Citation

## Material Information

Title:
The Development and Evaluation of an Improvisation Module for Beginning Bands
Creator:
Bingham, Steven L
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (330 p.)

## Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Music Education
Music
Committee Chair:
Robinson, Russell L.
Committee Members:
Odom, Leslie S.
Hoffer, Charles R.
Wright, Robert G.
Langford, Robert G.
12/14/2007

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Arpeggios ( jstor )
Jazz ( jstor )
Melody ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Musical chords ( jstor )
Musical improvisation ( jstor )
Musical rhythm ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Tonal harmony ( jstor )
Variation forms ( jstor )
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
bands, beginnng, improvisation, instrumentalists, lesson, music, sixth, standards
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Music Education thesis, Ph.D.

## Notes

Abstract:
This study consisted of the development of a module for teaching improvisation to first-year wind instrumental students. It was conceived as a supplement to the usual program of instruction. It presents an arrangement of six traditional melodies, complete with accompaniment, scales, arpeggios, and variation exercises and opportunities for students to improvise. This study involves the National Standards for the Arts Education content Standards, No. 2 and 3, which specify the teaching of a varied repertoire of music and improvisation in the middle school grades 5-8. Two middle schools were chosen to test the improvisation module: a rural school, population approximately 700 students, and a university city middle school, approximately 900 students. Seventy-two students from the two band programs took part in the study, of which 34 were selected for analysis. Four variables were assessed: a pre-test of the melodies in the improvisation module, a post-test of the same melodies, a post-test of the harmonic structure in the form of arpeggios, and a post-test of each student?s ability to improvise on the melodies in the curriculum using a model CD of the harmonic structure. A paired ?t? test was used to assess the amount of learning. Almost all the results were statistically significant. A one-sample ?t? test for the arpeggios and improvisation produced a high mean value of a combined value of 5.09 out of 10 for the arpeggios for all melodies and a 5.00 out of 10 for the improvisation for all melodies at the rural school. The university city school produced a combined mean score in the arpeggio variable of 7.30 and in the improvisation variable a combined score of 6.74 in the six melodies tested. Director evaluations of the 21 lesson plans that on a seven ?points Likert scale Director A responded significantly higher than Director B. Exit interviews for both directors indicated general agreement on the quality of the materials. Both agree that the material was too much for the amount of time available, but otherwise very positive. They praised the organization, easy to use format, and improvisational concepts presented in the module. They found the materials useful and appropriate to both the students and the teachers. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local:
Statement of Responsibility:
by Steven L Bingham.

## Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright Bingham, Steven L. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Classification:
LD1780 2007 ( lcc )

Full Text

difference between the judges in the scoring of the four variables, but each judge was consistent

in his scoring.

The interaction "p" values, however, were high (over .269) for every variable for both

melody and student tests of the ANOVA with the exception of the arpeggio-student result, a .001

value. The high interaction scores for all four variables for both melody number and student

number ANOVA tests suggests there is no significant interaction between the judges. The

scoring differences by the judges did not depend on each melody or student's specific number.

Rather each judge was being consistent with their scores for all variables and for all students.

Each judge evaluated each student in virtually the same way in both tests run by the ANOVA.

The low result for the arpeggio variable-student score signified that, in general, the judges were

evaluating consistently by performance, but from student to student, they may be scoring

differently.

The data in Table 4-6, also appearing on page 105 at the end of this chapter contains the

interjudge reliability scores for both the melody and student two-way ANOVA tests for the

participants in the university city school. Results of both ANOVA tests regarding the judge "p"

values for all variables were low, ranging from a 0.000 to a .100. There was a difference between

the judges in the scoring of the four variables, but each judge was consistent in his scoring of

each melody and every student.

The interaction "p" values for the university city school, while high for most of the

variables, show differences in the interaction of the judges. The ANOVA test using melody

number and the four variables resulted in high values ranging from a value of .677 to a value of

.826 for the pre-test, post-test and arpeggio variables. The results regarding the improvisation

value, however, were lower, a score of .089. The ANOVA test using student number and the four

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Much literature in the form of methodologies and materials has been published recently in

the area of teaching improvisation, and many publishers of jazz methodology have increased the

number of publications in the area of jazz studies and improvisational studies-including much

literature written for the purpose of teaching the basic fundamentals of jazz improvisation.

Jazz performers and jazz educators have expanded materials and methods of study with

which to aid today's music educators in implementing beginning jazz improvisation into their

core curriculum. But the literature reviewed for this study offers few methodologies or curricula

with which to introduce the fundamentals of improvisation in any traditional beginning band or

orchestra ensemble.

The focus of the literature reviewed centered on the fundamentals of improvisation as

found in beginning band methods and materials that include the large ensemble, however,

advanced theory, skills, and techniques needed to further the study in the art of improvisation

broadened the scope of the review. This writer also further divided the materials and

methodologies reviewed into three general categories: beginning, intermediate, and advanced.

Also included in the review are methodologies that seemingly can be used both in

teaching one-on-one and in a group environment. One-on-one or individual methodologies differ

from those for group methods in that their structure in teaching one-on-one jazz improvisation

traditionally centers on learning solo transcriptions of professional jazz performers and/or jazz

nuances and phrasing indigenous to a particular instrument. Group methods center on teaching

the traditional jazz instrumentation, which include: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a

rhythm section (piano, guitar, bass and drum set): while their curricula required intermediate

technique to manipulate most exercises.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank my wife, Trudy Marie Bingham, for keeping me

centered; my parents, Dr. Hal and Mary Ann Bingham, for their support; my wife's parents Mr.

Bernard and Dorothy Jean Nigus, for their support; and both families for believing in me. I thank

my committee, Dr. Leslie Odom, Professor Gary Langford, and especially Dr. Robert Wright,

Dr. Russell Robinson and Dr. Charles Hoffer, for whose help I am grateful. I thank them for their

unending patience and understanding. I thank Everett McConn, Dirk Schmidt, Don Devito, Gary

Anders and Jim Ketch, for their time. Finally, I thank D.J. Head Jr., whose untiring efforts in

recording and mixing the model CD and in editing all 1585 tracks of audio samples, made this

study possible.

Table 3-1. A synopsis of the lesson plans in the improvisation module
Improvisation Module

Bossa Nova
Hot Cross Buns
Bb Major
4/4
Bb Major
F Mixolydian

Style
Melody
Key Center
Meter
Scale(s)
Mode(s)
Chord(s)
Rhythms

Articulations
Artist
Style Model
CD

Goals and Objectives of lesson plans
Lesson Objective
1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and
root movement of chords

2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form
and harmony. Perform
variations by group with ensemble
accompaniment.

3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by
group and also perform improvisational
solos individually both accompanied by the
ensemble.

Table 3-1. Continued

Soft-rock

I ,.i i-Row

Bb Major
4//4
Bb major
F Mixolydian

F 7/9
Dotted quarter-eighth note
combinations, two, three, and four
eighth-note combinations. Quarter,
half, and whole notes
Legato but also light, detached
Elvis Presley
"Love Me Tender"
Love Elvis

Goals and Objectives of lesson plans
Lesson Objective
1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and
root movement of chords

2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form
and harmony. Perform
variations by group with ensemble
accompaniment.

3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by
group and also perform improvisational
solos individually both accompanied by the
ensemble.

Unit 1

F 7/9
Dotted quarter-eighth note, eighth,
quarter, half, and
whole, notes.
Legato style
Antonio Carlos Jobim
"Girl from Impanema"

The Best ofAntonio Carlos Jobim

Unit 2

Style
Melody
Key Center
Meter
Scale(s)
Mode(s)
Chord(s)
Rhythms

Articulations
Artist
Style Model
CD

Unit 5 Lesson 2

* Goals for Unit 5 Lesson 2
o Perform, on instruments, different music styles including Bossa Nova, jazz, waltz, soft
rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing
o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the proper articulations and rhythms
inherent to each musical style
o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and
dominant seven modes

* State to the Class: Today we will begin the lesson with a review of the melody Kum Ba Yah
the harmony of the tune and the root movement of the chords in harmony to outline the form
of the sixteen-measure melody.
o Before we play let's listen to all of the variations on the model CD (cuts 1 la thru 1 Ih) as
we finger our notes on each of our instruments as the music plays on the CD.

* Note to the instructor: After the model CD plays thru cuts 1 la thru 1 Ih, have the have the
students play thru letter C of this weeks tune.
o Then we will be ready for the first variation.

* State to the class; Letter D begins the first variation of the form.
o The second note and the root of the Bb concert scale appears in measure 50, the root and
the second (ninth) of the Eb Lydian Mode appear in measure 51.
o The second note and also the root of the F Mixolydian mode appear in measure 56.
o Measure 58, 60, 61, and 64 adds the third note of the Bb concert scale.
o The rhythm of letter C changes slightly from half and whole notes to quarter and half
notes,
o Some half notes also appear tied across the bar, much like the original melody.
o Play the model CD #1, cut 86.
o Let's try playing thru this variation.
o (Play letter D)

* Note to the instructor: After the class plays through letter D, the next variation uses the
melody as the basis for its material.
o The rhythm of the dotted quarter-eighth note appears, along with half notes and quarter
notes mixed with two eighth notes replace the tied half to whole note rhythm.

* State to the class: The variation at letter E will remind you of the melody.
o The original melody has been changed slightly in the rhythm and by adding a few new
notes in the variation at letter D.
o Half, quarter, and eighth notes replace the long whole notes of the original melody.
o The dotted quarter note rhythm written for the original melody is also found in this
variation.
o To aide in counting the rhythm of the dotted quarter-eighth note rhythm pattern found in
several measures of the variation at letter E, try using the syllable doo-dit-dah to vocalize
the rhythm together, in time.

Unit 4, melody 4, page 2.

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past and present, has furthered a valuable alliance between the artists and school music teachers.

In addition global organizations, such as the International Association for Jazz Education provide

a vehicle for learning and teaching structure to help develop the creative traits of music students

in America's music programs.

Owen believes that every student in American public schools should have the opportunity

to experience and perform jazz, especially during the formative developmental years of a young

student's life. Owen stated:

Individual educators, as well as music, educational, and arts associations must, therefore,
renew efforts to make certain that ALL students receive grounding in the concepts, history,
and artists that define jazz. In addition, they must be given multiple opportunities to
actively experience and engage with the music throughout their formative years (Owen
2007).

Owen's statement mentioned the formative years of a young developing instrumentalist.

The first year of band instruction may be the best opportunity for young students to begin

instruction in improvisation. It is in this time frame, the student is open to instruction that may

feature teaching all styles and concepts of music.

Although Congress passed Goals 2000, the actual implementation of all of the nine

National Standards has gained little acceptance by many music educators. Susan Byo, a past

music supervisor for Broward County, Florida, conducted a study comparing responses of music

generalists and music specialists regarding implementation of the nine content standards of Goals

2000. Even though the state of Florida has based its music curriculum on the nine content

standards of Goals 2000, Byo's research found that, in general, both music specialists and

general music teachers at the elementary level were not prepared to teach improvisation and

composition to their music students. "Overall, both music teachers and generalists rated the

composing and improvising standards most difficult to implement" (Byo, 1999). Byo's research

also finds that, in general, resources and materials available to guide the teachers with teaching

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Part one is arranged in C concert, part two in Bb concert, part three in Eb concert, and part

four in bass clef. The rhythm section includes parts for piano, guitar, bass, and drums.

The method includes a teacher's book, an accompanying CD provided for modeling, and

parts for every instrument in the jazz ensemble of the methodology. Also included is a

supplementary book that presents performance notes for each of the eight tunes. Discussions of

the different improvisational concepts include each tune's background and stylistic

considerations, a quick description of the music, suggested instrumentation, notes on the form of

the piece, hints regarding the correct style for the rhythm section of each piece, suggestions on

instrumentation, and a section that helps the teacher understand and then describe the solo

section to the student.

The teacher's book is informative and thorough. This book divides into two parts, with the

first chapter of the first part focusing on improvising. The whole method revolves around the

concept of learning to improvise within the structured form provided in each tune, suggesting

transcriptions as a way to start an arsenal of jazz licks for use in an improvised solo. The book

suggests that listening to other accomplished early jazz artists gives the student an understanding

for how jazz was first learned and communicated. A parallel is drawn between a jazz solo and

how the English language in its basic form utilizes improvisation. This section ends with general

The student who reads the method may have a limited education in jazz background;

however, he/she needs be able to successfully negotiate the instrument to be able to play the

pieces and the exercises provided in the method. While most of the material presented in the

horn parts of the pieces provided in the method are not technically demanding, the

APPENDIX D
FULL SCORES FOR THE MUSICAL ARRANGEMENTS OF ALL MELODIES
PRESENTED IN THE IMPROVISATION MODULE

Unit 1, melody 1, page 1.

Hot Cross Buns Arranger Bingham

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nova and the other reggae). Each tune featured in the teacher's edition is presented in full score

notation which includes melody, harmony, treble and bass instruments in C concert,

accompaniment, guitar, piano, bass, and drums. Information pertaining to the correct use of style,

the format of the tune, and the harmonic progression accompanying each song is contained in an

outline included in the lesson plan.

In addition, informative facts and hints are included for the teacher's benefit, covering

pertinent topics like reading chord symbols, hints to the rhythm section on specifics regarding

their particular instrument, and the stylistic approach needed for each particular tune. Also

included in this outline are rehearsal suggestions and activities for teaching internalization of the

style and characteristic jazz rhythms, appropriate use of jazz syllables, jazz terminology, and

how to engage beginning jazz students in an improvisation solo.

Additional sections regarding traditional jazz guitar and piano chord voicing for each tune

are included in the method: the development of the jazz bass line, stylistic suggestions for the

drummer, hints on guitar, piano and bass specifics, and a jazz articulation and notation glossary

for every tune in the method. A selected artist and ensemble listing for listening enhancement,

suggestions on instrumental modeling, an extensive chord glossary, plus the accompaniment CD

complete the material presented in the method.

Students who use this method should have completed book two of any traditional band

method on their particular instrument and incorporate technique that will allow one to play in

concert keys up to four flats. Previous jazz experience or understanding of jazz harmony is not a

requirement to be able to negotiate the exercises found in Sorenson's method.

The improvisational opportunities featured in the method require an advanced knowledge

and ability past that of a beginning instrumentalist, thus placing Sorenson's method in the mature

Kolar, Mitzi & Ramal, Bill. (1980). Beginning Keyboard Improvisation. Jazz Improvisation 1.
San Diego: Bill Ramal Music Publications.

Leonard, Charles. (1999). Grand Masters Series: A Challenge for Change in Music Education.
Music Educators Journal, 86, 40-43. Retrieved September 10, 2007 from J-Stor.
http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/view/00274321/sp060447/06x2...
3D 11%26Day%3D%26Year%3D 1999%26vo53d86%26is%3D3%26
StartPage%3D40.

Mantooth, Frank. (1996). Patternsfor Improvisation. Movin' On To The Blues. Milwaukee: Hal
Leonard.

Mantooth, Frank. (1996). Patterns for Improvisation. From the Beginning. Milwaukee: Hal
Leonard.

Marcus, Adrien. (2004). The role of transcription in jazz improvisation: examining the aural-
imitative approach to jazz pedagogy. (Doctoral dissertation: Ball State University, 2004).
168 pages; AAT 3123940.

McCurdy, Ronald C. (1976). A Survey oflImprovisational Methods and Materials Applied to
Curriculum for Teaching Jazz Improvisation at the Beginning and Intermediate/Advanced
Levels. Masters Thesis for the School of Music: University of Kansas.

Moorhead, G.E. & Pond, D. (1978). Music of Young Children. Pillsbury Foundation for
Advancement of Music Education: Santa Barbara, CA. (original work published in 1941).

Musen, S.C. (1986). A description and analysis of an Orff-Schulwerk program of music
Education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts
International 47 (09), 3351A.

Music Educators National Conference (1994). National Standards for Arts Education: What
every young American should know and be able to do in the arts. Reston, Va. Author.

National Standards for Arts Education. (1993). Front Matter, Music Educators Journal. Vol. 80,
No. 2. (Sept., 1993). Retrieved on December 1, 2007 from JSTOR
http://www.menc.org/publication/books/standards.htm

Niehaus, Lenny. (1981). Developing Jazz Concepts. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard.

Owen, Chuck. (2007). "A Call for Jazz Education." Jazz Educators Journal, Feb., A42.

Pearson, Bruce (2004) 2nd Ed. Standard ofExcellence: Enhanced comprehensive band method.
San Diego: Neil A Kjos.

Presley, Elvis. (2005). Love me tender. On Love Elvis [CD]. New York: BMG/Elvis Records

Price, Jeremy, and Sheppard, Mike. (1999). Jazz Works for Ensembles, Initial Level: Jazz
Ensemble Series. London: The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music.

Unit 4, melody 4, page 21.
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Table 3-1. Continued

Style
Melody
Key Center
Meter
Scale(s)
Mode(s)
Chord(s)
Rhythms

Goals and Objectives of lesson plans
Lesson Objective
1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and
root movement of chords

Jazz Waltz
Down in the Valley
Eb Major
3/4
Bb Major
F Mixolydian
F 7/9
Eighth note swing two, three
and four-eighth note
combinations also quarter note
to half note and dotted half note

Legato style
Miles Davis

"Some Day My Prince Will Come"

Table 3-1. Continued

Calypso
Mary Ann
Bb Major

Bb major
F Mixolydian
F 7/9
Dotted quarter-eighth note
combinations, two, three, and four
eighth-note combinations. Quarter,
half, and whole notes
Light and detached-staccato

Harry Belafonte

Banana Boat Song
Island in the Sun

Goals and Objectives of lesson plans
Lesson Objective
1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and
root movement of chords

2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form
and harmony. Perform
variations by group with ensemble
accompaniment.

3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by
group and also perform improvisational
solos individually both accompanied by the
ensemble.

Unit 3

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variations by group with ensemble
accompaniment.

3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by
group and also perform improvisational
solos individually both accompanied by the
ensemble.

Articulations
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Style Model
and CD

Unit 4

Style
Melody
Key Center
Meter
Scale(s)
Mode(s)
Chord(s)
Rhythms

Articulations

Artist

Style Model
CD

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J n ,mr - i I ~t :ii - _! 7 M -r i Z. ,= -- ,PI I. 2- P --i -I ~ [ lp0=1 1 Jr -4r Unit 5, melody 5, page 4. 19 Ft. CL. *B Bsn. _4 A. Sax. T Sax. -- Bar. S t h. tJJ i 732^ ;- 1 Ii~---z -tip t xr_ - 4 1 Perc. Cym. S.D. B. ). VIn. Vln. 2 Via. Vc. , - . .. " o Listen to the model CD #1, cut 49 and finger your parts as the music plays. (After listening) o Do you think you can play through this variation? Great! Let's try it! * Note to the instructor: This last variation may be the toughest one yet- o As the students play through letter E. slow it down for the first time through. o Measure 109can be vocalized using jazz syllables doo-dit-doo-doo-doo-doo-doo. o Measure 115 and 118 are the same rhythm with the same vocalization. o Have the students try all three measures saying the syllables and fingering the notes on their instruments before they attempt playing the last phrase of letter E. o After the class has experienced all of the variations assign sections to different variations. Model CD #1, cuts 50 (letters C w/ B), 51 (letter D only), 52 (letters D w/ B), 53 (letter E only) and 54 (letter E w/ B). o You are going to begin the melody, then loop the harmony at letter B playing it the number of times that you have assigned each section of the band a variation. o Since this melody is longer and splits into two 12 bar phrases, when you assign a variation to different sections of the band try splitting up the 24 bar sections into 12 bar phrases. o Make the section performing the variation the soloist, while everyone else plays the accompaniment (letter B). o When all sections are done playing, play the melody one last time-pointing to your head before the last section plays to signify, go back and play the beginning one last time, ending at letter B. o When you are done, tell the students we will review on Friday. o They will have a chance to play an individual solo with or without using the variations on the last day's lesson in improvisation. Unit 1 Lesson 2 Goals for Unit 1 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music styles including Bossa Nova, jazz waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the proper articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes * Note to the Instructor: Begin the lesson by reviewing day one's lesson plans. o This will involve playing the model CD #1 from cut 1 (Letter A) as the students listen and watch their music Hot Cross Buns from the beginning thru letter C (cuts 2 and 3). o Then have the group play from letter A thru letter C. * State to the class: Do you remember the form of the piece we have just played? o Do you remember that there are two chords in the harmony? Can you name them? (Bb and F7) Great! o Today we are going to play some variations to the melody. o A variation is a slight change to the melody or theme. o The first variation begins at letter (D) with changing the notes or rhythms slightly in the root movement (the theme at letter C). * Note to the instructor: Letter D changes the rhythm of letter C to more of a dotted quarter eighth-note pattern to embellish the Bossa Nova rhythm. o Have the students vocalize the pattern using doo-dah-doo first, while listening to the model CD #1 cut 4, then play letter D. * State to the class: Great job! Now letter E changes the notes and adds the second note of both the Bb concert scale and the F Mixolydian scale. o Looking at your scale sheet, look at scale note number three and number four. See the note above the last note of the scale? o Can you name it and tell me where else you see the same note (the second scale degree). o Correct-both of the two notes are the same pitch only one is called a 2nd for being the second note of the scale and the other is called the 9th for being one note above the octave (8+ 1). o So really the ninth could also be called the 2nd and vice versa! For this study we will interchange the terms 2nd and 9th for the same pitch of the scale or exercise. * Note to the instructor: First play the model CD #1 cut 5, having the students watch as the music goes by then play letter E thru to letter F calling attention to the use of the ninth and the different rhythm of the variation. * State to the class: Excellent job! You all are a natural at this! Look at letter F. * Note to the Instructor: The next exercise beginning in measure 41 utilizes the root, second (ninth), third, fourth, and fifth of each chord on the harmony. Unit 3, melody 3, page 9. 1I: 4 -" -'' 1 r- A < 1 In , ITb ; II El I1 I JI 4 Jr )1 -- --- II: F'i- I- + I ,- 1 7 1 iJ i 17- r S -r I I rr * S-2 ---- f-- " +" +'. " - : :: -r SI H- =- --- " ; p : r 4 l -a ,r --" rV- i i -i r -e CS ' , r * I-. It a- .5 r JI a a 1~ iU r , ..+ 4 J. i 4 _ = * U -O - S I .- S * ji - J History of the Calypso Style * State to the class: Historically the origins of the calypso beat began in the French and British colonial isles of Trinidad around the beginning of the 20th century. African slaves were brought to serve at first the French, then Spanish, and finally British caretakers, each conquest imprinted their culture into the social society of the African musical genre already instilled in the slaves. Not being able to talk the slaves developed songs to communicate with one another with topics entering into almost anything of importance including political corruption. The French brought Carnival to Trinidad as early as 1834 to celebrate the abolition of slavery. Each year to this very day Carnival is celebrated with large steel drum bands that all perform in the large parades. There is competition among the bands for the prize of the best group. The first recordings were pressed into vinyl in 1914 with the Golden Age of Calypso. Lord Kitchener, one performer of calypso who enjoyed a long career along with Harry Belafonte promoted calypso style music. Belafonte made history with releasing the Banana Boat Song, in 1956 of his album Calypso. This particular release is included with the CD that accompanies the curriculum study. Have the students listen to the recording before they look at the music after sharing a bit of the historical context for the style that they are about to perform. * Note to the instructor: The tune Mary Ann is arranged to the style of a calypso rhythm and should include a steel drum in the instrumentation of the performing ensemble. o Some school's general music classes at the elementary level usually include a steel drum in their inventory. o Although it is not necessary to include a steel drum to perform the melody and variations for Mary Ann, adding one in the percussion section would add insight and provide an outlet for learning about a different culture. o Learning how to improvise on a relatively unique instrument, like the steel drum, would include having a bit of fun for the whole ensemble interjected into an already intriguing concept of "learning to improvise." o Play Belafonte's Banana Boat Song for the class. CD #4, track 1. o This particular tune in the study adds a tougher challenge, both in the length of the tune (16 measures) and in the rhythmic and melodic variations. o The variations begin with easier rhythmic patterns and then progress into tougher rhythms indicative to the nature of calypso style along with more running eighth note patterns some students may have trouble negotiating at first. o If the going gets tough, stop at a variation that most students can play easily, and then have your more advanced students attempt to negotiate the remaining exercises. o The concept is for everyone to have an opportunity to experience improvisation and to enjoy the "ride." o However, experience has shown that if one student learns some of the simple four, five, and even seven eighth-note motives, most of the other students take on the challenge. * State to the class: The Banana Boat Song is a tune with a different beat isn't it? o We are going to play a tune today that has a lot of the same rhythms of the Banana Boat Song, remember Mary Ann? Orey to Charlie Parker and Miles Davis, jazz artists could not play and produce enough jazz performances and recordings to please the masses. The art form even gained a foothold in the public and private secondary schools whose band programs began to offer the big band ensembles as a part of their curriculums. Major colleges and universities such as Berkley, Eastman, and the University of North Texas State developed undergraduate performance degrees in jazz. Master's degrees along with PhDs offered for both music education and performance were later added as the academic world also embraced the art form. However, currently in the world, jazz teaching and performance may be more accepted internationally than in the country of its origin. Chuck Owen, past president of the International Association for Jazz Education (IAJE) and a respected jazz educator, believes there is a reason for this shift of audience appeal. Simply stated, the problem is, with each passing year more and more Americans seem to have less and less contact with the music...the nature of... technology, which allows the consumer to wrap themselves in a cocoon of their own choosing, actually serves to isolate individuals from anything they don't already know or like (Owen 2007). Technology's invention of the Ipod, Iphone, and other such devices has individualized the nation's listening palette, in effect isolating one from different forms of music including jazz. Choice has always been an American trait; however, if one has not been educated in the history, performance practices, and artists of certain types of music, including jazz, then the listener may not be oriented to jazz music excluding the art form in their MP3 players. Owen's statement is also supported by the fact that over the years conventional jazz outlets such as nightclubs, radio stations, and network television channels have diminished their coverage of jazz, limiting the casual listener's ability to be touched by famous jazz and improvisation artists of the past, present, and future. As a result, the young music student may exercises designed to explore harmonic boundaries define the ii7-V7, ii7-V7-I maj7 progressions and half-diminished chords, as well as various rhythm changes. Finally, Yoder's method concludes with progressive concepts of jazz improvisation and includes exercises defining guide tones, substitution and augmented chords, the whole tone scale, and diminished scales and chords. The author also provides tips on improvising while playing ballads and double timing. Each chapter also includes solo transcriptions of famous jazz artist such as Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Clifford Brown, Lester Young, Thelonious Monk, and Dizzy Gillespie, which demonstrate the application of many of the jazz fundamentals and concepts presented as exercises in Yoder's study. A play-along cassette is included, which also correlates with Jamey Aebersold's published methodologies, such as A New Approach to Jazz Improvisation. Five appendices follow: the first being a bibliography then discography; the second an Aebersold correlation; the third a pentatonic chart for major, minor, and dominant 7th chords; the fourth a short discussion on how to play in swing style; and the fifth, the author's own thoughts about how to practice improvisation. The reader must have a thorough understanding of theory and have the technical ability to handle the full range of his/her instrument. This book claims to be for beginning jazz improvisation; however, one must incorporate enough technique to allow for the technical demands of the material provided in this book. Without adequate technique, the concepts provided can only be interpreted visually, categorizing this method in the mature intermediate section of the curriculum study. Zwick (1987) wrote a dissertation that attempts to organize a format of instruction into a curriculum on how to learn jazz improvisation using previously published materials. Many areas * Seventh, F dominant seventh chord: violin, trumpet, flute, and oboe. * State to the class: Once every instrument has sounded their pitches in measure 18, 19, and 24 each chord of the harmony will be defined. o We will now play through the sixteen-measure sequence beginning at letter B outlining the harmony. o See if you can hear the chords change as the ensemble plays through the harmony. o Playing the chords of the harmony is also called playing through the "changes." o Are you ready? Okay! o Note to the instructor: Play through the harmony at letter B first, then go back and play the melody at letter A, then the harmony at letter B. o Tell the class this is called playing the head (the melody), then the changes (the harmony)! * State to the class: Identification of the form begins at letter C where all instruments voice the root of each triad in unison defining the sixteen-measure form. o Playing through this variation allows the class to better understand the outline of the harmonic structure. o This particular concept is not a new one as we have played through similar drills like this one using earlier tunes prepared in the same format. o You will hear a difference in faster chord movement with some triads moving from chord change to chord change in one beat. o Letter C though should be fairly easy. Are you ready? Great, lets try it! * Note to the instructor: Once the class has played through letter C, outlining the form, play the model CD #1, cut 83-thru 85 once, then have the class begin at letter A and play through letter C reviewing what they have learned for the day, completing the day's lesson. watch the written melody as the band on the model CD played through the audio track. The continuous track was arranged so that the melody section would flow directly into the harmonic form section without pausing. Starting the CD from the beginning of the continuous track allowed all subjects a short time to prepare, listen, and hear the tempo set by the model band on the CD. All subjects played their improvisational solo at the tempo set by the band on the model CD. In addition, to further help the student prepare and help grasp the tempo for the improvisational solo, each subject was lead into each solo section by the researcher verbally counting in time with the recording and stating "one, two, ready, play" for melodies that were written in common time and "one, two, three, ready, set, play" for melodies in three four time. To record each subject's attempt at performing each melody and arpeggio of the chords in each melody's harmonic form, no accompaniment was used. Unfortunately, limited time in harvesting the audio samples of all 72 participants before the end of the school year did not allow for any rehearsal time or advanced teaching as to the format used to collect the audiotape of each improvisational solo. Retaping any part of the testing sequence was extremely rare, although instrument failures and interruptions did occur on an irregular basis. For each audio sample evaluated, a Likert scale was used to measure the student's ability to perform each melody, arpeggio, and improvised solo. A template was developed that included the Likert scale and also acted as a visual aid for each of the three judges to use in evaluating each participant's audio sample. The template for melody one included a seven-inch horizontal line with the numbers 1 through 10 spaced evenly and progressing successively from left to right. The left end of the line where numbers 1, 2, and 3 were placed, defined "low ability." The numbers 4, 5, and 6 in the middle of the line, defined "medium ability." The numbers and 7, 8, 9, U n it 7 .......................................................................................................................... 7 6 A u d io S a m p le s .................................................................................................... 7 6 Statistical A analysis ............................. ............................ ......... .... ........... 80 4 AN ALY SIS OF D A TA ............................................................................... ......................85 Pre-test, Post-test Form atting.......................................................................... ...................85 Pre-test, Post-test A analysis ....................................................................... ..................86 Form atting of A rpeggio and Im provisation Scores ...................................... ............... 88 A analysis of A rpeggio Scores ............................................................................89 A analysis of Im provisation Scores........................................................... ... ...........90 A analysis of Interjudge R eliability................................................ .................... ....................91 D director R esponses and Evaluations of the Lessons ............. ...............................................93 D director A and B Interview s............................................................................. 95 Exit Interview w ith D director A ................................................ .............................. 96 Exit Interview w ith D director B ................................................. ............................. 98 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................... .................106 C o n c lu sio n s ........................................................................................................................... 1 0 8 M major Conclusions ............... ...... ........ .... .... ...... .... ........................ ............ ...... .... 112 R researcher Observations and Conclusions ........... ............................... .............. 115 D discussion ................... ...................1.............................9 R ecom m endations .................................... .. .......... ....... ..... 121 APPENDIX A LESSON PLAN S ................................................ .. .......................... .123 U nit 1 Lesson 1 ..................................................................123 U n it 1 L e sso n 2 ......................................................................................................... 12 7 U n it 1 L e sso n 3 ......................................................................................................... 1 3 1 U nit 2 Lesson 1 ..................................................................133 U n it 2 L e sso n 2 ......................................................................................................... 1 3 6 U n it 2 L e sso n 3 ......................................................................................................... 1 3 9 U nit 3 Lesson 1 ..................................................................141 U n it 3 L e sso n 2 ......................................................................................................... 14 4 U n it 3 L e sso n 3 ......................................................................................................... 14 6 U nit 4 Lesson 1 ..................................................................148 U n it 4 L e sso n 2 ......................................................................................................... 1 5 2 U n it 4 L e sso n 3 ......................................................................................................... 1 5 5 U nit 5 Lesson 1 ..................................................................157 U n it 5 L e sso n 2 ......................................................................................................... 1 6 1 U n it 5 L e sso n 3 ......................................................................................................... 1 6 4 U nit 6 Lesson 1 ................................................................166 U n it 6 L e sso n 2 ......................................................................................................... 1 7 2 U n it 6 L e sso n 3 ......................................................................................................... 1 7 6 6 Unit 6, melody 6, page 13. EL LL. iii A n, I Sx nri Siqi. In Tt VIM. El" Vim. VIlf. II VI* --7--T -4 Pr . .U 4* r7Ji d- .6; rfrS Il Ir r ?>" ^- -i_ Sjjji^:^ j i1 rJJ1 r-2 1. - .. ,t ., _ 7!r_ __-,_ .I L - - - i _ :0H : ; i . f_ _f f _ I SL. i 2 i f~ fji J i"W i ..4 M -_ -_ j-! i t"-'-----:-i or- P, 3. I ii J._-, .-r i-1 1 I- 'rz I : 6- i.; Unit 6, melody 6, page 9. r 1 ' 1'-J 9w.~JJL 21: - -4 I S is U J LV 12 Wi-- .r IF : l IP L4~ 2 - ~ffi rtrr I:s CI, A. Sax. I Sax. -trw IL 171: SLL _1-L - J Ja^ I - .2 II *~J. '- 4~~i r r U~ 1111<~t a 4 fljv J- -J- - sL;^ -7 .-Sp77 . : 1 J - r -r--. Sr- di di Ji-.- -_J _3 -P 2 - -- i -- i_ 42T r T ,T _. .J : -: J. , . .t i _.Z __ S-I 1 J-S J i-_- f2T r 7j7i4 -jt r - jt r -2- " I - a_ .. .1 .2 t a eve:- -i - a. *- L 2 r- t J -t -i - : -- ;- . +:-- h [ .. r I it - IF- ? -- - '1 I Srir lpl. Hn, Tbn. Bar. B. rbn. VIn. Vln. Vyn. 11 Via VC) lD ---- --- f-- I -i -F__- _ 0 -- * State to the class: Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by yourself. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at the end of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN! * Note to the Instructor: Assessment of the class's comprehension of the week's lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ensembles ability to negotiate the variations and the individual's solo attempts at playing an improvisational solo during the last day's lesson. Unit 2, melody 2, page 5 Aki --4--~--~ h;i i ,+ Fl. G Ob. Oh. Cl, Bsn, A. Sax. T Sax. e-r ~- -. i-I--- 4- - i~~ it Ff-- tf-7 Ei2 S'4 -f?;- 2-STV-- - ~- -~_n 9 r 9: , 0II J J - I - II; -1;t- -~--~gIf:-- r- r5 -e 'Nt . ,o - t 2 ~ . a .j tt I t 2- S4~J - U- *4r ... 1 - .-- r-i_;-- a~: J J *0 -=- J- - K - ,- a I -- -- t 44-U Tpt iln. Illl. lar. 'Tba. Pere. Cym, S.D. M~ Li- In Jr'o r It r _ sJs Zn -r _1--t Trr 4-4- 4Ut J 2 :Ir r ---i ri -: ,, a. az t- ~ j .; 2-t 4i---, 22~-i rt4&K 2 ~r t Unit 6 Lesson 2 * Goals for Unit 6 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music styles including Bossa Nova, jazz, waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the proper articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes * State to the class: Today is our last day to learn new variations, however every variation we will play today uses jazz phrasing and syllables. o First, we will review the tune Freddie Freeloader using the model CD. o We will listen to cut 9. (Melody, harmony, plus all variations) o This time when you listen, see if you can say the jazz syllables with the actual rhythm. o While you are vocalizing the jazz rhythm also finger your notes, but finger them in time with the rhythm and feel of jazz swing. o Okay, its time to swing in band class! o I hope you all are probably pretty pumped up about playing a real jazz chart! o And that's okay as long as we all understand what we are playing is "cool jazz," which uses smooth articulations, not harsh blatting and squawking. * Note to the instructor: After the replay of the model, play the real cut #15, Miles Davis's group. o Let them hear and get excited about playing a real jazz tune in the feel of "cool swing." o This variation outlines root movement, plus one other and then two more that use the fragments of the original melody. (Model CD #2, cut 4) * State to the class: We have already played through letter D, now look at letter E. o The four note motives at letter E outline the root, the third, and the second (also the 9th) scale degree of each dominant seventh chord in the harmony. o Each four eighth note motive begins on the downbeat of every measure in the variation. o The rhythm, one and two an, translates into jazz syllables using doo-bah-doo-dit. o The eighth note on beat one and two are elongated while the "an" of both of the beats are pronounced with a shorter syllable. o Use the shortest syllable, "dit", on the up beat of two. Note to the instructor: If you can make your class swing on this variation, they can play most jazz phrases. o The trick is in the preparation and the vocalization of the syllables. o Have the class listen to the model CD #2, cut 5. o Make them say the syllables IN TIME, use a metronome if you have to, then say the syllables with them over and over and they will take over, guaranteed!!! * State to the class: Now that we have a 'rhythmic feel' for the variation, let's give it a go! o Are you ready? Okay then! Start at letter E! Unit 2, melody 2, page 6 * a I It l.' I!pt *III Ilip liar |Lm ' 0 * r):4 4, IIr II I, p ., ~ m i * -a I r *a m m, V J J- as * S. amI * m, I M ? - Fr i i I F II a a * N *.. a ip V -- ra* a * it' . V r - 1 f ' * a p - S; J U S: * a a F r 1 * I, A a :1 1 a :I *-a a: - Kr IC L . tf :* p I - V' I. L r ' =ri '' L S a - Is 4L 1'1 a a' a S a c r .4 Jl a" a a - a ':4 cI Ih Il- *11 Yip IIh t-. "- S i I I : i I :. i f 5 : /J i H II II - .r 1g 1 i ).J I :" ^ ^.^___ 1 .;'( c r - 3 ; I * -- --------------- i .0r a 4 i w I_____ h - --.. - . I I i9 i i -I J- i- .I -J N -r * i i- a--., -I rAr 'I p" I: - _* ... 4- t ,2 1 9 Unit 5, melody 5, page 3. II * t If; - p.., C Ti lrr . I i t f- 1h' _^- ..^, * L S ; P JXDJ---- --i the students to play an improvised solo alone with the ensemble accompaniment, within their same instrument section, or in mixed groups of instruments. The improvisation module featured six melodies: Hot Cross Buns, Lightly Row, Mary Ann, Down in the Valley, Kum Ba Yah, and Freddie Freeloader. Units 1 through 5 are a staple in beginning band methods. The same melodies have traditionally been included in the first semester curricula of most beginning band programs. They are also and were also public domain, and therefore free of copyright limitations. These melodies are also found arranged for beginning band instrumentation in Pearson's, Standard ofExcellence: Enhanced Comprehensive Band Method. Pearson's arrangements of Hot Cross Buns, Lightly Row, Mary Ann, Down in the Valley and Kum Ba Yah served as guides for arrangements of the same melodies in the improvisation module. The last melody, a traditional blues tune by Miles Davis entitled Freddie Freeloader, was found in the The Real Book, sixth edition, compiled and published by Hal Leonard, which was purchased for use in the module. The criteria for selecting the melodies were: a) length in measures and range for each instrument, b) simple form, c) ease of the technical ability needed to play the melody, and d) only a few chords in the supporting harmonic form. In addition, the six melodies arranged for the study appear in succession from easy to a more difficult technical level. Objectives of the Improvisational Module The student shall be able to: 1) recognize and play the melody presented, a) perform on at least one instrument (alone and in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition. b) knew the historic background of each stylistic arrangement. c) learn about the composer who developed the style for each of the six arrangements. 2) perform on instruments different music styles including Bossa Nova, jazz waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing, Unit 2 Lesson 3 * Goals for Unit 2 Lesson 3: perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: o Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives o Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module o Using short three-, four-, and five-note motives borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions o Creating his/her own rhythmic and melodic ideas * Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a review of all of the variations, the Bb concert scale, the F Mixolydian mode and their arpeggios. Model CD #1, cut 44 melody with all variations and cuts 40-43 scales and arpeggios with harmony. o Once the exercises have all been reviewed, it is now time for individual students to attempt a solo. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in an improvisational environment. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepared the sections when they played their variations at the end of day two's lesson. * State to the class: Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing a different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate the melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for final comprehension, and then we will start from the beginning. * Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes the run through, be complimentary of the group's efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try their hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use their own ideas-great, but emphasize that it's okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progression) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have completed their solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter A stopping at letter B. o I will give the volunteers award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. Analysis of Improvisation Scores Table 4-2 also contains the results of the one-sample "t" test for the improvisation scores for all melodies for both schools. The combined mean score for the improvisation performances from participants at the rural school was of average ability, a 5.00 value. The combined 95% low CI for improvisation scores was a value of 4.76, the high 95% CI was a value of 5.25. The same mean score for the university city school was close to two full points higher, a 7.00 value. The low 95% CI was a value of 6.67 while the high CI was a 7.06. While the results show that the participants at the university city scored higher overall on their improvisation scores, the performance range of the means of both schools fall into medium to high ability level on the 10 point Likert scale used for assessment. The results of the one sample "t" test CI interval calculations for improvisation scores for participants at both schools are arranged by melody in table 4-4, also on page 104 at the end of this chapter. Mean scores for each melody's improvisation performance by all participants at the rural school range from a low value of 4.255 for melody 6 to a higher mean score of 5.745 for melody 2. The lower 95% CI interval was 4.811 for melody 6, while the higher 95% CI interval was a 6.371 for melody 2. The data yielded by the results of the improvisation evaluations at the university city school, however, are higher. The lowest mean score was a 6.647 for melody 3 ("Down in the Valley"), while the highest mean score was for melody 5, a 7.529. The lower 95% CI was found in melody 4 of 6.102, while the higher 95% CI was for melody 2, a value of 7.797. When placed on the same Likert scale that was used for assessing the arpeggio performance, all mean scores for all participants range from a medium to high ability level for each improvisation performance. The combined lower to higher 95% CI for all participants was a Unit 1, melody 1, page 11. -g- k . I- I I , 4 st s o I A -I -+---4----- FIL Ob. CIl Bsn. A. Sax. T Sax, TpLt Hn. Tbfl. Tbh B.D. Cym. -0~* -. ___ ~rr Pw~ C .- ,=--J JtTT,- |0 1 J- r~~r~ir I .-'* I -0 .a U., -- .- a -. it--f J ifr~r I iT L I '.n r o a a a i-~ji~J 4.-'- , S-h I _ 4 4' f lh 9, bxU 3 6~ U111 ;* ~3zzz4~44~4 -#4- -r.g 'r r ; ., _-- TF~gL 216 sv v --Pr- 9- - *'~-p-l r >--r~-'-- - liirri nrrmhr &-S .. R, R PI g 1--- at Id I I. - -- -- r > *> I - ~t---~-Fttf~--CFFn ; SJ l J -5 i J II - ~i~t~i .__ ... 1- -- Z_ r I L- - t 3-f---=^ tfl __ _~ --- ._ . I I I I J, 4 - 8 Js _ r7 I' -5-E m , ^ t= F- I I =P .-7 r }j ^ -7 J ---- _M *L- t._ _ L ~ ~ ' .1 ----b~- ~a~E~-71 J rt -- -^ m rby J--^ Unit 4 Lesson 2 * Goals for Unit 4 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music styles including Bossa Nova, jazz, waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the proper articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style. o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes. * Note to the instructor: After a quick review of the melody, harmony and scales the students played during the first day's lesson, have the students follow the bass line of the harmonic structure by listening to the double bass, tubas, and bassoon section of the ensemble. o Then play the CD cut that corresponds to day one's exercises. (CD #1, cuts 60 thru 62). o Once the review has been completed, move on with the next section. * State to the class: By now you all have a pretty good idea of how the day's lesson will develop. We will start by looking at letter D. o This is also a variation of the form through using the root of the two chords, but now the study adds notes from the two scales of Bb concert and F Mixolydian. o In measures 49 and 50 the notes concert C and concert A (the second scale degree and seventh scale degree of the Bb concert scale) are added to the root of concert Bb. o In measures 53 and 54 concert G and concert Eb (the second scale degree and seventh scale degree of the F Mixolydian scale) are added to the root ofF Mixolydian. o Measure 57 shows the root, second (9th), and third of the Bb concert ascending then again descending in the next measure. o The same pattern appears in measure 61 and 62 with the same scale degrees for the F Mixolydian scale. o The rhythm is all quarters and eights except for measure 59 and 63 where the dotted quarter -eighth note pattern is seen in the rhythm. o Use to syllable doo-dit dah to voice this rhythm. o Let's try saying that voicing together. (practice voicing a few times together) o Do you think you can play through the variation? o Listen to the model CD #1, cut 63, while you finger the notes for your instrument on this section. o (After they have listened). Now let's try playing the variation! o Remember to use smooth or legato tonguing. Here we go! (Play Letter D) o (After they complete the variation) Good job! Let's continue with letter E! o Notice something familiar in the rhythm? Yes, it's the same dotted quarter-eighth note rhythm used in the two measures of letter D. o Letter E also adds a few more notes to the rhythm pattern. o Measure 66 adds the notes concert F and Eb (the fifth and fourth scale degree of the Bb concert scale), while measure 70 adds the notes concert C, D and Eb (the fifth, sixth, and seventh of the F Mixolydian scale). o Listen to the model CD #1 as it plays cut 64, and see if you can vocalize the rhythm as you finger the notes of the variation. (Play the cut) o Okay, how did you do? Unit 5 Lesson 1 * Melody 5: Kum Ba Yah * Style: Early Folk Rock * Key Center: Bb Concert * Time: 4/4 * Scales/Modes: Bb scale, Eb Lydian, and F Mixolydian * Triads: Tonic Bb (I), Subdominant Eb (IV), Dominant F7 (V7) * Form: A sixteen-measure melody complete with a theme and six variations -two forms, four melodies. * Rhythmic concepts: Dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four and five eighth note melodic motive development. * Melodic concepts: Original melody, ascending and descending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. * Harmonic concepts: Use of tonic, subdominant, and dominant triads to support harmonic form. * Rhythm accompaniment: Soft rock beat using bass drum, snare drum, and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. * Improvisational concepts: Identification of the melodic style and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and use of three chord scale relationships: tonic, subdominant, and dominant, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the students' own creative input. * Goals for Unit 5 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented o Perform on at least one instrument (alone and in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition o Understand the historic background of each stylistic arrangement of the six different melodies in the module; and o Learn about the composer who developed the style for each of the six arrangements featured in the module Q in 11 17 1Z 14 1r 1 17 1I 10 -n 71 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Individual Lessons 7 Variable SQuestion 1A 6 U Question 1B 5 4 3 2 1 16 18 20 Y numbers equal Likert Scale responses 1-7 where l=disagree and 7=agree. X numbers 1-21 represent each lesson of the seven unit improvisation module. Figure 4-1. Evaluations of Objectives: Responses for Director A are black straight lines; Director B are red dashes. Question 1: Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Individual Lessons Variable 7 Question 1A SQuestion 1B 6 5 4 3 2 1 16 18 Y numbers equal Likert Scale responses 1-7 where l=disagree and 7=agree. X numbers 1-21 represent each lesson of the seven unit improvisation module. Figure 4-2. Evaluations of Learning Activities: Responses for Director A are black straight lines; Director B are red dashes. Question 2: Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 101 I - ^----v - u) 0 U) u, 0 o 1 -2 4 7 Q n 11 1 1 14 1 1 1 -is . _- --,- - ',,-/ 2,\ ? - 4 r; Unit 3 Lesson 1 presented a longer melody, Down In the Valley. The melody consisted of twenty- four measures written in a jazz waltz style. The key also changed from concert Bb to concert Eb, and utilized the tonic chord (Eb) and the dominant seven-nine chord (Bb 7/9) in the chord progression. The professional model from the album Someday My Prince Will Come (Davis, 1999, track 8) featured Miles Davis. The featured melody was also the title tune written in jazz waltz style. Unit 3's lesson plans were centered on the familiar concepts outlined in the previous two weeks: identification of the melody, the form of the melody, the suggested harmony to the melody, and the style in which the melody was to be played and also improvised. Chord-scale relationships for the two chords used in the melody were different from unit 1, in the fact that the melody had switched to Eb major. The root movement of the two chords used in the harmony was emphasized as in the first two units. Lesson 2 followed a similar trend of teaching strategies found in the prior two units, where the students were provided harmonic and melodic variations that could be played over the ensemble accompaniment. The directors were instructed to use call-and-response to help learn the different variations, where the instructor became the leader and the students responded to what they heard their instructor play, using their own instruments. In addition, the use of the model CD was made available to the students to listen to while they fingered and articulated through using jazz articulation, the various notes in the exercises. Verbalization of the rhythms of the variations using jazz syllables to help internalize the proper style and rhythmic articulations were offered as yet another teaching style to help teach the variations of unit 3 of the module. Lesson 3 was set aside for performance, utilizing the strategies and concepts of the first two units as a guide. Unit 6, melody 6, page 5. .-I tl A. Sax. I, Sax. Isn. Ibn. lar. B.Tbn. *11a. Perc. ICM. S. 1) B, U. Vin VIn. 11 Via. Vc. l h 4% , 'p 4" 9% 42 0) 9 : II, . da a ,.li* 1 : 1 . ir n ', r. I -1 -I ... d ..., f- K - -I -, ; ,,,i "- Sr or 4 d o I - arr * 4 a- -r Ir r i I ~aa at I t a 0 U i " I a I'. ala, I' iT Unit 3 Lesson 1 * Melody 3: Down In the Valley * Style: Jazz Waltz * Key center: Eb Concert * Time: 3/4 * Scales/Modes: Eb Ionian, and Bb Mixolydian * Triads: Tonic Eb (I), and Dominant Bb7 (V7) * Form: Twenty four-measure melody in binary form (AB) complete with a theme and six variations -two on the form, four on the melody. * Rhythmic concepts: Simple quarter note-half note rhythmic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. * Melodic concepts: Original melody, ascending and descending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. * Harmonic concepts: Use of tonic and dominant triads to support harmonic form. * Rhythm accompaniment: Easy jazz waltz beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. * Improvisational concepts: Identification of the melodic style and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of two chords involved in the harmony, identification and use of three chord scale relationships: tonic, and dominant, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the student's own creative input. * Goals for Unit 1 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented o Perform on at least one instrument (alone and in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition o Understand the historic background of each stylistic arrangement of the six different melodies in the module; and o Learn about the composer who developed the style for each of the six arrangements featured in the module * Note to the instructor: Mondays lesson moves on to a ballad Down in the Valley. LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1. E valuations of O objectives .................................................................................... ..... 10 1 4-2. Evaluations of L earning A activities .......................................................................... ...... 101 4-3. P perform ance of A ctivities.................................................................................. .......... 102 Unit 4, melody 4, page 11. 61 bC. - A. Sax. - Tpt in. Tba. Pee., Via Vc. WD. :II e. .--- * Note to the instructor: Go ahead and play the model (CD #1, cuts 31 and 32) several times so the students will grasp the rhythm and the style of the two variations. o Make sure the students are watching the music and fingering their notes, if they have them quietly voice the rock syllables. * State to the students: Okay are you ready to give it a go? o Try the last two variations back to back without stopping. o If you get lost jump right back in. o Remember to look ahead when you are playing. o (When finished) o Man you guys are great! Way to go, some of that stuff was tough but you hung in there. o Now we are going to play all the variations from the very beginning. * Note to the instructor: After the class has experienced all of the variations assign sections to different variations. o You are going to begin the melody, then loop the harmony at letter B playing it the number of times that you have assigned each section of the band a variation. o Make the section performing the variation the soloist, while everyone else plays the accompaniment (letter B). Model CD #1, cuts 33 (letter C w/ B), 34 (letter D w/ B), 35 (letter E w/ B), 36 (letter F w/ B), 37 (letter G w/ B), 38 (letter H w/ B), and 39 (letter I w/B). o When all sections are done playing, then play the melody one last time-pointing to your head before the last section plays to signify, go back and play the beginning one last time, ending at letter B. o When you are done, tell the students we will review on Friday. o They will have a chance to play an individual solo with or without using the variations on the last day's lesson in improvisation. Unit 4, melody 4, page 5. I I t.S ii . . 0 I 1, I V I I I ) i 1.1. 11 ) J_ |- '? i' I * i i, a., .ad 9~ '-, i ~-o I- it aI -~~ 'a tL ** ** I I L i I - 1 1 - I1- c - i e a. * i = 249 recordings. The etudes are excellent for developing technique and melodic and harmonic ideas specific to each etude. The technique of the participant must be on the more mature intermediate to advanced level to negotiate the difficulty of the etudes and to match the technique of the model, relegating this method into the advanced stage of the curriculum study. Spera (1983) published a method designed to be compatible with other current jazz improvisation methods and materials. The book is a part of an improvisation series that can be used to teach in many different settings, e.g., as a group improvisational text; a practice book for a class, combo, or jazz ensemble; for individual study/practice; or for private studio teaching. Chapter one gives six hints on how to incorporate jazz feel and tempo into practice. The second chapter presents exercises that utilize the ascending major scales and modes of the major and altered scales, organized in fourths for all twelve keys. The exercises include the chord symbols associated with each scale, a helpful reference to chord-scale relationships. The third chapter incorporates nineteen different practice patterns that use material from the preceding chapters. The fourth chapter introduces the II minor 7th, the V dominate 7th, and the I-major chord progression with exercises designed to help in expanding technique. In the fifth chapter, the standard blues progression, or twelve-bar blues is shown written in Bb concert and F concert. Guide tones, pentatonic blues scale, blues scales, Bebop scales, substitution chords, cycle of fourths, and tri-tone blues are all incorporated into exercise patterns or short etudes found in the fifth chapter. The final chapter of the book utilizes six original tunes written in six different jazz styles and forms which the student can use to incorporate all of the patterns found in the previous chapters. Unit 3, melody 3, page 10. 7 - t 4 ,. - i '>- r- II P- d , y r II ' II II i' p1 'i A : r/ - a *)I rl - i [ ar I- i ir ' L: dr -- I -. a i i - ii I i i' 1 ' a i - ,If~ I: i-7 a S C * i a i f * i" .a i. :-,-- ---. p .._ - .- .- ---- S -- r- _-..-" - i 'at- ---- -f- -- -a a- ..- _,.- I--" -. i" .. \ - r I 4 .<* I" Sr i p a a id a-- -' .4 0C *C ta~ .5 C -. : -* :: Sr -I i I* i -p W :i' W~~ s-v vi"' _: - _ ; ,, ' S* ' I 1 a- *" . : -, i I - - i - i * . , t. I -" * : e- a - *~ *' p '* d -+1 a Reeves, Scott D. (1989). Creative jazz and improvisation. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Robinson, Russell. (2002). Jazzin it up! (andjazzin' it down!) (ASCAP). Studio PR (Warner Brothers): Miami Robinson, Russell. (1999). Let's sing some jazz! (ASCAP). Studio PR (Warner Brothers): Miami Robinson, Russell. (2000). We 're singin' the blues for you! (ASCAP). Studio PR (Warner Brothers): Miami Sharp, Chris. (2004). Warm-Ups for Beginning Jazz Ensemble: F.J.H. Beginning Jazz Ensemble. Fort Lauderdale: The F.J.H. Music Company Inc. Snidero. Jim. (1996). Jazz Conception. Germany: Advance Spera, Dominic. (1983). Stretching Out. Bb Edition. Hialeah: Studio 224. Sorenson, Dean. (2002). Jazz combo session: For group or individual study. Standard of Excellence. San Diego: Kjos Music Press. Sorenson, Dean. & Pearson, Bruce. (1998). Jazz ensemble method: For group or individual instruction. Standard of Excellence. San Diego: Kjos Music Company. Steinel, Mike. (2000). Essential elements for jazz ensemble: a comprehensive method for jazz style and improvisation. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Synder, David. (2003). "Getting Started: Improvisation for Beginning Instrumentalists" Jazz Educators Journal. November, 1-5. Retrieved September, 9t, 2007 from the Jazz Education Journal Database. http://www.iaje.org/article.asp?ArticleID=167 Tomassi, Ed. (2003). Beginning Improvisation: Motivic Development. (DVD). Boston: Berklee Press. Hal Leonard. Tory, Susan. (1991). Teaching instrumental jazz at the elementary or intermediate level: A class instruction method book. M. A. dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, United States California, Retrieved December 3, 2007, from Proquest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 1344569). Yoder, Daniel M. (1996). Beginning Jazz Improvisation. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Zwick, Robert A. (1987) Jazz Improvisation: A Recommended Sequential Format ofInstruction. Ph. D. dissertation, University of North Texas, United States Texas. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from Proquest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 8713994). CHAPTER 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURES The methods and materials currently available for teaching jazz improvisation to the individual and small jazz ensembles, but are limited to the traditional jazz instrumentation. Methods books that introduce the basics of improvisation to beginning instrumentalists in a large traditional concert band setting, are few in number. The National Standards for Arts Educators within the Study The National Standards for the Arts, specifically Numbers 2 and 3, suggest the teaching of improvisation and various accompaniments for all students by grade eight. Most public and private schools offer beginning instrumental programs in the fifth or sixth grade. A module was developed that meets the National Standards for the Arts Numbers 2 and 3. It also included 1) a history of different styles and melodies to explore the style presented, 2) various accompaniments with which to harmonize the different melodies in the module, and 3) opportunities for beginning band students to improvise alone or with others. An Improvisation Module for Beginners The improvisation module was designed to supplement most traditional band curriculums in the second semester of the student's sixth-grade year. Seven units, each consisting of three separate lesson plans were designed to teach beginning instrumental students the fundamentals of improvisation. The lesson plans included six different melodic styles: Bossa Nova, soft rock, jazz waltz, folk rock, calypso, and jazz swing. Each unit presented a different style, complete with exercises that introduced improvisational concepts such as theme and variations; the development of short three-, four-, and five-note motives; chord-scale relationships; chord progressions; and melodic and harmonic form. The second and third lesson of every unit allowed chord progression and then presented them in different rhythmic patterns by using short rhythmic motives. The third exercise of the study included rhythms and melodic fragments that presented small rhythmic and melodic variations of the original melody. The fourth exercise was designed to outline and connect the "sweet tones" (thirds, fifths, sevenths, and ninths in the harmony). It then presented these "sweet tones" in short melodic motives. Three of the seven units contained added exercises, 5 and 6, which expanded the concept of melodic variations used in the third and fourth exercises. The added exercises increased in difficulty level. These short motives then acted as a resource of material for the students' use in their improvised solos. A plan for each melody provided the director with various ways of teaching the exercises featured in the module. One such way was call-and-response, in which a question/answer concept was used to learn a given melodic motive. The teacher could demonstrate playing the correct rhythmic or melodic idea on his/her own instrument, and then have the student play it back. Another way was for the student to hear a professional artist featured on the CD provided with the module. A teacher could choose to present a given exercise on the CD, and then have the students follow along either by listening or trying to imitate the CD. A third way that the students could learn the material was by imitating one another. Once the exercises were learned, the teacher could ask for volunteers to try to play the melody. Students could then choose to improvise using the given variations or his/her own musical creativity while the rest of the band played the harmony. In this way the students playing the harmony could hear and then learn from the soloist. Unit 4, melody 4, A. S ax 4k ,I .k .d d. 11 E r It) | J I I) II " \Ia. 1J ^ ' II* : page 10. - - :--- I- -i I I r c c it = .1 i ii -' I - I ;1' : I A - -; .- I I. = 5.r . tL Fe - V K -PM- : ;" I.- tC 1r .p , 4m 0 * 1C . I - -r *1i .5'r 0 a: .V ~+ a. a' *0 t .i dpl r It -0,i L. - .. - * I S i -, t,. N. ; ' *11 C -, *_ i ' - I A C APPENDIX C EVALUATOR LETTER AND COMMENTS Nov 18 07 063r7p UNC-CH Music 9199623376 p.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL. HLL CDpnmnlt of Mwic CMl 3r0. Hf l Haill Co~lle of Arts *rl Scldc= l Uni,rlly ofr N th CmaI in. 1a Cthcl HNI Chulo Hill, NC n275p.32 "1. 9]1/96.[nl: IrMT V9/9I2-.117 November 18, 2007 Steve Bingham PhD. Candidate School of Music University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32606 Dear Steve: Today you will receive a fax from me with the assessment work I have completed to date. Though I was unable to listen to everyone CD and every student tested, I have completed all the samples from Lake Butler School and a total of 5 CDs from Fort Clarke School. I do sincerely hope that the size of the sample completed will be viewed as a positive contribution to your original research. I wholeheartedly endorse the goals of your thesis. All of these activities are serving to more thoroughly immerse students in the study of melody, melodic development, repetition, sequence, harmony, chord progressions, rhythm, time, and melodic paraphrase, and reconstruction. The scale is ambitious and the outcomes seem to yield discernible findings that would support placing a higher curricular value on teaching these skills. I wanted to include as set of my observations regarding this project This may or may not serve as valuable resource material in the assessment and outcomes portions of your study. Value of the study I feel this is important work with the potential to influence educational objectives and teaching strategies in the middle and high school music program. Further, the value of the exposure to improvisational directives (interpret a melody, arpeggiate chord, structures, improvise over a standard progression, form, and rhythm) would, in my opinion, transfer just as successfully to the choral and string divisions of a school music program. Chief among my reasons used to validate the study is the consistently high rate of music drop- outs from music programs as students matriculate from beginning band to high school to * Root, Bb tonic chord: double bass, violin cello, tuba, trombone, tenor sax, bassoon. * Third, Bb tonic chord: violas, French horns, alto sax, and clarinets. * Fifth, Bb tonic chord: violins, trumpets, flutes and oboes. * Chord voicing of the harmony at measure 10: * Root, F dominant seventh chord: double bass, tuba, and bassoon. * Third, F dominant seventh chord: violin cello, trombone, baritone, and tenor sax. * Fifth, F dominant seventh chord: violin, trumpet, flute and oboe. * Seventh, F dominant seventh chord: viola, French horn, alto sax, and clarinet. * State to the class: Excellent job at building these two now familiar chords. o Let's try the harmony voiced in the arrangement at letter B. (Model CD #1, cut 25) o Remember to keep your articulations smooth! (After the run through). o Now we are ready to tackle the form of the melody through playing the roots of the two chords of the harmony as they progress through the form at letter C. o Listen for similarities between this progression and Hot Cross Buns. o (After the run through) Great Job! o You are fast learners when it comes to playing the harmony and the form! o All right, let's try it from the top, all the way through from A to letter C. o (After the run through) Great job! o Now you will have the melody the harmony, and the form of the piece running through your head for day two's session on improvisation. o Don't forget to look at the variations and practice them BEFORE class time on day two. 3.698 to a 7.797, expanding the range of improvisation performance ability level from low ability to a higher ability level using the same assessment tool. Analysis of Interjudge Reliability A two-way ANOVA was used to calculate the reliability of the results of each judge's evaluation for all student performances. There were two ways the ANOVA could compare reliability of judge scores. The first way determined how each judge evaluated the four variables, pre-test, post-test, arpeggio, and improvisation performances by melody number. The second comparison determined how each judge evaluated the performance of each variable by student number. The two-way analysis of variance required that two "factor" entries and a "response" entry be entered into the ANOVA equation. The "response" variable was the actual variable to measure for reliability. The first factor, named "row," used the judge number for measuring reliability of the melody scores, while the second factor, named "column," identified each performance by melody number or by student number. The two-way ANOVA formula yielded two "p" values, one for all sets of data representing responses from the judge panel regarding student performance of each variable and one for each set of data representing Reponses for the interaction of the judges scores regarding the same four variables. Table 4-5, on page 105 at the end of this chapter shows interjudge reliability calculations for the rural school. The table shows results first by melody number and then by the student number. All "p" values for each variable regarding ANOVA results by melody number and by student number displayed a significant *0.000 value with two exceptions, the arpeggio variable- melody score, a .017 value and an even lower value of a .002 for the arpeggio variable-student score. When "p" values are 0.00 or close to 0.00, there is significant evidence that there was a Unit 6, Mixolydian, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6. 10 Bb Dom 79 Arpeggio, I H,1 1 I 1. ,i 1 I Fr i ,,. S -- ----- T- - FI. Oh. CI. A Sax. :f- 114 ft ~ I ; + L~ :rt -f' -.4*- lb ...i. I w/9th S.1 .l '1 1 ---- j j , -. --_J-_-4w- ------ :- :-_--- ~Zj.^- =^== Bb Dom 79 Arpeggio , .,-7- I -. I I L I -Ir. eJ r fr, I I l ..n i r 9Bb Dom 79 jr. - Bb Dom 9 \rrn.7;..., 11 ** r t-4L ! 24i Eb 1 .I.. ,%1 ui w/9th .j --- *J - Eb Mixolydian with if r t_- ......t. t 2 :- I. t tic- -. r"_ --| -----_L ; J Th Rb Dom 79 Ar pcrio rr r ..V I li.. ,, "' r Bb [Dom 79 *',i '."', i * 92^ J f I -- -- r -- -1.1 -- ?S ri. Eh Mixolvdian with 4j- 4 ,,- i '1 *'* ... i ii.,h '- , -~- Eb Mixolyi A-- an w9fth .... i h, 1. ,.,. 'Ii1 <-2-- J I i= I n r-- - : f __ t hF--7 F_ .-j K' r :-- j - -t-wo : I ---^ T--- - i : , , ~L~ :Lf development, repetition, sequence, harmony, chord progressions, rhythm, time, melodic paraphrase, and reconstruction" (Jim Ketch, personal communication, November 18th, 2007). Presenting improvisational concepts during the formative years of a student's instrumental development would accomplish three fundamentals students would use throughout their years of musical performance. The first fundamental, recognition of the melody both visually and aurally, is basic to any ensemble. The ability not only to recognize and play the melody, but to realize which instruments carry the melody, the style in which the melody is presented, and the rhythmic nuances associated with the performance of the melody are all concepts perpetuated in the improvisation module. Ketch also states the following regarding the effectiveness of the study as a whole; I feel this is important work with the potential to influence educational objectives and teaching strategies in the middle and high school music program. Further, the value of the exposure to improvisational directives (interpret a melody, arpeggiate chord structures, improvise over a standard progression, form and rhythm) would, in my opinion, transfer just as successfully to the choral and string divisions of a school music program. Chief among my reasons used to validate this study is the consistently high rate of music dropouts from music programs as students matriculate from beginning band to high school to college and on to the adult world. In each step, a smaller and smaller percentage of students stay involved as active music makers. One would question whether the ensemble and activity-based curriculum we perpetuate is truly the best method of teaching children about music and the aesthetic experience of being creative and productive using the language of music as a central means for communication (Jim Ketch, personal communication, November 18th, 2007). Composers of choral music like Russell Robinson, a noted music educator, composer, and clinician in the vocal music genre, has furthered Ketch's position for the inclusion of improvisational directives, but in the realm of vocal music education. Robinson's vast repertoire of choral compositions includes at least three that teach students jazz style, "Jazzin' It Up! (And Jazzin' It Down!), "Let's Sing Some Jazz!," and "We're Singin' The Blues For You!" All three selections include many of the same improvisation concepts featured in the module. Unit 4, melody 4, page 13. ".4 '] -. ,, - -- -" 'i ----V or&r - r. - A W j " S." |- 9 '. : iL a *' :- k I I H +. l -- - i 'I 1 L L II. 1 -- - 4L. -'? 7 a'- 9 I. I -h '13 r ** r rlr I ---Ft~a r r 1 LL1 S-r i- - l ll ---t" I . - F i * * 4 -_ -:., -~- I r -r if it i". := ~. : tr - i_ -w SI -T * I 0'f t - i r e- r J -E1 L -; ;r , ,p .r .1 -4 mr i m! .. .J ". i? , 1 4 r.; ; S ; a "- I- - ', : m "- N i9 l a+ fm o The rhythm of the four measures contains a half note on beats one and two of measure 109, and then a quarter note, followed by two eighths on beats three and four. o The rhythm in measure 100 shows a half note on beats one and two, followed by a quarter rest, two eighths on beats three and four. o Two half notes take up the time in measure 111 with the half note on beat three of measure 111 being tied to a half note on beats one and two of measure 112. o A half rest completes the rhythm in measure 112. o The counting of the second four-bar phrase beginning in measure 109 is:" one-two, rest, three and, one-two, rest, three and, one-two, three-four, one-two, rest, rest." o Adding jazz syllables for all the rhythms in measure 109 thru 112 voices the phrase: "dah, rest, do-bah, dah, rest, doo-bah, doo, bah---." *State to the class: Now that we have practiced the rhythms using counting and voicing each two bar phrase, let's listen to the model one last time as we vocalize the jazz syllables and finger thru the notes as the music plays. (Model CD #2, cut 7) o (After the music plays) o We will try playing the variation together. (After they have played through the variation) Great job! o Now we will play through the melody at letter B, because that's where the melody is harmonized, then play letter C as many times as there are sections playing a variation. o After each section completes playing their variation, go back and play the melody at letter B one time with the repeat, stopping at letter C. o When the ensemble completes this exercise remind them that on Friday they will be playing individual solos, so practice their Mixolydian modes, blues scales and the variations we just played through. 9199623376 p.5 Nov 18 07 06:38p Students varied in what mattered most to them in soloing. This study centered morc on European elements (Western scales and chord structures) than it did African characteristics (rhythm, weak to strong beat motion, and vocal inflection). A unit on rhythm, incorporating syncopation might be effective in producing the drummer's within each musician. The folks at Jazz at Lincoln Center describe this as a multi-cultural approach to teaching jazz improvisation- It has merit in my opinion. Materials for increasing use of this system It is clear that a publication package would have to be produced for your approach to be adopted by the wider district, state, regional, or national education system. This seems entirely reasonable and justifiable based on the outcomes I have witnessed in the assessment of your research. To recap, you will receive a fax of this letter and the assessment grade sheets today. I will mail the entire notebook and CDs to your home address on Monday, November 19. It is my sincere hope that my inability to not complete my grading of the entire recorded output of your study will not result in a delay of the acceptance of your work, the positive outcomes suggested by your research, and ultimately your receiving of the degree at graduation. This is important research Steve, and I am pleased to have been introduced to it. Sincerely, esKetch, Professor of Music Director of Jazz Studies Department of Music Hill Hall, CB#3320 University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3320 UNC-CH Music 7) What were the positive experiences that you the teacher and your students had with the improvisational module? First of all for me the positive experience would be that not being a jazzer myself, gaining a little more insight into jazz terminology and a little more insight into improvisational skills and those kinds of things. How things are built off of scales. And that was a good thing for me. The other thing is that when the students actually got down to business doing improve. It was nice for them to learn the melodies, but then when they understood that 'okay, now it's your turn to make up your own solo, that was fun for most of them. Some of them were scared to death to perform in front of their peers. 8) Are the National Standards for music or the Sunshine State Standards for music included in the teaching of your band curriculum? To one degree or another, probably not all of them are addressed as thoroughly as they should be. And that was probably one of the other things that was good about this particular module. It does teach kids to be creative and to learn to play and make up their own solos. Most band directors, myself included, don't give kids a whole lot of time for something like that. And the module gave us an entire framework in which to do it. Exit Interview with Director B 1) How did you and your students respond to all twenty-one lessons of the seven-unit module? In the beginning they were a little tentative, this was a lot of new material, especially in the scales. And they were, as most students are, a little afraid of the improve part of it. But as they went through it, the students got to the point to where they enjoyed it better and they had a lot of fun with it. They really enjoyed the example tracks that we played for them. Was the material in the module over their heads? As I said originally the material was a little over their heads especially with some of the different scales that had the students learn some new notes, but once they learned them, most of the material was in the same key, so they got more comfortable with the scales and more comfortable with playing the module. Was there too much material? There was too much material for 10 minutes a day. I think if we had a jazz class this would be a great way to actually teach beginning students how to play jazz from 'scratch.' We really needed 20, 25, 30 minutes a day on some of the lessons to really cover them completely. Unit 7 Lesson 3A * Goals for Unit 7 Lesson 3: Review Unit 5 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motives borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhythmic and melodic ideas * Melody 5: Kum Ba Yah * Study Goals include: The National Standards for Arts Education (Goal #10 and #11 of the curriculum study) and #9 of the curriculum's study goals. * Style: Early Folk Rock * Key center: Bb Concert * Time: 4/4 * Scales/Modes: Bb scale, Eb Lydian, and F Mixolydian * Triads: Tonic Bb (I), Subdominant Eb (IV), Dominant F7 (V7) * Form: A sixteen-measure melody complete with a theme and six variations -two forms, four melodies. * Rhythmic concepts: Dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four and five eighth note melodic motive development. * Melodic concepts: Original melody, ascending and descending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. * Harmonic concepts: Use of tonic, subdominant, and dominant triads to support harmonic form. * Rhythm accompaniment: Soft rock beat using bass drum, snare drum, and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. * Improvisational concepts: Identification of the melodic style and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and improvisation for the right hand of the piano, concepts for creating improvisational melodies using chord tones, and ideas for improvising a melody that includes the use of left hand (bass) improvisation. In addition, the chapter includes concepts of basic rhythm, utilizing jazz voicing; concepts for teaching basic melodic improvisation and the concept of a blue note; and identification of the third, the flat seven, and then all of the notes of a blues scale. Kolar's method includes five original tunes that incorporate most of the concepts discussed. In addition, the format also includes two and three pages of illustrations in large print, which allows for easy visualization of each concept presented. This method is geared toward the novice learner and player of jazz concepts. It speaks to the basic concepts and fundamentals of learning how to improvise while exposing the reader to basic jazz terminology and practices. No audio or visual model is included. McCurdy's (1976) study was designed to provide the music educator with a number of available jazz improvisational methods and materials and to establish a curriculum of applied jazz instruction for the beginning and the intermediate/advanced levels. After a short definition of terms, the thesis reviews the literature available up to 1976. McCurdy identifies four methods for the elementary level and six for the junior high level, as well as 15 supplemental methods for junior high, 32 methods for high school, and 54 supplemental methods for high school acceptable for inclusion in his study. Following the review of the literature, the author takes excerpts from different levels of the methods reviewed and then establishes a curriculum, including 21 lessons interspersed with seven exams for the elementary level and 22 lessons containing six exams for the intermediate/advanced level. The final chapter of the thesis includes a summary and recommendation on how to best use the study in one's own curriculum. Unit 1, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for both melodies 1 and 2. F Dominant 7-9 arpeggio 4-L^ *' tpzm \i f-=^= LEM 9:11 frt- I-- -- LI - rI I1 FI ilDo.iIrnd I ioraritnf 4----- 7-9 drpcgio I L 'it iail 1 ; iiI' J ir Fl. Ob. CI. A. Sax T. Sax. Bsn. ;-m irp'v ritz-- - ( .4- S.L 4 1 I- n---~ I I i- I I ~ C- -- S I .).' rll.ar n 1 .i r - _____ ______:i r E~ f J- 0"T I 3'.iintn I. -- Ty n J ha n *'i .I F .j.,-nij '-*Jv~~I~ ttz~~mrn f~~tt- 4 -+-- t- '..U .wpu~gLst arpeggio I ____ L 4 4- 4 -- - -- i F Dominant 7-9 arpeggio _-- _ ~ 4 _ WT ^-- Ipt Hn Tbn. Bar. Tha. Pete. BU. D. R I S D. .In via, Vc. Cb I I 'I., lli l1lp S r .. ~zP:i2~ -9T~.~~ (1 I ED- t r rn C Di.nnlr~u-il Cl-- an t--- r ,1 t- ThtriThr~ .1 1 I ~ r I- -I r r i 4, - ; ; ~t~~i 4 d d ,~---c -- 7-- s~i;f--~i~_1 - 4~J -4- -- __ - - M- Unit 4 Lesson 3 * Goals for Unit 4 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motives borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhythmic and melodic ideas * Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a review of all of the variations the Bb concert scale and F Mixolydian modes. Use the model CD #1 cut 82 (Melody, harmony, and all variations in a row) and cuts 80 and 81 to review the scales and arpeggios. o Remind the class that notes choices from both the Bb scale and the F Mixolydian mode are for use in their own improvised solo. o So, keep the scale sheets from Hot Cross Buns with the same scales and modes on the music stand close by. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in a healthy environment, one which allows mistakes and fosters having fun. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepared the sections when they played their variations at the end of day two's lesson. * State to the class: Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing a different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate the melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for final comprehension, and then we will start from the beginning. * Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes the run through, be complimentary of the group's efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try their hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use their own ideas-great, emphasize that it's okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progression) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have completed their solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter A stopping at letter B. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at the end of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN! *Note to the Instructor: Assessment of the class's comprehension of the week's lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ensemble's ability to negotiate the variations and the individual's solo attempts at playing an improvisational solo during the last day's lesson. with "through composed material." The material presented is an advanced methodology for the curriculum study. Improvisation in an Ensemble Setting Beginning Level Fitzgerald, McCord, and Berg (2003) designed a curriculum for grades three through six for the purposes of teaching the jazz language in an elementary setting in general music classes. The handbook comes with two CDs and reproducible worksheets for teaching aides. The authors' introduction states specifically, "You don't need to have any personal jazz experience to use this book. All of the modeling is done for you by leading jazz musicians." The curriculum is designed for the general music class that meets once a week for thirty minutes over six weeks. Following a short introduction, there is a short page that discusses definitions of basic jazz terms and then asks the question, "What makes jazz sound like Jazz?" Subsequent pages are devoted to teaching the rhythmic concept of jazz phrasing and style, jazz rhythms, jazz etiquette (which includes paragraphs on how to cue soloists), counting off tunes, conducting, and the timing of applauding a soloist. Also included are short sections about reflective listening, how to use the publication, what the essence of a "jam session" is, and suggestions for the use of percussion instruments along with the lessons. In addition the author includes notes about the call and response recordings, how to use the reproducible worksheet masters, discussions on how to arrange all rhythm instruments for performance, and a short reference section about the history of some of the great jazz masters. The method divides into three units, rhythm in jazz, heart of jazz, and soul of jazz. Each unit breaks down into three subunits teaching jazz concepts and rhythms through call and response; and jazz vocabulary found in familiar, traditional jazz tunes such as "Take the A- Train," "How High the Moon," and "Summertime." Unit 3, melody 3, page 7. P4 4,- (1 SU I N 9 S, J S* . * U i j ' j x - A jU * JS J N N I i$

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curriculum. The book divides into three sections arranged by ability level. Section one provides

the reader with an introduction to jazz notation and melodic patterns; scale and chord formations

and their relationships to one another; and concepts of key centers, harmonic structure, jazz

rhythm, and articulation. Section two continues with sections on altered harmonic patterns, tetra

chords, chord extensions, substitution chords, and beat placement, concluding with a

transcription of a Charlie Parker solo. Section three continues with chapters on topics such as

stylistic alterations, more scale substitutions, harmonic voicing, and more jazz scales. It

concludes with a study of the concepts pertaining to jazz form.

The examples are clear and precise. The method includes a cassette for easier

comprehension of the exercises provided in the three sections. The examples require a

proficiency level above that of the intermediate instrumentalist to be able to negotiate the

exercises and technical nuances of the methodology.

Beginning to Improvise from the Jazz Improvisation Made Easy series for violin (volume

one) by Blake and Harmon (1993) is yet another method pertaining excellent content on learning

how to improvise jazz for the string family. The method encompasses 52 pages, divided into four

chapters, and includes an introduction and an explanation on how to use the method, a glossary,

and a section on expressive techniques. The author incorporates the technique of call and

response in teaching one how to negotiate the exercises provided.

Each chapter includes patterns for use in improvisation including warm-ups, scale patterns

in the key of G major in which one may choose to play along with the included CD. An

improvised jazz solo notated in jazz style is also included on the same CD, allowing for use in

teaching or for the purposes of imitation through modeling. There are suggestions on how to play

Unit 6, melody 6, blues scales.

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Lesson 1 Kum Ba Yah
Likert Scale Score (1thru 7)

Director A

Director B

Question 1) Were the objectives
appropriate for this class?
4/7 5/7
Question 2) Were the learning activities
appropriate for the time allowed?
4/7 3/7
Question 3) Were the students able to
perform the activities in this lesson?

Directors comments on Lesson 1 Unit 5

Director A Director B
Identification of the root, Great way to intro the
third, seventh and ninth in dotted rhythms!
each class aurally is a
stretch for the students to
understand. A worthy
goal, but needs time and
practice on just that
aspect.

Total 13/21

13/21

Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 5

Likert Scale Score (lthru 7)

Director A Director B
Question 1) Were the objectives
appropriate for this class?
5/7 5/7
Question 2) Were the learning activities
appropriate for the time allowed?
4/7 3/7
Question 3) Were the students able to
perform the activities in this lesson?

Director A
I think the "state to the
class sections" will go
it is not well prepared in
vocalization of the
rhythms will be a little
rough, but is good stuff
and should be done.

Total 15/21

Unit 5
Lesson 2

Director B
No comment.

13/21

responses (in red) to lessons 1 through 8 initially appeared to be more favorable than Director A.

This trend reversed for lessons 9 through 18, where Director A gave higher marks than Director

B. Again lessons 19 through 21 were not responded to for Director A.

Figure 3, Performance of Activities, referred to the responses plotted for question 3:

Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? Director A clearly agreed that his

students could perform all of the activities in each lesson except for lessons 19, 20, and 21 in

which he did not have the opportunity to teach his class. Director B did not agree or was

indifferent as to his students being able to perform the activities provided in lessons 1 through 10

lessons; however, as the students became more comfortable with the material in each lesson he

began to see improvements in the performance category of the lesson plans.

Appendix B includes 21 tables that show both director A and B score's for each of the

three questions asked in evaluating all the lessons of the improvisation module. The tables also

lessons were for the most part favorable, except for the amount of time allowed per day for the

teaching of the material for each lesson. Both directors seemed to agree strongly on the limited

time allotment per lesson.

Director A and B Interviews

Both directors that taught the improvisation module gave exit interviews regarding their

own and the students' experiences teaching and playing through the study. Eight questions were

asked that were pertinent to the implementation of the module in each director's curriculum. The

answers were audio taped by the researcher and later transcribed by the researcher with the

directors' answers appearing here in this chapter. All answers were unedited and appear in their

original form.

questions, conceived from an interview format with known jazz artists, are centered on the

question "Can transcribing and then learning famous improvisational solos of professional jazz

artists really help music educators teach their students how to improvise jazz?"

The argument raised two issues for the use of transcriptions. On the "con" side, three

points were raised: 1) inaccuracies in transcribing the actual solo (which have slight deficiencies

in notational detail); 2) it is almost impossible to capture the inflections the performer uses in an

actual jazz solo; and 3) one's inherent creative input may be lost when one copies a transcription

of a professional soloist. The last point is usually noticeable when the student begins performing

his/her own improvisational solo over the same harmonic chord structure: Whose solo did they

study? Who do they sound like?

On the "pro" side, there were also three reasons given for using transcriptions in teaching

improvisation: 1) the student may gain in the area of ear training through hearing and visualizing

solos of jazz professionals; 2) the use of transcriptions helps define and outline the underlying

harmonic structure of the melody; and 3) it can be educationally beneficial, in four areas of

understanding jazz concepts (through comprehension of jazz stylistic concepts, jazz rhythms,

jazz articulations and jazz phrasing).

Marcus concluded that, out of those interviewed, many educators felt strongly about using

transcriptions as an educational tool. The findings were significant enough that the researcher

thought that the use of artists' transcribed solos should be used as a basis for teaching

improvisation.

For the beginning instrumentalist, the results of this study are significant due to the fact

that young developing instrumentalists who are seriously studying jazz need to listen with

specific intent to an established professional jazz model to gain insight as to the proper phrasing,

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to help instill a sense of rhythmic substance and basic jazz theory that can be used to launch a

sequential curriculum in the medium of improvisation.

While Marcus's study of 2004 uses actual transcriptions of improvisational solos at all

levels of comprehension, it is lacking in providing actual short motives, both rhythmic and

melodic, and basic harmonic theory concepts to help implement the exercises provided in the

study. A large separation of difficulty separates the beginning methodologies for group practice

and the intermediate materials reviewed for the study.

The curriculum that was developed for the purposes of this study seems to make an

attempt to provide simple short motivic ideas that are written to be within reach of most

beginners after they have completed one semester of beginning band exercises and concepts. The

materials provided for the study were written to be sensitive to the limited technical demands of

the beginner, and also attempt to provide a theoretical basis for the continued success in the area

of improvisation.

CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS OF DATA

Pre-test, Post-test Formatting

The design of the study was such that a pre-test, post-test format would yield data in

which to assess the validity and reliability of the improvisation module. The pre-test results

established a baseline of raw data scores for the study.

A Likert scale was used to evaluate each participant's pre-test, post-test melody

performances where consecutive numbers 1 through 10 were used to assess student ability.

Numbers 1 through 3 were associated with student performances equaling low ability, numbers 4

through 6 were associated with medium ability, and numbers 7 through 10 were associated with

high ability.

A positive number above 0.0 was selected to assess the gain between pre-test and post-

test scores so the "alternative" option was set at "greater than" 0.0. Each option setting was

retained for all combined judge scores for the pre-test, post-test paired "t" entry. All melodies

tested from the improvisation module were analyzed using the same format.

The 55 participants at the university city school yielded 48 complete sets of data, while

all 17 participants at the rural school had complete data. For the purposes of comparison, the data

from the first 17 participants recorded on the evaluator's CDs from the university city school and

all 17 participants from the rural were selected for analysis. The two groups of participants

selected for analysis totaled 34, which was 52 percent of the sample base that had complete data

sets.

The data of the samples selected for analysis were entered into a paired "t" test. The post-

test combined judge's scores from all participants were then entered into the statistical program

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVISATION MODULE FOR
BEGINNING BANDS

By

Steven Lee Bingham

December 2007

Chair: Russell Robinson
Major: Music Education

This study consisted of the development of a module for teaching improvisation to first-

year wind instrumental students. It was conceived as a supplement to the usual program of

instruction. It presents an arrangement of six traditional melodies, complete with

accompaniment, scales, arpeggios, and variation exercises and opportunities for students to

improvise. This study involves the National Standards for the Arts Education content Standards,

No. 2 and 3, which specify the teaching of a varied repertoire of music and improvisation in the

Two middle schools were chosen to test the improvisation module: a rural school,

population approximately 700 students, and a university city middle school, approximately 900

students. Seventy-two students from the two band programs took part in the study, of which 34

were selected for analysis. Four variables were assessed: a pre-test of the melodies in the

improvisation module, a post-test of the same melodies, a post-test of the harmonic structure in

the form of arpeggios, and a post-test of each student's ability to improvise on the melodies in

the curriculum using a model CD of the harmonic structure.

A paired "t" test was used to assess the amount of learning. Almost all the results were

statistically significant. A one-sample "t" test for the arpeggios and improvisation produced a

instrument in the ensemble were defined. The lesson concluded with the students playing

through the melody Hot Cross Buns, redefining the form of the melody.

Next, the students played through the harmonic progression with the assigned chord tones

in the accompaniment, reinforcing the harmonic structure and instrumental voicing arranged

within the ensemble. Finally, the students played through the first exercise, which identified the

root movement of the harmonic structure in the chord progression.

Lesson 2 reinforced all of the concepts taught from the first day's lesson and then moved

on to present rhythmic variations of the root movement of the chord progression and rhythmic

and melodic variations of the melody. The arrangement of the variations included exercises

incorporating easy concepts of rhythmic and melodic motives that progressed in difficulty, both

technically and melodically. As the ensemble learned the variations using call-and-response from

the director, or by playing the model CD, the director was prompted to select a section of the

ensemble that had gained enough technique to play one of the variations. The large ensemble

then accompanied the sections) by playing the chord progression arranged for the harmonization

of the melody.

The improvisation module centered on performance as one of the key elements in playing

an improvised melody. The improvisation module began by using unison concepts, where the

melody and variation exercises were played over the harmonic progression, in unison, for the

purpose of achieving success within a group first, and then later the variations were played

individually, as in a solo. The design of the harmonic form allowed the ensemble to repeat the

chord progression within the form enough times for all sections of the ensemble to play one

variation in unison while the rest of the members provided the harmonic accompaniment. When

* State to the class: Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody,
the Bb concert scale and its arpeggio, and the F Mixolydian scale and its arpeggio by
assigning different sections of the ensemble playing a variation or a mode or a scale for a
review of week two's tune Lightly Row.
o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C
until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate the melody at letter A.
o I will replay the model CD once for a final review of the tune, and
then we will start from the beginning. (Model CD #1, cut 44)

* Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes the run through, be complimentary of
the group's efforts.
o The primary goal of the study is to allow every student an opportunity to improvise and
create ideas within the curriculum provided in the improvisational study.
o By now the ensemble knows the routine when it comes to accompanying a soloist. Set up
the five or six soloist's and make sure that the video recorder is on!
o I will still give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo.
o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward.

* State to the class: Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day?
o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your
self.
o All of us will applaud your effort!
o Reward points will be redeemed at then end of the study for all students who attempted
an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not!
o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!!
o Note to the Instructor: Assessment of the class's comprehension of the week's lesson
comes from two sources, observation of the ensembles ability to negotiate the variations
and the individual's solo attempts at playing an improvisational solo during the last day's
lesson.

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

An improvisation module was designed involving content standards 2 and 3 of the

National Standards for Arts Education as an enrichment module to benefit middle school band

directors who did not teach improvisation in their schools. Melodies were chosen from method

books and materials already in place in most middle school band programs. Six melodies were

then arranged for teaching improvisation for beginning band students. The six melodies were

then divided into seven units, one unit for each melody with the seventh reserved for review.

Each unit included three lessons, for a total of 21 lessons.

The lessons first instructed the directors regarding fundamental improvisation concepts

that they were asked to teach so, in turn, they could teach their beginning band students. Lesson

1 for each unit introduced the melody, historic concepts about the style setting for each melody,

and the melody's chord structure. Lesson 2 focused on harmonic and melodic variations of the

melody, group performances, and ensemble accompaniment of the harmony. Lesson 3 focused

on individual performance featuring improvised solo attempts from volunteer students, as the

ensemble accompanied the student.

The same format continued for the remaining five units, 2 through 6. The last unit, number

7, was reserved for performance. It included three lessons in which two melodies per lesson were

reviewed.

The improvisation enrichment module was then field tested in two different schools, a

rural school with approximately 700 students and a university city school with approximately

900 students. The rural school included two separate beginning band classes with a combined

enrollment of 44 students. The university city school also included two separate band classes

with a combined enrollment of 84 students. All students who were enrolled in beginning band

Byo, Susan J. (1999). Classroom teachers and music specialist's perceived ability to implement
the National Standards for music education. Journal ofResearch in Music Education, Vol.
47, No. 2. (Summer, 1999), pp. 111-123. Retrieved October 29th, 2007 from J-Stor.
0022-4294%28199922%2947%3A2%3C 11 1%3ACTAMSP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7

Cohen, V.W. (1981). The emergence of musical gestures in kindergarten children. (Doctoral
dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts
International 41, A4637.

Coker, Jerry. (1964). Improvising Jazz. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Coy, David Allen. (1989). A Multisensory approach to teaching jazz improvisation to middle
school band students. 9010106. Ann Arbor: UMI

Davis, Miles. (1999). Someday my prince will come. On Someday my prince will come [CD].
New York: Columbia Records.

Davis, Miles. (1959). Freddie Freeloader. The Real Book (6th edition, 2004)). Milwaukee: Hal-
Leonard.

Davis, Miles. (1959). Freddie Freeloader. On Kinda Blue [CD]. New York: Columbia Records.

Dean, Roger T. (1989). Creative improvisation: Jazz, contemporary music, and beyond. Milton
Keyes: Open University Press.

DiBlasio, Denis. (1987). DiBlasio's Bop Shop, The Sequel. Delevan: Kendor Music, Inc.

Dunscomb, Marcia. (1991). Melody Maker. Atlanta: Georgia State University Pullen Library.

Dylan, Bob. (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man. On The Best of Bob Dylan [CD]. New York:
Columbia Records.

Ferand, Ernest T. (1961). Anthology of Music Improvisation in Nine Centuries of Western Music.
An Anthology / i/h a Historical Introduction. Vol. 12. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag.

Fitzgerald, Margaret, McCord, Kimberly, & Berg, Shelly (2003). Chop-Monster Jr., Jazz
Language Tutor for General Music Instruction. Van Nuys: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc.

Hearle, Dan, Peterson, Jack, & Matteson, Rich. (1981) Jazz Tunes for Improvisation. Miami:
Studio 224.

Hoffer, Charles. (2007). Music Listening Today. Belmont: Thomson/Schirmer

Jobim, Antonio Carlos. (2005). The girl from Impanema. On The Best ofAntonio Carlos Jobim
[CD]. Santa Monica: Universal Music Enterprises.

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intermediate ability of technique, not only to play the melody with the proper articulation, but

also to be able to negotiate the exercises provided in the actual "workshop" of the methodology.

Berg (1998) writes a method that relies on listening skills and written music in an equal

balance to help in development. The writer incorporates vocalization as well as hand signs to

help visualize certain scales and melodic patterns. Solo transcriptions that help train the ear for

melodic and harmonic concepts in the music are included in Berg's method. The publication also

incorporates the use of transparencies to aide in visualization of the concepts presented, a CD for

an aural aide that corresponds to the written exercises, and teaching suggestions that break down

each new concept presented.

Goals of the method contain improvisational concepts and tips on preparation for lesson

plans for the teacher. The method also includes hand signs, which coincide with each note of the

melodic line. These hand signs act as an aide in teaching the melody in Berg's methodology.

Concepts found in Berg's method include creating melodies from chords used in the

harmony, major and minor seventh chord changes, dominant seventh chords, the four-seven and

five-seven chords, chromatic notes used as color tones in the melody, blues progressions, and

tips regarding ensemble playing for the rhythm section.

This work is extensive and detailed, incorporating a lesson plan for every new concept and

requiring the reader to have intermediate ability to play through the lessons. The method is

written for a small ensemble that uses traditional jazz instrumentation.

Blair (2004) wrote a method to stress jazz basics and the fundamentals of improvisation for

young musicians. The seven-unit methodology begins with a brief introduction in which the

author states the purpose of each unit, pedagogical aspects on the presentation, and thoughts on

teaching the method's objectives. Objectives include teaching tonality, teaching the aural "echo"

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APPENDIX E
SCALES AND MODES, WITH ARPEGGIOS FOR ALL MELODIES
CONTAINED IN THE IMPROVISATION MODULE.

Unit 1, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for both melodies 1 and 2.

Scale Charts fi v- Hot Cross Buns Arr m B am
Rh Unrcert scale with added ninth

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Full Text

PAGE 1

1 THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVISATION MODULE FOR BEGINNING BANDS By STEVEN LEE BINGHAM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

PAGE 2

2 2007 Steven Lee Bingham

PAGE 3

3 To my wife, Trudy Marie; to my father, Dr. Hal G. Bingham, and Trudys father, Mr. Bernard Nigus; also in memory of our mothers, Mrs. Mary Ann Bingham and Mrs. Dorothy Jean Nigus.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank my wife, Trudy Marie Bingham, for keeping me centered; my parents, Dr. Hal and Mary Ann Bi ngham, for their support; my wifes parents Mr. Bernard and Dorothy Jean Nigus, for their support; and both families for believing in me. I thank my committee, Dr. Leslie Odom, Professor Gary Langford, and especially Dr. Robert Wright, Dr. Russell Robinson and Dr. Charles Hoffer, for whos e help I am grateful. I thank them for their unending patience and understandin g. I thank Everett McConn, Dirk Schmidt, Don Devito, Gary Anders and Jim Ketch, for their time. Finally, I thank D.J. Head Jr., whose untiring efforts in recording and mixing the model CD and in editing all 1585 tracks of audio samples, made this study possible.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 The Problem............................................................................................................................16 The Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................20 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....20 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ...21 Delimitations...................................................................................................................21 Definition of Terms.........................................................................................................21 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE..................................................................... 23 Individual Improvisati on Beginning Level ............................................................................. 24 Individual Improvisation Intermediate Level......................................................................... 26 Individual Improvisation Advanced Level.............................................................................31 Improvisation in an Ensemble Setting Beginning Level........................................................ 40 Improvisation in an Ensemble Setting Intermediate Level..................................................... 43 Improvisation in an Ensemble Setting Advanced Level......................................................... 55 Summary.................................................................................................................................56 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURES........................................................................................... 58 The National Standards for Arts Educators within the Study................................................. 58 An Improvisation Module for Beginners........................................................................ 58 Objectives of the Im provisational Module ...................................................................... 59 Content of the Module.....................................................................................................60 Sample.............................................................................................................................62 Procedures..................................................................................................................... ..64 Content of Lessons for Each Unit........................................................................................... 67 Unit 1...............................................................................................................................67 Unit 2...............................................................................................................................70 Unit 3...............................................................................................................................71 Unit 4...............................................................................................................................72 Unit 5...............................................................................................................................73 Unit 6...............................................................................................................................74

PAGE 6

6 Unit 7...............................................................................................................................76 Audio Samples.........................................................................................................76 Statistical Analysis................................................................................................... 80 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA.......................................................................................................... 85 Pre-test, Post-test Formatting..................................................................................................85 Pre-test, Post-test Analysis..............................................................................................86 Formatting of Arpeggio and Improvisation Scores................................................................ 88 Analysis of Arpeggio Scores...........................................................................................89 Analysis of Improvisation Scores....................................................................................90 Analysis of Interjudge Reliability........................................................................................... 91 Director Responses and Evaluations of the Lessons .............................................................. 93 Director A and B Interviews................................................................................................... 95 Exit Interview with Director A........................................................................................96 Exit Interview with Director B........................................................................................98 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMME NDATIONS............................................................... 106 Conclusions...........................................................................................................................108 Major Conclusions................................................................................................................112 Researcher Observations and Conclusions.................................................................... 115 Discussion.............................................................................................................................119 Recommendations......................................................................................................... 121 APPENDIX A LESSON PLANS.................................................................................................................. 123 Unit 1 Lesson 1.....................................................................................................................123 Unit 1 Lesson 2..............................................................................................................127 Unit 1 Lesson 3..............................................................................................................131 Unit 2 Lesson 1.....................................................................................................................133 Unit 2 Lesson 2..............................................................................................................136 Unit 2 Lesson 3..............................................................................................................139 Unit 3 Lesson 1.....................................................................................................................141 Unit 3 Lesson 2..............................................................................................................144 Unit 3 Lesson 3..............................................................................................................146 Unit 4 Lesson 1.....................................................................................................................148 Unit 4 Lesson 2..............................................................................................................152 Unit 4 Lesson 3..............................................................................................................155 Unit 5 Lesson 1.....................................................................................................................157 Unit 5 Lesson 2..............................................................................................................161 Unit 5 Lesson 3..............................................................................................................164 Unit 6 Lesson 1.....................................................................................................................166 Unit 6 Lesson 2..............................................................................................................172 Unit 6 Lesson 3..............................................................................................................176

PAGE 7

7 Unit 7 Lesson 1.....................................................................................................................178 Unit 7 Lesson 1B...........................................................................................................181 Unit 7 Lesson 2A...........................................................................................................183 Unit 7 Lesson 2B...........................................................................................................185 Unit 7 Lesson 3A...........................................................................................................187 Unit 7 Lesson 3B...........................................................................................................189 B DIRECTORS EVALUATION OF ALL LESSONS USED IN THE MODULE ............... 191 C EVALUATOR LETTER AND COMMENTS..................................................................... 202 D FULL SCORES FOR THE MUSICAL AR RANGEMENTS OF ALL M ELODIES PRESENTED IN THE IMPROVISATION MODULE....................................................... 206 E SCALES AND MODES, WITH ARPEGGIO S FOR ALL MELODIES CONTAINED IN THE IMPROVISATION MODULE...............................................................................305 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................326 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................330

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 A synopsis of the lesson plan s in the im provisation module............................................. 81 4-1 Paired t test results for both schools.............................................................................103 4-2 Confidence interval re sults for the arpeggios and im prov for both schools.................... 104 4-3 One-sample t CI interval arpe ggio scores for both schools by m elody........................ 104 4-4 One-sample t CI interval improvisation scores for both schools by m elody............... 104 4-5 Rural school two-way ANOVA interjudge reliability scores for m elody/student........... 105 4-6 University city school two-way ANOVA interjudge reliability scores for m elody/student................................................................................................................. 105

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1. Evaluations of Objectives.....................................................................................................101 4-2. Evaluations of Learning Activities.......................................................................................101 4-3. Performance of Activities.....................................................................................................102

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVISATION MODULE FOR BEGINNING BANDS By Steven Lee Bingham December 2007 Chair: Russell Robinson Major: Music Education This study consisted of the development of a module for teaching improvisation to firstyear wind instrumental students. It was conceived as a supplem ent to the usual program of instruction. It presents an arrangement of six traditiona l melodies, complete with accompaniment, scales, arpeggios, and variati on exercises and opportunities for students to improvise. This study involves the National Standa rds for the Arts Education content Standards, No. 2 and 3, which specify the teaching of a varied repertoire of music and improvisation in the middle school grades 5-8. Two middle schools were chosen to test the improvisation module: a rural school, population approximately 700 students, and a univ ersity city middle school, approximately 900 students. Seventy-two students fr om the two band programs took part in the study, of which 34 were selected for analysis. Four variables were assessed: a pre-test of the melodies in the improvisation module, a post-test of the same mel odies, a post-test of the harmonic structure in the form of arpeggios, and a posttest of each students ability to improvise on the melodies in the curriculum using a model CD of the harmonic structure. A paired t test was used to assess the amount of learning. Almost all the results were statistically significant. A one-sample t test for the arpeggios and improvisation produced a

PAGE 11

11 high mean value of a combined value of 5.09 out of 10 for the arpeggios for all melodies and a 5.00 out of 10 for the improvisation for all melodi es at the rural school. The university city school produced a combined mean score in the arpeggio variable of 7.30 and in the improvisation variable a combined score of 6.74 in the six melodies tested. Director evaluations of the 21 lesson plans that on a seven points Likert scale Director A responded significantly higher than Director B. Exit interviews for both directors indicated general agreement on the quality of the materials. Both agree that the material was too much for the amount of time available, but otherwise very positive. They praised the organization, easy to use format, and improvisational concepts presen ted in the module. They found the materials useful and appropriate to both the students and the teachers.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION From early music practices to 21st century music manuscripts, improvisation has been an integral part of music and perf ormance. Ernest Ferand, a leadi ng researcher in music history, believes that improvisation is in every musical composition and performance. Every historical study that confines itself exclusively to the practical and theoretical sources that have come down to us in writi ng or print, without ta king into account the improvisational element in living musical practice, must of necessity present an incomplete, indeed a distorted picture. For there is scarcely a single field in music that has remained unaffected by improvisation, scarcely a single musical technique or form of composition that did not originate in impr ovisatory practice or was not essentially influenced by it (Ferand, 1961). Ferands argument points out that even in manuscr ipt form, improvisation has always played an important role in the trial and error associated with music com position. Charles Hoffer, a leading music educator and historian be lieves composers who were profic ient in keyboard ability, such as Mozart and Handel, could improvise on any given melody. Improvisation was an important feature in Baroque music. An organist wa s expected to be able to improvise intricate and complex mu sic. During their lifetimes Bach, Handel, and several other Baroque composers were known as much for their ability to improvise as for their compositions (Hoffer, 2007). Even as improvisation began its decline as a practice in Western Europe Art Music, American jazz instrumentalists began incor porating improvisation in to their performance practices. Through the twentieth century, improvisation flourished as American jazz gained a foothold in being recognized as a performance medium and later an academic field of study. Night clubs and huge concert halls filled with admire rs of the genre led to a frenzy of an eager public ready to also listen to radios, TVs, and phonograph recordings of professional jazz artists such as Count Basie, Fletcher Henderson, and Duke Ellington. From Louis Armstrong and Kid

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13 Orey to Charlie Parker and Miles Davis, jazz artists could not play and produce enough jazz performances and recordings to please the masses. The art form even gained a foothold in the public and private secondary schools whose band programs began to offer the big band ensemble s as a part of their curriculums. Major colleges and universities such as Berkley, East man, and the University of North Texas State developed undergraduate performance degrees in jazz. Masters degrees along with PhDs offered for both music education and performance were la ter added as the academic world also embraced the art form. However, currently in the world, jazz teach ing and performance may be more accepted internationally than in the count ry of its origin. Chuck Owen, past president of the International Association for Jazz Education (IAJE) and a respec ted jazz educator, believes there is a reason for this shift of audience appeal. Simply stated, the problem is, with each passing year more and more Americans seem to have less and less contact w ith the musicthe nature of technology, which allows the consumer to wrap themselves in a cocoon of their own choosing, actually serves to isolate individuals from anything they dont al ready know or like (Owen 2007). Technologys invention of the Ipod, Iphone, and other such devices has individualized the nations listening palette, in effect isolating one from different forms of music including jazz. Choice has always been an American trait; however if one has not been educated in the history, performance practices, and artists of certain types of music, incl uding jazz, then the listener may not be oriented to jazz music excluding the art form in their MP3 players. Owens statement is also supported by the fact that over the years conv entional jazz outlets such as nightclubs, radio stations, and networ k television channels have diminished their coverage of jazz, limiting the casual listeners ability to be touched by famous jazz and improvisation artists of the past, present, and future. As a result, th e young music student may

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14 never become acquainted with professional artists whose performances can inspire greater creative tendencies within the aspiring musician. In March of 1994, Congress signed into law the Goals 2000: Educate America Act that outlines general educational objectives and standards in music and dance, theatre, and visual arts for all students. In Section 102 of the Act, goal No. 3 states, By the year 2000 all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12, having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter, including (the) arts. The Cons ortium of National Arts Educati on Associations convened with the U.S Department of Education, the Nationa l Endowment for the Arts, and the National Endowment for the Humanities to develop an achievement criteria defining what a student should know and be able to do in the arts (MEJ, 1993). The development for the criteria for Goals 2000 led to nine content standards in music for grades 5. Two of the nine standards for music included teaching and implementing improvisation in conjunction with introducing varied musical styles Standard No. 2 states: The student should be able to perform on instrument s, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. Standard No. 3 includes improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments (MENC, 1994). Initially, the National Standards for Arts Educa tion were (and to some extent still are) difficult to place within the traditional music curriculum. Music educators faced major reforms in their educational delivery to be able to in clude all nine standards into their respective curriculums. Most music educators and teachers of music in the 1990s were unprepared to teach some of the requirements recommended by the act, especially improvisation and composition. The teaching of improvisation in Americas sch ools has traditionally been associated with jazz. Jazz and improvisation teaching that uses performance models of great jazz artists, both

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15 past and present, has furthered a valuable allian ce between the artists and school music teachers. In addition global organizations, such as the Inte rnational Association for Jazz Education provide a vehicle for learning and teaching structure to he lp develop the creative traits of music students in Americas music programs. Owen believes that every student in American public school s should have the opportunity to experience and perform jazz, especially dur ing the formative developmental years of a young students life. Owen stated: Individual educators, as well as music, educational, and arts associations must, therefore, renew efforts to make certain that ALL stude nts receive grounding in the concepts, history, and artists that define jazz. In addition, they must be given multiple opportunities to actively experience and engage with the music throughout their formative years (Owen 2007). Owens statement mentioned the formative y ears of a young developing instrumentalist. The first year of band instruction may be the best opportunity fo r young students to begin instruction in improvisation. It is in this time frame, the student is open to instruction that may feature teaching all styles and concepts of music. Although Congress passed Goals 2000, the actual implementation of all of the nine National Standards has gained little acceptan ce by many music educators. Susan Byo, a past music supervisor for Broward County, Florida, conducted a study comparing responses of music generalists and music specialists regarding implementation of the ni ne content standards of Goals 2000. Even though the state of Florida has based its music curriculum on the nine content standards of Goals 2000, Byos research found th at, in general, both music specialists and general music teachers at the el ementary level were not prepared to teach improvisation and composition to their music students. Overall, bo th music teachers and generalists rated the composing and improvising standards most difficult to implemen t (Byo, 1999). Byos research also finds that, in general, resources and materi als available to guide th e teachers with teaching

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16 improvisation were lacking going on to say, Mus ic specialists indicated fewest resources available for teaching improvising. Currently, the teaching of improvisation in many large ensemble settings (concert band) is considered a by-product of most instrumental band programs and too many directors considered it not a worthy concept to include in their cl assroom curriculums. Christopher Azzara, an Associate Professor at the Hartt School of Music, agrees with this premise, stating in an article appearing in the Music Educators Journal, Although improvisation has been a vital part of music maki ng throughout history, it is inexplicably missing from most school music curricula today. With the exception of jazz, and some instructional activities in elemen tary general music classes, improvisation occupies a comparatively small space in a co mprehensive music education (Azzara, 1999). The Problem A review of the literature in the method books and materials published for teaching beginning instrumental literature uncovered the fact th at teaching improvisation is lacking in grades 5. Since Goals 2000 was enacted in 1994, American middle school beginning band programs have been slow to embrace and implement c ontent standards No. 2 and 3, regarding teaching improvisation. Azzara, believes that the National Standards for the Arts have generated a renewed awareness for the importance for the art of improvisation as a valuable musical skill for all music students. However, there is still reluctance for directors to implement the teaching of improvisation in their curri cula. Azzara believes one reason for the lack of teaching improvisation lies in the background of the music educator. Coming from backgrounds with little or no emphasis on improvisation, many music educators find that to incorporate improvisa tion into their teaching is a challenge. Understandably they are reluctan t to teach skills with whic h they have had little prior experience or success (Azzara, 1999).

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17 Materials to aid one in teach ing the concepts and fundament als of improvisation are found in abundance for the individual be ginning instrumentalists, but are very limited when it comes to teaching beginning band students in large ensemb le settings as chapter two points out. David Snyder, an associate professor of music education at Illinois State University, argues for the inclusion of the fundamentals of improvi sation in the beginning band curriculum in an article in the Jazz Education Journal He prefaces his article with a general statement regarding teaching improvisation. Many teache rs are hesitant to introduce their students to improvisation, even those educators who themselves improvise (Snyder 2003). He believes one reason for this reluctance is the lack of adequa te lesson plans for implementing the teaching of improvisation. Another factor for not including improvisation Snyder believes is that Many educators still buy into the belief that improvisati on is only acquired through y ears of playing and/or listening to jazz greats. A search for materials that include the teaching of improvisation in beginning band method books finds them lacking, adding support to Snyders argument. Owen also agrees with Snyders and Azzaras pr emise. In an article published in the IAJE Jazz Educators Journal, Owen states: Although educational standards have been revise d in recent years to include jazz in the curriculum, for most programs and public school teachers, jazz clearly remains an afterthought or extracurricu lar activity if addre ssed at all (Owen 2006). According to Owen, improvisation remains out side of most begi nning band curriculums, simply because the instructor has not made the genre a key contributor in the development of young instrumentalists. Owen agrees that educationa l standards have been revised, however he agrees with Azzara in the fact that most inst ructors do not have the knowledge or background to teach improvisation.

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18 Owen goes on to state that there are serious om issions in the course content offered to undergraduate teachers in the area of jazz pedagogy, which lead to their lack of knowledge about teaching and implementing improvisation into their curriculums. Clearly, one obvious step to assure the success of this initiative is to require all those seeking a Bachelor of Music Education degr ee or teaching certification (regardless of specialty) to take a jazz pedagogy class (Owen 2006). One answer to Owens requirement of instituting a jazz pedagogy course into the undergraduate music program would be to deve lop a curriculum that includes teaching improvisation. This course should include lesson plans that would not only teach the instructor jazz concepts and theory, but also show how to teach them. Charles Leonard, an author in music education, has been a leading prop onent of change in many facets of music education. In an article written for the Music Educators Journal, titled A Challenge for Change in Music Education, he reflects on the past achievements and downfalls in efforts to make music education curriculums and theories better. Leonard believes one way music educators have hurt themselves in the past is by teaching stude nts in music programs largely two styles of music, west ern art music and folk music. He calls this condition elitist virus, an attitude that leads conductors to concentrate mainly on difficult music or music contests (Leonard 1999). He goes on to say that this virus has inf ected many music schools accomplished performers, who do not possess an understanding of music that constitutes music literacy. To combat this virus, Leonard offers se veral suggestions to broaden the students knowledge of music. His first suggestion toward improving music education is offered in the area of performance. The primary goal should be to develop mu sical literacy in all students by using performance, listening, improvisation, and compos ing as the means to that goal---not, as is commonly the case, as ends in themselves (Leonard 1999).

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19 Leonard would like to see more students involv ed in the school music programs. One way is to broaden the repertoire of the perfor mance program to include African American and Hispanic music, urban and popular music, jazz, a nd contemporary music of all styles (Leonard 1999). One of Leonards suggestions for recruiting even more students into the classroom states; Keep the jazz program strong by involving the play ers in improvisation---the heart of jazz. As research, symposiums, and individualiz ed methods regarding the teaching and development of improvisation have demonstrated that for the past forty years, integrating improvisation into the curriculum of all instrumental classes can yield positive results even in the early years of a childs development (M oorhead and Pond, 1951, Cohen, 1980, Abramson, 1980, Munsen, 1986, Brophy, 1998). The most important formative year of the beginning instrumentalist is the first year of the traditional band program. The first year of the traditional beginning band program could also be an important time to introduce instrumental students to the fundamental aspects and practices of improvisa tion. Snyder believes that a balance can be achieved to teach the traditional structured approa ch and also allow for the creative side to be appeased as well. As teachers, we must create situations in our classrooms where students can have this freedom to create, and at the same time maximize the number of involved students. Beginning instrumentalists want to create music on their instruments (Snyder, 2003). A solution to Snyders and Owens concerns a nd to Leonards sugges tions encouraged the development of a module that includes th e teaching and playing of jazz to beginning instrumentalists. The module could facilitate th e learning and creation of the art of improvising while also learning about the history and perf orming of different styles. The module could encourage instrumental music teachers and thei r students to both learn the fundamentals and concepts of improvisation as a part of their first year experiences.

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20 The Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to create and fi eld test a seven-unit improvisation module to acquaint beginning instrumentalists with the basic concepts of imp rovisation and the playing of different styles of music. The materials developed for the module were intended to be supplementary to the traditional beginning band curriculum. The module uses melodies and materials found in current band materials and meets National Standards numbers 2 and 3. Factors in the planning of the improvisationa l curriculum were: 1) consideration of time requirements for each lesson, 2) beginning band stude nt ability to play the melodies, and 3) participation of all students in the beginning band program. The time allowed to teach the objectives for each lesson was of primary concern. The materials used in the improvisational module supplemented the methods and material used in the traditional instrumental band curriculums. Melodies that were used in the improvisational module closely paralleled the melodies being covered in regular band class, both in range and in technical difficulty. In addition, the materials and concepts found in the objectives of the lesson plans allowed for all students in the band class to participate in the module. Research Questions The research was guided by the following underlying questions: 1. To what extent will the format and content of this study increase the students ability in performing the six melodies presented in the module? 2. Will the ability of the student to play chor d tones from the arpeggios of the harmonic structure improve through participation in the study? 3. Will group improvisational instruction result in promoting the development of student perception of improvisation and their ability to improvise? 4. Will the allotted class-time available for most traditional beginning bands permit an enrichment module that features improvisation?

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21 Limitations This study did not include or account for: The effect of the subjects other musi cal experiences, including private lessons. The effect of the subjects innate musical ability. The differences among socioeconomic classes of students or schools. Variations of teaching practices, and the back ground education of each instructor involved in administering the curriculum. The demographics of the tw o schools involved in the study. Various interruptions regardi ng each respective schools sche dule such as F.C.A.T testing, district band festivals, spring break, a nd end-of-year festivals and concerts. Delimitations The delimitations of the study design were: Students in the second semester of sixth grade band. First-year beginning instrumentalists. Definition of Terms Chart is an arrangement of a melody or tune set in traditional jazz combo or big band instrumentation. Chord Structure consists of block chords used to harmonize any melody. The structure usually includes one or more chords that contain a minimum of three notes, the root or bass note, the third, and the fifth. Chord Terminology and Symbols such as C dominant 7 (C7) and C minor 7 (C-7) or C dominant 7 with an added ninth (C7/9) are referring to the actual notes within that particular chord structure. E.g. the symbol C7 is a major tria d consisting of three notes, C, E, and G, with an added flat seven note B b. If the symbol were a C-7, the three notes would be C, Eb, and G, with an added flat seven, Bb. If the symbol were C7/9 the resulting notes in the structure would be C, E, G, Bb, a nd D. The term dominant refers to a triad built on the fifth note of any major s cale. The term dominant seven nine then refers to a triad built on the fifth degree of any major scale that includes a minor seventh and major ninth. In the key of C major the fifth note of the scale is G, resulting in a G, B, D, F, A chord or G 7/9. Curriculum is a series of goals and objectives that de fine the course of study within any given instrumental program.

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22 Guide Tone is a note taken from a specific chord in a harmony of a melody that helps to guide the player through a partic ular chord progression. Harmonic Structure includes all chord structures that fr ame the form of the harmony. The form of the harmonic structure takes its shape from the length of the melody, the changing pitch of the notes in the melody a nd rhythmic values associated with the melodic pattern. Harmony is the act of playing two or more notes simultaneously. Sometimes the melody is harmonized vertically by block chords or by counterpoint note against note following the melody. Improvisation is the art of creating a musical work, or the final form of a musical work while it is being performed. Methodology is a major course of study pertaining to a specific central idea that progresses through different levels of development. Module is a term used to describe the supplementary materials and exercises of the condensed seven-unit improvisation curriculum. Rhythm Section is the section of a jazz ensemble that traditionally includes a piano, guitar, bass, and drum set. Sweet Tone is a note from a chord in the given harmony that is usually the third, seventh, or ninth of the extended triad. Tune is a melody or song that is placed in a musi cal setting of a chart or score to use in improvising a solo. Unit is a term used to describe the goals and objectives for three different, yet connected, lessons of study pertaining to the same melody within the module.

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23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Much literature in the form of methodologies and materials has been published recently in the area of teaching im provisation, and many publishers of jazz methodology have increased the number of publications in th e area of jazz studies and improvisational studiesincluding much literature written for the purpos e of teaching the basic fundame ntals of jazz improvisation. Jazz performers and jazz educators have expanded materials and methods of study with which to aid todays music educators in impl ementing beginning jazz improvisation into their core curriculum. But the literatur e reviewed for this study offers few methodologies or curricula with which to introduce the fundamentals of impr ovisation in any traditio nal beginning band or orchestra ensemble. The focus of the literature reviewed cent ered on the fundamentals of improvisation as found in beginning band methods and materials that include the larg e ensemble, however, advanced theory, skills, and techniques needed to further the study in the art of improvisation broadened the scope of the review. This writ er also further divided the materials and methodologies reviewed into thr ee general categories: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Also included in the review are methodol ogies that seemingly can be used both in teaching one-on-one and in a group environment. One-on-one or indivi dual methodologies differ from those for group methods in that their st ructure in teaching one-on-one jazz improvisation traditionally centers on learning solo transcriptions of professional jazz performers and/or jazz nuances and phrasing indigenous to a particular instrument. Group methods center on teaching the traditional jazz instrumentation, which in clude: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section (piano, guitar, bass and drum set) : while their curricula required intermediate technique to manipulate most exercises.

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24 Individual Improvisation Beginning Level Dunscomb (1991) presents an improvisatory method for beginners, with the instrument of choice being the piano or electronic keyboard. The method teaches young players (three years old) by utilizing illustrations (pictures) about the fundamentals of j azz improvisation in the format. Verbalization of jazz phrasing and stylis tic concepts is also a part of the methodology used in the format. The 60-page method encompasses 28 exercises or concepts, including jazz patterns and phrasing. Each concept appears in the same form at: a basic concept is identified, primary goals are established, and then future goals are discusse d. In addition, there is a suggestion section that outlines the activities for incorporating the conc ept of the unit. Included at the bottom of each page is a Teacher Accompaniment Section that emphasizes the concept presented in each of the units. All accompaniment sections correspond with Jamey Aebersolds CD, which provides the teacher with a teaching aide, which is a listeni ng model to help young rhythm sections develop. Each units concept includes an illustration that shows a pict ure of a piano keyboard and a rhythm chart. Every new improvisation concept is formatted to appear in the center of a star, which helps bring attention to basic music term inology such as tempo markings, note names, and rhythm concepts. Dunscombs method is truly a starting point for the nov ice learner. The method is geared toward the young student of the keyboard, and the con cepts presented in the area of jazz pedagogy are very solid and well thought-out. Kolar and Ramal (1980) developed a method fo r teaching jazz to the beginning piano student who wants to learn more about jazz improvisation. 22 chapters include concepts on teaching jazz chord patterns, basic jazz rhythm s and accents, jazz bass lines, and identifying the sweet chord tones of a jazz triad. The method also includes ideas on how to develop

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25 improvisation for the right hand of the piano, co ncepts for creating improvisational melodies using chord tones, and ideas for improvising a me lody that includes the use of left hand (bass) improvisation. In addition, the chap ter includes concepts of basic rhythm, utilizing jazz voicing; concepts for teaching basic melodic improvisa tion and the concept of a blue note; and identification of the third, the flat seven, and then all of the notes of a blues scale. Kolars method includes five original tunes that incorporate most of the concepts discussed. In addition, the format also includes two and three pages of illustrations in large print, which allows for easy visualization of each concept presented. This method is geared toward the novice learner and player of jazz concepts. It spea ks to the basic concep ts and fundamentals of learning how to improvise while exposing the read er to basic jazz terminology and practices. No audio or visual model is included. McCurdys (1976) study was designed to provi de the music educator with a number of available jazz improvisational methods and materi als and to establish a curriculum of applied jazz instruction for the beginning and the intermed iate/advanced levels. After a short definition of terms, the thesis reviews the literature av ailable up to 1976. McCurdy identifies four methods for the elementary level and six for the junior hi gh level, as well as 15 supplemental methods for junior high, 32 methods for high school, a nd 54 supplemental methods for high school acceptable for inclusion in his study. Following the review of the litera ture, the author takes excerpts from different levels of the methods reviewed and then establishes a curriculum, including 21 lessons interspersed with seven exams for the elementary level and 22 lessons containing six exams for the intermediate/advanced level. The final chapter of the thesis includes a summary and recommendation on how to best use the study in ones own curriculum.

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26 This study, although outdated, does include rele vant suggestions on jazz methodologies for first-year instrumentalists a nd beginning band directors. Th e beginning methodologies suggest more one-on-one teaching strate gies and limit themselves to individual rather than group instruction, although most of the beginning methods are published for all tr ansposing instruments except the French horn. Individual Improvisation Intermediate Level Aebersold (1967) discusses most aspects of le arning to improvise. His work has long been considered one of the important methods of teach ing all aspects of improvisation to students of all ages. Aebersold seems to have considered ev ery conceivable nuance pe rtinent to the art of improvisation. The work includes a play-along CD, parts for all instruments including C-treble, Bass clef, Bbtreble only, and Eb-treble only. The method explores right and left-brain con cepts of thought regarding creativity, and then provides a guide for practicing th e content of the method along with a guide for using the model CD. The method also includes sections on developing creativity, beginning a phrase or melody, needed fundamentals for improvisation and scal e memorization, and recommendations of how to use transcriptions of famous jazz artists to help in learning to improvise. Additional concepts include eighth note exerci ses that include writte n bebop scales, the use of ear training and written pentat onic scales, the concept of the bl ues and written blues scales and seventh chords, using time and feeling as it rela tes to jazz, and tips on melodic development. Also included are extensive explanations of concepts of tension and release, how to develop proper jazz articulations, recognizi ng and understanding jazz nomenclature, and a complete scale syllabus for use in jazz chordscale relationships. This work also discusses how to learn actual jazz tunes and in cludes a song list made for begi nners. A standard jazz tune list appears at the end of the method along with a complete section th at includes jazz scales and

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27 patterns that develop technique th rough the use of said scales. Th e method ends with a section on jazz scales written in the circle of fourths that leads to a section with exercises in eighth notes implementing the concept of playi ng in fourths. Finally, Aebersol d includes written charts to play with the prepared recordings. The information given in this publication covers all of the rules for learning to improvise instrumentally and vocally. The reader must be at the level of an intermediate to advanced player to be able to perform the exerci ses written in the study in this book. Keeping in the same format as Aebersold, yet breaking ground for exploration of a specific medium within the vast number of materials published in th e jazz instructional world, Baker (1987) publishes a method to help define and te ach all aspects of Bebop jazz. His method is divided into two parts: the fi rst part described the Bebop styl e, while the second defined the Bebop scale through a series of exercises. Exercises, appearing in eighth note patterns and configurations including ascending, descending, stepwise, and arpeggios that help articulate the Bebop s cale in all twelve major keys, fill the first section. The second section exposes the reader to other scales used in Bebop, such as the whole-tone (a scale played in whole steps), the diminished (a scale played in whole step followed by half steps and the blue s scales (root, flat third, fourth, flat five, fifth, and seventh, and octave). Baker also includes a set of original compositi ons that allow the student to implement the exercises found in his method, a list of tunes based on the exercises used in the method, and a list of familiar tunes used as standards in the performance world. Also included in the method are suggestions for a practice regimen to incorporate all of the exercises developed in the method. In all, there are three volumes that assimilate an excellent

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28 collection of exercises designed to further the development of techniqu e needed to perform Bebop. A level of intermediate to advanced profic iency in technique and the players ability to play his instrument is required to be able to negotiate all of the exercises developed within Bakers methodology. Mantooth (1996) wrote a manuscrip t that appears to be a true improvisational method that speaks to the student and band director with limite d skills and experience in teaching jazz. The aim of Mantooths beginning improvisational met hod is for the student to progress rapidly in many musical disciplines such as sight-reading, aural awareness of chord progressions, theory, intervallic relationships, chord/ scale relationships, various forms used in jazz style, and many concepts related to improvisation. There is an ac companying rhythm track CD with all of the exercises written in straight eighth-note groove, not swing. He does this to avoid being preoccupied with the stylistic concept of the sw ing feel, allowing for development of technique in both the legitimate and swing world. In the forward, Mantooth asserts that the development of the young jazz student should include exercises that help to define certain harmonic and melodic motives one can use in an improvised solo. The 49 pages of eighth-note patte rns divide into nine chapters. To provide a model for the exercises, patterns, and configur ations written for the method, a corresponding CD track accompanies the method. The nine chapters include exercises base d on defining the tonic chord of any tune; exercises concerning rhythmic displacement; exercises that outline other scale degrees such as the second, third, fourth, and fifth; and patterns of other scale steps (flat se cond, flat fifth). The last three chapters include exerci ses that string all of the previ ous patterns used in the method together, exercises using minor s cales and a minor scale workout.

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29 This method is an excellent choice for the beginning jazz musician who has command of his/her own instrument. The exercises progr ess from simple to complex, leaving the unaccomplished musician behind rather quick ly. While Mantooths method requires the technique of an intermediate to advanced play er, the beginning teacher of jazz will find the content of the method full of concepts and ideas s/he can use to help the budding improvisational player develop. Keeping with the concept of developing guide s and concepts through exercises, Niehaus (1981) wrote a method that helps define specific chord choices and accidentals used in jazz harmony. The method includes twenty exercises arra nged in different rhythmic configurations that cover a variety of key centers and chord changes. The method concludes with 25 etudes notated in all 12 major and minor keys. The etudes, written with harmonic accompaniment (chord changes provided), allow for study of chordscale relationships. The work does not include a CD or tape cassette. The material in this method favors individual instruction, as all the etudes are written out and transposed for C instruments in treble and bass clef, and Bb and Eb instruments in treble only. The method did not include transposition of the etudes into F instruments. The difficulty of the etudes require the student to have develope d technique of intermediate to advanced ability to play through the method, moving this method into the third or fourth year of the curriculum. A method that develops a systematic approach in learning and teaching improvisation was published by Yoder (1996). Yoder breaks down f undamental jazz concepts and puts them in exercise format, then divides the exercises into f our units. Concepts include exercises that define basic seventh chords, the major 7th, dominant 7th, minor 7th, flat 7th, and flat 3rd. Also included are exercises that introduce the pentatonic scale and th e blue pentatonic scale. In addition, eighth-note

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30 exercises designed to explore ha rmonic boundaries define the ii7-V7, ii7-V7-I maj7 progressions and half-diminished chords, as well as variou s rhythm changes. Finally, Yoders method concludes with progressive concepts of jazz im provisation and includes exercises defining guide tones, substitution and augmented chords, the whole tone scale, and diminish ed scales and chords. The author also provides tips on improvising while playing ballads and double timing. Each chapter also includes solo transcrip tions of famous jazz ar tist such as Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Clifford Brown, Lester Young, Thelonious Monk, and Dizzy Gillespie, which demonstrate the appl ication of many of th e jazz fundamentals and concepts presented as exercises in Yoders study A play-along cassette is included, which also correlates with Jamey Aebersolds published methodologies, such as A New Approach to Jazz Improvisation. Five appendices follow: the first being a bibliography then discography; the second an Aebersold correlation; the third a pentatonic chart for major, minor, and dominant 7th chords; the fourth a short discussion on how to play in swing style; and th e fifth, the authors own thoughts about how to practice improvisation. The reader must have a thorough understanding of theo ry and have the technical ability to handle the full range of his/her instrument. This book claims to be for beginning jazz improvisation; however, one must incorporate enough technique to allow for the technical demands of the material provided in this book. Without adequate technique, the concepts provided can only be interpreted visually, catego rizing this method in the mature intermediate section of the curriculum study. Zwick (1987) wrote a dissertation that attempts to organize a format of instruction into a curriculum on how to learn jazz improvisation usi ng previously published materials. Many areas

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31 of research were discussed in this study, incl uding the history of jazz, fundamentals of jazz improvisation, ear training techniqu es, different jazz styles, and an analysis of form and structure in jazz music. Also included are exercises that outline and define melodic improvisation and jazz harmonic chord progressions, a sect ion discussing the intricacies of the rhythm section, and a section that introduces one to jazz substituti on chords within any harmonic structure. Additionally, the research discu ssed actual transcripti ons of jazz solos and improvisation on jazz music, and includes exercises that outline major scales, defines non-harmonic tones, and presents the blues. Data gleaned from a questionnair e that sought to define all of the areas alluded to in the study helped to assimilate many published met hodologies into a recommended sequential format. The sequential format was then organized into a pattern of study that attempts to provide a supplemental curriculum to aid in teaching jazz improvisation. Zwicks research serves as an excellent guide for developing the individual player. The methods used in the study all favor one-on-one teaching instead of a group setting. This study does help to determine methods that can guide any teacher in determining the path of development for the inexperienced student and/ or instructor of jazz improvisation. The method requires the instrumentalist to have developed technique of intermed iate to advanced level before attempting to play the exercises found in this study. Individual Improvisation Advanced Level Baker (1983) published a method of study covering 20 chapters on the art of jazz improvisation. Chapters feature topics such as nomenclature, exercises in jazz fundamentals and dramatic devices, improvisation on tunes, the II-V7 progression, chordscale relationships, the cycle of fourths, turnbacks, development of the sw ing feel and the aural asp ect of jazz translation through listening without reading music. Chapters also include the concep t of the blues, basic

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32 melodic construction, techniques for development of an improvised solo, thoughts on constructing a jazz chorus, and identification of c hord substitutions. Also included is information regarding how to use ones rhythm section, a chapter on the psychological approach to improvising jazz, and another chapter on the ad vanced concepts of jazz performance. This book is one of the first of many published on the art of improvisation. The examples are in notational form and require an instrument alist of advanced tech nique to negotiate the exercises and changes of the methodology. The novi ce will find pertinent information pertaining to the study of jazz. Audio recordings of the work s exercises and patterns are not included in the method. Babad (1999) devised a method that discusse s the various ways of building interesting improvisational solos. The author researches four main areas of study in the method: melodic embellishment, the arpeggio method, the scale/mode approach, and the pattern method. This study concentrates on how one may establish content that helps to define a good jazz improvisational solo. Excerpts of transcriptions from improvisational solos from professional jazz giants that include Coleman Hawkins, Wynton Marsalis, Quinn Davis, Benny Goodman, and Cannonball Adderly are used as the basis for the authors research. Badad summarizes the artful ways a musician responds to and participates in the music. When a performer practices th e essential patterns for jazz improvisation provided in this particular method, that musician is then free to connect with a tech nical level that is limitless in the creation of a jazz improvised so lo. A student with advanced tech nical ability should be able to negotiate the solo tran scriptions used as a basis for study in this methodology. Benward and Wildmans method (1984) is written for use in teaching beginning, intermediate, and advanced students who want to study jazz improvisation in a sequential

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33 curriculum. The book divides into three sections arranged by abil ity level. Section one provides the reader with an introduction to jazz notation and melodic patte rns; scale and chord formations and their relationships to one another; and con cepts of key centers, harmonic structure, jazz rhythm, and articulation. Section tw o continues with sections on altered harmonic patterns, tetra chords, chord extensions, substitution chords, and beat placement, concluding with a transcription of a Charlie Parker solo. Section th ree continues with chapters on topics such as stylistic alterations, more scale substitutions, harmonic voicing, and more jazz scales. It concludes with a study of the concepts pertaining to jazz form. The examples are clear and precise. Th e method includes a cassette for easier comprehension of the exercises provided in the three sections. The examples require a proficiency level above that of the intermediate instrumentalist to be able to negotiate the exercises and technical nuances of the methodology. Beginning to Improvise from the Jazz Improvisation Made Easy series for violin (volume one) by Blake and Harmon (1993) is yet another method pertaining excellent content on learning how to improvise jazz for the string family. The method encompasses 52 pages, divided into four chapters, and includes an introdu ction and an explanation on how to use the method, a glossary, and a section on expressive techniques. The au thor incorporates the technique of call and response in teaching one how to ne gotiate the exercises provided. Each chapter includes patterns for use in im provisation including warm-ups, scale patterns in the key of G major in which one may choose to play along with the included CD. An improvised jazz solo notated in jazz style is al so included on the same CD, allowing for use in teaching or for the purposes of imitation through modeling. There are suggestions on how to play

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34 with the proper bowing technique s and fingerings, listen for jazz phrasing and style, and play along with the recording to learn the stated melody. The melody used in this method, Main Str eet, is written with accompanying chord progressions so that the student and teacher can have an understanding of the suggested harmonic progression. Following this section, the method instructs the student and teacher on how to proceed in playing their own improvisational solo after fi rst learning to play the melody of the piece. A chapter offering suggestions on how to improvise and how to practice improvisation concludes the method. The author i ndicates that the supplement is published for music majors, professionals, music teachers, and adult amateurs, with no mention of beginners. This researcher finds that this methodology is of the level of an intermediate to advanced player and is designed for use with the individua l in a one-on-one teaching environment. For the violinist, this means being able to play in first through third positions and to have command of all major scales of a minimum of two octaves or higher. Being proficient in playing exercises through book IV of the Suzuki method and beyond is a requirement of the methodology. Bouchards (2001) method featur es the study of several harmoni c structures used in jazz improvisation. Bouchards method is for teaching j azz improvisation to students of intermediate ability and is published in two parts. The work c overs essays such as the importance of thinking through a solo while focusing on the elements of music. Part one includes eight areas of study featuring notated exer cises which include chromatic scales, diatonic scales, pentaton ic scales, half-diminished and a ltered dominant chords, melodic connecting and major and minor cadences, cycles, turnarounds, s ubstitutions, and symmetrical scales. Part one concludes by notating 18 standa rds of traditional jazz literature, such as Take the A Train Perdido Lady Bird, Sweet Georgia Brown Satin Doll, All the Things You Are Freddie

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35 Freeloader, Just Friends Girl from Ipanema On Green Dolphin Street and may others. Each jazz standard is discussed in an essay regarding the originality of the tunes, where to find the original performance or recording with the artis t that performed the piece, a discussion on the scales used in the improvisational model, and a paragraph on the rhythmic style of the tune. Part two includes instruction on how to use the CD and all of the tracks written for use for instruments in C, Bb, Eb, and bass clef. The comp ilation of exercises, chord changes, essays, and transcriptions that accompany the CD is quite expansive in an effort to bring all of the elements together needed to learn how to improvise. This work requires that the reader have a background in music theory and be at an advanced level technically on his/her instrument to play the exercises and transcriptions provided by the writer. The method is generally written fo r teaching the individual not for use in teaching an ensemble. A more serious approach to jazz improvi sation appears in a method published by Dean (1989). This book provided exercises in conventio nal notation and is ac companied by a cassette tape the reader could choose to use as a mode l. The exercises are arranged primarily for the classical instrumentalist who wants to lear n more about classical and jazz improvisation. Exercises that cross both genres of classical and jazz seemingly have little benefit to the aspiring jazz improvisationalist. It is not until the eleventh chapter that th e reader finds any mate rial relating to jazz improvisation. The methods in the book guide the reader through melodic and motivic materials, harmonic considerations, improvising on rhythms, and many timbres and textures used for improvising with group interaction and group improvisation. The me thod also included

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36 recommendations of other texts for further study, suggestions on improvising on selected twentieth-century compositions, and selected compositions in the jazz idiom. While this method contains many exercises re lating to improvisation within the classical realm, the thought process regarding a logical streamlined approach with which to use in teaching jazz improvisation finds th e method lacking in its ability to impart a logical and concise direction. This manual is for musicians who alrea dy have achieved mastery of their instrument, both individually and for small ensemble. DiBlasio (1987) offers a method on Bebop. Th e 37-page paperback divides into twelve chapters about beginning and continuing improvisa tion. Each chapter offers different concepts about learning to improvise jazz. Chapter content includes exercises defining the blues, basic chord scale relationships, II/V c hord progressions, twelve-bar blue s form, diminished scales and their extensions, a scale syllabus and the benefits and drawback s of solo transcriptions. Additional content includes ear development and patterns for practicing the jazz concepts. Patterns provided in the study include learni ng short jazz phrasings, tunes for playing and learning jazz tunes. The method also include s an epilogue followed by a chapter listing books from which to learn more about jazz and a list of players from which to model and listen. The method offers some good tips for the advanced in strumentalist, and the patterns provide some material for improving technique. A method book focusing on the blues is the se cond in the series written by Mantooth (1996). The method encompasses 14 units or secti ons that contain exercises outlining the blues scales and twelve-bar blues form. Chapter content includes a review of major and minor scales in different rhythmic patterns and blues tunes in majo r and minor keys including blues in C major, A

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37 minor, F major, D minor, Bb major, G minor, Eb major, C minor, G major, E minor, Ab, and F minor. A play-along CD is provided. Mantooths method is for the ad vanced technical artist who has command of his/her own instrument. The method provides material for the student to practice and offers choruses with accompanying rhythm sections recorded on the CD that allow the student to improvise using the material learned in each unit. This method is an excellent choice to continue ones development through a structured curriculum of study. Reeves (1989) published a method in 19 chap ters on creating solos for jazz improvisation. Chapter content includes: exerci ses and etudes written for all ma jor scales; all modes such as Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolia n, and Locrian; diminished, harmonic, and melodic minor scales; altered scales such as the Bebop, diminished whole tone, Lydian augmented, and Lydian dominant and the pentatoni c scale in four-note patterns. Also included are the twelve II-V7-I progressions both major a nd minor; jazz rhythms; the blues scale form; substitution chords, sectional forms including th e harmonic changes, harmonic structures and Coltrane substitutions; free forms; and intervallic improvisation. The book is a well-laid-out se quence for understanding jazz imp rovisation. No audiotapes are included. The method favors individualistic instruction and can be used as a self-taught method; however, the instrumentalist must be an accomplished technician before using this book, moving the method into the advanced section of the curriculum study. Snideros (1996) method uses imitation in the fo rm of a professional model to play through the 21 solo studies and etudes found in the study. The etudes range from very easy to difficult and are performed by a professional tenor sa x player, Walt Weiskopf. Wieskopf emphasizes concepts like jazz style, jazz phrasing, excelle nt tone, and time when one listens to the

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38 recordings. The etudes are excellent for devel oping technique and melodic and harmonic ideas specific to each etude. The technique of the participant must be on the more mature intermediate to advanced level to negotiate the difficulty of the etudes and to match the technique of the model, relegating this method into the advanced stage of the curriculum study. Spera (1983) published a method designed to be compatible with other current jazz improvisation methods and materials. The book is a part of an improvisati on series that can be used to teach in many different settings, e.g., as a group improvisational text; a practice book for a class, combo, or jazz ensemble; for individual study/practice; or for private studio teaching. Chapter one gives six hints on how to incorpor ate jazz feel and tempo into practice. The second chapter presents exercise s that utilize the ascending major scales and modes of the major and altered scales, organized in fourths for a ll twelve keys. The exer cises include the chord symbols associated with each scale, a helpful reference to chordscale relationships. The third chapter incorporates nineteen different practice patterns that use materi al from the preceding chapters. The fourth chapte r introduces the II minor 7th, the V dominate 7th, and the I-major chord progression with exercises designe d to help in expanding technique. In the fifth chapter, the standard blues progres sion, or twelve-bar blues is shown written in Bb concert and F concert. Guide tones, pent atonic blues scale, blue s scales, Bebop scales, substitution chords, cycle of fourths, and tri-tone blues are all incorporated into exercise patterns or short etudes found in the fifth chapter. The fi nal chapter of the book utilizes six original tunes written in six different jazz styles and forms whic h the student can use to incorporate all of the patterns found in the previous chapters.

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39 The reader must have advanced knowledge of the understanding of music nomenclature and the player must be an advanced technician to be able to negotiate all medium to advanced patterns found in the chapters of this techni cal study. Teaching improvisation using this method would require an individualistic approach with advanced tech nique and concepts from the student, which puts this method in the a dvanced category for the curriculum study. Ed Tomassi, the current director of Jazz Studi es at the Berklee School of Music in Boston, developed a session on DVD in 2003, which addresses beginning college level students who are seeking to understand how to develop a jazz sol o. The professors concepts include using short two-, three-, and four-note diatonic motives that can be manipulated through harmonic changes of several different simple forms such as twel ve-bar blues, binary, and rounded binary forms. The instructor uses the alto saxophone as the performance medium accompanied by a jazz piano player. In this particular session, Prof essor Tomassi begins by explaini ng that in order to grasp the concept of motivic development one must start w ith short two-, three-, and four-note motives set to a sequential pattern using di atonic modes and scales to prac tice improvisational ideas. He believes that one can use these short motives ove r an A, A, B, A form where the first two sections of the form will be motivic devel opment, and then the B section will be through composedmeaning longer ideas connected to one another, which links to the returning A section. The session was excellent for the advanced indi vidual player and for use in small ensemble playing, such as a jazz combo. Concepts discussed tr ansfer to the beginning level such as threeand four-note motive development and progression of these motives through chord changes. The methods discussed require that the student be able to play proficiently, especially when dealing

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40 with through composed material. The material presented is an advanced methodology for the curriculum study. Improvisation in an Ensemble Setting Beginning Level Fitzgerald, McCord, and Berg (2003) designed a curriculum for grades three through six for the purposes of teaching the j azz language in an elementary se tting in general music classes. The handbook comes with two CDs and reproducible worksheets for teaching aides. The authors introduction states specif ically, You dont need to have any personal jazz experience to use this book. All of the modeling is done for you by leading jazz musicians. The curriculum is designed for the general mu sic class that meets onc e a week for thirty minutes over six weeks. Following a short introd uction, there is a short page that discusses definitions of basic jazz terms and then asks the question, What makes jazz sound like Jazz ? Subsequent pages are devoted to teaching the rhythmic concept of jazz phrasing and style, jazz rhythms, jazz etiquette (which includes paragrap hs on how to cue soloists), counting off tunes, conducting, and the timing of applauding a soloist. Also included are short sections about reflective listening, how to use the publication, what the essen ce of a jam session is, and suggestions for the use of percussion instrument s along with the lessons. In addition the author includes notes about the call a nd response recordings, how to use the reproducible worksheet masters, discussions on how to arrange all rhyt hm instruments for performance, and a short reference section about the history of some of the great jazz masters. The method divides into three units, rhythm in jazz, heart of jazz, and soul of jazz. Each unit breaks down into three subunits teaching jazz concepts and rhythms through call and response; and jazz vocabulary found in familiar, traditional jazz tunes such as Take the ATrain, How High the Moon, and Summertime.

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41 The work is a comprehensive method designed fo r the serious general classroom teacher to impart the fundamentals of jazz style through using jazz vocabulary. The method incorporates using jazz vocabulary such as doo for long tones ( quarter notes) and dit for short tones (eighth notes) to help instill jazz groove The swing vocabulary included in the method aides in teaching jazz rhythms allowing for vocalization of jazz ph rasing and jazz style to be easily learned and then internalized by each student. The second and third units use Orff instrume nts to incorporate keyboard work, requiring students to gain adequate technique and music reading skills to master the exercises. The method also requires listening to famous historic artists as they demons trate the jazz vocabulary used in the method. The students gain insight about the vo cabulary, first as a reference by a professional model and then by transferring the style demonstr ated by the model into the exercises provided in the method. The author recommends that all students in ge neral music classes become associated with this methodology at an early stage. The book instru cts grades three through five, reaching out to the youngest jazz musicians, and then progresses th rough to the fifth-grade level. Students who matriculate through an elementary curriculu m using Fitzgerald, McCord, and Bergs methodology and then joining an instrumental ensemb le in their fifth or sixth year of school may have the benefit of transferring jazz vocabulary a nd some of its stylistic nuances into the playing of their instrument. Marcus (2004) conducted a study on jazz improvisation where teachers used transcriptions of solos from known jazz artists coupled with the aural imitative method for the basis of teaching jazz improvisation. Marcus wrote twelve questions in the form of a questionnaire, with each question referencing the questi on of how advanced jazz player s learned to improvise. These

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42 questions, conceived from an interview format with known jazz artists, are centered on the question Can transcribing and th en learning famous improvisationa l solos of prof essional jazz artists really help music educators teach their students how to improvise jazz? The argument raised two issues for the use of transcriptions. On the con side, three points were raised: 1) inaccuracies in transcribing the actual solo (which ha ve slight deficiencies in notational detail); 2) it is al most impossible to capture the inflections the performer uses in an actual jazz solo; and 3) ones inherent creative in put may be lost when one copies a transcription of a professional soloist. The last point is usually noticeable wh en the student begins performing his/her own improvisational solo over the same harmonic chord structure: Whose solo did they study? Who do they sound like? On the pro side, there were also three reas ons given for using transcriptions in teaching improvisation: 1) the student may gain in the ar ea of ear training through hearing and visualizing solos of jazz professionals; 2) the use of transcriptions helps define and outline the underlying harmonic structure of the melody; and 3) it can be educationally beneficial, in four areas of understanding jazz concepts (through comprehension of jazz stylistic concepts, jazz rhythms, jazz articulations and jazz phrasing). Marcus concluded that, out of those interviewed, many educat ors felt strongly about using transcriptions as an educati onal tool. The findings were signi ficant enough that the researcher thought that the use of artists transcribed so los should be used as a basis for teaching improvisation. For the beginning instrumentalist, the results of this study are significant due to the fact that young developing instrumentalists who are se riously studying jazz n eed to listen with specific intent to an established professional jazz model to gain insight as to the proper phrasing,

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43 style, and nuances professional arti sts exhibit in their solos. Using easier solos, transcriptions that a beginner can use as a foundation from which to depart on their own impr ovisational path could allow the young instrumentalist an opportunity fo r instant success. Short twoand threenote motives learned from a stylistically correct mode l and stored in the students memory may serve to help develop creativity in more in termediate students improvised solos. Improvisation in an Ensemble Setting Intermediate Level Beach and Shutack (2003) published a method which includes four jazz charts composed in different jazz styles designed for use in a gr oup setting. Instrumentation includes alto, tenor and baritone sax, trumpet, and trombone, with extr a parts written for flute, clarinet, French horn, and bass clef instruments. The instrumental part s are scored Horn 1, Horn 2, Horn 3, and Horn 4, allowing for harmonization with as little as thr ee instrumentalists. Parts can be matched to achieve a balance in whatever in strumentation is available. The teachers edition includes a full score that consists of the four instrumental parts and piano, guitar, bass, and drums for each of th e four tunes included in the workout. The compositions are arranged in skill order, each more technically demanding than the first, to help navigate the different improvisational concepts presented. There is an accompanying CD for the purposes of modeling. Each song includes three tracks. The first is a full performance of the piece complete with improvisationa l solos; the second deletes th e solo but keeps the rhythm section intact for rehearsal considerations, while the third track is the rhythm section alone. Bass is recorded on the left track, a nd piano on the right, allowing for the balance lever to enhance or delete either of these two rhythm instruments. The Improvisation Workout is a method that says the difficu lty level is easy, but not for the beginning instrumentalist. There are technical difficulties in all four melodies, while the improvisation exercises require that the student who participates in the method have at least an

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44 intermediate ability of technique not only to play the melody with the proper articulation, but also to be able to negotiate the exercises provided in the actu al workshop of the methodology. Berg (1998) writes a method that relies on liste ning skills and written music in an equal balance to help in development. The writer inco rporates vocalization as well as hand signs to help visualize certain scales and melodic patterns. Solo transcripti ons that help train the ear for melodic and harmonic concepts in the music are included in Bergs method. The publication also incorporates the use of transparencies to aide in visualization of the concepts presented, a CD for an aural aide that corre sponds to the written exercises, and teaching suggestions that break down each new concept presented. Goals of the method contain improvisational concepts and tips on preparation for lesson plans for the teacher. The method also includes ha nd signs, which coincide with each note of the melodic line. These hand signs act as an ai de in teaching the melody in Bergs methodology. Concepts found in Bergs method include cr eating melodies from chords used in the harmony, major and minor seventh chord changes, dominant seventh chords, the four-seven and five-seven chords, chromatic notes used as color tones in the melody, blues progressions, and tips regarding ensemble playing for the rhythm section. This work is extensive and detailed, incorpor ating a lesson plan for every new concept and requiring the reader to have intermediate abil ity to play through th e lessons. The method is written for a small ensemble that uses traditional jazz instrumentation. Blair (2004) wrote a method to stress jazz basi cs and the fundamentals of improvisation for young musicians. The seven-unit methodology begins with a brief intro duction in which the author states the purpose of each unit, pedagogi cal aspects on the presentation, and thoughts on teaching the methods objectives. Objectives incl ude teaching tonality, teaching the aural echo

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45 exercises, found in the accompanying score and the accompanying CD, and ways to model the exercises in the method. Additional objectives include development of phrases using written rhythmic and melodic variations by using the m odel from the CD. In addition, review sections assess each students comprehens ion of the units objectives. The method incorporates six different original jazz tunes (one for each unit), presented in various jazz rhythms and styles. Each of the six tunes aides in demonstrating comprehension of the units objectives and allows for individuals to attempt their own improvised solo. In addition, the author includes student books that contain a chapter on the rhythm section, another chapter that provides teaching tools that could aide in teaching improvisation, and a guide on how to improve students technique on their respectiv e instruments. The author concludes the introduction by providing sequential exercises that aide in devel oping the concepts presented in the method. The author then referenc es Aebersolds play-along book and CD, How to Play Jazz and Improvise, as a logical sequence to this method fo r a more in-depth study of the art of improvisation. Each unit presents a list of goals for the horn and rhythm section, sections that show the teacher how the student material is presented in the student books, pedagogical issues for each instrument featured in the method, and suggestions that pertain exclusively to the inner workings of the rhythm section and its role in the ense mble. The score for each tune used in the method shows the following parts found in the student bo oks: one trumpet, one alto sax, one tenor sax, one trombone, piano, guitar, bass, and drums. This extensive methodology presents an excel lent guide for the beginning teacher in teaching jazz methods and for the intermediate to mature intermediate instrumentalist who has completed at least one to one-and-one half years of formal training in a traditional band program.

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46 References to materials that the student may progress into after completing the exercises and techniques are presented in this methodology placing Jazz Basics into the intermediate to mature intermediate categories in this curriculum study. Coy (1989) developed a study for middle schoo l band students regarding teaching jazz improvisation in a traditional ensemble setting. Th e purpose of the six-week study was to see if younger students between the ages of twelve and thirteen could develop fundamental skills in jazz improvisation outside the classroom without the aid of an instructor. All students had two or three years of instrumental training in their schools band programs. Jazz instruction used the twelve-bar blues format as a basis for teaching the ensemble jazz harmony and melody. Short melodies written in the blues format in the key of F Mixolydian along with the use of rhythm cards and tapes to aide in aural and visual identification of the material were included. A practice card was used to record rehearsal time. Two groups participated in the study, with th e experimental group showing more gain in improvisatory skills than the control group. The improvement suggests that this method was effective for its age group in learning how to improvise jazz. The concepts used here will transfer to the large ensemble; however, this was an individualistic approach utilized to experiment with the aspect s of learning fundamental jazz concepts at an early age without benefit of outside intervention. Keeping with the theme of group improvisati on, Price and Sheppard (1999) developed a method for jazz ensembles using commissioned j azz tunes as a basis for instruction. The collection of commissioned pieces were divided in to three different levels, each containing eight tunes written in four individual pa rts for flexible instrumentation.

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47 Part one is arranged in C concert, part two in Bb concert, part three in Eb concert, and part four in bass clef. The rhythm section include s parts for piano, guitar, bass, and drums. The method includes a teachers book, an accompanying CD provided for modeling, and parts for every instrument in the jazz en semble of the methodology. Also included is a supplementary book that presents performance notes for each of the eight t unes. Discussions of the different improvisational concepts incl ude each tunes background and stylistic considerations, a quick description of the music, suggested instrumentation, notes on the form of the piece, hints regarding the correct style for the rhythm section of each piece, suggestions on instrumentation, and a section that helps the teacher understand and then describe the solo section to the student. The teachers book is informative and thorough. This book divides into two parts, with the first chapter of the first part focusing on improvising. The whole method revolves around the concept of learning to improvise within the st ructured form provided in each tune, suggesting transcriptions as a way to start an arsenal of jazz licks for use in an improvised solo. The book suggests that listening to other accomplished early jazz artists gives the student an understanding for how jazz was first learned and communicated. A parallel is drawn between a jazz solo and how the English language in its basic form utilizes improvisation. This section ends with general questions and answers about surviv ing ones first improvised solo. The student who reads the method may have a limited education in jazz background; however, he/she needs be able to successfully negotiate the instrument to be able to play the pieces and the exercises provided in the method. While most of th e material presented in the horn parts of the pieces provided in th e method are not technically demanding, the

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48 instrumentalist still needs to be able to successfully manipulate his/her instrument well enough to play through the pieces and exercises with the jazz stylistic concepts provided. A method by Price and Sheppard featured a collection of commissioned melodies for the flexible jazz ensemble. The collection was divided into three different levels with each level containing eight tunes. Each melody was arranged for four individual parts for flexible use of instrumentation. Part one was arranged in C con cert, part two in Bb concert, part three in Eb concert, and part four in bass clef. The rhyt hm section includes parts for pia no, guitar, bass, and drums. The method includes a teachers book, an accompanying CD for modeling, and individual parts for every instrument in the jazz ensemble. Also included was a supplementary book that contained performance notes for each of the eight tunes. Discussions of the di fferent improvisational concepts included each melodys background and styl istic considerations, a description of the music, suggested instrumentation, notes on the form of the piece, hints rega rding the correct style for the rhythm section of each piece, and a sec tion that provided instruction in improvisational soloing. The teachers book was informative and thorough. The method book divided into two parts. The first chapter of the first part fo cused on improvisation. The whole method revolved around the concept of one learning to improvise within a given structured form. Discussions regarding the use of transcriptions of great jazz artists from which to learn theory and acquire practice patterns and ideas were also a part of the method. The method goes on to state that listening to other accomplished early jazz artist s gives one an understanding and a historic reference for how jazz was first learned and co mmunicated. A parallel was then drawn between an improvised jazz solo and the English language wh ich, in its basic form, is also improvisatory.

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49 This section ends with general questions and answers provided in regard to surviving ones first improvised solo. Price and Sheppards work was a compre hensive methodology for use in teaching improvisation for interchangeable instrumentation in a small ensemble. The title Initial Level in all actuality means that the student may have had a limited education in jazz background, however, he/she needs be able to successfully negotiate his/her instrument to be able to play the pieces and the exercises provided in the method. Price and Shepards method was placed into the intermediate level category due to technical de mands required of the reader in negotiating the methods and articles found in this study. While most of the music arranged in the instrumental parts for the jazz melodies provided in th e method are not technically demanding, the instrumentalist still needs to be able to su ccessfully manipulate the instrument well enough to play through the pieces and exercises within the concepts of jazz style. Sharp (2004) publishes a warm-up method consisting of six short compositions arranged for a traditional jazz ensemble. The method also in cludes alternate parts for C flute, F horn, and baritone treble clef. Optional parts are writ ten for each section to allow for schools where instrumentation is limited. The rhythm section does include parts for piano, guitar (complete with a guitar chord guide), bass, and drum se t. A full score is provided for each composition featured in the warm-up. There is no accompanying CD. The method is designed to provide the student of concert litera ture an avenue for exploring new harmonies, phrasing, bala nce, chord voicing, and stylisti c rhythms in both melodic and harmonic aspects of tunes written in jazz style. The design of the method features a different aspect(s) of basic jazz concepts and jazz styles found in experi encing jazz feels, styles, and rhythms.

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50 Sharps method is an excellent drop-in fo r one to use in order to teach the basic articulations and swing style of the blues for the traditional ensemble. As the student progresses through the method, the compositions allow the student to gain an insight for jazz traditions and articulations. The exercises and concepts di scussed in Sharps method require technique demonstrated by most intermediate instrumentalists. A method written for a traditional jazz combo that includes transposed parts for all traditional jazz band instruments (alto, tenor, baritone sax, trumpet, trombone, and rhythm section) and string instrument s (violin, viola, cello, and doubl e bass) was published recently by Sorenson, (2002). There are also published transp osed books for guitar, piano, electric bass, drums, and vibes. The method includes a brief introduction by the author detailing the configuration of a jazz combo and the rhythm section, followed by a statement regarding placement of the jazz combo in ones curriculum. Sorensons method is teacher-friendly, including sections on descriptions and hints for teachers on workings, layout and format of th e students book and score, a section on the accompanied CD format and its use, and another on defining the ensemble. In addition, there are sections on how to read jazz notation, the use of different jazz concepts for guitar, piano, bass, drums, vibes and strings, and how to setup a combo for both small and large ensembles. Furthermore, the method includes chapters that di scuss audio reinforcement, state the jazz combo directors role both in teaching and administrative duties, and speak to the enhancement in the area of performance for the violin, vi ola, and cello in the jazz medium. The method also includes eleven original tunes written for the small jazz ensemble. The tunes cover three stylistic genres, f our tunes in rock style (the last one is in the funk style), five tunes in swing style (including a shuffle and jazz waltz), and two in Latin style (one in Bossa

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51 nova and the other reggae). Each tune featured in the teachers edition is presented in full score notation which includes melody, harmony, treb le and bass instruments in C concert, accompaniment, guitar, piano, bass, and drums. Info rmation pertaining to the correct use of style, the format of the tune, and the harmonic progr ession accompanying each song is contained in an outline included in the lesson plan. In addition, informative facts and hints are in cluded for the teachers benefit, covering pertinent topics like reading c hord symbols, hints to the rhythm section on specifics regarding their particular instrument, and the stylistic approach needed for each particular tune. Also included in this outline are rehearsal suggestions and activities for teaching internalization of the style and characteristic jazz rhythms, appropriate use of jazz syllables, jazz terminology, and how to engage beginning jazz stude nts in an improvisation solo. Additional sections regarding traditional ja zz guitar and piano chord voicing for each tune are included in the method: the development of the jazz bass line, stylistic suggestions for the drummer, hints on guitar, piano a nd bass specifics, and a jazz articulation and notation glossary for every tune in the method. A selected artist and ensemble listing fo r listening enhancement, suggestions on instrumental modeling, an extensive chord glossary, plus the accompaniment CD complete the material presented in the method. Students who use this method should have completed book two of any traditional band method on their particular instrume nt and incorporate technique that will allow one to play in concert keys up to four flats. Previous jazz experience or understanding of jazz harmony is not a requirement to be able to negotiate the exercises found in Sorensons method. The improvisational opportunitie s featured in the method re quire an advanced knowledge and ability past that of a beginning instrumentalist, thus placing Sorensons method in the mature

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52 intermediate group classification of the curriculum study. Sorenson states that his method is an ideal supplement to any beginning jazz method or stand-alone jazz performance literature and is a valuable tool for any intermediate player wi shing to sharpen his/her jazz performance skills particularly in the arena of jazz improvisation. Sorenson and Pearson (1998) published a method for teaching the large ensemble for use in individual instruction. The method includes student books, each arranged and transposed in the style of the traditional sec tions in the big band jazz ensemble. Individual books include the complete sax section, trumpet, and trombone secti ons in four parts, and the traditional big band rhythm section including guitar, piano, bass, a nd drums. In addition, the method also includes student books for vibes and auxi liary percussion, flute, clarinet, French horn, and tuba. The table of contents lists an introduction section with a jazz ar ticulation and notation glossary, a title page, table of contents, and a forward from the authors. Chapters on the notation for guitar, piano, bass, and drum along with vi bes and auxiliary specifi cs are included with sections on chord notation, activities for excel lence, a directors reference section, and supplemental student materials. Subsequent chapters include thirteen original jazz melodies organized in three stylistic concepts: rock, swing, and Latin. Th ere are five rock tunes, six swing tunes, and two Latin tunes. The directors manual divides each tune into five categories, providing suggestions in teaching specific concepts, such as developing the rhythm section, rhythm studies that define the rhythmic feel of each tune, and improvisati on studies. In addition, a listening worksheet provides an educational guide for the accompanyi ng CD, along with the full jazz ensemble score, including all transposed instrumental parts. A glossary, an index, and the two CDs used for modeling are found in the back of the method book.

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53 Following the thirteen tunes, the methods fo rmat provides exercises, a Jazz History Resource, a discography for every instrument included in the met hod, and a Directors Reference which includes extensive sections that address ensemble set-up, music selection, tips about rehearsing the ensemble, programming, and tips regarding the audio set-up and placement for performance. The manual also includes informa tion on how to count off and then end a chart, solo passages and tutti sections, and a rationale for including jazz instruction in a schools curriculum. In addition, the method includes illustrations pertaining to proper hand positioning of percussion mallets, guitar chords, and selected piano voicing. An extensive chapter follows offering information on ensemble auditions, tip s on assigning parts and suggestions for the young teacher on preparing for the first rehearsal, a form for evaluating ensemble auditions, and an audition sheet for each instrument of the jazz ensemble. This method clearly states that the student who uses the exercises should have a technical ability far past the beginning sixth-grade mu sician. However, Sorensons method is a great resource for the beginning band director. This method is an excellent choice for the mature intermediate musician who has a technical proficie ncy and ability to handle all of the exercises required of this method. A comprehensive method incorporating the basics of jazz improvisation for the jazz ensemble was recently released by Mike Stei nel (2000). The method is designed for classroom use with ensembles that use flexible inst rumentation. Steinels method includes minimum instrumentation featuring trum pet, alto sax, tenor sax, and trombone with three rhythm instruments: piano/guitar, bass, and drums.

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54 The sequence of the exercises a llows the students to work fr om the basics to advanced technique. The method also allows for the student to improvise by enlisting the aide of a historical view of jazz solos, such as those by Louis Armstrong. The preface includes a suggested listening guide, complete with artis ts representing the big band and each specific instrument used in the methodology. Steinel includes sections defining jazz, the jazz ensemble, and jazz improvisation, the inner workings of the rhythm sec tion as it relates to th e horn section, and shor t visual images of jazz bass and drum basics in his method. The wo rk establishes a jazz vocabulary and then integrates the verbalization of jazz syllables into the written exercises. The method divides into 16 headings that encompass the basic concepts of early jazz improvisation. In addition to the headings (chapters), the method includes a pl ay-along or modeling CD that allows the performer to hear a scale, melody, or even an improvisatory riff in the suggested jazz style. The authors intent is that the student who us es this book have either an eighthor ninthgrade technical ability to manipulate the exercise s presented even in th e beginning chapters of this method. In the preface, the author states th at the method is written for students who have a basic command of their instrument, an understa nding of scales and key signatures, but no experience with jazz performan ce. The material presented is pertinent to developing the intermediate student and enables the student to progress smoothly through the exercises while learning the basics of jazz improvisation. Tory (1991) developed a study centered on teaching jazz at the elementary or intermediate level, which led to writing this methodology. The method used the chronological approach to teaching jazz from the historical jazz improvisa tional viewpoint. The thesis was not subject to

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55 adequate testing; however, the material covered presented a workable method for teaching jazz style and history. Torys study begins with exposure to Dixiel and jazz and then progresses through the blues, swing style, bebop, cool and Latin jazz, modal jazz, and finally rock and fusion. The text includes excerpts of the melodies studied, histor ic implications of each era, and traditional standards printed in the text. The organization of the method book is set up for teaching jazz improvisation in a class setting. The materials used are not for the begi nning instrumentalist, bu t rather a second-year player with some command of fundamental technique. The work is an excellent choice for the second-year curriculum. Improvisation in an Ensemble Setting Advanced Level Coker (1964) published an advanced method for teaching improvisation within a group, which includes eleven chapters on jazz improvisa tion. Information regarding the tools one needs for improvisation, ideas on how to incorporat e the melody with the rhythm section, and suggestions for the first playing session with the ensemble begin the method. Additional ideas on how to better develop the ear, type s of jazz chords, and concepts of swing make up the meat of the methods content. Chapters defining diminish ed scales, the analysis and development of a jazz melody, chord superimposition, and functional jazz harmony complete the method. Written examples of functional jazz improvisational solos are interspersed and clearly stated throughout the book. Excerpts from Coker s own improvisational ideas are transcribed and included, along with appendices with the authors ideas concerning chord voicing, chord changes for the blues, and suggestions offered to help any jazz artist.

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56 The material in the book requires the reader to have advanced playi ng technique and music theory background. Coker writes to assist in th e development of the individual player, although most concepts about melodic development can be used in a small ensemble setting. Three jazz education giants, Hearle, Peterson, and Matteson (1981), combine in an effort to accumulate jazz tunes specifically written for jazz study at the advan ced level of learning. Written in four sections, the work includes 68 melodies for use in the study of jazz. Each section explores harmony with melody using chordscale relationships. The tunes written for each section fit into certain modes or scales that progressively increase in difficulty level both in the mastery of the scales, in the harmonic struct ure, and in the melody written. The book has no accompaniment tape. A methodology was composed for the indivi dual player, although the authors published copies of the original for C instruments in both bass and treble clefs, Bb instruments in treble clef, and Eb instruments in treble clef, allowi ng for group teaching. In tr ansposing the method (F concert instruments were not published), teaching of improvisation can occur individually or in a jazz combo medium using transposing instrumentat ion. The participant must have a mastery of his/her instrument and a thorough knowledge of jazz theory, which places this methodology in the advanced curriculum category of this study. Summary The subsequent pages of research in th e area of jazz methodologies used to teach improvisation indicate that: methodologies contai ning teaching improvisation to a traditional large ensemble are limited. While many comprehe nsive methodologies have been published for the purposes of teaching jazz improvisation to the traditional jazz ensemble, only Fitzgerald, McCord, and Berg (2003) speak to teaching to large groups of students using jazz terminology and syllables. Their method was specifically wri tten for the general music classroom and seems

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57 to help instill a sense of rhythm ic substance and basic jazz theory that can be used to launch a sequential curriculum in the medium of improvisation. While Marcuss study of 2004 uses actual tran scriptions of improvisational solos at all levels of comprehension, it is lacking in providing actual sh ort motives, both rhythmic and melodic, and basic harmonic theory concepts to help implement the exercises provided in the study. A large separation of difficulty separates the beginning methodologie s for group practice and the intermediate materials reviewed for the study. The curriculum that was developed for th e purposes of this study seems to make an attempt to provide simple short motivic ideas th at are written to be within reach of most beginners after they have completed one semest er of beginning band exercises and concepts. The materials provided for the study were written to be sensitive to the limite d technical demands of the beginner, and also attempt to provide a theore tical basis for the continued success in the area of improvisation.

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58 CHAPTER 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURES The methods and materials currently availa ble for teaching jazz improvisation to the individual and small jazz ensembles, but are limited to the traditional jazz instrumentation. Methods books that introduce the ba sics of improvisation to beginni ng instrumentalis ts in a large traditional concert band setting, are few in number. The National Standards for Arts Educators within the Study The National Standards for the Arts, specifica lly Numbers 2 and 3, suggest the teaching of improvisation and various accompaniments for all students by grade ei ght. Most public and private schools offer beginning instrumental programs in the fifth or sixth grade. A module was developed that meets the Nationa l Standards for the Arts Numbers 2 and 3. It also included 1) a history of different styles and melodies to explore the style presented, 2) various accompaniments with which to harmonize the different melodies in the module, and 3) opportunities for beginning band students to improvise alone or with others. An Improvisation Module for Beginners The improvisation module was designed to s upplement most traditio nal band curriculums in the second semester of the students sixth-grade year. Seven units, e ach consisting of three separate lesson plans were designed to teach begi nning instrumental students the fundamentals of improvisation. The lesson plans included six different melodic styles: Bossa Nova, soft rock, jazz waltz, folk rock, calypso, and jazz swing. Ea ch unit presented a different style, complete with exercises that introduced improvisational concepts such as theme and variations; the development of short three-, four-, and five -note motives; chordscal e relationships; chord progressions; and melodic and harmonic form. The second and third lesson of every unit allowed

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59 the students to play an improvised solo alone with the ensemble accompaniment, within their same instrument section, or in mixed groups of instruments. The improvisation module featured six melodies: Hot Cross Buns Lightly Row Mary Ann, Down in the Valley Kum Ba Yah and Freddie Freeloader Units 1 through 5 are a staple in beginning band methods. The same melodies have traditionally been included in the first semester curricula of most beginning band programs. They are al so and were also public domain, and therefore free of copyright limitations. These melodies are al so found arranged for beginning band instrumentation in Pearsons, Standard of Excellence: Enhanced Comprehensive Band Method. Pearsons arrangements of Hot Cross Buns Lightly Row Mary Ann Down in the Valley and Kum Ba Yah served as guides for arrangements of the same melodies in the improvisation module. The last melody, a tradit ional blues tune by Miles Davis entitled Freddie Freeloader was found in the The Real Book, sixth edition, compiled and published by Hal Leonard, which was purchased for use in the module. The criteria for selecting the melodies were : a) length in measures and range for each instrument, b) simple form, c) ease of the technical ability needed to play the melody, and d) only a few chords in the supporting harmonic form. In addition, the six melodies arranged for the study appear in succession from easy to a more difficult technical level. Objectives of the Improvisational Module The student shall be able to: 1) recognize and play the melody presented, a) perform on at least one instrument (a lone and in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition. b) knew the historic background of each stylistic arrangement. c) learn about the composer who developed the style for each of the six arrangements. 2) perform on instruments different music styl es including Bossa Nova, jazz waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing,

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60 a) demonstrating the proper articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style. 3) perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the chord structure. 4) perform a solo demonstrating improvisati on on his/her instrument using one or all of the options listed below: a) use single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in th e chord structure set to short rhythmic motives; b) use variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module; c) use short three-, four-, and five-note motives borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; d) and create his/her own rhythmic and melodic ideas. Content of the Module The six melodies were arranged to fit the in strumentation of most typical beginning bands. They were then harmonized, and varied harmonica lly and melodically. The variations included two exercises, which served to outline the harmon ic form, and two, three, and occasionally even four more exercises that borrowed melodic fr agments of each melody. Each exercise also included short harmonic and melodic rhythmic motiv es and chordscale rela tionships that form the chord structure. A seventh unit reviewed the previous material. The lessons for each unit were each designed to last no longer than twenty minutes in order to prev ent taking too much time from the bands usual program of study. Each of the six melodies appeared in unison for all band instruments, with the percussionists playing mallet instruments. Next, an easy four-part harmony outlining the chord progression of each melody was developed and then arranged. Exercises that were designed to define the form and vary the melody followed. The first exercise outlined the form of the me lody by using just the root note of each chord as a guide tone. The second exercise used the same root notes of the first exercise in the same

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61 chord progression and then presented them in different rhythmic patterns by using short rhythmic motives. The third exercise of the study included r hythms and melodic fragments that presented small rhythmic and melodic variations of the or iginal melody. The fourth exercise was designed to outline and connect the sweet tones (thirds, fifths, sevenths, and ninths in the harmony). It then presented these sweet tones in short me lodic motives. Three of the seven units contained added exercises, 5 and 6, which expanded the concept of melodic va riations used in the third and fourth exercises. The added exercises increased in difficulty level. These short motives then acted as a resource of material for the stude nts use in their improvised solos. A plan for each melody provided the director w ith various ways of teaching the exercises featured in the module. One such way was cal l-and-response, in which a question/answer concept was used to learn a given melodic motive. The teacher could demonstrate playing the correct rhythmic or melodic idea on his/her own instrument, and then have the student play it back. Another way was for the student to hear a pr ofessional artist featur ed on the CD provided with the module. A teacher could choose to pres ent a given exercise on the CD, and then have the students follow along either by listening or trying to imitate the CD. A third way that the students could learn the material was by imitating one another. Once the exercises were learned, the teacher could ask for volunteers to try to play the melody. Students could then choose to improvise using the given variations or his/her own musical creativity while the rest of th e band played the harmony. In this way the students playing the harmony could hear and then learn from the soloist.

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62 Outstanding performers that modeled each style utilized in the module were also included in Lesson 1. The teacher would begin the lesson by playing a recording of a professional artist demonstrating a melody in the particular musical style that was going to be presented in that lesson plan. The recording help ed the students to listen to a professional performer play articulations and phrasing in the styl e presented in the lesson. Each melody was arranged to acquaint the students with different musical styles. While learning the melody, students also le arned to properly articulate th eir instrument in the rhythmic and melodic style of the tune. For example, Hot Cross Buns was presented in a slow Bossa Nova feel, while Lightly Row appeared in a light rock beat. Th e teacher was provided with a lesson plan that discussed information on how to articu late each style, as well as the appropriate nuances and phrasing for each melody. The comple te improvisation module appears in Appendix A. Sample Two middle school band programs, one rural a nd one within the city limits of a large university city, were selected to provide a fiel d test of the improvisation module. Both of the schools started instrumental students in the sixt h grade. The rural schoo l was located within thirty miles of a large univers ity city. The population of the rural community was approximately 14, 332 with over 700 students in the middle school grades six through eight. Two separate beginning bands consisted of a 45 student popula tion in which both classes met in a 50 session five days a week. The classes we re heterogeneous in instrumenta tion. The first class met at 8:00 A.M. and included 14 students: three flutes, one clarinet, three trumpets, two trombones, two baritones, one tuba, and two percussionists. Th e second class met daily from 2:00:50 P.M. It included 31 students: nine clarin ets, two alto saxophones, eight trumpets, four trombones, three baritones, two tubas and three percussionists. A ll students began in the summer prior to their

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63 sixth-grade year. The instructor had 20 years of t eaching experience, with ten years at the present middle school. Recent accolades for the rural band program include superior ratings at the middle school concert band festival in its part icular district for the last te n years. The program also sends numerous students to the regional solo and ense mble festival, earning ov er 60 percent superior ratings on adjudication. The program does not offer jazz ensemble instruction. The population of the university city was 100,879, with the number of students enrolled in the middle school that at about 900. There were two classes of be ginning band students. The first met at 1:45 P.M. and the second met at 2:40 P.M. for 50 minutes. Each class was heterogeneous in instrumentation. The 1:45 P.M. class enrollment included 43 instrumenta lists: eight flutes, one oboe, eight clarinets, one bassoon, two alto saxophones, eight trumpe ts, three French horns, five trombones, two baritones, and five percussi onists. The 2:40 P.M. class enrollment had 41 beginners: four flutes, three oboe s, nine clarinets, five alto saxophones, four trumpets, two French horns, three trombones, five baritones, an d six percussionists. Th e instructor has been teaching more than 30 years, the last ten at the present middle school. Recent accolades for the city band program include superior ratings for the symphonic band for the last ten years, while also achievi ng high marks in area band competitions both in state and in the regional competitions. The curric ulum included a traditional jazz ensemble that has a history of consistent high ratings at all competitions. The method of instruction for teaching the impr ovisation module required that all subjects be in their second semester of a sixth-grade be ginning band program with at least one-half year of instruction. Techniques taugh t and developed during the firs t semester of instrumental instruction of a traditional be ginning band program were requir ed to negotiate prescribed

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64 exercises used in the module. These concepts included appropriate tone production; key center recognition (up to three flats a nd two sharps); and rhythmic ex ercises, including quarter and eighth notes both found written consecutively and in syncopate d patterns. In addition, the playing ranges of the arrangements in the module required at least an oc tave to one-and-a-half octaves for all instruments in order to negotiate the exercises in the improvisation module. The module also utilized articulation c oncepts such as legato, staccat o, marcato, basic swing, and soft and folk-rock styles. The four bands in the two middle schools yi elded a combined volunteer sample pool of seventy-two beginning sixth grade students. Each student recorded an audio sample that contained 22 digital music tracks. The audio sample included: 1) A pre-test that audiotaped the students initial effort to play each of the six melodies in the improvisation module. 2) A post-test that audiotaped the students e ffort to play each of the six melodies after the completion of the improvisation module. 3) A post-test, which audio tape d the students effort to play the arpeggios of the triads in the harmonic form of all six me lodies in the improvisation module. 4) A post-test, which audio taped the students effort to play an improvisation solo over the chord structure of the each melody in the improvisation module. The module included a model CD, which was pr epared by the researcher and recorded by eighteen experienced musicians. The CD included a recording of all six melodies; the harmonic form for every melody; and every exercise, scale, and arpeggio of the chord progressions. The recordings of each melodys harmonic form included on the model CD were also used for accompaniment for the performance of each students improvisation solo. Procedures To establish a baseline for each subjects abil ity to improvise tendencies, a cross sectional study of subjects were tested to assess each subj ects ability to improvise. The testing took place the week before and during th e first week of the study.

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65 Care was taken to ensure that there were no outside interferences. In the suburban facility a separate practice/storage room away from the ba nd room was utilized, while in the rural facility an instrument storage/library th at was located closer to the band room was used. The data from the pre-tests and post-tests were collected through the use of two separate Sony MP3 recorders, which helped to enhance the audio aspect of the r ecordings. The pre-test also used a Likert scale in which the number represented low ability and the number repres ented high ability. In assessing recordings from the post-test, the same Likert scale was used for evaluating how well each student played the melody on completing the module and for the evaluation of the arpeggios of the chord progressions in the harmonic form. The post-test also included the evaluation using the same Likert scale on how well each student coul d improvise over each melodys harmonic form. Three qualified professional evaluators then graded each individual students performance of the pre-test and post-tests. The evaluators consisted of: a) a recently retired director of bands with over 30 years of experience, who holds a masters degree in music education and taught in a well-respected band and jazz program in a large suburban school district; and b) a director of jazz who also has a masters in jazz performance and has taught jazz ensembles for over 30 years at a major university on the east coast, and c) a music teacher who holds a PhD in music education with over 13 years of experience as a band director and a music teacher of special education students. Criteria in evaluation of the recorded audio samples included four areas of performance and are listed below: 1) How well could the student play each melody presented in each unit of the improvisation module in a pre-test format? 2) How well could the student play each melody presented in each unit of the improvisation module in a post-test format on completion of the module?

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66 3) How well could the student play the arpeggios of the chords in the harmonic progression of each melody in the module in a post-test format? 4) How well could the student play an impr ovised solo by using each melodys harmonic format as the accompaniment? Data from the audio taped pr e-tests and post-tests were then treated as matched variables and then analyzed through using a dependent t test where the same sample was tested twice (repeated measures). These gains were then correl ated with the mean distribution of the samples scores on each students ability to play the arpeggios of the harmonic form. The same format was repeated with the mean distribution of the sample s scores on the students ability to improvise for each melody in the module. In addition, each of the two band director s from the respective schools was asked to evaluate the strategies used in each lesson. Three questions were asked: 1) Were each lessons objectives attainable? 2) Was enough time allowed to teach the materials presented in each lesson? 3) Was the students playing ability adequa te to perform the activ ities of each lesson? The responses from the directors used a se ven-point Likert scale, which the number represented strong disagreement and the numbe r represented strong agreement. The information from the directors questionnaire auth enticated the reliability of the lesson plans of the study. The results from the questions asked of the directors were then placed in a table, which correlated each units lessons w ith each directors score. A figure was used to plot each directors results response, per questions asked on the Likert scale. In addition, each director was asked to comment on each lesson. These comments are compiled in Appendix B. Lastly, both directors provided the researcher with a tape d interview upon the conclusion of the module within their program. Questions asked were:

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67 1) How did you and your students respond to the twenty-one lessons of the seven-unit module? Was the material too difficu lt? Was there too much material? 2) If you were to teach this module agai n, what, if anything, would you change? 3) Is there room in your beginning band curriculum for a modu le that teaches improvisation? 4) Is it important for the students to learn improvisation? 5) Did the organization of the m odule enable you to teach it? 6) Did the improvisation module present any obs tacles in teaching the lesson plans? 7) What were the positive experiences th at you and your students had with the improvisational module? 8) Are the National Standards for music or the Sunshine State Standards included in the teaching of your band curriculum? Content of Lessons for Each Unit Teaching strategies were added in the form of lesson plans for each day of the improvisational module. These strategies were in tended to guide and assist the instructor in teaching each aspect of the concepts presented in the improvisational module. The method of the study included a step-by-step teaching approach for all six melodies in the curriculum. The lesson plans for all seven un its appear in Appendix A. Table1 features a visual representation of each of the goals and objectives of the module. The table features the content of the entire three-lesson format and includes the objectives and goals for all twenty-one lessons. Each week pres ents a different melody and content pertinent to that melody. The style model refers to the professional ar tist featured to model each style, while the CD refers to the actual CD used in the teaching module. Unit 1 A short synopsis of the first weeks less on of Unit 1 follows. Lesson 1 introduces the melody for the unit along with the style in wh ich the melody was arranged. The first melody was

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68 Hot Cross Buns a melody traditionally introduced in the beginning of the first semester of band class. The module presents this melody arrang ed in the style of a Bossa Nova. The CD The Best of Antonio Carlos Jobim, which was included in the module, included one of Jobims early compositions The Girl from Impanema, (Jobim, 2005, track 1) which was written in the Bossa Nova style. The prompt for less on 1 instructed the director to play Jobims melody for the class and then had the director play the modules arrangement of Hot Cross Buns, Track 7a. The style of music was explained as per the lesson plans and the melody Hot Cross Buns was introduced. Lesson 1 then inst ructed the director to read all the salient points about the arrangement and the variations that follow. A step-by-step teaching prompt accompanied each lesson. At the beginning of the prompt for Unit 1w ere stated goals used in each lesson for the benefit of the teacher. Lesson 1 also included a list of concepts such as: an introduc tion of the concert key center of the melody (Bb); the mel odys meter (4/4); scales and modes (concert Bb scale and F Mixolydian mode) associated with the chord pr ogression developed for the arrangement of the melody in the module; and a list of triads. The concepts also included identification of the melodys form, its rhythmic, harmonic, and melodi c concepts, and tips rega rding teaching all of the rhythms used in the variation exercises. After the historic aspects of the style were introduced, lesson 1 provided the director with more practical concepts, such as teaching harmonic form. First, the director was instructed to define the form of the eight measure melody; sec ond, to identify the harmonic structure (tonic Bb major triad and dominant seven F7/9) that support ed the melody; and then third, to identify each chord tone of the Bb tonic chord (concert Bb, D, and F) and the dominant seven-nine chord (concert F, A, C, Eb, and G) of the harmonic st ructure. The instrumental chord voicing for each

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69 instrument in the ensemble were defined. Th e lesson concluded with the students playing through the melody Hot Cross Buns redefining the form of the melody. Next, the students played through the harmoni c progression with the assigned chord tones in the accompaniment, reinforcing the harmoni c structure and instrumental voicing arranged within the ensemble. Finally, the students played through the first exerci se, which identified the root movement of the harmonic st ructure in the chord progression. Lesson 2 reinforced all of the concepts taught from the first days lesson and then moved on to present rhythmic variations of the root movement of the chord progression and rhythmic and melodic variations of the melody. The arra ngement of the variati ons included exercises incorporating easy concepts of rhythmic and mel odic motives that progressed in difficulty, both technically and melodically. As th e ensemble learned the variations using call-and-response from the director, or by playing the m odel CD, the director was prompted to select a section of the ensemble that had gained enough technique to pl ay one of the variations. The large ensemble then accompanied the section(s) by playing the chord progression arranged for the harmonization of the melody. The improvisation module centered on performan ce as one of the key elements in playing an improvised melody. The improvisation module began by using unison concepts, where the melody and variation exercises were played ove r the harmonic progression, in unison, for the purpose of achieving success within a group first, and then later the variations were played individually, as in a solo. The design of the harm onic form allowed the ensemble to repeat the chord progression within the form enough times for all sections of the ensemble to play one variation in unison while the re st of the members provided the harmonic accompaniment. When

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70 all sections selected to play their variation completed their respectiv e musical excerpt, the melody was once again repeated in unison to conclude the session. Lesson 3 included a reminder of what the studen ts had learned in the previous two lessons and then allowed for individual students to improvi se a solo. Material for the construction of this solo came from the variations of the root m ovement, the melodic variations provided in the study, and the students own original ideas. Unit 2 Each unit reviewed a different melodic style. Un it 2 revealed a song played in the style of soft rock, a melody called Lightly Row arranged for the module in the same key as the melody in unit 1. The voicing of the chords in the harmoni c form, the Bb major triad and the F dominant seven-nine chord, were an exact duplicate of those in unit 1. The me lody was a short eightmeasure simple tune, similar to Hot Cross Buns from the previous week. Familiar exercises from the first week were used again, reinforcing similar harmonic chord progressions, chordscale relationships, root movement of the chords, and exercises that outlined the melody. In addition, the melody was emphasized in variation exerci ses that center on rhythms indicative of soft rock, such as dotte d quarter notes to eighth-note figures using long short articulations coinciding with the r hythmic style of soft-rock rhythms. The artist featured on the album Love Me Tender (Presley, 2005, track 5) was Elvis Presley, who sang the title song for the movie wi th the same name in 1956. The CD that was purchased with this recording of Love Me Tender was entitled Love Elvis. Lesson 2 followed the prompt for unit 1, where the director was aske d to assign certain sections of the ensemble different eight-measur e variations to perfor m while the ensemble performed the chord structure provided in the module for accompaniment. Lesson 3 followed the format as the third lesson of unit 1 and con tinued with the same theme of performance.

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71 Unit 3 Lesson 1 presented a longer melody, Down In the Valley The melody consisted of twentyfour measures written in a jazz wa ltz style. The key also changed from concert Bb to concert Eb, and utilized the tonic chord (Eb) and the domin ant seven-nine chord (B b 7/9) in the chord progression. The professional model from the album Someday My Prince Will Come (Davis, 1999, track 8) featured Miles Davis. The featured melody was also the title tune written in jazz waltz style. Unit 3s lesson plans were centered on the familiar concepts outlined in the previous two weeks: identification of the melody, the form of the melody, the suggested harmony to the melody, and the style in which the melody was to be played and also improvised. Chordscale relationships for the two chords used in the melody were different from unit 1, in the fact that the melody had switched to Eb major. The root movement of the two chords used in the harmony was emphasized as in the first two units. Lesson 2 followed a similar trend of teaching st rategies found in the prior two units, where the students were provided harmonic and melodi c variations that could be played over the ensemble accompaniment. The directors were inst ructed to use call-and-response to help learn the different variations, where th e instructor became the leader and the students responded to what they heard their instructor play, using th eir own instruments. In addition, the use of the model CD was made available to the students to listen to while they fingered and articulated through using jazz articulation, the various notes in the exercises. Verbalization of the rhythms of the variations using jazz sylla bles to help internalize the proper style and rhythmic articula tions were offered as yet anothe r teaching style to help teach the variations of unit 3 of the module. Lesson 3 was set aside for performance, utilizing the strategies and concepts of the first two units as a guide.

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72 Unit 4 Unit 4s objective was to work on a calypso styl e of rhythm and articulations. The module presented the CD Harry Belafonte, Island in the Sun, Twenty Golden Songs which included Banana Boat Song (Belafonte, 2002, CD 3, track 10) to model stylistically. Unit 4 features the calypso melody, Mary Ann. Mary Ann arranged for the module in the same key, Bb concert, as the first two melodies. The harmonic form used the tonic triad, Bb, and dominant triad, the F dominant seven-nine chords. The form of the melody was in a sixteen -measure double binary, ABAB. The melodys exercises included presenting the sixteen-measur e melody in unison and then in harmony. The exercises included six variations, three that utilized the root m ovement of the harmony and three that utilized fragments and short motives deri ved from the melody. The rhythm pattern of the variations began with easy quarter note, half-not e patterns that followed the root movement of the form. The melodic variations used the rhythmic pattern of a combined dotted quarter note eighth-note grouping and then borro wed rhythms from the melody in its three variations. Concepts learned in lesson 1 in cluded the style of the calypso b eat and its historic roots. The melody Banana Boat Song, was the style model. Lesson 1 instructed the director to compare the style of the Banana Boat Song to the model CD arrangement of Mary Ann. Also included on the model CD and the arrangement of the melody featured in the module for unit four was the harmony of the melody. The arrangement of the harmony identified the chord tones of the Bb triad and the F dominant seven-nine chords. Lesson 2 reinforced all of the material presen ted in lesson 1, and then preceded through all six variations. The lesson ended with selected se ctions of the band playing a variation while the rest of the ensemble accompanied making use of the arrangement of the chord progression provided. The students were taught each variation using the same teaching strategies in the

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73 previous lessons: call-and-response, listening to the model CD, and also by fingering their notes on their instruments while verbalizing the rhythms for each variation. All members began each exercise by first playing the melody and then playing the harmony. Next the lesson plan asked the director to select a secti on to perform a variation while the rest of the ensemble played the chord structure to accompany. This format continued until all sections had a chance to perform then the full ensemble repeated the melody again, completing the exercise. Lesson 3 objectives centered on performance, eith er in a group setting (by section), or in an individual setting (solo improvisation). Th e same performance format of lesson 2 was utilized, where one section could play a vari ation while the ensemble accompanied by playing the chord structure. This format was repeat ed for individual improvi sational performance.. Again, those students who were not involved in the performance of an improvised solo participated by performing the chord structure as accompaniment. Unit 5 Unit 5 followed the same three-lesson format as the previous four weeks. The melody Kum Ba Yah, a traditional American folk song, was arrange d in the style of ear ly folk-rock. Dylans Mr. Tambourine Man, (Dylan, 2005, track 3) from the Best of Bob Dylan CD acted as the model for the folk-rock style. The key center was Bb major. The harmony and exercises utilized the same scales, modes and triads used in the chord st ructure of units 1, 2, and 4. Thes e scales and modes included the Bb Ionian scale, the Bb tria d, the F Mixolydian mode, and the F dominant seven-nine chords. However unit 5 adds the Eb Lydian mode a nd the Eb triad in its chord structure. The melody was written in sixteen measures in binary ABAB form. Lesson 1 introduced the harmonic chord structure af ter the melody was presented in the same manner as in the

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74 previous four units, and then moved into emphasizing the root movement of the three triads in the chord structure. Two variations were wri tten to emphasize root movement, which utilized short rhythmic motives to outline the three-chords used in the harmonic form. Four exercises that varied and expanded the elements of the mel ody followed. Each of the last four exercises increased in difficulty and range. Rhythmic concepts of lesson 2 included th e dotted quarter note eighth-note and the syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth-note combinat ions. These rhythmic concepts were also integrated into the melodic variations by using three-, four-, and five-note melodic motives. Melodic concepts in the exercises included fragments of the melody and ascending and descending scales, modes, and triads borrowed from the chord structures. Rhythmic accompaniment was arranged to mimic a soft rock ballad. The bass drum played quarter note rhythms on beats one and thre e, the snare of beats two and four, and the cymbals were arranged in a ride cymbal manner playing straight eighth notes. Improvisational concepts in lesson 2 included identificati on of the melodic style and origin of the melody and an introduction to three chords in harmonic form, the Bb triad, the Eb triad, and the F dominant seven-ni ne. Improvisational concepts also included identification of the root movement of each chord in the harmonic progression; three chordscale relationships; tonic triad, Bb, subdominant triad, Eb, and the dominant chord, F 7; and four rhythmic and melodic variations. Lesson 3 stressed performance concepts utilizing performance ideas from the previous four units. Unit 6 Unit 6 introduced the melody Freddie Freeloader (Davis, 1959, track 2) from the album Kind of Blue a jazz melody written and recorded by M iles Davis in 1959. Key center was in Bb major, following four out of five previous me lodies in the study. The chord structure of the

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75 melody centered around four dominant seven chords: Bb7, Eb7, F7, and Ab7. The chordscale relationships were all Mixolydian modes that rela ted to each dominant seventh chord: Bb, Eb, F, and Ab. The exercises then focused on the flat se ven triads and also added ninth extensions. The form of the melody was a twelve-bar blues that repeated, with first and second endings. The chord structure utilizes all four dominant seven chords in the structure. The exercises included one variation of the root movement of the ha rmonic form and two variations that utilize notes borrowed from the melody. Each exercise changed to a different variation on the repeat of the twelve bars. The last repeat feat ured a transcribed solo by Miles Davis as it was heard on the model CD. Lesson 1 asked the director to play the pr ofessional recording first a nd then the model CD of the arrangement in the module s econd. The director was asked to stress the rhythmic concepts that were of a slow jazz-swing feel. After the introduction of the tune from both the professional recording and the model CD, the students were asked to play the me lody, with the repeat. Duplicating the jazz swing/ei ghth-note feel was the key to performing the melody. Next, the ensemble was introduced to th e four-chord harmony that accompanied the melody by first listening to the model CD and then by playing through the harmonic progression. The last part of lesson 1 included playing th e first variation, which emphasized the root movement of the form. Lesson 2 reviewed lesson 1 and then moved on to the rest of the variations provided in the module. The review included the first root mo vement variation, which consisted of repeated four-quarter notes per measure on the root not e of each chord in the harmonic form. On the repeat of the form, the second variation used short two and three ei ghth-note swing style rhythmic patterns.

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76 The third variation took the same twoand three-note rhythmic motives and then added different pitches, including the root, the nint h, and the seventh borrowed from the Mixolydian scale of each chord in the harmonic form. On the repeat of the form, the next variation expanded the material to three, four, and five eighth-note melodic motives. The last variation included a tran scription of Miles Davis solo on Freddie Freeloader The four exercises also allowed the students to learn about and th en experience jazz phrasing and jazz articulations. Lesson 3 was reserved for perf ormance, using the same techniques and ideas presented in the preceding units. Unit 7 Unit 7 was designed to review all of the previous units melodies and exercises. Lesson 1 included a review of the melodies in unit one and two along with accompaniment and the improvisational exercises and solo opportunities Lessons 2 and 3 reviewed units 3 and 4 and then units 5 and 6 respectively in the same format as less on 1. The emphasis for unit 7 was performance of any variation by small groups an d also by performance of individual students improvising. All performances eith er by group or individu al were accompanied using the chords in the harmonic form by other students in the beginning band. Audio Samples Audio samples of the 72 subjects that par ticipated in the module measured 26 gigabytes of sound on 1500 tracks of audio recordings. Each audio recording was then edited using a Macintosh computer with a Quick Time editing format and a Media 100 non-linear editing system. Editing was limited to eliminate restarts, in termittent talking, and pauses between cuts to allow for more efficiency in judging each audi o sample. The audio samples were not altered further.

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77 All 1500 audio samples were then downloaded into a Macintosh desktop and stored in a Sibelius music file. Each folder for the two schools was referenced by school name in which the audios files were organized. The random sample s were then organized into a format where melody one pre-test, melody one pos-test, melody one chord arpe ggios, and melody one improvisation appeared in order one after the ot her. The same was done for melodies two thru six for each subject. Audio tracks for each subject included six track s of the pre-test melody, six post-tests of the same melodies, four tracks of the arpeggios of the chords used in each melodys harmonic form (melody one and two and four and five shared the same arpeggios in each melodys harmony), and six tracks of improvisati onal solos, one for each melody. The audio samples from the rural school were recorded with a different type of Sony digital recorder than the suburba n college city. The audio sample s from the rural school were collected in a continuous audio stre am and later had to be separated into individual tracks using a Media 100 non-linear ed iting system. The audio samples were then organized into a vertical list of six pre-test melody tracks and another list of six po st-test melody tracks, four arpeggio tracks, and six improvisational solo tracks for each of the 72 subjects The audio samples were then assimilated into a DVD format using a Toast CD writer. Organization of the audio samples onto th e DVD formatter followed a specific order for ease in evaluation by the three judges. First, each melodys pr e-test was produced; second, each melodys post-test was installed; third, the arpeggios of each chord in the accompanying harmonic form were inserted; and fourth each subjects audio track of his/her improvisational solo completed the format.

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78 The tracks were arranged one after the other appearing as: Melody #1 Pre-test Melody #3 Pre-test Melody #5 Pre-test Melody #1 Post-test Melody #3 Post-test Melody #5 Post-test Arpeggio #1 Post-Test Arpeggio #3 Post-test Arpeggio #5 Post-test Solo #1 Post-test Solo #3 Post-test Solo #5 Post-test Melody #2 Pre-test Melody #4 Post-test Melody #6 Pre-test Melody #2 Post-test Melody # 4 Post-test Melody #6 Post-test Arpeggio #2 Post-test Arpeggio #4 Post-test Arpeggio #6 Post-test Solo #2 Post-test Solo #4 Post-test Solo #6 Post-test The two arpeggios that outlined the harmony for melody number 1 and 2 were identical. The same could be said of arpeggio number 4 and 5, yielding four separate audio tracks for the arpeggios. In all each subject pr oduced twenty-two tracks of audi o samples. The 72 subjects that participated in the study yielde d a total audio sample pool of 1585 tracks of audio samples. The audio samples were then loaded onto a blank CD. The maximum of audio tracks per CD was limited to 88, which meant that each CD contained four different participants complete audio sample. This organization of the audio samp les from all 72 participants in the study in the format set by the researcher produced 19 CDs. The CDs were then packaged and sent out to three judges for ev aluation as to each participants ability to play each melody for both the pre-test and post-test each subjects ability to play the arpeggios of the triads used in th e harmonic form of the melody, and each subjects ability to improvise. Each judge was also given a copy of the model CD a copy of each of the arrangements of all of the melodies in the im provisation module, and copies of each melodys scale sheets and arpeggios of the chords used in the harmony. In addition, an evaluation template for each audio track, and a database that include d the audio track format, and one copy of the nineteen CDs that contained each participants audio sample were sent to the evaluators. To help orient and prepare each subject me ntally and visually, the researcher began playing the model CD at the be ginning of the continuous trac k. The student would hear and

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79 watch the written melody as the band on the model CD played through the audio track. The continuous track was arranged so that the melody section would flow directly into the harmonic form section without pausing. Starting the CD from the beginning of the c ontinuous track allowed all subjects a short time to prepare, listen, and hear the tempo set by the model band on the CD. All subjects played their improvisational solo at the tempo set by th e band on the model CD. In addition, to further help the student prepare and help grasp the tempo for the improvisational solo, each subject was lead into each solo section by the researcher verbally counting in time with the recording and stating one, two, ready, play fo r melodies that were written in common time and one, two, three, ready, set, play for me lodies in three four time. To record each subjects attempt at perfor ming each melody and arpeggio of the chords in each melodys harmonic form, no accompaniment was used. Unfortunately, limited time in harvesting the audio samples of all 72 participants before the end of the sc hool year did not allow for any rehearsal time or advanced teaching as to the format used to collect the audiotape of each improvisational solo. Retaping any part of th e testing sequence was extremely rare, although instrument failures and interruptions di d occur on an irregular basis. For each audio sample evaluated, a Likert scal e was used to measure the students ability to perform each melody, arpeggio, and improvised so lo. A template was de veloped that included the Likert scale and also acted as a visual aid for each of the three judges to use in evaluating each participants audio sample. The template for melody one included a seven-inch horizontal line with the numbers 1 through 10 spaced evenly and progressing successively from left to right. The left end of the line where numbers 1, 2, a nd 3 were placed, defined low ability. The numbers 4, 5, and 6 in the middle of the line, defined medium ability. The numbers and 7, 8, 9,

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80 and 10 at the right end of the line defined high ability. The same template was formatted for each participants performance of the post-test melody, the performance of each of the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form, and the performance of each improvisational solo. The students ability to play through the arpeggios of the harmonic form and the students ability to improvise were performed one time in the post-test. There was no attempt made to pretest either due to the inexperi ence of the subject and the time limit involved in the life of the study. Significance was measured as to the stude nts ability to recognize and perform each harmony. The track of harmony 1 also served as the score for harmony 2 as the two melodies carried the exact same harmony. The same he ld true for the harmony of melody 4 and 5. Statistical Analysis The data collected from the judge panel re garding the pre-test, pos t-test, arpeggios, and improvisation of all six melodies in the study were calculated in the statis tical analysis displayed in Chapter 4. Four different programs were select ed to calculate the results of the data in a statistical analysis using the electronic program Mini-tab. To calculate the significant di fferences in the pre-test, post-te st judge scores, a paired t test was selected. To calculate arpeggio and im provisation scores harveste d only in the post-test, a one-sample t interval was selected. To calcu late the mean, standard deviation, and median, the display basic statistics format was selected. Finally to calculate interjudge reliability a twoway ANOVA format was selected. Results from all four statistical tests are pl aced in tables and discussed in Chapter 4.

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81 Table 3-1. A synopsis of the lesson plans in the improvisation module Improvisation Module Goals and Objectives of lesson plans Unit 1 Lesson Objective Style Bossa Nova Melody Hot Cross Buns Key Center Bb Major Meter 4/4 1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and root movement of chords Scale(s) Bb Major Mode(s) F Mixolydian Triad(s) Bb Triad 2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form and harmony. Perform variations by group with ensemble accompaniment. Chord(s) F 7/9 Rhythms Dotted quarter-eighth note, eighth, quarter, half, and whole, notes. Articulations Legato style Artist Antonio Carlos Jobim Style Model Girl from Impanema CD The Best of Antonio Carlos Jobim 3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by group and also perform improvisational solos individually both accompanied by the ensemble. Table 3-1. Continued Goals and Objectives of lesson plans Unit 2 Lesson Objective Style Soft-rock Melody Lightly Row Key Center Bb Major Meter 4//4 1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and root movement of chords Scale(s) Bb major Mode(s) F Mixolydian Triad(s) Bb triad 2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form and harmony. Perform variations by group with ensemble accompaniment. Chord(s) F 7/9 Rhythms Dotted quarter-eighth note combinations, two, three, and four eighth-note combinations. Quarter, half, and whole notes Articulations Legato but also light, detached Artist Elvis Presley Style Model Love Me Tender CD Love Elvis 3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by group and also perform improvisational solos individually both accompanied by the ensemble.

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82 Table 3-1. Continued Goals and Objectives of lesson plans Unit 3 Lesson Objective Style Jazz Waltz Melody Down in the Valley Key Center Eb Major Meter 1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and root movement of chords Scale(s) Bb Major Mode(s) F Mixolydian Triad(s) Bb Triad 2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form and harmony. Perform variations by group with ensemble accompaniment. Chord(s) F 7/9 Rhythms Eighth note swing two, three and four-eighth note combinations also quarter note to half note and dotted half note Articulations Legato style Artist Miles Davis Style Model and CD Some Day My Prince Will Come 3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by group and also perform improvisational solos individually both accompanied by the ensemble. Table 3-1. Continued Goals and Objectives of lesson plans Unit 4 Lesson Objective Style Calypso Melody Mary Ann Key Center Bb Major Meter 4//4 1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and root movement of chords Scale(s) Bb major Mode(s) F Mixolydian Triad(s) Bb triad 2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form and harmony. Perform variations by group with ensemble accompaniment. Chord(s) F 7/9 Rhythms Dotted quarter-eighth note combinations, two, three, and four eighth-note combinations. Quarter, half, and whole notes Articulations Light and detached-staccato Artist Harry Belafonte Style Model Banana Boat Song CD Island in the Sun 3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by group and also perform improvisational solos individually both accompanied by the ensemble.

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83 Table 3-1. Continued Goals and objectives of lesson plan Unit 5 Lesson Objective Style Folk Rock Melody Kum Ba Yah Key Center Bb Major Meter 4/4 1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and root movement of chords Scale(s) Bb Major Modes(s) F Mixolydian Triad(s) Bb Triad 2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form and harmony. Perform variations by group with ensemble accompaniment. Chord(s) F 7/9 Rhythms Dotted quarter-eighth note combos, scale like eighth note patterns, 4 -5 note melodic motives, 1/4, 1/2, dotted 1/2 notes. Articulations Legato and light, detached Artist Bob Dylan Style Model Mr. Tambourine Man CD Best of Bob Dylan 3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by group and also perform improvisational solos individually both accompanied by the ensemble. Table 3-1. Continued Goals and Objectives of lesson plans Unit 6 Lesson Objective Style Easy Swing Melody Freddie Freeloader Key Center Bb Major Meter 4//4 1 Teach history of style melody, harmony, and root movement of chords Modes Bb Mixolydian Eb Mixolydian F & Ab Mixolydian 2 Review lesson one, teach variations of form and harmony. Perform variations by group with ensemble accompaniment. Chord(s) Bb, Eb, F, & Ab 7/9 chords. Rhythms First learn swing quarter notes in short two, three, and four note rhythmic motives. A short transcribed solo by the artist is included in the exercises. Articulations Swing quarters emphasis on beat two and four, then swing eighths long-short, le gato to staccato tonguing. Artist Miles Davis Style Model Freddie Freeloader CD Kind of Blue 3 Review of lesson two. Perform variations by group and also perform improvisational solos individually both accompanied by the ensemble.

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84 Table 3-1. Continued Goals and Objectives of lesson plans Unit 7 Lesson Objective Review each lesson three from all six units. 1 Review lesson three of units one and two. 2 Review lesson three of units three and four. 3 Review lesson three of units five and six.

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85 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA Pre-test, Post-test Formatting The design of the study was such that a pretest, post-test format would yield data in which to assess the validity and reliability of the improvisation module. The pre-test results established a baseline of ra w data scores for the study. A Likert scale was used to evaluate e ach participants pretest, post-test melody performances where consecutive numbers 1 th rough 10 were used to assess student ability. Numbers 1 through 3 were associated with student performances equaling low ability, numbers 4 through 6 were associated with medium ability, a nd numbers 7 through 10 were associated with high ability. A positive number above 0.0 was selected to assess the gain between pre-test and posttest scores so the alternative option was set at greater than 0.0. Each option setting was retained for all combined judge scores for the pr e-test, post-test paired t entry. All melodies tested from the improvisation module were analyzed using the same format. The 55 participants at the university city school yielded 48 complete sets of data, while all 17 participants at the rural school had complete data. For the purposes of comparison, the data from the first 17 participants re corded on the evaluators CDs from the university city school and all 17 participants from the rural were selected for analysis. The two gr oups of participants selected for analysis totaled 34, which was 52 percent of the sample base that had complete data sets. The data of the samples selected for analysis were entered into a paired t test. The posttest combined judges scores from all participants were then entered into the statistical program

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86 as the first sample, while the combined judge scores from the da ta of the pre-test results were entered as the second sample. There were three options or variables include d in the paired t test: a confidence level, the test mean, and the alternative setting. These options affected ea ch result of the data in their variety of settings. The number .0 was entered for the confiden ce level option setting. This number helped to bolster the reliability of each paired t test. A mean score of .0 was entered for the test mean option. The alterna tive option had three variables from which to choose: less than 0.0, not equal to 0.0, and greater than 0.0. Great er than 0.0 was selected and then entered for the alternative option. The statistical format yielded scores in addition to a t value. The program provided mean scores for both pre-test and post tests, th e standard deviation of the mean scores, 95% lower bound for mean difference, a t-value, and a p value. In addition, the researcher added another product of the paired t test, the mean difference score, which showed gains between pre-test and post-test. Table 4-1, on page 103 at the end of this ch apter, contains the mean score of each pre-test, post-test, the mean difference of the two, the standard deviation (S.D.) for each pre-test, post-test, the 95% lower bound score, and the p value for the difference in the pre-test, post-test comparisons. For the purposes of entering pre-test, post-test data into the statistical program for the paired t test, references to the melody featured in unit one Hot Cross Buns became melody 1, the melody featured in unit two Lightly Row became melody 2, and so on through all six units. Pre-test, Post-test Analysis The rural and university c ity schools pre-test, post-test pa ired t results for melodies 1 through 6 in table 4-1, on page 103 at the end of th is chapter, show 12 sets of results in which 11 sets of data for the rural a nd university city school show a significant p value of *0.00. The

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87 only melody that did not show significant gains was melody 1 of the rural school, with a high p value of .283. Significant p values of *0.00 s uggest eleven out of twelve post-test scores were higher than pre-test sc ores for all participants. The rural schools highest pre-test, post-tes t combined mean score of 7.19 to 7.35 was for melody 1 while the lowest mean value, a score of 3.84 to a 5.00 was melody 6 (Freddie Freeloader). The range of mean values for the pr e-test began at a score of 3.84 for melody 6 to a 7.19 for melody 1 while post-test mean scores bega n at a score of 5.00 for melody 5 to a score of 7.35 for melody 1. The highest mean difference wa s a sum of 1.87 for melody 4 (Mary Ann). The smallest mean gain was a sum of .16 for melody 1, which also showed the highest overall p value of a .283. The 95% lower bound (L.B.) for melody 1 was a negative score -0.29 while all other 95% L.B. scores were positive with the strongest being a 1.49 for melody 4. The university citys highest pre-test, post-test mean scores were from two different melodies. The high mean score was a value of 7.39 for melody 5 (Kum-Ba-Yah) and the highest post-test score was a mean score valu e of 8.78 for melody 2 for the university city school. The lowest pre-test mean value was a score of 6.33 for melody 6 while the highest posttest mean value was a score of 8.78 for melody 2. The range of mean values for the pre-test began at a score of 6.25 for melody 4 to a va lue of 7.39 for melody 5, while post-test mean scores ranged from a value of 7.19 for mel ody 6 to a high score of 8.78 for melody 2. The highest mean difference was a sum of 1.55 for melody 3 (Down in the Valley), while the smallest mean gain was a sum of .86 for melody 6. The lowest 95% L.B. was melody 2 a .84 while the highest was also melody 4 a 2.98. The combined range of mean scores for the post-test for all partic ipants was a score of 5.00 (melody 5 at the rural school) to a score of 8.78 (melody 2 at the un iversity city school).

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88 All mean differences resulted in positive gain scores. Also, with one exception, all lower bound scores were positive suggesting improved ability in pre-test, post-test melody performance for participants in both schools Formatting of Arpeggio and Improvisation Scores The one-sample t interval was used to calc ulate the data yielded from the arpeggio and improvisation judge scores. The one-sample t inte rval revealed several descriptors from the calculation of the data, namely th e mean of all of the data from the judge panel, the standard deviation (S.D.) of the data, a nd a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) factor. The mean and standard deviation factor featured in the paired t test were the same factors pr oduced in the one-sample t interval. The 95% CI confirmed the average score for all students who partic ipated in both band programs, regardless of whether or not the st udents participated in the study. The confidence interval would act as a median score to which students underachieved, met, or overachieved for both the arpeggio and the improvisation performances harvested in the post -test audio samples. The same Likert scale formulated for use with the pre-test, post-tes t evaluations was also used to assess each participants arpeggio and imp rovisation performances. All arpeggios were constructed with a root, third, fi fth, seventh, and ninth extensions Melodies 1 and 2 used the same key center, Bb concert, and the Bb tonic and F dominant 7/9 chords in the chord structure so the arpeggios of the chords in these thre e melodies were exactly the same. Melody 3 was arranged in the key of Eb concert and used the arpeggios of the Eb 7/9 tonic and Bb 7/9 dominant chords. Melody 4 used the same key signature and chord structure as melody 1 and 2, but then added the subdominant 7/9 chord, Eb 7/9 to the harmony. Melody 5 was also arranged in the key of Bb concert and used the same subdominant arpeggio, Eb 7/9 along with the Bb tonic and F dominant 7/9 arpe ggios as melody 4. Melody 6 was arranged in the key of Eb

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89 concert and used the arpeggios of the Bb 7/9 dominant chord, the Eb 7/9 dominant chord, F 7/9 dominant chord and the Ab dominant 7/9 chord for performance. Analysis of Arpeggio Scores Table 4-2, on page 104 at the end of this ch apter, contains the one-sample t combined interval scores for all melodies for both ar peggios and improvisation performances for both schools. The combined mean score for the arpeggio performances from part icipants at the rural school was of average ability, a score of 5.00. The 95% CI for the rural school resulted in a score of 4.95 for the low 95% CI while the high 95% CI was a 5.51. The combined mean score for the arpeggio performances from participants at the univ ersity city school were higher with a score of 7.30, while the low 95% CI was a 7.10 and the high 95% CI was a 7.50. These numbers suggest that the university city school participants performed higher overall on arpeggio performance than the rural school. The results of arpeggio scores by melody for each school presented in table 4-3, also on page 104 at the end of this chap ter, confirm the results of table 4-2. Mean scores for each melodys arpeggio performance by all participants at the rural school range from a score of 4.373 for melody 6 to a score of 5.437 for melody 2. Th e low 95% CI score was also in melody 6, a score of 3.916, while the highest 95% CI was in melody 2, a score of 6.002. The results of mean scores for arpeggio pe rformance for the university city school are higher. The lowest mean score was a value of 6.824 for melody 4, while the highest mean score found for melody 5 was a value of 7.843. The low 95% CI score was also in melody 4, a score of 6.102, while the highest 95% CI was for melody 5, a score of 8.242. An analysis of the pre-test, post-test ev aluations on the Likert scale developed for assessment of each participants arpeggio performan ce placed the range of all mean scores for all participants in a medium to high ability level.

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90 Analysis of Improvisation Scores Table 4-2 also contains the results of the one -sample t test for the improvisation scores for all melodies for both schools. The combined mean score for the improvisation performances from participants at the rural school was of av erage ability, a 5.00 value. The combined 95% low CI for improvisation scores was a value of 4.76, the high 95% CI was a value of 5.25. The same mean score for the university city school was close to two full points higher, a 7.00 value. The low 95% CI was a value of 6.67 while the high CI was a 7.06. While the results show that the participants at the university city scored higher overall on their im provisation scores, the performance range of the means of both schools fa ll into medium to high ability level on the 10 point Likert scale used for assessment. The results of the one sample t test CI in terval calculations for improvisation scores for participants at both schools are arranged by melody in table 4-4, also on page 104 at the end of this chapter. Mean scores for each melodys impr ovisation performance by all participants at the rural school range from a low value of 4.255 fo r melody 6 to a higher mean score of 5.745 for melody 2. The lower 95% CI interval was 4.811 fo r melody 6, while the higher 95% CI interval was a 6.371 for melody 2. The data yielded by the resu lts of the improvisation evalua tions at the university city school, however, are higher. The lowest mean score was a 6.647 for melody 3 (Down in the Valley), while the highest mean score was for melody 5, a 7.529. The lower 95% CI was found in melody 4 of 6.102, while the higher 95% CI was for melody 2, a value of 7.797. When placed on the same Likert scale th at was used for assessing the arpeggio performance, all mean scores for all participants range from a medium to high ability level for each improvisation performance. The combined lower to higher 95% CI for all participants was a

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91 3.698 to a 7.797, expanding the range of improvi sation performance ability level from low ability to a higher ability level using the same assessment tool. Analysis of Interjudge Reliability A two-way ANOVA was used to calculate the reliability of the results of each judges evaluation for all student performances. Th ere were two ways the ANOVA could compare reliability of judge scores. The first way determin ed how each judge evaluate d the four variables, pre-test, post-test, arpeggio, and improvisati on performances by melody number. The second comparison determined how each judge evaluated the performance of each variable by student number. The two-way analysis of variance required that two fact or entries and a response entry be entered into the ANOVA equation. The response variable was the actual variable to measure for reliability. The first factor, name d row, used the judge number for measuring reliability of the melody scores, while the se cond factor, named column, identified each performance by melody number or by student number. The two-way ANOVA formula yielded two p values, one for all sets of data representing responses from the judge panel regarding student performance of each variable and one fo r each set of data representing Reponses for the interaction of the judges scores rega rding the same four variables. Table 4-5, on page 105 at the end of this ch apter shows interjudge reliability calculations for the rural school. The table shows results fi rst by melody number and then by the student number. All p values for each variable regarding ANOVA results by melody number and by student number displayed a significant *0.000 value with two exceptions, the arpeggio variablemelody score, a .017 value and an even lower value of a .002 for the arpeggio variable-student score. When p values are 0.00 or close to 0.00, there is significant ev idence that there was a

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92 difference between the judges in the scoring of th e four variables, but each judge was consistent in his scoring. The interaction p values, however, were high (over .269) for every variable for both melody and student tests of th e ANOVA with the exception of the arpeggio-student result, a .001 value. The high interaction scores for all f our variables for both melody number and student number ANOVA tests suggests there is no signif icant interaction betw een the judges. The scoring differences by the judges did not depend on each melody or students specific number. Rather each judge was being cons istent with their scores for all variables and for all students. Each judge evaluated each student in virtually the same way in both tests run by the ANOVA. The low result for the arpeggio variable-student score signified that in general, the judges were evaluating consistently by performance, but fr om student to student, they may be scoring differently. The data in Table 4-6, also appearing on page 105 at the end of this chapter contains the interjudge reliability scores for both the melody and st udent two-way ANOVA tests for the participants in the univ ersity city school. Re sults of both ANOVA tests regarding the judge p values for all variables were low, ranging fr om a 0.000 to a .100. There was a difference between the judges in the scoring of the four variables, but each judge was consistent in his scoring of each melody and every student. The interaction p values for the univers ity city school, while high for most of the variables, show differences in the interaction of the judge s. The ANOVA test using melody number and the four variables resulted in high values ranging from a value of .677 to a value of .826 for the pre-test, post-test a nd arpeggio variables. The results regarding the improvisation value, however, were lower, a score of .089. Th e ANOVA test using student number and the four

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93 variables were different in the f act that only the post-test and ar peggio scores were high number values of a .797 and a .698 respec tively, while the pre-te st and improvisation score were lower, resulting in values of .056 and .029 respectively. The low scores in the interaction p values for the pre-test arpeggio variablest udent score and the improvisation variable-student score suggest that the judges were evaluating consistently, but from student to student they may be scoring differently. The low judge p values for both school s ANOVA melody and stude nt scores show that each judge is scoring each audio sample di fferently yet consistently, while the interaction p values are high in twelve out of sixteen vari able categories, suggestin g there is no significant interaction between judges scores, each judge is treating each piece of music the same. The low interaction p values in four of the sixteen variable categories s uggest that for the most part the judges are scoring the same way, but using different numbers to do so. The rural and university city school combin ation of the two way ANOVA tests judge p values and interaction p values yield sixteen different variable categories. When the results of all thirty-two variable categor ies are compared, there is evid ence to suggest that interjudge reliability is strong between the j udges panel in each of their eval uations of every performance of all participants analyzed in the sample. Director Responses and Evaluations of the Lessons The two directors that taught the studys seven-unit module in their respective band programs also assessed the effectiveness of each of the three lessons for each unit. Three questions were asked of the two directors in an e ffort to evaluate all twenty-one lessons included in the module. Question 1: Were the objectives a ppropriate for this class? Question 2: Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? Question 3: Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson?

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94 A Likert scale was formulated to gather the responses of the thr ee questions from both directors. The Likert scale utilized a continuum of numb ers 1 through 7, where number 1 represented a response of disagree and 7 repr esented a response of ag ree to each of the questions regarding each lesson. The three figur es, on page 101 and 102 appearing at the end of this chapter, depict each director s response to each of the thr ee questions for all 21 lessons of the improvisation module. The (y) numbers, found vertically on each figure represented the seven numbers associated with the Likert scale graph, while the (x) numbers, located horizontally on each figure represented each lesson from all seven units. Each unit included three lessons. Director A did not have time to finish unit 7, the review; therefore, his scores for all three figures indicate a zero response for lessons 19, 20, and 21. Figure 1, Evaluations of Obj ectives, contained responses fr om the two directors of the two programs that participated in the field test of the module for question 1: Were the objectives appropriate for this class? Dire ctor A responses for question 1 were from the university city school director and match the black lines associat ed with question 1A. Director B responses for question 1 were from the rural middle school director and match the red line associated with question 1B. In general, Director A gave more fa vorable responses for each lesson of the improvisation module for question 1, than did Director B, except for the last three responses, 19, 20, and 21 of Director A. Comments about the obj ectives included statements about the fact that there was too much material presented to c over the objectives thoroughly in the short time allotted per lesson. Figure 2, Evaluations of Learning Activities, indicated responses for question 2: Were the learning activities appropriate for the time a llowed? Figure 2 indica tes that Director Bs

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95 responses (in red) to lessons 1 th rough 8 initially appeared to be more favorable than Director A. This trend reversed for lessons 9 through 18, where Director A gave highe r marks than Director B. Again lessons 19 through 21 were not responded to for Director A. Figure 3, Performance of Activities, referred to the responses plotted for question 3: Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? Director A clearly agreed that his students could perform all of th e activities in each lesson except for lessons 19, 20, and 21 in which he did not have the opportunity to teach his class. Director B did not agree or was indifferent as to his students being able to perform the activities provid ed in lessons 1 through 10 lessons; however, as the students became more comfortable with the material in each lesson he began to see improvements in the performance category of the lesson plans. Appendix B includes 21 tables that show bot h director A and B scores for each of the three questions asked in evaluating all the lessons of the improvisation module. The tables also included comments from both directors regarding each lesson. Overall comments about the lessons were for the most part favorable, excep t for the amount of time allowed per day for the teaching of the material for each lesson. Both di rectors seemed to agree strongly on the limited time allotment per lesson. Director A and B Interviews Both directors that taught the improvisation module gave exit interviews regarding their own and the students experiences teaching and pl aying through the study. Eight questions were asked that were pertinent to the implementation of the module in each directors curriculum. The answers were audio taped by the researcher and later transcribed by the researcher with the directors answers appearing here in this chapter. All answers were unedited and appear in their original form.

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96 Exit Interview with Director A 1) How did you and your students respond to all twenty-one lessons of the seven-unit module? I was excited about what the goal of the module was trying to do. There were definitely some lessons where we got a little bogged down. Im not sure if that was the students fault or I. I felt like th e material was doable, probably needed to be broken down into a little bit smaller bite s, but as far as what the overall goal of the study was, I thought it was a good th ing and I thought my students benefited from it! Was the material over their heads? Oh maybe a little bit, but its amazing what they (the students) are able to grasp, once they you knowI didnt think anything was beyond what they could really get it may be some of the verbiage, could have been a little different, but I didnt really think anything was beyond their ability to get it. It (the material) was a little bit beyond my ability to explain it sometimes. Was there too much material? That would be the thing, th at there was too much material, the lessons could be a bit shorter and then you woul d need more lessons probably so I dont know that you could really get exactly what you wanted to do in twenty one lessons, but if the lessons were a little bit smaller bites, then I think it would probably be better (for both teacher and student comprehension). 2) If you were to teach this module agai n, what would you change and what would you keep the same? Well I think that what I have already all uded to would be for the lessons to be shorter. I thought it (the module) was interesting and probably good teaching the kids about jazz scales being built off of a major scale, I think they understood that, adding the seventh and the ninth in there and how the ninth is really a second. Those kinds of things, I think those were good. Sometimes they didnt quite understand exactly what I was talking about when I said that. Is there a way to get more visual type clues or material s for (black) boards things like that if you were producing this module professiona lly for consumers or something like that. That would be good. 3) Is there room in the beginning band curriculum for a module that teaches improvisation? Boy thats the big question, I would say there is, but there is so much you are trying to get done in that first year, that its awful hard to get it (improvisation) squeezed in without cutting something else in the curriculum. So, yes I think thats probably one of the biggest reasons that I would say, in fact it would really

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97 be good because it would give them some thing fun to do, but if you could make it just a little bit smaller in te rms of bite sizes that could be done in a ten to fifteen minute section with the class, that would be the ideal thing. 4) Is it important for the stud ents to learn improvisation? I think its good, because I think it gives them confidence. I think it adds a bigger dimension to their playing and makes it fun for them and one of the reasons we lose kids a lot of the time is because they dont so much of what we are doing is so structured that often times they lose th e fun and if they can get a chance to hey this is chance for me to shine, for me to make my own thi ng, I think its good. And I think its also good for those kids who go on that to have actually done a little improvisation early in band it become s a little bit like second nature. Instead of getting to the point where theyre fift y years old teaching jazz band for the first time and they have never improved in their life and they are kinda like me, scared to death to stand up in front of my middle school jazz band and improv. 5) Did the organization of the module en able you to understand and then teach it? Yes, it probably took me a little more study and if I studied a little bit more I would have been able to do a better job w ith it. It was a little confusing in the way it was laid out sometimes, but I think its because I didnt spend as much time studying and preparing to teach it. It wasnt one of those things where I felt like you could just pick it up and if you haven t looked at it say okay Im going to read right down here and teach it. You either had to know a little bit about what you were doing or you had to have studied the module enough to know exactly where the material was going. I think that was probably the biggest thing. 6) Did the improvisation module present any obstacles in teaching the lesson plans? I cant really think of an y major obstacles other than just not having enough time to work my other things in during the cour se of the day. I pretty much had to set up a schedule where okay Tuesdays were doingthese two days of the week were doing the module and the other thre e days of the week were doing other stuff, our Winning Rhythms and our Standard of Excellence our scale work, all of that other curriculum. I guess the other obstacle would be us getting a little bit confused when we would teach the Bb con cert scale in our normal playing of the Bb concert scale we dont add that ninth in there and then when youre teaching the improv module you do add the ninth in th e scale and so then the students are kind of confused. For example we are going to warm up with the Bb concert scale, and you had to be very careful th at you explained the ninth and that oh, by the way this is the one that goes, you reme mber, all the way this far because they would get confused which scale would be played at which time! They would get confused easily on th at kind of thing!

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99 Why was there a limitation on the amount of time allotted to teach the module? Part of what happened this year, we had to move from our middle school band room to the high schools band suite while the air conditioning ducts and ceiling was being redone. So, we had to spend 10 to 15 minutes each period walking back and forth from the two schools. And that cut my band period drastically so my 50-minute class went down to a bout a 35-minute class. So I was pressed to ge t all of material in th e short amount of time. 2) If you were to teach this module again, what would you change and what would you keep the same? Terminology, to get them more comfor table to what I was talking about, but I would just like to spend a little more time with it and the order in which everything was introduced was really good, I just needed to spend a little more time in studying the module. 3) Is there room in the beginning band curriculum for a module that teaches improvisation? Absolutely, I think its important to teach improvisation, because its ear training, teaches the students tonality, a nd when they learn tonality the right notes become a lot more automatic. Its a lot easier. 4) Is it important for the students to learn improvisation? Its important for them to learn it, its hard to get them to take the chance at it. The students are tentative, afraid they are going to do it wrong, which I can relate to, but its important that they have a safe environment in which to take th e chances and learn in a structured environment. 5) Did the organization of the module enab le you to understand and then teach it? Yes. I am not a jazz guy, played Di xieland in college and so I learned as much about jazz as the students did, and so the organization of the lessons, and the way it introduced all of the terminology, and so forth helped me learn it and it was very easy for me to teach it to the students. 6) Did the improvisation module present any obs tacles in teaching the lesson plans? The biggest problem with the im provisation module was the students not being able to play some of the notes on the scale and so they werent as likely to improv in th e beginning because they were still trying to just figure out what the scale was. So, th at took a little while for them to get comfortable that of course they were scared to play something different.

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100 7) What were the positive experiences that you the teacher, and your students had with the improvisational module? Once we got into it the students started having fun with it and they would actually clap when someone played an interesting solo, something that was diffe rent and kinda cool. They would applauded each other and so it was good comrade, they had a good time with it, so it was a lot of fun! 8) Are the National Standards for music or th e Sunshine State Standards for music included in the teaching of your band curriculum? Absolutely, our entire curriculum is base d on those. We include them in our lesson plans, we cover them daily and jazz is definitely part of teaching students to play as an ensemble, understand the way music is organized and a history of music, so it definitely ties in directly. Chapter 5 will discuss the statistical analysis of the paired t, one-sample t and both two-way ANOVA tests, plus the di rectors evaluations of the le ssons and the exit interviews regarding the efficiency and e ffectiveness of the improvisatio n module. Overall conclusions regarding the theories and concepts of the improvisation module will be reviewed along with the researchers comments on what should be change d, what concepts worked, what did not, and what positive results can be derived from this study.

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101 Figure 4-1. Evaluations of Objectives: Responses for Director A are black straight lines; Director B are red dashes. Question 1: Were the objectives appropriate for this class? Figure 4-2. Evaluations of Learning Activities: Responses for Direct or A are black straight lines; Director B are red dashes. Qu estion 2: Were the learning ac tivities appropriate for the time allowed? Directors Response Directors Response

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102 Figure 4-3. Performance of Activities: Responses for Director A are black st raight lines; Director B are red dashes. Question 3: Were the stude nts able to perform the activities in this lesson? Directors Response

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103Table 4-1. Paired t test results for both Schools Rural School University City School Pre-Post Melody Mean Mean Difference S.D. 95% L.B P Value Melody Mean Mean Difference S.D. 95% L.B. P Value Pre-test 1 7.19 1.86 1 7.11 1.76 Post-test 1 7.35 .16 1.75 -0.29 .283 1 8.62 1.51 1.26 1.15 0.00 Pre-test 2 5.92 2.04 2 7.29 1.82 Post-test 2 7.13 1.21 2.11 .726 .000 2 8.78 1.49 1.30 1.14 0.00 Pre-test 3 4.37 2.00 3 6.90 1.60 Post-test 3 5.80 1.43 2.10 1.08 0.00 3 8.45 1.55 1.31 1.19 0.00 Pre-test 4 4.60 1.88 4 6.25 1.50 Post-test 4 6.47 1.87 1.72 1.49 0.00 4 7.70 1.45 1.31 1.12 0.00 Pre-test 5 5.15 1.99 5 7.39 1.32 Post-test 5 6.96 1.81 2.05 1.24 .000 5 8.74 1.35 1.01 1.02 0.00 Pre-test 6 3.84 1.61 6 6.33 1.81 Post-test 6 5.00 1.16 1.49 .792 .000 6 7.19 .86 1.82 .62 0.00

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104 Table 4-2. Confidence Interval results for the arpeggios a nd improvisation for both schools Rural School University City School Combined Judge Totals Per School Mean S.D. 95% CI Low 95% CI High Mean S.D. 95% CI Low 95% CI High Arpeggio Scores 5.09 1.88 4.87 5.30 7.30 1.78 7.10 7.50 Improvisation Scores 5.00 2.16 4.76 5.25 7.00 2.24 6.74 7.25 Table 4-3. One-sample t CI interval arpeggio scores for both schools by melody Rural School University City Arpeggio Melody Mean S.D. 95% CI Lower 95% CI Higher Arpeggio Melody MeanS.D. 95% CI Lower 95% CI Higher 1 5.353 1.93 4.808 5.898 1 7.020 2.1316.420 7.619 2 5.437 1.89 4.939 6.002 2 7.392 1.5636.953 7.832 3 4.843 1.84 4.323 5.363 3 7.176 1.9776.620 7.732 4 5.196 1.93 4.65 5.742 4 6.824 2.5676.102 7.545 5 5.314 1.93 4.770 5.858 5 7.843 1.4197.444 8.242 6 4.373 1.62 3.916 4.829 6 7.059 1.6786.587 7.531 Table 4-4. One-sample t CI Interval improvisation scores for both schools by melody Rural School University City Melody Mean S.D. 95% CI Lower 95% CI Higher Melody MeanS.D. 95% CI Lower 95% CI Higher 1 5.373 2.154 4.767 5.978 1 6.882 2.438 6.197 7.568 2 5.745 2.226 5.119 6.371 2 7.196 2.136 6.595 7.797 3 4.529 2.802 3.944 5.115 3 6.647 2.171 6.036 7.258 4 5.373 2.107 4.780 5.965 4 6.824 2.567 6.102 7.545 5 4.765 2.141 4.163 5.367 5 7.529 1.983 6.972 8.087 6 4.255 1.978 3.698 4.811 6 6.922 2.087 6.335 7.508

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105 Table 4-5. Rural school twoway ANOVA interjudge reliability scores for melody/student ANOVA Melody Score ANOVA Student Score PreTest Posttest Arpeggio Improv Pretest Posttest Arpeggio Improv Judge P Value .000 .000 .017 .000 .000 .000 .002 .000 Interaction P Value .378 .353 .941 .889 .890 .269 .001 .756 Table 4-6. University city school two-way ANOVA interjudge reliability scores for melody/student ANOVA Melody Score ANOVA Student Score PreTest Posttest Arpeggio Improv Pretest Posttest Arpeggio Improv Judge P Value .001 .000 .100 .000 .001 .000 .043 .000 Interaction P Value .826 .822 .677 .089 .056 .797 .698 .029

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106 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS An improvisation module was designed involving content standards 2 and 3 of the National Standards for Arts Education as an en richment module to be nefit middle school band directors who did not teach impr ovisation in their schools. Melodi es were chosen from method books and materials already in place in most middle school band programs. Six melodies were then arranged for teaching improvisation for be ginning band students. The six melodies were then divided into seven units, one unit for each melody with the seventh reserved for review. Each unit included three lessons, for a total of 21 lessons. The lessons first instructed the directors regarding fundame ntal improvisation concepts that they were asked to teach so, in turn, they could teach th eir beginning band students. Lesson 1 for each unit introduced the melody, historic con cepts about the style setting for each melody, and the melodys chord structure. Lesson 2 focuse d on harmonic and melodic variations of the melody, group performances, and ensemble accompaniment of the harmony. Lesson 3 focused on individual performance featur ing improvised solo attempts from volunteer students, as the ensemble accompanied the student. The same format continued for the remaining five units, 2 through 6. The last unit, number 7, was reserved for performance. It included thre e lessons in which two melodies per lesson were reviewed. The improvisation enrichment module was then field tested in tw o different schools, a rural school with approximatel y 700 students and a university c ity school with approximately 900 students. The rural school included two separate beginning band classes with a combined enrollment of 44 students. The university city school also included tw o separate band classes with a combined enrollment of 84 students. A ll students who were enro lled in beginning band

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107 classes in both schools had the oppor tunity to learn the improvisati on exercises and lessons in the improvisation module. All participants chosen for the purposes of evaluating the effectiveness of the lessons in the module were band students who had turned in a signed parental permission form. A pre-test conducted before the studys inception served as the first evaluation in which participants demonstrated their playing abil ities by performing all six melodi es presented in the module. A post-test was conducted at the conc lusion of the study and consisted of each partic ipants ability to play the melodies used in the pre-test, th e performances of the arpeggios of each melodys harmonic structure, and a perf ormance of an improvised solo for each melody. Audio samples were recorded using a digital recorder for both the pre-test and post-test. Four questions or objectives as to the learning outcomes of the improvisation module guided the research of the study. First, did the studys format actually improve all participants ability to play the six melodies presented in th e study? Each student play ed a pre-test and posttest audio taped unaccompanied performance of all six melodies. The second objective measured each students comprehensi on of the harmonic form of each melody. Participants were recorded without accompaniment in a single performance during the post-test of each arpeggio from every chor d used in the harmonic form of the melody. The third objective measured the modules effect on the students ability to improvise. Audio samples of each participant playing an im provised solo for the melodies provided in the study were recorded one time during the post-te st. A pre-recorded CD that contained an arrangement of each melodys chord structure played by a semi-professional ensemble accompanied each improvised solo. The variation ex ercises, scales, and ar peggios of the chord

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108 tones presented in the module and each students own creative abil ity were all concepts allowed for the students improvised solo. Editing of the audio samples eliminated exce ss talking and restarts Starting an example over again was rare as were replays of each particip ants attempt to play the material selected for the recorded audio samples. The audio samples were formatted so each melodys pre-test track was followed by its post-test track, the arpeggio a udio tracks, and then the improvised solo track. Each participant yielded 22 digital tracks of audio samples. The audio samples were then downloaded to CDs for the purposes of evaluating the pretests and post-tests. The CDs were copied and sent to three evalua tors: 1) a retired band director with a masters degree and 30 years of public sc hool teaching experience in a program that emphasized jazz, 2) a public school music teacher with a PhD and ten years of experience in directing bands, and 3) a professor of jazz studies and ensembles with a masters degree and over 30 years of teaching experience at a major university. The evaluation of all audio samples used a te n-point Likert scale of consecutive numbers. The number 1 was associated with the statement strongly disagree or low performance of the student ability to play each variable. Each consecutive number signified an increased performance ability level until reaching the numbe r 10, which was associated with the highest statement of performance ability or strongly agr ee. The harvested data was then entered into a database. Conclusions The first research question th at helped to guide the study as ked: to what extent will the format and content of this study increase the st udents ability in performing the six melodies presented in the module? To answer this question a paired t test was used that measures gains between a pre-test and post-test of all six melody performances of each participant. Results from

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109 the paired t test yielded p values of **0.000 for 5 out of 6 of the melodies performed by participants at the rural sc hool and a p value of *0.000 for every melody performed by participants at the university city school. Low p values derived from the paired t test indicate significant improvement in performance ability from pre-test to post-test for 11 out of 12 of the melodies and small gains for melody1 at the rural school. The second objective asked: will the ability of the student to play chord tones from the arpeggios of the harmonic structure improve through participation in the st udy? To answer this question the sample was recorded playing the ar peggios of the chord structure from the harmony for each melody in a single post-test performance. A one-sample t test was used to analyze the data from the judge evaluations. The combined judge totals for all particip ants in the rural school yielded a mean of 5. 09 out of 10. The combined judge totals for the participants at the university city school yielded a mean of 7.10 out of 10. Placing these two mean scores on the Likert scale used for assessment demonstrated that all participants could perform the chord structure of the melody at an above av erage ability to high ability level. The third objective asked: will group improvi sational instruction result in promoting the development of student percepti on of improvisation and their abil ity to improvise? To determine whether or not the sample would develop a perc eption and an ability to improvise, a single posttest performance of the sample playing an improvised solo for each melody presented in the module was recorded for evaluation. The results of the judge data we re again placed in the same one-sample t test used in determining th e results for the arpeggio performances. The participants at the rural school yielded combined judge total of a mean of 5.00 out of 10. The participants at the univer sity city school yielded an even hi gher mean of 7.00 out of 10 for the same combined judge scores. Placing these tw o mean scores on the Likert scale used for

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110 assessment demonstrated that all pa rticipants could improvise a solo for all melodies at an above average ability to high ability level. Two different two-way ANOVA tests were calculated for interjudge reliability for participants in each school. The first ANOVA test compared judge scores of the four variables, the pre-test, the post-test, arpe ggio scores, and improvisation scores per melody number, and the second ANOVA test used the same variables but now compared the judge scores against each students number. The rural school results of the ANOVA tests calculated by melody number and student number indicates that the judge p values for all four variable s were a significant value of *0.000, with the exception of the arpeggio vari able for both melody and student scores, indicating that the judges were scoring each perf ormance differently, yet were consistent with their scores. The interaction p values of the ANOVA melody scores for all variables were high indicating there was no significant interaction between the judges. The judges were consistent with each other because each judge was scoring each performance the same. The interaction p values for the ANOVA stude nt score were simila r for the interaction melody values. Pre-test, post-te st and improvisation variables were high, while the arpeggio variable p value was lower. The results of th e judge p values indi cate consistency within judge scoring and each judge was scoring each performance the same, with no significant interaction between the judge s panel with the exception of the arpeggio variable. For the university city twoway ANOVA melody and student sc ores, all judge p values were significant for the four variables, how ever, the interaction p values for the ANOVA melody pre-test, post-test, and arpeggio variable s were high signifying no interaction between the judges panel. The interaction p value fo r the improvisation variable was lower. The

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112 explained thoroughly, that most students enjoyed creating, and that both teachers learned about improvisation. Suggestions for improvement incl uded using more visual aids and computer enhanced technology to enhance the teaching of the lessons. Both directors did perceive that the lessons in the module were effective in teach ing participants the art of improvisation. Major Conclusions The paired t and one-sample t revealed th e following conclusions to the four research questions. 1) To what extent will the format and c ontent of this study increase the student ability in performing the six melodies presented in the module? To answer this question the 17 participants at the rural school were compared to 17 participants at the university city school. Th e combined group of 34 participants represented 52 percent of the total sample. In 11 of the pre-test, post-test scores the p value results indicated significant findings of *0.00 or in one case within th ree hundredths of a point of 0.00. The one exception was melody 1 of the rural school in which the p value was not significant. The significance of these findings mean that in 11 of 12 melodies presented in the module all participants improved their playing ability for each melody during the life of the study. The exercises and variations of the improv isation module reinforced and included the melody either in its entirety or in rhythmic a nd melodic fragments in all three lessons per unit allowing the participants to hear, see, and play each melody multiple tim es. Outside of melody 1, the highest post-test mean score for both the rural and university city schools was melody 2, Lightly Row, while the lowest post-test mean for both schools was melody 6, Freddie Freeloader. 2) Will the ability of the student to play chord tones from the arpeggios of the harmonic structure improve through participation in the study?

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113 Results of the one-sample t test for the arpeggio mean scores fell between a 4.373 and a 7.843 for combined scores all participants. The improvisation module did help the student to understand theoretical practices in harmonic fo rm. The students not only improved, but also performed the arpeggios of the harmonic form at a high ability and on a consistent basis. 3) Will group improvisational instruction result in promoting the development of student perception of improvisation a nd their ability to improvise? The data resulting from the one-sample t te st of the improvisation variable fell between 4.255 and a 7.529. The resulting action confirmed a strong significance th at the improvisation module was effective in not only furthering th e development of stude nts perceptions of improvisation and it also offered a format in which the participants could perform an improvised solo. 4) Will the allotted class-time available for most traditional beginning band permit an enrichment module that features improvisation? Two directors participated in the study. They worked closel y with the students and the researcher as to the aspects of implementing th e module. The one sensitiv e issue this study tried to maintain was that of a complementary rela tionship between the improvisation module and the existing traditional beginning band curriculum. The three figures at the end of chapter four represented answers to three questions meant to not only evaluate each lesson, but also to be sensitive to the time limitations of implementing something new in each directors curriculum. The results of the questions asked of each director regarding the lessons yielded interesting comments, such as: make the s cale sheets so that the scale the lesson is referencing is easier to find in the scale sheets make sure ranges of the brass instruments are within abilities of beginning band students and not enough time during class to get to all objectives in the lesson for th e day. Both directors felt that all of the materials presented in the module were excellent for teaching the objectiv es in the module, but that there was simply

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114 too much of it offered in each lesson. Both direct ors felt that the materials could be broken down into shorter more accessible lessons. Both directors also felt st rongly about teaching improvisation and thought the format of the modu le was an excellent way to achieve teaching improvisation. Director B became frustrated with the time a nd too much material aspect of the module, as did his students at first. Ho wever, as the students moved ahead into the units, some concepts repeated themselves and the students began to en joy the experience. Both directors felt like they also learned about improvisational concepts, style, and the basic theory that was included as objectives in the lesson. Director B (in red on line graph 1, 2, a nd 3, pages 101 and 102) at the rural school, as stated in the exit interview, was already limite d in the area of time. The air conditioning system had shut down and was under repair. This shutdo wn affected the whole ceiling, walls, air ducts, and general storage areas of th e facility. To complicate matter s, the students only other alternative to no band class, was to make the walk to the high school and use a large room in that facility. The two schools were connected somewh at; however, the students did make a five to seven minute walk one-way to the high school ba nd facility. This took time away from teaching the traditional curriculum, much less a module desi gned to receive at leas t twenty minutes three days a week. With a limited sche dule, the rural school students st ill participated in both the traditional curriculum and improvisational module, al though not to the extent that the university city students did. The university city school program was a more traditional beginning band program where the students could spend up to six weeks of summer band preparation before they began their sixth grade year. The rural sc hool did not provide this optio n. There were no unordinary

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115 restraints or obstacles Director A had to accoun t for, except for the occasional student teacher that took time to learn about teac hing in the real world. Unfortuna tely for the researcher, student teacher time was during both beginning band classes in which the improvisation module was being run. So, here too, at the university school, time became a problem. Director A did say in his exit interview that shorter more succinct le ssons covering less ground might be one way for the module to provide greater benefits to both participants and teachers. All students in each band program participat ed in the learning of the module. Not all who participated in the learning volunteered in the collecting of the audio samples. However, 17 of the 42 students who were still in band at the exit of the improvisa tion module were audio taped at the rural school, and 55 of the 88 students who were still in band at the end of the module were audio taped. Researcher Observations and Conclusions Positive comments regarding the model CD a nd its use to further the learning of the concepts were useful to the researcher along wi th comments regarding the future implementation of the module. Adding computerized software, la rger displays, MP3 files for the purposes of individual listening to the model CD and all professional models that accompanied the study were of special interest to th e researcher. All were excellent suggestions for improving the study, including the computer enhancements and individual MP3 files for the music. In addition, adding computerized blackboards would enable the instructor to demonstrate chord scale relationships by highlig hting the notes of all triads us ed in the harmony from within each scale or mode that the triad originates. An en larged computer screen would also be a benefit to the teacher in visually demonstrating articula tions and in highlighting short rhythmic motives within the exercises. A computer that included a large screen could also be used to enhance

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116 teaching a given phrase, rhythmic selection, or individual part by providing a cursor that followed the written notes as they moved through the music. The overall effectiveness of the lesson plans and improvisation concepts presented in the module were demonstrated through performance te sting and analysis of the resulting data. However, outcome-based observations from the re searcher, evaluators, an d directors that were not intended or a part of the objectives that we re developed for the module were also just as influential for the inclusion of th e module in any beginning band program. First, the directors stated in their exit interv iews that the students had fun participating in the lessons and performance con cepts presented in the module. Fun as defined in learning is experiencing new ideas and being able to be creative in doing so. The creative aspect of teaching and then performing an improvised solo turned into being a learning ac tivity that allowed the students the freedom to explore th eir own creative abilit ies while still in the development stage of their journey through music. St udents learning and having fun may lead to staying power for the student to remain in band and experience the ability to not only learn traditionally, but also creatively. Second, the directors also alluded in their exit interviews that they learned more about teaching jazz and the whats, whys and haws on teaching improvisation. They actually had to prepare for each lesson, which for experienced di rectors may have pushed both of them out of their comfort zone in teaching beginners. They were challenged and had to work at teaching concepts that they themselves previously were not exposed to or did not feel comfortable in teaching. Third, the recording sessions for the pre-tests for all students were a definite motivational factor in the later post-test recordings due to the fact that students did not want to be recorded

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117 performing less than their best ab ilities. As the students were be ing recorded individually there was a certain sense of fellowship that developed among the participants, those that came out of the recording session. They felt good about their pe rformance were genuinely pleased with their ability to play a improvised solo and took pride in their performance. T hose that did not do as well were also patted on the back, as all student s at both schools felt the need to achieve and do their best for the recording sessions. Fourth, the majority of the students who volunteered to participate in the study were female. They were also the ones who seemed to be more driven to achieve higher in performance. The males were not as concerned with perfection as the females and were less pretentious in the recording sessi ons that which may have allowed the males to be more relaxed during the audio taping. Fifth, the results of the one-sample t test suggest that the module significantly improved students ability to play melodies. The melodies selected seemed to be well suited for the age group of the study. Observations from one of the evaluators, who is currently the Director of Jazz Studies at a major university on the east coast, included the following statements about the project as a curricular tool referring to the teaching effectiveness of the melody as a whole. 1) Students performed more accurately during the post-melodic test. 2) Most students executed the post-test at a faster tempo than the pre-test (technique improved.) 3) The tone quality in wind players improved (deeper breathing, perhaps more relaxed air flow, and greater author ity of tone production) in the post-melodic assessment.

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118 4) On both woodwind and brass instruments, articulation was often improved in the post-melodic test. In some cases the students moved from a less mature, detached style of tonguing to a more sophistic ated and musical legato approach. 5) Time organization as evidenced by stricter subdivision of the b eat and heightened rhythmic placement of pitches improved fr om pre-to post melodic tests. (Jim Ketch, personal communication, November 18, 2007) Sixth, learning to play the melody may be the single most important concept the student can learn in their early developmental years. Resu lts from the pre-test, po st-test, and paired t tests indicate a significant improve ment in every melody featured in the module. Add in the fact that one evaluators observations included incr eased accuracy, increased confidence in tempo, better tone production, more sophisticated articula tion, and definition of time organization in the post-test of the melody sample are all by-products of the studys effectiveness of the objectives. Seventh, the module seemed to be somewhat successful in introducing triads and chords. Suggestions from one evaluator included havi ng the students begin with triads and their inversions and then adding the extensions like the sevenths and ninths as the students became comfortable with the three note arpeggios. Howe ver, high mean scores and confidence intervals indicate that the students were able to play chord tones accurate ly that included their extensions up to the ninth in the structure of the harmony w ith a high level of consistency and ability. The high mean scores from the results of the one-sam ple t test for the improvisation performances suggest a high degree of ability a nd understanding of the lessons. Eighth, the improvisation module did, in fact, accomplish the goal of acquainting beginning band students with the fundamental con cepts of improvisation. It also provided a format that allowed students to create an im provisation solo in a st ructured environment.

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119 Comments from the evaluators as they listened included statements along with their evaluation sheets that were descriptors of the improvisation performan ces. These comments included; rhythmic inventiveness, (students played w ith) good time!, (this student ) placed flat 3rd over the progression, bluesy effect, awareness of harmonic motion, superb-scales/chords, great subdivision, wonderful resolutions, great solo -descending arpeggio, nice use of neighbor tones. (Jim Ketch, personal communication, November 18th, 2007). Ninth, the one limitation was finding time to teach the improvisation module in an already busy beginning band schedule. Even though th e results of this study show that teaching the module yields a high degree of performance a nd that the conclusions of the two directors evaluations concurred that the teaching of impr ovisation is a good enrichme nt tool for beginners, there was still the problem with the limitation of time needed to fully teach the concepts presented in the study. To offset the time allo tment problem, this study can become even more concise and the lessons more frequently administered. In conclusion, the field test of the im provisation module did produce positive results in the areas of performance and teaching improvisati on concepts. As a result of using the module, all participants in the study had fun learning improvisation and demonstrated positive gains in performance. The two directors also learned more about teaching jazz concepts and for the most part, had positive comments about the lesson plans in the module. Discussion Jazz, as an art form, can be taught in Am ericas public schools to all instrumental students. The concepts and tec hniques presented in this impr ovisation module are one way to influence the youth of America, and guide them, or at least orient all youn g instrumentalists to the creativity that is inherent in improvisati on through learning the jazz style. All of these activities are serving to more thoroughly immerse students in the study of melody, melodic

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120 development, repetition, sequence, harmony, c hord progressions, rhythm, time, melodic paraphrase, and reconstruction (Jim Ke tch, personal communication, November 18th, 2007). Presenting improvisational concepts dur ing the formative years of a students instrumental development would accomplish th ree fundamentals studen ts would use throughout their years of musical performance. The first fundament al, recognition of the melody both visually and aurally, is basic to any ensemble The ability not only to recognize and play the melody, but to realize which instruments carry the melody, the style in which the melody is presented, and the rhythmic nuances associated with the performance of the melody are all concepts perpetuated in the improvisation module. Ketch also states the following regarding the effectiveness of the study as a whole; I feel this is important work with the poten tial to influence educational objectives and teaching strategies in the middle and high school music program. Further, the value of the exposure to improvisational dir ectives (interpret a melody, arpeggiate chord structures, improvise over a standard progression, form and rhythm) would, in my opinion, transfer just as successfully to the choral and stri ng divisions of a school music program. Chief among my reasons used to validate this st udy is the consistently high rate of music dropouts from music programs as students matr iculate from beginning band to high school to college and on to the adult world. In each step, a smaller and smaller percentage of students stay involved as active music makers One would question whether the ensemble and activity-based curriculum we perpetuate is truly the best met hod of teaching children about music and the aesthetic experience of being creative and productive using the language of music as a central means for communication (Jim Ketch, personal communication, November 18th, 2007). Composers of choral music like Russell Robinson, a noted music educator, composer, and clinician in the vocal music genre, has furthered Ketchs position for the inclusion of improvisational directives, but in the realm of vocal music educa tion. Robinsons vast repertoire of choral compositions includes at least three that teach students ja zz style, Jazzin It Up! (And Jazzin It Down!), Lets Sing Some Jazz!, a nd Were Singin The Bl ues For You! All three selections include many of the same improvi sation concepts featured in the module.

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121 Ketch states that orchestra programs coul d benefit from learning and performing jazz styles and concepts. While not the focus of this study, the scores prepared for the improvisation module include voicing and arrange ments for string orchestras. Instrumentalists can and should learn to perform a melody in ones early years of playing. The costs of not knowing, understanding, or perfor ming an improvisation solo may never be felt in the band rooms of American schools during on es developmental years, but then what cost does one put on losing another great American he ritage from our curr iculum altogether? Finally, learning how to play any melody as well as possibl e is a significant accomplishment. Learning to vary the melody, however, while using its chord structure and its fundamental rhythmic pattern is also a signifi cant accomplishment. But the most important idea that this study fosters is for the teacher to allo w the student to be creative within a structured environment. The future of music programs may fa ll into the abyss of gone by the way side, as many current arts programs have gone before, if the individual student is not allowed to be creative and expressive while lear ning an instrument in the tradi tional beginning band program. Recommendations One of the strengths of the improvisation module was that the melodies used were accessible to beginning instrumentalists, students who possess little technique. Most students were able to translate what technique they possesse d into creative output, some more than others. The improvisation module however, could have b een approached differently as expressed by statements from the two directors who partic ipated in the teaching of the curriculum: 1) The lessons for each unit could have been shorte r, with less information and more lessons per week. 2) The improvisational study could have contained one or two less vari ation exercises per melody to help reduce the amount of tim e needed to complete the lesson.

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122 3) The idea of using technology in the form of electronic blackboar ds that would highlight the scales, chord tones, rhythms, and melodies electronically, would improve the lessons. 4) The scales and arpeggios could have been pres ented separately in or der to avoid confusion about where a scale ended and the arpeggio began. 5) More care to the writi ng of the range of the arpeggios so the young brass players are able to play each arpeggio exercise in a more accessible range. Start with the concept of the triad and its inversions, and then work toward the extensions adding the sevent hs and ninths as the students progress. 6) Further research into the questi on as to how students perceive form in music? Many times in the assessment of the improvisati on solos, the participants were unsure in knowing where to begin playing a solo in the form, in knowing where the chord changes were, or in knowing how to anticipate the chord changes and lead into it melodically. 7) The participants were not gr anted enough rehearsal time one-on-one with the model CD so they could practice synchronizing their improvisational solo attempts with the tempo of the band model on the CD. They were given one oppor tunity to perform their solos. Granted the model CD was played during the class time, but individual rehear sal was not available to the students. This fact may have affected the playing for the audio samples. 8) The concepts of the module could be used with the students to acquire more technique in their articulations and fingering of the notes, increase their pitch range, and gain a greater understanding music theory and harmony. 9) Further research in the area of imitation, such as listening to recordings of professional musicians to learn traditional jazz ideas, coul d transfer the concepts of style. Imitative concepts can be quickly a ttained though singing using th e jazz vocabulary. Singing an improvised solo using fundamental stylistic rh ythmic and melodic motives first and then perform one on their instrument could further bolster student confidence.

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123 APPENDIX A LESSON PLANS Unit 1 Lesson 1 Melody 1 : Hot Cross Buns Study goals include : The National Standards for Arts Education (Goal #10 and #11 of the curriculum study) and 1 thru 12 of the curriculums study goals. Style: Boss Nova Key center: Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), and Dominant F7 (V7) Form: An eight measure melody complete with a theme and six variations, two on the form, four on the melody. Rhythmic concepts : Simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and descending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic and dominant tria ds to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Easy Bossa Nova beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic st yle and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of the two chords involved in th e harmony, identification and use of two chord scale relationships : tonic and dominant, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input. Goals for Unit 1 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented o Perform on at least one instrument (alone a nd in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition

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126 Root, F dominant seventh chord: double basses, tuba, and bassoons. Third, F dominant seventh chord : violin-cello, trombone, baritone, and tenor sax. Fifth, F dominant seventh chord : viola, alto sax, clarinet, and F-horn. Seventh, F dominant seventh chord : violin, flute, oboe, and trumpet. Note to the instructor: Explain to the students that th ere are two chords found in the harmony of the first tune Hot Cross Buns. o The second chord is also a major s ounding triad with an added note. o Both chords are voiced in measure nine of the arrangement. o Have them play the two half notes one after an other and ask them if they can hear the two chords change! o Begin in measure 9 (Letter B) and play the model CD #1 cut 2. o See if they can distinguish the chords as they change and then ask them which measures they heard the tonic chord (Bb) and which measures they heard the dominant seventh chord (F7). o The suggested harmony includes three measures in which the two chords appear for two beats each (9, 11, and 16) and the rest of the chords will last the duration of the measure. o Have them identify each chord in each measure through listening to the chords as they then play through Letter B-C. State to the class: Now we are going to play just the first note of every chord in the way we played the two chords. o This is called root movement of the two chords for the harmony. (CD #1, cut 3) o Play measure 17 (Letter C) through measure 24. (play) o The last eight measures sugge st a pattern dont you think? o This pattern is called th e form of the piece. o Form allows the block chords of the harm ony to move in outlining the harmony for any given melody. o Learning the form of the harmony is one of th e basic keys in lear ning how to improvise any melody. Note the instructor: To end the first days lesson, go back to the beginning and play to Letter D. o Keep the tempo slow and the Bossa Groove at a steady beat. After you have com pleted the last prompt, you will have comple ted another goal of todays lesson.

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127 Unit 1 Lesson 2 Goals for Unit 1 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music st yles including Bossa N ova, jazz waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the prope r articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes Note to the Instructor: Begin the lesson by reviewi ng day ones lesson plans. o This will involve playing the model CD #1 from cut 1 (Letter A) as the students listen and watch their music Hot Cross Buns from the beginning thru letter C (cuts 2 and 3). o Then have the group play from letter A thru letter C. State to the class : Do you remember the form of the piece we have just played? o Do you remember that there are two chords in the harmony? Can you name them? (Bb and F7) Great! o Today we are going to play some variations to the melody. o A variation is a slight change to the melody or theme. o The first variation begins at letter (D) with changing the notes or rhythms slightly in the root movement (the theme at letter C). Note to the instructor: Letter D changes the rhythm of letter C to more of a dotted quarter eighth-note pattern to embellish the Bossa Nova rhythm. o Have the students vocalize the pattern us ing doo-dah-doo first, wh ile listening to the model CD #1 cut 4, th en play letter D. State to the class: Great job! Now letter E changes the notes and adds the second note of both the Bb concert scale a nd the F Mixolydian scale. o Looking at your scale sheet, l ook at scale note number thr ee and number four. See the note above the last note of the scale? o Can you name it and tell me where else you see the same note (the second scale degree). o Correct-both of the two notes are th e same pitch only one is called a 2nd for being the second note of the scale and the other is called the 9th for being one note above the octave (8 + 1). o So really the ninth could also be called the 2nd and vice versa! For this study we will interchange the terms 2nd and 9th for the same pitch of the scale or exercise. Note to the instructor: First play the model CD #1 cut 5, having the students watch as the music goes by then play letter E thru to letter F calling attenti on to the use of the ninth and the different rhythm of the variation. State to the class : Excellent job! You all are a natural at this! Look at letter F. Note to the Instructor: The next exercise beginning in measure 41 utilizes the root, second (ninth), third, fourth, and fifth of each chord on the harmony.

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128 o The exercise is still based on the movement of the root of each chord, but now the first five notes of the scale that outlines each specific chord is introduced. Measure 41, 42, 43, and 44 use a rhythmic pattern of an eighth, quarter, and half notes to place the second, third, fourth, and fifth notes of the Bb con cert scale into the melody of the variation. o Measure 48 shows a four-eighth-note motive that uses the fifth, fourth, third, second, and then the root of the Bb concert scale. o Tell the students that its a backward Bb concert scale and have them practice playing the motive at a quick tempo. State to the class: To play the next variation, we will ne ed to look again at our scale sheets. Look at the first five notes of the Bb scale and then look at measure 48 of Hot Cross Buns. o Can you see any similarities? o Do you see that the first five notes of meas ure 48 and the first five notes of the Bb concert scale are similar? o The five-note pattern you see ends on the root of the scale, then the 2nd note (also called the ninth), the third note of the scale, the fourth note of the scale and the fifth note of the scale going backwards. o When performing an improvised jazz solo, you wa nt to try to connect the sweet tones, which are also the tones we played to make the Bb triad the root, third and fifth. o When you see an eighth note pattern like the five note scale-it is connecting the sweet tones using other scale tones found in between the sweet tones! o Do you see what I am saying? Trombones, do you understand? Saxes, flutes, percussion? o Great-now, can you find any other measures wher e there are similar notes either going up the scale or going down the scale? o Yes measure 41, 42, 43, 44 & 45. Can you name what type of rhythmic note these scale notes are written in? o Yes, eighth notes, quarters, and half notes in measure 48 the fingers will have to move a little faster to play the lick. o Listen to the model CD #1, cut #6 and follo w along by fingering your instrument as the music plays. o Do you think that you can play the variation? Great-lets try it (Play letter F to letter G). Note to the instructor: Measure 49 begins exercises that use variations of the melody. Exercises in measure 49, 50, 51, and 52 use the basic Bossa Nova rhythm pattern and the note of the melody to alter the phr asing of the original melody. o Dotted quarter notes and eighths with half not es now replace the original half notes and whole notes of the first four m easures of the original melody. o In measures 53 and 54, short rhythmic motives made up of eighth notes using the root, ninth, back to root, of the tonic chord (m easure 53) and are used again in sequential fashion (in measure 54) this time outlining the fifth, sixth, back to fifth of the dominant seventh chord. o This new rhythm of measure 53 and 54 replaces the straight quarter not es of the original melody. o The last two measures are altered slightly rh ythmically and melodically in an attempt to gain more variance of the original melody.

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129 State to the class : The variation that begins at letter G uses the r hythm of the Bossa Nova to add a bit more of a challenge technically. o The rhythm used to add a Bossa beat or groove is the dotted-quart er note-eighth note rhythm. o To help us learn this we will use syllable s from the jazz language, dooditdah, doo for the long dotted quarter note, dit for the shor t eighth and dah for the long half note. o Lets all practice saying this rhythm together in time one, two, three, four doo-dit dah. o Do you see the measures that include this rhythm? o Rightmeasure 49, 50, 51, and 52. Great job! o This variation also includes more patt erns using two eight h and a quarter note o Can you find the measures you see this pattern? o Right measure 53 and 54. Measure 53 uses the root, the second (9th),back to the root, of the Bb concert scale, while measure 54 uses the fifth, sixth, and back to the fifth, which are notes borrowed from th e F Mixolydian scale. o You can also find all of the notes of the two scales and modes on your scale sheets. o Look over the variation and listen to the m odel and follow along fingering the notes of the variation. o Notice the rhythms we practiced and th e eighth note patterns we voiced. o (Play the model CD #1, cut 7) (After the cut say) o Are you ready to try this variation? Okay, good luck! Note to the instructor: The eight measure exercise in m easure 57 (Letter H) continue with using the melodic content, but now the rhythm va ries to an off-beat syncopation instead of playing directly on the beat as shown in the original melody. o The first four measures of the last variation each differ slightly in rhythm and note selection. o The middle two measures (61 & 62) use the conc ept of playing in an eighth note pattern to walk up the third of both the Bb con cert scale and then the F Mixolydian mode. o The final two measures use the thirds of th e tonic and the dominant chord and the Bossa Nova rhythm used at the beginning of the va riations to close out the exercise. o State to the class: Letter H is the last variation of Hot Cross Buns. Yeah!!! o But it is not the last time you will play the tune. o The rhythm of the original melody changes to an offbeat jagged kind of feel. This type of rhythm is called syncopation. o Measure 57 begins with an eighth rest, then an eighth note tied to a quarter note, another eighth rest, then an eighth not e tied to a quarter note. o To help us learn the concept of a syncopa ted eighth note rhythm found on the upbeat (and of one, and of three) use the jazz syllable di t for the eighth note rest (even though rests are silent) and the syllable dah for the tied eighth note to quarter note. o The vocalized phrase will be ditdah, dit-dah. o Now, think the dit but dont say it out loud. Make sure you think dit o Clearly on beat one and three and the dah will sound correct. o Lets try it together. (after) Great! o Now look at measure 58 and 59. o Measure 58 has an eighth note rest followed by two tied eighth notes and one-eighth note by itself then a half note.

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130 o The jazz syllables used for this rhyt hm again start with dit-dah-dit-dah. o Then drop the first ditand you have dah-dit dah. o Measure 59 also begins with an eighth note rest followed by two tied eighth notes then three eighth notes and a quarter. o Can anyone guess the jazz syllable s we should use here? Right! o Dit-dah-dah-doo-dit-dit. o Now take out the first dits in both measures and you have dah-di t-dah (measure 58) and dah-dah-doo-dit-dit measure 59. o Measure 60 is similar in rhythm to what other measure you alr eady know? Measure 58. o Great! Try vocalizing all four measures together. Ready? o Dah dah, dahditdah, dah-dah-doo-dit-dit, dah-dit-dah. o The rhythm in next two measures incl ude four eighth and one half notes. o Try using the jazz syllables, doo-doodoo-doo-dah, doo-doo-doo-doo-dah for help in clarifying the rhythm. o The next two measures rhythm uses two eights a quarter that repeat. o Use the syllables doo-doo-dah, doo-doo-da h to help clarify this rhythm. o In the last measure the dotted quarter, eighth, and half notes will sound, o Using the rhythmic syllables, doo-dit-dah. o If you out the two measures together th e rhythm syllables would sound doo-doo-dah, doo-doo-dah, doo-dit-dah. o Lets try voicing these four measures together. o Using a smooth articulation called legato to connect each together. o Great! Now lets listen to the model CD #1 cu t 8 and finger your notes and use the jazz syllables when you hear the patterns. o After the CD is played say; Okay lets try the variation! Good luck Note to the instructor: After the class has expe rienced all of the variations assign sections to different variations. o You are going to begin the melody, then l oop the harmony at letter B playing it the number of times that you have assigned each section of the band a variation. o Make the section performing the variation th e soloist, while everyone else plays the accompaniment (letter B). You m ay choose to listen to all of the variations with harmony first, model CD #1 cuts 9 (letter c w/ b), 10 (l etter d w/ b), 11 (lette r e w/ b), 12 (letter f w/ b), 13 (letter g w/ b), and 14 (letter h w/ b). o When all sections are done playing, then play the melody one last timeo Pointing to your head before the la st section plays to signify to go o Back and play the beginning one la st time, then end at letter B. o When you are done, tell the students we will review on Friday. o They will have a chance to play an individual solo with or without using the variations on the last days lesson in improvisation.

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131 Unit 1 Lesson 3 Goals for Unit 1 Lesson 3: perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: o By using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives o By using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module o By using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and o By creating his/her own r hythmic and melodic ideas Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a review of all of the variations the Bb concert scale and F Mixolydian modes. Model CD #1 cut #23. Scales are cuts 18, 20, 21, and 22. o Remind the class that notes choices from bot h the Bb scale and the F Mixolydian mode are for use in their own improvised solo. o So, keep the scale sheets handy. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in a healthy environment, one which allows mistakes and fosters having fun. o Prepare the soloist the same way you pr epared the sections when they o Played their variations at the end of day twos lesson. State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing a different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for final comp rehension, and then we will start from the beginning. Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try thei r hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use their own ideas-great, em phasize that its okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progr ession) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have com pleted th eir solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter A stopping at letter B. o I will give the volunteers award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an indi vidual solo by your self.

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132 o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at the end of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ensembles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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133 Unit 2 Lesson 1 Melody 2 : Lightly Row Study Goals include : The National Standards for Arts Education (Goal #10 and #11 of the curriculum study) and 1 thru 12 of the curriculums study goals. Style: Soft Rock Ballad Key Center : Bb Concert Time Signature : 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), and Dominant F7 (V7) Form: An eight-measure melody complete with a theme and seven variations, three forms, four melodies. Rhythmic concepts : Simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic and dominant tria ds to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Easy soft rock ballad beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and use of two chord scale relations hips: tonic and dominant, rhyt hmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input. Goals for Unit 2 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented o Perform on at least one instrument (alone a nd in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition o Understand the historic background of each st ylistic arrangement of the six different melodies in the module; and o Learn about the com poser who developed th e style for each of the six arrangements featured in the module

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135 Root, Bb tonic chord : double bass, violin cello, tuba trombone, tenor sax, bassoon. Third, Bb tonic chord : violas, French horns, alto sax, and clarinets. Fifth, Bb tonic chord : violins, trumpets, flutes and oboes. Chord voicing of the harmony at measure 10: Root, F dominant seventh chord: double bass, tuba, and bassoon. Third, F dominant seventh chord : violin cello, trombone, baritone, and tenor sax. Fifth, F dominant seventh chord : violin, trumpet, flute and oboe. Seventh, F dominant seventh chord : viola, French horn, alto sax, and clarinet. State to the class : Excellent job at building these two now familiar chords. o Lets try the harmony voiced in the arrange ment at letter B. (Model CD #1, cut 25) o Remember to keep your articulations smooth! (After the run through). o Now we are ready to tackle the form of th e melody through playing the roots of the two chords of the harmony as they prog ress through the form at letter C. o Listen for similarities between this progression and Hot Cross Buns. o (After the run through) Great Job! o You are fast learners when it comes to playing the harmony and the form! o All right, lets try it from the top, all the way through from A to letter C. o (After the run through) Great job! o Now you will have the melody the harmony, an d the form of the piece running through your head for day twos session on improvisation. o Dont forget to look at the variations and practice them BEFORE class time on day two.

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136 Unit 2 Lesson 2 Goals for Unit 2 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, diffe rent music styles including Bossa Nova, jazz waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the prope r articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes Note to the instructor: After a quick review of the mel ody and harmony the students played during the first days lesson, have the students follow the bass line of the harmonic structure by listening to the double bass, tubas, a nd bassoon section of the ensemble. o Then play the example from model CD #1 that corresponds to day ones exercises, cuts 24, 25, and 26. Once the review has been completed, move on with the next section. State to the Class: You have completed the review and now we are ready to try some of the variations beginning in your musi c at letter D or measure 25. o The variation at letter D uses the same notes as letter C, but uses quarter notes and half notes in place of the whole notes and half notes. o It should be easy for you! o Lets listen to the model then tr y our hand at it! (CD #1, cut 27) Note to the instructor: Play the model and have the stud ents listen to both cuts 27 and 28, while they finger their parts in silence and listen to the model. o After the CD has played the two cuts continue with the following exercise. State to the class : The rhythm was similar at le tter E but what was different? o Did you notice the added notes-the second note of the Bb concert scale and the second note of the F Mixolydian scalethats right! o This is called using the rootninth of the sc ale or chords they represent, the Bb major triad and the F7 chord. o Lets try letter D and E together! o Remember to use a smooth legato articulat ion and listen to one another as you play through the variations. o (After playing through letter D and E) Great job! Pretty easy huh? o Look at letter F. I see an adde d note and the rhythm changes. o Take a look at the rhythm firs t-I see a dotted quarter note fo llowed by an eighth note then a half note. o Try a rock a nd roll syllable to help learn the rhythm! o How about using the syllables doo-dit-dah, that will work for all measures o That has this same rhythm. o Practice saying it with your teacher a couple of times using good time. o Now what about the two measures using quart er-eighth, quarter-eighth note rhythms? o Try using doo-dit-doo-dit for the rock syllable.

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137 o Lets all try saying the rhythms of letter F t ogether using the rock syllables. (After completion of the exercise) There you go great job! o Now, listen to this variation on the model (C D #1, cut 29) and see if we were close! o (After you play the model and they finger their parts) o Now, lets try to play the section! (Go for it!) o Great job again-you all are na tural born improvisers. o Look at Letter G. The rhythm is the same, notes have changed. (CD #1, cut 30) o Take a look, do they look familiar? o Yep, it is the notes from the melody using the rhythm of letter F. o I bet you can sight read Letter G. o Lets try it-you already know the rhythms and the syllables, so, lets try it from letter G to Letter H. o (After they play) All right! Good job! The la st two variations begi n at letter H and I. Note to the instructor: The last variation at letter H is the most technically demanding. o I would teach it to everyone, but maybe save the solo aspect for your most technically advanced players. o They will work at it because it presents a challenge. o The variation includes, five note motives in eighth notes form the Bb scale and F Mixolydian and syncopated rhythms. o Letter I continues with the same kind of challenges. State to the class: When you look at letter H, there are more eighth notes on four and five note groupings called motives. o Measure 57 itself includes a grouping of f our eighth notes followed by a half note. o When you look at the pattern closely where else have you seen these notes in this pattern? Very good! The Bb concert sc ales first five notes. o Look at next measure same rhythm pattern di fferent notes but from a familiar scale. o The F Mixolydian only its backwards from the seventh note. o Measure 59 uses the notes from the Bb scal e again only in a diffe rent rhythm patterneighth note to two eighth notes tied together to another eighth note to a dotted quarter note, then a single eighth note. o This is a syncopated rhythm or a jagged uneven rhythm pattern. o The rock syllable for this m easure is doo-dit-doo-dah-dit. o Lets practice rhythmic pattern a few times with our instructor. o (To aide in learning, repeat the rock syllables over and over a few times). o Measure 60 is another eighth note pattern that uses the root, seventh, ninth, seventh, root of the F7 chord/scale and can be articulated smoothly. o Measure 61 is a backwards Bb scale from the fifth note to the root. o Measure 62 is exactly like measure 57, the syncopated rhythm of o measure 59 appears again in meas ure 63 and in measure 64 the o Bb scale from the fifth to the root repeats. o Lets listen to the model play this variation. o Follow along with fingering your own instrument while the music plays at letter H, then I, which has similar rhythms and more four and five note motives in eighth notes.

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138 Note to the instructor: Go ahead and play the model (CD #1, cuts 31 and 32) several times so the students will grasp the rhythm and the style of the two variations. o Make sure the students are watching the musi c and fingering their notes, if they have them quietly voice the rock syllables. State to the students : Okay are you ready to give it a go? o Try the last two variations back to back without stopping. o If you get lost jump right back in. o Remember to look ahead when you are playing. o (When finished) o Man you guys are great! Way to go, some of that stuff was tough but you hung in there. o Now we are going to play all the variations from the very beginning. Note to the instructor: After the class has e xperienced all of the variations assign sections to different variations. o You are going to begin the melody, then l oop the harmony at letter B playing it the number of times that you have assigned each section of the band a variation. o Make the section performing the variation th e soloist, while everyone else plays the accompaniment (letter B). Model CD #1, cuts 33 (letter C w/ B), 34 (letter D w/ B), 35 (letter E w/ B), 36 (letter F w/ B), 37 (letter G w/ B), 38 (letter H w/ B), and 39 (letter I w/ B). o When all sections are done playing, then pl ay the melody one last time-pointing to your head before the last section plays to signify, go back and play the be ginning one last time, ending at letter B. o When you are done, tell the students we will review on Friday. o They will have a chance to play an individual solo with or without using the variations on the last days lesson in improvisation.

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139 Unit 2 Lesson 3 Goals for Unit 2 Lesson 3: perform a solo demonstrati ng improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: o Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives o Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module o Using short three-, four-, and five-note motives borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions o Creating his/her own rhyt hmic and melodic ideas Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a review of all of the variations, the Bb concert scale, the F Mixolydian mode and their arpeggios. Model CD #1, cut 44 melody with all variations and cuts 40 -43 scales and arpeggios with harmony. o Once the exercises have all been reviewed, it is now time for individual students to attempt a solo. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in an improvisational environment. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepared the sections when they played their variations at the e nd of day twos lesson. State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing a different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for final comp rehension, and then we will start from the beginning. Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try thei r hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use their own ideas-great, but emphasize that its okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progr ession) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have com pleted th eir solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter A stopping at letter B. o I will give the volunteers award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward.

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140 State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by yourself. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at the end of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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141 Unit 3 Lesson 1 Melody 3 : Down In the Valley Style: Jazz Waltz Key center: Eb Concert Time : 3/4 Scales/Modes : Eb Ionian, and Bb Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Eb (I), and Dominant Bb7 (V7) Form: Twenty four-measure melody in binary fo rm (AB) complete with a theme and six variations two on the form, four on the melody. Rhythmic concepts : Simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic and dominant tria ds to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Easy jazz waltz beat using ba ss drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of two chords involved in the ha rmony, identification and use of three chord scale relationships: tonic, and dom inant, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input. Goals for Unit 1 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented o Perform on at least one instrument (alone a nd in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition o Understand the historic background of each st ylistic arrangement of the six different melodies in the module; and o Learn about the composer who developed th e style for each of the six arrangements featured in the module Note to the instructor: Mondays lesson m oves on to a ballad Down in the Valley.

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143 o The notes for the Bb7 chord are Bb the tonic, D the third, F the fifth, and Ab the seventh. o We have used one of these chords in the harmony last week and the week before thatwhich one was it? o Yes, the Bb triad, but now the Bb triad incl udes another note Ab concert which changes the Bb triad to a dominant seventh chord in Eb major. Note to the instructor: Have the class play both the Eb concert scale and its triad, the Bb Mixolydian scale and the full seventh chord using their scale sheets. Model CD #1, cuts 55, 56, 57, and 58. o Then voice the two chords in the harmony. o The chord voicing appears in measure 25 (Eb triad) and measure 29 (Bb7 chord). o Stack the chords starting with the root, third, fifth, sevent h, blending and balancing each as each note sounds, build each chord until th e students have a firm grasp on the new harmony. o Then play through letter B to C to let the students hear parts. Chord voicing for measure 25: Root, Eb tonic triad : double basses, violins, tubas, bassoons, flutes, and trumpets. Third, Eb tonic triad : violin cellos, trombones, barit ones, tenor sax, and clarinets. Fifth, Eb tonic triad : violas, F-horn, and alto sax. Chord voicing for measure 29: Root, Bb dominant seventh chord: double basses, tubas, bassoons. Third, Bb dominant seventh chord : violins, trumpets, flutes and oboe. Fifth, Bb dominant seventh chord : violin cellos, trombones, baritones, and tenor sax. Seventh, Bb dominant seventh chord: violas, F-horns, alto sax, and clarinets. State to the class: Now we need to outline the form of the piece, letter C begins the Root movement of the two chords Eb concert and Bb7. o Lets sight read through the exerci se and see if we can hear th e root of the chords change in time with the melody. o Try to hear the melody as you play through le tter C. (Play the model CD #1, cut 47, then have the students play their corresponding parts) Note to the instructo r: Once the ensemble completes this exercise, remind the students of the length of this particular melody, it is a 24 bar form, meaning the melodic structure takes 24 measures to complete itself. o This exercise concludes the less on for the first day of the week.

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144 Unit 3 Lesson 2 Goals for Unit 3 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music st yles including Bossa N ova, jazz, waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the prope r articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes Note to the instructor: After a quick review of the mel ody and harmony the students played during the first days lesson, have the students follow the bass line of the harmonic structure by listening to the double bass, tubas, a nd bassoon section of the ensemble. o Then play the CD cut that corresponds to day ones exercises (model CD #1, cuts 45, 46, and 47. Once the review has been completed, move on with the next section. State to the class : Letter D begins the variation of th e root movement of the chords Eb to Bb7. o Measure 73 adds the 2nd (or 9th ) note of the Eb concert s cale while measure 79 adds the 2nd note (or 9th ) of the Bb Mixolydian scale. o Measure 85 adds the 3rd with the root and the 9th of the Eb concert scale while measure 91 adds the 3rd with the ninth and the root of the Bb Mixolydian scale/chord. o Quarter notes replace the long dotted half notes for a change of rhythm. Listen to the model (CD #1, cut 48) and finger your notes as the music plays through letter D. o (After the music plays) You think you can play letter D? Lets try it! Note to the instructor: Since Letter D is 24 bars long, the students may have a little trouble negotiating the variation. o If this happens divide the vari ation into two 12 bar phrases. o When the ensemble completes letter D, letter E provides a slightly ha rder variation on the melody. o We will slow down the tempo as the students attempt to negotiate the two 12 bar phrases. State to the class: The variation at letter E uses the melody as a basis for its rhythms and melodic content. o Eighth note rhythms replace quarter note and quarter notes replace eighth notes in the first 12 bars of letter E. o Five notes of the Eb concert scale are writ ten backwards in eighth notes in measure 98 connect to measure 99 the root of the scale. o Measure 103 shows another eighth note scale, the first five notes of the Bb Mixolydian mode connect to a quarter note in measure 104, which is the sevent h of Bb Mixolydian mode. o The second part of the twenty-four-measure va riation begins in measure 109 and uses the notes of the melody in a different rhythm. o The long dotted half notes are replaced by half notes and eighth notes, but the melody is still outlined in the new rhythms.

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145 o Listen to the model CD #1, cut 49 and finger your parts as the music plays. (After listening) o Do you think you can play through this variation? Great! Lets try it! Note to the instructor: This last variation may be the toughest one yeto As the students play through letter E. slow it down for the first time through. o Measure 109can be vocalized using jazz syllables doo-dit-doo-doo-doo-doo-doo. o Measure 115 and 118 are the same r hythm with the same vocalization. o Have the students try all three measures sa ying the syllables and fi ngering the notes on their instruments before they attempt playing the last phrase of letter E. o After the class has experienced al l of the variations assign sect ions to different variations. Model CD #1, cuts 50 (letters C w/ B), 51 (lette r D only), 52 (letters D w/ B), 53 (letter E only) and 54 (letter E w/ B). o You are going to begin the melody, then l oop the harmony at letter B playing it the number of times that you have assigned each section of the band a variation. o Since this melody is longer and splits into two 12 bar phrases, when you assign a variation to different sections of the band try splitting up th e 24 bar sections into 12 bar phrases. o Make the section performing the variation th e soloist, while everyone else plays the accompaniment (letter B). o When all sections are done playing, play the melody one last time-pointing to your head before the last section plays to signify, go back and play the beginning one last time, ending at letter B. o When you are done, tell the students we will review on Friday. o They will have a chance to play an individual solo with or without using the variations on the last days lesson in improvisation.

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146 Unit 3 Lesson 3 Goals for Unit 3 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives; Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module; Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhythmic and melodic ideas. Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a re view of all of the variations the Eb concert scale and Bb Mixolydian modes. Model CD #1, cut 59 (letter A though E) and cuts 55, 56, 57, and 58 (scales and arpeggios w/ harmony) o Remind the class that notes choices from bot h the Eb scale and the Bb Mixolydian mode are for use in their own improvised solo. o So, keep the scale sheets handy. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in a healthy environment, one which allows mistakes and fosters having fun. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepared the sections when they played their variations at the e nd of day twos lesson. State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing a different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD #1, cut 59 once fo r final comprehension, and then we will start from the beginning. Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try thei r hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use their own ideas-great, em phasize that its okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progr ession) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have com pleted th eir solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter A stopping at letter B. o I will give the volunteers award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward.

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147 State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by yourself. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at the end of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ensembles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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148 Unit 4 Lesson 1 Melody 4 : Mary Ann Style: Calypso Key center: Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), Dominant F7 (V7) Form: A sixteen-measure melody complete with a theme and six variations three forms, three melodies. Rhythmic concepts : Simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic, and dominant tr iads to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Calypso beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and use of three chord scale relati onships: tonic and dominant, rhyt hmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input. Goals for Unit 4 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented o Perform on at least one instrument (alone a nd in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition o Understand the historic background of each st ylistic arrangement of the six different melodies in the module; and o Learn about the composer who developed the style for each of the six arrangements featured in the module

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151 Dominant F7 seventh : violin cellos, trombones, baritones, and tenor sax. State to the class : Great job! You have already starte d to listen and blend and balance the Bb triad and F7 chord much better. o Now lets play the harmony at letter B. (Model CD #1, cut 61) o You will the chords change as you play through the piece. o (Play through letter B to C). o Excellent job-did you hear th e chords change? Great! o Now we will try to outline the form of the piece by playing the root movement of the two chords in the harmony. (Model CD #1, cut 62) o Make sure you use a smooth legato articu lation as you play through the section! o (Play letter C) (After they play) Excellent job! o Today you learned about calypso style through listening to the Banana Boat Song, played Mary Ann in the same style, learned the harmony, and identified the form of the melody! Whew! Good job! o On day two we will play through all of the variations and have a section play off on which section can play th eir variation the best!

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152 Unit 4 Lesson 2 Goals for Unit 4 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music st yles including Bossa N ova, jazz, waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the prope r articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style. o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes. Note to the instructor: After a quick review of the me lody, harmony and scales the students played during the first days lesson, have the st udents follow the bass line of the harmonic structure by listening to the double bass, tuba s, and bassoon section of the ensemble. o Then play the CD cut that corresponds to da y ones exercises. (CD #1, cuts 60 thru 62). o Once the review has been completed, move on with the next section. State to the class: By now you all have a pretty good idea of how the days lesson will develop. We will start by looking at letter D. o This is also a variation of the form through using the root of the two chords, but now the study adds notes from the two scales of Bb concert and F Mixolydian. o In measures 49 and 50 the notes concert C and concert A (the se cond scale degree and seventh scale degree of the Bb concert scale) are added to the root of concert Bb. o In measures 53 and 54 concert G and concert Eb (the second scale degree and seventh scale degree of the F Mixolydian scale) are added to the root of F Mixolydian. o Measure 57 shows the root, second (9th), and third of the Bb c oncert ascending then again descending in the next measure. o The same pattern appears in measure 61 and 62 with the same scale degrees for the F Mixolydian scale. o The rhythm is all quarters and eights ex cept for measure 59 and 63 where the dotted quarter eighth note pattern is seen in the rhythm. o Use to syllable doo-dit dah to voice this rhythm. o Lets try saying that voicing together. (practice voicing a few times together) o Do you think you can play through the variation? o Listen to the model CD #1, cut 63, while you finger the notes for your instrument on this section. o (After they have listened). Now lets try playing the variation! o Remember to use smooth or legato tonguing. Here we go! (Play Letter D) o (After they complete the variation) Good job! Lets continue with letter E! o Notice something familiar in the rhythm? Yes, its the same dotted quarter-eighth note rhythm used in the two measures of letter D. o Letter E also adds a few more notes to the rhythm pattern. o Measure 66 adds the notes concert F and Eb (t he fifth and fourth scale degree of the Bb concert scale), while measure 70 adds the notes concert C, D and Eb (the fifth, sixth, and seventh of the F Mixolydian scale). o Listen to the model CD #1 as it plays cut 64, and see if you can vocalize the rhythm as you finger the notes of the variation. (Play the cut) o Okay, how did you do?

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153 o Did you hear the rhythm of the dotted quarter eighth note pattern? o Lets try to platy through the variation! (Play letter E) (After completion) o Great job! You all are getting better!! o Look at letter F, this variation uses the outline of the melody as a basis for the content in its variation. o The rhythm changes a bit with two eighth not es appearing on the fi rst beat of almost every measure of the variation. o Lets try using the syll ables doo-doo-dah-dah for this rhythm pattern. o The notes of this variation at letter F are taken from the me lody with a few additions from both the Bb concert scale a nd the F Mixolydian scale. o In measure 89 concert Eb and concert G are added. o These two tones are used as passing tones, to nes that pass chord tone s, which are concert D (the third of the Bb triad, and conc ert F (the fifth of the Bb triad). o Measure 92 the concert F is the root of the c hord in the harmony and Eb is the note from the melody. o Measure 93 and 94 the concert D and Bb eighth notes are also passing tones. o Try vocalizing these syllables all the way through the variat ion, staying in time with one another, and while you finger the notes of the variation on your instruments. Note to the instructor: Once the students have worked through the variation using syllables, play the model CD #1, at cut 66 and ha ve them follow along while they finger their notes and say the rhythmic syllables. o Then have the students play letter F. o Technically the variation uses the same notes of the melody, but in a repeated four eighth note pattern. State to the class: Letter G rearranges where the two ei ghth notes fall in the measure, from the second beat and then to the first beat and second beats. o The first phrase uses all of the same notes from the melody but the rhythmic pattern is different. o The rhythm pattern in measure 97, 98, 101, 102 should be vocalized as doo-doo-dit-doodit. o Measures 103, 104, 109, 110, and 111 all use four consecutive eighth notes one the first two beats of the measure. Use the syllable s doo-doo-doo-doo-doo-daht to help internalize the rhythm o Lets try to vocalize this rhythm several times before we try playing the variation at letter G. (After the students have the rhythm). o Now, lets listen to the model CD #1, cut 67 and vocalize this rhythm and finger the your notes as the music plays. Note to the instructor: Play the model (CD #1, cut 67) and have the students participate verbally and technically (fi ngering the notes in time). o Once the model has played through, have the class play at letter G. o Letter H is a bit advanced rhythmically for the class. o The last phrase breaks up the repeated four eighth note pattern and puts it in a syncopated rhythmic pattern of eighth-quarter -eighth half note configuration.

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154 o So practice these rhythms using the vocal syllables offered in the class section. State to the class: You have successfully completed five out of six variations, now, look at letter H. o The first phrase of the variati on at letter H uses the rhythm ic pattern of eighth-quartereighth-half note in seven out of eight measures. o Vocalize this rhythm using doo-dit-doo-da h and practice the rhythm several times together in time. o Measure 121 drops the first eighth note in the measure and works on a syncopated pattern on the and of one with variations to this rhythm. o Vocal syllables would sound as (doo) doo dah (doo) doo-dah, doo-doo-dit dah. The first doo is in parentheses because it is silent in the rhythm-teach the rhythm with the down beat first then take it away. o Measure 124 to the end use doo-doo-doo-dah for syllables. o Now we will listen to the model CD #1 cut 68 and finger the notes on our instruments as we also verbalize the rhythms as we listen to the music. o (After the music plays) Are you ready? Here we go!! Note to the instructor: This is the last variation for Mary Ann. o After the class has experienced playing through all of the variations assign a section of the ensemble to different variations. o The ensemble will begin the melody, then loop the harmony at le tter B playing it the number of times that you have assigned each section of the band a variation. o Make the section performing the variation t he soloist while everyone else plays the accompaniment (letter B). Use the model CD #1, cuts 69 (letter C w/ B), 70 (D alone), 71 (letter D w/ B), 72 (E alone), 73 (E w/ B), 74 (F alone), 75 (F w/ B), 76 (G alone), 77 (G w/ B), 78 (H alone), 79 (H w/ B) to give the students the concept. o After all sections have performed through thei r variation, then play the melody one last time-pointing to your head before the last sec tion plays to signify go back and play the beginning one last time then end at letter B. o When the ensemble has competed the theme and variation exercise tell the students we will review on Friday. o They will have a chance to play an individual solo with or without using the variations on the last days lesson in improvisation.

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155 Unit 4 Lesson 3 Goals for Unit 4 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhyt hmic and melodic ideas Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a re view of all of the variations the Bb concert scale and F Mixolydian modes. Use the model CD #1 cut 82 (Melody, harmony, and all variations in a row) and cuts 80 a nd 81 to review the s cales and arpeggios. o Remind the class that notes choices from bot h the Bb scale and the F Mixolydian mode are for use in their own improvised solo. o So, keep the scale sheets from Hot Cross Buns with the same scales and modes on the music stand close by. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in a healthy environment, one which allows mistakes and fosters having fun. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepared the sections when they played their variations at the e nd of day twos lesson. State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing a different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for final comp rehension, and then we will start from the beginning. Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try thei r hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use th eir own ideas-great, em phasize that its okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progr ession) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have completed th eir solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter A stopping at letter B.

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156 o I will give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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157 Unit 5 Lesson 1 Melody 5 : Kum Ba Yah Style: Early Folk Rock Key Center : Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, Eb Lydian, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), Subdominant Eb (IV), Dominant F7 (V7) Form: A sixteen-measure melody complete with a theme and six variations two forms, four melodies. Rhythmic concepts : Dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic, subdominant, and dominant triads to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Soft rock beat using bass drum, snare drum, and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and use of three chord scale rela tionships: tonic, subdominant, and dominant, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the st udents own creative input. Goals for Unit 5 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented o Perform on at least one instrument (alone a nd in groups); demonstrating appropriate tone, articulation, and note recognition o Understand the historic background of each st ylistic arrangement of the six different melodies in the module; and o Learn about the composer who developed th e style for each of the six arrangements featured in the module

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159 o Eb Lydian mode begins on the fourth note of the Bb concert scale, but because the Eb Lydian mode, like the F Mixolydian mode uses the same notes as Bb concert it sounds a little different than a major scale. o The fourth note of the Eb Lydian mode is concert A natural. o Concert A natural is also the seventh note of the Bb concert scale because its the seventh note of the Bb concert scale. o Since the Eb Lydian mode uses the same key center as Bb concert, when you play this particular mode concert A natural makes th e mode sound different than the Bb major (concert) scale. o We will play the Bb concert scale, then the Eb Lydian mode, and finally the F Mixolydian mode, as they appear on your scale sheets. o See if you can hear the difference be tween the three scales or modes. o (After playing all three scale/modes) Did you hear a slight difference? o I thought you might! o We will play each triad or chord and their re spective arpeggios and then play them in block form so you can hear the difference between the three triads. Note to the instructor: Remember to begin this exercise with the instruments who play the root, then stack the instrume nts that sound the third, then fifth, and finally seventh. o Always remember to blend and balance the chord tones within section as they are sounded. Chord Voicing for measure 18 Root, Bb tonic triad : Double bass, tuba, baritone sax, bassoon, flutes and oboe. Third, Bb tonic triad : cello, trombone, baritone, trum pet, tenor sax, and clarinet. Fifth, Bb tonic triad : viola, F-horn, and alto sax. Chord voicing for measure 19 Root, Eb subdominant triad : double bass, viola, violin 2, tuba, baritone sax, bassoon. Third, Eb subdominant triad : violin, F-Horn, alto sax, and clarinet. Fifth, Eb subdominant triad: cello, trombone, baritone, tenor sax, flute, oboe Chord voicing for measure 24 Root, F dominant seventh chord: double bass, tuba, bary sax, bassoon. Third, F do minant seventh chord : viola, 2nd violin, F-horn, alto sax. Fifth, F dominant seventh chord : cello, trombone, baritone, tenor sax, and clarinet.

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160 Seventh, F dominant seventh chord : violin, trumpet, flute, and oboe. State to the class : Once every instrument has sounded their pitches in measure 18, 19, and 24 each chord of the harmony will be defined. o We will now play through the sixteen-measure sequence beginning at letter B outlining the harmony. o See if you can hear the chords change as the ensemble plays through the harmony. o Playing the chords of the harmony is also called playing th rough the changes. o Are you ready? Okay! o Note to the instructor: Play through the harmony at letter B first, then go back and play the melody at letter A, then the harmony at letter B. o Tell the class this is called playing the head (the melody), then the changes (the harmony)! State to the class : Identification of the form begins at letter C where all instruments voice the root of each triad in unison defining the sixteen-measure form. o Playing through this variati on allows the class to bette r understand the outline of the harmonic structure. o This particular concept is not a new one as we have played through si milar drills like this one using earlier tunes prepared in the same format. o You will hear a difference in faster chord m ovement with some triads moving from chord change to chord change in one beat. o Letter C though should be fairly easy. Are you ready? Great, lets try it! Note to the instructor: Once the class has played through letter C, outlining the form, play the model CD #1, cut 83-thru 85 once, then have the class begin at letter A and play through letter C reviewing what they have lear ned for the day, completing the days lesson.

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161 Unit 5 Lesson 2 Goals for Unit 5 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music st yles including Bossa N ova, jazz, waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the prope r articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes State to the Class: Today we will begin the lesson with a review of the melody Kum Ba Yah the harmony of the tune and the root movement of the chords in harmony to outline the form of the sixteen-measure melody. o Before we play lets listen to all of the variations on the m odel CD (cuts 11a thru 11h) as we finger our notes on each of our instruments as the music plays on the CD. Note to the instructor: After the model CD plays thru cuts 11a thru 11h, have the have the students play thru letter C of this weeks tune. o Then we will be ready for the first variation. State to the class; Letter D begins the firs t variation of the form. o The second note and the root of the Bb concert scale appears in measure 50, the root and the second (ninth) of the Eb Lydian Mode appear in measure 51. o The second note and also the root of the F Mixolydian mode appear in measure 56. o Measure 58, 60, 61, and 64 adds the thir d note of the Bb concert scale. o The rhythm of letter C changes slightly from half and whol e notes to quarter and half notes, o Some half notes also appear tied across the bar, much like the original melody. o Play the model CD #1, cut 86. o Lets try playing thru this variation. o (Play letter D) Note to the instructor: After the class plays through letter D, the ne xt variation uses the melody as the basis for its material. o The rhythm of the dotted quart er-eighth note appear s, along with half notes and quarter notes mixed with two eighth notes repl ace the tied half to whole note rhythm. State to the class: The variation at letter E w ill rem ind you of the melody. o The original melody has been changed slight ly in the rhythm and by adding a few new notes in the variation at letter D. o Half, quarter, and eighth notes replace the long whole notes of the original melody. o The dotted quarter note rhythm written for th e original melody is also found in this variation. o To aide in counting the rhythm of the dotte d quarter-eighth note rh ythm pattern found in several measures of the varia tion at letter E, try using the syllable doo-dit-dah to vocalize the rhythm together, in time.

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162 o Do you think you can play through this variation? (Model CD #1, cut 87) Good! Lets try it! Note to the instructor: Practice saying the jazz syllables a couple of times together at a low volume so the students can hear each other keeping good time! o Then cue up the model CD #1 to cut 87 and have the class listen to the variation as they finger their notes and chant syllables for the rhythms. o Go ahead and play CD #1, cut 88, then have students listen as the music plays thru the next variation. o Quarter notes replace whole not es and the dotted qua rter-eighth note pa ttern appear one either beat one or beat three in several meas ures different in an attempt to vary the rhythm of the original melody. o Measure 82s rhythmic pattern of a dotted quarter note, eighth note to two quarters returns throughout the variation. Use the syllable s doo-dit-doo-daht to help internalize the rhythm. o When the students play this rhythm play the rhythm smoothly in legato style and accent the last note. State to the class: Great job on letter E. You have already heard letter F. o Letter F places the dotted quarter-eighth note r hythm combination on different beats through the variation. Measure 82 shows the dotted quarter note eighth note pattern combining with two quarter notes. Us e the syllables doo-dit-doo-daht doo. o For the accented notes, use separation, fo r consecutive quarter notes use a legato articulation but move the line to the accented quar ter notes found at the end of the phrase. o Try to vocalize these two rhythm pattern s together using the jazz syllables. o For this variation, its th e rhythm pattern that varies note the pitch of the original melody! o (After they have vocalized the patterns) Great job! o Now, play the model CD #1, cut 89 and listen to the variation at letter G. Note to the instructor: Have the students play through le tter G after they have practiced vocalizing the rhythmic patterns using the syllables as suggested. o The variation at letter H maybe on the advan ced level for some of the students to comprehend and play technically and rhythmically. o Teach the variation to the class, and then ha ve your more advance students perform the variation first. o If they are successful then the class will follow, if not, stop at letter F. o The four eighth note run that st arts the variation at letter G, appears ag ain in m easure 101, o The first five notes of the Bb concert scale ar e represented in the notes of this rhythmic pattern. o The same five note rhythmic pattern is writ ten, descending from the fifth note of the Bb concert scale, in measure 110. o Use the jazz syllables doo-doo-doo-doo-dah us ing legato articulation, for both of the short rhythmic motives. o Another eighth note run that incorporates th e Bb concert scale beginning on the root and then ascends in eighth notes up to the seventh of the scale (a quarter note on beat four) appears in measure 112.

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163 o To aide in teaching this rhythm use le gato articulation, the syllables doo-doo-doo-doodoo-doo-daht, and play the r hythm in strict time. o The syncopated rhythm pattern of eighth-qua rter-eighth beginning on beat one seen in measure 103, 104, and 105 can be vocalized by counting out loud saying one-and-andthree-(four) and by using the syllables doo-dit-doo-dah-. State to the class : All right you are doing great!! o Now lets try the last variation at letter I. o Do you see the eighth note runs and the sync opated rhythms we have played before in other tunes in this study? o The runs are a part of wh at scale? (Bb Concert). o First lets define the rhythm of the first measure of letter I. o Count three-an-four-an-one or vocalize in syllables using doo-doo-doo-doo-dah. o (After the ensemble rehearses the rhythm, say) o Do you think you can play the first five notes of that scale in eighth notes using a legato articulation? o If you cant tongue the eighth notes that fast try slurring them! o (Try it first using a legato articulation then slurred). o (Play the first five notes of the Bb concert Scale). o Great! You got it, now try slurring the same notes! o (After they play) Great! Now, can you move you fingers a little quicker? Try it! o Now try the whole scale but stop on the sevent h note, like you see in measure 112. (Play the scale) (After playing) Great! o (Have the class try to gain a little speed by staying relaxed and blowing faster air!) o (Play the scale) (After playing) Great! Thats it-way to go! o Now look at the rhythm pattern in measure 103, 104, and 105. o The rhythm is eighth-quarter-eighthquarter or threeandandone. o Use the jazz syllable doo-dit-doodah to vocalize the rhythm. o Try saying together several times keeping good time as a group! o Now your instructor will play cut 11i of the m odel CD. o (Have the class count out loud using the jazz syllables and fingering their notes! Note to the instructor: This is the last variation for Kum By Yah o After the class has played through all of the variations assign differe nt sections of the ensemble to a variation. o You are going to begin the melody, then l oop the harmony at letter B playing it the number of times that you have assigned each section of the band a variation. o Make the section performing the variation th e soloist, while everyone else plays the accompaniment (letter B). o When all sections are done playing, then play the melody one last tim e, pointing to your head before the last section plays to signify, go back and play the beginning one last time ending at letter B. o When you are done, tell the students we will review on Friday. o They will have a chance to play an individual solo with or with-out using the variations on the last days lesson in improvisation.

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164 Unit 5 Lesson 3 Goals for Unit 5 Lesson 3 i. Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: 1. Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives 2. Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module 3. Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or 4. Creating his/her own rhythm ic and melodic ideas Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a re view of all of the variations the Bb concert scale, the Eb L ydian and F Mixolydian modes. o Remind the class that notes choices from both the Bb scale the Eb Lydian and the F Mixolydian modes are for use in their own improvised solo. o So, keep the scale sheets from Kum Ba Yah on the music stand close by. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in a healthy environment, one which allows mistakes and fosters having fun. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepared the sections when they played their variations at the e nd of day twos lesson. State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing a different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for final comp rehension, and then we will start from the beginning. Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try thei r hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use their own ideas-great, em phasize that its okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progr ession) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have com pleted th eir solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter A stopping at letter B. o I will give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day?

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165 o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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166 Unit 6 Lesson 1 Melody 6 : Freddie Freeloader Study Goals include : The National Standards for Arts Education (Goal #10 and #11 of the curriculum study) and 1 thru 12 of the curriculums study goals. Style: Cool Jazz Key Center : Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Metronome Marking : Quarter note = 112. Scales/Modes : Bb Mixolydian scale, Eb Mixolyd ian, F Mixolydian, and Ab Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb7 (I7), Subdominant Eb7 (IV7), Dominant F7 (V7), Flat Locrian Ab7 (bVI7) Form: Repeated 12 bar blues or 24 bar with fi rst and second endings complete with harmonic voicing in all instruments and six va riations, two using root movement of the harmony and two using melodic material. Rhythmic concepts : Quarter note, three, four an d five eighth note melodic motive development, short five and six note motives usin g jazz style, jazz phrasing and articulations. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of Dominant seventh chords o ff the tonic, subdominant, dominant, and flat Locrian scale degrees to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Straight ahead swing for rhythm section and wind instruments. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all four dominant seventh chords involved in the harmony. Plus identification and use of four chord scal e relationships: tonic, subdominant, dominant, and flat Locrian dominant Mixolydian scales, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input. Goals for Unit 6 Lesson 1 o Recognize and play the melody presented

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168 o The jazz syllable used here in measure 12, however would be doo-bah where the last eighth note on beat four is ti ed to the whole note signifying the syllable should be voiced. o So the jazz phrasing using vo calization starting on beat four of measure 8 would be ditdah, dit-dah, and doo-bah. o For the second ending starting with beat four of measure eight dit-dah, dit-dah, and ditdoo dah. Note to the instructor: Have the class try the articulati ons several times before they try playing letter A and then play through to letter C. (Model CD #2, cuts 1, 2, and 3) o Letter B is the same melody with the harmony used on the album. State to the class: That was a different soundi ng harmony wasnt it. o Do you like it? o Speaking of a different harmony, the chords used to harmonize this particular tune are four dominant seventh chords Bb7, Eb7, F7 and Ab7. o And because they are all dominant seven chords, each chord is formed form its own Mixolydian mode. o So we will not use any major scales in the harmony for this tune. o We will also learn the Bb, Eb, F, and Ab bl ues scales because you can substitute the blues scale for the Mixolydian mode when you play a blues solo. o Look at your scale sheets and find the Bb, Eb, F, and Ab Mixolydian modes for this tune and also find the Bb, Eb, F, and Ab blues scales. o Just as you have before identify the root, third, fifth, and now seventh for each dominant seven chord of Freddie Freeloader. o Lets play each mode and broken chord that accompanies each mode. o (Play the four Mixolydian modes and their broken chords) o You already know two of the four dominant seventh chords you have just played, you have used them before in other tune s of this study-can you name them? o (Bb7 and F7) Thats correct! o Now the two other dominant seven chords are Eb7, in which you already now the Eb triad, and Ab7, a totally new mode and chord. o Did you hear how all of the modes and domina nt seventh chords sound similar? Thats right! o They are related because of the using the same Mixolydian formula which the basis for building every dominant seventh chord. o Okay, now lets try the four blues scale up and down. o (Play th e scales). o The blues scale is made up of notes that ar e called altered notes (notes from the major scale, which are raised or lowered by sharps or flats to make a bluesy sound). o Each blues scale includes a root note, a flat third, a fourth, a flat fift h, a regular fifth, and a seventh. o You can use the notes in these scales over the dominant seven chords that have the same root. o Lets sound the harmony written in the study and listen for the voicing of all four of the dominant seventh chords.

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169 Note to the instructor: The notes for the four Mixolydian modes and four blues scales the students can use as note choices are written in the students own scale sheets for the study, they are also included below for your information. Scale tones of the Mixolydian modes, blues scales, and chord tones for each dominant seventh chord of Freddie Freeloader. o Bb dominant seventh chord: Bb, D, F, Ab o Mixolydian scale : Bb, C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb. o Bb blues scale: Bb, Db, Eb, E, F, Ab, Bb. o Eb dominant seventh chord: Eb, G, Bb, Db o Mixolydian scale : Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C, Db, Eb. o Eb blues scale: Eb, Gb. Ab, A, Bb, Db, Eb. o F dominant seventh chord: F, A, C, Eb o Mixolydian scale : F, G, A, Bb, C, D, Eb, F. o F blues scale : F, Ab, Bb, B, C, Eb, F. o Ab dominant seventh chord: Ab, C, Eb, Gb o Mixolydian scale : Ab, Bb, C, Db, Eb, F, Gb, Ab. o Ab blues scale: Ab, Cb, C, Db, Eb, Gb, Ab. Chord voicing measure 33 Root, Bb dominant seventh chord: double bass, tuba, bassoon, bary sax. Third, Bb dominant seventh chord : violin cello, trombone, baritone, tenor sax. Fifth, Bb dominant seventh chord : viola, French horn, alto sax, clarinet. Seventh, Bb dominant seventh chord: violins, trumpet, flute, oboe. Chord voicing measure 37 Root, Eb dominant seventh chord: double bass, tuba, bassoon, bary sax Third, Eb dominant seventh chord: viola, French horn, alto sax, clarinet. Fifth, Eb dominant seventh chord: violins, trum pets, flutes, oboe. Seventh, Eb dominant seventh chord: violin cello, trombone, baritone, tenor sax. Chord voicing measure 41 Root, F dominant seventh chord: double bass, tuba, bassoon, bary sax. Third, F dominant seventh chord: violins, trumpets, flutes, oboe.

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170 Fifth, F dominant seventh chord: violin cello, trombones, baritones, tenor sax. Seventh, F dominant seventh chord: viola, French horn, alto sax, clarinet. Chord voicing measure 43 Root, Ab dominant seventh chord: double bass, tuba, bassoon, bary sax. Third, Ab dominant seventh chord: violins, trumpets, flutes, oboe. Fifth, Ab dominant seventh chord: violin cello, trombones, baritones, tenor sax. Seventh, Ab dominant seventh chord: viola, French horn, alto sax, clarinet. Note to the Instructor: To sound the notes of each chord stack from the root thru the blending and balancing as you add instrument sections. o Have each section listen and tune as they add their respective note to the chord. o Once each chord has been sounded, go through the exercise at letter C and play the harmony to the tune. (Model CD #2, cut 3) o When finished, go back to the beginning and play from letter A to C. State to the class: (After the ensemble finishes the exer cise, have the clas s look at their scale sheets) o Now lets use the Mixolydian scale and blues scal es we just played in a solo exercise. o Play through the scales in quart er notes ascending and descending. o As we are playing the scales, see if you also hear and visualize the root, third, fifth, and seventh of each scale. o (After they complete the exercise). Great! o We know that the root, third, fi fth, and seventh notes of the Bb Mixolydian scale create the Bb dominant seventh chord. o Since the Bb dominant seventh chord is made form the Bb Mixolydian scale, you can also use the individual notes of the Bb Mixolydian sc ale as note choices in an improvised solo when the Bb seventh chord is played. o The same idea is true for all four scal es and chords of the harmony used in Freddie Freeloader, the notes in the Eb Mixolydian scal e can be played over the Eb dominant seventh chord, same for the F Mixolydian scale and the F dominant chord, and Ab Mixolydian scale and the Ab dominant chord. o These four Mixolydian modes are arranged on your scale sheets so the notes of each scale match up to the harmony used at letter C in Freddie Freeloader. o Each section of the ensemble will take a turn at playing the four modes through the harmony while the rest of the band accompanies th e section that is performing. Note to the instructor: Assign one section to run the scale exercise while the rest of the band plays the harmony at letter C. o The blues scales are arranged in the same manner.

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171 o When each section finishes playing the Mixol ydian scale exercise play through the four blues scales, then number off which section is playing first and then repeat the exercise using the blues scales. State to the class: One final exercise for the da y, outlining the root progression. o It will be a bit different due to the fact that the melody repeats, making the form longer plus adding a fourth chord in the harmony, also adding a fourth note in the harmonic progression. o In this variation where we will outline the form, the rhythm changes to three quarter notes written in succession, for every measure of the variation. o We are implementing the swing style; sli ghtly emphasize the second note in the group of three. o Use the jazz syllable da ht-doo-dit, emphasizing doo. o The second ending shows the rhythm changing to a quarter then two eighth notes on beat one then two-an. o Now use the jazz syllables daht, doo-dit for every measure. Note to the instructor: Once the class has played through lett er D, then run the tune from the beginning through letter D. o Keep the swing aspect in their minds remindi ng them to use the jazz syllables in their head as they play through the theme, harmony, form exercises. o Once the class has finished the last exercise the lesson concludes.

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172 Unit 6 Lesson 2 Goals for Unit 6 Lesson 2 o Perform, on instruments, different music st yles including Bossa N ova, jazz, waltz, soft rock, folk rock, calypso, and swing o Understand the concept of style and demonstrating the prope r articulations and rhythms inherent to each musical style o Perform the arpeggios of the chords used in the harmonic form; tonic, subdominant, and dominant seven modes State to the class: Today is our last day to learn ne w variations, however every variation we will play today uses jazz phrasing and syllables. o First, we will review the tune Freddie Freeloader using the model CD. o We will listen to cut 9. (Melody, harmony, plus all variations) o This time when you listen, see if you can say th e jazz syllables with the actual rhythm. o While you are vocalizing the jazz rhythm also finger your notes, but finger them in time with the rhythm and feel of jazz swing. o Okay, its time to swing in band class! o I hope you all are probably pretty pumped up about playing a real jazz chart! o And thats okay as long as we all understa nd what we are playing is cool jazz, which uses smooth articulations, not harsh blatting and squawking. Note to the instructor: After the replay of the model, pl ay the real cut #15, Miles Daviss group. o Let them hear and get excited about playing a re al jazz tune in the f eel of cool swing. o This variation outlines root movement, plus one other and then two more that use the fragments of the original melody. (Model CD #2, cut 4) State to the class: We have already played through letter D, now look at letter E. o The four note motives at letter E outline the root, the third, and the second (also the 9th) scale degree of each dominant seventh chord in the harmony. o Each four eighth note motive begins on the dow nbeat of every measur e in the variation. o The rhythm, one and two an, translates in to jazz syllables using doo-bah-doo-dit. o The eighth note on beat one and two are elonga ted while the an of both of the beats are pronounced with a shorter syllable. o Use the shortest syllable, d it, on the up beat of two. Note to the instructor: If you can make your class swing on th is variation, they can play most jazz phrases. o The trick is in the preparation and the vocalization of the syllables. o Have the class listen to the model CD #2, cut 5. o Make them say the syllables IN TIME, use a metronome if you have to, then say the syllables with them over and over and they will take over, guaranteed!!! State to the class: Now that we have a rhyt hmic feel for the varia tion, lets give it a go! o Are you ready? Okay then! Start at letter E!

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173 o When you play through this variation listen for the harmony as the four-note motives move through Them Changes. o (After they have play ed) Lets keep going! Note to the instructor: The variation at Letter F introduces a new rhythm and a melodic line based on the original melody. o The variation is actually four two-meas ure phrases and two four-measure phrases. o To aide in teaching the four two-measure phrases, a break down of the rhythms, counting, and suggested jazz syllables one may use to further define each rhythmic motive is outlines below. o First have each student voice the counting, then have the students voi ce each phrase with the jazz syllables as they finger the notes on their instrument for each rhythmic motive. o Measure 81 and 82: the rhythmic pattern shows two quarter notes on beats one and two, followed by four eighth notes on beat three and four tied to a half note on beats one and two of measure 82, followed by a half rest on beats three and four. o The counting for the two bar phr ase is: one, two, three and four and tied to a half note, rest. o Jazz syllables for the rhythmic phrase in measure 81 and 82: o Daht, Daht, doo-bah-doo-dah----. o Measures 85 and 86, 87 and to beat four of 88 are the same rhythmic configuration as Measures 81 and 82. o The first four-bar phrase, measures 89, 90, 91, and 92 rhythm pattern begins with a pick up quarter note on beat four, followed by three eight notes and an ei ghth rest on the first two beats of measure 89, followed by a quarter rest, and a quarter no te on beat three and four. o The four bar phrase continues with three eighth notes and an eighth rest on first two beats of 90, followed by four eighth no tes on beat three and four ti ed to a whole note in 91 and another half note with a half rest in 92. o The counting for the four-measure phrase begi ns with the pick up note on beat four measure of 88; four, one and two, rest, rest, f our, one and two, rest, th ree and four an-----. o Adding the jazz syllables for the rhythmic phrase in measure 89 thru 92 also beginning with the pick up note on beat four of measur e 88 looks like this, dit, doo-bah-dit, rest, rest, dit, doo-bah di t, rest, dit-doo-bah. o The second four bar phrase, measures 93, 94, 95 and 96 also includes a pick up quarter note on beat four of measure 88, to a half not e, quarter rest, two ei ghth notes in 89, half note quarter rest, two eighths in 90, two half notes in 91 with the second half note tied to another half note on beat one of m easure 92, followed by a half rest on beat three to complete the measure. o The counting for measures 93,94, 95 and 96 starts with the same pick-up quarter note in 88 should sound like four, one(two), rest, four-and, one-(two) rest four-and one-(two), three-(four), one-(two), rest. o Adding jazz syllables for the rhythmic phrase in measures 93 thru 96, also staring with beat four of measure 88, sounds like; Dit, dah. rest, doo-bah-dah, rest, doo-bah, doo dah----. State to the class: Are you ready to try this variatio n? Lets listen to the model on more time. (Model CD #2, cut 5)

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174 o Did you hear some of the same rhythm s that you have already learned? o This variation reuses some of the same rhythm ic ideas of letter F, and then adds a few new notes. Note to the Instructor: To aide in teaching the counting of the five two measure phrases found at letter G in this arrangement, a break down of the rhythms, counting, and suggested jazz syllables one may use to further define each rhythmic motive. o First have each student voice the counting, then have the students voi ce each phrase with the jazz syllables as they finger the notes on their instrument for each rhythmic motive. o The rhythm of measure 97 begins with a qua rter rest, quarter note, dotted quarter note, followed by an eighth note. o The rhythm of measure 98 in cludes, two eighth notes on beat one, followed by a quarter note on beat two, and concludes with two eight h notes, and quarter not e rest on beat four. o The counting for both of the two measures is : rest, two, three (a nd four), and, one-and, two, three-and. o Adding jazz syllables for all of the rhythms in measure 97 and 98 voices the phrase: ditdah-bah-doo-bah-dit-doo-dit. o For measure 99 and 100 the same principles apply as there are in 97 and 98. o The next two-bar phrase in measure 101 and 102 begins with a quarter rest on beat one followed by a quarter note and four eighth notes on beats two, three, and four. o The rhythm for measure 100 includes tw o-quarter notes and a half rest. o The counting for this two-bar phrase is: res t, two, three-and-four-and (one), two, rest. o Adding jazz syllables for all of the rhythm s in measure 101 and 102 voices the phrase: rest, dit, doo-bah-doo-bah, dit. o Looking at the rhythm in the next two-bar phrase in measure 103 and 104, you see a quarter rest on beat one, followed by an eight h note, dotted quarter on beat two-three, followed by an eighth rest, and eighth note on beat four. o Measure 102 begins with two eighths on b eat one followed by one quarter note, two eighth notes on beat three, a nd ends with a quarter rest. o The counting for the two measures is: rest, two, and (three and) rest and, one-and, two, three-and, rest. o Adding the jazz syllables for all of the rhythms in measure 103 and 104 voices the phrase: rest, doo-bah, rest, bahdoo-bah, dit, doo-dit, rest. o The first four-bar phrase of letter G is found in measures 105, 106, 107, and 108. o The rhythm of the four-bar phrase includes four eighth notes on beat one and two of measure 105 followed by two-quarter notes on beat three and four. o Measure 106 rhythms include three eighth notes and an eighth rest on beats one and two and, followed by a quarter note, and two eighths on beat three and four and. o The and of four in measure 106 is tied to a whole note in measure 107, and that whole note is tied to a half rest on th e first two beats of measure 108. o A half rest completes the four bar phrase. o The counting for the four-bar phra se beginning in measure 105 is: o one-and-two-and, three, four, one and two, rest, three, four and--------. o Adding jazz syllables for all of the rhythm s in measure 105 thru 108 voices the phrase: doo-bah-doo-bah, doo, dit, doo-bahdit, rest, dit, doo-bah--. o The second four-bar phrase includes measures 109, 110, 111, and 112.

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175 o The rhythm of the four measures contains a half note on beats one and two of measure 109, and then a quarter note, followed by two eighths on beats three and four. o The rhythm in measure 100 shows a half note on beats one and two, followed by a quarter rest, two eighths on beats three and four. o Two half notes take up the time in measur e 111 with the half not e on beat three of measure 111 being tied to a half note on beats one and two of measure 112. o A half rest completes the rhythm in measure 112. o The counting of the second fou r-bar phrase beginning in m easure 109 is: one-two, rest, three and, one-two, rest, three and, onetwo, three-four, one-two, rest, rest. o Adding jazz syllables for all the rhythms in measure 109 thru 112 voices the phrase: dah, rest, do-bah, dah, rest, doo-bah, doo, bah---. State to the class: Now that we have practiced the rhyt hms using counting and voicing each two bar phrase, lets listen to the model one last time as we vocalize the jazz syllables and finger thru the notes as the mu sic plays. (Model CD #2, cut 7) o (After the music plays) o We will try playing the variation together. (Aft er they have played through the variation) Great job! o Now we will play through the melody at le tter B, because thats where the melody is harmonized, then play letter C as many times as there are sections playing a variation. o After each section completes playing their variation, go back and play the melody at letter B one time with the re peat, stopping at letter C. o When the ensemble completes this exercise remind them that on Friday they will be playing individual solos, so practice their Mixolydian m odes, blues scales and the variations we just played through.

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176 Unit 6 Lesson 3 Goals for Unit 6 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives; Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module; Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhythmic and melodic ideas. Note to the Instructor: The last day of the week includes a review of all of the variations, the Bb, the Eb, the F, and the Ab Mixolydian modes and the Bb, Eb. F. and Ab blues scales. (There is no model for the scales so use cu t 9 to hear the complete melody, harmony, and variations) o Remind the class that notes choices from th e Bb, the Eb, the F, and the Ab Mixolydian modes and blues scales are for us e in their own improvised solo. o So, keep the scale sheets from Freddie Freeloader on the music stand close by. o At first ask for volunteers, however if the shy students need a gentle shove you can accomplish this feat by having the students cheer each other on. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in a healthy environment, one which allows mistakes and fosters having fun. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepared the sections when they played their variations at the e nd of day twos lesson. State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by reassigning different sections of the ensemble playing different variation than they did at the end of day two. o We will play letter B, (the harmonized melody) then each section not playing a variation will play letter C to D until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate the melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for final comp rehension, and then we will start from the beginning. Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o Then ask for volunteers to try thei r hand at improvising their own solo. o If they want to use their own ideas-great, em phas ize that its okay to use ideas from the variations as well. o Each soloist may take one ride (once through the harmonic chord progr ession) or if there is a small showing of volunteers twice through the solo section. o Once all of the volunteers have completed th eir solos with band accompaniment-point to your head and replay the melody at letter B stopping at letter C. o I will give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo.

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177 o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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178 Unit 7 Lesson 1 Goals Unit 7 Lesson 1 : Review Unit 1 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhyt hmic and melodic ideas Melody 1 : Hot Cross Buns Style: Bossa Nova Key Center : Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), and Dominant F7 (V7) Form: An eight measure melody complete with a theme and six variations, two on the form, four on the melody. Rhythmic concepts : Simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic and dominant tria ds to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Easy Bossa Nova beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of the two chords involved in th e harmony, identification and use of two chord scale relationships : tonic, and dominant, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input.

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179 Note to the Instructor: This is review week, which include s a review of all six tunes and their chords, scales, and variations play ed during the six-week improvisation study. o Once the exercises have all been reviewed for each week, group five or six students to perform an improvisational solo on the six different tunes. o Melodies in the study are arranged in a progressive order pert aining to technical difficulty. o Group your students according to ability shown in improvising a solo as demonstrated during the six weeks when they performed in their first attempt at an improvising. o The melodies are arranged in a progressive manner so have the more technical and creatively challenged student perform earlier in the week on easier melodies. o We will need to record their solos as each one plays their improvisatory solo. o The important aspect of this run through is that the tune needs to be played in an improvisational environment. o Prepare the soloist the same way you prepar ed each section as they played their respective variations at the end of each day twos lesson. State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, by assigning different sections of the ensemble playing a variation for a review of week ones tune Hot Cross Buns. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for a final revi ew of the tune, and then we will start from the beginning. (Model CD #1, cut #23) Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o The primary goal of the study is to allow ever y student an opportunity to improvise and create ideas within th e curriculum provided in the improvisational study. o By now the ensemble can recognize the routin e when it comes to accompanying soloist. o We will be reviewing two tunes a day for three days, have your improvisational or creatively challenged students participate on th e easier tunes at the beginning of the week and the more advanced students play towards the middle and latter part of the week every student need to play one solo during the week, at thirty st udents in class thats five students per tune or five times th rough the harmony of every tune. o I will still give each student award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? You will receive award points for bei ng brave and attempting an i ndividual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!!

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180 Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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181 Unit 7 Lesson 1B Goals Unit 7 Lesson 1 : Review Unit 2 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions and/or Creating his/her own rhyt hmic and melodic ideas Melody 2 : Lightly Row Style: Soft Rock Ballad Key Center : Bb Concert Time signature: 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), and Dominant F7 (V7) Form: Is an eight-measure melody complete with a theme and seven variations three forms, four melody. Rhythmic concepts : Simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic and dominant tria ds to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Easy soft rock ballad beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and use of two chord scale relations hips: tonic and dominant, rhyt hmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input. Played th eir variations at the end of each day twos lesson.

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182 State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, the Bb concert scale and its arpeggio, and the F Mixolydian scale and its arpeggio by assigning different sections of the ensemble pl aying a variation or a mode or a scale for a review of week twos tune Lightly Row. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for a final review of the tune, and then we will start from the beginning. (Model CD #1, cut 44) Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o The primary goal of the study is to allow ever y student an opportunity to improvise and create ideas within th e curriculum provided in the improvisational study. o By now the ensemble knows the routine when it comes to accompanying a soloist. Set up the five or six soloists and make su re that the video recorder is on! o I will still give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo. o These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! o Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the en sembles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational solo during the last days lesson.

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183 Unit 7 Lesson 2A Goals for Unit 7 Lesson 2: Review Unit 3 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhythm ic and melodic ideas Melody 3 : Down In the Valley Style: Jazz Waltz Key center: Eb Concert Time : 3/4 Scales/Modes : Eb Ionian, and Bb Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Eb (I), and Dominant B7 (V7) Form: Is a twenty four-measure melody in binary form (AB) complete with a theme and six variations two on form, four on the melody. Rhythmic concepts : simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic and dominant tria ds to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Easy jazz waltz beat using ba ss drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of two chords involved in the ha rmony, identification and use of three chord scale relationships: tonic, and dom inant, rhythm ic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input.

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184 State to the class : Today we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, the Eb major scale and the Bb Mixolydian m ode and their arpeggios by assigning different sections of the ensemble playing a varia tion for a review of week threes tune Down in the Valley. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for a final revi ew of the tune, and then we will start from the beginning. (Model CD #1, cut 59) Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o The primary goal of the study is to allow ever y student an opportunity to improvise and create ideas within th e curriculum provided in the improvisational study. o By now the ensemble knows the routine when it comes to accompanying a soloist. Set up the five or six soloists and make su re that the video recorder is on! o I will still give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo. o The points can be cashed in at the end of th e seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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185 Unit 7 Lesson 2B Goals for Unit 7 Lesson 2: Review Unit 4 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhyt hmic and melodic ideas Melody 4 : Mary Ann Style: Calypso Key center: Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), Dominant F7 (V7) Form: A sixteen-measure melody complete with a theme and six variations three form, three melody. Rhythmic concepts : Simple quarter note-half note rhythm ic concepts to dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four, and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic, and dominant tr iads to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Calypso beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and use of three chord scale relati onships: tonic and dom inant, rhyt hmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input.

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186 State to the class : Next we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, the Bb concert scale, its arpeggio, the F Mixolydian mode and its arpeggio, assigning different sections of the ensemble playing a vari ation or a scale or mode for a review of week fours tune Mary Ann. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for a final revi ew of the tune, and then we will start from the beginning. (Model CD #1, cut 82) Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o The primary goal of the study is to allow ever y student an opportunity to improvise and create ideas within th e curriculum provided in the improvisational study. o By now the ensemble knows the routine when it comes to accompanying a soloist. Set up the five or six soloists and make su re that the video recorder is on! o I will still give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo. o The points can be cashed in at the end of th e seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! o Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the en sembles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational solo during the last days lesson.

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187 Unit 7 Lesson 3A Goals for Unit 7 Lesson 3: Review Unit 5 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhyt hmic and melodic ideas Melody 5 : Kum Ba Yah Study Goals include : The National Standards for Arts Education (Goal #10 and #11 of the curriculum study) and #9 of the curriculums study goals. Style: Early Folk Rock Key center: Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Scales/Modes : Bb scale, Eb Lydian, and F Mixolydian Triads : Tonic Bb (I), Subdominant Eb (IV), Dominant F7 (V7) Form: A sixteen-measure melody complete with a th eme and six variations two forms, four melodies. Rhythmic concepts : Dotted quarter note, syncopated eighth-quarter-eighth note rhythms, three, four and five eighth note melodic motive development. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of tonic, subdominant, and dominant triads to support harmonic form. Rhythm accompaniment : Soft rock beat using bass drum, snare drum and cymbals. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the m elody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all three chords involved in the harmony, identification and

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188 use of three chord scale rela tionships: tonic, subdominant, and dominant, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the st udents own creative input. State to the class : Next we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, the Bb concert scale, its arpeggio, the Eb Lydian and F Mixolydian modes and their arpeggios by assigning different sections of the ensemble playi ng a variation for a review of week fives tune Kum Ba Yah. o We will play letter A, then each section not playing a variation will play letter B to C until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter A. o I will replay the model CD once for a final revi ew of the tune, and then we will start from the beginning. ( Model CD #1, cut # 98) Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o The primary goal of the study is to allow ever y student an opportunity to improvise and create ideas within th e curriculum provided in the improvisational study. o By now the ensemble knows the routine when it comes to accompanying a soloist. Set up the five or six soloists and make su re that the video recorder is on! o I will still give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo. o The points can be cashed in at the end of th e seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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189 Unit 7 Lesson 3B Goals for Unit 7 Lesson 3: Review Unit 6 Lesson 3 o Perform a solo demonstrating improvisation on his/her own instrument using one or all of the options listed below: Using single notes borrowed from the roots of the chords in the harmonic form set to short rhythmic motives Using variations or fragments of the given melody borrowed from the exercises from each unit of the module Using short three-, four-, and five-note motiv es borrowed from the scales that relate to the chord progressions; and/or Creating his/her own rhyt hmic and melodic ideas Melody 6 : Freddie Freeloader Study Goals include : The National Standards for Arts Education (Goal #10 and #11 of the curriculum study) and #9 of the curriculums study goals.. Style: Cool Jazz Key center: Bb Concert Time : 4/4 Metronome marking: Quarter note = 112. Scales/Modes : Bb Mixolydian scale, Eb Mixolydian, F Mixolydia n, and Ab Mixolydian, Bb, Eb, F, and Ab Blues scales. Triads : Tonic Bb7 (I7), Subdominant Eb7 (IV7), Dominant F7 (V7), Flat Locrian Ab7 (bVI7) Form: Repeated 12 bar blues or 24 bar with fi rst and second endings complete with harmonic voicing in all instruments and six va riations, two using root movement of the harmony and two using melodic material. Rhythmic concepts : Quarter note, three, four an d five eighth note melodic motive development, short five and six note motives usin g jazz style, jazz phrasing and articulations. Melodic concepts : Original melody, ascending and de scending triads of chord harmony, borrowed fragmented material from theme. Harmonic concepts : Use of Dom inant seventh chords o ff the tonic, subdominant, dominant, and flat Locrian scale degrees to support harmonic form.

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190 Rhythm accompaniment : Straight ahead swing for rhythm section and wind instruments. All variations include a mallet part. Improvisational concepts : Identification of the melodic styl e and origin of the melody, the harmonic form, the chord outline, root movement of each chord in the supportive harmony, identification of all and use of all four dominant seventh chords involved in the harmony. Plus identification and use of four chord scal e relationships: tonic, subdominant, dominant, and flat Locrian dominant Mixolydian scales, rhythmic and melodic variations, and the students own creative input. State to the class : Next we will revisit the melody and all of the variations of the melody, Bb, Eb, F, and Ab Mixolydian modes and their arpeggios and the Bb, Eb, F, and Ab blues scales by assigning different sections of the ensemble playing a variation for a review of week sixs tune Freddie Freeloader. o We will play letter B, then each section not playing a variation will play letter C to D until all sections have played their variation, then we will restate th e melody at letter B. o I will replay the model CD once for a final revi ew of the tune, and then we will start from the beginning. (Model CD #2, cut # 9) Note to the instructor: When the ensemble completes th e run through, be complimentary of the groups efforts. o The primary goal of the study is to allow ever y student an opportunity to improvise and create ideas within th e curriculum provided in the improvisational study. o By now the ensemble knows the routine when it comes to accompanying a soloist. Set up the five or six soloists and make su re that the video recorder is on! o I will still give the volunteers only award points for attempting an individual solo. These points can be cashed in at the end of the seven-week study for a special reward. State to the class : Who wants to be the first soloist of the study and the day? o You will receive award points for being brave and attempting an individual solo by your self. o All of us will applaud your effort! o Reward points will be redeemed at then e nd of the study for all students who attempted an individual solo, whether they used the variations or not! o So everyone GO FOR IT! And HAVE FUN!!!! Note to the Instructor : Assessment of the classs comp rehension of the weeks lesson comes from two sources, observation of the ense mbles ability to negotiate the variations and the individuals solo attempts at playing an improvisational so lo during the last days lesson.

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191 APPENDIX B: DIRECTORS EVALUATION OF ALL LESSONS USED IN THE MODULE Unit 1 Lesson 1 Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 1 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 6/7 6/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 3/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 6/7 The concepts were achievable, but too much material to cover for one day, especially if trying to compact (it) in 15 to 20 minutes. 1) Music layout was confusing-ex. Starting a scale in the last measure. 2) Note ranges were too low for brass. 3) Vocabulary in directions was too advanced. 4) Assign line numbers to the scales and arpeggios for easier identification. Total 15/21 Total 15/21 Unit 1 Lesson 2 Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 1 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 5/7 3/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 3/7 4/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 4/7 Too much material for one lesson No comment Total 14/21 11/21

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192 Unit 1 Lesson 3 Directors comments on Lesson 3 Unit 1 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 5/7 5/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 3/7 5/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 4/7 Total 14/21 14/21 Articulations for beginners a problem. The students have difficulty making discernable stylistic differences. Hard to get through all of the materials. Unit 2 Lesson 1 Lightly Row Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 1 Unit 2 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 6/7 3/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 4/7 5/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 4/7 Total 16/21 12/21 Objectives 3, 4 and 12 a stretch to teach the students. A lot to do in 15 or 20 minutes. No comment

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193 Unit 2 Lesson 2 Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 2 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 4/7 3/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 5/7 5/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 4/7 Total 15/21 12/21 Objectives 6 and 7 a stretch to aurally identify all of the rhythms for this lesson Hard to teach all of the material for this lesson. Unit 2 Lesson 3 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 3 Unit 2 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 6/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 5/7 5/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 5/7 Total 17/21 14/21 No comment Good material

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194 Unit 3 Lesson 1 Down in the Valley Directors comments on Lesson 1 Unit 3 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 6/7 3/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 4/7 5/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 5/7 Total 16/21 13/21 To much material for one lesson. No comment Unit 3 Lesson 2 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 3 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 6/7 5/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 5/7 5/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 5/7 Total 17/21 15/21 No comment The days get easier as we teach the material.

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195 Unit 3 Lesson 3 Directors comments on Lesson 3 Unit 3 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 6/7 5/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 6/7 5/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 5/7 Total 18/21 15/21 No comment They catch on and understand the material as the week goes on. Unit 4 Lesson 1 Mary Ann Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 1 Unit 4 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 4/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 3/7 2/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 3/7 Total 13/21 9/21 Question 1) Not in the time allowed. Question 3) Able to perform activities, but it took more than 15 or 20 minutes. A lot to know teach and digest for the students in one lesson. The students took awhile to catch to the tied notes used in the rhythms of Mary Ann.

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196 Unit 4 Lesson 2 Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 4 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 3/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 3/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 5/7 4/7 Total 11/21 11/21 Question 1) Need more than one lesson to teach these concepts. Again biggest issue is finding time to teach the material. Each lesson needs review, then move ahead. Overall stuff is very good. Tied notes used in the rhythms written for the exercises in MaryAnn were better today. The scale were the drawback today. Unit 4 Lesson 3 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 3 Unit 4 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 5/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 6/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 6/7 Total 17/21 13/21 The students dont reproduce Stylistic Art to well. Some students were able to improvise today!

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197 Unit 5 Lesson 1 Kum Ba Yah Directors comments on Lesson 1 Unit 5 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 4/7 5/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 4/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 5/7 5/7 Total 13/21 13/21 Identification of the root, third, seventh and ninth in each class aurally is a stretch for the students to understand. A worthy goal, but needs time and practice on just that aspect. Great way to intro the dotted rhythms! Unit 5 Lesson 2 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 5 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 5/7 5/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 4/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 5/7 Total 15/21 13/21 I think the state to the class sections will go right over their heads, if it is not well prepared in advance. The aural vocalization of the rhythms will be a little rough, but is good stuff and should be done. No comment.

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198 Unit 5 Lesson 3 Directors comments on Lesson 3 Unit 5 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 6/7 5/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 6/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 6/7 6/7 Total 18/21 14/21 It seems in each unit lesson one is the toughest as far as material and comprehension. Lesson two is better and then day three is easier. I think stretching out the learning of the material would work better-maybe have 5 or six lessons Instead of just three. The students really enjoyed the rock beat; the listening examples did a great job of teaching the style. Unit 6 Lesson 1 Freddie Freeloader Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 1 Unit 6 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 4/7 3/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 4/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 4/7 3/7 Total 12/21 9/21 No Comment. Freddie Freeloader was a tough lesson to teach.

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199 Unit 6 Lesson 2 Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 6 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 5/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 4/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 5/7 5/7 Total 14/21 12/21 No comment. This lesson needed more days to complete. Unit 6 Lesson 3 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 3 Unit 6 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 5/7 3/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 6/7 3/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 5/7 3/7 Total 16/21 9/21 No Comment. The students struggled on the whole unit with trying to play Freddie Freeloader

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200 Unit 7 Lesson 1 Review of Units 1 and 2 Directors comments on Lesson 1 Unit 7 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 0/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 0/7 4/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 0/7 5/7 Total 0/21 13/21 Unit seven was not taught. The end of the school year preempted the units lesson plans. The review session was easier for the students to play, they had gained more confidence by then. Unit 7 Lesson 2 Review of Units 3 and 4 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Directors comments on Lesson 2 Unit 7 Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 0/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 0/7 2/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 0/7 5/7 Total 0/21 11/21 Unit seven was not taught. The end of the school year preempted the units lesson plans. I think the students need longer in each lesson to become more proficient at improvisation.

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201 Unit 7 Lesson 3 Review of Units 5 and 6 Directors comments on Lesson 3 Unit 7 Likert Scale Score (1thru 7) Director A Director B Director A Director B Question 1) Were the objectives appropriate for this class? 0/7 4/7 Question 2) Were the learning activities appropriate for the time allowed? 0/7 4/7 Question 3) Were the students able to perform the activities in this lesson? 0/7 5/7 Total 0/21 13/21 Unit seven was not taught. The end of the school year preempted the units lesson plans. I think this module would be a great curriculum for a beginning jazz class. The concepts are clear and easy to understand.

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202 APPENDIX C EVALUATOR LETTER AND COMMENTS

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203

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204

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205

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206 APPENDIX D FULL SCORES FOR THE MUSICAL AR RANGEMENTS OF ALL MELODIES PRESENTED IN THE IMPROVISATION MODULE Unit 1, melody 1, page 1.

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207 Unit 1, melody 1, page 2.

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208 Unit 1, melody1, page 3.

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209 Unit 1, melody 1, page 4.

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210 Unit 1, melody 1, page 5

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211 Unit 1, melody 1, page 6

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212 Unit 1, melody 1, page 7

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213 Unit 1, melody 1, page 8

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214 Unit 1, melody 1, page 9

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215 Unit 1, melody 1, page 10.

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216 Unit 1, melody 1, page 11.

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217 Unit 1, melody 1, page 12.

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218 Unit 1, melody 1, page 13.

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219 Unit 2, melody 2, page 1.

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220 Unit 2, melody 2, page 2.

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221 Unit 2, melody 2, page 3.

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222 Unit 2, melody 2, page 4.

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223 Unit 2, melody 2, page 5

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224 Unit 2, melody 2, page 6

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225 Unit 2, melody 2, page 7

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226 Unit 2, melody 2, page 8

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227 Unit 2, melody 2, page 9.

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228 Unit 2, melody 2, page 10.

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229 Unit 2, melody 2, page 11.

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230 Unit 3, melody 3, page 1.

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231 Unit 3, melody 3, page 2.

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232 Unit 3, melody 3, page 3.

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233 Unit 3, melody 3, page 4.

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234 Unit 3, melody 3, page 5.

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235 Unit 3, melody 3, page 6.

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236 Unit 3, melody 3, page 7.

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237 Unit 3, melody 3, page 8.

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238 Unit 3, melody 3, page 9.

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239 Unit 3, melody 3, page 10.

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240 Unit 3, melody 3, page 11

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241 Unit 3, melody 3, page 12.

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242 Unit 3, melody 3, page 13.

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243 Unit 3, melody 3, page 14.

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244 Unit 3, melody 3, page 15.

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245 Unit 4, melody 4, page 1.

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246 Unit 4, melody 4, page 2.

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247 Unit 4, melody 4, page 3.

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248 Unit 4, melody 4, page 4.

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249 Unit 4, melody 4, page 5.

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250 Unit 4, melody 4, page 6.

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251 Unit 4, melody 4, page 7.

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252 Unit 4, melody 4, page 8.

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253 Unit 4, melody 4, page 9.

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254 Unit 4, melody 4, page 10.

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255 Unit 4, melody 4, page 11.

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256 Unit 4, melody 4, page 12.

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257 Unit 4, melody 4, page 13.

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258 Unit 4, melody 4, page 14.

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259 Unit 4, melody 4, page 15.

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260 Unit 4, melody 4, page 16.

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261 Unit 4, melody 4, page 17.

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262 Unit 4, melody 4, page 18.

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263 Unit 4, melody 4, page 19.

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264 Unit 4, melody 4, page 20.

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265 Unit 4, melody 4, page 21.

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266 Unit 4, melody 4, page 22.

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267 Unit 5, melody 5, page 1.

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268 Unit 5, melody 5, page 2.

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269 Unit 5, melody 5, page 3.

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270 Unit 5, melody 5, page 4.

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271 Unit 5, melody 5, page 5.

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272 Unit 5, melody 5, page 6.

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273 Unit 5, melody 5, page 7.

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274 Unit 5, melody 5, page 8.

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275 Unit 5, melody 5, page 9.

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276 Unit 5, melody 5, page 10.

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277 Unit 5, melody 5, page 11.

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278 Unit 5, melody 5, page 12.

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279 Unit 5, melody 5, page 13.

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280 Unit 5, melody 5, page 14.

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281 Unit 5, melody 5, page 15.

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282 Unit 5, melody 5, page 16.

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283 Unit 5, melody 5, page 17.

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284 Unit 5, melody 5, page 18.

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285 Unit 5, melody 5, page 19.

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286 Unit 6, melody 6, page 1.

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287 Unit 6, melody 6, page 2.

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288 Unit 6, melody 6, page 3.

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289 Unit 6, melody 6, page 4.

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290 Unit 6, melody 6, page 5.

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291 Unit 6, melody 6, page 6.

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292 Unit 6, melody 6, page 7.

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293 Unit 6, melody 6, page 8.

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294 Unit 6, melody 6, page 9.

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295 Unit 6, melody 6, page 10.

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296 Unit 6, melody 6, page 11.

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297 Unit 6, melody 6, page 12.

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298 Unit 6, melody 6, page 13.

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299 Unit 6, melody 6, page 14.

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300 Unit 6, melody 6, page 15.

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301 Unit 6, melody 6, page 16.

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302 Unit 6, melody 6, page 17.

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303 Unit 6, melody 6, page 18.

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304 Unit 6, melody 6, page 19.

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305 APPENDIX E SCALES AND MODES, WITH ARPEGGIOS FOR ALL MELODIES CONTAINED IN THE IMPROVISATION MODULE. Unit 1, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for both melodies 1 and 2.

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306 Unit 1, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for both melodies 1 and 2.

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307 Unit 1, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for both melodies 1 and 2.

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308 Unit 3, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 3.

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309 Unit 3, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 3.

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310 Unit 3, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 3.

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311 Unit 4, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 4, 5.

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312 Unit 4, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 4, 5.

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313 Unit 4, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 4, 5.

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314 Unit 4, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 4, 5.

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315 Unit 4, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 4, 5.

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316 Unit 6, Mixolydian Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6.

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317 Unit 6, Mixolydian, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6.

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318 Unit 6, Mixolydian, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6.

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319 Unit 6, Mixolydian, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6.

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320 Unit 6, Mixolydian Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6.

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321 Unit 6, Mixolydian Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6.

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322 Unit 6, Scales, Modes, and Arpeggios for Melody 6.

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323 Unit 6, Melody 6, Blues Scales.

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324 Unit 6, melody 6, blues scales.

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325 Unit 6, melody 6, blues scales.

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326 LIST OF REFERENCES Abramson, R.M. (1980). Dalcroze-based improvisation. Music Educators Journal Vol. 66, No. 5, 62-68. Reston, Virginia: MENC Aebersold, Jamey (1967). (6th edition, 1992) How to play Jazz and Improvise New Albany, Ind.: Jamey Aebersold. Azzara, Christopher. (1999). An aural approach to improvisation. Music Educators Journal Vol. 86, No. 3. (Nov., 1999), pp. 21-25. Retrieved October 29th, 2007 from J-Stor. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici= 0027-4321%28199911%2986%3A3%3C21%3AAAATI%3E2.0.CO% 3B2Babad, Bruce (1999). Jazz under construction: Blueprints fo r building interesting and expressive solos. M .M. dissertation, California State Univ ersity, Long Beach, United States California. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from Proquest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 1394414). Baker, David. (1983). Jazz improvisation: A comprehensiv e method of study for all players Bloomington: Francipani Press. Baker, David. (1987). How to play bebop: For all instruments Van Nuys: Alfred. Beach, Doug & Shutack, George (2003). Improvisation Studies: Improvisation Workout. Volume 1. Delevan: Kendor Music, Inc. Belafonte, Harry. (2002). Banana boat song. On Island in the sun [CD]. Hambergen-Germany: Bear Family Records. Benward, Bruce & Wildman, Joan. (1984). Jazz Improvisation in Theory and Practice Dubuque: WCB. Berg, Shelly. (1998). Chopmonster Van Nuys, Calif ornia: Alfred. Blake, John Jr. & Harmon, Jody. (1993). Beginning to Improvise: Jazz Improvisation Made Easy Series Vol.1. Westford: JIME Blair, Peter. (2004). Jazz Basics. The fundamentals of improvisation for the young musician Grades 7-9. Dayton, Ohio: Heritage Music Press. Bouchard, George. (2001). Intermediate jazz improvisation New Albany, New York. Aebersold. Brophy, T. (1998). The melodic perceptions of children six through twelve: A developmental perspective Ph.D. dissertation, Univ ersity of Kentucky, United States Kentucky. Retrieved December 3. 2007, from Proquest Dig ital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 9906615).

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327 Byo, Susan J. (1999). Classroom teachers and music specialists perceived ability to implement the National Standards for music education. Journal of Research in Music Education Vol. 47, No. 2. (Summer, 1999), pp. 111-123. Retrieved October 29th, 2007 from J-Stor. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici= 0022-4294%28199922%2947%3A2%3C111%3ACTAMSP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7 Cohen, V.W. (1981). The em ergence of musical gestures in kindergarten children. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International 41 A4637. Coker, Jerry. (1964). Improvising Jazz. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coy, David Allen. (1989). A Multisensory approach to teaching jazz improvisation to middle school band students. 9010106. Ann Arbor: UMI Davis, Miles. (1999). Someday my prince will come. On Someday my prince will come [CD]. New York: Columbia Records. Davis, Miles. (1959). Freddie Freeloader. The Real Book (6th edition, 2004)). Milwaukee: HalLeonard. Davis, Miles. (1959). Freddie Freeloader. On Kinda Blue [CD]. New York: Columbia Records. Dean, Roger T. (1989). Creative improvisation: Jazz, contemporary music, and beyond Milton Keyes: Open University Press. DiBlasio, Denis. (1987). DiBlasios Bop Shop, The Sequel. Delevan: Kendor Music, Inc. Dunscomb, Marcia. (1991). Melody Maker. Atlanta: Georgia State University Pullen Library. Dylan, Bob. (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man. On The Best of Bob Dylan [CD]. New York: Columbia Records. Ferand, Ernest T. (1961). Anthology of Music Improvisation in Nine Centuries of Western Music. An Anthology with a Hi storical Introduction Vol. 12. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag. Fitzgerald, Margaret, McCord, Ki mberly, & Berg, Shelly (2003). Chop-Monster Jr., Jazz Language Tutor for General Music Instruction Van Nuys: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc. Hearle, Dan, Peterson, Jac k, & Matteson, Rich. (1981) Jazz Tunes for Improvisation Miami: Studio 224. Hoffer, Charles. (2007). Music Listening Today. Belmont: Thomson/Schirmer Jobim, Antonio Carlos. (2005). The girl from Impanema. On The Best of Antonio Carlos Jobim [CD]. Santa Monica: Univer sal Music Enterprises.

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328 Kolar, Mitzi & Ramal, Bill. (1980). Beginning Keyboard Improvisation. Jazz Improvisation 1. San Diego: Bill Ramal Music Publications. Leonard, Charles. (1999). Grand Masters Series: A Challenge for Change in Music Education. Music Educators Journal, 86, 40-43. Retrieved Sept ember 10, 2007 from J-Stor. http://www.jstor.org.lp.hsc l.ufl.edu/view/00274321/sp060447/06x2 3D11%26Day%3D%26Year%3D1999%26vo53d86%26is%3D3%26 StartPage%3D40. Mantooth, Frank. (1996). Patterns for Improvisation. Movin On To The Blues Milwaukee: Hal Leonard. Mantooth, Frank. (1996). Patterns for Improvisation. From the Beginning. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard. Marcus, Adrien. (2004). The role of transcription in jazz im provisation: examining the auralimitative approach to jazz pedagogy (Doctoral dissertation: Ba ll State University, 2004). 168 pages; AAT 3123940. McCurdy, Ronald C. (1976). A Survey of Improvisational Me thods and Materials Applied to Curriculum for Teaching Jazz Improvisation at the Beginning and In termediate/Advanced Levels. Masters Thesis for the School of Music: University of Kansas. Moorhead, G.E. & Pond, D. (1978). Music of Young Children Pillsbury Foundation for Advancement of Music Education: Santa Barbar a, CA. (original work published in 1941). Musen, S.C. (1986). A description and analysis of an Orff-Schulwe rk program of music Education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International 47 (09), 3351A. Music Educators Nation al Conference (1994). National Standards for Arts Education: What every young American should know and be able to do in the arts Reston, Va. Author. National Standards for Arts Education. (1993). Front Matter, Music Educators Journal. Vol. 80, No. 2. (Sept., 1993). Retrieved on December 1, 2007 from JSTOR http://www.menc.org/publication/books/standards.htm Niehaus, Lenny. (1981). Developing Jazz Concep ts Milwaukee: Hal Leonard. Owen, Chuck. (2007). A Call for Jazz Education. Jazz Educators Journal Feb., A42. Pearson, Bruce (2004) 2nd Ed. Standard of Excellence: Enhan ced comprehensive band method. San Diego: Neil A Kjos. Presley, Elvis. (2005). Love me tender. On Love Elvis [CD]. New York: BMG/Elvis Records Price, Jeremy, and Sheppard, Mike. (1999). Jazz Works for Ensembles, Initial Level: Jazz Ensemble Series. London: The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music.

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329 Reeves, Scott D. (1989). Creative jazz and improvisation. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Robinson, Russell. (2002). Jazzin it up! (and jazzin it down!) (ASCAP). Studio PR (Warner Brothers): Miami Robinson, Russell. (1999). Lets sing some jazz! (ASCAP). Studio PR (Warner Brothers): Miami Robinson, Russell. (2000). Were singin the blues for you! (ASCAP). Studio PR (Warner Brothers): Miami Sharp, Chris. (2004). Warm-Ups for Beginning Jazz Ensemble: F.J.H. Beginning Jazz Ensemble Fort Lauderdale: The F.J.H. Music Company Inc. Snidero. Jim. (1996). Jazz Conception. Germany: Advance Spera, Dominic. (1983). Stretching Out. Bb Edition. Hialeah: Studio 224. Sorenson, Dean. (2002). Jazz combo session: For group or individual study. Standard of Excellence. San Diego: Kjos Music Press. Sorenson, Dean. & Pearson, Bruce. (1998). Jazz ensemble method: For group or individual instruction. Standard of Excellence. San Diego: Kjos Music Company. Steinel, Mike. (2000). Essential elements for jazz ensemble: a comprehensive method for jazz style and improvisation Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Synder, David. (2003). Getting Started: Impr ovisation for Beginning Instrumentalists Jazz Educators Journal. November, 1-5. Retrieved September, 9th, 2007 from the Jazz Education Journal Database. http://www.iaje.org/artic le.asp? ArticleID=167 Tomassi, Ed. (2003). Beginning Improvisation: Motivic Development (DVD). Boston: Berklee Press. Hal Leonard. Tory, Susan. (1991). Teaching instrumental jazz at the elementary or intermediate level: A class instruction method book M. A. dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, United States California, Retrieved December 3, 2007, from Proquest Digital Dissertations database. (P ublication No. AAT 1344569). Yoder, Daniel M. (1996). Beginning Jazz Improvisation. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Zwick, Robert A. (1987) Jazz Improvisation: A Recommended Se quential Format of Instruction Ph. D. dissertation, University of North Texa s, United States Texas. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from Proquest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 8713994).

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330 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mr. Steven Lee Bingham has taught band for 22 y ears, with ten years experience of being the only band director for all grades five th rough twelve. He has had extensive experience teaching beginners both with the traditional band methods and with adding improvisation to the curriculum. After graduating from David Henr y Hickman High School in 1971, he attended the University of Missouri and received both his bachel ors degree in fine arts and a masters degree in curriculum and instruction. After teaching for two years, Bingham app lied to and was accepted to Florida State Universitys School of Music where he received a masters degree in music education under Dr. James Croft in 1983. Teaching positions in three states, Florida, Missouri, and North Carolina followed. Throughout his 22 years of public school e xperience, Binghams band programs have received consistent superior and excellent ra tings in concert band for all grades 6 through 12, marching band, and jazz band festivals and evaluation competitions. Other performing groups he has supported throughout his teaching career have included solos and ensembles, jazz improvisation, indoor guard, indoor dr umlin, jazz combos, and pit orchestra for school musicals. Currently, Bingham teaches at Santa Fe Comm unity College as a professor of music, teaching music fundamentals, music appr eciation, and the jazz ensemble.