterase, expression, gene, insecticide, nigripalpus, resistance
Manatee County ( local )
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.

Notes

Abstract:
Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science ESTERASE ISOLATION, EXPRESSION, AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL By Shainnel Eans August 2009 Chair: Chelsea Smartt Major: Entomology and Nematology Mosquitoes play an important role as vectors for a wide variety of pathogens that cause diseases, including malaria, encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. In an attempt to control mosquito-borne disease outbreaks around the world, the use of insecticides has risen; however, this has also resulted in selection for mosquitoes that possess high tolerance/resistance to many insecticides. It is important to understand the mechanisms involved with the development of mosquito resistance to insecticides to be able to predict where targeted control measures may be needed and how mosquitoes will react to new insecticides. Since esterase is an enzymatic protein known to play a role in insecticide resistance formation, we amplified an esterase gene segment (Temsha est-1, TE-1) from Culex nigripalpus using esterase primers. Through expression studies, we found that TE-1 consistently showed high expression within thoraces and abdomens in unfed mosquitoes and high expression in heads, thoraces, abdomens, and midguts after blood feeding. This suggests TE-1 has a role in feeding/digestion. We also found that the level of expression of TE-1 differed depending on where the mosquitoes were collected. If this difference in expression can be correlated to differences in susceptibility towards insecticides, we may be able to use TE-1 as an indicator for the formation of tolerance/resistance. This would greatly enhance mosquito control efforts. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local:
Adviser: Smartt, Chelsea T.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31
Statement of Responsibility:
by Shainnel Eans.

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University of Florida
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Copyright Eans, Shainnel. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
8/31/2010
Resource Identifier:
489240961 ( OCLC )
Classification:
LD1780 2009 ( lcc )

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dieldrin-resistance in all of these species relied on a single heritable genetic factor. This factor

was recessive in nature within the An. sundaicus populations, but was partially dominant in

nature in mosquitoes from populations of the remaining species. It was also determined that the

mosquitoes in Cx. fatigans populations had a naturally higher resistance towards exposure to

DDT than either of the Anopheles species despite the same selective pressures. On the other

hand, the Cx. fatigans populations were much more susceptible towards exposure to dieldrin than

either of the Anopheles species. Through the use of finely controlled studies of selection of

susceptible, hybrid, and resistant strains of mosquitoes, Davidson and Jackson (1961) were able

to conclude that resistance towards DDT and dieldrin were independent of one another. This

suggests that resistances due to genetic mechanisms are quite diverse in nature (Perera 2008).

If the selective pressures from insecticide exposure remain high, insecticide resistance would be

maintained within populations (Davidson and Zahar 1973). This would be expected to occur

with repeated exposure to the same insecticide over long periods of time. Similarly, insecticide

resistance would decline as selective pressures decrease. Such a decline would be the

consequence of terminating applications of insecticides in a given region or shifting applications

to usage of a different class of insecticide.

Detections of Resistance in Adult Mosquitoes

Resistances can sometimes be difficult to detect. Some strategies include using a

combination of several different measurements-including mortality rates, the "knockdown

effect", and "irritancy tests" (Hougard 2003). These measurements can be taken using the Bottle

Bioassay (McAllister and Brogdon 1999) or the standard World Health Organization kit (WHO

1979) methods of analyzing insecticide resistance. The Bottle Bioassay involves the

introduction of a pre-determined number of mosquitoes into glass bottles coated with a known









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS ............... ................. ............... 5

LIST OF FIGURES.................................... .................... ........6

ABSTRACT................................... ............. ..............

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .............. ............................... ................8

2 MECHANISMS AND DETECTION OF RESISTANCE....................12
Behavioral M echanism s ............ ............................. .............. 12
M olecular M echanisms ............ ............ ............... 13
Genetic M echanism s .................. ...........................................16
Detections of Resistance in Adult Mosquitoes..............................17

3 ESTERASE ISOLATION AND EXPRESSION IN CULEX
NIGRIPALPUS Theobald OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL........................19
Introduction............ .... ...................................... ......... 19
M materials and M ethods............... .. ............ ............... 19
R results and D iscu ssion ......................................................... ... 23


4 ESTERASE EXPRESSION AND POPULATION ANALYSES
OF CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)
OF M ANATEE COUNTY, FL ........... ................... ...............27
Introduction ............. .......... ............... .............. 27
Materials and Methods ............ ...................... ...... .27
Results and Discussion ............ ...................... ..... 30

5 PROBLEMS WITH CHEMICAL CONTROL.............. ................34

6 ALTERNATIVES TO INSECTICIDE USAGE ............ ................37

7 C O N C L U SIO N ....................................................... .......... 40

REFERENCES CITED ............ ...... ............................. ............ 43

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............... ...................................... 48







4









CHAPTER 5
PROBLEMS WITH CHEMICAL CONTROL

In order to become more effective at controlling mosquito populations, it is imperative to

have a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance within

different mosquito populations. Molecular, genetic, and behavioral factors involved in

resistance/tolerance in mosquitoes all play significant roles in why insecticides become less

effective with time (Hemingway and Ranson 2000). If we only looked at one factor at a time it

could create misinterpretations if the results from analyzing one particular factor conflicted with

the results obtained from analyzing another factor. This could lead to false conclusions.

Likewise, the mosquitoes from a given population could be using a combination of these factors,

meaning that one would need to account for multiple mechanisms involved in order to maintain

effective control (Corbel et al. 2007).

For example, studies may show that there is little change in the biochemistry or genetics

from one generation to the next in Anopheles mosquitoes, which suggests that these mosquitoes

would still be susceptible to pyrethroid-treated bed-nets and indoor treatments of residual

insecticides; however, control measures might show that their populations are not declining after

repeated treatments (Corbel et al. 2007). Without understanding the behavior of the targeted

mosquito as well, one might not know how to interpret these rather confusing results. By

understanding all aspects of resistance, one could perhaps conclude that a change in behavior

might be causing the numbers of this population of mosquitoes to remain constant (Pates and

Curtis 2005). This could be verified by experimentation to determine if these Anopheles are

simply limiting the contact they have with treated surfaces or adopting different feeding and

resting habits (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998).









Hemingway J, Ranson H. 2000. Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human
disease. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 45: 371-391.

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pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles. Med, Vet. Entomol. 13: 415-
422.

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Comparative performances, under laboratory conditions, of seven pyrethroid insecticides
used for impregnation of mosquito nets. World Health Org. 81 (5): 324-333.

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Family Phys. 68: 653-660.

Irish SR, Guessan RN, Boko PM, Metonnou C, Odjo A, Akobeto M, Rowland M. 2008.
Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex
quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: An experimental hut study.
Parasites & Vectors, 1: 17.

Jones C, Schreiber E. 1994. The carnivores, Toxorhynchites. Wing Beats.
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Kady GA, Kamel NH, Mostey YY, Bahght IM. 2008. Comparative toxicity
of two bio-insecticides (spinotoram and vertemic) compared with methomyl against
Culexpipiens and Anopheles multicolor. World Journ. Agric. Sci. 4: 198-205.

Kidwell MG, Wattam AR. 1998. An important step forward in the genetic manipulation
of mosquito vectors of human disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95: 3349-3350.

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62:71-92.

Levy S. 2007. Mosquito modifications: new approaches to controlling malaria.
BioScience. 17 (10): 2-7.

Li CX, Dong YD, Song FL, Zhang XL, Gu WD, Zhao TY. 2009. Company amplification
of esta2/estf2 and correlation between esterase gene copy number and resistance to
insecticides in the field Culexpipienspallens strains collected from Beijing, China. J
Med. Entomol. 46: 539-545.

Lima-Catelani ARA, Ceron CR, Bicudo HEMC. 2004. Variation of genetic expression during
development, revealed by esterase patterns in Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae).
Biochem. Genet. 42:69-84.









A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the genomic DNA was performed using

primers that had been designed based on the sequence of the esterase gene found in Culex

pipienspipiens L. The PCR analyses were carried out using the REDTaq Genomic DNA

Polymerase kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in a Rapid CyclerTM (Idaho Technology, Inc.,

Lake City, Utah). The PCR reactions were then analyzed on a 1% agarose gel. Each distinct

fragment was extracted from the gel using the QIAgen QIAquick gel extraction kit (QIAgen,

Valencia, CA) and the concentration of the PCR fragment was calculated using a SmartSpec Plus

spectrophotometer.

The primers used for this study were the following: Beta Forward: 5'-CGA-TCA-TCA-

TGA-TGC-GGT-AG-3'; Beta Reverse: 5'-CCA-GAA-GAT-CGT-CGG-CTG-CG-3'; CP3

Forward: 5'-ATT-GGA-AGT-GAG-GAC-AGC-TTG-CAC-3'; CP3 Reverse: 5'-ACC-GTA-

CAT-CTC-CAC-TCC-ACT-AGA-3'; Actin-3 (Forward): 5'-CTG-GAT-TCC-GGA-GAT-GGT-

GT-3'; Actin-4 (Reverse): 5'-TAG-ACG-GGG-CAA-GGG-CGG-TGA-TTT-3'

Total RNA was extracted from field collected mosquitoes using the TRIzol Reagent

(InvitrogenTM, Carlsbad CA). Whole adult female Cx. nigripalpus mosquito bodies (12

mosquitoes per tube), body tissues (midguts; 15 per tube), and segments (head, abdomen, thorax;

10 of each per tube) were homogenized in 1000 ul of TRIzol Reagent and the manufacturer's

protocol was followed with a modification: Homogenized samples were allowed to incubate at

room temperature for 10 minutes and then centrifuged at 40C at 12,000 xg. The supernatant was

collected and 200 ul of chloroform was added. The tubes were then vortexed for 15 seconds.

The samples were incubated at room temperature; after which they were centrifuged at 40C at

12,000 xg. After this step, the manufacturer's protocol included with the TRIzol reagent was

followed. The RNA pellets were then re-suspended in 50 ul of diethylpyrocarbonate-treated









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Mosquitoes serve as important vectors for a large array of pathogens that cause diseases

including the following: malaria, encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and filariasis (Greenwood

2002, Kyle and Harris 2008). Temperate and tropical areas worldwide are constantly faced with

the threat of outbreaks of these diseases since mosquito populations thrive year-round in these

regions (Clements 2000). This has lead to widespread usage of insecticides in order to help

maintain control over mosquito populations (Djogbenou et al. 2009). The downside, however, is

that this has also lead to populations of mosquitoes that have acquired resistance towards many

insecticides (Levy 2007). For this reason we must learn to have a better understanding of the

mechanisms involved with the development of mosquito resistance towards insecticides so that

we can foresee what control measures could prove to be more effective and so that we can better

predict how mosquitoes would react to newly formulated insecticides. It is beneficial to

counteract or at least minimize the defenses mosquitoes have towards insecticides by directly

manipulating the genes that control the resistance phenotype (Kidwell and Wattam 1998).

In the United States, for example, the distribution of mosquito-vectored diseases (such as

West Nile) has caused distress due to the impact they have on public health in the event of an

outbreak (Hayes 2005). In addition, control of vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), such as Culex

mosquitoes in the southeastern United States, has become economically significant due to the

expenses involved in maintaining effective control (Sardelis et al. 2001, Huhn 2003, Rutledge et

al. 2003, Djogbenou et al. 2009). States such as Florida, in particular, are prime targets of

concern regarding potential outbreaks of mosquito-vectored diseases, such as West Nile, due to

their geographic location and the warm humid climate that favors the growth of mosquito

populations throughout the year (Nayar 1982).









Madison WI) according to the manufacturer's protocol with the following modifications

accounting for extraction from smaller samples including an added incubation period in the

initial step and minor changes in the volumes of some reagents: Twelve adult mosquito bodies

were homogenized manually in 600 microliters (ul) of Nuclei Lysis Solution and incubated in a

65C heating block. RNase solution (3 ul) was then added, after which, the tube of homogenized

mosquitoes was incubated again at 370 C. Following this incubation, protein precipitation

solution (200 ul) was added. The tubes were vortexed and chilled on ice. The tubes were then

centrifuged at 13,000 times gravity (xg) and the supernatant collected. Isopropanol (600 ul) was

then added and mixed in by inversion. The tubes were centrifuged again at 13,000 xg. The

supernatant was carefully removed and the pellet was then washed with 600 ul of 70% ethanol.

The pellet was allowed to air dry. The genomic DNA pellet was re-suspended in 500 ul of DNA

Rehydration solution and then incubated at 650C for 1 hr. This was stored at 40C until use.

To purify the DNA, a mixture of Phenol: Chloroform: Isoamyl Alcohol (25: 24: 1) was

added to the re-hydrated DNA. The tubes were vortexed and then centrifuged at 13,200 xg at

room temperature. The top phase was then collected. Then 0. Ix total volume of 2.7M Sodium

Acetate of pH 5.2 was added, followed by 2x the total volume of ice cold 100% ethanol. This

was mixed by vortexing and incubated at -800C and then centrifuged 13,200 xg at room

temperature. The pellet was washed using room temperature 70% ethanol and allowed to air dry.

The pellet was re-suspended in autoclaved MilliQ water (water that had been filtered through the

Millipore, Billerica, MA, system) and incubated overnight at 40C.

The extracted DNA was then analyzed by a SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer (BioRad,

Hercules, CA) and on a 1% agarose gel to determine the concentration and to check for

degradation.









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insecticides. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 49: 475-483.

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Entomol. 36: 1-23.

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acetylcholinesterase in wild populations of Culexpipiens quinquefasciatus from Benin.
Acta. Tropica. 107: 272-274.

Eans SE, Frommer RL, Anderson S, Yost S, Smartt CT. 2009a. Esterase expression and
population analyses of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) of Manatee
County, FL. [unpublished].

Eans SE, Frommer RL, Smartt CT. 2009b. Esterase isolation and expression in Culex
nigripalpus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) of Manatee County, FL. [unpublished].

Flores AE, Albeldano-Vazquez W, Salas IF, Badii MH, Becerra HL, Garcia GP, Fuentes SL,
Brogdon WG, Black WC, Beaty BJ. 2004. Elevated a-esterase levels associated with
permethrin tolerance in Aedes aegypti (L.) from Baja California, Mexico. Pesticide
Biochemistry & Physiology 82: 66-78.

Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control. 1998. Florida Mosquito Control: The
state of the mission as defined by mosquito controllers, regulators, and environmental
managers. University of Florida. {http://fmel.ifas.ufl.edu/white_paper/state.shtml}

Fonseca-Gonzalez I, Quifiones ML, McAllister J, Brogdon WG. 2009. Mixed-function oxidases
and esterases associated with cross-resistance between DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin in
Anopheles darling Root 1926 populations from Colombia. Mem6rias do Instituto
Oswaldo Cruz, 104: 18-26.

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Guessan RN, Boko P, Odjo A, Akogbeto M, Yates A, Rowland M. 2007.
Chlorfenapyr: A pyrrole insecticide for the control of pyrethroid or DDT resistant
Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. Acta. Tropica. 102: 69-78.

Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, Montgomery SP, O'Leary DR, Campbell GL. 2005.
Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerg. Infect.
Diseases 11: 1167-1173.













ESTERASE ISOLATION, EXPRESSION, AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF CULEX
NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL















By

SHAINNEL EANS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2009










q qr 'U


3 Midgut Head Thorax Abdomen












Figure 3-1. 1.) PCR of whole bodies of Culex nigripalpus (Manatee County, Florida).
2.) RT-PCR of whole bodies of Cx. nigripalpus (Manatee County, Florida). 3.) Expression
analysis of colony female Cx. nigripalpus (Arrows indicate positive amplification)

Additional primers (CP4) were designed based on the Cx. p. pipiens est-3 sequence and

were used, along with the CP3 primers, to isolate cDNAs encoding esterase from female Cx.

nigripalpus whole-body and body segment RNA. Distinct bands were amplified as a 200 bp

fragment using the CP3 primers and a 397 bp fragment using the CP4 primers (Fig. 3-1).

Sequence analyses were performed on both fragments; however, since the sequence of the 397

bp fragment had a higher homology with esterase proteins, all subsequent sequence comparisons

were done using the larger fragment. Expression analyses were performed using both primer

sets.









In order to determine the spatial expression of the Cx. nigripalpus esterase and to infer a

possible function, RT-PCR was performed on RNA isolated from female midgut tissues, heads,

thoraces, and abdomens using CP3 and CP4 primers. We found that products from both primers

were amplified in RNA from midgut tissue, thorax, and abdomen, but not in heads (Fig. 3-1).

Due to the high prevalence of esterase in the abdomen tissues, we expected to detect it in midgut

tissues and warrants further expression analysis of the esterase in midgut tissue. Expression of

Cx. nigripalpus esterase in the abdomen, which includes the midgut, suggests that it has a role in

digestion or reproduction (Campbell et al. 2003, Lima-Catelani et al. 2004). The esterase

expression found in the thorax may be attributed to the presence of salivary glands which have

been shown to secrete esterases used to aide digestion and defenses during feeding (Argentine

and James 1995, Calvo and Ribeiro 2006).

The 397 bp fragment, CN Temsha est-1 (Accession # G0343531), encodes a putative

translation product of 131 amino acids, and is incomplete at the 5'- and 3'-ends (CN TEMSHA

EST-1; Fig. 3-2). The Cx. nigripalpus esterase-like translation product displayed high homology

with a number of mosquito gene translation products suggested to play a role in insecticide

resistance, including Cx. p. pipiens esterase A5 (96%, Accession # AY545983; Buss and

Callaghan, 2004), Cx. p. quinquefasciatus estalpha2 esterase (96%, Accession # Z47988,

Vaughan and Hemigway 1995), and with Aedes aegypti L. alpha-esterase partial mRNA (85%,

Accession # XM_001654459; Nene et al. 2007). The alignment of the CN Temsha est-1 putative

translation product with esterase proteins from other mosquitoes is shown (Fig. 3-2; Buss and

Callaghan 2004, Cui et al. 2007, Nene et al. 2007, Vaughan et al. 1997). The high homology

suggests that it is a member of the esterase family, which indicates that Cx. nigripalpus









The results of these experiments further enhance our understanding for the role TE-1 has

in Cx. nigripalpus. Future studies are needed to amplify the complete sequence for TE-1 using

the esterase primers. We will also repeat all expression studies of TE-1 amplification in RNA

extracted from heads, thoraces, abdomens, and midguts of unfed and fed individuals to make

certain all results remain consistent. As mentioned previously, we will continue our population

analyses by comparing expression levels of TE-1 in tolerant and susceptible individuals. If there

is a correlation between the expression of TE-1 and resistance, then one could potentially

develop an assay using TE-1 as an indicator for development of resistance in populations of Cx.

nigripalpus. This would greatly enhance mosquito control efforts in mosquito control district's

like the Manatee County Mosquito Control District.









Coulter Inc., Fullerton, CA) and following the manufacturer's protocol. Sequence analyses were

performed using the Lasergene DNA and protein analysis software from DNASTAR, Inc.

(Madison, WI).

For population analyses, individual adult female Cx. nigripalpus were separated by

locality (G2, G4, and Colony). RNA was extracted from each individual mosquito and RT-PCR

was performed on the extracted RNA using the CP4 esterase primers as described in Chapter 3.

The RT-PCR reactions were analyzed on a l%-agarose gel to compare differences in esterase

expression between the populations.

Results and Discussion

Esterases have many potential functions in the mosquito (Lima-Catelani et al. 2004,

Flores et al. 2004); therefore it is important that we determine whether our Cx. nigripalpus

esterase TE-1 has a role in insecticide tolerance/resistance in the Cx. nigripalpus of Manatee

County, FL or if its role involves digestion as we have shown by expression in midgut tissue

(Eans et al. 2009a unpublished). Using the CP4 esterase primers for TE-1, expression in female

Cx. nigripalpus ("Hybrids" F28) body segments and tissues was analyzed before and after blood-

feeding. TE-1 was highly expressed in the head, thorax, abdomen, and midgut tissues in non-

blood-fed mosquitoes and in the early hours after feeding in the blood-fed mosquitoes. In the

thorax and midgut tissues, there was a clear decline in expression over time (Fig. 4-2). This

supports the conclusion from previous experiments that TE-1 may be involved in feeding and

digestion in female Cx. nigripalpus (Eans et al. 2009b unpublished). Esterases are secreted

through the proboscis in response to both feeding on blood meals and sugar meals, therefore its

presence in the head could be due to the presence of enzymes released by the salivary glands

(Argentine and James 1995).









over time there was a noticeable decrease in TE-1 expression in both the thorax and midgut.

This suggests that TE-1 could be involved in feeding and digestion (Argentine and James 1995,

Calvo and Ribeiro 2006).

The level of expression of TE-1 in RNA extracted from individuals in three distinct

populations of Cx. nigripalpus-"G2" (Manatee County), "G4" (Manatee County), and in a long

standing colony (F 105) was characterized. Individuals varied in the expression of TE-1

depending on the location they were collected from. Most individuals from the "G2" area

showed high expression of TE-1. Most individuals from the "G4" region, on the other hand,

showed low expression of TE-1. Our lab "Colony" were mixed with individuals that had high

and low expression of TE-1. If TE-1 plays a role in insecticide resistance, we would expect that

there exists a difference in tolerance to insecticides between individuals that have high

expression of TE-1 and individuals that have low expression of TE-1 (Flores et al. 2004, Cheikh

et al. 2009). Further studies are needed to analyze the differences in tolerance levels by using the

Bottle Bioassay to determine the effectiveness of exposure to insecticides. The expression of

TE-1 would then be compared from RNA extracted from tolerant individuals and from

susceptible individuals. Our hypothesis is that high levels of TE-1 would be expressed highest

in the tolerant individuals and lowest in the susceptible individuals (Flores et al. 2004, Cui et al.

2007).

If we can use our knowledge of mosquito behavioral, molecular, and genetic mechanisms

to better predict potential tolerance/resistance to insecticides, we can develop efficient alternative

mosquito control measures. Monitoring changes in insecticide detoxification enzymes, feeding









preferences for resting areas than the Anopheles species, which naturally limits their exposure to

residual insecticides (Brown and Pal 1971).

Another key behavioral adaptation for Anopheles gambiae sensu strict is change in

prime feeding times. This is especially a concern in regions where pyrethroid-treated bed-nets

are used with the assumption that the mosquitoes (particularly Anopheles spp.) will feed mostly

at night while people are sleeping. Anopheles spp. will sometimes even change their behavior in

such a way to integrate a wider range of active feeding times throughout the day as

compensation. This makes the use of bed-nets far less effective. In regions where this is a

primary means of mosquito control, such behavioral shifts pose a great concern (Pates and Curtis

2005). This trend of pyrethroid-treated bed nets becoming less effective was also observed for

the mosquito species Culexpipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Irish et al. 2008). It is possible that

these Culex mosquitoes are also developing a behavioral mechanism of avoidance similar to that

of the Anopheles mosquitoes. To counter this, a different insecticide that neither species displays

tolerance towards should be used for the bed nets and the bed nets must be kept in good

condition with minimal holes (Irish et al. 2008).

Molecular Mechanisms

Biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance across mosquito species have been an

important focus of research studies. These include mutations that cause target site insensitivities

within the mosquito nervous system. This insensitivity can occur due to changes that alter

sodium channels, y-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors, and acetyl cholinesterase activity

within the central nervous system or it can occur due to an increased metabolic rate of insecticide

detoxification (Devonshire and Field 1991, Weill et al. 2003, Shang et al. 2008).


































2009 Shainnel Eans









Rutledge CR, Day JF, Lord CC, Stark LM, Tabachnick WJ. 2003. West Nile Virus infection
rates in Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) do not reflect transmission rates in
Florida. J. Med. Entomol. 40: 253-258.

Sardelis MR, Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, O'Guinn ML. 2001. Vector competence of selected North
American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile Virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis.
7: 1018-1022.

Shang QL, Liang P, Gao XW. 2008. Cloning, developmental and tissue-specific
expression of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor alpha2 subunit gene in Spodoptera
exigua (Hibner). Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 93: 1-7.

Scholte EJ, Ng'habi K, Kihonda J, Takken W, Paaijmans K, Abdulla S, Killeen GF, Knols BGJ.
2005. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes.
Science 308: 1641.

Smartt CT, Erickson JS. 2008. Bloodmeal-induced differential gene expression in the disease
vector Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae). JMedEntomol. 45(2): 326-330.

Vaughan A, Hawkes N, Hemingway J. 1997. Co-amplification explains linkage disequilibrium
of two mosquito esterase genes in insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Biochem
J. 325: 359-65.

Vaughan A, Hemingway J. 1995. Cloning and sequence of the full-length cDNA for a major
insecticide resistance gene worldwide in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The
Amer. Soc. Biochem. Molec. Biol. 270: 17044-17049.

Weill M, Lutfalla G, Mogensen K, Chandre F, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Pasteur N, Philips A,
Forte P, Raymond M. 2003. Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 423: 136-
137.

WHO [World Health Organization]. 1979. Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to
pesticides: Twenty-second report of the WHO expert committee on insecticides. World
Health Org. Tech. Report Series. No. 585.
































To all who supported and advised me throughout this project, thus contributing to my success









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

2-1 Acetylcholinesterase activity of susceptible and resistant mosquitoes ...........16

3-1 PCR, RT-PCR, and expression analyses ............. ............. ...........24

3-2 Protein alignment of putative translation product of Temsha est-1...............26

4-1 G2 and G4 Manatee County.......... ...........................................28

4-2 Amplification of Temsha est-1 in unfed and
blood-fed Culex nigripalpus .............................. ........ ............... 31

4-3 Population analyses........ ...................... ...... ...32









near a salt marsh zone in Manatee County; whereas the "G4" area is located further inland near

an agricultural zone. "G2" and "G4" are 5 miles apart. Any mosquitoes not immediately used

were kept frozen at -800C.

"G2" (Manatee County) "G4" (Manatee County)

















indicated by arrows.)
2008). Non-blood-fed and blood-fed adult female colony Cx. nigripalpus were anesthetized with

Figure 4-1.t o old and tissues of intee C county) location: Piney Point Ro(head, Palmetto, FL 34221






2.)per tube) and body tissues (midguts, ovaries; 20 per tube) were collected and stored ations -80C until
use. The end of this feeding period was termed the ".) hour (h)". Body segments and body








Tissues and body segments were colldissected from the blood-fed individuals at each of the followanding Cx. nigripalpus colony0 h, 3
h, 6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 before and af72 h after bleding as described elsewhere (Smartt and Ericksong.
2008). Non-blood-fed and blood-fed adult female colony Cx. nigripalpus were anesthetized with
exposure to cold and tissues of interest dissected. Body segments (head, thorax, abdomen; 10


use. The end of this feeding period was termed the "0 hour (h)". Body segments and body




Tissues and body segments were colldissected from the blood-fed individuals at each of the followanding Cx. nigripalpus colony0 h, 3

h, 6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 before and 72 h after blood-feeding as described elsewhere (Smartt and Erickson








The primers used for this study were the following: CP3 Forward: 5'-ATT-GGA-AGT-

GAG-GAC-AGC-TTG-CAC-3'; CP3 Reverse: 5'-ACC-GTA-CAT-CTC-CAC-TCC-ACT-

AGA-3'; CP4 Forward: 5'-AGT-AAG-CTG-CTG-AAC-AAA-AT-3'; and CP4 Reverse: 5'-









An intuitive method to control the continued spread of WNV, along with any other

pathogens that are transmitted by mosquitoes, is to maintain control over the mosquito

population number. This is a good control strategy, because mosquitoes are essential for the

pathogen's continued transmission and survival (Hemingway and Ranson 2000). Mosquito-

control programs are confronted with the task of developing effective control measures that

reduce the ability of mosquito populations to spread diseases to human populations (Perera

2008).

Since the mid 1900's the United States has developed several programs aimed towards

mosquito control to reduce mosquito populations and to reduce their ability to transmit disease

(Levy 2007). The usage of insecticides increased as an effective control strategy for this purpose

since the mid-1950s (Djogbenou et al. 2009). Initially, these control strategies involving

insecticides preferentially used the toxin known as DDT (Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane)

(WHO 1979, Coleman and Hemingway 2007). Such extensive usage of DDT was successful at

first, but it soon resulted in the development of resistance within mosquito populations (WHO

1979, Levy 2007). With the effectiveness of DDT on the decline, along with knowledge of its

negative environmental impacts on local plants, animals, and people, mosquito control programs

began to use other types of insecticides (Guessan et. al. 2007). These other insecticides included

carbamates and organophosphates (such as malathion, chloropyrifos, naled, propoxor, and

fenthion) and pyrethroids (such as resmethrin and permethrin) (WHO 1979).

Organophosphates and carbamates both share a similar mode of action, which is to

prevent nerve impulses from transmitting properly between the synapses of mosquito nerve cells

(Dent 1995, Brown 2006). Organophosphates are chemically less stable, meaning they have a

short timeframe after application in which they remain effective before breaking down in the









CHAPTER 6
ALTERNATIVES TO INSECTICIDE USAGE

There are many alternatives to controlling mosquito populations and reducing the chance

that one will be bitten by mosquitoes that do not require the use of insecticides. Minimizing the

use of insecticides helps to slow down the formation of tolerance in mosquito populations

(Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998). Some alternatives include

minimizing the number of standing water sources available as breeding sites for mosquitoes,

minimizing one's contact with mosquitoes, and using biological control measures.

A large factor in controlling mosquito populations is to limit the number of breeding sites

to which they have access (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998). The fewer

sites available to them, the smaller their population becomes as a result. This can be done in

several ways. One way is to discard all unnecessary sources of water collecting. Water can

build up in flower pots, cans, and other discarded containers. Inverting these containers when

not in use or simply drilling holes at the bottom of these containers allows excess water to drain

out of them. The same is true for outdoor swimming pools, which should be kept drained of

water when not in use (Becker et al. 2003). For important bodies of water that cannot be kept

drained due to constant usage, such as bird baths, outdoor pet dishes, and fire buckets, the

solution is to refill these containers with fresh water at least once every week. Around buildings,

water should be kept free-flowing by making sure roof drains and gutters are clear of debris and

air conditioning units should be maintained to prevent improper build-up of fluids due to

condensation (Becker et al. 2003). In agricultural systems, farmers are advised to install

irrigation and water channels in such a way that they do not form mosquito breeding sites

(Becker et al. 2003). City officials can also contribute to limiting the amount of breeding sites

available to mosquitoes by ensuring roads, drains, storm water areas, sewage and street waste









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Apperson CS, Georghiou GP. 1975. Inheritance of resistance to organophosphorus
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Argentine JA, James AA. 1995. Characterization of a salivary gland-specific esterase in the
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Becker N, Petric D, Boase C, Zgomba M, Lane J, Dahl C, Kaiser AC.
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Buss DS, Callaghan A. 2004. Molecular comparisons of the Culexpipiens (L.) complex
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Calvo E, Ribeiro JMC. 2006. A novel secreted endonuclease from Culex quinquefasciatus
salivary glands. Journ. Experim. Biol. 209: 2651-2659.

Campbell PM, Robin GCQ, Court LN, Dorrian SJ, Russell RJ, Oakeshott JG. 2003.
Developmental expression and gene/enzyme identifications in the alpha esterase gene
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Cheikh RB, Berticat C, Berthomieu A, Pasteur N, Cheikh HB, Weill M. 2009. Genes
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Clements AN. 2000. The biology of mosquitoes: Development, nutrition, and
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Coleman M, Hemingway J. 2007. Insecticide resistance monitoring and evaluation in
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Cui F, Weill M, Berthomieu A, Raymond M, Qiao CL. 2007. Characterization of
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McAllister J, Brogdon W, 1999. The bottle bioassay for measuring resistance. Wing Beats 10:
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Nayar JK. 1982. Bionomics and physiology of Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) of
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Nene V, Wortman JR, Lawson D, Haas B, Kodira C, Tu Z, Loftus B, Xi Z,
Megy K, Grabherr M, Ren Q, Zdobnov EM, Lobo NF, Campbell KS, Brown SE,
Bonaldo MF, Zhu J, Sinkins SP, Hogenkamp DG, Amedeo P, Arensburger P, Atkinson
PW, Bidwell S, Biedler J, Bimey E, Bruggner RV, Costas J, Coy MR, Crabtree J,
Crawford M, deBruyn B, DeCaprio D, Eiglmeier K, Eisenstadt E, El-Dorry H, Gelbart
WM, Gomes SL, Hammond M, Hannick LI, Hogan JR, Holmes MH, Jaffe D, Johnston
JS, Kennedy RC, Koo H, Kravitz S, Kriventseva EV, Kulp D, LaButti K, Lee E, Li S,
Lovin DD, Mao C, Mauceli E, Menck CFM, Miller JR, Montgomery P, Mori A,
Nascimento AL, Naveira HF, Nusbaum C, O'Leary S, Orvis J, Pertea M, Quesneville H,
Reidenbach KR, Rogers Y, Roth CW, Schneider JR, Schatz M, Shumway M, Stanke M,
Stinson EO, Tubio JMC, VanZee JP, Verjovski-Almeida S, Werner D, White O, Wyder
S, Zeng Q, Zhao Q, Zhao Y, Hill CA, Raikhel AS, Soares MB, Knudson DL, Lee NH,
Galagan J, Salzberg SL, Paulsen IT, Dimopoulos G, Collins FH, Birren B, Fraser-Liggett
CM, Severson DW. 2007. Genome Sequence ofAedes aegypti, a Major Arbovirus
Vector. Science 316: 1718-1723, doi {10.1126/science. 1138878}
{ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/ab stract/316/5832/1718 }

NYCDOHMH [New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene]. 2004.
Comprehensive mosquito surveillance & control plan [Internet]. Available from New
York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York [accessed March 20,
2009]. {http://nyc.gov/health}

Pates H, Curtis C. 2005. Mosquito behavior and vector control. Annu. Rev.
Entomol. 50: 53-70.

Perera MD, Hemingway J, Karunaratne SHPP. 2008. Multiple insecticide
resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected
in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka. Malaria J. 7: 168.

Pinto J, Lynd A, Vicente JL, Santolamazza F, Randle NP, Gentile G, Moreno M, Simard F,
Charlwood JD, Rosario VE, Caccone A, Torre A, Donnelly MJ. 2007. Multiple origins
of knockdown resistance mutations in the afrotropical mosquito vector Anopheles
gambiae. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1243. doi: 10.1371/joumal.pone.0001243.

Roozendal JA, Van Hoof JPM, Voorham J, Oostburg BFJ. 1989. Behavioral responses of
Anopheles darling in Suriname to DDT residues on house walls. J. Amer. Mosq. Control
Assoc. 5: 339-350.









Although in the mid-1900s, DDT was commonly used in Florida mosquito control programs,

currently pyrethroids, carbamates, and organophosphates are used (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PI172).

Mosquitoes display a resistance or tolerance towards insecticides as they become

increasingly less vulnerable to the toxicity. Although resistance and tolerance are often used

interchangeably there are slight differences between the two terms that must be kept in mind.

We use the term "tolerance" to refer to the mosquito's ability to endure or become less

responsive to a substance with repeated exposure; while we use the term "resistance" to refer to

the ability of the mosquito to form immunity towards an insecticide after exposure. Why is it

that a given insecticide can show high effectiveness during the first exposure and low

effectiveness after repeated exposures? Changes in the effectiveness of insecticides are due to

mechanisms of tolerance/resistance. These mechanisms include behavioral, molecular, and

genetic mechanisms.









GTG-GTA-GTG-GAC-GGA-ACA-3; Actin-3 (Forward): 5'-CTG-GAT-TCC-GGA-GAT-GGT-

GT-3'; Actin-4 (Reverse): 5'-TAG-ACG-GGG-CAA-GGG-CGG-TGA-TTT-3'.

Total RNA was extracted from non-blood-fed and blood-fed field collected and colony

mosquitoes using the TRIzol Reagent (InvitrogenTM, Carlsbad CA). Whole adult female Cx.

nigripalpus mosquito bodies (12 mosquitoes per tube), body tissues (midguts; 15 per tube), and

segments (head, abdomen, thorax; 10 per tube) were homogenized in 1000 ul of TRIzol Reagent

and the manufacturer's protocol was followed as described previously in Chapter 3. The RNA

pellets were then re-suspended in 50 ul of diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water and incubated at

60C. All RNA was stored at -800C until ready for use. The concentration of the RNA samples

was analyzed using a SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer. The integrity of the RNA was

determined by running it on a 1% agarose/formaldehyde gel and by viewing the gel using an

INGenius Gel Documentation System (Syngene Bio Imaging, Frederick, MD).

All reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of the RNA were performed using the

primers as previously described. The RT-PCR analyses were carried out using the protocol

included in the Enhanced Avian HS RT-PCR kit (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in a

RapidCycler Idaho Technology System (Idaho Technology Inc, Salt Lake City, UT). The RT-

PCR reactions were analyzed on a 1% agarose gel.

All PCR fragments of interest were cloned and recombinant clones were selected as

previously described in Chapter 3. The plasmid DNA was isolated using the QIAprep Spin

Miniprep Kit (QIAgen, Valencia, CA) and sequenced using a Beckman Coulter CEQ 8000

Genetic Analysis System with reagents included in the CEQ DTCS Quick Start Kit (Beckman












mosquitoes from Manatee County, FL express an esterase whose functions would include


digestion in blood-feeding or insecticide detoxification.


41 V G D L R F K D A V P P A A W T E E L D C T V Q G P A G Y Q F S K LQ N K I AEalphaesterase
41 V E L E F K D A Q P P K P W T E P LD C T V Q G P G Y Q Y S K L L N K I G CQestalpha2
41 V E L R F K D A Q P P K P W T E P L D C T V Q G G G Y Q Y S K L L N K I CPestAS
41 V E L R F K D A Q P P K P W T E P L D C T V Q G PG G Y Q Y S K LL N K I CQestAll
41 V E L R F K D A Q P P K P W T E P L D C T V Q G G G Y Q Y S K L L N K I CQestB1
I . . . . . . . L S K L L N K I CN TEMSHAEST-1.pro

81 NE H M N V FT K S L D K G E R LP V M Y H A F N R S S V E M AEalpha.esterase
81 R D S L H M N V FT K N L D S K Q L L P V M L Y H GG AF M R S S V E M CQestalpha2
81 S E D S L H M N V FT K N L N S K Q L L P V ML Y H GG AF M S S G V E M CPestAS
81 S E D S L H M N V F T K N L S S K Q L P V M Y IH A F M R S S G V E M CQestAll
81 S D S L H M N V FT K N L D S K QL L P V ML Y H GG AF M S S G V E M CQestB
11 S E D S L H M N V FT K N LD G K Q L L P V ML Y H GG AF M R S S G V E M CNTEMSHAEST-1.pro

121 Y G P D Y L Q A D V V F V S F N G A F S F E S P E V D LP G N A G AEalphaesterase
121 Y G P D Y L Q K D V VF V S F N Y G AL F S F D S P E L L N A G CQestalpha
121 Y G P D Y L Q K D V VF V S F N Y G AL F S F D S P E L L N A G CPestAS
121 Y G P D Y L I Q K D V V F V S F N Y I A L F I S F D S P E L L P N A G CQestAll
121 Y G P D Y L Q K D V VF V S F N Y G AL F S F D S P E L L N A G CQestB
51 Y G P D Y Q K DV V F V S F N Y R G AL F I S FD SP E L G P N A G CNTEMSHAEST-1.pro

161 L K D Q N L AL R W V V E N I E AF G G D P N N I T L F E S A G C S V H Y H AEalphaesterase
161 L K D Q N L AL R W V V D N V A N FG G D P K N I T L F E S A G C S V H Y H CQestalpha2
161 L K D Q N L A L R W V V D N I A N FG G D P K N I T L F E S A G G C S V H Y H CPestAS
161 L K D Q N L AL R W V I D N I A N FG G D P K N I T L F E S A G C S V H Y H CQestAll
161 L K D Q N L AL R W V V D N V A Y FG G D P K N I T L F E S A G C S V H Y H CQestB
91 L K D Q N L AL R W V V D N I A N FG G D P K N I T L F E S A G C S V H Y H CNTEMSHAEST-.pro

201 M I S D Q S K G L F Q R A I V M S G C S L N N W S T I P R R Q F S Q R L A K A L AEalpha.esterase
201 M V S D L S R G L F Q R A I V M S C V L N N W S V V P R R K F S E R L A K A L CQestalpha2
201 M V S D L S R G L F Q R A I V M S C V L N N W S V I P R R K R S E R L A K A L CPestAS
201 M V S D L S R G L F Q R A I V M S C V L N N W S V V P R R K F S E R L A K A L CQestAll
201 M V S D L S R G L F Q R A I V M S C V L N N W S V V P R R K F S E R L A K A L CQestB1
131 K CN TEMSHAEST-l.pro

Figure 3-2. Protein alignment of the putative translation product of CN TEMSHA EST-1 with
homologous esterase proteins. (The boxed amino acids point out conserved residues among
esterase proteins; the numbers represent amino acid numbers.)


Esterases have many functions in the mosquito; therefore it is important that we


determine whether the esterase isolated from Cx. nigripalpus plays a role in insecticide


tolerance/resistance (Lima-Catelani et al. 2004, Flores et al. 2004). The results obtained in this


study laid the foundation for further studies used to define the involvement of this gene in


insecticide tolerance/resistance in Cx. nigripalpus from Manatee County, FL and provide much


needed information in the district's operational control efforts.









environment. The timing of applications of organophosphates is thus important to consider

(Dent and Elliot 1995). Organophosphate insecticides have a potent toxicity towards both their

intended targets and mammals. The effect of organophosphates is often irreversible (Brown

2006). Although carbamates share a similar mode of action to organophosphates, the toxic

effects of carbamates are more easily reversed than that of organophosphates if the appropriate

dosage is not taken up by their intended targets (Dent 1995).

DDT and pyrethroids also share a similar mode of action, which is to modify voltage-

gated ion channels within the nerve cells of targeted mosquitoes (Brown 2006). DDT is a

chlorinated hydrocarbon, also called an organochlorine insecticide. DDT is a long-lasting and

stable insecticide that has been in use since the mid-1900s in the United States and many other

countries throughout the world; however, due to the build-up of resistance there has been a shift

towards using pyrethroids, carbamates and organophosphates instead

(http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm). Pyrethroids are more potent in smaller dosages

than DDT and they are longer lasting and more easily applied on a wider range of surfaces (such

as mud walls) than organophosphates or carbamates

(http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm).

DDT and pyrethroids have a similar mode of action, thus in regions where DDT

resistance has been detected (such as in Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Turkey, and Central America)

there is an emphasis on using organophosphates and carbamates

(http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm). However, due to the relatively shorter

longevity and higher production costs of organophosphates and carbamates, DDT and pyrethroid

insecticides are still used in many countries (http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm). In

Florida, DDT is no longer used (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998).









CHAPTER 2
MECHANISMS AND DETECTION OF RESISTANCE


Behavioral Mechanisms

The involvement of behavior in the formation of insecticide resistance in mosquito

species is often overlooked. Changes in the behavior of targeted species can, however, cause

drastic differences in the effectiveness of a given insecticide and its application. Behavioral

resistances can be found often in Anopheles spp. mosquitoes.

Anopheles mosquitoes tend to rest indoors when not feeding at their active times of the

day (Rozendaal et al. 1989). To control for malaria, indoor surfaces of houses within regions at

risk, are often sprayed with a residual insecticide, such as DDT or pyrethroids, in order to limit

Anopheles species from resting indoors and thus limit transmission (Pates and Curtis 2005). In

response to insecticide application, Anopheles mosquitoes may change their area of resting

preference to be outdoors in a forested area to decrease their exposure to the residue of the

insecticide. Also if the insecticide has a high irritancy effect, Anopheles species can even adapt

to an entirely new feeding style. Insecticides with high irritancies cause mosquitoes to become

agitated easily upon physical contact which then makes them land for shorter amounts of time.

Anopheles species can compensate for this by doing what is known as "bite and run" behavior

(Pates and Curtis 2005). An example of this was shown in Anopheles gambiae sensu strict in

the Tango region of Tanzania where they adapted by simply taking smaller blood-meals at a time

until they were fully engorged (Pates and Curtis 2005).

The use of indoor residual insecticides is of limited use against species in other mosquito

genera, such as Culex or Aedes. The species of these genera generally have entirely different










He
8 Hcrrd (CP4 PflmflW ThloMr (Cr4 Filim,)


1 2


Figure 4-2. Amplification of TE-1 in RNA extracted from heads, thoraces, abdomens, and
midguts dissected from unfed (UF) female Cx. nigripalpus and blood-fed female Cx. nigripalpus
over a 72-hour time period (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after being blood-fed).

The expression of TE-1 was characterized in unfed individual female Cx. nigripalpus from the

following locations for population analyses: "G2" (Manatee County), "G4" (Manatee County),

and "Colony" (FMEL). There was a distinct difference in the levels of expression of TE-1 in

individuals, depending on the location in which they were collected. The majority of the

individuals taken from the "G2" area of Manatee County were positive for the expression of TE-

1; however, the majority of individuals from the "G4" area of Manatee County had very little

expression of TE-1 (Fig.4-3). Individuals from the "Colony" of FMEL had mixed results

between those that were positive for expression of TE-1 and those that had little expression of

TE-1 (Fig. 4-3).


f 4 4,









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Shainnel Onaleigh Eans was born in Mount Vernon, New York. Her greatest inspiration

throughout her life is her mother, who is a single mother that has always worked hard to provide

for the family. Her mother always encouraged her children to follow their dreams wherever they

may lead. This would play a large role in Shainnel's life and future ambitions. Since a young

age, Shainnel has been interested in two main topics: the sciences and languages. One of her

goals in life is to become proficient in at least five languages, excluding English. Currently, she

knows Spanish and Japanese and is now planning what her next languages will be.

Shainnel graduated from the University of Florida in 2007 with a Bachelor of Science in

zoology and a minor in Japanese. After her studies in zoology, she determined that she was most

interested in invertebrates and parasitology. Shainnel chose to continue her education at the

University of Florida for a Master of Science in the Department of Entomology and Nematology

where she studies insecticide resistance genes in the mosquito species Culex nigripalpus. She

hopes to one day apply her strong background in the sciences and knowledge of languages in

future ambitions.










causing a shift in its binding site compatibility with the propoxur that must bind a specific target

site to be effective (Weill et al. 2003). This mechanism was detected in mosquito species of

multiple genera, including Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes spp. Since organophosphates share a

similar mode of action as carbamates, over-use of organophosphates could elicit a similar

response (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998).


140
1200


S80


I eo .l .
5 40 1 \- T



0 10 10 If* 1 10 1 10 "
PropoxuL concenlration IMI


Figure 2-1. Residual acetylcholinesterase activity of susceptible (green) and resistant (black)
mosquitoes assayed in homogenates and lysates from transfected S2 cells in the presence of
increasing concentrations of the carbamate insecticide Propoxur (Weill et al. 2003).

Genetic Mechanisms

Genetics also plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of insecticide

resistance within mosquito populations (Perera 2008). As long as the trait resulting in resistance

is heritable, it can be passed on to future generations of mosquitoes, causing the insecticide to

become less effective (Apperson and Georghiou 1975).

Examples of inherited genes resulting in resistance towards the insecticides dieldrin and

DDT were shown in detailed studies of Anopheles gambiae Giles, Anopheles sundaicus

(Rodenwaldt), Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culex

fatigans Weidemann mosquito populations (Davidson and Jackson 1961). It was determined that









interest were sequenced in both directions. Sequence analyses were performed using the

Lasergene DNA and protein analysis software from DNASTAR, Inc. (Madison, WI).

Results and Discussion

Esterases are thought to be conserved in mosquito species (Vaughan and Hemingway

1995). Since esterases function in the formation of insecticide resistance, we designed our

primers based on known esterase sequences implicated in the resistance phenotype found in the

Cx. pipiens complex. Through PCR on genomic DNA isolated from whole bodies of female Cx.

nigripalpus, we isolated a 200 base-pair (bp) fragment using the CP3 primers and a 900 bp

fragment using the Beta primers (Fig. 3-1). GenBank database searches (blastn and tblastx)

using the sequence of the fragment amplified with the CP3 primers revealed homology at the

nucleotide level to an est-3 gene found in Cx. p. pipiens (89%; Accession # AJ302090) and at the

translation level to a Cx. p. pipiens partial est-3 gene encoding esterase-3 (83%; Accession #

AM949567). The PCR fragments amplified with the Beta primers matched a translation product

of unknown function from Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, and its characterization will not be discussed

here.









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to thank the Manatee County Mosquito Control District and the Florida

Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for their support and funding of this project.

I thank my committee members for their support and advice throughout my time working on this

project. I also thank my mother for being my greatest inspiration throughout my studies.

Without our combined efforts, this project would not have been possible.










1 2


Figure 4-3. Amplification TE-1 using RNA extracted from individual female Cx. nigripalpus
trapped from "G2" (Manatee County), "G4" (Manatee County) and the FMEL Colony (F105).

Since esterases are known to be involved in insecticide tolerance/resistance formation in

mosquitoes, these results may indicate a difference in tolerance/resistance within these

populations of Cx. nigripalpus due to the distinct variation in TE-1 expression between the

locations (Flores et al. 2004). Future studies are needed to compare differences in tolerance

between the Cx. nigripalpus from each area through the use of the Bottle Bioassay. Individuals

with high susceptibility towards a given insecticide and those that are tolerant towards the

insecticide need to be compared for differences in TE-1 expression between the most and least

susceptible individuals. Based on earlier findings from other researchers, if TE-1 is involved in

insecticide resistance, one would expect that high levels of TE-1 would be expressed at higher

levels in the tolerant individuals and lower expression in the susceptible individuals (Flores et al.

2004, Cui et al. 2007).


Ntmm-- Cmintv "G,4"
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8


I Nl I', L C-dom. (I 10S)
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 it)









systems flow properly. Also they can help reduce this by minimizing potential mosquito

breeding sites from public areas and making sure that waste water plants are properly managed

(Becker et al. 2003). The use of organic surface films on standing water systems, such as waste

water plants, can help to suffocate mosquito larvae and newly emerged adults. Decreasing the

survival rate of mosquito larvae results in fewer adults that will emerge later (Kady et al. 2008).

Reducing the amount of contact one has with mosquitoes while outdoors is also

important. This limits the chances of coming in contact with infected mosquitoes. Examples of

this would be to wear long pants and shirts with sleeves when feasible while outdoors during

peak hours of mosquito activity. It is also advised to avoid sitting outside after dark in locations

where mosquitoes are active and to use mosquito netting when sleeping in an unscreened

location. Installing mesh screens on windows, doors, and porches can limit the amount of access

mosquitoes have to indoor environments (Becker et al. 2003).

The use of biological control is also a useful alternative to insecticide use. Biological

control agents include the use of fungi, bacteria, microsporidia, viruses, and natural predators.

Insect-pathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are

commercially produced for controlling a wide range of insect pests (Scholte 2005). Fungi

function by penetrating through the cuticle of their mosquito hosts and are capable of killing the

mosquito with minimal contact. Unlike fungi, bacteria, microporidia, and viruses must first be

ingested before they kill their hosts (Scholte 2005). The introduction of natural predators is also

beneficial in reducing mosquito populations. In ornamental ponds and other permanent water

sources, mosquito fish (Gambusia spp.) are often added to the water of common breeding sites to

reduce the number of mosquito larvae present (Pates and Curtis 2005). Establishing mosquito

populations of the genus Toxorhynchites in regions that have problems with controlling mosquito









CHAPTER 3
ESTERASE ISOLATION AND EXPRESSION IN CULEXNIGRIPALPUS Theobald
(DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL


Introduction

Esterase is an enzymatic protein in mosquitoes that functions in chemical defense against

insecticides (Weill et al. 2003). The objective of this study was to isolate esterase genes from

Culex nigripalpus Theobald and characterize gene expression in field-collected mosquitoes from

Manatee County, Florida. Manatee County has a long history of insecticide usage

(http://www.manateemosquito.com/History.html); therefore, there is reason to suspect

insecticide resistance to be a concern in this region. This study seeks to better define which

insecticide resistance/tolerance mechanisms are used by mosquitoes of Manatee County, thus

increasing understanding of insecticide tolerance/resistance status in Florida mosquitoes and

enabling the adoption of more effective mosquito control efforts.

Materials and Methods

In collaboration with Manatee County Mosquito Control District (MCMCD), adult

female Cx. nigripalpus mosquitoes (ca. 300-500) were collected from an area within the

MCMCD treatment zones using Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps baited with 3

lb of dry ice. Mosquitoes were chilled and identified. While anesthetized, whole mosquito

bodies, body tissues (midguts), and segments (head, abdomen, thorax) were collected using a

sterile razorblade and frozen at -80 C until use. Female Cx. nigripalpus (generation F105)

maintained as a colony at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (FMEL) were also used in

this study.

Genomic DNA was isolated from whole adult bodies of field-caught Cx. nigripalpus

females from Manatee County using the Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega,









and resting behavior, mutations of important target-sites, or shifts in resistance allele frequencies

throughout each mosquito population can help to serve as early indicators of the development of

tolerance/resistance.









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

ESTERASE ISOLATION, EXPRESSION, AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF CULEX
NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL

By

Shainnel Eans

August 2009

Chair: Chelsea Smartt
Major: Entomology and Nematology

Mosquitoes play an important role as vectors for a wide variety of pathogens that cause

diseases, including malaria, encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. In

an attempt to control mosquito-borne disease outbreaks around the world, the use of insecticides

has risen; however, this has also resulted in selection for mosquitoes that possess high

tolerance/resistance to many insecticides. It is important to understand the mechanisms involved

with the development of mosquito resistance to insecticides to be able to predict where targeted

control measures may be needed and how mosquitoes will react to new insecticides. Since

esterase is an enzymatic protein known to play a role in insecticide resistance formation, we

amplified an esterase gene segment (Temsha est-1, TE-1) from Culex nigripalpus using esterase

primers. Through expression studies, we found that TE-1 consistently showed high expression

within thoraces and abdomens in unfed mosquitoes and high expression in heads, thoraces,

abdomens, and midguts after blood feeding. This suggests TE-1 has a role in feeding/digestion.

We also found that the level of expression of TE-1 differed depending on where the mosquitoes

were collected. If this difference in expression can be correlated to differences in susceptibility

towards insecticides, we may be able to use TE-1 as an indicator for the formation of

tolerance/resistance. This would greatly enhance mosquito control efforts.









concentration of insecticide and comparing mortality rates over increments of time (McAllister

and Brogdon 1999). Since it is difficult to determine if affected mosquitoes are dead or just

immobilized, mortality can be difficult to accurately record. Hence the Bottle Bioassay is useful

in testing for the "knock-down effect". The "knock-down" effect involves taking measurements

of the amount of time that is required for mosquitoes to recover from the initial shock of landing

on an insecticide-treated surface. The WHO kit involves exposing mosquitoes to papers

saturated with a known concentration of insecticide (WHO 1979). This test is beneficial in

testing for either the "knock-down effect" or the "irritancy effect". The "irritancy effect"

involves taking measurements of the amount of time that is required for a mosquito to resume

flying around again after it made its "first landing" onto a surface treated with insecticides

following a set habituation time period (Guessan 2007). If the time measured during each of

these tests has consistently low values then it would be concluded that resistance had developed.

Further analysis through the use of molecular techniques could potentially establish the cause of

resistance, assuming it is not simply a behavioral adaptation.









vector populations is also beneficial. Toxorhynchites spp. adults do not blood-feed in their

lifetimes; yet they can be useful predators of the larvae of other mosquito species (Jones and

Schreiber 1994). Populations of Toxorhynchites can be difficult to establish, however, which

limits their usage as a biological control agent in certain regions.

The uses of alternative methods of control rather than chemical methods are effective in

slowing down the formation of insecticide resistance. Simply denying the mosquitoes a suitable

place to lay their eggs (i.e. reducing their access to standing bodies of water) can serve as an

effective means of limiting mosquito populations without having to resort to the use of harmful

chemicals (Becker et al. 2003). Reducing one's contact with the mosquitoes is also beneficial in

controlling the spread of mosquito-vectored diseases. If a biological control agent becomes well

established, it can serve as a continuous source of mosquito control (Jones and Schreiber 1994).

These alternative methods of control when combined with limited use of insecticides are

important for maintaining utmost control over mosquito populations.









enzymatic protein within mosquitoes that is known to aid detoxification of hazardous substances

entering the mosquito body, such as organophosphates (Weill et. al. 2003). The over-expression

of esterase produced by esterase genes is thus an important aspect to consider when analyzing

insecticide resistance/tolerance within mosquito populations (Cheikh et al. 2009).

Organophosphate insecticides specifically target acetylcholinesterase (ace) genes within

mosquitoes. Acetylcholinesterase plays an important role in the mosquito nervous system in that

it is involved in catalyzing the hydrolysis of acetylcholine-a neurotransmitter (Djogbenou et al.

2008). Resistance is seen when targeted acetylcholinesterase become insensitive towards the

organophosphates or similar acting insecticides (Weill et al. 2003).

Acetylcholinesterase is a "B-esterase" or serine esterase. Organophosphate insecticides

specifically inhibit the proper functioning of B-esterases (Aldridge 1993). However, mosquitoes

have another group of esterases (collectively known as "A-esterases"). These A-esterases

function in hydrolyzing organophosphates, carbamates, permethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide),

and carboxylic esters (Aldridge 1993, Flores et al. 2004). In response to increased exposure to

insecticides of this nature, A-esterases show an increase in expression levels, thus contributing to

a greater efficiency at detoxifying these compounds (Aldridge 1993, Flores et al. 2004).

As shown in Figure 2-1, the acetylcholinesterase-1 gene has an important function in the

formation of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes towards the carbamate known as "propoxur"

(Weill et. al. 2003, Cheikh et al. 2009). Mosquitoes that were resistant to propoxur had

unvaryingly high levels of acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity despite the exposure to

increasing concentrations of the insecticide. Mosquitoes that were susceptible to propoxur

displayed lower acetyl cholinesterase activity and higher mortality with exposure to increasingly

high concentrations of propoxur. This insensitivity is a result of mutations within the ace-1 gene









control over mosquito populations, but it is a race that can be easily lost if caution is not taken

(Li et al. 2009). This is why it is important to minimize the use of insecticides when possible

(Becker et al. 2003).

Another issue with using insecticides for mosquito control is that detection of resistance

development in a mosquito population can often be difficult to judge accurately (Hougard et al.

2003). Judging mosquito mortality, for instance, can be subject to personal interpretation. Many

insecticides have a short-term knock-down effect that causes the mosquito to be incapable of

moving as a result of the initial distress on its nervous system. This paralysis can last over a

wide range of time, from as short as a few seconds to as long as a few days (Hougard et. al.

2003).

Different insecticides can also have different levels of efficiency depending on the

climate in which it is used. Temperature and humidity both play large roles in an insecticide's

relative toxicity (Hodjati and Curtis 1999). In order to test how efficient a given insecticide will

be one must always keep in mind the environment of targeted mosquito populations. To account

for the potential effects of varying climates, tests comparing the relative effectiveness of

insecticides for use at a given location would ideally be performed under the same conditions.

One could achieve this by performing the tests in controlled laboratory settings (Hougard et al.

2003).









An example of a mutation that would affect insecticide resistance is if the mutation

occurred in a gene that was responsible for encoding proteins that detoxify toxins entering the

body. Another example is if the mutation occurred in a gene that was responsible for encoding

proteins directly targeted for binding by the insecticide (Devonshire and Field 1991, Djogbenou

et al. 2009). These mutations can arise due to a single substitution of an amino-acid at the active

binding site (Weill et al. 2003, Djogbenou 2009). The former example could cause a deleterious

effect in the mosquito making it less capable of detoxifying insecticides and thus more

susceptible to it; whereas the latter example would cause a resistance phenotype to the

insecticide if the insecticide is unable to bind to its intended target.

Insecticide resistance involving mutations in the receptor of the neurotransmitter GABA

have been documented in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These receptors are found within

neuromuscular cells and the central nervous system. They function as a part of chloride inhibitor

channels which control the passage of chloride ions through the gated channels (Shang et al.

2008). Cyclodiene (i.e. Dieldrin), macrocylic-lactones (i.e. Abamectin), and phenyl-pyrazole

(i.e. Fipronil) insecticides all target GABA receptors. Point mutations in GABA subunit receptor

genes can lead to a resistance phenotype towards all of these insecticide types. This problem is

amplified if more than one of these insecticides is used within the same timeframe, since they

have the same modes of action. Selective pressures would be amplified strongly towards

individual mosquitoes that possess resistance towards that mode of action (Fonseca-Gonzalez et

al. 2009).

Resistances to insecticides can also occur if the key detoxifying proteins are produced in

increasing quantities. Augmented production of these detoxifying proteins can occur due to an

increase in gene copy numbers of the corresponding genes (Li et al. 2009). Esterase is an









water and incubated at 600C. All RNA was stored at -800C until ready for use. The

concentration of the RNA samples was analyzed using a SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer.

The integrity of the RNA was determined by running it on a 1% agarose/formaldehyde gel and

by viewing the gel using an INGenius Gel Documentation System (Syngene Bio Imaging,

Frederick, MD) and a Gene Gnome (Syngene Bio Imaging, Frederick, MD).

All reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of the RNA were performed using the

same primers as previously described, including an additional primer set: CP4 Forward: 5'-

AGT-AAG-CTG-CTG-AAC-AAA-AT-3' and CP4 Reverse: 5'-GTG-GTA-GTG-GAC-GGA-

ACA-3'. The RT-PCR analyses were carried out using the protocol included in the Enhanced

Avian HS RT-PCR kit (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in a RapidCycler Idaho Technology

System (Idaho Technology Inc, Salt Lake City, UT). The RT-PCR reactions were analyzed on a

1% agarose gel. Each distinct fragment was extracted from the gel using the QIAgen QIAquick

gel extraction kit and analyzed individually using the SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer.

All PCR fragments of interest were cloned into the pCR2.1 cloning vector following

the manufacturer's protocol using reagents in the TA Cloning kit (InvitrogenTM, Carlsbad, CA).

Recombinant clones were then transformed into bacteria and allowed to grow overnight on

kanamycin agar plates. Bacterial colonies that had successfully incorporated the cloning vector

containing the gene of interest appeared as white colonies, while those that were non-

recombinant were blue. Positive clones were grown overnight at 370C under agitation in liquid

culture containing kanamycin. The plasmid DNA was isolated using the QIAprep Spin Miniprep

Kit (QIAgen, Valencia, CA). All positive clones were sequenced using a Beckman Coulter CEQ

8000 Genetic Analysis System with reagents included in the CEQ DTCS Quick Start Kit

(Beckman Coulter Inc., Fullerton, CA) and following the manufacturer's protocol. Clones of









CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION

Due to the rapid nature of insecticide resistance formation in response to repeated

exposure to insecticides, we must continuously race to stay one step ahead in order to maintain

control of populations of mosquito species throughout the world (Hemingway and Ranson 2000,

Coleman and Hemingway 2007, Li et al. 2009). The importance of maintaining control is even

more imperative because mosquitoes play a role in spreading pathogenic diseases, such as yellow

fever, dengue, filariasis, and encephalitis (Greenwood 2002).

Esterases are known to be involved in the formation of insecticide tolerance/resistance

(Flores et al. 2004, Cheikh et al. 2009), therefore the first focus of this study was to isolate an

esterase from female Culex nigripalpus of Manatee County, FL., The Cx. nigripalpus esterase

(TEMSHA est-1; Accession # GO343531) had a high homology with Cx. p. pipiens esterase A5

(96%, Accession # AY545983; Buss and Callaghan, 2004), Cx. p. quinquefasciatus estalpha2

esterase (96%, Accession # Z47988, Vaughan and Hemigway 1995), and with Ae. aegypti L.

alpha-esterase partial mRNA (85%, Accession # XM_001654459; Nene et al. 2007) esterases

previously shown to be important in detoxifying insecticides. Therefore, Temsha est-1 is likely a

member of the esterase family of proteins that could potentially detoxify insecticides.

Esterases have many functions in mosquitoes, therefore this study focused on where and

when Temsha est-1 (TE-1) was expressed in Cx. nigripalpus. The level of expression of TE-1 in

RNA extracted from female Cx. nigripalpus body segments (heads, thoraces, and abdomens) and

from body tissues (midguts) was determined and it was found that TE-1 was highly expressed in

the thorax and abdomen of Cx. nigripalpus. The levels of expression of TE-1 in body segments

and body tissues dissected before and after blood feeding were determined. TE-1 was highly

expressed in thoraces and midgut tissues before and immediately after blood feeding; however,









It is also important to understand how each insecticide functions and any potential

impacts on the surrounding environment. The goal is to minimize the rate of resistance forming

in response to repeated applications of a given insecticide (Florida Coordinating Council on

Mosquito Control 1998). One could achieve this is by doing one of the following: using the

lowest concentration of an insecticide required for maintaining effective control on a given

mosquito population, reducing the frequency of applications, and switching between different

classes of insecticides. For example, cyclodiene (i.e. Dieldrin) and phenyl-pyrazole (i.e.

Fipronil) insecticides both use the same mode of action to decimate their intended target-by

disrupting the function of GABA receptors for mosquito neurotransmitters (Shang et al. 2008).

If the targeted population of mosquitoes started to form a resistance towards applications of

cyclodiene, then switching to the use of phenyl-pyrazole would show a decreased effectiveness

as well (Shang et al. 2008). Applying both of these insecticides in the same region during the

same time period would only speed up the formation of resistance towards both compounds until

neither one was effective. To slow down tolerance one could do one of the following: use low

dosages thus allowing for susceptible individuals to continue passing along their alleles

throughout the next generations, apply the insecticides at low frequencies, use insecticides that

have shorter persistence in the environment, use fast-release formulations, and treat only the

areas that require control (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998).

These problems are only augmented by the fact that there is a limit on the dose that can

be applied before the toxicity of the insecticides becomes too harmful for people and the

surrounding environment. As long as the use of insecticides remains the main form of mosquito

control, the formation of resistant mosquito populations will always pose a problem (Hemingway

and Ranson 2000). There exists a never-ending race to evolve novel insecticides and maintain









CHAPTER 4
ESTERASE EXPRESSION AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF FEMALE CULEX
NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL

Introduction

In previous experiments, a cDNA fragment (Temsha est-1; Accession # GO343531) was

isolated from female Cx. nigripalpus of Manatee County, FL translation product shared a high

homology with alpha esterase encoding genes from mosquitoes. In the experiment described

herein, our goals were the following: to obtain a larger cDNA clone encoding Cx. nigripalpus

esterase Temsha est-1 (TE-1), to determine when and where TE-1 is expressed in female Cx.

nigripalpus body segments and tissues, and to analyze its expression levels across individual

mosquitoes from distinct populations in Manatee County Florida. These studies help to

determine the function of TE-1 and serve as preliminary information in verifying the role of Cx.

nigripalpus TE-1 in the formation of insecticide resistance in Manatee County, Florida Cx.

nigripalpus.

Materials and Methods

In collaboration with Manatee County Mosquito Control District (MCMCD), adult

female Culex nigripalpus field mosquitoes (ca. 300-500) were collected and used in this study.

Female Cx. nigripalpus were maintained as described previously. Mosquitoes were chilled and

identified. While anesthetized, whole mosquito bodies, body tissues (midguts), and segments

(head, abdomen, thorax) were collected using a sterile razorblade and frozen at -80 C until use.

Culex nigripalpus used in this study were collected from the following geographic locales: "G2"

(Manatee County; Fig. 4-1), "G4" (Manatee County; Fig. 4-1), and the FMEL ("Colony" F105

and "Hybrids" F28). The "Hybrids" (F28) represent "Colony" Cx. nigripalpus that had been out-

crossed with wild Cx. nigripalpus and maintained over 28 generations. The "G2" area is located




Full Text

PAGE 1

ESTERASE ISOLATION, EXPRESSION, AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL By SHAINNEL EANS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009 1

PAGE 2

2009 Shainnel Eans 2

PAGE 3

To all who supported and advised me throughout this project, thus contributing to my success 3

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....5 LIST OF FIGURES....6 ABSTRACT....7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION....8 2 MECHANISMS AND DETECTION OF RESISTANCE... Behavioral Mechanisms... Molecular Mechanisms....13 Genetic Mechanisms....16 Detections of Resistance in Adult Mosquitoes....17 3 ESTERASE ISOLATION AND EXPRESSION IN CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL.....................19 Introduction.. Materials and Methods.....19 Results and Discussion.23 4 ESTERASE EXPRESSION AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL Introduction..27 Materials and Methods.27 Results and Discussion.30 5 PROBLEMS WITH CHEMICAL CONTROL....34 6 ALTERNATIVES TO INSECTICIDE USAGE..37 7 CONCLUSION REFERENCES CITED....43 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 4

PAGE 5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the Ma natee County Mosquito Control District and the Florida Department of Agriculture and C onsumer Services for their support and funding of this project. I thank my committee members for their support and advice throughout my time working on this project. I also thank my mother for being my greatest inspiration throughout my studies. Without our combined efforts, this pr oject would not have been possible. 5

PAGE 6

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1 Acetylcholinesterase activity of susceptible and resistant mosquitoes...16 3-1 PCR, RT-PCR, and expression analyses. 3-2 Protein alignment of putative tran slation product of Temsha est-1....26 4-1 G2 and G4 Manatee County....28 4-2 Amplification of Tems ha est-1 in unfed and blood-fed Culex nigripalpus ... 4-3 Population analyses............................................32 6

PAGE 7

Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science ESTERASE ISOLATION, EXPRESSION, AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL By Shainnel Eans August 2009 Chair: Chelsea Smartt Major: Entomology and Nematology Mosquitoes play an important role as vector s for a wide variety of pathogens that cause diseases, including malaria, encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. In an attempt to control mosquito-borne disease outb reaks around the world, the use of insecticides has risen; however, this has also resulted in selection for mosquitoes that possess high tolerance/resistance to many insec ticides. It is important to un derstand the mechanisms involved with the development of mosquito resistance to ins ecticides to be able to predict where targeted control measures may be needed and how mosq uitoes will react to new insecticides. Since esterase is an enzymatic protein known to play a role in insecticide resistance formation, we amplified an esterase gene segment (Temsha est-1, TE-1) from Culex nigripalpus using esterase primers. Through expression studies, we found that TE-1 consistently showed high expression within thoraces and abdomens in unfed mosqu itoes and high expression in heads, thoraces, abdomens, and midguts after blood feeding. This suggests TE-1 has a role in feeding/digestion. We also found that the level of expression of TE-1 differed depending on where the mosquitoes were collected. If this difference in expression ca n be correlated to diffe rences in susceptibility towards insecticides, we may be able to use TE-1 as an indicator for the formation of tolerance/resistance. This would greatly enhance mosquito control efforts. 7

PAGE 8

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Mosquitoes serve as important vectors for a la rge array of pathogens that cause diseases including the following: malaria, encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and filariasis (Greenwood 2002, Kyle and Harris 2008). Temperate and tropical areas worldwide are constantly faced with the threat of outbreaks of these diseases sin ce mosquito populations thrive year-round in these regions (Clements 2000). This has lead to widesp read usage of insecticides in order to help maintain control over mosquito populations (D jogbnou et al. 2009). The downside, however, is that this has also lead to popul ations of mosquitoes that have acquired resistance towards many insecticides (Levy 2007). For this reason we must learn to have a better understanding of the mechanisms involved with the development of mos quito resistance towards insecticides so that we can foresee what control measures could prove to be more effective and so that we can better predict how mosquitoes would react to newly formulated insec ticides. It is beneficial to counteract or at least minimize the defenses mos quitoes have towards insecticides by directly manipulating the genes that control the resi stance phenotype (Kidwell and Wattam 1998). In the United States, for example, the distri bution of mosquito-vectored diseases (such as West Nile) has caused distress due to the impact they have on public health in the event of an outbreak (Hayes 2005). In additi on, control of vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), such as Culex mosquitoes in the southeastern United States, has become economically significant due to the expenses involved in maintaining effective co ntrol (Sardelis et al. 2001, Huhn 2003, Rutledge et al. 2003, Djogbnou et al. 2009). States such as Florida, in part icular, are prime targets of concern regarding potentia l outbreaks of mosquito-vectored dis eases, such as West Nile, due to their geographic location and the warm humid cl imate that favors the growth of mosquito populations throughout the year (Nayar 1982). 8

PAGE 9

An intuitive method to control the continued spread of WNV, along with any other pathogens that are transmitted by mosquitoes, is to maintain control over the mosquito population number. This is a good control strateg y, because mosquitoes are essential for the pathogens continued transmission and surviv al (Hemingway and Ranson 2000). Mosquitocontrol programs are confronted with the task of developing e ffective control measures that reduce the ability of mosquito populations to spread diseases to human populations (Perera 2008). Since the mid 1900s the United States has developed several programs aimed towards mosquito control to reduce mosqu ito populations and to reduce th eir ability to transmit disease (Levy 2007). The usage of insectic ides increased as an effective control strategy for this purpose since the mid-1950s (Djogbnou et al. 2009). In itially, these control strategies involving insecticides preferentially us ed the toxin known as DDT (Dic hloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane) (WHO 1979, Coleman and Hemingway 2007). Such ex tensive usage of DDT was successful at first, but it soon resulted in the development of resistance within mosquito populations (WHO 1979, Levy 2007). With the effectiveness of DDT on the decline, along w ith knowledge of its negative environmental impacts on local plants, an imals, and people, mosquito control programs began to use other types of insect icides (Guessan et. al. 2007). These other insecticides included carbamates and organophosphates (such as ma lathion, chloropyrifos, naled, propoxor, and fenthion) and pyrethroids (s uch as resmethrin and permethrin) (WHO 1979). Organophosphates and carbamates both share a similar mode of action, which is to prevent nerve impulses from transmitting properly between the synapses of mosquito nerve cells (Dent 1995, Brown 2006). Organophosphates are chem ically less stable, meaning they have a short timeframe after application in which they remain effective before breaking down in the 9

PAGE 10

environment. The timing of applications of organophosphates is thus important to consider (Dent and Elliot 1995). Organophospha te insecticides have a poten t toxicity towards both their intended targets and mammals. The effect of organophosphates is often irreversible (Brown 2006). Although carbamates share a similar mode of action to organoph osphates, the toxic effects of carbamates are more easily reversed than that of organophosphates if the appropriate dosage is not taken up by thei r intended targets (Dent 1995). DDT and pyrethroids also share a similar m ode of action, which is to modify voltagegated ion channels within the nerve cells of targeted mosqu itoes (Brown 2006). DDT is a chlorinated hydrocarbon, also calle d an organochlorine insecticide. DDT is a long-lasting and stable insecticide that has been in use since the mid-1900s in the United States and many other countries throughout the world; howev er, due to the build-up of resi stance there has been a shift towards using pyrethroids, carbama tes and organophosphates instead ( http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm ). Pyrethroids are more potent in smaller dosages than DDT and they are longer lasting and more easily applied on a wider range of surfaces (such as mud walls) than organophosphates or carbamates ( http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm ). DDT and pyrethroids have a similar mode of action, thus in regions where DDT resistance has been detected (such as in Sri Lank a, India, Pakistan, Turkey, and Central America) there is an emphasis on using organophosphates and carbamates ( http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm ). However, due to the relatively shorter longevity and higher production costs of organophosphates and carbamates, DDT and pyrethroid insecticides are still used in many countries ( http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/curtiscf.htm ). In Florida, DDT is no longer used (Florida C oordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998). 10

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Although in the mid-1900s, DDT was commonly used in Florida mosquito control programs, currently pyrethroids, carbamates, and organophosphates are used (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PI172 ). Mosquitoes display a resistance or toleran ce towards insecticides as they become increasingly less vulnerable to the toxicity. Although resistance and tolerance are often used interchangeably there are slight differences betw een the two terms that must be kept in mind. We use the term tolerance to refer to the mosquitos ability to endure or become less responsive to a substance with repeated exposure; while we use the term resistance to refer to the ability of the mosquito to form immunity to wards an insecticide afte r exposure. Why is it that a given insecticide can show high eff ectiveness during the fi rst exposure and low effectiveness after repeated expos ures? Changes in the effectiven ess of insecticides are due to mechanisms of tolerance/resistance. These m echanisms include behavioral, molecular, and genetic mechanisms. 11

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CHAPTER 2 MECHANISMS AND DETECTION OF RESISTANCE Behavioral Mechanisms The involvement of behavior in the forma tion of insecticide re sistance in mosquito species is often overlooked. Changes in the be havior of targeted sp ecies can, however, cause drastic differences in the effectiveness of a gi ven insecticide and its ap plication. Behavioral resistances can be found often in Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Anopheles mosquitoes tend to rest indoors when not feeding at their active times of the day (Rozendaal et al. 1989). To control for mala ria, indoor surfaces of houses within regions at risk, are often sprayed with a resi dual insecticide, such as DDT or pyrethroids, in order to limit Anopheles species from resting indoors and thus lim it transmission (Pates and Curtis 2005). In response to insecticide application, Anopheles mosquitoes may change their area of resting preference to be outdoors in a forested area to decrease their exposure to the residue of the insecticide. Also if the insecticide has a high irritancy effect, Anopheles species can even adapt to an entirely new feeding style. Insecticides with high irritancies cause mosquitoes to become agitated easily upon physical contact which then makes them land for shorter amounts of time. Anopheles species can compensate for this by doing what is known as bite and run behavior (Pates and Curtis 2005). An example of this was shown in Anopheles gambiae sensu strictu in the Tango region of Tanzania where they adapte d by simply taking smaller blood-meals at a time until they were fully engorged (Pates and Curtis 2005). The use of indoor residual insecticides is of limited use agai nst species in other mosquito genera, such as Culex or Aedes. The species of these genera ge nerally have entirely different 12

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preferences for resting areas than the Anopheles species, which naturally limits their exposure to residual insecticides (Brown and Pal 1971). Another key behavioral adaptation for Anopheles gambiae sensu strictu is change in prime feeding times. This is especially a con cern in regions where pyrethroid-treated bed-nets are used with the assumption that the mosquitoes (particularly Anopheles spp.) will feed mostly at night while people are sleeping. Anopheles spp. will sometimes even change their behavior in such a way to integrate a wider range of active feeding times throughout the day as compensation. This makes the use of bed-nets fa r less effective. In regions where this is a primary means of mosquito control, such behavioral shifts pose a great concern (Pates and Curtis 2005). This trend of pyrethroid-tr eated bed nets becoming less e ffective was also observed for the mosquito species Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Irish et al. 2008). It is possible that these Culex mosquitoes are also devel oping a behavioral mechanism of avoidance similar to that of the Anopheles mosquitoes. To counter this, a different insecticide that neither species displays tolerance towards should be used for the bed nets and the bed nets must be kept in good condition with minimal holes (Irish et al. 2008). Molecular Mechanisms Biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resist ance across mosquito species have been an important focus of research studies. These include mutations that cause targ et site insensitivities within the mosquito nervous system. This inse nsitivity can occur due to changes that alter sodium channels, y -amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors, and acetyl cholinesterase activity within the central nervous system or it can occur due to an increased metabolic rate of insecticide detoxification (Devonshire and Field 1991, Weill et al. 2003, Shang et al. 2008). 13

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An example of a mutation that would affect insecticide resistance is if the mutation occurred in a gene that was responsible for encoding proteins that detoxi fy toxins entering the body. Another example is if the mutation occurred in a gene that was responsible for encoding proteins directly targeted for binding by the insecticide (D evonshire and Field 1991, Djogbnou et al. 2009). These mutations can arise due to a single substitution of an amino-acid at the active binding site (Weill et al. 2003, Djogbnou 2009). The former example could cause a deleterious effect in the mosquito making it less capable of detoxifying insecticides and thus more susceptible to it; whereas the latter example would cause a resistance phenotype to the insecticide if the insecticide is unable to bind to its intended target. Insecticide resistance involving mutations in the receptor of the neurotransmitter GABA have been documented in the mosquito Aedes aegypti These receptors are found within neuromuscular cells and the central nervous system. They function as a part of chloride inhibitor channels which control the passage of chloride ions through the gated channels (Shang et al. 2008). Cyclodiene (i.e. Dieldrin ), macrocylic-lactones (i.e. Abamectin), and phenyl-pyrazole (i.e. Fipronil) insecticides all target GABA receptors. Point mutations in GABA subunit receptor genes can lead to a resistance phenotype towards all of these insecticide type s. This problem is amplified if more than one of these insecticides is used within the same timeframe, since they have the same modes of acti on. Selective pressures would be amplified strongly towards individual mosquitoes that possess resistance towards that mode of action (Fonseca-Gonzlez et al. 2009). Resistances to insecticides can also occur if the key detoxifying proteins are produced in increasing quantities. Augmented production of th ese detoxifying proteins can occur due to an increase in gene copy numbers of the correspond ing genes (Li et al. 2009). Esterase is an 14

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enzymatic protein within mosquitoes that is known to aid detoxification of hazardous substances entering the mosquito body, such as organophospha tes (Weill et. al. 2003). The over-expression of esterase produced by esterase genes is thus an important aspect to c onsider when analyzing insecticide resistance/tolera nce within mosquito populati ons (Cheikh et al. 2009). Organophosphate insecticides specifically targ et acetylcholinesterase (ace) genes within mosquitoes. Acetylcholinesterase plays an important role in the mosquito nervous system in that it is involved in catalyzing the hydrolysis of ace tylcholinea neurotransmitter (Djogbnou et al. 2008). Resistance is seen when targeted acetylcholinesterase become insensitive towards the organophosphates or similar acting in secticides (Weill et al. 2003). Acetylcholinesterase is a B-esterase or serine esterase. Orga nophosphate insecticides specifically inhibit the proper f unctioning of B-esterases (Aldridge 1993). However, mosquitoes have another group of esterases (collectively known as A-esterases). These A-esterases function in hydrolyzing organophosphates, carbamates, permethrin (a pyre throid insecticide), and carboxylic esters (Aldridge 1993, Flores et al 2004). In response to increased exposure to insecticides of this nature, A-esterases show an increase in expression leve ls, thus contributing to a greater efficiency at detoxifying these co mpounds (Aldridge 1993, Flores et al. 2004). As shown in Figure 2-1, the acetylcholinesterase -1 gene has an important function in the formation of insecticide resi stance in mosquitoes towards the carbamate known as propoxur (Weill et. al. 2003, Cheikh et al. 2009). Mosqu itoes that were resistant to propoxur had unvaryingly high levels of acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity despite the exposure to increasing concentrations of the insecticide. Mosquitoes that were susceptible to propoxur displayed lower acetyl cholinesterase activity an d higher mortality with exposure to increasingly high concentrations of propoxur. This insensitivity is a result of mutations within the ace-1 gene 15

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causing a shift in its binding site compatibility with the propoxur th at must bind a specific target site to be effective (Weill et al. 2003). This mechanism was detected in mosquito species of multiple genera, including Anopheles Culex, and Aedes spp. Since organophosphates share a similar mode of action as carbamates, over-u se of organophosphates could elicit a similar response (Florida Coordinating C ouncil on Mosquito Control 1998). Figure 2-1. Residual acetylcholines terase activity of susceptible (green) and resistant (black) mosquitoes assayed in homogenates and lysates from transfected S2 cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of the carbamate insecticide Propoxur (Weill et al. 2003). Genetic Mechanisms Genetics also plays an important role in th e formation and maintenance of insecticide resistance within mosquito populations (Perera 2008). As long as the trait resulting in resistance is heritable, it can be passed on to future gene rations of mosquitoes, cau sing the insecticide to become less effective (Apperson and Georghiou 1975). Examples of inherited genes resulting in resistance towards the insecticides dieldrin and DDT were shown in detailed studies of Anopheles gambiae Giles Anopheles sundaicus (Rodenwaldt), Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culex fatigans Weidemann mosquito populations (Davidson and Jack son 1961). It was determined that 16

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dieldrin-resistance in all of these species relied on a single heritable genetic factor. This factor was recessive in nature within the An. sundaicus populations, but was partially dominant in nature in mosquitoes from populations of the rema ining species. It was also determined that the mosquitoes in Cx. fatigans populations had a naturally higher resistance towards exposure to DDT than either of the Anopheles species despite the same selective pressures. On the other hand, the Cx. fatigans populations were much more suscepti ble towards exposure to dieldrin than either of the Anopheles species. Through the use of finely controlled studies of selection of susceptible, hybrid, and resistan t strains of mosquitoes, Davidson and Jackson (1961) were able to conclude that resistance towards DDT and dieldrin were independent of one another. This suggests that resistances due to genetic mechan isms are quite diverse in nature (Perera 2008). If the selective pressures from insecticide exposure remain high, insecticid e resistance would be maintained within populations (Davidson and Za har 1973). This would be expected to occur with repeated exposure to the same insecticide ov er long periods of time. Similarly, insecticide resistance would decline as selective pressu res decrease. Such a decline would be the consequence of terminating applications of insect icides in a given region or shifting applications to usage of a different class of insecticide. Detections of Resistance in Adult Mosquitoes Resistances can sometimes be difficult to de tect. Some strategi es include using a combination of several different measurementsincluding mortality rates, the knockdown effect, and irritancy tests (Hougard 2003). Th ese measurements can be taken using the Bottle Bioassay (McAllister and Brogdon 1999) or the sta ndard World Health Organization kit (WHO 1979) methods of analyzing insecticide resi stance. The Bottle Bioassay involves the introduction of a pre-determined number of mosquitoes into gl ass bottles coated with a known 17

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concentration of insecticide and comparing mortality rates over increments of time (McAllister and Brogdon 1999). Since it is difficult to determine if affected mosquitoes are dead or just immobilized, mortality can be difficult to accurately record. Hence the Bottle Bioassay is useful in testing for the knock-down effect. The knock-down effect involves taking measurements of the amount of time that is re quired for mosquitoes to recover from the initial shock of landing on an insecticide-treated surface. The WHO kit involves exposing mosquitoes to papers saturated with a known concentratio n of insecticide (WHO 1979). This test is beneficial in testing for either the knock-down effect or th e irritancy effect. The irritancy effect involves taking measurements of the amount of time that is required for a mosquito to resume flying around again after it made its first la nding onto a surface treated with insecticides following a set habituation time period (Guessan 2007). If the time measured during each of these tests has consistently low values then it w ould be concluded that re sistance had developed. Further analysis through the use of molecular techniques could pot entially establish the cause of resistance, assuming it is not si mply a behavioral adaptation. 18

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CHAPTER 3 ESTERASE ISOLATION AND EXPRESSION IN CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL Introduction Esterase is an enzymatic protein in mosquitoes that functions in ch emical defense against insecticides (Weill et al. 2003). The objective of this study was to isolate esterase genes from Culex nigripalpus Theobald and characterize gene expressi on in field-collected mosquitoes from Manatee County, Florida. Ma natee County has a long hist ory of insecticide usage ( http://www.manateemosquito.com/History.html ); therefore, there is reason to suspect insecticide resistance to be a concern in this re gion. This study seeks to better define which insecticide resistance/tolerance mechanisms ar e used by mosquitoes of Manatee County, thus increasing understanding of insecticide toleranc e/resistance status in Florida mosquitoes and enabling the adoption of more eff ective mosquito control efforts. Materials and Methods In collaboration with Manatee County Mos quito Control District (MCMCD), adult female Cx. nigripalpus mosquitoes (ca. 300-500) were co llected from an area within the MCMCD treatment zones using Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps baited with 3 lb of dry ice. Mosquitoes were chilled and identified. While anesthetized, whole mosquito bodies, body tissues (midguts), and segments (h ead, abdomen, thorax) were collected using a sterile razorblade and frozen at -80 o C until use. Female Cx. nigripalpus (generation F105) maintained as a colony at the Florida Medical En tomology Laboratory (FMEL) were also used in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from w hole adult bodies of field-caught Cx. nigripalpus females from Manatee County using the Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, 19

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Madison WI) according to the manufacturers protocol with the following modifications accounting for extraction from smaller samples including an added inc ubation period in the initial step and minor changes in the volumes of some reagents : Twelve adult mosquito bodies were homogenized manually in 600 microliters (ul) of Nuclei Lysis Solution and incubated in a 65C heating block. RNase solution (3 ul) was then added, after which, the tube of homogenized mosquitoes was incubated again at 37 C. Following this incubati on, protein precipitation solution (200 ul) was added. The tubes were vorte xed and chilled on ice. The tubes were then centrifuged at 13,000 times gravity (xg) and the s upernatant collected. Isopropanol (600 ul) was then added and mixed in by inversion. Th e tubes were centrifuged again at 13,000 xg. The supernatant was carefully removed and the pellet wa s then washed with 600 ul of 70% ethanol. The pellet was allowed to air dry. The genomic DNA pellet was re-suspended in 500 ul of DNA Rehydration solution and then incubated at 65C fo r 1 hr. This was stored at 4C until use. To purify the DNA, a mixture of Phenol: Chlo roform: Isoamyl Alcohol (25: 24: 1) was added to the re-hydrated DNA. The tubes were vortexed and then centr ifuged at 13,200 xg at room temperature. The top phase was then co llected. Then 0.1x total volume of 2.7M Sodium Acetate of pH 5.2 was added, followed by 2x the to tal volume of ice cold 100% ethanol. This was mixed by vortexing and incubated at -8 0C and then centrifuged 13,200 xg at room temperature. The pellet was washed using room temperature 70% ethanol and allowed to air dry. The pellet was re-suspended in autoclaved MilliQ water (water that had been filtered through the Millipore, Billerica, MA, system) a nd incubated overnight at 4C. The extracted DNA was then analyzed by a SmartSpec Plus spect rophotometer (BioRad, Hercules, CA) and on a 1% agarose gel to de termine the concentration and to check for degradation. 20

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A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the genomic DNA was performed using primers that had been designed based on th e sequence of the esterase gene found in Culex pipiens pipiens L. The PCR analyses were carried out using the REDTaq Genomic DNA Polymerase kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO) in a Rapid Cycler TM (Idaho Technology, Inc., Lake City, Utah). The PCR reactio ns were then analyzed on a 1% agarose gel. Each distinct fragment was extracted from the gel using th e QIAgen QIAquick gel extraction kit (QIAgen, Valencia, CA) and the concentration of the PCR fragment was calculated using a SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer. The primers used for this study were the following: Beta Forward: 5-CGA-TCA-TCATGA-TGC-GGT-AG-3; Beta Reverse: 5 -CCA-GAA-GAT-CGT-C GG-CTG-CG-3; CP3 Forward: 5-ATT-GGA-AGT-GAG-GAC-AGC-TTG-CAC-3; CP3 Reverse: 5-ACC-GTACAT-CTC-CAC-TCC-ACTAGA-3; Actin-3 (Forward): 5-CTG-GAT-TCC-GGA-GAT-GGTGT-3; Actin-4 (Reverse): 5-T AG-ACG-GGG-CAA-G GG-CGG-TGA-TTT-3 Total RNA was extracted from field collect ed mosquitoes using the TRIzol Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad CA). Whole adult female Cx. nigripalpus mosquito bodies (12 mosquitoes per tube), body tissues (midguts; 15 per tube), and segments (head, abdomen, thorax; 10 of each per tube) were homogenized in 1000 ul of TRIzol Reagent and the manufacturers protocol was followed with a modification: Hom ogenized samples were allowed to incubate at room temperature for 10 minutes and then centr ifuged at 4C at 12,000 xg. The supernatant was collected and 200 ul of chloroform was added. The tubes were then vortexed for 15 seconds. The samples were incubated at room temperature; after which they were centrifuged at 4C at 12,000 xg. After this step, the manufacturers prot ocol included with the TRIzol reagent was followed. The RNA pellets were then re-suspe nded in 50 ul of diet hylpyrocarbonate-treated 21

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water and incubated at 60C. All RNA was stored at -80C until ready for use. The concentration of the RNA samples was analyzed using a SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer. The integrity of the RNA was determined by running it on a 1% agarose/formaldehyde gel and by viewing the gel using an INGenius Gel Documentation System (Syngene Bio Imaging, Frederick, MD) and a Gene Gnome (Synge ne Bio Imaging, Frederick, MD). All reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of the RNA were performed using the same primers as previously described, including an additional primer se t: CP4 Forward: 5AGT-AAG-CTG-CTG-AAC-AAA-AT-3 and CP4 Reverse: 5-GTG -GTA-GTG-GAC-GGAACA-3. The RT-PCR analyses were carried out using the protocol included in the Enhanced Avian HS RT-PCR kit (Sigma Aldrich, St. Loui s, MO) in a RapidCycler Idaho Technology System (Idaho Technology Inc, Salt Lake City, UT). The RT-PCR reactions were analyzed on a 1% agarose gel. Each distinct fragment was ex tracted from the gel using the QIAgen QIAquick gel extraction kit and analyzed individually using the SmartSpec Plus spectrophotometer. All PCR fragments of interest were clone d into the pCR.1 cloning vector following the manufacturers protocol using reagents in the TA Cloning kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Recombinant clones were then transformed into bacteria and allowed to grow overnight on kanamycin agar plates. Bacterial colonies that had successfully incorporated the cloning vector containing the gene of interest appeared as white colonies, while those that were nonrecombinant were blue. Positive clones were gr own overnight at 37C under agitation in liquid culture containing kanamycin. The plasmid DNA was isolated using the QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit (QIAgen, Valencia, CA). All positive clones were sequenced using a Beckman Coulter CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis System with reagents included in the CEQ DT CS Quick Start Kit (Beckman Coulter Inc., Fullerton, CA) and following the manufacturers protocol. Clones of 22

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interest were sequenced in both directions. Sequence analyses were performed using the Lasergene DNA and protein analysis softwa re from DNASTAR, Inc. (Madison, WI). Results and Discussion Esterases are thought to be conserved in mosquito speci es (Vaughan and Hemingway 1995). Since esterases function in the formation of insecticid e resistance, we designed our primers based on known esterase sequences implicat ed in the resistance phenotype found in the Cx. pipiens complex. Through PCR on genomic DNA isolated from whole bodies of female Cx. nigripalpus we isolated a 200 base-pai r (bp) fragment using the CP3 primers and a 900 bp fragment using the Beta primers (Fig. 3-1). GenBank database searches (blastn and tblastx) using the sequence of the fragment amplified with the CP3 primers revealed homology at the nucleotide level to an est-3 gene found in Cx. p. pipiens (89%; Accession # AJ302090) and at the translation level to a Cx. p. pipiens partial est-3 gene encoding esterase-3 (83%; Accession # AM949567). The PCR fragments amplified with the Beta primers matched a translation product of unknown function from Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and its characterization will not be discussed here. 23

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C A Midgut Head Abdomen Thorax 3 1 2 Figure 3-1. 1.) PCR of whole bodies of Culex nigripalpus (Manatee County, Florida). 2.) RT-PCR of whole bodies of Cx. nigripalpus (Manatee County, Florida). 3.) Expression analysis of colony female Cx. nigripalpus (Arrows indicate positive amplification) Additional primers (CP4) were designed based on the Cx. p. pipiens est-3 sequence and were used, along with the CP3 primers, to isolate cDNAs encoding es terase from female Cx. nigripalpus whole-body and body segment RNA. Distin ct bands were amplified as a 200 bp fragment using the CP3 primers and a 397 bp fragment using the CP4 primers (Fig. 3-1). Sequence analyses were performed on both frag ments; however, since the sequence of the 397 bp fragment had a higher homology with esterase proteins, all s ubsequent sequence comparisons were done using the larger fragment. Expression analyses were performed using both primer sets. 24

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In order to determine the spatial expression of the Cx. nigripalpus esterase and to infer a possible function, RT-PCR was performed on RNA is olated from female midgut tissues, heads, thoraces, and abdomens using CP3 and CP4 primers. We found that products from both primers were amplified in RNA from midgut tissue, thora x, and abdomen, but not in heads (Fig. 3-1). Due to the high prevalence of esterase in the abdo men tissues, we expected to detect it in midgut tissues and warrants further expres sion analysis of the esterase in midgut tissue. Expression of Cx. nigripalpus esterase in the abdomen, which includes the midgut, suggests that it has a role in digestion or reproduction (Campbe ll et al. 2003, Lima-Catelani et al. 2004). The esterase expression found in the thorax may be attributed to the presence of salivary glands which have been shown to secrete esterases used to aide digestion and defenses during feeding (Argentine and James 1995, Calvo and Ribeiro 2006). The 397 bp fragment, CN Temsha est-1 (Accession # GO343531), encodes a putative translation product of 131 amino acids, and is in complete at the 5and 3-ends (CN TEMSHA EST-1; Fig. 3-2). The Cx. nigripalpus esterase-like translation pr oduct displayed high homology with a number of mosquito gene translation produ cts suggested to play a role in insecticide resistance, including Cx. p. pipiens esterase A5 (96%, Accession # AY545983; Buss and Callaghan, 2004), Cx. p. quinquefasciatus estalpha2 esterase (96%, Accession # Z47988, Vaughan and Hemigway 1995), and with Aedes aegypti L. alpha-esterase partial mRNA (85%, Accession # XM_001654459; Nene et al. 2007). The a lignment of the CN Temsha est-1 putative translation product with esterase proteins from other mosquitoes is shown (Fig. 3-2; Buss and Callaghan 2004, Cui et al. 2007, Nene et al. 2007, Vaughan et al. 1997). The high homology suggests that it is a member of the es terase family, which indicates that Cx. nigripalpus 25

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mosquitoes from Manatee County, FL express an esterase whose functions would include digestion in blood-feeding or insecticide detoxification. VGDLRFKDAVPPAAWTEELDCTVQGPAGYQFSKLQNKIIG 41 AE alpha-esterase VGELEFKDAQPPKPWTEPLDCTVQGPGGYQYSKLLNKIIG 41 CQ estalpha2 VGELRFKDAQPPKPWTEPLDCTVQGPGGYQYSKLLNKIIG 41 CP est A5 VGELRFKDAQPPKPWTEPLDCTVQGPGGYQYSKLLNKIIG 41 CQ est A11 VGELRFKDAQPPKPWTEPLDCTVQGPGGYQYSKLLNKIIG 41 CQ est B1 ------------------------------LSKLLNKIIG 1 CN TEMSHA EST-1.pro NEDCLHMNVFTKSLDKGERLPVMLYIHGGAFNRGSSGVEM 81 AE alpha-esterase REDSLHMNVFTKNLDSKQLLPVMLYIHGGAFMRGSSGVEM 81 CQ estalpha2 SEDSLHMNVFTKNLNSKQLLPVMLYIHGGAFMRGSSGVEM 81 CP est A5 SEDSLHMNVFTKNLSSKQLLPVMLYIHGGAFMRGSSGVEM 81 CQ est A11 SEDSLHMNVFTKNLDSKQLLPVMLYIHGGAFMRGSSGVEM 81 CQ est B1 SEDSLHMNVFTKNLDGKQLLPVMLYIHGGAFMRGSSGVEM 11 CN TEMSHA EST-1.pro YGPDYLIQADVVFVSFNYRIGALGFISFESPEVDLPGNAG 121 AE alpha-esterase YGPDYLIQKDVVFVSFNYRIGALGFISFDSPELGLPGNAG 121 CQ estalpha2 YGPDYLIQKDVVFVSFNYRIGALGFISFDSPELGLPGNAG 121 CP est A5 YGPDYLIQKDVVFVSFNYRIGALGFISFDSPELGLPGNAG 121 CQ est A11 YGPDYLIQKDVVFVSFNYRIGALGFISFDSPELGLPGNAG 121 CQ est B1 YGPDYLIQKDVVFVSFNYRIGALGFISFDSPELGLPGNAG 51 CN TEMSHA EST-1.pro LKDQNLALRWVVENIEAFGGDPNNITLFGESAGGCSVHYH 161 AE alpha-esterase LKDQNLALRWVVDNVANFGGDPKNITLFGESAGGCSVHYH 161 CQ estalpha2 LKDQNLALRWVVDNIANFGGDPKNITLFGESAGGCSVHYH 161 CP est A5 LKDQNLALRWVIDNIANFGGDPKNITLFGESAGGCSVHYH 161 CQ est A11 LKDQNLALRWVVDNVAYFGGDPKNITLFGESAGGCSVHYH 161 CQ est B1 LKDQNLALRWVVDNIANFGGDPKNITLFGESAGGCSVHYH 91 CN TEMSHA EST-1.pro MISDQSKGLFQRAIVMSGCSLNNWSTIPRRQFSQRLAKAL 201 AE alpha-esterase MVSDLSRGLFQRAIVMSGCVLNNWSVVPRRKFSERLAKAL 201 CQ estalpha2 MVSDLSRGLFQRAIVMSGCVLNNWSVIPRRKRSERLAKAL 201 CP est A5 MVSDLSRGLFQRAIVMSGCVLNNWSVVPRRKFSERLAKAL 201 CQ est A11 MVSDLSRGLFQRAIVMSGCVLNNWSVVPRRKFSERLAKAL 201 CQ est B1 K 1 3 1 C N TEM S HA E S T-1. p r o Figure 3-2. Protein alignment of the putative translation pro duct of CN TEMSHA EST-1 with homologous esterase proteins. (The boxed amino acids poin t out conserved residues among esterase proteins; the numbers represent amino acid numbers.) Esterases have many functions in the mosqu ito; therefore it is important that we determine whether the esterase isolated from Cx. nigripalpus plays a role in insecticide tolerance/resistance (Lima-Catelani et al. 2004, Flores et al. 2004). Th e results obtained in this study laid the foundation for further studies used to define the involvement of this gene in insecticide tolerance/resistance in Cx. nigripalpus from Manatee County, FL and provide much needed information in the district s operational control efforts. 26

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CHAPTER 4 ESTERASE EXPRESSION AND POPULATION ANALYSES OF FEMALE CULEX NIGRIPALPUS Theobald (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) OF MANATEE COUNTY, FL Introduction In previous experiments, a cDNA fragme nt (Temsha est-1; Accession # GO343531) was isolated from female Cx. nigripalpus of Manatee County, FL tran slation product shared a high homology with alpha esterase encoding genes from mos quitoes. In the experiment described herein, our goals were the following: to obtain a larger c DNA clone encoding Cx. nigripalpus esterase Temsha est-1 (TE-1), to determine when and where TE-1 is expressed in female Cx. nigripalpus body segments and tissues, and to analy ze its expression levels across individual mosquitoes from distinct populations in Mana tee County Florida. These studies help to determine the function of TE-1 and serve as pre liminary information in verifying the role of Cx. nigripalpus TE-1 in the formation of insecticide resistance in Mana tee County, Florida Cx. nigripalpus Materials and Methods In collaboration with Manatee County Mos quito Control District (MCMCD), adult female Culex nigripalpus field mosquitoes (ca. 300-500) were collected and used in this study. Female Cx. nigripalpus were maintained as described previo usly. Mosquitoes were chilled and identified. While anesthetized, whole mosqu ito bodies, body tissues (midguts), and segments (head, abdomen, thorax) were collected using a sterile razorblade and frozen at -80 o C until use. Culex nigripalpus used in this study were collected from the following geographic locales: G2 (Manatee County; Fig. 4-1), G4 (Manatee C ounty; Fig. 4-1), and the FMEL (Colony F105 and Hybrids F28). The Hybrids (F28) represent Colony Cx. nigripalpus that had been outcrossed with wild Cx. nigripalpus and maintained over 28 generations The G2 area is located 27

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near a salt marsh zone in Manate e County; whereas the G4 area is located further inland near an agricultural zone. G2 and G4 are 5 mile s apart. Any mosquitoes not immediately used were kept frozen at -80 o C. G4 G4 (Manatee County) (Manatee County) G2 G2 (Manatee County) (Manatee County) 1 2 Figure 4-1. 1.) Map of G2 (Manatee County) location: Piney Point Road, Palmetto, FL 34221 2.) Map of G4 (Manatee County) location: Britt Road, Parrish, FL 34219. (Locations indicated by arrows.) Tissues and body segments were dissected from the long standing Cx. nigripalpus colony Hybrids (F28) before and after blood-feedi ng as described elsewher e (Smartt and Erickson 2008). Non-blood-fed and blood-fed adult female colony Cx. nigripalpus were anesthetized with exposure to cold and tissues of interest diss ected. Body segments (h ead, thorax, abdomen; 10 per tube) and body tissues (midguts, ovaries; 20 per tube) were collected a nd stored at -80C until use. The end of this feeding period was te rmed the hour (h). Body segments and body tissues were collected from the blood-fed indivi duals at each of the following time points: 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after blood-feeding. The primers used for this study were the following: CP3 Forward: 5-ATT-GGA-AGTGAG-GAC-AGC-TTG-CAC-3; CP3 Reverse: 5-ACC-GTA-CATCTC-CAC-TCC-ACTAGA-3; CP4 Forward: 5-AGT-AAG-CTG-CTG -AAC-AAA-AT-3; and CP4 Reverse: 528

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GTG-GTA-GTG-GAC-GGA-ACA-3; Actin-3 (Forward): 5-CTG-GAT-TCC-GGA-GAT-GGTGT-3; Actin-4 (Reverse): 5-T AG-ACG-GGG-CAA-G GG-CGG-TGA-TTT-3. Total RNA was extracted from non-blood-fed and blood-fed field collected and colony mosquitoes using the TRIzol Reagent (Invitr ogen, Carlsbad CA). Whole adult female Cx. nigripalpus mosquito bodies (12 mosquitoes per tube ), body tissues (midguts; 15 per tube), and segments (head, abdomen, thorax; 10 per tube) were homogenized in 1000 ul of TRIzol Reagent and the manufacturers protocol was followed as described previously in Chapter 3. The RNA pellets were then re-suspended in 50 ul of di ethylpyrocarbonate-treated water and incubated at 60C. All RNA was stored at -80C until ready for use. The c oncentration of the RNA samples was analyzed using a SmartSpec Plus spectr ophotometer. The integrity of the RNA was determined by running it on a 1% agarose/form aldehyde gel and by viewing the gel using an INGenius Gel Documentation System (S yngene Bio Imaging, Frederick, MD). All reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of the RNA were performed using the primers as previously described. The RT-PCR an alyses were carried out using the protocol included in the Enhanced Avian HS RT-PCR kit (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in a RapidCycler Idaho Technology System (Idaho Technology Inc, Salt Lake City, UT). The RTPCR reactions were analyzed on a 1% agarose gel. All PCR fragments of interest were cloned and recombinant clones were selected as previously described in Chapter 3. The plas mid DNA was isolated using the QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit (QIAgen, Valencia, CA) and sequenced using a Beckman Coulter CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis System with reagents included in the CEQ DTCS Quick Start Kit (Beckman 29

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Coulter Inc., Fullerton, CA) and following the manuf acturers protocol. Se quence analyses were performed using the Lasergene DNA and protein analysis software from DNASTAR, Inc. (Madison, WI). For population analyses, individual adult female Cx. nigripalpus were separated by locality (G2, G4, and Colony). RNA was extracte d from each individual mosquito and RT-PCR was performed on the extracted RNA using the CP4 esterase primers as described in Chapter 3. The RT-PCR reactions were analyzed on a 1%-aga rose gel to compare differences in esterase expression between the populations. Results and Discussion Esterases have many potential functions in the mosquito (Lima-Catelani et al 2004, Flores et al. 2004); therefore it is important th at we determine whether our Cx. nigripalpus esterase TE-1 has a role in insecticide tolerance/resistance in the Cx. nigripalpus of Manatee County, FL or if its role invol ves digestion as we have show n by expression in midgut tissue (Eans et al. 2009a unpublished). Using the CP4 este rase primers for TE-1, expression in female Cx. nigripalpus (Hybrids F28) body segments and tissu es was analyzed before and after bloodfeeding. TE-1 was highly expressed in the he ad, thorax, abdomen, and midgut tissues in nonblood-fed mosquitoes and in the early hours after feeding in the blood-fed mosquitoes. In the thorax and midgut tissues, there was a clear dec line in expression over time (Fig. 4-2). This supports the conclusion from prev ious experiments that TE-1 may be involved in feeding and digestion in female Cx. nigripalpus (Eans et al. 2009b unpublished). Esterases are secreted through the proboscis in response to both feeding on blood meals and sugar meals, therefore its presence in the head could be due to the pres ence of enzymes released by the salivary glands (Argentine and James 1995). 30

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2 4 3 1 Figure 4-2. Amplification of TE-1 in RNA extr acted from heads, thoraces, abdomens, and midguts dissected from unfed (UF) female Cx. nigripalpus and blood-fed female Cx. nigripalpus over a 72-hour time period (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after being blood-fed). The expression of TE-1 was characterized in unfed individual female Cx. nigripalpus from the following locations for population analyses: G 2 (Manatee County), G4 (Manatee County), and Colony (FMEL). There was a distinct differe nce in the levels of expression of TE-1 in individuals, depending on the location in which they were collected. The majority of the individuals taken from the G2 area of Manatee County were pos itive for the expression of TE1; however, the majority of individuals from the G4 area of Manatee County had very little expression of TE-1 (Fig.4-3). Individuals fr om the Colony of FMEL had mixed results between those that were positive for expression of TE-1 and those that had little expression of TE-1 (Fig. 4-3). 31

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1 3 2 Figure 4-3. Amplification TE-1 using R NA extracted from individual female Cx. nigripalpus trapped from G2 (Manatee County), G4 (Manatee County) a nd the FMEL Colony (F105). Since esterases are known to be involved in insecticide tolerance/resistance formation in mosquitoes, these results may indicate a diffe rence in tolerance/resistance within these populations of Cx. nigripalpus due to the distinct variation in TE-1 expression between the locations (Flores et al. 2004). Future studies are needed to co mpare differences in tolerance between the Cx. nigripalpus from each area through the use of the Bottle Bioassay. Individuals with high susceptibility towards a given insec ticide and those that are tolerant towards the insecticide need to be compared for differences in TE-1 expression between the most and least susceptible individuals. Based on earlier findings from other resear chers, if TE-1 is involved in insecticide resistance, one would expect that hi gh levels of TE-1 would be expressed at higher levels in the tolerant individuals and lower expression in the suscep tible individuals (Flores et al. 2004, Cui et al. 2007). 32

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The results of these experiments further enhance our understanding for the role TE-1 has in Cx. nigripalpus. Future studies are needed to amplify the complete sequence for TE-1 using the esterase primers. We will also repeat a ll expression studies of TE-1 amplification in RNA extracted from heads, thoraces, abdomens, and midguts of unfed and fed individuals to make certain all results remain consistent. As men tioned previously, we will continue our population analyses by comparing expression levels of TE-1 in tolerant and susceptible individuals. If there is a correlation between the expression of TE-1 and resistance, then one could potentially develop an assay using TE-1 as an indicator fo r development of resist ance in populations of Cx. nigripalpus This would greatly enhance mosquito cont rol efforts in mosquito control districts like the Manatee County Mosquito Control District. 33

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CHAPTER 5 PROBLEMS WITH CHEMICAL CONTROL In order to become more effective at contro lling mosquito populations it is imperative to have a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in insectic ide resistance within different mosquito populations. Molecular, ge netic, and behavioral factors involved in resistance/tolerance in mosquitoes all play sign ificant roles in why insecticides become less effective with time (Hemingway and Ranson 2000). If we only looked at one factor at a time it could create misinterpretations if the results from analyzing one part icular factor conflicted with the results obtained from analyzing another fact or. This could lead to false conclusions. Likewise, the mosquitoes from a given population c ould be using a combination of these factors, meaning that one would need to account for multip le mechanisms involved in order to maintain effective control (C orbel et al. 2007). For example, studies may show that there is li ttle change in the biochemistry or genetics from one generation to the next in Anopheles mosquitoes, which suggests that these mosquitoes would still be susceptible to pyrethroid-treate d bed-nets and indoor treatments of residual insecticides; however, control measures might show that their populations are not declining after repeated treatments (Corbel et al. 2007). Wit hout understanding the behavior of the targeted mosquito as well, one might not know how to in terpret these rather c onfusing results. By understanding all aspects of resist ance, one could perhaps conclude that a change in behavior might be causing the numbers of this population of mosquitoes to remain constant (Pates and Curtis 2005). This could be verified by experimentation to determine if these Anopheles are simply limiting the contact they have with treat ed surfaces or adopting different feeding and resting habits (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998). 34

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It is also important to understand how each insecticide functions and any potential impacts on the surrounding environment. The goal is to minimize the rate of resistance forming in response to repeated applications of a gi ven insecticide (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998). One could achieve th is is by doing one of the following: using the lowest concentration of an insecticide require d for maintaining effective control on a given mosquito population, reducing the frequency of applications, and switching between different classes of insecticides. For example, cycl odiene (i.e. Dieldrin) a nd phenyl-pyrazole (i.e. Fipronil) insecticides both us e the same mode of action to decimate their intended targetby disrupting the function of GABA receptors for mo squito neurotransmitters (Shang et al. 2008). If the targeted population of mosquitoes started to form a resistance towards applications of cyclodiene, then switching to the use of phenyl -pyrazole would show a decreased effectiveness as well (Shang et al. 2008). Applying both of these insecticides in the same region during the same time period would only speed up the form ation of resistance towards both compounds until neither one was effective. To slow down tolera nce one could do one of the following: use low dosages thus allowing for sus ceptible individuals to continue passing along their alleles throughout the next generations, apply the insecticid es at low frequencies, use insecticides that have shorter persistence in the environment, use fast-release formulations, and treat only the areas that require control (Florida Coor dinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998). These problems are only augmented by the fact that there is a limit on the dose that can be applied before the toxicity of the insect icides becomes too harmful for people and the surrounding environment. As long as the use of in secticides remains the main form of mosquito control, the formation of resistant mosquito populations will always pose a problem (Hemingway and Ranson 2000). There exists a never-ending r ace to evolve novel insecticides and maintain 35

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control over mosquito populations, but it is a race that can be easily lost if caution is not taken (Li et al. 2009). This is why it is important to minimize the use of insecticides when possible (Becker et al. 2003). Another issue with using insecticides for mos quito control is that detection of resistance development in a mosquito population can often be difficult to judge accurately (Hougard et al. 2003). Judging mosquito mortality, fo r instance, can be subject to personal interpretation. Many insecticides have a short-term knock-down effect that causes the mosquito to be incapable of moving as a result of the initia l distress on its nervous system. This paralysis can last over a wide range of time, from as short as a few sec onds to as long as a few days (Hougard et. al. 2003). Different insecticides can al so have different levels of efficiency depending on the climate in which it is used. Temperature and hum idity both play large roles in an insecticides relative toxicity (Hodjati and Curtis 1999). In order to test how e fficient a given insecticide will be one must always keep in mind the environmen t of targeted mosquito populations. To account for the potential effects of varying climates, tests comparing the relative effectiveness of insecticides for use at a give n location would ideally be performed under the same conditions. One could achieve this by performing the tests in controlled laboratory settings (Hougard et al. 2003). 36

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CHAPTER 6 ALTERNATIVES TO INSECTICIDE USAGE There are many alternatives to controlling mo squito populations and reducing the chance that one will be bitten by mosquitoes that do no t require the use of insecticides. Minimizing the use of insecticides helps to slow down the formation of tolerance in mosquito populations (Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control 1998). Some alternatives include minimizing the number of standing water sources available as breeding sites for mosquitoes, minimizing ones contact with mosquitoes, and using biological control measures. A large factor in controlling mosquito populat ions is to limit the number of breeding sites to which they have access (Florida Coordinati ng Council on Mosquito Control 1998). The fewer sites available to them, the smaller their populati on becomes as a result. This can be done in several ways. One way is to discard all unneces sary sources of water collecting. Water can build up in flower pots, cans, and other discarded containers. Inverting these containers when not in use or simply drilling holes at the bottom of these containers allows excess water to drain out of them. The same is true for outdoor sw imming pools, which should be kept drained of water when not in use (Becker et al. 2003). For important bodies of water that cannot be kept drained due to constant usage, such as bird baths, outdoor pet dishes, and fire buckets, the solution is to refill these containers with fres h water at least once every week. Around buildings, water should be kept free-flowing by making sure r oof drains and gutters ar e clear of debris and air conditioning units should be maintained to prevent improper build-up of fluids due to condensation (Becker et al. 2003). In agricultu ral systems, farmers are advised to install irrigation and water channels in such a way that they do not form mosquito breeding sites (Becker et al. 2003). City officials can also co ntribute to limiting the amount of breeding sites available to mosquitoes by ensuring roads, drains storm water areas, sewage and street waste 37

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systems flow properly. Also they can help reduce this by minimizing potential mosquito breeding sites from public areas and making sure that waste water plants are properly managed (Becker et al. 2003). The use of organic surface films on standing water systems, such as waste water plants, can help to suffocate mosquito larvae and newly emerged adults. Decreasing the survival rate of mosquito larvae results in fewer adults that wi ll emerge later (Kady et al. 2008). Reducing the amount of contact one has with mosquitoes while outdoors is also important. This limits the chances of coming in c ontact with infected mos quitoes. Examples of this would be to wear long pants and shirts w ith sleeves when feasible while outdoors during peak hours of mosquito activity. It is also advise d to avoid sitting outside after dark in locations where mosquitoes are active and to use mosqu ito netting when sleeping in an unscreened location. Installing mesh screens on windows, doors, and porches can limit the amount of access mosquitoes have to indoor envi ronments (Becker et al. 2003). The use of biological control is also a useful alternative to insecticide use. Biological control agents include the use of fungi, bacteria, microsporidia, viruses, and natural predators. Insect-pathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are commercially produced for controlling a wide ra nge of insect pests (Scholte 2005). Fungi function by penetrating through the cu ticle of their mosquito hosts and are capable of killing the mosquito with minimal contact. Unlike fungi, b acteria, microporidia, and viruses must first be ingested before they kill their hosts (Scholte 2005). The introduction of natural predators is also beneficial in reducing mosquito populations. In ornamental ponds and other permanent water sources, mosquito fish ( Gambusia spp.) are often added to the water of common breeding sites to reduce the number of mosquito la rvae present (Pates and Curtis 2005). Establishing mosquito populations of the genus Toxorhynchites in regions that have problem s with controlling mosquito 38

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vector populations is also beneficial. Toxorhynchites spp. adults do not blood-feed in their lifetimes; yet they can be useful predators of the larvae of othe r mosquito species (Jones and Schreiber 1994). Populations of Toxorhynchites can be difficult to es tablish, however, which limits their usage as a biological c ontrol agent in certain regions. The uses of alternative methods of control rather than chemical methods are effective in slowing down the formation of insecticide resist ance. Simply denying the mosquitoes a suitable place to lay their eggs (i.e. reduc ing their access to standing bodies of water) can serve as an effective means of limiting mosqu ito populations without having to resort to the use of harmful chemicals (Becker et al. 2003). Re ducing ones contact with the mos quitoes is also beneficial in controlling the spread of mosquito -vectored diseases. If a biol ogical control agent becomes well established, it can serve as a c ontinuous source of mosquito c ontrol (Jones and Schreiber 1994). These alternative methods of control when comb ined with limited use of insecticides are important for maintaining utmost c ontrol over mosquito populations. 39

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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION Due to the rapid nature of insecticide re sistance formation in response to repeated exposure to insecticides, we must continuously race to stay one step ahead in order to maintain control of populations of mosquito species throughout the world (Hemingway and Ranson 2000, Coleman and Hemingway 2007, Li et al. 2009). The importance of maintaining control is even more imperative because mosquitoes play a role in spreading pat hogenic diseases, such as yellow fever, dengue, filariasis, a nd encephalitis (Greenwood 2002). Esterases are known to be involved in the fo rmation of insecticid e tolerance/resistance (Flores et al. 2004, Cheikh et al. 200 9), therefore the first focus of this study was to isolate an esterase from female Culex nigripalpus of Manatee County, FL., The Cx. nigripalpus esterase (TEMSHA est-1; Accession # GO 343531) had a high homology with Cx. p. pipiens esterase A5 (96%, Accession # AY545983; Buss and Callaghan, 2004), Cx. p. quinquefasciatus estalpha2 esterase (96%, Accession # Z47988, Va ughan and Hemigway 1995), and with Ae. aegypti L. alpha-esterase partial mRNA (85%, Accessi on # XM_001654459; Nene et al. 2007) esterases previously shown to be important in detoxifying insecticides. Therefore, Temsha est-1 is likely a member of the esterase family of proteins th at could potentially deto xify insecticides. Esterases have many functions in mosquito es, therefore this st udy focused on where and when Temsha est-1 (TE-1) was expressed in Cx. nigripalpus. The level of expression of TE-1 in RNA extracted from female Cx. nigripalpus body segments (heads, thoraces, and abdomens) and from body tissues (midguts) was determined and it was found that TE-1 was highly expressed in the thorax and abdomen of Cx. nigripalpus The levels of expression of TE-1 in body segments and body tissues dissected before and after blood feeding were determined. TE-1 was highly expressed in thoraces and midgut tissues before and immediatel y after blood feeding; however, 40

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over time there was a noticeable decrease in TE1 expression in both the thorax and midgut. This suggests that TE-1 could be involved in feeding and digestion (Argentine and James 1995, Calvo and Ribeiro 2006). The level of expression of TE-1 in RNA extr acted from individuals in three distinct populations of Cx. nigripalpusG2 (Manatee C ounty), G4 (Manatee County), and in a long standing colony (F105) was charac terized. Individuals varied in the expression of TE-1 depending on the location they were collected fr om. Most individuals from the G2 area showed high expression of TE-1. Most individuals from the G4 region, on the other hand, showed low expression of TE-1. Our lab Colony were mixed with individuals that had high and low expression of TE-1. If TE-1 plays a role in insecticide resistance, we would expect that there exists a difference in tolerance to inse cticides between indivi duals that have high expression of TE-1 and individuals that have low expression of TE-1 (Flores et al. 2004, Cheikh et al. 2009). Further studies are needed to analyze the differences in tolerance levels by using the Bottle Bioassay to determine the effectiveness of exposure to insecticides. The expression of TE-1 would then be compared from RNA extr acted from tolerant individuals and from susceptible individuals. Our hypot hesis is that high levels of TE-1 would be expressed highest in the tolerant individuals and lowest in the susc eptible individuals (Flores et al. 2004, Cui et al. 2007). If we can use our knowledge of mosquito beha vioral, molecular, and genetic mechanisms to better predict potential tolerance/resistance to insecticides, we can develop efficient alternative mosquito control measures. Mon itoring changes in insecticide de toxification enzymes, feeding 41

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and resting behavior, mutations of important target-sites, or shifts in resistance allele frequencies throughout each mosquito population can help to serv e as early indicators of the development of tolerance/resistance. 42

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Davidson G, Zahar AR. 1973. The practical implicat ions of resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org 49: 475-483. Davidson G, Jackson CE. 1961. Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Nature 190: 364-365. Dent D. 1995. Integrated pest management. Springer, pp 1-76. Devonshire A, Field L. 1991. Gene amp lification and insecticide resistance. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36: 1-23. Djogbnou L, Akogbto M, Chandre F. 2008. Presence of insensitive acetylcholinesterase in wild populations of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus from Benin. Acta. Tropica 107: 272-274. Eans SE, Frommer RL, Anderson S, Yost S, Smartt CT. 2009a. Esterase expression and population analyses of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) of Manatee County, FL. [unpublished]. Eans SE, Frommer RL, Smartt CT. 2009b. Es terase isolation and expression in Culex nigripalpus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) of Manatee County, FL. [unpublished]. Flores AE, Albeldano-Vazquez W, Salas IF, Badii MH, Becerra HL, Garcia GP, Fuentes SL, Brogdon WG, Black WC, Beaty BJ. 2004. Elevated -esterase levels associated with permethrin tolerance in Aedes aegypti (L.) from Baja California, Mexico. Pesticide Biochemistry & Physiology 82: 66-78. Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Cont rol. 1998. Florida Mosquito Control: The state of the mission as defined by mosquito controllers, regulators, and environmental managers. University of Florida. { http://fmel.ifas.ufl.edu/white_paper/state.shtml } Fonseca-Gonzlez I, Quiones ML, McAlliste r J, Brogdon WG. 2009. Mixed-function oxidases and esterases associated with cross-resist ance between DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin in Anopheles darlingi Root 1926 populations from Colombia. Memrias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 104: 18-26. Greenwood B, Mutabingwa T. 2002. Malaria in 2002. Nature 415: 670-672. Guessan RN, Boko P, Odjo A, Akogbto M, Yates A, Rowland M. 2007. Chlorfenapyr: A pyrrole insecticide for th e control of pyrethroid or DDT resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. Acta. Tropica. 102: 69-78. Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, Montgomery SP, OLeary DR, Campbell GL. 2005. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerg. Infect. Diseases 11: 1167-1173. 44

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Shainnel Onaleigh Eans was bor n in Mount Vernon, New York. Her greatest inspiration throughout her life is her mother, who is a single mother that has always worked hard to provide for the family. Her mother always encouraged he r children to follow their dreams wherever they may lead. This would play a large role in Sh ainnels life and future ambitions. Since a young age, Shainnel has been interested in two main topics: the scien ces and languages. One of her goals in life is to become profic ient in at least five languages, excluding English. Currently, she knows Spanish and Japanese and is now planning what her next languages will be. Shainnel graduated from the University of Fl orida in 2007 with a Bachelor of Science in zoology and a minor in Japanese. After her studie s in zoology, she determined that she was most interested in invertebrates and parasitology. Shainnel chose to continue her education at the University of Florida for a Master of Science in the Department of Entomology and Nematology where she studies insecticide resistance genes in the mosquito species Culex nigripalpus She hopes to one day apply her strong background in the sciences and knowledge of languages in future ambitions. 48