Citation
Life-Cycle Indoor Air Quality Comparisons between LEED Certified and Non-LEED Certified Buildings

Material Information

Title:
Life-Cycle Indoor Air Quality Comparisons between LEED Certified and Non-LEED Certified Buildings
Creator:
Mozaffarian, Roya
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (120 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.B.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Building Construction
Committee Chair:
Kibert, Charles J.
Committee Co-Chair:
Ries, Robert J.
Committee Members:
Olbina, Svetlana
Graduation Date:
5/1/2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Air quality ( jstor )
Carbon dioxide ( jstor )
Contaminants ( jstor )
Halls ( jstor )
Heating ventilation and cooling ( jstor )
Humidity ( jstor )
Life cycle ( jstor )
Pumps ( jstor )
Rooms ( jstor )
Ventilation systems ( jstor )
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
air, building, certified, comparison, cycle, iaq, indoor, leed, life, quality
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.

Notes

Abstract:
Early research on indoor air quality (IAQ) concluded that people spend most of their time indoors and indoor air quality affects the occupant's health and productivity. In addition, research on IAQ agreed that the high performance green buildings assure a better IAQ for its occupants. This pledge motivates building experts to apply Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) strategies to their practices. Primary intention of this study was to identify whether an existing LEED certified building has a better IAQ compared to an existing non-LEED certified building with respect to LEED requirements. Secondary goal of this study was to develop a protocol to analyze the IAQ in each building and its life cycle. The IAQ test was examined in both buildings on the same day and at similar physical locations to evaluate the IAQ differences between the two and their IAQ life cycle. Protocol with defined analytical methods was developed to meet the LEED requirements along with budget, time, and research limitations. It was found that there are differences between each building life cycle, and also between the IAQ in an existing LEED certified building and an existing non-LEED certified building based on the protocol used in this study and more research needs to be accomplished to encourage LEED strategies for better IAQ. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local:
Adviser: Kibert, Charles J.
Local:
Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Roya Mozaffarian

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright by Roya Mozaffarian. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
7/11/2008
Classification:
LD1780 2008 ( lcc )

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Table E-3. Rinker Hall life cycle t-Test results (Source: Bureau Veritas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun).
Rinker03 Rinker08 Rinker03 Rinker08 Rinker03 Rinker08 Rinker03 Rinker08
CO (ppm) CO CO2 CO2 T (F) T (F) RH (%) RH (%)
(ppm) (ppm) (ppm)
Mean 0.833 0.533 408.000 675.167 67.567 70.767 28.650 54.183
Variance 0.567 0.071 1007.600 9671.767 11.235 0.687 52.115 5.706
Observations 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Pearson Correlation 0.433 0.418 -0.508 0.686
Hypothesized Mean 0 0 0 0
Difference
Df 5 5 5 5
t Stat 1.079 -7.285 -2.041 -10.702
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.165 0.000 0.048 0.000
t Critical one-tail 2.015 2.015 2.015 2.015
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.330 0.001 0.097 0.000
t Critical two-tail 2.571 2.571 2.571 2.571









Air sampling pump
Note: The same air sampling pump that was used for the silica gel tube and the sorbent
tube can be used if the calibration procedures are completed correctly.

Gemini flow regulator and Gemini port

Charcoal tube: It is a glass tube with both ends flame sealed. This tube is 7cm long with
a 6mm O.D. and a 4mm inside diameter (I.D.). It contains two sections of 20/40 mesh
activated charcoal divided by a 2mm portion of urethane foam. The activated charcoal is
made of coconut shells and is fired at 600 degree Celsius before packing. The absorbing
section includes 100 mg of charcoal and the back-up section, 50 mg. A 3mm portion of
urethane foam is between the outlet end of the tube and the back-up section. Block of
silanized glass wool is in front of the absorbing section.

The procedure for OSHA 7 method to measure 4-PCH is (OSHA 2008):

1. Calibrate the air sampling pump as described before.

2. Clean the charcoal tube and break both ends of the charcoal tube immediately before
sampling to provide an opening at least one-half the internal diameter of the tube (2 mm).
Attach the smaller section of charcoal as a backup to the sampling pump with the Gemini
flow regulator. Air volume varies, but the air volume range used to measure 4-PCH in
this test was between 10.14 to 10.57 liters.

3. After a one hour sampling, disconnect the pump and withdraw the tube, and cap the tube
securely. Label each sample, and send the samples with the blank tube for analysis, on
ice, to a laboratory accredited by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).

Note: Detectable limit required for OSHA 7 method is 3 micrograms.










Figure 3-13. Charcoal tubes (Source: EMSL 2007).

Direct reading method and TSI Q-track

The TSI Q-Track in Figure 3-14 was used to measure carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide,

humidity, and temperature. It calculates dew point, wet bulb and percent outside air as well. This









Table 4-3. Rinker Hall IAQ test results in January 2003 (Source: Thomas C. Ladun 2003).

Lo n R m Dn CH20 PM10 TVOC (ppb) CO CO2
Location Room Description re g ( ( T (F) RH (%)
(ppb) (pg/m3) direct reading (ppm) (ppm)


Room 140
Room 203A
Room 303

Room 328


Classroom
Storage room
Conference room
Graduate students
office
Graduate students


-18.0


0.0 410


1.0 465

0.0 400


Room 336 office -
Note: "-" identifies that this contaminant was not measured.


63.9


69.1

66.8


23.6


36.8

21.1









American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard
62-1999 ........ ................................... .. ........ ..... .... ..................28
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors Association Standard ............30
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Standard ..................................31
Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard............... ... ............... 31
University of Florida Indoor Air Quality Testing Standard ................. ............ .....32
Indoor A ir Quality Guidelines Com prison ........................................ .....................33
Indoor A ir Q quality Sam pling M edia............................................................ .....................33
E conom ics of Indoor A ir Q quality ........................................ ............................................36
Indoor A ir Q quality P problem s ......................................................................... ...................38
Indoor A ir Q quality Solutions ......................................................................... ...................39
S u m m ary ...... ....... .... ......................... .. ....... ..................................... ..................... 4 0

3 RE SEA R CH M ETH O D O LO G Y ........................................ ............................................41

In tro d u ctio n ........................ ................. .........................................................4 1
P hy sical C condition s ................................................................4 1
R in k er H all ................................................................4 2
G e rso n H a ll .............. ................. ..................................................................4 3
Protocol for Indoor Air Quality Testing ...................... ........................44
S am p lin g L o catio n ..................................................................................................... 4 5
C classroom ......... ................ ............................ ...........................46
Faculty/student facility ............... ......... .................47
A ir C o n tam in an ts....................................................................................................... 4 9
S am p lin g T im e ................................................................50
N um ber of A ir Sam ples ............. ........... ..................... .................... .........51
Indoor A ir Quality Test Cost............. ........................... .................. ............... 52
A analytical M methods and Sam pling M edia ....................... ..5.............. ..... ................ .52
National institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) 2016 method
and SG D N PH silica gel tube .................. ... .... ..... .. .. ...... .............. ..54
Environmental protection agency (EPA) TO-17 method and sorbent tube
(carbotrap 300)........................................................................ ............ 55
Direct reading method and TSI dust track aerosol monitor ...................................57
Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) 7 method and charcoal
tu b e .................................................................. ................ .. .. .. 5 8
Direct reading method and TSI Q-track ....... ............... ....... 59
Sum m ary ................................................. ................. ..................60

4 R E SU L T S A N D A N A L Y SIS............................................................................ ...............61

Introduction ................... .... .....................................61
Rinker Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle ....................................... 61
Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle ..................................... 70
Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Comparison Results ........... ...............77
Sum m ary .......... .... .......... ......... ................................... 83

5 C O N C L U SIO N S .... .................................................................................................84


6









Table 4-7. Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle (Source: Johnson Lewis, Bureau Veritas North America Inc., and Thomas C. Ladun).
TVOC TVOC
CO CO2
IAQ Test CH2O PM10 (g/m) (ppb) 4-PCH (pg/m3) c02 T (F) RH (%)
(ppb) (tg/m3) EPA TO- direct (pm) (ppm)
17 method reading
Gerson Hall -
345-
(Dec.03 & 1.4-630 10-38 0-680 68-72 26-30
Jan.04)
Gerson Hall
Mean (Dec.03 71.41 23.00 331.67 -- 550.00 70.00 28.00
& Jan.04)
Gerson Hall
*SD (Dec.03 & 185.54 13.64 340.31 -- 289.91 2.83 2.83
Jan.04)
Gerson Hall 491- 69.0-
GersonHall 5.9-11.0 7.0-10.0 BDL 118-168 BDL 0.4-0.8 491 690- 54.7-72.1
(Feb.08) 616 72.3
Gerson Hall
7.80 8.33 BDL 136.67 BDL 0.60 536.83 71.00 62.60
Mean (Feb.08)
Gerson Hall
Gerso a 2.79 1.37 BDL 19.58 BDL 0.17 52.40 1.15 6.56
*SD (Feb.08)
*SD is Standard Deviation.
Note: Gerson Hall measurements in Dec.03 & Jan.04 are based on all the rooms that were tested during that time.









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 M aximum concentration of contaminants. ............................................. ............... 23

2-2 Maximum indoor air concentration based on USEPA standard.............. ... .............26

2-3 Concentration averaging of air contaminants ........................................ ............... 29

2-4 Minimum ventilation rate and maximum people density. ............................................29

2-5 Maximum concentration of each contaminants based on UF standard. ..........................32

2-6 Indoor air quality testing comparison between LEED and others.............. ................ 33

2-7 Potential annual healthcare savings and productivity gains from improving indoor
env ironm ents ...................................... ......................................................37

3-1 Sampling media, method, and price to apply IAQ test .............. ...................................52

4-1 Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 .................................. ............... 62

4-2 Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED .......................................63

4-3 Rinker H all IA Q test results in January 2003 ........................................ .....................65

4-4 R inker H all IA Q life cycle ........................................................................ ...................67

4-5 Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008.................................................71

4-6 Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED........................................72

4-7 G person H all IA Q life cycle ..................................................................... .....................74

4-8 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison on February 5, 2008 .............................78

4-9 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2003 and 2004.............. ............. 82

E-1 Rinker Hall initial IAQ commissioning data in January 2003............... ...................112

E-2 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall t-Test results based on 2008 IAQ test results .................... 113

E-3 Rinker Hall life cycle t-Test results ............................. ... .................................115









NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM). (2003). "Formaldehyde: Method 2016." 4th
Ed., (2), 2-7.

OSHA (U. S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration). (1994).
"Indoor Air Quality."
STER&p id=13369> (Jan. 10, 2008).

OSHA (U. S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration). (n.d.).
"Organic Vapors."
(Jan. 15, 2008).

SKC Inc. (n.d.). "Formaldehyde Sample Tubes."
(Jan. 11, 2008).

SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Associates, Inc.). (1995).
IAQ Guidelinesfor Occupied Buildings under Construction, 1st Ed., Chantilly, VA.

Spanos, BJ., and Jarvis, J. Q. (n.d.). "Economics of IAQ." Aerias Air Quality Sciences, IAQ
Resource Center,
(Oct. 15, 2007).

TSI. (2002). "Dust Track Aerosol Monitor."
(Feb. 5, 2008).

TSI. (2007). "Q-Track Indoor Air Quality Monitor." < http://www.tsi.com/documents/2980572-
7565-Q-Trak.pdf> (Feb. 7, 2008).

Turner, S., and Lewis, M. (2003). Air Sampling Protocol for LEED Gold Office Project, HPAC
Engineering, Irvine, CA.

UF EH&S (University of Florida Environmental Health and Safety). (2003). "Indoor
Environmental Quality Policy." (Jan. 15, 2008).

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (1991). "Indoor Air Quality and
Work Environment Study." 4.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), and NIOSH (National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health). (1991). Building Air Quality, Washington, DC.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (1999). Compendium of Methodsfor
the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air, 2nd Ed., Cincinnati,
Ohio.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (n.d.). "Indoor Air Quality Topics."
(Oct. 1, 2007).









The procedure for the EPA TO-17 method to measure Total Volatile Organic Compounds

is (USEPA 1999):

Calibrate the air sampling pump as described before.

After taking out the sorbent tube from its supplied plastic cap, connect the sorbent tube to
sampling pump Gemini flow regulator as it is shown in Figure 3-10. Air volume varies,
but the air volume range used to measure TVOC in this test was between 4.85 to 5.54
liters. Typical flow rate suggested in this method is:
o 16.7 ml/min to collect 1 L of air in 1 hour
o 66.7 ml/min to collect 4 L of air in 1 hour

After a one hour period, disconnect the pump, withdraw the tube, and cap the tube with
its plastic cap securely. Label each sample and send the samples with the blank tubes for
analysis, on ice, to a laboratory accredited by the American Industrial Hygiene
Association (AIHA). The analysis for this method was performed by gas chromatography
and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The GC/MS analytical method merges the features of
gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to discover the different particles
within a test sample.

Note: Detectable limit required for EPA TO-17 method is 50 nanograms (0.5 ppb).













Figure 3-10. Air sampling pump connection to Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300) and SGDNPH
treated silica gel tube (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

Besides using the silica gel tube to measure TVOC, direct reading of Photo Ionization

Detector (PID) in Figure 3-11 was used. Photo ionization detector is not approved by LEED

requirement, but EH&S department is in the process of getting this device approved by LEED in

the near future. Photo ionization detector measures TVOC in the ppb range. Therefore, it is also

known as ppbRAE. This device is a screening tool with sensitivity below 1 ppm and threshold of









National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Standard

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is a federal agency that

performs research and provides recommendations for preventing work related injury and illness.

NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the department of

Health and Human Services. The NIOSH's approach to resolve IAQ problems in buildings is

following the IAQ guidelines of building air quality (BAQ) action plan. In 1991, USEPA and

NIOSH determined to work together to create guidelines for preventing, recognizing, and

resolving IAQ problems. The BAQ action plan guideline is mostly for building owners and

facility managers of public and commercial buildings who are in the best position to prevent and

resolve IAQ problems (CDC 2007). The BAQ action plan will be discussed further in this

Chapter as one of the solutions to IAQ problems.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an American institute that

protects the safety and health of workers by implementing standards; offering training classes,

and supporting continual improvement in workplace. In 1994, OSHA offered a proposal for IAQ

to sustain a healthier and safer environment for workers as follows (OSHA 1994):

Industrial and non industrial should control the environment of smoking tobacco
following OSHA requirements.

Employers are required to control specific contaminants and their sources, such as
outdoor air contaminants, microbial contamination, cleaning chemicals, pesticides, and
other perilous chemicals within indoor work environments.

Separate smoking areas and locate them in enclosed rooms that exit directly to the
outside.

Specific provisions are projected to limit IAQ pollution during renovation, remodeling
and similar activities.









hand-held instrument displays up to five measurements simultaneously and it provides a

programmable start and stop time. CO, C02, humidity, and temperature can be measured

instantaneously by reading the monitor (TSI 2007). Details and specification of this instrument

are given in Appendix D.














Figure 3-14. A TSI Q-Track (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

Summary

Particulates (PM10), CO, C02, temperature, and humidity measurements were completed

by direct reading in the field. The silica gel tubes, sorbent tubes (Carbotrap 300), and charcoal

tubes were shipped by EH&S department at UF to the Bureau Veritas North America, Inc.

laboratory accredited by AIHA for analysis of formaldehyde, TVOC, and 4-PCH concentration

levels. The IAQ differences between a LEED certified and a non-LEED certified building were

identified by comparing the results of the test. Details of the sample results are given in Chapter

4.









Based on LEED-EB, development and implementation of IAQ Management Plan for

existing buildings during construction is as follows (USGBC 2005):

Building during construction should meet the suggested design approaches of the Sheet
Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors Association (SMACNA) IAQ
Guideline for Occupied Buildings under Construction which will be clarified further in
this Chapter.

Protect building materials, on-site or installed, from moisture.

Filtration media should be used at each return air grill with a Minimum Efficiency
Reporting Value (MERV) of 8 if air handlers are being used during construction. This is
based on ASHRAE 52.2-1999 standard that will be discussed further in this Chapter.

Change all filtration media right before occupancy and install a single set of final
filtration media.

Remove contaminants that still exist after construction period.

The LEED-EB guideline suggests a minimum two week building flush-out prior to

occupancy with new filtration media with 100 percent outside air following the same method as

LEED. Another LEED-EB approach, to prevent the IAQ problems, is IAQ testing after

construction ends. Indoor air quality testing procedures are the same as LEED requirements with

the required difference in maximum concentration for particulates 20 micrograms per cubic

meter (tg/m3) above outside air conditions and 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH) as of 3 ig/m3 (see

Table 2-1). Indoor air quality management plan during construction minimizes the exposure of

absorptive materials such as insulation and carpeting to moisture and airborne contaminants and

protects the HVAC system (USGBC 2005).

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Commercial Interiors

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Commercial Interiors (LEED-CI) is

another LEED rating system that is being used for Commercial Interiors. The LEED-CI

guideline suggests the same routine as a LEED-EB IAQ management plan during construction.

The LEED-CI guideline also recommends a construction IAQ management plan before









At Gerson Hall, the additional offices under study were office 220 in Figure 3-7C and

study room 233 in Figure 3-7D. Office 220 is an open office with around 205 sq feet and is

located on the north side of the second floor. This office contains two windows on the north side,

desks, and cabinets. Study room 233 is around 111 sq feet and is located on the southeast side of

the second floor. This room consists of a window on the south side of the room; glass door; a

table and chairs; and a white board.










A B









C D

Figure 3-7. Other offices under study in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Graduate student office
336 in Rinker Hall. B) Room 203A in Rinker Hall. C) Office 220 in Gerson Hall. D)
Study room 233 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

Air Contaminants

Maximum concentration of each air contaminant was analyzed based on LEED and LEED-

EB requirements to identify if the LEED certified building offers a better IAQ compare to the

non-LEED certified building.

The air contaminants that were tested include formaldehyde (CH20), particulates (PM10),

total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), 4-phenylcyclohexne (4-PCH) [4-PCH was tested in









APPENDIX E
INITIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST AND T-TEST RESULTS























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Figure D-5. Continued.









Table 4-5. Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 (Source: Bureau Veritas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun
2008).
TVOC TVOC
n R D CH20 PM10 (Gg/m3) (ppb) 4-PCH CO CO2 T RH
Location Room Description
(ppb) (ig/m3) EPA TO-17 direct ([g/m3) (ppm) (ppm) (F) (%)
method reading
Room 121 Classroom 5.9 8.0 BDL 151 BDL 0.5 495 69.0 72.1
Room 220 Open office 7.0 BDL 137 0.8 588 70.7 58.0
Room 233 Study room 6.5 10.0 BDL 121 BDL 0.5 509 70.9 66.7
Room 321 Faculty office 7.0 BDL 118 0.4 491 71.9 54.7
Room 327 Conference room 8.0 BDL 125 BDL 0.6 522 71.2 58.6
Ph.D. students
Room 334 office 11.0 10.0 BDL 168 0.8 616 72.3 65.5
Outside 22.0 108 0.1 383 75.4 64.4
Note: BDL means Below Detectable Limit for analytical method used.
Note: "-" identifies that this contaminant was not measured.









Manage ventilation rate system and contaminants coming from local sources.

Control the outside air supply delivery through the HVAC system to reduce air pollution
released by equipment, building materials, furnishings, products and people.

Design ventilation rates to consider non-smoking areas, indoor humidity, the building
envelope, and air-supply systems in occupied spaces.

Evaluate outdoor air quality and air intake filtration.

Update contaminant concentration guidelines and intake air cleaning requirements when
outdoor concentration levels are elevated.

Summary

In 1995, USEPA stated that "Good IAQ contributes to a favorable learning environment

for students, productivity for teachers and staff, and a sense of comfort, health, and well-being.

These elements combine to assist a school in its core mission, educating children" (USEPA

1995).

Indoor air quality should be considered throughout the construction process of a building

as one of its most important elements. Poor IAQ reduces the value of the design and construction

of the building and affects occupants' health, comfort, and productivity. The IAQ management

before, during, and after construction is an investment in the health of both construction workers

and the occupants of a building throughout its life cycle (Turner and Lewis 2003). Acceptable

IAQ can be achieved if architects select the appropriate materials and design the ventilation

system adequately during the design phase and also contractors and occupants operate and

maintain the building sufficiently during and after the construction phase.

This study compares the IAQ differences between a LEED certified building and a non-

LEED certified building by performing the IAQ test which will be discussed in the next Chapter.









In addressing the effects of indoor environments on health and productivity, the term

indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is also used and addresses a broader range of health effects

like noise, lighting, acoustics, temperature, humidity, odors and anything that affects on indoor

environment (Spanos and Jarvis 2007). Indoor environmental quality includes the subject of

indoor air quality. Indoor air quality is generally concerned with the effects of chemicals such as

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and formaldehyde, biological hazards, and particulates

which will be discussed further in this Chapter (Kibert 2005).

Indoor Air Quality in Commercial Buildings

In 1996, the U.S. Government's General Accounting Office reported that one in five

schools in the United States has problems with IAQ (Bayer et al. 2000). In 1970, energy

conservation became a national concern in commercial buildings. As building design,

construction, operation and maintenance changed to save energy, the quality of indoor air

worsened and building occupants began to report building related symptoms (BRS) such as

headaches, eye irritation, and nose and throat irritation. If architects and contractors design and

construct buildings with acceptable IAQ, building health hazards will be diminished. When the

building is occupied, proper operation and maintenance can reduce IAQ problems. Risk of poor

IAQ is increased by a lack of proficiency and knowledge of how the numerous factors can

contribute to poor IAQ, both during design and construction and after occupancy (Kibert 2005).

Early studies established that poor ventilation and the lack of good control of temperature

and humidity in buildings caused a high percentage of IAQ problems in office buildings and

recent studies show that elevated contaminants and odors also contribute drastically to poor IAQ

(EIA 1999). Indoor air quality in commercial buildings can also be affected by the buildings

themselves such as the activities and processes within the building, outdoor environmental

conditions, and occupant activities (Spanos and Jarvis 2007).









called Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The LEED rating system

provides points for a 'Construction IAQ management plan' to reduce IAQ problems resulting

from the construction process. Construction IAQ management plan helps to sustain the comfort

and health for building occupants (USGBC 2006). It provides two options, flush out and IAQ

testing, to minimize IAQ issues after construction and before occupancy. Indoor air quality

testing protocol is consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

standards. The EQ Credit 3.2 can be earned as one point if the following procedures are applied.

The LEED rating system indicated the following procedures for IAQ Management Plan

after construction and before occupancy (USGBC 2006):

Flush-out: Install new filtration media and flush-out the building by supplying a total air
volume of 14,000 cubic feet (ft3) of outdoor air per square feet of floor area while
maintaining an internal temperature of at least 600 Fahrenheit and, where mechanical
cooling is operated, relative humidity is no higher than 60%. If the space is occupied
prior to completion of flush-out, deliver a minimum of 3,500 ft3 of outdoor air per square
feet of floor area. Minimum ventilation rate of 0.3 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per square
feet of outside air is suggested when the space is occupied. Ventilation should begin a
minimum of three hours prior to occupancy and continue during occupancy for daily
flush-out period. These procedures should be continued until a total of 14,000 ft3 of
outside air per square foot is distributed.

Indoor air quality testing: After construction and prior to occupancy, conduct a baseline
IAQ testing procedure as follows:

o Air Contaminants: Test the air contaminants that are listed in Table 2-1 after all
interior finishes are installed and building is ready to be occupied.
Note: The pre-occupancy IAQ test results do not catch the activities inside the
buildings since the test completes before occupancy.

o Number of Air Samples: The number of air sampling locations depends on the size of
the building and number of ventilation systems. For each portion of the building with
a separate ventilation system, select sampling points for every 25,000 square feet or
for each contiguous floor area, whichever is larger. Include areas with the least
ventilation and greatest source strength.

o Sampling Time: All measurements shall be done during normal business hours with
building operating at normal HVAC rates. Minimum 4 hour period of testing is
required.









American Society Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is

an international organization that was founded in 1894. The ASHRAE's mission is to progress

heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration and provides a sustainable environment

for people. The ASHRAE standard focuses on HVAC and ventilation systems mostly and

proposes guidelines to improve IAQ in the buildings. The ASHRAE standard itself has different

standards and ASHRAE standard 52.1-1992, ASHRAE standard 52.2-1999, and ASHRAE

standard 62-1999 are the standards that suggest strategies to improve IAQ (ASHRAE 2007).

American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.1-1992

The ASHRAE standard 52.1-1992, "Gravimetric and Dust Spot Procedures for Testing

Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter," establishes

procedures to measure the capacity of air cleaning devices to eliminate dust as they become

burdened with a standard synthetic dust. Following components should be measured to remove

these particulate matters (ASHRAE 1992):

Dust spot efficiency, which measures the ability of the filter device to remove dust from
the test air.

Pressure drop, which analyses the effects of the filter on airflow and energy costs. If there
is a low pressure drop, energy efficiency goes higher, and if there is a high pressure drop,
airflow to the HVAC unit is reduced. Therefore, more energy is required to operate the
unit.

Arrestance, which is the amount of synthetic dust a filter can hold.

Dust holding capacity, which is the amount of dust a filter can embrace until it reaches
the specified pressure drop. Higher capacity means the filter can last longer.

American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.2-1999

The ASHRAE standard 52.2-1999, "Method of Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning

Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size," is different from the older ASHRAE standard









Table 2-3. Concentration averaging of air contaminants (Source: ASHRAE standard 62-1999).
Long Term Short Term
Contaminants Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging
Sulfur Dioxide 0.03 ppm 1 year *0.14 ppm 24 hours
Particles (PM10) 50 ig/m3 1 year 150 ig/m3 24 hours
Carbon Monoxide *35 ppm 1 hour
Oxidants (Ozone) *9 ppm 8 hours
Nitrogen Dioxide 0.055 ppm 1 year 0.12 ppm 1 hour
3
Lead 1.5 ig/m3 months
Carbon Dioxide 700 ppm
Asbestos Based on USEPA
Formaldehyde
(CH20) 0.4 ppm
Chlordane 5 ig/m3
Radon Based on USEPA
* Not to be exceeded more than once a year.

Table 2-4 identifies the minimum cubic feet per minute per person and maximum density

of people per 1000 square feet that is recommended for spaces engaged in this research.

Table 2-4. Minimum ventilation rate and maximum people density (Source: ASHRAE standard
62.1-2004).
Minimum Maximum density
Spaces cfm/person of people/1000 ft2
Nonsmoking
Offices 20 7
Lobbies 15 30
Smoking Lounges 60 70
Classrooms 15 50
Laboratories 20 30

Based on ASHRAE standard 62-1999 and ASHRAE standard 62.1-2004, acceptable IAQ

can be achieved following the requirements specified in Table 2-3 and Table 2-4. If these

standards were not accomplished, the following reasons may be involved (ASHRAE 1999):

Indoor air diversity of sources and contaminants.

Factors such as temperature, humidity, noise, lighting, and psychological stress that may
affect occupant acceptance of IAQ.





















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CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This study is determined to compare the IAQ between a LEED certification building and

a non-LEED certification building based on USGBC (LEED) requirements. The LEED certified

building constructed using LEED strategies. Therefore, LEED requirement was used to identify

if a LEED certified building offers a better IAQ compared to a non-LEED certified building.

This study will take an experimental approach. The IAQ test was done with the complete

support of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) department at University of Florida

(UF). The EH&S department at UF usually performs the IAQ test in existing buildings when

there is a complaint about air quality in the building. For comparison study in this research, the

EH&S department provided sampling medias and IAQ test results that were received from

Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. accredited by the American Industrial Hygiene Association

(AIHA). Certain air contaminants (see section Air Contaminants) were tested in two buildings

based on LEED requirements and similar locations in both buildings were chosen to identify the

IAQ differences between the two. This Chapter describes the IAQ testing locations in two

buildings at University, the protocol, and methods that were used to perform the IAQ test in

details.

Physical Conditions

This study was accomplished on the University of Florida campus in two buildings,

Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. The reason these buildings were selected for this study is due to

their similarity in size, occupancy levels, and period of occupancy. Rinker Hall is a LEED

certified building compared to Gerson hall, a non-LEED certified building, at the University of

Florida. Rinker Hall's LEED certification is given in Appendix A.









Table 4-1. Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 (Source: Bureau Veritas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun
**TVOC
*CH20 PM10 (g/m3)OC CO CO2 T RH
Location Room Description (ppb PM10 (gA Tm17 (ppb) direct R
(ppb) (pg/m3) EPA TO-17 (ppm) (ppm) (F) (%)
method reading
Room 140 Classroom 7.6 4.0 21.0 148 0.4 565 71.5 51.0
Room 203A Storage room 8.1 6.0 15.0 163 1.0 852 71.9 57.4
Room 303 Conference room 12.0 5.0 15.0 132 0.4 620 70.7 52.2
Room 322 Faculty office 8.0 25.0 144 0.4 640 69.6 56.2
Graduate students
Room 328 office 8.0 31.0 200 0.3 701 70.6 54.0
Graduate students
Room 336 office 7.0 21.0 143 0.7 673 70.3 54.3
Outside 40.0 120 0.4 412 71.7 78.4


*CH20 is Formaldehyde.
** 1, 4-Dichlorobenzene accounts for all of the TVOC detected on all samples.
Note: "-" identifies that this contaminant was not measured.


2008).


















X196A


X196C
C199B

0115






0125














S19E

G030
BELOl first floor plan.









Figure B-l. Rinker Hall first floor plan.










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Figure B-5. Gerson Hall second floor plan.









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

2-1 Hand-held electronic formaldehyde meter.............. ...................................... ............... 34

2-2 Sum m a canister........... .... ..................................................................... ........ .. ... 34

2-3 D direct sense IA Q m monitor ....................... ......................................................... ..........3 5

2-4 H andheld particle counters ........................................................................ .................. 35

2-5 Optim a M monitor .................................. ... .. ..... ...... .. ........... 36

3-1 Rinker H all ..................................................................................................... 42

3 -2 G person H all ................................................................4 3

3-3 Classrooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall................................. ..............................45

3-4 Faculty offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall.................................... ............... 46

3-5 Conference rooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall............. .............................. 47

3-6 Graduate student offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall ...........................................48

3-7 Other offices under study in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall................... ... .............49

3-8 A B IO S D ryC al D C -L ite ......................................................................... ....................53

3-9 Air sampling pump, SGDNPH treated silica gel tube, and sorbent tube...........................55

3-10 Air sampling pump connection to Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300) and SGDNPH
treated silica gel tube ......................... ........... .. .. ......... ..... ..... 56

3-11 P hoto Ionization D detector ................................................................ ........ ....................57

3-12 A TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor and an Aerosol sample inlet ...................................58

3-13 C charcoal tubes.........................................................59

3 -14 A T S I Q -T ra ck ............................................................................................................. 6 0

4-1 Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart............................... ...............68

4-2 Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart............ ....................................75

4-3 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2008 based on Box Plot chart ............79





















Figure 2-3. Direct sense IAQ monitor. A) IQ-610. B) DSIAQ-PPC. (Source: GrayWolf Sensing
Solutions 2007).

*Direct sense IAQ monitor with the control of mobile PCs in Figure 2-3 has improved
IAQ test ability to obtain the result directly from the PC monitor immediately. This
equipment is an advanced portable device and is very accurate at measuring IAQ
contaminants. The IQ-610 includes an upgradeable electrochemical gas sensor slot that
measures (GrayWolf Sensing Solutions 2007):

o Volatile organic compound within the range of 0.02 to 20 ppm and accuracy of 1 ppb

o Carbon dioxide within the range of 0 to 10,000 ppm and accuracy of+ 3% rdg (of
reading) + 50 ppm

o Carbon monoxide within the range of 0 to 750 ppm and accuracy of+ 2 ppm < 50
ppm, + 3% rdg >50 ppm

o Relative Humidity (RH) within the range of 0 to 100% and accuracy of +2% RH <
80% RH


o Temperature within the range of 15 to 1600 F and accuracy of + 0.30 C


Figure 2-4. Handheld particle counters (Source: GrayWolf Sensing Solutions 2007).









Gerson Hall only since SBR backed carpet installed there], and carbon monoxide (CO). Since

both buildings under study exist and are occupied, carbon dioxide (C02), humidity, and

temperature were required to be tested as well. Table 2-1 shows the maximum concentration of

air contaminants based on LEED and LEED-EB standards.

Sampling Time

The IAQ test in this study was done in existing buildings in a one hour period although a

minimum four hour period of testing is required based on LEED requirements in new buildings.

One hour testing period was determined to be adequate for the purpose of this study for the

following reasons. Since the IAQ in this study was done five years after construction, air

contaminant emission rate typically projected from new paint and furniture such as TVOC were

expected to be reduced. Both buildings were already occupied and it was not possible to find a

four hour period between classes to perform the test. Since some of the sampling equipment for

IAQ measurements could disturb the class by making noise during operation, the test in

classrooms had to be done when they were not occupied. The LEED requirement requires the

IAQ test to be done during normal business hours with normal HVAC operation rates. Since both

buildings were occupied during business hours, security could be another issue if the test was

done in four hours. Finally, primary purpose of this test was identifying IAQ differences between

the two buildings, Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall, and a one hour period of IAQ testing met the

purpose of this test.

The IAQ test was performed in a sunny day in spring on February 5, 2008 from 10am to

1 am in Rinker Hall and from 12pm to 1pm in Gerson Hall. The classrooms and offices under

study were not occupied during testing period. Close time frames were chosen to standardize

ambient air quality and building mechanical system operation as much as possible. In Rinker









were $48,000, then $39,950 per 100 employees could be saved by providing a higher ventilation

rate. For fulltime workers in the US, the cost of sick days is $24,444 per 100 workers. If higher

ventilation rates were provided, $16,394 per 100 workers could be saved (Milton et al. 2000).

Indoor Air Quality Problems

According to the survey by World Health Organization in 1984, almost 30% of our

nation's buildings have poor IAQ (WHO 1984). The USEPA studies indicated that indoor air

pollutions may be two to five times, in some cases 100 times, higher than outdoor pollutions

(USEPA 1991). Since most people spend about 90% of their time indoors, the indoor air

pollution level is a significant concern. In the mid-1990s, researchers demonstrated that one in

five of our nation's 110,000 schools reported poor IAQ, and one in four schools stated poor

ventilation as the main reason of poor IAQ (USEPA 2007).

Hays, Gobbell, and Ganick in 1995 described the following as the main reasons of IAQ

problems in buildings (Hays et al. 1995):

Indoor air pollution sources like formaldehyde in wood products, asbestos in insulation
and fire-retardant building supplies.

Poor design, maintenance, and ventilation system operation (HVAC) that does not heat,
cool and circulate outdoor air appropriately.

Building functions that were not planned or poorly designed for when the building was
built or remodeled.

Chen and Vine's research in 1995 on poor IAQ impact on students and staff in schools was

as follows (Chen and Vine 1995):

Increasing health problems for students and staff such as cough, eye irritation, headache,
asthma, allergic reactions, and possibly life-threatening conditions such as severe asthma
attacks or carbon monoxide poisoning.

Reducing productivity and increasing discomfort, sickness and absenteeism for students
and staff.









occupancy via flush-out and IAQ testing methods. Flush-out and IAQ testing procedures follows

the same guidelines as LEED. The only difference is the proposition to collect the air samples

between 4 feet and 7 feet above the floor. The EQ Credit 3.2 can be earned as one point if the

required procedures are achieved (USGBC 2004).

United States Environmental Protection Agency Standard

Since 1970, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) became responsible for a

cleaner and healthier environment to protect human health and the environment. The USEPA

offers a reference guide for IAQ testing. The USEPA reference guide has two sections including

baseline IAQ testing and independent material testing as shown in the following sections

(USEPA 2007).

Baseline IAQ testing

Based on USEPA in 2007, baseline IAQ testing requires HVAC system verification

based on ASHRAE standard 62-1999 which will be explained in this Chapter. Testing agency

shall confirm the performance of each HVAC system including space temperature, space

humidity, outside air quantity, filter installation, drain pan operation, and any noticeable

pollution sources. Baseline IAQ testing also requires an IAQ testing to be completed by a

professional independent contractor as follows (USEPA 2007):

Testing shall be done in sixteen different locations and on each floor of each office
building excluding the areas with high outside air ventilation rates such as laboratories.

Air samples should be collected on three consecutive days and during normal business
hours with normal operating rates of a HVAC system. Average result of three day test
cycle will determine the concentration level of air contaminants for each air handling
zone.

Inside and outside air sampling of formaldehyde and TVOC contaminates are required to
establish basis of comparison between the two.

Testing shall be done in the breathing zone, between 4 feet and 7 feet from the floor.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Aircuity Inc. (n.d.). "Optima Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Testing Technology."
(Oct. 10,
2007).

Air Toxics Ltd. (n.d.). "Summa Canisters."
(Jan. 20, 2008).

Air Toxics Ltd. (n.d.). "Sorbent." (Feb. 20,
2008).

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (1992).
ASHRAE 52.1-1992, Gravimetric and Dust-Spot Procedures for Testing Air-Cleaning
Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter, Atlanta, GA.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers).
(1999a). ASHRAE 52.2-1999, Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning
Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size, Atlanta, GA.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (2004).
ASHRAE 55-2004, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, Atlanta,
GA.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers).
(1999b). ASHRAE 62-1999, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Atlanta, GA.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers).
(1999b). ASHRAE 62-1999, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Atlanta, GA.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (2001).
ASHRAE 62-2001, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Atlanta, GA.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (2004).
ASHRAE 62.1-2004, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Atlanta, GA.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (n.d.).
"About ASHRAE." (Dec. 3, 2007).

Bayer, C. W., Crow, S. A., and Fischer, J. (2000). Causes oflAQ Problems in Schools, The
Energy Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Revised Ed., Columbia, MO.

Bios International Corporation. (n.d.). "Products." < http://www.biosint.com/Products/> (Nov. 5,
2007).

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (n.d.). "NIOSH (The National for
Occupational Safety and Health)." (Oct. 6, 2007).









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Introduction

The complete IAQ test results including CH20, TVOC, and 4-PCH measurements were

received on February 18, 2008 from Bureau Veritas North America Inc. accredited by the

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). These results were analyzed based on LEED

requirements. In addition, Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle were analyzed. Rinker

Hall's life cycle analysis was based on the IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and initial

commissioning data in January 2003. Gerson Hall's IAQ life cycle was based on IAQ test results

on February 5, 2008 and initial IAQ test results on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004.

Then, the life cycle IAQ comparison was studied between Rinker Hall (the LEED certified

building) and Gerson Hall (the non-LEED certified building). Following sections explain the

results of these studies.

Rinker Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle

Rinker Hall as a LEED certified building had a good IAQ based on LEED requirements

and IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 met the LEED requirements. Table 4-1 shows the

Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008.









using direct reading instruments or media analysis approved by EH&S. Colorimetric
tubes are not acceptable.

At one month subsequent to occupancy: Measure carbon dioxide, humidity, and
temperature. Locate the measuring devices in each occupied ventilation zone and leave
them in each location for at least 24 hours. Consider the data collected during days of
typical building occupancy only.

At one month prior to warranty completion: Measure carbon dioxide, humidity, and
temperature again using the same devices. In addition, sampling for mold contamination
should be done. Collect three samples per air handling zone, plus three outdoor samples.
At least one of the outdoor samples needs to be in the area of the outside air intakes.
Remaining samples can be collected in the area of primary building entrances.

Indoor Air Quality Guidelines Comparison

Table 2-6 compares the maximum concentration level of air contaminants between LEED

requirements and other IAQ guidelines for a short term period of testing.

Table 2-6. Indoor air quality testing comparison between LEED and others (Source: Various).
Contaminants LEED LEED-EB USEPA ASHRAE UF


Formaldehyde
Particulates
TVOC
4-PCH
CO


CO2


50 ppb
50 tg/m3
500 tg/m3
6.5 tg/m3
9 ppm and
no greater
than 2 ppm
above
outdoor
levels
N/A


50 ppb
20 ig/m3
500 ig/m3
3 ig/m3
9 pm and no
greater than
2 ppm above
outdoor
levels


N/A


1000 ppm 700 ppm


Indoor Air Quality Sampling Media

There are different types of IAQ sampling media for each air contaminant in industry that

can be chosen based on selected methods and budget limits. Detailed description of the common

media, approved by LEED requirements and used in this study to perform the IAQ testing, is

given in the next Chapter. Following instruments are some other sampling media to consider for


IAQ testing:


6.15 ppb
20 ig/m3
200 ig/m3
3 ig/m3
9 ppm


400 ppb
150 ig/m3
N/A
N/A
35 ppm


50 ppb
25 ig/m3
300 ig/m3
N/A
4 ppm


1000 ppm


































2008 Roya Mozaffarian













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Figure B-6. Gerson Hall third floor plan.


r









Air sampling pump (Figure 3-9) is required for the SGDNPH, sorbent, and charcoal tubes

to measure formaldehyde, TVOC, and 4-PCH respectively. The air sampling pump needs to be

calibrated before being used for measurement. Total of eight air sampling pumps were used in

this test which includes six air pumps to measure formaldehyde and TVOC and two air pumps to

measure 4-PCH. When the IAQ measurement in Rinker Hall was completed by using six air

pumps, the same air pumps were calibrated in the field to complete the formaldehyde and TVOC

measurements in Gerson Hall and the other two air pumps were used only for 4-PCH

measurement.

There are two different methods of calibration. There is a primary calibration and a

secondary calibration. The LEED requirement approves the primary calibration. Following

procedures describe the field calibration method as the primary calibration, using MSA Escort

ELF sampling pump, completed by Thomas C. Ladun at EH&S department of the UF:













Figure 3-8. A BIOS DryCal DC-Lite (Source: Bios 2007).

1. Set the pump in Figure 3-9 to a standard flow rate of 1.5 L/min (Liters per minute).

2. Attach tubing and Gemini flow regulator shown in Figure 3-9.

3. Insert open media tube into Gemini port.

4. Attach tubing to free end of media tube and attach to outlet port on BIOS DryCal DC-
Lite primary flow meter (Figure 3-8).

5. Turn the air pump and the flow meter on.


































To my dear parents, Zahra Zahedi and Mohammad Ali Mozaffarian, and my sisters, Rozita and
Romina Mozaffarian. This venture would not be possible without their support and love.









paint, plaster veneer, carpet, "terrazzo" floor tiles and VCT (Vinyl Composite Tile), acoustical

ceiling tiles, and frequent use of interior wood finish.

Based on the Gerson Hall specifications, Gerson Hall HVAC design includes 2250 cfm

outside air for AHU1, 4300 cfm outside air for AHU2, 5400 cfm outside air for AHU3, and 4500

cfm outside air for AHU4 based on CO2 levels. Total outside air for the building now is 16450

cfm or 0.41 cfm per sq feet (Rawls 2007).

Protocol for Indoor Air Quality Testing

The IAQ protocol developed in this study is based on LEED requirements. The LEED

guidelines for IAQ testing applies for new construction, but it was used in this study to

investigate if a LEED certified building offers a better IAQ comparison to a non-LEED certified

building. Another requirement that was taken into consideration was LEED-EB (LEED for

Existing Buildings). The LEED-EB guideline is mostly for existing buildings that are willing to

renovate or perform any construction projects when the building is not occupied. Since LEED

has no standards for existing buildings that are occupied, some adjustments had to be made to

provide a reasonable and affordable protocol that can be used in the future to measure IAQ in

existing buildings. The IAQ test was performed in two buildings at UF, a LEED certified

building and a non-LEED certified building, to evaluate the IAQ difference between the two.

Sampling locations to perform the IAQ test in each building were based on the room numbers

from initial IAQ commissioning data of each building 5 years ago. Same locations were selected

to analyze the IAQ life cycle in each building. Simultaneously, the room selections from both

buildings were chosen based on their functionality in order to compare the two. Same air

contaminants (see section Air Contaminants) were measured in both buildings for comparison

purposes with the exception of extra 4-PCH measurement in the non-LEED certified building.

The IAQ test occurred on the same day in both buildings with a one hour period difference





































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Indoor Air Quality Test Cost

Total budget available for this study was $4,500, which was used to take the number of air

samples specified. Funding was provided by the Rinker School through the Rinker Fund. Table

3-1 shows the cost by contaminant for the required samples. Estimated cost provided by Thomas

C. Ladun from the EH&S department of the UF is given in Appendix C.

Analytical Methods and Sampling Media

Same analytical methods and sampling media were used in both buildings to analyze the

IAQ differences. The EH&S department of the UF provided the sampling media and Thomas C.

Ladun, EH&S department coordinator, performed the IAQ test using these media. Table 3-1

shows the sampling media, analytical methods, and the cost to complete the IAQ test in Rinker

Hall and Gerson Hall.

Table 3-1. Sampling media, method, and price to apply IAQ test (Source: Thomas C. Ladun
2008).
Contaminants Sampling media Analytical Total Price Total
method number per cost
of sample
sampling
CH20 SGDNPH treated NIOSH
silica gel tube 2016
method 8 $80 $640
PM10 TSI Dust Track Direct
Aerosol Monitor reading 12 Free $0
TVOC Sorbent tube EPA TO-17
(Carbotrap 300) method 13 $300 $3,445*
4-PCH in Gerson Charcoal tube OSHA 7
Hall Only method 4 $47 $188
CO TSI Q-Track Direct
it measures C02, reading
Humidity and
Temperature as well. 12 Free $0
Miscellaneous
including shipping
fees $227
Total Cost $4,500
* This is a special discounted price.




















Figure 2-1. Hand-held electronic formaldehyde meter (Source: Turner and Lewis, HPAC
Engineering 2003).

*Hand-held electronic formaldehyde meter in Figure 2-1 measures formaldehyde with
sensitivity of 0.01 ppm. This device can record data over time and can be moved to
different locations throughout a floor plan to signify measurements (Turner and Lewis
2003).














Figure 2-2. Summa canister (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

*Summa canister in Figure 2-2 is a stainless steel vessel which has the internal surfaces
specially passivated using a "Summa" process. This process mixes an electro-polishing
step with chemical deactivation to generate a surface that is chemically static. Summa
canisters range in volume from less than 1 liter to greater than 15 liters. 6 liter canisters
are generally used to collect air samples over time. Air sample penetrate the canister
through a high temperature stainless steel bellows valve (Air Toxics Ltd. 2008). Method
to use Summa canister is EPA TO-15. This equipment is capable of detecting parts per
trillion of TVOC. Beside the canister, a sampling regulator is required to follow up EPA
TO-15 method. Regulators manage the flow of air into the canister by grabbing samples
ranging from 5 minutes to 24 hours. Passivated canisters are suggested compare to non-
passivated canisters. Passivated canisters contain an internal coating of glass to allow
difficult compounds inside that non-passivated canisters do not (VanEtten and Dobranic
2003). Canister is approved by LEED to measure TVOC and is suggested to be used if
the 4-hour IAQ testing is required.









Range of propensity in the population.

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors Association Standard

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors Association (SMACNA) is an

international association that provides products and services to businesses. In 1995, SMACNA

proposed IAQ guidelines for occupied buildings under construction. These guidelines discuss the

IAQ management plan during construction as follows (SMACNA 1995):

The HVAC protection: To protect HVAC system during construction, cover seal opening
with plastic, use MERV 8 filters, and clean the ducts. All ducts should be protected
during the construction process to prevent contamination.

Source control: Avoid using toxic materials and exhaust fumes.

Pathway disruption: Protect areas of work by installing temporary seals.

Housekeeping: Control dust entering the site, clean the site, and remove standing water
and spills.

The SMACNA standard recommends the guide to architects, engineers, construction

managers, facility managers, and building owners. The SMACNA standard reaches its goals by

applying the following guidelines (SMACNA 1995):

Follow the ventilation guidelines as ASHRAE standard 62-1999.

Maintain mechanical equipment and building surfaces in sanitary condition.

Separate production sources from occupied space.

Control major sources of contamination.

Perform operations, maintenance, and construction activity in a manner that minimizes
any hazards for occupants.

Provide an IAQ that is acceptable to occupants.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Constructing a building is very complex and many factors need to be considered

throughout the construction process. For example, finishing the project on time and budget,

safety issues, and building maintenance are all important factors. Building owners and managers

who are concerned about finishing the project on time and on budget can easily be inattentive to

significant elements of building management such as indoor air quality (IAQ). The IAQ

approach is the substance of interior air that affects the health and comfort of building occupants.

Indoor air quality is concerned with the effects of air contaminants like carbon monoxide, the

performance of the ventilation system, and the materials being used inside the buildings, all of

which can cause health problems for building occupants (CDC 2007).

As the construction industry embraces sustainable development, IAQ has become a major

concern for building owners and managers. Society is recognizing the importance of healthy,

comfortable and productive indoor environments. Therefore, the demand for good IAQ is

increasing (USEPA 2007).

Problem Statement

In 1995, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ranked indoor air pollution

as an environmental threat to public health. In respond to this threat, the USEPA, the U.S. Green

Building Council (USGBC), and many other organizations started to develop standards and

guidelines to reduce the IAQ issues in buildings. These efforts will be discussed further in the

next Chapter. To investigate the poor IAQ inside buildings, IAQ testing must be done to identify

the causes of the problem. Indoor air quality test analysis identifies the high level of air

contaminants concentration that derives from poor ventilation systems, building materials,









Classroom

Classroom 140 in Rinker Hall in Figure 3-3A is approximately 1275 sq feet and is located

on the southeast corner of the first floor. The windows are on one side of the room with operable

shading devices. The walls are painted with high gloss white paint over Concrete Masonry Unit

(CMU) and sealed exposed concrete. The floor is sealed concrete with vinyl base. Part of the

ceiling, that is painted, has exposed HVAC structure. Major section of the ceiling has acoustic

panels. High efficient lighting inside, besides the natural lighting, is provided by indirect

fluorescent with low voltage electronic lighting dimmer and control system. Furniture inside of

this classroom are student desks, closet, white board, projector, video, and LCD displays.

On the other hand, classroom 121 in Gerson Hall in Figure 3-3B is approximately 1177 sq

feet and is located on north side of the first floor. It has a single window with automatic closure

blinds sensitive to the projector when it turns on. The walls are white painted drywall. The floor

is carpeted with Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) backed carpet and the ceiling has acoustic

ceiling panels. The lighting is provided by an automatic electronic lighting dimmer. The

classroom has moveable furniture with cushioned chairs, white board, projector, computer

desktop, wireless keyboard, video, and LCD display.











S .A B

Figure 3-4. Faculty offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Office 322 in Rinker Hall. B)
Office 321 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).









Rinker Hall

Figure 3-1 shows Rinker Hall's north entrance located at the intersection of Newell Drive

and Inner Road.














Figure 3-1. Rinker Hall (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

Rinker Hall was the first Gold LEED certified building at the University of Florida. Rinker

Hall was designed by Croxton Collaborative Architects and Gould Evans Associates and was

built by Centex Rooney Construction Company. It was occupied in April 2003 and houses the

School of Building Construction. Rinker Hall is approximately 47,300 gross sq feet and includes

a mix of classrooms, teaching labs, construction labs, faculty and administrative offices, and

student facilities.

Rinker Hall uses daylighting with skylights, daylight louvers, and windows all around the

building. Materials being used in Rinker Hall underwent an extensive environmental review

based on chemical composition to reduce health hazards to building occupants. These materials

are either recyclable or reusable and include structural and nonstructural steel products,

aluminum wall panels and glazing systems, railings, cellulose wall insulation, bathroom

partitions, drywall with low or no VOC paint, concrete with fly ash, vitreous tile, and ceiling tile

(USGBC 2006). Materials with renewable substance include wheat board and linoleum. Wood









Chen, A., Vine, E. L. (n.d.). "Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)."
(Oct. 5, 2007).

Corda. (n.d.). "Box Plot Graphs."

(March 5, 2008).

EIA (Energy Information Administration). (1999). "Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption
Survey." (March 24, 2007).

EMSL Analytical, Inc.. (n.d.). "Charcoal Tubes." (Feb. 24, 2007).

Fang, L., Clausen, G., and Fanger, P. O. (1998). "Impact of Temperature and Humidity on the
Perception of Indoor Air quality." Indoor Air, 8, 80-90.

Fisk, W. J., and Rosenfeld A. H. (1997). "Estimates of improved productivity and health from
better indoor environments." Indoor Air, 7(3), 158-172.

GrayWolf Sensing Solutions. (n.d.). "Harnessing the Power of Mobile Computers to Provide
Advanced Environmental Measurements." quality-test-instrument.html> (Nov. 5, 2007).

Haneke, K. E. (2002). 4-Phenylcyclohexene [CASRN 4994-16-5], Review of Toxicological
Literature, Integrated Laboratory Systems, North Carolina, NC.

Hays, S. M., Gobbell, R. V., and Ganick, N. R. (1995). Indoor Air Quality Solutions and
Strategies, New York, NY.

Hessa-Kosa, K. (2002). Indoor Air Quality Sampling Methodologies, Boca Raton, FL.

Hudson, E. (2007). "Indoor Air Quality: Can Your Schools Pass the Test?" The Air
Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration NEWS,
2006 A 10000000000000182571> (Dec. 23, 2007).

INSHT (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo). (n.d.). "Determination of
phenol in air -Silica gel tube method / Gas chromatography."
(Dec. 20, 2007).

Kats, G., Alevantis L., Berman A., Mills, E., and Perlman, J. (2003). The Costs and Financial
Benefits of Green Buildings, A Report to California's Sustainable Building Task Force,
Sacramento, CA.

Kibert, C. J. (2005). Sustainable Construction, Hoboken, NJ.

Milton, DK., Glencross, PM., and Walters, MD. (2000). "Risk of Sick Leave Associated with
Outdoor Air Supply Rate, Humidification and Occupant Complaints." Indoor Air, 10 (4),
212-221.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Scientific evidence in the last several years has signified that the indoor air within

buildings can be more critically contaminated than the outdoor air even in large industrial cities.

Other research designates that people spend approximately 90% of their time indoors. Thus, for

many people, the risks to health may be greater due to indoor air pollution than outdoor air

pollution (USEPA 2007).

Many identified illnesses such as Legionnaires' disease, asthma, hypersensitivity

pneumonitis, and humidifier fever, are called 'Sick Building Syndrome' (SBS) and have been

traced to specific building problems like IAQ. There is no single reason for these health

problems. In some cases, problems begin as occupants enter the building and diminish as they

leave; other times, symptoms prolong until the illness is treated (USEPA 2007).

Building users will be healthier and more productive when indoor air is fresh and free of

harmful fumes, chemicals, and biological contaminants (USEPA 2007).

This Chapter defines the IAQ; summarizes various IAQ standards; introduces IAQ

sampling media and IAQ testing components; and discusses the economics of IAQ, IAQ

problems, and existing IAQ solutions.

Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Quality

Definition of acceptable IAQ based on ASHRAE standard 62-2001 is, "Air in which

there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations, as determined by cognizant

authorities, and with which a substantial majority (80% or more) of the people exposed do not

express dissatisfaction" (ASHRAE 2001).









finishing, furniture, poor maintenance, and many other factors. In this study, an IAQ test

protocol was suggested for IAQ analysis in existing buildings.

Research Objectives

Many involved with the construction industry and green building believe that buildings

with LEED certification have better IAQ compared to others (Kibert 2005). The LEED rating

system outlines measures to reduce the level of indoor pollutants and a LEED certified building

often follows these procedures to establish and maintain acceptable IAQ within the building.

Primary objective of this study is to determine whether a LEED certified building has better IAQ

compared to a non-LEED certified building. Null hypothesis of this study is that LEED certified

buildings have a better IAQ. Secondary objective is to develop a protocol for comparing IAQ in

existing buildings and their life cycle.

Significance of the Study

There is some research that identifies how IAQ measures covered by LEED can improve

IAQ, but there was no comparison study to evaluate the difference between IAQ in a LEED

certified and a non-LEED certified building. This research analyzes and studies the difference

between two buildings at University of Florida based on an IAQ test protocol developed for this

purpose.

Limitations of the Study

An IAQ test was performed in a LEED certification building and a non-LEED

certification building in University classrooms and offices based on USGBC (LEED)

requirements. Budget to perform the test was provided through the Rinker School of Building

Construction at University of Florida. Required instruments to perform the IAQ test was

provided by Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) department in University. Selecting a test

period to conduct the IAQ testing was challenging and one hour period of testing was used in


















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PM10 Gerson Feb.08


582

482

u 382

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O 182


TVOC Rinker Feb.08


TVOC Gerson Feb.08


TVOC Rinker Feb.08


TVOC Gerson Feb.08


Figure 4-3. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2008 based on Box Plot chart. A) CH20 (ppb). B) PM10 (ig/m3). C)
TVOC (ig/m3). D) TVOC (ppb). (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).


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LIFE-CYCLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY COMPARISONS BETWEEN LEED CERTIFIED
AND NON-LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS

















By

ROYA MOZAFFARIAN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


















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2. Clean the silica gel tube and break the both ends just before starting the sampling. Then,
connect the pump to the silica gel tube by Gemini flow regulator.

3. Start the pump and control the time of the sampling period for one hour. Verify the flow
rate before and after the sampling and record the average between the two. Suggested air
pump flow rate in this method is 0.03 to 1.5 L/min. Air volume varies, but the air volume
range used to measure formaldehyde in this test was between 15.05 to 15.56 liters.
Note: If the relative humidity is more than 70 percent, it is recommended to decrease the
sampling volume or increase the absorbent amount.

4. After one hour sampling, disconnect the pump, withdraw the sampling tube, and cap the
tube securely. Then, label each sample and send the samples with the blank tubes for
analysis, on ice, to a laboratory accredited by the American Industrial Hygiene
Association (AIHA).

Note: Detectable limit required for NIOSH 2016 method is 0.1 micrograms. The detectable limit
is the minimum required concentration level to measure the air contaminant based on the
method.
SSorbent tube
Air samln (Carbotrap 300)
Air sampling
pump
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Figure 3-9. Air sampling pump, SGDNPH treated silica gel tube, and sorbent tube (Source: Roya
Mozaffarian).

Environmental protection agency (EPA) TO-17 method and sorbent tube (carbotrap 300)

Required equipment, in Figure 3-9, for EPA TO-17 method are (USEPA 1999):

Air sampling pump: The same air pump that was used for the silica gel tube can be used
at the same time with the sorbent tube (Figure 3-10).

Gemini flow regulator with Gemini port

Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300): It is a stainless steel tube packed with carbopack C (a
weak sorbent), carbopack B (a medium sorbent), and carbosieve SIII ( a strong sorbent)
to capture VOCs (Air Toxics Ltd. 2008). The sorbent tube is typically 1/4 inch (6 mm)
O.D. of various lengths.









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Master of Science in Building Construction

LIFE-CYCLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY COMPARISONS BETWEEN LEED CERTIFIED
AND NON-LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS

By

Roya Mozaffarian
May 2008

Chair: Charles Kibert
Cochair: Robert Ries
Major: Building Construction

Early research on indoor air quality (IAQ) concluded that people spend most of their time

indoors and indoor air quality affects the occupant's health and productivity. In addition,

research on IAQ agreed that the high performance green buildings assure a better IAQ for its

occupants. This pledge motivates building experts to apply Leadership in Energy and

Environmental Design (LEED) strategies to their practices.

Primary intention of this study was to identify whether an existing LEED certified

building has a better IAQ compared to an existing non-LEED certified building with respect to

LEED requirements. Secondary goal of this study was to develop a protocol to analyze the IAQ

in each building and its life cycle. The IAQ test was examined in both buildings on the same day

and at similar physical locations to evaluate the IAQ differences between the two and their IAQ

life cycle. Protocol with defined analytical methods was developed to meet the LEED

requirements along with budget, time, and research limitations. It was found that there are

differences between each building life cycle, and also between the IAQ in an existing LEED

certified building and an existing non-LEED certified building based on the protocol used in this

study and more research needs to be accomplished to encourage LEED strategies for better IAQ.















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APPENDIX

A RINKER HALL LEED CERTIFICATION ................................................ .....................86

B RINKER HALL AND GERSON HALL FLOOR PLANS ...........................................87

C INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST DATA LOGS AND COST PROPOSAL..........................94

D INSTRUMENTS' SPECIFICATIONS ....................................................... .....................99

E INITIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST AND T-TEST RESULTS.............................109

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ......... .. ............... ................. .......................................................... 116

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ......... ................. ............................................. .......................... 120









The OSHA standard provides information and training classes for workers and
employees to educate them how to maintain and operate a building.

University of Florida Indoor Air Quality Testing Standard

The University of Florida (UF) has created its own standard for IAQ testing. This IAQ

testing standard can be used in buildings at UF unless they are LEED certified buildings that

have to follow LEED requirements. Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) department at UF

performs the IAQ test and composes the IAQ requirements under University of Florida

regulations. Table 2-5 illustrates the contaminants and the maximum acceptable concentration

based on UF standards.

Table 2-5. Maximum concentration of each contaminants based on UF standard (Source: UF
EH&S 2003).
Contaminants Maximum concentration
Formaldehyde (CH20) 50 ppb
Total Particulates (PM) 25 .g/m3
Total Volatile Organic 300 ig/m3
Compounds (TVOC)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 1000 ppm
Carbon Monoxide 4 ppm
(CO)
Radon 2 pCi/L (Picocuries Per Liter)
Relative Humidity 30%-60%
(RH)
Drybulb Temperature 69-790 F
Fungi 1/3 outdoor result, similar rank order and no visible
growth

Environmental Health and Safety department at UF regulates criteria for different phases

of construction at UF as follows (UF EH&S 2003):

*Prior to occupancy: Buildings' air shall meet the criteria in Table 2-5 at all times before
occupancy. Minimum of three samples per air handling zone shall be collected and
formaldehyde, TVOC, and dust should be measured to make sure they do not exceed the
maximum level of concentration. Use of low emission materials in building is
recommended to reduce the level of TVOC or formaldehyde. Indoor air quality testing
should be performed by a Certified Industrial Hygienist from UF EH&S department.
Testing must be accomplished while the HVAC system operates normally and the
operation rate must be documented for balance approval. Sampling methods can include










*Handheld particle counters in Figure 2-4 display and record particulates on a mobile PC
monitor. These devices have different sensitivity ranging from 0.1 micro meters to 0.3
micro meters (GrayWolf Sensing Solutions 2007).



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Figure 2-5. Optima Monitor (Source: Aircuity Inc. 2007).

Optima monitor in Figure 2-5 is the testing technology method that Aircuity Inc.
recommended as a new equipment to measure nine key parameters at once to assess IAQ.
Here are the nine parameters: temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, TVOC,
small particles (less than 2.5 microns in size from smoke and dust), large particles (less
than 10 microns in size from dirty carpeting or construction activities), carbon monoxide,
ozone (from outdoor and indoor pollutions like copy machines and air cleaners), and
radon (naturally in the earth, but can accumulate in below-grade areas) (Aircuity Inc.
2007).

Beside the optima monitor and the products that GrayWolf Sensing Solutions offer, there are

many other digital devices in the industry that can measure different air contaminants at once and

are user-friendly, but expensive. Indoor air quality testing professionals, in particular the

certified industrial hygienists, are the best resources to identify the sampling media and methods

that represent the desirable protocol, budget, and time.

Economics of Indoor Air Quality

Low productivity, absence, sickness, the risk of litigation, and unsatisfied occupants

because of poor IAQ has a high impact on investment. Industry and public may know the

benefits of sustainable buildings, especially energy, waste and water conservation, but they are

not aware of the financial and health benefits of providing good IAQ (Spanos and Jarvis 2007).



























CO Jan.03 CO Feb.08


Temperature Jan.03


Temperature Feb.08


Humidity Jan.03


Humidity Feb.08


Figure 4-1. Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart. A) CO (ppm) life cycle. B) CO2 (ppm) life cycle. C) Temperature (F)
life cycle. D) Humidity (%) life cycle. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).


1.75


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Q.
0
8 0.75


0.25


947.25

847.25


747.25

S647.25
0
547.25

447.25

347.25


2 Jan.03
C02 Jan.03


74.95

72.95

70.95

68.95

66.95

64.95

62.95


C02 Feb.08


L!














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6. Press the "READ" button on the flow meter to get an initial flow reading. Adjust the
Gemini flow regulator to the appropriate method flow rate as confirmed by readings
taken from the flow meter.

7. Once the desired flow rate is established, clear the DryCal meter of previous readings and
press the "READ" button to collect ten consecutive flow readings. Average flow rate will
be provided by the Dry Cal meter. This average of ten readings becomes the initial flow
rate in L/min. that is used for sampling.

8. Once sampling is complete, the calibration process noted above is repeated. Final average
reading is combined with the initial average to calculate the final average flow rate for
the sampling period. This flow rate is used to calculate the volume of air collected and is
used to calculate the concentration of the target analysis.

After the calibration is done, then the air pump can be used for measurement. Details and

specification of this calibration device are given in Appendix D and the pump calibration log of

the IAQ test in Appendix C. Here is the analysis of methods with required sampling media to

perform the IAQ test:

National institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) 2016 method and SGDNPH
silica gel tube

Required equipment, in Figure 3-9, for NIOSH 2016 method are (INSHT 2007):

Air sampling pump: An air sampling pump is needed to work non-stop throughout the
sampling period. Details and specification of this instrument are given in Appendix D.

Gemini flow regulator with Gemini port: Gemini flow regulator helps to avoid
bottlenecks and leaks while attaching the tube. Gemini port is a plastic or rubber tube of
suitable length and diameter to connect the Gemini flow regulator to the air pump.

SGDNPH treated silica gel tube: It is a glass tube with two flame sealed ends, 110 mm
(millimeters) length, and 6 mm outside diameter (O.D.). This tube contains a 300
milligram (mg) front sorbent section and a 150 mg backup sorbent section. The sorbent is
silica gel coated with 2, 4- dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH). The tube must be supplied
with polyethylene caps, which should fit properly to avoid leaks during the transportation
and storage of samples (SKC Inc. 2008).

The procedure for the NIOSH 2016 method to measure formaldehyde is (NIOSH 2003):

1. Calibrate the air sampling pump by using the primary calibration method as described
before.









Indoor Air Quality Testing Components

Following sections are the description of major IAQ testing components that should be

considered while performing the IAQ test.

Formaldehyde (CH20)

In 2007, USEPA defined, "Formaldehyde is an important chemical used widely by

industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. It is also a by-

product of combustion and certain other natural processes. Thus, it may be present in substantial

concentrations both indoors and outdoors" (USEPA 2007).

Formaldehyde is a colorless gas that sometimes has a noticeable odor. This chemical

substance could be found in many building materials and products in the building. Some of

theses formaldehyde sources include pressed wood products (hardwood plywood wall paneling,

particleboard, and fiberboard), Urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI), combustion sources,

and environmental tobacco smoke. These materials release the formaldehyde gas into the air and

can cause nausea, headaches, allergic sensitization, asthma, and eye, nose, throat, and skin

irritation depending on people's sensitivity to formaldehyde (USEPA 2007).

Particulate Matter (PM)

Particulate matter (PM) is the term for particles found in the air including dust, dirt, smoke,

and liquid droplets. These particles are categorized into two size ranges, fine particles and

inhalable coarse particles. Particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) are called

fine particles. Particles larger than 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter

(PM10) are referred to as inhalable coarse particles (USEPA 2007).

Particulate matter could be produced from activities during the construction phase and if

dust control is not managed, particles can remain on any surface, especially carpets. Outdoor air

can also be a major source of particulate matter inside the building (USGBC 2006).









o Sampling Location: Air samples shall be collected between 3 feet and 6 feet from the
floor to signify the breathing zone.

Repeat the procedures until all requirements have been met.

Table 2-1. Maximum concentration of contaminants (Source: USGBC 2006).
Contaminants Maximum concentration Maximum concentration
based on LEED based on LEED-EB
Formaldehyde (CH20) 50 parts per billion (ppb) 50 ppb
Particulates (PM10) 50 micrograms per cubic 20 ig/m3
meter (tg/m3)
Total Volatile Organic 500 ig/m3 500 ig/m3
Compounds (TVOC)
4-Phenylcyclohexene (4- 6.5 ig/m3 3 ig/m3
PCH)
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 9 parts per million (ppm) 9 ppm and no greater than 2
and no greater than 2 ppm ppm above outdoor levels
above outdoor levels
*4-PCH test is only required if carpets and fabrics with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) latex
backing material are installed in the building.

From a technical and also logistic standpoint, IAQ testing is preferable compared to flush-

out. Indoor air quality testing method provides hard data that does not rely on the assumption of

a flush out option that can overlook adequate pollutant levels (USGBC 2006). Negative aspect in

IAQ testing is the inconvenience and expense associated with the method which will be

discussed further in this Chapter.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Existing Buildings

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Existing Buildings (LEED-EB) is a

LEED rating system that suggests solutions to prevent IAQ problems for existing building that

are willing to renovate or perform any construction project. The LEED-EB guideline suggests a

construction IAQ management plan similar to LEED requirements and the following describes

the difference. The EQ Credit 3 can be earned as one point if the following requirements are

presented (USGBC 2005).









TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IS T O F T A B L E S ................................................................................. 8

LIST OF FIGURES ................................... .. .... ..... ................. .9

A B S T R A C T ............ ................... ............................................................ 1 1

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... .............................. 12

Intro du action ................... .......................................................... ................ 12
P problem Statem ent ................................................................................................ .... 12
Research Objectives.......... ..................... ........ ... .... ............ 13
Significance of the Study .................. ................................ .. ........ .. .......... 13
Lim stations of the Study .......................... .......... .. .......... ....... ..... 13

2 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W ......................................................................... ........................ 15

In tro d u ctio n ......................... ......... ..... ....................................... ................ 15
Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Quality ...................................................15
Indoor Air Quality in Commercial Buildings...................................................................... 16
Indoor A ir Q quality Testing Com ponents .................................................................... ...... 17
F orm aldehyde (C H 20 )........... .............................................................. .......... ....... 17
Particulate M atter (PM ) ............................................................... ................... 17
Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) ............ .............................................18
4- Phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH ) ......................................................... .............. 18
C arbon M monoxide (C O )......................................................................... ....................19
Carbon D dioxide (C02) .................. ...................................... .. ........ .... 19
Tem perature and H um idity............................................................................. ....... 19
Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System ....................................... .......... 20
Indoor A ir Q quality Testing G guidelines ................... ..................... .....................21
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (USGBC)............... ............... 21
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Existing Buildings......................23
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Commercial Interiors ...................24
United States Environmental Protection Agency Standard .......................... ..........25
B baseline IA Q testing ...................................... ................. .... ....... 25
Independent m material testing ....................... ......... ..... ................. .... 26
American Society Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard.....27
American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard
52.1-1992 ........................................... .. ... ...... ...... ................ 27
American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard
52 .2 -1999 ......... ..... ............. .................................. ........................ 2 7




























































0327 c





0331


0332 0o


3 0333n





Figure B-3. Rinker Hall third floor plan.
















12.65
18.5
11.65-
10.65 C-
0E 13.5
a 9.65 -
O 0o
0 8.65- 8.5-

7.65

6.65- 3.5-

5.65
CH20 Feb.08 -1.5 PM10 Jan.03 PM10 Feb.08
A B



682
-40 x
00
.E Q 582
35
482 -
30
030 -548
Z 382
2- 25

20- 282
w 0
515 182-
0 F-
10 82
TVOC Feb.08 TVOC Jan.03 TVOC Feb.08
C D


Figure 4-1. Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart. A) CH20 (ppb) 2008 results. B) PM10 (pg/m3) life cycle. C) TVOC
(gg/m3) 2008 results. D) TVOC (ppb) life cycle. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).









Table 4-8. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison on February 5, 2008 (Source: Bureau Veritas North America Inc. and
Thomas C. Ladun).
TVOC TVOC
IAQ CH20 PM10 ([g/m3) (ppb) 4-PCH CO CO2
Comparison (ppb) (gg/m3) EPA TO-17 direct (g/m3) (ppm) (ppm)
method reading

RinkerHall 7.6-12.0 4.0-8.0 15.0-31.0 132-200 0.3-1.0 565-852 69.6-71.9 51.0-57.4
(Feb.08)
Rinker Hall
Mean 9.20 6.30 21.30 155.00 0.50 675.20 70.80 54.20
(Feb.08)
Rinker Hall 2.41 1.63 6.12 24.22 0.27 98.35 0.83 1.64
SD (Feb.08)
Gerson Hall 5.9-11.0 7.0-10.0 BDL 118-168 BDL 0.4-0.8 491-616 69.0-72.3 54.7-72.1
(Feb.08)
Gerson Hall
Mean 7.80 8.30 BDL 136.70 BDL 0.60 536.80 71.00 62.60
(Feb.08)
Gerson Hall 2.79 1.37 BDL 19.58 BDL 0.17 52.40 1.15 6.56
SD (Feb.08)









less than 300 ppb with a 10.6 eV bulb to be able to read the results of the TVOC level directly

(Johnson 2007). This instrument has been used extensively at the University of Florida to

measure TVOC in non-LEED certified buildings. Details and specification of this device are

given in Appendix D.


Figure 3-11. Photo Ionization Detector (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

Direct reading method and TSI dust track aerosol monitor

The TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor in Figure 3-12 measures particulates (PM10). This

instrument needs to be calibrated before use. Following steps explain the calibration procedure,

Zero Checking or re-zeroing method, of TSI Dust Track by using aerosol sample inlet (TSI

2002):

1. Set the TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor in survey mode.

2. Put zero filter on aerosol sample inlet.

3. Place the time-constant to 10 seconds. Press and hold the "Time Constant" key until "10"
is displayed, and then release.

4. Wait 10-60 seconds for displayed values to settle to zero.

5. If the displayed value is between -0.001 and +0.001 mg/m3, the Dust TrackAerosol
Monitor does not need any more adjustment. If the displayed value goes beyond this
limit, steps 7 to 9 needs to be followed to re-zero the instrument.
Note: Negative concentration readings indicate that the dust track monitor needs to be re-
zeroed. The negative reading of -0.001 in step 5 is the only time that a negative reading
is acceptable.









The outside air was measured with direct reading instruments only and the results are just

for reference. As shown in Table 4-5, the TVOC concentration level, below 50 nanograms, and

4-PCH concentration level, below 3 micrograms, were below the detectable limits of their

analytical methods. Table 4-6 demonstrates the maximum concentration level of air

contaminants based on Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 2008 and LEED requirements.

The VOC measurement by direct reading was not considered in Table 4-6 measurements.

Table 4-6. Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED (Source: USGBC,
Bureau Veritas North America Inc., and Thomas C. Ladun).
Maximum
MaxiCH2O PM10 TVOC 4-PCH CO CO2
Concentration CH20 PM1 TVOC 4 T (F) RH (%)
Level (ppb) (Gg/m3) (Gg/m3) (Gg/m3) (ppm) (ppm)
Level
1000
ppm
based 68-75 F 30-60%
on based on based on
LEED 50 50 500 6.5 9 USEPA ASHRAE ASHRAE
Gerson Hall 11 10 BDL BDL 0.8 616 72.3 72.1
Note: BDL means Below Detectable Limit for analytical method used.

As shown in Table 4-6, the maximum concentration level of each air contaminant in

Gerson Hall met the LEED requirements. These measurements are acceptable based on LEED-

EB limit as well. Humidity level in rooms 121, 233, and 334 as shown in Table 4-5 were higher

than outside air. Thomas C. Ladun, the EH&S coordinator, explains, "There is nothing obvious

in these rooms that would explain the readings. The cause is most likely due to the HVAC

system and its controls but since I'm not familiar with the system in this building, I can't be more

specific" (Ladun 2008).

The IAQ was initially measured in Gerson Hall prior to occupancy on December 22, 2003

and subsequent to occupancy on January 23, 2004, but unfortunately the documentation of these

measurements did not show the IAQ test results by room numbers except for CH20. Based on

the room numbers that were recorded for CH2O measurements on December 22, 2003, six rooms









A-i Rinker Hall LEED certification summary sheet ........................................... ..........86

B -1 R inker H all first floor plan ........................................................................ ...................88

B -2 Rinker H all second floor plan ................................... ............................ ............... 89

B -3 R inker H all third floor plan ........................................................................ ..................90

B -4 G person H all first floor plan ................................ ............. ........................ ............... 91

B -5 G person H all second floor plan ........................................ .............................................92

B -6 G erson H all third floor plan ...................................................................... ...................93

C-l Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall formaldehyde data logs........... ........... ..............95

C-2 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 method.................. 96

C-3 Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 method and Gerson Hall 4-PCH
d ata lo g s ............................................................................... 9 7

C-4 Indoor Air Quality test cost proposal from UF EH&S department .................................98

D -l Specification for B IO S D ryCal D C-Lite............................................... ..................... 100

D-2 Specification for MSA Escort ELF sampling pump................................ .................. 102

D-3 Photo Ionization Detector (PID) specification..................... ... ...................... 104

D-4 Specification for TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor........................ ................. 105

D-5 Specification for TSI Q-Track indoor air quality monitor..............................................107
























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BFir-mcu Veritas North America, Inc.

REQUEST FOR LABORATORY
ANALYTICAL SERVICES


Date Rosuet Reiqested. St-Ftiv'1 M Tf-l
RushChargesaAulhWred? Yes Co
F aS or ,-mall Result
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Special Instrucile s andLor speftic regulalory raiqutrerennu
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SExpFanation of Preservative
CUENT SAMPLE IDENTIFCAT1ON


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,'-...::., ~ ...- I' -Ai i sn,-, .. l :. ::.. :.I R '.-* I-'i DO e:.pa. -

Ptease return completed fonn and samples to one of the Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. labs listed below: QISTRIBlIN']
Detroit Lab Atlnta Lab L
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Figure C-2. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 method.


4.s


'\









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Roya Mozaffarian was born in Tehran, Iran. She was always interested in arts and

mathematics during her education in Iran. When she moved to United States in 2000, she

realized architecture major could fulfill her ability in arts and mathematics. She completed her

Associate in Arts degree in Miami in 2003 and applied for architecture major in University of

Florida. She completed her Bachelor of Design in architecture in 2006 while she started taking

classes in building construction department. She was interested in the program that building

construction department offered for architecture students, so she applied and completed her

Masters of Science degree in 2008.

While she was studying architecture in 2004, she was working in an architecture firm in

Gainesville. She was a teaching assistant in computer and graphic communication course in

building construction department in 2006. She was an instructor in construction drawing course

since 2007 until she completed her masters.

Upon completion her education, Roya will start working for Balfour Beatty Construction

Company in Virginia to apply her knowledge in construction and architecture.









The IAQ test results of Rinker Hall in January 2003 were acceptable but not completed

based on LEED requirements since CH20 and TVOC concentration level based on EPA TO-17

method were not measured. These IAQ test results met the LEED-EB requirements as well but

were not completed. The IAQ test results of more rooms being tested in January 2003 are given

in Appendix E.

Table 4-4 illustrates the Rinker Hall IAQ test life cycle over the past five years and Figure

4-1 shows the IAQ test life cycle of Rinker Hall based on the Box Plot chart for each air

contaminant.

Note: The values presented in Box Plot charts are based on maximum, third quartile, median,

first quartile, minimum, and outlier calculations by Box Plot. Lighter shade of graph presents the

data between the third quartile and median while the darker shade of graph presents the data

between the median and first quartile. Each quartile represents a quarter of the total sampled

measurements. The first quartile represents the lowest 25% of data and the third quartile

represents the lowest 75% of data. The line between the light shade and dark of graph is the

median, which presents the lowest 50% of data. In some charts, the first or the third quartile is

not shown based on Box Plot chart calculations, but the median is presented as the lowest value

in third quartile and highest value in first quartile. Maximum and minimum values are the

highest and lowest numbers in graph. The outliers, the data that are extremely different from the

other measurements, are presented with cross hatches and are higher than the maximum value or

lower than the minimum value (Corda 2008).









Table 4-4. Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle (Source: Bureau Veritas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun).
TVOC TVOC
PM10 (Gg/m3) (ppb)
IAQ Test C(H20(ppb) p ) P 7 d t CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%)
I (pg/m3) EPA TO-17 direct
method reading
Rinker Hall 7.0-
RnkerHal .0- 300-650 0-2.0 369-465 63.9-72.8 21.1-36.8
(Jan.03) 19.0
Rinker Hall 14.70 394.80 0.80 408.00 67.60 28.70
Mean (Jan.03)
Rinker Hall 6.66 78.69 0.75 31.74 3.35 7.22
*SD (Jan.03)
Rinker Hall 7.6-12.0 4.0-8.0 15.0-31.0 132-200 0.3-1.0 565-852 69.6-71.9 51.0-57.4
(Feb.08)
Rinker Hall 9.23 6.33 21.33 155.00 0.53 675.17 70.77 54.18
Mean (Feb.08)
Rinker Hall 2.41 1.63 6.12 24.22 0.27 98.35 0.83 1.64
*SD (Feb.08)
*SD is Standard Deviation.
Note: Rinker Hall measurements in Jan.03 are based on all the rooms that were tested during that time.









APPENDIX B
RINKER HALL AND GERSON HALL FLOOR PLANS









causes discomfort for occupants. Increasing outside air for ventilation is not the solution to IAQ

problems. Additional outside air could bring contaminants into the building or could reduce

building occupant comfort because of insufficient heating or cooling capacity. Different types of

HVAC systems can be found in commercial buildings based on building size; occupant

activities; climate; and even building age, which can affect the amount of space available for

HVAC components above the ceiling (Hays 1995).

The HVAC system should operate to remove polluted inside air and replace that with

filtered (for PM) outside air. The ASHRAE standard 62-2001 required a minimum of 15 ft3/min.

of outside air supply for each occupant. Inadequate supply of air can increase the carbon dioxide

level above the ASHRAE standard of 700 parts per million (ppm). Low CO2 levels identify over-

ventilation of zones. Over-ventilation can waste energy, break down equipment, and create

comfort problems for occupants (Hudson 2007).

Proper filter maintenance is critical to keep HVAC ductwork clean. If dirt builds up in the

ductwork and relative humidity reaches the maximum desired percentage, then bacteria and mold

can grow. It is significant to follow the ASHRAE standard recommendations of the filter

manufacturer and HVAC system provider to maintain and change filters (ASHRAE 1999).

Indoor Air Quality Testing Guidelines

Sources of IAQ hazards can be identified by testing the concentration of air contaminants

inside the buildings. There are diverse guidelines that suggest IAQ testing methods. Following

paragraphs briefly describe these standards.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (USGBC)

The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in 1993 was founded to address high

performance green building practices. From 1993 to 1998, USGBC developed a rating system to

assess a building's efficiency and environmental impacts (Kibert 2005). This rating system was









6. Press and hold the "Calibrate" key and wait for the display to attain 0, and then release
the key right away to see the message "Calibrate Zero". If this message did not show, try
again.

7. Press the "Sample" key and wait for the 60-second countdown. When countdown is
finished, the current calibration constant will be displayed.

8. Press the "Calibrate" key again to go back to survey mode. The calibration process is
now completed.

The TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor is a portable, battery-operated laser photometer that

provides a real-time digital readout by a built-in data logger. It measures particles and dust by

cutting the particle size and matching them with the ISO/CEN standard of 4 microns based on

light-scattering principles (TSI 2002). Particulates (PM10) concentration level can be measured

directly from reading the monitor. Details and specification of this media are given in Appendix

D.








Aerosol
sample inlet




Figure 3-12. A TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor and an Aerosol sample inlet (Source: Roya
Mozaffarian).

Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) 7 method and charcoal tube

Based on LEED requirements, measuring 4-PCH is required only if SBR carpeting being

installed in the building. Gerson Hall was the only building that needed to be tested for

measuring 4- Phenylcyclohexene. The OSHA 7 method was used to measure 4-PCH.

Required equipment, in Figure 3-13, for OSHA 7 method are (OSHA 2008):













947.25

847.25


-747.25
E
S647.25
547.25
U 547.25


447.25

347.25


CO Feb.08


C02 Feb.08


60

S50
E
z 40


Humidity Feb.08


Temperature Feb.08


Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart. A) CO (ppm) 2008 resluts. B) CO2 (ppm) 2008 results. C)
Temperature (OF) 2008 results. D) Humidity (%) 2008 results. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).


E 1.25
Q.
0
o 0.75


-0.25


74.95


72.95

70.95

68.95
E
Q.
S66.95
I-


64.95

62.95


Figure 4-2.


u









humidity level of 30% to 60% and in the summer as 730 F to 790 F, with a relative humidity

level of 30% to 60% (ASHRAE 2004).

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is one of the important causes

of IAQ problems. In 1987, NIOSH reported the lack of sufficient ventilation as an IAQ problem

in around 53% of buildings (CDC 2007). According to U.S. Government's General Accounting

Office in 1996, 36% of the schools reported HVAC system as an inadequate building element

(U. S. GAO 1996).

Ventilation systems can be mechanical or natural. When mechanical ventilation is used, air

flow measurement is required. When natural ventilation is provided, ventilation sufficiency shall

be verified. If natural ventilation is insufficient to meet ventilation air requirements, mechanical

ventilation needs to be provided. Energy recovery ventilation systems should be used to meet

ventilation requirements (ASHRAE 1999). In 1973, ASHRAE standard recommended 5 cubic

feet per minutes (ft3/min.) per person as a minimum requirement for ventilation to measure

energy conservation. At the same time, architects were designing building envelopes that were

more resistant to air penetration through windows and doors and the construction industry was

presenting new building materials which off-gassed. These issues produced more indoor air

pollution that affected the proper operation of ventilation systems (Hays 1995).

All occupied buildings need a supply of outdoor air. Before the air is circulated into the

occupied space, it may need to be heated or cooled depending on outdoor air conditions. As

outdoor air is distributed into the building, indoor is exhausted and removes air contaminants

(USEPA 1991). The HVAC system can affect IAQ in two ways: The HVAC system can either

be a source of contamination or it can provide a pathway for other contaminants to move through

the building. The HVAC system needs to be designed and maintained sufficiently; otherwise, it









Table E-1. Rinker Hall initial IAQ commissioning data in January 2003.
Dust TVOC Temp. CO
Room # (ug/m3) (ppb) (OF) RH (%) (ppm) CO2 (ppm)
138 7.0 370.0 64.2 22.3 1.0 369.0
106 400.0 68.6 36.6 2.0 410.0
110 320.0 -
125 400.0 -
140A 300.0 -
140 420.0 -
136 300.0 -
203 300.0 -
203A 18.0 350.0 63.9 23.6 0.0 410.0
201 450.0 -
215 72.8 31.5 1.0 394.0
230 360.0 -
202 300.0 -
201 450.0 -
240 400.0 -
238 350.0 -
305 400.0 -
310 450.0 -
315 500.0 -
324 400.0 -
325 500.0 -
328 69.1 36.8 1.0 465.0
334 400.0 -
303 350.0 -
301A 350.0 -
c399A 19.0 650.0 -
336 400.0 66.8 21.1 0.0 400.0









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who helped me complete my thesis.

First, I would like to thank my committee chairman, Dr. Charles Kibert for his support

throughout my course of study and for giving me the opportunity to work in a very interesting

area. I would also like to thank my cochairman, Dr. Robert Ries and my committee member, Dr.

Svetlana Olbina for all the encouragement and guidance during this study.

I would like to extend my appreciation to Thomas C. Ladun, Environmental Health and

Safety (EH&S) coordinator. This study would not be completed without his assistance. I would

also like to thank Vince Mcleod in the EH&S department, Troy D. Miles and Mr. Edward Gray

Rawls in Architecture and Engineering department of Physical Plant division, David Heather in

Facilities Planning and Construction department, Sandy M. Subach in Gerson Hall, and Sallie

Schattner in Rinker Hall for their help and support through this study.

I would like to thank my parents, Zahra Zahedi and Mohammad Ali Mozaffarian, and my

lovely sisters, Rozita Mozaffarian and Romina Mozaffarian, for their encouragement and

complete support throughout my education. They minimized the burden of my study with their

support and love. I appreciate my mom for being there for me whenever I needed. She provided

a comfortable and lovely environment for me throughout my education period. Her spirit and her

positive attitude helped me to complete my thesis. I appreciate my dad for encouraging my

education. He has always been an inspiration to me.

















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Figure D-4. Continued.


Mir.









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

The IAQ test results of Rinker Hall (the LEED certified building) were different compared

to Gerson Hall (the non-LEED certified building). The CH20, TVOC, and CO2 concentration

levels in Rinker Hall as a LEED certified building were significantly higher than Gerson Hall as

a non-LEED certified building based on statistical analysis, five years after construction. There

were differences among each building's IAQ life cycle as well. The C02, temperature, and

humidity concentration levels in Rinker Hall on February 5, 2008 were higher than January 2003

results. The temperature and humidity levels in Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008 were higher

than January 23, 2004 results.

Based on the Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle analysis over five years, annual

measurements of C02, temperature, and humidity are recommended in existing buildings to

analyze the IAQ. Annual HVAC inspection is also recommended to make sure it operates

correctly with proper ventilation and outdoor air flow rate. Direct digital control systems for

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) simplify the temperature and humidity

measurements by direct reading from the HVAC control monitor. The low concentration level of

other contaminants in IAQ test results indicated that measuring the other contaminants measured

in this protocol is not necessary unless building renovation or remodeling occurs.

In order to analyze the IAQ in constructing a new building, it is suggested to perform the

IAQ test before and after occupancy. Annual inspection is recommended based on LEED

requirements.

If the IAQ test needs to be done in existing buildings, it is suggested to perform the test in

different seasons to inspect the HVAC system operation and the effects of outside temperature

and humidity on inside IAQ. Occupancy level of the existing building needs to be recorded in

















DUSTTRAK'

Aerosol Monitor


The D15TTPL'K Aernmr Manitoar memaure
aeToals iIn a rWe raneri of enerimimn, foma
offices and industrial waclplaces cta mtutar enviLran
mental and ccutruction atie TS 'i IXTsLITBA
provides reliable expQnte nenmeit by nmesrimng
particle onccntrationu cone5crraing to PM10,
PM2.5, PM1.0 rrespirable sime fcrtions.

The D3ISTT.AK is a portabLe, bateraroperated las
phtometer wIhich eLves.c a realtime digital
readnut with the added benefits of a triltrint data
lner. Suitable [ir clean offIre sEttingr ia Well as.
harsh industrial wiorkplices andid cbtd app]ika,
titans, the DUSTTBLAK detects potential problems
with .iTrbrne oncamninnts csuh as dust, smoes,
fumes and mists.
The DUsbTTrA.K is easy to use, o. Ycu can Ferfrm
quick spct cLecks or yu can propam the admanced
lgginrg smodse for Longterm sampling. Ycu can pro-
gram the startstop times, recardicn inte vals-rd
other parameers. Ycu can even set up the iustru-
mient k cacuinnar uniantteinded operiatin.

The DLrTTAK' new continuous anakg output
and adjustable alarm otput Ualow remoe access to
real-time partlcl concennrtirin data. Applicatoins
include iLte perimeter icnitcarDnE, ambicnt mani'
tcrinf, process area manLtcring and other remote
uses. Ths alarm output rith uscdefined setpoint
alerts you when upset or chniLngi ccnadians
cccur. This Eature allow. m u to program a switch
clsurme at acctncentratci value ct yar choanig.


--, j
-'~/ *.


The DUTTRAKL provides a rel-time measurement
based on 9P light scatterEig. A purrp drms the
sample aeaso: through un optuic chamber where it
is measured. A sheath air system i~bltes the aerosa
in the camber to keep the optis clean for
improved reiabiitT and low maintenance.


TSr -


Figure D-4. Specification for TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor.


W









The TVOC, direct reading, mean concentration and humidity mean value in Rinker Hall

in January 2003 were higher than Gerson Hall mean results on December 22, 2003 and January

23, 2004 as shown in Table 4-9. PM10, C02, and temperature mean concentration in Gerson

Hall on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 were higher than Rinker Hall mean results in

January 2003.

Summary

Since the primary purpose of the IAQ test on February 5, 2008 was an IAQ comparison

between the two buildings, the comparison study between Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall based on

IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 was more helpful than the study based on initial IAQ test

results 5 years ago. The initial IAQ tests in both buildings were done 5 years ago to identify the

IAQ in each building individually not for comparison purposes. Chapter 5 explains the

conclusion that was drawn in this study based on the analysis of IAQ test results.









Particulate matter can cause health problems, especially PM10 particles, which can affect

your lungs and heart and sometimes can even get into your bloodstream (USEPA 2007).

Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC)

In 1995, NIOSH stated that 17% of IAQ surveys have recognized volatile organic

compound as the cause of IAQ problems. Total volatile organic compound is the mass of all the

individual Volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the air. Volatile organic compound consists of

all organic compounds with up to twelve carbons in their molecular composition. These organic

compounds evaporate at normal pressures and temperatures (Hess-Kosa 2002).

Concentrations of many volatile organic compounds are higher indoors (about ten times)

than outdoors. Volatile organic compounds originate from many building materials including

wood, paint, plastics, old carpets, PVC floor covering, and glues. Outside air, chemical gasses of

furnishings, office equipment such as copy machine toner, cleaning products, perfume, mold and

fungi also give off VOCs. Total volatile organic compound effects on health could result in

headaches; eye, nose, and throat irritation; dizziness; and even cancer (USEPA 2007).

4- Phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH)

In 2006, USGBC guideline defined the 4-PCH, "A compound whose odor is easily

noticeable at very low levels and is known as 'new carpet' odor. It is emitted from the Styrene

Butadiene Rubber (SBR) binder that some manufactures used to hold carpet fibers and backing

together" (USGBC 2006).

The 4-PCH is one of the 12 most common elements of VOC emitted by 19 carpets backed

by SBR latex. Symptoms caused by 4-PCH presence, which can be recognized either

immediately or after the new carpet installation, could be eye irritation, headaches, rashes,

fatigue, nausea, excessive thirst, dry mouth, burning of eyes, nose and sinuses, sore throat, itchy

skin, burning feet and legs (Haneke 2002).






















C.
E

x
0


S1.25
a.

8 0.75


0.25


-0.25


CO Gerson Feb.08
















Temperature Gerson Feb.08



Temperature Gerson Feb.08


947.25

847.25

747.25

647.25

547.25

447.25

347.25


C02 Rinker Feb.08


C02 Gerson Feb.08


80

70

g60

- 50
E
I 40

30

20


Humidity Rinker Feb.08


Humidity Gerson Feb.08


Figure 4-3. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2008 based on Box Plot chart. A) CO (ppm). B) CO2 (ppm). C)
Temperature (OF). D) Humidity (%). (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).


2.25


CO Rinker Feb.08





















Temperature Rinker Feb.08


74.95

72.95
U-
70.95

2 68.95

E 66.95
I--
64.95

62.95









Subsequent to Occupancy


Radon Gas
Radon gas levels are to be < 2.0 Pico Curies per Liter. Indoor radon monitoring occurred January
9 13, 2004. All levels measured were below the 2.0 Pico Curies per liter limit. The separate
radon report is attached.


Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide levels are to be < 1,000 parts per million during normal occupation of the
building as an indication that adequate fresh air is being delivered to the building spaces.
Measurements in January 23, 2004 during occupancy indicate the carbon dioxide levels range
from 345 755 parts per million. These levels are well within the guideline.


Relative Humidity
Relative humidity levels are to be in the range of 30 60% to maintain occupant comfort, prevent
static electrical build-up, and to prevent microbial growth. Measurements on January 23, 2004
indicate the relative humidity level is in the range of 26 30%. These levels are low, and will be
checked again in February.


Temperature
Temperatures are to be in the range of 69 790 F to maintain occupant comfort. Temperature
measurements were collected on January 23, 2004. Some of the temperatures on the first and
second floors were below 690 F, ranging from 68 720 F. The temperatures will be checked
again in February. There have been no complaints due to the low temperatures.


Summary
In general, this building air quality is within the established guidelines. Areas out of compliance
for formaldehyde, voc, and airborne dust appeared to be related to on-going construction work.
Follow-up sampling for dust, relative humidity and formaldehyde is scheduled for the first week
of February. The final round of sampling will occur in November 2004 before warranty
completion.


Signed: January 30, 2004
Lewis Johnson, CIH
Coordinator, UF EH&S



















Clayton Group Services, Inc.
A Bureau Verit Company

REQUEST FOR LABORATORY
ANALYTICAL SERVICES


.. .. r r 7*










B iDetralt Refalit Lab Atlma Rflegi Lab Seam:. 5ll5 55ia_ Lab_
4 .jateheC.I d .f 1 .-: r Mn n Pa Stal Wy S .. Laboratory
l .J b ".r r C, E. c h .- 4 e 3




Novi. MI 48375 F irm._ !: 3.1.1" Seals. WA S3134 Yetow. Cilyton AcoAiinlog
(8,0. .-5q 87 i '.1:Z .2-il (t. ) 5&-775S P nk C.ient C- py
(18B) 344-1 T77 .l1 i 0:, Ct) 763-73 4
FAX s(2 34r1-265 ompled fm 1-d 7mpls FAX (2061) 73-41as 1&d 05 2CK




Figure C-1. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall formaldehyde data logs.


F------LMP--0RTANT









Table E-2. Continued.


CH20 CH20 TVOC TVOC CO2 CO2
(ppb) (ppb) ([g/m3) ( 3g/m3) (ppm) (ppm)
Rinker Gerson Rinker Gerson Rinker Gerson
Mean 9.23 7.80 21.33 0.00 675.17 536.83
Variance 5.80 7.77 37.47 0.00 9671.77 2746.17
Observations 3 3 6 6 6 6
Pearson
Correlation 1.000 #DIV/0! 0.631
Hypothesized
Mean
Difference 0 0 0
df 2 5 5
t Stat 6.557 8.537 4.405
P(T<=t) one-
tail 0.011 0.0002 0.003
t Critical one-
tail 2.920 2.015 2.015
P(T<=t) two-
tail 0.022 0.0004 0.007
t Critical two-
tail 4.303 2.571 2.571


*Pearson Correlation value
was below detectable limit.
Note: The confidence level


for TVOC in Gerson Hall is not clear since TVOC

was 95%.


concentration level in Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008









Carbon Monoxide (CO)

American Medical Association reported that 1,100 people die annually and over ten

thousand people need medical attention because of carbon monoxide exposure. Carbon

monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and flammable gas that results from the

incomplete combustion of natural gas, gasoline, kerosene, oil, propane, coal, wood, and

cigarettes (Hess-Kosa 2002).

Health effects of this compound on people could be chest pain, impaired vision and

coordination, headaches, dizziness, confusion, nausea, and flu. Severe effects are caused by

configuration of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood, which reduces oxygen intake (USEPA 2007).

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide, a colorless and odorless toxic gas, is a direct health concern since building

occupants exhale CO2. Primary sources of CO2 can be found in confined spaces like enclosed

offices with no air supply, overcrowded spaces like classrooms, and high activity areas like

health clubs. Carbon dioxide can also be created indoors by cooking, space heaters, wood

burning, and tobacco smoke. Carbon dioxide health effects on humans can be increases in heart

rate, headaches, exhaustion, nausea, vomiting, and unconsciousness (Hess-Kosa 2002).

Temperature and Humidity

Temperature and humidity have a significant impact on indoor air pollution levels.

Acceptable levels of IAQ decrease with an increase in air temperature and humidity, as such

increases affect air pollution levels, such as mold growth (Fang et al. 1998). Temperature and

humidity comfort levels depend on many factors as air conditioner operation rates, seasons,

location, and also each other. For instance, 680 Fahrenheit (F) temperature in winter in an office

can be comfortable if the relative humidity level is around 30%. The ASHRAE standard 55-2004

indicates the comfort level of indoor temperatures in the winter as 680 F to 750 F, with a relative









Increasing the likelihood that the school or portion of the school will have to be closed
and occupants relocated producing negative publicity which could damage the school's
reputation and effectiveness presenting potential liability problems.

Indoor Air Quality Solutions

Construction Management plan by USGBC, as indicated before, is one of the solutions to

IAQ problems during construction and also before occupancy, after construction is done.

In 1991, USEPA and NIOSH recognized the BAQ (Building Air Quality) action plan as a

high-quality facility management practice. The BAQ action plan is a helpful resource that

considers the operation and maintenance of a building with good IAQ without increasing the cost

and the amount of work to maintain the building. The BAQ action plan suggested 8 steps to

reduce health risks, increase comfort and productivity, and reduce threats of litigation from IAQ

problems as follows (USEPA 1991):

1. Assign an IAQ manager to be responsible for IAQ activities within the building.

2. Prepare an IAQ profile of your building by reviewing the existing records and collecting
the data for current IAQ situation in the building.

3. Concentrate on existing and potential IAQ problems to resolve the existing issues and
avoid the potential problems such as pollution resources and proper ventilation system.

4. Educate building occupants about IAQ management to identify IAQ problems.

5. Develop and apply a plan for facility operations as HVAC system operation and
maintenance as housekeeping schedule.

6. Control processes with main pollutant sources including renovation, painting, pest
control, and smoking.

7. Communicate with occupants about their position in preserving good IAQ.

8. Set up procedures to respond to IAQ problems.

Following solutions can be found in ASHRAE standard 62.1-2004 as acceptable

ventilation and IAQ in buildings (ASHRAE 2004):














t


C /


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Figure D-5. Specification for TSI Q-Track indoor air quality monitor.


pr:
r*3

,,.,. I









At Rinker Hall, conference room 303 in Figure 3-5A is about 646 sq feet and is located on

the northeast side of the third floor. Natural light penetrates through the large windows all around

the room. This room consists of a table and chairs, book shelf, and white board. On the other

hand, conference room 327 in Gerson Hall (Figure 3-5B) is about 727 sq feet and is located on

the north side of the third floor. This room contains a window on one side of the room; desk and

chairs; wireless key board, and frequent use of interior wood finish.










A B

Figure 3-6. Graduate student offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Office 328 in Rinker
Hall. B) Office 334 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

At Rinker Hall, graduate student office 328 in Figure 3-6A is around 397 sq feet and is

located on the south side of the third floor. This office contains a frosted glass window to the

hallway, eight cubicles, and desks. On the other hand, Ph.D. student office 334 in Gerson Hall in

Figure 3-6B is located on northeast side of the third floor. This office includes a window, a book

shelf, and five desks.

At Rinker Hall, the other offices under study were graduate student office 336 in Figure

3-7A and room 203A in Figure 3-7B. Office 336 is about 471 sq feet and is located on the south

side of the third floor. This office includes a window on the east side of the room, desks, and

book shelves. Room 203A is about 72 sq feet and is located on the north side of the second floor.

This room is a storage room full of boxes and paperwork that opens to the Affordable Housing

department entry room.









Based on Gerson Hall IAQ test report on December 22, 2003, the high levels of CH20

and TVOC during that time was due to the new furniture delivered then and the high level of

PM10 was due to the close distance to the construction work area. Since the actual data for

Gerson Hall initial IAQ test measurements in 2003 was not available, it was not possible to apply

the t-Test (Paired Two Sample for Means). Even though, the CH20 data was available, but the

CH20 sample size in 2003 was not equal to 2008 sample size and it was not possible to apply the

t-Test to compare the two data. As it has shown in Table 4-7 and Figure 4-2, CH20, PM10, direct

reading of TVOC, and humidity concentration levels had changed extensively over the past 5

years. On February 5, 2008, the mean humidity level was more than two times higher than

January 2004 mean results. Mean temperature level on February 5, 2008 was slightly higher than

January 2004 mean results. On December 22, 2003, the CH20 mean concentration level was

more than 9 times, PM10 mean level, was about 3 times, and direct reading of TVOC mean

concentration level was more than two times higher than February 2008 mean results. The CO2

mean level on January 23, 2004 was slightly higher than February 2008 mean results.

Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Comparison Results

The IAQ test was done in both buildings on February 5, 2008 with an hour difference and

for one hour period in each building. Same air contaminants were measured with the exception

of 4-PCH measurement in Gerson Hall since SBR latex carpets were installed in Gerson Hall.

Room selections in both buildings to perform the IAQ test were based on the similar

functionality of the rooms in order to analyze the comparison results accurately. Table 4-8

compares the results of the IAQ test in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008 and

Figure 4-3 shows these comparison results based on Box Plot chart for each air contaminant

being tested in both buildings. The 4-PCH measurement was not shown in Figure 4-3 since this

contaminant was not measured in Rinker Hall.









Faculty/student facility

At Rinker Hall, the offices follow an open plan. The walls are painted with high gloss

white paint over veneer plaster and only the conference rooms, office of the director and faculty

members have full height walls. The windows in the offices are designed for daylighting with

horizontal blinds and lights are recessed fluorescent with a parabolic reflector. The floors are

carpeted with Crossley nylon carpets. The ceilings consist of suspended acoustic tiles. Acoustic

system in offices is designed with extended partitions to the deck above with sound attenuating

blankets to minimize noise transmission between spaces.

On the other hand, at Gerson Hall, the offices open into a corridor with a single window

at the end which creates a dark corridor. The offices are carpeted with Styrene Butadiene Rubber

(SBR) backed carpet. The walls are painted white over drywall and the ceilings contain acoustic

ceiling panels.

The faculty office 322 in Rinker Hall (Figure 3-4A) is around 140 sq feet and is located

on the west side of the third floor. This office consists of a Low E-window, a desk, and a book

shelf. On the other hand, the faculty office 321 in Gerson Hall (Figure 3-4B) is around 153 sq

feet and is located on the northwest side of the third floor. This office includes a sliding window,

a desk, and a book shelf.










A B

Figure 3-5. Conference rooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Room 303 in Rinker Hall. B)
Room 327 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).









materials were specified to invent from certified and sustainable forests as endorsed by the Forest

Stewardship Council (USGBC 2006).

Based on Rinker Hall specifications, Rinker Hall HVAC design includes 7695 cubic feet

per minute (cfm) outside air for Air Handling Unitl (AHU1) and 7695 cfm outside air for AHU2

and an additional 6000 cfm outside air that added as needed to keep the building air pressure

positive compared to outdoors. Total outside air for the building is 21390 cfm or 0.45 cfm per sq

feet (Rawls 2007).

Gerson Hall

Figure 3-2 shows the north entrance of Gerson Hall located at the intersection of 13th

street and Union Road.














Figure 3-2. Gerson Hall (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

Gerson Hall, the Fisher School of Accounting, is not LEED certified. Gerson Hall was

designed by Cannon Design firm and was built by Holder Construction Company. It was

occupied in December 2003. It is approximately 39,640 gross sq feet and consists of classrooms,

study lounges, auditoriums, faculty and administrative offices, and student facilities.

Materials used in Gerson Hall exterior include CMU (Concrete Masonry Unit) with brick

veneer finish, sheet metals, storefronts, curtain wall glazing systems, and clay tiles pitched roof

with bitumen flat roof. Gerson Hall interior materials contains painted dry wall with atop GWB









Table 4-9. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2003 and 2004 (Source: Thomas C. Ladun and Johnson Lewis).
TVOC TVOC
IAQ CH20 PM10 ([g/m3) (ppb) 4-PCH
Comparison (ppb) ([g/m3) EPA TO-17 direct ([g/m3) (ppm) 2 (ppm) T (F) RH (
method reading

RinkerHall 7.0-19.0 300-650 -0-2.0 369-465 63.9-72.8 21.1-36.8
(Jan.03)
Rinker Hall
Mean 14.70 -394.80 -0.80 408.00 67.60 28.70
(Jan.03)
Rinker Hall 6.66 78.69 0.75 31.74 3.35 7.22
*SD (Jan.03)


Gerson Hall
(Dec.03 &
Jan.04)

Gerson Hall
Mean
(Dec.03 &
Jan. 04)


1.4-630 10-38



71.41 23.00


Gerson Hall
*SD (Dec.03 185.54
& Jan.04)
*SD is Standard Deviation.


13.64


0-680


345-755


331.67


550.00


340.31


68-72



70.00



2.83


26-30



28.00



2.83


289.91









were selected for IAQ test measurements on February 5, 2008 with the exception of room 321

which was not tested on December 22, 2003. Concentration range of each air contaminant was

recorded on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004.

Table 4-7 illustrates the Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle over the past 5 years and Figure 4-2

shows the formaldehyde life cycle of Gerson Hall and IAQ test results of other contaminants in

Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008 based on Box Plot chart. Since the actual data of IAQ test

results on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 in Gerson Hall were not recorded, it was not

possible to show the Box Plot chart of each contaminant measured during that period except

CH20 measurements. Direct reading of TVOC, CH20, and PM10 were measured on December

22, 2003 and C02, temperature, and humidity were measured on January 23, 2004. Radon gas

was also measured on January 9 through 13 of 2004 but was not measured on February 5, 2008,

so it was not considered in Table 4-7. The analytical methods that were used on December 22,

2003 and January 23, 2004 measurements were similar to February 5, 2008 methods to measure

IAQ contaminants. Details of IAQ test results on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 are

given in Appendix E.

Note: Since the CH20 concentration ranging on December 22, 2003 in Gerson Hall varied, the

same range as Rinker Hall CH20 level could not be used in Box Plot chart of Figure 4-2 to show

the CH20 measurements. In order to demonstrate the CH20 concentration levels precisely in

Figure 4-2, the 630 ppm data for CH20 measurement has not shown in Figure 4-2 as an outlier in

Box Plot chart.




Full Text

PAGE 1

1 LIFE-CYCLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY CO MPARISONS BETWEEN LEED CERTIFIED AND NON-LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS By ROYA MOZAFFARIAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Roya Mozaffarian

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3 To my dear parents, Zahra Zahedi and Mohammad Ali Mozaffarian, and my sisters, Rozita and Romina Mozaffarian. This vent ure would not be possible w ithout their support and love.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to take this opport unity to thank everyone who helped m e complete my thesis. First, I would like to thank my committee ch airman, Dr. Charles Ki bert for his support throughout my course of study and for giving me th e opportunity to work in a very interesting area. I would also like to thank my cochairman Dr. Robert Ries and my committee member, Dr. Svetlana Olbina for all the encourag ement and guidance during this study. I would like to extend my a ppreciation to Thomas C. Ladun, Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) coordinator. This study would not be completed without his assistance. I would also like to thank Vince Mcleod in the EH&S department, Troy D. Miles and Mr. Edward Gray Rawls in Architecture and Engineering department of Physical Plant di vision, David Heather in Facilities Planning and Construction department, Sandy M. Subach in Gerson Hall, and Sallie Schattner in Rinker Hall for their help and support through this study. I would like to thank my parents, Zahra Za hedi and Mohammad Ali Mozaffarian, and my lovely sisters, Rozita Mozaffarian and Romi na Mozaffarian, for their encouragement and complete support throughout my education. They minimized the burden of my study with their support and love. I appreciate my mom for being there for me wh enever I needed. She provided a comfortable and lovely environment for me throughout my education period. Her spirit and her positive attitude helped me to complete my thesis. I appreciate my dad for encouraging my education. He has always been an inspiration to me.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................11 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........12 Problem Statement.............................................................................................................. ....12 Research Objectives............................................................................................................ ....13 Significance of the Study........................................................................................................13 Limitations of the Study....................................................................................................... ..13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................15 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........15 Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Environm ental Quality.......................................................... 15 Indoor Air Quality in Comm ercial Buildings......................................................................... 16 Indoor Air Quality Tes ting Components................................................................................ 17 Formaldehyde (CH2O).....................................................................................................17 Particulate Matter (PM)................................................................................................... 17 Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC).................................................................. 18 4Phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH).......................................................................................18 Carbon Monoxide (CO)...................................................................................................19 Carbon Dioxide (CO2).....................................................................................................19 Temperature and Humidity.............................................................................................. 19 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System ....................................................... 20 Indoor Air Quality Testing Guidelines................................................................................... 21 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (USGBC) .......................................... 21 Leadership in Energy and Environmen tal Design in Existing Buildings ........................ 23 Leadership in Energy and Environmenta l Design in Comm ercial Interiors................... 24 United States Environmental Protection Agency Standard............................................. 25 Baseline IAQ testing................................................................................................25 Independent material testing.................................................................................... 26 American Society Heating Refrigerating and Air-Condition ing Engineers Standard..... 27 American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.1-1992 ..............................................................................................................27 American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.2-1999 ..............................................................................................................27

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6 American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 62-1999 .................................................................................................................28 Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Nationa l Contractors Asso ciation Standard............. 30 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Standard.................................... 31 Occupational Safety and Hea lth Administration S tandard.............................................. 31 University of Florida Indoor Air Quality Testing Standard............................................ 32 Indoor Air Quality Guidelines Comparison.................................................................... 33 Indoor Air Quality Sampling Media....................................................................................... 33 Economics of Indoor Air Quality........................................................................................... 36 Indoor Air Quality Problems.................................................................................................. 38 Indoor Air Quality Solutions.................................................................................................. 39 Summary.................................................................................................................................40 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY........................................................................................... 41 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........41 Physical Conditions................................................................................................................41 Rinker Hall.................................................................................................................... ..42 Gerson Hall......................................................................................................................43 Protocol for Indoor Ai r Quality Tes ting................................................................................. 44 Sampling Location...........................................................................................................45 Classroom.................................................................................................................46 Faculty/student facility............................................................................................. 47 Air Contaminants............................................................................................................. 49 Sampling Time................................................................................................................50 Number of Air Samples................................................................................................... 51 Indoor Air Quality Test Cost........................................................................................... 52 Analytical Methods and Sampling Media.......................................................................52 National institute for occupational sa fety and health (NIOSH) 2016 m ethod and SGDNPH silica gel tube................................................................................54 Environmental protection agency (E PA) TO-17 m ethod and sorbent tube (carbotrap 300)......................................................................................................55 Direct reading method and TSI dust track aerosol m onitor..................................... 57 Occupational safety and health admini stration (O SHA) 7 method and charcoal tube.......................................................................................................................58 Direct reading met hod and TSI Q-track ................................................................... 59 Summary.................................................................................................................................60 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS................................................................................................. 61 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........61 Rinker Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle............................................ 61 Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle........................................... 70 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Com parison Results.................................. 77 Summary.................................................................................................................................83 5 CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................................................... 84

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7 APPENDIX A RINKER HALL LEED CERTIFICATION........................................................................... 86 B RINKER HALL AND GERSON HALL FLOOR PLANS .................................................... 87 C INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST DATA LOGS AND COST PROPOSAL..........................94 D INSTRUMENTS SPECIFICATIONS..................................................................................99 E INITIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST AND T-TEST RE SULTS................................ 109 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................116 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................120

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Maximum concentration of contaminants......................................................................... 23 2-2 Maximum indoor air concentr ation based on USEPA standard ........................................ 26 2-3 Concentration averagin g of air contam inants.................................................................... 29 2-4 Minimum ventilation rate and m aximum people density.................................................. 29 2-5 Maximum concentration of each contaminants based on UF standard............................. 32 2-6 Indoor air quality testing comparison between LEED and others..................................... 33 2-7 Potential annual healthcare savings and productivity gains from improving indoor environments................................................................................................................... ...37 3-1 Sampling media, method, and price to apply IAQ test ......................................................52 4-1 Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008.............................................................62 4-2 Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED........................................... 63 4-3 Rinker Hall IAQ test results in January 2003 .................................................................... 65 4-4 Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle................................................................................................. 67 4-5 Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008............................................................. 71 4-6 Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED........................................... 72 4-7 Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle................................................................................................ 74 4-8 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison on February 5, 2008 ................................ 78 4-9 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2003 and 2004 ..................................... 82 E-1 Rinker Hall initial IAQ comm issioning data in January 2003 ......................................... 112 E-2 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall t-Test results based on 2008 IAQ test results .................... 113 E-3 Rinker Hall life cycl e t-Test results .................................................................................115

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Hand-held electronic formaldehyde meter......................................................................... 34 2-2 Summa canister............................................................................................................. .....34 2-3 Direct sense IAQ monitor.................................................................................................. 35 2-4 Handheld particle counters................................................................................................35 2-5 Optima Monitor ............................................................................................................. ....36 3-1 Rinker Hall................................................................................................................ .........42 3-2 Gerson Hall................................................................................................................ ........43 3-3 Classrooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall...................................................................... 45 3-4 Faculty offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall................................................................. 46 3-5 Conference rooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall........................................................... 47 3-6 Graduate student offices in Rinker H all and Gerson Hall................................................. 48 3-7 Other offices under study in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall ................................................ 49 3-8 A BIOS DryCal DC-Lite...................................................................................................53 3-9 Air sampling pump, SGDNPH treated silica gel tube, and sorbent tube ........................... 55 3-10 Air sampling pump connection to So rbent tube (Carbotrap 300) and SGDNP H treated silica gel tube........................................................................................................ .56 3-11 Photo Ionization Detector..................................................................................................57 3-12 A TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor and an Aerosol sample inlet..................................... 58 3-13 Charcoal tubes............................................................................................................ ........59 3-14 A TSI Q-Track...................................................................................................................60 4-1 Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart .......................................................... 68 4-2 Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart ......................................................... 75 4-3 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ compar ison in 2008 based on Box Plot chart ............. 79

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10 A-1 Rinker Hall LEED certification summary sheet................................................................ 86 B-1 Rinker Hall first floor plan............................................................................................... ..88 B-2 Rinker Hall second floor plan............................................................................................ 89 B-3 Rinker Hall third floor plan............................................................................................... .90 B-4 Gerson Hall first floor plan............................................................................................... .91 B-5 Gerson Hall second floor plan........................................................................................... 92 B-6 Gerson Hall third floor plan............................................................................................... 93 C-1 Rinker Hall and Gerson Ha ll form aldehyde data logs....................................................... 95 C-2 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall TVOC da ta logs based on EPA TO-17 m ethod..................96 C-3 Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 m ethod and Gerson Hall 4-PCH data logs.............................................................................................................................97 C-4 Indoor Air Quality test cost pr opos al from UF EH&S department................................... 98 D-1 Specification for BIOS DryCal DC-Lite.......................................................................... 100 D-2 Specification for MSA Escort ELF sampling pump........................................................102 D-3 Photo Ionization Detect or (PID) specification .................................................................104 D-4 Specification for TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor......................................................... 105 D-5 Specification for TSI Q-Track indoor air quality monitor ............................................... 107

PAGE 11

11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science in Building Construction LIFE-CYCLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY CO MPARISONS BETWEEN LEED CERTIFIED AND NON-LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS By Roya Mozaffarian May 2008 Chair: Charles Kibert Cochair: Robert Ries Major: Building Construction Early research on indoor air quality (IAQ) conc luded that people spend most of their time indoors and indoor air quality affects the occu pants health and pr oductivity. In addition, research on IAQ agreed that the high performance green buildings assure a better IAQ for its occupants. This pledge motivates building experts to apply Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) strategies to their practices. Primary intention of this study was to id entify whether an existing LEED certified building has a better IAQ compared to an ex isting non-LEED certified building with respect to LEED requirements. Secondary goal of this study was to develop a protocol to analyze the IAQ in each building and its life cycle. The IAQ test was examined in both buildings on the same day and at similar physical locations to evaluate th e IAQ differences between the two and their IAQ life cycle. Protocol with defined analytic al methods was developed to meet the LEED requirements along with budget, time, and resear ch limitations. It was found that there are differences between each building life cycle, and also between the I AQ in an existing LEED certified building and an existing non-LEED certifie d building based on the protocol used in this study and more research needs to be accomplished to encourage LEED strategies for better IAQ.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction Constructing a building is very com plex and many factors need to be considered throughout the construction process. For exampl e, finishing the project on time and budget, safety issues, and building maintenance are all im portant factors. Building owners and managers who are concerned about finishi ng the project on time and on budget ca n easily be inattentive to significant elements of building management such as indoor air quality (IAQ). The IAQ approach is the substance of interior air that a ffects the health and comfor t of building occupants. Indoor air quality is concerned with the effects of air contaminants like carbon monoxide, the perform ance of the ventilation system, and the mate rials being used inside the buildings, all of which can cause health problems for building occupants (CDC 2007). As the construction industry embraces sustai nable development, IAQ has become a major concern for building owners and managers. Soci ety is recognizing the importance of healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environmen ts. Therefore, the demand for good IAQ is increasing (USEPA 2007). Problem Statement In 1995, The U.S. Environm ental Protection Agency (USEPA) ranked indoor air pollution as an environmental thre at to public health. In respond to this threat, the USEPA, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and many other organi zations started to develop standards and guidelines to reduce the IAQ issues in buildings. These efforts will be discussed further in the next Chapter. To investigate the poor IAQ inside buildings, IAQ testing mu st be done to identify the causes of the problem. Indoor air quality te st analysis identifies the high level of air contaminants concentration that derives from poor ventilation systems, building materials,

PAGE 13

13 finishing, furniture, poor maintenance, and many other factors. In this study, an IAQ test protocol was suggested for IAQ analysis in existing buildings. Research Objectives Many involved with the construction industry and green building belie ve that buildings with LEED certification have be tter IAQ co mpared to others (Kibert 2005). The LEED rating system outlines measures to reduce the level of indoor pollutants and a LEED certified building often follows these procedures to establish a nd maintain acceptable IAQ within the building. Primary objective of this study is to determine whether a LEED certified building has better IAQ compared to a non-LEED certified building. Null hypothesis of this study is that LEED certified buildings have a better IAQ. S econdary objective is to develop a protocol for comparing IAQ in existing buildings and their life cycle. Significance of the Study There is so me research that identifies how IAQ measures covered by LEED can improve IAQ, but there was no comparison study to evaluate the difference between IAQ in a LEED certified and a non-LEED certified building. This re search analyzes and studies the difference between two buildings at University of Florida ba sed on an IAQ test protocol developed for this purpose. Limitations of the Study An IAQ test was perform ed in a LE ED certification bui lding and a non-LEED certification building in University cla ssrooms and offices based on USGBC (LEED) requirements. Budget to perform the test was provided through the Rinker School of Building Construction at University of Florida. Requi red instruments to perform the IAQ test was provided by Environmental Health an d Safety (EH&S) department in University. Selecting a test period to conduct the IAQ testing was challenging and one hour period of testing was used in

PAGE 14

14 this study. If there was no limitation on time and budget, more air samples could have been taken at different times at more lo cations inside of each building. This could have provided more accurate comparison between the two buildings. Following Chapters explain the details of th is study. Chapter 2 describes the existing studies about IAQ in commercial buildings, the different IAQ standards, IAQ sampling media, IAQ testing components, economics of IAQ, IAQ problems, and existing IAQ solutions. Chapter 3 illustrates the details of the IAQ test that was performed in this study in two buildings including the protocol and method that was used to apply the test Chapter 4 analy zes the results of the IAQ test in both buildings including the comparison results of th e IAQ test between the two and their life cycle. Chapte r 5 discusses the conclusion base d on the IAQ test results and introduces suggestions for future research.

PAGE 15

15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Scientific evidence in the last several years has signified that the indoor air within buildings can be m ore critically c ontaminated than the outdoor air ev en in large industrial cities. Other research designates that people spend approximately 90% of their time indoors. Thus, for many people, the risks to health may be greate r due to indoor air pollu tion than outdoor air pollution (USEPA 2007). Many identified illnesses such as Legionna ires' disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and humidifier fever, are called S ick Building Syndrome (SBS) and have been traced to specific building problems like IAQ. There is no single reason for these health problems. In some cases, problems begin as occu pants enter the building and diminish as they leave; other times, symptoms prolong until the illness is treated (USEPA 2007). Building users will be healthier and more pr oductive when indoor air is fresh and free of harmful fumes, chemicals, and biological contaminants (USEPA 2007). This Chapter defines the IAQ; summarizes various IAQ standards; introduces IAQ sampling media and IAQ testi ng components; and discusses the economics of IAQ, IAQ problems, and existing IAQ solutions. Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Quality Definition of acceptable IAQ based on ASHR AE standard 62-2001 is, Air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful c oncentrations, as determined by cognizant authorities, and with which a s ubstantial majority (80% or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfac tion (ASHRAE 2001).

PAGE 16

16 In addressing the effects of indoor environments on health and productivity, the term indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is also used and addresses a broader ra nge of health effects like noise, lighting, acoustics, temperature, hum idity, odors and anything th at affects on indoor environment (Spanos and Jarvis 2007). Indoor environmental quality includes the subject of indoor air quality. Indoor air quality is generally concerned with th e effects of chemicals such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and formal dehyde, biological hazards, and particulates which will be discussed further in this Chapter (Kibert 2005). Indoor Air Quality in Commercial Buildings In 1996, the U.S. Governm ents General Acc ounting Office reported that one in five schools in the United States has problems w ith IAQ (Bayer et al. 2000). In 1970, energy conservation became a national concern in commercial buildings. As building design, construction, operation and maintenance change d to save energy, the quality of indoor air worsened and building occupants began to report building related symptoms (BRS) such as headaches, eye irritation, and nose and throat ir ritation. If architects a nd contractors design and construct bu ildings with acceptable IAQ, building health hazards will be diminished. When the building is occupied, proper operation and main tenance can reduce IAQ problems. Risk of poor IAQ is increased by a lack of proficiency a nd knowledge of how the numerous factors can contribute to poor IAQ, both dur ing design and construction and after occupancy (Kibert 2005). Early studies established that poor ventilati on and the lack of good control of temperature and humidity in buildings caused a high percenta ge of IAQ problems in office buildings and recent studies show that elevated contaminants and odors also contribute drastically to poor IAQ (EIA 1999). Indoor air quality in commercial buildings can also be affected by the buildings themselves such as the activities and proce sses within the building, outdoor environmental conditions, and occupant activit ies (Spanos and Jarvis 2007).

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17 Indoor Air Quality Testing Components Following sections are the description of m a jor IAQ testing components that should be considered while performing the IAQ test. Formaldehyde (CH2O) In 2007, USEPA defined, Formaldehyde is an important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous househol d products. It is also a byproduct of combustion and certain other natural processes. Thus, it may be present in substantial concentrations both indoors and outdoors (USEPA 2007). Formaldehyde is a colorless gas that sometimes has a noticeable odor. This chemical substance could be found in many building materi als and products in the building. Some of theses formaldehyde sources include presse d wood products (hardwood plywood wall paneling, particleboard, and fiberboard), Urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI), combustion sources, and environmental tobacco smoke. These materials release the formaldehyde gas into the air and can cause nausea, headaches, allergic sensitiza tion, asthma, and eye, nose, throat, and skin irritation depending on peoples sensitiv ity to formaldehyde (USEPA 2007). Particulate Matter (PM) Particulate m atter (PM) is the term for partic les found in the air including dust, dirt, smoke, and liquid droplets. These particles are categorized into two size ranges, fine particles and inhalable coarse particles. Part icles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) are called fine particles. Particles larger than 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) are referred to as inhala ble coarse particles (USEPA 2007). Particulate matter could be produced from ac tivities during the construction phase and if dust control is not managed, particles can remain on any surface, especially carpets. Outdoor air can also be a major source of particul ate matter inside the building (USGBC 2006).

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18 Particulate matter can cause health problems, especially PM10 particle s, which can affect your lungs and heart and sometimes can even get into your bloodstream (USEPA 2007). Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) In 1995, NIOSH stated that 17% of IAQ su rveys have recognized volatile organic com pound as the cause of IAQ problems. Total volatile organic compound is the mass of all the individual Volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the air. Volatile organic compound consists of all organic compounds with up to twelve carbons in their molecular composition. These organic compounds evaporate at normal pressures and temperatures (Hess-Kosa 2002). Concentrations of many volatile organic co mpounds are higher indoors (about ten times) than outdoors. Volatile organic compounds orig inate from many building materials including wood, paint, plastics, old carpets, PVC floor covering, and glues. Ou tside air, chemical gasses of furnishings, office equipment such as copy machin e toner, cleaning products, perfume, mold and fungi also give off VOCs. Total volatile organic compound effects on health could result in headaches; eye, nose, and throat irritation; dizziness; and even cancer (USEPA 2007). 4Phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH) In 2006, USGBC guideline defined the 4-PCH, A com pound whose odor is easily noticeable at very low levels and is known as n ew carpet odor. It is emitted from the Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) binder that some manufactures used to hold carpet fibers and backing together (USGBC 2006). The 4-PCH is one of the 12 most common elements of VOC emitted by 19 carpets backed by SBR latex. Symptoms caused by 4-PCH presence, which can be recognized either immediately or after the new carpet installation, could be eye irritation, headaches, rashes, fatigue, nausea, excessive thirst dry mouth, burning of eyes, nose and sinuses, sore throat, itchy skin, burning feet and legs (Haneke 2002).

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19 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Am erican Medical Association reported that 1,100 people die annually and over ten thousand people need medical attention b ecause of carbon monoxide exposure. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and flamma ble gas that results from the incomplete combustion of natural gas, gaso line, kerosene, oil, propane, coal, wood, and cigarettes (Hess-Kosa 2002). Health effects of this co mpound on people could be chest pain, impaired vision and coordination, headaches, dizziness, confusion, nausea, and flu. Severe effects are caused by configuration of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood, which reduces oxygen intake (USEPA 2007). Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide, a colorless and odorless toxic gas, is a direct health concern since building occupants exhale CO2. Primary sources of CO2 can be found in confined spaces like enclosed offices with no air supply, overcrowded spaces li ke classrooms, and high activity areas like health clubs. Carbon dioxide can also be created indoors by cooking, space heaters, wood burning, and tobacco smoke. Carbon dioxide health effects on humans can be increases in heart rate, headaches, exhaustion, nausea, vom iting, and unconsciousness (Hess-Kosa 2002). Temperature and Humidity Tem perature and humidity have a signifi cant impact on indoor air pollution levels. Acceptable levels of IAQ decrease with an incr ease in air temperature and humidity, as such increases affect air pollution levels, such as mold growth (Fang et al. 1998). Temperature and humidity comfort levels depend on many factor s as air conditioner operation rates, seasons, location, and also each other. For instance, 68 Fahrenheit (F) temperature in winter in an office can be comfortable if the relative humidity level is around 30%. The ASHRAE standard 55-2004 indicates the comfort level of indoor temperatures in the winter as 68 F to 75 F, with a relative

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20 humidity level of 30% to 60% and in the summer as 73 F to 79 F, with a relative humidity level of 30% to 60% (ASHRAE 2004). Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System Heating, Ventilation, and Air C onditioning (HVAC) system is one of the important causes of IAQ problems. In 1987, NIOSH reported the lack of sufficient ventilation as an IAQ problem in around 53% of buildings (CDC 2007). According to U.S. Governments General Accounting Office in 1996, 36% of the schools reported HVAC system as an inadequate building element (U. S. GAO 1996). Ventilation systems can be mechanical or natura l. When mechanical ventilation is used, air flow measurement is required. When natural vent ilation is provided, ventilation sufficiency shall be verified. If natural ve ntilation is insufficient to meet vent ilation air requirements, mechanical ventilation needs to be provided. Energy recovery ventilation systems s hould be used to meet ventilation requirements (ASH RAE 1999). In 1973, ASHRAE standard recommended 5 cubic feet per minutes (ft3/min.) per person as a minimum requi rement for ventilation to measure energy conservation. At the same time, architects were designing building envelopes that were more resistant to air penetration through window s and doors and the construction industry was presenting new building materials which off-gassed. These issues produced more indoor air pollution that affected the proper operat ion of ventilation systems (Hays 1995). All occupied buildings need a supply of outdoor air. Before the air is circulated into the occupied space, it may need to be heated or cooled depending on outdoor air conditions. As outdoor air is distributed into the building, indoor is exhausted and removes air contaminants (USEPA 1991). The HVAC system can affect IAQ in two ways: The HVAC system can either be a source of contamin ation or it can provide a pathway for other contaminants to move through the building. The HVAC system needs to be desi gned and maintained sufficiently; otherwise, it

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21 causes discomfort for occupants. Increasing outsid e air for ventilation is not the solution to IAQ problems. Additional outside air could bring contaminants into the building or could reduce building occupant comfort because of insufficient heating or cooling capacity. Different types of HVAC systems can be found in commercial bui ldings based on building size; occupant activities; climate; and even building age, wh ich can affect the amount of space available for HVAC components above the ceiling (Hays 1995). The HVAC system should operate to remove po lluted inside air and replace that with filtered (for PM) outside air. The ASHRAE standard 62-2001 required a minimum of 15 ft3/min. of outside air supply for each occupant. Inadequate supply of air can increase the carbon dioxide level above the ASHRAE standard of 700 parts per million (ppm). Low CO2 levels identify overventilation of zones. Over-ventilation can wa ste energy, break down equipment, and create comfort problems for occupants (Hudson 2007). Proper filter maintenance is critical to keep HVAC ductwork clean. If dirt builds up in the ductwork and relative humidity reaches the maximu m desired percentage, then bacteria and mold can grow. It is significant to follow the ASHRAE standard recommendations of the filter manufacturer and HVAC system provider to maintain and ch ange filters (ASHRAE 1999). Indoor Air Quality Testing Guidelines Sources of IAQ hazards can be iden tified by te sting the concentration of air contaminants inside the buildings. There are diverse guidelines that suggest IAQ testing methods. Following paragraphs briefly desc ribe these standards. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (USGBC) The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in 1993 was founded to address high performance green building practices. From 1993 to 1998, USGBC developed a rating system to assess a buildings efficiency and environmenta l impacts (Kibert 2005). This rating system was

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22 called Leadership in Energy and Environmen tal Design (LEED). The LEED rating system provides points for a Construction IAQ manage ment plan to reduce IAQ problems resulting from the construction process. Construction IAQ management plan helps to sustain the comfort and health for building occupa nts (USGBC 2006). It provides two options, flush out and IAQ testing, to minimize IAQ issues after construc tion and before occupancy. Indoor air quality testing protocol is consiste nt with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. The EQ Credit 3.2 can be earned as on e point if the following procedures are applied. The LEED rating system indicated the followi ng procedures for IAQ Management Plan after construction and before occupancy (USGBC 2006): Flush-out : Install new filtration media and flushout the building by supplying a total air volume of 14,000 cubic feet (ft3) of outdoor air per square feet of floor area while maintaining an internal temperature of at least 60 Fahrenheit and, where mechanical cooling is operated, relative humidity is no higher than 60%. If the space is occupied prior to completion of flushout, deliver a minimum of 3,500 ft3 of outdoor air per square feet of floor area. Minimum ventilation rate of 0.3 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per square feet of outside air is suggested when the space is occupied. Vent ilation should begin a minimum of three hours prior to occupanc y and continue during occupancy for daily flush-out period. These procedures should be continued until a total of 14,000 ft3 of outside air per square foot is distributed. Indoor air quality testing : After construction and prior to occupancy, conduct a baseline IAQ testing procedure as follows: o Air Contaminants: Test the air contaminants that are listed in Table 2-1 after all interior finishes are installed and building is ready to be occupied. Note: The pre-occupancy IAQ test results do not catch the activities inside the buildings since the test completes before occupancy. o Number of Air Samples: The number of air sampling locations depends on the size of the building and number of ventilation system s. For each portion of the building with a separate ventilation syst em, select sampling points fo r every 25,000 square feet or for each contiguous floor area, whichever is larger. Include areas with the least ventilation and great est source strength. o Sampling Time: All measurements shall be done during normal business hours with building operating at normal HVAC rates. Minimum 4 hour period of testing is required.

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23 o Sampling Location: Air samples shall be coll ected between 3 feet and 6 feet from the floor to signify the breathing zone. Repeat the procedures until all requirements have been met. Table 2-1. Maximum concentration of contaminants (Source: USGBC 2006). Contaminants Maximum concentration based on LEED Maximum concentration based on LEED-EB Formaldehyde (CH2O) 50 parts per billion (ppb) 50 ppb Particulates (PM10) 50 micrograms per cubic meter (g/m3) 20 g/m3 Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) 500 g/m3 500 g/m3 4-Phenylcyclohexene (4PCH) 6.5 g/m3 3 g/m3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 9 parts per million (ppm) and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoor levels 9 ppm and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoor levels *4-PCH test is only required if carpets and fabrics with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) latex backing material are installed in the building. From a technical and also logi stic standpoint, IAQ testing is preferable compared to flushout. Indoor air quality testing method provides hard data that does not rely on the assumption of a flush out option that can overlook adequate poll utant levels (USGBC 2006) Negative aspect in IAQ testing is the inconvenience and expens e associated with the method which will be discussed further in this Chapter. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Existing Buildings Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Existing Buildings (LEED-EB) is a LEED rating system that suggests solutions to prevent IAQ problems for existing building that are willing to renovate or perform any constr uction project. The LEED -EB guideline suggests a construction IAQ management plan similar to LEED requirements and the following describes the difference. The EQ Credit 3 can be earned as one point if the fo llowing requirements are presented (USGBC 2005).

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24 Based on LEED-EB, development and implementation of IAQ Management Plan for existing buildings during construction is as follows (USGBC 2005): Building during construction should meet the s uggested design approaches of the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National C ontractors Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guideline for Occupied Buildings under Construction which will be clarified further in this Chapter. Protect building materials, on-site or installed, from moisture. Filtration media should be used at each re turn air grill with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 8 if air handlers are being used during construction. This is based on ASHRAE 52.2-1999 standard that will be discussed further in this Chapter. Change all filtration media right before o ccupancy and install a single set of final filtration media. Remove contaminants that still exist after constr uction period. The LEED-EB guideline suggests a minimum tw o week building flush-out prior to occupancy with new filtration media with 100 percent outside air following the same method as LEED. Another LEED-EB approach, to prevent the IAQ problems, is IAQ testing after construction ends. Indoor air qual ity testing procedures are the same as LEED requirements with the required difference in maximum concentra tion for particulates 20 micrograms per cubic meter (g/m3) above outside air conditions and 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH) as of 3 g/m3 (see Table 2-1). Indoor air quality management plan during construction minimizes the exposure of absorptive materials such as insulation and carpe ting to moisture and airborne contaminants and protects the HVAC system (USGBC 2005). Leadership in Energy and Environmental Des ign in Commercial Interiors Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design in Commercial Interiors (LEED-CI) is another LEED rating system that is being us ed for Commercial Interiors. The LEED-CI guideline suggests the same routine as a LEED -EB IAQ management pl an during construction. The LEED-CI guideline also recommends a construction IAQ management plan before

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25 occupancy via flush-out and IAQ testing methods. Flush-out and I AQ testing procedures follows the same guidelines as LEED. The only differen ce is the proposition to collect the air samples between 4 feet and 7 feet above the floor. The EQ Credit 3.2 can be earned as one point if the required procedures ar e achieved (USGBC 2004). United States Environmental Protection Agency Standard Since 1970, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) became responsible for a cleaner and healthier environmen t to protect human health and the environment. The USEPA offers a reference guide for IAQ testing. The USEPA reference guide has two sections including baseline IAQ testing and indepe ndent material testing as show n in the following sections (USEPA 2007). Baseline IAQ testing Based on USEPA in 20 07, baseline IAQ te sting requires HVAC system verification based on ASHRAE standard 62-1999 which will be e xplained in this Chapter. Testing agency shall confirm the performance of each HVAC system including space temperature, space humidity, outside air quantity, filter installation, drain pan operation, and any noticeable pollution sources. Baseline IAQ testing also requires an IAQ testing to be completed by a professional independent contract or as follows (USEPA 2007): Testing shall be done in sixt een different locations and on each floor of each office building excluding the areas with high outside air ventilation rates su ch as laboratories. Air samples should be collected on three c onsecutive days and during normal business hours with normal operating rates of a HVAC sy stem. Average result of three day test cycle will determine the concentration level of air contaminants for each air handling zone. Inside and outside air sampling of formalde hyde and TVOC contaminates are required to establish basis of comp arison between the two. Testing shall be done in the breathing zone, between 4 feet and 7 feet from the floor.

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26 Concentration levels of each air contaminan ts shall not exceed the required maximum level as listed in Table 2-2. All air concen tration levels must be achieved prior to occupancy and do not include the contaminan ts from office furniture, occupants, and occupant activities. If any test fails the standard, building ventilation with 100% outside air is required until the test meets the USEPA standards. Table 2-2 Maximum indoor air concentration based on USEPA standard (Source: USEPA 2007). Contaminants Maximum concentration Formaldehyde (CH2O) 20 g/m3 above outside air concentrations Total Particulates (PM) 20 g/m3 Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) 200 g/m3 *4-Phenylcyclohexene (4PCH) 3 g/m3 Regulated Pollutants **NAAQS Carbon Monoxide (CO) 9 ppm Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 1000 ppm *4-PCH is in carpets with Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) **NAAQS is National Ambient Air Quality Standard s that defines six principle pollutants with standard values as follows (USEPA 2007): o Carbon Monoxide (CO): 9 ppm for 8-hour av erage and 35 ppm for 1-hour average. o Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2): 0.053 ppm for annual arithmetic mean. o Ozone (O3): 0.12 ppm for 1-hour average a nd 0.08 ppm for 8-hour average. o Lead (Pb): 1.5 g/m3 for quarterly average. o Particulate (PM 10), particles with diam eters of 10 micrometers or less: 50 g/m3 for annual arithmetic mean and 150 g/m3 for 24-hour average. o Particulates (PM 2.5), particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less: 15 g/m3 and 65 g/m3 for 24-hour average. o Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): 0.03 ppm for annual arithmetic mean. Independent material testing Materials selected for testing should m eet the following criteria (USEPA 2007): Large amount of the material is being used in the space being tested. Space is occupied during normal business hours Materials are used in the area with recirculation air. Note: These materials can be paint, carp et, ceiling tile, and fi reproofing material.

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27 American Society Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard Am erican Society of Heating, Refrigerati ng and Air-Conditioning Engi neers (ASHRAE) is an international organization that was founded in 1894. The ASHRAEs mission is to progress heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refriger ation and provides a sustainable environment for people. The ASHRAE standard focuses on HVAC and ventilation systems mostly and proposes guidelines to improve IAQ in the buildi ngs. The ASHRAE standard itself has different standards and ASHRAE sta ndard 52.1-1992, ASHRAE standard 52.2-1999, and ASHRAE standard 62-1999 are the standa rds that suggest strategies to improve IAQ (ASHRAE 2007). American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.1-1992 The ASHRAE standard 52.1-1992, Gravim etric and Dust Spot Procedures for Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter, establishes procedures to measure the capacity of air clean ing devices to eliminate dust as they become burdened with a standard synthetic dust. Followi ng components should be measured to remove these particulate matte rs (ASHRAE 1992): Dust spot efficiency, which measures the abili ty of the filter device to remove dust from the test air. Pressure drop, which analyses the effects of th e filter on airflow and energy costs. If there is a low pressure drop, energy efficiency goes higher, and if there is a high pressure drop, airflow to the HVAC unit is reduced. Therefore, more energy is requ ired to operate the unit. Arrestance, which is th e amount of synthetic dus t a filter can hold. Dust holding capacity, which is the amount of dust a filter can embrace until it reaches the specified pressure drop. Higher capacity means the filter can last longer. American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 52.2-1999 The ASHRAE standard 52.2-1999, Method of Te sting General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices for Re moval Efficiency by Particle Size, is different fr om the older ASHRAE standard

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28 52.1-1992. This new standard measures air filter efficiency to identify how well the filter confines airborne particles of differing sizes between 0.3 and 10 microns in diameter. The ASHRAE standard 52.2-1999 categorizes these sizes into twelve ranges th at are part of the process of determining a filter's Minimum Effi ciency Reporting Value (MERV). The MERV is a numerical method of rating filters based on minimum particle size e fficiency. It is more efficient to rate more particle sizes since lower ratings are more cost effective (ASHRAE 1999). The ASHRAE standard 52.2-1999 is considered to complete and not to substitute for ASHRAE standard 52.1-1999. The ASHRAE standard 52.1-1999 measures dust spot efficiency and identifies the grams of dust the filter is ho lding. Since there was no recognition of what is going thru the air filter, ASHRAE develope d ASHRAE standard 52.2-1999 to report the minimum efficiency level of air filters (ASHRAE 1999). American society heating refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers standard 62-1999 The ASHRAE standard 62-1999, Ventilation fo r Acceptable IAQ indicates acceptable ventilation rates and IAQ to occ upants to minimize the potential h ealth hazards. This standard manages the design of ventilation systems as they are affected by maintenance and the existence and strength of sources of contaminants, so an adequate IAQ can be provided (ASHRAE 1999). The ASHRAE standard 62-1999 identifies the av erage concentration of contaminants for acceptable air quality as it is listed in Table 2-3. If the contaminant concentration level ex ceeds the concentration averaging, ASHRAE standard 62-1999 requires guidelines for minimum air ventilation ra te requirement in different commercial facilities to be pursued (ASH RAE 1999). The ASHRAE standard 62.1-2004 determines allowable ventilation based on occupancy and pollutant emissions from materials and elements inside the building, such as fini shing materials and furniture (ASHRAE 2004).

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29 Table 2-3. Concentration averaging of air contaminants (Source: ASHRAE standard 62-1999). Contaminants Long Term Concentration Averaging Short Term Concentration Averaging Sulfur Dioxide 0.03 ppm 1 year *0.14 ppm 24 hours Particles (PM10) 50 g/m3 1 year 150 g/m3 24 hours Carbon Monoxide *35 ppm 1 hour Oxidants (Ozone) *9 ppm 8 hours Nitrogen Dioxide 0.055 ppm 1 year 0.12 ppm 1 hour Lead 1.5 g/m3 3 months Carbon Dioxide 700 ppm Asbestos Based on USEPA Formaldehyde (CH2O) 0.4 ppm Chlordane 5 g/m3 Radon Based on USEPA Not to be exceeded more than once a year. Table 2-4 identifies the minimum cubic feet per minute per person and maximum density of people per 1000 square feet that is recomm ended for spaces engaged in this research. Table 2-4. Minimum ventilation rate and maxi mum people density (Sour ce: ASHRAE standard 62.1-2004). Spaces Minimum cfm/person Maximum density of people/1000 ft2 Nonsmoking Offices 20 7 Lobbies 15 30 Smoking Lounges 60 70 Classrooms 15 50 Laboratories 20 30 Based on ASHRAE standard 62-1999 and ASHRAE standard 62.1-2004, acceptable IAQ can be achieved following the requirements sp ecified in Table 2-3 and Table 2-4. If these standards were not accomplished, the followi ng reasons may be involved (ASHRAE 1999): Indoor air diversity of s ources and contaminants. Factors such as temperature, humidity, noise lighting, and psychologi cal stress that may affect occupant acceptance of IAQ.

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30 Range of propensity in the population. Sheet Metal and Air Conditi oning National Contractors Association Standard Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National C ontractors Association (SMACNA) is an international association that provides products and services to businesses. In 1995, SMACNA proposed IAQ guidelines for occupied buildings under construction. These guidelines discuss the IAQ management plan during cons truction as follows (SMACNA 1995): The HVAC protection: To prot ect HVAC system during construction, cover seal opening with plastic, use MERV 8 filters, and clean the ducts. All ducts should be protected during the construction proce ss to prevent contamination. Source control: Avoid using toxic materials and exhaust fumes. Pathway disruption: Protect areas of work by installing temporary seals. Housekeeping: Control dust entering the site clean the site, and remove standing water and spills. The SMACNA standard recommends the guide to architects, engineers, construction managers, facility managers, and building owne rs. The SMACNA standard reaches its goals by applying the following gui delines (SMACNA 1995): Follow the ventilation guidelines as ASHRAE standard 62-1999. Maintain mechanical equipment and building surfaces in sanitary condition. Separate production sources from occupied space. Control major sources of contamination. Perform operations, maintenance, and constr uction activity in a manner that minimizes any hazards for occupants. Provide an IAQ that is acceptable to occupants.

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31 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Standard National Ins titute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is a federal agency that performs research and provides recommendations for preventing work related injury and illness. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the department of Health and Hum an Services. The NIOSHs appro ach to resolve IAQ problems in buildings is following the IAQ guidelines of building air quality (BAQ) action plan. In 1991, USEPA and NIOSH determined to work together to crea te guidelines for preventing, recognizing, and resolving IAQ problems. The BAQ action plan gu ideline is mostly for building owners and facility managers of public and commercial buildi ngs who are in the best position to prevent and resolve IAQ problems (CDC 2007). The BAQ action plan will be discussed further in this Chapter as one of the solutions to IAQ problems. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an Am erican institute that protects the safety and health of workers by implementing standard s; offering training classes, and supporting continual improvement in workplace. In 1994, OSHA offered a proposal for IAQ to sustain a healthier and safer environment for workers as follows (OSHA 1994): Industrial and non industrial should control the environment of smoking tobacco following OSHA requirements. Employers are required to c ontrol specific contaminants and their sources, such as outdoor air contaminants, microbial contamin ation, cleaning chemicals, pesticides, and other perilous chemicals within indoor work environments. Separate smoking areas and locate them in en closed rooms that exit directly to the outside. Specific provisions are proj ected to limit IAQ pollution during renovation, remodeling and similar activities.

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32 The OSHA standard provides informati on and training classe s for workers and employees to educate them how to maintain and operate a building. University of Florida Indoor Air Quality Te sting Standard The University of Florida (UF) has created its own standard for IAQ testing. This IAQ testing standard can be used in buildings at UF unless they are LEED cer tified buildings that have to follow LEED requirements. Environmental Health and Safety (EH& S) department at UF performs the IAQ test and composes the I AQ requirements under University of Florida regulations. Table 2-5 illustrates the contamin ants and the maximum acceptable concentration based on UF standards. Table 2-5. Maximum concentration of each contam inants based on UF standard (Source: UF EH&S 2003). Contaminants Maximum concentration Formaldehyde (CH2O) 50 ppb Total Particulates (PM) 25 g/m3 Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) 300 g/m3 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 1000 ppm Carbon Monoxide (CO) 4 ppm Radon 2 pCi/L (Picocuries Per Liter) Relative Humidity (RH) 30%-60% Drybulb Temperature 69-79 F Fungi 1/3 outdoor result, simi lar rank order and no visible growth Environmental Health and Safety department at UF regulates criteria for different phases of construction at UF as follows (UF EH&S 2003): Prior to occupancy: Buildings air shall meet the criteria in Table 2-5 at all times before occupancy. Minimum of three samples per ai r handling zone shall be collected and formaldehyde, TVOC, and dust should be measured to make sure they do not exceed the maximum level of concentration. Use of low emission materials in building is recommended to reduce the level of TVOC or formaldehyde. Indoor air quality testing should be performed by a Certified Industria l Hygienist from UF EH&S department. Testing must be accomplished while the HVAC system operates normally and the operation rate must be documented for bala nce approval. Sampling methods can include

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33 using direct reading instrume nts or media analysis appr oved by EH&S. Colorimetric tubes are not acceptable. At one month subsequent to occupancy: Measure carbon dioxide, humidity, and temperature. Locate the measuring devices in each occupied ventilation zone and leave them in each location for at least 24 hours. Consider the data collected during days of typical building occupancy only. At one month prior to warranty completion : Measure carbon dioxide, humidity, and temperature again using the same devices. In addition, sampling for mold contamination should be done. Collect three samples per air handling zone, plus three outdoor samples. At least one of the outdoor samples needs to be in the area of the outside air intakes. Remaining samples can be collected in the area of primary building entrances. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines Comparison Table 2-6 co mpares the maximum concentratio n level of air contaminants between LEED requirements and other IAQ guidelines fo r a short term period of testing. Table 2-6. Indoor air quality te sting comparison between LEED a nd others (Source: Various). Contaminants LEED LEED-EB USEPA ASHRAE UF Formaldehyde 50 ppb 50 ppb 6.15 ppb 400 ppb 50 ppb Particulates 50 g/m3 20 g/m3 20 g/m3 150 g/m3 25 g/m3 TVOC 500 g/m3 500 g/m3 200 g/m3 N/A 300 g/m3 4-PCH 6.5 g/m3 3 g/m3 3 g/m3 N/A N/A CO 9 ppm and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoor levels 9 pm and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoor levels 9 ppm 35 ppm 4 ppm CO2 N/A N/A 1000 ppm 700 ppm 1000 ppm Indoor Air Quality Sampling Media There are different types of IAQ sa mpling media for each air contaminant in industry that can be chosen based on selected methods and budget limits. Detailed description of the common media, approved by LEED requirements and used in this study to perform the IAQ testing, is given in the next Chapter. Following instrument s are some other sampling media to consider for IAQ testing:

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34 Figure 2-1. Hand-held electronic formaldehyde meter (Source: Turner and Lewis, HPAC Engineering 2003). Hand-held electronic formaldehyde meter in Figure 2-1 measures formaldehyde with sensitivity of 0.01 ppm. This device can r ecord data over time and can be moved to different locations throughout a floor plan to signify measurements (Turner and Lewis 2003). Figure 2-2. Summa canister (S ource: Roya Mozaffarian). Summa canister in Figure 2-2 is a stainless steel vessel which has the internal surfaces specially passivated using a "S umma" process. This proce ss mixes an electro-polishing step with chemical deactivation to generate a surface that is chemically static. Summa canisters range in volume from less than 1 lite r to greater th an 15 liters. 6 liter canisters are generally used to collect air samples over time. Air sample penetrate the canister through a high temperature stainless steel bellows valve (Air Toxics Ltd. 2008). Method to use Summa canister is EPA TO-15. This e quipment is capable of detecting parts per trillion of TVOC. Beside the canister, a sa mpling regulator is required to follow up EPA TO-15 method. Regulators manage the flow of air into the caniste r by grabbing samples ranging from 5 minutes to 24 hours. Passivate d canisters are suggested compare to nonpassivated canisters. Passivated canisters cont ain an internal coating of glass to allow difficult compounds inside that non-passivated canisters do not (VanEtten and Dobranic 2003). Canister is approved by LEED to measur e TVOC and is suggested to be used if the 4-hour IAQ testing is required.

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35 A B Figure 2-3. Direct sense IAQ monitor. A) IQ-610. B) DSIA Q-PPC. (Source: GrayWolf Sensing Solutions 2007). Direct sense IAQ monitor with the control of mobile PCs in Figure 2-3 has improved IAQ test ability to obtain the result direct ly from the PC monitor immediately. This equipment is an advanced portable device and is very accurate at measuring IAQ contaminants. The IQ-610 includes an upgradeab le electrochemical gas sensor slot that measures (GrayWolf Sensing Solutions 2007): o Volatile organic compound within the range of 0.02 to 20 ppm and accuracy of 1 ppb o Carbon dioxide within the range of 0 to 10,000 ppm and accuracy of + 3% rdg (of reading) + 50 ppm o Carbon monoxide within the range of 0 to 750 ppm and accuracy of + 2 ppm < 50 ppm, + 3% rdg >50 ppm o Relative Humidity (RH) within the range of 0 to 100% and accuracy of + 2% RH < 80% RH o Temperature within the range of 15 to 160 F and accuracy of + 0.3 C Figure 2-4. Handheld particle counters (S ource: GrayWolf Sensing Solutions 2007).

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36 Handheld particle counters in Figure 2-4 display and record particulates on a mobile PC monitor. These devices have different se nsitivity ranging from 0.1 micro meters to 0.3 micro meters (GrayWolf Sensing Solutions 2007). Figure 2-5. Optima Monitor (S ource: Aircuity Inc. 2007). Optima monitor in Figure 2-5 is the testi ng technology method that Aircuity Inc. recommended as a new equipment to measure ni ne key parameters at once to assess IAQ. Here are the nine parameters: temperatur e, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, TVOC, small particles (less than 2.5 mi crons in size from smoke a nd dust), large pa rticles (less than 10 microns in size from dirty carpeting or construction activities), carbon monoxide, ozone (from outdoor and indoor pollutions li ke copy machines and air cleaners), and radon (naturally in the earth, but can accumula te in below-grade areas) (Aircuity Inc. 2007). Beside the optima monitor and the products that GrayWolf Sensing Solutions offer, there are many other digital devices in the industry that can measure different air contaminants at once and are user-friendly, but expensive. Indoor air quality testing pr ofessionals, in particular the certified industrial hygienists, are the best resources to identif y the sampling media and methods that represent the desirabl e protocol, budget, and time. Economics of Indoor Air Quality Low productivity, absence, sickness, the risk of litigation, and unsatisfied occupants because of p oor IAQ has a high impact on investment. Industry and public may know the benefits of sustainable buildi ngs, especially energy, waste and water conservation, but they are not aware of the financial and health benefits of providing good IAQ (Spanos and Jarvis 2007).

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37 Following reasons of poor IAQ have investigat ed by Aerias Air Quality Science (AQS) Air Resource Center (Spanos and Jarvis 2007): Unlike energy, waste and water conservation that are predictable and measurable, health and productivity relation to IAQ is hard to predict and measure (Kats et al. 2003). Factors that affect low produc tivity, occupant satisfaction a nd health are not visible; therefore they can be easily ignored. Since constructing a building is a very co st effective task, construction companies concentrate more on how to save money dur ing construction and not on emphasizing on a buildings life cycle. It would be more expensive to remove the pr oducts, furnishing and office equipment with high VOC levels than installing the low-emitting materials in the first place. William Fisk, who was the head of the Indoor Environment department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Rosenfeld in 1997, reported the potential annual savings from improving indoor environments as established in Table 2-7 (Fisk and Rosenfeld 1997). Table 2-7. Potential annual healthcare saving s and productivity gains from improving indoor environments (Source: Fisk and Rosenfeld 1997). Source of Productivity Gain Potential Annual Health Benefits in US Potential US Annual Savings on Productivity Gain (1996 $US) Reduced respiratory disease 16 to 37 million avoided illnesses $6 to $14 billion $23 to $54 per person Reduced allergies and asthma 8% to 25% decrease in symptoms in 53 million people with allergies and 16 million people with asthma $1 to $4 billion $20 to $80 per person (with allergies) Reduced sick building syndrome symptoms 20% to 50% reduction in symptoms experienced frequently by 15 million workers $10 to $30 billion ~ $300 per office worker Improved worker performance from changes in thermal environment and lighting N/A $20 to $160 billion The investigators also demonstrated the economic benefit of using higher ventilation rates. If additional ventilation costs were $8,020 and sick leave costs because of lower ventilation rates

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38 were $48,000, then $39,950 per 100 employees could be saved by providing a higher ventilation rate. For fulltime workers in the US, the cost of sick days is $24,444 per 100 workers. If higher ventilation rates were provided, $16,394 per 100 workers could be saved (Milton et al. 2000). Indoor Air Quality Problems According to the survey by W orld Health Organization in 1984, almost 30% of our nations buildings have poor IAQ (WHO 1984). The USEPA studies indicat ed that indoor air pollutions may be two to five times, in some cases 100 times, higher than outdoor pollutions (USEPA 1991). Since most people spend about 90% of their time indoors, the indoor air pollution level is a significant concern. In the mid-1990s, researchers demonstrated that one in five of our nation's 110,000 schools reported poor IAQ, and one in four schools stated poor ventilation as the main reason of poor IAQ (USEPA 2007). Hays, Gobbell, and Ganick in 1995 described the following as the main reasons of IAQ problems in buildings (Hays et al. 1995): Indoor air pollution sources like formaldehyde in wood products, asbestos in insulation and fire-retardant building supplies. Poor design, maintenance, a nd ventilation system operation (HVAC) that does not heat, cool and circulate outdo or air appropriately. Building functions that were not planned or poorly designed for when the building was built or remodeled. Chen and Vines research in 1995 on poor IAQ impact on students and staff in schools was as follows (Chen and Vine 1995): Increasing health problems for students and st aff such as cough, ey e irritation, headache, asthma, allergic reactions, and possibly life-th reatening conditions such as severe asthma attacks or carbon monoxide poisoning. Reducing productivity and increasing discomfort, sickness and absenteeism for students and staff.

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39 Increasing the likelihood that the school or por tion of the school will have to be closed and occupants relocated producing negative publicity which could damage the school's reputation and effectiveness presen ting potential liability problems. Indoor Air Quality Solutions Construction Management plan by USGBC, as indicated before, is one of the solutions to IAQ problem s during constructi on and also before occupanc y, after construction is done. In 1991, USEPA and NIOSH recognized the BAQ (Building Air Quality) action plan as a high-quality facility management practice. The BAQ action plan is a helpful resource that considers the operation and maintenan ce of a building with good IAQ without increasing the cost and the amount of work to maintain the build ing. The BAQ action plan suggested 8 steps to reduce health risks, increase comfort and produc tivity, and reduce threats of litigation from IAQ problems as follows (USEPA 1991): 1. Assign an IAQ manager to be responsibl e for IAQ activities within the building. 2. Prepare an IAQ profile of your building by re viewing the existing records and collecting the data for current IAQ situation in the building. 3. Concentrate on existing and poten tial IAQ problems to resolve the existing issues and avoid the potential problems such as pollution resources and proper ventilation system. 4. Educate building occupants about IAQ ma nagement to identify IAQ problems. 5. Develop and apply a plan for facility operations as HVAC system operation and maintenance as housekeeping schedule. 6. Control processes with main pollutant sources including renovation, painting, pest control, and smoking. 7. Communicate with occupant s about their position in preserving good IAQ. 8. Set up procedures to respond to IAQ problems. Following solutions can be found in AS HRAE standard 62.1-2004 as acceptable ventilation and IAQ in buildings (ASHRAE 2004):

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40 Manage ventilation rate system and c ontaminants coming from local sources. Control the outside air suppl y delivery through the HVAC sy stem to reduce air pollution released by equipment, building materials, furnishings, products and people. Design ventilation rates to consider n on-smoking areas, indoor humidity, the building envelope, and air-supply syst ems in occupied spaces. Evaluate outdoor air quality and air intake filtration. Update contaminant concentration guidelines and intake air cleaning requirements when outdoor concentration le vels are elevated. Summary In 1995, USEPA stated that Good IAQ contributes to a favorable learning environm ent for students, productivity for teachers and staff, and a sense of comfort, health, and well-being. These elements combine to assist a school in its core mission, educating children (USEPA 1995). Indoor air quality should be considered thr oughout the construction process of a building as one of its most important elements. Poor I AQ reduces the value of the design and construction of the building and affects occupants health, comfort, and productivit y. The IAQ management before, during, and after construction is an invest ment in the health of both construction workers and the occupants of a buildi ng throughout its life cycle (Tur ner and Lewis 2003). Acceptable IAQ can be achieved if architects select the a ppropriate materials and design the ventilation system adequately during the design phase a nd also contractors and occupants operate and maintain the building sufficiently dur ing and after the construction phase. This study compares the IAQ differences be tween a LEED certified building and a nonLEED certified building by performing the IAQ test wh ich will be discussed in the next Chapter.

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41 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction This study is determ ined to compare the IAQ between a LEED certification building and a non-LEED certification building based on USG BC (LEED) requirements. The LEED certified building constructed using LEED strategies. Therefore, LEED requirement was used to identify if a LEED certified building offers a better IAQ compared to a non-LEED certified building. This study will take an experimental approac h. The IAQ test was done with the complete support of the Environmental Hea lth and Safety (EH&S) departme nt at University of Florida (UF). The EH&S department at UF usually perf orms the IAQ test in existing buildings when there is a complaint about air qua lity in the building. For comparis on study in this research, the EH&S department provided sampling medias and IAQ test results that were received from Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. accredited by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). Certain air contaminants (see section Air Contaminants) were tested in two buildings based on LEED requirements and similar locations in both buildings were chosen to identify the IAQ differences between the two. This Chapter describes the IAQ testing locations in two buildings at University, the prot ocol, and methods that were used to perform the IAQ test in details. Physical Conditions This study was accom plished on the University of Florida campus in two buildings, Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. The reason these buildi ngs were selected for this study is due to their similarity in size, occupancy levels, and period of occupancy. Rinker Hall is a LEED certified building compared to Gerson hall, a non LEED certified building, at the University of Florida. Rinker Halls LEED certif ication is given in Appendix A.

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42 Rinker Hall Figure 3-1 shows Rinker Halls north entrance lo c ated at the intersection of Newell Drive and Inner Road. Figure 3-1. Rinker Hall (Sour ce: Roya Mozaffarian). Rinker Hall was the first Gold LEED certified bui lding at the University of Florida. Rinker Hall was designed by Croxton Collaborative Archite cts and Gould Evans Associates and was built by Centex Rooney Construction Company. It was occupied in April 2003 and houses the School of Building Construction. Rinker Hall is approximately 47,300 gross sq feet and includes a mix of classrooms, teaching labs, construction labs, faculty and administrative offices, and student facilities. Rinker Hall uses daylighting with skylights, daylight louve rs, and windows all around the building. Materials being used in Rinker Hall un derwent an extensive environmental review based on chemical composition to reduce health h azards to building occupants. These materials are either recyclable or reus able and include structural a nd nonstructural steel products, aluminum wall panels and glazing systems, railings, cellulose wall insulation, bathroom partitions, drywall with low or no VOC paint, concrete with fly ash, vitreous tile, and ceiling tile (USGBC 2006). Materials with renewable substa nce include wheat board and linoleum. Wood

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43 materials were specified to inve nt from certified and sustainable forests as endorsed by the Forest Stewardship Council (USGBC 2006). Based on Rinker Hall specifications, Rinker Hall HVAC design includes 7695 cubic feet per minute (cfm) outside air for Air Handling Unit1 (AHU1) and 7695 cfm outside air for AHU2 and an additional 6000 cfm outside air that added as needed to keep the building air pressure positive compared to outdoors. Total outside air for the building is 21390 cfm or 0.45 cfm per sq feet (Rawls 2007). Gerson Hall Figure 3-2 shows the north entrance of Ge rson Hall located at th e intersection of 13th street and Union Road. Figure 3-2. Gerson Hall (Sour ce: Roya Mozaffarian). Gerson Hall, the Fisher School of Accoun ting, is not LEED certi fied. Gerson Hall was designed by Cannon Design firm and was built by Holder Construction Company. It was occupied in December 2003. It is approximately 39,640 gross sq feet and consists of classrooms, study lounges, auditoriums, faculty and admini strative offices, and student facilities. Materials used in Gerson Hall exterior incl ude CMU (Concrete Masonry Unit) with brick veneer finish, sheet metals, storefronts, curtain wall glazing systems, and clay tiles pitched roof with bitumen flat roof. Gerson Hall interior materials contains painted dry wall with atop GWB

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44 paint, plaster veneer, carpet, terrazzo floor tiles and VCT (Vinyl Composite Tile), acoustical ceiling tiles, and frequent us e of interior wood finish. Based on the Gerson Hall specifications, Gerson Hall HVAC design includes 2250 cfm outside air for AHU1, 4300 cfm outside air fo r AHU2, 5400 cfm outside air for AHU3, and 4500 cfm outside air for AHU4 based on CO2 levels. Total outside air for the building now is 16450 cfm or 0.41 cfm per sq feet (Rawls 2007). Protocol for Indoor Air Quality Testing The IAQ protocol developed in this st udy is based on LEED requirem ents. The LEED guidelines for IAQ testing applies for new c onstruction, but it was us ed in this study to investigate if a LEED certified building offers a better IAQ co mparison to a non-LEED certified building. Another requirement that was taken into consideration was LEED-EB (LEED for Existing Buildings). The LEED-EB guideline is mos tly for existing buildings that are willing to renovate or perform any construc tion projects when the buildi ng is not occupied. Since LEED has no standards for existing buildings that are o ccupied, some adjustments had to be made to provide a reasonable and affordable protocol that can be used in the future to measure IAQ in existing buildings. The IAQ test was performe d in two buildings at UF, a LEED certified building and a non-LEED certified building, to ev aluate the IAQ difference between the two. Sampling locations to perform the IAQ test in each building were based on the room numbers from initial IAQ commissioning data of each building 5 years ago. Same locations were selected to analyze the IAQ life cycle in each building. Simultaneously, the room selections from both buildings were chosen based on their functiona lity in order to compare the two. Same air contaminants (see section Air Contaminants) we re measured in both buildings for comparison purposes with the exception of extra 4-PCH m easurement in the non-LEED certified building. The IAQ test occurred on the same day in both buildings with a one hour period difference

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45 between the two. Number of air samples and sampling media and method were based on the LEED requirements and available budget. Followi ng sections discuss th e details of the IAQ protocol that was used in this study. Sampling Location The IAQ test was initially perform ed in Rinker Hall, in January 2003 and in Gerson Hall, on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004. In orde r to analyze the IAQ life cycle in each building, the selected classrooms and offices were based on room numbers from initial commissioning data of each building. At the sa me time, these rooms in both buildings were similar to each other in terms of size and func tion to identify the IAQ differences between the two buildings. Details of initial commissioning da ta in both buildings are given in Appendix E. Air samples were collected between 3 feet to 6 feet from the floor based on LEED requirements. Specific locations under study in Rinker Hall were classroom 140 on the first floor; room 203A on the second floor; and confer ence room 303, faculty office 322, and graduate student office 328 and 336 on the third floor. Comparable locations in Gerson Hall were classroom 121 on the first floor; office 220 and study room 233 on the second floor; and faculty office 321, conference room 327, and Ph.D. office 334 on the third floor. Appendix B identifies the locations of rooms under study in the floor plans of Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A B Figure 3-3. Classrooms in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Classroom 1 40 in Rinker Hall. B) Classroom 121 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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46 Classroom Classroom 140 in Rinker Hall in Figure 3-3A is approximately 1275 sq feet and is located on the southeast corner of the first floor. The windows are on one side of the room with operable shading devices. The walls are painted with hi gh gloss white paint over Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) and sealed exposed concrete. The floor is sealed concrete with vinyl base. Part of the ceiling, that is painted, has expos ed HVAC structure. Major section of the ceiling has acoustic panels. High efficient lighting inside, besides the natural light ing, is provided by indirect fluorescent with low voltage elect ronic lighting dimmer and contro l system. Furniture inside of this classroom are student de sks, closet, white board, proj ector, video, and LCD displays. On the other hand, classroom 121 in Gerson Ha ll in Figure 3-3B is approximately 1177 sq feet and is located on north side of the first floor. It has a sing le window with automatic closure blinds sensitive to the projector when it turns on. The walls are white painted drywall. The floor is carpeted with Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) backed carpet and the ceiling has acoustic ceiling panels. The lighting is provided by an automatic electronic lighting dimmer. The classroom has moveable furniture with cushioned chairs, white boar d, projector, computer desktop, wireless keyboard, video, and LCD display. A B Figure 3-4. Faculty offices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Office 322 in Rinker Hall. B) Office 321 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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47 Faculty/student facility At Rinker Hall, the offices follow an open pl an. The walls are painted with high gloss white paint over veneer plaster and only the conference rooms, office of th e director and faculty m embers have full height walls. The windows in th e offices are designed for daylighting with horizontal blinds and lights are recessed fluorescent with a pa rabolic reflector. The floors are carpeted with Crossley nylon carpets. The ceiling s consist of suspended acoustic tiles. Acoustic system in offices is designed with extended pa rtitions to the deck a bove with sound attenuating blankets to minimize noise transmission between spaces. On the other hand, at Gerson Hall, the offices open into a corridor with a single window at the end which creates a dark corridor. The o ffices are carpeted with Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) backed carpet. The walls are painted white over drywall and the ceilings contain acoustic ceiling panels. The faculty office 322 in Rinker Hall (Figure 3-4A) is around 140 sq feet and is located on the west side of the third floor. This offi ce consists of a Low E-window, a desk, and a book shelf. On the other hand, the faculty office 321 in Gerson Hall (Figure 3-4B) is around 153 sq feet and is located on the northwe st side of the third floor. This office includes a sliding window, a desk, and a book shelf. A B Figure 3-5. Conference rooms in Rinker Hall and Ge rson Hall. A) Room 303 in Rinker Hall. B) Room 327 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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48 At Rinker Hall, conference room 303 in Figure 3-5A is about 646 sq feet and is located on the northeast side of the third floor. Natural light penetrates th rough the large windows all around the room. This room consists of a table and chairs, book shelf, and white board. On the other hand, conference room 327 in Gerson Hall (Figure 3-5B) is about 727 sq fe et and is located on the north side of the third floor. This room cont ains a window on one side of the room; desk and chairs; wireless key board, and freque nt use of interior wood finish. A B Figure 3-6. Graduate student o ffices in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Office 328 in Rinker Hall. B) Office 334 in Gerson Hall. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian). At Rinker Hall, graduate student office 328 in Figure 3-6A is around 397 sq feet and is located on the south side of the third floor. This office contains a frosted glass window to the hallway, eight cubicles, and desk s. On the other hand, Ph.D. stude nt office 334 in Gerson Hall in Figure 3-6B is located on northeast side of the third floor. This office includes a window, a book shelf, and five desks. At Rinker Hall, the other offices under study were graduate student office 336 in Figure 3-7A and room 203A in Figure 3-7B. Office 336 is about 471 sq feet and is located on the south side of the third floor. This office includes a wi ndow on the east side of the room, desks, and book shelves. Room 203A is about 72 sq feet and is located on the north side of the second floor. This room is a storage room full of boxes and pa perworks that opens to the Affordable Housing department entry room.

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49 At Gerson Hall, the additional offices under study were office 220 in Figure 3-7C and study room 233 in Figure 3-7D. Office 220 is an open office with around 205 sq feet and is located on the north side of the second floor. This office contains two windows on the north side, desks, and cabinets. Study room 233 is around 111 sq feet and is located on the southeast side of the second floor. This room consists of a window on the south side of the room; glass door; a table and chairs; and a white board. A B C D Figure 3-7. Other offices under stud y in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. A) Graduate student office 336 in Rinker Hall. B) Room 203A in Rinke r Hall. C) Office 220 in Gerson Hall. D) Study room 233 in Gerson Hall. (S ource: Roya Mozaffarian). Air Contaminants Maxim um concentration of each air contamin ant was analyzed based on LEED and LEEDEB requirements to identify if the LEED certified building offers a better IAQ compare to the non-LEED certified building. The air contaminants that were tested include formaldehyde (CH2O), particulates (PM10), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), 4-phenyl cyclohexne (4-PCH) [4-PCH was tested in

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50 Gerson Hall only since SBR backed carpet inst alled there], and carbon monoxide (CO). Since both buildings under stu dy exist and are occupied, carbon dioxide (CO2), humidity, and temperature were required to be tested as we ll. Table 2-1 shows the maximum concentration of air contaminants based on LEED and LEED-EB standards. Sampling Time The IAQ test in this study was done in exis ting buildings in a one hour period although a m inimum four hour period of testing is requir ed based on LEED requirements in new buildings. One hour testing period was determined to be adequate for the purpose of this study for the following reasons. Since the IAQ in this study was done five years af ter construction, air contaminant emission rate typically projected from new paint and furniture such as TVOC were expected to be reduced. Both buildings were al ready occupied and it was not possible to find a four hour period between classes to perform the test. Since some of the sampling equipment for IAQ measurements could disturb the class by making noise during ope ration, the test in classrooms had to be done when they were not occupied. The LEED requirement requires the IAQ test to be done during normal business hours with normal HVAC operation rates. Since both buildings were occupied during business hours, secu rity could be another issue if the test was done in four hours. Finally, primary purpose of this test was identifying IAQ differences between the two buildings, Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall, and a one hour period of IAQ testing met the purpose of this test. The IAQ test was performed in a sunny day in spring on February 5, 2008 from 10am to 11am in Rinker Hall and from 12pm to 1pm in Gerson Hall. The classrooms and offices under study were not occupied during testing period. Cl ose time frames were ch osen to standardize ambient air quality and building mechanical syst em operation as much as possible. In Rinker

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51 Hall, the outside temperature was 71.7 F and relative humidity was 78.4% and in Gerson Hall, the outside temperature was 75.4 F and relative humidity was 64.4%. Number of Air Samples The LEED guideline req uires one sample fr om each floor in each building according to Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall sizes in sq ft. Based on the provided budget for this study, the total of six air samples in each building were test ed to measure each air contaminant with the exception of only three formaldehyde samples in each building and three 4-PCH samples in Gerson Hall. Outside air was also measured in each building to identify the temperature, humidity, CO, CO2, direct reading of TVOC, and PM-10 (dust) levels. Table 3-1 specifies the total number of air samp les that were collected in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. Based on the methods used to measure formaldehyde, TVOC, and 4-PCH, a certain number of blank sampling tubes must be analyz ed. These blank sampling tubes are used as the base sample of concentration level. If the concen tration level in a blank tube is not zero, all the measurements from the other tubes need to be adjusted based on the blank tube concentration level. In this study, the following numbers of air samples were collected from Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall: 3 samples and one blank tube per building (8 samples in total) to measure formaldehyde 6 samples per building and one blank tube (13 samples in total) to measure TVOC 3 samples and one blank tube (4 samples in total) from Gerson Hall to measure 4-PCH Temperature, humidity, PM10, CO, and CO2 we re measured by direct reading method in six locations per building (12 locations in total) Specific detail of each sample including the related air volume that was sent to Bureau Veri tas North America Inc. is given in Appendix C.

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52 Indoor Air Quality Test Cost Total budget available for this study was $4,500, wh ich was used to take the num ber of air samples specified. Funding was provided by the Rinker School through the Rinker Fund. Table 3-1 shows the cost by contaminant for the require d samples. Estimated cost provided by Thomas C. Ladun from the EH&S department of the UF is given in Appendix C. Analytical Methods and Sampling Media Sa me analytical methods and sampling media we re used in both buildings to analyze the IAQ differences. The EH&S department of the UF provided the sampling media and Thomas C. Ladun, EH&S department coordinator, performed the IAQ test using these media. Table 3-1 shows the sampling media, analytical methods, and the cost to complete the IAQ test in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. Table 3-1. Sampling media, method, and price to apply IAQ test (Source: Thomas C. Ladun 2008). Contaminants Sampling media Analytical method Total number of sampling Price per sample Total cost CH2O SGDNPH treated silica gel tube NIOSH 2016 method 8$80 $640 PM10 TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor Direct reading 12Free $0 TVOC Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300) EPA TO-17 method 13$300 $3,445* 4-PCH in Gerson Hall Only Charcoal tube OSHA 7 method 4$47 $188 CO TSI Q-Track it measures CO2, Humidity and Temperature as well. Direct reading 12Free $0 Miscellaneous including shipping fees $227 Total Cost $4,500 This is a special discounted price.

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53 Air sampling pump (Figure 3-9) is required fo r the SGDNPH, sorbent, and charcoal tubes to measure formaldehyde, TVOC, and 4-PCH respectively. The air sampling pump needs to be calibrated before being used for measurement. To tal of eight air sampling pumps were used in this test which includes six air pumps to meas ure formaldehyde and TVOC and two air pumps to measure 4-PCH. When the IAQ measurement in Rinker Hall was completed by using six air pumps, the same air pumps were calibrated in the field to complete the formaldehyde and TVOC measurements in Gerson Hall and the other two air pumps were used only for 4-PCH measurement. There are two different methods of calibra tion. There is a primary calibration and a secondary calibration. The LEED requirement a pproves the primary calibration. Following procedures describe the field calibration met hod as the primary calibration, using MSA Escort ELF sampling pump, completed by Thomas C. Ladun at EH&S department of the UF: Figure 3-8. A BIOS DryCal DC-Lite (Source: Bios 2007). 1. Set the pump in Figure 3-9 to a standard fl ow rate of 1.5 L/min (Liters per minute). 2. Attach tubing and Gemini flow regulator shown in Figure 3-9. 3. Insert open media tube into Gemini port. 4. Attach tubing to free end of media tube a nd attach to outlet port on BIOS DryCal DCLite primary flow meter (Figure 3-8). 5. Turn the air pump and the flow meter on.

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54 6. Press the READ button on the flow meter to get an initial flow reading. Adjust the Gemini flow regulator to th e appropriate method flow rate as confirmed by readings taken from the flow meter. 7. Once the desired flow rate is established, clear the DryCal meter of previous readings and press the READ button to collect ten consecu tive flow readings. Average flow rate will be provided by the Dry Cal meter. This averag e of ten readings beco mes the initial flow rate in L/min. that is used for sampling. 8. Once sampling is complete, the calibration process noted above is repeated. Final average reading is combined with the initial average to calculate the final average flow rate for the sampling period. This flow rate is used to calculate the volume of air collected and is used to calculate the concentr ation of the target analysis. After the calibration is done, then the air pump can be used for measurement. Details and specification of this calibration device are give n in Appendix D and the pump calibration log of the IAQ test in Appendix C. Here is the analys is of methods with required sampling media to perform the IAQ test: National institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) 2016 method and SGDNPH silica gel tu be Required equipment, in Figure 3-9, fo r NIOSH 2016 method are (INSHT 2007): Air sampling pump : An air sampling pump is needed to work non-stop throughout the sampling period. Details and specification of th is instrument are gi ven in Appendix D. Gemini flow regulator with Gemini port : Gemini flow regulator helps to avoid bottlenecks and leaks while attach ing the tube. Gemini port is a plastic or rubber tube of suitable length and diameter to connect th e Gemini flow regulator to the air pump. SGDNPH treated silica gel tube : It is a glass tube with tw o flame sealed ends, 110 mm (millimeters) length, and 6 mm outside diam eter (O.D.). This tube contains a 300 milligram (mg) front sorbent section and a 150 mg backup sorbent section. The sorbent is silica gel coated with 2, 4dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNP H). The tube must be supplied with polyethylene caps, which should fit properly to avoid le aks during the transportation and storage of samples (SKC Inc. 2008). The procedure for the NIOSH 2016 method to measure formaldehyde is (NIOSH 2003): 1. Calibrate the air sampling pump by using th e primary calibration method as described before.

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55 2. Clean the silica gel tube and break the both ends just befo re starting the sampling. Then, connect the pump to the silica ge l tube by Gemini flow regulator. 3. Start the pump and control th e time of the sampling period for one hour. Verify the flow rate before and after the sampling and record the average between the two. Suggested air pump flow rate in this method is 0.03 to 1.5 L/min. Air volume varies, but the air volume range used to measure formaldehyde in this test was betw een 15.05 to 15.56 liters. Note: If the relative humidity is more than 70 percent, it is recommended to decrease the sampling volume or increase the absorbent amount. 4. After one hour sampling, disconnect the pump, withdraw the sampling tube, and cap the tube securely. Then, label each sample and send the samples with the blank tubes for analysis, on ice, to a laboratory accre dited by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). Note: Detectable limit required for NIOSH 2016 me thod is 0.1 micrograms. The detectable limit is the minimum required concentration level to measure the air contaminant based on the method. Figure 3-9. Air sampling pump, SG DNPH treated silica gel tube, a nd sorbent tube (Source: Roya Mozaffarian). Environmental protection agency (EPA) TO-17 method and sorbent tube (carbotrap 300) Required equipm ent, in Figure 3-9, fo r EPA TO-17 method are (USEPA 1999): Air sampling pump : The same air pump that was used for the silica gel tube can be used at the same time with the so rbent tube (Figure 3-10). Gemini flow regulator with Gemini port Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300) : It is a stainless steel tube packed with carbopack C (a weak sorbent), carbopack B (a medium sorbent), and carbosieve SIII ( a strong sorbent) to capture VOCs (Air Toxics Ltd. 2008). The sorbent tube is typically 1/4 inch (6 mm) O.D. of various lengths. SGDNPH treated silica gel tube Air sampling pump Gemini port Gemini flow regulator Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300)

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56 The procedure for the EPA TO-17 method to measure Total Volatile Organic Compounds is (USEPA 1999): Calibrate the air sampling pump as described before. After taking out the sorbent tube from its supplied plastic cap, connect the sorbent tube to sampling pump Gemini flow regulator as it is shown in Figure 3-10. Air volume varies, but the air volume range used to measure TVOC in this test was between 4.85 to 5.54 liters. Typical flow rate s uggested in this method is: o 16.7 ml/min to collect 1 L of air in 1 hour o 66.7 ml/min to collect 4 L of air in 1 hour After a one hour period, disconnect the pump, w ithdraw the tube, and cap the tube with its plastic cap securely. Labe l each sample and send the samp les with the blank tubes for analysis, on ice, to a laboratory accre dited by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). The analysis for this method was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The GC/MS anal ytical method merges the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to discover the different particles within a test sam ple. Note: Detectable limit required for EP A TO-17 method is 50 nanograms (0.5 ppb). Figure 3-10. Air sampling pump connection to Sorbent tube (Carbotrap 300) and SGDNPH treated silica gel tube (S ource: Roya Mozaffarian). Besides using the silica gel tube to measur e TVOC, direct readi ng of Photo Ionization Detector (PID) in Figure 3-11 was used. Photo ionization detector is not approved by LEED requirement, but EH&S department is in the proc ess of getting this device approved by LEED in the near future. Photo ionization detector measures TVOC in the ppb range. Therefore, it is also known as ppbRAE. This device is a screening tool with sensitivity below 1 ppm and threshold of

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57 less than 300 ppb with a 10.6 eV bulb to be able to read the results of th e TVOC level directly (Johnson 2007). This instrument has been used ex tensively at the Univer sity of Florida to measure TVOC in non-LEED certified buildings. De tails and specification of this device are given in Appendix D. Figure 3-11. Photo Ionization Detect or (Source: Roya Mozaffarian). Direct reading method and TSI dust track aerosol monito r The TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor in Figur e 3-12 measures particulates (PM10). This instrument needs to be calibrated before use. Following steps explain th e calibration procedure, Zero Checking or re-zeroing method, of TSI Dust Track by using aerosol sample inlet (TSI 2002): 1. Set the TSI Dust Track Aeroso l Monitor in survey mode. 2. Put zero filter on aerosol sample inlet. 3. Place the time-constant to 10 seconds. Press and hold the Time Constant key until is displayed, and then release. 4. Wait 10 seconds for displayed values to settle to zero. 5. If the displayed value is between -0.001 and +0.001 mg/m3, the Dust Track Aerosol Monitor does not need any more adjustment. If the displayed value goes beyond this limit, steps 7 to 9 needs to be followed to re-zero the instrument. Note: Negative concentration readin gs indicate that the dust track monitor needs to be rezeroed. The negative reading of .001 in step 5 is the only time that a negative reading is acceptable.

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58 6. Press and hold the Calibrate key and wait for the display to attain 0, and then release the key right away to see the message Calibra te Zero. If this message did not show, try again. 7. Press the Sample key and wait for the 60-second countdown. When countdown is finished, the current calibrati on constant will be displayed. 8. Press the Calibrate key again to go back to survey mode. The calibration process is now completed. The TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor is a port able, battery-operated laser photometer that provides a real-time digital readout by a built-in data logger. It measures particles and dust by cutting the particle size and matching them w ith the ISO/CEN standard of 4 microns based on light-scattering principles (TSI 2002). Particulates (PM10) concen tration level can be measured directly from reading the monitor. Details and specification of this medi a are given in Appendix D. Figure 3-12. A TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor and an Aerosol sample inlet (Source: Roya Mozaffarian). Occupational safety and health administrati on (OSHA) 7 method and charcoal tube Based on LEED requirem ents, measuring 4-PC H is required only if SBR carpeting being installed in the building. Gers on Hall was the only building that needed to be tested for measuring 4Phenylcyclohexene. The OSHA 7 method was used to measure 4-PCH. Required equipment, in Figure 3-13, for OSHA 7 method are (OSHA 2008): Aerosol sample inlet

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59 Air sampling pump Note: The same air sampling pump that was used for the silica gel tube and the sorbent tube can be used if the calibration procedures are completed correctly. Gemini flow regulator and Gemini port Charcoal tube : It is a glass tube with both ends flame sealed. This tube is 7cm long with a 6mm O.D. and a 4mm inside diameter (I.D.). It contains two sections of 20/40 mesh activated charcoal divided by a 2mm portion of urethane foam. The activated charcoal is made of coconut shells and is fired at 600 degree Celsius before packing. The absorbing section includes 100 mg of charcoal and the back-up section, 50 mg. A 3mm portion of urethane foam is between th e outlet end of the tube and the back-up section. Block of silanized glass wool is in front of the absorbing section. The procedure for OSHA 7 method to measure 4-PCH is (OSHA 2008): 1. Calibrate the air sampling pump as described before. 2. Clean the charcoal tube and break both ends of the charcoal tube immediately before sampling to provide an opening at least one-hal f the internal diameter of the tube (2 mm). Attach the smaller section of charcoal as a backup to the sampling pump with the Gemini flow regulator. Air volume varies, but the ai r volume range used to measure 4-PCH in this test was between 10.14 to 10.57 liters. 3. After a one hour sampling, disconnect the pump and withdraw the tube, and cap the tube securely. Label each sample, a nd send the samples with the blank tube for analysis, on ice, to a laboratory accredited by the Amer ican Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). Note: Detectable limit required fo r OSHA 7 method is 3 micrograms. Figure 3-13. Charcoal tu bes (Source: EMSL 2007). Direct reading method and TSI Q-track The TSI Q-Track in Figure 3-14 was used to m easure carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, humidity, and temperature. It calculates dew point wet bulb and percent outs ide air as well. This

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60 hand-held instrument displays up to five m easurements simultaneous ly and it provides a programmable start and stop time. CO, CO2, humidity, and temperature can be measured instantaneously by reading the m onitor (TSI 2007). Details and specification of this instrument are given in Appendix D. Figure 3-14. A TSI Q-Track (Source: Roya Mozaffarian). Summary Particulates (PM10), CO, CO2, temperature, and humidity measurements were completed by direct reading in the field. The silica gel t ubes, sorbent tubes (Car botrap 300), and charcoal tubes were shipped by EH&S department at UF to the Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. laboratory accredited by AIHA for analysis of formaldehyde, TVOC, and 4-PCH concentration levels. The IAQ differences between a LEED cer tified and a non-LEED certified building were identified by comparing the results of the test. De tails of the sample results are given in Chapter 4.

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61 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Introduction The com plete IAQ test results including CH2O, TVOC, and 4-PCH measurements were received on February 18, 2008 from Bureau Ve ritas North America Inc. accredited by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) These results were analyzed based on LEED requirements. In addition, Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle were analyzed. Rinker Halls life cycle analysis was based on the IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and initial commissioning data in January 2003. Gerson Halls IAQ life cycle was based on IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and initial IAQ test re sults on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004. Then, the life cycle IAQ comparison was studi ed between Rinker Hall (the LEED certified building) and Gerson Hall (the non-LEED certifie d building). Following sections explain the results of these studies. Rinker Hall Indoor Air Quality Te st Results a nd Its Life Cycle Rinker Hall as a LEED certified building had a good IAQ based on LEED requirements and IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 met the LEED requirements. Table 4-1 shows the Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008.

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62Table 4-1. Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 (Source: Bureau Veritas North Ameri ca Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun 2008 ). Location Room Description *CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) **TVOC (g/m3) EPA TO-17 method TVOC (ppb) direct reading CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) Room 140 Classroom 7.6 4.0 21.0 148 0.4 565 71.5 51.0 Room 203A Storage room 8.1 6.0 15.0 163 1.0 852 71.9 57.4 Room 303 Conference room 12.0 5.0 15.0 132 0.4 620 70.7 52.2 Room 322 Faculty office 8.0 25.0 144 0.4 640 69.6 56.2 Room 328 Graduate students office 8.0 31.0 200 0.3 701 70.6 54.0 Room 336 Graduate students office 7.0 21.0 143 0.7 673 70.3 54.3 Outside 40.0 120 0.4 412 71.7 78.4 *CH2O is Formaldehyde. **1, 4-Dichlorobenzene accounts for all of the TVOC detected on all samples. Note: identifies that this contaminant was not measured.

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63 The outside air was measured with direct read ing instruments only and the results are just for reference. Main reason for outdoor air meas urement was to analyze indoor temperature and humidity level compared to outdoor air. Form aldehyde was only measured in rooms 140, 203A, and 303 as shown in Table 4-1. The TVOC m easurements based on EPA TO-17 method was compared with LEED requirements, not the direct reading of TVOC level, since LEED does not approve direct reading measurement of TVOC level. Table 4-2 demonstrates the maximum concentration level of air contaminants base d on Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 2008 and LEED requirements. Table 4-2. Rinker Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED (Source: USGBC, Bureau Veritas North America Inc., and Thomas C. Ladun). Maximum Concentration Level CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (g/m3) CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) LEED 50 50 500 9 1000 ppm based on USEPA 68-75 F based on ASHRAE 30-60% based on ASHRAE Rinker Hall 12 8 31 1 852 71.9 57.4 Maximum concentration level of each air cont aminant that was tested in Rinker Hall is lower than LEED requirements. Therefore, the IAQ test results of Rinker Hall are acceptable based on LEED requirements. These results ar e acceptable compared to LEED-EB requirements in Table 3-1 as well. Carbon dioxi de in room 203A, the storage room, had a higher concentration level based on ASHRAE recommended level of 700 ppm limit, but it meets the USEPA recommended range for non-industrial indoor en vironment of 800 ppm to 1000 ppm and also OSHA requirements of 5,000 ppm limit. Thomas C. Ladun, the EH&S departme nt coordinator, explains The CO2 level is used as a surrogate measurement to determ ine the effectiveness of the ventilation systems ability to control other pollutants in th e indoor environment. The 852 ppm level in room 203A is not

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64 indicative of a problem since the acceptable ra nge of reading by the TS I Q-Track instrument would be expected to be 50 ppm and also the monitoring was not conducted for a long enough period of time to determine what the steady state CO2 concentration would be. Carbon dioxide levels would be expected to fl uctuate throughout the day in respons e to occupant activity in the general area of the instrument (Ladun 2008). The IAQ test in Rinker Hall was initially m easured in January 2003 when the building was not occupied and the only documentation was an Excel sheet of Rinke r Hall IAQ commissioning data (see Appendix E). Six rooms from this docum ent were selected for IAQ test measurements on February 5, 2008 with the exceptio n of room 322 that was not tested in January 2003. Table 4-3 shows the IAQ test results of Rinker Hall in January 2003 based on the same rooms that were tested on February 5, 2008.

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65Table 4-3. Rinker Hall IAQ test results in January 2003 (Source: Thomas C. Ladun 2003). Location Room Description CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (ppb) direct reading CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) Room 140 Classroom 420 Room 203A Storage room 18.0 350 0.0 410 63.9 23.6 Room 303 Conference room 350 Room 328 Graduate students office 1.0 465 69.1 36.8 Room 336 Graduate students office 400 0.0 400 66.8 21.1 Note: identifies that this contaminant was not measured.

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66 The IAQ test results of Rinker Hall in Janua ry 2003 were acceptable but not completed based on LEED requirements since CH2O and TVOC concentration level based on EPA TO-17 method were not measured. These IAQ test results met the LEED-EB requirements as well but were not completed. The IAQ test results of more rooms being tested in January 2003 are given in Appendix E. Table 4-4 illustrates the Rinker Hall IAQ test life cycle over th e past five years and Figure 4-1 shows the IAQ test life cycle of Rinker Ha ll based on the Box Plot chart for each air contaminant. Note: The values presented in Box Plot charts are based on maximum, third quartile, median, first quartile, minimum, and outlier calculations by Box Plot. Lighter shade of graph presents the data between the third quartile and median while the darker shad e of graph presents the data between the median and first quartile. Each quar tile represents a quarter of the total sampled measurements. The first quartile represents the lowest 25% of data and the third quartile represents the lowest 75% of data. The line betw een the light shade and dark of graph is the median, which presents the lowest 50% of data. In some charts, the first or the third quartile is not shown based on Box Plot chart calculations, but the median is presented as the lowest value in third quartile and highest va lue in first quartile. Maximum and minimum values are the highest and lowest numbers in gra ph. The outliers, the data that are extremely different from the other measurements, are presented with cross ha tches and are higher than the maximum value or lower than the minimum value (Corda 2008).

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67Table 4-4. Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle (Source: Bureau Veritas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun). IAQ Test CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (g/m3) EPA TO-17 method TVOC (ppb) direct reading CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) Rinker Hall (Jan.03) 7.019.0 300-650 0-2.0 369-465 63.9-72.8 21.1-36.8 Rinker Hall Mean (Jan.03) 14.70 394.80 0.80 408.00 67.60 28.70 Rinker Hall *SD (Jan.03) 6.66 78.69 0.75 31.74 3.35 7.22 Rinker Hall (Feb.08) 7.6-12.0 4.0-8.0 15.0-31.0 132-200 0.3-1.0 565-852 69.6-71.9 51.0-57.4 Rinker Hall Mean (Feb.08) 9.23 6.33 21.33 155.00 0.53 675.17 70.77 54.18 Rinker Hall *SD (Feb.08) 2.41 1.63 6.12 24.22 0.27 98.35 0.83 1.64 *SD is Standard Deviation. Note: Rinker Hall measurements in Jan.03 are based on al l the rooms that were tested during that time.

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68 Rinker Hall Formaldehyde (ppb) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 5.65 6.65 7.65 8.65 9.65 10.65 11.65 12.65 CH2O Feb.08CH2O (ppb) A Rinker Hall PM10 (ug/m3) Life Cycle -1.5 3.5 8.5 13.5 18.5 23.5 PM10 Jan.03 PM10 Feb.08PM10 (ug/m3) B Rinker Hall TVOC (ug/m3) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 TVOC Feb.08TVOC, EPA TO-17 Method, (ug/m3) C Rinker Hall TVOC (ppb) Life Cycle 82 182 282 382 482 582 682 TVOC Jan.03 TVOC Feb.08TVOC, Direct Reading, (ppb) D Figure 4-1. Rinker Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart. A) CH2O (ppb) 2008 results. B) PM10 (g/m) life cycle. C) TVOC (g/m) 2008 results. D) TVOC (ppb) lif e cycle. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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69 Rinker Hall CO (ppm) Life Cycle -0.25 0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 CO Jan.03 CO Feb.08CO (ppm) A Rinker Hall CO2 (ppm) Life Cycle 347.25 447.25 547.25 647.25 747.25 847.25 947.25 CO2 Jan.03 CO2 Feb.08CO2 (ppm) B Rinker Hall Temperature (F) Life Cycle 62.95 64.95 66.95 68.95 70.95 72.95 74.95 Temperature Jan.03Temperature Feb.08Temperature (F) C Rinker Hall Humidity (%) Life Cycle 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Humidity Jan.03 Humidity Feb.08Humidity (%) D Figure 4-1. Rinker Hall IAQ life cycl e based on Box Plot chart. A) CO (ppm) life cycle. B) CO2 (ppm) life cycle. C) Temperature ( F) life cycle. D) Humidity (%) life cycle. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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70 Since CH2O and TVOC concentration levels base d on EPA TO-17 method were not tested in January 2003, they were not shown in Figur e 4-1. The 4-PCH contaminant was not measured in Rinker Hall since the SBR latex carpet was not installed in Rinker Hall. There is no significant difference between CO, CO2, temperature, and humidity levels in 2003 and 2008 IAQ test results base d on t-Test (Paired Two Sample for Means). Rinker Hall life cycle t-Test results are given in Appendix E, Table E-1. This t-Test can only be done when the compared sample sizes are equal. Since the PM10 and direct reading of TVOC sample sizes in 2003 were not equal to 2008 sample sizes, it was not possible to apply th e t-Test (Paired Two Sample for Means) between the two data. The t-Test was not applied for CH2O, TVOC based on EPA TO-17 method, and 4-PCH concentration levels either since these contaminants were not measured in 2003. As it has shown in Table 4-4 and Figure 4-1, PM10 and direct reading of TVOC concentration levels had changed extensively over the past 5 years. In January 2003, the PM10 and direct reading of TVOC mean concentration levels were cons ecutively more than two times and more than 2.5 times higher than February 2008 mean results. Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Test Results and Its Life Cycle The IAQ test results of Gerson Hall as a non-LE ED certified building were acceptable. While Gerson Hall is not a LEED certified build ing compared to Rinker Hall, the IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 met th e LEED requirements with the ex ceptions of elevated relative humidity in some rooms that will be discussed in further detail. Table 4-5 shows the Gerson Hall IAQ test results.

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71Table 4-5. Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 (Source: Bureau Veritas North Americ a Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun 2008). Location Room Description CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (g/m3) EPA TO-17 method TVOC (ppb) direct reading 4-PCH (g/m3) CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) Room 121 Classroom 5.9 8.0 BDL 151 BDL 0.5 495 69.0 72.1 Room 220 Open office 7.0 BDL 137 0.8 588 70.7 58.0 Room 233 Study room 6.5 10.0 BDL 121 BDL 0.5 509 70.9 66.7 Room 321 Faculty office 7.0 BDL 118 0.4 491 71.9 54.7 Room 327 Conference room 8.0 BDL 125 BDL 0.6 522 71.2 58.6 Room 334 Ph.D. students office 11.0 10.0 BDL 168 0.8 616 72.3 65.5 Outside 22.0 108 0.1 383 75.4 64.4 Note: BDL means Below Detectable Limit for analytical method used. Note: identifies that this contaminant was not measured.

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72 The outside air was measured with direct re ading instruments only and the results are just for reference. As shown in Table 4-5, the TVOC concentration level, below 50 nanograms, and 4-PCH concentration level, belo w 3 micrograms, were below the detectable limits of their analytical methods. Table 4-6 demonstrates the maximum concentr ation level of air contaminants based on Gerson Hall IAQ test re sults on February 2008 and LEED requirements. The VOC measurement by direct reading was not considered in Table 4-6 measurements. Table 4-6. Gerson Hall IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 and LEED (Source: USGBC, Bureau Veritas North America Inc., and Thomas C. Ladun). Maximum Concentration Level CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (g/m3) 4-PCH (g/m3) CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) LEED 50 50 500 6.5 9 1000 ppm based on USEPA 68-75 F based on ASHRAE 30-60% based on ASHRAE Gerson Hall 11 10 BDL BDL 0.8 616 72.3 72.1 Note: BDL means Below Detectable Limit for analytical method used. As shown in Table 4-6, the maximum concen tration level of each air contaminant in Gerson Hall met the LEED requirements. These measurements are accep table based on LEEDEB limit as well. Humidity level in rooms 121, 233, and 334 as shown in Table 4-5 were higher than outside air. Thomas C. Ladun, the EH&S c oordinator, explains, T here is nothing obvious in these rooms that would explain the readings The cause is most likely due to the HVAC system and its controls but since I'm not familiar w ith the system in this building, I can't be more specific (Ladun 2008). The IAQ was initially measured in Gerson Hall prior to occupancy on December 22, 2003 and subsequent to occupancy on January 23, 2004, but unfortunately the documentation of these measurements did not show the IAQ test results by r oom numbers except for CH2O. Based on the room numbers that were recorded for CH2O measurements on December 22, 2003, six rooms

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73 were selected for IAQ test measurements on February 5, 2008 with th e exception of room 321 which was not tested on December 22, 2003. Concen tration range of each air contaminant was recorded on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004. Table 4-7 illustrates the Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle over the past 5 years and Figure 4-2 shows the formaldehyde life cycle of Gerson Hall a nd IAQ test results of other contaminants in Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008 based on Box Plot ch art. Since the actual data of IAQ test results on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 in Gerson Hall were not recorded, it was not possible to show the Box Plot chart of each contaminant measured during that period except CH2O measurements. Direct reading of TVOC, CH2O, and PM10 were measured on December 22, 2003 and CO2, temperature, and humidity were measured on January 23, 2004. Radon gas was also measured on January 9 through 13 of 2004 but was not measured on February 5, 2008, so it was not considered in Table 4-7. The anal ytical methods that were used on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 measurements were sim ilar to February 5, 2008 methods to measure IAQ contaminants. Details of IAQ test re sults on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 are given in Appendix E. Note: Since the CH2O concentration ranging on December 22, 2003 in Gerson Hall varied, the same range as Rinker Hall CH2O level could not be used in Box Plot chart of Figure 4-2 to show the CH2O measurements. In order to demonstrate the CH2O concentration levels precisely in Figure 4-2, the 630 ppm data for CH2O measurement has not shown in Figure 4-2 as an outlier in Box Plot chart.

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74Table 4-7. Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle (Sour ce: Johnson Lewis, Bureau Veritas Nort h America Inc., and Thomas C. Ladun). IAQ Test CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (g/m3) EPA TO17 method TVOC (ppb) direct reading 4-PCH (g/m3) CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) Gerson Hall (Dec.03 & Jan.04) 1.4-630 10-38 0-680 345755 68-72 26-30 Gerson Hall Mean (Dec.03 & Jan.04) 71.41 23.00 331.67 550.00 70.00 28.00 Gerson Hall *SD (Dec.03 & Jan.04) 185.54 13.64 340.31 289.91 2.83 2.83 Gerson Hall (Feb.08) 5.9-11.0 7.0-10.0BDL 118-168BDL 0.4-0.8 491616 69.072.3 54.7-72.1 Gerson Hall Mean (Feb.08) 7.80 8.33 BDL 136.67 BDL 0.60 536.83 71.00 62.60 Gerson Hall *SD (Feb.08) 2.79 1.37 BDL 19.58 BDL 0.17 52.40 1.15 6.56 *SD is Standard Deviation. Note: Gerson Hall measurements in Dec.03 & Jan.04 are base d on all the rooms that were tested during that time.

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75 Gerson Hall Formaldehyde (ppb) Life Cycle -3.7 6.3 16.3 26.3 36.3 46.3 56.3 66.3 CH2O Dec.03 CH2O Feb.08CH2O (ppb) A Gerson Hall PM10 (ug/m3) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 -1.5 3.5 8.5 13.5 18.5 23.5 PM10 Feb.08PM10 (ug/m3) B Gerson Hall TVOC (ppb) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 82 182 282 382 482 582 682 TVOC Feb.08TVOC Direct Reading, (ppb) C Figure 4-2. Gerson Hall IAQ life cycle based on Box Plot chart. A) CH2O (ppb) life cycle. B) PM10 ( g/m) 2008 results. C) TVOC (ppb) 2008 results. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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76 Gerson Hall CO (ppm) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 -0.25 0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 CO Feb.08CO (ppm) A Gerson Hall CO2 (ppm) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 347.25 447.25 547.25 647.25 747.25 847.25 947.25 CO2 Feb.08CO2 (ppm) B Gerson Hall Temperature (F) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 62.95 64.95 66.95 68.95 70.95 72.95 74.95 Temperature Feb.08Temperature (F) C Gerson Hall Humidity (%) Results on Feb. 5th, 2008 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Humidity Feb.08Humidity (%) D Figure 4-2. Gerson Hall IAQ life cycl e based on Box Plot chart. A) CO (ppm) 2008 resluts. B) CO2 (ppm) 2008 results. C) Temperature (F) 2008 results. D) Humidity (%) 2008 results. (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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77 Based on Gerson Hall IAQ test report on December 22, 2003, the high levels of CH2O and TVOC during that time was due to the new furniture delivered then and the high level of PM10 was due to the close distance to the constr uction work area. Since the actual data for Gerson Hall initial IAQ test measurements in 2003 wa s not available, it wa s not possible to apply the t-Test (Paired Two Sample for Means). Even though, the CH2O data was available, but the CH2O sample size in 2003 was not equal to 2008 samp le size and it was not possible to apply the t-Test to compare the two data. As it has shown in Table 4-7 and Figure 4-2, CH2O, PM10, direct reading of TVOC, and humidity co ncentration levels had changed extensively over the past 5 years. On February 5, 2008, the mean humidity level was more than two times higher than January 2004 mean results. Mean temperature level on February 5, 2008 was slightly higher than January 2004 mean results. On December 22, 2003, the CH2O mean concentration level was more than 9 times, PM10 mean level, was about 3 times, and direct reading of TVOC mean concentration level was more than two times higher than February 2008 mean results. The CO2 mean level on January 23, 2004 was slightly higher than February 2008 mean results. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Indoor Air Quality Comparison Results The IAQ test was done in both buildings on February 5, 2008 with an hour difference and for one hour period in each building. Same air co ntaminants were measured with the exception of 4-PCH measurement in Gerson Hall since SBR la tex carpets were installed in Gerson Hall. Room selections in both buildings to perf orm the IAQ test were based on the similar functionality of the rooms in order to analyze the comparison results accurately. Table 4-8 compares the results of the IAQ test in Ri nker Hall and Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008 and Figure 4-3 shows these comparison results based on Box Plot chart for each air contaminant being tested in both buildings. The 4-PCH measurement was not shown in Figure 4-3 since this contaminant was not measured in Rinker Hall.

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78Table 4-8. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison on February 5, 2008 (Source: Bu reau Veritas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun). IAQ Comparison CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (g/m3) EPA TO-17 method TVOC (ppb) direct reading 4-PCH (g/m3) CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) Rinker Hall (Feb.08) 7.6-12.0 4.0-8.0 15.0-31.0 132-2000.3-1.0 565-85269.6-71.9 51.0-57.4 Rinker Hall Mean (Feb.08) 9.20 6.30 21.30 155.00 0.50 675.20 70.80 54.20 Rinker Hall SD (Feb.08) 2.41 1.63 6.12 24.22 0.27 98.35 0.83 1.64 Gerson Hall (Feb.08) 5.9-11.0 7.0-10.0BDL 118-168BDL 0.4-0.8 491-61669.0-72.3 54.7-72.1 Gerson Hall Mean (Feb.08) 7.80 8.30 BDL 136.70 BDL 0.60 536.80 71.00 62.60 Gerson Hall SD (Feb.08) 2.79 1.37 BDL 19.58 BDL 0.17 52.40 1.15 6.56

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79 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Formaldehyde (ppb) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 5.65 6.65 7.65 8.65 9.65 10.65 11.65 12.65 CH2O Rinker Feb.08 CH2O Gerson Feb.08CH2O (ppb) Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall PM10 (ug/m3) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 -1.5 3.5 8.5 13.5 18.5 23.5 PM10 Rinker Feb.08PM10 Gerson Feb.08PM10 (ug/m3) Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall TVOC (ug/m3) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 TVOC Rinker Feb.08TVOC Gerson Feb.08TVOC, EPA TO-17 Method, (ug/m3) Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall TVOC (ppb) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 82 182 282 382 482 582 682 TVOC Rinker Feb.08TVOC Gerson Feb.08TVOC Direct Reading, (ppb) Figure 4-3. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2008 base d on Box Plot chart. A) CH2O (ppb). B) PM10 (g/m). C) TVOC (g/m). D) TVOC (ppb). (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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80 Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall CO (ppm) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 -0.25 0.25 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 CO Rinker Feb.08 CO Gerson Feb.08CO (ppm) Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall CO2 (ppm) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 347.25 447.25 547.25 647.25 747.25 847.25 947.25 CO2 Rinker Feb.08CO2 Gerson Feb.08CO2 (ppm) Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Temperature (F) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 62.95 64.95 66.95 68.95 70.95 72.95 74.95 Temperature Rinker Feb.08Temperature Gerson Feb.08Temperature (F) Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall Humidity (%) Comparison on Feb. 5th, 2008 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Humidity Rinker Feb.08Humidity Gerson Feb.08Humidity (%) Figure 4-3. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2008 based on Box Plot ch art. A) CO (ppm). B) CO2 (ppm). C) Temperature (F). D) Humidity (%). (Source: Roya Mozaffarian).

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81 There was no significant difference betw een PM10, TVOC, CO, temperature, and humidity concentration level in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008 based on t-Test (Paired Two Sample for Means). There was a significant difference between CH2O, TVOC, and CO2 concentration level in Rinker Hall and Gers on Hall on February 5, 2008 based on t-Test (Paired Two Sample for Means). The CH2O, TVOC, and CO2 concentration level in Rinker Hall were significantly higher than Gerson Hall resu lts on February 5, 2008. The t-Test results are given in Appendix E, Table E-3. The initial IAQ tests in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall were done on different dates. The air contaminants that were measured in these two bu ildings were not completely the same. Table 4-9 shows the contaminants that were measured initially in both buildings. More rooms with different functionalities were tested initially in both buildings compared to the number of rooms under study on February 5, 2008. Details of the rooms that were test ed initially in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall are given in Appendix E. Table 4-9 demonstrates the comparison results of initial IAQ tests in Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall. The TVOC with EPA TO-17 method and 4PCH were not measured during the initial IAQ test period. Formaldehyde was not measured in Rinker Hall initially and CO was not measured in Gerson Hall initially. Since the actual Gerson Hall IAQ test results were not available, it wa s not possible to apply the t-Test (Paired Two Sample for Means) and Box Plot chart comparison between Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall initial IAQ test results in 2003 and 2004.

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82Table 4-9. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ comparison in 2003 and 2004 (Source: Thomas C. Ladun and Johnson Lewis). IAQ Comparison CH2O (ppb) PM10 (g/m3) TVOC (g/m3) EPA TO-17 method TVOC (ppb) direct reading 4-PCH (g/m3) CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) T (F) RH (%) Rinker Hall (Jan.03) 7.0-19.0300-6500-2.0 369-465 63.9-72.8 21.1-36.8 Rinker Hall Mean (Jan.03) 14.70 394.80 0.80 408.00 67.60 28.70 Rinker Hall *SD (Jan.03) 6.66 78.69 0.75 31.74 3.35 7.22 Gerson Hall (Dec.03 & Jan.04) 1.4-630 10-38 0-680 345-755 68-72 26-30 Gerson Hall Mean (Dec.03 & Jan.04) 71.41 23.00 331.67 550.00 70.00 28.00 Gerson Hall *SD (Dec.03 & Jan.04) 185.54 13.64 340.31 289.91 2.83 2.83 *SD is Standard Deviation.

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83 The TVOC, direct reading, mean concentra tion and humidity mean value in Rinker Hall in January 2003 were higher than Gerson Ha ll mean results on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 as shown in Table 4-9. PM10, CO2, and temperature mean concentration in Gerson Hall on December 22, 2003 and January 23, 2004 were higher than Rinker Hall mean results in January 2003. Summary Since the primary purpose of the IAQ test on February 5, 2008 was an IAQ comparison between the two buildings, the comparison study between Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall based on IAQ test results on February 5, 2008 was more he lpful than the study based on initial IAQ test results 5 years ago. The initial IAQ tests in both buildings were done 5 years ago to identify the IAQ in each building individually not for co mparison purposes. Chapter 5 explains the conclusion that was drawn in this study base d on the analysis of IAQ test results.

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84 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS The IAQ test results of Rinker Hall (the LEED certified buildi ng) were different compared to Gerson Hall (the non-LEED certified building). The CH2O, TVOC, and CO2 concentration levels in Rinker Hall as a LEED certified buildin g were significantly higher than Gerson Hall as a non-LEED certified building based on statistical analysis, five years after construction. There were differences among each buildings IAQ life cycle as well. The CO2, temperature, and humidity concentration levels in Rinker Hall on February 5, 2008 were higher than January 2003 results. The temperature and humidity levels in Gerson Hall on February 5, 2008 were higher than January 23, 2004 results. Based on the Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall IAQ li fe cycle analysis over five years, annual measurements of CO2, temperature, and humidity are r ecommended in existing buildings to analyze the IAQ. Annual HVAC inspection is al so recommended to make sure it operates correctly with proper ventilati on and outdoor air flow rate. Dir ect digital cont rol systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) simplify the temperature and humidity measurements by direct reading from the HVAC c ontrol monitor. The low concentration level of other contaminants in IAQ test results indicated that measuring the other contaminants measured in this protocol is not necessary unless building renovation or remodeling occurs. In order to analyze the IAQ in constructing a new building, it is suggested to perform the IAQ test before and after occupancy. Annua l inspection is recommended based on LEED requirements. If the IAQ test needs to be done in existing bu ildings, it is suggested to perform the test in different seasons to inspect the HVAC system op eration and the effects of outside temperature and humidity on inside IAQ. Occupancy level of the existing building needs to be recorded in

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85 order to analyze the effects of pe ople on building IAQ such as the CO2 concentration that people carry with them from outside the building to inside. The r ecommended number of samples is based on building sq footage and number of floors. The IAQ test results would be more precise if the test performs more than on ce from rooms with similar functi onality. For example, if the IAQ test needs to be done in a building at school, taki ng at least two air samples for each contaminant from two classrooms in a building provides a more accurate IAQ results. Location and time restrictions to perform the IAQ test in schools can be minimized by applying part of the test, which does not need to consider the occupancy le vel, during summer. The cost to apply the IAQ test varies based on the IAQ protocol includi ng the number of air samples and media. The IAQ professionals are the best resour ces to recognize the best protocol to apply the IAQ test in a building. If the building is under re novation process, it is strongly suggested to perform the IAQ test after the renovation is done si nce new paint, carpets, materials, and furniture can affect the IAQ in buildings. Recommendations for future research would be investigation in building attributes that lead to better IAQ. Building materials, exposure to CH2O, TVOC, and CO2 over time, ventilation systems, outside air flow, and any other factors th at may cause poor IAQ needs to be investigated in buildings with poor IAQ. Recommendations for architects and contract ors would be to desi gn and construct the buildings with respect to IAQ. Besides the r ecommended measurements, it is important to maintain the building appropriately. Contractor s and owners need to invest in building maintenance during and after construction to prevent the poor IAQ.

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86 APPENDIX A RINKER HALL LEED CERTIFICATION Figure A-1. Rinker Hall LEED cer tification summary sheet.

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87 APPENDIX B RINKER HALL AND GERSON HALL FLOOR PLANS

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88 Figure B-1. Rinker Hall first floor plan.

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89 Figure B-2. Rinker Hall second floor plan.

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90 Figure B-3. Rinker Hall third floor plan.

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91 Figure B-4. Gerson Hall first floor plan.

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92 Figure B-5. Gerson Hall second floor plan.

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93 Figure B-6. Gerson Hall third floor plan.

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94 APPENDIX C INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST DATA LOGS AND COST PROPOSAL

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95 Figure C-1. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall formaldehyde data logs.

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96 Figure C-2. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 method.

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97 Figure C-3. Gerson Hall TVOC data logs based on EPA TO-17 method and Gerson Hall 4-PCH data logs.

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98 Figure C-4. Indoor Air Quality test cost proposal from UF EH&S department.

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99 APPENDIX D INSTRUMENTS SPECIFICATIONS

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100 Figure D-1. Specification fo r BIOS DryCal DC-Lite.

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101 Figure D-1. Continued.

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102 Figure D-2. Specification for MS A Escort ELF sampling pump.

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103 Figure D-2. Continued.

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104 Figure D-3. Photo Ionization De tector (PID) specification.

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105 Figure D-4. Specification for TSI Dust Track Aerosol Monitor.

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106 Figure D-4. Continued.

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107 Figure D-5. Specification for TSI Q-Tr ack indoor air qu ality monitor.

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108 Figure D-5. Continued.

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109 APPENDIX E INITIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST AND T-TEST RE SULTS

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110 Gerson Hall Documentation of Indoor Environmental Quality Sampling in the Accounting building in accordan ce with the Indoor Environmental Quality policy occurred in December and January. Duri ng testing the HVAC systems operated in the design mode, documented by a prior test and balance approval. This report covers the sampling conducted prior to occupancy, a nd subsequent to occupancy. Prior to Occupancy Formaldehyde Ambient formaldehyde levels are to be <0.05 parts per million. Samples were collected on SGDNPH sorbent tubes, and analyzed using NIOSH method 2016. Two field blanks submitted along with these samples. Twelve samples were collected, one was spoile d in handling. The sample from Room 327 was above the 0.05 ppm limit set by EH&S, and is an area of concern. At the time of sampling new furniture was being delivered into this space. This space is receiving additional sampling, and the results of that sampling will follow in a subsequent report. Volatile Organic Compounds Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds (voc ) are to be <600 parts per billion as measured with a ppbRAE photo-ionization de tector using a 10.6 MeV bulb. Measurements were collected on December 22, 2003. With the exception of room 327, all of the measured spaces were well within the 600 ppb limit (range 0 315 ppb). The slightly elevated level in 327 (680 ppb) is likely due to the new furniture delivered to that space and should not be a problem. Inhalable Dusts Ambient levels of inhalable dust are to be <25 micrograms per cubic meter. On December 22, 2003, dust levels were measured throughout the build ing. The average airbor ne dust level ranged from 10 13 micrograms per cubic meter. Ther e were maximum levels of 38 micrograms per cubic meter on the second floor and 31 microgram s per cubic meter on the third floor. Both of these readings were near contra ctor work still occurring, and do not represent a problem in the building. Formaldehyde Sample Location Analytical Result in parts per million Room 121 0.0014 Room 122 0.0057 Room 126 0.0071 Room C199A 0.023 Room 220 0.026 Room 227 0.031 Room 229 0.0094 Room 233 0.0059 Room 311 0.026 Room 327 0.63 Room 334 0.020

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111 Subsequent to Occupancy Radon Gas Radon gas levels are to be < 2.0 Pico Curies pe r Liter. Indoor radon monitoring occurred January 9 13, 2004. All levels measured we re below the 2.0 Pico Curies per liter limit. The separate radon report is attached. Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide levels are to be < 1,000 part s per million during normal occupation of the building as an indication that adequate fresh air is being de livered to the building spaces. Measurements in January 23, 2004 during occupanc y indicate the carbon dioxide levels range from 345 755 parts per million. These leve ls are well within the guideline. Relative Humidity Relative humidity levels are to be in the range of 30 60% to maintain oc cupant comfort, prevent static electrical build-up, a nd to prevent microbial growt h. Measurements on January 23, 2004 indicate the relative humidity level is in the range of 26 30%. These levels are low, and will be checked again in February. Temperature Temperatures are to be in the range of 69 79 F to maintain occupant comfort. Temperature measurements were collected on January 23, 2004. Some of the temperatures on the first and second floors were below 69 F, ranging from 68 72 F. The temperatures will be checked again in February. There have been no complaints due to the low temperatures. Summary In general, this building air quality is within the established guidelines. Areas out of compliance for formaldehyde, voc, and airborne dust appeared to be related to on-going construction work. Follow-up sampling for dust, relative humidity and formaldehyde is scheduled for the first week of February. The final round of sampling wi ll occur in November 2004 before warranty completion. Signed: __________________________________ January 30, 2004 Lewis Johnson, CIH Coordinator, UF EH&S

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112 Table E-1. Rinker Hall initial IAQ co mmissioning data in January 2003. Room # Dust (ug/m3) TVOC (ppb) Temp. (F) RH (%) CO (ppm) CO2 (ppm) 138 7.0 370.0 64.2 22.3 1.0 369.0 106 400.0 68.6 36.6 2.0 410.0 110 320.0 125 400.0 140A 300.0 140 420.0 136 300.0 203 300.0 203A 18.0 350.0 63.9 23.6 0.0 410.0 201 450.0 215 72.8 31.5 1.0 394.0 230 360.0 202 300.0 201 450.0 240 400.0 238 350.0 305 400.0 310 450.0 315 500.0 324 400.0 325 500.0 328 69.1 36.8 1.0 465.0 334 400.0 303 350.0 301A 350.0 c399A 19.0 650.0 336 400.0 66.8 21.1 0.0 400.0

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113Table E-2. Rinker Hall and Gerson Hall t-Test results based on 2008 IAQ test results (S ource: Bureau Veritas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun). PM10 (g/m) Rinker PM10 (g/m) Gerson TVOC (ppb) Rinker TVOC (ppb) Gerson CO (ppm) Rinker CO (ppm) Gerson T (F) Rinker T (F) Gerson RH (%) Rinker RH (%) Gerson Mean 6.338.33155.00136.670.530.60 70.7771.0054.1862.60 Variance 2.671.87586.40383.470.070.03 0.691.335.7143.01 Observations 666666 6666 Pearson Correlation -0.239 -0.183 0.809 -0.731 -0.869 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 0 0 0 0 df 5 5 5 5 5 t Stat -2.070 1.328 -1 -0.309 -2.366 P(T<=t) onetail 0.047 0.121 0.182 0.385 0.032 t Critical onetail 2.015 2.015 2.015 2.015 2.015 P(T<=t) twotail 0.093 0.241 0.363 0.769 0.064 t Critical twotail 2.571 2.571 2.571 2.571 2.571 Note: The confidence level was 95%.

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114Table E-2. Continued. CH2O (ppb) Rinker CH2O (ppb) Gerson TVOC (g/m) Rinker TVOC (g/m) Gerson CO2 (ppm) Rinker CO2 (ppm) Gerson Mean 9.237.8021.330.00 675.17536.83 Variance 5.807.7737.470.00 9671.772746.17 Observations 3366 66 Pearson Correlation 1.000 #DIV/0! 0.631 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 0 0 df 2 5 5 t Stat 6.557 8.537 4.405 P(T<=t) onetail 0.011 0.0002 0.003 t Critical onetail 2.920 2.015 2.015 P(T<=t) twotail 0.022 0.0004 0.007 t Critical twotail 4.303 2.571 2.571 *Pearson Correlation value for TVOC in Gerson Hall is not clear since TVOC concentration level in Gerson Hall on February 5, 20 08 was below detectable limit. Note: The confidence level was 95%.

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115Table E-3. Rinker Hall life cycle t-Test re sults (Source: Bureau Ver itas North America Inc. and Thomas C. Ladun). Rinker03 CO (ppm) Rinker08 CO (ppm) Rinker03 CO2 (ppm) Rinker08 CO2 (ppm) Rinker03 T ( F) Rinker08 T ( F) Rinker03 RH (%) Rinker08 RH (%) Mean 0.8330.533408.000675.167 67.56770.76728.65054.183 Variance 0.5670.0711007.6009671.767 11.2350.68752.1155.706 Observations 6666 6666 Pearson Correlation 0.433 0.418 -0.508 0.686 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 0 0 0 Df 5 5 5 5 t Stat 1.079 -7.285 -2.041 -10.702 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.165 0.000 0.048 0.000 t Critical one-tail 2.015 2.015 2.015 2.015 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.330 0.001 0.097 0.000 t Critical two-tail 2.571 2.571 2.571 2.571

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116 LIST OF REFERENCES Aircuity Inc. (n.d.). Optim a Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Testing Technology. (Oct. 10, 2007). Air Toxics Ltd. (n.d.). Summa Canisters. < http://www.airtoxics.com/equip/canisters.html > (Jan. 20, 2008). Air Toxics Ltd. (n.d.). Sorbent. < http://www.airtoxics.com/equip/sorbent.html > (Feb. 20, 2008). ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrig erating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (1992). ASHRAE 52.1-1992, Gravimetric and Dust-Spot Procedures for Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Re frigerating and Air-C onditioning Engineers). (1999a). ASHRAE 52.2-1999, Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrig erating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (2004). ASHRAE 55-2004, Thermal Environmenta l Conditions for Human Occupancy Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Re frigerating and Air-C onditioning Engineers). (1999b). ASHRAE 62-1999, Ventilation for Ac ceptable Indoor Air Quality Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Re frigerating and Air-C onditioning Engineers). (1999b). ASHRAE 62-1999, Ventilation for Ac ceptable Indoor Air Quality Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrig erating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (2001). ASHRAE 62-2001, Ventilation for Ac ceptable Indoor Air Quality Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrig erating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). (2004). ASHRAE 62.1-2004, Ventilation for A cceptable Indoor Air Quality Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrig erating and Air-Conditioni ng Engineers). (n.d.). About ASHRAE. (Dec. 3, 2007). Bayer, C. W., Crow, S. A ., and Fischer, J. (2000). Causes of IAQ Problems in Schools The Energy Division Oak Ridge National Labor atory, Revised Ed., Columbia, MO. Bios International Corporation. (n.d.). Pr oducts. < http://www.biosint.com/Products/ > (Nov. 5, 2007). CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prev ention). (n.d.). NIOSH (The National for Occupational Safety and Health). < http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ > (Oct. 6, 2007).

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117 Chen, A., Vine, E. L. ( n.d.). Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) < http://www.seattle.gov/light/conserve/sustainability/studies/cv5_sl.htm > (Oct. 5, 2007). Corda. (n.d.). Box Plot Graphs. < http://www.corda.com/docsource/doc7/Manuals/graph_ref/box_plot_graphs.htm> (March 5, 2008). EIA (Energy Inform ation Administration). (199 9). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. (March 24, 2007). EMSL Analytical, Inc.. (n.d.). Charcoal Tubes. < http://www.emsl.com/ > (Feb. 24, 2007). Fang, L., Clausen, G., and Fanger, P. O. (1998). Impact of Temperature and Humidity on the Perception of Indoor Air quality. Indoor Air 8, 80-90. Fisk, W. J., and Rosenfeld A. H. (1997). Estim ates of improved productivity and health from better indoor environments. Indoor Air 7(3), 158-172. GrayWolf Sensing Solutions. ( n.d.). Harnessing the Power of Mobile Computers to Provide Advanced Environmental Measurements. < http://www.wolfsense.com/iaq-indoor-airquality-test-instrument.html > (Nov. 5, 2007). Haneke, K. E. (2002). 4-Phenylcyclohexene [CASRN 4994-165], Review of Toxicological Literature, Integrated Laboratory Systems, North Carolina, NC. Hays, S. M., Gobbell, R. V., and Ganick, N. R. (1995). Indoor Air Quality Solutions and Strategies New York, NY. Hessa-Kosa, K. (2002). Indoor Air Quality Sampling Methodologies, Boca Raton, FL. Hudson, E. (2007). Indoor Air Quality: Can Your Schools Pass the Test? The Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration NEWS < http://www.achrnews.com/CDA/Ar ticles /Technical/BNP_GUID_9-52006_A_10000000000000182571 > (Dec. 23, 2007). INSHT (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higien e en el Trabajo). (n.d. ). Determination of phenol in air -Silica gel tube method / Gas chromatography. (Dec. 20, 2007). Kats, G., Alevantis L., Berman A., Mills, E., and Perlman, J. (2003). The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings A Report to Californias Sustainable Building Task Force, Sacramento, CA. Kibert, C. J. (2005). Sustainable Construction, Hoboken, NJ. Milton, DK., Glencross, PM., and Walters, MD. (2000). Risk of Sick Leave Associated with Outdoor Air Supply Rate Humidification and Occupant Complaints. Indoor Air 10 (4), 212-221.

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118 NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMA M). (2003). Formaldehyde: Method 2016. 4th Ed., (2), 2-7. OSHA (U. S. Department of Labor, Occupationa l Safety and Health Administration). (1994). Indoor Air Quality. (Jan. 10, 2008). OSHA (U. S. Department of Labor, Occupationa l Safety and Health Administration). (n.d.). Organic Vapors. < http://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/m ethods/organic/org007/org007.htm l > (Jan. 15, 2008). SKC Inc. (n.d.). Formaldehyde Sample Tubes. < http://www.skcinc.com/instructions/1049.pdf > (Jan. 11, 2008). SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Associates, Inc.). (1995). IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings under Construction, 1st Ed., Chantilly, VA. Spanos, BJ., and Jarvis, J. Q. (n.d.). Economics of IAQ Aerias Air Quality Sciences, IAQ Resource Center < http://www.aerias.org/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabindex=5&tabid=97 > (Oct. 15, 2007). TSI. (2002). Dust Track Aerosol Monitor. (Feb. 5, 2008). TSI. (2007). Q-Track Indoor Air Quality M onitor. < http://www.tsi.com/documents/29805727565-Q-Trak.pdf > (Feb. 7, 2008). Turner, S., and Lewis, M. (2003). Air Sampling Protocol for LEED Gold Office Project HPAC Engineering, Irvine, CA. UF EH&S (University of Florida Environm ental Health and Safety). (2003). Indoor Environmental Quality Policy. (Jan. 15, 2008). USEPA (United States Environmental Protec tion Agency). (1991). Indoor Air Quality and Work Environment Study. 4. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), and NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). (1991). Building Air Quality Washington, DC. USEPA (United States Environmen tal Protection Agency). (1999). Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Or ganic Compounds in Ambient Air, 2nd Ed., Cincinnati, Ohio. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (n.d.). Indoor Air Quality Topics. < http://www.epa.gov/iaq/ > (Oct. 1, 2007).

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120 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Roya Mozaffarian was born in Tehran, Iran. She was always interes ted in arts and mathematics during her education in Iran. When she moved to United States in 2000, she realized architecture major could fulfill her abilit y in arts and mathematics. She completed her Associate in Arts degree in Miami in 2003 and a pplied for architecture ma jor in University of Florida. She completed her Bachelor of Design in architecture in 2006 while she started taking classes in building construction department. She was interested in the program that building construction department offered for architectur e students, so she applied and completed her Masters of Science degree in 2008. While she was studying architecture in 2004, sh e was working in an architecture firm in Gainesville. She was a teaching assistant in co mputer and graphic communication course in building construction department in 2006. She was an instructor in constr uction drawing course since 2007 until she completed her masters. Upon completion her education, Roya will star t working for Balfour Beatty Construction Company in Virginia to apply her knowledge in construction and architecture.