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1 THE FUTURE OF FLORIDAS GREEN HOME PRODUCTION By ADAM PICOW A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009
2 2009 Adam Picow
3 To my family, this thesis is dedicated for their patience, love, and support throughout my academic years
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank m y mother and father for their guida nce, motivation, love, and patience in raising me. I thank my sisters for their support both acad emically and socially throughout my life thus far. Without my family, I would not be in the position I am today.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.......................................................................................................... 9 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................13 Housing in Florida............................................................................................................. .....13 Green Trends..........................................................................................................................14 Why Green.......................................................................................................................15 Barriers to Green Home Production ................................................................................18 Green by the Numbers..................................................................................................... 20 Florida Green Home Standards.............................................................................................. 22 LEED Homes...................................................................................................................23 NAHB Model Green Home Building Guidelines........................................................... 26 FGBC Green Home Standard.......................................................................................... 28 Government Intervention and Incentives................................................................................31 3 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 34 Overview....................................................................................................................... ..........34 The Delphi Method.......................................................................................................... 34 Document Analysis......................................................................................................... 36 4 DATA ANALYSIS................................................................................................................ 38 Respondents............................................................................................................................38 Respondent A.................................................................................................................. 38 Respondent B................................................................................................................... 40 Respondent C................................................................................................................... 42 Respondent D.................................................................................................................. 44 Respondent E................................................................................................................... 46 Respondent F................................................................................................................... 47 Respondent G.................................................................................................................. 48 Respondent H.................................................................................................................. 49
6 Respondent I................................................................................................................... .50 Respondent J................................................................................................................... .52 5 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................ 54 Results.....................................................................................................................................54 Document Analysis......................................................................................................... 54 Delphi Results.................................................................................................................56 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................59 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...62 APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL INFORMATION..........................................................................................63 B INFORMED CONSENT SCRIPT......................................................................................... 67 C QUESTIONNAIRES..............................................................................................................68 LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................74 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................76
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Industry attempts to bring down co sts of green Buildings (Yudelson 2008) .................... 192-2 Obstacle course (GreenBuilder 2008)................................................................................ 21
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 LEED Home Categories....................................................................................................23 2-2 NAHB 7 Principles............................................................................................................26 2-3 FGBC Guidelines (Franz 2008)......................................................................................... 29 5-1 Homes certified by LEED and FGBC...............................................................................55 5-2 Importance of players in green construction...................................................................... 57 A-1 LEED H SCORECARD.................................................................................................... 63 A-2 NAHB STANDARDS ROLES.......................................................................................... 66
9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design USGBC United States Green Building Council FGBC Floridas Green Building Coalition NAHB National Association of Home Builder HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning IECC International Energy Conservation Code VOC Volatile Organic Compound HERS Home Energy Rating System HCFC Hydro chlorofluorocarbons EEM Energy Efficient Mortgages EPA Environmental Protection Agency
10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science in Building Construction THE FUTURE OF FLORIDAS GREEN HOME PRODUCTION By Adam Picow August 2009 Chair: Anne R. Williamson Major: Building Construction Costs, inexperienced personnel, lack of educa tion, and adaptability to its surrounding area are what seems to fuel the pessimists of the resi dential new construction in dustry as to why green building just cannot become commonplace. The res earch that follows will look into the future market for constructing new green single-family ho mes in the state of Florida. The first question researched was whether the residential green mark et has increased at consistent rates with the commercial sector of new construction. The author believes the production of green homes has not grown at the same rate as green commercial buildings, which was proven in this paper. Green residential construction has gain ed market growth at a rate of 32% while some forms of commercial construction are growing at a rate above 60%. The second question to research is what certifications are available to Florida hom es for becoming green. This paper examines LEED Homes, NAHB Green Building Standards, and Florida Green Building Coalition standards. A group of experts has been questioned on their feelings and opinions as far as the future of green homes production in Florida. The researcher examines all information such as government intervention, homebuyer education, and importance of ma jor players in the construction industry that may increase the future production of green homes in Florida.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Thom as Fuller once said, All things are diffi cult before they are easy. The green building trend seems to have doubters in the re sidential market thr oughout the nation. Costs, inexperienced personnel, lack of education, and adaptability to its surrounding area are what seems to fuel the pessimists of the industry as to why green building just cannot become commonplace. The research that will take place w ill look into the future market for constructing new green homes in the state of Florida. The firs t question to research is whether the residential green market has increased at consistent rates with the commercial sect or of new construction. The author believes the production of green homes has not grown at the same rate as green commercial buildings. The second question to resear ch is what certifica tions are available to Florida homes for becoming green. Throughout this paper, a homes greenness will be examined with references to three standards. The three standards used for this research are LEED for homes rating system, the FGBCs Florida Green Home Standard, and the NAHBs M odel Green Home Building Guidelines. LEED is an acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. LEED is a point based rating system developed by the U. S. Green Building Council. A green home is a term now widely used to describe residences designed and constructed with minimal negative impact to the environment and with an emphasi s on conservation of reso urces, energy efficiency, and healthful interior spaces. FGBC is an acronym for Floridas Green Building Coalition, a nd the Green Home Standards indicate the criteria by which the coal ition determines if a Florida home, new or existing, can be designated green. A common mistake is if something is green, it is sustainable. Sustainability usually measures three dimensions: the environment, economics, and the societal
12 impact. A sustainable product is green; however a green product may not be sustainable once you take into consideration life cycle costs. The importance of this study is to figure out the obstacles that Floridas homebuilding industry has faced when trying to produce gr een homes and decide whether builders will overcome these obstacles. The future of green homes will depend on whether producing green homes is feasible for homebuilders and the demand for these types of homes exists. The researcher has looked into government incentives offered in Florida, th ird party rating systems used to certify homes in Florida, and impact of key players in the residential industry that may help green homes gain market share will be examined and analyzed.
13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Housing in Florida The following inform ation pertaining to Flor idas housing market and its economic impact has been attained from the Shimberg Center for Housing Studies 2008 H ousing report. It is important to look into the Flor ida housing market, as many sources speculate national housing trends seem to imitate the Sunbe lt and California regions. One arti cle from the website, Source of Title stated that national housing trends seem to mimic Florida. (Source of Title 2009) In 2007, Florida had $894.4 billion worth of single-fam ily housing constructed. The state of Florida had $1.8 million condominiums units in 2007, with an appraised value around $62 billion. Complexes with ten or more units made up appr oximately 686,546 residential units. As large as those numbers seem, Floridas housing market was going through a decline. The housing market continues its decline that star ted in 2006. In 2007, single family homes sale decreased by 40.57% from 2006. All told, statewide single-family sales are down 55% since their 2005 peak. The statewide real median single-family sales pr ice decreased by just over 6%. The median 2007 single-family sales price was $240,000. The number of single-family sales in 2007 totaled 202,704, which equals approximately 4.4% of the tota l single-family housing stock in the state. Government influence in certain areas of the st ate may play a huge role in housing trend shifts. More than 56% of the housing supply is located in four major metropolitan areas: Jacksonville, Miami/Ft. Lauderdale, Orlando-Kissimmee, and Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater. The Florida housing market places a huge fina ncial impact to the states economy. In 2007, 65,060 single family homes were constructed with an appraised value of $13.2 billion. The Shimberg Center for Affordable housing uses IMPLAN, an economic impact modeling software, to generate the impact by residential constr uction and real estate transaction. In 2008, an
14 estimated $17 billion in new residential cons truction generated a total of $28.7 billion in economic activity. The same $17 billion in new residential construction generated $10.5 billion in earnings, of which the actua l workers of the buildings wi ll earn $6.5 billion. Residential constructions impact on employment within the state is approximately 256,000 jobs. According to the NAHBs website, under forecas ts, it has been extrapolated that in 2006 Florida was estimated to produce around 11% of new homes constructed in the United States. (NAHB 2009) If housing sizes are consistent across the nation, the research er assumes Florida is then responsible for nearly 11% of materials and labor within the residential construction industry. The researcher believes this is why it is important to study the green homes production within the State of Florida. Green Trends In 1845, Henry David Thoreau was quoted as saying, W hats the use of a house if you havent got a tolerable planet to put it on. The housing i ndustry represents $425.2 billion or 61% of the value of all US bu ilding construction, making it one of the most powerful industries to economic growth and sustainable construction in the United States. (US Department of Energy 2006) A green home is defined many different wa ys, however all definitions place emphasis on an environmentally friendly home, that conserves materials, water, and energy. On the first page of the book, Building Green in a Black and White World, the author states, Increasing numbers of Americans consider themselves environmentali sts. They are recycling seven times more stuff today then ten years ago. They are buying orga nic vegetables and recycled paper products. Environmental consumerism is one of the fastest-growing segments in the market place. Buying green homes is a logical next step in this national trend. (Johnst on 2000) The USGBC has set two valiant goals for green builders everywhere, one of which pertains to green homes. By 2010, the USGBC wants 1 million homes to be LEED certi fied. (Yudelson 2008) Yudelson also states
15 that, Between 2000 and the end of 2006, the numb er of green buildings has grown from a handful to more than 5,000 projects actively seeki ng third part certification. This is the fastestgrowing phenomenon to hit the bu ilding industry since the inte rnet. An estimated 10,000 homes were certified green in 2006 Green homes define d as more than an energy saver is a recent development within green construction; energy st ar homes which concentrates only on energy savings has been around for over a decade. In 2006, around 12% or 174,000 homes were energy star certified. Why Green The construction and operation of residentia l building uses significant input of water, energy, and m aterials. The average residentia l unit in America produces 12.4 tons of carbon dioxide from its household operatio ns, which is six times the average of the rest of the world. (Hinkle Charitable Foundation. n.d. ) Research indicates that a t ypical household wastes between 8,000 and 10,000 gallons of water a year while the occ upant is waiting for hot water to arrive on tap. (Winter 2008) A recent study from the Kckinsey Global Institute reports that the worldwide residential sector consumes more energy than any other sector and hol d the most potential for productivity improvements. (Winter 2008) The green building revolu tion written by Jerry Yudelson also describes some past events that have placed a burden on our society to think about sustainability and green home practices. The foll owing events were mentioned on page 11 of The Green Building Revolution to descri be the push in green building: Average crude oil prices surged over $40 per barrel in October 2004 and above $50 in July 2005. In November 2005, the U.S. Energy Information Administ rations long-term forecast estimated that oil in 2025 would cost $54 a barrel in 2005 dollars, up 65% from 2008. This has placed concerns for homeowners and building tenants as the cost to heat and cool their space may increase dramatically. Congress passed the energy Policy Act of 2005, which dramatically increased incentives for solar and wind power, and provided strong su pport to conserve ener gy use in buildings. These incentives are currently expired; howev er, more incentives are expected to come.
16 State laws have placed incentives to build green. Nevada passed legislative in 2005 to reduce property taxes on green buildings. States like Florid a and Washington have placed requirements for LEED certifi cation on state buildings. Local governments such as Seattle, Chicago, and New York have adopted policies and programs promoting private sector green development. The American Institute of Architects ha s issued policy goals to reduce current consumption levels by 50% in 2010 by design. There are dozens of green bu ilding standards and guidelines that have been created to certify a home green. Not all builders are using thir d party standards to designate their homes as green. Builders such as Toll Brothers are trying to ease into green homes by creating packages and upgrades that will make a home greener. Pult e homes, another production builder have seen success implementing a third party rating system Pulte homes neighborhood, Villa Trieste, a new construction residential community in Las Vegas has 185 homes LEED certified units. Villa Trieste had three home sales in the first two week s, which research shows is the same amount of sales a month market wide for the entire mark et it serves. (Robison 2009) These homes are priced in the mid $200,000 range which coincide s with the median new home price of $245,000 in the area. Dennis Smith, pres ident of Home Builders Resear ch, said, Consumers flock in particular to any community that offers buyers something new and different. The article briefly discusses some of the features in the green homes such as, All 185 homes at Villa Trieste feature solar-power arrays, comp lete with in home dashboards allowing residents to monitor their energy and water use and compare it to their neighbors consump tion. A study will show whether this feature will gauge c onsumer use and create incentives to cut kilowatts in the home. (Robison 2009) LEED for homes is a national standa rd that is recognized as the industry leader in green certification. More and more local and statewide green programs are sprouting up making it easier and more convenient for homes to be certified. The certification of green homes has brought about a competitive advantage in a declining housing mark et. Green builders are
17 counting on the increasingly educ ated, socially conscious, an d environmentally concerned consumer base that may be in the market for a different, more environmentally friendly home. (Yudelson 2008) Homebuyers are al ready responding to energy efficient homes, as builders constructed 174,000 single-family homes in 2006, which represented about 12% of housing starts. Homes certified by a third party, or are built with enhanced green features all place a precedent in the future of green homes production. At the International Builders Show on January 22, 2009, Harvey M. Bernstein, the vice pres ident of industry anal ytics, alliances, and strategic initiatives for McGraw -Hill Construction spoke about gr een homes. He suggested that eco-friendly design and products ar e proving to be a market differentiator for builders and an indemand feature for prospective homebuyers. (Tomasulo 2009) Bern steins conclusions found in the article are based on McGraw-Hill Constructions 2006 and 2008 Smart Market Reports on green building: Green is a market differentiator: Builders are finding it easier to market green homes and homeowners are much more interested in buying them, even in a down economy. While the residential markets overall are declining the green residential market is climbing a steady pace, increasing fivefold between 2005 and 2008 and expected to triple by 2013. The total residential green opportun ity in 2013 will be $40 to $70 billion. Involvement in green building is on the rise: In addition to a growing number of local and national green building certificat ion programs, green policies have jumped from 57 local governments in 2005 to 156 in 2008. At the builder level, in 2007 32% of builders reported being significantly dedicated to green building. That number is considered to climb in 2009 to roughly 69%. Younger generations will expect green optio ns: They cannot imagine building anything that is not sustainable. Green-home buyers are driven by operational cost savings and improved health As a builders green building experience increases, perceived costs decrease. The growing trend to produce green home s with a focus on solar and conservation features, in all major growth regions, including Florida and around the sunbelt, will give
18 developers confidence in their ability to deliver a high-performance green home on a conventional budget. Mr. Yudelson points out in his book, The Green Building Revolution, the importance of residential construction to the green building market with one astonishing fact. Yudelson states, Even with a 15% slowdown in new housing starts in 2007 compared with 2006, the value of new residential construction is predic ted to be roughly the same as all of commercial construction, about $400 billion each. (Yudelson 2008) Most green homes, that are either marketed as green by the builder or certified as green by a third party rating system are beginning to show more featur es that improve living conditio ns and water conservation along with energy savings. The green building trends across the nation are making industry feeders such as realtors change the way they do business. In February 2007, a real estate listing service in Oregon launched a new web-site feature that a llows realtors and prospective homebuyers alike to search for high-performance and cer tified green homes. (Oikos 2007) Barriers to Green Home Production Barriers to green building differs between residential and construction. T urner construction studied some barriers to going green in the commercial sector in 2005. The following findings were attained from this study: (Turner 2005) 57% of those surveyed said it was hard to jus tify the greater initial co sts of green buildings 56% said green building added significantly to in the initial cost 52% said the market was not willing to pay a premium for green buildings 36% said the certification process was too complicated, and had too much paperwork 30% were not comfortable with ne w ideas or building technologies 86% of those surveyed saw sustainable design as a market barrier Green residential construction has a different set of barriers to grow th that mostly result from a financial aspect. Barriers to gr owth for greens homes are extra costs for green features, higher builder costs for home certifica tion, lack of expressed buyer demand for green homes, cost and difficulty, and marketing green homes to a smal l percentage of total buyers. Other barriers
19 include legal issues revolving around expressed or implied warranties for home performance, training and education required for builders sale s and marketing teams, and internal changes needed in purchasing, home design, and cons truction practices. (Yude lson 2008) The common Table 2-1. Industry attempts to bring down costs of gr een Buildings (Yudelson 2008) 1 They'll work aggressively to lower the costs of building green by accumulating their own project experience and strengthening their focus on integrated design approaches that might lower some costs while increasing others, but with a net positive cost reduction impact. 2 To offset the perceived risks of trying something new, they'll develop communication and ma rketing strategies that make good use of available research demonstrating the benefits of green buildings. 3 They'll find ways to finance green building improvements that reduce or eliminate the first cost penalty that often frightens away prospective buyers, using incentive payments from utility programs, and local, state, and federal go vernments to maximize leverage. Third party financing markets are starting to make programs for energy effecient and green homes, in order too ffset initial cost penalty. 4 They'll study and try to duplicate the successful project results for green buildings. This may give motive to new buyers to save up and go green with their building. 5 They'll use good project management and cost management software to show the benefits of various green building measures in real time. Having good information about costs, benfits, and return on investment can be critical to keeping good green measures under consideration, instead of losing them to strictly financial co nsiderations.Building Industries attempts to bring costs down of green building practicesOvercoming Barriers to Green Home Production barrier to growth seen in all gr een building is added costs. Tabl e 1 highlights some of the steps builders in the commercial sector are taking in order to bring down the extra costs associated with going green.
20 Green by the Numbers Research has been conducted by m any entitie s on the effects green building has on the construction industry. The industry has used su rveys to determine green building practices, characteristics of owners of green buildings, a nd opinions on the future of green building. Green by the numbers was a survey conducted in 2008 by Green Builder Media and Reed Business Information to reveal the power of green in residential buildings. The survey records the responses of builders, architects, engineers, a nd other building profession als to see what green looks like from their perspective. The remaining information in this paragraph has been compiled from this survey. (GreenBuilder 2008) When builders were asked whether they market their houses green, three-quarters of the respondents said they market so me or all of their homes as green. Builders were asked how green their homes were on a scale from 1 to 10, 58% of the builders found themselves putting in green features however only 11% said they maximized green practices in their homes. The respondents were asked whet her they believe green building is a fad is the residential market, approximately se ven out of ten surveyed rejected the idea that green is indeed a fad. One interesting finding that came out of a survey from the magazine Professional Builder was that, as the amount of homes a company built in 2007 went up the more they believed green homes were a fad. Speculators believe this is due to the amount of sales production builders sustained for the year compar ed to other years. (Oliver 2008) Ninety-one percent of those surveyed believed there shoul d be a minimum standard of performance and sustainability before a builder can market a home as green. Builders expect to be held accountable for the greenness of their homes; the majority favor ed an independent third party system for ensuring green compliance. Governments set standards were also favored in the study with federal, state, and local government chosen 16, 8, and 6 pe rcent respectively. The top green features that builders put in all their homes are energy-efficient windows and appliances, high-
21 efficiency HVAC systems, and enhanced insula tion. Table 2 shows the barriers those surveyed believed disrupt the green building process. More than half of respondent s cited higher costs and confusion surrounding the various green programs and standards as obstacles to green home adoption. The difficulty to implement a third party certification was also s ought out in the report. Seven out of ten respondents think energy star is the easiest certification for homes followed by the NAHB standard, and lastly LEED and local programs. Table 2-2. Obstacle course (GreenBuilder 2008) Confusion with different 'green' standard 59% Costs increase 57% Need to educate municipalities about energy efficient products or construction techniques 47% Takes longer to source products 45% Takes longer to spec products 38% Takes longer to find product replacements if original order is incorrect or late 28% Downtime spent waiting for inspections/certifications 25% We need to use specialty subs who are not familiar with our company/process 24% Takes longer to receive municipal approval 15% Takes longer to build home 13% Other 8% In what ways, if any, are typical building processes disrupted when implementing green building techniques Typical building processes are not disrupted by green building techniques 14%
22 Professional Builder magazine asked builders about the sources from which they receive green building information. Out of the respondent s, 83% said from trade magazines and/or media; 64% mentioned suppliers; 46% said gene ral home building associa tions. In 2008, Turner Construction also put out a survey called the Green Building Market Barometer. This survey intended to find out how green building in th e commercial sector was viewed in 2008. The survey reached 754 executives at companies representing a crosssection of the real estate industry. Despite the concerns abou t the availability of credit, 75% of the executives said they would not be any less likely to construct a green building in the future. Ei ghty-four percent of the executives who have built a green structure said that energy and overall operating costs were lower. In addition to savings, these executives also found green bu ildings to improve health and well-being (76%), increased building value (7 2%), and improved working performance and learning (41%). (Turner Construction 2008) Florida Green Home Standards The amount of green home standards and certif ications has increased yearly. Third party standards have been adopted on th e national, state, and local leve l. Utility companies such as Florida Power and Light have also joined the mix and created green home and energy efficient home standards. Builders are creating their own marketing material and green home packages. For this research, the future of green homes w ill be based on three independent standards. The three standards used for this research are LEED for homes rating system, the FGBCs Florida Green Home Standard, and the NAHBs Model Gr een Home Building Guidelines. LEED is an acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environm ental Design. LEED is a point based rating system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council. FGBC is an acronym for Floridas Green Building Coalition, and the Green Home Standards indicate the criteria by which the coalition
23 determines if a Florida home, new or ex isting, can be designated green. The National Association of Home Builder s created standards to certify homes green nationally. LEED Homes Figure 2-1. LEED Ho me Categories The LEED for Homes voluntary rating system is a national standard and awards certification based on point totals in eight categories. The eight cat egories are listed in Figure 1 below. All information gathered within this se ction is directly from the USGBC and can been find on their website. LEED is the national leader in commercial green building certifications in the country. (Yudelson 2008) Turner Constructions Green Building Market Barometer states in its executive summary the following information a bout the role LEED will play in the future of green building. The LEED Green Building Ra ting Systems has achieved widespread acceptance. Eighty-six percent of executives survey ed said they would be extremely or very likely to seek LEED certification if they were constructing a green build ing over the next three years. Executives were positive about the va lue provided by LEED certification. One-third of Education & Awareness Indoor Environment al Quality Materials & Resources Energy & Atmosphere Water Efficiency Sustainable Sites Location & Linkage Innovation & Design LEED Categories
24 executives felt that LEED certification was extremely valuable, while 52% rated it as somewhat valuable. (Turner 2008) LEED for homes was first started in 2005 as a pilot program. USGBCs consensus processes established the first pi lot program by a national team of green home-building experts. The original LEED Homes rating system came out in February of 2007. The latest standards were released in January of 2008. As of March 2009, LEED for homes has 38 providers, 9,667 registered homes and 1,876 certified homes. (USGBC 2009 A) A complete copy of the LEED Homes checklist is provided in the Appendix for your viewing. Innovation & Design credits encourage project planning and design to improve the coordination and in tegration of different building elements to create a green home. Credits can be earned in one of three ways. A builder may show exemplary performance on some credits, create new and innovative design practices, or take part in regional best-p ractices achievements that produ ce quantifiable environmental and human health benefits. Location & Linkage credit s achieve environmentally responsible land use patterns and neighborhoods through site location. Credits reward builders for selecting home sites that have more sustainable use and have less environmental impact while under construction. Sustainable site credits are used to minimi zed site impact, lower long-term management needs, and potential impact on the surrounding ec osystems. (USGBC 2009 C) Due to constrain on our local aquifers and water de pletion from our national bodies of water, LEED created water efficiency credits. Water efficiency credits rewa rd builders and homeowners for water reuse and adoption of reclaimed water for landscaping. Indoor water use is also monitored and waterconserving fixtures are promoted. Energy & Atmo sphere credits are used to implement homes with less CO2 emissions and energy use. The USGBC states, The average LEED home uses
25 30% to 40% less electricity, and saves more th an 100 metric tons of CO2 emissions over its lifetime. The materials & resource credits of LEED Homes places emphas is on recycling, waste divergent and material efficiency. Materials are an important aspect of building and place tension on logistics such as extraction, processing, a nd transportation. The USGBC has stated, Construction and demolition wastes constitute about 40% of the total solid waste stream in the United States. (USGBC 2009 C) The three compone nts of Materials & Resources are materialefficient framing, environmentally preferable products, and waste management. The USGBC places an emphasis on indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Americans spends on average 90% of their time indoors. Air pollution runs two to five times higher than outdoors. LEEDs Indoor Environmental Quality credit category encourages builders to prevent air pollution and improve air quality and comfort in homes. Hazardous household pollutants LEED tries to eliminate include carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, mold, and dirt. The fina l LEED category is aw areness & education. USGBC believes that homeowners and builder s of LEED homes may not fully understand the features and structure to take advantage of its benefits. These credits promote awareness among homebuyers that LEED Homes are built differently and need to be operated and maintained accordingly. (USGBC 2009 C) According the USGBCs LEED for homes progr am certified projects spreadsheet, there were 24 LEED homes certified in Florida up to May 5, 2009. (USGBC 2009 B) All homes certified were single-family de tached. LEED for homes has four different ratings to categorize homes; the different categories are certified, silver, gold, and plati num. Out of the homes currently certified in Florida four are rated as ce rtified, nine are certified silver, six are certified gold, and five are certified as platinum. The 24 homes were built by 20 different builders and
26 two providers. Project type for LEED homes incl ude custom homes, affordable homes, rehab homes, and production homes, which Florida has produced 13, 6, 1, and 3 respectively. (USGBC2009 B) The LEED certified homes were scattered throughout Florida. Florida LEED homes are located in some of the following citi es: Jacksonville, Jupiter, Gainesville, Miami, Sarasota, and Winter Park. Figure 2-2. NAHB 7 Principles NAHB Model Green Home Building Guidelines In 2005, The National Association of Homebuilders decided to create guidelines to guide builders engaged in or interested in green build ing practices for residential design, development, and construction. These guidelines were created by builders, researchers, environmental experts, and design professionals who all had knowledge in green hom e application. NAHB standards like LEED are nationally recognized and paralle l LEED in many regards. Like LEED Homes, NAHB standards create different leve ls of green by point scales; th e different levels are Bronze, Silver, and Gold. The seven areas of green im plementation are mapped out in figure 2 above. Global Impact Home owner Education Indoor Air Quality Water Efficiency Energy Efficiency Resource Efficiency Lot Design N AHB Model Green
27 Minimum point requirements are required in order to create a balanced green home. (NAHB and NAHB Research Center 2008) Th e NAHB created these standards for local green home initiatives to use as well to create green home cer tifications. Third party ve rification is needed in NAHB standards as well as LEED. The followi ng information pertaining to each NAHB principles was retrieved from the NAHB tri-fold checklist. (NAHB 2008) Section 1 of the NAHB guidelines discusse s lot design, preparation, and development. NAHB wants builders to select and design sites that minimize environmental impact and/or protect restore and enhance the na tural features and environmental qualities of the site. Points are awarded for identifying team goals and creati ng innovative options to site development. NAHB also awards points for mini mizing environmental intrusi on during onsite construction. Section 2 of the NAHB guidelines discusses resource efficiency. Points are awarded for various building tasks that redu ce the quantity of materials used and waste generated. This is achieved by enhancing durability of the structure, reusing existing building parts, or using recycled materials. Section 2 also promotes re newable resources such as bamboo and resourceefficient materials. Builders are awarded point s for recycling in this section as well. Section 3 of the NAHB guidelines discusses energy efficiency. This section has two paths for compliance. There is a performance path, wh ich takes in considerat ion the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code also known as the IE CC. A builder must go beyond this code in the performance math in order to get points. The sec ond path is a prescriptive path that gives points for practices and products such as SIPS, CIFS, efficient HVAC, and energy star appliances. Section 4 of the NAHB guidelines discusses water efficiency. Points available for this section come from water reduction methods such as low-volume irrigations systems, water-
28 efficient plumbing fixtures, ener gy star dishwashers, and innovative wastewater technologies. NAHB promotes the use of grey and reclaimed water. Section 5 of the NAHB guidelines disc usses indoor environmental quality. Three categories exist in this section; minimize poten tial sources of pollutants, manage potential pollutants generated in the home, and managing moisture. Builders will be preventing toxic chemicals, dust particles, and mold wh en attainting points in this section. Section 6 of the NAHB guidelines discusse s homeowner education in the operation and maintenance of their green home. Providing manuals that teach homeowners about the maintaining of their home, info rming homeowners of recycling and providing space to do so, and instructing homeowners of their goals and strate gies all reward builders with points in this section. Like LEED, the NAHB believes the more educated the homeowners is about their home the higher chance that home will reach its full green potential. Section 7 of the NAHB guidelines discusses a homes global impact. Points are rewarded to builders for the following options. Builders ma y choose to use low or no VOC indoor paints, low-VOC sealants, and demonstrate that builder s operations and business practices include environmental management system concepts. Att ached in the appendix you can find a detailed chart that shows the steps and responsibilities for each involved party in the green building certification process. This chart was extr acted from the NAHBs green home website. FGBC Green Home Standard The Florida Green Building Coalition (FGBC) is a non-profit corporatio n committed to improving the built environment through green construction practices. Their mission statement is to provide a statewide green building program with environm ental and economic benefits. These standards are only recognized within the state of Florida. The FGBC defines a green home as an energy-efficient home that incorporates multiple environmental, ecological,
29 and sustainable features that enhance the built environment. (Franz 2008 ) Figure 3 represents the eight categories that FGBC has placed in th eir rating system. The builder must meet the guidelines to earn a certification. Some features th at are specific to Florid a are the presence of disaster resistance points due to the hurricane seasons in Florid a. This standard is voluntary, however involves an FGBC certifying agent in good standing in order to push your documentation through and r eceive certification. Category 1 in FGBC standards deals with ener gy. The FGBC has sele cted to use a whole house performance based energy rating for point s in this category. The performance-based energy rating systems called a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index is used. Figure 2-3. FGBC Guidelines (Franz 2008) This rating system involves floor types, window types and amounts, roof materials, insulation, ceiling styles, garage placement, and equipment standards. Category 2 involves water usage. Points are awarded for fixture types, grey-water reuse, ra inwater harvesting, and landscaping features. Disaster Mitigation Materials Health Site Lot Choice Water Energy General Guidelines FGBC Guidelines
30 Category 3, lot choice, is used to motivate builders to carefully choose where they build homes and avoid environmentally sensitive areas. Through this category, like LEED they try to push development near public tr ansportation in order to ease car use and lower emissions. Category 4, site, deals with si te layout and design once a si te is selected. Points are awarded for native tree and planet preservation, on-site waste management, erosion control and topsoil preservation, and best practice applications for drainage and retention. Category 5, Health, promotes the general we ll-being of the homeowners and occupants. Points are awarded for cleanability, house desi gn, and ventilation. Central vacuum systems, radon/soil gas vent systems, bathroom exhaust va ns, and high efficiency air filters all are recommended in this section. The material cat egory, section 6, is br oken down into two subcategories: waste reduction and durability. Waste reduction relate s to the construction process and awards point for smart constructability that place less materials in the trash. Durability is FGBC attempt to allow builders to create homes that have a longer usable life span. Water shutoff sensors, laundry room below living floo r or drain, air admittan ce vents are among some possibilities builders or home owners can achieve points. Section 7, Disaster Mitigation, provides sta ndards a home must possess to combat natural disasters and termites. Natural disasters that FGBC tries to mitigate with their standards are hurricanes, floods, and wildfire. Since Florida is a hurricane state, builders would have to create safe rooms, anchor exterior structures, and comp ly with fortified safer living standards in order to receive points in this section. The general standards, section 8, gi ves builders a chance to receive points based on green princi ples that may factor into a home. If a builder constructs a home smaller than normal, they could receive poi nts. Providing renewabl e power sources, being hcfc free, along with homeowners education will all help a builder attain certification.
31 In order to find out how many homes have been certified by the FGBC the researcher contacted a representative from the FG BC; from its inception in 2001 through March 31, 2009, the FGBC has certified 1,941 homes green. In its first two y ears however, five homes were green certified. Currently the amount of homes cer tified per year are going down, however this could be due to the decrease in general home production overall. Government Intervention and Incentives In the article, green building going stronger by K aty Tomasulo, the author reports, green policies have jumped from 57 local governments in 2005 to 156 in 2008. The new presidential administration also has demonstrated a commitment to green policies and stimulus programs. States are finding that different entities are stepping up and promoting green building standards. Along the west coast of the United States, banks are giving special home mortgages out to homeowners who build or purchase green homes. To fund some residential effort for energy efficient homes, local and regional utility providers have offered rebates and incentives. (Stacholy 2006) Many online resources are available to find incentives to build a green home. As of May 14, 2009, the Database of State Incenti ves for Renewable and Efficiencies had 36 incentives for the state of Florida. These ince ntives range from local building departments to state tax codes. (DSIRE 2009) Some of the incentives found on the DSIRE website are as followed. Miami-Dade Country Green Buildings Exped ite Process In an effort to promote environmentally sensitive design and construction, the Miami-Dade County Commissioners passed an ordinance in June 2005 to expedite the permitting process for green buildings certifie d by a recognized environmental rating agency. Floridas Renewable Energy Property Tax Ex emption In June 2008, Florida enacted legislation that revived a re newable energy property tax ex emption that had previously expired in 1990. Under Florida law, impr oved real property upon which a renewable energy source device* is installed and operated is entitled to an exemption for cost of the device, including the installation cost. Th e exemption does not include the cost of replacing, removing, or improvi ng existing property in the co urse of the installation.
32 Florida Power and Light: Residential Energy Efficiency Program Florida Power and Light (FPL) offers rebates to residential cu stomers who replace their heat pump or air conditioning system with a more efficient one add ceiling insulation, or complete a duct system test performed on their home. Th e program website listed above provides customers with an Annual Cooling Cost Calcul ator to estimate the a nnual cost savings and FPL rebate for customers wishing to update th eir home cooling systems. The FPL Building Envelope Program offers incentives of up to $0.11 per square foot for upgrading ceiling insulation. In order to qualify for this incentive, residential customers must first request a free energy audit from FPL. Upon completion of the audit, if the energy expert determines whether the home qualifies for the insulation upgrade. If it does, the customer then redeems their incentive from any FPL participating independent contractor. The Duct System Test and Repair Program offer incentives to help cover the cost of duct repairs. For this program, the customer pays $30 to have their A/C inspected. The customer will then receive a complete report of the repairs n eeded and a list of in dependent contractors qualified to make the repairs. Once repairs are completed, the customer will receive $150 per central A/C system. Duct system tests can be requested through th e program website. The USGBC website offers a public policy search in order to find government policies that have been established to coincide with LEED standards. A search done on May 14, 2009 showed seven public policies in Florida that deal with LEED standards. The following summaries were found on the public policy search results for Florida. On January 10, 2009, the Deltona City Council adopted Ordinance 42-2008, requiring all new and remodeled residential buildings to follow the guidelines of LEED for Homes or the current Green Home Designa tion Standard of the Florid a Green Building Council. It also requires all new and re novated municipal and institutional buildings to follow the guidelines of LEED for New C onstruction or the current Gr een Commercial Designation Standard of the Florida Green Building Council. Projects that register intent to complete certification with either standard are e ligible for expedited permitting and reduced permitting fees. On May 14, 2007, Hillsborough County Manager A llgire approved the Residential Green Homes Policy, offering expedited permitting to home builders with a completed scorecard from either the LEED for Homes program or the Florida Green Home Standard Checklist. Scorecards must be supplied by a LEED for Homes provider or a qualified, third party green home certifier. On July 10, 2007, the Miami Lakes Town Council adopted Ordinance #07-92, establishing the Town of Miami Lakes Green Building Program. The program combines incentives and requirements for buildings whose costs exceed $50,000. Grants are available for residential building owners who prove minimum compliance with LEED-NC, LEED-CS and LEED-EB and homeowners who prove minimum compliance with LEED for Homes.
33 Alachua County: the county is providing a fast-track building permit incentive and a 50% reduction in the cost of building permit fees for private contractors who use LEED.
34 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Overview The rapid changing world has increased interest in and the need for studies that analyze the future. (Patton 1990) Research for the future of green hom es production in Florida has been completed using an umbrella style case study. The researcher uses a Delphi method technique to interview professionals in the re sidential sector of the construc tion industry who have different perspectives on green home construction. Candidates for interviews will be of the following professions and have knowledge of the Florida housing market: Realtors Builders Developers Green building consultants Perspective homebuyers Architects Public officials The second method used under the umbrella case study is document analysis. The researcher has compiled information pertaining to the topic in order to gain a perspective and create possible scenarios the fu ture of green homes production c ould take on. The researcher has gathered data directly from sources such as th e Florida Green Building Coalition, United States Green Building Council, and the National Associa tion of Home Builders with respect to the amount of homes certified under the respective organizations. Research on performing case studies and qualitative research has been comple ted and the researcher has completed this paper in accordance with industry standards. The Delphi Method Inform ation pertaining the to the Delphi method was summarized from, The Delphi Technique, a guide to the method published by University of Floridas Raymond Issa and
35 Robert Stroh. The Delphi method has been accepted in the academia world and been applied to numerous fields since its development in the 1950s. The technique was first developed as a forecasting tool at the Rand Corporation in 1950. The testing of the Rand Corporations predictions spanned a period of less than a year and was very narrow in scope. The results of their predictions were both reliable and accura te. The Delphi Technique is an interviewing technique that solicits and co mbines the opinions of a group of experts in order to make predictions. It involves the use of questionnaires designed to produce group consensus and eliminate face-to-face confrontation as experienced on panels or focus groups. It is a less time consuming relatively efficient way to combine the knowledge and abilities of a diverse group of experts in quantifying intangible variables of a topic. The key characteristics of the Delphi approach this study will reflect are anonymity of survey pa nel members, anonymity of responses and statistical analysis of pa nel responses. (Issa and Stroh 2001) Through the statistical summaries, panel members will communicate thei r perspectives and try to contrive a wellconceived notion. The researcher planned to conduct two rounds of interviews with each respondent. Due to a time constraint, the second rounds of interviews were not performed. Information from the first round of interviews is used to establish a well -conceived notion about the future of green homes in Florida. The researcher had contacted twenty professionals to take part in this case study; ten respondents agreed to take part of the case study. All persona l information has been kept confidential. The researcher interviewed his professiona ls using e-mails, telephone conversations, and direct meetings Professionals were located in different areas of Florida, however most respondents are lo cated south of Orlando. The questi onnaires used to organize the interviews are attached in the appendix. Ever y professional interviewe d was shown a consent
36 form that stated all identities would be kept c onfidential. Located in the data analysis, you will find a short paragraph on the individuals who took part in the case study and their qualifications to take part in the investigator y research. The researcher was not able to interview a public policy maker. Public policy makers proved to be hard to get in touch with and interview. The researcher contacted three public officials and did not r eceive a phone call back from any of them. The researcher contacted some of the respondents afte r all interviews were co mpleted to discuss the findings and see if they had anyt hing else to add. This round of correspondence was done solely to gain perspective of th e research at hand and was not used to conclude the findings of the first round. Document Analysis Data pertaining to the future of green ho m es production in Florida has been collected between January 2009 and July 2009. The literat ure review was organized to bring in information up to the present on Florida housi ng, green home trends around the nation, green homes trends in Florida, LEED Homes standa rds, FGBCs green home standards, and NAHBs green building standards. All th e information pertaining to the standards of green homes was retrieved directly from the organizations that put out the standards. General Florida housing statistics and its impact in Floridas economy derived from the Shimberg Center for Housing Studies. The researcher gathered the number of green homes built in Florida from each standard from direct correspondence with a representati ve of the organizations. Energy Star, which provides strict guidelines for energy efficiency set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, allows homes in Florida to be certified as well. For the research done throughout this paper, energy star was not quantified due to its nature of being ener gy focused only. This research defines a green home as energy efficient with f eatures that also address water conservation, indoor air quality, and ma terial efficiencies.
37 All data used in this study was gathered using a qualitative me thod known as design flexible. Design flexible research defined by Mi chael Patton is, Open to adapting inquiry as understanding deepens and/or situ ations change; avoids getting lo cked into rigid designs that eliminate responsiveness; pursues new paths of discovery as they emerge. The researcher through direct contact with the respective organization has compiled information pertaining to the amount of homes certif ied under each standard used in this paper. Information on the amount of homes certified could have changed by the time this paper is published. LEED for homes has the information accessible on their website and may be updated. The author from different channels of resource s compiled the research used for the literature review. The researcher used books, websites, re ports, and magazine ar ticles to create a background for green home production in Florida.
38 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS Respondents Research concerning the future of green homes production in Florida involved a case study that included interviews with industry prof essionals. The researcher picked the respondents due to their impact or reliance on residential construction in Florid a. The researcher will use a Delphi method technique to interv iew professionals in the residen tial sector of the construction industry who have different perspectives on green home construction. Analyzing different perspectives on the same issue will help gain a neutral well-conceived pers pective on the issue at hand. The scientific purpose of this study is to in vestigate how green building is expected to play a role in Floridas future and how this may c ontribute to greater sustainability for the state. Respondents were found using an in ternet search in order to find professionals that have a role in green home production. Respondent A Respondent A has thirty years experience as a Chem ical-Environmental Engineer and Industrial Hygienist in the chemical manufacturing, hazardous waste treatment, and environmental services industries including thir teen years starting up, operating, and maintaining large chemical manufacturing fa cilities and eight years operating hazardous waste disposal facilities and directing hazardous waste transportation and remedia tion organizations. He is an expert in evaluating hazardous material handling practices and workplace conditions affecting safety and health in industrial environments. Respondent A is a past-president of the American Industrial Hygiene Associ ation Florida Section. He currently is a licensed NAHB verifier for their green home standards; he is a LEED AP +H and LEED-H field agent. Respondent A is a
39 HERS rater and Builders challenge partner, a nd lastly a FGBC certifyi ng agent. Respondent A has worked as an indoor air quality sp ecialist for the last fifteen years. When respondent A was asked what he believ es is the most important aspect of green home production, he answered with the most impo rtant to least in the following order: Energy conservation, water conservation, sustainability of the structure, less environmental disturbance, and finally return on investment Respondent A was then asked how important he believed cost issues were to the future of green home produc tions, which he responded as saying, Near future: very important. Long term: not so important. This is because code will become more stringent and will force many Green features while vendors will begin accommodating the Green Market with more choices and better prices. Respondent A felt that the most important industry players for the future production of green homes are public policy makers and architects. Homebuilders and developers were on his next tier of importance. C ontrary to the resear chers belief, the respondent believes homeowners were less important than all parties listed above. This was surprising because other industry players were co nsistent in stating that the home market is consumer driven and homes will be built the way the public wants them. When asked how important third party cer tification is to the growth of gr een homes, Respondent A replied with, ESSENTIAL! Respondent A was asked who had the most influence on prospective homebuyers on purchasing a green home between real tors, builders, architects, and consultants. The order of influence from high to low was archite ct, builder, realtor, and consultant. The next set of questions asked during the researchers interview was about education levels and their importance to green homes. Respondent A said, Builders, architects, and realtors are all important parts of the conceptual -design process. The best edu cational assistance is for these parties to become knowledgeable and then impart their knowledge (and passion) to the
40 homebuyer. The researcher was interested in the homeowners educatio n level, however the respondent once again did not believe the cons umer was in need of knowledge on greens home as much as the builders and architects. The following synopsis of green homes came from Respondent A when asked to discuss any relevant topic on the future of green home productions in Florida. In order to real and sustained reach lift-off, Green Housing must be driven by necessity: Codes, increasing power costs, water scarcity with no easy or feasible alternative. Dr iving forces must start at the Federal level and push through the State level to the local level. Circumstances provide driving forces larger than government: fossil fuels cannot meet world demand; local water sources are increasingly strained; people are in general more aware and place more value upon a healthy indoor environment in a house that will not rot or be blown away. Demographics will shift with tree hugging Baby Boomers who are generally well informed and place personal value upon environment stewardship, which should drive the production of green homes. Respondent B Respondent B is a leading proponent of su stainability in the state of Connecticut. Respondent B has more than twenty years experi ence in new home constr uction and remodeling; he now offers complete green building, renovation, and consulting services. Respondent B has received awards for some of his green homes. Ov er the last decade, an extensive education in sustainable design and construc tion has taken Respondent B to conferences and classes around the country. He has attended the NAHB course, Green Building for Building Professionals, the U.S. Green Building Councils LEED for New Construction, and LEED for Homes workshops. Respondent B designs and construc ts finely crafted, environmenta lly friendly homes inspired by classical and traditional architecture.
41 Respondent B was asked what he believes the future holds for the rate at which green homes are produced in new construction by the year 2011. The respondent believes green homes will be a rapidly increasing segm ent of the industry over the next decade. Respondent B also stated that he believes a consumers education level plays a huge role in attracting buyers for green homes. He thinks the ability to quantify en ergy cost savings could go a long way in green home sales. Respondent B was th en asked, what are the three most important factors in the growth of green homes production in Florida and in what order. His reply was, Public awareness of the benefits especially from a cost savings point of view. 2. Perception among builders that green offers a competitive advantage. 3. A growing perception among buyers that green is cool. The only constrai nt the respondent was consistent about during the interview was cost barriers. Respondent B was asked how he believes the government can influence the production of green homes. The respondent answere d, Primarily by assigning a rational cost to carbon-intensive fuels and activities so that green energy and green homes become more competitive. Currently, fossil fuel prices are artificially low. When Respondent B was asked how important key industry players are on the future of green home production, he had a different opinion then Respondent A. Responde nt B believes homeowners and public policy makers are the most important industry player s for the future production of green homes. He believes architects and developers are the least important figures. Realtors and homebuilders were among the second tier of importance on re spondent Bs list. Respondent B was adamant on the fact that green homes are profitable for all parties and that is the main driver for homebuilders to promote them. Respondent B st ated that the benefits a potential green homeowner will gain are energy efficiency, reduc ed exposure to indoor air pollution, a feeling that they are helping the environment, and re duced maintenance expenses. Another benefit he
42 believes a prospective homeowner would see are higher resale pric es especially as the public becomes more aware of the benefits listed above The researcher asked th is builder about third party rating systems and their importance. Resp ondent B like Respondent A believed they are important, stating, Buyers need a reliable way to know if the house is actually as green as advertised. This could also be achieved by a twotiered building code where local officials could check off compliance to green building standa rds. Respondent B as for mentioned believes homeowner education is very important to the production of green homes. The researcher asked Respondent B to disc uss any topic within green homes production that he felt relevant to its growth. The following summarizes his beliefs on green home production. Some form of carbon tax, or other le gislation or incentive that establishes a gradually rising floor for carbon-based energy prices, while clean en ergy and home energy efficiency are incentivized. One good model for in centing clean energy, whic h could be modified to make green homes economically compelling, is a program in Berkeley, CA where the upfront cost of solar panels is paid by the city, and financed by increased property taxes on the home. The homeowners energy cost savings are greater th an the increase in taxes, putting more cash in their pockets each month, while making the home more valuable on the resale market. Wide adoption of similar measures would be essentia lly cost-neutral. Everybod y wins except OPEC. Respondent C Respondent C is a seasoned architect. She has been in the field for ten years. Respondent C designs hotels, resorts, m alls, and large homes all over the world. Her projects fall in countries that are greener affiliated. Therefore, she has had to use all green materials, and green heating and cooling systems to design her homes. Res pondent C is responsible for designing about 10 projects with green building standards. Respondent C attended University of Miami and received a Bachelors of Science in Architecture. Respond ent C worked for Pavlik design team for seven
43 years, which at the time was the largest design firm in the country and number three in the world for Retail Design. Responde nt C started her own compa ny in 2001 with four licensed architects and three Licensed Engineers, a nd eight designers; she merged with overseas companies in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Respondent C has been de signing Resorts, Malls, Wellness Centers, Spas (over 1,000,000 Sq .ft.) and residents (over 10,000 Sq .ft.) since 2004. Respondent C said during her interv iew, I have been very fortuna te to see how a country starts out green from the bottom and works its way up with the infrastructure to desalination plants using water from the gulf. Respondent C was first asked what she thought the future holds for production of green homes in Florida in the next five years. She re plied, I do believe that the green movement will move rather quickly and most if not all new construction by the 2014 will have to be green. Existing homes will be retro fitted with some green materials and Green energy systems. The next question Respondent C was asked was the tangible differences a potential homebuyer will see if he/she decides to purchase a green home. She feels homeowners will see the cost of the energy bills will be cheaper, the building shell w ill be healthier and there is no gauge on the cost of health. When asked whether her answer w ould change if the homeowner had more green education, she said that she did not think so due to the fact that negative press from the Chinese drywall problems have caused consumers to unde rstand healthier living materials. Respondent C did not consider Florida a leader in green build er and does not believe the state can influence other states building policies. Re spondent C was asked what are th e three most important factors in the growth of green homes production and in what order. She replied, Green energy system would be the first on the list. I would say green plumbing sy stems would be second, and the third would be the green shell bu ilding materials. The researcher was interested in seeing what
44 architects believe the government could do to increase green home production. Respondent C stated, I dont think the government should have any part in intervening in construction. I do think it should be Law that we use the BSI British Standards Institution and add in green materials. We are so far behind in our build ing standards practice because of government involvement. We need to fix our standards first before we worry about the production rate. As all participant interviewed, Respondent C was as ked who she thought were the most important players in the construction of green homes in Florida. She believes architects, builders, and developers are the most important figures in the growth of green homes. She did not believe real estate agents or public policy makers had much worth in the future of green home production. Respondent C believes green home production fo r Florida will increase slowly in the future. She also was the first respondent to pl ace little importance on third party certification. During the interview she said, Not really, pe ople only care about warranties, and guarantee of the builder and architect. Lastly, Respondent C was asked what she thought was important to know about future production of green homes. She stated, I think the way to go is starting with the lowest cost systems first. The other way is to pick a green systems that can retrofit to show benefits to homeowners this way they feel like they are involved to tell their friends family and others. This will gain interest in main stream building. Respondent D Respondent D is a project m anager for one of the top five largest residential builders in the country. He has been with the company for four years. Respondent D, whose company builds tens of thousands homes a year was asked to research green homes for his company. He spent three months doing due diligence on the inception of green homes in South Florida. Respondent D believes green home production will grow in Florid a, he stated when asked about his feelings on green homes in the near future, I believe that certain aspects of green building will increase
45 significantly in the recent future for building. Certain advances in technology will allow for increased efficiency at little cost during the construction process. This will leave little reason to not include these features. This project manage r did not believe a homeowners education plays a huge role in a homeowner decision to buy a gree n home. He stated that people understand bills and can see for themselves a lower energy bill. On a positive note, he believes Florida is progreen in its home industry and due to its hot location, plays in to the hands of energy saving homes. During the interview, the respondent noted that demand, Cost to build, and contractor knowledge are the three most important factor s in the growth of green homes production. Respondent D brought up an interesting fact about government incentives. Instead of focusing on the end user for incentives, he beli eves the government can influence the housing industry by giving incentives to bu ilders. This is actually occurri ng in some parts of the state where permitting is expedited for builders of green homes. When asked about the most important industry players for the growth of green homes, he felt public policy makers and homebuyers are the most important. Respondent D feels green housing in Florida is a housing trend that will grow rapidly in the future. Respondent D summarized his opinion on the production of green homes in Florida as followed. I feel that the co ntinued effort to increas e technology to reduce costs of solar technology with greatly increase the efficiency of future green homes. Producing more competition in the mark et will reduce costs and stream line production of these products and would promote more use in all areas of building. Government incentives to promote production and research into these products will al so help speed up this process. Adjustments in lifestyle will also be imperati ve to increasing the demand for these products as well. Some technology available today that was not available a few years ago is still not being utilized due to
46 slight variances in performance that most are not willing to accept. i.e. L.E. D. lighting. Energy consumption is the number one item that saves costs and the environment. Respondent E Respondent E is a prospective hom ebuyer. He moved to Florida five years ago and started his house search. He decided to rent a nd only eight months ago began to pursue his home search again. Respondent E has a wife and is ex pecting a child in the future. He works for a newspaper company and lives in Ft Lauderdale. He and his wife are looking for a home in the $300s to low $400,000 range. When asked whether he or his wife have looked into purchasing a green home, the respondent said no but has inqu ired about energy consumption and bills. The only standards Respondent E heard of before th is interview for homes was energy star. The respondent recognized LEED as a commercial st andard, and did not he ar of NAHB or FGBC green building standards. Respondent E said energy conservation and return on investment were the top two reasons he would purchase a green home. He noted that water conservation and sustainability were also things he would like to see in a home if it were to be marketed green. Respondent E was asked how importa nt cost is in his decision to buy or build a green home. Respondent E stated, If I decide to purchase a green home it would be an important aspect. If I found a home that I liked and fit the needs me and my wife have and it happened to be green, I would pay a premium but not much more. Respondent E said the following when aske d about government incentives and their affect on his decision to go green. Government incen tives could play a huge role in our decision to purchase a home. When looking at mortgages and cash flow, if there are tax incentive and savings on energy bills that make up for or surp assed the costs then me and my wife would definitely seek out a green home! The respondent was not convinced that his home would have to be certified by a third part, and is quoted as saying, Dependi ng on the builders guarantee. If
47 the builder states the home is green and has a wa y to put a guarantee or educational system in place that allowed me to see it was indeed green, I would not need a thirty party system to rate my home. If they dont have guarantees in place, then I would indeed request third party certification. The respondent said that the pers on that had the most in fluence on the type of home he purchases is a realtor. If he were to build a home, the power to influence him would lie within the architect. Respondent E was enthusiastic when talk ing about people educating him and his wife on a green home. He said YES! If they took the time out to s how and educate us on the differences and reasons why the home was built the way it was we would be more excited to try and live in a green home. Th e researcher gave the prospective homebuyer a chance to write a summary of his thoughts on the production of green homes. Respondent E wrote, I have been looking for a home in south Florida for the last eight months, a fe w years ago; I also was looking for a home but decided to rent. There is a buzz about green building and I am more aware then I was on my house search years ago. I do not feel like I know a lot a bout the subject and I work for a newspaper and consider myself an open mind to learning different subject matters. After talking to you, I am going to do some research on th e internet. I think if my realtor really pushed green homes I would be prone to buy one. Incen tives would also have me look into them however; I would need to be educated on the incentives at hand for green homes. Respondent F Respondent F has been building hom es on his own for more than 25 years. He worked in the construction industry right ou t of school at a large engine ering and construction firm. A neighbor, at the time, who was an architect, asked him to build his home. That was the impetus for launching his own company and becoming one of the most well known custom homebuilders in South Florida. Respondent F builds on aver age eight custom homes a year ranging from 5,000 to 15,000 square feet. The research er believed custom homebuilders are important to interview
48 because their homes are uncharacteristically gree n. Respondent F believes green homes will be common in Florida by 2011. The custom homebuilder does not believe education is as important to the growth of green homes as he believes aw areness is. The three most important factors the builder believed to increase green home pr oduction are initial costs, energy savings, and environmental impact. The biggest constraint Res pondent F sees for the future of green homes is the cost aspect with respect to the benefits. He does not believe that government intervention is needed to lower costs or entice the trend. Respondent F believes the most important players in the growth of green homes are on the supply side which includes the builders, developers, and architects. He does not believe realtors, consulta nts, and public policy makers are very important in the growth of green homes within the state of Florida. During the interview, the respondent brought up the importance of third party rating systems, calling them a benchmark that people who might not understand the subject are confiden t to use. The respondent has a positive outlook on the future, saying the future of green hom e productions in Flor ida will grow rapidly. Respondent F believes the future of green hom es in Florida could depend heavily on solar energy, considering it is the sunshine state! Respondent G Respondent G is a realtor for one of the biggest international realty firm s. She has been a realtor for twenty-three years. The researcher found the resp ondent by calling up the firm and asking which realtor has the most knowledge on th e subject of green homes. The researcher was told to contact Respondent G. The interview with this respondent was cut short do to time. Respondent G did not give a direct answer when asked what she t hought the next fi ve years will bring in the future production of green homes. She responded, saying, It all depends on the builders who offer it and pressure the government decides to attach to them. The respondent
49 thought the only tangible difference a potential homebuyer will see is energy efficiency with a long-term approach. This realtor does not believe Florida is on the forefront of green homes because she does not see a lot of ads or promotions about them in the real estate sections of newspapers. Respondent G thinks the only c onstraint found on green homes is added initial cost, saying, Amazingly most buyers go for low price, rather than quality. Respondent G felt third party consultants and homebuilders we re the most important partie s involved with the future production of green homes. The next tier of importa nt players was made up of architects, real estate agents, and public policy makers. She ga ve homebuyers 3 out of 10, with 10 being the most important player, showing that she believes the future lies on the supply side. The last question answered was how she would best descri be green home sales in Florida, which she replied as saying a housing tre nd that will grow slowly. Respondent H Respondent H has been involved with real estate and constr uction for the last twenty years. Respo ndent H was initially an architect an d has morphed into a developer over the years. He owns apartments and single-family homes fo r rent in South Florida. Respondent H has done research into greening existing residences a nd future new construction; he attended LEED seminars and is familiar with green products. When asked what are the most important aspects of future green home productions, he stated ener gy conservation and return on investment. Respondent H believes public policy makers are the most important players in the future of green homes, followed by homebuilders an d architects. He believes the le ast important players are real estate agents. When asked, how many years do you think would th e pay pack period needed to be in order for someone to build or purchase a green home, the respondent answered, the payback period should be between 4 to 7 years maximum.
50 Respondent H believes third pa rty rating systems are helpful in the production of green homes, however the agents need to be enlightened and concerned for them to be beneficial. He believes the best rating system in Florida for gr een homes is LEED H. Influence plays a big role in creating a demand for green homes; the respondent believes realtors and builders have the most influence on the market place. The respondent believed that educating the buying public is one way in which green homes could gain market share without developers pushing them. Newspapers, realtors, and regiona l seminars put on by local builders about green homes in the area could increase sales dramatically in Flor ida. The researcher asked the respondent to summarize his feelings about the future of green home productions in Fl orida. The following passage summarizes Respondent Hs perspectiv e on green homes in Florida. The most important and lead topic for developing green ho me construction is by government incentives to developers, builders and their consultants. Secondly, to the new buyer of homes or commercial structures, so that they can improve existing st ructures, making them more energy efficient and increasing the value of properties. Educating th e public ad incentivizing builders, developers, and end users will have the greatest impact on green construction for the future. Respondent I Respondent I has been a realtor in Florida fo r twelve years. She is Jacksonville Florida's first realtor to become a certified EcoBroker. She share's information on helping home buyers, sellers and owners become more energy efficien t, removing chemicals from their home, reducing their water consumption and carbon footprints. She stays involved in local events and groups that are helping to educate what simple and ine xpensive things homeowners can do to make a difference in their consumption of precious resour ces and what happens with their waste. She updates her blog and website pages, sharing informa tion and resources to help each of us make a
51 difference one household at a time. The respond ent was chosen to get a perspective from a realtor who has shown a commitment to the fu ture of green home production in Florida. Respondent I was asked what she thought the fu ture holds for green home production in Florida in the near future, and replied by saying Certa inly increasing as more and more people want energy efficient homes and the cost of those features are decreasing as more options become available. Additionally realizing EEMs (Energ y Efficient Mortgages) are available. By reducing the expenses paid on energy and water, it increases the availa ble monthly income one has to make mortgage payments. The main diffe rence she believes her clients will see is energy efficiency and water reduction. She does not believing educating pot ential homebuyers would make much of a difference as educating the build ers. The respondent believes there are small and inexpensive features a builder could incorporate that encompa ss green properties and could create the baby steps needed to thrust green home production in the future. The respondent was asked how she believes Florida has adapted to gr een homes compared to the rest of the country and whether the state has influence on its regi on. She replied, We are definitely behind other states. States like California, Georgia, Ore gon, and Washington State ar e far ahead. However, we are starting to catch on. The three most im portant aspects of creating green homes in the future she believes to be are the economy, consumer confidence, and availability. Respondent I believes the bigge st constraint on the future of green homes is the economy, which is an external constraint that cannot be fixed except with time. She stated, Until it (economy) gets back on track and the inventory of existing homes is reduced, builders and current home homeowners dont have the financial means to either build them or make energy efficient improvements. Her beliefs on govern ment intervention are as follows. The government has to step up to intervention and pr ovide incentives and/rebate programs to existing
52 homeowners and builders for green features. Additio nally the features have to be affordable and the government must offer more tax credits to companies and homeowners, buyers and sellers, along with the rebates being greater. There shou ld definitely be fina ncial rewards to those making a difference. Its a great way to s timulate the economy with the environment and homeowners benefitting! The re searcher asked the respondent wh ich players she felt are most vital in creating green homes in the future, and got a reply, all parties are equally important. She believes they are all inter-r elated and each plays a huge role on green home sales in the future. Respondent I stated green homes in Florid a is a housing trend that will grow slowly. The realtor believes her profession can help to educate homebuyers and promote sellers home features that provide energy cost savings, i ndoor air quality and hea lthy environments and reducing carbon footprints. The resp ondent feels realtors in the fu ture will be more involved in green homes. One thing the researcher believed was interesting was the following quote from the respondent. There has been an increased educat ional demand by realtors from their local and national associations of realto rs, homebuilders, municipalities and other green organizations. Since I have taking the Ecobroker Ce rtification course over a year ago I am finding an incredible amount of green resources, I have seen the amount of resources incr ease substantially. Respondent J Respondent J is currently in the market fo r a new home. A realtor who is working with the respondent referred this respondent to me. The prospective homeowner is twenty-seven and been searching for homes for eight months. He is an entrepreneur who considers himself a visionary and someone who looks way beyond the pr esent. The interview started over the phone and was finished by e-mail. The respondent has l ooked at green homes for sale and has met with green builders and architects in his area.
53 Respondent J was not familiar with FGBC green home standards, however said he has done research in LEED, NAHB, and energy star. He considers it semi-important for his next home to be green. He made a poi nt that as long as he can find a green home in his budget with the space requirement he needs, he will purchase this type of home. Respondent J will not spend more then has budgeted therefore was not that inte rested in the ROI aspect of a green home. The two aspects that the perspectiv e homebuyer feels are most importa nt are energy conservation and sustainability. The researcher as ked what the respondent thought of third party rating systems, and how important if important were they to hi m. The respondent stated, Very important, these organizations are setting the st andards for green homes and educating home buyers and builders on things such as energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, and improved indoor environmental quality. The respondent wa s asked how important educational assistance from industry players such as th e builder or realtor would be in him going forward with buying a green home. He said he spends about an hour a day researching green homes and that he does not feel they need to educated him, but whatever th ey do teach would be welcomed and beneficial. An e-mail from the respondent was received wi th his closing comments on the subject. He stated, Continuing the development of greener production home building will definitely require further education of builders and buyers, case stud ies of past successes to create new ones, and voicing sustainable building standards by local agencies.
54 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Results The goals of, THE FUTURE OF FLORI DAS GREEN HOME PRODUCTION, were to find out how Florida is responding to the green housing trend. The researcher took an in depth look into the trend nationally and specifically for Florida. The original hyp othesis the researcher used for this research was that the green home ma rkets are not growing at the same rate as green commercial markets. Document Analysis A survey conducted by McGraw-Hill Cons truction Research & Analytics in 2007 com pared all building sectors growth rates. Residential construction has the third lowest growth rate of all sectors identified. Commercial constructi on was divided into many building sectors. Residential green growth was estimated at 32% while market sectors like education and government landed around 65%. Retail space was the least growing sector at 20% landing just below hospitality. (McGraw-Hill 2007) This survey proves that most commercial construction is growing greener at a faster pace than reside ntial, with some sectors doubling its growth. Floridas green home production has increased in the past years, even with total homes built declining. The growing number of successf ul green-home developments and projects around the country is bringing conf idence to builders in Florida. Green homes such as HGTVs green home in Traditions Florida are being used to educate all partie s on the features and products available to green homes and are acting as catalysts to create more green homes. The researcher attended the charrette for the HGTV green home in the summer of 2008 and gained a newfound perspective to the impor tance of sub-contractors for the creating of green homes. Since NAHBs green building guidelines beca me a standard in 2008, one home has been
55 certified under the organization. Homes have b een certified through other programs using these guidelines prior to 2008 however, th e NAHB was not able to acquire an accurate number for this research. The Florida Green Building Council and US GBC each were able to reply with the amount of homes certified in Florida for thei r respective certification. The USGBC had linked me to their LEED for Homes website that had a PDF document outlining all projects certified up to May 2009. (USGBC 2009 B) The FGBC responde d to the author by telephone, to the amount of homes certified up to May 2009. Figure 5 shows the amount of homes certified under each organizations standard since their inception. LEE D H did not include homes certified during the pilot programs thus the zero certification until 2007. Figure 5-1. Homes certified by LEED and FGBC
56 Delphi Results The case study showed that industry players do not believe Florida is one of the top green residential markets. One respondent felt the st ate was far behind California, Georgia, Oregon, and Washington State. One common response from all those interviewed was the green home production in Florida will grow. Out of ten pe rsons interviewed, eight responded with their opinion on green homes as a trend in Florida. Out of eight respondents tw o felt that the growth of green homes would be rapid in the future, while the other six stated it would grow slowly. One question asked to all case study participants was who they felt were the most important industry players to the growth of green homes in Florid a. Figure 5 below displays the average response from all those interviewed about the importance of key players in the residential construction industry. The question was worded as follows, O n a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 being extremely important, how would you rate the importance of these industry players in green home production? The case study showed that supplyi ng green homes is more important than the demand for them. A reasonable assumption would be that the case study proved the old building saying, If you build it, they will come. The next question asked to the case study pa rticpants was their feelings on third party certifications. Most respondents felt they had so me validity and importance. Respondent A, felt they are essential to the growth of green homes. On the other extreme, some responents stated as long as the builder educated the consumer and ha s some sort of gaurentee in place that third party rating systems had no importance on green home production. Green building consultants believe LEED for homes is the most effective rating system, which happe ned to be the most known rating system in the case study. The centr al theme throughout all the interviews and responses was cost concerns.
57 Figure 4-2. Importance of play ers in green construction Looking at the future of green homes produc tion from a supply and demand side, shows concerns from producers of green homes on added cost to build and concerns from prospective homebuyers on the escalated purchase price of their homes. Respondents feelings on added costs to produce ranged from no added costs to three times the cost. The most gotten response for important feature on green homes were energy cons ervation features. Consultants felt these type of features are the main drivers to the consum er, the consumers believed they are the most important, the realtors felt they are the most identifiable, and archit ects believe they are important to the design of the home. Looking at green energy conservativ e features from all perspectives, as long as they pay for themselves within a few years, the demand will be their. One topic that received many di fferent views was government in tervention and incentives for green homes. Respondents had both negative and positive feelings about the intervention of government on green homes. One of the consulta nts interviewed believed green building will be
58 part of the building code thus government incen tives and intervention wi ll become increasingly less important. Two of the respondents felt gove rnment has no part in intervening with construction markets. Both res pondents lie on the supply side of green home construction. The demand side of green homes, prospective homebuyers, felt they would be more willing to purchase green homes if government were invol ved with incentivizing the added costs. Respondents felt that financial and non financ ial incentives brought to the market for both suppliers and consumers would increase the mark et share of green homes. Some respondents felt the government should give the incentives to the builders and developers, and that if it causes them to build green then consumers wont ha ve a choice except to purchase green. Other respondents felt if the right re bates and financial incentives were avaialble to them for purchasing green, they would search for those types of home which would put pressure on builders to fullfill a market gap. One realtor felt programs such as energy efficient mortgages from banks would drive consumers to purchase gr een, since the housing market currently is hard on lending. One key element that all participants belie ved was important was educating all parties involved with green homes on green homes. Research shows that unless a homeowner understands his/her green home, the home will no t reach its full green potential which lends the product to ineffeciences. Responde nts had different viewpoints on the degree of importance of which educating the consumer had on the futu re of green homes. One respondent, a custom home builder, stated awareness is more importa nt then education when it comes to selling a green home. On the supply side, educating builder s, architects, and developers on the costs of going green could prove to incr ease the amount of green home production across the nation.
59 Conclusion Sources show Florida housing trends seem to mimic national housing trends. This is a key factor in why the researcher focuses on Fl oridas green housing trend. Floridas housing market has grown into a clutch for the state s economy. In 2008, an estimated $17 billion in new residential construction generate d a total of $28.7 billion in ec onomic activity. This fact alone stresses the amount of money, resources, and spa ce the housing market take s up in Florida. The average residential unit in Am erica and in turn Florida pr oduces 12.4 tons of carbon dioxide from its household operations, which is six times the average of the rest of the world. Research indicates that a typical house hold wastes between 8,000 and 10,000 ga llons of water a year while the occupant is waiting for hot water to arrive on tap. On a positive note, as a nation people are recycling seven times more toda y than ten years ago, they ar e buying organic vegetables and recycled paper products, which prove a mo re environmentally conscious nation. The researcher believes greening homes will be the next movement in Florida for those who are environmentally conscious. Those who are not may still seek out green homes in Florida due to its location and climate. Cooling a home in Florida is said to account for most of homeowners energy bills. Floridas hot climate creates a larger cooling load and in turns increases energy consumption. Prospective hom ebuyers are becoming more aware of energy efficient homes and are starting to seek out gree n homes for their energy efficient properties. In 2006, around 12% or 174,000 homes were energy st ar certified. LEED Homes and Florida Green Building Coalition green homes are increasing every year in Florida since their inception. Increasing amounts of certified gree n homes are representing more than their direct percentage increase of Florida homes due to the decline in overall housing production within the state. Green home producers in Florida are adapting green principles at di fferent rates and for different reasons. Builders are using green features as a marketing tool: to bring perspective homebuyers
60 in the door. Builders are finding it easier to market green homes and homeowners are much more interested in buying them, even in a dow n economy. However, some builders are taking the liberty to create multifaceted green homes, fo cusing on sustainability, design, water and energy conservation, and a healthier living environment. Green home production in Florida will continue to face market inhibitors. Constraints such as perceived added costs, actual added cost s, lack of education, co mplexity, and an industry that just does not accept change as effortlessly as industries like technology will play a part in keeping green home standards from becoming a nor m in the near future. Third party standards have been adopted on the national, state, and lo cal level. Utility companies such as Florida Power and Light have also joined the mix and created green home guidelines and energy efficient home standards. Florida Green Bu ilding Coalition is the most popular and used certification in the state of Fl orida. In 2007, 750 homes were green certified by the FGBC, which were 218 more homes then the previous year. LEED for homes certified 14 homes in 2008 within Florida, which is twelve more than th e previous year. The NAHB certification officially started certifying homes in 2008: th ere is one certified one home under this standard in Florida. The Delphi method proved to allow the resear cher to gain a well-conceived perspective on the future of Floridas green home market. Ga ining the perspective of builders, architects, realtor, prospective homebuyers, and third party consultants established a well contrived notion that green home production will grow at a fast er pace in the future, but will not be rapid. Government influence through financ ial incentives and builder benef its could help jump start the housing trend and increase the rate at which homes are greened. Incentives should be delivered to the consumer and producer of green homes. Green education will play a ro le in the future of green home productions in Florida. The realtor pr ofession has already plac ed greening homes in
61 their continuing education curricu lum. One of the realtor res pondents said national and local realtor associations are pushing for green homes and are educating their realtors on the issue at hand. The researcher believ es this is needed in the building industry, so contractors both general and subs understand green principles going ahead. The architect stated that a lot of greening a home could be done in the design stage, whic h places an emphasis on ar chitects to become a catalyst in the future production of green homes Builders and architects received the highest scores for importance to the growth of green home production in Florida. The amount of homes that will be certified under the standards used in this research in the future cannot be estimated. However, a growing awareness from the public a push from realtors, which the case study showed, has the most influence on prospective ho mebuyer, and lowered cost for green materials due to the increased green commerc ial market prove to have a pos itive effect on the future of green homes in Florida. In the researchers opinion, green home production will grow at a steady pace until a green standard is a dopted into the states building code, thus driving the green housing market to encompass the entire new cons truction housing market later down the road! The five most important findings the re searcher has compiled are as followed. Residential construction has the third lowest gr owth rate of all sect ors currently pursuing green certifications. Residential green growth is estimated at 32%, while some commercial sectors are growing at rates above 60%. Most industry professionals believe green reside ntial construction will grow at a slow pace in the future. Influence from the supply side of green homes has more importance then the demand side. The supply side of green homes includes builders, architec ts, and developers. Third party certification is not needed in the green constr uction as long as a builder warranty or guarantee is provided. In order for green residential construction to become a norm in Florida, government must be committed to the growth and provide the necessary incentives for both suppliers and consumers.
62 Recommendations In the future, the researcher believes research could be done on two specific topics within the future of green homes. The first topic is specifically on government influence and intervention on housing markets and its stance on greening homes. The second area of research could be done on the educati on portals available to the pub lic and parties of green home productions. Websites, the frequency at which the topic is discu ssed in the local papers and materials available from builders and governme nt to the public should be examined and compiled for a better understanding of what is out there for people eager to learn about green homes. As for as the research conducted for this pape r, the author believes the case study should have started earlier. Eight weeks was simply not enough time to find between twelve and twenty candidates and interview them. The author recomme nds that interviews be held in person. As the communication portal grows farther away from pe rsonal contact, it is harder to engage in conversation and get a feel for emotions that are attached to the responses.
63 APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Figure A-1. LEED H SCORECARD
64 Figure A-1. Continued.
65 Figure A-1. Continued.
66 Figure A-2. NAHB standards roles
67 APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT SCRIPT Project Title: The Future of Green Hom es Production in Florida Hello. I am Adam Picow, a masters degree studen t with the M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building construction at the University of Florida. I am conducting research on green building and its likely future in Floridas housing market. I woul d appreciate having the opportunity to conduct a telephone interview with you at future time that would be convenient for you. The interview should take about 30 minutes. The purpose of this research is to increase know ledge about green homes and the role they will play in the future of Floridas residential new construction and green building initiatives. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your participation is completely voluntary. Do you agree to the in terview? If so, what date and time would be most convenient for you? [If interview refused, will say Thank you for your time. Goodbye.] If you have any questions regardi ng your rights as a research part icipant, contact the University of Florida Institutional Review Board at (352) 392-0433. If you have any questions or concerns prior to or after our scheduled interview time, please contact me at (561) 702-9685 or firstname.lastname@example.org Thank you for your tim e.
68 APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRES Questionnaire for Architect 1. How long have you been an Architect? 2. What do you believe the future holds fo r the rate at which green hom es are designed/produced in new construction in the year 2014? 3. What do you believe are tangible differences a potential homebuyer will see if he/she decides to purchase a green home? 4. Would your answer change to the previous question, if you consider how educated a potential homebuyer is in green homes before purchasing a green home? (Do you be lieve your potential client would have to have c onsiderable knowledge of green building principles to comprehend the va lue and befits of buying a green home?) 5. How would you consider Florida as a green building state? Ho w much influence do you believe Florida has on other states housing initiatives? 6. How many green homes have you designed, and what features did you incorporate in the design in order to inherent green principles? 7. In your opinion, what are the three most important factor s in the growth of green homes production and in what order? 8. What constraints do you believe gr een home production faces in the future? 9. In 250 words or less, describe the importance of government intervention/incentives on the production rate of green home production? 10. Green home rating standards place a lo t of importance on water c onservation and landscaping, in your expert opinion how important are green home features found outside of a home to your clients? 11. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 bei ng extremely importa nt, how would you rate the importance of these industry players in green home production? Real estate Agents Home Builders Developers Architects Home Buyers Public Policy Makers Green Building Consultants and third party orga nizations established to designate a home green 12. Which do you believe best describes green home production in Florida: A past trend which will die out A housing trend which will grow at the same rate it has grown in the last 8 years A housing trend that will grow slowly A housing trend that will grow rapidly 13. Why do you think Architects would want to promote green homes? 14. List the major benefits to the potential homeowners of a green home? 15. The main defense for increased costs due to green building is a life-cycle cost analysis, which brings cost perspectives to profitable or null. How valid do you believe this perspective is to the homebuilding sector of green production, because the builder absorbs upfront costs and the homeowner receives the cost savings? 16. Do you believe the additional costs if any of buildi ng a green home would be signi ficant detriment? Explain 17. Do you believe green home standard s will soon become standardized? 18. Do you believe the LEED standards IE rain barre ls truly is appropriate for building green homes? 19. How important are third party rating systems to the growth of green homes production? 20. What do you believe that each of the following three entities needs to do to promote green building? How important are they in regards to promoting the green home building industry? 21. In 250 words or less, please discuss any topic within gr een homes production you feel is relevant to its growth?
69 Questionnaire for Builders 1. How long have you been in the construction industry? 2. What do you believe the future holds for th e rate at which green homes are produced in new construction in the year 2011? 3. What do you believe are tangible differences a potential homebuyer will see if he/she decides to purchase a green home? 4. Would your answer change to the previous qu estion, if you consider how educated a potential homebuyer is in green homes before purchasing a gr een home? (Do you believe your potential client would have to have considerable knowledge of green building principles to comprehend the value and befits of buying a green home?) 5. How many homes does your company construct on average per year? 6. How would you consider Florida as a green buildin g state? How much influence do you believe Florida has on other states housing initiatives? 7. In your opinion, what are the three most important factors in the growth of green homes production and in what order? 8. What constraints do you believe green home production faces in the future? 9. As a homebuilder, how do you believe the government can influence the production of green homes? 10. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 being extremel y important, how would you rate the importance of these industry players in green home production? Real estate Agents Home Builders Developers Architects Home Buyers Public Policy Makers Green Building Consultants and third party orga nizations established to designate a home green 11. Why do you think Homebuilders would want to promote green homes? 12. List the major benefits to the potential homeowners of a green home? 13. Which do you believe best describ es green home production in Florida: A past trend which will die out A housing trend which will grow at the same rate it has grown in the last 8 years A housing trend that will grow slowly A housing trend that will grow rapidly 14. The main defense for increased costs due to green building is a life-cycle cost analysis, which brings cost perspectives to profitable or null. How valid do you believe this perspective is to the homebuilding sector of green production, because the builder absorb s upfront costs and the homeowner receives the cost savings? 15. How important are third party rating systems to the growth of green homes production? 16. As a homebuilder, how much does the home buyers education on green homes do you believe influences their decision to go with a green home? 17. What features of a green home do you believe are the most important to buyers in a green home? 18. In 250 words or less, please discuss any topic with in green homes production you f eel is relevant to its growth?
70 Questionnaire for Third Party Consultant 1. How many years have you worked in line the construction industries? 2. How are you involved with the production of green homes? 3. In considering a green home, which of the following is most important? Sustainability Water conservation Energy Conservation Return on Investment Less Environmental disturbance 4. How important are cost issues to the future of green homes? 5. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 being extremely important, how would you rate the importance of these industry players in green home production? Real estate Agents Home Builders Developers Architects Home Buyers Public Policy Makers Green Building Consultants and third party organizations established to designate a home green 6. Explain how government incentives/intervention could sw ay the future production of green homes in Florida? 7. How many years do you think would the pay pack period need to be in order for someone to build or purchase a green home? 8. How important is third party rating systems to (I .E. LEED, NAHB, ETC) the production of green homes? 9. How do you think third party rating systems fit in to green home production? 10. Which third party rating system do you believe best describes a green home? 11. Who would you say has the most influence to prospective homebuyers on purchasing a green home? realtor Builder Architect Consultant 12. In the last year, how many hours of research have you done in green homes? Which channels of information did you use? 13. If a builder, architect, or realtor offered education assistance to green homes, do you believe this would have a major effect in a consumers decision to buy/build green? 14. What are the five most important design features to a green home? 15. How relevant is information on green homes provided by the following entities to green home production: Florida Power and Light Local Government State Government The Builder The Architect The realtor
71 16. In 250 words or less, please discuss any topic within green homes production you feel is relevant to its growth? Questionnaire for Prospective Home Buyers 1. How long have you been currently in the market for a new home? 2. During your current housing search, have y ou looked into green homes built in your area? 3. Are you familiar with any of the following green home standards? LEED NAHB Green Building Standard Energy Star FGBC Green Standards 4. How important is it to you that your next home meets green standards? 5. In considering a green home, which of the following is most important? Sustainability Water conservation Energy Conservation Return on Investment Less Environmental disturbance 6. How important is cost with your decision to purchase a green home? 7. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 being extremely important, how would you rate the importance of these industry players in g reen home production? Real estate Agents Home Builders Developers Architects Home Buyers Public Policy Makers Green Building Consultants and third party organi zations established to designate a home green 8. Explain how government incentives could sway your decision into purchasing a green home? 9. In a scenario in which a green home w ould increase your cost by 5% upfront, but by year five you recoup your initial cost wo uld you still decide to go green? How many years would the pay pack peri od need to be in order for you to build a green home? 10. How important is third party rating systems to you (I.E. LE ED, NAHB, ETC) if you were going to build or purchase a green ho me? 11. Which best describes your current outl ook on making your next home a green home? I will buy a green home if it is priced the same as comparable homes I will buy a green home if it is priced within 10% of a comparable home if it contains many energy saving features and promises a payback period within my mortgage years I will buy a green home as long as it is in the location I want and I can afford it I will buy a green home no matter what it costs or where its located 12. Who would you say has the most infl uence in you purchasing a green home realtor Builder Architect Consultant 13. In the last year, how many hours of research have you done in green homes? Which channels of information did you use? 14. If your builder, architect, or realtor offered education a ssistance to green home, do you believe would have a major effect in your decision to buy/build green? 15. What are the five most important design features for you to purchase as a green home? 16. How relevant is information on green homes provided by the following entities in your decision to purchase a green home: FP L, Gov, Builder, Arch, realtor 17. In 250 words or less, please discuss any topic within gr een homes production you feel is relevant to its growth?
72 Questionnaire for Public Official 1. Are you familiar with green building? 2. Does your local government have any programs or incentives associated with green building practices? 3. Do you see green homes production playing a role in your community in the future? 4. Do you see any barriers to green resi dential construction in your community? 5. If any barriers do exist in your op inion, how may they be addressed? 6. Is there any possibility of new program or incentives for residential green building in the future? 7. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 being extremely important, how would you rate the importance of these industry players in green home production? Real estate Agents Home Builders Developers Architects Home Buyers Public Policy Makers Green Building Consultants and third party orga nizations established to designate a home green 8. How important do you believe ed ucating the public in green bu ilding practices would be in terms of fostering greater community sustainability? 9. Which do you believe best describes gr een home sales in your jurisdiction? A past trend which will die out A housing trend which will grow at the same rate it has grown in the last 8 years A housing trend that will grow slowly A housing trend that will grow rapidly 10. Why do you believe public officials would want to promote green homes? 11. How important do you believe third party rati ng systems are to production of green homes? 12. Briefly discuss any topic you be lieve is important in the futu re of green homes production?
73 Questionnaire for Realtor 1. How long have you been a realtor? 2. What do you believe the future holds fo r the rate at which green hom es will be bought in new c onstruction in the year 2014? 3. What do you believe are tangible differences a potential homebuyer will see if he/she decides to purchase a green home? 4. Would your answer change to the previous question, if you consider how educated a potential homebuyer is in green homes before purchasing a green home? (Do you be lieve your potential client would have to have c onsiderable knowledge of green building principles to comprehend the va lue and befits of buying a green home?) 5. How would you consider Florida as a green building state? Ho w much influence do you believe Florida has on other states housing initiatives? 6. How many green homes have you showed to clients, and what features did they incor porate in the design in order to inherent green principles? 7. In your opinion, what are the three most important factors in the growth of green homes production/sales and in what order? 8. What constraints do you believe gr een home sales faces in the future? 9. In 250 words or less, describe the importance of govern ment intervention/incentives on the sales of green homes? 10. Green home rating standards place a lo t of importance on water c onservation and landscaping, in your expert opinion how important are green home features found outside of a home to your clients? What do you believe ar e the most important features your homebuyers are looking for in a green home? 11. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 bei ng extremely importa nt, how would you rate the importance of these industry players in green home production? Real estate Agents Home Builders Developers Architects Home Buyers Public Policy Makers Green Building Consultants and third party orga nizations established to designate a home green 12. Which do you believe best descri bes green home sales in Florida: A past trend which will die out A housing trend which will grow at the same rate it has grown in the last 8 years A housing trend that will grow slowly A housing trend that will grow rapidly 13. Why do you think realtors woul d want to promote green homes? 14. List the major benefits to the potential homeowners of a green home? 15. As a realtor, how important would you consider the amount of knowledge your clients have on green homes to selling a green home? 16. Do you believe the additional costs if any of buildi ng a green home would be signi ficant detriment? Explain 17. Do you believe green home standard s will soon become standardized? 18. What role do you see realtors playing in the future of gree n homes? Housing sales has decreased in the last three years, wh at advantages do you believe green homes possess in the future of housing in Florida with respect to slower sales? 19. How important are third party rating systems to the growth of green homes sales in Florida? 20. What do you believe that each of the following three enti ties needs to do to promote green home sales? How important are they in regards to promoting the green home building industry? 21. Briefly discuss any topic with in green homes production you feel is relevant to its growth?
74 LIST OF REFERENCES DSIRE (2009). Florida Hom eowner Incentives fo r Renewables and Efficiency, N.C. Solar Center N.C. State Univers ity, College of Engineering, http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/index.c fm?EE=1&RE=1&SPV=0&ST=0§or=Resi dential&state=FL&sh=1 FGBC. (2008). Green Home Certification, Sc hedule A, Version 5.01 July 1, 2007-June 30, 2008. Florida Green Building Coalition, http ://www.floridagreenbuilding.org/db/ Franz, Betsy S. (2008). Understanding the Fl orida Green Building Coalition Green Home Standard, Betsy S. Franz @ www.naturesdetails.net Green Builder Media & Reed Bu siness Information. (2008, Novembe r). Green by the numbers. GreenBuilder, 38-42. Hinkle Charitable Foundation ( n.d.) How do we contribute indi vidually to global warming? Report 5 http://www.thehcf.org/emaila5.html accessed May 6, 2009 Hunt, A. (n.d.). Green Building Programs for Bu ilders of Any Size. In HGTVpro.com article search. Retrieved April 24, 2009, from http://www.hgtvpro.com Issa, R., Stroh, R. (2001) The Delphi Technique. Construction Research Methods, University of Florida Johnston, D., (2000). Building Green in a Black and White World, Home Builder Press of the National Association of Home Builders of the Unites States, Washington D.C. McGraw-Hill Construction Research & Anal ytics, (2007). Education Green Building SmartMarket Report. Available at www.cons truction.com/greensource/resources/smartmarket.asp. accessed May 6, 2009 NAHB (2008). NAHB Model Green Ho me Building Guidelines Checklist, Tri-Fold Brochure. Available at www.nahbgree n.org. Retrieved May 8, 2009 NAHB, NAHB Research Center (2008) NAHB M odel Green Home Building Guidelines, Rating System. www.nahbgreen.org/Guidelines/na hbguidelines.aspx. Accessed May 8, 2009 Oikos Green Building Source: Green Building News March 2007. March 14, 2007, Http://oikos.com/news/2007/03.html, accessed May 5, 2009 Oliver, F. (2008) Analysis of results from Professional Builders 2008 Green Building Survey. Professional Builder Magazine, www.housingzone.com Accessed online November 10, 2008. Patton, M. Q., & Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualita tive evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.
75 Robison, J. (2009, February) Pulte development with green features showing success, Las Vegas Review. Retrieved April 24, 2009, from http://www.usgbc.org/News: (In the News) Stacholy, L. (2006) Dollars and Sense Building Green Leaves More Green in Your Wallet, innovative home magazine. Retrieved Ma rch 14, 2009, from http://www.innovativehomemagazine.com/AIA/ Tomasulo, K. (2009, January) Green Building Goi ng Strong. Builder Magazine, Retrieved April 24, 2009, from http://www.builderonline.com Turner Construction (2005) 2005 Survey of Gr een Building Plus Green Building in K-12 and Higher Education. www.turnerconstructi on.com/greensurvey05.pdf., accessed May 5, 2009 Turner Construction (2008) Turner 2008 Green Building Market Barometer. www.turnerconstruction.com/greenbuildings/c ontent.asp?d=6552 accessed April 24, 2009 US Department of Energy, Energy Efficienc y, and Renewable energy. (2006) Buildings Energy Data Book. Available at http://build ingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/ accessed May 6, 2009 USGBC (2009 A) LEED for Homes. Po werPoint slides, available at http://www.greenhomeguide.org/resources/leed _for_homes_videos_and_slideshows.html USGBC (2009 B) LEED for Homes Certified Proj ects By State. Retrieved May 8, 2009, from USGBC: LEED for Homes, http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=147#2008 USGBC (2009 C) LEED for Homes Point Categorie s, The Green Home Guide.. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from http://www.greenhomeguide.org/gr een_hom e_programs/LEED_for_homes_ points.html. USGBC (2009 D) Public Policy Search, Retrieved May 14, 2009, from USGBC: Home: Resources: Government Resources: Public Policy Search, http://www.usgbc.org/ PublicPolicy/ SearchPublic Policies.aspx? PageID=1776 White, D., Martinezm J., Nguyen, D., ODell, W. (2009). The State of Floridas Housing 2008., Shimberg Center for Housing St udies, University of Florida Winter, S. (2008). Green building in North Ameri ca. A perspective from the United States Paper 4b, Green residential building in North Am erica. Montral, Qubec: Commission for Environmental Cooperation. http ://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS93187. Yudelson, J. (2008). The green building revolution. Washington: Island Press.
76 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ada m S. Picow was born in Trenton, New Jersey in 1984. He is the only son of Steven and Debra Picow. Adam has two sisters: Dana a nd Stacie Picow. Adam moved to Florida in 1996, making a home for himself in Boca Raton. He started out High School attending Spanish River High School. Adam transferred to Pope John Pa ul II where he graduated in 2003. Adam Picow attended the University of Central Florida to play basketball for the Golden Knights. Adams first two years at UCF, he joined a fraternity, Sigma Phi Epsilon and was part of two Atlantic Sun Basketball championship teams. Adam graduate d University of Central Florida in the top ten percent of his class with a degr ee in accounting. After college, he decided to pursue a masters degree from the University Floridas M.E. Ri nker School of Construction. In the summer of 2008, Adam Picow interned at Toll Brothers Inc. He assisted in project management function and was asked to research green homes for the Florida East division of Toll Brothers. Adam Picow graduated from the University of Florida with his Masters of Science in Construction Management in the summer of 2009.