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1 ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CROSS-MEDIA USAGE: A STUDY OF A TV PROGRA MS OFFICIAL WEBSITE By JHIH-SYUAN LIN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008
2 2008 Jhih-Syuan Lin
3 To my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank m y chair, Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho, for his tremendous mentorship, constant support, and important advice throughout my studies at th e University of Florida. In addition, I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Marilyn Roberts and Dr. Jorge Villega s, for their guidance. This thesis could not have materialized without their helpful and sincere comments. Moreover, I would like to acknowledge my fa mily, especially my parents, for their continued understanding and endl ess support. I thank them for always believing that I could accomplish my dream. Finally, I would like to thank all my friends a nd all my classmates in my masters program for their encouragement, help, and friendship. Th e experience of my masters program at the University of Florida would not have been so valuable and memorable without them being by my side.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................9 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................14 Enhanced TV..........................................................................................................................14 The Involvement Concept.......................................................................................................16 Program Involvement...................................................................................................... 18 Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) Fra mework.............................................................20 Motivation.......................................................................................................................21 Opportunity.................................................................................................................... ..22 Ability........................................................................................................................ ......22 Uses and Gratifications Research...........................................................................................23 Interactivity.............................................................................................................................27 Product Placement..................................................................................................................30 3 CONCEPTUALIZATION...................................................................................................... 33 Hypothesized Model...............................................................................................................33 Antecedents of Cross-Media Usage................................................................................33 Consequences of Cross-Media Usage.............................................................................36 4 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 42 The TV program, Gossip Girl, and its Official Website ..................................................... 42 Research Design..............................................................................................................44 Participants......................................................................................................................45 Measures and Instrument................................................................................................. 46 5 RESULTS...............................................................................................................................53 Subject Profile................................................................................................................ ........53 Model Testing.........................................................................................................................54
6 6 DISCUSSION.........................................................................................................................61 Summary.................................................................................................................................61 Antecedents of Cross-Media Usage........................................................................................62 Consequences of Cross-Media Usage....................................................................................63 Additional Findings............................................................................................................ ....66 7 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................... ..68 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE...............................................................................................73 B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE...............................................................................................74 C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE...............................................................................................76 LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................73 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................94
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Constructs, indicators, and key statistics of the final m odel.............................................. 51
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Hypothesized structural model.......................................................................................... 41 5-1 The hypothesized cross-media usage model...................................................................... 58 5-2 The revised cross-media usage model............................................................................... 59 5-3 The final cross-media usage model.................................................................................... 60
9 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CROSS-MEDIA USAGE: A STUDY OF A TV PROGRA MS OFFICIAL WEBSITE By Jhih-Syuan Lin August 2008 Chair: Chang-Hoan Cho Major: Advertising Marketers have now embraced online channels as a core device of their marketing communication mix in response to the growing av ailability of broadband Internet access. Along with the online marketing trend, TV Websites ha ve become a vital companion to TV networks. Also, TV Websites provide valu able opportunities for marketing applications in the form of interactivity. In light of the im portance of TV Websites to TV ne tworks and marketers, this study explores the causal relationships among and within the antecedents and consequences of TV viewers cross-media usage (the use of a TV pr ogram and its official Website). The antecedent factors are program involvement, motivation and ability to process Website information, and frequency and duration of the Website patronage The consequences factors include Website loyalty, the use of a sponsors interactive online product placemen t, attitude toward the sponsor, and purchase intention. A total of 250 respondents participated in the current study. The findings of this study conclude that program involvement has a positiv e effect on TV viewers motivation to process information on the TV programs official Website (H1). Also, motivation ha s direct relationships with frequency and duration of the Website pa tronage (H2 and H3, respectively). However, program involvement does not show a positive in fluence on TV viewers ability to process
10 content on the TV programs official Website (H4), and the ability to process Website information construct does not have a negative and significant effect on duration of Website visits (H5). Moreover, a positive effect of motiv ation on ability to process Website information emerged in the mechanism. The first consequenc e of cross-media usage, Website loyalty, was confirmed to be influenced by both frequency and duration of Website visits (H6 and H7, respectively). It has a direct a nd positive influence on the use of the sponsors interactive online product placement (H8) and, in tur n, changes the TV viewers att itude toward the sponsor (H9) after exposed to those brand-related enhanced TV features. In the end, the results revealed that positive attitudes toward the sponsor can subseque ntly affect TV viewers purchase intentions (H10). In conclusion, the cross-media usage m odel developed in the present study could be viewed as the groundwork to explai n TV viewers behavior before and after they patronize a TV programs official Website. Implications of th ese findings and directions for refinement and future research are discussed.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A W ebsite is considered the most important form of interactive advertising (Sicilia, Ruiz, & Munuera, 2005). With a higher level of interactiv ity, the Internet repres ents the future of marketing communications (Ghose, & Dou, 1998) and is appreciated for its potential to provide in-depth information, in addition to creating virtual product experiences (Klein, 2003); the World Wide Web is the most recent and popular addition to the new media repertoire, which fascinates both business and consumers because of its enormous potential for interaction (Wu, 2005, p. 46). Since consumers are spending more time on the Internet than on any other marketing channel, some marketers have now embraced online channels as a core device of their marketing communication mix (Edelman, 2007). Along with this online marketing trend, TV networks have established their presence on the Internet to increa se cross-media usage, specific to the use of TV and the Internet, among their targ et audiences. It was a great fe ar among TV networks that the fast-growing Internet use would siphon off TV viewers, especi ally the young audiences (Phipps, 2000; Downey, 2007). However, Downey (2007) revealed that TV viewers use of the Internet is not at the expense of their TV viewing. In addition, about 48 percent of 13 to 24-year-old Internet users visit a TV Webs ite at least once a week. Based on the fact, TV Websites have become a vital companion to TV networks. TV networks can pull in viewers by providing services not available on the TV. After the viewers Website visits they are armed with a better understanding of the TV program and are then pushed to watch the TV program on the TV set (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004). Thus, TV networks ha ve to take the TV viewers cross-media usage in mind and manage viewership across TV and the Internet in the age of media fragmentation.
12 As the convergence of TV and the Internet, TV Websites are expected to provide a new environment of hybrid media content, including e-commerce, information, online games, music, advertising, etc. (Arlen, 2000; Ha and Chan-O lmsted, 2004). TV Websites are designed to market on-air programs (Kershbaumer, 2000; Chan-Olmsted, 2000), develop viewership, and fulfill communication needs of TV fans (Ha, 2002; Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2001; 2004). In this sense, enhanced TV is a term used to indicate t he use of Internet features to improve (enhance) the viewing experience (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004, p.620). It is the TV programmers belief that enhan ced TV features can help build loyalty among viewers, increase retention, a nd attract new subscribers (Fahey, 2000; Griffin, 1996) through the interaction between viewers and TV networks on the Internet. From the marketers point of view, TV Websites provide valuable opportunities fo r marketing applications in the form of interactivity. Cultivation of the subculture of deeply passionate fans (fandom) (Ha, 2002; Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2002), increasing onl ine broadband video use (Nielsen, 2007), and combining ecommerce with the influence of celebrity cultur e (Olijnyz, 2007) are im portant insights for marketers to develop engaging interactive communicat ion on TV Websites. Besides basic Internet advertising instrument s, product placement has extended its territory onto TV Websites such as CWTV.com. In academic research, scholars have studied the branding effects of enhanced TV among viewers, ranging from Website visit experien ce (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2001) and loyalty toward TV networks (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004) to th e viewers interests in e-commerce on TV Websites (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2002). Ha and Chan -Olmsted (2004) stated that enhanced TV features are significant predictors for branding and marketing TV netw orks on TV Websites; however, these features are stil l underutilized and many viewers have not visited a TV Website.
13 In light of the importance of TV Websites to TV networks an d marketers, this study aims to explore the causal relationships among and with in the antecedents and consequences of TV viewers cross-media usage. More specifically, c onsumer behavior in th e situation of TV and Internet convergence is emphasized throughout th e present study. To gain a better understanding of TV viewers cross-media usage, the current study will underline the involvement effect on Website patronage. Two other antecedent factor s, motivation and ability to process Website information, will be discussed using the Intern et uses and gratifications theory and the motivation-opportunity-ability (MOA) framework, respectively. Frequency and duration of the Website visits will also be discussed. In addi tion, several consequences of cross-media usage will be examined, such as Website loyalty, th e use of a sponsors interactive online product placement, attitude toward the sponsor, and purchase intention. To contribute to existing research in the TV industry and interactive advertising field, the current context develops a structural equation model that is base d on previous research and is expected to integrate several previously unspe cified and unrelated research streams. Once a structural equation model of TV viewers cross-media usage is developed, this research will be able to explain why TV viewer s visit TV programs official Websites after watching TV programs, how they perceive the Websites, thei r use of a sponsors in teractive online product placement, their attitude toward the brand pla ced on the Website, and their purchase intentions.
14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Enhanced TV Enhanced TV refers to the use of Internet features for enhancing the viewing experience of TV viewe rs (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2002, p.237) There are four types of enhanced TV features (Hurst, 2000): (1) fan-ba sed features, (2) game-based f eatures, (3) information-based features, and (4) programming-based features. Fan-based features focus on satisfying viewers desires to get closer to the stars of the show, such as cast in formation, while game-based features are aimed at simulating the fun and excitement of a particular game. Information-based features are used to meet viewers needs for extended content. This could include, for instance, the information that supplements news, weather, an d sports. Programming-based features deliver customized programs through personalized chan nel selections (e.g., TV schedule, video-ondemand, etc.). Ha and Chan-Olmsted (2001) have been pione ers in enhanced TV research areas. They initiated a study using a rigorous Solomons four group experiment to examine the impact of enhanced TV features on TV viewers loyalty to ward the TV networks an d their interest in TV commerce. They found that the s ubjects interest and experience in TV commerce were generally low and did not differ among subjec ts with different levels of awareness of enhanced TV features. Later in 2002, Ha developed th ree enhanced TV strategy mo dels after conducting both quantitative and qualitative anal yses on TV Websites: (1) The welcome all model, which offers features to both viewers and non-viewers to promote the existing TV networks programs; (2) The fans-friendly (in-depth) model, which is a kind of Website de signed to please loyal viewers with sophisticated enhanced TV functions aimed at converting current viewers to fans;
15 and (3) The hello model, which assumes that visitors have no prior knowledge about the TV program. The hello model is utilized to extend th e reach of the TV network as well as to attract visitors to become viewers of the TV networks programs (Ha, 2002, p.243-244). Of these three, the fans-friendly model is known as being the mo st interactive; however, the usability is not high due to some requests for special software installation and broadband access. Has (2002) models are implied to explain th e importance of target audience segmentation and the selection of strategic enhanced TV functions. Moreover, Ha and Chan-Olmsted (2004) conduct ed a national study of Internet users use of enhanced TV features on cable TV Websites to discover the dynamics of cross-media usage in electronic media. They also unde rlined the role of cable TV Websites in cable TV network branding and viewership. The researchers conclude d that younger Internet users seem to use TV Websites more often than older Internet users. Additionally, the enhanced TV features are currently underutilized, and many TV viewers have not gone onto the cable network Websites. However, the increasing numbers of the usage of enhanced TV features can positively predict viewer loyalty, subscriber loyalty, and potential new subscribers for cab le networks. Ha and Chan-Olmsted (2004) also pointed out that cable networks need to increase their efforts in promoting their Websites as well as informing the viewers about enhanced TV features available on the cable network Websites. Overall, most of the research in the enha nced TV field has focused on the managerial implications for the TV industry, including TV vi ewers experience of TV Website patronage, TV networks branding and viewership through TV Websites, and viewers interest in TV commerce. There has been an abundance of research integrating the antecedents and consequences of TV viewers cross-media usage into one model in addition to examining
16 marketers efforts on employing enhanced TV feat ures as a vehicle for online product placement. Therefore, this study is designed to provide valuable insights on how TV viewers process the TV Website information, their loyalty toward TV Webs ites, their use of brand-related enhanced TV features, and their brand attitude s as well as purchase in tentions. To do this, the present research utilizes and applies extant literature on involvement, motiv ation-opportunity-ability (MOA) framework, uses and gratifications, interactivity, and product placement. The Involvement Concept Involvem ent is an internal st ate of arousal that consists of intensity, direction, and persistence properties (Bettman, 1979; Mitche ll, 1979; 1981; Shimp, 1982; Andrews, 1988). The intensity of involvement is the degree of arous al that can engage consumers in specific goalrelated behaviors (Mitchell, 1979; Andrews, Durvasula, & A khter, 1990). The direction here means the target (e.g., the advertised brand or an element of the advertisement) of the involvement intensity level (Mitchell, 1981; A ndrews, Durvasula, & Akhter, 1990), while the involvement persistence indicate s the duration of the intensity (Andrews, Durvasula, & Akhter, 1990). These three major involvement properties are grounded in motivation (Andrews, Durvasula, & Akhter, 1990), which can drive individuals from an in itial state to a desired state (Bettman, 1979). The essential attribute of involvement is reve aled as the perceived personal relevance of the target object based on the consumers n eeds, goals, and values (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981; Zaichkowsky, 1985; Celsi & Olson, 1988; Griffith, Krampf, & Palm er, 2001; Park, Lee, & Han, 2007). Thus, a consumers level of involvement is determined by the degree of personal relevance. Celsi and Olson (1988) suggested that the concept of pe rsonal relevance is personally relevant to the extent that consum ers perceive it to be self-related or in some way instrumental in achieving their personal goals and values (p.211). They further stated that when personally
17 relevant knowledge is activated in memory in a particular situation, a motivational state (felt involvement) is created (Celsi & Olson, 1988). The concept of felt involvement refers to consumers psychological experience when he/s he is motivated (Celsi & Olson, 1988). It is similar to Rothschild and Houstons (1977) response involvement. Rothschild and Houston (1977) have distingu ished three distinct types of involvement: situational involvement (SI), e nduring involvement (EI), and response involvement (RI). Situational involvement refers to the conditi ons in which a stimulus is received, whereas enduring involvement is identified as the intrin sic characteristics of the recipient. Response involvement is defined as the complexity or extensiveness of cognitive and behavioral processes characterizing the overall consumer decision process (p.5). Rothschild and Houston (1977) conceived the idea that situational involvement and e nduring involvement combine to influence response involvement. This concept has been widely accepted in the literature (e.g., Bloch & Richins, 1983; Celsi & Olson, 1988). Andrews, Durvasula, and Akht er (1990) have labeled four major research streams of involvement: (1) attention/pro cessing strategies, (2) persona l/situational involvement, (3) audience/process involvement, and (4 ) enduring/product involvement (p.30). Attention/processing strategies have contributed to the examination of the state of involvement. Studies included under this field have conceptuali zed involvement relating to attention levels and the direction of processing (e.g., Gardner, Mitchell, & Russo, 1978; Mitchell, 1979; 1981; Andrew, 1988). Mitchell (1981) stated that attention and processing are two critical stages of the information acquisition process that are affect ed by the level and dire ction of involvement. Thus, involvement is defined as an individual level, internal state variable that indicates the
18 amount of arousal, interest or drive evoked by a particular stimulus or situation (Mitchell, 1979, p.194). The personal/situational involvement field represents the manipulation and/or measurement of the antecedents of involvement, which includes involvement definitions based on the idea that people are likely to become pe rsonally involved with an issue when they expect it to have significant consequences for their own lives (Apsler & Sears, 1968, p.162). Extending from this point of view, Petty and Cacioppo ( 1981) employed personal relevance manipulations and elicited different subsequent persuasion strategies for low and high involvement conditions. Moreover, the audience/process involvement is defined as the allo cation of attentional capacity to a message source, as needed to analy ze the message at one of a series of increasingly abstract representation levels (Greenwald & Leavitt, 1984, p.591). Here, the increasingly abstract representation levels i ndicate various involvement leve ls. The explanation offered is that low-involvement levels re quire less capacity while high-involvement levels need greater capacity. This notion has advanced the knowledge of the consequences of involvement. Finally, the enduring/product invo lvement research stream is the integration of enduring involvement and product involveme nt due to the fact that the preexisting experience and knowledge-structure terminology are found in both c onceptualizations. In th is field, individuals are expected to have relatively st able and enduring involvement levels with a particular stimulus (Andrews, Durvasula, & Akhter, 1990). Therefor e, Andrews, Durvasula, and Akhter (1990) concluded that this conceptualiz ation differs from other involvem ent definitions by viewing the enduring/product involvement as situationally -specific or transitory in nature. Program Involvement Program involvement has been defined and conc eptualized differently in previous studies (Moorman, Neijens, & Smit, 2007); some examples include viewer drive for closure (Kennedy,
19 1971), suspense (Bryant & Comisky, 1978), prior arousal (Mattes & Cantor, 1982), emotional reaction (Pavelchak, Antil, & Munch, 1988), a nd distraction (Mundorf, Zillmann, & Drew, 1991; Anand & Sternthal, 1992). Program involvement is often applied to ex amine the influence on commercial effectiveness (Singh & Churchil l, 1987; Schumann & Thorson, 1990) and has produced mixed results (Moorman, Neijens, & Smit, 2007). Scholars in the negative school stated that to present a commercial during an involving program will diminish its recall due to limited information-processing capacity (Kennedy, 1971; Bryant & Comisky, 1978; Feltham & Arnold, 1994; Newell, Henderson, & Wu, 2001). Soldow and Principe (1981), for example, found that presenting a commercia l in a less involving program appears to be a better a pproach to achieve brand and sale s-message recall, obtain more favorable attitude toward the commercial, a nd generate greater purchase intention. Their reasoning for this finding concer ned the point that when viewer s become more involved in a program, they seem to become less attentive to and receptive to commercials inserted in the program. Conversely, some scholars have noted a posit ive relation between program involvement and advertising effectiveness (e.g., Lloyd & Clan cy, 1991; Lord & Putrevu, 1996). This point of view maintains that when viewers are engage d in a program, they would demonstrate more favorable responses to commer cials carried by the program. Kr ugman (1983) suggested that when an involving program is interrupted by an interesting commerci al, the momentum of arousal does carry over. Thus, program involvement has a carryove r effect on commercials, since arousal can result in better information-processing. Besides these two research streams, there are some researchers who consider that an inverted-U relationship is the better way to understand the effect of program involvement on ad
20 recall (Tavassoli, Shultz II, & Fitzsimons, 1995). Based on the Yerkes-Dodson Law (1908), this research stream proposes that arousal has a posit ive effect on performance, but only from resting levels up to moderate levels of arousal (Tava ssoli, Shultz II, & Fitzsimons, 1995). When levels of arousal become too high, a decrease occurs in performance. In other words, although program involvement has a positive effect on processing co mmercials, the amount of attention given to interpret the program will distract viewers fr om processing commercials when the level of involvement increases to too high (Moorman, Neijens, & Smit, 2007). Therefore, program involvement can both increase and decrease the advertis ing effectiveness, depending on the level of involvement. Based on previous research findings, the auth or proposes that program involvement will have a positive effect on TV viewers informa tion acquisition process in the existing research design. Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) Framework In consum er literature, the motivation-opportu nity-ability (MOA) model has been applied extensively in an effort to e xplain the insights of how consumers process information (e.g. Batra & Ray, 1986; MacInnis & Jaworki, 1989; M acInnis, Moorman, & Jaworski, 1991; Thorbjrnsen & Supphellen, 2004). This model argues that consumers will only process information from a stimulus when they possess the motivation, opport unity, and ability to do so. As a result, the degree of information processing is conceived as influencing a consumers attitude (Clark, Abela & Ambler, 2005). Petty and Caci oppo (1981) stated in the olde r elaboration likelihood model (ELM) that motivation and ability are two of the determinants of the route to persuasion. When a persuasion message is used to induce attitude ch ange via the central route, recipients need to have the necessary motivation to think about issu e-relevant information a nd have the ability to
21 process the message. On the contra ry, a recipients attitude cha nge is not based on the careful consideration of issue-relevant argumentation when under the peripheral route (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984). The following section reviews th e concepts of motiv ation, opportunity, and ability proposed in pr evious studies. Motivation Motivation indicates a consum ers desire or readiness to process external stimuli (MacInnis, Moorman, & Jaworski, 1991). Accordi ng to Hoyer and MacInnis (2007), motivation is affected by the extent to which a stimulus is personally relevant to consumers. Consumers view something as important and personally relevant when it is: (1) consiste nt with their values, goals, and needs; (2) perceived risky; and/or (3) moderately inconsistent with previously acquired knowledge or attitudes (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2007). In Ba ytons (1958) study, motivation is the drives, urges, wishes, or desires which initiate the sequence of event known as behavior (p.282). Later in 1985, Park and Mittal defined motivation as goal-directed arousal due to the fact that motivation does not always end in action. Therefore, goal-relevant behavior is one outcome of motivati on (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2007, p.49). When motivation is high, consumers are more willing to do things that make it more likely they will achieve goals. Motivation also affects consumers information processing and decision making (MacInnis & Jaworski, 1989; G oodstein, 1993). When consumers are highly motivated, they devote more effort to thinki ng, comprehending and evaluating the information, and try to remember it for late r use. Mitchell (1981) proposed in his model that motivation influences two dimensions of pr ocessing: direction of attention and intensity of processing. The final outcome of motivation is involvement, the psychological state in consumers (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2007). The term felt involvement is therefore used to desc ribe the psychological experience of a motivated cons umer (Celsi & Olson, 1988).
22 Opportunity MacInnis, Moorm an, and Jawors ki (1991) defined opportunity as the extent to which distractions or limited exposure ti me affect consumers attention (p.34). With higher levels of opportunity, consumers can allocate more attention to the stimulus. In previous studies, barriers to opportunity are mostly identified as dist ractions, limited exposure time, and information overload (Festinger & Maccoby, 1964; Osterhous e & Brock, 1970; Wright, 1980; Batra & Ray 1986; MacInnis, Moorman, & Jaworski, 1991). Take Hoyer and MacInnis (2007) research for example; they listed several factors that impe de consumers to take an action. First, they discussed how time can affect consumers opport unity to make decisions, process information, and perform certain behaviors. Consumers may consume more during a specific season, engage in limited information processing when under time pr essure to make decisi ons, or be exposed to an incomprehensible ad due to lack of exposure time, etc. Second, distraction implies any kind of situation that diverts consumers attenti on. For instance, backgr ound music or attractive commercial models can distract consumers from an advertised message. The third factor is the amount of presented information. Consumers need real and enough information to help them make a purchase decision. The repetition of info rmation is another factor that needs to be considered. If consumers are exposed to a messa ge repeatedly, they can easily process the message because they have more chance to th ink about and remember it. Finally, the more consumers can control the flow of information (e.g., what message is presented, for how long, and in what order), the better they can re member and learn from the information. Ability Ability is de fined as consumers skill or proficiency in interpreting information (MacInnis & Jaworski, 1989, p.7). The availability and accessibility of relevant information account for the foundation of processing ability (MacInnis, Moorman, & Jaworski, 1991). Thus,
23 if consumers ability to process information is high, they may engage in active decision making. According to Hoyer and MacInnis (2007), prior knowledge and experience, cognitive style, complexity of information, intelligence, educati on, age, and money are all factors that affect consumers abilities to process information and make decisions. One explanation is that knowledgeable consumers are able to think more deeply about information than consumers who are equally motivated but with less knowledge a bout information. That is, high ability occurs when necessary knowledge and/or prior experience for comprehending information is present and is accessed. In addition, consumers can also va ry greatly in cognitive style, which refers to their preference for how information should be presented. Some consumers prefer to process information visually, while other are adept at processing information verbally (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2007). The complexity of informati on to which consumers are exposed can also influence the ability to process information. Hoyer and MacInnis (2007) noted that when information becomes more complex, consumers ability to process information decreases. Moreover, consumers who are more intelligent and educated are expected to better process more complex information and make decisions. Age ha s also been related to the differences in processing ability, whereas the lack of money can impede consumers motivation to engage in buying behavior. Since the MOA model has been widely used in previous research, a nd it offers valuable insights into how consumers information processing levels differ in response to motivation, opportunity, and ability levels, it is important to include the MOA model in the present study when trying to understand the information processing levels. Uses and Gratifications Research The uses and gratifications theory appear s to be ideally suited for studying the psychological and behavioral tendencies in a ssociation with audience m edia use (Lin, 1996;
24 Severin & Tankard, 1997; Lin, 1999; Korga onkar & Wolin, 1999). From the uses and gratifications perspectiv e, it is assumed that media users ar e goal-directed and actively involved in media usage (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 197 4a). People actively sele ct certain media and media content in order to satisfy various soci al and psychological needs (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974a; McLeod & Becker, 1981; Palm green, 1984). These needs usually take the form of (1) strengthening or weakening, (2) a connection-cognitive, affective, integrative (3) with some referent self, friends, family and tradition, social and political institutions, others (Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas, 1973, p.179). McQuail, Blumler, and Brown (1972) disclosed four functions of audience gratification: (1) diversion happens when a media text provides an escape from reality and emotional release; (2) personal relationships means the audience creates personal relationships with the characters in media content, including subs titute companionship and socia l utility (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974b, p.513); (3) personal identity (or individual psychology ) refers to personal reference, reality exploration, and value reinforcement; and (4) surveillance indicates that the audience has obtained an understanding of th e world by consuming a media text. Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas (1973) found em pirical regularities in an indi viduals preference for using different media that is associat ed with the specific functions involved. Different mediums seem to offer a unique combination of attributes the characteristic content and social and physical contexts ; thus, it is also a scholars interest to und erstand what attributes may render a medium more or less likely to satisfy different needs (Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas 1973). Later in 1974(b), Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch concluded seven logical steps indicati ng what the previous investigations of audience uses and gratifications were conc erned with: (1) the social and psychological origins of (2) needs, which genera te (3) expectations of (4) the mass media or
25 other sources, which lead to (5) differential patt erns of media exposure (o r engagement in other activities), resulting in (6) need gratifications and (7) other conse quences, perhaps mostly unintended ones (p. 510). Internet Uses and Gratifications Stemm ing from the tradition of uses and gratifications resear ch, this theoretical approach has been employed to study computer-mediate d communication, such as Internet usage motivations (e.g. Morris & Ogan, 1996; Lin, 1999; Kprgaonkar & Wolin, 1999; Papacharissi & Rubin, 2000; Stafford, Stafford, & Schkade, 2004; Song, LaRose, Eastin, & Lin, 2004; Ko, Cho, & Roberts, 2005). The Internet requires a relativel y higher level of inter activity than traditional media and has evolved from mass media attributes to an endless feast of niches and specialties (Ha & James, 1998, p. 2). Therefore, the Internet users can actively seek out information to fill their needs, and the usage is also recognized as goal directed (Lin & Jeffres, 1998). Miller (1996) noted that user s online activities are motivated by seeking gratifications through interaction, escape, entertainment, and su rveillance. Eighmey and Mccord (1998) stated that one primary use of computer-mediate d communication involves entertainment and exploration. Their findings consiste ntly revealed that entertainm ent value, personal relevance, and information involvement are strong motivational factors and are more likely to be related to the use of the World Wide Web. Also, clarity of purpose, contr oversy, and credibility are found to be consistent with previous research. Moreover, personal involvement and continuing communication are two new factors f ound in their research; the former indicates the capacity of a Website to make visitors feel welcome, and th e latter centers on the amount of time visitors would like to spend on a Website and/or their revisit at a later time. Eighmeys (1997) field application supported Eighmey and Mccords (1998) research, by outlining the following statements: (1) Website users are assisted by information placed in an enjoyable context; (2)
26 Website users are assisted by organizational ideas that make sense in terms of the strategic purpose of the Website; (3) Website visitors are assisted by efficiently executed designs (p.65). Both these two studies agree that infor mation becomes a relationship in Web-based communication (Eighmey, 1997, p.66). Korgaonkar and Wolin (1999) categ orized the Internet users motivations and concerns into seven types of gratification factors: (1) social escapism motivati on, (2) transaction-based security and privacy concerns (i ncluding the reluctance of computer banking, the security fears of online purchasing, etc.), (3) information motivation, (4) inte ractive control motivation, (5) socialization motivation, (6) nontransactional privacy concerns (rela ting to privacy in general), and (7) economic motivation (or shopping and buying motivations). They suggested that consumers use the Internet for many reasons other than information retrieval. Papacharissi and Rubin (2000) developed fi ve primary motives for Internet usage: interpersonal utility, pastime, information seeking, convenience, and entertainment. The authors found the distinctions between inst rumental and ritualized Internet usage, and they highlighted the potential of the Internet as an alternative to face-to-face interaction. Based on Papacharissi and Rubins (2000) scale, four motivational dimensions (information, convenience, entertainment and social interaction) were us ed in Ko, Cho, and Robe rts (2005) study. They utilized structural equation modelin g to clarify major constructs in motivations for Internet usage and further confirmed the effects on other constr ucts in interactive advertising context. Recently, Stafford, Stafford, and Schkade ( 2004) assessed Internet-specific content and process gratifications, the messages carried by a Website, and the actual use of a Website (Culter & Danowski, 1980), respectively. Some Website users may be motivated by the need for specific information on a site, while other users may be motivated by the pleasurable experience of the
27 Web surfing (Stafford, Stafford, & Schkade, 2004). Th ey also revealed that Internet users site choices are more motivated by content consideration than by recreati onal browsing (p. 267). More importantly, recognition of the fact that th e Internet is a social environment facilitating interpersonal communication and activities, St afford, Stafford, and Schkade (2004) newly identified the Internet social grat ification as an important construct in the mode l of Internet use. As seen above, the application of uses and gratifications for Internet use has been acknowledged as an effective way to examine users experience asso ciated with Internet usage in cumulative research evidence. Therefore, it is proposed as an importa nt construct to help discover the insights of consumers cross-media usage. Interactivity Interactivity has been proposed as genera ting great benefits for both m arketers and consumers (Chen, Griffith, & She n, 2005). It can be a useful tool for creating brand identity (Upshaw, 1995), facilitating onlin e relationship marketing (Cun eo, 1995), converting consumers who are interested in becoming more inter active (Berthon, Pitt, & Watson, 1996), and having greater control over information-seek ing process (Hoffman & Novak, 1996). Interactivity has been defined in the literatu re in various ways. Scholars have studied it from different perspectives, ranging from co mmunication to instructi onal technology to humancomputer interaction to marketing (Wu, 2006) For example, Hoffman and Novak (1996) considered interactivity as a medium feature, while Refaeli and Sudweeks (1997) defined interactivity from a communication perspec tive. Blattberg and De ighton (1991) defined interactivity as individuals and organizations communicating direc tly with one another regardless of distance or time. In marketing, Ghose a nd Dou (1998) presented a list of 23 forms of interactivity tools, which offers a good f it when studying content of Web sites.
28 McMillan and Hwang (2002) used individual per ceptions to categorize definitions into (a) process, (b) feature, (c) percep tion, and (d) a combination of process, feature, and/or perception. Along these definitions, Steuer (1992) defined inte ractivity as the extent to which users can participate in modifying the form and content of a mediated environment in real time (p.84), which appears to be the mo st often cited definition. Wu (2006) revealed the dichotomy of inte ractivity research streams in previous interactivity studies. Some examples incl ude Rafaelis (1988) obj ective and subjective interactivity, Williams, Rice and Rogers (1998) ac tual and perceived interactivity, McMillans (2000) feature-based and percep tion-based interactivity, as well as Liu and Shrums (2002) structural and experiential interactivity. Similarly, objective / actual/feature-based interactivity focuses on the features or capabilities of media to increase the potential for interaction in general, whereas subjective/perceived/per ception-based interactivity is a psychological state experienced by users during the interaction process (Unz & Hesse, 1999; Sundar, Kalyanaraman, & Brown, 2003; Wu, 2005; Chen, Griffith, & Shen, 2005; Sundar, & Kim, 2005). It was also found that perceived interactivity plays a mediating role in the effect of actual in teractivity on attitude toward a Web site (Wu, 2005). When conducting interactivityrelated research, researchers often delineate a set of dimensions to cluster web-based functions. Steuer (1992) stated three factors of interactivity: (1) speed of interaction (or response time ); (2) the range of interactivity which refers to the amount of change that can be effected on the mediated environment; (3) mapping which refers to the way in which human actions are connected to actions within a mediated environment (p.85-86). Moreover, Ha and James (1998) men tioned five dimensions of inte ractivity to fulfill different communication needs: (1) playfulness, (2) choice (3) connectedness, (4) information collection,
29 and (5) reciprocal communicati on. In addition, Wu (2000) pres ented three dimensions of perceived interactivity: ( 1) perceived control over the (a) site navigation; (b) the pace or rhythm of the interaction; (c) th e content being accessed, ( 2) perceived responsivene ss from (a) the siteowner; (b) from the navigation cues and si gns; (c) from the persons online, and ( 3) perceived personalization of the site with re g ard to (a) acting as if it were a person; (b) acting as if it wants to know the site visitor; and (c ) acting as if it understands the site visi tor. McMillan and Hwang (2002) found that direction of co mmunication, user control and time appear frequently in previous studies in terms of elements of in teractivity (McMillan & Hwang, 2002). They further concluded three dimensions of perceived interactivity : real-time conversation, loading speed, and ability to engage the consumer. Furthermore, Cho and Cheon (2005) asserted th at the most frequently used dimensions appear to be human-message interaction and human-human in teraction. Human-message means that users can select, search, edit or even revise the messages by interacting with them. There are three aspects that address human-human and hu man-message interaction in the context of marketing: (a) consumer-message interactivity; (b) consumer-marketer interactivity; and (c) consumer-consumer interactivity. Consumer-me ssage interactivity occurs when consumers actively interact with online marketing communication me ssages by editing, manipulating, and searching for information. Consumer-marketer inte ractivity is the most researched field that focuses on two-way interaction betw een sender/sources/marketers and receivers/audiences/consumers. Since consumers can also interact with other users/consumers on the Internet, consumer-consumer interactivity is therefore an important aspect that includes a variety of user-oriented intera ctive functions (Cho & Cheon, 2005).
30 As shown in prior studies, interactivity is an essential construct in the study of the Internet and new media that facilitates a nd improves communications. It is a crucial concept that leads to better differentiation and higher involvement (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2001). Applied to the present mechanism, the use of interactivity and its applications are considered to be critical factors of effective Internet branding. Product Placement New technology developm ent, such as the dig ital video recorder, ha s made it easier for consumers to avoid advertising messages in the traditional media arena. As a result, product placement is one of the widely used alternatives in response to consumers avoidance of traditional advertising. Balasubramanian (1994) de fined product placement as a paid product message aimed at influencing movie (or televisi on) audiences via the planned and unobtrusive entry of a branded product into a movie (or television program) (p.31). It is the inclusion of brand relevant identifiers in any form of media in return fo r payment from advertisers (Baker & Crawford, 1995; Karrh, 1998; Morton & Friedman, 2002; McCarty, 2004). Product placement has been examined differen tly in prior marketing research, including content analysis of its presence in media (e.g. Diener, 1993; Sapols ky & Kinney, 1994), surveys among practitioners (e.g. Pardun & McKee, 1996), qual itative research of its meaning to viewers (e.g. DeLorme, Reid, & Zimmer, 1994), studies of viewers knowledge and inferences (Balasubramanian, 1991), and experimental tests on viewers memory, atti tude change, and/or purchase intention (e.g. Gupta & Lord, 1998; G upta, Balasubramanian, & Klassen, 2000). As a strategic marketing tool, product placemen t began to receive greater attention from marketers and producers after Reeses Pieces successful placement in the feature film E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial. Hershey claimed a 65 percent increase in sales of Reeses Pieces after the release of the film (Karrh, 1998) Since then, increasing product placements have been found
31 across different forms of media, such as novels plays, songs, television programs, movies, and online games (Karrh, 1998; Gould & Gupta, 2006; Ferle & Edwards, 2006; Lee & Faber, 2007). Reasons that addressed the growth of product placement were discusse d in Karrhs (1998) review. First, advertisers have th e desire to utilize the special ch aracteristics of the medium that chose to place brands. For example, movies a nd popular TV shows are av ailable for viewers via syndication and the video rental market for deca des. These programs also have a global reach that is appealing to marketers. In terms of the strong persuasive power, movies can affect viewers social judgments, esp ecially those judgment s made right after their exposure to a movie. Audiences can have power ful responses to a movie, and those affective responses may transfer to any brand(s) incl uded in the film (Karrh, 1998). A nother reason in respect to the prevalence of product placement is the opportunity for implied endorsement from celebrities (Karrh, 1998). As a paid promotion device, pr oduct placement is a more subtle celebrity endorsement. It is conceivable that audiences ar e willing to buy products used by stars on-screen (J. Walter Thompson USA, 1989). DeLorme, Reid, and Zimmer (1994) uncovered three themes of moviegoers interpretations of brands encountered in movies: (1) appreciating realism or brand props that are associated with viewers interpretations of real life or of the objective world; (2) noticing the familiar, or brand props that are asso ciated with viewers past e xperiences and/or knowledge; and (3) relating to characters or brand props that viewers consider implicit endorsement by characters through visual and/or verbal associ ations, depictions, and portrayals (DeLorme & Reid, 1999, p.88). Later, in 1999, DeLorme and Reid extended above movie-specific experiences to four consumption-specific si tuations of everyday life: (1) t ools for purchasing decisions, (2) tools for identity and aspirations, (3) change and discomfort, and (4) belonging and security
32 (p.80). These findings provided important insight s for marketers about the role of product placement in the marketing communication mix. Product placement has a greater impact on audience than is ty pically found with comparable advertising exposures (Karrh, McK ee, a& Pardun, 2003). With a greater reach than traditional advertising, product placement offers marketers a way to show consumers the brand in natural settings (Nelson, 2002). Additionally, cons umers are less likely to be skeptical about brand message (Obermiller, Spangenberg, & MacLachlam, 2005), less likely to activate the knowledge of persuasion strategies (Friestad & Wright, 1994), and can consciously attend to the brand-related content (Lee & Febe r, 2007) when compared to trad itional advertising. Due to the presence of product placement on the Internet, the effectiveness of product placement will be examined in the current study.
33 CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUALIZATION Hypothesized Model Extending from previous theories, this study proposes a hypothesized theoretical model that incorporates several variables of anteced ents and consequences of cross-media usage. Constructs in this model are used to de monstrate the relationship between program involvement, motivation and ability of pro cessing Website information, frequency and duration of Website visits, Website loyalty, th e use of a sponsors in teractive online product placement, attitude toward the sponsor, and purchase intention (see Figure 3-1). Antecedents of Cross-Media Usage There is a widespread agreem ent that leve ls of program involvement can lead to different levels of arousal (Mitchell, 1979; Singh & Churchill, 1987; Pavelchak, Antil, & Munch, 1988; Andrews, Durvasula, & Akhter, 1990). Although a variety of definitions can explain the concept of invol vement (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981; Moorman, Neijens, & Smit, 2007), only two levels of program involvement (low/high) are frequently contrasted in previous studies (Tavassoli, Shultz II, & Fitzsimons, 1995). Petty and Cacioppo (1981) asserted that in high involvement situations, the persuasive message under consideration has a high degree of personal releva nce to the recipient, whereas in low involvement situation, the personal relevance of the me ssage is rather trivial (p.20). In the present study, program involvement is defined as an active, motivated state signifying interest and arousal induced by a television program (Moorman, Neijens, & Smit, 2007, p.127). Viewers with higher involvement are expected to pay more attention to the TV program and decide to watch the program inst ead of being exposed to other stimuli. In addition, they are more willing to process in formation from the TV program than other viewers. Therefore, these viewers are more likel y to be heavy viewers of the program and to be considered as TV fans (Fiske, 1992; Ha, 2002; Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004).
34 The consensus among scholars shows that the us es and gratifications approach has been quite fruitful in understanding us ers motivations and concerns when it comes to using the Internet. Based on the consumer-level point of view (Stafford, Stafford, & Schkade, 2004), the core concept of uses and gratifications research is audien ce activity; motivations are key components of audience activity (Rubin, 1993). W ith this in mind, Ko, Cho, and Roberts (2005) four types of motivations are applied to the current st udy: information, convenience, entertainment, and social interaction. Flanagin and Metzger (2001) noted that motivations for media use are somehow different from person to person. Some TV viewers might go onto the TV programs official Website with multiple motivations, while other TV viewers visit the TV programs official Website w ith only a single motivation. As noted above, TV viewers who indulged th emselves with a TV program are active and motivated while processing program-related information. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that viewers with a high level of program involvement ar e more likely to have certain motivations to visit a TV programs official Website and to process the Website information. H1 : The level of TV viewers program involve ment will have a positive effect on the motivation of processing information on the TV programs official Website. It has also been highlighted in previous st udies that consumers are motivated to use a certain medium more frequently when hi gher media usage value (e.g. entertainment, information) is provided (Ko, Cho, & Roberts, 2005). H2 : The motivation of processing information on a TV programs official Website will have a positive effect on the frequency of th e TV programs official Website patronage. Furthermore, it is proposed in this study that TV viewers who have a high degree of certain motivations to go onto the TV program s official Website and to process Website information are more likely to stay longer to satisfy their motivations.
35 H3 : The motivation of processing information on a TV programs official Website will have a positive effect on the duration of th e TV programs official Website patronage. Besides motivation effect on processing We bsite information, ability is another important factor to be considered in this framework. The ability to process and comprehend information is influenced by intelligence or education (Anderson & Jalson, 1980), relevant knowledge or experience (MacKenzie, 1986), and message difficulty (Yalch & ElmoreYalch, 1984). According to MacInnis & Jaworski, (1989), lack of ability implies that knowledge structures necessary to perform more complex operat ions either do not exist or cannot be accessed (p.7). Consistent with this notion, Thorbjrnsen and Supphellen (2004) suggested that it is useful to distinguish between domain a nd process knowledge in online information processing. These two types of knowledge corres pond to consumers ability in understanding, interpreting, and accessing Website information. Applied to this paper, domain knowledge pertains to knowledge about the content of th e TV program and its official Website, while process knowledge refers to TV viewers proficiency and experi ence in using the TV programs official Website and managing se veral information formats. However, the opportunity factor is not included in this forum due to its irrelevance to program involvement concept and attributes. Since th e opportunity is related to the distraction within information processing, there is no contributi on it could make to the examin ation of TV viewers crossmedia usage. Hence, it is assumed that TV viewers with high levels of program involvement will possess better knowledge about the program (domain knowledge) and the ability to process the Website information. H4 : The level of TV viewers program involve ment will have a positive effect on the ability of processing information on the TV programs official Website.
36 Accordingly, with greater ability (both domain and pr ocess knowledge) to process program-related information, it is presumed that less time will be needed to search and/or browse a TV programs official Website (shorter vi sit duration). H5 : The ability of processing information on a TV programs official Website will have a negative effect on the duration of the TV programs official Website patronage. Consequences of Cross-Media Usage The im portance of brand loyalty has been wi dely recognized in marketing literature. From the markets stand point, researchers have applied this c oncept to explain how consumers purchase and/or behave in the ma rketplace, the economics of information (e.g. Farley, 1964), repeat purchasing behavior (e.g. Jacoby & Kyner, 1973), etc. Most of the theory base for brand loyalty is related to how consumers evaluate alternatives and their decision-making (Schultz & Bailey, 2000). Jaco by and Kyner (1973) presented a set of necessary and collectivel y sufficient conditions to define brand loyalty: it is (1) the biased (i.e., nonrandom), (2) behavioral response (i.e., purchase), (3) expressed over time, (4) by some decision-making unit, (5) with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands, and (6) is a function of psychol ogical (decision making, evaluative) processes (p.2). Baldinger and Rubinson (1996) have s uggested defining brand loyalty with both attitudinal and behavioral components. Brand loyalty is the core value of brand equity (Aaker, 1991). Possessing greater brand loyalty among consumers can create better sa les of the brand (How ard & Sheth, 1969). Aaker (1991) further noted that brand loyalty can lead to several marketing advantages, such as reduced marketing investment, an increase in new customers, and greater trade leverage. Additional marketing benefits are found in Dick and Basus (1994) study. For example, they found favorable word of mouth and greater resistan ce to competitive strategies to be resultes of brand loyalty among loyalty consumers.
37 In the present conceptualization, brand loyalt y is utilized to explain Website loyalty after TV viewers Website patronage. Wang, Pa llister and Foxall (2006) have used Website loyalty to test Internet buyer behaviors. Th ey found that consumers transfer their existing brand loyalty from traditional markets to the br ands Website in the Internet market. Since a Website is considered a brand carrier and an extension to sponsor corporations operations (Palmer and Griffith, 1998), Ha and Chan-Olmst ed (2004) believed that TV Websites should be treated as a brand extension of TV networks. Just like how retailers wish to keep customers in a store longer and to have them return more often, it is postulated in the context that frequency and duration of Website visits have a positive effect on Website loyalty. The more frequently repeated patronage of a TV programs official Website that occurs, the mo re likely it is for Website loyalty to develop among TV viewers. H6 : The frequency of a TV programs official Website patronage will have a positive effect on the loyalty of the TV programs official Website. Furthermore, the longer the time TV viewers spend on visiting a TV programs official Website, the more likely they are to develop lo yalty to the TV programs official Website. Thus, it is hypot hesized that: H7 : The duration of a TV programs official Website patronage will have a positive effect on the loyalty of the TV programs official Website. From a marketers viewpoint, consumers have become less responsive to traditional advertising (Belch & Belch, 2007). As a result, marketers have been searching for new effective ways to deliver advertising messages. One such effective method is sponsorship. Sponsorship is a cash and/or in-kind fee paid to a property (sports, entertainment, non-profit event or organization) in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property (International Events Group, 2000, p.1). It is a promot ional activity that is
38 considered useful for branding (Cronwell, Roy, & Steinard, 2001). Co rnwell (1995) defined sponsorship-linked marketing as the orch estration and implementation of marketing activities for the purpose of building and commu nicating an associati on to a sponsorship (p.15). The use of sponsorship-linked marketi ng can be found all across traditional media, such as magazines, televisi on, newspapers, and it is now being employed in the Internet environment. Drennan and Cornwell (2004) noted that the Internet is attractive for sponsors because of its dynamic and interactive nature combined with personalization technologies and tracking facilities to make it an eff ective and accountable me dium with unlimited creatively (Shen, 2002, p.59). The capacity of interactive activity on the Inte rnet is one of the most salient advantages that differentiates the Internet from conventi onal media. Interactivity is credited for adding value to the communication process. Therefore, interactivity is always a key factor when studying the Internet (Rafaeli & Sudweeks, 1997) a nd relevant marketing applications. It is important to understand the intera ctivity of the Internet and its possible utilizations for sponsors, which can lead to more effective persuasion, engagement, and interaction with online consumers (McMillan & Hwang, 2002; Drennan & Cornwell, 2004). For instance, the interest in product placemen t has begun to expand to Website content. Because of its capacity for interactivity, product placement on the Internet platform makes it somewhat different from those placed in tr aditional media (e.g., TV programs, movies). Unlike passively watching television or movies, Internet users can now actively interact with brand-related information. To be more specif ic in differentiating product placement on the Internet, which incorporates interactive f unctions, from those product placements in traditional media, the term interactive online product placement is therefore created in the present study. Interactive online product placemen t is defined in this study as the inclusion of brand identifiers in interactive features on Websites in return for commercial
39 considerations. It is a potent ial marketing tactic aided by te chnological innovations. In this regard, those enhanced TV functi ons with any sponsors product and/or brand placed in them are denoted by inte ractive online product placement. Additionally, it was shown in Holland and Ba kers (2001) study that Website loyalty leads to cognitive, affective, and behavioral react ions from consumers, such as repeat visits, favorable attitudes toward the Website, etc. Th erefore, it seems rationa l to propose that once Website loyalty is formed among TV viewers, they are expected to use the sponsors interactive online product placem ent features more frequently than other surfers on TV programs official Websites because of the hi gh degree of exposure. The hypothesis is as follows: H8 : The loyalty of the TV programs official Website will have a positive effect on the usage of the sponsors intera ctive online product placement. The effects of advertising on consumer outcomes (e.g. attitude toward the brand, purchase intention) are always part of marketer s concerns. In research on TV Websites, the benefits of enhanced TV usag e are shown in previous finding s; e.g., increasing TV viewers loyalty, keeping subscribers, and attracti ng new subscribers (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004). Moreover, Ha and Chan-Olmsted (2001) examin ed the effects of specific enhanced TV features on their interest in e-commerce. Th e results showed that the more TV Website visitors used enhanced TV features, the mo re they were likely to confirm their online purchase intentions. Glass (2007) has also a dded value to previous product placement research when he confirmed the effects of product placement in the online gaming environment on attitude change and purchas ing intention. Based on this conceptual framework, it is postulated that the use of interactive online product placement will affect attitude toward the brand, and attitude toward the brand ex erts an influence on purchase intention.
40 H9 : The usage of the sponsors interac tive online product placement will have a positive effect on attitude toward the brand. H10 : The attitude toward the sponsors brand will have a positive effect on purchase intention.
41 Figure 3-1. Hypothesize d structural model
42 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY The TV program, Gossip Girl and its Official Website The CW Television Network (The CW), as a merger of Warner Brothers Entertainment (majority owner of The WB) and The CBS Corpor ation (owners of UPN), was launched at the beginning of the 2006-2007 television season. It is Americas fifth broadcast network and the only network targeting 18 to 34-year-olds. As a successor to The WB and UPN, The CW features a mixture of programming from both television networks. Its prime-time schedule includes popular TV series: "America's Next Top Model", "Gossip Girl, Beauty and The Geek, Smallville, etc. (CWTV.com, 2008). The CWs official Website offers many f eatures, including downloadable ringtones, wallpapers, an online store, games, a message boa rd, VIP lounges for fans, promotional pictures of shows, episode guides, clips for new episodes, several streaming fu ll-length episodes, cast information, and many other features. Moreover, in some cases there is an online poll that discusses upcoming shows storylines. Gossip Girl is a prime-time soap opera produ ced by The CW Television Network. It is an American TV teen-oriented drama based on a popular novel of the same name, written by Cecily von Ziegesar. The show first aired in th e US on September 19, 2007. It was considered to be one of the more anticipated new shows of the 2007-2008 TV season, and it was placed in the top ten new shows list that measured viewer awareness (OTX, 2007). The first episode of Gossip Girl attracted 3.65 million viewers (Mitovich, 2007). It was noted to have held the best audience retention of The CWs always-reliable show, Americans Ne xt Top Model, by only losing 21 percent of adults 18 to 34 for a 2.2 av erage rating (Fitzgeral d, 2007). Along with the online buzz and its success on different media plat forms, such as DVR usage, online streaming,
43 and iTunes, Gossip Girl saw a 21% increase with women 18-34 (3.37rtg v. 2.79rtg), 20% increase among adults 18-34 (2.34rtg v. 1.95rtg) and 11% increase in female teens (5.51rtg v. 4.97rtg) who recorded and watched the show up to 7 days after premiere compared to those who only watched live (The CW Blog, October 10, 2007). Later, afte r Gossip Girl returned on April 21, 2008, JustJared.com (April 22, 2008) revealed that Gossip Girl helped The CW score its highest ratings ever in the Monday 8 to 9pm timeslot among audiences of 18 to 34-year-olds (1.9/6) and women of 18 to 34-year-olds (2.9/8). Besides the basic Website features mentioned ear lier, the official Website of Gossip Girl incorporates many enhanced TV f unctions that visitors can intera ct with. The main page of the Website is designed as a room setting in the real world that includes a laptop, a television, a cell phone, some clothing, and many other elements asso ciated with the program. Once users click on one of the properties/icons, the item (or product) will be enlarged and show more details about a specific topic. For example, the te levision set on the main page pl ays a clip of the next episode automatically when entering the Web page, and it can be clicked to watch the clip on a bigger screen and with better quality. Website visito rs can access most of the Website by interacting with the properties/icons on the main page (although some pages can only be accessed by the traditional method). Take the Virtual World for example, a user can click on the link displaying Virtual World (traditional method), or interact with the outdoor billboard on the main page to access the Virtual World page. As stated earlier, this research examines th e antecedents and consequences of cross-media usage among TV viewers by employing the TV program, Gossip Girl, and its official Website as the stimuli for this research. Since it includes both traditional (TV program) and new media (TV programs official Website) capacities and has attracted quite a number of subscribers to
44 watch the TV program, it is consider ed to be ideal for this research design and is expected to show meaningful findings. Research Design An online survey was employed in the current research, and w as conducted from May 10th 2008 to May 31st 2008. During this time period, pa rticipants were asked to click the link, http://www.jou.ufl.edu/faculty/ccho/GossipGirl/, which led them to the self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire started with two screening qu estions, aimed at categorizing participants into two groups: (1) people who had watched the TV program, but had not visited the official Website; and (2) people who had watched the TV program and had visited the official Website. People who had never watched the TV program befo re were not included in this study. Nine latent constructs were examined in this study: program involvement, motivations (information, convenience, entertainment, soci al-interaction) and ab ility (domain/process knowledge) of processing Website information, fr equency and duration of Website visits, the Website loyalty, the usage of the sponsors inte ractive online product placement, attitude toward the sponsor, and purchase intention. Question it ems for the ability of processing Website information and the use of spons ors interactive onlin e product placement were constructed by the researcher due to the lack of an adaptable ex isting measure or previous ly validated scales in the literature. Also, for the measurement of fre quency and duration of Website visits, two closeended questions were added to each of the constructs. Structural equation modeling (S EM), a hybrid of factor analysis and simultaneous equation modeling (Kaplan, 2000), was used to test the curre nt hypothesized model. The benefit of this methodology is that the measurement error is noted to provide a more accurate causal relationship among latent constructs (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1998). Since the
45 concept of the antecedents and consequences of cross-media usage is complex and proposed to possess various factors, SEM is proper for identifying the relationships among the nine constructs. AMOS 5, by using the method of maximum likelihood, was utilized for performing data analysis. Participants In order to recruit TV view ers who had watched the TV program Gossip Girl, and had visited the TV programs official Website as well, participants were recruited through the online social communities of Myspace. com and Facebook. According to Blackshaw (2008), Myspace.com and Facebook are the top 2 social networking sites and represent over 98 percent of the overall 86.7 million unique us ers as of March, 2008. Pew Internet and the American Life Project (2008) also showed the notable numbers that about one-in-five Americans (22%) uses a social networking site. As a result, these online social activities can be deeply embedded into users lives (The lwall, 2008). Users are able to share photos, music and videos, maintain blogs, and enc ourage group interacti ons through instant messaging, email, online forums, and ch at rooms on social networking sites (Gangadharbatla, 2007). In addi tion, these sites engage users by letting them create content and become vanguards of different brands (Gangadharbatla, 2007). Therefore, Myspace.com and Facebook were chose as the channels to recruit participants for the current study. Groups form ed for Gossip Girl fans were found on both Websites. During the survey period (from May 10th 2008 to May 31st 2008), the researcher of this study first posted a surv ey invitation on the forums of th ese fan clubs. The purpose of the research and some requirements for partic ipating in the study we re explained in the message. Fans of Gossip Girl could connect to the survey by clicking on the link attached in the message. However, after the first few days, the responses were less than the
46 researchers expectation. Therefore, in or der to boost the number of responses, the researcher sent out a cover letter with survey related information to a total of 1,000 potential participants among group members who were livi ng in the U.S. and were 18 or above. By the end of the survey period, a total of 250 respondents had pa rticipated in the survey. Among the 250 participants, there were 43 had watched the TV program, Gossip Girl, but had not visited the official Website; the other 207 had watched Gossip Girl and had visited the official Webs ite. To develop a model that incorporated the cross-media usage behavior, a total of 207 subjects were in cluded in the final analysis. However, the remaining 43 responses were still analyzed with the focus on why these viewers had not visited the official Website, especially those who had high program involvement. Measures and Instrument Appendix A, B, and C show the questionnaires used in this study. Since the online survey technique makes it possible to precisely determ ine suitable respondents, this survey started with two screening questions : Have you ever watched the TV program Gossip Girl on the CW? and Have you ever visited the official Website of the TV program Gossip Girl ? If respondents had never watched the TV program, Gossip Girl, they did not have to answer further questions except demographic ones (see Appendix A). If respondents had watched the TV program, Gossip Girl, but had never vi sited the TV programs official Website, they were asked the reason why they had never visited the Website and some questions related to their program involvement (see Appendix B). Appendix C shows the whole design of this surv ey. Besides the initial screening questions, the program involvement was measured using a 12-item scale adopted from Norris and Colman (1992). The participants were as ked to describe their feelings about the TV program, Gossip Girl, on a seven-point semantic differential scale. The 12 items included: not at all
47 entertaining/very entertaining; did not feel involved/felt involved; not very suspenseful/very suspenseful; could not concentrate/could concentrate; was not re laxed/was very relaxed; very boring/very interesting; learnt nothing/learnt a great deal; did not enjoy/enjoyed very much; was not absorbed/was very absorbed; did not feel tense/felt very tense; did not attend very closely/attended very closely; general quality was very low/ general quality was very high. Borrowed from Ko, Cho, and Roberts (2005) study, motivations were measured in four dimensions: information, convenience, entertainm ent, and social interaction. For information motivation, the three items included: to l earn about unknown things; it is a good way to do research; and to learn about us eful things. For convenience motiv ation, questions selected were: it is convenient to use; I can get what I want for less effort; I can use it anytime, anywhere; and it is easy to use. Items for entertainment motivation were: to pass time; I just like to surf the Website; it is enjoyable; it is entertaining; and it is my habit. Finally, items used for social interaction motivation were: I wond er what other people said; to keep up with latest updates; to express myself freely; and to meet people with my interests. The wording of scale items were modified to fit appropriately in the context of the current study. A seven-point scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) was used to measure respondents motivations for going onto the official Website of the TV program Gossip Girl and their information acquisition process. The ability of information processing was m easured by a four-item scale generated from the definition of ability in this study. Two items were created to measure participants domain knowledge about the content of TV programs and the official Website. Another two items were constructed to measure particip ants process knowledge on their experience and proficiency in using and managing different info rmation formats. On a scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree)
48 to 7 (strongly agree), participants were asked to evaluate their own ability of processing the information on the TV programs official Website The four items included: (1) I believe I am knowledgeable about the TV program; (2) I believe I am knowledgeable about the content of the TV programs official Website; (3) I believe I am experienced and proficient in surfing the TV programs official Website; and (4) I believe I am able to manage various information formats on the TV programs official Website. Frequency and duration of Website visits were measured by using open-ended and closeended questions. First, two openended questions for frequency and duration constructs were adopted from Thorbjrnsen and Supphellen (200 4): How many times have you visited the Website during the last mont h? and How many minutes do you spend on the Website on average?, respectively. Two addition close-ended questions for frequency construct included: How often do you usually visit the Website on average? (less than one visit per month = 1, visit almost everyday = 7) and How frequently do you visit the Website on average? (rarely = 1, frequently = 7). Another two close-ended quest ions for duration construct were: I spend a significant amount of time at the Website (strongly disagree = 1, strongly agree = 7) and How would you rate your visit duration of the Website on average? (short-duration = 1, long-duration = 7). Aakers (1991) three-item bra nd loyalty scale was applied to the current context to measure Website loyalty. The original items were modified according to th e different attributes of the online environment. Participants reported on the items, I am committed to the Website, I would be willing to visit the TV programs official Website rather than other Websites, and I would recommend the TV pr ograms official Website to others using a range from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
49 To determine the use of the sponsors inter active online product pla cement, participants were asked to rate several brand-related inte ractive functions. After exploring the official Website of the TV program, Gossip Girl, the researcher found th at the brand Verizon Wireless had interactive online product pla cement on the official Website. The sponsor, Verizon Wireless, was shown on a cell phone icon on the main page of the official Website, which could lead to the Gossip Girl Music section by clicking the icon. In the Gossip Girl Music section, it was easy to find instances of Verizon Wireless being placed on the Web page. According to above findings, the use of a sponsors interactive online product placement was measured with four questions: (1) Have you ever clicked on/interacted with the icon showing on the main page of the TV programs o fficial Website? (never = 1, frequently = 7); (2) How would you describe your usage of the music section on the TV programs official Website? (rarely use = 1, frequently use = 7); (3) How fr equently do you visit th e specific brand-related Web page within the TV programs official We bsite? (never = 1, frequently = 7); and (4) How would you describe the degree of your interactions with the brands independent official Website linked through the TV programs official Website ? (no interaction = 1, ma ny interactions = 7). Based on MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belchs (1986) study, attitude to ward the brand was measured with three 7-point semantic differen tial scales (favorable/ unfavorable, good/bad, and pleasant/unpleasant). In additi on, the test of purchase inte ntions among TV viewers was uncovered by using three 7-point semantic differential scales (likely/unlikely, probable/improbable, and possibl e/impossible), which originated from MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belchs (1986) research. Since measurement items employed in the curr ent study were construc ted or modified by the researcher, the present study first performed a confirmatory factor analysis for each construct
50 for the final verification of uni dimensionality (Gerbing & Anders on, 1988). Selected scales were all confirmed by doing so. The results from first-order confirmatory factor models indicated that the item-loading estimates on their factors were significant (p<.001). Furthermore, a reliability test of the final scales was conducted. The reli ability coefficient alpha for each construct was higher than .70, except for the freque ncy of Website visits (Cronbach = .55) and duration of Website visits (Cronbach = .28). Hence, the open-ended qu estion items in frequency and duration constructs were deleted for purificati on purposes. The resultant reliability measures improved after deleting the open-ended question items (Cronbach = .93 for frequency of Website visits, and Cronbach = .88 for duration of Website vi sits). The purified final measure instruments for structural equation an alysis are presented in Table 4-1.
51 Table 4-1 .Constructs, indicators, an d key statistics of the final model Latent Constructs Indicators M SD Confirmatory Factor Loadings I found the show not at all entertaining / very entertaining. 6.72 .667 .76a I did not feel involved / very involved in the show. 6.11 1.214 .68a The show was not very suspenseful / very suspenseful. 6.22 .970 .69a I could not concentrat e / could concentrate when watching the show. 6.51 1.056 .42a I was not relaxed / relaxed when watching the show. 6.03 1.196 .34a I found the show very boring / very interesting. 6.71 .773 .62a I learnt nothing / lear nt a great deal from the show. 5.04 1.638 .62a I did not enjoy / enjoyed the show very much. 6.79 .616 .69a I was not absorbed / very absorbed in the show. 6.44 1.064 .75a I did not feel very tense / felt very tense when watching the show. 4.71 1.951 .39a I did not attend very closely / attended very closely to the show. 6.28 1.257 .67a The general quality of the show was very low / high. 6.31 .988 .75b Program involvement Index 6.16 .72 Cronbach = .85 Information motivation 4.84 1.54 .82b Convenience motivation 5.34 1.28 .73a Entertainment motivation 4.60 1.44 .86a Social-interaction motivation 3.97 1.51 .79a Motivation to process Website information Index 4.67 1.26 Cronbach = .88 Domain knowledge 5.43 1.26 1.04a Process knowledge 5.06 1.58 .67b Ability to process Website information Index 5.25 1.31 Cronbach = .81 How often do you usually visit the Website on average? 2.94 1.68 .87b How frequently do you visit the Website on average? 3.30 1.89 1.00a Frequency of Website visits Index 3.12 1.73 Cronbach = .93
52 Table 4-1. Continued. Latent Constructs Indicators M SD Confirmatory Factor Loadings I spend a significant amount of time at the Website. 3.19 1.81 .91a Visit duration of the We bsite on average 3.48 1.80 .81b Duration of Website visits Index 3.33 1.70 Cronbach = .88 I am committed to the Website 3.52 1.95 .91b I would be willing to visit the Website rather than other Websites. 3.71 1.87 .80a I would recommend the Website to others.4.59 1.84 .72a Website loyalty Index 3.94 1.68 Cronbach = .88 Clicked on/ interacted with the cell phone icon 2.56 1.98 .72b The usage of the Gossip Girl Music section 3.64 2.20 .64a How frequently do you visit the Verizon Wireless service page? 2.15 1.73 .80a The degree of your interactions with the independent Verizon Wireless official Website. 2.43 1.87 .76a The Usage of the Sponsors Interactive Online product placement Index 2.70 1.58 Cronbach = .82 To me, Verizon Wireless that sponsors Gossip Girl is (1) unfavorable / favorable (7) 5.07 1.77 .93b (1) bad / good (7) 5.48 1.57 .94a (1) unpleasant / pleasant (7) 5.15 1.64 .93a Attitude toward the sponsors brand Index 5.23 1.59 Cronbach = .95 I would purchase the service from Verizon Wireless (1) unlikely / likely (7) 4.28 2.23 .96b (1) impossible / possible (7) 4.59 2.09 .92a (1) improbable / probable (7) 4.40 2.12 .98a Purchase intention Index 4.41 2.08 Cronbach = .97 a Factor significance: p <.01 b Loading was set to 1.0 to fix construct variance
53 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS Subject Profile Am ong a total of 250 participants in the surv ey, there were 43 who had watched the TV program, Gossip Girl, but had not visited the official Website In this group, 2 (4.7%) were male and 41 (95.3%) were female. Their ages ra nged from 18 to 33. Their mean age was 21.2. Although they reported that they never went onto the official Website, the mean value of their overall program involvement was high (M = 5.8, = 1.25). I did not enjoy/I enjoyed the show very much, I found the show very boring/very interesting, and I f ound the show not at all entertaining/very entertaining were scored highest (M = 6.41, 6.37, a nd 6.35 respectively) by this group of participants. The pa rticipants insights as to why they never visited the official Website could be categorized into four types of reasons: I have not had a reason/I felt no need to go onto the Website (65.1%), I have no time ( 18.6%), I did not know th ere was an official Website (14%), and I go visit other Websites instead (2.3%). Another group of 207 participants were differentiated due to thei r prior experience of watching the TV program, Gossip Girl, and su rfing on the official Website. This group was included for testing the hypothesized cross-me dia usage model. Among the 207 respondents, 21 (10.1%) were male and 186 (89.9%) were female. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46, but most (92.8%) were between the ages of 18 and 25. The mean age was 21.2. As Table 4-1 illustrates, the overall program involvement score was very high (M = 6.16). The mean of I did not enjoy/enjoyed the show very much (M = 6.79) was rated the highest followed by I found the show not at all entertaining/very entertai ning (M = 6.72) and I did not feel involved/very involved in the show (M = 6.71). For users motivation to process Website information, convenience motivation showed the highest mean value (M = 5.34). For the ability
54 to process Website information construct, the mean score of domain knowledge (M = 5.43) was higher than the mean of process knowledge (M = 5.06). In terms of the frequency of Website visits, the average of visit tim es among participants were 5.4 3 times during the last month. However, participants self-administrated results of How often do you us ually visit the Website on average? and How frequently do you visit th e Website on average? were relatively low (M = 2.94 and 3.30, respectively) compared to othe r variables. The av erage length of time respondents spent on the official Website were 20. 13 minutes. The mean of the items I spend a significant amount of time at the Website, and Visit duration of the Website on average were 3.19 and 3.48, respectively. For the Website loyalty construct, I would recommend the Website to others showed the highest mean value (M = 4.59). Gossip Girl Music was the most frequently used interactive product placement for the sponsor (M = 3.64). Attitude toward the brand, Verizon Wireless, and purchase intent ions of it were favorable (M = 5.23 and 4.41, respectively). Generally, the means of frequency of Website visits, Dura tion of Website visits, Website loyalty, and the use of the sponsors interactive online product placement were below the mid-point of the scale (M = 3.12, 3.33, 3.94, and 2.70 respectively). Model Testing Several underlying assumptions for SEM (nor mality, sam pling adequacy, and no extreme multicollinearity) (Hair et al., 1998) were valida ted and confirmed to be acceptable before the researcher conducted the main hypothesis testing. The researcher examined ten research hypotheses by using structural equation analysis with the method of maximum likelihood. AMOS 5 was employed to perform the data analyses. The exogenous variable was program i nvolvement. There were eight endogenous variables, including motivation to process Website information, ability to process Website information, frequency of Website visits, duration of Website visits, Website loyalty, usage of
55 the sponsors interactive online pr oduct placement, attitude towa rd the sponsor, and purchase intention. The first step of current model tes ting was to estimate th e goodness-of-fit for the hypothesized model. In the current study, the X2 test was significant and suggested that the estimated model did not fit well with the observed data. Nevertheless, the X2 test is sensitive to sample size and often leads to model rejec tion. Thus, scholars suggested that if an X2 /degree of freedom ratio does not exceed five, the model fit is acceptable (Bentler & Bonnet, 1980; Bentler, 1989; Bollen, 1989). Since the X2 /degree of freedom ratio of the current hypothesized model was estimated as 1.96 (X2 = 1178.13, df = 550), CFI was .90, NFI was .82, and RMSEA was .68, the researcher can conclude that the hypothesized model was accep table despite the significant X2 statistic. However, after examining the significance of the regression weights, the researcher found that nine out of ten constructs showed signifi cant direct effects as e xpected (p<.001). The only exception was that ability to process Website info rmation did not show a significant relation with duration of Website visits (H5: = .16, p>.05). The result failed to prove the hypothesized negative relationship betw een these two constructs (see Figure 5-1). To improve the model, modification indices were used to determine any theoretically meaningful paths/relationships missed in the or iginal model. We found that the motivation to process Website information was directly related to the ability to process Website information (p<.001). Thus, the path was added in the revised model. The added path makes sense, given that the more the Website users are motivated to proc ess Website information, the better the ability they will possess to process Website information. The revised model with an added path (m otivation to process Website information ability to process Website information) was tested (see Fi gure 5-2), and the fit statis tics were better than
56 the hypnotized model: X2 (992.98)/ df (549) ratio = 1.81, CFI = .92, NFI = .83, RMSEA = .063. The standardized coefficients were examined to evalua te the estimated causal relations. Eight out of ten associated measures and relationships were significant at p<.001, except for the relationship between program involvement and ab ility to process Website information (H4: = .08, p>.05), and the relationship between ability to process Website information and duration of Website visits (H5: = .09, p>.05). Interestingly, the result suggested that ability to process Website information had a positive influence on duration of Website visits, which was opposite to the proposed negative effect. The non-significant results (H4 and H5) make sense when we consider that even if TV viewers are involved in a TV program, they do not consequently possess mo re ability to process the Website information. Also, the more knowle dge TV viewers have to process Website information does not lead to shorter duration of their Website visits due to some updates, new posts, and so on. In this regar d, two paths (program involvement ability to process Website information and ability to process Website information duration of Website visits) were deleted from the model. As shown in Figure 5-3, the ne w model fit the observed data better than the previous two models, with statis tical significance of the regressi on weights for all constructs ( X2 = 877.67, df = 545, X2 / df ratio = 1.61, CFI = .94, NFI = .85, RMSEA = .054). The final model strongly supports eight out of ten research hypotheses. As Figure 5-3 illustrates, program involvement showed a positive influence on motives to process the information on the TV programs official Website (H1: = .47, p<.001). Also, motivation was confirmed to have a positive effect on frequency (H2: = .77, p<.001) and dur ation of Website visits (H3: = .84, p<.001). In other words, once TV viewers are motivated to process the information on the TV programs official Website, they tend to visit the Website more often and
57 longer. However, H4 and H5 were not supported in the current study. The resu lt revealed that the higher level of program involvement does not directly lead to be tter domain and process knowledge (ability) to process the information on the TV programs official Website. Moreover, a better ability (both domain and process know ledge) to process Website information does not consequently lead to less duration of Website patronage. TV viewers do not spend less time browsing the TV programs official Website even though they have a better ability to process the Website information. As proposed, more frequent (H6: = .26, p<.01) and longer duration (H7: = .73, p<.001) of Website visi ts can generate higher Website loyalty. Website loyalty was found to have a positive effect on the use of a sponsors interactive online product placement (H8: = .68, p<.001), which in turn led to a po sitive attitude toward the sponsor (H9: = .41, p<.001) and purchase intention (H10: = .72, p<.001). Finally, a new causal relationship (motivation to process Website information ability to process Website information) emerged in the final model ( = .80, p<.001).
58 Figure 5-1. The hypothesized cross-media usage model
59 Figure 5-2. The revised cross-media usage model
60 Figure 5-3. The final cross-media usage model
61 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION Summary This study offers a com prehensive framework to predict and evalua te the relationships among and within the antecedents (program i nvolvement, motivation and ability to process Website information, frequency and duration of Website visits) and consequences (Website loyalty, the usage of sponsors interactive online product placemen t, attitude toward the sponsor and purchase intention) of cross-media usage. The current cross-media usage model provides evidence that program involvement has a positive effect on TV viewers motivation to process information on the TV programs official Website (H1). Also, motivation ha s direct relationships with frequency and duration of the Website pa tronage (H2 and H3, respectively). However, program involvement does not show a positive in fluence on TV viewers ability (domain and process knowledge) to process content on the TV programs official Website (H4), and the ability to process Website information construct does not have a negative and significant effect on duration of Website visits (H5). Moreover, a positive effect of motivation on ability to process Website information emerged in the mechanism. The first consequence of cross-media usage, Website loyalty, was confirmed to be influenced by both frequency and duration of Website visits (H6 and H7, respectively). It has a direct and positive influence on the use of the sponsors interactive online pr oduct placement (H8) and, in turn, changes the TV viewers attitude toward the sponsor (H9) after exposed to those brand-re lated enhanced TV features. In the end, the results revealed that positive attit udes toward the sponsor can subsequently affect TV viewers purchase intentions (H10).
62 Antecedents of Cross-Media Usage First, the present research dem onstrates th at program involvement directly influences motivation to process information on the TV pr ograms official Website. Program involvement seems to glue TV viewers to the TV program and induce program-related interest/arousal, resulting in several kind s of goal-directed motivations to browse the TV programs official Website. Four types of motivations, informa tion, convenience, entertainment, and social interaction, were used in th e current study design. Convenience, followed by information and then entertainment, were the most prevalent motiv ations to explain TV viewers use of the TV programs official Website. Since TV viewers motivation to satisfy their needs by browsing the TV programs official Website does not always rely on only one aspect (Ko, Cho, & Roberts, 20005), the findings suggest that TV viewers would like to visit the official Website in order to get information and/or be entertained easily a nd with less effort. Howe ver, social-interaction motivation did not appear to be much of a driv ing factor to encourage TV viewers to try the official Website. The explanation for that might be because the TV viewers do not have this kind of need and/or the TV programs official Website does not serve well in terms of providing social-oriented Website functions for viewers to interact with other viewers. In support of recent uses and gratification applications (e.g., Ko, Cho, & Roberts, 2005), TV viewers who have high information, convenience, entertainment, and/or social interaction motivations for using the TV progr ams official Website tend to visit the Website more often and stay on the Website longer to fulfill their corresponding motiva tions. Even so, the result shows that the average visit frequency during the last month was not high. As shown in the Pew Internet and American Life Project (2006), the act of hanging out online is one of the most popular activities for people to spend their leisure time. In this regard, the result s show that TV viewers do not visit the TV programs official Website as frequently as they go visit other Websites.
63 On the other hand, the effect of program invol vement on TV viewers ability to process information on the TV programs official Webs ite was not supported in this study. Even though a weak relationship can be found be tween the two constructs, the result was not significant. Another unexpected finding of this study is that ab ility to process Website content does not have a negative influence on duration of Website pa tronage; instead, there was an insignificant positive relationship. The finding revealed that even if TV viewers are knowledgeable and experienced in surfing the TV pr ograms official Website, they still tend to have long-duration navigation of their Website visits. Another unexpected relationship to emerge from this study was that motivation was found to have a positive effect on ability to process Website information. TV viewers who are highly motivated to process the conten t on the TV programs official Website will end up with more domain knowledge about the TV program and its o fficial Website, in addition to having a better process knowledge, such as being experienced and capable of using and managing different information formats on the Website. Consequences of Cross-Media Usage TV viewers visit frequency and duration of th e TV programs official Website were found to be relevant to the form ati on of Website loyalty. Consistent with Holland and Bakers (2001) findings of site brand loyalty, TV viewers tend to return to the TV progr ams official Website because they expect the Website to be of va lue and enjoyable to them. Additionally, if TV viewers remain at the TV programs official Website by choice and are receiving valuable exchanges for their time, that means they prefer to navigate the official Website rather than clicking away from the Website. Taking the abov e findings into account, repeat visits and duration of visit are considered to be effective indicators of favorab le attitude leading to Website loyalty (Holland & Baker, 2001).
64 In the present context, the effect of Website loyalty on TV viewers use of a sponsors interactive online product placemen t received significant support. Since Website loyalty shares the same concept with brand loyalty in the trad itional marketing context, TV viewers who show higher loyalty toward the TV progr ams official Website tend to hold commitment to repatronize (Oliver, 1999) the official Website consistently and, in turn, this results in more chances to interact with those brand-related enhanced TV functions. Despite the proven positive relationship, the mean of the ex act uses of a sponsors interac tive online product placement were low; this underlines the fact that these features are still underutilized. Four levels of interaction were examined in this research design to see the depth of TV viewers interaction with brand-related enhanced TV features, including the use of an interactive product icon placed on the main page, a progr am-related section sponsored by the brand, a service page under the official Website, and th e independent cooperate Website linked through the official Website. Marketers would have to reinvestigate their interactive online product placement strategy to be more effective and en ticing to TV viewers for them to continue navigating brand-related in formation on the Internet. In terms of advertising effec tiveness, TV viewers use of a sponsors interactive online product placement was found to have a positive infl uence on their attitude toward the sponsor as well as on purchase intentions. Interactive onlin e product placement, defined as the inclusion of brand identifiers in interactive f eatures on Websites in return for commercial considerations, is a new marketing platform investigat ed in the current study that co mbines the concepts of product placement in new media and interactive Website features. In a study examining the difference between ads placed in a creative media choice and ads placed in a traditional medium, Dahln (2005) concluded that a congruent creative me dia choice can enhance brand association and
65 consumers evaluation about the ad and brand. By using new and unexploited media, relevant ad placements can foster more ad creditability and affect brand communication positively. In regards to such features seem to have the potential to increase TV viewers favorable feelings about the advertised brand. Moreove r, research on enhanced TV ha s revealed that TV networks can benefit from employing these interactive fu nctions on TV Websites (e.g., maintaining viewer loyalty, keeping viewers, and attracting new vi ewers (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004)). The usage of enhanced TV features is therefore considered as a positive predictor fo r branding outcomes (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004). Agreeing with extant litera ture, this study identifies that brand-related enhanced TV functions seem to have a positiv e effect on inducing positive brand attitudes among TV viewers. Furthermore, building on the hi storical evidence of acceptability of product placement, Balasubramanian, Karrh and Patwardhan (2006) assumed that such acceptance will likely continue into the future as emergent digital communication tec hnologies present new opportunities to tailor or custom ize placement (p.133). Russell (2002) noted that consumers tend to have a positive attitude change after be ing exposed to a product placement, even though the recognition of the brand was low. In the cu rrent study, the impact of a sponsors interactive online product placement on brand attitudes was acknowledged empirically and theoretically. Another commercial outcome that concerns mark eters is TV viewers purchase intention after their interaction with a s ponsors interactive online product placement. Consistent with prior literature that presented significant effects of product pla cement exposure and enhanced TV features on Website users purchase intention, th e current study provides a similar positive result where TV viewers purchase intent ion toward sponsors product and/or service were influenced by their use of sponso rs interactive online product placement.
66 Additional Findings Som e other insights were gathered from TV viewers who had not visited the TV programs official Website. The results revealed that thes e TV viewers enjoy the show very much and find the show very interesting and entertaining; how ever, they have not been motivated enough to check information on the official Website. Extr acted reasons for not visiting the TV programs official Website are categorized as following: (1) I have not ha d a reason/I felt no need to go onto the Website; (2) I have no time; (3) I did not know there was an official Website; and (4) I go visit other Websites instead. First, some respondents who were engaged in th e TV program stated that they did not have a reason/need to go onto the offici al Website, and they were not in terested in seeing the Website content. Since media users are active and goal-directed in their media use behavior (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974a, Park & Mittal, 1985), their desire or readiness, in this case, to process content on the TV programs official We bsite was not generated and activated by their program involvement. Also, limited free time is another obstacle to a TV viewers Website patronage. TV viewers are not able to allocate more attention beyond the TV program itself due to their own time management and value judgment. Moreover, some TV viewers reported that they do not know the presence of the TV programs official Website. The lack of promotion of the official Website may be the explanation for this finding. The promotional spots and scrollers on the TV screen would be an important way to encourage viewers to try the Website (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2001). Hence, TV networks have to display the Website address and advertise those interesting enhanced TV functions that viewers can use. Finally, there were some participants who commented that they go to vi sit other program-relate d Websites (including blogs) to satisfy their needs inst ead. That is, TV networks are facing the challenges from other online sources, such as entertainment news and/or other user-generated content. Since the new
67 technologies and broadband facilities have made it easy for consumers to contribute, share, and create content on the Internet e nvironment, TV networks need to keep up with the dynamic online marketing environment by understanding TV viewers needs and providing enhanced TV features that are catered to them. Edelman (2007) suggested that community cultivation and content management are important skills for market ers to use to attract consumers attention.
68 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION This research proposes the cross-m edia us age model as the groundwork to explain TV viewers behavior before and af ter they patronize a TV programs official Website. Particularly, program involvement, motivation for Website information acquisition, and frequency and duration of Website visits act as the role of antecedents that ca n influence the consequences of cross-media usage. The ability to process Website information was proposed to be influenced by program involvement and have a negative effect on duration of visits. However, the result reveals that its relationship with the motivation construct is the only path that exists in the final model. In addition, Website loyalt y is found to affect the TV vi ewers usage of the sponsors interactive online product placemen t and leads to better brand att itude and purchase intentions. These summative results present significant contri butions to the existing literature and provide practical implications in terms of cross-media marketing communication. First of all, to convert a passive audience to become active participants of a TV program is a TV networks goal. Even t hough the average of TV viewers program involvement was found to be high, there were still some TV viewers th at had never visited the TV programs official Website. From TV networks brand building sta ndpoint, TV networks need to promote the TV programs official Website to make more users fu lly utilize the enhanced TV features. Networks not only to benefit from these interactive f unctions by increasing viewer loyalty, keeping subscribers, and attracting new subscribers (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004), but these functions also make their branding efforts more cost-effective. To entice TV viewers to go onto the TV program s official Website more often and stay longer, TV networks have to examine the actual use of each enhanced TV feature to see if they are all catered to TV vi ewers needs. Some of these features include information-searching,
69 finding whatever they want with less effort, en tertainment acquisition, and interactions with other viewers. As indicated in the current study, TV viewers social interaction motivation is not as highly fulfilled as other motivations; therefor e, further research can be conducted to study such discrepancy. In terms of the Website content, Holland a nd Baker (2001) suggested that a site must build relevant and valuable content, providing su fficient depth and breadth to warrant consumer involvement (p.38). They proposed that persona lization and community building are the most fruitful tactics for inducing consumer participation in marketing communications. Since broadband penetration and consumer adoption of new technologies ha ve facilitated the Internet marketing endeavors, TV networks can employ ri ch interactive media, such as enhanced TV functions, to build engaged communities a nd develop brand advocates through fandom cultivation on the TV programs official Website. From marketers points of view, the pos itive effects of inte ractive online product placement on advertising outcomes (e.g., brand att itude and purchase intentions) are uncovered in the present study. As a hybrid of different ma rketing applications, in teractive online product placement integrates the advantages of interac tive Website features and product placement that provides rich, interactiv e content and lets the users experience the full brand without clicking away from the Website. Nevertheless, the fi nding shows that inte ractive online product placement on a TV programs official Website is still underutilized. To stimulate TV viewers interest about a sponsors product and/or service as well as to s timulate their demands for these product and/or service, marketers have to st udy the usability and popul arity of these brandrelated enhanced TV features to impr ove the existing marketing communication.
70 This research has some limitations that mostly relate to sampling issues. Regarding the gender bias of the existing sample (23 were ma le and 227 were female), the results could not fully reflect the cross-media usage of male view ers. As a result, the current cross-media usage design may only apply to study fema le viewers. Hence, the future examination of this crossmedia usage model should recruit a more balanced sample to see if this model can be used to study the general audience. In ad dition, since the part icipants were recruited through social networking Websites (Myspace.com and Facebook), especially through some fan clubs that normally gather loyal viewers, the results may have been different if more general viewers from the population were recruited in the sample. Mo reover, by recruiting participants online and using an online survey, it was difficult to recruit the sample only from the United States. Even though the TV program, Gossip Girl has been ai red in other countries for global marketing efforts, the fans from other countries would have responded differently from Americans to the interactive online product placement for an US bra nd (Verizon Wireless). Furthermore, with the growing availability of broadband Internet acces s, the popularity of user-generated content Websites, and the prevalence of online streami ng video, viewers can now subscribe to the TV program solely on the Internet. Therefore, some pa rticipants might not be readily qualified to be included in the current cross-media usage design. In future studies, it would be valuable to replicate the pr esent study with more representative samples. It would also be inte resting to apply the existing research design to examine TV viewers from other countries to see if the model is capable of being generalized internationally, and further, to compare the cross-media usage models between different countries. Moreover, since the TV program used for the present study is a fictional TV series that targets 18 to 34-year-olds, it could bring in more perspectives if different types of TV programs
71 other than fictional ones were in cluded in future research. For example, to apply the current cross-media usage model to study sports shows an d their official Websites would help discover the insights of sport fans. Different types of s ports shows would reveal the cross-media usage among different groups of people for a variety of ages. Once more types of TV programs and more viewers are examined, researchers would be more confident to apply the cross-media model to understand general TV viewers. Furtherm ore, it would be worthwhile to conduct future research about the newly indentified concept, interactive online product placement. For better use of this new interactive advertising approach it would be useful to know how interactive online product placement has been employed across different Websites, what strategies allow for better use of this new form of product placem ent, and how to deliver the maximum branding impact (e.g., brand awareness, brand recall, etc.). For example, researchers could compare the interactive online product placem ent strategies employed on diffe rent Websites to gain better knowledge about the current stage of its marketing use, and/or in clude more brands to compare the effect of interactive online product placement efforts. It would also be important for marketers to become familiar with this new marketing practice in order for th em to fully utilize it for generating better marketing revenue. In conclusion, considering the Internet is an ever-changing important marketing channel, this study helps us understand why TV viewers are motivated to go onto the TV programs official Website; how they are engaged with th e Website and, in turn, become loyal to the Website; how they actually use the sponsors in teractive online product placement; and what the outcomes for marketers interests were. For TV networks, the results of the present study underline some valuable insights about cr oss-media usage among TV viewers. For advertisers/marketers, the results disclose the commercial value delivered by TV viewers,
72 especially the effect of the new marketing appr oach (i.e., interactive online product placement) on consumers marketing responses. Hence, the res earcher of the current st udy believes that this study enriches our knowledge about the effectiveness of interactiv e marketing and advertising in the age of media convergence.
73 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Part A. Please read the following qu estion caref ully, and check one choice from the scale that most closely reflects your opinion or feeling. 1. Have you ever watched the TV pr ogram Gossip Girl on the CW? (1) Yes (2) No Part B. The following are demographic questions th at will only be used for statistical analyses. 1. What is your gender? (1) Male (2) Female 2. How old are you? ________________________________ years old. 3. What is your occupation? _________________________________________________________________________ The survey ends here. Thank you for your participation!
74 APPENDIX B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Part A. Please read the following qu estion car efully, and check one choice from the scale that most closely reflects your opinion or feeling. 1. Have you ever watched the TV pr ogram Gossip Girl on the CW? (1) Yes (2) No 2. Have you ever visited the official Website of the TV program Gossip Girl ( http://www.cwtv.com/show s/gossip-girl)? (1) Yes (2) No 3. Please simply provide the reason(s) for why you have not visited the official Website of the TV program Gossip Girl. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. How do the following statements descri be your feelings ab out Gossip Girl? I found the show not at all entertaining (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I found the show very entertaining I did not feel involved in the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I felt very involved in the show The show was not very suspenseful (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) The show was very suspenseful I could not concentrate when watching the show (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) I could concentrate when watching the show I was not relaxed when watching the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I was very relaxed when watching the show I found the show very boring (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) I found the show very interesting I learnt nothing from the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I learnt a great deal from the show I did not enjoy the show at all (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I enjoyed the show very much
75 I was not absorbed in the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I was very absorbed in the show I did not feel very tense when watching the show (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) I felt very tense when watching the show I did not attend very closely to the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I attended very closely to the show The general quality of the show was very low (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) The general quality of the show was very high Part B. The following are demographic questions th at will only be used for statistical analyses. 4. What is your gender? (1) Male (2) Female 5. How old are you? ________________________________ years old. 6. What is your occupation? _________________________________________________________________________ The survey ends here. Thank you for your participation!
76 APPENDIX C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Part A. Please read the following qu estion caref ully, and check one choice from the scale that most closely reflects your opinion or feeling. 1. Have you ever watched the TV pr ogram Gossip Girl on the CW? (1) Yes (2) No 2. Have you ever visited the official Website of the TV program Gossip Girl (http://www.cwtv.com/s hows/gossip-girl)? (1) Yes (2) No 3. How do the following statements descri be your feelings ab out Gossip Girl? I found the show not at all entertaining (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I found the show very entertaining I did not feel involved in the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I felt very involved in the show The show was not very suspenseful (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) The show was very suspenseful I could not concentrate when watching the show (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) I could concentrate when watching the show I was not relaxed when watching the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I was very relaxed when watching the show I found the show very boring (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) I found the show very interesting I learnt nothing from the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I learnt a great deal from the show I did not enjoy the show at all (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I enjoyed the show very much I was not absorbed in the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I was very absorbed in the show I did not feel very tense when watching the show (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) I felt very tense when watching the show
77 I did not attend very closely to the show (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) I attended very closely to the show The general quality of the show was very low (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) The general quality of the show was very high 4. How do you agree/disagree the fo llowing statements about the official Website of Gossip Girl? (A) I go onto the official Website to learn about unknown things about Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (B) Visiting the official Website is a good way to do rese arch about Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (C) I go onto the official Website to learn about useful things about Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (D) The official Website of Gossi p Girl is convenient to use. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (E) I can get what I want for less effort th rough the official Website of Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (F) I can go onto the official Website of Gossip Girl anytime, anywhere. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (G) The official Website of Gossip Girl is easy to use. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (H) I go onto the official Website of Gossip Girl to pass time. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (I) I just like to surf the offi cial Website of Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (J) The official Website of Gossip Girl is enjoyable. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (K) The official Website of Gossip Girl is entertaining. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (L) Going onto the official Website of Gossip Girl is my habit. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree
78 (M) I wonder what other people say about the Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (N) I go onto the official Website to keep up with latest updates about Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (O) I go onto the official Website of G ossip Girl to express myself freely. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (P) I go onto the official Website of Gossip Girl to meet people with my interests. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree 5. How do you agree/disagree the fo llowing statements regarding G ossip Girl and its official Website? (A) I believe I am knowledgeab le about Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (B) I believe I am knowledgeable about the content of the official Website of Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (C) I believe I am experienced and proficient in surfing the official Website of Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (D) I believe I am able to manage various info rmation formats (e.g., Flash, Real Media, etc.) on the official Website of Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree 6. Please answer the following questions. (A) About how many times have you visited the official Webs ite of Gossip Girl during the last month ? ________________________________________________________________________ (B) How often do you usually visit the official Website of Gossip Girl on average? Less than one visit per month (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)Visit almost everyday (C) How frequently do you visit the official Website of Gossip Girl on average? Rarely (1) (2) (3)(4) (5) (6)(7)Frequently 7. Please answer the following questions. (A) When visiting the official Website of Gossip Girl, about how many minutes do you spend on the site on average? _________________________________________________________________________
79 (B) I spend a significant amount of time at the official Website of Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (C) How would you rate your visit du ration of the official Website of Gossip Girl on average? Short-duration (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Long-duration 8. How do you agree/disagree the following statements which de scribe your feelings about Gossip Girl and its official Website? (A) I am committed to the official Website of Gossip Girl. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (B) I would be willing to visit the official Website of Gossi p Girl rather than other Websites. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree (C) I would recommend the official We bsite of Gossip Girl to others. Strongly disagree (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Strongly agree 9. How do following statements describe your usage of some functions on the official Website of Gossip Girl? (A) Have you ever clicked on/ interacted with the cell phone icon showing on the main page of the official Website of Gossip Gi rl (see the picture shown below)? Never (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)(7)Frequently (B) How would you describe your usage of the Gossip Girl Music section on the official Website of Gossip Girl? Rarely use (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6)(7)Frequently use
80 (C) How frequently do you visit the Verizon Wi reless service page (see the picture shown below) within the official Website of Gossip Girl? Never (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)(7)Frequently (D) How would you describe the degree of your in teractions (e.g., click links, download music, watch video clips, etc.) w ith the independent Verizon Wireless official Website (http://www.verizonwireless.com/b2c/index.html) lin ked through the official Website of Gossip Girl? No interaction (1) (2) (3) (4)(5)(6)(7)Many interactions 10. Please rate the following statem ents according to your feelings. (A) To me, Verizon Wireless t hat sponsors Gossip Girl is Unfavorable (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6)(7)Favorable Bad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6)(7)Good Unpleasant (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6)(7)Pleasant 11. Please rate the following statem ents according to your feelings. (A) If I were in the marketplace, I woul d purchase the service from Verizon Wireless. Unlikely (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6)(7)Likely Impossible (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6)(7)Possible Improbable (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)(6)(7)Probable
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94 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jhih-Syuan Lin enrolled in the Departm ent of Advertising of the College of Journalism and Communications at the University of Florida in August 2006, and graduated with a Master of Advertising degree in 2008. She received her bachelors degree in advertising from the College of Communication at the National Chengc hi University, Taipei, Taiwan. Her research interests include Internet adve rtising, new media effect, product placement, and international advertising.