Citation
Comprehension and Vocabulary with Students in Primary Grades

Material Information

Title:
Comprehension and Vocabulary with Students in Primary Grades A Comparison of Instructional Strategies
Creator:
Butler, Tyran Wright
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
english
Physical Description:
1 online resource (210 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Special Education
Committee Chair:
Lane, Holly B.
Committee Members:
Griffin, Cynthia C.
Cavanaugh, Christie
Hayes, Lynda F.
Graduation Date:
8/11/2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Child psychology ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Pedagogy ( jstor )
Pretend play ( jstor )
Reading comprehension ( jstor )
Reading instruction ( jstor )
Statistical significance ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Vocabulary ( jstor )
Special Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
children, comprehension, instruction, reading, vocabulary
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Special Education thesis, Ph.D.

Notes

Abstract:
My study examined the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students in primary grades who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. Vygotskys theory of learning and development, Pearson and Gallaghers gradual release of responsibility model, metacognition, and Stanovichs interactive-compensatory model of reading served as theoretical guides for this study. A pretest-posttest design was employed. Second and third grade students (N=60) in two groups received 32 sessions over eight weeks, of either vocabulary-focused instruction or strategies-focused instruction. Students in the vocabulary-focused group received instruction similar to Text Talk, and students in the strategies-focused group received instruction similar to reciprocal teaching. A series of analyses of covariance revealed no statistically significant differences between groups on measures of expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, and on a researcher-created target vocabulary measure. An analysis of covariance did reveal a statistically significant difference between groups on a passage comprehension measure, favoring the vocabulary-focused group. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients revealed moderate to robust correlations of the measures. Implications for researchers and teachers emerge from these findings. Teachers should understand that explicit vocabulary instruction does have an impact on comprehension and it does enhance word knowledge. With a more experienced adult or peer providing scaffolding, students? abilities were expanded beyond what they could do alone. In addition, students in primary grades can benefit from strategies-instruction. Using a gradual release model assisted students in proficiently using strategies. Strategies-instruction positively influenced both comprehension and vocabulary. Class time should be dedicated to explicit vocabulary and comprehension strategy instruction. Researchers should consider investigating the longitudinal effects of strategies instruction on students in primary grades. It is also recommended that researchers examine specific combinations of strategies useful for students in primary grades, and specific teacher behaviors that contribute to the mastery of strategies by students. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local:
Adviser: Lane, Holly B.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Tyran Wright Butler.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Copyright Butler, Tyran Wright. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
662595923 ( OCLC )
Classification:
LD1780 2007 ( lcc )

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Full Text








What kinds of things need to be lugged?

What does delightful mean?

If something is delightful, how does it make
you feel?

What does wise mean?

What would need from a wise person?

What is a rage?

If a child is in a rage, how does he act?

What does deserted mean?

What would a deserted place look like?

What does mend mean?

If you mend something, how will it look
afterwards?

What is a journey?

Why would someone go on a journey?

What does scurry mean?

For what reason might someone scurry?

What is a villain?

How would a villain act?

What does vicious mean?

Would you want something vicious to happen
to you? Why? Why not?

What does scamper mean?

If the girl scampered, what did she do?

What is an oath?

If you take an oath, what do you do?

What is frustration?


i


i


i










Step 4
If \, iithilng quivers, it shakes i/ ith very small movements.

Step 5
What might be a reason for ,,iiehinig to quiver?

.e\/si me what \,iiieting looks like if it quivers.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Quivered.

Word 3 Trudged
Step 2
By the time Libby trudged up her steps, she was still confused.

Step 3
Say the word~ iith me. Trudged. What does trudged mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou trudge somewhere, you walk there i/ ith slow, heavy steps.

Step 5
Would you trudge to the store to get \,miiething you have been waiting for for a long time?

Would you trudge to the dentist's office?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Trudged.









Chapter 5 provides a discussion of the results as related to previous research and implications for


future research.












If a person feels frustration, what do the do?

What is compassion?

How do you show compassion?

What is a destination?

What does bellow mean?

If a person bellowed, what would they do?

What does disbelieve mean?

What is confidence?

If you have confidence, what do you feel like?

What is a feat?

What does abandoned mean?

If a place is abandoned, what does it look like?

What does complain mean?

Why would a person complain?

What does startle mean?

What does fidget mean?

Why would a person fidget?

What does seize mean?

If you seize something, what do you do?

What does frantic mean?

What kinds of things can make you frantic?

What does it mean to protest?

Why would one protest?

What does anxious mean?

If someone is anxious, what do they do?


i


i


i


i


i









Research Instrumentation

The instruments used in this study were designed to assess specific elements of literacy

development. Each measure was selected based on previous studies in the areas of vocabulary

and comprehension. Pretest and posttest measures assessed general verbal abilities and

comprehension abilities. Descriptions of the assessment instruments are outlined in the

following sections. The following sections also provide an explanation of the focus and technical

qualities of each measure.

Vocabulary Measures

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III), (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) was

administered to obtain information about participants' verbal abilities compared with other

children of similar age. The PPVT-III is an individually administered, norm-referenced, wide-

range test of receptive vocabulary for Standard American English, which includes two alternate

forms. The PPVT-III measures the listening comprehension of spoken words of both children

and adults. The examiner presents items using a standing easel. After providing a word or

phrase, the student selects one of four pictures that best depicts the word or phrase described by

the examiner. The reliability coefficients for the PPVT-III are provided in Table 3-3. Reliability

coefficients are provided only for the age groups represented in this study. Each participant was

individually administered the PPVT-III by one of a team of assessors. The PPVT-III was scored

according to guidelines presented in the test examiner's manual.

The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT), (Williams, 1997) is an individually administered,

norm-referenced assessment of expressive vocabulary and word retrieval for children and adults.

The EVT measures expressive knowledge with two types of items, labeling and synonyms. Word

retrieval is evaluated by comparing expressive and receptive vocabulary skills using standard

score differences between EVT and PPVT-III. The examiner points to a picture or a part of the









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 23


Book Dora's Box

Campbell, A. (1998). Dora's Box. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
In order to protect her, Dora's parents must put anything that might frighten or hurt her into a
box and tell her never to open it, but when she eventually does, her life is enriched by what she
finds.

Target Words: oath, frustration, compassion

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Oath
Step 2
"Ifyou release me," the witch cried, "I will grant you three wishes. But ifyou leave me, I
will curse you in i/t three oaths."

Step 3
Say the word itli me. Oath. (Show the word card) What is an oath? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
An oath is a formal promise.

Step 5
Have you ever had to give an oath? boy/girl scouts
Once, I had to testify at a meeting, and I had to take an oath to tell the n inhI Have you
ever had to do anything like that?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Oath.

Word 2: Frustration
Step 2
Every day and every night, Dora's mother and father gathered all the hurts, fears, angers,
and frustrations they encountered and put them safely into Dora's box, so that she would
never know them.

Step 3









Word 2: Tidy
Step 2
In the story, it said that Prudy's dad was a very tidy person who did not like clutter.

Step 3
Say the word, iith me. Tidy. (Show the word card) Who has an idea about what tidy
means? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Sn., mehiling that is tidy is neat and arranged in an orderly way.

Step 5
How many ofyou have a tidy room? Query the volunteers to see why they think their
room is tidy. Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they understand what tidy
means. If they don't, make sure they know that tidy means things are neat and
orderly.

Which word goes i/ ith tidy? Baby Maid Car

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Tidy

Word 3 Inspiration
Step 2
Prudy looked around for inspiration after her collection exploded.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Inspiration. What is inspiration? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Inspiration is a feeling of excitement that you get from \,inwiethig or someone. The
excitement usually encourages you to go on and do ,,iiethilig else.

Step 5
My third grade teacher was great. She did a lot of really neat activities i/th me and I
learned a lot from her. She was so good at teaching me when I was in the third grade; she
was my inspiration to become a teacher too.

Have any ofyou ever been inspired by another person? Wait for responses. Have you ever
been inspired by ,,oiiieilig or an event? Evaluate them to see if they understand
inspiration. If they don't, make sure they know that you get encouraged/excited by
something or someone else, and you usually go on to do something.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Inspiration.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 10


Book The Tale of Hilda Louise

Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
Hilda Louise lives in an orphanage and longs for a family. One day, her longing for a family
sweeps her away and over the streets of Paris.

Target Words: companion, maneuver, descend

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Companion
Step 2
Hilda Louise loved her companions and she loved Madame Zanzibar, but she longed for a
family of her own.

Step 3
Say the word iith me, companion. (Show the word card) What is a companion? Listen
for responses.

Step 4
A companion is someone you spend time i /ih.

Step 5
Say, "companion" ifI describe name possible companions. Remain quiet ifwhat I name
can't be a companion
A classmate
A shoe
A chair
A dog

What kinds of thing\ could someone do ii ith a companion?

Which word goes i/ ith companion: friend stranger doctor?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Companion.









Clarifying





Expressive vocabulary

Listening comprehension

Metacognition

Predicting



Questioning



Reading comprehension



Receptive vocabulary

Reciprocal teaching










Summarizing



Text Talk


a strategy used to identify the meaning of unfamiliar words or

ideas in text. It calls students' attention to the fact that some parts

of the text may be difficult to understand.

words used when an individual speaks or writes.

understanding of spoken language

knowledge about cognition and self-regulation of cognition.

a strategy that involves making a guess about future events, based

on logical evidence from a text.

a strategy that involves the use of self-generated questions in

reference to a text, for the purpose of reading comprehension.

the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning

through interaction and involvement with text (RAND, 2002).

words known well enough to understand when heard or read.

an instructional procedure in which small groups of

students learn to improve their reading comprehension through

scaffolded instruction of comprehension-fostering and

comprehension-monitoring strategies, which include predicting,

clarifying, questioning, and summarizing.

a strategy in which the reader identifies and articulates main ideas

from a text in a concise manner.

an approach to reading aloud that is designed to enhance children's

ability to construct meaning from decontextualized language,









Step 3
Say the word~ iith me. Vicious. (Show the word card) What does it vicious mean? Listen
for responses.

Step 4
Vicious describes wiiethilig violent and cruel.

Step 5
What kinds of animals are vicious?

Have you ever encountered anything vicious?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Vicious.

Word 3 Scampered
Step 2
Max and his classmates scampered across the playground and played their buggy game.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Scampered. What does it mean to scamper? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Scamper describes moving quickly i/ ith small light steps.

Step 5
When would be a time thatyou would scamper? Start your sentence i ith, "Iwould
scamper if... (Ensure that students use the sentence stem)

Tell me if the following animals scamper:
Ants
Pigs
Bugs
Birds
Cows

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Scampered.
































Figure 2-2. Gradual release of responsibility model. Adapted from Pearson and Gallagher
(1983)



Demonstrations of strategy use must be flexible, based on feedback cues from students. The

more explicit and direct the instruction, the more students assume control of the strategy (Duffy

& Roehler, 1987; Keene & Zimmerman, 1997; Pearson, 1984).

Scaffolded Support. According to Pearson and Gallagher (1983), the process of release is

critical because teachers are actually restructuring student understanding. Scaffolded support is

consistent with Vygotsky's (1978) zone of proximal development. It is during this time that

teachers meet students in the space where growth can occur. As the learner's skill increases, the

teacher's support decreases. The dialogue used in these interactions serves as an instrument in

meaning making. Although adult-child interactions are important, peer interactions are

important as well. Foreman and Cazden (1994) examined the effects of peer interactions by

analyzing 12 peer tutoring sessions in inner-city, multi-grade primary classrooms. They









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 26

Book The Brave Little Seamstress

Osborne, M. P. (2002). The brave little seamstress. New York: Antheneum books for
Young readers.
A seamstress who kills seven flies with one blow outwits the kind and, with the help opf a kind
knight, becomes a wise and kind queen.

Target Words: feat, abandoned, admired

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Feat
Step 2
As she stitched each word, the little seamstress grew prouder and prouder of her amazing
feat. Her heart wagged~ iihljoy like the tail of a lamb.

Step 3
Say the word~ iiih me. Feat. (Show the word card) What is afeat? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A feat is a difficult act or achievement.

Step 5
If I describe a feat, say feat. If I don't describe a feat remain quiet.

Climbing a tall tree

Walking down the sidewalk.

Jumping a big ramp on your bike.

Making all As on your report card

Tell me a about a feat you accomplished.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Feat.










Correct Incorrect
Impress (real)
Chassydoolid (make-believe)
Shrink (real)
Basdin (make-believe)
Crandit (make-believe)
Display (real)
Tattered (real)
Flacker (make-believe)
Slegat (make-believe)
Shrieking (real)
Commotion (real)
Choylid (make-believe)
Grickel (make-believe)
Emergency (real)
Kelody (make-believe)
Concentrate (real)
Admire (real)
Weltereen (make-believe)
Humble (real)
Vanivoid (make-believe)
Wail (real)
Seldom (real)
Optel (make-believe)
Weary (real)
Somber (real)
Skelig (make-believe)
Companion (real)
Maneuver (real)
Swever (make-believe)
Quavat (make-believe)
Dam (real)
Slaver (make-believe)
Bound (real)
Quarrel (real)
Yatter (make-believe)
Helig (make-believe)
Advice (real)
Extraordinary (real)
Foreign (real)
Welchid (make-believe)
Vervage (make-believe)
Insist (real)
Invisible (real)
Cabbus (make-believe)
Klavor (make-believe)
Squint (real)
Suspicious (real)
Wander (real)









Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest and a researcher created cloze and error deletion task,

researchers concluded that reading comprehension could be improved for less skilled readers.

Dole, Brown, and Trathen (1996) examined the effects of strategy instruction on at-risk

fifth and sixth grade students' reading comprehension. Participants included 67 students who

were assigned to one of three groups, strategy instruction, story content instruction, and basal

control instruction. Researchers and teachers provided instruction for the strategy group for 50

minutes per day for five weeks. The strategy group was taught to predict and to identify the

main idea. Explicit instruction regarding the utility of the strategy and instructions for

implementing strategies during independent reading was provided. Researcher designed open-

ended comprehension tests were administered as protests, posttests, and as delayed posttests. A

series of ANCOVAs revealed that there was a significant effect in favor of strategy instruction.

In a study that examined whether transactional strategies instruction would enhance the

reading comprehension of low achieving second grade students, Brown et al., (1996) found that

students who received transactional strategies instruction outperformed students who received

conventional second grade reading instruction in the year long quasi-experimental study on

standardized measures. Five matched pairs with one transactional strategies instruction teacher

and one conventional instruction teacher in each pair, with six students per group, were

compared. Transactional strategies instruction teachers provided direct explanations and

modeling of strategic reasoning to the students while conventional reading teachers taught

reading using methods they were committed to using.

Vaughn, Chard, Bryant, Coleman, Tyler, Linan-Thompson, and Kouzekanani (2000)

investigated the effects of partner reading (PR) and collaborative strategic reading strategies

(CSR) on the reading comprehension of third grade students. Classroom teachers implemented









APPENDIX C
STORYBOOK REFERENCES

Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudy problemm and how she solved it. New York: Harry
N. Abrams.
Auch, M. J. (1992). The Easter egg farm. New York: Holiday House.
Auch, M. J. (1996). Eggs mark the spot. New York: Holiday House.
Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera. New York: Holiday House.
Auch, M. J. (2002). The princess and the pizza. New York: Holiday House.
Best, C. (2001). \/n inkiug violet. New York: Melanie Kroupa Books.
Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf! New York: Orchard Books.
Bloom, S. (2003). Noplacefor apig. Honesdale, PA: Boyd Mills Press.
Burningham, J. (1963). Borka: The adventures of a goose i/ ith no feathers. London:
Jonathan Cape.
Calmenson, S. (2001). The frogprincipal. New York: Scholastic Press.
Campbell, A. (1998). Dora's box. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
Cannon, J. (1997). Verdi. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, and Company.
Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen. New York: Holiday House.
David, L. (2002). Superhero Max. New York: Doubleday for Young Readers.
Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
French, V. (1994). Redhen andslyfox. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Harper, C. H. (2005). The invisible mistakecase. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Harness, C. (1993). The queen i/ ith bees in her hair. New York: Henry Holt and
Company, Inc.
Heine, H. (1983). The most wonderful egg in the world. New York: Aladdin
Paperbacks.
Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town. New York: Dutton Children's Books.
McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III. Holiday House: New York.
McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox. New York: Dial Books for Young
Readers.
McKissak, P. C. (2000). The honest-to-goodness 1n inh New York: Antheneum Books
for Young Readers.
McKissack, P. C. (2005). Precious and the boo hag. New York: Antheneum Books for
Young Readers.
Osborne, M. P. (2000). Kate and the beanstalk. New York: Antheneum Books for
Young Readers.
Osborne, M.P. (2002). The brave little seamstress. New York: Anthenuem Books for
Young Readers.
Osborne, W., & Osborne, M. P. (2005). Sleeping Bobby. New York: Antheneum Books
for Young Readers.
Rochelle, B. (1994). When Jo Louis won the title. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Say, A. (1999). Tea ii ith milk. New York: Walter Lorraine Books.
Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes. New York: Blue Sky Press.
Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring. Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press.









passage comprehension measure, favoring the vocabulary-focused group. Pearson product

moment correlation coefficients revealed moderate to robust correlations of the measures.

Implications for researchers and teachers emerge from these findings. Teachers should

understand that explicit vocabulary instruction does have an impact on comprehension and it

does enhance word knowledge. With a more experienced adult or peer providing scaffolding,

students' abilities were expanded beyond what they could do alone. In addition, students in

primary grades can benefit from strategies-instruction. Using a gradual release model assisted

students in proficiently using strategies. Strategies-instruction positively influenced both

comprehension and vocabulary. Class time should be dedicated to explicit vocabulary and

comprehension strategy instruction.

Researchers should consider investigating the longitudinal effects of strategies instruction

on students in primary grades. It is also recommended that researchers examine specific

combinations of strategies useful for students in primary grades, and specific teacher behaviors

that contribute to the mastery of strategies by students.









Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
C The Queen i i/th Bees in Her Hair
C The Tale of Hilda Louise
C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox
C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying. Throughout the story, you will
clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart
provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the
students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble.
Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when
they want to clarify.

Lesson 10
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Tale ofHilda Louise. I want you to
help me clarify things that I don't understand, and I want you to signal me when you need
clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense.
Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with
them to remind them of the three ways to clarify.


Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible clarifications
have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students
through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

Possible Clarifications:
I am not exactly sure about what happened to her parents. Did they die?
I need clarification on the word Magnifique. It looks like another word I know...magnificent.
I am not sure what maneuver means.





















Figure 2-1. The reciprocal relationship between vocabulary and comprehension.



Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary instruction has been identified as an essential element of reading instruction

(NRP, 2000). Like comprehension instruction for children in primary grades, vocabulary

instruction has not received attention the way other reading instructional methods have

(Biemiller & Slonim, 2001), despite its influence on reading comprehension. Readers must

understand words in order to comprehend text. Some interventions with children in both primary

and elementary grades have shown that vocabulary instruction increases word knowledge

(Biemiller, 1999; Brett et al., 1996; Coyne et al., 2004). Traditional methods of instruction, such

as copying definitions from a dictionary or attempting to use a new word in a meaningful

sentence have been demonstrated to be ineffective in promoting vocabulary growth (Nagy,

1988). Superficial learning of word meanings also contributes little to text comprehension (Beck

& McKeown, 1991; Nagy, 1988). Several effective methods have been developed for teaching

word meanings and, more importantly, for promoting deeper understanding of words. Direct

instruction of word meanings and word learning from storybooks will be discussed in the

following sections.









instruction using a pretest-posttest design. Participants in the study included 783 third graders,

801 fifth graders, and 75 classroom teachers. Teachers were provided with instructional modules

and lesson plans. Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to strategy instruction:

declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and conditional knowledge should be used when

reading. The ISL modules addressed each category of reading related strategic knowledge.

The ISL program used explicit strategy instruction, teacher modeling, guided practice,

feedback, and group discussions, with a gradual release of responsibility. Control classes

received regular reading instruction while classroom teachers, using the ISL program, instructed

experimental classes. The Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest and a researcher designed

Reading Awareness Index served as dependent variables. After conducting a series of

ANCOVAs, results indicated that participants in the experimental classes made significantly

greater gains than students in the control group after one year of ISL instruction.

Cross and Paris (1988) conducted an Informed Learning Strategies Learning (ISL) study

to investigate students' use of cognitive strategies in reading, using a pretest-posttest design.

Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to strategy instruction: declarative

knowledge, procedural knowledge, and conditional knowledge that should be used when reading.

The ISL program used explicit strategy instruction, teacher modeling, guided practice, feedback,

and group discussions with a gradual release of responsibility. Third and fifth grade classes

served as participants in this study. Two third grade and two fifth grade classrooms received

training in the ISL program, while other third and fifth grade classes served as controls. After

thirty minutes of researcher provided direct instruction, twice per week, Cross and Paris

concluded that students acquire more metacognitive awareness as they get older. Using the









various forms of instruction on children in primary grades. If students are to be prepared to

comprehend text proficiently by the time they reach the intermediate grades, instruction in both

comprehension and vocabulary are necessary prior to them reaching the intermediate grades.

Because the understanding of words and understanding of connected text are closely related

(Juel, 2006; Senechal, Ouellette, & Rodney, 2006), instruction designed to promote both

vocabulary development and text comprehension can be an efficient means of promoting reading

achievement. Research is needed to clarify the impact of vocabulary instruction on

comprehension and the impact of comprehension strategy instruction on vocabulary growth and

comprehension.

The purpose of my study was to examine the effects of two explicit instructional

strategies on the comprehension skills and vocabulary development of readers in second grade

and third grade who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text.. One

instructional method was vocabulary-focused, and the other was strategies-focused. Through

this study, the relationship between understanding words and understanding text is examined.

The general research questions are as follows: What are the effects of vocabulary-focused

instruction on the vocabulary skills and comprehension development of primary grade students

who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? What are the effects of

strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of

primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders?

Research supports the implementation of interventions that focus on explicit

comprehension strategies instruction (Duffy, Roehler, Meloth, Vavrus, Book, Putnam, &

Wesselman 1986; Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Pressley, El-Dinary, Gaskins, Schuder, Bergman,

Almasi, & Brown, 1992) and explicit instruction of word meanings through the use of









Harcourt Educational Measurement. (2003). Stanford achievement test (10th ed). San Antonio,
TX: Harcourt School Publishers.

Higgins, N., & Hess, L. (1999). Using electronic books to promote vocabulary development.
Journal ofResearch on Computing in Education, 31, 425-430.

Jenkins, J. R., Matlock, B., & Slocum, T. A. (1989). Two approaches to vocabulary instruction:
The teaching of individual word meanings and practice in deriving word meanings from
context. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 215-235.

Johnson-Glenberg, M. (2000). Training reading comprehension in adequate decoders/poor
comprehenders: Verbal versus visual strategies. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 92,
777-782.

Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first
through fourth grades. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 22, 437-447.

Juel, C. (2006). The impact of early school experiences on initial reading. In S. B. Neuman & D.
K. Dickinson (Eds.). Handbook of early literacy research, Vol. 2. (pp. 410-426). New
York: Guilford Press.

Justice, L. M., Meier, J., &Walpole, S. (2005). Learning new words from storybooks: An
efficacy study with at-risk kindergartners. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in
Schools, 36, 17-32.

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Interobserver agreement: Single case-research designs: Methods for
clinical and applied settings (pp. 48-75). New York: Oxford University Press.

Keenan, J. M. (2006, March). Comprehending the Gray Oral Reading Test without reading it:
Why comprehension tests should not include passage independent items. Paper presented
at the 2nd biannual conference of the Florida Center for Reading Research, St. Petersburg
Beach, FL.

Keene, E. & Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader's
workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Landry, S. H., & Smith, K. E. (2006). The influence of parenting on emerging literacy skills. In
D. K. Dickinson & S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of Early Literacy Research, Vol. 2
(pp. 135-148). New York: Guilford Press.

Lederer, J. (2000). Reciprocal teaching of social studies in inclusive elementary classrooms.
Journal ofLearning Disabilities, 33(1), 91-107.

Lesgold, A. M., Perfetti, C. A. (1978). Interactive processes in reading comprehension.
Discourse Processes, 1, 323-336.









Implications for Future Research

Explicit vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension strategies instruction would

surely continue beyond the time constraints of this study. Additional research is warranted in

which the longitudinal effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies focused

instruction are examined with students in primary grades. In addition, research examining the

effects of extension activities and the use of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-

focused instruction would be beneficial to teachers of young children. Additional investigation

of reciprocal teaching strategies with children in primary grades is warranted. It would be useful

to document strategy generalization in young children. Evidence of when children are able to

use strategies proficiently is needed. Researchers should attempt to be more precise about which

combination of strategies are manageable for children in primary grades, as well as to explore

specific teacher behaviors that support strategy mastery. Researchers should consider

investigating methods of professional development designed to help teachers learn to use each

instructional method separately, then combine the two instructional methods to see if students

benefit. Professional development activities that include opportunities for teachers to observe

others providing strategies and vocabulary instruction to children, in classrooms would be useful.

In addition, researchers should examine the appropriate scaffolding needed by teachers in order

for them to appropriately use these instructional methods with students.

Implications for Practice

Implications for reading instruction are not dichotomous. Results from this study did not

yield "either/or" results in terms of which instructional method to use with children in the

primary grades. It was learned that vocabulary-focused instruction was useful both in enhancing

comprehension and in developing word knowledge. When participants were engaged with more

experienced adults, what they were able to do was expanded beyond what they could do alone.









Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4


During the first four lessons, there will be explicit strategy description and teacher modeling.
Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.

Strategies Book
QCSP Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It
QCSP Brothers of the Knight
QCSP Flossie and the Fox
QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes

Lesson 2
Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrations, and using these clues, Ipredict that
these boys are brothers and they dance at night. Their bodies look like they are dancing and it is
at night because I see the stars. But, the word Knight in the title isn't spelled like the night that
comes after day, so maybe their name is Knight. I am not sure, let's read on to see what happens.

Questioning: The author says that Reverend Knight lived in Harlem with his twelve sons and
their dog. My question is, Where is their mother? Will the author tell me about her later on?

Clarifying: I see this word sermon. I don't know what a sermon is. It doesn't look like a word
that I already know. I can't think of one to substitute, so I will mine the context. The author says
people came from far and wide to hear his sermons, and yet he couldn't solve his own problems
in his own home. Do people listen to sermons to solve problems? He is a reverend. Are sermons
something that preachers give? Do they have to do with church? I think I am in the right area. I
will keep reading.

Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to
quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main
parts). Now, here is what has happened. Reverend Knight has gone through a lot of nannies
because they can't solve the mystery of why his sons' shoes keep getting worn out so quickly.
Now, he has hired a new nanny who seems different from the others.









development occurred during the experimental phase of the study. When compared with the

results of students from the high achieving school, the Title I students' scores improved relative

to those of the above average children, and the achievement gap narrowed after the intervention.

However, students in the Title I school made less progress relative to the high achievers.

Results from each study reviewed in the previous section indicated significant differences

between students who received explicit instruction in word meanings when compared with

students who did not. Students who received explicit instruction in word meanings made greater

gains in word knowledge than those who received no instruction in word meanings.

Storybook Reading and Vocabulary Learning

Storybook reading experiences can be an exceptional opportunity for children to learn

words. The context of a story provides a backdrop for building understanding of new words

through connections with familiar words and situations. Reading aloud to children provides the

opportunity to develop understanding of words and text in an engaging way (Beck et al., 2002).

Researchers have documented that children learn vocabulary through storybook

interactions (Senechal & Cornell, 1993; Senechal, Thomas, & Monker, 1994). The majority of

experimental studies that have investigated the relationship between storybook reading and

vocabulary acquisition have been conducted with young children. Researchers are now more

focused on studying specific factors that strongly influence whether or not children learn

vocabulary from listening to stories.

Elley (1989) conducted two experiments to examine the vocabulary acquisition of seven

and eight year olds while they listened to stories. In the first experiment, 168 seven year olds

were read one book three times over a period of seven days. A 20-item multiple-choice test was

given as a pretest and posttest. Results from experiment one indicated that children made a mean

gain in vocabulary knowledge between 13% and 21%. In the second experiment, 127 eight year









Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot
QCSP Pizza for the Queen
QCSP The Frog Principal
QCSP Turtle Spring


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lessons will be on independent use of all strategies.
Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strategies as the instructor reads the
story. It will be very interactive because the onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart
provided. During this phase, you will be watching for independent use of the strategy. If
students appear to be having trouble, you may use guided practice.

Lesson 29
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Eggs Mark the Spot. I want you to use all
of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies.
Listen so that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide
you.


Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use
has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies
independently. Help them only if they need it and no other student is able to help them. This
should be an independent process









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 28


Book Wolf Comes to Town

Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town. New York: Dutton's Children's Books.

Target Words: disguise, suspicious, seize

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Disguise
Step 2
Now, that big wolfjust loved to go shopping, but whenever he left his house he would wear
a disguise, for he knew thatpeople didn't like wolves very much.

Step 3
Say the word iith me, disguise. (Show the word card) What is a disguise? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A disguise is v\iinehiig youput on to change your appearance so people won't know who
you are.

Step 5
Would you wear a disguise to a church?
Would you wear a disguise on Halloween?
Would you wear a disguise to school?
Would you wear a disguise to a family dinner?
Give children an opportunity to explain why they would or would not wear the disguise.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Disguise.

Word 2: Suspicious
Step 2
In the story, thing\ had gotten so bad that the shopkeepers were suspicious ofjust about
everybody.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Suspicious. (Show the word card) What suspicious mean? Listen









Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
Q Nh\ inking Violet
Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III
Q Wolff
Q The Princess and the Pizza


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning. Throughout the story, you will
generate questions as you read. Review the questioning section of the teaching chart provided.
During this phase, you will begin to use the strategy collaboratively with the students. Allow
them to help you generate questions about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when
they have a question.

Lesson 8
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Princess and the Pizza. I want you to
help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can
we can ask. Remember how good questions begin, with: who, what, when, where, why, and how.

Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a princess on the cover with a jeweled crown
and a jeweled necklace. My question is, Why is she holding apizza?

Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions have
been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students
to help you construct questions. This should be a collaborative process.

Possible Questions:

Why did Princess Paulina's dad give up his throne?
Why didn't Princess Paulina expect much competition it the contest?
Where did all of these other princesses come from?
Why did the seven girls who looked bright eyed get sent home?











Step 3
Say the word i th me. Protest. (Show the word card) What does protest mean? Listen
for responses.

Step 4
If someone protests, they say or show publicly that they don't agree i ih .\,uin, hiuig

Step 5
Some people have been protesting the war in Iraq. They are showing that they disagree
11 ith it.

Once, I protested when I didn't like a new rule my school made.

Have you ever protested?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Protest.

Word 3 Anxious
Step 2
The queen was anxious to taste the pizza

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Anxious. What does it mean to be anxious? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When someone is anxious, they are worried or excited about ,,iinehiliig happening.

Step 5

I am anxious to graduate from school. I sit and think about it all of the time, andI talk
about it all of the time.

Have you ever felt anxious?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Anxious.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 7


Book Wolf!

Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf!. New York: Orchard Books.
A wolf gets discouraged because he is having difficulty scaring educated farm animals. He
decides to become educated as well.

Target Words: emergencies, concentrate, admire

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Emergencies
Step 2
The wolf kept a little money for emergencies.

Step 3
Say the word iih me. Emergencies. (Show the word card) What is an emergency?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
An emergency is an unexpected, serious situation that has to be dealt in ith right away.

Step 5
Say emergency ifI describe a situation that is an emergency. Remain quiet if the situation
is not an emergency.
Someone has fallen off her bike and has broken her arm.
You want a new toy because you saw it on TV.
Your dog is wants to play catch but you have to do your homework. Isplaying
catch an emergency?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Emergencies.

Word 2: Concentrate
Step 2
In the story, the cow complained about an awful noise because he couldn't concentrate on
his book.

Step 3









methods: dictionary method and concept method. Students in the dictionary method group were

asked to look up words in dictionaries, copy them, and use them in a sentence. Students in the

concept method group were presented with words on worksheets and given two examples and

nonexamples to help them identify critical attributes of the word or concepts. Four posttest

measures were used to assess student performance.

Analyses indicated that the level of the instructed word vocabulary had a reliable effect on

word knowledge and text comprehension. Children who received instruction on noncentral

words learned more noncentral vocabulary and understood more story ideas related to noncentral

vocabulary than students who received instruction on central words. Children who received

instruction on central words learned more central vocabulary and understood more story ideas

related to central vocabulary than students who received instruction on noncentral words. In

addition, preteaching vocabulary enhances children's understanding of ideas related to the

instructed vocabulary regardless of the level of importance. The concept method of instruction

did not provide any advantage over the dictionary method in this study.

In a comparison of direct teaching of individual word meanings and practice deriving word

meanings from context, Jenkins, Matlock, and Slocum (1989) concluded that learning words

from contexts is not an automatic process. Participants included 135 fifth grade students (six

classes). Students were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: three classes were assigned

to instruction in individual word meanings and three classes were assigned to the deriving word

meanings from context condition. In each condition, classes were assigned to low, medium, or

high amounts of practice. Instructional sessions lasted between 10 and 20 minutes based on the

practice level. Participants were administered protests and posttests. On all tests of word

knowledge, students performed better on tests of individual word meanings. All students scored









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 32


Book Turtle Spring

Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring. Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press.
The changing seasons bring surprises to Clee, including a new baby brother early in the year and
a turtle whose life seems to crawl away inthe winter.

Target Words: insisted, contented, emerged

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Insist
Step 2
"Aren 'tyou the lucky one?" everyone insisted from orbits around the crib. Clee felt like a
lost moon.

Step 3
Say the word i ith me, insisted. (Show the word card) Insisted looks like word we have
talked about before. Does anyone remember what it means? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If someone insists, they really want \vinhiiig to happen, and they say it in afirm way.

Step 5
Complete each sentence.
The boy's mother insisted that he come inside the house because....

The doctor insisted that the lady be admitted to the hospital because...

The baby insisted on having his bottle because....

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Insist.

Word 2: Content
Step 2
Clee 's turtle sunned herself. She looked content, having just gobbled three worms.

Step 3










APPENDIX B
TARGET WORD VOCABULARY MEASURE


Name
Part 1


Grade


I am going to say a word, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a make-believe word.
Let's try one: Is dog a real word or a make believe word?

If the student answers correctly If the student answers incorrectly
Yes, that's right! Dog is a real word. A dog is a Dog is a real word. A dog is a furry animal that
furry animal that barks, barks.

Let's try again. Is dog a real word or a make-
believe word?

Let's try another one: Is clute a real word or a make-believe word?

If the student answers correctly If the student answers incorrectly
Yes, that's right! Clute is a make-believe word. Clute is a make-believe word. Clute doesn't
Clute doesn't man anything. mean anything.

Let's try again. Is clute a real word or a make-
believe word?

Let's try some more. I am going to say some words, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a
make-believe word.
Correct Incorrect
Here is the first word: Grape.
Is grape a real word or a make believe word?
Mellet melll) et (make-believe)
If needed, say: Is mellet a real word or a make-believe word?
Collect (real)
Unkee (un kee) (make-believe)
Nuggle (nug-gle) (make-believe)
Tidy (real)
Inspiration (real)
Taffin (taf- fin) (make-believe)
Sermon (real)
Staigin (stay-gin) (make-believe)
Ownel (oh nel) (make-believe)
Congregation (real)
Bawdoib (make-believe)
Conversation (real)
Caladid (make-believe)
Noygeef (make-believe)
Sly (real)
Raid (real)
Tickarine (make-believe)
Absurd (real)










Step 4
Ifyou have a conversation i/ ith someone, you tialk n ith each other in a relaxed, easy way.

Step 5
Have you ever had a conversation when you were not supposed to have it? When?

When is a good time to have a conversation?

Who are some people you that you have conversations i i th?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Conversation.

Word 3 Insistent
Step 2
No one had read her application yet, the clerk said. Masako asked to see the manager. She
was very insistent.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Insistent. What does insistent mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Insistent describes someone who wants \vin, hiig to be done and they say in a very firm
way, that they want it done.

Step 5
Once, I went to a restaurant and got a bad server. I decided that I wanted to speak to the
person in charge, and I was very insistent.

When a student in my class wanted to walk around during a spelling test, I was very
insistent when I asked him to sit down.

Have you ever had to be insistent?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Insistent.











Word 2: Maneuver
Step 2
In the story, Hilda Louse learned to maneuver in the air. She turned somersaults.

Step 3
Say the word~ iith me. Maneuver. (Show the word card) What is a maneuver? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A maneuver is a tricky move that you can do which takes a lot of skill.

Step 5

Sometimes when I drive down the road, I have to maneuver in and out of traffic. I have to
be very careful to pass people safely, and I have to be sure I stop at red lights and follow
all of the rules of the road, while still getting where I am going.

When might you need to maneuver? Why?

How would you maneuver through the lunch line to get a carton of milk that you forgot to
get when you went through thefirst time? Invite them to get up and demonstrate.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Maneuver.

Word 3 Descend
Step 2
At four o 'clock in the afternoon, Hilda Louise began to descend from the sky.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Descend. What does descend mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When someone or v\,iiehiig comes down or moves down from a place, they descend.

Step 5
Do airplanes have to maneuver to descend from the sky? How do you know?

Is descending more like moving or sitting still?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Descend.









If you examine ,oimeiliiiig. you look at it carefully.

Step 5
Raise your hand to finish each sentence.

The boy examined his dog because....

The girl examined her homework because....

The dentist examined the little girl's teeth because....

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Examine.

Word 3 Distraction
Step 2
That night, Mr. Harms, the school principal, called. "I'm sorry, Mrs. Cream, "he said.
"I'm going to have to ask you to keep Camilla home from school. She justt too much of a
distraction."

Step 3
Say the word i th me. Distraction. What is a distraction? Listen for responses.

Step 4
A distraction is ,,iinethiig that takes your attention away from whatyou are doing.

Step 5
Raise your hand to answer each question.

Ifyou are trying to do your homework, and your puppy keeps walking over your papers,
would it be a distraction?

Ifyou are playing soccer, and the coach is giving you instructions, would the teacher be a
distraction?

Ifyour family is having dinner and your mom asks if anyone is ready for dessert, is that a
distraction?

Which wordgoes i iih distraction? Focus Fun Shoes

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Distraction.









Table 4-8. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group
Differences for Vocabulary-Focused Group


Group

Expressive Vocabulary
Error
Receptive Vocabulary
Error
Reading Comprehension
Error
Listening Comprehension
Error
Passage Comprehension
Error
Researcher Created Target Vocabulary
Error


Pretest Posttest df


Mean
86.5

90.9

9.77

7.77

23.7

87.8


Mean
94.1

89.3

12.3

10.8

28.1

89.8


Table 4-9. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest
Differences for Strategies-Focused Group
Group Pretest Posttest
Mean Mean
Expressive Vocabulary 86.9 93.5
Error
Receptive Vocabulary 93.2 91.2
Error
Reading Comprehension 9.00 15.2
Error
Listening Comprehension 7.70 12.4
Error
Passage Comprehension 23.4 27.4
Error
Researcher Created Target Vocabulary 88.9 90.5
Error


to Posttest

df

1
29
1
29
1
29
1
29
1
29
1
29


Within-Group

F p

24.5 .000

2.35 .136

17.9 .000

18.1 .000

31.9 .000

29.9 .000


Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained for the pretest results and posttest results of

each dependent measure: receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, reading comprehension,

and listening comprehension, to examine the linear relationships between the measures.

Correlation coefficients yielded several significant relationships. The correlation matrix for the


F

14.2

.840

5.46

12.07

15.5

65.2


.001

.367

.027

.000

.001

.000









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 25


Book Precious and the Boo Hag

McKissack, P. C., & Moss, O. J. (2004). Precious and the boo hag. New York:
Antheneum Books for Young Readers.
Home alone with a stomachache while the family works in the fields, a young girl faces up to the
horrifying Boo Hag that her brother warned hear about.

Target Words: disbelieve, confidence, disguise

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Disbelieve
Step 2
Before he left, Brother pulled Precious to the side. "Be sure to mind Mama, now. 'Cause
ifyou let somebody in, you never know. It might just be Pruella the Boo Hag. "Who?"
Precious asked, i i/h/ a disbelieving giggle.

Step 3
Say the word i iih me. Disbelieve. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what
disbelieve means? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If someone disbelieves \m
Step 5
Tell me I heIwher you would look in disbelief at the following statements:
If someone toldyou a cow jumped over a moon.
If someone toldyou that you that it was snowing outside.
If someone toldyou that they want to be your friend.
Ifyour mom toldyou that dinner was ready.
Have the students explain why they would look in disbelief or not.

Tell me about a time when you had to give a disbelieving stare.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Disbelieve.

Word 2: Confidence









Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4


During the first four lessons, there will be explicit strategy description and teacher modeling.
Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.

Strategies Book
QCSP Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It
QCSP Brothers of the Knight
QCSP Flossie and the Fox
QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes

Lesson 3
Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrations, and using these clues, Ipredict that the
girl on the cover has a pet fox or is friends with the fox. She is kind of smiling, and the fox is
right beside her. Now, I am going to read to see if that makes correct. (Be sure to emphasize
that you were incorrect).

Questioning: The author says that the chickens are scared. Why are the chickens scared? Do
foxes eat chickens? When chickens are scared, does that mean they can't lay eggs?

Clarifying: I see this word sly. I am not sure what it means. I am going to mine the context to
see if it helps me. I am going to look at the words around sly to see if I can figure out what sly
means. Now, "Ever-time they corer that ol' slickster, he gets away. I tell you that fox is one
sly critter." Does that mean he is fast? Does it mean he is smart? Let me substitute those words
to see if they make sense. (Reread the sentence and plug in the ideas). Well, it could mean both
because they both make sense. I am going to keep thinking about sly to see if the meaning
becomes more clear as I read on.

Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to
quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main
parts). Now, here is what has happened. Flossie's grandmother told her to take some eggs to a
neighbor, but Flossie has to watch out for a fox in the forest.


































2007 Tyran Wright Butler









Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
Q .\Nh inking Violet
Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III
Q Wolff
Q The Princess and the Pizza


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning. Throughout the story, you will
generate questions as you read. Review the questioning section of the teaching chart provided.
During this phase, you will begin to use the strategy collaboratively with the students. Allow
them to help you generate questions about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when
they have a question.

Lesson 5
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called .\/N inking Violet. I want you to help me
create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can we can
ask. Remember how good questions begin, with: who, what, when, where, why, and how.

Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a boy on the cover of the book, my question is
Why is he lying on his book? There is also a girl on the cover, what can we ask about her.
Encourage students to help you construct. One could be: Why does the girl on the cover look
like she is hiding behind her book?

Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions have
been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students
to help you construct questions. This should be a collaborative process.

Possible Questions:

What does it mean for Violet's stomach to turn upside down?
Why is Irwin saying mean things to Violet?
Why is Violet allergic to attention?
What is making Violet want to shrink away?
How is Violet going to get over her shyness?
Who is going to do Violet's part if she won't do it?









Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
QCS The Easter Egg Farm
QCS Superhero Max
QCS Dora's Box
QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: .qiuiiluig.
clarifying, and summarizing. Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three
strategies. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided
practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if
students appear to be having trouble. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are
ready to use the strategy.

Lesson 22
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Superhero Max. I want you use the three
strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you question,
clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the
strategies.


Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use
have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy.
This should be a guided process.









knows and the more experiences one has, the better he or she will comprehend text. Anderson

and Freebody's (1981) instrumentalist and knowledge hypotheses informed this study.

Stanovich (1986) summarized a number of studies documenting the strong association

between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Pointing out that the most

vocabulary acquisition occurs during reading. Stanovich noted that children with weak

vocabularies read less, acquire fewer new words, and fall progressively further behind their

peers. The gap in exposure to vocabulary through reading is apparent as early as first grade. In

separate studies, Allington (1984) and Biemiller (1977-1978) documented that proficient readers

read three times as many words per week as their less-proficient peers. Stanovich appropriated

the Biblical term "Matthew Effects" to describe the phenomenon of the rich (good readers)

getting richer, and the poor (struggling readers) becoming increasingly impoverished. The

"Matthew Effects" have devastating consequences for children with reading difficulties. The

knowledge of word meanings is an important factor in performance on reading comprehension

tasks.

Researchers have been able to document a substantial psychometric relationship between

vocabulary and comprehension (Anderson & Freebody, 1981; Baumann, Kame'enui, & Ash,

2003; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986). Factor analyses of reading

comprehension tests consistently find a substantial proportion of variance accounted for by

vocabulary knowledge. In a longitudinal study, Cunningham and Stanovich (1997) examined the

predictive relationships between 27 students' vocabulary skills as measured by the Peabody

Picture Vocabulary Test-III in first grade and their reading comprehension and vocabulary skills

in 11th grade. They found that first grade vocabulary skills predicted 11th grade comprehension

scores on a standardized reading test.









importance to the story (Beck et al., 2002). Beck et al. (2002) argue that if 'Tier Two' words,

words that mature users of language encounter frequently, are taught then the task of direct word

instruction is manageable and useful. The benefit of this approach is that it is focused on

teaching children sophisticated words that children may not regularly hear, but that they need to

know in order to understand books that are read to them and that they will read.

Beck, Perfetti, and McKeown (1982) examined the effects of long-term vocabulary

instruction on the reading comprehension of fourth-grade students and found that students who

received explicit vocabulary instruction outperformed students in a control group on measures of

vocabulary and reading comprehension. However, the gains in comprehension were marginal.

McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Perfetti (1983) replicated and extended the previous study by

that investigated the relationship between vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension.

The original study showed substantial gains in accuracy of word knowledge, but only marginal

gains in comprehension. The initial study contained methodological problems, so researchers

revised the comprehension measure in the replication study. Forty-one fourth graders were

taught 104 difficult words over a five-month period. Following instruction, the students who

received instruction and students in the control group, matched on preinstruction vocabulary and

comprehension ability, performed tasks to measure accuracy of word knowledge and

comprehension of stories that contained target vocabulary words. Students who received

vocabulary instruction performed better than students in the control group on all tasks. Results

from the replication study support the conclusion suggested by the original study that intensive

vocabulary instruction designed to promote deep and fluent word knowledge enhances reading

comprehension.










What is an exhibit?


What kind of things would you put in an
exhibit?
What does overwhelmed mean?

If a person is overwhelmed, what will they
probably do?
What does devastated mean?

What does scrawl mean?

If you scrawl something, how will it look?

What does refreshing mean?

What does contented mean?

If you are contented, how do you feel?

What does emerge mean?

If something emerges, what does it do?









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

A discussion of the findings and implications in the investigation of the effects of

vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and

comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders

is presented in this chapter. The chapter begins with a summary of the hypotheses and the

findings of the study. The subsequent sections contain a discussion of the theoretical

implications of the research findings, the limitations of the study, and suggestions for future

research.

Summary of the Hypotheses and Results

The general question of the study was as follows: What are the effects of vocabulary-

focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and

comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders?

The following null hypotheses were test at the .05 level of significance.

Hi: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of expressive

vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who

receive strategies-focused instruction.

The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT) (Williams, 1997) was used to assess expressive

vocabulary. Analyses revealed that no statistically significant group differences existed on the

measure, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis.

H2: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of receptive

vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who

receive strategies-focused instruction.









Table 3-5. Design for Testing the Null Hypotheses using a Series of Analyses of Covariance
(ANCOVAs)


Vocabulary-Focused Group


Pretest


Posttest


Strategies-Focused Group


Pretest


Posttest


1 -EVT


2 PPVT-III


3 QRI-4



4 QRI-4


5 Woodcock Passage
Comprehension


6 Researcher-Created Measure


Hi: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of expressive
vocabulary.

H2: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of receptive
vocabulary

H3: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of reading
comprehension.

H4: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on measures of listening
comprehension.

H5: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on a measure of passage
comprehension.

H6: There will be no statistically significant difference
between the groups on a researcher created measures of
vocabulary.


Dependent
Measures









APPENDIX D
VOCABULARY-FOCUSED LESSONS

Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 1

Book Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It

Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudy problemm and how she solved it. New York: Harry
N. Abrams.
Prudy collects so many things that everyone says she has a problem, but when a crisis convinces
her they are right, she comes up with a perfect solution.

Target Words: collect, tidy, inspiration

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Collect
Step 2
In the story, Prudy collected things.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Collect. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what it means
to collect thing%? Listen for responses. Capitalize on what is correct.

Step 4
Ifyou collect things, it means that you get a lot of that thing or similar 1hiing\ over a period
of time because you are interested in it/them.

Step 5
Do any ofyou collect anything? Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they
understand what collect means. If they don't, make sure they know that people collect
things over time because they are interested in them.

The man collected stamps because.... Listen to see if they understand that the man
collects them because he is interested in them or he likes them. Reiterate the
definition of collect. Ensure that they know it isn't just random gathering.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Collect









Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth
S No Place for a Pig
S Sleeping Bobby
S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose i/th No Feathers


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing. Throughout the story, you will
summarize big ideas as you read. Review the summarizing section of the teaching chart
provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students.
You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow
them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they
want to summarize.

Lesson 20
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Borka: The Adventures of a Goose i/ ilh
No Feathers. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then
stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize.
Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize.


Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible place to
summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of
the strategy. This should be a guided process.









It was also learned that strategies-focused comprehension influenced vocabulary so much that

statistically significant differences between a strategies-focused instructional group and a

vocabulary-focused instructional group were undetectable. This suggests that a strategies-

focused approach is also useful. Both instructional methods increased word learning and

comprehension in study participants. A framework of reading instruction that includes a gradual

release of responsibility and meaningful dialogue between teachers and students and students and

students is an important issue for teachers of students who lack comprehension skills to consider

incorporating in reading instruction. In addition, multiple exposures to words, meaningful

activities that engage students in thinking about word meanings, and opportunities for students to

make deep and extensive connections between vocabulary words and their definitions is

important to consider in instruction. Participants in this study demonstrated a genuine interest in

the texts used. Teachers should consider engaging in learning with peers, more about explicit

comprehension strategies instruction and explicit vocabulary instruction with children in primary

graders. Teachers might benefit from engaging in peer coaching activities to improve

instruction. Oftentimes, teachers are concerned with issues of control in the classroom, and may

be unable to attempt instruction alone. The support of a peer could provide the help needed in

order to deepen the reading comprehension and vocabulary of young children.

Limitations to the Present Study

This study had several limitations. The most powerful limitation was time. Thirty-two

sessions of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction generated gains for

participants in both instructional groups on all dependent measures, but not as significant as they

might have been if instruction was longer in duration. Instruction yielded statistically significant

gains on measures of passage comprehension. Additional, consistent, systematic instruction may

have served to strengthen and increase the differences in posttest scores for participants.









APPENDIX F
STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON GUIDES


Strategies-Focused Lesson Script

General Directions: For each lesson, read the storybook aloud. During each reading, focus on
the highlighted strategy(ies) in the script. Model strategy use for the students. Examine the
marked pages of each book to identify possible strategy practice during reading.

Script: Today, I am going to introduce to you, four strategies that good readers use to help them
understand what they read. I want you to watch me, and think about what I am doing as I read
the story.

I am going to be asking questions, clarifying, summarizing, and making predictions during the
story.

For the first few days, I am going to be describing the strategies to you, to make sure you
understand them. Then, I am going to show you how I use them. I will always do that aloud.
Next, we are going to be using the strategies together. After that, I will guide you as you try to
use the strategies alone. Finally, You will do it all by yourself. Throughout our time together,
how much I do and how much you do will change.

When I ask questions, I am going to be asking questions that begin with who, what, when,
where, why, and how, because good questions begin that way.

When I clarify, I am going to look for the meaning of words or ideas that aren't quite clear to me.
I am going to clarify in three ways:

1. I am going to "mine the context." People who look for gold, mine. They dig. I am going
to "dig" into to the words around the word I don't know, to see if they help me figure out
what it means.
2. I am going to try to substitute a synonym. A synonym is a word that might mean the
same thing as the word I don't know. I am going to put the synonym in the same place as
the word I am confused about, to see if it makes sense.
3. I am going to look at the word to see if I recognize any part of the word, and ask myself if
it looks like a word that I already know.


When I summarize, I am going to think about the big ideas that have happened in the story. I am
going to put them in order, and retell what has happened.

When Ipredict, I am going to look at the pictures and think about what has happened, to help me
make a good guess about what might happen next.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 16


Book Bantam of the Opera

Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera. New York: Holiday House.
Luigi the rooster wins fame and fortune when the star of the Cosmopolitan Opera Company and
his understudy both come down with chicken pox on the same night.

Target Words: wander, disguise, wail

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Wander
Step 2
Finally, Luigi wanderedfarther afield each day, so he could ilig n iil,,,t being heard

Step 3
Say the word iilh me. Wander. (Show the word card) What does wander mean? Listen
for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou wander, you walk around from place to place i iith,,t going in any particular
direction.

Step 5
Would it be safe to wander in the road?

Would it be safe to wander in your own backyard?

Is it ok to wander around the halls at school?

Would you want to wander around while you were carrying \,,inihiiig heavy?

Would you want to wander around the park non a Saturday afternoon?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Wander.

Word 2: Disguise
Step 2









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 6

Book Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III

McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III. Honesdale, PA: Caroline
House.

Shipwrecked, a boy makes a happy life for himself on a tropical island, far away from the dull
life of his wealthy parents.

Target Words: tattered, shrieking, commotion

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Tattered
Step 2
Everyday, new treasures washed up on the shore. Three pairs of shoes and tattered
cl thw Old feather hats and funny wigs.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Tattered (Show the word card) When \,iiehiing is tattered, what
does it look like? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If \ii,,ietilng is tattered, it is torn or crumpled.

Step 5
The paper got tattered because...

The shoes were tattered because...

Would you want a tattered jacket? Why or why not?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Tattered

Word 2: Shriek
Step 2
One morning, Nicky was awakened by shrieking parrots and crying goats.









Step 5
What are some things that could be mended? Help them think about various objects

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Mend.

Word 3 Journey
Step 2
Nobody noticed that Borka was missing. They were all thinking about the journey ahead.

Step 3
Say the word ii h me. Journey. What is journey? Listen for responses.

Step 4
A journey is a long trip.
Step 5
One summer, I took a journey to another country. The trip took 13 hours.

What are some thing\ you could do on journey?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Journey.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 17

Book The Honest-to-Goodness Truth

McKissack, P. (2000). The honest-to-goodness n iinhi New York: Antheneum Books for
Young Readers.
After promising never to lie, Libby learns it's not always necessary to blurt out the whole truth
either.

Target Words: commenced, quivered, trudged

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Commenced
Step 2
Libby's stomach felt like she'd swallowed a handful of chicken feathers. Her eyes
commenced to fill i/ ith water....

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Commenced. (Show the word card) What do you think
commenced means? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If \,iiietilng commences, it begins or starts.
Step 5
What time does school commence?

I cannot take you out of your class once your reading time commences, why do you think
that is so?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Commenced.

Word 2: Quivered
Step 2
Libby's bottom lip quivered when her mother asked her if she fed 01' Boss.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Quivered. (Show the word card). What does quiver mean? Listen
for responses.









vocabulary necessary to reveal statistically significant differences. A third possible explanation

for the lack of differences between groups is a lack of sensitivity of the standardized, norm-

referenced measures. Because norm-referenced measures are not created to assess a specifically

taught battery of knowledge, the measures may not have been sensitive enough to capture the

changes in vocabulary.

Data analysis revealed no statistically significant difference on a researcher-created target

vocabulary measure. A possible reason for these results is that although the vocabulary-focused

instruction was consistent with principles suggested by research to guide instruction, it is very

difficult to bring students to a ceiling of word knowledge (Nagy, 2000). That is, students were

active in developing their understanding of the words and they received repeated exposure to

target words (Blachowicz, 2000) and students' interactions with a more experienced adult

expanded their thinking (Vygotsky, 1978) on the meanings of various target words introduced

during instruction, but these practices were insufficient, given the constraints of the study. These

results are consistent with previous studies (Beck et al., 1982; McKeown et al., 1983; McKeown

et al., 1985). Participants may not have had enough exposures to the words to gain full and

flexible knowledge (Stahl, 1999). In addition, the target vocabulary measure contained a large

number of items. The length of the measure may have influenced students' motivation to answer

correctly. Finally, the previous possible explanation is offered again. Both groups of participants

engaged in word learning and meaning clarification. It is possible that participants in both

groups were equally skilled at word learning, which in turn would make it difficult to see

significant differences on measures of target word leaning as well.

Data analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in favor of the vocabulary-

focused instructional group on a measure of passage comprehension. This finding was









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 15

Book The Invisible Mistake Case

Harper, C. M. (2005). The invisible mistakecase. New York: Houghton Mifflin
Company.
After calling her friend "big pink baby," Charlotte, a young alligator, feels terrible until Grandpa
tells her about a useful way to learn from her mistakes.

Target Words: invisible, squint, suspicious

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Invisible
Step 2
"Oh, Grandpa!" cried Charlotte, and she told him the whole story. "Ah, said Grandpa,
"this is one for the invisible mistakecase."

Step 3
Say the word iih me. Invisible. (Show the word card) What does invisible mean?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
If \iiiiuethiig is invisible, you can't see it because it is hidden or because it is very small.

Step 5
Are stars visible or invisible?

Is air visible or invisible?

Is the moon visible or invisible?

Are germs visible or invisible?

What makes \iiwlitiing invisible?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Invisible.

Word 2: Squint









Limitations

This study was conducted with second grade and third grade students identified by their

teachers as proficient decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text. Previous informal

experiences and formal reading instruction of the subjects may limit this investigation. The

study may be limited further because the results from this study cannot be generalized to older

students or to students who comprehend text well. Finally, because the intervention was

conducted by researchers with small groups of students, outside of the classroom, it cannot be

generalized to larger classroom settings.

Delimitations

The study was delimited by geographical location to Lake City, Florida, a medium-sized

city located in the northern part of the state. The participants were 60 second and third grade

students in Columbia County. Second and third grade students were used as participants because

second grade and third grade are both primary grades, and the focus of this study was vocabulary

development and the comprehension skills of students in primary grades. Participants were

selected for participation in the study based on recommendations by teachers and reading

specialists in their school, and by scoring between the 30th and 45th percentile on a standardized

test. The school was selected based on its Reading First eligibility. Participants were pretested

on measures of verbal ability and reading comprehension. Participants were randomly assigned

to one of two instructional groups. Participant selection did not include consideration for gender

or ethnicity.

List of Terms

An understanding of applicable terminology is critical to the implementation and

interpretation of this investigation. The following section defines relevant terms as they apply to

this study.









Palincsar and Brown (1984) depict a fast-paced application of the recursive instructional

cycle. In reciprocal teaching conditions, all modeling and instruction in how to develop and

apply the four cognitive strategies takes place during the course of dialogues between teacher

and students and students and students. During the gradual release, the dialogue leader begins

the discussion with questions about the content. The rest of the group discusses the queries and

asks additional questions, taking time to address any disagreements. Clarification is used

whenever any member of the group does not understand a word, concept, or idea. Next, the

leader offers an initial summary of the text and there is further discussion, revising the summary

as appropriate. Finally, the dialogue leader generates or solicits a prediction about the next

reading selection and offers justification for that prediction. Time is taken to reflect on strategy

use. Initially, the leader models that entire procedure, using dialogue to identify and explain the

process and strategies. The leader also offers suggestions for asking questions, developing

predictions, generating summaries, or using clarifying techniques as appropriate. Because

reciprocal teaching was designed for students who are adequate decoders, but poor

comprehenders, it was selected as an instructional method to be used in this study.

Initially, the teacher serves as the dialogue leader, modeling as described. Eventually,

students begin to take turns being the teacher, modeling, and providing feedback to his or her

peers. Gradually, the leader's role decreases as the students take on greater responsibility for

carrying out the process.

In the next session, reciprocal teaching studies in which elementary students served as

participants are detailed.

Reciprocal Teaching Studies with Elementary Participants

Johnson-Glenberg (2000) investigated whether teaching poor text comprehenders reading

strategies in small group format would improve their reading comprehension. She also









Say the word ilth me. Destination. What is a destination? (Show the word card) Listen
for responses.

Step 4
Your destination is the place you are going to.

Step 5
IfI leave Lake City to go to Gainesville, what is my destination?

Ifyou could go to any destination, where would you go? Why?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Destination.

Word 3 Bellowed
Step 2
"New York City! New York! New York! the conductor bellowed as the train pulled into the
station. "

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Bellowed. What does it mean to bellow? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If someone bellows, they shout in a loud, deep voice.

Step 5
Would a library be a good place to bellow?

Would a playground be a good place to bellow?

Would the dinner table be a good place to bellow?

Why would anyone need to bellow?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Bellow.









ability to construct a plot structure with which to guide retelling. Because the QRI is not a norm-

referenced or standardized instrument, it does not provide comparative data. However, in studies

comparing comprehension measures, the QRI has been found to be (a) a strong measure of both

reading comprehension and listening comprehension and (b) correlated with other standardized

measures of reading comprehension (Keenan, 2006). Each participant was individually

administered the QRI-4 by one of a team of assessors. The QRI-4 included a list of correct

details for the passages, and each correct detail that the participant recalled from the story was

recorded. The number of correct details constituted the participant's listening or reading

comprehension score.


Table 3-3. Split Half Reliability Coefficients
Measure Age/Grade N Reliability Coefficient
7 100 .94
PPVT-III (Dunn & Dunn, 8 100 .92
1997) 9 100 .94
7 100 .86
EVT (Williams, 1997) 8 100 .88
9 100 .91
Woodcock Reading
Mastery Test-Revised
(Woodcock, 1998)
Passage Comprehension Grade 1 602 .97
Subtest Grade 3 582 .96


Experimental Design

An experimental pretest-posttest design was employed for this study with two treatment

groups: (a) vocabulary-focused group and (b) strategies-focused group. Participants were

randomly assigned to instructional condition, assessments were conducted individually, and the

intervention was delivered in group lessons. Pretest measures of vocabulary and comprehension

were administered. Each group then received a multi-step intervention. Posttest measures of









Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4


During the first four lessons, there will be explicit strategy description and teacher modeling.
Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.

Strategies Book
QCSP Prudy 's Problem and How She Solved It
QCSP Brothers of the Knight
QCSP Flossie and the Fox
QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes

Lesson 1
Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrations, and using these clues, Ipredict that this
character, I am going to guess that she is Prudy, has a problem (because her hands are up in the
air)with a lot of objects ...it looks to me like she is in her room. Now, I am going to read to see
if my prediction is correct.

Questioning: The author says that Prudy seemed like a normal little girl. She had a sister, a dog,
two mice, and her own room. Yes, she seemed normal, but she collected things. My questions is:
Why does collecting things make her not normal? Remember, it is a good question because it
begins with why. Let me see if the author explains why that makes her something other than
normal.

Clarifying: I see this word distraction. The author says that Prudy's collection drove her dad to
distraction. I am not clear on what that means. First, I am going to mine the context. I am gong
to look around the word to see if I can get some clues. It says, he was a tidy person who did not
like clutter. I am still not exactly sure, so I am going to see if the word looks like one I know. I
see distract in distraction, and I know that to distract someone means to bother them. So let me
see if it makes sense in the sentence. Prudy's collection bothered her dad because he was tidy
and didn't like clutter. Yes! That makes sense.

Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to
quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main
parts). Now, here is what has happened. Prudy is a little girl who has a huge collection of things.
Her collection has gotten out of control, and she has to do something about it. She has been
walking around looking for ideas about how to get her collection under control.









Biemiller, A. (1999). Language and reading success. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.

Biemiller, A., & Slonim, N. (2001). Estimating root word vocabulary growth in normative and
advantaged populations: Evidence for a common sequence of vocabulary acquisition.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 498-520.

Blachowicz, C. L. (2000). Vocabulary instruction: In. M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D.
Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. Vol. III Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

Block, C. (2000). Reading instruction in the new millennium. In A. Costa (Ed.), Developing
minds (pp. 472-490). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development.

Block, C. & Pressley, M. (2003). Best practices in comprehension instruction. In L. Morrow, L.
Gambrell, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (2nd ed) (pp. 111-
126). New York: Guildford Press.

Brabham, E. G., & Lynch-Brown, C. (2002). Effects of teachers' reading-aloud styles on
vocabulary acquisition and comprehension of students in the early elementary grades.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 465-473.

Brett, A., Rothlein, L., & Hurley, M. (1996). Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories
and explanation of target words. Elementary School Journal, 96, 415-422.

Britto, P. R., Fuligni, A. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Reading ahead: Effective interventions
for young children's early literacy development. In D. K. Dickinson and S. B. Neuman
(Eds.). Handbook of Early Literacy Research, Vol. 2 (pp. 311-332). New York: Guilford
Press.

Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1967). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for
research. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co.

Collins CobuildDictionary. (2006). Glasgow, Great Britain: HarperCollins Publishers.

Condus, M. M., Marshall, K. J., & Miller, S. R. (1986). Effects of keyword mnemonic strategy
on vocabulary acquisition and maintenance by learning disabled children. Journal of
Learning Disabilities, 19, 609-613.

Coyne, M. D., Simmons, D. C., Kame'enui, E. J., & Stoolmiller, M., (2004). Teaching
vocabulary during shared storybook readings: An examination of differential effects.
Exceptionality, 12(3), 145-162.

Craig, H. K., & Washington, J. A. (2006). Recent research on the language and literacy skills of
African American students in the early years. In D.K. Dickinson & S. B. Neuman (Eds.).
Handbook ofEarly Literacy Research, Vol. 2 (pp. 198-210). New York: Guilford Press.









Step 5
Sometimes, when I have a lot of thing% to do, I feel overwhelmed, like I don't know how I
am going to get it all done.

What kinds of thing% might overwhelm a kid?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Overwhelmed..

Word 3 Devastated
Step 2
Pauline was devastated because she couldn't make up her own paintings. She could only
copy the ones that were there.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Devastated. What does devastated mean? Listen for responses.
Step 4
Ifyou are devastated by voimehiiig. you are shocked and upset by it.
Step 5

The girl was devastated because....

The teacher was devastated because....

Which word goes i/ ith devastated: disappointed delighted eager?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Devastated.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 22


Book Superhero Max

David, L. (2002). Superhero Max. New York: Doubleday for Young Readers.
A second-grade boy has trouble fitting in at his new school, until he wears a Captain Crusader
costume for Halloween.

Target Words: villain, vicious, scampered

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Villain
Step 2
Ifight villains and save animals from calamitous disasters

Step 3
Say the word ihi me. Villain. (Show the word card) What is a villain? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A villain is a someone who deliberately harms other people or breaks the law in order to
get what he or she wants.

Step 5
Say "villain" ifI name a villain. Say not a villain ifI don't.

Harry Potter
The big bad wolf in the Three Little Pigs
Your teacher

Which word goes i/ih villain: bad helpful mighty?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Villain.

Word 2: Vicious
Step 2
Captain Crusader has to help save his friends from vicious bugs and wild animals.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 11


Book Red Hen and Sly Fox

French, V. (1994). Redhen andslyfox. New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young
Readers.
Red hen is renowned for her kindness. All the animals loves red hen, but sly fox loves her for a
different reason. When he captures her, she has a few tricks for him.

Target Words: darn, bound, shriek

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Darn
Step 2
"I've got a pair of socks i ith holes in the toes, and I wondered ifyou would be so kind as
to darn them for me? "

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Darn. (Show the word card) The fox wanted someone to darn his
socks, what do you think he wanted them to do to his sock? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When you darn vmetihiiig of cloth, you fix the holes in it by sewing them up.

Step 5
Complete each sentence.
The woman darned the tattered costume because...

Your mother darned your shirt because....

Which word goes ii ilh darn: cut thread wash?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Darn.

Word 2: Bound
Step 2
"Come right in, invitedRed Hen. In bounded Sly Fox. Immediately, he snatched the sack
from his pocket and tried to slip it over Red Hen's head, but she was too quick for him.









and eight instructional sessions in the strategies-focused condition. The observers used

checklists (see Appendix G) to record whether all of the steps in each instructional strategy were

followed. A point-by-point agreement ratio was calculated to measure reliability. Point-by-

Point Agreement was 100% for the sixteen sessions observed.

To establish interscorer reliability, each researcher created vocabulary pretest and posttest

was scored by two scorers using the same scoring procedures. Interscorer agreement was

calculated by using the formula recommended by Kazden (1982): Agreements/ Agreements +

Disagreements X 100 = Percent of Agreement. Interscorer reliability on the researcher created

vocabulary measure was 97%.

Statistical Analyses of the Data

The data were analyzed to determine if any statistically significant differences existed

between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on any of the measures.

This section includes a description of the analyses and the results achieved.

The means of pretest scores for the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused

group were calculated. Using t-tests, the pretest scores of the vocabulary-focused group and the

strategies-focused group were compared to determine if any group differences existed. No

significant differences between the two groups' pretest means were found. Table 4-1 includes the

pretest means and standard deviations for the two groups and the t-test results from the

comparison.

Because the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group demonstrated no

significant differences on the pretest, the use of the pretest measures as covariates was

appropriate (Tuckman, 1994). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for each of

the dependent measures: expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension,









CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND PROCEDURES

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vocabulary focused instruction

and strategies focused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of primary

grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. Specific

instructional procedures from Text Talk (Beck & McKeown, 2002) and Reciprocal Teaching

(Palincsar & Brown, 1984) served as guides for the instructional procedures used in this study.

Text Talk is a method of building comprehension and furthering vocabulary development

through reading aloud to children (Beck & McKeown, 2001). Through Text Talk lessons,

children are explicitly taught sophisticated vocabulary and are helped to construct meaning

through decontextualized language. According to McKeown and Beck (2006), the use of

decontextualized language, language that differs from everyday experiences, is one of the

building blocks of communication competence. Text talk is designed to scaffold children's

comprehension of stories and they are encouraged to share their ideas and synthesize ideas in

stories.

Storybooks are commonly used as a medium to teach vocabulary to students. Numerous

studies have documented their usefulness. In each of the previously mentioned investigations,

repeated exposure to words in storybooks without attention given to words and exposure to

storybooks with a focus on explicitly taught target words have yielded favorable results.

Reciprocal teaching strategies were designed to be used in an intentional, self-regulatory

manner by students during authentic reading activities. In Palincsar and Brown's (1984) study of

reciprocal teaching, students read the text. In this study, the researcher read the text. The

decision for the researcher to read the text was based on the fact that participants in the current









Another limitation is that this study was conducted with second and third graders who

were adequate decoders but non-proficient comprehenders. The results of this study may not be

generalized to older or younger students or students who do not have difficulties comprehending

text, without systematic replication of the procedures used with those populations.

Participants in the study had already received three months of formal reading instruction

before the beginning of the vocabulary-focused and strategies-focused instruction. Results of the

study may have been different for students with more or less prior experience in reading

instruction.

Another limitation of this study was that reciprocal teaching, was modified. The results of

this study may have been different if informational text had been used and if the students read

the text for themselves. The results may have also been different if students were older.

All of the instructional sessions in this study took place outside of the regular classroom.

Instructors other than the students' regular classroom teacher conducted the sessions. The results

may have been different for instruction that occurred within the regular classroom or that was

delivered by the students' regular teacher.

Summary

This study was conducted to examine the effect vocabulary-focused instruction and

strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of

students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text. Results revealed

very few statistically significant differences between participants who received vocabulary-

focused instruction and participants who received strategies-focused instruction. However,

instruction did yield one statistically significant difference between the instructional groups on a

passage comprehension measure. This contributes to the research on the notion that word

learning influences reading comprehension. Results from this study do not support the idea of









Pearson and Dole (1987) identified components of effective literacy instruction. The

researchers found when explicit instruction was used, low achieving students could be taught to

use comprehension strategies. The following components were identified by Pearson and Dole

were found in successful intervention studies: (a) teacher modeling, (b) guided practice, (c)

consolidation, (d) independent practice, and (e) application. This model of explicit

comprehension instruction was unique because it was designed to be implemented holistically

during reading, and did not focus on isolated sub skills.

Reading comprehension instruction research offers guidance for designing instruction that

capitalizes on the constructive nature of meaning. After reviewing research, a common

instructional cycle emerged (Block & Pressley, 2003; Pearson & Gallagher, 1983; Duke &

Pearson, 2002). Pearson and Gallagher (1983) coined the term, gradual release, to capture the

interactive, recursive flow of comprehension instruction. The cycle begins with explicit strategy

explanation by the teacher. The teacher details when and how the strategy should be used.

Teacher modeling of the strategy in action is the next step in the process. After modeling, the

teacher offers varying degrees of scaffolded support as students practice the strategy.

Collaborative use between the teacher and students is employed. The final phase is independent

application by the student. Figure 2-2 provides a graphical representation of the cycle.

Each phase in this cycle is mediated through dialogue between the teacher and students,

and among the students. Additionally, during each phase of this model, efforts are made to

attend to metacognition.

Explicit Strategy Explanation. Explicit strategy explanation is a verbal description of the

mental processes involved with the strategy in action. Included in this explanation is a

description of the strategy as well as why, when, and how to use it (Duffy, 2002).









Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot
QCSP Pizza for the Queen
QCSP The Frog Principal
QCSP Turtle Spring


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lessons will be on independent use of all strategies.
Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strategies as the instructor reads the
story. It will be very interactive because the onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart
provided. During this phase, you will be watching for independent use of the strategy. If
students appear to be having trouble, you may use guided practice.

Lesson 32
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Turtle Spring. I want you to use all of the
strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so
that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you.


Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use
has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies
independently. Help them only if they need it and no other student is able to help them. This
should be an independent process









Reciprocal teaching has been demonstrated to be effective with students in upper

elementary grades. However, no study has ever explored using the strategies that comprise

reciprocal teaching, with children in primary grades. In addition to the limited age of the study

participants previously discussed, researchers often varied in their use of outcome measures.

Some studies reported student gains on researcher created measures, while others confirmed

gains on standardized assessments. In most studies, outcome measures were not identified as

norm-referenced measures or criterion-referenced measures. To simply state that measures were

standardized measures only implies standard administration of the test. This does not aid in the

interpretation of the results of the study in relation to the study's purpose. In the current era of

accountability, robust results on standardized, norm-referenced measures would be beneficial.

Further, studies were short in duration. In order for children to maintain skills, they need to

continue to self-regulate. Studies ranged from 13 to 20 days, which is an insufficient amount of

time for strategies to generalize. Researchers in the previously mentioned studies also fail to

provide information regarding treatment fidelity. Fidelity of implementation is essential, but

researchers did not report any information regarding steps taken to ensure treatment fidelity.

This too makes it difficult to interpret study results.

Most reciprocal teaching studies lasted between 13 and 20 sessions, with the first four to

six sessions devoted to strategy introduction, and the remaining sessions to scaffolded support

(Johnson-Glenberg, 2000; Lederer 2000; Lysynchuk et al., 1990). The current study was

conducted in 32 sessions. Because younger students served as participants, more time was

dedicated to strategy introduction, modeling, collaborative use of strategies, and guided practice.

General Cognitive Strategy Instruction with Elementary Children

Baumann and Bergeron (1993) investigated the effectiveness of instruction in story

mapping as a means to promote first grade students' comprehension of central story elements









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 4


Book A Bad Case of Stripes

Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes. New York: Blue Sky Press.

Target Words: impress, examine, distraction

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Impress
Step 2
It was the first day of school, and she couldn't decide what to wear. There were so many
people to impress!

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Impress. (Show the word card) What does it mean to try to
impress someone? Listen for responses.

Step 4
If \,,iiimeting impresses you, you really like and respect it.

Step 5
Would you try to impress your new teacher?

Would you try to impress a pet?

Tell about a time when you tried to impress someone.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Impress.

Word 2: Examine
Step 2
That afternoon, Dr. Bumble came over to examine Camilla.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Examine. (Show the word card) What does examine mean? Listen
for responses.
Step 4









levels, and that this compensation takes place irrespective of the level of the deficient process.

Rumelhart's model helps us understand how top-down and bottom-up processes interact with

one another, and Stanovich's extension helps us understand individual differences in reading.


Syntactical Semantic
Kno~wedge Knowledge



Pattern I Most Probable
Synthesizer I interpretation


Orthographic Lexical
Knowledge Knowledge



Figure 1-1. A stage representation of an interactive model of reading. Adapted from D.
Rumelhart (1994)



Metacognition

Research on metacognition originated over 30 years ago, with researchers focusing on

how and when children develop knowledge and control of their cognitive processes (Baker,

2002). Thinking about one's thinking appears to be the key to thoughtful, active reading. Paris,

Lipson, and Wixson (1994) stated that metacognition is the core of strategic behavior and leads

to control over one's learning. Not only do proficient readers know strategies, but they monitor

their use of the strategies. Metacognition has been firmly established in theories of reading and

learning. Metacognitive readers plan, evaluate, and regulate their own skills (Paris et al., 1994).

By definition, metacognition is two fold, including both knowledge of and control over

one's cognitive processes. Knowledge describes the ability to reflect on one's own cognitive









Instructional Setting

An elementary school in north Florida was selected for this study. The school was selected

because it is a Title I, Reading First school, with a high percentage of students with reading

difficulties and more than 40% of students in the school are eligible for free or reduced-price

lunch based on their families' income levels. Reading First is a focused, nationwide effort to

enable all students to become successful early readers. Funds are dedicated to help states and

local school districts eliminate the reading deficit by establishing high quality, comprehensive

reading instruction in kindergarten through third grade. A required framework of Reading First

is an uninterrupted 90-minute reading block in which students receive systematic, explicit

reading instruction. The Scott Foresman reading series is the core reading text used with all

students in the school. Students receive reading instruction from the classroom teacher, in whole

group and in small group settings. During the 2005-2005 school year, 42% of students

struggling in reading failed to make a year's worth of progress in reading.

Participant Description

Sixty second grade and third-grade students participated in this study. Students were

selected for the study because they had been identified by school personnel as being proficient

decoders, but needing additional assistance in reading comprehension. Participants in this study

scored between the 30th and 45th percentile the Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition

(Harcourt, 2003). As required by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, parental

informed consent was obtained for the participants. The parental informed consent letter is

provided in Appendix A.

Using the described procedures, consent was obtained from 60 students, and all of the

students participated in this study from the pretest phase through the posttest phase of the study.

A summary of the demographic information from the 60 participants is presented in Table 3-1.









Say the word~ iith me. Concentrate. (Show the word card) What does concentrate mean?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
If you concentrate on toiu.'ilng., you give it all ofyour attention.

Step 5
.\iI te some times when it is important to concentrate.

Which word goes ith concentrate? Play Study Sleep
Make sure students explain their choice.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Concentrate

Word 3 Admire
Step 2
Wolfpracticed reading to become a better reader so the other animals would admire him.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Admire. What does admire mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou admire someone or \viiwethiug. you like and respect them/it.

Step 5
Ifyou admired someone, would you smile at them or frown at them? Why?

I admire people who work hard, even when things are tough. Who would like to share
about someone they admire? Be sure to have students share why they admire the
person. Listen to see if they understand the definition.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Admire.









My nephew bought e a tiny elephant figurine. It is my favorite and I handle it very
carefully because it is delicate.

Do you have v\iethiig that is delicate?

Is a football delicate?

Is an egg delicate?
Step 6
Let's say the word again. Delicate.

Word 3 Lugged
Step 2
They both grunted as Ms. Taffy hig.ed Serena back to the train station.

Step 3
Say the word~ ith me. Lugged. What does h iged mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou lug \i ,ietiiig from one place to another, you carry it in ith a lot of difficulty. You
have trouble carrying it.

Step 5

If a backpack isfilled / iith school books, would a kid have to lug it to school?

Do you have to lug flower to your mother?

Would you lug your lunch tray to the lunch table?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Lugged.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 30


Book Pizza for the Queen

Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen. New York: Holiday House.
In 1889 Napoli, Italy, Raffaele Esposito prepares a special pizza for the queen.

Target Words: frantic, protest, anxious

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Frantic
Step 2
Guiseppe was closing his shop for siesta, when everyone rested during the heat of the day;
but when he saw Raffaele looking so frantic, he let him in.

Step 3
Say the word ihi me, frantic. (Show the word card) What does frantic mean? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
Frantic describes a person who is behaving in a desperate, wild, and disorganized way
because they are worried, or in a hurry.

Step 5

I was frantic when I could findd my computer. I thought someone had stolen it.

The lady was frantic because....

The little boy frantic because.....

Which word is the opposite of frantic: nervous calm happy?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Frantic.

Word 2: Protest
Step 2
Before Niccolo could protest any further, Raffaele hurried from the wharf









Table 4-6. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Passage Comprehension Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p
Method 1 89.9 7.16 .010*
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused
Error 56 702.6


Table 4-7. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Researcher-Created Vocabulary Task
Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p
Method 1 .797 .347 .558
vocabulary-focused
strategies-focused
Error 57 129.42


A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conducted to analyze statistically significant

differences from pretest to posttest within the vocabulary-focused group yielded no statistically

significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = .840, p =.367.

However, a series of ANOVAS did yield statistically significant differences on measures of

expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 14.26, p = .001; reading comprehension, F (1, 29) = 5.462, p

.027; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 12.074, p = .002; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) =

15.464, p = .000; and the researcher created target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = .65.2, p =.000.

A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conducted to analyze statistically significant

differences from pretest to posttest within the strategies-focused group yielded no statistically

significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 2.35, =. 136.

However, a series of ANOVAS did yield statistically significant differences on measures of

expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 24.5, p = .000; reading comprehension, F (1, 29) = 17.9, p =

.000; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 18.1, p = .000; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) =

31.9, p = .000; and the researcher created target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = 29.9, p =.000.









Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
QCS The Easter Egg Farm
QCS Superhero Max
QCS Dora's Box
QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: .qiuiiluig.
clarifying, and summarizing. Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three
strategies. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided
practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if
students appear to be having trouble. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are
ready to use the strategy.

Lesson 24
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called When Jo Louis Won the Title. I want you
use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you
question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use
the strategies.


Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible for strategy use
have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy.
This should be a guided process.









Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
QC Kate and the Beanstalk
QC Tea 1i ith Milk
QC The Invisible Mistake Case
QC Bantam of the Opera

General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying. Throughout
the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review
the questioning and clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will
begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies
collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification and
generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when they want to
clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question.

Lesson 13
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Kate and the Beanstalk. While I read, I
want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I
want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to
remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify.

Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions and
clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to
guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

Possible Questions:
I am looking at the cover and the title, and wondering if this story is similar to Jack and the
Beanstalk.
How is Kate going to make food with the beans?
How did the beanstalk grow in one day?
What is a giantess?



Possible Clarifications:
I am not sure what despair means.
This is tricky, what does extraordinary mean? I recognize the words extra and ordinary.
What does forlorn mean?
These words are confusing; I fear nothing when I am doing right? I need to think about what
means.
I am confused about, from cock's crow to owl's hoot. What does that mean?









Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
C The Queen i/th Bees in Her Hair
C The Tale of Hilda Louise
C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox
C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying. Throughout the story, you will
clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart
provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the
students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble.
Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the "c" hand signal when
they want to clarify.

Lesson 11
Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called RedHen and Sly Fox. I want you to help
me clarify things that I don't understand, and I want you to signal me when you need
clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense.
Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with
them to remind them of the three ways to clarify.

Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible clarifications
have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students
through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

Possible Clarifications:
I am not sure what dam means? What does he want her to do to his socks?
What does bound mean?









also strengthened by the provision of lessons that each of the instructors followed and

discussions between instructors before and after each lesson was conducted.

Treatment of the Data

The data were analyzed using four statistical methods. First, an independent samples t-

test was conducted on the mean pretest scores of the two groups to identify any pre-existing

differences. Next, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was carried out to measure whether the

participants in the vocabulary-focused group showed a stronger improvement in posttest

performance relative to their own pretest performance than did the strategies-focused group.

(Cook & Campbell, 1979). The pretest scores served as the covariate. A univariate analysis was

appropriate due to the interest in group mean differences and the limited sample size. To analyze

within-group differences, a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted.

Finally, a correlation analysis (Tuckman, 1998) was conducted to test the linear relationship

between the scores on the comprehension measures used and the vocabulary measures used. A

summary of the design for testing the null hypotheses using a series of Analyses of Covariance is

provided (Table 3-5).









Say the word~ iith me. Competition. (Show the word card) What does competition mean?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
A competition is an event thatpeople take part in tofind out who is best at viiethilig

Step 5
What kinds of competitions do you have here at school? (AR, Field Day, Writer of the
Month)

Describe a time when you were in a competition outside of school.

Which word goes i/th competition? Dog Contest Book

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Competition.

Word 3 Wail
Step 2
In the story, the princesses wailed when Queen Zelda told them that their final job was to
cook a feast.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Wail. What does wail mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
When someone wails, they cry out loudly.

Step 5
Have you ever wailed? Listen and evaluate responses.

Say wail if a person is likely to wail in the situations I describe:

If a kid closes his hand in the door.

Ifyou are in the library.

During a test.
Step 6
Let's say the word again. Wail.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 2


Book Brothers of the Knight

Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
Target Words: sermon, congregation, conversation

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Sermon
Step 2
Reverend Knight was a very good man, a leader in the community, who preached a
powerful sermon every Sunday.

Step 3
Say the word iih me. Sermon. (Show the word card) What is a sermon? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
A sermon is a talk given during a church service.

Step 5
Which word goes i/ ith sermon? Game Football Preacher

Which word of these words goes ii ith sermon? Dance Sleep Religious
Have students explain their choice.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Sermon.


Word 2: Congregation
Step 2
The congregation clapped and danced when the reverend gave his sermons.

Step 3
Say the word iith me. Congregation. (Show the word card) What is a congregation?
Listen for responses.
Step 4
People who go to a church service are called the congregation.









Methods

An electronic search of PsychINFO, and EBSCO Host was conducted to locate studies for

this literature review. The descriptors for the electronic search were vocabulary instruction and

reading; vocabulary methods; vocabulary and reading comprehension; cognitive strategy

instruction; comprehension strategy instruction and elementary students; and comprehension and

elementary students. The vast amount of comprehension research in the last 30 years

complicated the identification of relevant studies for this review. For example, a search of

EBSCO Host using the key words reading comprehension led to 1552 references. The key

words reading comprehension and elementary yielded 203 listings. The key words, reading

strategy instruction and elementary students yielded three studies, and not one of them was

appropriate for this review. The review process highlighted the fact that there is a dearth of

research on reading comprehension of children in elementary grades, and more specifically the

primary grades. Studies in the following refereed journals were identified: Elementary School

Journal, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Read li,ii. Reading Research Quarterly,

Reading Improvement, Reading Horizons, Reading Teacher, Journal of Educational Psychology.

Reference lists from identified studies were also examined. In addition, a manual search in the

published literature was conducted in the following journals: Journal of Literacy Research,

Journal ofRet, dig. and Journal ofReading Behavior. These journals were selected because

either the word 'reading' or 'literacy' was in the title, or the journal was listed repeatedly in the

reference section of previously secured articles. Studies selected for inclusion in this review

were included based on the following criteria: (a) subjects were children for whom English is a

first language; (b) subjects receiving interventions were in kindergarten through fifth grade; (c)

designs were either correlational or experimental with a specific emphasis on vocabulary

learning and or comprehension learning; and (c) studies were published in the last thirty years









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Tyran Wright Butler was born in Naples, Florida. She graduated from LaBelle High

School in LaBelle, Florida in 1991. Tyran received a Bachelor of Arts in Education with a

specialization in early childhood from the University of Florida in 1994. She received an M.Ed.

in educational leadership from St. Leo University in 2002.

From 1994-2003, Tyran taught in Columbia County Florida (Lake City). Her teaching

experience includes fifth grade, fourth grade and kindergarten. She also served as a reading

coach and a curriculum resource teacher. The majority of her time teaching was spent working

with students in intermediate grades.

While completing her doctoral studies at the University of Florida, Tyran served as a

graduate research assistant with Dr. Holly Lane, on Project Access to Books for Children; Dr.

Alyson Adams, in the Lastinger Center for Learning; and with Dr. Lynda Hayes, on Project

Raising Expectations for All Children. In addition, Tyran served as a consultant with the

Northeast Florida Educational Consortium.

During her doctoral program, Tyran was active in the Special Education Association of

Doctoral Students, serving as secretary. She is a member of the American Educational Research

Association, the Association for Teacher Educators, the International Reading Association, the

Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, and the Council for Exceptional Children.

In the future, Tyran plans to continue research in the area of reading and to work with

schools to improve learning outcomes for students. Her other research interests include family

literacy, teacher professional development, and culturally responsive pedagogy. She may also

teach at the university level.









Step 5 Share the words in contexts that are different from the story. The instructor
engaged participants in activities that used the target words in contexts that were
different from the story.

Activities were selected from those suggested by Beck et al., 2002, such as (a)
sentence completion tasks, in which the participant used a target word to complete
an instructor-created sentence; (b) connection tasks, in which participants
explained a personal encounter with the target word's meaning; or (c) usage tasks,
in which participants indicated whether a target word was used correctly or
incorrectly by the instructor. After each activity, the instructor provided
participants with specific feedback regarding the use or definition of the target
word.

Step 6 Repeat the word. After engaging participants in activities, they were shown the
target words and asked to repeat them, one at a time.

Descriptions of each of the vocabulary-focused lessons are included in Appendix D.

Strategies-Focused Intervention

The strategies group received instruction that consisted of engaging participants in the

use of comprehension strategies used in reciprocal teaching: summarizing, questioning,

clarifying, and predicting. Participants were instructed in groups of fifteen students. A chart

containing an explanation of each strategy was reviewed before each lesson began. A copy of

the chart is included in Appendix E. Participants were instructed to use various hand signals

when they were ready to use a strategy. Strategies-focused lessons followed the following

sequence as stories were read:

Step 1 Explicit description of the strategy and when and how it is used. The instructor
described each strategy and discussed when it was appropriate to use it and how
the strategy is used.

Step 2 Teacher/student modeling of the strategy in action. Either the instructor or a
participant modeled the use of the strategy with text that had been read.

Step 3 Collaborative use of the strategy in action. The instructor and the participants
used the strategy together. The instructor led the use of the strategy, while the
participants provided assistance.

Step 4 Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility. The
instructor provided assistance to participants as the practiced using the strategy.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press.

Allington, R. (1984). Content coverage and contextual reading in reading groups. Journal of
Reading Behavior, 16. 85-96.

Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. (1981). Vocabulary knowledge. In J. T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews. Newark, DE: International Reading
Association.

Baker, L. (2002). Metacognition in comprehension instruction. In C. Block & M. Pressley
(Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp.77-95). New
York: Guilford Press.

Baumann, J. F., & Bergeron, B. S. (1993). Story map instruction using children's literature:
Effects on first graders' comprehension of central narrative elements. Journal of Reading
Behavior, 25, 407-437.

Baumann, J. F., Kame'enui, E. J., & Ash, G. (2003). Research on vocabulary instruction:
Votaire redux. In J. Flood, D. Lapp, J. R. Squire, & J. Jensen, (Eds.), Handbook of
research on the English Language Arts (2nd ed., pp. 752-785) New York: Macmillan.

Beck, I., & McKeown, M. (1991). Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. In R. Barr, M. L.
Kamil, P. Mosenthal, and P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol. II
(pp. 789-814) Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2001). Text Talk: Capturing the benefits of read aloud
experiences for young children. Reading Teacher, 55, 10-20.

Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary
instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2007). Increasing young low-income children's oral
vocabulary repertoires through rich and focused instruction. Elementary School Journal.,
107, 251-271.

Beck, I. L., Perfetti, C. A., & McKeown, M. G. (1982). Effects of long-term vocabulary
instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 74, 506-521.

Biemiller, A. (1977-1978). Relationships between oral reading rates for letters, words, and
simple text in the development of reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 13,
223-253.









word meanings following three steps: learn a key word presented on a 5x8 card, remember the

content of a black-and-white line drawing that contained a representation of the keyword

interacting with the definition, and finally, to look at all vocabulary items and recall verbally the

key word and its illustration. The picture-context condition required students to learn word

meanings by studying black-and-white illustrations representing the definition of the word (these

illustrations did not contain the key word). The sentence-experience context involved students

learning the meaning of words in two steps: the teacher read a three-sentence passage that was

printed and displayed on paper, students had to listen, reread the passage, and then relate the

meaning of the word to a personal experience. The control condition participants were told to

choose their own method of studying to learn vocabulary word meanings. Students received

instruction for 20 minutes per day for three days per week over a period of five weeks.

Vocabulary learning was measured at four intervals during the study. The final measurement

occurred two months after the initial instruction. A series of ANOVAs indicated significant

differences among treatment groups. All treatment groups outperformed students in the control

condition. Students assigned to the keyword condition outperformed all other conditions across

all four levels of time. Results from this study provide support for the keyword method as a

strategy to facilitate the vocabulary learning of children with learning disabilities and questions

about the possible usefulness of this instructional strategy for children without learning

disabilities.

Wixson (1986) noted the effects of preteaching vocabulary of differing levels of

importance to a text using two different methods of instruction on children's comprehension of

basal stories. One hundred twenty fifth grade students were randomly assigned to one of eight

groups according to method of instruction, story, and word level. There were two instructional









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 21


Book The Easter Egg Farm

Auch, M. J. (1992). The easter egg farm. New York: Holiday House.
Pauline can't concentrate on laying an egg because of all of the squabbling in the hen house.
Finally, she lays a very unusual egg.

Target Words: concentrate, inspiration, scurried

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Concentrate
Step 2
Pauline couldn't concentrate in all the confusion. Every time she tried to lay an egg, the
other hens squabbled.

Step 3
Say the word iith me, concentrate. (Show the word card) What does it mean to
concentrate? Listen for responses.

Step 4
To concentrate means to give ,oimething all ofyour attention.

Step 5
Say "concentrate" ifI describe a situation where it would be good to concentrate. Remain
quiet if the situation is not one where you need to concentrate.
Studying for a math test.
Walking down the sidewalk
Drawing picture

If someone is concentrating how do they look? What are they doing?

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Concentrate.









Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8


Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart.


Strategies Book
Q 1, inking Violet
Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III
Q Wolff
Q The Princess and the Pizza


General Directions:
For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning. Throughout the story, you will
generate questions as you read. Review the questioning section of the teaching chart provided.
During this phase, you will begin to use the strategy collaboratively with the students. Allow
them to help you generate questions about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when
they have a question.

Lesson 6

Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III. I want
you to help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions
that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin, with: who, what, when, where, why,
and how.

Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a boy on the cover of the book, my question is,
Is he Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III? Look at his face, what can we ask about him. Encourage
students to help you construct. One could be: Why is he dressed so formally?

Because this lesson really depends on what students have to contribute, possible questions have
been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students
to help you construct questions. This should be a collaborative process.

Possible Questions:

Why aren't there any other kids on the ship with Nicholas?
How does Nicholas feel about listening to the grown ups talk about each other?
Why couldn't Nicholas eat and drink the special treats that the cook made?
What was wrong with the crew, since Nicholas couldn't be with them?
Who is going to save Nicholas from the sinking ship?









vocabulary and comprehension were administered following the conclusion of the lessons. A

summary of the experimental design is provided in Table 3-4.


Table 3-4. Experimental Design
Group Procedures

Vocabulary Group R 01 X 02
Strategies Group R 01 X2 02
R= Random Assignment, O =Pretest, X = Treatment Intervention 1, X2 = Treatment Intervention 2, 2 = Posttest


Instructional Procedures

The instructional procedures for the study are described in this section. Instructor

preparation is described for both treatment groups. Methods for ensuring treatment fidelity are

also described.

Instructor Preparation

A graduate student in the College of Education at the University of Florida and a retired

educator provided instruction during this study. The instructors were both elementary certified

teachers. Each instructor was required to attend training in both instructional methods employed

in this study. During the training, university professors provided background information about

each instructional strategy, modeled strategy use for instructors, and gave them an opportunity to

practice teaching the strategies. Each instructor was provided instructional tips. Before

instructors began the intervention phase, mastery of the instructional procedures was

demonstrated. In addition, each instructor agreed in writing to adhere to the procedural

guidelines described in the training session. To eliminate any potential for teacher effect, each

instructor provided instruction in both methods; the instructors alternated teaching both

intervention groups throughout the study (Tuckman, 1998). Each day, the instructors rehearsed

the following day's lesson.









Like Cunningham and Stanovich (1997), Tabors, Snow, and Dickinson (2001) examined

the predictive relations between kindergartners' narrative production and receptive vocabulary

skills as assessed by the PPVT- R and their subsequent vocabulary skills and comprehension

skills in fourth and seventh grades. Vocabulary scores at kindergarten were strongly correlated

with vocabulary and comprehension scores at fourth and seventh grades.

Schatschneider, Buck, Torgesen, Wagner, Hassler, Hecht, and Powell-Smith (2003)

conducted a study to identify the major reading, cognitive, and linguistic skills that contribute to

individual differences in performance on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive

Assessment Test (FCAT) at third, seventh, and tenth grades. Two hundred participants were

administered tests that measured a variety of reading, language, and cognitive skills. Results

indicated that in third grade, reading fluency was the dominant factor in explaining variability in

test performance. In seventh grade, reading fluency and verbal knowledge similarly explained

variability in test performance individual differences. However, by 10th grade, verbal knowledge

and reasoning was clearly dominant factor in explaining variability in test performance on the

FCAT.

Although researchers have been able to document a strong relationship between

vocabulary and comprehension, they have been unable to sort the exact nature of the reciprocal

relationship. A graphical representation of a model of the reciprocal nature of vocabulary and

comprehension and the influence of experiences with texts is proposed in Figure 2-1.

Experiences with text include independent book reading as well as read aloud experiences

between children and adults. The more one reads, the more his vocabulary increases. The more

vocabulary increases, the better text is understood.









Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 3


Book Flossie and the Fox

McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox. New York: Dial Books for Young
Readers.
A wily fox notorious for stealing eggs meets his match when he encounters a bold little girl in
the woods who insists upon proof that he is a fox before she will be frightened.

Target Words: sly, raid, absurd

Step 1: Read and discuss the story.
Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in
the story.
Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonological representation.
Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition.
Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.
Step 6: Repeat the word.

Word 1: Sly
Step 2
"Ever-time they corner that ol' slickster, he gets away. I tell you, that fox is one sly critter.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Sly. (Show the word card) What does sly mean? Listen for
responses.

Step 4
When someone is sly, they are good at tricking others.

Step 5
Ifyou wanted to get voiiehilig away from someone i ilthnt them kine ing. would you rush
over and take it or would you be sly?

Tell about a time when you were sly.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Sly.


Word 2: Raid
Step 2
I am the third generation offoxes who have out-smarted and out-run Mr. J. W.
McCutchin 'sfine hunting dogs. I have raided some of the best henhouses from Franklin to
Madison.









(NIH Publication 00-4754) Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health and National
Institute of Children Health and Human Development.

Palincsar, A., & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and
comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition andInstruction, 1(2), 117-175.

Paris, S. (1984). Teaching children to control their reading comprehension skills. Washington,
DC: National Institute of Education.

Paris, S., Lipson, M., Wixson, K. (1994). Becoming a strategic reader. In R. Ruddell, M.
Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models andprocesses of reading (4 ed.)(pp.
788-810).. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Pearson, P. D. (1984). Direct explicit teaching of reading comprehension. In G. Duffy, L.
Roehler, & J. Mason (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and \,..,,e\lti,,i\
New York: Longman.

Pearson, P. D. & Dole, J. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: A review of research and
a new conceptualization of instruction. Elementary School Journal, 88(2), 151-165.

Pearson, P. D., & Duke, N. K. (2002). Comprehension instruction in the primary grades. In C.
C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.) Comprehension instruction: Research-based best
practices (pp. 247-258). New York: Guilford Press.

Pearson, P. D., & Gallagher, M. C. (1983). The instruction of reading comprehension.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317-334.

Pressley, M. (2002). Comprehension strategies instruction: A turn of the century status report.
In. C. C. Block and M. Pressley (Eds.). Comprehension Instruction: Research-based
practices (pp. 11-27). New York: Guilford Press.

Pressley, M. & Afferbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively
responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pressley, M., & El-Dinary, P. B. (1997). What we know about translating comprehension
strategies instruction research into practice. Journal ofLearning Disabilities, 30, 486-
488.

Pressley, M., El-Dinary, P. B., Gaskins, I., Schuder, T., Bergman, J., Almasi, L., et al. (1992).
Beyond direct explanation: Transactional instruction of reading comprehension
strategies. Elementary School Journal, 92, 511-554.

Pressley, M., Johnson, C., Symons, S., McGoldrick, J., Kurita, J. (1989). Strategies that improve
children's memory and comprehension of text. Elementary School Journal, 90(1), 3-32.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Political influences, societal influences, and educational factors have been catalysts for the

increased attention given to reading achievement and the instructional methods used to teach

reading. Political influences such as the No ChildLeft BehindAct of 2002 have forced schools to

ensure that all children reach higher levels of literacy. Our nation's evolution from an agrarian

society, to an industrial society, to an information society has changed the concept of schooling

and how students are instructed. Along with changes in our society have been changes in how

literacy is defined. The definition of literacy has evolved over time, reflecting the needs of

society, and has had a tremendous impact on what is done to ensure that students are literate

(Block, 2000). The definition of reading has expanded from a set of sub skills to a broader,

more complex task requiring the skillful integration of knowledge.

In spite of changes over time, some aspects of instruction have not kept pace with higher

demands for literacy. Reading abilities vary from the knowledge that spoken language can be

analyzed into strings of separable words, which are analyzed into sequences of syllables and

phonemes, to the ability to understand and use vocabulary words, and the ability to comprehend

text. Just as reading abilities are varied, so are reading difficulties. As children get older, reading

difficulties become more evident and more pronounced and, in turn, harder to remediate.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2005), 38% of fourth grade

children cannot read well enough to effectively accomplish grade level work. Between the 2003

and 2005 administrations of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the

percentage of fourth grade students who performed at or above Basic increased in only four

states, and decreased in two states. In Florida, 35% of fourth grade students scored below the

Basic level, and only 23% scored at the Proficient level on the 2005 NAEP (NCES, 2005).












When the bird descended, what did it do?


What does it mean to darn something?


If the woman needed to darn some socks, what
did she need to do to them?

What does bound mean?


If a boy were to bound into a room, what
problem might he cause?

What is a quarrel?

If two people begin to quarrel, what do they
do?

What is advice?

When would someone need advice?

What does extraordinary mean?

If you saw something extraordinary, what
would you say?

What does foreign mean?

Where would a foreigner come from?

What does insist mean?

If you insist on something, how do you say it?

What does invisible mean?

If something is invisible, how does it look?

What does squint mean?

If the girl squinted when she went outside,
what did she look like?
What does suspicious mean?

If you are suspicious of someone, how do you
act?
What does wander mean?


i


i


i


i









Step 2
It's right here, said Grandpa, and he pointed to an empty space on the floor. Charlotte
squinted her eyes, but she couldn't see anything.

Step 3
Say the word~ ith me. Squint. (Show the word card) What does it mean to squint?
Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou squint at i,,ethiling. you look at it i iih your eyes partly closed.

Step 5
Would you squint while looking at the sun?

Would you squint while looking at T. V ?

Would you squint while looking at the moon?

When do people usually squint?.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Squint.

Word 3 Suspicious
Step 2
"Did you eat the pie? "It wasn 't me, I answered, and then I looked at John suspiciously
so mama would maybe think it was him that ate the pie.

Step 3
Say the word ith me. Suspicious. What does suspicious mean? Listen for responses.

Step 4
Ifyou are suspicious of someone, you don't trust them.

Step 5
Have you ever been suspicious of someone? When/why? Evaluate whether the
participants' answers are appropriate.

Once I was missing $50 from my purse and a student was walking away from my desk, I
was suspicious of him. I thought he took my money.

Step 6
Let's say the word again. Suspicious.









somewhat surprising because conventional wisdom would suggest that the strategies-focused

instruction would promote comprehension more effectively than a vocabulary-focused approach.

A possible explanation for this finding is the interactive-compensatory model of reading

(Stanovich, 1980). In this model, various knowledge sources work simultaneously to make sense

of text. They all influence the message center at the same time. In addition, the knowledge one

lacks is compensated for by what one knows well. It is possible that participants in the

vocabulary-focused group relied heavily on the lexical knowledge source to comprehend the

passages in the assessment measure. Perhaps their encounters with word-focused instruction

primed them to use their lexical knowledge quicker than those participants in the strategies-

focused group. This increased lexical knowledge may have compensated for what participants

lacked in other knowledge sources. Another possibility is that participants in the strategies-

focused group had various knowledge sources working simultaneously, and none outweighed the

other to compensate for what they did not know. Their instruction was focused on using

multiple strategies, and this metacognitive task focus may have interfered with their ability to use

a knowledge source for compensation. The age of the participants may have also been a factor.

It may have been more difficult for young students to use multiple strategies at once.

Participation in this study is one of the first introductions to multiple strategy instruction that

participants received, and the novelty of the task may have interfered with their ability to

perform the passage comprehension tasks proficiently enough for a significant difference to be

detected.

Data analyses revealed significant correlational relationships between scores on measures

of reading comprehension and measures of vocabulary. These results suggest that the measures

did in fact measure what they were designed to capture. For example, a very strong, positive




Full Text

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1 VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION WITH STUDENTS IN PRIMARY GRADES: A COMPARISON OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES By TYRAN WRIGHT BUTLER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Tyran Wright Butler

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3 For Sasha, the one who sacrificed the most

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Glory be to God for the gr eat things He has done. Many people contributed to the success of th is study. The second and third grade children who served as participants in this study were wonderful a nd deserve a tremendous amount of gratitude. I am indebted to Ms. Essie Wilson for coming out of retirement to help me. The faculty and staff at Summers Elementary School we re gracious hosts, and I appreciate them as well. I thank Dr. Holly Lane, my doctoral committ ee chair, for her patience and support as she guided me through this process. I could neve r have imagined that a chance meeting at a professional development activity would lead to a Ph.D. There are no words that can express how much I appreciate her willingness to bend over backwards for me. I would also like to thank my committee members, Drs. Christie Cavanaugh, Cyndy Griffin, and Lynda Hayes. Each of them made significant contributions to the soundness of this study and the soundness of my mi nd, and I owe them big. I also thank Dr. Nancy Corbett for listening a nd encouraging me. Her quiet way helped to settle my storms. I also would like to thank my fellow doctoral students for knowing my pain, and celebrating milestones with me. I owe a sp ecial thanks to Nicole Fenty, who really came through for me when the going got tough. I am especially grateful for my family. They believed I could do it when I didnt believe I could do it. Thank you, Sasha, for your tolerance a nd pushing as made we this journey. This is our Ph.D. Finally, I would like to thank Alvin fo r helping me to keep the important things in perspective. I am grateful for the day that I met you.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .....11 Rationale for the Study........................................................................................................ ...13 Scope of the Study............................................................................................................. .....15 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ...16 Delimitations.................................................................................................................. .16 List of Terms.................................................................................................................. .........16 Theoretical Constructs......................................................................................................... ...18 Vygotskys Theory on Lear ning and Development........................................................18 The Interactive-Compensatory Model of Reading..........................................................19 Metacognition..................................................................................................................20 Overview....................................................................................................................... ..........21 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE............................................................................................23 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........23 Methods........................................................................................................................ ..........24 The Relationship between Vocabulary and Comprehension..................................................25 Vocabulary Instruction......................................................................................................... ..28 Direct Instruction of Word Meanings..............................................................................29 Storybook Reading and Vo cabulary Learning................................................................35 Comprehension Instruction.....................................................................................................39 Description of Reciprocal Teaching................................................................................42 Reciprocal Teaching Studies with Elementary Participants............................................43 General Cognitive Strategy Instruction with Elementary Children................................45 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........50 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES.............................................................................................51 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........51 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................... .........52 Methods........................................................................................................................ ..........53 Instructional Setting.........................................................................................................54 Participant Description....................................................................................................54 Research Instrumentation.......................................................................................................56 Vocabulary Measures......................................................................................................56

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6 Comprehension Measures...............................................................................................58 Experimental Design............................................................................................................ ..59 Instructional Procedures....................................................................................................... ..60 Instructor Preparation......................................................................................................60 Materials...................................................................................................................... ....61 Vocabulary-Focused Intervention...................................................................................61 Strategies-Focused Intervention......................................................................................62 Fidelity of Treatment.......................................................................................................63 Treatment of the Data.......................................................................................................... ...64 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .............66 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........66 Fidelity of Instructional Procedures........................................................................................66 Fidelity of Implementation and Reliability of Measurement..........................................66 Statistical Analyses of the Data..............................................................................................67 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........73 5 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ..........76 Summary of the Hypotheses and Results...............................................................................76 Theoretical Implications of the Research Findings................................................................81 Implications for Future Research............................................................................................82 Implications for Practice...................................................................................................... ...82 Limitations to the Present Study.............................................................................................83 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........84 APPENDIX A PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT....................................................................................86 B TARGET WORD VOCABULARY MEASURE.....................................................................87 C STORYBOOK REFERENCES................................................................................................98 D VOCABULARY-FOCUSED LESSONS..................................................................................99 E STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON GUIDES.......................................................................164 F STRATEGY INTRODUC TION SCHEDULE........................................................................197 G TREATMENT FIDELITY CHECKLISTS.............................................................................198 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................202 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................210

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Descriptive Information for Groups.......................................................................................55 3-2 Pretest Means for Voca bulary and Strategies Groups............................................................55 3-3 Split Half Reliability Coefficients....................................................................................... ...59 3-4 Experimental Design....................................................................................................... .......60 3-5 Design for Testing the Null Hypotheses us ing a Series of Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs)......................................................................................................................65 4-1 Comparison of Pretest Means by Group.................................................................................68 4-2 Summary of Analysis of Covari ance for Expressive Vocabulary Task.................................69 4-3 Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Receptive Vocabulary Task...................................69 4-4 Summary of Analysis of Covarian ce for the Reading Comprehension Task.........................69 4-5 Summary of Analysis of Covarian ce for the Listening Comprehension Task.......................69 4-6 Summary of Analysis of Covarian ce for the Passage Comprehension Task.........................70 4-7 Summary of Analysis of Covariance fo r the Researcher-Created Vocabulary Task.............70 4-8 Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Vocabulary-Focused Group......................................................................71 4-9 Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Strategies-Focused Group.........................................................................71 4-10 Correlation Matrix for Pretest Measures..............................................................................74 4-11 Correlation Matrix for the Posttest Measures.......................................................................75

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 A stage representation of an interactive model of reading.....................................................20 2-1 The reciprocal relationship be tween vocabulary and comprehension....................................28 2-2 Gradual release of responsibility model.................................................................................41

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION WITH STUDENTS IN PRIMARY GRADES: A COMPARISON OF INSTRU CTIONAL STRATEGIES By Tyran Wright Butler August 2007 Chair: Holly B. Lane Major: Special Education My study examined the effects of vocabularyfocused instruction a nd strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students in primary grades who are adequate decoders, but non-prof icient comprehenders. Vygotskys theory of learning and development, Pearson and Gallaghe rs gradual release of responsibility model, metacognition, and Stanovichs inte ractive-compensatory model of reading served as theoretical guides for this study. A pretest-posttest design was employ ed. Second and third grade students (N =60) in two groups received 32 sessions over eight weeks, of either vocabulary-focused instruction or strategies-focused instruction. Students in the vocabulary-focused group received instruction similar to Text Talk, and students in the strategies-focused group received instruction similar to reciprocal teaching. A series of analyses of covariance rev ealed no statistically significant differences between groups on measures of expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, and on a re searcher-created target vocabulary measure. An analysis of covariance did reveal a statistically significan t difference between groups on a

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10 passage comprehension measure, favoring th e vocabulary-focused group. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients revealed moderate to robust correlations of the measures. Implications for researchers and teachers em erge from these findings. Teachers should understand that explicit vocabular y instruction does have an impact on comprehension and it does enhance word knowledge. With a more expe rienced adult or peer providing scaffolding, students abilities were expanded beyond what they could do alone. In addition, students in primary grades can benefit from strategies-instr uction. Using a gradual release model assisted students in proficiently using strategies. St rategies-instruction positively influenced both comprehension and vocabulary. Class time should be dedicated to explicit vocabulary and comprehension strategy instruction. Researchers should consider investigating the lo ngitudinal effects of strategies instruction on students in primary grades. It is also recommended that researchers examine specific combinations of strategies useful for students in primary grades, and specific teacher behaviors that contribute to the master y of strategies by students.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Political influences, societal in fluences, and educational factor s have been catalysts for the increased attention given to reading achievement and the instructional methods used to teach reading. Political influences such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 have forced schools to ensure that all children reach hi gher levels of literacy. Our nati ons evolution from an agrarian society, to an industrial society, to an informa tion society has changed the concept of schooling and how students are instructed. Along with cha nges in our society have been changes in how literacy is defined. The definiti on of literacy has evolved over time, reflecting the needs of society, and has had a tremendous impact on what is done to ensure that students are literate (Block, 2000). The definition of reading has ex panded from a set of sub skills to a broader, more complex task requiring the skil lful integration of knowledge. In spite of changes over time, some aspects of instruction have not kept pace with higher demands for literacy. Reading abilities vary from the knowledge that spoken language can be analyzed into strings of separable words, whic h are analyzed into sequences of syllables and phonemes, to the ability to understand and use vo cabulary words, and the ability to comprehend text. Just as reading abilities are varied, so are reading difficulties. As children get older, reading difficulties become more evident and more pronoun ced and, in turn, harder to remediate. According to the National Center for Educa tion Statistics (2005), 38% of fourth grade children cannot read well enough to effectively accomplish grade level work. Between the 2003 and 2005 administrations of the National Assess ment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the percentage of fourth grade stude nts who performed at or above Basic increased in only four states, and decreased in two states. In Florida, 35% of fourth grade students scored below the Basic level, and only 23% scored at the Proficient level on the 2005 NAEP (NCES, 2005).

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12 Students performing at the Basic level should demonstrate an understanding of the overall meaning of what they read. When reading text appropriate for fourth gr aders, they should be able to make relatively obvious connections be tween the text and thei r own experiences and extend the ideas in text by making simple infere nces (NCES, 2005). The Proficient level of the NAEP requires students to be able to demons trate an overall understand ing of text, providing inferences as well as literal information. When they read text appropriate to fourth graders, they should be able to extend ideas in the text by making infere nces, drawing conclusions, and making connections to their own experiences (NCES, 2005). One of the most important goals in elementary school is for all students to be proficient readers. The foundation on which proficient read ers are developed begins well before children enter school. Parents and othe r care providers begin supporti ng the reading development of children through the use of conversations, storyb ook interactions, and other literacy related activities that encour age active engagement (Britto, Fuligni, & Brooks-Gunn, 2006; Landry & Smith, 2006). When children enter school, some co me with requisite kno wledge and skills to become proficient readers, and others do not (Craig & Washington, 2006). Throughout the primary grades, teachers work to ensure that childrens phonological awar eness is developed and that they become efficient decoders through phoni cs instruction, which in turn supports their transition into fluent readers. Despite the purposeful nature of reading instruction in primary grades, some children still fail to comprehend text efficiently when they progress to later grades. The assumption that fluent readers will develop into adequate comprehenders has been proven false for many students. One reason for the low pe rcentage of children re ading grade level work proficiently on tests like the NAEP could be that so mething critical is missing in some facets of

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13 reading instruction in primary grade classr oomseffective vocabulary and comprehension instruction. Children who fail to become proficient reader s in the primary grades tend to remain poor readers throughout school and as adults (Adams, 1990; Juel, 1988; Stanovich, 1986). Research, as reported in the Report of the National Reading P anel: Teaching Children to Read (2000) indicates that explicit, systema tic instruction in various components of reading such as phonemic awareness and phonics, helps support the develo pment of decoding skills. Children who can skillfully decode words develop into fluent r eaders. Fluent readers have more cognitive resources to devote to the comprehension of te xt (Sinatra, Brown, & Reynolds, 2000). Research also supports explicit instructi on in comprehension (NRP Report, 2000). According to Durkin (1993), comprehension is the esse nce of reading. Unfortunatel y, reading comprehension is not a naturally occurring event for some children. Comprehension is a complex process that is influenced by multiple factors. A particular factor identified by the National Reading Panel (2000) is vocabulary because childrens access to the meaning of text is limited by how well they know the meanings of words. The construc t of comprehension cannot be understood well without understanding of the role that vocabular y plays in understanding what is read. Rationale for the Study Students are expected to perf orm proficiently on standard ized measures of reading comprehension by the time they reach the intermediate grades. However, very little comprehension instruction occurs before stude nts actually reach the intermediate grades. Educators have long assumed that children in prim ary grades were not developmentally ready to receive explicit instruction in reading comprehension, and have long neglected explicit vocabulary instruction. Although th e need for reading instruction that promotes comprehension and increases vocabulary is clear (NRP, 2000), more work is needed to un derstand the impact of

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14 various forms of instruction on children in primar y grades. If students are to be prepared to comprehend text proficiently by the time they r each the intermediate grades, instruction in both comprehension and vocabulary are necessary prior to them reaching the intermediate grades. Because the understanding of words and understa nding of connected text are closely related (Juel, 2006; Senechal, Ouellette, & Rodney, 2006), instruction designed to promote both vocabulary development and text comprehension can be an efficient means of promoting reading achievement. Research is needed to clar ify the impact of vocabulary instruction on comprehension and the impact of comprehension strategy instruction on vocabulary growth and comprehension. The purpose of my study was to examine th e effects of two explicit instructional strategies on the comprehension skills and vo cabulary development of readers in second grade and third grade who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders of text.. One instructional method was vocabulary-focused, a nd the other was strategies-focused. Through this study, the relationship between understanding words and understanding text is examined. The general research questions are as follows: What are the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction on the vocabulary skills and compre hension development of primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficien t comprehenders? What are the effects of strategies-focused instructi on on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of primary grade students who are adequate d ecoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? Research supports the implementation of interventions that focus on explicit comprehension strategies inst ruction (Duffy, Roehler, Me loth, Vavrus, Book, Putnam, & Wesselman 1986; Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Pressl ey, El-Dinary, Gaskins, Schuder, Bergman, Almasi, & Brown, 1992) and explicit instructi on of word meanings through the use of

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15 storybooks (Brett, Rothlein, & Hurley, 1996; Coyne, Simmons, Kameenui, & Stoolmiller, 2004). Upper elementary students have been taught comprehension strategies with substantial improvement in their unders tanding of text (Pressley, 2002). Pressley, Johnson, Symons, McGoldrick, and Kurita (1989) summarized the research examining the effects of strategy instruction on students memory and comprehens ion. The researchers examined the relationship between student characteristics a nd cognitive strategy instruction. They determined that poor readers benefit more from strategy instruction than proficient read ers. They also suggested that perhaps strategies are more eff ective with older student in inte rmediate grades and beyond, than younger students. Despite Pressley et al.s (1989) suggestion, the impact of stra tegy instruction on the reading comprehension and vocabulary deve lopment of students in primary grades is under studied. Few researchers have actually used children in primary grades as study participants in strategy instruc tion studies. Researchers often di sagree about the readiness of primary grade children to receive strategy instru ction. Some researchers maintain that strategy instruction should be reserved for older childr en (Cross & Paris, 1988; Pressley et al., 1989), while others believe that childre n in primary grades are ready to receive strategy instruction, and that more should be done to examine the most effective ways to provi de the instruction. (Williams, Hall, Lauer, Stafford, DeSisto, & deCa ni, 2005; Baker, 2002). Because few empirical studies have been designed to examine comprehe nsion strategies instru ction with young children this study focused on two instructional approach es designed support the development of reading comprehension and vocabulary in primary grade students. Scope of the Study This study was conducted within a limited sc ope. The limitations and delimitations are described in the following sections.

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16 Limitations This study was conducted with second grade and third grade students identified by their teachers as proficient decoders, but non-proficie nt comprehenders of text. Previous informal experiences and formal reading instruction of th e subjects may limit this investigation. The study may be limited further because the results fr om this study cannot be generalized to older students or to students who comprehend text well. Finally, because the intervention was conducted by researchers with small groups of st udents, outside of the classroom, it cannot be generalized to larger classroom settings. Delimitations The study was delimited by geographical locatio n to Lake City, Florida, a medium-sized city located in the northern part of the state. The participan ts were 60 second and third grade students in Columbia County. Seco nd and third grade students were used as participants because second grade and third grade are both primary grad es, and the focus of this study was vocabulary development and the comprehensio n skills of students in primary grades. Participants were selected for participation in the study ba sed on recommendations by teachers and reading specialists in their school, and by scoring between the 30th and 45th percentile on a standardized test. The school was selected based on its Reading First eligibility. Participants were pretested on measures of verbal ability and reading comp rehension. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two instructional groups Participant selection did not include consideration for gender or ethnicity. List of Terms An understanding of applicable terminology is critical to the implementation and interpretation of this investiga tion. The following section defines re levant terms as they apply to this study.

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17 Clarifying a strategy used to identify the meaning of unfamiliar words or ideas in text. It calls students attention to the fact that some parts of the text may be difficult to understand. Expressive vocabulary words used when an individual speaks or writes. Listening comprehension unders tanding of spoken language Metacognition knowledge about cogni tion and self-regulation of cognition. Predicting a strategy that involves making a guess a bout future events, based on logical evidence from a text. Questioning a strategy that involves the use of self -generated questions in reference to a text, for the pur pose of reading comprehension. Reading comprehension the proc ess of simultaneously extrac ting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with text (RAND, 2002). Receptive vocabulary words known well enough to understand when heard or read. Reciprocal teaching an instructional procedure in which small groups of students learn to improve their reading comprehension through scaffolded instruction of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring strate gies, which include predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing. Summarizing a strategy in which the reader identifies and articulates main ideas from a text in a concise manner. Text Talk an approach to reading aloud that is designed to enhance childrens ability to construct meaning fr om decontextualized language,

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18 which promotes comprehension and language development (Beck & McKeown, 2001). Tier two words words that mature users of language encounter and use frequently. Theoretical Constructs Multiple theories provide a framework for the current study. Vygotskys (1978) theory on the interaction between l earning and development Sta novichs (1980) interactivecompensatory model of reading, and the theory of metacognition provide justification for the explicit instruction in vocabulary and the direct comprehension stra tegy instruction used in this study. Vygotskys Theory on Learning and Development Vygotsky (1978) theorized that learning is shap ed by interactions with others. His theory of development and learning has profound implica tions for instruction. Classic psychological literature suggested that devel opment was always a prerequisite for learning. There was a specific concern for premature instruction, instruc tion before a child was ready for it. However, Vygotsky suggested that classica l psychologists were incorrect. He believed that learning plays a role in development. Development is not a precondition of learning ; instead, learning and development are interrelated from a childs first da y of life. Vygotsky (1978) suggested that learning be matc hed with a childs developmental level. He stated that in order to teach st udents, two levels must be found, the actual developmental level and the zone of proximal development The actual developmental level is the level of development of a childs mental f unction as a result of some already completed developmental cycles. Vygotsky believed that what children can do with the assistance of others might be more indicative of their mental development than what they can do alone. The difference between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level as

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19 potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers is called th e zone of proximal development. The zone of proximal development defines functions that have not yet matured, but are in the process of maturation. According to Vygotsky (1978), what a child can do with assi stance today, she will be able to do by herself tomorrow (pp.87). Inst ructional methods in this study were performed in the zone of proximal development. The Interactive-Compensatory Model of Reading Stanovich (1980) hypothesized the compensatory-interactive model of reading. He extended Rumelharts interactive model of read ing, which assumes that both bottom up and top down processes occur simultaneously. Rumelhar t (1994) described five independent knowledge sources that contain speciali zed knowledgesyntax, semantic, orthographic, lexical, and pragmatic. Rumelhart suggested that each of th ese knowledge sources is employed concurrently and perceptions are created through this intera ction. His model provides a framework to describe parallel, rather than linear or hierarch ical processing. Rumelhar t describes the message center as a highly structured storage device that receives data. Each knowledge source scans the message center for a hypothesis that is consistent with its domain of knowledge. This hypothesis is then evaluated in terms of the information c ontained by that particular knowledge source, and the process recurs until a decision is reached. The message center is a highl y structured three-dimensional space that incorporates the line of the text, the le vel of the hypothesis from the knowledge sources, and possible alternative hypotheses at the same level. Each level enters a hypothesis and these are evaluated in terms of all others. Constraints from all levels are si multaneously applied. Stanovich (1980) added a compensatory assumption to this model. The a ssumption was that deficiencies at any level in the processing hierarchy can be compensated fo r by a greater use of information from other

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20 levels, and that this compensation takes place irre spective of the level of the deficient process. Rumelharts model helps us understand how topdown and bottom-up processes interact with one another, and Stanovichs extension helps us understand individual differences in reading. Figure 1-1. A stage representation of an inte ractive model of readi ng. Adapted from D. Rumelhart (1994) Metacognition Research on metacognition originated over 30 years ago, with researchers focusing on how and when children develop knowledge and control of thei r cognitive processes (Baker, 2002). Thinking about ones thinki ng appears to be the key to t houghtful, active reading. Paris, Lipson, and Wixson (1994) stated that metacognition is the core of strategic behavior and leads to control over ones learning. Not only do profic ient readers know strate gies, but they monitor their use of the strategies. Met acognition has been firmly establis hed in theories of reading and learning. Metacognitive readers plan, evaluate, and regulate their own skills (Paris et al., 1994). By definition, metacognition is two fold, in cluding both knowledge of and control over ones cognitive processes. Knowledge describe s the ability to reflect on ones own cognitive

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21 processes. Control refers to the self-regulati on of cognitive efforts, developing a goal and plan, checking progress toward that goal, and repairing difficulties once detected. Myers and Paris (1978) documented that younger children have less knowledge and control over their comprehension pr ocesses. But, the questions th at remain are: Do they have less knowledge and control because they have not been taught how to monitor? Do they have less knowledge and control because metacognition is beyond their reach? Thinking about how one thinks, and knowing when and how to use a strategy is the key to engaged reading and proficient reading comprehension, which is the goal for all children. The earlier children are taught to do this, the more time they have to practice, which greatly affects their level of proficiency. According to Baker (2002), social interaction is an important mediator in metacognitive development. This view is cons istent with Vygotskys (1978) proposition that children learn through soci al interactions with more skille d adults. The National Research Council (Snow et al., 1998) recommended explic it instruction in monitoring for understanding throughout the early grades, beginning in first gr ade. Adult mediated metacognitive instruction was provided in this study. Adu lts assisted young child ren in developing an awareness of their thinking processes and through a gr adual release, assist ed them in gaining control over those processes. Overview The focus of this study is an investiga tion of vocabulary development and text comprehension. Specifically, the effects of two instructional stra tegies on vocabulary development and reading comprehension. Chapte r 2 provides a review and analysis of the relevant professional literature related to vocabulary instructi on and comprehension instruction with elementary aged children. Chapter 3 provid es an explanation of methods and procedures implemented in the study. Chapter 4 details the results obtained fr om the study. Finally,

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22 Chapter 5 provides a discussion of the results as re lated to previous research and implications for future research.

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23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction Proficiency in reading is f undamental to success in school and in society. However, national literacy rates are not keeping up with increasing demands for competence in literacy skills (Britto et al., 2006). The goal of reading instruction is for children to become selfregulating monitors of what they read. Numerous instructional factors influence whether or not children are able to comprehend text. Explic itly teaching children to use comprehension strategies has been shown to improve text co mprehension. Explicitly teaching word meanings has also been demonstrated to mediate reading comprehension. Based on expectations for levels of proficiency on standardized a ssessments that evaluate what children know and can do with grade level text, in addition to j obs that require sophist icated knowledge to complete job related tasks, it has become increasingly important to address reading comprehension earlier than when children reach the upper elementary grades. In conjunction with addressing reading comprehension, it is important to investigate f actors that influence comprehension, such as vocabulary. I provide a summary and analysis of the professional litera ture on vocabulary instruction and comprehension instruction with elementary ag ed children generated over the last 30 years. This literature review is organize d into five sections. First, st udies that examine the relationship between vocabulary and comprehension are deta iled. Then, studies of word learning through direct instruction and studies that examine word learning through the use of storybooks are detailed. Next, the reciprocal teaching model is described and reciprocal teaching studies, which include elementary aged participants are detail ed. Finally, studies of comprehension strategy instruction are presented.

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24 Methods An electronic search of PsychINFO, and EBSC O Host was conducted to locate studies for this literature review. The descriptors for the electronic search were vocabulary instruction and reading; vocabulary methods; vocabulary and reading comprehension; cognitive strategy instruction; comprehension stra tegy instruction and elementary students; and comprehension and elementary students. The vast amount of co mprehension research in the last 30 years complicated the identification of relevant studie s for this review. For example, a search of EBSCO Host using the key words reading comp rehension led to 1552 references. The key words reading comprehension and elementary yielded 203 listings. The key words, reading strategy instruction and elementary students yielded three studies, and not one of them was appropriate for this review. The review process highlighted the fa ct that there is a dearth of research on reading comprehension of children in elementary grades, and more specifically the primary grades. Studies in the followi ng refereed journals were identified: Elementary School Journal, Contemporary Educational Psychology Reading, Reading Research Quarterly, Reading Improvement, Reading Horizons, Reading Te acher, Journal of E ducational Psychology. Reference lists from identified studies were also examined. In addition, a manual search in the published literature was conducte d in the following journals: Journal of Literacy Research, Journal of Reading, and Jour nal of Reading Behavior These journals were selected because either the word reading or literacy was in the title, or the journal was listed repeatedly in the reference section of previously se cured articles. Studies selected for inclusion in this review were included based on the following criteria: (a) subjects were children for whom English is a first language; (b) subjects receiv ing interventions were in kinde rgarten through fifth grade; (c) designs were either correlati onal or experimental with a specific emphasis on vocabulary learning and or comprehension lear ning; and (c) studies were publis hed in the last thirty years

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25 (1977-2007). Upon examination of th e articles, those that featur ed students at the secondary level were excluded. Some studies were included if they focused specifically on reciprocal teaching and included elementary participants in addition to middle grade participants. Age was delimited in this review due to the focus of instructional effectiveness with elementary aged children. This review only in cludes studies that examined the vocabulary instruction and comprehension instruction with elementary aged students. The results of the literature search yielded 25 studies, which are included in this review.. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Comprehension Anderson and Freebody (1981) offer three hypotheses for examining the effects of word learning on reading comprehension, the instrume ntalist, aptitude, and knowledge hypotheses. The instrumentalist position suggests that knowledge of word meanings is the primary factor responsible for reading comprehension. But, the instrumentalist position does not make suggestions about where vocabul ary knowledge originates. The aptitude hypothesis suggests that peopl e with large vocabul aries are better at comprehension because they possess higher me ntal agility. There are few instructional implications from this hypothesis. The third hypothesis, the knowledge hypothesis, suggests that world knowledge is crucial to the understanding of text. Performance on vo cabulary tests is seen as a reflection of a persons background knowledge. The knowledge hypotheses emphasizes that knowing a word well implies that one knows a lot of words relate d to it and this larger chunk of knowledge is crucial for understanding a given text. The knowledge approach suggests an interactive approach in which conceptually generated knowledge is combined with information in the text (Lesgold & Perfetti, 1978). The instructional imp lications are that the more word meanings one

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26 knows and the more experiences one has, the bett er he or she will comprehend text. Anderson and Freebodys (1981) instrumentalist and knowledge hypotheses informed this study. Stanovich (1986) summarized a number of st udies documenting the strong association between vocabulary knowledge and reading co mprehension. Pointing out that the most vocabulary acquisition occurs dur ing reading. Stanovich note d that children with weak vocabularies read less, acquire fewer new word s, and fall progressively further behind their peers. The gap in exposure to vocabulary through reading is appare nt as early as first grade. In separate studies, Allington (1984) and Biemiller (1977-1978) documented that proficient readers read three times as many words per week as their less-proficien t peers. Stanovich appropriated the Biblical term Matthew Ef fects to describe the phenome non of the rich (good readers) getting richer, and the poor (struggling read ers) becoming increasingly impoverished. The Matthew Effects have devast ating consequences for children with reading difficulties. The knowledge of word meanings is an important fa ctor in performance on reading comprehension tasks. Researchers have been able to document a s ubstantial psychometric relationship between vocabulary and comprehension (Anderson & Freebody, 1981; Baumann, Kameenui, & Ash, 2003; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Stahl & Fair banks, 1986). Factor analyses of reading comprehension tests consistently find a subs tantial proportion of va riance accounted for by vocabulary knowledge. In a longitudinal study, Cunningham and Stanovich (1997) examined the predictive relationships between 27 students vocabulary skills as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III in fi rst grade and their reading comp rehension and vocabulary skills in 11th grade. They found that first grade vocabulary skills predicted 11th grade comprehension scores on a standardi zed reading test.

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27 Like Cunningham and Stanovich (1997), Ta bors, Snow, and Dickinson (2001) examined the predictive relations between kindergartne rs narrative production a nd receptive vocabulary skills as assessed by the PPVTR and their subsequent vocabul ary skills and comprehension skills in fourth and seventh grades. Vocabulary scores at kindergarten we re strongly correlated with vocabulary and comprehension scor es at fourth and seventh grades. Schatschneider, Buck, Torgesen, Wagner, Hassler, Hecht, and Powell-Smith (2003) conducted a study to identify the major reading, cogn itive, and linguistic skills that contribute to individual differences in performance on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) at third, seventh, and tenth grades. Two hundred participants were administered tests that measured a variety of reading, language, and cognitive skills. Results indicated that in third grade, r eading fluency was the dominant fact or in explaining variability in test performance. In seventh grade, reading fluency and verbal knowledge similarly explained variability in test performance i ndividual differences. However, by 10th grade, verbal knowledge and reasoning was clearly dominant factor in explaining variabili ty in test performance on the FCAT. Although researchers have been able to document a strong relationship between vocabulary and comprehension, they have been unable to sort the ex act nature of the reciprocal relationship. A graphical represen tation of a model of the reciprocal nature of vocabulary and comprehension and the influence of experien ces with texts is pr oposed in Figure 2-1. Experiences with text include independent book reading as well as read aloud experiences between children and adults. The more one reads, the more his vocabulary increases. The more vocabulary increases, the better text is understood.

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28 Figure 2-1. The reciprocal relationship between vocabulary and comprehension. Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary instruction has been identified as an essential element of reading instruction (NRP, 2000). Like comprehension instruction for children in primary grades, vocabulary instruction has not received attention the wa y other reading instructional methods have (Biemiller & Slonim, 2001), despite its influen ce on reading comprehension. Readers must understand words in order to comprehend text. Some interventions with children in both primary and elementary grades have shown that vo cabulary instruction increases word knowledge (Biemiller, 1999; Brett et al., 1996; Coyne et al ., 2004). Traditional methods of instruction, such as copying definitions from a dictionary or attempting to use a new word in a meaningful sentence have been demonstrated to be ine ffective in promoting vocabulary growth (Nagy, 1988). Superficial learning of word meanings also contributes litt le to text comprehension (Beck & McKeown, 1991; Nagy, 1988). Several effective methods have been developed for teaching word meanings and, more importantly, for promo ting deeper understanding of words. Direct instruction of word meanings and word lear ning from storybooks will be discussed in the following sections.

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29 Direct Instruction of Word Meanings It is estimated that children from third grade through eighth grade learn approximately 3,000 words per year (Nagy & Herman, 1987). As children get older, they encounter increasingly difficult words that are not in th eir oral vocabulary. As a way to facilitate vocabulary learning, direct instruction in word meanings has been promoted. Expanded oral vocabularies assist in comprehending text as text complexity increases. When words in text are accessible to children, they are able to devote mo re mental processes to comprehending text. Explicitly teaching vocabulary words has also been argued to be problematic by some researchers because the sheer number of words defi es a systematic instructional approach (Nagy, 1988). According to Stahl and Fairbanks (1986), direct instruction of vocabulary has demonstrable effects on vocabulary learning and co mprehension. However, they maintain that vocabulary instruction should include more than definitions in order to improve reading comprehension. Dictionary definitions provide inadequate explanations of word meanings (McKeown, 1993). Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002) argue that the teach ers should carefully select appropriate words to teach students in order to contribute to students vocabulary development. According to Beck et al. (2002) the primary consideration in choosing words should be the nature of the words themselves. They suggest that words should be selected from the portion of word stock that comprises sophisticated words of high utility for mature language users and that are ch aracteristic of written langu age (p. 253, Beck & McKeown, 2007). They refer to these words as Tier 2 words as opposed to Tier 1 words, which are basic words used in everyday language, and Tie r 3 words, which are low-frequency words specific to particular content ar eas. To determine which words are Tier 2 words, words should be evaluated based on 1) usefulne ss across contexts, 2) relation to other useful words, and 3)

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30 importance to the story (Beck et al., 2002). Beck et al. (2002) argue that if Tier Two words, words that mature users of language encounter fre quently, are taught then the task of direct word instruction is manageable and useful. The benefi t of this approach is that it is focused on teaching children sophisticated words that children may not regularly hear, but that they need to know in order to understand books that are r ead to them and that they will read. Beck, Perfetti, and McKeown (1982) examin ed the effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on the reading compre hension of fourth-grade students and found that students who received explicit vocabulary inst ruction outperformed students in a control group on measures of vocabulary and reading comprehens ion. However, the gains in comprehension were marginal. McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Perfetti (1983) rep licated and extended the previous study by that investigated the relationship between vocabulary inst ruction and reading comprehension. The original study showed substantial gains in accuracy of word knowledge, but only marginal gains in comprehension. The initial study cont ained methodological problems, so researchers revised the comprehension measure in the rep lication study. Forty-one fourth graders were taught 104 difficult words over a five-month period. Following instruction, the students who received instruction and students in the cont rol group, matched on preins truction vocabulary and comprehension ability, performed tasks to measure accuracy of word knowledge and comprehension of stories that contained ta rget vocabulary words. Students who received vocabulary instruction performed better than studen ts in the control group on all tasks. Results from the replication study support the conclusion suggested by th e original study that intensive vocabulary instruction designed to promote deep and fluent word knowledge enhances reading comprehension.

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31 McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Pople (1985) c onducted a study that examined the nature of instruction and the frequency of instructional encounters on f ourth graders verbal processing skills. The researchers designed the study to teac h 24 difficult words to fourth grade children. In 30-minute lessons over 14 school days, words were presented to students using varying instructional models: rich, rich/extended, and trad itional instruction. A rich context was one that involved elaboration and disc ussion about words, their meanings, and their uses. A rich/extended context involved rich instruction and activities that allowed children to notice and use instructed words outside the classroom. Th e traditional instructi on was drawn from basal readers. Children made associations between the words and their defi nitions or synonyms. Multiple-choice vocabulary tests were used to assess vocabulary knowledge. Outcome measures consisted of tasks of definition knowledge, fl uency of access to word meanings, context interpretation, and story comprehension. McKeow n et al. (1985) concluded that all types and frequencies of instruction show ed an advantage of word l earning over the control group. However, only the rich and rich/extended condi tions led to better performance on story recall tasks. More encounters with words led to incr eased word knowledge for students. Results from this study provide support for the idea that e xplicit vocabulary instruction is beneficial to students. When students are ta ught words, they learn words. Twelve-year-old participants with learning disabilities (n=64) who were presented keyword mnemonic strategy instruction in a st udy conducted by Condus, Ma rshall, and Miller (1986) outperformed students assigned to other in structional strategy gro ups. Special education teachers presented students in each condition with a total of 50 words (gro uped in sets of 10). Instructional conditions included: keyword-image learning, pictur e context, sentence-experience context, and a control group. In the keyword-imag e condition, students were instructed to learn

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32 word meanings following three steps: learn a key word presented on a 5x8 card, remember the content of a black-and-white line drawing that contained a representa tion of the keyword interacting with the definition, a nd finally, to look at all vocabul ary items and recall verbally the key word and its illustration. The picture-c ontext condition required st udents to learn word meanings by studying black-and-white illustrations representing the definition of the word (these illustrations did not contain the key word). Th e sentence-experience context involved students learning the meaning of words in two steps: th e teacher read a three-sentence passage that was printed and displayed on paper, students had to listen, reread the passage and then relate the meaning of the word to a personal experience. Th e control condition participants were told to choose their own method of studying to learn voc abulary word meanings. Students received instruction for 20 minutes per day for three da ys per week over a period of five weeks. Vocabulary learning was measured at four intervals during th e study. The final measurement occurred two months after the initial instruction. A series of ANOVAs in dicated significant differences among treatment groups. All treatment groups outperformed students in the control condition. Students assigned to th e keyword condition outperformed all other conditions across all four levels of time. Results from this study provide support for the keyword method as a strategy to facilitate the vocabul ary learning of children with lear ning disabilities and questions about the possible usefulness of this instruc tional strategy for child ren without learning disabilities. Wixson (1986) noted the effects of prete aching vocabulary of differing levels of importance to a text using two different methods of instruction on child rens comprehension of basal stories. One hundred twenty fifth grade st udents were randomly assigned to one of eight groups according to method of instruction, story, a nd word level. There were two instructional

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33 methods: dictionary method and concept method. Students in the dictionary method group were asked to look up words in dictionaries, copy them and use them in a sentence. Students in the concept method group were presented with words on worksheets and given two examples and nonexamples to help them identify critical attributes of the word or concepts. Four posttest measures were used to assess student performance. Analyses indicated that the level of the instru cted word vocabulary ha d a reliable effect on word knowledge and text comprehension. Children who received instruction on noncentral words learned more noncentral vocabulary and unde rstood more story ideas related to noncentral vocabulary than students who received instruct ion on central words. Children who received instruction on central words le arned more central vocabulary and understood more story ideas related to central vocabulary than students who received instruc tion on noncentral words. In addition, preteaching vocabulary enhances child rens understanding of ideas related to the instructed vocabulary regardless of the level of importance. The concept method of instruction did not provide any advantage over the dictionary method in this study. In a comparison of direct teaching of individual word meanings and practice deriving word meanings from context, Jenkins, Matlock, and Slocum (1989) concluded that learning words from contexts is not an automatic process. Par ticipants included 135 fift h grade students (six classes). Students were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: three classes were assigned to instruction in individual word meanings and three classes were assigned to the deriving word meanings from context condition. In each conditi on, classes were assigned to low, medium, or high amounts of practice. Instructional sessions lasted between 10 and 20 minutes based on the practice level. Participants were administered pretests and posttests. On all tests of word knowledge, students performed better on tests of indi vidual word meanings. All students scored

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34 low on tests that required them to derive meani ngs from contexts. Jenkins et al. (1989), like McKeown (1985) concluded that a considerable amount of instruc tion is necessary in helping students to derive word m eanings from contexts. In a more recent investigation, Lubliner and Smetana (2005) conducted a 24-week study that examined the effects of a multifaceted, metacognitive interv ention on the reading vocabulary and reading comprehension of fifth grade child ren in a Title I school. Classroom teachers provided 77 fifth grade students with explicit voc abulary instruction. Their performance was compared with fifth grade students who atte nd a high performing school in the same school district. Metacognitive tests and tests of both reading comp rehension and vocabulary were administered to students three times during the study. Twelve weeks of the first half of the school year were designated as the control period. During wh ich, teachers provided vocabulary instruction based on guidelines in the basal text. Students were given weekly word lists and instructed to define words using the dictiona ry and use them in a sentence. During the experimental phase of the study, a second 12-week period after the winter break, students were instructed to use a series of five metacognitive strategies to learn vocabulary words in their Social Studies book: (a) clarify whether you know a word, (b) decide on the degree of knowledge regarding the word, (c) co nsider the context, (d) study the structure of the word, and (e) semantic mapping, word sorts, and main idea words. Chil dren worked on word-learning tasks in pairs or small groups. A researcher-cre ated reading comprehens ion test and vocabulary test were administered. Results from the metacognitive test revealed that students only identified 20% of missed words on the multiple-choice test before the intervention, and 38% of the unknown words after the interventio n. A series of repeated m easures ANOVAs and pairwise comparisons indicate that si gnificant growth in reading comprehension and vocabulary

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35 development occurred during the experimental phase of the study. When compared with the results of students from the high achieving school, the Title I students scores improved relative to those of the above average children, and the achievement gap narrowed after the intervention. However, students in the Title I school made less progress relative to the high achievers. Results from each study reviewed in the previo us section indicated significant differences between students who received explicit instruct ion in word meanings when compared with students who did not. Students who received explicit instruction in word meanings made greater gains in word knowledge than those who recei ved no instruction in word meanings. Storybook Reading and Vocabulary Learning Storybook reading experiences can be an excep tional opportunity for children to learn words. The context of a story provides a b ackdrop for building understanding of new words through connections with familiar words and situ ations. Reading aloud to children provides the opportunity to develop understand ing of words and text in an engaging way (Beck et al., 2002). Researchers have documented that ch ildren learn vocabulary through storybook interactions (Senechal & Cornell, 1993; Senech al, Thomas, & Monker, 1994). The majority of experimental studies that have investigated the relationship between storybook reading and vocabulary acquisition have been conducted with young children. Researchers are now more focused on studying specific factor s that strongly influence wh ether or not children learn vocabulary from listening to stories. Elley (1989) conducted two experiments to ex amine the vocabulary acquisition of seven and eight year olds while they listened to storie s. In the first experi ment, 168 seven year olds were read one book three times over a period of seven days. A 20-item multiple-choice test was given as a pretest and posttest. Results from expe riment one indicated that children made a mean gain in vocabulary knowledge between 13% and 21% In the second experiment, 127 eight year

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36 olds served as particip ants. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: reading with explanation, reading without explanation, and a control group. A 36-item multiple-choice test was given as a pretest and as a posttest. Delayed posttests were administered three months later. Elley concluded that reading al oud to children is a significant source of vocabulary acquisition. In addition, when teachers provide additional expl anation of words as they are read, students gains more than doubled. Students who scored lo w on initial vocabulary m easures made at least as much progress in vocabulary acqui sition as students who score higher. In a counterbalanced treatment, posttest-onl y design, Robbins and Ehri (1994) found that kindergartners expanded their recognition vocabular ies when they listened to stories at least twice and when they heard unfamiliar words repeated in the stories. Fifty-one kindergartners sat and observed as experimenters r ead two stories. Eleven targ et words were substituted for familiar words or phrases in each story. After th e readings, children were asked what they liked about the story and to describe something that happened in th e story. The vocabulary effects were detected using a multiple-choice test that included target words. Brett et al. (1996) conducted a study to compar e the effects of three conditions on fourth grade students vocabulary acquisition: listening to stories with a brief explanation of the meaning of unfamiliar target words as they were encountered in the stories, listening to stories with no explanation of the words, and havi ng no systematic exposure to the stories or vocabulary. Participants include d 165 fourth grade students who were randomly assigned to the story with word explanation group and the cont rol group. A series of ANOVAs produced results that indicated that the students in the story with word explana tion group made significantly more progress from pretest to posttest than the other two groups of children. They scored higher on posttests and delayed posttests. Results from th e study indicate that four th graders can acquire

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37 new vocabulary from listening to stories if there is a brief explanation of new words as students encounter them in stories. In a study which examined the development of vocabulary knowledge in elementary school children as a function of story reading for partially known and unknown words, Schwanenflugel, Stahl, and McFa lls (1997) found that vocabulary gr owth was small. Forty-three low and middle class fourth graders participated in the study. Children were given a vocabulary checklist of 24 words that they were likel y to know, 12 pseudowords, and 12 nonwords, 39 difficult words, and 57 difficult words from a di fferent study. Participants were asked to go through the checklist and write a de finition or sentence for the words they knew. Then they had to go back through the checklist to identify word s that they were familiar with, but couldnt define, finally, they were asked to identify words that they suspected might be a real word, but had not heard or seen before. A week after co mpleting the vocabulary checklist, each child read two stories on sequential days. Children were asked to write a summary after each story was read to ensure that they read the story. Three days after reading, children were asked to complete a multiple-choice test containing the target items from the story. Each word was followed by five randomly arranged options: the correct definition, a partial definition, two incorrect definitions, and a dont know option. Afte r repeated ANOVAs, results indicated that vocabulary growth was small, but that word kno wledge from growth was larger for partially known words and unknown words than for known words. Higgins and Hess (1999) examined the use of electronic books a nd their influence on vocabulary learning. Participants included 22 th ird grade students who were randomly assigned to either the experimental gr oup or a control group. The suppl emental vocabulary instruction involved children being asked, after they found target words on the page of the book and had

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38 selected the animation associated with the wo rd, to explain the meaning of the word. The researchers found that children who received supp lemental vocabulary instruction coupled with animations in electronic books performed significan tly better than children who interacted with electronic books without supplem entary instruction. Results from their investigation add additional support to the idea that multiple opport unities for students to en counter and interact with words increase the likelihood that students will retain the words. Brabham and Lynch-Brown (2002) designed a st udy to examine the effects of read-aloud styles on learning outcomes for chil dren in early elementary grades (first grade and third grade). The studies yielded results consis tent with Dickinson and Smith ( 1994), that the straight reading of storybooks produced the smallest gains in vo cabulary and that the in teractional style of reading storybooks produced the largest gains. Participants in this study included 117 first graders and 129 third graders. The students we re randomly assigned to one of three reading styles: just reading, performance, and interactional styles. Multiple choice pretests and posttests were administered to students to assess vocabulary learning. Like Robbins and Ehri (1994), Coyne et al. ( 2004) studied the effects of storybook reading on the vocabulary knowledge of children at risk for experiencing reading difficulties through a storybook intervention. Ninety-six kindergarten children were random ly assigned to one of three intervention groups. One group consisted of 108, half-hour lessons ta ught through 40 childrens books. Another intervention group received an intervention that focused on phonologic and alphabetic skills. The third group, the control group, received a sounds and letters module of Open Court The Peabody Picture Vocabulary-I II Test and a researcher-creat ed measure to assess target words taught were given as pretests and posttests. Results from primary analyses indicate that

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39 students in the storybook intervention group made greater growth on the researcher created measure. Students in this study with lower recep tive vocabulary skills made greater gains than students with higher receptive vocabulary in comparison to students in the control group. Justice, Meier, and Walpole (2005) examined the effects of elaborating on target words during storybook reading. Fiftyseven kindergarten children were randomly assigned to a treatment or comparison group. The treatment group consisted of the teacher elaborating on half of the identified target vocabulary words from ten storybooks. Teachers in the comparison group did not elaborate on target words. Results indicated that childre n in the treatment group showed significantly greater ga ins from pre to posttest for elaborated words relative to children in the comparison group. Comprehension Instruction Prior to 1977, very little a ttention was paid to reading comprehension instruction. A series of observational studies conducted by Durkin (1977, 1978) caught the attention of educators. She studied the nature of comprehe nsion instruction in elementary schools and found that most activities labeled comprehension inst ruction were little more than comprehension assessment. Activities such as questioning afte r reading a section of text, dominated reading instructional time. Durkin noted that only 20 minutes of 4,469 minutes were devoted to actual comprehension instruction. Pressl ey (2000) suggested that very li ttle has changed since Durkins study. We know very little about comprehension instruct ion in the primary grades. Most studies of comprehension have been conducted with studen ts in upper elementary or secondary grades. Factors that contribute to readi ng failure in elementary grades are almost always related to comprehension. Effective literacy instruction fo r students in both the primary grades and the upper elementary grades should foster the developm ent of deep-level proce ssing of text that is necessary for proficient reading comprehension.

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40 Pearson and Dole (1987) identified component s of effective literacy instruction. The researchers found when explicit instruction was us ed, low achieving students could be taught to use comprehension strategies. The following co mponents were identified by Pearson and Dole were found in successful interv ention studies: (a) teacher mode ling, (b) guided practice, (c) consolidation, (d) independent practice, and (e) application. This model of explicit comprehension instruction was unique because it was designed to be implemented holistically during reading, and did not focus on isolated sub skills. Reading comprehension instruction research o ffers guidance for designing instruction that capitalizes on the constructive nature of meaning. After reviewing research, a common instructional cycle emerged (Block & Pres sley, 2003; Pearson & Gallagher, 1983; Duke & Pearson, 2002). Pearson and Galla gher (1983) coined the term, gradual release to capture the interactive, recursive flow of comprehension instruction. The cycl e begins with explicit strategy explanation by the teacher. The te acher details when and how the strategy should be used. Teacher modeling of the strategy in action is the next step in the proce ss. After modeling, the teacher offers varying degrees of scaffold ed support as students practice the strategy. Collaborative use between the teach er and students is employed. Th e final phase is independent application by the student. Figure 2-2 provides a graphical representation of the cycle. Each phase in this cycle is mediated thr ough dialogue between the teacher and students, and among the students. Additionally, during each phase of this model, efforts are made to attend to metacognition. Explicit Strategy Explanation. Explicit strategy explanation is a verbal description of the mental processes involved with the strategy in action. Includ ed in this explanation is a description of the strategy as well as why, when, and how to use it (Duffy, 2002).

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41 Figure 2-2. Gradual release of responsibility model. Adapted from Pearson and Gallagher (1983) Demonstrations of strategy use must be flexible based on feedback cues from students. The more explicit and direct the in struction, the more students assume control of the strategy (Duffy & Roehler, 1987; Keene & Zimmerman, 1997; Pearson, 1984). Scaffolded Support. According to Pearson and Gallaghe r (1983), the process of release is critical because teachers are ac tually restructuring student under standing. Scaffolded support is consistent with Vygotskys (1978) zone of proximal development. It is during this time that teachers meet students in the space where growth can occur. As the learners skill increases, the teachers support decreases. The dialogue used in these interactions serves as an instrument in meaning making. Although adultchild interactions are important, peer interactions are important as well. Foreman and Cazden (1994) examined the effects of peer interactions by analyzing 12 peer tutoring sessions in inner-city, multi-grade primary classrooms. They

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42 concluded that students benef ited from the challenge of formulating academic concepts into words, and the demands of peer tutoring provi ded that challenge. Both teacher-student interactions and student-s tudent interactions are essential in student internaliz ation of learning. Comprehension instruction must include the el ements of explicit st rategy explanation and scaffolded support. Many studies confirm the positive impact of st rategy instruction on th e comprehension of text. Researchers have identified an array of st rategies that improve comprehension (Duffy & Roehler, 1987; Palincsar & Brown, 1984). Reciprocal teaching, the framework for one instructional method in this st udy, incorporates four specific st rategies-questioning, clarifying, summarizing, and predicting. Description of Reciprocal Teaching Palincsar and Brown (1984) sele cted four comprehension stra tegies for their reciprocal teaching model because the strategies seem to provide a dual function; that is, they embody both comprehension monitoring and comprehension fost ering activities. De veloped for struggling middle school readers, the recipr ocal teaching model emphasizes so cial interaction as the basis for learning. It incorporates teacher modeling and peer instruction. Palincsar and Browns (1984) initial research investigated the effects of two different groups of seventh grade struggling readers. There were striking pretest to posttest gains. The instructional materials for the reciprocal teaching studies were seventh grade level expository texts, and researcher created comprehension assessments. The students we re given a pretest to establish baseline comprehension scores and daily comprehension assessments for a designated number of days, prior to instruction. Students continued to take daily reading comprehension assessments throughout the course of instruction, and received feedback on their progress.

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43 Palincsar and Brown (1984) depict a fast-paced application of the re cursive instructional cycle. In reciprocal teachi ng conditions, all modeling and instruction in how to develop and apply the four cognitive strategi es takes place during the course of dialogues between teacher and students and students and stude nts. During the gradual releas e, the dialogue leader begins the discussion with questions abou t the content. The rest of th e group discusses the queries and asks additional questions, taking time to address any disagreement s. Clarification is used whenever any member of the group does not unde rstand a word, concept, or idea. Next, the leader offers an initial summary of the text and there is furt her discussion, revising the summary as appropriate. Finally, the dial ogue leader generates or solici ts a prediction about the next reading selection and offers justification for that prediction. Time is taken to reflect on strategy use. Initially, the leader models that entire procedure, usi ng dialogue to identify and explain the process and strategies. The l eader also offers suggestions for asking questions, developing predictions, generating summaries, or using clarifying techniqu es as appropriate. Because reciprocal teaching was desi gned for students who are ad equate decoders, but poor comprehenders, it was selected as an instru ctional method to be used in this study. Initially, the teacher serves as the dialogue leader, modeling as described. Eventually, students begin to take turns being the teacher, modeling, and providing feedback to his or her peers. Gradually, the leaders role decreases as the students take on gr eater responsibility for carrying out the process. In the next session, reciprocal teaching studi es in which elementary students served as participants are detailed. Reciprocal Teaching Studies wi th Elementary Participants Johnson-Glenberg (2000) investigated whethe r teaching poor text comprehenders reading strategies in small group format would impr ove their reading comprehension. She also

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44 investigated whether students would demonstrat e differential gains based on whether they were placed in a verbally based or pr imarily visually based remediation program. A verbally based reciprocal teaching program and a visually based visualizing/verbalizing program were compared with each other and a control group. The reciprocal teaching group outperformed the visualizing/verbalizing group on open-ended explicit questions and question generation. ANOVAs indicated that there were significant pretest to posttest gains made by the experimental groups on 11 dependent measures. The control gr oup had a significant gain on only one measure. Lederer (2000) examined the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching during social students instruction with fourth, fifth, a nd sixth grade students with le arning disabilities. One hundred twenty-eight participants were instructed in the four reciproc al teaching strategies in small groups in the classroom setting for 15 to 17 days. A mixed desi gn MANOVA was used to determine interaction on three re searcher designed comprehensi on measures. Results indicated that all students improved their comprehension perf ormance when compared with students in the control group. In a replication study, Lysynchuck, Pressle y, and Vye (1990) confirmed the results in Palincsar and Browns 1984 reciprocal teaching st udy. Fourth and seventh grade students who adequately decoded text, but were poor comprehe nders participated in this study. In a pretestposttest design, participants received instruction in small groups over 13 days. The experimental group received training in reciproc al teaching and the control group re ceived an alternate form of reading instruction. Dependent measures include d the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test. Results indicate d that the experimental groups outperformed the control groups on all measures.

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45 Reciprocal teaching has been demonstrated to be effective with students in upper elementary grades. However, no study has ever explored using the stra tegies that comprise reciprocal teaching, with children in primary grades. In addition to the limited age of the study participants previously discusse d, researchers often varied in th eir use of outcome measures. Some studies reported student ga ins on researcher created meas ures, while others confirmed gains on standardized assessments. In most studies, outcome measures were not identified as norm-referenced measures or criterion-referenced measures. To simply state that measures were standardized measures only implies standard admi nistration of the test. This does not aid in the interpretation of the results of the study in relati on to the studys purpose. In the current era of accountability, robust results on stan dardized, norm-referenced measures would be beneficial. Further, studies were short in duration. In orde r for children to maintain skills, they need to continue to self-regulate. Studies ranged from 13 to 20 days, wh ich is an insufficient amount of time for strategies to generalize. Researchers in the previously mentione d studies also fail to provide information regarding trea tment fidelity. Fidelity of imp lementation is essential, but researchers did not report any in formation regarding steps taken to ensure treatment fidelity. This too makes it difficult to interpret study results. Most reciprocal teaching studies lasted betw een 13 and 20 sessions, with the first four to six sessions devoted to strate gy introduction, and the remaining sessions to scaffolded support (Johnson-Glenberg, 2000; Lederer 2000; Lys ynchuk et al., 1990). The current study was conducted in 32 sessions. Because younger students served as participants, more time was dedicated to strategy intr oduction, modeling, collaborative use of strategies, and guided practice. General Cognitive Strategy Instruction with Elementary Children Baumann and Bergeron (1993) investigated th e effectiveness of in struction in story mapping as a means to promote first grade studen ts comprehension of central story elements

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46 using a quasi-experimental, pretes t-posttest design. Seventy-f our first grade children were randomly assigned to one of four groups, a group in which they were taught to construct story maps from unabridged childrens stories they ha d read; a group in which children received the same instruction as in the previous group, but in cluded using story maps to compose stories; a group in which students read the same story, but us ed a predict-verify pro cedure; and a directed reading activity instructed c ontrol group where children engage d in non-interactive guided reading of stories. Tests to evaluate childrens ability to comprehend central story elements were administered to all participants. In addition, qu alitative data on students ability to understand and apply the story mapping heuristic were collected. Both analyses revealed that explicitly teaching students about story parts enabled them to recognize and recall important events from narrative selections. Young childre n can be taught to use simple story maps as a means to enhance their comprehension of unfamiliar stories. Morrow (1985) reported results on two studies th at investigated whether retelling stories could improve the comprehension of kindergar ten students. In study one, 59 kindergarten students were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Children in the experimental group retold the story to the experiment er as if they were telling it to a friend, immediately after it was read to them, and children in the control group dr ew a picture about the st ory after the story was read. Children in both groups were administered a comprehension test that included five story structure questions and five traditional comp rehension questions. Results from the study indicated that total comprehensi on scores of children in the expe rimental group were better than those of children in the control group. In the second study, 82 children were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group used the same procedures as in the firs t study, however, additional treatments were added

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47 and children were given increased support in story re telling. After an analys is of the results from the investigation, Morrow found that there was a significant improvement of children in the experimental group over children in the cont rol group. Although childre n needed frequent practice and support in retelling, they performed better than children who had no experience with story retelling. Active engagement in the re ading comprehension activity led to increased reading comprehension of the children, even though they were kindergarten students. Teacher participants in this study took anec dotal records on the children and reported that children in the experimental group engaged in stor y retelling during free play periods more often than children in the control group. In addition, parents of children in the experimental group commented that their children seemed more eager to retell stories just read to them at home. Children in the experimental group demonstrated mo re confidence in attempting to retell stories than children in the control group, at the end of the study. More recently, Williams et al. (2005) investig ated the effectiveness of text structure instruction on second graders reading comprehension. One hundr ed twenty-eight second grade students and 10 second grade teachers participated in this study. Classrooms were randomly assigned to either a text structure, content only, or no instruction group. Classroom teachers conducted the 15-session interventions. Results of the study indicated that students who received instruction in text structure were able to le arn what they were ta ught and were able to demonstrate what they learned, to content beyond that used for instruction. Findings from this study indicate that explicit instru ction might be feasib le and effective for students in primary grades. Paris (1984) investigated the effects of Informed Learning Strategies for Learning (ISL), a program designed to improve students read ing comprehension through cognitive strategy

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48 instruction using a pretest-posttes t design. Participants in the study included 783 third graders, 801 fifth graders, and 75 classroom teachers. Teachers were provided with instructional modules and lesson plans. Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to strategy instruction: declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, a nd conditional knowledge should be used when reading. The ISL modules addressed each cate gory of reading related strategic knowledge. The ISL program used explicit strategy inst ruction, teacher modeling, guided practice, feedback, and group discussions, with a gradual release of responsibil ity. Control classes received regular reading instruct ion while classroom teachers, us ing the ISL program, instructed experimental classes. The Gates-MacGinitie co mprehension subtest and a researcher designed Reading Awareness Index served as dependent variables. After c onducting a series of ANCOVAs, results indicated that participants in the experimental classes made significantly greater gains than students in the control group after one year of ISL instruction. Cross and Paris (1988) conducted an Informed Learning Strategies Learning (ISL) study to investigate students use of cognitive strate gies in reading, using a pretest-posttest design. Paris identified three categories of knowledge amenable to stra tegy instruction: declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, a nd conditional knowledge that s hould be used when reading. The ISL program used explicit strategy instructio n, teacher modeling, guided practice, feedback, and group discussions with a gradual release of responsibility. Third and fifth grade classes served as participants in this study. Two th ird grade and two fifth grade classrooms received training in the ISL program, while other third and fifth grade classes served as controls. After thirty minutes of researcher provided direct instruction, twice per week, Cross and Paris concluded that students acquire more metacogn itive awareness as they get older. Using the

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49 Gates-MacGinitie comprehension subtest and a researcher create d cloze and error deletion task, researchers concluded that readi ng comprehension could be improved for less skilled readers. Dole, Brown, and Trathen (1996) examined th e effects of strategy instruction on at-risk fifth and sixth grade students reading comprehension. Participants included 67 students who were assigned to one of three groups, strategy instruction, story conten t instruction, and basal control instruction. Researchers and teachers pr ovided instruction for the strategy group for 50 minutes per day for five weeks. The strategy gr oup was taught to predic t and to identify the main idea. Explicit instruction regarding th e utility of the strategy and instructions for implementing strategies during independent read ing was provided. Researcher designed openended comprehension tests were administered as pr etests, posttests, and as delayed posttests. A series of ANCOVAs revealed that there was a significant effect in favor of strategy instruction. In a study that examined whet her transactional strategies instruction would enhance the reading comprehension of low achieving second gr ade students, Brown et al., (1996) found that students who received transacti onal strategies instru ction outperformed students who received conventional second grade readi ng instruction in the year lo ng quasi-experimental study on standardized measures. Five matched pairs with one transactional strategies instruction teacher and one conventional instruction teacher in each pair, with six students per group, were compared. Transactional strategies instructi on teachers provided dir ect explanations and modeling of strategic reasoning to the student s while conventional reading teachers taught reading using methods they were committed to using. Vaughn, Chard, Bryant, Coleman, Tyler, Li nan-Thompson, and Kouzekanani (2000) investigated the effects of part ner reading (PR) and collaborativ e strategic reading strategies (CSR) on the reading comprehension of third grade students. Classroom teachers implemented

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50 two interventions. Gr aded passages from Read Naturally were used as the expository text. Teachers modeled either CSR or PR, and then students worked in pairs to practice one of the strategies with the text. The intervention wa s conducted two to three times per week for 12 weeks. A series of 2x2 repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group or group by time interaction effects. Howeve r, time effect was statistically significant for reading rate and correct words per minute. Summary The studies presented demonstrat e that direct instruction in word meanings and cognitive strategy instruction is beneficial for students in elementary grades. Researchers generally used upper elementary aged students as participants. While this furthers the knowledge base regarding how to provide effec tive comprehension instruction fo r those students, it does not further knowledge regarding the usefulness of cogn itive strategy instruction with children in the primary grades. Single cognitive strategy inst ruction has demonstrated th at if young students are under exceptionally strong instructiona l control, they can carry out strategies that improve comprehension (Morrow, 1985; Williams et al., 2005). Skilled readers have been studied extensively (Pressley & Afferbach, 1995; Pressl ey & El-Dinary, 1993), and researchers have concluded that skilled readers c oordinate a number of strategies while reading. Based on what is known about the need for comprehension instruct ion, methods used by proficient readers, and the importance of addressing comprehension instruct ion in the primary grad es, it is logical to examine the use of comprehensi on instruction as well as the effects of explicit vocabulary instruction with students in the primary grades.

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51 CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine th e effects of vocabulary focused instruction and strategies focused instruc tion on vocabulary knowledge and comp rehension skills of primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. Specific instructional procedures from Text Talk (Beck & McKeown, 2002) and Reciprocal Teaching (Palincsar & Brown, 1984) served as guides for the instructional pr ocedures used in this study. Text Talk is a method of building comprehe nsion and furthering vocabulary development through reading aloud to child ren (Beck & McKeown, 2001). Through Text Talk lessons, children are explicitly taught sophisticated vocabulary and are helped to construct meaning through decontextualized language. Accordi ng to McKeown and Beck (2006), the use of decontextualized language, langua ge that differs from everyday experiences, is one of the building blocks of communication competence. Text talk is de signed to scaffold childrens comprehension of stories and they are encouraged to share their ideas and synthesize ideas in stories. Storybooks are commonly used as a medium to teach vocabulary to students. Numerous studies have documented their usefulness. In ea ch of the previously mentioned investigations, repeated exposure to words in storybooks wit hout attention given to words and exposure to storybooks with a focus on explicitly taught target words have yielded favorable results. Reciprocal teaching strategies we re designed to be used in an intentional, self-regulatory manner by students during authentic reading activities In Palincsar and Br owns (1984) study of reciprocal teaching, students read the text. In this study, the re searcher read the text. The decision for the researcher to read the text was ba sed on the fact that participants in the current

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52 were younger than participants in other reciproc al teaching studies, and since the focus of the current study was to increase the metacognitive processes of young childre n, the task of having to read the text was removed from the particip ants. The focus was on the participants thinking processes and their ability to ve rbalize and justify strategy use. Because some instructional procedures differed from the or iginal strategy designs, the term s vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction are used. In Chapter 3, the methods and procedures of the study are presented. This chapte r includes the research hypotheses, a description of the sampling procedures, and a description of the participants. Subsequent s ections of this chapter include details of the experimental design, instructiona l procedures, and treatment of the data. Hypotheses This study examines the effects of vocabularyfocused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and comprehe nsion skills of primar y grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient co mprehenders. The following research question guided the study: What are the effects of vocabul ary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development a nd comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficie nt comprehenders? More specifi cally, what are the effects of these two types of instruction on receptive vocabulary and expressive voca bulary, and what are the effects on listening and read ing comprehension? To answer these research questions, the following null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of confidence: H1: There will be no statistically significan t difference on measures of expressive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction.

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53 H2: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of receptive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H3: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of reading comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H4: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of listening comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H5: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of passage comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. H6: There will be no statistically significant di fference on a researcher created measures of taught vocabulary, between the participants w ho receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategi es-focused instruction. Methods The research methods are described in th is section. The first section includes a description of the school setting, sampling techniques, selection crit eria, and participants. The subsequent sections include a description of the pretest measures and the posttest measures, and the scoring procedures of the measures and de scription of the treatment procedures for the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focus ed group. Finally, a desc ription of the design and analysis is provided.

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54 Instructional Setting An elementary school in north Florida was sele cted for this study. The school was selected because it is a Title I, Reading First school, with a high percentage of students with reading difficulties and more than 40% of students in th e school are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch based on their families inco me levels. Reading First is a focused, nationwide effort to enable all students to become su ccessful early readers. Funds are dedicated to help states and local school districts eliminate the reading deficit by establis hing high quality, comprehensive reading instruction in kindergarten thr ough third grade. A required framework of Reading First is an uninterrupted 90-minute reading block in which students receive systematic, explicit reading instruction. The Scott Foresman reading se ries is the core readin g text used with all students in the school. Students receive reading instruction from the classroom teacher, in whole group and in small group settings. During the 2005-2005 school y ear, 42% of students struggling in reading failed to make a y ears worth of progress in reading. Participant Description Sixty second grade and third-grade student s participated in this study. Students were selected for the study because they had been iden tified by school personnel as being proficient decoders, but needing additional assistance in read ing comprehension. Participants in this study scored between the 30th and 45th percentile the Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition (Harcourt, 2003). As required by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, parental informed consent was obtained for the participan ts. The parental informed consent letter is provided in Appendix A. Using the described procedures, consent was obtained from 60 students, and all of the students participated in this st udy from the pretest phase through the posttest phase of the study. A summary of the demographic in formation from the 60 participan ts is presented in Table 3-1.

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55 Table 3-1. Descriptive Information for Groups Vocabulary Group Strategies Group Total Gender Male 15 13 28 Female 15 17 32 Ethnicity White 18 17 35 Black 9 8 17 Hispanic 0 2 2 Asian 1 0 1 Other 3 2 5 Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) vocabulary-focused instructional group and (b) strategies-focus ed instructional group. They were listed alphabetically by grade level, and assigned a numbe r. A computerized random number generator was used to randomly assign participants to groups. Because participants were randomly assigned to groups, differences betw een the groups could be more confidently attributed to the independent variable, instruc tional method (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). The pretest mean scores for all measures are provided in Table 3-2. Table 3-2. Pretest Means for Vo cabulary and Strategies Groups Pretest Measure Means for Vocabulary Group Means for Strategies Group Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) 90.97 93.27 Expressive Vocabulary Test (Williams, 1997) 86.50 86.87 Target Word Vocabulary Assessment (Coyne) 87.83 88.86 Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Passage Comprehension (Woodcock, 1987) 23.73 23.43 QRI-4 (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006) Reading 9.77 9.00 QRI-4 (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006) Listening 7.77 7.70

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56 Research Instrumentation The instruments used in this study were desi gned to assess specific elements of literacy development Each measure was selected based on previ ous studies in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. Pretest and posttest measures asse ssed general verbal abilities and comprehension abilities. Descriptions of th e assessment instruments are outlined in the following sections. The following sections also provi de an explanation of the focus and technical qualities of each measure. Vocabulary Measures The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III), (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) was administered to obtain information about partic ipants verbal abilitie s compared with other children of similar age. The PPVT-III is an individually administered, norm-referenced, widerange test of receptive vocabulary for Standard American English, which includes two alternate forms. The PPVT-III measures the listening co mprehension of spoken words of both children and adults. The examiner presents items usi ng a standing easel. After providing a word or phrase, the student selects one of four pictures that best depicts the word or phrase described by the examiner. The reliability coefficients for th e PPVT-III are provided in Table 3-3. Reliability coefficients are provided only fo r the age groups represented in th is study. Each participant was individually administered the PPVT-III by one of a team of assessors. The PPVT-III was scored according to guidelines presented in the test examiners manual. The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT), (Williams, 1997) is an individually administered, norm-referenced assessment of expressive vocabular y and word retrieval for children and adults. The EVT measures expressive knowledge with two types of ite ms, labeling and synonyms. Word retrieval is evaluated by comparing expressive and receptive vocabulary skills using standard score differences between EVT and PPVT-III. The ex aminer points to a picture or a part of the

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57 body and asks a question. The examinee responds w ith a one-word answer that is a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. The reliability coefficients for the EVT are provided in Table 3-3. Reliability coefficients are pr ovided only for the age groups re presented in this study. Each participant was individually administered the EV T by a one of a team of assessors. The EVT was scored according to guidelines presented in the test examiners manual. The target vocabulary measure is a method developed by Coyne (2004) to measure depth of vocabulary knowledge. The measure has been us ed successfully with children in kindergarten through second grade in studies of vocabulary gr owth and is currently undergoing the initial steps in a large-scale validation study. It was individually administered to each participant by one of a team of assessors. Participants were asked to identify whether a word was a real word or make believe word (e.g. Is shallow a real word or a make believe word ?), asked to define the word (e.g., What does shallow mean?), and asked to provide additional information about a word (e.g. What would a shallow lake be like?). Th e vocabulary measure consisted of target words taught during the intervention phase. The resear cher-created target vocabulary measure is included in Appendix B. The researcher-created target vocabular y measure was scored using the following procedure. Participants received one point for each correct response. It wa s possible to receive a point for identifying a real word or a make-believe word correctly. It wa s possible to receive a point for providing the correct definition of a word along with additional information about the word. Two people scored each researcher-creat ed target word assessment. Since knowing a word is a matter of degrees, it was challenging to delineate points for a word definition. Researchers have proposed various stages of word learning: (a) never saw it before; (b) heard it but does not know it; (c) recognizes it in contex t as having something to do with; (d) knows it

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58 well; and (e) can use this word in a sentence (N agy, 2000). Because word learning is not an all or nothing process, the researcher attempte d to gauge students developing depth of understanding of the target words, desiring to gi ve credit for some knowledge of target words even if full definitions were not developed. Students could receive up to 160 points on the measure. Comprehension Measures The passage comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mast ery Test-Revised (Woodcock, 1998), an individually ad ministered assessment, was given to each participant. Participants were instructed to read a passage s ilently, and then provide a word to complete the passage. The reliability coefficients for th e Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised are provided (Table 3-3). Reliability coefficients ar e provided only for the age groups represented in this study. Each participant was individually admi nistered the passage comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised by one of a team of assessors. The passage comprehension subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised was scored according to guidelines presented in the test examiners manual. The Qualitative Reading Inventory-4 (QRI) (Leslie & Caldwell, 2006), an individually administered, informal reading inventory was used to measure participants listening and reading comprehension. To assess listening comprehensi on, participants listened to a story one grade level above their current grade leve l, on audiocassette and were then prompted to retell all they could remember about the story, as if the examin ee had never heard the story before. To assess reading comprehension, participants read a grade level passage and were prompted to retell all they could remember about the story, as if the examinee had never heard the story before. The use free retell gave participants the opportunity to use their own structure to generate recall and helped to the researcher to see differences in comprehension that are reflected in childrens

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59 ability to construct a plot structure with which to guide retelling. Becau se the QRI is not a normreferenced or standardized instrument, it does no t provide comparative data. However, in studies comparing comprehension measures, the QRI has been found to be (a) a strong measure of both reading comprehension and listening comprehensi on and (b) correlated with other standardized measures of reading comprehension (Keenan, 2006). Each participant was individually administered the QRI-4 by one of a team of assessors. The QRI-4 included a list of correct details for the passages, and each correct detail th at the participant recal led from the story was recorded. The number of correct details const ituted the participants listening or reading comprehension score. Table 3-3. Split Half Reliability Coefficients Measure Age/Grade N Reliability Coefficient PPVT-III (Dunn & Dunn, 1997) 7 8 9 100 100 100 .94 .92 .94 EVT (Williams, 1997) 7 8 9 100 100 100 .86 .88 .91 Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (Woodcock, 1998) Passage Comprehension Subtest Grade 1 Grade 3 602 582 .97 .96 Experimental Design An experimental pretest-posttest design wa s employed for this study with two treatment groups: (a) vocabulary-focused group and (b) st rategies-focused group. Participants were randomly assigned to instructional condition, asse ssments were conducted individually, and the intervention was delivered in group lessons. Pret est measures of vocabulary and comprehension were administered. Each group then received a multi-step intervention. Posttest measures of

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60 vocabulary and comprehension were administered following the conclusion of the lessons. A summary of the experimental de sign is provided in Table 3-4. Table 3-4. Experimental Design Group Procedures Vocabulary Group R O1 X1 O2 Strategies Group R O1 X2 O2 R= Random Assignment, O1=Pretest, X1 = Treatment Intervention 1, X2 = Treatment Intervention 2, O2 = Posttest Instructional Procedures The instructional procedures for the study are described in this section. Instructor preparation is described for both treatment groups Methods for ensuring treatment fidelity are also described. Instructor Preparation A graduate student in the College of Educati on at the University of Florida and a retired educator provided instruction du ring this study. The instructors were both elementary certified teachers. Each instructor was required to atte nd training in both instructional methods employed in this study. During the training, university professors provided background information about each instructional strategy, modeled strategy use for instructors, and gave them an opportunity to practice teaching the strategies. Each instruct or was provided instruct ional tips. Before instructors began the intervention phase, mast ery of the instructi onal procedures was demonstrated. In addition, each instructor agr eed in writing to adhere to the procedural guidelines described in the traini ng session. To eliminate any potential for teacher effect, each instructor provided instruction in both methods ; the instructors alternated teaching both intervention groups throughout th e study (Tuckman, 1998). Each da y, the instructors rehearsed the following days lesson.

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61 Materials The lessons for the treatment groups were taught using childrens storybooks selected based on the strength of the narr ative structure and available voca bulary used. Elementary grade teachers recommended some of the books used for this study and others were recommended by Beck et al. (2002). Thirty-two titles were carefully se lected for use in each grade level. A complete reference list of storybooks is provided in Appendix C. Before titles were selected for the study, each second and third grade teacher fro m the participants school was surveyed to determine if the storybooks had been used for read aloud purposes or instructional purposes. If teachers had already used books for instructiona l purposes, they were omitted from the study. Vocabulary-Focused Intervention The vocabulary-focused group received explicit instruction in groups of fifteen students. Each lesson began with the reading and discussion of a storybook and followed with a discussion and engagement of activities with the target words. The step s involved in the instructional method are detailed below. Step 1 Read and discuss the story. In Step 1 of the vocabulary focused lesson, the instructor read the story aloud to th e group and engaged participants in a discussion of the text. Step 2 Introduce the target word s one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Three target words were introduced to participants. Each target word was printed on index cards and shown to part icipants as the in structor pronounced each word and reminded participants of how each word was used in the story. Step 3 Ask the participants to repeat the word to create a phonologi cal representation of the word. The target words were visually presented to participants, the instructor said the target words, and invited the pa rticipants to repeat the words. Step 4 Introduce the student-friendly de finition. A student-friendly definition, a definition that facilitates understanding of what the ta rget word actually means, which excludes ambiguous words that participants may not be familiar with, were introduced one at a time. Student-friendl y definitions were obtained from the Collins Co-Build dictionary (Collins, 2006).

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62 Step 5 Share the words in contexts that ar e different from the story. The instructor engaged participants in activities that used the target words in contexts that were different from the story. Activities were selected from those suggest ed by Beck et al., 2002, such as (a) sentence completion tasks, in which the par ticipant used a target word to complete an instructor-created sentence; (b) co nnection tasks, in which participants explained a personal encounter with the targ et words meaning; or (c) usage tasks, in which participants indicated whether a target word was used correctly or incorrectly by the instructor. After each activity, the instructor provided participants with specific feedback rega rding the use or definition of the target word. Step 6 Repeat the word. After engaging partic ipants in activities, they were shown the target words and asked to repeat them, one at a time. Descriptions of each of the vocabulary-focu sed lessons are included in Appendix D. Strategies-Focused Intervention The strategies group received instruction that cons isted of engaging participants in the use of comprehension strategies used in reciprocal teaching: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. Particip ants were instructed in groups of fifteen students. A chart containing an explanation of each strategy was reviewed before each lesson began. A copy of the chart is included in Appendix E. Participants were instructed to use various hand signals when they were ready to use a strategy. St rategies-focused lessons followed the following sequence as stories were read: Step 1 Explicit description of the strate gy and when and how it is used. The instructor described each strategy and discussed when it was appropriate to use it and how the strategy is used. Step 2 Teacher/student modeling of the stra tegy in action. Either the instructor or a participant modeled the us e of the strategy with text that had been read. Step 3 Collaborative use of the strategy in action. The inst ructor and the participants used the strategy together. The instruct or led the use of the strategy, while the participants provided assistance. Step 4 Guided practice using the strate gy with gradual release of responsibility. The instructor provided assistance to particip ants as the practiced using the strategy.

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63 Step 5 Independent use of the strategy. The participants used the strategies independently. They named the strategy th ey wanted to use and demonstrated its use for the group. Lesson guides for each strategy lesson are included in Appendix F. A strategy introduction schedule is included in Appendix G Fidelity of Treatment Eight observations of each inst ructor were conducted during the course of the study to ensure treatment fidelity. The school's reading coach and curriculum resource teacher, who were trained in each instructional method, conducted tr eatment fidelity checks. A checklist was used to indicate that instructors fo llowed all steps in the interven tion. There was difficulty to capturing the appropriateness of th e dialogue during the intervention, with the treatment fidelity checklist. Dialogue in each lesson was dependent upon the par ticipants developing understandings, so how instructors engaged child ren varied. The checklists for each group are provided in Appendix H. Treatment fidelity chec ks were conducted together, and inter-observer agreement was obtained. Kazdin (1982) describe s inter-observer agreement as the consistency between observers: it refers to the extent to which observers agree in their scoring of behavior (pp 48). A point-by-point agreement ra tio was calculated to measure reliability. Agreements are instances in which both observe rs observe the same thing. Disagreements are instances in which one observer recorded the be havior as occurring and the other did not. The following formula was used to compute point-by-point agreement for each session observed: Point-by-Point Agreement = A/A+D x 100. Poin t-by-Point Agreement was 100% for the eight sessions observed. If treatment fidelity checks ha d revealed that instructors were not following the lesson protocols, the trainers were prepared to model inst ructional strategies again and provide additional training until instructors follow ed lesson protocols. Treatment fidelity was

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64 also strengthened by the provision of lessons that each of the instructors followed and discussions between instructors before and after each lesson was conducted. Treatment of the Data The data were analyzed using four statistic al methods. First, an independent samples t test was conducted on the mean pretest scores of the two groups to identify any pre-existing differences. Next, an analysis of covariance ( ANCOVA) was carried out to measure whether the participants in the vocabulary-focused group showed a st ronger improvement in posttest performance relative to their ow n pretest performance than did the strategies-focused group. (Cook & Campbell, 1979). The pretest scores served as the covariate. A univariate analysis was appropriate due to the interest in group mean differences and the limited sample size. To analyze within-group differences, a repe ated measures analysis of va riance (ANOVA) was conducted. Finally, a correlation analysis (Tuckman, 1998) was conducted to test the linear relationship between the scores on the comprehension measures used and the vocabulary measures used. A summary of the design for testing the null hypotheses using a series of Analyses of Covariance is provided (Table 3-5).

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65 Table 3-5. Design for Testing the Null Hypothese s using a Series of Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) Vocabulary-Focused Group Strategies-Focused Group Dependent Measures Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest 1 EVT H1: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of expressive vocabulary. 2 PPVT-III H2: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on m easures of receptive vocabulary 3 QRI-4 H3: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of reading comprehension. 4 QRI-4 H4: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of listening comprehension. 5 Woodcock Passage Comprehension H5: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on a measure of passage comprehension. 6 Researcher-Created Measure H6: There will be no statistically significant difference between the groups on a resear cher created measures of vocabulary.

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66 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Introduction My study was to examined the effects of vo cabulary-focused instru ction and strategiesfocused instruction on vocabulary development a nd comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient compre henders. Six hypotheses were formulated and tested. The general question of the study was as follows: How does vocabulary-focused instruction and strate gies-focused instruction influe nce the vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of primary grade students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? To investigate this questi on, the performance of a vocabulary-focused instructional group was examined in relation to the performance of a strategies-focused intervention group. The effects of both types of instruction on the vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of second grade students and third grade students were measured and compared. This chapter contains the results of the statis tical analyses of data from this study. First, the reliability of instructional procedures is pr ovided. Then, the statistic al model is described and the results of the data analyses are reported. Fidelity of Instructional Procedures During the study, procedures were implemented to establish th e fidelity of instructional methods. To ensure the integrity of the di fferences between treatments, fidelity of implementation checks were conducted. Fidelity of Implementation and Reliability of Measurement To ensure fidelity of implementation dur ing the instructional phase, two observers observed the implementation of eight instructiona l sessions in the vocabulary-focused condition

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67 and eight instructional sessions in the strategies-focused condition. The observers used checklists (see Appendix G) to record whether all of the steps in each instructional strategy were followed. A point-by-point agreement ratio was calculated to measure reliability. Point-byPoint Agreement was 100% for th e sixteen sessions observed. To establish interscorer reliability, each rese archer created vocabular y pretest and posttest was scored by two scorers using the same scor ing procedures. Interscorer agreement was calculated by using the formula recommended by Kazden (1982): Agreements/ Agreements + Disagreements X 100 = Percent of Agreement. In terscorer reliab ility on the researcher created vocabulary measure was 97%. Statistical Analyses of the Data The data were analyzed to determine if any statistically significant differences existed between the vocabulary-focused group and the stra tegies-focused group on any of the measures. This section includes a description of th e analyses and the results achieved. The means of pretest scores for the vocabul ary-focused group and the strategies-focused group were calculated. Using t -tests, the pretest sc ores of the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group were compared to de termine if any group differences existed. No significant differences between the two groups pretest means we re found. Table 4-1 includes the pretest means and standard devia tions for the two groups and the t -test results from the comparison. Because the vocabulary-focused group and th e strategies-focused group demonstrated no significant differences on the pretest, the use of the pretest measures as covariates was appropriate (Tuckman, 1994). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for each of the dependent measures: expressive vocabul ary, receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension,

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68 Table 4-1. Comparison of Pretest Means by Group Dependent Measure VocabularyFocused Group (n=30) StrategiesFocused Group (n=30) t df p Mean (Std. Dev.) Mean (Std. Dev.) PPVT-III 90.97 (9.8) 93.27 (11.5) -.831 58 .409 EVT 86.5 (12.2) 86.9 (11.2) -.121 58 .904 Woodcock Passage Comprehension 23.7 (5.4) 23.4 (4.3) .238 58 .813 QRI Reading Comprehension 9.7 (4.0) 9.0 (4.4) .705 58 .484 QRI Listening Comprehension 7.7 (4.3) 7.8 (4.0) .062 58 .950 Researcher Created Vocabulary Measure 90.27 90.02 -.418 58 .621 listening comprehension, and passage comprehens ion. The independent variable for each of these ANCOVAs was the instructional method (voca bulary-focused vs. strategies-focused). The covariate was the corresponding pretest. The assumption of homogeneity of the slope was tested before the ANCOVAs were conducted. No violations of this assump tion were found. Theref ore, ANCOVA was an appropriate analysis for the dependent m easures. The results of the ANCOVA for each dependent variable are provided in Tables 4-2 through 4-7. This series of ANCOVAs yiel ded no statistically significan t differences for receptive vocabulary, F (1, 56) = 0.89, p =.348; expressi ve vocabulary F (1, 56) = 2.97, p = .09 ; the

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69 researcher created target vocabulary measure F (1, 57) = .347, p =.558, reading comprehension on the QRI-4 measure, F (1, 56) = 1.79, p = .186 and the listening comprehension measure F (1, 60) = .537, p =.467. However, a series of ANCOVAs di d yield statistically significant results on the Woodcock passage comprehension subtest measure F (1, 56) = 7.16, p = .010). The statistically significant differen ce favored the vocabulary-focused instructional group over the strategies-focused in structional group. Table 4-2. Summary of Anal ysis of Covariance for Expressive Vocabulary Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 141.9 2.97 .090 Error 56 2675.6 Table 4-3. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for Receptive Vocabulary Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 60.38 0.89 .348 Error 56 3780.3 Table 4-4. Summary of Anal ysis of Covariance for the Reading Comprehension Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 55.9 1.79 .186 Error 56 1746.9 Table 4-5. Summary of Analys is of Covariance for the Listening Comprehension Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 11.9 .537 .467 Error 56 1239.6

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70 Table 4-6. Summary of Anal ysis of Covariance for the Passage Comprehension Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 89.9 7.16 .010* Error 56 702.6 Table 4-7. Summary of Analysis of Covariance for the Resear cher-Created Vocabulary Task Source of Variation df Sum of Squares F p Method vocabulary-focused strategies-focused 1 .797 .347 .558 Error 57 129.42 A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conduc ted to analyze sta tistically significant differences from pretest to posttest within th e vocabulary-focused group yielded no statistically significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = .840, p =.367. However, a series of ANOVAS di d yield statistically significant differences on measures of expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 14.26, p = .001; reading comprehension, F (1, 29) = 5.462, p = .027; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 12.074, p = .002; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) = 15.464, p = .000; and the researcher creat ed target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = .65.2, p =.000. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs conduc ted to analyze statis tically significant differences from pretest to posttest within the strategies-focused group yielded no statistically significant differences for measures of receptive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 2.35, p =.136. However, a series of ANOVAS di d yield statistically significant differences on measures of expressive vocabulary, F (1, 29) = 24.5, p = .000; reading comprehens ion, F (1, 29) = 17.9, p = .000; listening comprehension, F (1, 29) = 18.1, p = .000; passage comprehension, F (1, 29) = 31.9, p = .000; and the researcher crea ted target vocabulary measure F (1, 29) = 29.9, p =.000.

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71 Table 4-8. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Vocabulary-Focused Group Group Pretest Mean Posttest Mean df F p Expressive Vocabulary 86.5 94.1 1 14.2 .001 Error 29 Receptive Vocabulary 90.9 89.3 1 .840 .367 Error 29 Reading Comprehension 9.77 12.3 1 5.46 .027 Error 29 Listening Comprehension 7.77 10.8 1 12.07 .000 Error 29 Passage Comprehension 23.7 28.1 1 15.5 .001 Error 29 Researcher Created Target Vocabulary 87.8 89.8 1 65.2 .000 Error 29 Table 4-9. Summary of Repeated Measures ANOVAs for Pretest to Posttest Within-Group Differences for Strategies-Focused Group Group Pretest Mean Posttest Mean df F p Expressive Vocabulary 86.9 93.5 1 24.5 .000 Error 29 Receptive Vocabulary 93.2 91.2 1 2.35 .136 Error 29 Reading Comprehension 9.00 15.2 1 17.9 .000 Error 29 Listening Comprehension 7.70 12.4 1 18.1 .000 Error 29 Passage Comprehension 23.4 27.4 1 31.9 .000 Error 29 Researcher Created Target Vocabulary 88.9 90.5 1 29.9 .000 Error 29 Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained for the pretest re sults and posttest results of each dependent measure: receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension, to examine the linear relationships be tween the measures. Correlation coefficients yielded se veral significant relationships. The correlation matrix for the

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72 pretest measures is reported in Table 4-10. The correlation matrix for the posttest measures is reported in Table 4-11. The receptive vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the researcher created target vocabulary pretest scores (.398), the receptive vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scores (.422); and the receptive vocabulary pretest scores were positively correlated with the listening comprehension pretest scores (.331). The researcher created target vocabulary pret est scores were positively correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scor es (.548) and the researcher cr eated target vocabulary pretest scores were also positively corr elated with the listening comprehe nsion pretest scores (.397). The listening comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the reading comprehension pretest scores (.378); the listenin g comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the expressive vocabulary pretest scores (.423 ), and finally, the listening comprehension pretest scores were positively correlated with the passage comprehension pretest scores (.390). Significant correlations were also noted for the posttest scores. The expressive vocabulary posttest scores were positively correlated with the receptive vocabulary posttest scores (.375); the expressive vocabulary posttest scores were positively related to the listening comprehension posttest scores (.282), and the expressive vocab ulary posttest scores were positively correlated with the researcher created targ et word posttest scores (.757). The researcher created target vocabulary posttest scores were positively corr elated with the receptive vocabulary posttest scores (.350); the resear cher created target vocabulary posttest scores were positively correlated

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73 with the listening comprehension posttest scor es (.359). The listening comprehension posttest scores were negatively correlated with the pa ssage comprehension posttest scores (-.262). Summary The purpose of this study was to examine th e effects of vocabular y-focused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders. To accomplish this, participants were assessed on measures of vo cabulary and comprehension and provided lessons of intervention using either vocabulary-focused instruction or strategies-focused instruction. A series of ANOVAs was used to test the null hypotheses of no difference between groups on the dependent measures. No statis tically significant di fferences between the vocabulary-focused instructional group and the strategies-focused instructional group were detected on measures of receptive vocabulary, expr essive vocabulary, resear cher-created target vocabulary, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypotheses. Statistically significant di fferences existed between the vocabulary-focused instructional group and the strategies-focused instructional group on the Woodcock passage comprehension measure. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to determine whether there were statis tically significant within-group differen ces. No statistically significant differences were found on measures of receptiv e vocabulary for both th e vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group. Statistica lly significant differences did exist between pretest scores and posttest scores for both th e vocabulary-focused group and the strategiesfocused group on measures of expressive vo cabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, passage comprehension, and on the researcher-created target vocabulary measure. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficien ts were obtained for the pretest and posttest

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74 results of each dependent measure, to examin e the linear relationship between each measure. Several statistically significant relationships were noted. Table 4-10. Correlation Matr ix for Pretest Measures Rec Voc Pre Expr Voc Pre List Comp Pre Rdg Comp Pre Pass Comp Pre RC Voc Pre Recep Vocab Pre 1.000 0.00 .422** .001 .331* .010 .048 .715 .042 .749 .398** .002 Expr Vocab Pre 1.00 0.00 .423* .001 .182 .165 .057 .665 .548** .000 List. Comp Pre 1.00 0.00 .315* .014 .390** .002 .397** .002 Rdg Comp Pre 1.00 0.00 .240 .065 .055 .678 Pass Comp Pre 1.00 0.00 .049 .709 RC Vocab Pre 1.00 0.00 ** Correlations significant at the .01 level Correlations significant at the .05 level

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75 Table 4-11. Correlation Matrix for the Posttest Measures Rec Voc Post Expr Voc Post List Comp Post Rdg Comp Post Pass Comp Post RC Voc Post Recep Vocab Post 1.00 0.00 .375** .003 -.138 .295 -.101 .444 -.033 .800 .350** .006 Expr Vocab Post 1.00 0.00 .282** .029 .231 .076 -.126 -.338 .757** 0.00 List Comp Post 1.00 0.00 -.009 .943 -.262** .043 .359** .005 Rdg Comp Post 1.00 0.00 .098 .454 .127 .333 Pass Comp Post 1.00 0.00 -.181 -.167 RC Vocab Post 1.00 0.00 ** Correlations significant at the .01 level Correlations significant at the .05 level

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76 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION A discussion of the findings and implicati ons in the investigati on of the effects of vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-f ocused instruction on vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills of students who are adequa te decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders is presented in this chapter. The chapter begins with a summary of the hypotheses and the findings of the study. The subsequent secti ons contain a discussion of the theoretical implications of the research findings, the limita tions of the study, and suggestions for future research. Summary of the Hypotheses and Results The general question of the study was as fo llows: What are the effects of vocabularyfocused instruction and strategies-focused instruction on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficient comprehenders? The following null hypotheses were test at the .05 leve l of significance. H1: There will be no statistically significan t difference on measures of expressive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT) (Williams, 1997) was used to assess expressive vocabulary. Analyses revealed that no statis tically significant group di fferences existed on the measure, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. H2: There will be no statistically significant difference on measures of receptive vocabulary between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction.

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77 No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on the P eabody Picture Vocabular y Test-III (Dunn & Dunn, 1997), resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. H3: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of reading comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on measures of reading comprehension, using the QRI-4, resulting in a failure to re ject the null hypothesis. H4: There will be no statistically signifi cant difference on measures of listening comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on measures of listening comprehens ion, using the QRI-4, resulting in a failure to re ject the null hypothesis. H5: There will be no statistically significant difference on a measure of passage comprehension, between the participants who r eceive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. Statistically significant differences betw een the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group exis ted on the Woodcock Reading Ma stery passage comprehension measure. Further analyses indicated that the vocabulary-focused instructional group made greater gains than di d the strategies-focused instruct ional group. The null hypothesis was rejected.

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78 H6: There will be no statistically significant di fference on a researcher-created measure of vocabulary, between the participants who receive vocabulary-focused instruction and those who receive strategies-focused instruction. No statistically significant difference was indicated between the vocabulary-focused group and the strategies-focused group on the researche r-created target vocabulary measure, resulting in a failure to reject the null hypothesis. Interpretation of the Results The initial analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the vocabularyfocused instructional group and the strategies-focused instru ctional group on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary. One possible r eason for the lack of statistically significant difference may be that the treatments were equally effective in supporting receptive and expressive vocabulary development. Both me thods gave attention to word meanings, the vocabulary-focused method explicitly focused on word learning, and a component of the strategies-focused method emphasi zed clarifying words that were unclear. Participants in the strategies-focused group often s ought clarification on ma ny of the words that were selected to teach participants in the vocabulary-focused group. It is possible that students in both groups were equally adept at word learning, which in turn would make it difficult to detect any significant differences between participants in each of the treatment groups. During the intervention, all partic ipants were actively engaged in producing words and conversing about words and text, which may have contributed to the lack of differences between groups. Another possible explanation for the lack of treatment difference is the use of standardized, normreferenced measures and an insufficient amount of time between the administration of the pretest and posttest. The length of the in tervention (32 sessions) may have been too short to develop the

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79 vocabulary necessary to reveal st atistically significant differences A third possible explanation for the lack of differences between groups is a lack of sensitivity of the standardized, normreferenced measures. Because norm-referenced m easures are not created to assess a specifically taught battery of knowledge, the measures may not have been sensitive enough to capture the changes in vocabulary. Data analysis revealed no statistically signi ficant difference on a researcher-created target vocabulary measure. A possible reason for these results is that although the vocabulary-focused instruction was consistent with pr inciples suggested by research to guide instruction, it is very difficult to bring students to a ceiling of word knowledge (Nagy, 2000). Th at is, students were active in developing their understa nding of the words and they r eceived repeated exposure to target words (Blachowicz, 2000) and students interactions with a mo re experienced adult expanded their thinking (Vygotsky, 1978) on the mean ings of various target words introduced during instruction, but these practices were insuffi cient, given the constraints of the study. These results are consistent with previous studies (Beck et al., 1982; McKeow n et al., 1983; McKeown et al., 1985). Participants may not have had enough exposures to the words to gain full and flexible knowledge (Stahl, 1999). In addition, th e target vocabulary measure contained a large number of items. The length of the measure may ha ve influenced students motivation to answer correctly. Finally, the previous possible explanati on is offered again. Both groups of participants engaged in word learning and m eaning clarification. It is poss ible that participants in both groups were equally skilled at word learning, which in turn would make it difficult to see significant differences on measures of target word leaning as well. Data analysis revealed a statistically si gnificant difference in fa vor of the vocabularyfocused instructional group on a measure of passage comprehension. This finding was

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80 somewhat surprising because conve ntional wisdom would suggest that the strategies-focused instruction would promote comprehension more e ffectively than a vocabulary-focused approach. A possible explanation for this finding is th e interactive-compensatory model of reading (Stanovich, 1980). In this model, various knowledge sources work simultaneously to make sense of text. They all influence the message center at the same time. In addition, the knowledge one lacks is compensated for by what one knows well. It is possible that participants in the vocabulary-focused group relied heavily on th e lexical knowledge source to comprehend the passages in the assessment measure. Perhaps th eir encounters with word-focused instruction primed them to use their lexical knowledge quick er than those participants in the strategiesfocused group. This increased lexical knowledge may have compensated for what participants lacked in other knowledge sources. Another possibility is that pa rticipants in the strategiesfocused group had various knowledge sources wo rking simultaneously, and none outweighed the other to compensate for what they did not know. Their instruction was focused on using multiple strategies, and this metacognitive task focu s may have interfered with their ability to use a knowledge source for compensation. The age of th e participants may have also been a factor. It may have been more difficult for young students to use multiple strategies at once. Participation in this study is one of the first introductions to multiple strategy instruction that participants received, an d the novelty of the task may have interfered with their ability to perform the passage comprehension tasks proficie ntly enough for a significant difference to be detected. Data analyses revealed significant correlationa l relationships between scores on measures of reading comprehension and measures of voca bulary. These results suggest that the measures did in fact measure what they were designed to capture. For example, a very strong, positive

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81 relationship (.757) between the researcher created target word vocabulary measure and expressive vocabulary could be due to the fact that on the ta rget word vocabulary measure, students were able to express what they knew about words, which is a task similar to the expressive vocabulary measure that was administ ered. There were also positive correlations between measures of comprehensio n and vocabulary. These results are consistent with what is already known. There is a strong, positive co rrelation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Resear chers have documented this re lationship since the early 1940s, and the relationship continues remain robust. Theoretical Implications of the Research Findings Vygotskys (1978) theory on the interaction between learning and development, Pearson and Gallaghers (1983) gradual release of responsibility m odel, and Stanovichs (1980) interactive-compensatory model of reading were applied in this study. The instruction included an attempt to increase word knowledge and r eading comprehension through vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies -focused instruction. Op erating within an explic it instruction model and scaffolded interactions between teacher and st udents and amongst students, the influence of direct instruction in word mean ings was compared with direct instruction of comprehension strategies using narrative text. This study connected and confirmed Vygot skys (1978) and Pearson and Gallaghers (1983) assertions that children, thro ugh interactions with adults, are able to do more than they are capable of doing alone. In this study, instructors provided explicit instruction, assisted students in the use of strategies through shar ed dialogue, and helped students to become independent users of new knowledge. Children were assisted in constructing new understandings about words and how to use their own thinking to fu rther their understanding of text.

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82 Implications for Future Research Explicit vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension strategies instruction would surely continue beyond the time constraints of th is study. Additional research is warranted in which the longitudinal effects of vocabularyfocused instruction and strategies focused instruction are examined with students in prim ary grades. In addition, research examining the effects of extension activities and the use of vocabulary-focuse d instruction and strategiesfocused instruction would be beneficial to te achers of young children. Additional investigation of reciprocal teaching strategies with children in primary grades is warranted. It would be useful to document strategy generalization in young childr en. Evidence of when children are able to use strategies proficiently is n eeded. Researchers should attempt to be more precise about which combination of strategies are manageable for ch ildren in primary grades, as well as to explore specific teacher behaviors that support strategy mastery. Re searchers should consider investigating methods of professional development designed to help teachers le arn to use each instructional method separately, then combine the two instructional methods to see if students benefit. Professional developmen t activities that include opportunities for teachers to observe others providing strategies and voc abulary instruction to children, in classrooms would be useful. In addition, researchers should examine the appropr iate scaffolding needed by teachers in order for them to appropriately use these instructional methods with students. Implications for Practice Implications for reading instruction are not dichotomous. Results from this study did not yield either/or results in terms of which in structional method to use with children in the primary grades. It was learned that vocabulary-focused instructi on was useful both in enhancing comprehension and in developing word knowledge. When participants were engaged with more experienced adults, what they were able to do was expanded beyond what they could do alone.

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83 It was also learned that strate gies-focused comprehension influenced vocabulary so much that statistically significant differe nces between a strategies-focused instructional group and a vocabulary-focused instructional group were unde tectable. This suggests that a strategiesfocused approach is also useful. Both inst ructional methods increased word learning and comprehension in study participants. A framework of reading instruction that includes a gradual release of responsibility and meaningful dialogu e between teachers and st udents and students and students is an important issue for teachers of stud ents who lack comprehension skills to consider incorporating in reading instru ction. In addition, multiple expo sures to words, meaningful activities that engage students in thinking about word meanings and opportunities for students to make deep and extensive connections between vocabulary words and their definitions is important to consider in instructi on. Participants in th is study demonstrated a genuine interest in the texts used. Teachers should consider engaging in learning with peers, more about explicit comprehension strategies instruct ion and explicit vocabulary instru ction with children in primary graders. Teachers might benefit from enga ging in peer coaching activities to improve instruction. Oftentimes, teachers are concerned with issues of control in the classroom, and may be unable to attempt instruction alone. The support of a peer c ould provide the help needed in order to deepen the reading comprehension and vocabulary of young children. Limitations to the Present Study This study had several limitations. The most powerful limitation was time. Thirty-two sessions of vocabulary-focused inst ruction and strategies-focused instruction generated gains for participants in both instructional groups on all dependent measures, but not as significant as they might have been if instruction was longer in dura tion. Instruction yielded statistically significant gains on measures of passage comprehension. Additional, consistent, systematic instruction may have served to strengthen and increase the diffe rences in posttest scores for participants.

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84 Another limitation is that this study was conducted with second and third graders who were adequate decoders but non-proficient compre henders. The results of this study may not be generalized to older or younger students or students who do not have difficulties comprehending text, without systematic replication of th e procedures used with those populations. Participants in the study had al ready received three months of formal reading instruction before the beginning of the vocabulary-focused and strategies-focused instru ction. Results of the study may have been different for students with more or less prior experience in reading instruction. Another limitation of this study was that reciprocal teaching, was modified. The results of this study may have been different if informationa l text had been used an d if the students read the text for themselves. The results may have also been different if students were older. All of the instructional sessions in this study took place outside of the regular classroom. Instructors other than the students' regular clas sroom teacher conducted the sessions. The results may have been different for instruction that oc curred within the regular classroom or that was delivered by the studen ts regular teacher. Summary This study was conducted to examine the e ffect vocabulary-focused instruction and strategies-focused instructi on on the vocabulary development and comprehension skills of students who are adequate decoders, but non-proficie nt comprehenders of text. Results revealed very few statistically significant difference s between participants who received vocabularyfocused instruction and partic ipants who received strategies-fo cused instruction. However, instruction did yield one statis tically significant difference betw een the instructional groups on a passage comprehension measure. This contribu tes to the research on the notion that word learning influences reading comprehension. Re sults from this study do not support the idea of

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85 the futility of explicit instruction of words, nor does it support the premise that children in primary grades are not mature enough to use cogn itive strategies. On the contrary, it supports the purposeful, supportive nature of explicit instruction-in both word learning and comprehension strategies instruct ion. Some things remain unclear. What remains unclear is knowledge about the ideal combination of strategi es most useful for teaching children in the primary grades. What also remains unclear is th e conditions necessary for children to generalize strategy use. Additiona l knowledge is needed on the longitudi nal effects of vocabulary-focused and strategies-focused instruction. Finally, ad ditional knowledge is needed on the specific teacher behaviors that provide adequate sca ffolding in word learning and comprehension strategies instruction.

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86 APPENDIX A PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT Dear Parent/Guardian, I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Special Education at the University of Florida under the supervision of Dr. Holly Lane. One of my areas of interest is the comprehension and vocabulary development of young childre n. I will be implementing an intervention project that evaluates the use of two specific teaching methods in reading inst ruction. Participation in this study may directly help your childs vocabulary developm ent and reading comprehension. In this project, we will conduct informal assess ments that measure reading comprehension and vocabulary and formal assessments (Peabody Pictur e Vocabulary Test-III, Expressive Vocabulary Test, and Woodcock Reading Mastery Test) that indicate your childs current reading abilities. Students in the comprehension group will participate in small group instruction that includes specific strategies for understanding what is read. Students in the vocabular y group will participate in group instruction that includes specific word learning. The sessions will be scheduled at a time designated by school personnel and will last for approximately 30 minutes during the school day. Although results of this project will be shared with colleagues in the field of education (e.g ., participants at educati onal conferences, university faculty), for the purpose of confidentiality, your childs identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. The maximum number of pa rticipants in this study is 75 children. Participation or non-participati on in this project will not affect your childs placement in any programs. You and your child have the right to wi thdraw consent at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or compensation for his/her par ticipation in this project. This project will last for eight weeks. Results of the project will be ava ilable by December 31, 2006. If you have any questions or concerns about this project, please contact me at (352) 392-0701. My supervisor, Dr. Holly Lane, can be reached at P.O. Box 117050 Gainesville, FL 32611 or (352) 392-0701 ext. 246. Questions or concerns about research participants rights may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32 611 (352) 392-0433. Sincerely, Tyran L. Wright, M.Ed. Complete and return one copy to your childs teacher. I have read the procedures described above. I voluntarily give consent for my child, ____________________ _________, to participate in Ms. Wrights reading study. I have received a copy of this description. _______________________ ___________________ Parent/Guardian Date _______________________ ___________________ 2nd Parent/witness Date

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87 APPENDIX B TARGET WORD VOCABULARY MEASURE Name ________________________________________________ Grade_______ Part 1 I am going to say a word, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a make-believe word. Lets try one: Is dog a real word or a make believe word? If the student answers correctly If the student answers incorrectly Yes, thats right! Dog is a real word. A dog is a furry animal that barks. Dog is a real word. A dog is a furry animal that barks. Lets try again. Is dog a real word or a makebelieve word? Lets try another one: Is clute a real word or a make-believe word? If the student answers correctly If the student answers incorrectly Yes, thats right! Clute is a make-believe word. Clute doesnt man anything. Clute is a make-believe word. Clute doesnt mean anything. Lets try again. Is clute a real word or a makebelieve word? Lets try some more. I am going to say some words, and you are going to tell me if it is a real word or a make-believe word. Correct Incorrect Here is the first word: Grape Is grape a real word or a make believe word? Mellet (mell) et (make-believe) If needed, say: Is mellet a real word or a make-believe word? Collect (real) Unkee (un kee) ( make-believe) Nuggle (nug -gle) (make-believe) Tidy (real) Inspiration (real) Taffin (taf fin) (make-believe) Sermon (real) Staigin (stay -gin) (make-believe) Ownel (oh nel) (make-believe) Congregation (real) Bawdoib (make-believe) Conversation (real) Caladid (make-believe) Noygeef (make-believe) Sly (real) Raid (real) Tickarine (make-believe) Absurd (real)

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88 Correct Incorrect Impress (real) Chassydoolid (make-believe) Shrink (real) Basdin (make-believe) Crandit (make-believe) Display (real) Tattered (real) Flacker (make-believe) Slegat (make-believe ) Shrieking (real) Commotion (real) Choylid (make-believe) Grickel (make-believe) Emergency (real) Kelody (make-believe) Concentrate (real) Admire (real) Weltereen (make-believe) Humble (real) Vanivoid (make-believe) Wail (real) Seldom (real) Optel (make-believe) Weary (real) Somber (real) Skelig (make-believe) Companion (real) Maneuver (real) Swever (make-believe) Quavat (make-believe) Darn (real) Slaver (make-believe) Bound (real) Quarrel (real) Yatter (make-believe) Helig (make-believe) Advice (real) Extraordinary (real) Foreign (real) Welchid (make-believe) Vervage (make-believe) Insist (real) Invisible (real) Cabbus (make-believe) Klavor (make-believe) Squint (real) Suspicious (real) Wander (real)

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89 Part 2 Im going to ask you about some words. So if I said, What is a dog? you could say, A dog is a furry animal that barks. If I said, What does a dog like to do? you could say, A dog likes to dig holes. Lets try some. Question Response (verbatim) What does collect mean? If you collected something, what would you do? What does tidy mean? If something is tidy, how does it look? What is inspiration? If something is an inspiration, how does it make you feel? What is a sermon? Where does a person usually give a sermon? What is a congregation? Where do congregations usually meet? What does sly mean? If someone is sly, how do they act? What is a raid? Why would someone raid a place? What does absurd mean? Tell me something that is absurd.

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90 What does it mean to impress someone? What kind of thing might impress someone? What does examine mean? When you examine something, what do you do? What is a distraction? Tell me what can be a distraction. What does shrink mean? Why might something shrink? What is a display? What do you do with a display? What does tattered mean? If something is tattered, how does it look? What is a shriek? Why might someone shriek? What is a commotion? What would cause a commotion? What is an emergency? Tell me something that would be an emergency? What does it mean to concentrate?

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91 Why would someone need to concentrate? What does admire mean? What kinds of things might you admire? What does humble mean? If a man is humble, how does he act? What is a competition? When someone is in a competition, what do they try to do? What does it mean to wail? This wail is not like the whale that lives in the ocean. Why would someone wail? What does seldom mean? If something happens seldom, when does it happen? What does weary mean? What does somber mean? If someone looks somber, how would they look? What is a companion? What kinds of things could you do with a companion? What is a maneuver? When would someone need to maneuver? What does descend mean?

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92 When the bird descended, what did it do? What does it mean to darn something? If the woman needed to darn some socks, what did she need to do to them? What does bound mean? If a boy were to bound into a room, what problem might he cause? What is a quarrel? If two people begin to quarrel, what do they do? What is advice? When would someone need advice? What does extraordinary mean? If you saw something extraordinary, what would you say? What does foreign mean? Where would a foreigner come from? What does insist mean? If you insist on something, how do you say it? What does invisible mean? If something is invisible, how does it look? What does squint mean? If the girl squinted when she went outside, what did she look like? What does suspicious mean? If you are suspicious of someone, how do you act? What does wander mean?

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93 If the little boy wandered, what did he do? Part 3 I am going to say some more words like before, and you are going to tell me if they are real words or make-believe words. We will do it the same way we did before. Correct Incorrect Disguise (real) Hurled (make-believe) Commenced (real) Grokle (make-believe) Quiver (real) Trudge (real) Yeckle (make-believe) Delicate (real) Bletable (make-believe) Crucid (make-believe) Lug (real) Delightful (real) Wise (real) Flankle (make-believe) Rage (real) Harrodid (make-believe) Deserted (real) Wetred (make-believe) Mend (real) Justle (make-believe) Scurry (real) Ungle (make-believe) Villain (real) Prostle (make-believe) Vicious (real) Ostreal (make-believe) Scamper (real) Oath (real) Frustration (real) Reakel (make-believe) Correct Incorrect Compassion (real) Destination (real) Flagrel (make-believe) Watid (make-believe) Bellow (real) Namor (make-believe) Disbelieve (real) Confidence (real) Pleakle (make-believe) Feat (real) Brimble (make-believe )

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94 Abandon (real) Wattle (make-believe) Complain (real) Startle (real) Fidget (real) Steverel (make-believe) Seize (real) Frantic (real) Sweener (make-believe) Protest (real) Juteral (make-believe) Anxious (real) Exhibit (real) Drexelad (make-believe) Overwhelmed (real) Devastated (real) Slamel (make-believe) Scrawl (real) Refreshing (real) Klerid (make-believe) Contented (real) Emerged (real) Part 4 Im going to ask you about some more words, the same way I did before. Lets try talk about the words. Question Response (verbatim) What is a disguise? What would you do with a disguise? What does commence mean? If something commences, what happens? What does quiver mean? What is a reason for a person to quiver? What does trudge mean? When someone trudges, what do they do? What does delicate mean? What would you do with something delicate? What does lug mean?

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95 What kinds of things need to be lugged? What does delightful mean? If something is delightful, how does it make you feel? What does wise mean? What would need from a wise person? What is a rage? If a child is in a rage, how does he act? What does deserted mean? What would a deserted place look like? What does mend mean? If you mend something, how will it look afterwards? What is a journey? Why would someone go on a journey? What does scurry mean? For what reason might someone scurry? What is a villain? How would a villain act? What does vicious mean? Would you want something vicious to happen to you? Why? Why not? What does scamper mean? If the girl scampered, what did she do? What is an oath? If you take an oath, what do you do? What is frustration?

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96 If a person feels frustration, what do the do? What is compassion? How do you show compassion? What is a destination? What does bellow mean? If a person bellowed, what would they do? What does disbelieve mean? What is confidence? If you have confidence, what do you feel like? What is a feat? What does abandoned mean? If a place is abandoned, what does it look like? What does complain mean? Why would a person complain? What does startle mean? What does fidget mean? Why would a person fidget? What does seize mean? If you seize something, what do you do? What does frantic mean? What kinds of things can make you frantic? What does it mean to protest? Why would one protest? What does anxious mean? If someone is anxious, what do they do?

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97 What is an exhibit? What kind of things would you put in an exhibit? What does overwhelmed mean? If a person is overwhelmed, what will they probably do? What does devastated mean? What does scrawl mean? If you scrawl something, how will it look? What does refreshing mean? What does contented mean? If you are contented, how do you feel? What does emerge mean? If something emerges, what does it do?

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98 APPENDIX C STORYBOOK REFERENCES Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudys problem and how she solved it New York: Harry N. Abrams Auch, M. J. (1992). The Easter egg farm. New York: Holiday House. Auch, M. J. (1996). Eggs mark the spot New York: Holiday House. Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera New York: Holiday House. Auch, M. J. (2002). The princess and the pizza New York: Holiday House. Best, C. (2001). Shrinking violet New York: Melanie Kroupa Books. Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf! New York: Orchard Books. Bloom, S. (2003). No place for a pig Honesdale, PA: Boyd Mills Press. Burningham, J. (1963). Borka: The adventures of a goose with no feathers. London: Jonathan Cape. Calmenson, S. (2001). The frog principal New York: Scholastic Press. Campbell, A. (1998). Doras box New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Cannon, J. (1997). Verdi San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, and Company. Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen New York: Holiday House. David, L. (2002). Superhero Max New York: Doubleday for Young Readers. Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. French, V. (1994). Red hen and sly fox New York: Simon & Schuster. Harper, C. H. (2005). The invisible mistakecase Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Harness, C. (1993). The queen with bees in her hair New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc. Heine, H. (1983). The most wonderful egg in the world New York: Aladdin Paperbacks. Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town New York: Dutton Childrens Books. McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Holiday House: New York. McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. McKissak, P. C. (2000). The honest-to-goodness truth New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. McKissack, P. C. (2005). Precious and the boo hag New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Osborne, M. P. (2000). Kate and the beanstalk New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Osborne, M.P. (2002). The brave little seamstress New York: Anthenuem Books for Young Readers. Osborne, W., & Osborne, M. P. (2005). Sleeping Bobby New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Rochelle, B. (1994). When Jo Louis won the title Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Say, A. (1999). Tea with milk New York: Walter Lorraine Books. Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes New York: Blue Sky Press. Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press.

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99 APPENDIX D VOCABULARY-FOCUSED LESSONS Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 1 Book Prudys Problem and How She Solved It Armstrong-Ellis, C. (2002). Prudys problem and how she solved it New York: Harry N. Abrams. Prudy collects so many things that everyone says she has a problem, but when a crisis convinces her they are right, she come s up with a perfect solution. Target Words: collect, tidy, inspiration Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Collect Step 2 In the story, Prudy collected things. Step 3 Say the word with me. Collect. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what it means to collect things? Listen for responses. Capitalize on what is correct. Step 4 If you collect things, it means t hat you get a lot of t hat thing or similar things over a period of time because you are interested in it/them. Step 5 Do any of you collect anything ? Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they understand what collect means. If they dont, make sure they know that people collect things over time because th ey are interested in them. The man collected stamps because. Listen to see if they understand that the man collects them because he is interes ted in them or he likes them. Reiterate the definition of collect. Ensure that they know it isnt just random gathering. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Collect

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100 Word 2: Tidy Step 2 In the story, it said that Prudys dad was a very tidy person who did not like clutter. Step 3 Say the word with me. Tidy. (Show the word card) Who has an idea about what tidy means? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something that is tidy is neat and arranged in an orderly way. Step 5 How many of you have a tidy room? Query the volunteers to see why they think their room is tidy. Wait for responses. Evaluate them to see if they understand what tidy means. If they dont, make sure they kn ow that tidy means things are neat and orderly. Which word goes with tidy? Baby Maid Car Step 6 Lets say the word again. Tidy Word 3 Inspiration Step 2 Prudy looked around for inspiration after her collection exploded. Step 3 Say the word with me. Inspir ation. What is inspiration? Listen for responses. Step 4 Inspiration is a feeling of excitement that you get from something or someone. The excitement usually encourages you to go on and do something else. Step 5 My third grade teacher was great. She did a lot of really neat ac tivities with me and I learned a lot from her. She was so good at teaching me when I was in the third grade; she was my inspiration to become a teacher too. Have any of you ever been inspired by another person? Wait for responses. Have you ever been inspired by something or an event? Evaluate them to see if they understand inspiration. If they dont, make sure they know that you get encouraged/excited by something or someone else, and yo u usually go on to do something. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Inspiration.

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101 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 2 Book Brothers of the Knight Allen, D. (1999). Brothers of the knight New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. Target Words: sermon, congregation, conversation Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Sermon Step 2 Reverend Knight was a very good man, a leade r in the community, who preached a powerful sermon every Sunday. Step 3 Say the word with me. Sermon. (Show the word card) What is a sermon? Listen for responses. Step 4 A sermon is a talk given dur ing a church service. Step 5 Which word goes with sermon? Game Football Preacher Which word of these words goes with sermon? Dance Sleep Religious Have students explain their choice Step 6 Lets say the word again. Sermon. Word 2: Congregation Step 2 The congregation clapped and danced when the reverend gave his sermons. Step 3 Say the word with me. Congregation. (Show the word card) What is a congregation? Listen for responses. Step 4 People who go to a church service are called the congregation.

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102 Step 5 What are some reasons for pe ople to be in a congregation? Tell about a time when you were a part of a congregation. Would people sitting in a mo vie theater watching Harry Potte r be called a congregation? Why? Why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Congregation. Word 3 Conversation Step 2 After dinner, the boys listened to th e grown ups conversation. Step 3 Say the word with me. Conversati on. What is a conversation? Listen for responses. Step 4 When people have a conversation, they talk to one another in an easy, simple, relaxed way. Step 5 If two kids are upset with each other and shouting over a toy, would they be in a conversation? Why? Why not? Discuss the tone of the discussion as the reason for it not being a conversation. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Conversation.

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103 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 3 Book Flossie and the Fox McKissack, P. C. (1986). Flossie and the fox New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. A wily fox notorious for stealing eggs meets his match when he encounters a bold little girl in the woods who insists upon proof that he is a fox before she will be frightened. Target Words: sly, raid, absurd Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Sly Step 2 Ever-time they corner that ol sli ckster, he gets away. I tell y ou, that fox is one sly critter. Step 3 Say the word with me. Sly. (Show the word card) What does sly mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone is sly, they are good at tricking others. Step 5 If you wanted to get something away from someone without them knowing, would you rush over and take it or would you be sly? Tell about a time when you were sly Step 6 Lets say the word again. Sly. Word 2: Raid Step 2 I am the third generation of foxes who have out-smarted and out-run Mr. J. W. McCutchins fine hunting dogs. I have raided so me of the best henhouses from Franklin to Madison.

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104 Step 3 Say the word with me. Raid. (Show the word card) What does it mean to raid something? Listen for responses. Step 4 To raid means to go into a place by force, to either attack, or look for something. Step 5 When I was young, my brother and I used to raid the cookie jar before my mom came home from work. Have you ever raided something? Which of these things would you want to raid? Why? Why not? Be sure that kids provide an explanation after each item. A bee hive An ant bed A toy chest Step 6 Lets say the word again. Raid. Word 3 Absurd Step 2 Fox went running around in circles. He was pl um beside himself. I am a fox and I know it, he shouted. This is absurd! Step 3 Say the word with me. Absurd. What does absurd mean? Step 4 Something absurd doesnt make sense. Step 5 Are these things absurd? If they are absu rd, say absurd. If they are not, say not. A fish that barks A mother that takes good care of you? A dog that meows A snake that walks A teacher that helps you learn many things? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Absurd.

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105 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 4 Book A Bad Case of Stripes Shannon, D. (1998). A bad case of stripes New York: Blue Sky Press. Target Words: impress, examine, distraction Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Impress Step 2 It was the first day of school and she couldnt decide what to wear. There were so many people to impress! Step 3 Say the word with me. Impress. (Show the word card) What does it mean to try to impress someone? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something impresses you, y ou really like and respect it. Step 5 Would you try to impress your new teacher? Would you try to impress a pet? Tell about a time when you tried to impress someone. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Impress. Word 2: Examine Step 2 That afternoon, Dr. Bumble came over to examine Camilla. Step 3 Say the word with me. Examine. (Show the word card) What does examine mean? Listen for responses. Step 4

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106 If you examine something, y ou look at it carefully. Step 5 Raise your hand to finish each sentence. The boy examined his dog because. The girl examined her homework because. The dentist examined the lit tle girls teeth because. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Examine. Word 3 Distraction Step 2 That night, Mr. Harms, the school principal, called. Im sorry, Mrs. Cream, he said. Im going to have to ask you to keep Camilla home from school. Shes just too much of a distraction. Step 3 Say the word with me. Distrac tion. What is a distraction? Listen for responses. Step 4 A distraction is something t hat takes your attention away from what you are doing. Step 5 Raise your hand to answer each question. If you are trying to do your homework, and your puppy keeps walking over your papers, would it be a distraction? If you are playing soccer, and the coach is givi ng you instructions, w ould the teacher be a distraction? If your family is having dinner and your mom as ks if anyone is ready fo r dessert, is that a distraction? Which word goes with distraction? Focus Fun Shoes Step 6 Lets say the word again. Distraction.

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107 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 5 Book Shrinking Violet Best, C. (2001). Shrinking Violet New York: Melanie Kroupa Books. Violet, who is very shy and hates anyone to look at her in school finally comes out of her shell when she is cast as Lady Space in a play about the solar system and saves the production from disaster. Target Words: shrink, display, impressed Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Shrink Step 2 In the story, Violets cheeks blushed rhubarb red and she wished she could shrink away. Step 3 Say the word with me. Shrink. (Show the word card) What does shrink mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When something shrinks, it becomes smaller. Step 5 Once, I put my jeans in the dryer and they shr unk. What do you think my jeans looked like when they came out of the dryer? Why? Make sure students unders tand that when things shrink, they get smaller. Have you ever had anything to sh rink? Describe what happened. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Shrink.

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108 Word 3: Impressed Step 2 Opal was impressed when Violet grumbled like King Kong. Step 3 Say the word with me. Impressed. Does any one know what it means to be impressed? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something impresses you, you look at it with great pleasure and respect. Step 5 I was impressed by the stories on display in the third grade hall. What do you think may have impressed me about the stories? Listen and evaluate responses. Can anyone share a time when you were impressed? Probe for explanations about whey students were impressed. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Impressed. Word 2: Display Step 2 A fine display of flags paraded across the room. Step 3 Say the word with me. Display. (Show the word card) What a display? Listen for responses. Step 4 A display is something intended to get peoples attention. Step 5 If you would want the things I name on display, give me a thumbs up. If you would not want them displayed, give me a thumbs down: A spelling test on which you made a 100. A letter you wrote to a special friend A picture that you created in art Step 6 Lets say the word again. Display.

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109 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 6 Book Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III McGovern, A. (1982). Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Honesdale, PA: Caroline House. Shipwrecked, a boy makes a happy life for himself on a tropical island, far away from the dull life of his wealthy parents. Target Words: tattered, shrieking, commotion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Tattered Step 2 Everyday, new treasures washed up on the shore. Three pairs of shoes and tattered clothes. Old feather hats and funny wigs. Step 3 Say the word with me. Tattered. (Show the word card) When something is tattered, what does it look like? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is tattered, it is torn or crumpled. Step 5 The paper got tattered because The shoes were tattered because Would you want a tattered jacket? Why or why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Tattered. Word 2: Shriek Step 2 One morning, Nicky was awakened by sh rieking parrots and crying goats.

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110 Step 3 Say the word with me. Shriek. (Show the word card) What is a shriek? Listen for responses. Step 4 A shriek is a sudden loud scream. Step 5 Once, I was riding my bike down the street, and a dog began to chase me. I began to shriek. Why do you think I shrieked? What is something that might make you shriek? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Shriek. Word 3 Commotion Step 2 The monkey was howling and running up and down the trees. The reason for the commotion was a rescue boat, sailing cl oser and closer to Monkey Island. Step 3 Say the word with me. Commotion. What is a commotion? Step 4 A commotion is a lot of noise and confusion. Step 5 If I describe something that might cause a commotion, say, commotion. If what I describe does not cause a commotion, say, no. A teacher writing on the board A dog running around a classroom A bee in the car while you are riding down the street A butterfly on a flower The small child caused a commotion in the toy store because he (Have the students complete the ideaevaluate it to see if it makes sense.) Step 6 Lets say the word again. Commotion.

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111 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 7 Book Wolf! Bloom, B. (1999). Wolf! New York: Orchard Books. A wolf gets discouraged because he is having difficulty scaring educated farm animals. He decides to become educated as well. Target Words: emergencies, concentrate, admire Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Emergencies Step 2 The wolf kept a little money for emergencies. Step 3 Say the word with me. Emergencies. (Show the word card) What is an emergency? Listen for responses. Step 4 An emergency is an unexpected, se rious situation that has to be dealt with right away. Step 5 Say emergency if I describe a sit uation that is an emergency. Remain quiet if the situation is not an emergency. Someone has fallen off her bike and has broken her arm. You want a new toy because you saw it on TV. Your dog is wants to play catch but you have to do your homework. Is playing catch an emergency? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Emergencies. Word 2: Concentrate Step 2 In the story, the cow complained about an aw ful noise because he couldnt concentrate on his book. Step 3

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112 Say the word with me. Concentrate. (Show the word card) What does concentrate mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you concentrate on something, you gi ve it all of your attention. Step 5 Share some times when it is important to concentrate. Which word goes with concentrat e? Play Study Sleep Make sure students explain their choice Step 6 Lets say the word again. Concentrate Word 3 Admire Step 2 Wolf practiced reading to become a better reader so the other animals would admire him. Step 3 Say the word with me. Admire. What does admire mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you admire someone or something, you like and respect them/it. Step 5 If you admired someone, would you smile at them or frown at them? Why? I admire people who work hard, even when th ings are tough. Who would like to share about someone they admire? Be sure to have students share why they admire the person. Listen to see if they understand the definition. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Admire.

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113 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 8 Book The Princess and the Pizza Auch, M. J., & Auch, H. (2002). The princess and the pizza New York: Holiday House. An out-of-work princess applies to become the bride of Prince Drupert, but first she must pass several tests, includ ing a cooking contest. Target Words: humble, competition, wail Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Humble Step 2 Princess Paulinas father gave up his throne to become a wood carver and moved them to a humble shack in a neighboring kingdom. Step 3 Say the word with me. Humble. (Show the word card) Has anyone ever heard the word humble before? What do you think it means? Listen for responses. Step 4 Humble describes people and th ings that are very ordinary. Step 5 If I describe something that is humble, say humble. If what I de scribe is not humble, remain quiet. A woman walking down the street wearing a fluffy fur coat and big fancy jewelry. A tiny kitten Step 6 Lets say the word again. Humble. Word 2: Competition Step 2 Pauline didnt expect much competition to be Druperts bride. There wasnt another princess for hundreds of miles. Step 3

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114 Say the word with me. Competition. (Show the word card) What does competition mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 A competition is an event that people take part in to find out who is best at something. Step 5 What kinds of competitions do you have here at school? (AR, Field Day, Writer of the Month) Describe a time when you were in a competition outside of school. Which word goes with competiti on? Dog Contest Book Step 6 Lets say the word again. Competition. Word 3 Wail Step 2 In the story, the princesses wailed when Queen Zelda told them that their final job was to cook a feast. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wail. What does wail mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone wails, they cry out loudly. Step 5 Have you ever wailed? Listen and evaluate responses. Say wail if a person is likely to wa il in the situations I describe: If a kid closes his hand in the door. If you are in the library. During a test. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wail.

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115 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 9 Book The Queen with Bees in Her Hair Harness, C. (1993). The queen with bees in her hair New York: Henry Holt and Company. A silly queen and a hermit king come to join their separate kingdoms into one. Target Words: seldom, weary, somber Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Seldom Step 2 A wall separated the people and they seldom visited back and forth. Step 3 Say the word with me. Seldom. (Show the word card) What does seldom means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something seldom happens, it doesnt happen very often. Step 5 Raise your hand if you seldom get good grades. Ensure that the students understand the definition of the word. Listen to the things I mention. If you would like for them to happen seldom, say seldom. If you wish they happened often, say often: You get lots of homework You get extra recess time. You get to read in front of the class. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Seldom. Word 2: Weary

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116 Step 2 The queen thought her subjects must be wear y of seeing her in an ordinary crown. Step 3 Say the word with me. Weary. (Show the word card) Tell me if you think you know what weary means. Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is weary, they are very very tired.. Step 5 I get weary of eating the same food all of the time. Tell me about something you get weary of. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Weary. Word 3 Somber Step 2 The queen became fancier as her people became more somber. Step 3 Say the word with me. Somber. What do you think somber means? Listen for responses. Step 4 Somber describes a feeing of sadness or tiredness. Step 5 Some people start to feel somber during the winter because there are no flowers blooming. Can you describe a time when you felt somber? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Somber.

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117 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 10 Book The Tale of Hilda Louise Dunrea, O. (1996). The tale of Hilda Louise New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Hilda Louise lives in an orphanage and longs for a family. One day, her longing for a family sweeps her away and over the streets of Paris. Target Words: companion, maneuver, descend Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Companion Step 2 Hilda Louise loved her companions and she lo ved Madame Zanzibar, but she longed for a family of her own. Step 3 Say the word with me, companion. (Show the word card) What is a companion? Listen for responses. Step 4 A companion is someone you spend time with. Step 5 Say, companion if I describe name possible co mpanions. Remain quiet if what I name cant be a companion A classmate A shoe A chair A dog What kinds of things could someone do with a companion? Which word goes with companion: friend stranger doctor? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Companion.

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118 Word 2: Maneuver Step 2 In the story, Hilda Louse learned to maneu ver in the air. She turned somersaults. Step 3 Say the word with me. Maneuver. (Show the word card) What is a maneuver? Listen for responses. Step 4 A maneuver is a tricky move that you c an do which takes a lot of skill. Step 5 Sometimes when I drive down the road, I have to maneuver in and out of traffic. I have to be very careful to pass people safely, and I have to be sure I stop at red lights and follow all of the rules of the road, while still getting where I am going. When might you need to maneuver? Why? How would you maneuver through the lunch line to get a carton of milk that you forgot to get when you went through the first time? Invite them to get up and demonstrate. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Maneuver. Word 3 Descend Step 2 At four oclock in the afternoon, Hilda Louise began to descend from the sky. Step 3 Say the word with me. Descend. What does descend mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone or something comes down or moves down from a place, they descend. Step 5 Do airplanes have to maneuver to descend from the sky? How do you know? Is descending more like moving or sitting still? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Descend.

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119 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 11 Book Red Hen and Sly Fox French, V. (1994). Red hen and sly fox New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers. Red hen is renowned for her kindness. All the an imals loves red hen, but sly fox loves her for a different reason. When he captures he r, she has a few tricks for him. Target Words: darn, bound, shriek Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Darn Step 2 Ive got a pair of socks with holes in the to es, and I wondered if you would be so kind as to darn them for me? Step 3 Say the word with me. Darn. (Show the word card) The fox wanted someone to darn his socks, what do you think he wanted them to do to his sock? Listen for responses. Step 4 When you darn something of cloth, you fix the holes in it by sewing them up. Step 5 Complete each sentence. The woman darned the tattered costume because Your mother darned your shirt because. Which word goes with darn: cut thread wash? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Darn. Word 2: Bound Step 2 Come right in, invited Red Hen. In bounded Sl y Fox. Immediately, he snatched the sack from his pocket and tried to slip it over Re d Hens head, but she was too quick for him.

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120 Step 3 Say the word with me. Bound. (Show the word card) What does it mean to bound? Listen for responses. Step 4 To bound means to move quickly with big leaps. Step 5 If someone were to bound into a crowded room, what might happen? If you bound somewhere, are you most likely in a hurry or do you have a lot of time? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Bound. Word 3 Shriek Step 2 Yaroo! Shrieked the fox as the boiling water splashed on his toes. Step 3 Say the word with me. Shriek. Do you remember what shriek means? Step 4 A shriek is a loud, sudden scream. Step 5 Which word goes with shriek? Head Sleep Surprise Is ok to shriek in the school cafeteria? Why or why not? Is ok to shriek in the yard at home? Why or why not? Is ok to shriek in the library? Why or why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Shriek.

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121 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 12 Book The Most Wonderful Egg in the World Heine, H. (1983). The most wonderful egg in the world New York: Aladdin Paperbacks. Target Words: quarrel, advice, extraordinary Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Quarrel Step 2 Three hens were quarrelling about which of them was the most beautiful. Step 3 Say the word with me, quarrel. (Show the word card) What does it mean to quarrel? Listen for responses. Step 4 When people quarrel, they ha ve an angry argument. Step 5 The children on the playground quarreled because Which word goes with quarrel: kiss fight run? Do you think people feel good when they quarrel? Why or why not? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Quarrel. Word 2: Advice Step 2 Since they could not settle th eir quarrel among themse lves, they decided to ask the king for his advice. Step 3 Say the word with me. Advice. (Show the word card) What is advice? Listen for responses.

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122 Step 4 If you give someone advice, you tell them what you think they should do. Step 5 Whom would you take advice from, your mother or someone you dont know? Which word goes with advice: Help Tease Work Tell about a time when y ou gave someone advice. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Advice. Word 3 Extraordinary Step 2 And from that day to this, they have been the best of friends, and have happily gone on laying extraordinary eggs. Step 3 Say the word with me. Extraordinary What does extraordinary mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something extraordinary is very unusual or surprising. Step 5 I once saw a playhouse that had everything inside that a regular sized house has in it. It was extraordinary. Describe something extraordinary. Encourage them to explain why it was extraordinary. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Extraordinary

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123 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 13 Book Kate and the Beanstalk Osborne, M. P. (2000). Kate and the beanstalk New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. In this version of the classic tale a girl climbs to the top of a beanstalk, where she uses her quick wits to outsmart a giant and make her and her mothers fortune. Target Words: despair, forlorn, astonishing Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Despair Step 2 Long ago, a girl named Kate lived with her mo ther in a humble cottage. One day, after a hard winter, Kates mother was in despair. Step 3 Say the word with me, despair. (Show the word card) What do you think despair means? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone is in despair, they feel that everything is wrong, and t hat things wont ever get any better. Step 5 Which word goes with despair: happiness excitement sadness? Have you ever felt despair? Why? How did you deal with it? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Despair. Word 2: Forlorn Step 2 Now we will surely starve! and she tossed the beans out the window. Hungry and forlorn, Kate went to bed. Step 3

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124 Say the word with me. Forlorn. (Show the word card) Forlorn? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is forlorn, they are lonely and sad. Step 5 Which word goes with forlorn: smile frown unhappy? The dog was forlorn because. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Forlorn. Word 3 Astonishing Step 2 Through a misty haze, she saw the most as tonishing sight: Above he clouds was a countryside with fine woods, a crystal st ream, a rolling sheep meadow, and a mighty castle. Step 3 Say the word with me. Astonishi ng. What does astonishing mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something is astonishin g, it is very surprising. Step 5 Do you think streets made of gold would be astonishing? Do you think a straight A repor t card would be astonishing? Have you ever seen something astonishing? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Astonishing.

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125 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 14 Book Tea with Milk Say, A. (1999). Tea with milk Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. After growing up near San Francisco, a young Japane se woman returns with her parents to their native Japan, but she feels foreign and out of place. Target Words: foreign, conversation, insistent Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Foreigner Step 2 She could not make friends with any of the other students; they called her gaijin and laughed at her. Gaijin means foreigner. Step 3 Say the word with me, foreigner. (Show the word card) What is a foreigner? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is a foreigner, they belong to another country, not your own. Step 5 If you went to Spain, woul d you be a foreigner? If someone came from Australia to live in the United States of America, would they be a foreigner? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Foreigner. Word 2: Conversation Step 2 I was transferred here six months ago and I havent had a real conversation since. Step 3 Say the word with me. Conversation. (Show the word card) We have had this word before. What do remember about the tone of a conversation? Listen for responses.

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126 Step 4 If you have a conversation with someone, you talk with each other in a relaxed, easy way. Step 5 Have you ever had a conversation when you we re not supposed to have it? When? When is a good time to have a conversation? Who are some people you that you have conversations with? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Conversation. Word 3 Insistent Step 2 No one had read her application yet, the clerk said. Masako asked to see the manager. She was very insistent. Step 3 Say the word with me. Insistent. What does insistent mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Insistent describes someone who wants someth ing to be done and they say in a very firm way, that they want it done. Step 5 Once, I went to a restaurant and got a bad server I decided that I wanted to speak to the person in charge, and I was very insistent. When a student in my class wanted to walk around during a spelling test, I was very insistent when I asked him to sit down. Have you ever had to be insistent? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Insistent.

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127 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 15 Book The Invisible Mistake Case Harper, C. M. (2005). The invisible mistakecase New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. After calling her friend big pink baby, Charlo tte, a young alligator, feels terrible until Grandpa tells her about a useful way to learn from her mistakes. Target Words: invisible, squint, suspicious Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Invisible Step 2 Oh, Grandpa! cried Charlotte, and she told him the whole story. Ah, said Grandpa, this is one for the invisible mistakecase. Step 3 Say the word with me. Invisible. (Show the word card) What does invisible mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is invisible, you cant see it becaus e it is hidden or because it is very small. Step 5 Are stars visible or invisible? Is air visible or invisible? Is the moon visible or invisible? Are germs visible or invisible? What makes something invisible? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Invisible. Word 2: Squint

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128 Step 2 Its right here, said Grandpa, and he pointed to an empty space on th e floor. Charlotte squinted her eyes, but she couldnt see anything. Step 3 Say the word with me. Squint. (Show the word card) What does it mean to squint? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you squint at something, you look at it with your eyes partly closed. Step 5 Would you squint while looking at the sun? Would you squint while looking at T.V.? Would you squint whil e looking at the moon? When do people usually squint? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Squint. Word 3 Suspicious Step 2 Did you eat the pie? It wasnt me, I ans wered, and then I looked at John suspiciously so mama would maybe think it was him that ate the pie. Step 3 Say the word with me. Suspicious. What does suspicious mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you are suspicious of so meone, you dont trust them. Step 5 Have you ever been suspicious of someone? When/why? Evaluate whether the participants answers are appropriate. Once I was missing $50 from my purse and a student was walking away from my desk, I was suspicious of him. I thought he took my money. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Suspicious.

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129 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 16 Book Bantam of the Opera Auch, M. J. (1997). Bantam of the opera New York: Holiday House. Luigi the rooster wins fame and fortune when the star of the Cosmopolitan Opera Company and his understudy both come down with ch icken pox on the same night. Target Words: wander, disguise, wail Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Wander Step 2 Finally, Luigi wandered farther afield each day, so he could sing without being heard. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wander. (Show the word card) What does wander mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you wander, you walk around from place to place without going in any particular direction. Step 5 Would it be safe to wander in the road? Would it be safe to wander in your own backyard? Is it ok to wander around the halls at school? Would you want to wander around while you were carrying something heavy? Would you want to wander around the park non a Saturday afternoon? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wander. Word 2: Disguise Step 2

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130 Louigi found the perfect disgui se to hide from Baldini. Step 3 Say the word with me. Disguise (Show the word card) What is a disguise? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you disguise yourself, y ou change your appearance so others dont know who you are. Step 5 Which word goes with disguise? Smile Frown Trick Besides Halloween, when is a good time for a disguise? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disguise. Word 3 Wail Step 2 Soon he was dancing around the stage, scratching with both hands. I itch all over, he wailed. It is driving me crazy. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wail. What does wail mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you let out a wail, you cry loudly. Step 5 Why might someone wail? Tell us about a time when you wailed. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wail.

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131 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 17 Book The Honest-to-Goodness Truth McKissack, P. (2000). The honest-to-goodness truth New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. After promising never to lie, Libby learns its not always necessary to blurt out the whole truth either. Target Words: commenced, quivered, trudged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Commenced Step 2 Libbys stomach felt like shed swallowed a handful of chicken feathers. Her eyes commenced to fill with water. Step 3 Say the word with me. Commenced. (Show the word card) What do you think commenced means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something commences, it begins or starts. Step 5 What time does school commence? I cannot take you out of your class once your reading time commences, why do you think that is so? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Commenced. Word 2: Quivered Step 2 Libbys bottom lip quivered when her mother asked her if she fed Ol Boss. Step 3 Say the word with me. Quivered. (Show the word card) What does quiver mean? Listen for responses.

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132 Step 4 If something quivers, it shakes with very small movements. Step 5 What might be a reason fo r something to quiver? Show me what something l ooks like if it quivers. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Quivered. Word 3 Trudged Step 2 By the time Libby trudged up her steps, she was still confused. Step 3 Say the word with me. Trudged. What does trudged mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you trudge somewhere, you walk there with slow, heavy steps. Step 5 Would you trudge to the store to get someth ing you have been waiting for for a long time? Would you trudge to the dentists office? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Trudged.

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133 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 18 Book No Place for a Pig Bloom, S. (2003). No place for a pig Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press, Inc. When a woman brings a pig back to her apartment, she is faced with the challenge of raising it in the city. Target Words: admire, delicate, lugged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Admired Step 2 These are spectacular! she thought, admiring the plastic pigs that filled the yard. Step 3 Say the word with me, admired. (Show the word card) What does admire mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you admire something, you real ly like it and or respect it. Step 5 Tell me about someone or something you admire. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Admire. Word 2: Delicate Step 2 These are spectacular! she thought, admiring the plastic pigs that fill ed the yard. But too huge for my tiny apartment. The delicate little pigs must be inside that shed. Step 3 Say the word with me. Delicate. (Show the word card) What does delicate mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is delicate, it has to be handl ed very carefully because it might break. Step 5

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134 My nephew bought e a tiny elephant figurine. It is my favorite and I handle it very carefully because it is delicate. Do you have something that is delicate? Is a football delicate? Is an egg delicate? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Delicate. Word 3 Lugged Step 2 They both grunted as Ms. Taffy lugged Serena back to the train station. Step 3 Say the word with me. Lugged. What does lugged mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you lug something from one pl ace to another, you carry it w ith a lot of difficulty. You have trouble carrying it. Step 5 If a backpack is filled with school book s, would a kid have to lug it to school? Do you have to lug a flower to your mother? Would you lug your lunch tr ay to the lunch table? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Lugged.

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135 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 19 Book Sleeping Bobby Osborne, W., & Osborne, M. O. (2005). Sleeping Bobby New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers. A retelling of the Grimm tale featuring a handsome prince who is put into a deep sleep by a curse until he is awakened by the kiss of a brave princess. Target Words: delightful, wise, rage Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Delightful Step 2 A year latter a baby boy was born to the roya l couple. The child was so extraordinary and so delightful that the king and queen want ed him to have a very special name. Step 3 Say the word with me. Delightful. (Show the word card) What does delightful mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Something or someone delightful gives you a feeling of great pleasure. Step 5 Do you think your mom finds you delightful? What kinds of things wo uld a delightful person do? Could an animal be delightful? What behaviors are NOT be delightful? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Delightful.

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136 Word 2: Wise Step 2 They invited almost everyone in the realm, including the kingdoms twelve Wise Women. Step 3 Say the word with me. Wise. (Show the word card) What does it mean to be wise? Listen for responses. Step 4 A wise person makes good decisions and judgm ents based on their experiences and knowledge. Step 5 Do you think your gran dmother is wise? Why? Do you think a baby is wise? Why? Do you think a chair can be wise? Why? What makes someone wise? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Wise.. Word 3 Rage Step 2 Silence! said the thirteenth wise woman, who in her rage, did not seem very wise at all. Step 3 Say the word with me. Rage. What a rage? Listen for responses. Step 4 A rage is strong, uncontrollable anger. Step 5 Which word goes with rage: happy fun upset? Describe a time when you were in a rage. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Rage.

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137 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 20 Book Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers Burningham, J. (1963). Borka: The adventures of a goose with no feathers London: Jonathan Cape. Target Words: deserted, mend, journey Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Deserted Step 2 They lived on a deserted piece of marshland near the East Coast of England. Step 3 Say the word with me. Deserted. (Show the word card) What does deserted mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Deserted describes a place where peopl e have left and there is nothing there. Step 5 Would you want to be al one on a deserted island? Have you ever felt like someone has desert ed you? If so, have them describe Step 6 Lets say the word again. Deserted. Word 2: Mend Step 2 Each spring the Plumpsters came back to the marshes and mended their nest. Step 3 Say the word with me. Mend. (Show the word card) When you mend something, what do you do to it? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something gets mended, it gets fixed so that it is in good working order again.

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138 Step 5 What are some things that could be mended? Help them think abou t various objects Step 6 Lets say the word again. Mend. Word 3 Journey Step 2 Nobody noticed that Borka was missing. They were all thinking about the journey ahead. Step 3 Say the word with me. Journey. What is a journey? Listen for responses. Step 4 A journey is a long trip. Step 5 One summer, I took a journey to anoth er country. The trip took 13 hours. What are some things you could do on a journey? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Journey.

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139 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 21 Book The Easter Egg Farm Auch, M. J. (1992). The easter egg farm New York: Holiday House. Pauline cant concentrate on layi ng an egg because of all of th e squabbling in the hen house. Finally, she lays a very unusual egg. Target Words: concentrate, inspiration, scurried Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Concentrate Step 2 Pauline couldnt concentrate in all the confusion. Every time she tried to lay an egg, the other hens squabbled. Step 3 Say the word with me, concentrate. (Show the word card) What does it mean to concentrate? Listen for responses. Step 4 To concentrate means to give someth ing all of your attention. Step 5 Say concentrate if I describe a situation wh ere it would be good to concentrate. Remain quiet if the situation is not one wh ere you need to concentrate. Studying for a math test. Walking down the sidewalk Drawing a picture If someone is concentrating how do they look? What are they doing? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Concentrate.

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140 Word 2: inspiration Step 2 In the story, Mrs. Pennyworth took P auline on field trips for inspiration. Step 3 Say the word with me. Inspiration. (Show the word card) What does it mean to get inspiration from something or someone? Listen for responses. Step 4 Inspiration is a feeling of excitement that you get from something or someone. The excitement usually encourages you to go on and do something else. Step 5 When I was in fifth grade, I had a really great teacher. She was my inspiration to be a really good teacher to my students. Share a time when you felt inspired by something or someone. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Inspiration. Word 3 Scurry Step 2 The bright colored chicks scurried around the egg lady. Step 3 Say the word with me. Scurry. What does it mean to scurry? Listen for responses. Step 4 Scurry describes a way of walki ng quickly, taking small steps. Step 5 When would be a time that you would scurry? Start your sentence with, I would scurry if (Ensure that students use the sentence stem) Tell me if the following animals scurry: Horses Ducks People Frogs Alligators Step 6 Lets say the word again. Scurry.

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141 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 22 Book Superhero Max David, L. (2002). Superhero Max New York: Doubleday for Young Readers. A second-grade boy has trouble fitting in at his new school, until he wears a Captain Crusader costume for Halloween. Target Words: villain, vicious, scampered Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Villain Step 2 I fight villains and save animals fr om calamitous disasters Step 3 Say the word with me. Villain. (Show the word card) What is a villain? Listen for responses. Step 4 A villain is a someone who deliberately harms other people or breaks the law in order to get what he or she wants. Step 5 Say villain if I name a villai n. Say not a villain if I dont. Harry Potter The big bad wolf in the Three Little Pigs Your teacher Which word goes with villain: bad helpful mighty? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Villain. Word 2: Vicious Step 2 Captain Crusader has to help save his frie nds from vicious bugs and wild animals.

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142 Step 3 Say the word with me. Vicious. (Show the word card) What does it vicious mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Vicious describes something violent and cruel. Step 5 What kinds of ani mals are vicious? Have you ever encounter ed anything vicious? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Vicious. Word 3 Scampered Step 2 M ax and his classmates scampered across the pl ayground and played their buggy game. Step 3 Say the word with me. Scampered. What does it mean to scamper? Listen for responses. Step 4 Scamper describes moving quickl y with small light steps. Step 5 When would be a time that you would scampe r? Start your sentence with, I would scamper if (Ensure that students use the sentence stem) Tell me if the following animals scamper: Ants Pigs Bugs Birds Cows Step 6 Lets say the word again. Scampered.

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143 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 23 Book Doras Box Campbell, A. (1998). Doras Box New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. In order to protect her, Doras parents must put anything that might fri ghten or hurt her into a box and tell her never to open it, but when she eventually does, he r life is enriched by what she finds. Target Words: oath, frustration, compassion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Oath Step 2 If you release me, the witch cried, I will grant you three wishes. But if you leave me, I will curse you with three oaths. Step 3 Say the word with me. Oath. (Show the word card) What is an oath? Listen for responses. Step 4 An oath is a formal promise. Step 5 Have you ever had to give an oath? boy/girl scouts Once, I had to testify at a meeting, and I had to take an oath to tell the truth. Have you ever had to do anything like that? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Oath. Word 2: Frustration Step 2 Every day and every night, Doras mother and father gathered all the hurts, fears, angers, and frustrations they encountered and put them safely into Doras box, so that she would never know them. Step 3

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144 Say the word with me. Frustration. (Show the word card) What is a frustration? Listen for responses. Step 4 Frustration describes something that makes you angry or upset because you cant do anything about the problem it creates. Step 5 Has something ever caused you frustration? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Frustration. Word 3 Compassion Step 2 For, to be loved by all, she must have compassion, she must know not only goodness and joy but also some of the evil and sa dness in the world, as we all do. Step 3 Say the word with me. Compassion. What is compassion? Listen for responses. Step 4 Compassion is a feeling of understanding fo r others who are going through something. Step 5 I once gave a homeless man some food. I though t about what if feels like to be hungry, and I felt sad for him, so I bought him food. If you have compassion, w hat will it lead you to do? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Compassion.

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145 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 23 Book When Jo Louis Won the Title Rochelle, B. (1994). When Jo Louis won th e title. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Jos grandfather helps her feel be tter about herself when he tells her the story about why she is named for the heavyweight boxing champion, Joe Louis. Target Words: tattered, destination, bellowed Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Tattered Step 2 Everything I owned fit into a tattered suitcase. Step 3 Say the word with me. Tattered. (Show the word card) What does tattered? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is tattered, it is torn because it has been used a lot. Step 5 Which word goes with tattered: new old good? I have a tattered robe that I wear all of th e time. It is very comfortable. Do you have anything that is tattered? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Tattered. Word 2: Destination Step 2 I rode the train all day and a ll night. Like a snake winding its way across the Mississippi River, that train moved slowly through farm lands and flatland, over mountains and valleys until it reached its final destination. Step 3

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146 Say the word with me. Destination. What is a destination? (Show the word card) Listen for responses. Step 4 Your destination is the place you are going to. Step 5 If I leave Lake City to go to Gain esville, what is my destination? If you could go to any desti nation, where would you go? Why? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Destination. Word 3 Bellowed Step 2 New York City! New York! New York! the co nductor bellowed as the train pulled into the station. Step 3 Say the word with me. Bellowed. What does it mean to bellow? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone bellows, they shout in a loud, deep voice. Step 5 Would a library be a good place to bellow? Would a playground be a good place to bellow? Would the dinner table be a good place to bellow? Why would anyone need to bellow? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Bellow.

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147 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 25 Book Precious and the Boo Hag McKissack, P. C., & Moss, O. J. (2004). Precious and the boo hag New York: Antheneum Books for Young Readers. Home alone with a stomachache while the family wo rks in the fields, a young girl faces up to the horrifying Boo Hag that her brother warned hear about. Target Words: disbelieve, confidence, disguise Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Disbelieve Step 2 Before he left, Brother pulled Precious to th e side. Be sure to mind Mama, now. Cause if you let somebody in, you never know. It mi ght just be Pruella the Boo Hag. Who? Precious asked, with a disbelieving giggle. Step 3 Say the word with me. Disbelieve. (Show the word card) Does anyone know what disbelieve means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone disbelieves something, they dont believe that it is true or real. Step 5 Tell me whether you would look in di sbelief at the following statements: If someone told you a cow jumped over a moon. If someone told you that y ou that it was snowing outside. If someone told you that th ey want to be your friend. If your mom told you that dinner was ready. Have the students explain why they would look in disbelief or not. Tell me about a time when you had to give a disbelieving stare. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disbelieve. Word 2: Confidence

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148 Step 2 Theres no such thing as a Boo Hagespecial ly one named Pruella, she told herself with a pinch of confidence. Step 3 Say the word with me. Confidence. (Show the word card) What is confidence? Listen for responses. Step 4 Confidence describes a feeling of being sure you can do something. Step 5 Because the girl had spent all week studyi ng for her reading test she had a lot of confidence in being able to pass the te st. What gave her the confidence? Tell about a time when you had a lot of confidence. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Confidence. Word 3 Disguise Step 2 Pruella was scary, and she was pretty tricky. I almost brought her inside when she disguised herself as a shiny new penny. Step 3 Say the word with me. Disguise. We have talked about this word before. What does disguise mean? Listen for responses. Make sure that students understand that things are disguised so they arent recognized. Step 4 To disguise something means to change its appearance so that people will not know about it or recognize it. Step 5 When might you wear a disguise? What word goes with disgui se: sly church laugh? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disguise.

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149 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 26 Book The Brave Little Seamstress Osborne, M. P. (2002). The brave little s eamstress. New York: Antheneum books for Young readers. A seamstress who kills seven flies with one blow outwits the kind and, with the help opf a kind knight, becomes a wise and kind queen. Target Words: feat, abandoned, admired Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Feat Step 2 As she stitched each word, the little se amstress grew prouder and prouder of her amazing feat. Her heart wagged with joy like the tail of a lamb. Step 3 Say the word with me. Feat. (Show the word card) What is a feat? Listen for responses. Step 4 A feat is a difficult act or achievement. Step 5 If I describe a feat, say feat. If I dont describe a feat remain quiet. Climbing a tall tree Walking down the sidewalk. Jumping a big ramp on your bike. Making all As on your report card. Tell me a about a feat you accomplished. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Feat.

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150 Word 2: Abandoned Step 2 It was not long before she spotted the wild boar near an abandoned chapel in a clearing. Step 3 Say the word with me. Abandoned. (Show the word card) What does abandoned mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you abandon something, you leave it for a long time. Step 5 Would you abandon cookies baking in the oven? Would you abandon your friend at a park? Would you abandon food t hat didnt taste good? Would you abandon your bike on the side walk? *Be sure to get them to explain why they would or would not abandon things. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Abandoned Word 3 Admire* They have had this word a few times. Remind them. Step 2 She said that Christmas was coming soon and that it was freezing cold outside and she used words like human kindness and simple charit y until she said, Okay, okay, she can stay. Step 3 Say the word with me. Admire. What does it mean to admire? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you admire someone, you respect them. Step 5 Tell me about someone that you admire. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Admire.

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151 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 27 Book Verdi Cannon, J. (1997). Verdi San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, & Company. A young python does not want to grow slow and bori ng like the older snakes he sees in the tropical jungle where he lives. Target Words: complain, startled, fidgeted Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Complain Step 2 Stop that, Verdi. It makes me nervous, Ribbon complained. Step 3 Say the word with me. Complain. (Show the word card) What does it mean to complain? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you complain about something, you say you are not satisfied with it. Step 5 The lady in the restaurant complained about her soup because. The parent complained to the teacher because. Would you complain about a new outfit? Would you complain if someone were in your seat? Would you complain about your mom making your favorite dinner? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Complain. Word 2: Startled Step 2 Launching himself from a tree, Verdi startl ed a flock of colorful birds.

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152 Step 3 Say the word with me. Startled. (Show the word card) What does startled mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something startles you, it su rprises and frightens you a little. Step 5 If someone sneaked up behind you and shout ed in your ear, would it startle you? Which word goes with startled: surprised amused talked Which word goes with startled: curious unexpected laugh Step 6 Lets say the word again. Startled. Word 3 fidgeted Step 2 She said that Christmas was coming soon and that it was freezing cold outside and she used words like human kindness and simple charit y until she said, Okay, okay, she can stay. Step 3 Say the word with me. Fidgeted. What does fidgeted mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you fidget, you keep moving your hands or feet or changing positions. Step 5 Once I took a trip on a cruise ship, and when it was time to get off of the ship, I fidgeted because I was really ready to get off. Have you ever fidgeted? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Fidgeted.

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153 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 28 Book Wolf Comes to Town Manton, D. (1993). Wolf comes to town New York: Duttons Childrens Books. Target Words: disguise, suspicious, seize Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Disguise Step 2 Now, that big wolf just loved to go shopping, but whenever he left his house he would wear a disguise, for he knew that people didnt like wolves very much. Step 3 Say the word with me, disguise. (Show the word card) What is a disguise? Listen for responses. Step 4 A disguise is something you put on to change your appearance so people wont know who you are. Step 5 Would you wear a disguise to a church? Would you wear a disguise on Halloween? Would you wear a disguise to school? Would you wear a disguise to a family dinner? Give children an opportunity to explain why they would or would not wear the disguise. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Disguise. Word 2: Suspicious Step 2 In the story, things had gotten so bad that the shopkeepers were suspicious of just about everybody. Step 3 Say the word with me. Suspicious. (Show the word card) What suspicious mean? Listen

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154 for responses. Step 4 If someone is suspicious of someone else, they do not trust them. Step 5 Would you be suspicious of your mom? Would you be suspicious of someone walking around your house at night? Would you be suspicious if kep t looking at your homework? Can anybody share a time when you were suspicious? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Suspicious. Word 3 Seize Step 2 The wolf seized the painting and ran from th e gallery, leaving the owner quaking with terror. Step 3 Say the word with me. Seize. What does it mean to seize something? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone seizes something, they take hold of it quickly and firmly. Step 5 Would you seize a hot pot from the stove? Would you seize a cupcake from a plate? Would you seize a cactus? Why or why not? If someone where to seize a dogs tail, what might happen? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Seize.

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155 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 29 Book Eggs Mark the Spot Auch, M. J. (1996). Eggs mark the spot New York: Holiday House. Pauline the hen uses her talent for laying eggs wi th the image of what sh e sees to help capture the thief who has stolen a famous painting from an art gallery. Target Words: exhibit, overwhelmed, devastated Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Exhibit Step 2 We have a new exhibit of paintings by world-famous artists. Step 3 Say the word with me, exhibit. (Show the word card) What is an exhibit? Listen for responses. Step 4 An exhibit is something of intere st that people come and look at. Step 5 We went to Mrs. Folsoms class to see he r exhibit. She had sculptures on display. What kinds of things co uld we put in an exhibit? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Exhibit. Word 2: Overwhelmed Step 2 At first, Pauline was overwhelmed by the wonderful works of art. Step 3 Say the word with me. Overwhelmed. (Show the word card) What overwhelmed mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Overwhelmed describes a feeling that affect s you so much, you dont know how to deal with it.

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156 Step 5 Sometimes, when I have a lot of things to do, I feel overwh elmed, like I dont know how I am going to get it all done. What kinds of things might overwhelm a kid? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Overwhelmed.. Word 3 Devastated Step 2 Pauline was devastated because she couldn t make up her own paintings. She could only copy the ones that were there. Step 3 Say the word with me. Devastate d. What does devastated mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you are devastated by somethi ng, you are shocked and upset by it. Step 5 The girl was devastated because. The teacher was devastated because. Which word goes with devastated: di sappointed delighted eager? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Devastated.

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157 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 30 Book Pizza for the Queen Castaldo, N. (2005). Pizza for the queen New York: Holiday House. In 1889 Napoli, Italy, Raffaele Esposito prep ares a special pizza for the queen. Target Words: frantic, protest, anxious Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Frantic Step 2 Guiseppe was closing his shop for siesta, when everyone rested during the heat of the day; but when he saw Raffaele looki ng so frantic, he let him in. Step 3 Say the word with me, frantic. (Show the word card) What does frantic mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 Frantic describes a person who is behaving in a desperate, wild, and disorganized way because they are worried, or in a hurry. Step 5 I was frantic when I couldnt find my co mputer. I thought someone had stolen it. The lady was frantic because. The little boy frantic because.. Which word is the opposite of fr antic: nervous calm happy? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Frantic. Word 2: Protest Step 2 Before Niccolo could protest any furthe r, Raffaele hurried from the wharf.

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158 Step 3 Say the word with me. Protest. (Show the word card) What does protest mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone protests, they say or show pub licly that they dont agree with something. Step 5 Some people have been protesting the war in Ir aq. They are showing that they disagree with it. Once, I protested when I didnt like a new rule my school made. Have you ever protested? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Protest. Word 3 Anxious Step 2 The queen was anxious to taste the pizza Step 3 Say the word with me. Anxious. What does it mean to be anxious? Listen for responses. Step 4 When someone is anxious, they are worried or excited about something happening. Step 5 I am anxious to graduate from school. I sit and think about it all of the time, and I talk about it all of the time. Have you ever felt anxious? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Anxious.

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159 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 31 Book The Frog Principal Calmenson, S. (2001). The frog principal New York: Scholastic Press. A frog showed up as substitute principal of P.S. 88. Now the school has to learn to get along with him. It is not always easy. Target Words: scrawled, refreshing, commotion Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Scrawled Step 2 I cant let her see me this way! thought Mr. Bundy. He scrawled a note that said: Family emergency! Be back soon. Step 3 Say the word with me, scrawled. (Show the word card) What does scrawled mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If you scrawl something, you wr ite it in a careless, untidy way. Step 5 Give me a thumbs up if the answer is yes and a thumbs down if the answer is no. Would it be good to scrawl your homework? Would it be ok to scrawl a note to your friend? Would it be fine to sc rawl on your math book? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Scrawl. Word 2: Refreshing Step 2 The next thing they knewSPLASH!their prin cipal was swimming laps in the sink. They tried their best not to giggle. Very refreshing, said Mr. Bundy.

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160 Step 3 Say the word with me. Refreshing. (Show the word card) What does refreshing mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If something is refreshing, it is pleasan tly different from what you are used to. Step 5 On a really hot day, a cool drink of water is very refreshing. Which word goes with refreshing: pleasant unpleasant hard? Have you ever had something refreshing? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Refreshing.. Word 3 Commotion Step 2 Ms. Moore heard the commotion and came running. Step 3 Say the word with me. Commotion. What is a commotion? Listen for responses. Step 4 A commotion is a lot of noise and confusion. Step 5 A bee flew into the classroom and caused a commotion. Once, I was riding down the street, and a car wa s on the wrong side of the road, driving in the wrong direction, it caused quite a commotion. Can you think of a time when there was a commotion? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Commotion.

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161 Vocabulary-Focused Lesson 32 Book Turtle Spring Zagwyn, D. T. (1998). Turtle spring Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press. The changing seasons bring surprises to Clee, in cluding a new baby brother early in the year and a turtle whose life seems to crawl away inthe winter. Target Words: insisted, contented, emerged Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time. Contextualize the word for its role in the story. Step 3: Ask the children to repeat the word to create a phonologica l representation. Step 4: Introduce the student-friendly definition. Step 5: Share the word in contexts that are di fferent from the context in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word. Word 1: Insist Step 2 Arent you the lucky one? everyone insisted from orbits around the crib. Clee felt like a lost moon. Step 3 Say the word with me, insisted. (Show the word card) Insisted looks like word we have talked about before. Does anyone remember what it means? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone insists, they really want someth ing to happen, and they say it in a firm way. Step 5 Complete each sentence. The boys mother insisted that he come inside the house because. The doctor insisted that the lady be admitted to the hospital because The baby insisted on having his bottle because. Step 6 Lets say the word again. Insist. Word 2: Content Step 2 Clees turtle sunned herself. She looked content, having ju st gobbled three worms. Step 3

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162 Say the word with me. Content. (Show the word card) What does content mean? Listen for responses. Step 4 If someone is content, they are happy and satisfied. Step 5 When I have a good book, a full stomach, and a soft chair, I am content. What has to be in place for you to be content? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Content. Word 3 Emerge Step 2 By early April the big snowbanks were disappearing. The garden emerged shabby and moist. Step 3 Say the word with me. Emerge. What does it mean to emerge? Listen for responses. Step 4 When you emerge, you come out of a place where you had not been before. Step 5 The bears emerged from the cave after sleeping all winter long. The ants emerged from the hole once th ey smelled the cake from the picnic. The puppy emerged from under the bed when his owner came home. Can you think of a sentence using the word, emerge? Step 6 Lets say the word again. Emerge.

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163 APPENDIX E TEACHING CHART USED DURING STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON Things Good Readers Do Question Good questions begin with who, what, when, where, why, and how Clarify You can clarify by mining the context. L ook at words or phrases around what you dont know Substitute a word that you do know See if you recognize parts of the word Summarize Gather up the main parts of what has alrea dy happened, put them in order, and then create a sentence Leave out details Keep it short Predict Use pictures and things that have already happened to help you make a good guess about what might happen next Use what you already know to help you

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164 APPENDIX F STRATEGIES-FOCUSED LESSON GUIDES Strategies-Focused Lesson Script General Directions : For each lesson, read the storybook aloud. During each reading, focus on the highlighted strategy(i es) in the script. Model strategy use for the students. Examine the marked pages of each book to identify possible strategy practice during reading. Script: Today, I am going to introduce to you, four strategies that good readers use to help them understand what they read. I want you to watch me, and think about what I am doing as I read the story. I am going to be asking questions, clarifying, summarizing, and making pr edictions during the story. For the first few days, I am going to be desc ribing the strategies to you, to make sure you understand them. Then, I am going to show you how I use them. I will always do that aloud. Next, we are going to be using th e strategies together. After that I will guide you as you try to use the strategies alone. Finally, You will do it all by yourself. Throughout our time together, how much I do and how much you do will change. When I ask questions I am going to be asking questions that begin with who, what, when, where, why, and how, because good questions begin that way. When I clarify I am going to look for the meaning of words or ideas that arent quite clear to me. I am going to clarify in three ways: 1. I am going to mine the context. People who look for gold, mine. They dig. I am going to dig into to the words around the word I dont know, to see if they help me figure out what it means. 2. I am going to try to substitute a synonym. A synonym is a word that might mean the same thing as the word I dont know. I am going to put the synonym in the same place as the word I am confused about, to see if it makes sense. 3. I am going to look at the word to see if I rec ognize any part of the wo rd, and ask myself if it looks like a word that I already know. When I summarize I am going to think about the big ideas that have happened in the story. I am going to put them in order, a nd retell what has happened. When I predict I am going to look at the pictures and th ink about what has happened, to help me make a good guess about what might happen next.

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165 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 1 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that this character, I am going to guess that she is Prudy, has a problem (because her hands are up in the air)with a lot of objects it looks to me like she is in her room. Now, I am going to read to see if my prediction is correct. Questioning: The author says that Prudy seemed lik e a normal little girl. She had a sister, a dog, two mice, and her own room. Yes, she seemed norma l, but she collected things. My questions is: Why does collecting things make her not normal? Remember, it is a good question because it begins with why. Let me see if the author ex plains why that makes her something other than normal. Clarifying: I see this word di straction. The author says that Prudys collection drove her dad to distraction. I am not clear on what that means. First, I am going to mine the context. I am gong to look around the word to see if I can get some clues. It says, he was a tidy person who did not like clutter. I am still not exact ly sure, so I am going to see if the word looks like one I know. I see distract in distraction, and I know that to di stract someone means to bother them. So let me see if it makes sense in the sentence. Prudys collection bothered her da d because he was tidy and didnt like clutter. Yes! That makes sense. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Prudy is a little girl who has a huge collection of things. Her collection has gotten out of control, and sh e has to do something about it. She has been walking around looking for ideas about how to get her collec tion under control.

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166 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 2 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that these boys are brothers and they dance at night. Their bodies look like they are dancing and it is at night because I see the stars. But, the word Kn ight in the title isnt spelled like the night that comes after day, so maybe their name is Knight. I am not sure, lets read on to see what happens. Questioning: The author says that Reverend Kni ght lived in Harlem with his twelve sons and their dog. My question is, Where is their mother? Will the author tell me about her later on? Clarifying: I see this word sermon. I dont know what a sermon is. It doesnt look like a word that I already know. I cant think of one to substitute, so I will mine the context. The author says people came from far and wide to hear his serm ons, and yet he couldnt solve his own problems in his own home. Do people listen to sermons to solve problems? He is a reverend. Are sermons something that preachers give? Do they have to do with church? I think I am in the right area. I will keep reading. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Reve rend Knight has gone through a lot of nannies because they cant solve the mystery of why his sons shoes keep getting worn out so quickly. Now, he has hired a new nanny who seems different from the others.

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167 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 3 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that the girl on the cover has a pet fox or is friends wi th the fox. She is kind of smiling, and the fox is right beside her. Now, I am going to read to see if that makes correct. (Be sure to emphasize that you were incorrect). Questioning: The author says that the chickens are scared. Why are the chickens scared? Do foxes eat chickens? When chickens are scar ed, does that mean they cant lay eggs? Clarifying: I see this word sly. I am not sure what it means. I am going to mine the context to see if it helps me. I am going to look at the wo rds around sly to see if I can figure out what sly means. Now, Ever-time they corner that ol slic kster, he gets away. I tell you that fox is one sly critter. Does that mean he is fast? Does it mean he is smart? Let me substitute those words to see if they make sense. (Reread the sentence and plug in the ideas). Well, it could mean both because they both make sense. I am going to ke ep thinking about sly to see if the meaning becomes more clear as I read on. Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Flossie s grandmother told her to take some eggs to a neighbor, but Flossie has to watch out for a fox in the forest.

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168 Strategies-Focused Lessons 1-4 During the first four lessons, there will be expl icit strategy description and teacher modeling. Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Prudys Problem and How She Solved It QCSP Brothers of the Knight QCSP Flossie and the Fox QCSP A Bad Case of Stripes Lesson 4 Predicting: I previewed the title, cover, and illustrati ons, and using these clues, I predict that the girl on the cover is sick with a condition called stripes. I thin k she is sick because she has a thermometer in her mouth, and she is holding a cup with a straw in it, and her face looks very sad. She is also in bed. Now, I am going to read to see if my prediction is correct. Questioning: The author says that Camilla screamed when she looked in the mirror. My question is, Why did she scream ? I could guess that her dre ss didnt look good on her and she was worried about whether she would be able to impress people. Lets read on to see if we can figure it out. Clarifying: I see this word c ontagious. The author says that Other parents ar e afraid that Camillas stripes might be contagious. The word doesnt look like on that I already know, so I am going to look at other words and ideas around it to see if I can figure it out. Now, why would other parents be worried about Camilla? Hmmmm aybe they think that their kids can catch Camillas stripes. Maybe contagious means othe r people can catch it. Lets put that in the sentence to see if it I makes sense. Theyre afraid other people can catch th ose stripes. Yes, that works! Summarizing: I am going to gather the big ideas in the story by rereading the pages to myself to quickly get the information fresh in my head. (Mumble to yourself as you skim through the main parts). Now, here is what has happened. Camilla Cream is a girl who cares about what people think of her. On the first day of school, she was covered in stripes. Now, different doctors and experts are trying to figure out how to make her stripes go away.

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169 Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q Shrinking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolf! Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the que stioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the stra tegy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questi ons about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 5 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Shrinking Violet I want you to help me create questions as I read While I read, I want you to be th inking of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin, with: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. Ther e is a boy on the cover of the book, my question is Why is he lying on his book ? There is also a girl on the c over, what can we ask about her. Encourage students to help you construct. One could be: Why does the girl on the cover look like she is hiding behind her book ? Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct ques tions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: What does it mean for Violets stomach to turn upside down? Why is Irwin saying mean things to Violet? Why is Violet allergic to attention? What is making Violet want to shrink away? How is Violet going to get over her shyness? Who is going to do Violets part if she wont do it?

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170 Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q Shrinking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolf! Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the que stioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the stra tegy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questi ons about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 6 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III I want you to help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questi ons begin, with: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. Ther e is a boy on the cover of the book, my question is, Is he Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III ? Look at his face, what can we ask about him. Encourage students to help you construct. One could be: Why is he dressed so formally? Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct ques tions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: Why arent there any other kids on the ship with Nicholas? How does Nicholas feel about listening to the grown ups talk about each other? Why couldnt Nicholas eat and drink th e special treats that the cook made? What was wrong with the crew, since Nicholas couldnt be with them? Who is going to save Nichol as from the sinking ship?

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171 Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q Shrinking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolf! Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the que stioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the stra tegy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questi ons about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 7 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Wolf! I want you to help me create questions as I read. While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin,: with: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. Ther e is a pig, wolf, cow, and a duck on the cover. Some of them have on glasses, and they are all sharing a book together. Will this story be about animals reading? They look happy. Why are they all smiling. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct ques tions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: Why is the wolf just wandering around? Why werent the pig, cow, and duck afraid of the wolf? What did the pig mean when he said, Ca n you be big and dangerous somewhere else? What did he want the wolf to do?

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172 Strategies-Focused Lessons 5-8 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book Q Shrinking Violet Q Nicholas Bentley Stoningpot III Q Wolf! Q The Princess and the Pizza General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is questioning Throughout the story, you will generate questions as you read. Review the que stioning section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to use the stra tegy collaboratively with the students. Allow them to help you generate questi ons about the text. Instruct them to give you a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 8 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Princess and the Pizza I want you to help me create questions as I read. While I rea d, I want you to be thinki ng of questions that can we can ask. Remember how good questions begin, w ith: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Questioning: I will start with the cover. There is a princess on the cove r with a jeweled crown and a jeweled necklace. My question is, Why is she holding a pizza? Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to encourage students to help you construct ques tions. This should be a collaborative process. Possible Questions: Why did Princess Paulinas dad give up his throne? Why didnt Princess Paulina expect mu ch competition it the contest? Where did all of these other princesses come from? Why did the seven girls who looked bright eyed get sent home?

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173 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 9 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Queen with Bees in Her Hair I want you to help me clarify things that I dont unde rstand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I r ead, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of th e three ways to clarify. Clarifying: I will start with the cover. I am al ready confused about something? I dont get why she has bees in her hair. People generally dont walk around with b ees in their hair. Bees sting people. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I cant figure out what seldom means. I am not sure why the Kings people never see him. I am not sure how the people can get the bees over the other side of the wall, I think they will fly back across.

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174 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 10 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Tale of Hilda Louise I want you to help me clarify things that I dont understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I r ead, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of th e three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not exactly sure about what happened to her parents. Did they die? I need clarification on the word Magnifique. It looks like anot her word I knowmagnificent. I am not sure what maneuver means.

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175 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 11 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Red Hen and Sly Fox I want you to help me clarify things that I dont understand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I r ead, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of th e three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what darn means? What does he want her to do to his socks? What does bound mean?

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176 Strategies-Focused Lessons 9-12 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book C The Queen with Bees in Her Hair C The Tale of Hilda Louise C The Red Hen and the Sly Fox C The Most Wonderful Egg in the World General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. Review the clarifying section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to pr ovide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaborativ ely if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to seek clarification as you read Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify. Lesson 12 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Most Wonderful Egg in the World I want you to help me clarify thi ngs that I dont unders tand, and I want you to signal me when you need clarification. While I read, I want you to be thinking of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages ha ve been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. Th is should be a guided process. Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what quarreling means. What is advice? What does modestly mean?

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177 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 13 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Kate and the Beanstalk While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: I am looking at the cover and the title, and wonde ring if this story is similar to Jack and the Beanstalk. How is Kate going to make food with the beans? How did the beanstalk grow in one day? What is a giantess? Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what despair means. This is tricky, what does extraordinary mean ? I recognize the words extra and ordinary. What does forlorn mean? These words are confusing; I fear nothing when I am doing right? I need to think about what means. I am confused about, from cocks crow to owls hoot. What does that mean?

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178 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 14 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Tea with Milk While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: The title is Tea with Milk but this girl is standing in a yard. How are they related? Why are they calling her a foreigner? Why didnt she tell her mom she was an elevator girl? Is Osaka a city where May will feel less like a foreigner? Possible Clarifications: I am confused about the word foreigner. If Mays parents are Japanese, and so is sh e, why is she a foreigner to the others? What does insistent mean?

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179 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 15 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Invivisible Mistake Case While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questio ns and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why is the mistakecase invisible? Why didnt Charlotte just apologize to her friend? Possible Clarifications: I am not sure what suspicious means. How does one look when squinting?

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180 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QC Kate and the Beanstalk QC Tea with Milk QC The Invisible Mistake Case QC Bantam of the Opera General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is both questioning and clarifying Throughout the story, you will clarify words and ideas as you read. You will also create questions. Review the questioning and clarifying section of the teac hing chart provided. During this phase, you will begin to provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategies collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow th em to seek clarification and generate questions as you read. Instruct them to show you the c hand signal when they want to clarify and a thumbs up when they have a question. Lesson 16 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Bantam of the Opera While I read, I want you to be thinking of questions to ask and of ideas or words that do not make sense. Then, I want you to think about how we can clear up our confusion. Review the chart with them to remind them of good questions and the three ways to clarify. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible questions and clarifications have been listed and the corresponding book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the st rategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why is Luigi different from the other roosters? Why doesnt the head rooste r like the way Luigi sings? Possible Clarifications: I am confused about the word attract. I am not sure what a Rigoletto is.

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181 Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with no Feathers S Easter Egg Farm General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 17 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Honest-to-Goodness Truth I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you thi nk it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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182 Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with no Feathers S Easter Egg Farm General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 18 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called No Place for a Pig. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you thi nk it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribu te, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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183 Strategies-Focused Lessons 17-20 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Sleeping Bobby S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 19 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Sleeping Bobby I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be liste n and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribu te, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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184 Strategies-Focused Lessons 13-16 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book S The Honest-to-Goodness Truth S No Place for a Pig S Sleeping Bobby S Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is summarizing Throughout the story, you will summarize big ideas as you read. Review th e summarizing section of the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guid ed practice of the stra tegy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. Allow them to summarize as you read. Instruct them to show you the hold up one finger when they want to summarize. Lesson 20 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Borka: The Adventures of a Goose with No Feathers. I want you summarize as I read. While I read, I want you to be listen and then stop by holding up one finger to let me know that you think it is a good place to summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to summarize. Because this lesson really depends on what st udents have to contribute, possible place to summarize in the book pages have been marked. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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185 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 21 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Easter Egg Farm. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. Wh ile I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process. Possible Questions: Why does the hens squabbling bother Pauline? Why does Pauline lay su ch different eggs? How is Pauline going to lay enough eggs for every child in town? Possible Clarifications: What does inspiration mean? What does scurry mean?

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186 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 22 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Superhero Max. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. Wh ile I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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187 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 23 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Doras Box. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and practicing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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188 Strategies-Focused Lessons 21-24 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCS The Easter Egg Farm QCS Superhero Max QCS Doras Box QCS When Jo Louis Won the Title General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is the use of three strategies: questioning, clarifying, and summarizing Throughout the story, you will assist students in using all three strategies. Review the teach ing chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use the strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having troub le. Instruct them to use the appropriate signal when they are ready to use the strategy. Lesson 24 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called When Jo Louis Won the Title. I want you use the three strategies that we have been talking about and pr acticing. While I read, I want you question, clarify, and summarize. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to use the strategies. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use have been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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189 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 25 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Precious and the Boo Hag. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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190 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 26 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Brave Little Seamstress. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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191 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 27 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Verdi. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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192 Strategies-Focused Lessons 25-28 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book P Precious and the Boo Hag P The Brave Little Seamstress P Verdi P Wolf Comes to Town General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the lesson is prediction. Throughout the story, students will be making predictions based on the pictures what they already know, and what has been read. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will provide guided practice of the strategy with the students. You will also use th e strategy collaboratively if students appear to be having trouble. When students are ready to predict, instruct them to raise their hand. Lesson 28 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Wolf Comes to Town. I want you make predictions as I read. Review the chart with them to remi nd them of how to predict based on clues. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to guide students through practice of the strategy. This should be a guided process.

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193 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 29 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Eggs Mark the Spot. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the stra tegies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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194 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 30 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Pizza for the Queen. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the stra tegies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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195 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 31 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called The Frog Principal. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the stra tegies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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196 Strategies-Focused Lessons 29-32 Before each lesson, review each strategy on the chart. Strategies Book QCSP Eggs Mark the Spot QCSP Pizza for the Queen QCSP The Frog Principal QCSP Turtle Spring General Directions: For the next four lessons, the focus of the less ons will be on independent use of all strategies Throughout the story, students will be making using all four strate gies as the instructor reads the story. It will be very interactive because th e onus is on the student. Review the teaching chart provided. During this phase, you will be watchi ng for independent use of the strategy. If students appear to be having tr ouble, you may use guided practice. Lesson 32 Boys and girls, I am going to be reading a story called Turtle Spring. I want you to use all of the strategies as I read. Review the chart with them to remind them of the strategies. Listen so that you can help each other use the strategies correctly. If you need help, I will guide you. Because this lesson really depends on what stude nts have to contribute, possible for strategy use has been marked in the storybook. Be sure to allow the students to practice the strategies independently. Help them only if they need it an d no other student is able to help them. This should be an independent process

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197 APPENDIX G STRATEGY INTRODUCTION SCHEDULE Day Strategy Phase 1 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 2 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 3 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 4 QCSP Teacher Modeling of the Strategy 5 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 6 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 7 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 8 Q Collaborative Use of the Strategy 9 C Guided Practice 10 C Guided Practice 11 C Guided Practice 12 C Guided Practice 13 QC Guided Practice 14 QC Guided Practice 15 QC Guided Practice 16 QC Guided Practice 17 S Guided Practice 18 S Guided Practice 19 S Guided Practice 20 S Guided Practice 21 QCS Guided Practice 22 QCS Guided Practice 23 QCS Guided Practice 24 QCS Guided Practice 25 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 26 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 27 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 28 P Guided Practice with a gradua l releasetoward independent use 29 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed 30 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed 31 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed 32 QCSP Independent Strategy Usewith guidance if needed

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198 APPENDIX H TREATMENT FIDELITY CHECKLISTS Vocabulary-Focused Intervention Treatment Fidelity Checklist Instructor: _________________________________________ Date: _____________ Observer: _________________________________________ Step 1: Read and discuss the story. Step 2: Introduce the target words one at a time and contextualize them for their roles in the story. Step 3: Repeat the word to create a phonological representation of the word. Step 4: Introduce a student friendly definition. Step 5: Discuss the word in contexts other than the one used in the story. Step 6: Repeat the word again to rei nforce its phonological representation. Yes No NA The instructor interspersed ope n questions throughout the story. The instructor gave children opportun ities to talk about ideas in the story. The instructor encouraged children to make connections among ideas in the story as the story moved along. Yes No NA The instructor introduced the target words one at a time. The instructor contextualized the words for their roles in the story. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to repeat the target word to reinforce its phonological representation. Yes No NA The instructor explained the words using student-frie ndly definitions. Yes No NA The instructor discussed the target words using multiple contexts that are different from the story. Yes No NA

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199 The instructor encouraged students to repeat the target word to reinforce its phonological representation.

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200 Strategies-Focused Intervention Treatment Fidelity Checklist Instructor: _________________________________________ Date: _____________ Observer: _________________________________________ Predicting Questioning Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to make logical predictions based on clues from either the text or illustrations. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to ask questions based on main ideas in the story. The instructor encouraged students to ask detail-oriented questions. The instructor encouraged student s to ask inferential questions. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy.

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201 Clarifying Summarizing Yes No NA The instructor encouraged student s to express confusion regarding ideas or events in the text. The instructor encouraged students to identify words that were difficult to pronounce or understand. The instructor encouraged students to clarify misunderstandings in three ways. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged students to give key points in a short, one or two-sentence summary. Yes No NA The instructor encouraged students to summarize in a logical order. The instructor encouraged students to use illustrations to summarize the text. The instructor described the strategy and modeled its use. The instructor and the students enga ged in collaborative use of the strategy. The instructor provided guided practi ce for student use of the strategy. The instructor allowed students to engage in independent use of the strategy. The instructor encouraged stude nts to support one another in discussion and use of the strategy.

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202 LIST OF REFERENCES Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thin king and learning about print Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Allington, R. (1984). Content coverage and contextual reading in reading groups. Journal of Reading Behavior 16. 85-96. Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. (1981). Vocabul ary knowledge. In J. T. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Baker, L. (2002). Metacognition in comprehensi on instruction. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp.77-95). New York: Guilford Press. Baumann, J. F., & Bergeron, B. S. (1993). Story map instruction using ch ildrens literature: Effects on first graders' comprehens ion of central narrative elements. Journal of Reading Behavior 25, 407-437. Baumann, J. F., Kameenui, E. J., & Ash, G. (2003). Research on vo cabulary instruction: Votaire redux. In J. Flood, D. Lapp, J. R. Squire, & J. Jensen, (Eds.), Handbook of research on the English Language Arts (2nd ed., pp. 752-785) New York: Macmillan. Beck, I., & McKeown, M. (1991). Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, and P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol. II (pp. 789-814) Mahwah, NJ: La wrence Erlbaum Associates. Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2001). Text Talk: Capturing the benefits of read aloud experiences for young children. Reading Teacher 55, 10-20. Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction New York: Guilford Press. Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2007). Increasing young low-income childrens oral vocabulary repertoires through ri ch and focused instruction Elementary School Journa l., 107, 251-271. Beck, I. L., Perfetti, C. A., & McKeown, M. G. (1982). Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology 74, 506-521. Biemiller, A. (1977-1978). Relationships betwee n oral reading rates for letters, words, and simple text in the developm ent of reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly 13, 223-253.

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203 Biemiller, A. (1999). Language and reading success Cambridge, MA: Brookline. Biemiller, A., & Slonim, N. (2001). Estimating root word vocabulary growth in normative and advantaged populations: Evidence for a co mmon sequence of vocabulary acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology 93, 498-520. Blachowicz, C. L. (2000). Vocabulary instruction: In. M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. Vol. III Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates. Block, C. (2000). Reading instruction in the new millennium. In A. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds (pp. 472-490). Alexandria, VA: Associ ation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Block, C. & Pressley, M. (2003). Best practices in comprehension instruction. In L. Morrow, L. Gambrell, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (2nd ed.) (pp. 111126). New York: Guildford Press. Brabham, E. G., & Lynch-Brown, C. (2002). Effects of teachers reading-aloud styles on vocabulary acquisition and comprehension of st udents in the early elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology 94, 465-473. Brett, A., Rothlein, L., & Hurley, M. (1996). Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories and explanation of target words. Elementary School Journal 96, 415-422. Britto, P. R., Fuligni, A. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. ( 2006). Reading ahead: E ffective interventions for young childrens early literacy development. In D. K. Dickinson and S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of Early Literacy Research,Vol. 2 (pp. 311-332). New York: Guilford Press. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1967). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. Collins Cobuild Dictionary (2006). Glasgow, Great Britain : HarperCollins Publishers. Condus, M. M., Marshall, K. J., & Miller, S. R. (1986). Effects of keyword mnemonic strategy on vocabulary acquisition and maintena nce by learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities 19, 609-613. Coyne, M. D., Simmons, D. C., Kameenui, E. J., & Stoolmiller, M., (2004). Teaching vocabulary during shared storybook readings: An examination of differential effects. Exceptionality, 12( 3), 145-162. Craig, H. K., & Washington, J. A. (2006). Recent re search on the language and literacy skills of African American students in th e early years. In D.K. Dickinson & S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of Early Literacy Research Vol. 2 (pp. 198-210). New York: Guilford Press.

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204 Cross, D. & Paris, S. (1988). Developmental an d instructional analysis of childrens instruction metacognition and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology 80 (2), 141-142. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1997). Early reading acquisiti on and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology 33, 934-945. Dickinson, D., & Smith, M. (1994). Long-term e ffects of preschool t eachers book readings on low-income childrens vocabulary and story comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly 29, 104-122. Dole, J., Brown, K., & Trathen, W. (1996). The effects of strate gy instruction on the comprehension performance of at risk students. Reading Research Quarterly 31, 63-85. Duffy, G. (2002). The case for direct explanatio n of strategies. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension: Research-based best practices (pp. 28-41). New York: Guilford Press. Duffy, G., & Roehler, L. (1987). Improving read ing instruction through the use of responsive elaboration. Reading Teacher 40, 514-521. Duffy, G., Roehler, L., Meloth, M., Vavrus, L., Book, C., Putnam, J., et al. (1986). The relationship between explicit verbal explan ation during reading skill instruction and awareness and achievement. Reading Teacher 40, 514-521. Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A.E. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed) (pp. 205-242). Newark, DE: Inte rnational Reading Association. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody picture vocabulary test-Third edition Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Durkin, D. (1978). What classroom observati ons reveal about read ing comprehension instruction. Reading Research Quarterly 14, 481-533. Durkin, D. (1993). Teaching them to read (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Elley, W. B. (1989). Vocabulary acqui sition from listening to stories. Reading Research Quarterly 24, 174-187. Foreman, E. & Cazden, C. (1994). Exploring V ygotskian perspectives in education: The cognitive value of peer interaction. In R. Ruddell, M. Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed) (pp. 155-178). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

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205 Harcourt Educational Measurement. (2003). Stanford achievement test (10th ed.) San Antonio, TX: Harcourt School Publishers. Higgins, N., & Hess, L. (1999). Using electroni c books to promote vocabulary development. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 31, 425-430. Jenkins, J. R., Matlock, B., & Slocum, T. A. (1989) Two approaches to vo cabulary instruction: The teaching of individual word meanings a nd practice in deriving word meanings from context. Reading Research Quarterly 24, 215-235. Johnson-Glenberg, M. (2000). Training reading comprehension in adequate decoders/poor comprehenders: Verbal versus visual strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology 92, 777-782. Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write : A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology 22, 437-447. Juel, C. (2006). The impact of early school expe riences on initial reading. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.). Handbook of early literacy research, Vol. 2. (pp. 410-426). New York: Guilford Press. Justice, L. M., Meier, J., &Walpole, S. ( 2005). Learning new words from storybooks: An efficacy study with at-risk kindergartners. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 36, 17-32. Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Interobserver agreement: Single ca se-research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings (pp. 48-75). New York: Oxford University Press. Keenan, J. M. (2006, March). Comprehending the Gr ay Oral Reading Test without reading it: Why comprehension tests should not include passage independent items. Paper presented at the 2nd biannual conference of the Florida Center for Reading Research, St. Petersburg Beach, FL. Keene, E. & Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a readers workshop Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Landry, S. H., & Smith, K. E. (2006). The influen ce of parenting on emerging literacy skills. In D. K. Dickinson & S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of Early Literacy Research, Vol. 2 (pp. 135-148). New York: Guilford Press. Lederer, J. (2000). Reciprocal teaching of social studies in in clusive elementary classrooms. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33 (1), 91-107. Lesgold, A. M., Perfetti, C. A. (1978). Inte ractive processes in r eading comprehension. Discourse Processes 1, 323-336.

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206 Leslie, L. & Caldwell, J. (2006). Qualitative Reading Inventory-4 New York: Longman. Lubliner, S., & Smetana, L. (2005). The eff ects of comprehensive vo cabulary instruction on Title I students metacognitive word-learn ing skills and reading comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research 37, 163-200. Lysynchuk, L., Pressley, M., & Vye, N. (1990). Reciprocal teaching improves standardized reading comprehension performance in poor comprehenders. Elementary School Journal 90, 469-484. McKeown, M. G. (1993). Creating effectiv e definitions for young word learners. Reading Research Quarterly 28, 16-31. McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., Omanson, & R. C., Pe rfetti, C. A. (1983). The effect of long term vocabulary instruction on reading comprehension: A replication. Journal of Reading Behavior 15, 3-18. McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., Omanson, R. C., & Pople, M. T. (1985). Some effects of the nature and frequency of vocabulary instruc tion on the knowledge and use of words. Reading Research Quarterly 22, 522-535. Morrow, L. M. (1985). Retelling storie s: A strategy for improving young childrens comprehension, concept of story struct ure, and oral language complexity. Elementary School Journal 85, 647-661. Myers, M., & Paris, S. (1978). Children 's metacognitive knowledge about reading. Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 680-690. Nagy, W. E. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Nagy, W. E. (2000). Vocabular y processes. In. M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. Vol. III Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.. Nagy, W. E., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Br eadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In. M. G. McKeown & M.E. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp. 19-36). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates. National Center for Edu cation Statistics (2005). National Assessment of Educational Progress: The Nations Report Card, Reading 2005 Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Education, Office of Educationa l Research and Improvement. National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications fo r reading instruction

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210 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tyran Wright Butler was born in Naples, Fl orida. She graduated from LaBelle High School in LaBelle, Florida in 1991. Tyran receive d a Bachelor of Arts in Education with a specialization in early childhood from the University of Flor ida in 1994. She received an M.Ed. in educational leader ship from St. Leo University in 2002. From 1994-2003, Tyran taught in Columbia Count y Florida (Lake City). Her teaching experience includes fifth grade, fourth grade and kindergarten. She also served as a reading coach and a curriculum resource teacher. The ma jority of her time teaching was spent working with students in intermediate grades. While completing her doctoral st udies at the University of Florida, Tyran served as a graduate research assistant with Dr. Holly La ne, on Project Access to Books for Children; Dr. Alyson Adams, in the Lastinger Center for Le arning; and with Dr. Lynda Hayes, on Project Raising Expectations for All Children. In addi tion, Tyran served as a consultant with the Northeast Florida Educational Consortium. During her doctoral program, Tyran was activ e in the Special Edu cation Association of Doctoral Students, serving as secretary. She is a member of the American Educational Research Association, the Association for Teacher Educat ors, the International Reading Association, the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, and the Council for Exceptional Children. In the future, Tyran plans to continue resear ch in the area of read ing and to work with schools to improve learning outcomes for students. Her other research interests include family literacy, teacher professional de velopment, and cultu rally responsive pedagogy. She may also teach at the university level.