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Effects of Orchestration on Attitude toward the Advertisement and toward the Brand

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Effects of Orchestration on Attitude toward the Advertisement and toward the Brand
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TEAGLE, MAYA ( Author, Primary )
Copyright Date:
2008

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Advertising music ( jstor )
Advertising research ( jstor )
Brands ( jstor )
Commercial music ( jstor )
Incidental music ( jstor )
Music instrumentation ( jstor )
Musical instruments ( jstor )
Orchestration ( jstor )
Schenkerian analysis ( jstor )
Tempo ( jstor )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Maya Teagle. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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12/31/2016
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658230393 ( OCLC )

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EFFECTS OF ORCHESTRATION ON ATTITUDE TOWARD THE ADVERTISEMENT AND TOWARD THE BRAND By MAYA TEAGLE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006 1

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Copyright 2006 by Maya Teagle 2

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the fo llowing individuals for their continued assistance and support of my studies: Richard Bayne; my family and friends, both at home and at JCPenney #0479 in Gainesville; Dr. Jorge Villegas; Dr. John Sutherland; Professor Linda Correll; Drs. Jon Morris, Justin Brown and H. Sidney Pactor; Prof essor Mike Foley; and Jennifer Lemansky. 3

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS... 3 LIST OF TABLES... 6 FIGURE....... 7 LIST OF ABBEVIATIONS 8 ABSTRACT 9 CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION.. 11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Music and Mood 12 Music and Advertising.. .14 Music and Attitude toward the Advertisement and toward the Brand..... 16 Music and Conditioning Brand Selections 17 Marketing Implications in a Retail Environment.. 18 Theoretical Framework: The Dual-Mediation Hypothesis 20 3 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES. 22 4 METHODOLOGY 25 Research Design ... 25 Stimuli Development 25 Participants ... 26 Method and Measurements 27 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.29 Preliminary Analyses..29 Analyses of the Hypotheses... 29 Interaction Effects...30 Discussion...32 Limitations..33 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.40 4

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APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE... 42 B INFORMED CONSENT FORM 45 C TEST COMMERCIAL SCRIPT 46 REFERENCE LIST 47 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.. 49 5

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Musical characteristics for producing various emotional expressions.... 20 4-1 Mean fit scores of pre-tested songs. 28 5-1 Mean variances between cell t ypes and attitudinal index scores.... 35 5-2 Mean variances between ce ll types and fit measures.. 36 5-3 Mean variances between purch ase intent and cell types. 37 5-4 Mean variances between fit meas ures and attitudinal measures. 37 5-5 Correlations between the fit index sc ore and attitudinal index scores 38 5-6 Correlations between atti tudinal index scores..... 39 6

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FIGURE Figure page 2-1 Dual-mediation hypothesis.... 20 7

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Aad Attitude toward the advertisement Abr Attitude toward the brand Amusic Attitude toward the music BPM Beats per minute Ib Intent to purchase 8

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Abstract of Thesis Presente d to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising EFFECTS OF ORCHESTRATION ON ATTITUDE TOWARD THE ADVERTISEMENT AND TOWARD THE BRAND By Maya Teagle December 2006 Chair: Jorge Villegas, Ph.D. Major Department: Journalism and Communications–Advertising Music is a powerful stimulator of emotions, using variations in its structure to both elicit and change these emotions. The majority of rese arch that has been condu cted investigating the relationships between music and emotions has pr imarily been in the field of psychology, while studies of music’s effect on emotions as it pertai ns to advertising has been only been studied for the past 25 years; however, the existing litera ture on the effect of or chestration was almost nonexistent. The objective of this study wa s to determine if orchestrati on, specifically full orchestras and brass, string and woodwind orchestrations had an effect on att itude toward the advertisement and toward the brand, and to determine which had th e greatest positive effect on these attitudes. It was also the goal of this study to determine if the presence of bac kground music had a positive effect on attitude toward the adve rtisement and toward the brand. It was determined that orchestrations did not affect attitude at any statistically significant levels; however, it was determined that the fit of the background music played a greater role in attitude than did orchestration. Additionally, the correlations betw een affective responses to an advertisement, in this case the attitude towa rd the music and the fit of the music with the 9

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commercial, and between attit ude toward the advertisement and toward the brand were reaffirmed under the dual-m ediation hypothesis. 10

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Music has been considered for years to be a powerful stimulator of emotions, holding the ability to moods both positively and negatively, re lying primarily on a few basic characteristics of musical structure to effect th ese changes. The majority of re search that has been conducted on music and its effects on emotion has primarily been limited to its effects as it relates to psychological theory (Bruner 1990). These studies have shown th at various elements in the structure of a piece of music (e .g., tempo, pitch, mode and volume) and the manipulation of these elements within a piece of music can all a ffect a person’s emotions, depending on cultural background and personal preferences (Br uner 1990, Alpert and Alpert 1991). Music’s effects on emotions within a mark eting and consumer behavior framework has only relatively recently been i nvestigated; the majori ty of this research having been conducted within the past 25 years. Within this, the majority of research has been targeted to investigate how the manipulation of various elements of musical structure and the emphasis placed on the importance of the music itself (f oreground versus background placement) affects attitudes toward advertisements and to ward brands (Bruner 1990). This paper will discuss the bodies of resear ch regarding the effects of music on one’s mood, including those effects derived from the va rious structural components of music. Next, music’s role in advertising will be discussed as it relates to its ability to improve comprehension and attitude toward the advert isement and the brand. Additiona lly, the effects of the music on consumer behavior, primarily as a background el ement within a retail environment, will be discussed. Finally, this paper wi ll discuss implications of the results of this study as well as discuss avenues for future research. 11

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Music and Mood As previously stated, various elements with in the structure of a musical piece can have varying effects on the mood of the listeners. Moods are defined, as “fleeting, temporary feeling [states], usually not intense, a nd not tied to a specifiable beha vior . . . can be positive or negative . . . [and] are disti nguished from emotions, which are usually more intense, obvious, and . . . involve a cognitive component” (A lpert and Alpert 1991, p.235). In psychology, different musical genres, includi ng contemporary music, have been shown to have influences on a person’s behavior, even to the extent of alleviating negative symptoms of mental disorders (Smith & Noon, 1998). Individual musical com ponents also have an effect on a person’s mood. Table 2-1 illustrates the elements of musical structure that can influence moods (Bruner 1990). Studies involving tempo, the pace of a musi cal piece, have shown that generally fast tempi elicit positive, upbeat feelings, whereas slow tempos elicit more solemn or tranquil feelings (Bruner 1990). These st udies have indicated that pi eces with a moderate tempo (approximately 70 Beats per Minute [BPM]) are considered more favorable to listeners while pieces with slower or fa ster tempos are considered less favorable (Bruner 1990; Kellaris and Kent 1991). Examples of songs within this tempo range include “Black Velvet” by Atlantic Recording Corporation artist, Alannah My les, from her self-titled 1989 album, Alannah Myles (approximately 92 BPM) and “Just A Girl” by Interscope Records artist No Doubt’s 1995 Tragic Kingdom album (approximately 110 BPM). Furthermore, music containing steadier, more even rhythms may allow for a more uni nterrupted flow of emotion, while rhythms that are more uneven may elicit more complicat ed emotions (Bruner 1990). 12

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The modality of a piece of music has also been found to have an effect on the moods of listeners. Modality can be defined as “the conf iguration of intervals be tween notes in a scale” and provides “the basic framework within which pitches are organized to form melodies and harmonies” (Kellaris and Kent 1991, p. 243). In a study investiga ting the effects of both tempo and modality in consumers, Kellaris and Kent found that major modes were considered to be more favorable than minor or atonal modes ( 1991). Minor and atonal modes were found to be increasingly unfavorable at slow tempos. However, they did note that at faster tempos, minor and atonal modes were viewed more favorably than at moderate or slower tempos, attributing this to a shorter duration of harmonic dissonance within the piece. In addition to modality, other elements of the pitch of a musical piece have been shown to have an effect on the moods of listeners. Regarding pitch itself, research has found that pieces with a higher pitch elicit higher feelings of happiness and exciteme nt (Bruner 1990). In contrast, musical pieces with lower pitches are c onsidered to be sadder (Bruner 1990). Another element of musical stru cture that can affect the moods of listeners is texture; the most commonly known features of this category include orchestration an d volume. There is limited research available regarding orchestr ation of music, with instrumentation and orchestration defined by Grove Music Online as “t he art of combining the sounds of a complex of instruments (an orchestra or other ensemb le) to form a satisfactory blend and balance” (Kreitner et al. 2006). Reporti ng on a 1935 study on the effects of orchestration of different instruments on mood conducted by Ra lph Gundlach, Bruner states that the use of various types of instrumentation in a musica l piece does convey different emo tions in the listener (1990). More specifically, brass instruments (e.g., trumpets, trombones, etc.) are found to convey feelings of seriousness or majesty and also f eelings of triumph or grotesqueness (1990). 13

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Woodwind orchestrations (e.g., cl arinets, flutes, etc.) tend to elicit feelings of whimsy, awkwardness or mourning (Bruner 1990). Piano or chestrations are perceived as brighter and more peaceful. Lastly, string instrumentations (e.g., violins, violas, etc.) were shown to be able to convey a wide range of emotions, but did not elicit any one pa rticular emotion (Bruner 1990). While Bruner does not discuss this in his summary of Gundlach’s study, it is presumed that given the range of emotions that are able to be conveyed via each type of instrument, tempo and pitch were also factors in elic iting these emotions as well, since orchestration requires a framework consisting of both tempo and pitch before th e music itself can be written or played. There is a wider body of research regarding the volume of a piece. Music that has a higher volume is perceived to be happier and vibrant (Bruner 1990). Mu sic that has a lower volume is perceived to be more serene and more serious (Bruner 1990). Studies of the effects of volume has shown that while volume has a ne gative relationship to time spent shopping, increased volume has a positive relationship with sales volume (Bruner 1990). Music in Advertising Linkages between music and its effects on info rmation processing have been researched to a great extent. Music in a dvertising has been shown to be effective, especially when the consumer is engaged in low-involvement proce ssing (Macinnis and Park 1991, Alpert and Alpert 1991, Bruner 1990). Low-involvement processing is defined as, “a state in which consumers receive messages but do not actively process these messages” (Tellis 2004, p. 30). According to a study by Macinnis and Park (199 1), the level to which music can elicit memory-based emotion and the level to which music coincides with th e advertising can cause the consumer to have stronger positive perceptions of a brand, sin ce positive emotions generated by music are extended to the brand. This is caused both by memory-linked emotions generated by the music 14

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itself and by the fact that music in a low-invol vement processing scenario can generate an increased level of attention to the advertisemen t, though not necessarily the message of the ad itself (Macinnis and Park 1991). However, in scenarios where consumers utilize highinvolvement processing of information, music can, in fact, make it more difficult for consumers to process information from an advertisement, especially if the music has little relation to the product or service being advertised (Macinnis and Park 1991, Alpert and Alpert 1991, Bruner 1990). Lyrics of background music in an advertisement have also be en shown to have effects on recall. A study by Olsen and Johnson (2002) found that “the presence of meaningful background lyrics had a significant positive impact on recall for product information compared to advertisements for which the background music we re just a rhythm section, an instrumental melody, a vocal melody line, or nonsensical ly rics,” with “meaningful background lyrics” defined as “lyrics intrinsic to product information in an advertisement” (p. 147). Furthermore, it was learned that background music with lyrics relevant to the pr oduct being advertised was more effective in enhancing recall th an instrumental music alone. A study by Wallace (1991) also investigated the effectiveness of music in increasing recall in advertising, spec ifically inquiring into the effectiven ess of jingles in improving recall. In this study, a three-verse ballad was used in place of an advertisi ng jingle. Subjects listened to a spoken and sung sample five times and were aske d to recall verbatim the verses they had heard after the first, second and fifth tim es. The study showed that levels of recall of the verses were significantly higher with the sung te st than with the spoken-word test. However, when the study was lowered to first verse recall in the follow-up test, the spoken word sample outperformed that of the sung word sample. The three-verse test was more effective in improving recall because 15

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the subjects had additional time in which to l earn the melody of the sample song, whereas in the one-verse test, the music served as a distraction to the listener. Wallace also noted that the lyrics of a jingle must correspond to other elements of the song’s structure and should be musically simple in order for the song to be more memorable and easier to remember. Music and Attitude toward the Ad and the Brand Music also has influences on attitude toward the ad (Aad) and attitude toward the brand (Abr). Aad is defined as “‘a predispos ition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular stimulus during a particular exposur e occasion’” (MacKenzie, Lutz and Belch 1986, p. 130-131). Morris and Boone (1998) determ ined that music’s effects on Aad and Abr as well as emotional response to an advertisement were high ly dependent on the type of music with which the ad was paired. Other re search suggests that while Aad can be greatly influenced by a peripheral cue such as music, the effects on Abr may be more closely linked to the message being communicated to the audience than to Aad itself (Lord, Lee and Sauer 1995). To a lesser extent, various elem ents of musical structure have been analyzed to determine their effects on recall, Aad, Abr and purchase intention. Brooker and Wheatley (1994) tested the effects of tempo and placement of music in radio advertising, using fast versus slow tempos and introductory versus background placement of th e music as variables in their study. They determined that while tempo had no statistically significant effects on any measures of attitude, recall or purchase intent, placement of musi c within the commercial did have significant influences on these items. Introductory music to a commercial was shown to have more positive effects than background music throughout the comme rcial, with evidence of a greater difficulty to concentrate in the la tter condition (Brooker an d Wheatley 1994). 16

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Music and Conditioning Brand Selections A few of the earlier studies of music a nd its influence on advertising and consumer behavior were conducted in rela tion to music’s ability to infl uence purchase intentions through classical conditioning. A study by Gorn (1982) test ed the hypothesis that by pairing favorable background music (the unconditioned stimulus) with a pen of neutrally perceived color (the conditioned stimulus), attitudes would become more favorable to the pen shown with the favorable music and participants would be more likely to select this pen color. In a pilot test, ten subjects were asked to rate ten various styles of music on its le vel of likeability on a five-point scale, from “dislike very much (1) to like very much (5)” (Gorn 1982, p. 96). This was used to determine what was to be considered favorable and unfavorable types of music; in this case, music from the movie, “Grease,” and Indian music were selected to be most favorable and least favorable, respectively. In a second pilot test, Gorn (1982) tested for pe rceived neutrality in the color of the pens to be used in the study, hypothesizing that if half of the participants each selected one of the pen colors to be used in the test, li ght blue and beige, as their pref erence, then attitudes toward the pen colors would be neutral. Results of the test confirmed this concept. Conversely, Gorn (1982) also tested the hypothesi s that music that was perceived to be unfavorable with the neutrally colored pen produced would cause participants to view the pen unfavorably and to select a different colored pen. While Gorn was successful in showing a relationship between attitudes of background music and selection of a product, others were sk eptical of the suggested link. Kellaris and Cox (1989) attempted to replicate the study utilizing similar stimuli, maintaining usage of the pen and background music, but adjusted the color of the pens and the type of background music selected 17

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in order to compensate for differences in regiona l preferences of music and colors. Their results failed to show that consumers could be conditioned to select certain products based on a single exposure of background music with the product feat ured; however, they did not discredit the ability of music to influence product preferen ces based on consumers’ affective processing. Similar studies involving humor as the unconditioned stimulus in place of music also failed to show that consumers could be conditioned to select specific brands base d on one pairing of the stimuli. Marketing Implications in a Retail Environment The usage of background music has also been shown to have positive effects on consumer behavior. Within a retail context, no t only has volume been shown to have an effect on sales, other elements of musical structure has been shown to a ffect sales as well. Milliman studied the effect of music played at various tempos and its effects on sales in a supermarket setting (1982). Over a nine-week time peri od, from January 1980 to March 1980, three types of tempo-varying music conditions were tested: (1 ) no music, (2) fast-tem po music and (3) slowtempo music. In this study, slow-tempo music was found to have a positive impact on sales, increasing sales 38.2% over fast-tempo music (Millim an 1982). However, Milliman warned that the results may not apply in every retail situation and may not be a ppropriate in certain instances, stating that additional research should be c onducted in the entire field of atmospherics. Within a restaurant setting, the tempo of musi c also has been shown to have an impact on sales. Milliman tested the effects of fastand slow-tempo music and thei r effects on sales, wait time and dining time (1986). The study was conduc ted on Fridays and Saturdays over an eightweek time period, with a random assignment of fastor slow-tempo musi c on the first Friday, then alternating to the second tempo condition on Saturday, w ith a continued alternation between 18

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the next three weekends. In this, Millim an found that dining time during the slow-tempo condition increased wait time and dining time. Also, while slow-tempo music did not greatly impact food sales, bar drink sales did increase su bstantially. While restau rant patrons would not eat more food, they would consume more alcoho lic beverages. He also found that although wait time increased during the slow-t empo condition, the rate of cust omers leaving prior to being seated remained constant with that of the fast-tempo condition (Milliman 1986). A second study regarding music and restaurant atmospherics by Sullivan tested not only tempo, but also the presence of music, volume, on popularity of the musi c playing; popularity being determined by music preference questions w ithin the questionnaire (2002). In this study, the effects of each of the four aforementioned independent variables on duration of dining time and on expenditures on both food and drinks, examin ing each of the latter two individually, were examined. Correlations between duration of dining time and food expenditure/drink expenditures and food expenditures versus drink expenditures we re also sought. Sullivan found that the presence of music in general had a positive impact on dining time and expenditures for both food and drinks. He al so found that, contrary to the Milliman study, tempo did not have a significant effect on eith er food expenditures or drink expenditures or duration (2002; Milliman 1986). Popularity of the music was also found to have positive effects on only duration of dining time. However, the volume of the music playing, specifically soft music, proved to have a positive effect on both expenditures of food and drinks as well as the duration of dining time; all three showing incr eases over loud music. Additionally, while duration of a patron’s dining time was not posit ively correlated to their food or drink expenditures, it was shown that food and dri nk expenditures themselv es were positively correlated (Sullivan 2002). 19

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Theoretical Framework: The Dual-Mediation Hypothesis According to the dual-mediation hypothesis, Aad is influenced by consumers’ cognitive or affective responses to an adve rtisement (MacKenzie, Lutz and Belch 1986; Hoyer and MacInnis 2001). If consumers find the advertisement either believable or likeable, these positive feelings are thought to transfer to the featured brand. This construc t also suggests that positive Aad and Abr increase positive purchase intentions. Fu rthermore, in a study of humor’s effects on television advertising, Alden, Mukherjee and Hoye r (2000) found that there was a strong positive correlation between humor in an advertisement and Aad. Since music is typically used as a peripheral cue in an advertisement, like humor, great er likeability of the instrumentation used in the music should increase positive attitudes toward the advertisement. Within this context, positive Aad should increase positive Abr. Table 2-1. Musical characteristics for producing various emotional expressions* Emotional Expression Serious Sad Sentimental Se rene Humorous Happy Exci ting Majestic Frightening Mode Major Minor Minor Major Major Major Major Major Minor Tempo Slow Slow Slow Slow Fa st Fast Fast Medium Slow Pitch Low Low Medium Medium High High Medium Medium Low Rhythm Firm Firm Flowing Flowing Fl owing Flowing Uneven Firm Uneven Harmony Consonant Dissonant Consona nt Consonant Consonant Consonant Dissonant Dissonant Dissonant Musical Element Volume Medium Soft Soft Soft Medium Medium Loud Loud Varied *Bruner II, George C. (1990). “Music, Mood, a nd Marketing.” Journal of Marketing . October 1990. p. 94-104. 11p. 20

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Cognitive or Affective Responses to ad (Cad) Attitude toward the ad (Aad) Brand Beliefs (Cb) Attitude toward the brand (Abr) Intention to purchase (Ib) *MacKenzie, Scott B., Richard J. Lutz and George E. Belch. “The role of attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: A test of co mpeting explanations.” Journal of Marketing Research. May 1986. Volume 23, Issue 2. p 130. 14p. Figure 2-1. The dual-mediation hypothesis* 21

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CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES Music is typically used as a background el ement in both advertising and within retail settings. While there is some skepticism on whether or not music has the ability to directly and solely influence consumer preference and beha vior, its presence in conjunction with other elements can contribute to positive relations to mood, low-involvement information processing and recall. More specifically, various elements of musical structure have been shown to have positive effects on sales within retail and restaurant environm ents, although results do not necessarily support one another. Regional prefer ences toward different styles of music and preferences for the elements with in those varying styles of music may be a reason why studies regarding music as a variable of atmospherics cont radict each other, speci fically in the case of the restaurant studies. The Mi lliman study was conducted in the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas area while the specific geographic location of the Su llivan study is not discussed, although the study was conducted in the center of a mid-size city (Milliman 1986, Sullivan 2002). Additionally, the sixteen years separating the two studies could have a major imp act on the respective results of each study. Several musical trends, specifically w ithin the arena of popular music, have emerged since that time, including but not limited to the explosion of hip-hop/ rap in the late 1980s to the present and the popularity of grunge in the early 1990s. A large body of research exists that examin es the general effects of music on consumer behavior and mood and that examin es the effects of various elem ents of musical structure and their respective relations hips to the moods, emotions and co nsumer behavior in regard to atmospherics. However, the body of research rega rding music’s effectiveness in advertising is limited, focusing primarily on its ability to enhan ce processing and recall. The effects of the 22

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various elements of musical st ructure—tempo, pitch and texture— and their effects on attitudes toward the advertisement (Aad) and a transference of that attitude to the brand (Abr) being advertised has not been a real focus of prior research efforts. It has previously been shown that the el ements of musical stru cture evoke different emotions, depending on the element being examined. By isolating one of these elements, in this instance, orchestration utilizing different types of instruments, as the independent variable, and leaving other potential influences, such as tempo and volume, constant, this could be shown to convey certain emotions elicited from the type of instrumentation used to both the advertisement and the brand. It has also been shown that background musi c in retail settings has a positive effect on sales versus conditions where musi c is not present. Therefore, the presence of music in an advertisement may result in a more positive Aad and Abr than in conditions where music is not present. Furthermore, orches tration utilizing string instru ments, brass instruments and woodwinds could be tested to see if their effects on mood transfer to the pr oduct being advertised. Keeping in mind the effects that music, and mo re specifically, certain types of orchestration have on mood, the following can be hypothesized: H1: The presence of music, regardless of the ty pe of instrument used in the orchestration, will have a greater positive effect on Aad and Abr than with the presence of no music. H2: Orchestrations using brass instruments (e .g., trumpets) will have the greatest positive effect on Aad and Abr. H3: Orchestrations using woodwinds (e.g., cl arinets or saxophones) should have the second most positive effect on Aad and Abr. H4: Orchestrations using string instruments (e.g., violins) should have the lowest effect on Aad and Abr. 23

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The style of music used in the study would need to be perceived as neutral in order to more effectively eliminate potentia l bias. However, it should be noted that this study is only internally valid, as in a real world setting in which consumers would normally be exposed to a variety of musical elements; the controls on these other variables would not exist. Therefore, it would not be possible to generalize any results obtained from the study. 24

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CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY Research Design The purpose of this study was to manipulate vari ous types of instrumentations in order to determine if specific instrument types can affect a person’s attitude toward the advertisement and toward the brand. As previously stated, differe nt characteristics of music (e.g., tempo, volume or the presence/absence of lyrics, etc.) have varying effects on a pe rson’s emotional state and ability to process information from an advertisement. W ith this in mind, each of the four stimuli used maintained the same tempo and volume levels throughout. Therefore, using the same song in each of the four tests and varying the type of orchestration used allowed for the most consistent maintenance of these factors. Five different versi ons of the commercial were used to test each of the four hypotheses, with a version featuring brass orchestration, woodwi nd orchestration, string orchestration and a full orchestra playing th e piece in the background. A version of the commercial with no background music was the control. Stimuli Development A pre-test was performed to select which of six classical songs woul d have the best fit with the commercial. A five-item, seven point semantic differential scale was used to measure fit for each of the songs. The same scale was us ed by MacInnis and Park (1991) to measure fit, but was modified to better suit the commercial. The items used measured expectedness, fit with the graduation theme, fit with the featured restau rant, fit with the claim that the restaurant has great food and fit with the claim that the restaurant has great se rvice, with possible responses ranging from fits very poorly to fits very well. Songs that had a mean higher than 4.00 were considered a good fit. The last sixty seconds of each piece were used as background music for the commercial’s spoken text, read aloud to ten participants from a graduate level advertising 25

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class. After comparing the means of each of th e six songs, shown in Table 4-1, it was found that “Pomp and Circumstance” had the highest mean sc ore, and therefore the best fit with the commercial. In order to test the hypotheses, a sixty-s econd radio commercial was constructed for a fictitious restaurant advertising reservation services for graduation parties. Piano sheet music for “ Pomp and Circumstance, Opus 39, No. 1,” composed by E. Elgar, was purchased from Everynote.com, an online sheet music distributor. The music was manually inputted into Finale Notepad 2006, a music composition program. The initial entry was transposed to the three instrument categories, with tempo preset at 90 BPM for each of the four versions of the commercial. A second program, Audacity, was used to record and mix the vocal component of the commercials with the various orchestrations. Participants Undergraduate students from six introductory-lev el classes in the University of Florida’s College of Journalism and Comm unications were the primary participants of the study. Additional participants were work colleagues of the researcher, all employed by JCPenney in Gainesville, Florida. In order to maintain cons istency throughout the samples, these participants were also undergraduate students attending the University of Florid a. Approximately two-thirds of those who participated in th is study received extra credit fr om their respective instructors; however not all instructors offered extra credit to their students as an incentive, nor did the participants who were obtained from JCPenney receive any compen sation for their participation. In total, 184 students between the ages of 18 participated in the study. 26

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Method and Measurement A four-item, seven point semantic differential scale was used to measure attitude toward the ad and brand attitude, the same scale ut ilized by MacInnis and Park (1991) to measure attitude toward the ad and brand attitude. This scale was also adapted to measure attitude toward the music, Amusic. The ranges for evaluation ranged from very bad to very good, unfavorable to favorable, unappealing to appealing and not at all likeable to very likeable. Purchase intent was evaluated with the Verbal Purcha se Intent Scale, a five-item s cale developed by Haley and Case (1979) to measure the respondents’ in tent to make a reservation at the restaurant featured in the commercial. Intent responses ranged from definite ly would not make a rese rvation to definitely would make a reservation. Additionally, the same semantic differential scale that was used to measure fit in the pre-test was used in the primary study to determine the fit of the four manipulations of the commercial (Macinn is and Park 1991). Neither fit nor Amusic were tested in the control group, as there was no background music present. The survey was posted onto Survey, an on line survey developm ent and maintenance system operated by the College of Journalism and Co mmunications at the University of Florida. Each of the five commercials was entered into the system under five separate cells, one per stimulus and one for the control. A separate we bpage was created to house the informed consent form and a hyperlink to the website itself. The pa rticipants were given th e link to the informed consent page. Survey’s system randomly assign ed respondents to cells as they entered the website. The cells were monitored daily in orde r to help avoid disproportionately sized cells. Results from the five cells were downloaded in to Excel, recoded and then exported into SPSS. 27

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Table 4-1. Mean fit scores of pre-tested songs Song Title Minimum Score Maximum Score Mean Standard Deviation "Pomp and Circumstance" 4.10 5.40 4.52 0.51 "Toreador March" 3.00 3.50 3.32 0.22 "Waltz of the Flowers" 2.80 3.60 3.16 0.32 "Blue Danube" 3.60 5.10 4.44 0.73 "1812 Overture" 3.10 4.00 3.56 0.42 "New World Symphony" 2.20 2.50 2.38 0.13 n=5 28

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CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Preliminary Analyses To simplify the analyses of the collected data , the four questions for each of the attitude measures were combined and averaged to create index scores for attitude toward the music, advertisement and the brand. The same was done to the five fit measures, also to simplify the data analyses. In order to determine if the attitudinal measures for the music, the commercial and the brand were reliabl e, reliability analyses were perf ormed. A reliability analysis was conducted for the five fit measures as well. Fo r each of the four analys es, a score of 0.70, which indicates that a measure can be consider ed reliable, was sought (Nunnally 1978). The Cronbach’s alpha score for the four items used to measure Amusic was 0.71. For the four items used to measure Aad and Abr, the Cronbach’s alpha score was 0.88 and 0.79, respectively. For the five items used to measure fit, the Cronbach ’s alpha score was 0.77. Si nce all four measures met the minimum Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.70, they were considered reliable. Analyses of Hypotheses The first of the four hypotheses being tested in this study presumed that the presence of music, regardless of orch estration would have a gr eater positive effect on Aad and Abr than with the presence of no music. The other three hypotheses presumed th at string orches trations would have the least positive effect on Aad and Abr, woodwind orchestrations would have the next greatest positive effect on Aad and Abr, and brass orchestrations would have the greatest positive effect on Aad and Abr. To test the four hypotheses, a multivaria te analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to see if the variation of the orchestrations created differences in the means of Amusic, Aad and Abr, using the five orchestrations (no mu sic and full, brass, string and woodwind 29

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orchestrations) as the independe nt variable and the attitudina l index scores as dependent variables. As shown in Table 5-1, there were no statistically significan t differences at the 0.05 level between the mean scores of any of the inst rument types for any of the attitudinal measures, nor were there any consistent increases or decreases of the means between an instrument type and the attitudinal scores. In order to determine if orchestration had an effect on the fit of the background music, a second MANOVA was conducted between the instrument cells and the five fit measures. As shown in Table 5-2, there were again no statisti cally significant differences between the means of the four orchestrations and any of the five fit measures. An ANOVA wa s run to determine if orchestration had an effect on purchase intent. Again, there we re no statistically significant mean differences created by the various orchestrat ions. However, three out of five of the fit measures (fit with the f eatured restaurant, fit with the claim of great food and fit with the claim of great service) had means th at ranged between 2.76 and 3.28, indi cating that the music did not fit well with those elements of the commercial. Expectedness among all orchestrations fell between 3.95 and 4.23, indicating that the music was neutral in term s of the subjec ts’ expectation of the pairing of the music with the commercial. Fit with the graduation theme had the best fit of all the five fit measures, with means ranging between 6.18 and 6.59, indicating that the music did in fact fit well with the th eme of the commercial. Interaction Effects As there were no mean differences found between the varied orchestrations and attitudinal, purchase intent or the fit measures, additional tests were conducted to determine if there were interactions between other variables th at could be more influential than the type of instrument used in the music. The fit variab les were recoded to create two categories per 30

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variable, with the low point of the scale to the midpoint indicati ng a poor fit and points above the midpoint indicating a good fit. An ANOVA was conducted between the recoded fit items and the attitudinal measures. As shown in Table 5-4, there were statistically significant mean differences at the 0.05 level betwee n all three attitudinal measures a nd all but one of the five fit measures, fit with the graduation theme of the co mmercial. This indicated that in almost all instances, the attitudinal items with higher mean scor es also fell into the positive ranges of the fit criteria. To test the effects of fit on the attitude variables, a series of correlation tests were conducted between the fit index score and the th ree attitudinal index scores. The test of correlations between the fit score and the Amusic index score, Aad index score and Abr index score resulted in Pearson coefficients of 0.46, 0.56 and 0.42, respectively, indicating moderate correlations, all statistically significant at the 0.05 level, between the variables (Table 5-5). However, R squared values for each of the three correlations were relatively low, with 21%, 31% and 17% of the variances explained by the correlation line between fit and Amusic, Aad and Abr, respectively. Additional correlation tests were run to test for correlations between the three attitudinal measures themselves. As shown in Table 5-6, the correlation between the music attitude index score and the Aad index score yielded a Pearson coefficient of 0.60, indicating a moderately strong positive correlation betw een these two variables. Correlations between the Amusic index score and the Abr index score resulted in a Pearson coe fficient of 0.35, also indicating a moderate positive correlation between Amusic and Abr; however, the correlation wa s not as strong as that between Amusic and Aad. A test of correlation between Aad and Abr index scores also indicated a moderate positive correlation, with a Pearson co efficient of 0.51. However, R squared values 31

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again showed low percentages of variances expl ained by the correlation lines. The correlation line could explain only 36% of the va riance in the correlation between Amusic and Aad, 12% of the variance in the correlation between Amusic and Abr, and 26% of the variance in the correlation between Aad and Abr. Discussion Contrary to the presumption of the hypot heses tested in this study, there were no statistically significant differences created in Aad and Abr by varying the orch estration of the background music of the commercial. There were also no significant differences in purchase intent or the perceived fit of the music to the commercial created by varying the orchestration of the music. It was shown that the fit of the music w ith the commercial had greater influence on Aad and Abr than did varying orchestr ations, with a stronger correlation between fit and Aad than between fit and Abr. Additionally, Amusic was also more strongly correlated with Aad than with Abr. It was also shown that there is a correlation between Aad and Abr. These results support MacKenzie, Lutz and Belch’s ( 1986) dual-mediation hypothesis, whic h states that affective or cognitive responses to the advertisemen t, which in this case are fit and Amusic, influences Aad, which influences Abr. However, the low attribution percen tages associated with the correlations could be a result of issues relating to brand development, for example, the name of the restaurant used or the type of restaurant. Likeability of the product itself was not te sted in any pre-test. However, this step would have most likel y occurred during the c ourse of new product development in a real-world se tting. Any issues stemming from dislike of product attributes would have been addressed prior to any commercial productions. 32

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A possible explanation of the results could be th e level of fit with the advertisement itself. According to Macinnis and Park (1991), music with a poor fit with th e advertisement yielded more negative emotions toward the advertisement th an music that fit well with the advertisement. This effect is more pronounced in low-invol vement advertisements as opposed to highinvolvement advertisements. If the product be ing advertised, in this case, a casual dining restaurant is considered a low-i nvolvement product, the low levels of fit in the categories relating to the brand could have affected all three of the attitude measures . However, given the nature of the situation being advertised, a post-graduation dinner, it is difficu lt to definitively ascertain if the product would become atypically high-involvem ent, in which case, the presence of music may have inhibited the ability of respondents to process the information from the commercial (Macinnis and Park 1991, Alpert and Al pert 1991, Bruner 1990). Limitations There were several limitations of this study th at could have affected the results that were obtained. One limitation of this study was the lack of control over the test environment. While subjects had the ability to take the survey at th eir leisure, there was no means by which to control any outside influences that may have distracted them while taking the study. This may account for blank entries in the survey as well. In addi tion, there was no way to control the quality of the sound equipment on the computers that were used to listen to the sample commercial. Those with better sound systems would have had better quality playback than th ose with lower quality sound systems. Another limitation may have been that the commercial featured graduation reservation services; however, the majority of the respondents of the survey were enrolled in introductorylevel classes. This highly increases the likeli hood that they were just beginning their academic 33

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careers; therefore, they would not have been the actual target audience of this commercial if it were a real-world campaign. This would have al so increased the likelihood that they may have a lower level of concern for the advertised service, as it did not pertain to them. A third limitation of the study was the quality of the actual recordings themselves. The recordings featured com puter-generated instruments as opposed to real instruments, primarily due to complications in obtaining musicians to participate in record ings. Ideally, real instruments should have been used, as there is a significant difference in the quality of the sound being produced. The quality of the recording may have also limited the results of the study. The commercials used in the study were recorded on a personal computer using freeware downloaded from the Internet. Higher quality recording prog rams could have generate d a better commercial. Additionally, the researcher had li ttle experience with recording equipment and software. This could have resulted in an unbalanced mix of the background music and the vocal element of the commercial. The final limitation that this study may ha ve had was the musical preferences of the respondents. This may have been affected by seve ral factors, including ag e, ethnic heritage and their nation of origin. Any of th ese could cause one to prefer one style of music over another. The use of a different song, based on the overall preferences of a partic ular geographic region, may garner different results. Additionally, the respondents’ familiarity with the music was not measured in either the pre-test or the primary study. Their familiarity and preexisting attitudes toward the song may have had an effect on the attitudinal scores. 34

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Table 5-1. Mean variances between cell types and attitudi nal index scores Attitudinal Index Scores Cell Type N Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Between Group F-score Between Group Sig. Music Attitude Index Score 1.37 0.25 All 38 3.66 1.12 0.18 Brass 39 4.04 1.04 0.17 Strings 36 3.84 0.95 0.16 Woodwinds 32 3.56 1.12 0.20 No Music 34 3.56 1.08 0.19 Total 179 3.74 1.07 0.08 Ad Attitude Index Score 1.35 0.25 All 39 3.12 1.05 0.17 Brass 39 3.62 1.13 0.18 Strings 36 3.49 1.21 0.20 Woodwinds 33 3.32 1.23 0.21 No Music 34 3.15 1.01 0.17 Total 181 3.34 1.13 0.08 Brand Attitude Index Score 0.19 0.94 All 38 4.19 1.03 0.17 Brass 39 4.04 0.91 0.15 Strings 36 4.06 0.82 0.14 Woodwinds 34 4.02 1.04 0.18 No Music 34 4.09 0.8 0.14 Total 181 4.08 0.92 0.07 p < 0.05 35

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Table 5-2. Mean variances between cell types and fit measures Fit Measures Cell Type N Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Between Group F-score Between Group Significance Expectedness 0.22 0.88 All 38 3.95 1.63 0.26 Brass 39 4.23 1.66 0.27 Strings 36 4.03 1.56 0.26 Woodwinds 35 4.11 1.51 0.26 Total 148 4.08 1.58 0.13 Fit with graduation theme 1.36 0.26 All 38 6.18 1.33 0.22 Brass 39 6.59 0.79 0.13 Strings 36 6.39 0.93 0.16 Woodwinds 35 6.54 0.66 0.11 Total 148 6.43 0.97 0.08 Fit with featured restaurant 0.43 0.73 All 37 2.76 1.19 0.20 Brass 39 3.10 1.54 0.25 Strings 36 3.03 1.36 0.23 Woodwinds 35 2.91 1.52 0.26 Total 147 2.95 1.40 0.12 Fit with great food statement 0.28 0.84 All 38 3.00 1.39 0.23 Brass 39 2.74 1.29 0.21 Strings 36 2.86 1.42 0.24 Woodwinds 35 3.00 1.64 0.28 Total 148 2.90 1.43 0.12 Fit with great service statement 0.38 0.77 All 38 2.92 1.44 0.23 Brass 39 3.15 1.53 0.25 Strings 36 3.28 1.47 0.24 Woodwinds 35 3.23 1.80 0.30 Total 148 3.14 1.55 0.13 p < 0.05 36

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Table 5-3. Mean variances between purchase intent scale and cell types Cell Type N Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error All 39 3.87 0.65 0.11 Brass 39 3.77 0.63 0.10 Strings 36 3.92 0.73 0.12 Woodwinds 35 3.89 0.76 0.13 No Music 35 4.11 0.53 0.09 Total 184 3.91 0.67 0.05 F= 1.31; p=0.27 Table 5-4. Mean variances between f it measures and attitudinal measures Attitudinal Measures F it Measure N Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Between Group F-score Between Group Sig. Music Attitude Index Score Expectedness 24.28 p<0.01 unexpected 83 3.43 1.09 0.12 expected 61 4.26 0.84 0.11 total 144 3.78 1.07 0.09 Ad Attitude Index Score 26.26 p<0.01 unexpected 85 3.00 1.07 0.12 expected 61 3.92 1.08 0.14 total 146 3.39 1.61 0.10 Brand Attitude Index Score 4.57 0.03 unexpected 85 3.93 1.00 0.11 expected 61 4.26 0.81 0.10 total 146 4.07 0.94 0.78 Music Attitude Index Score Fit with Graduation Theme 0.03 0.86 fits poorly 6 3.71 1.13 0.46 fits well 138 3.79 1.07 0.09 total 144 3.78 1.07 0.09 Ad Attitude Index Score 3.02 0.08 fits poorly 6 2.58 1.36 0.55 fits well 140 3.42 1.15 0.10 total 146 3.39 1.16 0.10 Brand Attitude Index Score 1.68 0.20 fits poorly 6 3.58 1.51 0.61 fits well 140 4.09 0.91 0.08 total 146 4.07 0.94 0.08 Music Attitude Index Score Fit with Featured Restaurant 10.54 p<0.01 fits poorly 124 3.67 1.07 0.96 fits well 19 4.50 0.83 0.19 total 143 3.78 1.07 0.09 Ad Attitude Index Score 7.72 0.01 fits poorly 126 3.28 1.13 0.10 fits well 19 4.05 1.16 0.27 total 145 3.38 1.16 0.10 37

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Table 5-4. Continued Between Group Between Group Attitudinal Measures Fit Measures N Mean St d. Dev. Std. Error F-scores Sig. Brand Attitude Index Score 7.51 0.01 fits poorly 125 3.98 0.94 0.08 fits well 20 4.59 0.80 0.18 total 145 4.06 0.94 0.08 Music Attitude Index Scor e Fit with Great Food 9.96 p<0.01 fits poorly 124 3.67 1.04 0.09 fits well 20 4.46 1.02 0.23 total 144 3.78 1.07 0.09 Ad Attitude Index Score 4.07 0.05 fits poorly 127 3.31 1.16 0.10 fits well 19 3.88 1.10 0.25 total 146 3.39 1.16 0.10 Brand Attitude Index Score 11.21 p<0.01 fits poorly 126 3.97 0.91 0.08 fits well 20 4.70 0.91 0.20 total 146 4.07 0.94 0.08 Music Attitude Index Score Fit with Great Service 8.09 0.01 fits poorly 115 3.66 1.08 0.10 fits well 29 4.28 0.89 0.17 total 144 3.78 1.07 0.09 Ad Attitude Index Score 10.32 p<0.01 fits poorly 118 3.24 1.15 0.11 fits well 28 4.00 1.02 0.19 total 146 3.39 1.16 0.10 Brand Attitude Index Score 5.79 0.02 fits poorly 118 3.98 0.93 0.09 fits well 28 4.45 0.88 0.17 total 146 4.07 0.94 0.08 p < 0.05 Table 5-5. Correlations between the fit i ndex score and attitudinal index scores Amusic Aad Abr Fit Index Score Pearson Correlation 0.46* 0.56* 0.42* R squared 0.21 0.31 0.17 N 143 145 145 *p<0.01 38

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Table 5-6: Correlations betw een attitudinal index scores Amusic Aad Abr Amusic Pearson Correlation 1.00 0.60* 0.35* R squared 1.00 0.36 0.12 N 179 178 178 Aad Pearson Correlation 0.60* 1.00 0.51* R squared 0.36 1.00 0.26 N 178 181 180 Abr Pearson Correlation 0.35* 0.51* 1.00 R squared 0.12 0.26 1.00 N 178 180 181 *p<0.01 39

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CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Music is a powerful stimulator of emotions, both in leisure and business settings. Studies have shown that small changes to the structure of a piece can make a signi ficant impact on how a person feels. Within the past thirty years, the role of music in advertis ing and in marketing has been investigated in greater depth. This research has shown that variations in tempo and volume can cause consumers to act differently depending on the changes made: a critical point in the study of atmospherics. Additionally , the placement of music in a commercial can also influence how an audience member reacts to the piece. However, there was limited study on whether or not particular orchestrations, sp ecifically the instrument types us ed in the orchestration, would have an impact on attitude toward the advertisement and attitude toward the brand. This was the primary purpose of this study. In addition, this study tested if the presence of music versus its absence in the background of a commercial would have an effect on attitude toward the advertisement and toward the brand. There were no significant di fferences found in varying or chestration and improved or worsened attitudes, nor were ther e any significant effects on purch ase intent or on the fit of the music to the commercial. However, it was show n that there was a corre lation between both fit and attitude toward the advertisement and towa rd the brand, as well as a correlation between attitude toward the music and both attitude to ward the advertisement and toward the brand, further confirmation of the dual mediation hypothesis. There were several limitations to the study, including a lack of control of the test environment, the commercial’s recording qual ity, musical preference of the subjects and disassociation of the subjects with the theme of the commercial due to a lack of relevance. These limitations leave opportunities for future research. 40

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This research could be improved by improving the quality of the test commercial. The use of actual instruments as opposed to synthesi zed ones would possibly have an impact on the results of this test. Additionally, the use of a different sample, one that actually coincided with what the most reasonable target audience would be in the event it were a real campaign, may change the results of the experiment. The a dded relevance to the product or service being advertised will likely improve the level of attention subjects paid to the commercial itself. Also, greater control of the test environment, for exam ple, having subjects gather in one area to take the survey versus taking it at their homes, could affect the results as well. This way, playback quality and distractions can be be tter monitored a nd controlled. Future researchers may also investigate whether or not the use of different styles of music, ones that are more popular among the target subject pool would have an effect on fit or attitude toward the advertisement and towa rd the brand. Future research can also investigate if and how different styles of music affect the attitudes toward advertisem ents and brands of people from different regions of the country or the world. This can aid in future tailoring campaigns for certain geographic locations. Ther e are several opportuni ties that can be investigated by future researchers; and hopefully, this rese arch aids in the future study of the role music can play in the field of advertising. 41

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APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Did you listen to the last commercial in its entirety? Yes No (if no, please listen to the commercial before proceeding) 2. Please state what you consider to be the most prominent instru ment you heard in the music of this commercial. _________________________________________________ 3. How unexpected was the music with respect to the other elements of the commercial? Fits very poorly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fits very well 4. How well does the music f it with the graduation theme? Fits very poorly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fits very well 5. How well does the music fit with the featured restaurant? Fits very poorly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fits very well 6. How well does the music fit with the not ion that Marty’s Steakhouse has great food? Fits very poorly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fits very well 7. How well does the music fit with the noti on that Marty’s Steakhouse has great service? Fits very poorly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fits very well 8. Did you find the music in the commercial: A. very good ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ very bad B. not at all likeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ likeable C. unfavorable ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ favorable D. appealing ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ unappealing 42

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9. Did you find the overall commercial: A. very bad ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ very good B. not at all likeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ likeable C. favorable ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ unfavorable D. appealing ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ unappealing 10. Did you find the restaurant featured in this commercial: A. very good ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ very bad B. likeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ not at all likeable C. unfavorable ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ favorable D. unappealing ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ appealing 11. What is the likelihood that you would make a reservation at this restaurant? ___Definitely would make a reservation ___Would very likely make a reservation ___Probably would make a reservation ___Might or might not make a reservation ___Definitely would not make a reservation 12. Please state your age: _____ 13. What is your gender? M F 14. Please state your major. (Note: If you are a du al-major student, please specify both majors.) 15. What is you home city and state OR city a nd country, if you are not or iginally from the US? _____________________________________________________________________ 43

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16. If you are receiving extra cred it for your participation in this study, please enter your name, course number and instructor’s name in the spac e provided. (Note: This information will only be used to report your participation to your in structor, not as part of the study itself.) _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Thank You for Your Participation! 44

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APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT FORM Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of music of on attitudes toward commercials and brands What you will be asked to do in the study: If you choose to participate in th e study, you will be asked to list en to five commercials for a restaurant. After hearing each commercial, you w ill be asked to answer a short questionnaire. Time required: Approximately 15 minutes Risks: There are no risks anticipated from participating in this study. Compensation: There is no compensation for participation in this study Benefit: There are no direct benefits for participation in this study. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the ex tent provided by law. The researcher will have no way of associating responses dire ctly with the individual. Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary. You may withdraw from the study at a ny time without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: If you would like to learn more about the study, you may contact Maya Teagle, Graduate Student, Department of Advertising, by email at mteagle@ufl.edu or Dr. Jorge Villegas, Department of Advertising (2084 Weimer Hall) by tele phone at (352)392-5059 or by email at jvillegas@jou.ufl.edu . Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph. 392-0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I volunt arily agree to pa rticipate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant:_________________________________ Date: __________________ Principal Investig ator:_________________________ Date: _________________ 45

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APPENDIX C TEST COMMERCIAL SCRIPT “Marty’s Steakhouse” Test Instrument :60 Radio Hungry for Graduation SFX: MUSIC BEGINS PLAYING. AF TER FIRST TWO SECONDS, THE MUSIC VOLUME REDUCES. ANNCR: (SPEAKING IN A CLEAR, EVEN, UPBEAT TONE) Congratulations, Graduates. You’re getting ready to out into the world. You are now faced with questions like, “What will you do now that you’ve graduated?” But forget the small stuff. What about the tough questions? Where will your family go to eat after that long cer emony? And how long will you have to wait on a table? The answer: Come to Marty’s Steakhouse. We feature great grilled entrees like our 10 oz. Cajun Sirloin or mouth-watering Baby-Back ribs. And to avoid the wait for a table, Marty’ s offers call-ahead services. Call one hour ahead and we’ll reserve your tabl e for your party of up to 15 people. For parties of 15 or more people, call us at 555-1212 to reserve one of our private dining rooms. To better serve you, pleas e make your reservation at least 24 hours in advance. Graduate to a differe nt class of restaurant. Marty’s Steakhouse: great steaks, great service. SFX: MUSIC ENDS 46

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LIST OF REFERENCES Alden, Dana L., Ashesh Mukherjee and Wayne D. H oyer. “The Effects of Incongruity, Surprise and Positive Moderators on Perceived Humor in Television Advertising.” Journal of Advertising. 2000. Volume XXIX, Number 2. 15p. Alpert, Judy I. and Mark I. Al pert. “Contributions from a Musical Perspective on Advertising and Consumer Behavior.” Advances in Consumer Research . 1991, Vol. 18 Issue 1. p232. 7p. Brooker, George and John J. Wheatley. “Music and Radio Advertising: Effects of Tempo and Placement.” Advances in Consumer Research. 1994. Vol. 21. p.286-290. 5p. Bruner II, George C. “Music, Mood, and Marketing.” Journal of Marketing . October 1990. Vol. 54 Issue 4. p94. 11p. Elgar, E. “Pomp and Circumstance Op. 39, No. 1 .” Everynote.com. http://www.everynote.com . Accessed June 2006. Hoyer, Wayne D. and Deborah J. MacInnis. Consumer Behavior . Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, Massachusetts. 2001. Second Ed. p.155-173. Gorn, Gerald J. “The Effects of Music In Advertising On Choice Be havior: A Classical Conditioning Approach.” Journal of Marketing . Winter 1982. Vol. 46 Issue 1. Kellaris, James J. and Anthony Cox. “The Eff ects of Background Music in Advertising: A Reassessment.” Journal of Consumer Research . Jun 1989. Vol. 16 Issue 1. p113. 6p. Kellaris, James J. and Robert J. Kent. “Explor ing Tempo and Modality Effect, On Consumer Responses to Music.” Advances in Consumer Research . 1991. Vol. 18 Issue 1. p243. 6p. Lord, Kenneth R., Myung-Soo Lee and Paul L. Saue r. “The Combined Influence Hypothesis: Central and Peripheral Antecedents of Attitude toward the Ad.” Journal of Advertising . Spring 1995. Vol. XXIV, Number 1. p73-85. 12p. Macinnis, Deborah J. and C. Whan Park. “The Di fferential Role of Characteristics of Music on Highand Low-Involvement Consumers' Processing of Ads.” Journal of Consumer Research . Sept. 1991. Vol. 18 Issue 2. p161. 13p. MacKenzie, Scott B., Richard J. Lutz and George E. Belch. “The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectivene ss: A Test of Competing Explanations.” Journal of Marketing Research . May 1986. Volume 23, Issue 2. p 130. 14p. 47

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Kreitner, Kenneth, Mary Terey-Smith, Jack Westrup, D. Kern Holoman, G.W. Hopkins, Paul Griffiths and Jon Alan Conrad. “Instrumentation and orchestration.” Grove Music Online . Accessed April 16, 2006. http:// www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ shared/views/article.html?section=music.20404. Milliman, Ronald E. “Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket Shoppers.” Journal of Marketing . 1982. Vol. 46. p86. 6p. –– “The Influence of Background Music on th e Behavior of Restaurant Patrons.” Journal of Consumer Research . 1986. Vol. 13. p286. 4p. Morris, Jon D. and Mary Anne Boone. “The Effects of Music on Emotional Response, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intent in an Emotional Advertising Condition.” Advances in Consumer Research. 1998. Vol. 25. Accessed 02/14/2005. AdSAM website. http://www.adsam.com/effects_of_music.pdf. Nunnally, Jum C. Psychometric Theory . McGraw-Hill. New York, NY. 1978. Olsen, G. Douglas and Richard Johnson. “The Impact of Background Lyrics on Recall of Concurrently Presented Verbal Inform ation in an Advertising Context.” Advances in Consumer Research. 2002. Vol. 29 Issue 1, p147. 2p. Smith, J.L and J. Noon. “Objective measurement of mood change induced by contemporary music.” Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 5 . Blackwell Science Ltd. 1998. p.403-408. Sullivan, Malcolm. “The impact of pitch, volume and tempo on the atmospheric effects of music.” International Journal of Re tail & Distribution Management . 2002. Vol. 30, Number 6. p323. 8p. Tellis, Gerard J. Effective Advertising: Understanding Wh en, How, and Why Advertising Works. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA. 2004. p. 30. Wallace, Wanda T. “Jingles in Adve rtising: Can They Improve Recall?” Advances in Consumer Research . 1991. Vol. 18. p 239. 5p. 48

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Maya Teagle was born January 28, 1982 in Eustis, Florida and was raised in Coleman, Florida. She graduated from Wildwood High School in 1999. She attended Lake-Sumter Community College where she rece ived her Associate of Arts degree in May 2000. She received her B.S. in advertising with a minor in East Asian languages and liter ature, specializing in Japanese in December 2002 from th e University of Florida. After graduation, Maya was promoted to depa rtment supervisor at the JCPenney location in Gainesville, Florida. She has led teams in the home department and currently in the men’s apparel department, ensuring that her assigned areas meet company set goals for associate performance, sales performance and visual stan dards. In August 2003, she returned to UF to pursue a Master of Advertising, which she received in December 2006. Maya is investigating various career opportunities, includi ng pursuing a marketing career with JCPenney. In the future, she would like to use her skills in advertising a nd her experience in retail to go into business for herself. 49