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An Architecture School's Curriculum and Pedagogical Methods as the Foundations of the Modern Academy: 1951 to 2007

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An Architecture School's Curriculum and Pedagogical Methods as the Foundations of the Modern Academy: 1951 to 2007
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ORTEGA, MARIO F.
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2008

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Architectural design ( jstor )
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Design analysis ( jstor )
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City of Miami ( local )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Mario F. Ortega. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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5/31/2008
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1 AN ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL’S CURRICUL UM AND PEDAGOGI CAL METHODS AS THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE MODERN ACADEMY: 1951 By MARIO F. ORTEGA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Mario F. Ortega

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3 To my father and my mother, who have alwa ys supported my passion throughout my life and to Michelle, who without you, this would not have been possible

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank The Un iversity of Florida for establishing an exceptional pedagogical organization, which encourages us to excel in our everyday endeavors; my thesis committee, Nina Hofer and Martin Gundersen, fo r their constant motivation and never-ending wealth of knowledge; Becky Hudson, for her patien ce and guidance during th is entire process; and my thesis chair, once again, Robert McCarter for always, inspiring th e everlasting force that drives every architect to achie ve excellence, not only as a mentor but as a friend.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............11 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... ......13 Mario F. Ortega: Lone Ranger................................................................................................13 Birth of the Texas Rangers.....................................................................................................14 Two Main Protagonists.......................................................................................................... .16 First was a Swiss Architect Named Bernard Hoesli........................................................16 Second Influential Architect and Writer..........................................................................18 Architecture Memorandum and the Academy........................................................................20 University of Texas School of Architecture Memorandum............................................21 An Academy Based upon Two Works by Le Corbusier and Van Doesburg..................22 Studio System as Defined by the Memorandum of 1954................................................23 THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE DESI GN STUDIO TEACHING METHOD.............................25 American Academy............................................................................................................... .25 Influence of Ecole de Beaux-Arts...........................................................................................25 Prominent Architects of the A cademy and Their Contributions............................................26 Influence of H.H. Richardson..........................................................................................28 Influence of Louis Sullivan.............................................................................................29 Influence of Frank Lloyd Wright....................................................................................30 HISTORICAL EXAMPLES OF PEDAGOGY BASE D ON UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS...........36 Cornell University–Ithaca...................................................................................................... .36 Cooper Union–New York.......................................................................................................37 Eidgenssische Technishe Hochschule (ETH)–Zurich..........................................................38 PEDAGOGICAL OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN STUDIOS AS DEFINED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AND PARALLED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA....46 Methodology and Goals of the Design Studi os at the University of Texas............................46 First was the Freshman-Year Studios..............................................................................46 Second was the Sophomore-Year Studios.......................................................................46 Third was the Junior-Year Studios..................................................................................46 Fourth was the Senior-Year Studios................................................................................47 Reformation of the Design Problems..............................................................................48 Roles of Drawings and the “C rit” in Jury Presentations.................................................48 Methodology and Goals of the Design Studi os at the University of Florida..........................49

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6 Design 1: First-Year Studio.............................................................................................50 Design 2: First-Year Studio.............................................................................................50 Design 3: Second-Year Studio........................................................................................51 Design 4: Second-Year Studio........................................................................................51 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 1: DESI GN LESSONS & OBSERVATIONS................................53 Cube-Space-Threshold...........................................................................................................53 Nine-Square Grid Exercise..............................................................................................53 Observations of the Cube-Space-Threshold....................................................................55 Explanation of Design Proce ss for Cube-Space-Threshold....................................................56 Design Objective and Methodology................................................................................56 Design Sequence and Process.........................................................................................56 Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal..................................................................................57 Cubism and Transparency...............................................................................................59 Transparency within Paintings........................................................................................59 Comparison of Bauhaus and Villa Garches.....................................................................61 Implementation of Transparency in to First-Year Design Studios...................................62 Additional Notes on the Concept of Transparency by Bernard Hoesli:..........................64 Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 1....................................................................65 Course Description..........................................................................................................65 Course Objectives............................................................................................................65 Course Process/ Methodology.........................................................................................66 Course Requirements.......................................................................................................66 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 2: DESI GN LESSONS & OBSERVATIONS................................77 Influence of the Mathematics of the Ideal Villa.....................................................................77 Origin of Colin Rowe’s Essay and Theory......................................................................77 Comparative Design Exercises........................................................................................79 Le Corbusier’s and Palladio’s Appr oach to Classical Principles....................................83 Subtraction and addition theory...............................................................................84 Use of mathematics in design..................................................................................86 Conclusion of Analysis for the Four Villas.....................................................................88 Analysis-Proportion-Occupation............................................................................................89 Analysis of Villa Rotonda and Villa Savoye...................................................................89 Design Objective and Methodology................................................................................89 Design Observations........................................................................................................90 Occupational Datum Project...................................................................................................91 Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 2....................................................................91 Course Description..........................................................................................................91 Course Objective.............................................................................................................92 Course Process/ Methodology.........................................................................................92 Course Requirements.......................................................................................................93

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7 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 3: OBSE RVATIONS & DESIGN LESSONS..............................112 Containment of High Speed Forces......................................................................................112 Design Objective and Methodology..............................................................................112 Design Sequence and Process.......................................................................................112 Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 3..................................................................114 Course Description........................................................................................................114 Course Objectives..........................................................................................................115 Course Process/ Methodology.......................................................................................115 Course Requirements.....................................................................................................115 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 4: DESI GN LESSONS & OBSERVATIONS..............................134 Connector Project.............................................................................................................. ...134 Design Objective and Methodology..............................................................................134 Design Sequence and Process.......................................................................................134 Additional design notes..........................................................................................136 Sectional model......................................................................................................136 Generator Project.............................................................................................................. ....137 Vizcaya Museum and Garden Extension..............................................................................137 Role of the First Two Projects.......................................................................................138 Design Sequence and Process.......................................................................................139 Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 4..................................................................139 Course Description........................................................................................................139 Course Objective...........................................................................................................140 Course Process/ Methodology.......................................................................................140 Course Requirements.....................................................................................................140 CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................................................... ......160 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................166 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................167

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Timeline showing spread of th e Texas Ranger’s pedagogical methods............................40 4-1 Subtracting volumes and slots...........................................................................................51 4-2 Drawing exercises gray r ectangles and continuous line....................................................52 4-3 Drawing exercises of conti nuous line emphasizing horizontals........................................52 5-1 Cube: Matrix three-dimensional compositions..................................................................67 5-2 Cube: Planar three-dimensional compositions...................................................................68 5-3 Cube: Combination of matrix and planar three-dimensional compositions......................69 5-4 Section study analysis of Peter Eisenmann’s House X......................................................70 5-5 Three-dimensional composition based on section study of House X................................70 5-6 Threshold: Process of three-dimensional compositions....................................................71 5-7 Threshold: Combination of cube and section study a nd threshold, three-dimensional compositions................................................................................................................... ...72 5-8 Room and Garden: Isometric drawings.............................................................................73 5-9 Room and Garden: Matrix and Spatial compositions........................................................74 5-10 Room and Garden: Matrix and Spatial compositions, intervention with ground plan......75 6-1 Villa studies: Drawings of Palladio’s Villa Rotonda.........................................................94 6-2 Villa studies: Two-dimensional analysis of Palladio’s Villa Rotonda establishing, geometry, scale and proportion..........................................................................................95 6-3 Villa studies: Drawings of Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoy.....................................................96 6-4 Villa studies: Two-dimensional analysis of Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoy, establishing, geometry, scale and proportion..........................................................................................97 6-5 Villa studies: Matrix, three-dimensiona l study based on two-dimensional analysis of Le Corbusier and Palladio..................................................................................................98 6-6 Villa studies: Spatial, three-dimensional study based on two-dimensional analysis of Le Corbusier and Palladio..................................................................................................99

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9 6-7 Villa studies: Three-dimensional com position of occupation phase, incorporating matrix and spatial studies.................................................................................................100 6-8 Villa studies: Final occupational phase, incorporating matrix and spatial studies..........101 6-9 Occupational Datum: Sp atial planar organization...........................................................102 6-10 Occupational Datum: Articulation of tran sparent organizational elements and matrix system......................................................................................................................... .....103 6-11 Occupational Datum: Approach, arriva l and entry to spatial composition within datum composition...........................................................................................................105 6-12 Occupational Datum: Sequential layering of habitable spaces organized within datum composition.................................................................................................................... ..106 6-13 Occupational Datum: Undetermined com position lacking definition of human scale within the habitable space................................................................................................107 6-14 Occupational Datum: Example of project able to achieve a successful solution to habitable space within spatial joint..................................................................................108 6-15. Occupational Datum: Spatial joint com position, illustrating above , below, and within threshold moments...........................................................................................................109 6-16 Occupational Datum: Analysis of three-dimensional co mposition using a two dimensional media to establish movement and continuity within spatial joint...............110 7-1 Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 1...................117 7-2 Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 2...................118 7-3 Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 3...................119 7-4 Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 4...................120 7-5 Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 5...................121 7-6 Gateway-Faade-Space: Th ree-dimensional composition...............................................122 7-7 Containment of High Speed Forces: Fold ed plane-expanded field, interpretation 1.......123 7-8 Containment of High Speed Forces: Lin ear matrix construct, interpretation 1...............124 7-9 Containment of High Speed Forces: In tegration of folded plane with matrix construct, interpretation 1................................................................................................125 7-10 Containment of High Speed Forces: Fold ed plane transparency study interpretation 1..127

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10 7-11 Containment of High Speed Forces: Fo lded plane sectional st udy, interpretation 1.......127 7-12 Containment of High Sp eed Forces: Final construct........................................................128 7-13 Containment of High Speed Forces: Spat ial moment perspective, interpretation 1.........129 7-14 Containment of High Speed Forces: Fo lded plane-expanded field, interpretation 2.......130 7-15 Containment of High Speed Forces: Linear matrix constr uct, interpretation 2................130 7-16 Containment of High Speed Forces: Integration of folded plane with matrix construct, interpretation 2................................................................................................131 7-17 Containment of High Speed Forces: Fold ed plane transparency study interpretation 2..132 7-18 Containment of High Speed Forces: Fo lded plane sectional st udy, interpretation 2.......132 7-19 Containment of High Speed Forces: Spat ial moment perspective, interpretation 2.........133 8-1 The Connector: Three-dimensi onal compositions, interpretation 1................................142 8-2 The Connector: Three-dimensi onal compositions, interpretation 2................................143 8-3 The Connector: Three-dimensi onal compositions, interpretation 3................................144 8-4 The Connector: Three-dimensi onal compositions, interpretation 4................................145 8-5 The Generator: Two-dimensional site analysis................................................................146 8-6 The Generator: Perspective studies of the site’s scale and pr oportion of context...........148 8-7 The Generator: Phase I—gr ound plane intervention solution.........................................149 8-8 The Generator: Phase II—three-dim ensional composition within ground plane............149 8-9 The Generator: Phase II—three-dim ensional composition within ground plane............151 8-10 The Generator: Phase II—three-dim ensional composition within ground plane............152 8-12 Vizcaya Extension: Site analysis.....................................................................................154 8-13 Vizcaya Extension: Site plan intervention.......................................................................155 8-14 Vizcaya Extensi on: Context intervention.........................................................................156

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science in Architectural Studies AN ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL’S CURRICUL UM AND PEDAGOGI CAL METHODS AS THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE MODERN ACADEMY: 1951 By Mario F. Ortega May 2007 Chair: Robert McCarter Cochair: Martin G. Gundersen Major: Architecture The influence of architecture pedagogy on the success of a student during their architectural studies has its foundation deep ly rooted and dependent upon the methodology of academic institutions such as the University of Texas (UT), as was carried out by the historical pioneers known as the Texas Rangers back in the 1950s and continued at the University of Florida today. With this in mind, one can begin to understand the importance of the methods of teaching we as educators utilize specifically during the first two years of a student’s architectural education. The imprint of the rigor and st andards established dur ing the Design 1 through Design 4 architecture studios serve as the backbon e to fully understanding the design process, development and culmination of an architectural project that is to be mastered throughout the architecture student’s education. Through the study of historical pedagogical academ ic models, one can begin to master the curriculum established at each of those institutio ns and effectively tailor the design projects and exercises to achieve the most successful final design solutions that will properly prepare the student for each design studio sequence thereafter. The design process and its development in each Design 1 through Design 4 studio should be st andardized to meet the design requirements

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12 necessary for each student to atta in the required architectural de sign principles and systems. Currently, there is a signifi cant gap, among the students’ leve l of achievement, knowledge and design development because of the anarchy that exists today in architecture institutions and their faculty that must be filled. My research is a compilation of the study of historical academic institutions’ curriculum structure and pedagogy with an analytical a pproach to the results of my own teaching methodology, process, projects and overall final ou tcomes in my lower-division studios. This investigative process has led to the creation of a series of design exercises and a reformed memorandum based on the original created at the Un iversity of Texas. As part of the execution of this newly modified curriculum, it should be stated, that an archit ecture school must be founded as an academy well supported by a structured memorandum that both the old and the new faculty can implement in order to achieve success in the education of an Architect.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Mario F. Ortega: Lone Ranger The plight of the Texas Rangers lives on. Once again history repeats itself. The crisis and need for a restructuring of architecture educat ion that began in the 1950s, has unearthed itself once again in 2007. I have found my self, over 5 decades later, c ontinuously attempting to follow in the footsteps of the rangers from the Univers ity of Texas and unfortunately have come across resistance and the present day “old guard” whic h therefore has forced me to act as a “Lone Ranger.” Through the conception of this thesis, I am o ffering the foundations needed to organize the lower division design studios under a present-da y reformed curriculum. My research has instilled in me an insatiable motivation to inco rporate similar concepts and structure, not only from those created by the Texas Rangers but also from the second generation of rangers at the University of Florida, into my own design studios at Miami Dade Co llege over the last 10 years. The assemblage of the observations and result s of these design studios and their design process, development and solutions can be c onsidered as the grounds for a new memorandum and for a new “academy.” The ancestry of these rangers is one whose foundations origin ated at the University of Texas and have directly influenced a second generation group of rangers of my own design studios from my alma mater, the University of Florida. The pedagogical methods and curriculum established at the University of Flor ida are the vehicle of knowledge I used in the conception of my design studios and their proj ects, therefore granting me the awareness to propose a renewed curriculum and memorandum.

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14 The struggle to establish this renewed memo randum has led me to unofficially become the design and curriculum coordinator in an envi ronment that has lacked a strong “academy” foundation and has been consumed by anarchy. The lack of an effective memorandum has created an inherent gap within the architecture student body that must be bridged by standards that are to be incorporated specifically with in the first two years of their studies. The incohesiveness found here, and at many other ins titutions, is producing a dysfunctional studio. This manifests itself when I inherit students who l ack the main principles that should have been established in the previous st udios. Consequently, the met hodology of the studio leads to a never-ending reconstruction and reformation of my own studios and curriculum in order to equally channel and brin g all the student up-to-par to wher e they should be in each design sequence. With the lack of set standards c oncerning the design process, development and the execution of the appropriate principles, I have found myself struggling to establish them each semester according to the variet y and culture of the studio. Ev en though I am currently still acting as a “Lone Ranger,” I have the will and desi re to bring about a new academy in an attempt to influence the future “Texas Rangers” in the sa me likeness the University of Florida has been doing throughout the years. Birth of the Texas Rangers Every attempt I have made to improve the curriculum and every method of teaching, every program I have tried to put through, every obj ective I have attempted to attain, has been actively and consistently resisted and sabot aged by a group of ‘coasting incompetents’ entrenched in the highest ranks of the sc hool. These men have never once stopped their efforts to prevent change, discredit me, wast ed my time and energy, created an uproar and keep control of the school.1 1 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 50.

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15 As Harwell Hamilton Harris wrote in the above letter to the school president in March 9, 1954, Harris did not know it was the group of “co asting incompetents” that lead to the disintegration of the Texas Rangers at the Univers ity of Texas of Austin. However, because of the endless passion for architecture and pedagogical foundation established by the rangers at the University of Texas at Austin, these rangers pr evailed to go on and re-establish an unprecedented worldwide architecture pedagogical curriculum still in effect today. It was during the years of 1951 and 1956, with Harwell Hamilton Harris as the School of Architecture Director that a group of young architects, designers and artists came to teach at the University of Texas School of Architecture in Austin. Some of these young men, that later became known as the Texas Rangers, were Bern hard Hoesli, Colin Rowe, John Hejduk, Robert Slutzky, Lee Hirshe, John Shal Lee Hodgden and Warner Seligmann. Through their teaching methods, architecture writings and professiona l experience, these men created such an exceptional architecture program that as a result , it created a level of friction between them and the old faculty, better known as the “old guard,” eventually forcing the rangers to leave Austin.2 During their time at Texas, the primary objective of the rangers was to establish the idea of a new alternative academy at the university, one that may serve as a reformation of Modern Architecture. Although the program developed by the rangers at Universi ty of Texas School of Architecture was thought to be revolutionary, it was by no means so but actually quite the contrary. This program was originally set fort h as the “antidote” to both the Ecole des BeauxArts and the Harvard Graduate School of Desi gn (GSD). The GSD at the time was directed by Walter Gropius, an migr from Germany in the 1930s, whose views on th e International Style were very influential in the United States. 2 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 50.

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16 The new program at Texas was leading to i nduce a move toward a humanistic, inductive, and historically conscious approach to the st udy of architecture. It was to reconcile two divergent philosophies; the modernist insistence on tec hnology, functionalism, and experimentation and the academic reliance on trad ition and precedent. At the same time, the school was to challenge the anti-intellect ual tendencies of a pr ogrammatic regionalism.3 By doing this, such investigation emphasized the vi sualization and organiza tion of architectural space over the shaping of architectural mass and recognition and the development of the architectural idea.4 Years later, after the departure of th e rangers from Austin, the same concepts were applied and became the main foundation fo r curriculums at world-wide schools of architecture such as; Cornell, Cooper Union, Eidgenssische Technishe Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich, Cambridge University, Syracuse and others. Two Main Protagonists Just as Walter Gropius was influential to th e Bauhaus and the Harvard Graduate School of Design, one could say the same a bout two young Architects at the Univ ersity of Texas at Austin. First was a Swiss Architect Named Bernard Hoesli As a high school graduate with in a scientific and mathema tical discipline, Hoesli soon afterwards entered the ETH where he graduated in architecture. As an Architect, he briefly worked with painter Fernand Lege r and later spent two years working in the Paris and Marseilles offices of Le Corbusier. Some years later, Le Corbusier, impressed with his performance, appointed him Project Architect for the Unite d’ Habitation in Marseill es. Most important, Hoesli possessed leadership qualities as descri bed by former student Mr . Caragonne, “Hoesli had 3 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 11. 4 Ibid.

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17 a high degree of Swiss-German charm, a limitless energy and enthusiasm, a sharp sense of humor and considerable gifts of persuasion.”5 Some colleagues remembered him as radiant, of a strong personality, convincing and dynamic. This created a perfect comb ination to attract both students and colleagues alike to follow his teaching theories. Hoesli’s performance was a true reflection of his character and past experiences. Although Hoesli began his career at UT by teaching urban planning and a junior-year studio, Director Harris commissioned Hoesli to propose a restructur ing of the design studio. Soon after this commission, Hoesli began to incorporate some of his innovative ideas and conclusions into the school’s curriculum. Dissatisfied and impatient with the school’s curri culum and the student’s lack of enthusiasm, Hoesli soon began to implement new teaching methods. These new teaching methods would have an idea of architecture; have an outlook for its development; have an attitude—a philosophy, not a doctrin e, not a party-line, but a concept — an understanding of the situation.6 His contributions brought to the program a strong intelle ctual and methodical bias tempered with the pragmatic attitude of the pr actitioners. Hoesli would further emphasize the teaching of design not by type or indoctrination but via a met hod or process flexible enough to continue to serve the students as they faced new and unfamiliar circumstances. For Hoesli, the primary question to focus on was not, “How does one learn?” But, “What is necessary to be learned?”7 5 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 7. 6 Ibid., p. 366. 7 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 81.

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18 Hoesli’s concern with the desi gn development was very evident. He began a daily log recording class activities, the st udent’s progress, and the student’ s response to the teaching, the result of their work and his own reflections and conclusions. These activities continued all throughout his teaching years at UT until his depa rture from Austin. As part of the design studio, after revising the student ’s notebooks, Hoesli felt that they were incomplete and disorganized. Therefore, as a suggestion to help organize the student’s notebooks, Hoesli created the following headings: concerning the design process: Principles of composition, scale, form in architectural design, architectural drawing concerning the nature and use of materials concerning construction problems, reports, assignments reviews8 Second Influential Architect and Writer This leads us to a very different man with di fferent principles but with the same passion. Colin Rowe was a British Architect whose bac kground was influenced by Rudolf Wittkower at the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes in London. Rowe was known for his multitude of respectable alternatives a nd a great memory for histor ical facts and examples.9 In the studio, Rowe’s complex pedagogical style was very pe rsonal. Rowe would maintain a systematic design development, revealed only in stages. Comparing the two teaching methods. Contrasting Rowe’s teaching style was that of Hoesli’s, with a direct, authoritative and at the same time enthusiastic attitude. Hoesli’s manner was that of the school-master. Hoesli was known to be in complete control of the design studio, 8 Ibid., p. 366. 9 Ibid., p. 8.

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19 whenever the students fully grasped his direction, they would in turn provide the foundation for another set of exercises. However, Hoesli was wi lling to pause or even stop completely in the middle of the exercises, to reformulate the probl em, if he thought the central point was becoming unclear. As explained by Caragonne: The two teaching styles could not have been more dissimilar. Under Rowe, the teaching process was akin to a sophisticated dance, w ith students and critic moving together through an intricate set of maneuvers and steps leading to greater intellectual awareness and clarity: conversely under Hoesli that process resembled an athletic workout where the extraneous was burned off and intellectual pow ers strengthened and developed.10 Application of Hoesli’s th eories in my own studios. This aspect of reformulating, practiced by Hoesli, is one that I have had to consistently apply, not onl y in the design exercise but the entire studio environment as well as my own teaching methodology due to the need to respond to certain unique conditions. Some of these inherent situ ations include the increase of enrollment and the studio size. I have had to many times manage 22 to 25 students in a studio, especially in the first year. Th erefore, I have had the need to adapt and generate a general and overall discussion or critique instead of the trad itional individual desk critique because of the ratio of student to allotte d studio time. Other factors that have influenced this evolution include no Teacher Assistants (TA) or Graduate Teacher Assistants (GTA) as well as the lack of permanent studios. The traditional typical st udio includes a smaller number of students, anywhere from 10 to 15 maximum. This incl udes a lecture time invol ving the entire studio followed by individual desk critiques. When the studio consists of 25 students, I have developed a “critique” process that encompasses a discussi on of all projects together in one general 10 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 9.

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20 discussion. This has actually proven to be a su ccessful process of development for the students in several ways. The observations are as follows: The student feels as though they are participating in a studio envir onment because they see and hear discussions and comments of other projects at the same time as their own projec ts. Instantly, a state of synergy is created. I have also realized through the years, that this method increases the quality of work throughout the studio as a whole. The student sees for th emselves the areas that need concentration or improvement such as craftsmanship, design comple xity and general archit ecture principles and their incorporation without literally being told but simply through their own visual observations. Architecture Memorandum and the Academy This brings us to understanding more fully the series of events that brought the climax of change to the University of Te xas. Although both men, Rowe and Ho esli, were very different on their cultural, educational and philosophical background, they both shar ed similar pedagogical incentives. There mutual experience was that the School of Architecture at Texas was in need of a radical curriculum reconstruc tion. Therefore, in the spring of 1954, collaborating together again, Hoesli and Rowe presente d to Director Harris the ne w memorandum. This memorandum set forth the rationale for a new academy a nd called for a clearly stated philosophy of architecture education: An academy—and a school of architecture is an academy—is by its nature obliged to be academic. It is in consequence committed to a belief in knowledge and a respect for theories of education. It assu mes cultural self-consciousness to be a virtue. It can exist only by reference to a body of ideas. It s educational program cannot be founded upon irresponsible opinion, private preference, or in dividual fantasy, but must be rooted in the understanding and respect for certa in general principles. These general principles can form a frame of reference within which legitimate differences of opinion among Faculty can exist. It is necessary to consider what fram e of reference we can legitimately assume to be our own.11 11 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 154.

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21 This memorandum put into affect a new appr oach in architecture studies. Clearly for Hoesli and Rowe, the Bauhaus and Beaux-Arts were two separate ar chitecture philosophies slowly disappearing, if not, gone altogether. However, within the Bauhaus and Beaux-Arts existed the essence of a new re vival for Modern Architecture st udies. There was then a new opportunity extracting upon both traditions. This was not to revive the Beaux-Arts or to establish a new Bauhaus, but to indicate, that since in the past both have been influential, neither should be overlooked but instead, from their remnan ts, it was possible to establish a significant academy.12 A number of significant articl es and essays followed after the inauguration of the new School of Architecture at Austin, Texas. So me of the articles broke new ground in the expression of architectural space. Othe r articles became the foundation for drawings, diagrammatic studies of paintings, Beaux-Arts and modern buildings. These diagrammatical studies helped the students define architectural principles, which later became useful to establish concepts of their own. University of Texas School of Architecture Memorandum As previously stated, it was in March 1954 th at the School of Arch itecture Memorandum was prepared by Harris, Hoesli and Rowe. This memorandum stated that architectural design, specifically modern architectural design, could be taught . It further expressed that within Modern Architecture exists a large number of significant buildings a nd projects capable of demonstrating certain basic design and architectura l principles. These specific projects were to be studied and analyzed to understand and extr act from them a workab le, useful system of architecture theory. 12 Ibid., p. 156.

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22 The memorandum preamble therefore sets th e foundation of the new school’s program: The process of design is essentially the criticism of a given situation. The power of generalization and abstract ion (in the student) must be aroused. The act of selection assumes a commitment to certain principles. An academic institution should offer an esse ntial knowledge and an essential attitude.13 Functioning as a critique of the contem porary pedagogies, the memorandum urged the foundation of a new, alternative academy. Therefor e, one of my conclusions, as part of a new memorandum for today’s institutions, is that a School of Architecture should in fact first become an “Academy” as stated in the UT memorandum. We, as educators, have a responsibility beyond the “School” and “Administration” and need to perform under the auspices of a structured “Academy” for the benefit of the students who depend upon this ordered system. One of the most interesting para graphs in the memorandum states: As a matter of historical common sense, the ca re of an academic s ituation in the year 1954 should be involved with the crit ical appraisal of the formal systems of the formal systems of three men, Wright, LeCorbusier and Mies va n der Rohe. Their forms will be used with or without conscious knowledge . It is the duty of an Academy to make knowledge conscious. It is as foolish to ignore the fo rmal systems implied by these names as it would be to set out to rediscover elec tricity or the steam engine. An Academy must also concern itself with the dichotomy between the peda gogical systems of the Beaux-Arts and the Bauhaus.14 An Academy Based upon Two Works by Le Corbusier and Van Doesburg It is reasonable for an academy to see its position symbolized by two pictures, one a Corbusier drawing of a frame structure, the ot her being Van Doesburg’s construction in space. Both these illustrations are over thirty years ol d, yet they offer the diagram of the contemporary situation.15 13 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 33. 14 Ibid., pp. 33-34. 15 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 33-34.

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23 In Le Corbusier’s drawing, one can see thr ee horizontal planes, supported by six columns from an eye level perspective. This drawi ng delineates an implied architectural volume but leaves open the specifics of en closure and faade organization. C ontrasting Le Corbusier, in Van Doesburg’s axonometric construction, the spatial co mposition suggests an interlocking structure of planes and volumes extending outward. In Le Corbusier’s diagram, the presence of a top, bottom, front, back, and sides, establishes a stable passive compositi on, while no reference of such a condition can be established in Van Doesburg’s. Parallel to one another, though, both diagrams suggest the presence of urban and suburban conditions. In Le Corbusier’s, one can determine a recognition of limits and at the same time the possibility of other similarly conceived elemen ts close by. In Van Doesburg’s composition, an articulated and dynamic perimeter, generated by th e extension outward from the center of the composition, seems to suggest the support of a mu ch larger spatial fiel d and the absence of nearby competing elements. Overall, Le Corbusie r’s composition can be inte rpreted as a discrete volume with clear separation betw een interior and exterior sp aces and private versus public spaces, while Van Doesburg’s composition has no cl ear distinction of the previously mentioned conditions. It is in essence, however an archite cture neither of mass nor of form but of space, defined by and inseparable from its structure.16 Studio System as Defined by the Memorandum of 1954 The memorandum of March 1954 went on to es tablish in detail the policy, goals, and methodology that would define the studio system. Af ter this statement, it is then necessary that the next step after the establishment of an academy is the conception of its memorandum. Rowe’s written statement from th e memorandum read as follows: 16 Ibid., p. 36.

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24 The purpose of architectural education —as of a ll education—is not alone to train a student for professional occupation, but is above all to stimulate his spiritual and intellectual growth, to develop his intellectual faculties and to enable him to grasp the nature and meaning of architecture. Any educational progr am of a school of ar chitecture cannot be based on the mechanics of the professional o ccupation but only on the intellectual content of architecture.17 Our obligations to our students are two: To enable him through education to develop his powers of selecti on by the exercise of judgment To equip him with the skill and knowledge n ecessary for the practice of his profession18 Although the memorandum was intended for new f aculty arriving at Texas, later on in the rangers’ careers, similar and revised versions of this curriculum was used to implement and develop new curriculums in ar chitecture schools around the world. 17Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 37. 18 Ibid.

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25 CHAPTER 2 THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE DE SIGN STUDIO TEACHING METHOD American Academy Immediately after the Second World War, the curriculum, and the faculty from the School of Architecture at the University of Texas at Austin, used th e same principles of teaching architecture applied during th e early half of the century. There were three predominant methods of teaching in the United States; the rapidly receding Ecole de Beaux-Arts model of the Am erican Academy, Walter Gropius’s assimilated version of the Bauhaus program and the hom egrown regionalism and pragmatism American School. As Alexander Caragonne described it, “this odd combination might resemble a kind of carefully balanced American Shinto, in the wors t cases, it would display the symptoms of an advanced state of academic schizophrenia.”1 Influence of Ecole de Beaux-Arts During the late nineteenth century, American graduates of Paris’s Ecole de Beaux-Arts, were interested in bringing the status of architect ure to the professional le vel as of medicine and law. As a result they began to establish and advocate a program of pr ofessional training into major American Universities. Because the American Academy program was established exclusively upon the French model, the program emphasi zed tradition and precedent.2 Demanding and rigorous, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts required the knowledge and appropr iate use of historical precedent. It also involved the acquisition of visua lization and drawing skills. Furt hermore, and most importantly 1 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 17. 2 Ibid., p.18.

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26 the mental discipline and physical determination needed to formulate, develop and present an architectural design project under intense pressure. As attractive as the program’s metho dology and professional appeal were, the implementation of this program into the American teaching system, was lessened by historical political and cultural differences. As an ex ample, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, was founded in 1819 as a postrevolutionary versi on of the Academie Royale d’Ar chitecture and as a result, the population of the ranks of that portion of the Fren ch civil service particip ated in the design and construction of the public works. This type of academic organization would be something very difficult, if not impossible, to be applied in the United States.3 In contrast to course, hours and semester system of the American university, progress through the Ecole was measured vi a a point system on a projectby-project basis and organized around the apprentice system. Acceptance as candi date mandated the selection of an approved patron and atelier to which student s would remain attached for the period of their studies. The entrance requirements of the French academy practically guaranteed those accepted would successfully complete the program. It wasn’t until the Great Depressi on, that the American academy remained a powerful and influential ar chitectural tradition in the United States.4 Prominent Architects of the Ac ademy and Their Contributions Before the 1930s, the American Academy produ ced a number of distinguished architects and teachers, whose formal classical vocabulary was extensively acknowledged and followed throughout the cities, towns, and universities of America. However, during the 1930s the established American Academy came under attack from both the architectural right and left. 3 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 18. 4 Ibid.

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27 Some of these attacks came from pragmatic regi onalists, proponents of the International Style and from American architects such as Frank Ll oyd Wright. The basis of the attacks was the content of the academic program a nd the classical manifestations of the program. As a result of these attacks and unable to put together a conv incing response to modern architecture’s program of technology, function, and soci al utility, the American Acad emy’s foundation began to fall apart.5 The influence of the International Style began to grow by the late 1930s. It was then when Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, both form er directors of the Bauhaus, left Germany to come to the United States. Mies settled in Chicago to preside over a curriculum at the Illinois Institute of Technology. At the same time, Wa lter Gropius went to Ca mbridge and established the Graduate School of Design at Harvard. The GS D was to be considered the first authentic alternative to the existing Amer ican Academy. The success of the Bauhaus gave Gropius a great stature in many European countries. The same could be said about Gropius influence in the United States. Ten years after Gr opius established the GSD in Ha rvard the transp lanted Bauhaus program had overtaken and spread, becoming the dominant force in American architectural design studios.6 Never conceivable in American architectural philosophy, for the first time, regionalism and pragmatism worked side by side as positive counterpart within the established curriculum and pedagogy of many schools of architecture including the University of Texas. In part recognition 5 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 19. 6 Ibid.

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28 must be given to the expressions and work of Am erican regional-organic architects such; Henry Hobson Richardson, Louis Sulliv an, and Frank Lloyd Wright.7 Influence of H.H. Richardson A graduate of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, H. H. Richardson was considered the American architecture genius. In the same way as his peers, Richardson pr acticed in an epoch of art historicism. On the other hand, his approach to architecture was based on creating a “bold, rich, living architecture”8 that could be individual, auth entic and originally American. Richardson became the main source of inspira tion to Louis Sullivan and later Frank Lloyd Wright. Richardson’s approach to architecture was very much asso ciated to Byzantine and early Christian with a stroke of Romanesque, far more massive than any likely to be found since the twelfth century. The most important aspect of his influence was the ability to transform his approach to architecture into a language pure of hi s authenticity. Richardson surpassed the work of his c ontemporaries by maintaining a sustainable discipline and at the same time introducing a sense of innovation within the creation of space, structure and mass. Some examples of his appr oach to architecture wa s the introduction of the “suburban library” the “commuter depot” the “c ommercial block” and the “detached single family house”, giving rise to an architecture par ticularly accustomed to the new age of American business and social reformation.9 Richardson less concerned about artistic expression and at the same time, he was sensible to the no-nonsense American pragmatism. 7 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 20. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid., p. 21.

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29 Influence of Louis Sullivan Richardson’s views for architecture were la ter adopted by Louis Sullivan. In 1886, soon after Richardson’s death, at age 30, Louis Sullivan wrote a great deal of architecture essays. Within the essays he tried to define a consis tent philosophy of design based on his personal point of view. Having established littl e if not any relationship between his solutions to the articulation of the tall office building, Colin Rowe wrote on “The Chicago Frame:” Sullivan was primarily an architect of comm ercial buildings; and, of all buildings, the office block is obviously that without the need of any but the minimum of planning. It requires elementary circulations and a well lit floor area; but apart from these, it neither can nor should present any spat ial elaboration. Thus, the unobst ructed evenly lit floor and the indefinite number of floors which it permitted, recommended the steel frame to the architects of Chicago as the answer to a practical dilemma.10 It is important to understand Sullivan’s simp licity because, simultaneously, the influence of naturalist writers Whitman and Emerson transformed Sullivan’s earthy pragmatism into a more natural architecture language. Sullivan bega n to establish a relationship between structure and ornament combining both systems as one ar chitectural composition. Sullivan was convinced that a system of ornament could be derived from an observation of nature. This would later become a concept strongl y noted in some of Frank Lloyd Wright buildings. Conceptually, one may register a comparison between a flower—stem, leaves, and blossoms—could be abstracted and then symmetrica lly reordered repetitive ly on a given surface. This metaphor was later employed by Sullivan in the steel frame building, where he separated the building into its essential parts (floors, b eams, columns, wall and glass panels, mullions) the 10 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 23.

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30 hierarchical ordering of these parts would then be over imposed the faade of the building. As a result, Sullivan was able to establish a theo retical relationship within a commercial building.11 Both Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright we re heavily influenced by French theorist Viollet-le-Duc. At the same time, the excessive ornamentation used by Viollet-le-Duc, was not customary on neither Sullivan’s nor Wright’s vocabulary. However, within the engineering aspect of a building both men Sullivan and Wri ght felt that structure was to be commended because of their beauty of f unctional necessity. Establishing an early theoretical solution, Sullivan considered architecture programs were pr oblems that needed to be resolved. Sullivan also believed axial symmetry as an organizing device was unnecessary, ar chitecture should seek balance. The idea of a building’s irregular form could be define by the proper interpretation of the program requirements. By these statements, Su llivan re-emphasized the gradual shift that the American Academy was experiencing. As Alexander Caragonne stated If Richardson had embodied the architect as primal creator and Sullivan the architect as effective propagandist, Frank Lloyd Wright appears to have inherited and surpassed the talents of both men. Richardson had been a distinguished graduate and Sullivan had briefly attended; but Wright early in his career rejected any contact whatsoever with the Ecole de Beaux-Arts.12 Influence of Frank Lloyd Wright It was Frank Lloyd Wright, after the influen ce of Sullivan and Viollet-le-Duc, who wrote on essays and lectures his great influence as an organic architect, becoming the spokesman for an organic American architecture and the godfather of American regionalism. 11 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 23. 12 Ibid.

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31 In early 1910, Wright’s increas ing single family dwelling deve loped into the realm of high art and had been recognized in Europe and the United States. By then, Wright had established a reputation as incomparable to his predecessors Sullivan and Richardson. One could argue that the evolution of the American suburban city could not have been accomplished if not for Wright’s forethought.13 By the 1950s Frank Lloyd Wright’s work ha d been well recognized and valued world wide, particularly in th e American setting. All of the principles (organic analogy, architectural nationalism, axial symmetry, the interest in st ructure, function and the use of misuse of materials) previously established by interna tional stylists Hitchc ock, Johnson, Mies, and Gropius, all influenced by Viollet-le-Duc, Fr ank Lloyd Wright applied them all underneath one architecture condition: “organic architecture”, ultimately “reg ionalism” after the collective utilization of this condition by a significant number of pract itioners around the country, establishing a new American architectural consciousness.14 A critical and valuable point to Sullivan’ s academy was the background of his pragmatism and ideology. Sullivan did not question what co uld possibly lay behind a given program instead, he would simply leave it as a necessary problem to be resolved. Sullivan’s attempts to work against the increasing of the academy were unsucce ssful. He would not teach students what they wanted to learn, but what to do when faced with a blank sheet of traci ng paper. This method gave the students a feeling of professional c onfidence, and it worked at the end. However, Sullivan’s persistent idealism and rhetoric were increased by Frank Lloyd Wright.15 This 13 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 24. 14 Ibid., p. 25. 15 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 26.

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32 became such a statement, that most provincial sc hools of architecture were crucial to include a semblance of Sullivan’s anti-int ellectuality in the design studios. Even though, Sullivan’s method could have provided many practitioners a nd educators with a conv enient and practical model of design. As a result, schools of architec ture began to function more as advanced trade schools, providing solid technical training leading to profitabl e employment in the building industry. As a consequence, the development of critical skills, conceptual reasoning, and personal intellectual growth were complete ly abolished. With respect to art, composition, proportion, and style were to be found only within pragmatic idea lists leaving room for questions of aesthetics and morality. Some seeking the realism of ar chitecture principles may have found all of the answers in the Bauhaus and the Graduate School of Desi gn in Harvard, even though it was in reality Sullivan’s and his philosophy of accommodation that seem more practical to have appropriate most practitioners and educators. However, the advocates and successors of the academy, the Bauhaus, and the American pragmatism/ regionalism were to encounter a painful truce on the faculties of most schools of arch itecture in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s as it was at the University of Texas in Austin and continues to be the case today in some academic intuitions.16 Design Studio Methodology at the University of Texas As previously stated, there were certain hi storical figures and academic precedents that have had an impact upon the teachings and met hodology of the education of an Architect. In respect to design methods at the University of Texas, Hoesli a nd Rowe both agreed that there 16 Ibid., p. 27.

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33 should be a clear understanding of the work of Wright, Mies and Le Corbusier. This idea was essential to convey the notion that a unifying spatial theme was underlying all of Modern Architecture. One of the reformed design pr ojects portraying this idea, and later became a source of investigation at Cooper Union, was the nine-square grid ex ercise. The nine-square grid exercise was later reinterpreted by John Hejduck. Further explanation of the main concept of this exercise is given in Chap ter 5 along with the explanation of my own interpretation of this project within my Design 1 studio. As described by some of Hejduck’s colleagues, the nine-square grid exercise was more related to sculpture and painting than any other architecture project. “Teaching not what he knew but instead what he was in the process of discovering. . . .” Hejduck re-examined this project and turned it into an architecture problem.17 He did this by using th e vertical interstices of the grid as post or columns, and then the horizontal connecting member s between the posts as supporting beams. He went even further to expl ore the base of the project as the plan, the vertical panels and half panels as space defining partitions and the horizont al panels supported by the “beams” to represent the roof.18 Differences between Hoesli and Rowe only led to more and better design possibilities: “The plan is the generator,” defined Rowe. “It is in section that architecture is created,” stated Hoesli. However one may see it, both men felt that in the studio, a true spat ial logic must first be investigated in plan, which in part becomes th e foundation for the parti. Neither man felt that such clarity of intent should be grounds to institutionalize the desi gn studio or the school for that matter. The design studio maintained hi gh value recognition among Hoesli and Rowe. 17 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 192. 18 Ibid.

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34 As Rowe explains it: I’m skeptical of institutionalized systems a nd much more skeptical of institutionalized objectives; I am skeptical of too much re search because how can the student conduct research until he is informed about what is already known; I am also convinced that once a thing is teachable, can be specified and codi fied, it is, almost certainly, not very much worth learning; and for these reasons, I find my self believing very much in the virtues of confusion and the impromptu. Which means that I believe and sometimes maybe to extravagance, in the centrality of the desi gn studio and of its issue the presumptive physical product. . . .The design studio is pr obably the most rich and advanced system of teaching complex problem solving that exists in the university. . . .19 Parallel to the duties involved in the design studio, is the basic outline for a project: the analysis. In a guideline addre ssed to his colleagues, Hoesli poin ts out a series of objectives important to establish a design analysis: to familiarize the student with what can be considered the classics of Modern Architecture to enlarge the student’s repertoire of sp ace concepts and to acquaint him with the possibilities of handling space to practice the reading of plans and sections to further his understanding of structure by simplifying the models to a presentation of load-bearing and non-load bearing elements to demonstrate the relationship between structural concept and space concept20 During the second Texas School, the introduc tion of the analysis exercise brought a positive development to the program. The analysis objectives were flexible enough to survive any changes in the formatting of the problem including: drawings and diagrams that could emphasize the model’s ideas, while the scope of research was enhanced to include premodern 19 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 249. 20 Ibid., p. 269.

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35 architecture and pre-Colombian urban-design or site planning.21 The principles of this analysis project, established by Hoesli and Rowe in the la te 50s, were so important that they are still being applied in many architectur e studios around the world. As stated by Hoesli, “History procee ds by dialectic and so must teaching.”22 Hoesli, noticing that the approach to Design in the Bauha us/ GSD was slowly declining, felt that there was a common ground to merge a design st udio within a scientific methodology: Design teaching could then pro ceed by a reevaluation and rati onalization of the critical mode. If it is true that we cannot teach th e process by which the in tuition cuts through complexity to produce a result and analyze it. Intuition itself cannot be taught but what it has produced can be criticized, and a critic ism which combines system, evaluation with structure analysis is what we must achieve.23 A separate fact of Hoesli’s architecture th eory is the relationshi p between analytical cubism and Modern Architecture, which led hi m to propose that space— architectural—space, was the phenomenon that united the essentially not alike works of Wright, Mies and Le Corbusier. Hoesli came to the conclusion that a spatial interpretation of modern architecture could also serve as a source of understanding premodern architect ure and may possibly lead to the development of contemporary architecture: “a new vision of the present and the future, inextricably joined to the past”24 stated Caragonne. 21 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 272. 22 Ibid., p. 315. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid., p. 320.

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36 CHAPTER 3 HISTORICAL EXAMPLES OF PEDAGOG Y BASED ON UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS Pedagogical methods of the Texas Rangers carries on in architecture schools . Acting almost as a universal doctrine, the message of the Texas Rangers has historically taken on a variety of forms. The interpretation of those hi ghly innovative ideas first applied at Texas that has spread to other institu tions, has come to follow a va riable line of development.1 (Figure 3-1) Cornell University–Ithaca By the early 1960s, Werner Seligmann, Lee Hodgden and John Shaw were joined on the Faculty by Colin Rowe at Cornell University in Ithica. Seligmann, Hodgden and Shaw introduced a version of the Texas program to their undergraduate students, one designed by Bernard Hoesli and Colin Rowe’s Urban Design Gr aduate Studio. There, Rowe was able to create an important base, expandi ng his influence and in the proc ess, imparting a new dimension to those original principles, by enlarging the “arena of discourse” and presenting an “inextricable” relationship between architecture and urban form.2 Considering urban design from a purely spatia l/ architectural point of view, the tangible product (architecture), rather than the process, (planning) always remained the focus of the studio work. Rowe emphasized in a very important way, that the city is its architecture and that architecture cannot exist apart from the city.3 This concept led to the conclusion that in order to create a distinctive approach between building and its urba n setting, one must consider; 1Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 272. 2 Ibid., p. 337. 3 Ibid., p. 344.

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37 contextualism, local symmetry, sh ifted grid, object/ texture, nega tive space, building as poche and public versus private space.4 Cooper Union–New York In 1963, John Hejduk arrived at Cooper Union in New York. One may say that Cooper Union’s exceptional and distinguis hed reputation as one of the best school of architecture in the United States is a direct result of Hejduk’s tenu re as Dean of Cooper. The program at Cooper Union was designed to prepare students for archit ectural life with a strong academic background in; humanities, history, theory, structures. The mo st important aspect of the curriculum was the design studio. This was to be Hejduk’s strength as his experience at the University of Texas had provided the earliest indication of his commitment to the process of inquiry and discovery.5 Several design projects, used first at Texas, were the ca talyst to establish a strong foundation in the freshman years at Cooper Uni on. Some of the projects were the freehand drawing exercise, the color courses and the nine-square grid exercise s. All of these exercises had been established 10 years earlier at the University of Texas. Hejduk and Slutzky, who joined the faculty at Cooper Union in 1968, after teaching for seven years at Pratt Institute, were able to build on the foundati on that had taken shape for them back in Texas. Once the “change of vision” began to take place in the freshman year, Hejduk and Slutzky began to consider the re-construc tion of a design program that could advance beyond the one they had started back in Texas.6 4 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 344. 5 Ibid., p. 361. 6 Ibid., p. 366.

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38 As dean, Hejduk’s position in academia was th at of an open mind. He advocated the idea of “freethinking.” He envi sioned a forum or sanctuary at Cooper Union where debates and controversies were deliberately en couraged. He often felt that the best way to generate ideas was to openly discuss different design possibilities. Regardless of the agreement of the final design outcome, the fact that there was diversity within the thought process became an important asset to the pedagogical method at Cooper Union. By comparison to Cornell, the studio program at Cooper was in a mode of continuous adaptation, just as it had been at Texas. This was a result of teacher s arriving with different experiences and different interests. Many of the new arriving prof essors had been recruited from ranks of writers, poets, painters, and sculptors. This academic diversity served to establish a sharp philosophical distinction between the prog rams at Cooper and Cornell. Even though both programs established a strong spatial content of architecture, Cornell’s was more historically grounded, while Cooper Union’s program appeared to be more idiosyncratic.7 However, similarly to the program established in Texas, the programs at Cornell and Cooper Union were both firmly grounded in the recognition, developm ent and exploration of architectural space. Eidgenssische Technishe Hochschule (ETH)–Zurich The third important consequence of the Te xas Ranger’s work was the influence of Bernhard Hoesli at the ETH. After teaching unint erruptedly for six years, in 1957 Hoesli left Austin, Texas and headed to Switzerland. Sin ce it was first established in 1855, The Swiss Federal Institute (ETH) had always been in th e hierarchy of technica l schools around the world.8 After working in a small practice in Switzerland with a former classmate, Hoesli was hired to 7 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 374. 8 Ibid., p.376.

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39 work as an assistant professor by Warner Moser at the ETH. Moser, together with former chairperson Alfred Roth, was impressed by Hoesli’s experience while working with Le Corbusier, and soon promoted Hoesli to full-p rofessor. In 1959, Bernard Hoesli began teaching the first-year design studio at the ETH. While at the ETH, Hoesli wrote several influentia l academic articles. Some of the articles stated that the first-year design studio could no longer be based on the basic Bauhaus tradition: a tradition adopted and respected by many schools of architecture of the time. Hoesli’s concern, similarly to his concern at Texas, was the di scovery or development of the design process. As Hoesli expressed, I took it for granted that the what and why of Modern Arch itecture could, without saying, be assumed and that in my lessons, the ma in thing was to teach How one can design.9 As a result of this discovery, the conduct of the course, the weekly lectures, the vocabulary and the studio exercises were derived from those at Texas. Some of the most important projects found at Texas and later used and re-established at the ETH were th e pre-drawing analysis phase, the rational diagram, the architec tural idea and its development, hierarchy, transparency and the emphasis on the creation of architect ural space. The “spatial ex tension” problems, the “space within space” exercises, the transformation of th e second-year Texas party-wall project into the first-year “space within space in context” exercise were all examples of Hoesli’s development as a design professor clearing away distractions in order to lead his stude nts to discover that essential aspect of architecture: “space.”10 9 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 82. 10 Ibid.

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40 Figure 3-1. Timeline showing spread of the Texas Ranger’s pedagogical methods through other schools of architecture and th eir educators, based on Caragonne’s family tree: tracing an intellectual tradition. (Adapted fro m Caragonne, Alexander, The Texas Rangers: notes from an architectural underground. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995, pp. 338-343.)

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41 Figure 3-1. Continued.

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42 Figure 3-1. Continued.

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43 Figure 3-1. Continued.

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44 Figure 3-1. Continued.

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45 Figure 3-1. Continued.

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46 CHAPTER 4 PEDAGOGICAL OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN STUDIOS AS DEFINED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AND PARALLED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Methodology and Goals of the Design Studios at the University of Texas First was the Freshman-Year Studios The goals for the design courses were separate d by each academic year with the first being the freshman year. Here the student was to be reoriented toward drawing as a means of introduction to architectural de sign. This pedagogical approach also included the “nature, possibilities and limitation s of visual expression.”1 This meant that the student would now be exposed to exploring their own design “preferenc e and strength” and become familiar with other graphic media and drawing techniques that woul d help them express their own design concepts and ideas. Second was the Sophomore-Year Studios This year was completely focused on design process as stated best by Colin Rowe: During the two semesters of the sophomore year, the concept that design is a process is to be established. The student must be able to discover the different phases of this process; their meeting must be explained. The design pr oblems are to be used to demonstrate the design process. Assignments required wo rk and presentation methods chosen to emphasize the design process and not the end re sult of it. The students’ work must be judged in view of how complete ly the step-by-step developm ent of a solution to a design problem is demonstrated.2 Third was the Junior-Year Studios The student, after indicating both knowledge of the design process a nd a required level of drawing skills, would be prepar ed to study the purpose and progr ess of architecture form and space. The probing and relationshi p between plan, section, elevati on and detail as part of the 1 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 38. 2 Ibid.

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47 elements that define space becomes an essentia l part of this semester. Advanced drawing courses need to continue to parallel the de sign studio and level required of the student. Fourth was the Senior-Year Studios The senior year was described as the following in the memorandum: It is now important to integrate the detailed knowledge and to elevate architectural design once more to a higher level of meaning and show new possibilities implicit in Architectural Design. It should be shown that any structure is pa rt of a larger whole, of a series of environments which, beginning w ith its immediate surroundi ngs, proceed in ever widening relationships through city to region. The students should al so come to realize that any design as a whole is more than an assemblage of its constituent parts.3 Also part of the senior year was a series of workshops and la boratories. Thes e laboratories would concentrate on preparing the students to work and develop construction documents in materials such as wood and steel. The use of th ese new methods was to be incorporated into the project the student was currently working on in th eir design studio. In ad dition, a thesis project was integrated into the fifth y ear. This project was to be chosen by the student and developed under the supervision of a design professor. Lectures were implemented whose purpose wa s to establish the common denominator of architecture at that time outside of the studio environment. This one hour of formal lecture per week would concentrate on the elements and theo retical bases of modern architecture and each year would implement a different lecture topic. For example, the sophomore year, would be an introduction to the design process, a definition of terms, and a survey of structural systems. For the junior year, a focus on contemporary struct ures and plastic organi zation including painting and sculpture would be investigat ed with specific interest on the discipline which the use of 3 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 39.

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48 painting and sculpture is imposed. The senior year concluded w ith lectures on the investigation of the implementation and development of urban scale and city planning.4 Reformation of the Design Problems According to Hoesli, the design problems were also to be reformed: The problems, the way in which they are pres ented and the methods by which they are to be worked out must be made to correspond to th e increasing maturity of the students. With his growing ability to conceive in increasingly differentiated a nd better integrated terms, he becomes ready and eager to respond on new levels of consciousness. Advancement from course to course must be ma de to mean more than a mere increase in workload and technical complication. . .problem s must be complete in themselves and not invite the isolated consider ation of circulation, landscapi ng, aesthetics, architectural character. . . .The study of interior space should precede problems involving the handling of external mass. . . .The short problems of not more than one week’s duration should alternate with problems covering a larger pe riod of time. The short problems may be expected to promote rapid anal ysis and judgment, while in the longer problems the student will be able to explore aspects of the situa tion impossible to consider in a short time.5 Roles of Drawings and the “C rit” in Jury Presentations The presentations were to represent the design intentions not some promotional drawing. Drawings were primarily a means of investigatio n and not an instrument for the “camouflage of appearance.” Colors were limited to flat tones a nd the studies were not to be drafted in black and white. The general idea of the crit was to encour age the students by becoming a partner not a client. The crit should stimulate discussion by providing more fruitf ul ideas and possible solutions to the problem. As stated in the school’s manual under the role of crits , “It is to be remembered that the capacity to underst and, grow with increasing knowledge. . . .”6 4 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 42. 5 Ibid., p. 43. 6 Ibid., p. 44.

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49 Just as important as the crit was the identifica tion of the architectural idea. To identify the idea on a project became an important step in the unfolding of the process of design. Therefore, the ability to verbally articulate that id ea was crucial from a pedagogical viewpoint. As explained by John Shaw, a design profe ssor at the School of Architecture at UT: The mode of criticism in most schools even t oday is to put the stude nt on the spot. . . . Instead of being in a learning pos ition, the student is in the po sition of having to defend his decisions. . .to defend himself personally. . . .A s opposed to being, in a sense, in a kind of partnership where both (student and teacher) ar e trying to discover what the problems are. Instead of asking, “why did you do this?” or “w hy did you do that?”. . .the really important question, “what was your idea?” provides the basis of discu ssion. When the student then says, “What I was trying to do is. . .” you can say, “If that is what you’re trying to do, maybe you could look at (the problem) this way or that way: you might structure it differently,” or perhaps, “This is not worki ng.” In other words, you support the idea! One of the important things at Texas was. . .the interaction. . .that pro cess if dialogue between student and crit which th e student ultimately comes to simulate within himself. This is opposed to the critic playing the role of th e “client,” as if it is a client-architect relationship. It ought to be two Architects ta lking to each other. You don’t learn from a client; you learn from an Arch itect. . . .There is a common language. And as the critic you’re helping to de velop that language.7 Methodology and Goals of the Design Studios at the University of Florida The current design curriculum at University of Florida is therefore the compilation of the second generation rangers coming together as the next extension of the University of Texas’ roots and legacy. This desi gn team’s lineage was conceived in 1933 at the Bauhaus Weimar, later relocated to Dessau, with Josef Albers at the forefront of this academic movement that current drives the curric ulum at the University of Florida. Albers, who taught at the Bauhaus, along with a “confluence” of othe r architects, painters and scul ptors such as Johannes Itten, Lyonel Feininger, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Wassily Ka ndinsky, and later taught at Yale University, left his academic imprint on students Bernard Voichysonk and Robert Slutzky while teaching at Yale University. These two leading students c ontinued the Texas Ranger lineage as professors 7 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 265.

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50 who would later influence the academic stru cture and pedagogical methods of my own professors during my years as a student at the University of Florida. Voichysonk went on to teach at the University of Florida while Slutzky taught at the University of Texas followed by the Cooper Union. While at the University of Florida, Voichysonk taught Robert MacLeod and Martin G. Gundersen. Both of th ese students continued at the Univer sity of Florida as professors who came together, along with Adeline Hofer, who was also taught by Slutzky at the Cooper Union, to establish the pedagogical foundations for th e first year of architecture at the University of Florida as we know it today. Design 1: First-Year Studio The main focus of the design 1 studio is the in troduction of the basic concepts of space, the habitation of that space, and the design process. Th is is developed through a series of analytical and constructive exercises to de velop cognitive proficiency in several concepts such as the spatial “matrix,” “layered plane,” threshol ds/moments in space, sequence and occupation, containment and enclosure. Design 2: First-Year Studio The concepts attained in design 1 are now inte grated into the introduc tion of the analytical exercise that leads to a design process. Th e exploration and use of architectonic spatial language, with an emphasis on communication skills is used to articulate all spatial design. The importance of historical precedents and the unders tanding of their architectural spaces, concepts and elements are revealed to the student. Th e development of drawing representation and the application of analysis into a design solution is also generated within the second design studio. Studies now begin to incorporat e not only historical preceden ce but cultural, contextual, typological and conceptual conditions that will affect the final outcome of a design solution.

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51 Design 3: Second-Year Studio In the first semester of the second year, the design of architectural space is evolved to include both history and landscape. The student is now intro duced to the architectural program as part of the design process and solution. Th ey further develop their basic design skills; the analysis, design concept, process, criticism and a dd to those issues of scale and the relationship that exist within the program, the landscape and th e context. This then becomes the final studio where all three disciplines of in terior design, landscape, and arch itecture are integrated to be developed together. Design 4: Second-Year Studio As the final culmination of the previous thr ee design studios, the student is introduced to other fields outside of architect ure as ways to relate context and culture with architecture. Refinement of the analytical ex ercise, historical context and sp ace-defining skills become focal points. Further development of different us e of media, technique, drawing and modeling methods learned in the previous design studios , are incorporated into all presentations. Figure 4-1. Subtracting volumes and slots systematically and hierarchically while maintaining the spatial integrity of the original cube. (Drawing s done after Hoesli sketches of student work based on cube problem while at the University of Texas, by Prof. Mario F. Ortega)

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52 Figure 4-2. Drawing exercises gray rectangles and continuous lin e that reinforce one another. (Drawings done after sketches of student wo rk at the University of Texas, by Prof. Mario F. Ortega) A B Figure 4-3. Drawing exercises of continuous line emphasizing horiz ontals as independent but at the same time related systems. A) Interpre tation 1. B) Interpretation 2. ( Drawings done after sketches of student work at th e University of Texas, by Prof. Mario F. Ortega)

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53 CHAPTER 5 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 1: DESIGN LESSONS & OBSERVATIONS The following chapters are the compilation of a reformulation of my design studios and their projects based on the resear ch and teachings of the Texas Rangers at the University of Texas back in the 1950s and the University of Flor ida to present-day. A large effort of research has been the actual documentation of the process and final solutions from having integrated the foundations and concepts that were found in the de sign curriculum at the University of Texas, later carried out at the University of Florida, into my own studios at Miami Dade College. Cube-Space-Threshold The first course in the design sequence introduc es the student to basic design concepts. The student develops an awaren ess and understanding of the princi ples of design, perception and representation through the cube-space-threshold projec t. As a comparison to an early-established pedagogical tool in the introducti on of architecture to new stud ents, the cube-space-threshold project that I created and integr ated into my Design 1 studios, closely relates and is based upon the nine-square exercise. Once the student is fam iliar with the basic design concepts introduced in the cube-space-threshold exercise, they are ready to implement those same design concepts into the second project of the first semester: the room and garden. With this project, the student takes the next step of introduci ng human scale through the formation of a circulation system that links habitable interior and exterior spaces. Nine-Square Grid Exercise This project began as pedagogica l tool in the introduc tion of architecture to new students. The nine-square problem was conceived by John Hejduk and Robert Slutzky together with Lee Hirsche during their teaching years at the University of Texas at Austin.

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54 The main concept to this pr oject was the general understand ing of architecture elements. The student are to incorporate systems such as; Gr id, frame, post, beam, panel, center, periphery, field, edge, line, plane, volume, extension, compression, tension, shear.1 The student begins to probe the use of two-dimensional compositions by means of plan, el evation, section, and details. This project is essential, as th e student learns to draw from it.2 Within the two-dimensional compositions, the student establishes two differe nt methods of design process by exploiting the possibilities of axonometric drawings and three-dimensional cons tructs. This project also brings the understanding to some of the programmatic ideas and concept by exploring them on plan and section. At the same time, the student dete rmines volumetrically and spatially the design implications within the construct. As an architect, John Hejduk felt the need to improve and use the exercise as a logical relationship between academia and practice. Fr om the pedagogical observation, Hejduk felt the student would better comprehend the associat ion between architectur e and project if the interstices of the grid extended ve rtically were to be considered as post or columns, then the horizontal connecting members betw een these post could be seen as supporting beams and, for the first time, a frame structure would be identifi ed within the project. The base would signify the plan, vertical panels and half-panels would be space-defining partitions, and the horizontal overhead planes supported by the beams, could be considered the roof. According to Robert Slutzky, the nine-square ex ercise enables an in-d epth investigation of binary architectonic relationships , although by no means is it an end in itself. As a result, flexible model structures could formulate larger and smaller square and non-square structures 1 Ulrich Franzen and others, editors, Education of an Architect: A Point of View, the Cooper Union School of Art & Architecture (The Monacelli Press, New York, 1999), p. 23. 2 Ibid.

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55 within plan and section. Progr ammatic and physical parameters are essentially addressed when the student investigates the site intera ctions (internalized and externalized)3 The project also stresses the importance of stru ctural understanding. The notion of “concept” becomes the main driving force of the project. Every design de cision must be involved or derived from the concept. This initiative will carry on to future design decisions on the student’s academic and professional life. Observations of the Cube-Space-Threshold As the students work around this project, they begin to discover and understand the elements of architecture. Similarly to the ni ne-square problem where grid, frame, post, beam, panel, center, periphery, field, edge, line, plane, volume, ex tension, compression, tension and shear, the cube-space-threshold project utilizes some if not all of th e same architecture principles. It is also clear in both proj ects that the student begins to investigate the meaning of plan, elevation, section, and details. Although, the cu be-space-threshold does not label the drawings as such, the student does learn how to draw a nd how to analyze all the different possible views within a three-dimensional com position. This facilitates the stude nt’s approach to comprehend the relationships between two-dimensional dr awings, axonometric, a nd three-dimensional constructs. As described on the second phase of the design c ourse project, the cube-space-threshold, as in the nine-square problem involves the student to study and draw the scheme in axonometric and search out the three-dimensional implications in the model construct. As a result, in both 3 Ulrich Franzen and others, editors, Education of an Architect: A Point of View, the Cooper Union School of Art & Architecture (The Monacelli Press, New York, 1999), p. 23.

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56 projects a clear understanding of the architecture principles a nd elements are uncovered and a design concept-production is materialized. Explanation of Design Pro cess for Cube-Space-Threshold Design Objective and Methodology The initial project introduces the spatial structural elements and concepts of the first architecture term. Emphasis is placed on the us e of the architecture orde ring principles and the understanding of proportion, scale, geometry and order. The intention of the first part of this semester’s project is to move from a cube as a static singular object to a cube as a non-objective space constructing multiple rational spaces. Four material elements; point, line, plane, and volume ar e the investigative tools used to construct this matrix. Design Sequence and Process The project investigates the dynamic relationship established in the first part through a series of implied movements and operations th at further explore th e cube. A measured orthographic drawing is considered the ma pping of spatial movements through the cubes therefore expanding the creation of spatial joints within the cube. The final part completes the exploded matrix into an expanded field: a landscape condition where both systems merge together creating a spatial threshold. This field is the primary tool to introduce three spatial and structural elements essential to any architecture construct; system\matrix, itinerary\layered plane, detail\spatial joint\Cartesian cross. Working backwards from the initial design projec t, the second design exercise requires the student to examine several existing surface conditions : four different facades. This exercise is done by means of an orthographic projection hand drawing. The idea is for the student to extrude lines, planes and volumes to an existing open fi eld within the given facades thus creating a

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57 matrix. The student must also consider scale, proportion, vi sual and physical movement along the field. By using all of the previously learned design approaches, the student proceeds to build up a three dimensional composition. The construct in tegrates the final program; space and threshold, where movement becomes evident as the idea of a person inhabiting the spaces. Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal During the spring of 1955 at the University of Texas at Austin, Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky together, developed the concept of tr ansparency as a reliable design method in agreement with the principles of Modern Architecture. During their time at the University of Texas, Rowe was professor of architectural desi gn and Slutzky was responsible for the teaching of drawing and color design. According to Bernhard Hoesli, the importance of this essay on transparency was to focus on three major architecture pedagogical attributes: Fi rst, it demonstrates both a clear as well as a specific and fact-related working me thod that is rarely applied to architectural works of the 20th Century. Second, for more than half a century, ar chitects and critics of architecture have seen the significance of architectural development in th e fact that the avant-garde necessarily brings forth what is new in a continuous, uninterrupted su ccession. There is, in cont rast, still hardly any effort directed toward abstracting from the a bundance of existing works the insights or methods which, when freed from the particular and the pe rsonal of isolated cases, become transferable and available. And third, the concept of transp arency in architecture de monstrates a possibility for the classification of complexity and lucidity that in many cases is architecturally spatial and multi-layered. Trans.par’ency : 1.Quality or state of being transpar ent; transparence. 2. That which is transparent; esp., a picture or other matter for exhibition, made upon glass, thin cloth, paper, porcelain, or the like, intended to be viewed by the aid of light shining through it;

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58 hence, a framework covered with thin cloth or paper bearing a device or devices for public display and lighted from within. 3. A burlesque title of honor; a litera l translation of the German title of honor Durchalaucht; as His Transparency the Duke. Trans.par’ent: Having the property of transmitting rays of light; so that bodies can be seen through; pervious to light; diaphanous; pellucid ; as transparent glass or pool; a transparent green or soap; opposed to opaque, and usually distinguished from tran slucent. 2. Pervious, as to any specified form of radiant energy; as, transparent to X or heat rays. 3. Luminous; bright; shining. Poetic. 4. So loose or fine in texture or open in mesh as not to conceal what lies beyond; sheer; gauzy; as, a transparent fa bric or yoke. 5. Figura tively: (a) readily understood; perspicuous; clear; as a transparent literary style. (b) Easily seen through; perfectly evident; unconcealed; detected as such without effort; as, a transparent motive or trick; transparent flattery of hypocrites. (c) Guileless; open; fr ee from pretense; as she is as transparent as a child.4 As a dictionary definition, described above, transparency is a c ondition found on materials stating the quality or state of being transparent. Transparent is that material condition that is susceptible to light and air and could be easily detected and free of dissimulation. However, the word transparent becomes a meaningful conditi on with limitless possibilities especially in the realm of architecture and the definition of space.5 The condition of transparency is divided in to two categories the li teral and phenomenal. Literal transparency is seen when an object that is already transparent is placed against a deep natural background. Phenomenal tr ansparency is described as an effect created by the painter who seeks to create a very front al and distinct presentation of objects placed within a possible three multi-dimensional background. Transparency can also be defined as the quality of substance, literal transparency or as the quality of organizatio n: the distinction of phenomenal transparency. This condition is further e xplored in paintings and architecture. 4 Colin Rowe, “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Part II” Perspecta: Yale Architectural Journal, nos.13/14 (1971). p. 21. 5 Ibid., p. 22.

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59 Cubism and Transparency One may further read the in terpretation of transparency within cubism. Literal transparency can be understood as a combinati on of cubist painting and “machine aesthetic” while and phenomenal transparency can be identified only within a cubist painting.6 Some of the transparency qualities Rowe a nd Slutzky used to describe cubism as architecture conditions were; frontality, cont racting of space, defining light sources and suppression of space. By using those conditions, a cubist painter or an ar chitect, has the ability to manipulate the objects in space an d it is at this point that the integration of a grid system begins to be evident and necessary to formulat e the proper visualization on a painting or design project. Transparency within Paintings There are several examples of transparency wi thin paintings described in the essay. Some of these examples could serve as an analyti cal study not only for pa intings but also for architecture design projects. One of the compar isons between paintings is The Clarinet Player by Picasso and The Portuguese by Braque. In th e Clarinet Player, the geometric form of a pyramid is implied by strong contour lines. The pyr amid is well defined and distinguished as an object from the deep background space, and at the same time, it maintains the quality of transparency, which brings a close relations hip between the object and the background.7 The structure of this painting is an early example of literal transparency in cubist paintings. An example of phenomenal transparency in cu bist painting can be found in The Portuguese painting by Braque. This painting is a complex a nd highly intricate system of lines, resulting in 6 Colin Rowe, “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Part II” Perspecta: Yale Architectural Journal, nos.13/14 (1971). p. 21. 7 Colin Rowe, “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Part II” Perspecta: Yale Architectural Journal, nos.13/14 (1971). p. 25.

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60 a grid system. This system, in contrast to Picas so’s The Clarinet Player , creates a very shallow background space making it difficult for the observe r to establish the boundaries between the object and its background.8 The next paintings are Simulta neous Windows by Robert Dela unay and Still Life by Juan Gris. Both paintings maintain a level of transp arency and both frame the objects within a two dimensional spatial field: the windows in Delaunay and the bottles in Gris. In Gris’ painting, the system is registered by oblique and perpendicular lines. These lines interact and dominate the object. Gris’ painting establishes various light sources further emphasizing the composition. Delaunay’s work is mostly occupied with the “superimposed openings” created by the windows and is more reminiscent of impressionism than Gris’.9 However, one of the main distinctions between both paintings is the establishing of the bounda ries. In Delaunay’s, there is no distinctive closur e and the boundaries are left very ambiguous to the observer’s interpretation. Meanwhile, Gris through the usage of flat plan er elements and a monochromatic color scheme creates a more definite boundary and background area. Moholy-Nagy’s La Sarraz and Fernand Leger’s Th ree Faces, are the last set of paintings compared. Moholy-Nagy’s work s hows all the aspects of a cubist painter. A combination of linear and geometric shapes of translucent co lor along a black backgroun d: it is described by Rowe and Slutzky as an open window on to “some private version of outer space.”10 Within this painting, Mohloy-Nagy brought into play the conventional standards of cubism and provided 8 Ibid., p. 27. 9 Ibid., p. 28. 10 Colin Rowe, “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Part II” Perspecta: Yale Architectural Journal, nos.13/14 (1971). p. 30.

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61 an area of foreground, middle ground and background, where as a result, obliterates the idea of deep spaces within the painting. Leger’s Three Faces has a different compos itional condition. The area is divided into three sections, all composed of geometric shapes of dense color. These shapes are connected by linear planes aligned to the edges of the plane. The use of an implied grid system is evident along the organization of the planes. The painting can also be seen two-dimensionally with negative and positive spaces well defined throughout.11 By the use of these studies, Rowe and Sl utzky establish a close relationship between architecture, transparency and two-dimensiona l compositions: the exploration of literal and phenomenal transparency from a two-dimensional composition, such as a painting, onto a threedimensional composition, such as architecture. Comparison of Bauhaus and Villa Garches On occasion, architects have relied on literal tr ansparency to be classified as the materials being used in design. According to Rowe and Slutzky: “the mate rialist qualities of glass and plastics, and the equivalent of their carefully ca lculated compositions will be discovered in the haphazard superimpositions by the reflections an d accidents of light playing upon a translucent or polished surface.”12 The comparison of Walter Gropius’ Bauhaus and Le Corbusier’s Villa Garches became a substantial instance of two arch itecture projects where literal a nd phenomenal transparency were both evident. The two buildings have similar el evations with cantilev ering floor slabs and a recessed ground floor. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid., p. 33.

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62 In the Bauhaus, Gropius defined transparency in a literal sense by the use of glass surfaces along some of the building’s facade. The building is also described as a “slablike building” where the spaces may be defined by a series of la yers. In the floor plan, the Bauhaus conditions neutralize on their countermoveme nt, maintaining a transparent layered system. Described by Rowe and Slutzky, the Bauhaus reveals a successi on of spaces but scarcely “a contradiction of spatial dimensions.”13 As a result of a literal transparen cy, in the Bauhaus, Gropius eliminates the possibility to speculate the different spatial conditions evident in Le Corbusier’s Villa at Garches. At Garches, the ground is concei ved of as a vertical surface traversed by a horizontal range of windows where the frame of the windows define s the support of the horizontal beam above.14 More over, the articulation of the horizontal win dows implies a small confined space. However, the windows are concealing an open plan which co mpletely deceives the vi ewer thus creating a perfect example of phenomenal transparency. Implementation of Transparency into First-Year Design Studios During the first year of architecture design, students face a very challenging period of architecture principles assorted with preconc eived notions of what architecture should be. Therefore, after careful examination, the Tran sparency Essay has beco me a required reading assignment. Similarly to a first or secondyear architecture student’s desi gn projects, where the student is asked to examine Mondrian paintings or Le Cor busier drawings, there is an in-depth analysis and similarity between transparency studies and a modern building’s analysis. Both studies share 13 Colin Rowe, “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Part II” Perspecta: Yale Architectural Journal, nos.13/14 (1971). p. 43. 14 Ibid., p. 36.

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63 the use of architectural principl es and concepts. The registration of boundaries, the exploration of spatial interactions, the use of color to define depth within a field, are all considered Modern Architecture design methods that could be impl emented as pedagogical systems for reliable design development. As a result, students now engage their desi gn projects with a different approach. For example, the conceived wall has now become a layered plane with a sense of articulation mystery, proportion and spatial integrity. What li es behind a surface is, in some cases, totally different from what the surface suggests. Form by no means follows function, but function does follow form. The idea of spatial interaction and th e integration of a sequence of spaces have been improved after a careful consider ation of the phenomenal transpar ency within architecture design projects. It has become comprehensible for design assignments that bring a two-dimensional program, to also articulate the understandi ng of literal transparency and phenomenal transparency. As shown in the two-dimensional color exer cise at The Cooper Union, Robert Slutzky describes: the purpose of the course is to substantiate the concept of relativity within a fixed field of operations virtually in two dimensions. The plane giving in this proj ect is presented as a formal device for the investigation of simple and complex configurations of flat, orthogonal origins. The energies of tension, compression and sh ear are field qualities to be studied as well as the associated energies of projective and recessive illusionism. This process takes place within plastic composition on a giving fi eld and with an arrangement of color figuration systems. It

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64 becomes a self supportive field supplied with patt erns that shape and are shaped by any figural input.15 One may compare this exercise to the st udy of abstract Cubist paintings in the Transparency Essay, where the potential thought pr ocess of analysis could lead to a more profound operation including ar chitecture and or planning. Additional Notes on the Concept of Transparency by Bernard Hoesli: Transparency makes possible an analogous cl assification of function and architecture. In general: Transparency arises wherever there are locations in space which can be assigned to two or more systems of referen ce where the classification is undefined and the choice between one classification possibility or another remains open. In the ideal plan for Le Corbusier’s Saint-Die, the arrangement of layers is parallel to the Meurthe Valley; from the cross view it can be seen that the silhouette of the Vogesen landscape has been incorporated into the arch itectural order, transformed into the “rear plane” and that “frontally displayed abstract ed space.” In the idealized space of the layers, the long sides of the Unite assert the depth of real space. In the additive structure of th e chain of Citrohan cross-sectio ns, alignments of the lateral wall perforations create spatia l relations perpendicular to the primary direction of the room segment. . . .Transparency permits fl exibility within a formal arrangement. The connection between the spac e of two separate levels through a common expanse of air has the effect not only of optically incr easing the size of small rooms but also of generating ambiguous spatial relations. The spatial zones are differentiated and united. Transparency makes the analogous classification of use and space possible. Symmetry as a means of organization is exclusive, subordinate and absolute; transparency as a means of organization places series of visual grouping possibilities in relation to one another and throws them open. The development of the faade of the Hi gh Court building is a demonstration of transparency as a means to formal organization in the frontal elevation.16 15 Ulrich Franzen and others, editors, Education of an Architect: A Point of View, the Cooper Union School of Art & Architecture (The Monacelli Press, New York, 1999), p. 63. 16 Colin Rowe, “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Part II” Perspecta: Yale Architectural Journal, nos.13/14 (1971). pp. 61, 62, 64, 72, 73, 74, 76.

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65 Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 1 The aspects of the curriculum established at the University of Texas were separated into four major parts. These parts were the goals fo r each design course, an outline description of the design program, lectures on the elements and theoretical bases of architecture and design problems. There were also comments dealing wi th standards of presenta tion, the function of the design coordinator, the role of the design critic, the jury and gr ading process and the conduct of the thesis or fifth year program. I have also completed a proposed curriculum ou tline for each design studio as part of my research while teaching the lower division studios at Miami Dade College, after the reconstruction of an academy under the dir ection of a renewed memorandum. The implementation of these competencies is a vita l component to the success of a new academy. Course Description The first of a required four term design studio sequence, this course introduces the student to the basic composition and ordering principl es of two and three-dimensional design. The emphasis is the definition of space through a seri es of analysis, diagrams, two and threedimensional compositions all of which synthesi ze the articulation of habitable volumes. Course Objectives As the first experience to the architecture de sign studio, the course is structured as the foundation to the primary concepts of form and space, scale and proportion, and the process of design. The studio projects primarily consist of a sequence of both an alytical and threedimensional generative exercises focusing on deve loping an awareness and sensitivity to the recognition and creation of space. The analy tical exercises expose the students to the relationship between context and basic progra mmatic requirements. The three-dimensional composition exercises then become the fusi on of all these two-dimensional concepts.

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66 Course Process/ Methodology The analytical exercises are based on a seri es of exercises that introduce the following design concepts: The spatial matrix focuses on the relationship between solid and void in a spatial composition. The axonometric is used as the generator. The “layered plane” uses onepoint perspectives, isometrics and models, the concept of spatial order is analyzed while focusing on spat ial order, sequence and moments in space. The “spatial layer” becomes an investigati on of the edge condition with the section and model as the generators of the c ontainment of space and enclosure. The “spatial articulation” focuses on the ‘int ersection’ defined by the joints connecting the primary spaces or volumes. This is deve loped through a series of larger scale process models that begin to incor porate basic programmatic needs and continue to combine the learned spatial prototypes in the process of design. Course Requirements Attendance is mandatory; two class meetings a w eek. Informal reviews, class lectures and lectures held outside th e studio are all integral to the succe ss of the student. Timely completion of all assigned studio projects, along with a required sketch notebook of process sketches and ideas are all reviewed on a week ly basis with process grades given and discussed with each student. A mid-term and a final review with f aculty and professional criticism are required for successful completion of the course.

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67 A B Figure 5-1. Cube: Matrix three-dimensiona l compositions. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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68 A B Figure 5-2. Cube: Planar three-dimensional compos itions. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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69 A B Figure 5-3. Cube: Combination of matrix a nd planar three-dimensi onal compositions. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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70 Figure 5-4. Section study analysis of Peter Eisenmann’s House X. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio) Figure 5-5. Three-dimensional composition based on section study of House X. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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71 A B C Figure 5-6. Threshold: Process of three-dime nsional compositions. A) Based on cube. B) Based on section study. C) Threshold, compositional joint. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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72 A B Figure 5-7. Threshold: Combination of cube and section st udy and threshold, three-dimensional compositions. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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73 A B Figure 5-8. Room and Garden: Isom etric drawings. A) Existing site . B) Study/ analysis of site. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 1 Studio)

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74 A B Figure 5-9. Room and Garden: Matrix and Spatial compositions. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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75 A B Figure 5-10. Room and Garden: Matrix and Sp atial compositions, intervention with ground plan. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 1 Studio)

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76 C D Figure 5-10. Continued. A) Interp retation 3. B) Interpretation 4.

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77 CHAPTER 6 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 2: DESIGN LESSONS & OBSERVATIONS Influence of the Mathematics of the Ideal Villa As part of the mathematical and modern analytical method to understanding space and geometry, first-year architecture design 2 students begin the studio semester with a study of two existing buildings: Villa Capra-Rotonda by Andrea Pa lladio and Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier. The study of such buildings cannot be successful without first fully understanding Colin Rowe’s essay The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa. As Colin Rowe described it: If architecture at the Rotonda forms the setting for the good life, at Poi ssy it is certainly the background for the lyrically efficient one; and, if the contemporary pastoral is not yet sanctioned by conventional usage, apparently the Virgilina nostalgia is still present.1 Origin of Colin Rowe’s Essay and Theory It is important to state the main influence th at drove Rowe to the conception of his beliefs and principles of design. While Rowe atte nded the Warburg Institute in London, his mentor, Rudolf Wittkower instilled in him the importan ce and need for historical precedence within modern architecture pedagogy. As part of the faculty at the Warburg In stitute, Wittkower, pub lished Architectural Principles in the Age of Huma nism. With this book, he me ticulously expressed that the architecture of the Renaissance was symbolic sp ecifically because of its mathematical harmony, logic, and ordering system. He effectively articulated this idea through means such as mathematical and analytical drawings, sketches and writings of the arch itects of this period. 1 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 2.

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78 Wittkower reveals how this architecture’s plans, s ections and elevations contain the “Gestalt” or essence of a building.2 Rowe finally published his first essay “The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa” in the Architectural Review of March 1947, right before his departure from Warburg. The essay was met with certain resistance because of the pa rallels Rowe was making between two architects from completely different historical time periods as an architectural juxtaposition; Andrea Palladio and Le Corbusier. Rowe was able to capture similar relationships of mathematics and analytical diagrams previously published in Witt kower’s Architectural Prin ciples in the Age of Humanism while suggesting a distinctive conclusion.3 Rowe implies that all architecture, whether ancient or modern, should be analyzed and studied in order to reveal its ideas and hidden content and knowledge, as precedents for all architecture. As further expressed by Rowe: “It can hardly be believed that such principl es correspond either to historical knowledge or to contemporary experience. . . .” “The ideal of composition as it was understood around 1900 was a concentric one, implying generally a grouping of elements a bout a central space and void and a downward transmission of weights according to a gravitational scheme. Against these principles De Stijl advanced what was called “peripheric” composition, developed not toward a central focus but toward the extremities of the canvas or wall plane, and involving, in a building, not a gravitational but a levitational scheme. The influence of this formal experiment upon modern architecture has often been denie d, but it cannot be ov erlooked that every historically important architect of the 1920s was affected by it; and all the major monuments of the time, from Les Terrasses at Garches to the Bauhaus and the Barcelona Pavilion, embody in some degree th e results of this discovery.4 2 Alexander Caragonne, The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995), p. 115. 3 Ibid., p. 123. 4 Ibid., pp. 126-127.

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79 Comparative Design Exercises Villa Rotonda and Villa Savoye. Rowe begins his essay with a comparison of the Villa Rotonda and the Villa Savoye. Villa Rotonda, as described by both, Rowe and Palladio, is a building surrounded by natural forces. Located on a sm all hill top, all four facades face bodies of natural vegetation without a specific relation to a context. The idea of an abstract composition is evident in this villa as a centr alized organization through the use of a series of four squares overlapping each other. Even though the squa res’ placement may not appear to have any function at first, their geometrical and mathemati cal distribution is well balanced along the site where the villa is located. Historically desc ribed as the ideal place where the ancient sages commonly retired, Villa Rotonda ha s always been the superimposition of a habitable space for the living among the natural world.5 In contrast, Villa Savoye was a machine for livi ng in. One can perceive the Villa to be an arrangement of interpenetrating volumes and sp aces, also described as a production of spacetime. The airplane is the produ ct of close selection. The lesson of the airplane lie s in the logic which governed the statement of the problem and its realization. The problem of the house has not been stated. Nevertheless there do exist st andards for the dwelling-house. Machinery contains in itself the factor of economy, which makes for selection. The house is a machine for living in.6 This idea of a house becoming a machine to live in could be a statement more expressive of today’s method of life, where one’s lifestyle is more complex, systematic and requires a 5 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 2. 6 Le Corbusier. Towards a New Architecture (New York: Dover Publications, 1986), p. 107

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80 greater level of efficiency. Here efficiency can be best defined as the architect’s response to the occupants needs where excess is not the priority. In Villa Savoye, it is not only the superi mposition of squares that make it a dynamic architectural success, but also the masterful blen ding of different grid systems such as curves, points, lines and planes. All of these systems working together al ong a horizontal axis as well as a vertical one are what allow the Villa Savoye to surpass even today’s ideal modern building. Villa Garches and Villa Malcontenta. Rowe then continues by unfolding a logical understanding of two other influential buildings; Villa Foscari, the Malcontenta of the 1550s by Andrea Palladio and the house for Mr. and Mr s. Michael Stein at Garches of 1927 by Le Corbusier. It is the dramatic juxtaposition between these two bu ildings that is precisely the reason why one should compare them. Both of th ese, Villa Garches and Villa Malcontenta, are perceived as single blocks.7 This mathematical proportioning sy stem is apparent in floor plan, where each house demonstrates a system of double and single spatial interv als. In elevation, they both have a frontal approach and at the sa me time each of the houses read front to back. There are some significant differences, though, su ch as the proportional system of Garches which reads from front to back as : 1 : 1 : while Malcontenta’s pr oportions read, 2: 2: 1 . By applying this proportional method, Le Corbus ier is able to achieve a sense of compression down the faade’s centered bay. As a result, he successfully diverts the faade’s attention and breaks the symmetry.8 On the other hand, Palladio’s approach is of greater sign ificance toward the balance and orderly symmetrical system. Structurally, both houses similarly rely on a grid system to establish their support system, however again they are very di fferent and unique. For 7 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 3. 8 Ibid., p. 4.

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81 example, Le Corbusier engages the structural systems as essential grounds for design integrity and course of action. Palladio, in contrast, is concer ned with the logical character of the design and “discovers” or uses a structural reason for hi s inclination toward symmetry. Palladio affirms this phenomenon with the following: It is to be observed, that those rooms on th e right correspond with those rooms on the left, so that the fabric may be the same in one place as in the other, and that the walls may equally bear the burden of the roof; because if the walls are made large in one part and small in the other, the latter will be more firm to resist the weight, by reason of the nearness of the walls, and the former more weak, which will produce in time very great inconveniences and ruin the whole work.9 Therefore, the main difference between both projects becomes more evident with the use of structural walls in Pallad io’s design commanding complete symmetry. We can observe the complete opposite in the case of Le Corbusier’s “free arrangement” whereby, the use of point support, allows the design of a flexib le therefore asymmetrical building. It can be assumed that the successful co mprehension of both of these two design conditions becomes imperative as part of the learning design chapters during the studio sessions of architecture design 2. Through an in-depth analysis, the student becomes completely conscious of the divergence and comparison of both structural systems. The architecture lesson here is not to preach one structural system as be ing better than the other, even though it could be said that Le Corbusier’s method is by far superior, but for the st udent to actually engage in a design dialogue of two importa nt architecture principles. A more in-depth study of buildings will also make first-year students aware of the differences as well as the simila rities between two iconic architects. It is through the use of twodimensional diagrams and three-dimensional com positions that the students explore the different 9 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 4.

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82 spatial conditions of both villas. Similarly to the comparison made by Rowe, the students analyze each floor plan, each faade and each of th e spatial thresholds that compose the spaces within the Villas Rotonda and Savoye. The student s analyze each of the v illas by means of color rendering and two-dimensional compositions. Th e compositions help the students distinguish the different architectural prin ciples found on each of the villas such as symmetry, rhythm and repetition, datum, axis and hierarchy. The student s are also asked to inve nt spatial compositions based on the findings of both villas and investig ate the architectural pr inciples. The spatial compositions are confined by a given matrix. W ithin the matrix, the students explore the twodimensional compositions by means of the extr usion and projections of planar and linear elements. The studies found in Colin Rowe’s The Mathem atics of the Ideal Vi lla, describe Villa Malcontenta’s wall as a compromised version of the traditional solid pierced wall. In this Villa, Palladio uses vertical openings to accentuate the portico with the out er windows placed toward the extremities of the faade therefore becoming accents that further emphasize the villa’s strong symmetrical condition. Toward the front faade, the upper pedi ments of the roof are being supported by a double bay in the center of the building expressed by a single door. On the horizontal axis, the Villa sits on three primary classical divi sions; base, piano nobile, which corresponds to the ionic order of the portico and the superimposed attic with the house resting on a projecting solid plane. Furtherm ore, by inverting the ordering prin ciples, the base is treated as a plain surface and a feeling of greater weight is achieved.10 Contrasting with Villa Savoye , Villa Garches retains a similar plinth condition as Palladio’s upper pediment even though at Villa Palladio the upper pediment becomes the central 10 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 6.

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83 element of the upper story, similar again to the condition mentioned in Villa Garches.11 Even though the differences are very apparent in both Villa Malcontenta and Villa Rotonda, there are close architectural similarities such as classica l principles, site locati on and design construction. If one analyzes the purpose of this portion of Rowe’s essa y, one could conclude that by keeping this close association of two very di fferent buildings, the students will encounter a dialogue of space and architectur e principles. Even though Rowe’s study may be complex for a first year student, if the students reads and revi ews each of Colin Rowe’s descriptive paragraphs on Villa Malcontenta and Villa Garches they will a ttain and apply an architectural vision, which at the same time will assist them to further st rengthen their analytical study on Villa Rotonda. The student will enhance their verbal understanding as some of these expressions can be applied to both their concepts and graphi c architectural study analysis. The combination of concept and design approach will embrace the student’s curiosity as they explore both villas back to back. Le Corbusier’s and Palladio’s Approach to Classical Principles The combination of concept and design appro ach could be noted in the manipulation of classical principles, as Le Corbusier engages the floor plan. While Palladi o’s classical principles are evident in plan and elevati on, Le Corbusier engages in the re creation of classical principles. He does this to accommodate primary symmetric al elements in the faade and completely disengages the use of such principles in the vi lla’s floor plan. Therefor e, a central focus is stipulated at the same its development is rese rved. Le Corbusier’s approach, of not applying symmetry on the floor plan, is a justification that Palladio w ould have not applied. Instead, Palladio felt the need to regist er the faade’s gesture within the floor plan’s end result. 11 Ibid., p. 7.

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84 The comparison of Le Corbusier’s approach to the plan and the inte gration of Palladio’s principles to the faade may be unclear to a fi rst-year student. However, the student will be consistently engaging on a diagrammatic concep tual study that will require a back and fourth dialogue within the classical villa and the modern v illa. Eventually, this analysis will facilitate the student’s ability to dete rmine the countless methods of design development and becomes aware of the use of classical architecture prin ciples to direct the design expression into a preconceived notion not necessarily intended. As Rowe’s essay is further studied, one can experience the diversity within the building elevations, from the base of the house to the rooftop, and the various design gestures that determine the complexity of the villa. For example, a main difference between Garches and Malcontenta lies in the interpretation of the roof where the pyramidal structure in Malcontenta’s roof expression strengthens the volume of the house.12 In retrospect, the flat top surface of Villa Garches serves as a floor to enclose space and as a result reduces the house’s volume. Even when it is clear that one roof could be described as subtractiv e and the other as additive, both maintain important functions to each unique design. Subtraction and addition theory The introduction of the theory: to add is to subtract as to subtract may be to add, is yet another mystifying design condition exclusively set aside for the stud ies of first year architecture students. It is a critical desi gn phase to be able to express ideas without havi ng to “add” any particular gesture. An example of this may be found as the students be gin to define space by subtracting voids created by implied lines from so lid masses. This could be expressed during the transformation or transition fr om a two-dimensional composition to a three dimensional 12 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 7.

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85 construct. Another example wh ere adding may be subtracting c ould be found in the student’s approach to a construct within a given matri x, a sequence of spaces and or implied spaces. One may relate to Le Corbusier’s Villa Garche s, where the “flat” faade conceals the idea of a void (a two story high living space) within the given matrix. The given matrix could be defined as the living space with in the walls, floor and roof c ondition of the house. In this example, we find both, a space that is formed from the subtraction and a space that is created by addition. The concepts as well as the spaces are further elaborated by the influence of external forces and life long experiences. Influence of the “nautical machine” on Villa Garches and Villa Savoye. Both of Le Corbusier’s Villas, Garches and Savoye, were greatly influenced by the “nautical machine.” The cruise ship’s design, a nautical machine, or a machine for temporary living in, was a source of inspiration to Le Corbusier. Becoming part of his renowned Five Points Towards a New Architecture, the ribbon windows, the roof terraces, and the horizont ality of the ship, were later incorporated into many of his buildings. Even though they may be perceived to be part of a termination layer to a floor plan, roof terraces an d gardens become that subtractive gesture that will add an additional function to a house, as ex pressed in both of Le Corbusier’s Villas Garches and Savoye. The strong and integral design expression, such as the influence of a cruise ship to develop roof gardens and ribbon windows, cannot simply be taught, a student must express interest and design intelligence as they study and analyze thes e buildings. The students should be exposed to study of precedence, where historic buildings and historic sites can be experienced. The study of precedence should encompass classical as well as modern solutions to design problems.

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86 Use of mathematics in design By historic influence, both architects share a similar approach to their design solutions: the use of mathematics. This is more pronounced in Le Corbusier’s Villa at Garches through the use of the golden section ratio of A: B = B: (A+B) in the building’s faad e, he is able to specify his relationships along figures and regulating lines. By comparison, Palladio’s approach in the use of mathematics is more evident in the floor pl an. Through his use of quattro libri, Palladio is able to develop both proportion of the building, th e faade and the plan. However, the intrusion of complex elements along the building’s faade, transforms a building whose floor plan should be abstract and an exhibition of natural b eauty, into an obscure and conflicting one.13 This use of mathematics, as part of the analytical study of both villas, provides th e student with further information on how to identify with different design approaches. As the study continues to analyze Malcontenta ’s faade, one can realize that the faades are divided vertically into three primary re gions; the portico and the two “flanking” walls. Horizontally, the faades are divided similarly as with the basement, piano nobile and attic.14 Even though the structural parti of Villa Garc hes can be compared to that of the Villa Malcontenta, the faades are always separated into more than three regions adding to the complexity of Le Corbusier’s design approach. Overall, one may realize, in both villas there are amplifications in the use of details, so much so, that in some cases they belittle the integr ity of the basic architecture principles applied. As an example, in Palladio’s Villa Malconte nta’s faades, he uses the arch and vaulted conditions together with the pyramidal elements to increase and at the same time, to conceal the 13 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 9. 14 Ibid., p.11.

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87 fundamental aspect of the perceptib le cubes. These elements become a clear release of the use of complete solid walls all along the villa. At Ga rches, unlike Palladio’s so lid walls, Le Corbusier uses the horizontality of the floor and roof slabs and takes away the paralysis which Le Corbusier viewed in the solid walls, and transferred them from the building’s frame to the building’s section. At the same time, the carving of the hor izontal floor slabs create s a vertical movement of space.15 The overall outcome of this design approach can be read as free plan that is exchanged for free section. No longer does the solid wall have the design integr ity viewed once before. With the former complexities of the section and the in tricacy of the elevation now rearranged in the plan, here may lie some reason for Palladio’s ch oice of plan and Le Corbusier’s choice of elevations as conveyed in the compositions. In e ach case, they are being most instructive of the straightforward mathematical guideline. The result of Colin Rowe’s analysis relies on the intense relief that the elementary, geometrical substructure of th e building and the secondary even t, which alternates for the Palladian focal point, can also become engaged w ith the exchange of terrace and roof garden. These represent a fundamentally similar develo pment to Palladio’s approach of vertical extension.16 One can also compare the development of that wh ich occurs in plan also takes place in the elevations. There is the same ordinary distribution of signi ficance and unequal progress of importance, with the horizontal windows passing on an identical axis to both the center and edge of the facades. This breakdown of focus is neve r complete and causes a rapid alternation of 15 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 11. 16 Ibid., p. 12.

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88 concentration. In the plan ther e is very little remaining, no thing submissive, nothing slow moving. The edge of the block, ga ins an active simplicity and rigid ity as though it were trying to contain the edge condition from rapidl y moving out of the overall composition.17 Conclusion of Analysis for the Four Villas After analyzing the complexity of Villa Malcontenta and Villa Garches, the comparison of Villa Rotonda and Villa Savoye becomes less significant because they are both more exposed to perceptiveness.18 Both villas, however ar e better known in the architecture community, and are therefore easier to read, furthe r emphasizing the necessity for th eir pedagogical influence during the first year of architecture school. Even though both Rotonda and Savoye possess architecture principles that are essential for a first-year desi gn student, neither of thes e buildings is entirely strong in its structure an d its expressive impact. As noted by Colin Rowe: It is clear why the neo-Palladian villa, at its best, became the picturesque object in the English park and Le Corbusier has become the source of innumerable pastiches and of tediously amusing exhibition techniques, and it is the magnificently realized quality of the originals which one rarely finds in the works of neo-Palladians and exponents of ‘le style Corbu.19 To further emphasize the significance of the math ematics analysis within the first year in architecture school, one is obliged to recognize the student’s orig in. A good number of students are accepted into the first year of architectur e school dependent upon their examination scores and general high school grade point average. This assessment is sometimes mostly based on Mathematics and English. However, a good math ematician is not necessarily a good candidate to study architecture. The investigation of Villa Rotonda and Villa Savoye provide the first-year 17 Ibid., p. 13. 18 Colin Rowe, The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973), p. 15. 19 Ibid., p. 16.

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89 students, mathematicians or otherwise, an insi de approach and understanding to the fundamental architecture principles. The architecture cu rriculum is complex. The student must have knowledge not only in mathematics but also in the arts, culture, science and technology. Therefore, the study of Andrea Palladio and Le Co rbusier, become essentia l to establish a strong foundation of the fundamental architecture principles. We inhabit the literature of me mory. Fragments of paintings, fictions, music, architecture, and cinema, imbedded with the liv es of their authors, are comp elled to address one another across space and time. This internalized itinerar y of fragments, constr ues the literature of memory, to which the eye of each mind holds a specific proximity, an evolving iconographic refuge.20 Analysis-Proportion-Occupation Analysis of Villa Rotonda and Villa Savoye Based upon the model of the Mathematics of the Id eal Villa, the semester begins with an in depth analysis of two major arch itects: Andrea Palladio and Le Corbusier. The architects’ work is analyzed and viewed from different conditio ns; plan, section, eleva tion. The student then develops a three-dimensional composition using lin ear elements, vertical and horizontal planes by applying the previous analys is and proportion exercise. U pon completion of the analysis exercise, the students incorpor ate occupation within the seco nd design phase. Occupation is defined by establishing a system of habitable sp aces along two linear plan es which eventually become the project’s datum. The design c ourse includes a substa ntial emphasis on the development of hand drawings as well as thre e-dimensional compositions or constructs. Design Objective and Methodology As the students undertake the task of analysis , they begin to understand and discover the complexity that takes place in order to make a significant architecture project. The emphasis will 20 John Hejduk and others, editors, Education of an Architect (New York, Rizzoli, 1988) p. 255.

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90 be on analysis and understanding spatial critical desi gn conditions. The student will study the golden section and Le Corbusier’ Modular. During th e process, the student will discover parts of the project neither architect though t of creating. At the same time, the student formulates a series of design approaches and design developments not previously intended. Finally, the occupation of a spatial composition becomes th e final outcome to the analysis. The analysis is to reference two separate projects: Villa Rotonda by Palladio and Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier. The student is to anal yze the villas using refe rence lines and design judgment. The geometries and pr oportions that define the secti ons, elevations and planes must be defined by two-dimensional compositions. The analysis is further developed by using overlays and re-emphasizing one diagram with a previously study one. The use of line type and line weight together with color patterns are necessary in order to understand and give importance to each analysis. Once the student understands the analysis on a two-dimensional composition, they further explore the proportional systems by developing a matrix construct. This matrix construct is developed by the intersection of a plan analysis from Palladio’ Villa and a sectional analysis form Le Corbusier’ Villa. The matrix will se rve as the foundation to a spatial composition which will define the occupation of one person around th e construct as expressed in the occupational datum project. Design Observations In several occasions, the stude nt felt that each of the pr ojects were unorthodox. They felt that each of the projects had no relation with one another. Th ey expressed further, that organization was only evident in Palladio’s Clas sical Villa. At the same time, Le Corbusier’s Villa won their curiosity as a modern building.

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91 As the students further analyzed both buildings , they began to perceive that the buildings do maintain a sense of similarit y. Organizational similarities such as; the use of proportion, scale, rhythm and repetition, symmetry, gr id systems and other architecture principles, became evident. However, the most remarkable condition took place as the student combined and intersected plan and section to construct a th ree-dimensional compositi on. A substantial amount of students developed a true three-dimensiona l composition. These compositions established architecture organizations not prev iously registered on e ither building. As a result, the habitable spaces maintained an original organization system very different from the studied buildings. This analysis emphasizes the importance of archite cture investigation as a possibility for design implementation. Occupational Datum Project Based upon the Texas Rangers pedagogical exer cises, the occupational datum enforces students to apply organizationa l architecture principles along a linear condition to develop a sequence of habitable spaces and movement thr ough these spaces. The student is challenged to add and subtract, extrude and pr oject, along a solid linear datu m composed of translucency/ opacity and solid/ voids. As part of the design process, the scale of the occupational datum project is increased and probed by constructing a spatial jo int detail. This spatial joint is to be developed from a sequence of spaces linked by a threshold along a vertical and horizontal movement condition. Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 2 Course Description The second course in the studio design sequence is a continuati on of the initial introduction to architecture and space. These skills are now ap plied to both an analysis and design process. The investigation and developmen t of a spatial language, structur al matrix and its application

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92 begin to merge with the intr oduction of the incorporation of materials acquired from the architecture history 2 is directly re lated to the content of this course. Course Objective A continuation of the initial de sign course, the design 2 streng thens the development of the architectonic spatial language and analytical thinking within the design process as well as focusing on presentation and co mmunication skills. There is an emphasis on the design of several different spaces such as exterior/ la ndscape, building and it’s interior. These are introduced as the tools for the refining and deve lopment of architectural representation and communication through the use of several two-dimensional and th ree-dimensional drawings and constructions; plan, section, axonometric, perspectiv e and models are required as part of both the design analysis and its process. Course Process/ Methodology The studio is divided into two parts with a di fferent project objective for each. The first project focuses on several analytical compositi ons. These include an analysis of notable historical landscapes, buildings and rooms where the student exhibits an understanding of the spatial sequence and the set of elements and vol umes of the composition. The studies include the analysis of how space is generated from hi storical, cultural, contextual, typological and conceptual conditions and the implicati ons these issues have on the built form. The second project focuses on developing the previ ous analysis of a historical precedent to generate a syntactic logic to be applied in th e generation of a design. The student learns to successfully engage the st rategies, formal conditions and ideas that evolved from these analyses through the design of an interven tion generated from the applica tion and transformation of the spatial order revealed.

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93 Course Requirements Attendance is mandatory: two class meetings a w eek. Informal reviews, class lectures and lectures held outside th e studio are all integral to the succe ss of the student. Timely completion of all assigned studio projects, along with a required sketch notebook of process sketches and ideas are all reviewed on a week ly basis with process grades given and discussed with each student. A mid-term and a final review with f aculty and professional criticism are required for successful completion of the course.

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94 A B Figure 6-1. Villa studies: Drawings of Palladio’s Villa Rotonda. A) Floor plan. B) Elevation. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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95 A B Figure 6-2. Villa studies: Two-dimensional anal ysis of Palladio’s Villa Rotonda establishing, geometry, scale and proportion. A) Floor pl an. B) Elevation. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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96 A B Figure 6-3. Villa studies: Drawings of Le Corbusie r’s Villa Savoy. A) Floor plan. B) Elevation. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 2 Studio)

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97 A B Figure 6-4. Villa studies: Two-dimensional analys is of Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoy, establishing, geometry, scale and proportion. A) Floor pl an. B) Elevation. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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98 A B Figure 6-5. Villa studies: Matri x, three-dimensional study based on two-dimensional analysis of Le Corbusier and Palladio. A) Interpreta tion 1. B) Interpreta tion 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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99 A B Figure 6-6. Villa studies: Spatial, three-dimens ional study based on two-dimensional analysis of Le Corbusier and Palladio. A) Interpreta tion 1. B) Interpreta tion 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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100 A B Figure 6-7. Villa studies: Three-dimensional composition of occupation phase, incorporating matrix and spatial studies. A) Interpreta tion 1. B) Interpreta tion 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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101 A B Figure 6-8. Villa studies: Final occupational phase, incorporating matrix and spatial studies. A) View 1. B) View 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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102 A B Figure 6-9. Occupational Datum: Sp atial planar organization. A) View 1. B) View 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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103 A B Figure 6-10. Occupational Datum: Articulation of transparent organizational elements and matrix system. A) View 1. B) View 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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104 C D Figure 6-10. Continued. C) View 3. D) View 4.

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105 A B Figure 6-11. Occupational Datum: Approach, a rrival and entry to spat ial composition within datum composition. A) View 1. B) View 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Orte ga’s Design 2 Studio)

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106 A B Figure 6-12. Occupational Datum: Sequential la yering of habitable spac es organized within datum composition. A) View 1. B) View 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Orte ga’s Design 2 Studio)

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107 A B Figure 6-13. Occupational Datum: Undetermined composition lacking definition of human scale within the habitable space. A) Overall co mposition. B) Spatial joint detail. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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108 A B Figure 6-14. Occupational Datum: Example of proj ect able to achieve a successful solution to habitable space within spatial joint. A) Ov erall composition. B) Spatial joint detail. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 2 Studio)

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109 A B C D Figure 6-15. Occupational Datum: Spatial jo int composition, illustrating above, below, and within threshold moments. A) View 1. B) View 2. C) View 3. D) View 4. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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110 A B Figure 6-16. Occupational Datum: Analysis of three-dimensional composition using a two dimensional media to establish movement a nd continuity within spatial joint. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (M iami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 2 Studio)

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111 C D Figure 6-16. Continued: C) Interp retation 3. D) Interpretation 4.

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112 CHAPTER 7 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 3: OBSERVATIONS & DESIGN LESSONS Containment of High Speed Forces Design Objective and Methodology The creation of space is explored through construction of structure/matrix; synthesis of materiality; incorporation of program; study of circulation of people vs. machine. In past projects and design studios, the st udent has created space from constructions composed of vertical vs. horizontal planes. This exercise focuses on the creation of space through carving, folding and the building up of a datum/ ground plane. Design Sequence and Process The design studio environment at Miami Dade Co llege is a unique one because the student has to commute back and forth and has no studio space to call their own. The working conditions therefore are not the ideal for the student to be able to completely immerse themselves in their architectural ideas and concepts. The disconnection that occurs every time they must move their “traveling studio” creates a lack of co ntinuity of thought that is able to occur with students that have a permanent studio environment al lowing them to harbor their design process. Therefore, the project begins with an in class ex ercise whereby the students are introduced to the design process without knowing th e final outcome so that there are no preconceived ideas of the resolution. The focus is always the process. The students are asked to follow a set of direct ions which they are not allowed to deviate from. Using a 6” X 6” white museum board as the field/ datum, the th ree initial “forces” are created. These are represented as three solid lin es that are drawn across the field from end to end. The process continues with the cancellation of thes e “forces.” This cancellation is achieved

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113 by drawing another set of three lines, this time dashed, that again completely cross the field as they must traverse or intersect the initial solid lin es or forces at some point. The student is now ready to create spaces generated only by the fo llowing maneuvers made along the “forces” and their cancellations: score and incision, cutting and folding. Once the in-class exercise has been complete d several times under the direction of the professor, the student must continue to refine the process outside of the studio environment on their own and continue to create new 6”x 6” so lutions. The solutions of this exercise must culminate in a well defined datum along each of th e forces that will read as one composition within the limits/containment of the initial field/ground plane. The second phase of the projec t is the construction of a ma trix model of the negative spaces created by the initial spaces that evolve d from the folded planes. After the threedimensional construct begins a two-dimensiona l transparency study using different colored media to represent the layering of space in plan. Again, this exercise allows the student to experiment with the design process but now using two-dimensional drawing and different media. Three different solutions or compositions must be explored. The two-dimensional studies continue with another transparency study, also us ing different media and color, but now focusing on the layering of space in section rather than in plan. The section studies must encompass both a longitudinal view and a transverse view. The third and final three-dimensional phase of th e project is that of the merging of all the process studies. The fusion of the spatial/ folded planes + matrix model + transparency studies result in a final composition that incorporates materiality of the spaces designed with the ground plane as part of the contextual study.

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114 Once the model of the final synthesis has been achieved, the student s begin to study the space in perspective. The student s are to create at le ast two rendered perspectives that further define the spatial experience. These drawings allow the stude nts to study the scale, proportion and interiors of the spaces that the process has led them to design. St udents are encourage to maintain a design progression from phase to phase , they are not allowed to repeat the same design expression in plan as they have in section or section as the have in the three-dimensional phase. Gateway-Faade-Space As a precursor to the containment of high sp eed forces project, initializing the design process of design 3, students are introduced to the urban context in the gateway-faade-space project. This project serves as an integral starting point because the student is required to address containment of space by program with given or assigned boundaries. The students begin with a two-dimensional analysis of the given s ite. From this analysis, a three-dimensional composition is developed. The students need to incorporate the following into their composition: three types of movement: pede strian, automobile and train faade: interior vs. exterior, a threshold gateway: defined as an entry or exit to the sequence of spaces Unlike the containment of high speed forces project, where the student creates space by folding, the student is designing th rough the intervention of different design elements or parts. The student here applies the additive theory in the creation of space, through use of linear elements, translucent and solid planes that define spaces as well as materiality. Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 3 Course Description The third design course of the four required in the design studio sequence continues with the development of the analysis and generative process skills be gun in design 2. The student is

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115 introduced to the relationship of architectural sp ace to both its historical and landscape context. This is the main focus of the studio along with appropriately linki ng it to its co-requ isite theory 1 course. Course Objectives development of the skills necessary to doc ument, analyze and develop a design process for the successful integration of the la ndscape with the generated spatial design development of the skills necessary to doc ument, analyze and develop a design process for the successful integration and understan ding of the historical precedents from architectural history with the generated spatial design. formal introduction to the su ccessful incorporation and unders tanding of the architectural program and the issues of occupation, scale, programmatic relati ons as well as those among specific programs and the contextual landscape. continuation of the student’s further developm ent of their initial design skills; analysis, representation, conceptu alization, spatial deve lopment, self-criticis m and external jury reviews. Course Process/ Methodology These objectives are achieved through the an alysis of both a hist orical and modern landscape. These two separate analysis a nd design processes extend throughout the entire semester, allowing for a comparative and cumulative final proposal at the end of the course. The student is encouraged to engage cultural contexts, as reflected in other arts, such as painting and sculpture, as well as philosophy, pol itics, and economics and the in fluence that these established world issues have on the spatial design and its contextual landscape. History is constantly referred to as a tool to engage the ar chitectural space and its cultural context. Course Requirements Attendance is mandatory: two class meetings a w eek. Informal reviews, class lectures and lectures held outside the studio are all integral to the success of the student. The students’ awareness of the relationship between the de sign process with historical form and its consequence is essential. A formal mid-term and a final review between student, faculty and

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116 professionals, informal group discussions, as well as the timely completion of all projects throughout the semester are required for the successful completion of the course.

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117 A B Figure 7-1. Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 1. A) Overall composition. B) Spatial joint deta il. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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118 A B Figure 7-2. Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 2. A) Overall composition. B) Spatial joint deta il. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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119 A B Figure 7-3. Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 3. A) Overall composition. B) Spatial joint deta il. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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120 A B Figure 7-4. Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 4. A) Overall composition. B) Spatial joint deta il. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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121 A B Figure 7-5. Gateway-Faade-Space: Three-dime nsional compositions, interpretation 5. A) Overall composition. B) Different view. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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122 A B Figure 7-6. Gateway-Faade-Sp ace: Three-dimensional com position, example of different design approach showing a well-develope d skin/enclosure but a weak spatial composition within spatial system. A) Ov erall composition. B) Different view. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof . Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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123 A B Figure 7-7. Containment of High Speed Forces: Folded plane-e xpanded field, interpretation 1. A) Overall composition. B) Different view. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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124 A B Figure 7-8. Containment of High Sp eed Forces: Linear matrix cons truct, interpretation 1. A) Overall composition. B) Different view. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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125 A B Figure 7-9. Containment of High Speed Forces: Integration of folded plan e with matrix construct, interpretation 1. A) Overall composition. B) Different view. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Ma rio F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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126 C D Figure 7-9. Continued. C) Differe nt view. D) Different view.

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127 A B Figure 7-10. Containment of High Speed Forces: Folded plan e transparency study, interpretation 1. A) Study 1. B) Study 2. (Miami Dade College, Student wor k, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio) Figure 7-11. Containment of High Speed Forces: Folded plane sectional study, interpretation 1. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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128 A B Figure 7-12. Containment of High Speed Forces: Fina l construct. Incorporation of folded plane field, linear matrix construct, transparen cy analytical drawings and folded plane section study. A) Overall composition. B) Different view. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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129 A B Figure 7-13. Containment of High Speed Forces: Spatial moment perspective, interpretation 1. A) Study 1. B) Study 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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130 Figure 7-14. Containment of High Speed Forces: Folded plane-expanded field, interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof . Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio) Figure 7-15. Containment of High Speed Forces : Linear matrix construct, interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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131 A B Figure 7-16. Containment of High Speed Forces : Integration of folded plane with matrix construct, interpretation 2. A) Overall composition. B) Different view. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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132 A B Figure 7-17. Containment of High Speed Forces: Folded plane transparen cy study, interpretation 2. A) Study 1. B) Study 2. (Miami Da de College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio) Figure 7-18. Containment of High Speed Forces: Folded plane sectional study, interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega ’s Design 3 Studio)

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133 A B Figure 7-19. Containment of High Speed Forces: Spatial moment perspective, interpretation 2. A) Study 1. B) Study 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 3 Studio)

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134 CHAPTER 8 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 4: DESIGN LESSONS & OBSERVATIONS Connector Project The spaces defined within this project’s boundary are part of the daily ritual of arrival and departure for students as well as guests and facu lty of Miami Dade College. The pedestrian route between the main building an d the parking garage is clearly fragmented and the experience is difficult to attain. Design Objective and Methodology The project’s intention is to allow the students to genera te, individually, their own strategy. The entrance will improve and define the pedestrian trajectory as a significant spatial experience. Unlike previously executed projects, the stud ent generates and develops their own design language. The student is to announce, identify and extend the existing path to and from the surrounding buildings, by creating a lin ear system of infrastructure and spatial thresholds within the given site. Design Sequence and Process One critical part of Miami Da de College architecture students is the implementation of design 4 projects into their portfo lios. The time frame of only th ree weeks for completion of the connector also becomes part of the student’s concept and design process. The process is narrowed down to one non-di gital three-dimensional composition that communicates the essence of the proposed idea. The student also explores the design solution by hand drawn diagrams describing process, program and concept. The students have the freedom to establish their own use of graphic media to re present such process, program and concept. A detailed sectional model and an overall model of the concept will also support the design

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135 process. The sectional model will further emphas is the structural and spatial integrity of the process. The site is sufficiently large to accomplish a diversity of design ideas. However, the students may want to focus on a specific area or ar eas within the overall site in order to execute the individual design. The fast pace of the design project wi ll require defining concepts early so that the students can focus their efforts on de veloping and communicating their ideas thoroughly. Design Observations Because of the design freedom given by the professor, the students find this project very difficult. Considering the simplicity of the progr am, it is clear students need more guidance, driving the early design process a nd development. Some of the difficulties “established” by the students is their lack of incorpor ating, using or following previ ously learned design steps, such as: two-dimensional diagrams explaining basic ci rculation strategies and diagrams delineating existing site conditions which will, eventu ally, help them establish a program. In previously developed proj ects, by giving very specific di rections, students have been told what to do, what materials to use, and as a result, the use of directions may have injured the students’ capacity to think. However, this desi gn learning leads to a different phenomenon; the students are now talking and c onsulting with each other. Even though at MDC students do not have a studio, they have used each others home as a design studio to work from. The conversations in class are more active, discus sions are more filling with studio environment flavor. The students were able to determining their own design language. Some projects are very orthogonally oriented where other projects are more dynamic, in the sense of diagonal and orthogonal combination of space defining forms. So me students rely on the use of a matrix grid

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136 system established by the surrounding existing stru ctures where other students have determined their gestures by the over imposition of gr id systems and existing site conditions. Additional design notes The students were able to establish their own method of design development; organization, order or “chaos”. This design exercise was di fferent from other design levels whereby the students were asked to make constructions w ithout the use of “dia gonals” while here the constructions clearly end up being a collision of diagonals, folded planes, and others. As a result of a project with a short time fr ame, students seek refuge in the “organized” orthogonal grid system, matrix, basic datum and axis . Other students relied on natural forces: the phenomenon of people creating their own path and as a result, the students began to collide, overlap planes, lines and grids systems among a ll of the other forces found on the site. This particular direction leads to more organic shaped spatial compositions. Sectional model According to each of the student’s individual design concepts, the existing built environment becomes a solid element where their interventions become attached to or supported from. Another approach considered is the ex isting site condition becomes a malleable element where interconnections are carved out from. Thes e expressions are further explored on a spatial sectional model. The use of concrete, metal linear elements, metal plates, chemicals such as patina, wood and glass, all as part of the design construct, became the solid mass or spatial compositions which allowed the design program to be further e xpressed. At the same time, the use of materials such as concrete, introduces the student to a conceptual sense of reality.

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137 Generator Project The generator project is a design problem to establish basic design principles from the ground plane into the structure/composition. Archite cture happens as a part of the merging of two systems: the programmatic spatial construct and the ground plane. Earlier in the design 4 semest er, the students began the deve lopment of the design concept by consulting an analytical three-dimensional matrix/ grid system to help establish the architectural construct thr ough the use of rhythm, repetition and a sequence of spaces. In this project, the student establishes a tw o-dimensional diagrammatic study of the given site. As part of the analysis, th e student explores the use of draw ings such as floor plan, section and spatial perspective projection. The student then translates the projections into a system of interpenetrating volumes. As a result, the ground plane becomes the catalyst for space defining elements. The program is based on the following functions: copying and production of multi media gathering of school personnel for academic function conveying of awareness for environmental issues The design of the ground plane is apparent as a means of an organizational spatial construct: mass carving elements-space plane like generated-space layered elements-space Vizcaya Museum and Garden Extension The goal of the first two projects in design f our was to assemble several exercises for the student to establish a strong f oundation for the Vizcaya Museum a nd Gardens Extension. Each of the programs throughout design four has a specific purpose which th e student could apply to the

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138 Vizcaya Extension. The design process of the two specific assignments preceding the Vizcaya project helped to illustrate the benefit of the site analysis. Role of the First Two Projects The first project was the connector, where ex isting structures were linked together by means of an elevated series of thresholds. The geometries of the existi ng structures and existing circulation were investigated to help create a suitable solu tion. The second project was the generator, which was programmatically define d as a student and facu lty copy center. The ground plane of the site was thor oughly analyzed and then manipul ated in such a way that the intervention itself was actually a derivative of the ground plane in terpretation. The distinctly different analytical approaches to both of thes e projects helped to further the design techniques and design possibilities for the Vizcaya extension project. Design Objective and Methodology The program for Vizcaya required for an exte nsion to this historical landmark. The extension would have similar spatial conditions as the Villa, with bot h visiting and exhibiting space. The extension would then be divided in to three segments which would total twelve thousand square feet. Taking into considera tion the knowledge gained on the two previous assignments, the Vizcaya Museum and Gardens proj ect also began with a series of diagram studies. Starting with an urban study, stude nts were able to analyze how this landmark is oriented within the area of Coconut Grove and Coral Gables . Graphically, a strong relation with the grid system of the Villa and its’ su rrounding streets was established.

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139 Design Sequence and Process A local study determined the relationship betw een the villa itself and its formal gardens. Axis locations were very strong as the site had a very classi cal and symmetrical orientation. From this observation, further diagrams were made in order to institute th e location in which the extension could best function. The location of the intervention wa s of extreme importance as it must be anchored the site as well as the context. The context model was vital in determining th e scale and proportion as well as orientation of the project. The three indi vidual extensions were to have a strong physical or visual connection, usually best determined when placi ng it within an area wi th a strong axis. The manipulation of the site itself and its point of reference to the Villa were taken into consideration. The location of the extension was then taken from several different views, such as its sectional position and site view . The physical model was then enhanced with several hand drawn sectional drawings. The first sets of sectional drawings were a collag e of the student’s own intervention with inserts of eleva tions, sections, and floor plans of existing architecture projects. Further sectional drawings of the Vizcaya Museum and Gardens as well as perspective drawings were created. Photos of the model within the context were essential in merging together the entire design intervention. The Vizcaya Museum and Gardens Extension program was successful in merging the two previous projects as a final conclusion to design four. Proposed Curriculum for Architecture Design 4 Course Description The fourth and final design course of the de sign studio sequence: here the student applies for admission into an upper divi sion university. Therefore, this studio becomes the culmination and summary to all the previous foundational sk ills, abilities, and unde rstandings of history,

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140 theory and architectural space acquired from th e previous three studios. The student is introduced to the application a nd integration of th e knowledge acquired in the co-requisite material & methods and structures courses. Course Objective The student further begins to define the re lationship of architect ure with contemporary culture through the use of sources outside architect ure, such as film a nd literature. These are used as tools for understanding and analyzing the cu rrent world view and ar chitecture’s role in its definition. The student then continues to develop the role of the context and learns to establish the most productive relationship betw een the theoretical a nd physical solutions. Course Process/ Methodology The projects of the course are requi red to engage the following issues: The “Analytical Map” is introduced as a pr ocess for both analysis and design. This design tool must engage in a specific historical context. The “Architectural Diagram” is further stud ied and developed as a method to format and order the design intentions, program and space. The continuation of the student’s development of the design process and the evolution of space with further emphasis on refining space-mak ing skills that will allow the student to successfully implement issues of occupation, context and history. The culmination of the students’ development of different techniques of representation in possibilities of various media, drawing and modeling methods. Course Requirements Attendance is mandatory: two class meetings a w eek. Informal reviews, class lectures and lectures held outside th e studio are all integral to the succe ss of the student. Timely completion of all assigned studio projects as well as doc umentation of successful process of design is essential. Criticism is not limited to a mid-te rm and a final review but will include weekly

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141 assessment of the students’ work to increase both in group discussion an d desk criticism for constant assessment of progress.

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142 A B Figure 8-1. The Connector: Three-dimensional co mpositions, interpretation 1. A) Overall composition within context. B) Spatial joint detail. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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143 A B Figure 8-2. The Connector: Three-dimensiona l compositions, interpre tation 2. A) Overall composition within context. B) Spatial joint detail. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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144 A B Figure 8-3. The Connector: Three-dimensiona l compositions, interpre tation 3. A) Overall composition within context. B) Spatial joint detail. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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145 A B Figure 8-4. The Connector: Three-dimensiona l compositions, interpre tation 4. A) Overall composition within context. B) Spatial joint detail. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Orte ga’s Design 4 Studio)

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146 A B Figure 8-5. The Generator: Twodimensional site analysis. A) Intervention with program. B) Intervention with program and circulation: Phase I. C) Inte rvention with program and circulation: Phase II. D) Intervention with struct ure and circulation. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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147 C D Figure 8-5. Continued

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148 A B Figure 8-6. The Generator: Pers pective studies of the site’s s cale and proportion of context A) Study 1. B) Study 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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149 Figure 8-7. The Generator: Phase I—ground plane intervention solution. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio) Figure 8-8. The Generator: Phase II—three-dimen sional composition within ground plane. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Pr of. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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150 B C Figure 8-8. Continued. B) Differe nt view. C) Different view.

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151 A B Figure 8-9. The Generator: Ph ase II—three-dimensi onal composition within ground plane. A) Intervention expresses folded wall syst em into ground. B) View of structural system. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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152 A B Figure 8-10. The Generator: Ph ase II—three-dimensional compositi on within ground plane. A) Interpretation 1. B) Interpretation 2. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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153 A B C Figure 8-11. The Generator: Phase III—Sectiona l analysis. A) Three-dimensional composition. B) Different view of three-dimensionalcomposition. C) Two-dimensional section study of three-dimensional composition. (M iami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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154 A B C Figure 8-12. Vizcaya Extension: Site analysis . A) Context diagram of study leading to the exploration of program 1. B) Second cont ext diagram of study 1. C) Programmatic intervention within context. (Miami Da de College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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155 A B C Figure 8-13. Vizcaya Extension: Site plan inte rvention. A) Site Plan. B) Intervention cross section. C) Intervention longitudinal site section. (Miami Dade College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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156 A B Figure 8-14. Vizcaya Extension: Context interven tion. A) Overall view of interpretation 1. B) Detail view interpretation 1. (Miami Da de College, Student work, Prof. Mario F. Ortega’s Design 4 Studio)

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157 C D Figure 8-14. Continued. C) Ov erall view interpretation 2. D) Detail view interpretation 2.

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158 E F Figure 8-14. Continued. E) Ov erall view interpretation 3. F) Detail view interpretation 3.

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159 G H Figure 8-14. Continued. G) Ov erall view interpretation 4. H) Detail view interpretation 4.

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160 CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSIONS These are without a doubt challenging times for the architecture profession. Architecture pedagogy and the foundations of the academy are di sintegrating rapidly a ffecting the education of the architecture student and therefore the futu re architect. The profe ssion of architecture and architectural education has reached a crisis. This crisis may be defined as a real condition of the failure of any contemporary means of dealing wi th unavoidable problems; but at the same time, it is the opportunity for restructuring and formul ating possible solutions. This thesis conveys that there is the opportunity fo r a rebirth from architecture ed ucation’s current demise. The answer lies in our own history, which as always, one should study, learn from and finally incorporate, not ignore. Within the current fragmented design curricu lum, students begin to follow a curriculum, professors then change the curriculum and student s are therefore derailed. Conversely, if there is a structured curriculum, and the design projects are established for the professor to implement, the students will follow confidently and overall su ccess will be achieved. The solution to the withstanding struggle is theref ore in the creation and implemen tation of a memorandum with a strong curriculum and pedagogical methodology. The basis of this curriculum and pedagogical methods has already been set in motion by ot her architecture schools that have been acknowledged for their success in history. This must continue to thrive, not just by an elite few but as a worldwide canon for arch itecture institutions everywhere. Recently, the curriculum of many architecture schools has made their focus of academic preparation to be through a met hod of training rather than through that of education. This has transformed architecture educat ion to following more of a “pr actitioner’s” methodology. We as professors of architecture need to educate not train. In e ducation you learn not only how to

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161 answer questions that may have more than one solution but what quest ions should be asked according to the specific circumst ances of events. If a student graduates as a result of being simply “trained” they will only know how to give the one possible answer they already learned regardless of the situation. Th ey will not know or understand how to develop a process and the series of necessary questions th at will lead to generating the best of many possible solutions. Expertise lies in knowing how to questi on correctly not only answer correctly. As it was for Hoesli, while at the University of Texas, it should be for every educator; the primary question is not how does one learn? But, what is necessary to be learned. This knowledge is required of the educator or professor as part of the responsib ility in the education of the architecture student. Ther efore, one of the most important questions that remains for an educator to ask him or herself is not “What is really important for us to teach?” but “What is really important for the student to learn?” This is not simply a play on words but one of thought and consideration when examining one’s role as an educator in architecture, or any profession for that matter. This has compelled me to investigate not only type s of learning but more importantly the knowledge a student needs to acquire and the method by which the professor teaches the student. This makes the design process, its development, and its execution the key components within a structure of an architectur al design problem, solu tion and studio. There are several prevalent weaknesses hinde ring the advancement of education in the field of architecture that we can begin to define based upon the la tter statement. This begins with the education of the studio prof essor as a career and specializ ation. There are those who are qualified to practice and those w ho are qualified to educate. A ny practitioner with a master’s degree can use or will use teaching as a financ ial fall-back for additional income instead of

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162 taking on the responsibility of the student’s outcome and success. It is in not just the practice of architecture but the practice of teaching that produces success in the architecture educator. Simply because a professional architecture degr ee is awarded or one is a “practitioner” /architect does not necessarily make them qualified to have acquired the knowledge to appropriately apply pedagogical methods of archite cture in a design studi o. “Teachers” are using “personal intuitive” methods of teaching instead of becoming “edu cators” whereby they establish pedagogical exercises to create cr itical thinking and problem solvi ng strategies to apply within the design studio. Pedagogical ex ercises are not being used. The absence of these formal pedagogic devices is therefore yet another one of the inherent probl ems that has driven us to the current deficiency within architecture academia. The pedagogical methods and memorandum con ceived at the University of Texas in 1954 has withstood the test of time a nd therefore should be considered as the generator for future academies, as it has already been for several ar chitecture schools. Having studied under second generation rangers at the Universi ty of Florida has instilled in me the necessary foundations and the desire to have them permeate future educat ors, making me the next generation ranger. If architecture education has proven to be su ccessful under the model curriculum created at the University of Texas, then one as an educat or has the responsibility to continue and develop future academies with an already well-established and structured studio system. If each institution begins to create it s own curriculum without any relati on to a universal doctrine, then eventually the core principles and beliefs on wh ich the profession of architecture has been based upon for centuries will elapse. The design studio has been defined by multiple and many times contradictory goals with a methodology full of uncertainty and ambiguity, a lack of rigor and vague fundamental

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163 conditions. Within a new design studio met hodology, it should be ackno wledged the need to teach a method, demand rationalizations and justificati ons not just criticize th e final solution as is commonly done. An architecture student should be encouraged and taught to be demanding of their questions not just their answers. The way to instill this ability for critical thinking and problem-solving is in the method and form of th e studio projects proposed in the design studio as defined by a memorandum stating the pedagogical methods of the architecture academy. The nature of the design projects must be an exploration of the use of architecture elements, principles and systems necessary for the proper completion of each design studio. The process to achieve a successful solution is one that should ma ke the student think, reason and contemplate several different solu tions to the problem. This is not necessarily achieved in a project where the design of a building beco mes the design exercise but more where experimentation and probing are constantly occu rring within a structure of spaces. The design projects employed in the studios need to be based on the specific methodology of the University of Texas projects discussed in th is thesis as they have proven to have successful outcomes and solutions. These model projects can be utilized as a historical basis and reestablished by each institution as they already have been at other schools such as the Cooper Union and ETH, as long as the original concepts and goals for each project are maintained. A design project must be presented without de fining the final solution but where the focus is on the process to achieve the solution. The a pproach is one of analysis based on an implied program, not yet revealed to the student, which only manifests itself as a sequence of spaces manipulated within set boundari es and limitations. This seque nce of spaces is based upon thresholds that with further investigation through design process and development will then come to reference a defined set of programmatic requirements.

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164 The design process is one that engages the student in designing by three-dimensional constructs, as in the nine squa re grid exercise or my own cu be-space-threshold, or other method whereby the student designs from two-dimensi onal analysis and drawings and moves on to develop the three-dimensional construct as ex pressed in analysis-pr oportion-occupation. The execution of a design therefore is either by model to drawing or by drawing to model. In the design 1 and design 2 studios, the student learns to execute a design with three-dimensional constructs through the use of pl anar and linear elements and then they merge both systems to create the final three-dimensional construct. As the student progresses to the second year, so must their skills and understanding of historical precedents within architecture and the relationship of a context. The focus of the design 3 studio is designing through the manipula tion of a planar field as articulated in the containment of high speed forces project. Here the student uses several operations and folding techniques within this field to compose, esta blish and create space. During this process, organization, order and function is defined with these sequence of spaces along a given datum or field. The incorporation of a datum or field beco mes an essential tool in projects such as the gateway-faade-space in my design 3 studio. The final studio in the lower division sequence is the design 4 studio. Here the culmination of all the acquired knowledge and process from the previous 3 studios fuse resulting in a more complex exercise and final design solution . Based upon the understanding of the previous statements, it can be understood that the design studio carries the most weight of pedagogical responsibili ty within the curriculum and education of an Architect. The task at hand fo r the studio professor is in teaching the students how to “think architecturally” rather than “do architecture” in order to achieve success.

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165 The following is a series of questions that the studio professor should consider upon taking on the responsibility of the education of the future Architect: What should the paradigm of the design studio be comprised of for each semester? What should be the form and method in which the projects are introduced to the student and the sequence of their development? Which are the specific areas of knowledge that a student should attain with the successful completion of each design project and studio? Further exploration into the e ssence of what has been propos ed through the conception of this thesis will address actual methods of implementation for the new memorandum and curriculum within an academy. There needs to be an ongoing progression to reconcile the various divergent philosophies found in architecture education across different schools of thought and educators. This m ovement toward a more secular understanding and acceptance of the needs of the architecture academy will decrease the present friction inherent within the curriculum that is currently affecting the overall success of the future architect and the architecture profession.

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166 LIST OF REFERENCES Caragonne, Alexander. The Texas Rangers: Notes from an Architectural Underground . Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995. Franzen, Ulrich, and others, editors . Education of an Architect: A Point of View, the Cooper Union School of Art & Architecture . New York: The Monacelli Press, 1999. Hejduk, John, and others, editors. Education of an Architect. New York: Rizzoli, 1988. Le Corbusier. Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications, 1986. Rowe, Colin. As I Was Saying: Recollections and Miscellaneous Essays . Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996. Rowe, Colin. The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays . Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973. Rowe, Colin. “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal, Part II.” Perspecta: Yale Architectural Journal, nos.13/14 (1971).

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167 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mario F. Ortega was born on May 28, 1970 in Ha vana, Cuba. The only son of a Medical Doctor and Nurse, the three of the them left a ll personal belongings and family when they fled Cuba seeking freedom in Madrid, Spain in th e early 1970s. He became a U.S. citizen after spending most of his childhood in Puerto Rico a nd then moved to Miami, Florida in the early 1980s. Mario attended Miami Dade College and the University of Fl orida in Gainesville graduating in 1994 with a degree in architecture. With architecture alwa ys being Mario’s true passion because of its academic, cultural, hist orical and the noble humane nature of the profession, he went on to obtain a Master of Architecture with a full academic scholarship. After being granted a graduate teaching assistantship an d graduating in the top 10% of his graduate class he was hired to work as a lead designer at the International Architecture firm of Bermello, Ajamil & Partners. Mario began his practice as an educator early in his architectural career during the first two years of his own studies at Miami Dade College . He continued to do so teaching the lower division design studios in the even ings at the same time that he was working at Bermello, Ajamil & Partners. After only 5 years into his profession , he was promoted to senior head designer at Bruno Elias and Associates again practicing worl dwide on International projects. After having practiced for approximately 10 years all over the world on award-winning projects, Mario applied and was selected from ove r 80 professional appl icants to dedicating himself to his true calling of an architecture professor at Miami Dade College. While working as a full-time faculty at the College for the last four years, he has achieved promotion and continuing contract and is currently completing his first publ ication of his students’ wor k. In the spring of 2007, Mario obtained his second master’s degr ee: Master of Science in Arch itectural Studies, becoming the first and only student to earn this de gree at the University of Florida.