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Visual Information Access and Management for Life Cycle Project Management

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Title:
Visual Information Access and Management for Life Cycle Project Management
Creator:
DIB, JAZAR Y. ( Author, Primary )
Copyright Date:
2008

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Subjects / Keywords:
Computer aided design ( jstor )
Computer technology ( jstor )
Construction management ( jstor )
Database models ( jstor )
Databases ( jstor )
Engineering ( jstor )
Geographic information systems ( jstor )
Information technology ( jstor )
Project management ( jstor )
Subcontractors ( jstor )

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Jazar Y. Dib. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
5/31/2012
Resource Identifier:
660033350 ( OCLC )

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1 VISUAL INFORMATION ACCESS AND MA NAGEMENT FOR LIFE CYCLE PROJECT MANAGEMENT By HAZAR Y. DIB A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 Copyright 2007 by Hazar Y. Dib

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3 To my Family, Mentors, and Friends.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation is a result of four years of effort. I am deep ly indebted to the many people who have supported me in my work and my lif e at Gainesville, and whom I can never thank enough. My advisor, Dr. R. Raymond Issa has offe red continuous mentorship and tremendous guidance through times of self doubt. The othe r members of my committee have provided generous guidance and support and I cannot thank them enough for believing in me more than I believed in myself, as well as for their unconditional support. Many University officials and colleagues, w ho became personal friends, have helped make Gainesville a place to call home. I appreciate the opportunity to have met with them and the start of long term friendships. I appreciate the exposure and the experien ce I have gathered from the construction industry. It has enriched and d eepened my understanding of the construction processes and the people who work in it. I also want to give special thanks to thos e who offered me their friendship and considered me as member of their wonderful families. Finally, I would like to acknow ledge my family who has al ways supported me with my goals and career choices.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........9 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......10 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................14 Research Motivation............................................................................................................ ...14 Solution Potential............................................................................................................. .......16 2 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................20 Problem Statement.............................................................................................................. ....20 Roles and Expectations of the C onstruction Management (CM) Team..........................20 Various Sources of Construction Information.................................................................21 Various Teams Involved in the Construction Process.....................................................22 Anatomy of the CM Team...............................................................................................23 Roles and Responsibilities of the Various Members of the CM Team...........................25 Research Objective............................................................................................................. ....26 Scope and Limitations.......................................................................................................... ..26 Research Methodology...........................................................................................................27 Phase 1: Determining the Roles, Mean s and Methods, and the Time Spent to Fulfill the Various Tasks of the Various Construction Team Members......................27 Choice of research strategy......................................................................................27 Direct observations...................................................................................................28 Surveys.....................................................................................................................28 Choice of survey methodology................................................................................29 Phase 2: Develop a Conceptual Database w ith a Visual Component that Serves the Various Team Members Fulfill their Duties Efficiently..............................................32 Data storage..............................................................................................................34 Data flexibility..........................................................................................................34 Data maintenance.....................................................................................................35 Data analysis............................................................................................................35 Historical data..........................................................................................................36 Future reference........................................................................................................36 Phase 3: Evaluate the Contribution of th e Developed Model Using Data from Real Construction Projects...................................................................................................36 Case study................................................................................................................37 Analysis of model performance...............................................................................37

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6 3 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................40 Standardization of Information Exchange..............................................................................42 The IAI / IFC.................................................................................................................. .42 The ISO STEP.................................................................................................................42 The TOPS....................................................................................................................... .44 3D Mixed and Virtual Reality................................................................................................44 Framework for Mixed Reality Appli cations in Civil Engineering..................................44 A Framework for Delivery of Integrated Building Information Modeling.....................45 Virtual Reality in Construction.......................................................................................45 From CAD to Virtual Reality: Mode ling Approaches, Data Exchange and Interactive 3D Building Design Tools.........................................................................46 Computer Aided Approaches in Data Exchange and Project Management...........................46 Computer Aided Project Management (CAPM).............................................................46 The EXPRESS/EXPRESS-G..........................................................................................47 Linking CRM and CAD with IFC-CRM GATE.............................................................47 The OSCON-CAD...........................................................................................................47 The 4D CAD....................................................................................................................48 Moving Beyond the Fourth Dimension with an IFC-Based Single Project Database....49 Object Oriented Approaches...................................................................................................49 The OMT........................................................................................................................ .49 The RATAS.....................................................................................................................49 Lifecycle Approaches........................................................................................................... ..50 Framework of a Virtual Laboratory fo r Construction Project Management...................50 Information Management as a Basis for Co mputer Aided Lifecycle Management in Civil and Building Engineering...................................................................................51 Concurrent Construction and Li fe Cycle Project Management......................................51 Cognizance of Visual Design Management of Life Cycle Project Management............52 A Simulation Model for Life Cycle Project Management..............................................52 Synthesis of a Model for Life -Cycle Project Management.............................................53 Database in Data Exchange and Information Sharing............................................................53 Entity-Relationship Model..............................................................................................53 The NIAM.......................................................................................................................54 Data Warehousing...........................................................................................................54 Application of Data Warehouse and D ecision Support Systems in Construction Management.................................................................................................................54 Integration of Virtually R eal Construction Model and Design-for-Safety-Process Database.......................................................................................................................55 Database Systems............................................................................................................55 Web and Database Exchange..................................................................................................56 Web Based Constructability Review System..................................................................56 Developing a Framework to Support Data Exchange from Heterogeneous Source via IFC and Web Services............................................................................................56 Building Information Model............................................................................................56 Latency in Error and Change Management.....................................................................57 Building Construction Coordination by and Adaptive Representation of the Cooperation Context....................................................................................................57

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7 ICON Project Modeling Method.....................................................................................58 The Integrated Building Process Model..........................................................................58 Web Based Information Management System for Construction Projects.......................59 Software to Simulate and Optimize A sset Management in Construction and Manufacturing..............................................................................................................59 Future Trends in Information Technologies for Project Management............................60 A CPM Based Construction Quality In spection and Decision-Aid System....................60 PPMS: a Web-based construction Proj ect Performance Monitoring System.................61 PHOTO-NET II: a Computer-Based Mon itoring System Applied to Project Management.................................................................................................................61 A Model of Information Management for Construction Using Information Technology..................................................................................................................62 Intelligent Representation for Computer-Aided Building Design...................................62 Model-based Dynamic Resource Manage ment for Construction Projects......................63 Using Engineering Drawing Interpretati on for Automatic Detection of Version Information in CADD Engineering Drawing..............................................................63 Utilizing Exchanged Documents in Construction Projects for Decision Support Based on Data Warehousing Technique......................................................................64 Managing Design Data in an Integrat ed CAAD Environment: A Product Model Approach......................................................................................................................64 VIRCON Interactive System for Teaching Construction Management.......................64 GIS for Collaboration.......................................................................................................... ...65 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)..........................................................................65 GIS-Functionality for Building Mo del Integration and Analysis....................................66 Constructing GIS: Actor Ne tworks of Collaboration......................................................67 The Open Black Box: The Role of The End-User In GIS Integration............................68 Applying Collaborative Engineering to the Facility Delivery Process Testbed Demonstration..............................................................................................................68 GIS Development and Planning Collaboration Examples from France..........................68 GIS for Coordination of Fast-Track Projects..................................................................69 A GIS–Based Bridge Management System....................................................................69 Geo-visualization for Constr ucting and Sharing Concepts.............................................70 Integrating Barcode and GIS for Monitoring Construction Progress..............................70 Distributed Object Models for Collabor ation in the Construction Industry....................71 Application of Integrated GPS and GIS Technology for Reducing Construction Waste and Improving Cons truction Efficiency............................................................72 GIS – Space Analysis........................................................................................................... ..72 GIS-Based Cost Estimates Integrati ng with Material Layout Planning..........................72 Fuzzy Decision Support System for Mate rial Routing on Construction Sites................73 CAD Standards and The Institut ions of Higher Education.............................................73 Developing a Conceptual Framework for Visually-Enabled Geo-Collaboration...........73 A CAD-Based Model for Site Planning..........................................................................74 Dynamic Knowledge Map for Reusing E xperts’ Tacit Knowledge in the AEC Industry....................................................................................................................... .74 Visualisation in Architecture, En gineering and Construction (AEC).............................75 Summary........................................................................................................................ .........76

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8 4 RESULTS........................................................................................................................ .......80 The Effectiveness of the VIAM Model................................................................................100 Roles of the Various CM Team Participants........................................................................105 The Project Engineer Roles in the Surveyed Company................................................107 The Project Manager Roles in the Surveyed Company.................................................109 The Field Superintendent Role s in the Surveyed Company..........................................112 The Field Assistant Superintendent Roles in the Surveyed Company..........................114 Survey Results................................................................................................................. .....115 The Objectives of the CM Office Survey......................................................................116 Analysis of the Construction Management Team.........................................................118 5 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS..............................................................................................127 The Parameters of the Case Study........................................................................................128 The Challenges for the Construction Team..........................................................................128 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS...................................................................................139 7 RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................................................................142 Incorporating 3D into VIAM................................................................................................142 A Space Oriented Scheduling Approach..............................................................................142 Real Time Application to Predict Behavior..........................................................................143 Incorporating Mobile Technology........................................................................................143 Incorporating RFID Technology..........................................................................................143 Long Term Vision............................................................................................................... ..144 APPENDIX A SUMMARY OF THE SUPERINT ENDENT QUESTIONNAIRE.....................................146 B SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT ENGINEER QUESTIONAIRE......................................162 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................179 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................186

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1. Comparison of the various computer tools targeting the construction industry...................77 4-1. Wall types.............................................................................................................. ...............95 4-2. Business and operations paramete rs for two construction companies...............................106 4-3. List of the duties and expectations from the same job title among the two companies.....107

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1. The parties involved in the construction phase...................................................................23 2-2. The construction management team....................................................................................24 2-3. The office crew........................................................................................................ ............24 2-4. The field crew......................................................................................................... .............25 3-1. IFC release 2.X........................................................................................................ ............43 4-1. Role of the construction management team........................................................................80 4-2. The information maze................................................................................................... .......83 4-3. Visual informati on related to tabular data...........................................................................88 4-4. Sheet representing walls and other cons truction elements on one floor of the building.....90 4-5. Different wall types a nnotations on the drawing sheets......................................................91 4-6. Relation connecting the tables together...............................................................................94 4-7. Tables and relationships from MSAccess...........................................................................96 4-8. A sample query to access and retrieve information.............................................................97 4-9. Inspection table tied to the project database........................................................................97 4-10. An illustration of a query in the suggested model.............................................................98 4-11. Product supply comm unication, preconstruction phase..................................................102 4-12. Product supply chain comm unications, construction phase............................................104 4-13. Product maintenance and repair re lated communications, post construction phase........104 4-14. Office crew years of construction experience.................................................................119 4-15. Office crew level of education........................................................................................ .119 4-16. Office crew university education in construction............................................................120 4-17. Field crew years of construction experience...................................................................120 4-18. Field crew level of education......................................................................................... ..121

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11 4-19. Field crew university degree in construction...................................................................121 4-20. Comparison of the size of the crew on the various projects............................................122 4-21. Daily tasks breakdown for a project engineer.................................................................124 4-22. Project engineer’s tasks on a typical day.........................................................................124 4-23. Daily tasks breakdown of a field crew member..............................................................125 4-24. Field crew member’s tasks on a typical day....................................................................126 5-3. Daily work progress report............................................................................................. ...131 5-4. Footing progress form.................................................................................................. .....132 5-5. Information related to the construction of the footings.....................................................133

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12 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy VISUAL INFORMATION ACCESS AND MA NAGEMENT FOR LIFE CYCLE PROJECT MANAGEMENT By Hazar Y. Dib May 2007 Chair: R. Raymond Issa Cochair: Robert Cox Majort: Design Construction and Planning Computer and information technologies offer significant potential to improve management practices in the construction indus try. However, the exchange of information between the phases of a facility and between the different participants on a project management is typically paperbased, even though all parties involv ed in construction rely on computers to do their tasks. This dissertation presents a visual database model as a solution to signifi cantly improve use of computer and information technologies in communication, project documentation, and knowledge sharing among the different participants through the life-cycle of the facility. The Visual Information Access and Management (VIAM) model is organized in a format that is simple and accessible to the different users, and does not change or complicate the construction processes. The basis of the model uses the construction element as the least common denominator between the different participants throughout the life-cycle of the f acility. Information related to the different construction elements are organized in tables and forms stored in a database. The different participants use computer applica tions to control, document, and communicate

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13 construction information and knowledge among themse lves for the life cycl e of the construction project. The model is developed around three different axes. The first axis focuses on the access and retrieval of construction information relate d to a certain construc tion element. The second axis is designed to report and provide feedb ack from the field on the work progress, quality assurance, and inspection. The th ird axis targets the executive management of the construction company in order to evaluate th e performance of the construction crews, generate cost data and useful historical data for future reference. The first axis is in form of tables that fo cus on the construction information related to a certain construction element. This information is relevant to the field people in charge of the construction and the quality control activities. This information is organized and accessible to the builders in a simplified format, straight to the point in order to reduce errors and miscommunications of knowledge orig inated by the design entities. The second axis is designed to report and provide feedback from the field on the work progress, quality assurance, and inspection. This information is lin ked to the tables mentioned in the first axis through th e common denominator, the construction entity. The third axis allows the project management entities to generate cost data based on feedback from the field. These data allow the ge neration of progress reports to keep track of actual versus as-planned schedule. Data generated along this axis is used to analyze productivity trends, predict behavior, detect delays and better understand the effect of changes on the construction processes. Historical data can be generated for refere nce for future bids and project approaches.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Research Motivation The Visual Information Access and Management (VIAM) model is a proposed solution to optimize information integration and manageme nt from the construction management team standpoint, and to extend it thr oughout the life cycle of the construction project. The VIAM model assists the construction management team in completing their various tasks by linking a project database to the graphical representati on of the various construction elements that constitute the construction proj ect. The suggested model implements a bottom-up approach of computer and information technology app lication to the construction industry. The construction industry involve s various teams with differe nt backgrounds, levels of education, and levels of technologies adap tation. These various teams are required to communicate and coordinate in order to accomplish a common goal. In an age of computer technologies, where industries are adopting new technologies to achieve competitive advantage, the construction industry relies on paper-based information exchange to communicate and share knowledge amongst the different pa rties involved in the construc tion processes. Even though, the different parties involved in the construction processes rely on computers to perform their own tasks, paper documents remain the common denominator among the various computer technologies and computer applica tions intended to separately a ssist the different teams involved in the construction process. The construction industry suffers from what has been described as the “islands of information” syndrome due to the lack of conn ectivity between its various participants and functions which hampers its ability to take adva ntage of advances in information and computer technologies.

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15 In an attempt to link these islands of inform ation among the various parties involved in the construction processes, a huge effort has been vested in developing Industry Foundation ClassesIFC -standard data structures in order to allo w computer applications to exchange project information about construction projects. Approach es such as Object Oriented Computer Aided Architectural Design (OOCAD), and Life Cycl e Management (LCM) are also believed to improve building information modeling and comm unication, in the Archit ecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. The focus of this study is on the construc tion phase and the Construction Management team (CM) with the goal of improving cons truction information flow and communication through out the life cycle of the project. The Vi sual Information model suggested in this study revolves around the idea of an inte grated project model. The mode l uses the construction project as the basis to organize the information in a da tabase. The information stored in the database communicates, to the different project participan ts, accurate, up-to-date knowledge of the work progress. At a second level, analyses of the information stored in the database generates knowledge of various facets of the construc tion activities such as but not limited to: Progress reports Cost analysis of the proj ect expenditures to date Up to date schedule and analysis versus the proposed schedule A daily diary of the construction activiti es and conditions on a construction site At a third level, maintenance of this project database throughout the operation and maintenance phase of the construction project generates life cycle information of the construction elements.

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16 Solution Potential The Visual Information model proposed in this dissertation is developed based on a bottom up approach to understand the co mmon practices and the standard ized construction management processes in the construction i ndustry, and how to optimize thes e processes with the use of computer and information technology. In order to achieve the integr ation of the constr uction knowledge, the proposed model uses the construction element as the focal point of the database. The information pertinent to the various construction elements is organized in in ter-related tables. Every construction element is assigned a unique ID that will be used as a “Key ” relating the different tables. The different users access and operate different levels of the database . The standardization of the information in a database avoids the requirements of translators to link the information ge nerated by the different users. The model links information to the graphical representation of the construction elements in order to achieve the following: Integrate information. Using the construction element as the basis of the database, each construction element has a unique identific ation number that links its graphical representation in the CAD drawing to the vari ous tables relative to the design, schedule, specifications, work progress, safety and other information. Access information. A variety of information related to any construction element can be retrieved by point and click from the drawi ng. By pointing on the representation of the construction element the user has a choice to access multiple tables on the design, safety requirements, or other tasks relati ve to the user’s job assignment.

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17 Share knowledge. The user can report the work progre ss on-site by point and click from the drawing. The user can access the tables for work progress information and update the work in progress for that particular day. Improve communication. The information stored in tables is related to the drawing and graphical representations by means of unique identification numbers. The Visual Model provides the user with the information needed relevant to the construction element in question. The user will save time and effort that can be reflected in an increase in productivity and reduction in confusion and errors. Improve documentation. By reporting on a daily basis, and updating the work progress in the database, the user in the field will be providing accurate documentation of the construction activities in the field and linking the labor and manpower to the specific construction element. Increase control. The information available from repor ting the work progress, and tracking labor, provides the management team with reliable data that can be used to administer closely the cost accounts, schedule progress, and monitor team performance among others. Manage change . The tracking and the documentation of the work in progress allows the management team to measure the effect of ch ange on the construction activities, schedule, labor and contract. Replace paper-based communication. The users exchange construction information by updating the database. The tabular da ta provides the users with the flexibility to analyze, sort and organize the data. Keep track of work progress. The progress data allow the users to compare actual progress to the schedule, as described above.

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18 Analyze productivity. The data provided by the users in the field, once organized and analyzed by the management team will show realistic representation of the teams’ productivity. Generate reference for future projects. The database can be used to generate reliable historical database for teams’ productivity and costs of construction that can be used for future reference. Next Chapter 2 describes the roles and expect ations of the construction management (CM) team, the various sources of information where th e CM team get the inform ation pertinent to the various construction elements, the different team s involved in the construction process, the and the anatomy of the construction team. These st eps set the basis for defining and understanding the problem, by documenting the di verse roles and expect ations of the construction management team. The research objectives and the research methodology that serve to validate the findings are also discussed. Chapter 3 presents a summary of the literat ure review. In this chapter, the author summarizes the attempts and approaches in the standardizations of in formation exchange, 3D mixed and virtual reality, computer aided approach es in data exchange and project management, Object Oriented approaches, and lifecycle a pproaches applied to construction management. Literature related to the use of Databases in da ta exchange and informa tion sharing, the use of GIS for collaboration and space analysis on a construction project are also summarized. Chapter 4 discusses the findings of the appli cation of the Visual Information Access and Management (VIAM) model. In addition, the re lationships among the various teams involved at the construction phase and the information maze in existence on a construction project are described and the VIAM model is proposed as a potential solution to the existing daily

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19 challenges. Finally, the roles and expectations of the different t eam members in the construction company studied, the objective of the survey c onducted about the chosen construction company and summaries the findings of the survey us ing graphs and tables are also discussed. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the valid ation case study used and highlights the application and challenges of the VIAM model through examples from real projects that are used to validate the theories behind it. This chapter also lists the challenges that face the use of information technologies on construction projects and it characterizes thes e challenges in terms of people challenge, technology ga p, and the paradigm of relyi ng on the computer technologies in the daily line of work. Chapter 6 presents the author’s vision for the use of computer and information technologies in the construction i ndustry, such as the incorporation of 3D models in the VIAM approach; introduction of a Space Oriented Scheduling approach; usage of real time applications to predict behavior; and incorporating the use of wireless and radio fr equency identification (RFID) technologies on the constr uction project. Finally, Chapte r 7 makes recommendations for future research and for the future implementati on of computer and information technologies in the construction industry.

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20 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY Problem Statement As stated in the research motivation, the propos ed model in this research uses a bottom up approach to optimize information integration and management, focusing on the construction management team at the construction phase of th e project. “The constr uction industry has seen an explosion in commercial software. Current ly, over 1000 vendors claim to offer construction software. The first generations of these applicat ions started by the deve lopment of planning and scheduling systems, superseded by a second gene ration of network-based, computer-assisted techniques” (Froese 1992). Alt hough enormous advances have been made in computer technologies over the last two decades, the cons truction industry still relies mostly on paperbased to communicate. In order to better understand th e needs of a construction management team (CM), this section will identify the roles of the CM as a firs t step towards shaping the proposed model. Roles and Expectations of the Cons truction Management (CM) Team The CM team acts on behalf of the owner as th e expert in the constr uction processes. Its role is to coordinate the information provided by the design entities and the construction teams; verify the completeness of the drawings produced for construction; check the compliance with the local construction codes; prepare and keep track of the costs accounts; follow up on the permits with the related local authorities; and re port work and cost progress to the owner. A closer look at the contr act that determines the terms of re ference for the CM team, categorizes the tasks as follows: Assessment of Current Job Status. The CM reports to the owner and the designer entity (AE) on a monthly basis an accurate assessmen t of the current status of the project and

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21 of the work remaining to be accomplished. The CM generates a monthly construction progress report during the construction pha se summarizing the work of the various Subcontractors. This report identifies long-lead supply items, current deliveries, safety and labor relations programs, permits, constructi on problems and recommendations, and plans for the succeeding month. Management of Variances from Specifications. The CM makes management decisions to identify variances from the specifications , including substitutions and eliminations. Projection of Future Developments. The CM provides an overview of current issues and pending decisions, future developments and expe cted achievements, any problems or delays including code violations. Assessment of Current Project Cost. The CM provides a construction cost estimate and status of the project expenditures, as well as the current cost and paymen t status of the project. Assessment of Current Work Progress. The CM analyses the various Project Schedules, a description of the critical path, and other analyses as necessary to compare planned performance with actual performance. Maintain a Daily Log. The CM keeps a daily Construction diary during the construction phase describing events and conditions on the project site. Various Sources of Construction Information The main challenge to the CM team is the integration of the diverse forms of information from multiple sources. The Contract Documents (CD’ s) consists of a complete set of drawings representative of the building, th e different construction elements and their relative location in the building. The design informa tion is available through additi onal sheets and cross sections,

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22 and schedules (i.e., tables su mmarizing the different codes an d symbols and the appropriate relative detail). Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) divisions address additional information regarding the gene ral and additional requirements relative to the particular construction elements. A proposed schedule for th e work progress developed by the CM team at the early phase of preconstr uction sets the time frame fo r the contract deliverables. Changes in the scope of work, additional information provided by the designer, and sometimes design errors or ambiguities in th e drawings discovered during the construction process add to the challenge of the construction team. The construction team has to fully comprehend the scope of the work and coordinate all project information. Most of the resulting inconsistencie s between the design and th e built facility occur because of miscommunications and failure to conve y up-to-date information to the field crews in charge of the constr uction activities. Keeping project information up-to-date, consistent and available provides accurate information throughout the project lifecycle an d reduces the chances fo r costly claims and disputes. The objective of a life cycle approach is to transfer the information captured during each phase of the construction pr oject throughout the life cycle of the project, in order to enhance the quality of the project and provide feedback for futu re reference for constructors to avoid recurring potential problems. The AEC indus try, has not taken full advantage of what information technologies can provide because of the lack of a co nsistent information management strategy throughout the lif ecycle of a facility (Liu 1994). Various Teams Involved in the Construction Process During the construction phase, the CM team w ill act as a leader of a bigger team that consists of various parties involved in deliv ering the end product to life (see Figure 1): The owner

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23 The Architect The Engineers The various subcontractors that specializ e in the various co nstruction trades The various materials suppliers The construction inspectors And in some cases, depending on the size of the project, an owner representative entity Figure 2-1. The parties invol ved in the construction phase Anatomy of the CM Team The CM team functions as the link between th e A/E entity and the subcontractors who will be building the job. The challenge to the CM is to smooth the communication between the A/E entities and the Subcontractors, run the construction operations, a nd assure the compliance of the construction work with the cont ract documents (See Figure 2-2) The Owner The Architect The Engineer The Construction Mana g ement Team Construction Crew(s) Subcontractor(s) Material Su pp lier(s)

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24 Figure 2-2. The construction management team A closer look at the construction management team will help us understand and identify the various entities that form this team. The CM team consists of two different entities: the project management team and the construction team. The project management team consists of the following members (See Figure 2-3) The Project Manager (PM) The Assistant Project Manager (APM) The Project Engineer (s) (PE) The Project Accountant (CPA) The field team consists of the followi ng different members: (See Figure 2-4) The General Superintendent The Superintendent The Assistant Superintendent (s) The Layout Crew Figure 2-3. The office crew Project Manager Project Superintendent On-Site Project Engineer Assistant Superintendent Project Accountant / Field Clerk Project Manager Project Engineer Project Accountant Assistant Project Manager Secretary / Receptionist

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25 Figure 2-4. The field crew Roles and Responsibilities of the Various Members of the CM Team The various team members share the responsibi lities to assess the job status. The office crew in charge of the documentation aspect of the construction tasks prepares the monthly progress reports, cost accounts, revisions of shop drawings and submittals between the subcontractors and the A/E. The field crew is in charge of monitoring the schedule and keeping records of the daily constr uction tasks in the field. The information generated by the CM field cr ew is required by the CM office crew to generate the current job status assessment report. The coordina tion between the CM office crew and the subs in charge of the materials supply need s to be reported to the CM field crew in order to get the approved material pe r agreement with the contract documents (CD’s) in place. Different construction teams dele gate different duties and break down the terms of reference for the various team members differently, but the ov erall deliverables from the team remains the same all across the industry. The coordination between the CM team members and the fast accurate flow of information across the team remains the key to the success of the CM team in delivering a quality product on time and within budget. The General Superintendent The Assistant Superintendent The Layout Crew The Superintendent

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26 Research Objective The objective of this research is to develop an interactive integrated and flexible construction information model where the information related to the construction entities is accessed and managed along the life cycle of the project, from either the drawings or the database. The model allows all the participants in the construction process to access and share reliable, up to date information related to the construction elements. The Construction Management team will be in charge of real time evaluation and tr acking of the project information and changes and comparing that to the set project objectives. The different phases of the study will consist of: Understanding the roles of the vari ous construction team members Understanding the way the different team members fulfill their role Measuring the time the different team members spend on the various tasks Developing a conceptual model that uses Info rmation Technologies to assist the various team members fulfill their duties Evaluating the contribution of the developed model using data from real construction projects Scope and Limitations The model will be designed to target constr uction firms working and operating within the United States of America, in particular constr uction companies that are operating nationally and dealing with commercial projects. The minimum si ze range of the projects will be U.S. $ 35 50 million. Construction projects of th is size require a fully staffed construction team in order to handle the various operations a nd the communications issues am ong the different subcontractors and material suppliers. The benefits of the propos ed computer tool will be much easier to measure when it comes to saving time on c oordination, material expediting, updating the contract documents, keeping track of the change s and the progress of onsite construction work.

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27 Research Methodology The research was conducted over three phases. During the first phase the roles of the various construction team memb ers and the means and methods the identified team members used to fulfill their roles were determined, and the time the di fferent team members spend to fulfill the respective tasks was me asure. In the second phase the conceptual visual database that helps the various team members fulfill their duti es efficiently was deve loped. In the third and final phase the contributi on of the develope d model using data from real construction projects was evaluated. Phase 1: Determining the Roles, Means and Methods, and the Time Spent to Fulfill the Various Tasks of the Various Construction Team Members The purpose of this phase is to gather inform ation relative to the roles of the construction team, i.e., what the various members do on a daily basis, “How” they perform the various tasks as well as the time it takes them to fulfill these tasks. Choice of research strategy A survey was conducted to collect information that would yield answers to the previously stated questions. The questions are categorized as follows: Demographical data to determine the workload of the team member, th e size of the project they are involved in The various activities they ge t involved in on typical day The interactions they have with the various team members The time they spend to fulfill their duties The questionnaire was developed based on the ob servations made by the researcher of the construction processes on actual projects. An anal ysis of the survey resu lts would generalize the ideas and theories formulated at the direct obs ervation phase and would de termine scientifically the organizational and management aspects of th e construction team, in terms of the various

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28 team players on the same construction team, a nd how they interacted with their own team members and the members of other team s involved in the construction project. Direct observations The first step was to capture the problems th at face the construction team and the different information they need in order to solve th ese problems. The author got involved in the construction process and participated as a me mber of the construction team. Based on the personal experience, active involve ment in the construction proce ss, direct observation of the construction activities and through the conduct of informal conversations in the form of loosely structured interviews, ideas and theories about the functions of the construction team within the construction company were formulated. Surveys The result of these observations and ideas n eeds to be generalized to a more general population such as the construction company and the construction indus try in general. In order to better understand the role of each individual memb er of the construction team, a series of interviews were conducted of the different team members in relati on to the role they fulfilled on the construction team and in re lation to the construction proce sses. The objective of these questionnaires was to determine the role of the different team members in relation to the construction team within the same company and at the different organizational levels, as well as the relationships of the different team member s with the different pa rties involved in the construction project. At a different level, the questionnaire would se rve to generalize the role of the different team members in regards to the construction ac tivities and processes. Different types of questionnaires targeted the different team me mbers, based on their position within the

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29 “Operation team” or the “Management team” in order to understand their involvement in the different processes and procedures parts of the construction project. The series of questionnaires used were in the form of structured and formal survey interviews, where the author was seeking to test and generalize the ideas and findings from the direct observation phase. A stra tegy of mixed mode between f ace to face and phone surveys was followed, in order to gather the highest respons e rate possible with th e least expensive method. The plan, at first, was to conduct face to face interviews with the participants at their place of work. Initially data was collect ed using a pilot survey that tested the questions asked to determine whether the questionnai res would yield the desired information. The second and final data collection step was conducted over the phone, which is a less costly method and less time consuming. In both face to face interviews and over the phone interviews, the author personally administered the survey. The intent behind this approach of administering the survey was to interact with the respondents in answering the questions and in validating the ideas generated by the author. Choice of survey methodology Face to face survey. The face to face survey was used, as it gave the interviewer more control over getting the desire d respondent to answer the complete survey. Moreover it facilitated communication by allowing for the us e of visual aids when necessary or for explaining clearly the intent of the question in case of ambiguities on the respondent’s side. Finally and more importantly, it would eliminate the ability of the others in the business to influence their response.

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30 Phone survey. The phone survey was used in the latter phases of the research, because it would not compromise the interviewer’s contro l of the survey and it offers the following advantages: Produced the quick results Produced rapid turnaround Allowed for direct contact and interaction with the person desired for the response Eliminated the ability of the ot hers to influence the responses The author chose a strategy of a hybrid surv ey between the face to face survey and the phone survey. The disadvantage of the phone survey was eliminated since the author would be conducting the survey, and since the desired resp ondents would be contacted at their place of work, the possibility that the respondents di d not have access to a phone was eliminated. The face to face survey was used at the pre-testing phases of the questionnaires as explained in the following section. It was also us ed to interview the executive management of the construction companies. Sample population size . The plan is to contact the executive management of one construction company ranked among the top 100 on the Engineering News Record ENR ranking. The executive management of that company will be given an explanati on of the terms of the research study. The goal is to get the executive ma nagement to cooperate and to help facilitate the process of conducting the surv ey. The purpose of this procedur e is to reduce and eliminate the non-response error by getting the executive management to commit to the study and to provide the contact numbers for th e different construction teams th at are part of the company. The reason for contacting one company at a ti me is due to the expected variation in different companies’ expectations from their staff and team members as well as the variations in

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31 their business strategies. In addi tion, the different companies woul d have different criteria and policies. The objective of this study was to measure within the same cluster of population the different sets of relationship and information. The population within the same company in que stion will have a small variation with respect to their characteristics of interests. Hen ce the split does not have to be 50/50 but an 80/20 split can be used and if we choose a 95% conf idence level and a 3% sampling error will be generated. These precautions reduced th e sampling error of this survey. Pre-testing the questionnaire. Before conducting the actual survey, it was tested on a sample of the population in order to evaluate th e questionnaire and make sure it serves the purpose it has been built for. The pre-testing of the questionnaire checked the following criteria: All the words were understood All the questions were interpre ted the same by all respondents All close-ended questions had an answ er that applied to each respondent The questionnaire created a positive impr ession that motivated people to respond The questions were answered correctly and in a way that can be understood No part of the questionnaire suggest bias on the part of the respondents The purpose of checking for all these criteria was to make sure each question was getting the information it was intended to collect. The survey was conducted with respondents from the construction industry who were experts in the procedures and the tasks of the different memb ers of the construction team. Preparation of the questionnaires. Before administering the survey, the protocol of the process was set and it addressed the following: The timing when the questionnaire would be conducted

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32 The setting of an appointme nt with the correspondent The way to address the respondent The introduction to the questionnaire The possibility of conducting the qu estionnaire at different intervals The person that would supervise the process The professionalism and confidentiality statement The wording of a thank you letter th at would follow the questionnaire Analysis of results. The final goal was to convey the information from the survey answers and to be able to generalize the ideas and theories as explained at the beginning of this section. In brief, this section would identify the procedure to: Enter the data from the ques tionnaires into a computer Summarize and analyze the data Interpret the results The data was entered in a MS Excel spreadsheet in order to be analyz ed and interpreted in forms of graphs and diagrams. Phase 2: Develop a Conceptual Database with a Visual Component that Serves the Various Team Members Fulfill th eir Duties Efficiently The assumption was that the usage of a devel oped database with a vi sual component would help the various team members in fulfilling thei r daily tasks more efficiently. The model was developed with a bottom up approach, where the end user was placed at the center of the model. The various tasks and duties the va rious team members performed we re taken into considerations as well as the means and methods the different team members used in performing their daily tasks.

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33 The proposed integrated construction project information model was developed with the intention of facilitating the management of activ ities throughout the life cycle of a construction project by using a database that in tegrates graphic drawings and text ual data. The full benefits of the suggested model cannot be achieved unless the textual information is accessible from the drawing, (by point and click) as well as allowing for viewing the graphica l representation related to textual information in the database. A 2-way connection between the graphical and the textual information was created. The objective from th e proposed approach offers to the user full flexibility to deal with the info rmation as a database that can be queried and analyzed, versus integrating textual objects into drawings, where the note and text can only be viewed from the drawing. With the suggested approach, the user has the ability to store and execute database scripts and queries, as any other database. The draw ings and the textual information are tied and interconnected allowing scripts, query files, and database references to be processed using a Structured Query Language (SQL). SQL a llows visual query languages to express complex queries in a visual, less unsophist icated way. The hierarchies of the database, as well as the information needed in the database , were determined from the resu lts of the survey questionnaire in the first phase. The analysis of the survey de termined the various roles for the different team members, as well as the way they accomp lished the different construction tasks. The proposed model replicates the way the c onstruction team members execute the tasks assigned to them. The model does no t require a change in behavior for the construction team, but on the contrary it is intended to link drawings an d specific data to them in form of a database. The user will have a CAD drawi ng that visualizes the building and that allows the user to determine visually the construction elements, thei r location in the building in reference to the

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34 other construction elements. The tabular data st ores and organizes a variety of information relevant to the construction elements such as specifications, design information, product data, changes and modifications. The tabular data can be extended to collect information relative to the schedule, responsibility, cost , inspection, safety requiremen ts, potential hazards, specific requirements, notes, delays, errors, changes, modifications, etc. The information is stored in various entity relationship tables, which are interconnected to offer a database that provides the construction team in the field with reliable up-to-date quality control information, in an easy accessible way. Th e construction management team in the field inputs information relative to the construction pr ogress. The maintenance of the database on a daily basis provides the construction management team in the office with quantities placed, and work performed. The data can be used to gene rate automatically work progress reports over a period and to generate automatically billing info rmation. The schedule data can determine actual performance versus the planned performance. By assigning governance rule s restriction to access and change information, based on the specifi c roles of the team members are imposed. The model was developed based on six assumptions: Data storage The information generated by the design team and the architect during the design phase is stored in a database. The information in the da tabase will include the specifications and the requirements that set the expectations and the deliverables for the construction team. That information is used by the construction management team in the field for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Data flexibility The database established by the construction management team is extended to include information pertinent to the schedule, and the responsibilities of the different subcontractors

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35 involved in the construction pro cess. This information develope d at the preconstruction phase, will be used by the construction management team to define the scope of work for the subcontractors, and will be inco rporated in the contract with the subcontractor. The schedule of the activities will also be reflected in the contr act with the subcontractor . The contract will set the scope of deliverables and the time frame for the subcontractor to follow. Data maintenance During the construction phase, the constructi on management team in the field will be required to update this database by entering information pertinen t to the work progress on site, the activities performed, number of workers available, material s received, inspection logs, and changes and deviations from the set project standa rds. This information w ill be tied to the ID of the construction element. The logic that determines the relationship in the model is that workers on site on a particular day are pe rforming work relevant to a pa rticular construction element. Hence a construction element in the database wi ll have numerous attributes that represent a variety of information reflecting the work progress, quality contro l, quality assurance, date in place, number of workers involved in the process, materials releva nt to the construction of the element, inspection information, etc. These various attributes can be updated by entering information from different forms. Data analysis The construction management (CM) team in the field office is required to keep track of the cost, pay application, billing information, procurem ent of material, and keeping track of changes. The database will provide valuable information pert inent to the cost per cycle, as the CM crew will have access to reliable information relati ve to the field progress, material on site, construction elements placed. The database wi ll automatically reflect the progress of the construction activities and alert the CM team to material procurement. By automatically

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36 generating summary cost reports and automatical ly generating accurate billing information the system will allow the CM team to have more time dedicated to the monitoring of construction activities, coordination, expediting material, and verificati on of compliance with required specifications. Historical data The CM will have reliable historical data to use for reference on future projects. The data reflects the cost data, productivity data, and schedule data, that will allow the CM team to predict with high accuracy the time and cost of future construction activities. Future reference The model will provide accurate warranty in formation to the operation and maintenance crew operating the building who in their turn will have the option of adding information pertinent to the cost of opera ting the facility, cost of main tenance and rehabilitation. This information can be incorporated in the design of new facilities to provide a value-added product to the owner. Phase 3: Evaluate the Contribution of th e Developed Model Using Data from Real Construction Projects The aim of this phase is to test, through a case study appro ach, the ability of the VIAM model to offer, through its designed database, th e flexibility to link the different construction entities, and to allow the constr uction team to easily access and manage real time, integrated, up to date project information. In addition, the ability of the system to serve as a record for the construction processes and the communication al ong the life cycle of the project will be evaluated.

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37 Case study Case studies are used to answer a “How” or “Why” question that is being asked about a contemporary set of events over which the investig ator has little or no co ntrol (Yin 1994). Case studies allow direct observation an d systematic interviewing and they provide the ability to deal with a full variety of evidence-documents, artif acts, interviews and observations where the investigator has litt le or no control. This case study was designed to analyze the ne eds of the construction team along two axes: the construction team and the constr uction project. The construction te am is looked at as a part of a construction company, hence the need for a tool that links the construction team to the construction company, i.e., the construction team at the operational le vel with the senior management and the executive management of the construction company. The construction project is a series of phases that starts with the design phase and ends with the demolition/ deconstruction of the structure, hence the need to link and analyze th e construction project through its life cycle. The construction informati on model is intended to link all the information related to the project th rough the different phases of the proj ect starting with the preconstruction phase onto the construction a nd post construction phases. Analysis of model performance In order to measure the benefits of the propos ed construction information model, the units of analysis in this case study rely on quantitative measures of variables su ch as time savings in: accessing of the construction information managing of the construction information coordinating of construction information eliminating redundant of tasks

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38 checking on reliability and accuracy of shared information communicating construction information coordinating construction information reducing errors in quantity take off improving management of resources linking the construction team w ith the construction company improving forecasting of problems providing a life cycle approach providing an object or iented approach Using data gathered from actual projects, the simulation of the information in the proposed construction information model allowed for the va lidation that the develo ped model provides the technology to access, manage, track and documen t construction information. As such, the construction teams will be able to focus more on managing construction activities, instead of performing time consuming paperwork in orde r to document and track the construction activities. This construction information model will not require extensive training on new software neither will it introduce new tec hniques and ways of doing things that will cause the company to lose efficiency due to learning curves of the staff regarding new technologies. The model is intended to help and assist the constructi on teams in accomplishing their project goals. Next in Chapter 3 a summary of the literat ure review in the ar eas of computer and information technologies used in the constr uction industry is presented. The literature summarizes the attempts and approaches propos ed and used to standardize information exchange, 3D mixed and virtual reality, computer aided approaches in data exchange and project

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39 management, Object Oriented approaches, and lifecycle approaches applied to construction management. Literature related to the use of data bases in data exchange and information sharing, the use of GIS for collaboration and space analysis on a construction project is also discussed.

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40 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW This section reviews the literature related to information technologies (IT) in the construction industry and the lifecycle project information management. Morton (1991) and Bartholomew and Caldwell (1995), emphasized that the real benefits of IT come from the capacity of organizations to plan, implement, a nd use IT, and to “align” IT to organizational strategies. Bjork (1997) categorized the IT approaches in the construction industry in two main categories, a “technology push” approach and a “problem driven” approach. Often the discussion of IT technologies of interest to constructi on is centered on the most recent tools general developments in commercial IT or in computer science research. They offer a "technology push" viewpoint, and focus in the direc tion of object-oriented designs, or attempting to use the World Wide Web for speeding the communication process, or developing expert systems that will serve as link between the different computer tools used in the construction industry. The second approach to IT starts with th e study of the information manageme nt process in the construction industry in a comprehensive way a nd the identification of potential application areas for IT tools in the construction industry; a "problem driven" approach. There is a long list of co mputer tools that are available to the construction industry in order to help improve its efficiency, reduce the errors and have a better control over the schedule, cost and resources related to the project. However, these technological tool s target only narrow aspects of the construction industry among others, as the information related to a project is fragmented and fails to incorporate the informati on through the life cycle of the project. Most of the computer tools that are used in the construction industry are used at the operational level to improve operational tasks but do not improve the gl obal efficiency of the organization. (Clark

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41 1990, Hammer and Champy 1993, Onsrud and Pi nto 1993, Campbell 1997, Caron and Roche 1997) Fischer (1989) defined the inte gration of information as the reconciliation of a variety of information elements representing discipli nary and building components through time. Aouad et al. (1994) stated that integration concept should be based on five main strategies: Project team, including both inter-functi onal and intrafunctional disciplines Project evolution processes, including every phase of project development Project activities, including ever y professional activity such as cost estimating, scheduling and project control Project data, including both textual, graphic and multimedia data Project tools, including all cons truction computing applications This chapter explores the various publicati ons from academic and major engineering and construction journals. The literature highlights the various methods IT is used in order to assist the management and the design team to better m onitor the construction activities, measure and monitor performance, exchange and manage info rmation, and report progress. A summary of the various approaches is presented in the following sections of the chapter and is organized under nine different categories: Standardization of Information Exchange 3D and the Virtual Reality (VR) in the building and construction industry Computer Aided approaches in data exchange and project management Object Oriented approaches Lifecycle approaches Database use in project inform ation exchange and management

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42 Web based approach to the shari ng and exchanging of information Geographical information systems (GIS) for co llaboration efforts and knowledge sharing GIS for Space Analysis Standardization of Information Exchange The IAI / IFC The Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs) by the I ndustry Alliance for Interoperability (IAI), represent through data elements, the different parts of the buildings or elements of the process. The IFCs serve as a common denominator used by the different computer applications to share information among the project participants. The IA I is an alliance of or ganizations within the construction and facilities management industrie s dedicated to improving processes within the industry through defining the use and sharing of information among the Architects, Engineers, contractors, owners, manufact urer, software vendors, info rmation providers, government agencies, universities, etc.. The most current release of the IFC classes (Version 2 .X )enable to share information among the Architectural, Estimating, Facility ma nagement, Core extensions, Building services and Codes as shown in the Figure 1, The IAI's sc ope is the entire lifecycl e of building projects including strategic planning, design and engi neering, construction, and building operation. The ISO STEP The International Organization of Internationalization (ISO) is an organization that develops international standards to specify generic resources and methods for representing libraries of standardized product descriptions th at will facilitate product information, description and exchange. In order to deal with increasing co mplexity and different so ftware, computer tools

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43 Figure 3-1. IFC release 2.X and management data, a new set of Standards has been developed within ISO, for Exchange of Product Model Data (ISO STEP). STEP is a collecti on of standards called Application Protocols. The STEP project, referred to as ISO 10303, is an international standard for the computerinterpretable representation and ex change of product data. The objec tive of these standards is to provide a neutral mechanism to describe the pr oduct data through the li fe cycle of the product independent of any particular system (1S 010 1994a). The completeness of this mechanism makes it suitable for neutral file exchange, as well as a basis for implementing and sharing databases and archiving. Research projects using STEP or STEP-relate d technologies that ar e of relevance to construction include CONDOR (Constructi on project Documentation production and management), EIEM (Engineering Information Management Executive).ELSEWISE {European Large Scale Engineering Wide Integration Suppo rt Effort), ToCEe (Towards a Concurrent Engineering Environment), VEGA (Virtual Ente rprise using Groupware tools and structured Architecture), etc. Overall, ISO STEP provi des the methodology for construction information

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44 integration but does not target the computerized integrated information system for practical use in building constructi on project management. The TOPS The Total-Project Systems (TOPS) is a comprehensive and flexible approach to integrate computer-based tools through data transfer in terfaces to support construction management (Froese et al. 1997). The vision of integration is that all the project sy stems are stored in a common database of information related to the project. This system relies on a standardized common data for exchanging information among the different components and for interacting with other computer applications . Such a model requires structur ing the construction data to a high-level semantic model in order to generate various application modules that form an integrating computer-application that interprets the data. TOPS approaches information integration throu gh structuring the data into high levels in order to create communication layers and exchan ge the data among hetero geneous applications in a common database but does not build the in tegrated system as a standalone program. 3D Mixed and Virtual Reality Framework for Mixed Reality Applications in Civil Engineering Hammad et al. (2006) highlighted the introducti on of 3D virtual models and mixed reality interaction methods through the lif ecycle data to allow on site supe rintendents and inspectors to use mobile and wearable computers to interact with geo referenced special models of the structures. The proposed virtual model offers potentia l to increase efficiency and increase safety by allowing easy retrieval of necessa ry information in real time based on the location, orientation and specific tasks, as well as updating information related to the tasks in the field with minimum efforts spent on interaction with the system.

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45 A Framework for Delivery of Integr ated Building Information Modeling Pollalis and Panushev (2006) investigated a bu ilding information mode l (BIM) that offer a framework and a process map for creating inte grated building information models (BIM) implementation based on generic project needs and present a modeling process map. This study illustrates the workflow process for integrated modeling that interconnect s 3D, cost and schedule information. The model offers a practical so lution which illu strates how building owners, construction companies, and building modeling fi rms can implement the technology and work in teams to create integrated models. This appr oach, still under developm ent, combines three distinctive types of information: 3D, cost and scheduling. Virtual Reality in Construction Wokseppa and Tullbergb (2005) studied project s involving VR in c onstruction in the UK, by gathering information from the Internet, pape rs, articles, books and personal contacts. They found a lack of connections betw een the research deve loped in the universities and industry. In the UK, a number of large construction projects have been conducted with the aid of a virtual prototype, as a result the benefits provided by VR were reported as well as valuable input for further research. The authors concluded that th e construction industry had not yet fully accepted VR as a tool to be used in construction. Accord ingly the sophisticated IT systems remained in academic settings, and many construction organizations are still failing to implement and use IT to their strategic advantage (Whyte and Bouchlaghem, 2001). The study found that the construction compan ies are reluctant to implement the VR solutions, since it is difficult to estimate the co st reductions that could be generated by using such technologies in a constr uction project. For the constructi on companies, VR remained an item of expenditure and not an investment. A Brit ish independent research association identified twelve different challenges faced by the constr uction industry, of which one is to improve the

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46 information flow between people involved in a cons truction project. VR is considered to play an important role in meeting this ch allenge (Smidfelt and Magnius, 1998). From CAD to Virtual Reality: Modeling Approaches, Data Exchange and Interactive 3D Building Design Tools Virtual Reality has the potential to impr ove visualization of building design and construction, but its implementation in the i ndustry has yet to reach maturity. Present day translation of building data to virtual reality is often unidirectional and unsatisfactory (Whyte et al. 2005). Their study identified and described thr ee different approaches to the creation of models, which considered both the potential of advances in compute r-aided design and the emerging standards for data exchange to facilita te an integrated use of virtual reality. The commonalities and differences between CAD and virt ual reality (VR) packages in the residential building sector of the constr uction industry were analyzed. Computer Aided Approaches in Data Exchange and Project Management Computer Aided Project Management (CAPM) Thomas Froese (1992) researched the introduc tion of the computer technology into the project modeling and systems integration for th e advancements of th e construction industry, through object oriented technologies as the basics for his appr oach. The construction industry characterized by time honored tec hniques, large scale machines and outdoor physical activity, keeps little room for the acceptance of com puter technology. The CAPM model is developed along three elements: A data model that represents a formal methodology of information A domain model, a schema to represent the concepts used in construction management A project model, or a database that stores the actual project information

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47 The EXPRESS/EXPRESS-G The EXPRESS/EXPRESS-G is one of the sta ndard data modeling languages used in the STEP/PDES. EXPRESS-G presents graphical repr esentation of an EXPRESS based information model. “EXPRESS” supports most of the object oriented paradigms such as attribution, association, generalization, aggr egation, abstraction, classifica tion, and constraints (Mason 1992) (Reed 1994). Linking CRM and CAD with IFC-CRM GATE Ercoskun et al. (1995) studied Customer Relationship Manageme nt tools and techniques as a facilitator for interoperabil ity in construction information technology (IT) between AEC and facility management (FM). The model establishe d a mechanism that links between the current interoperability solutions in construction IT a nd available CRM solutions. The model served as another approach for incorporating various he terogeneous software packages. The study argued that the integration was not enough, as there was an increasin g demand for loosely coupled integration with the support of standardized models. Customer Relationship Management Information and Communication Technologies promise some opportunities to overcome these problems and facilitate knowledge capture throughout th e lifetime of buildings. The model links Facility Management processes, as the point of customer interaction, and the design processes where the quality is defined for an AEC product. This link consists of an IFC compliant Virtual Building Information Model (VBIM) and its conn ection to Issue Tracking Systems and relevant Knowledge Base in CRM software sy stems through a VBIM History Server. The OSCON-CAD Aouad et al. (1998) developed a system that integrates CAD and construction related applications to address the pr oblems of design fragmentation a nd bridge the gap that exists between construction and design processes. The system provides a vehicle for storing

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48 architectural and design information in an integr ated construction object-oriented database in compliance with Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) for creating a common terminology to interpret construction design objects and with CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) for distributing th e objects information among the construction applications. The system is called OSCON-CAD (Open Systems for Construction); it allows saving graphical and textual information about the build ing design components in an objec t-oriented database, as well as accessing the applications through the web using VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). OSCONCAD adds meaningful information to the CAD drawings by grouping the drawing into objects with architectural design information associated to them. The user has access to the usual 3D CAD drawing, and the design comments related to the design information. By making the association of CAD drawing with the design information, OS CON-CAD offers the potential for speeding up the design process. The 4D CAD The 4D CAD achieves information integra tion through geometry. 4D CAD links a 3D graphic model and a construction schedule. Th e linking between CAD and schedule graphically incorporates facility design with the informati on traditionally represen ted in the construction schedule. 4D CAD incorporates the temporal a nd physical aspects of the project (Fisher 2000). The benefits of n-dimensional modeling have been demonstrated through experimentation, and include: Identification of potential conflic ts between building elements and work spaces (Arkinci and Fischer, 1998 & 2000) Documentation of changes in job site conditions

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49 Identification of safety hazards created due to proximity of construc tion activities, trade sequencing and producti on planning (Riley 2000) Visualization of construction plans by crews (Fischer 1998) Moving Beyond the Fourth Dimension with an IFC-Based Single Project Database 4D CAD has been an active research area fo r many years. Through several cse studies, the first generation of 4D tools simulated constr uction schedules and dem onstrated the potential benefits. Researchers have envisi oned future generation 4D tools to be part of project databases in order to take decisions rela ted to different project dimensions. Aouad et al. (1999) described the development and implementation of a new 4D planning tool which is a part of a product model -based project database, in order to br ing 4D simulation and cost estimating together. Their aims was to contribute to what-if analys is in construction proj ects. (Aouad et al. 2005) Object Oriented Approaches The OMT The object modeling technique (OMT) is an object oriented modeling method developed originally for software engineering at the Gene ral Electric Research and Development Center. OMT models evolve around three axes: the object model, the dyna mic model, and the functional model. The object model describes the relations hip of objects. The dynamic model represents interactions of objects in terms of time and changes. The f unctional model desc ribes the outputs of objects and their flow in the system (Rumbaugh et al. 1991). The RATAS The RATAS project is a prot otype product model developed in Finland (Bjork and Pentilla, 1989). The structure of the RATAS model breaks down a building from the building object level to system, subsystem, part, and deta il levels. All of these levels make up a network which represents the assembly of a building. Obj ects at the building leve l represent the general

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50 information for a building such as building type, total size, and total cost. Objects at the system level represent general system information such as spatial system, structural system, and heating system. The subsystem level represents components of the system level as, for example, floors and fire areas are the subsystems of a spatial system. Similarly, objects at the part level are components of the subsystem level, and objects at the detail level are co mponents of the part level. At the lower levels such as part and detail, a “connected-to” relationship is used to represent the relationshi p among parts and details. Although objects in the RATAS mo del are based on only attribut es and relationships, the implementations of the RATAS model were performed with va rious applications such as relational database, hypermedia , and CAD system to show th e possibility of structuring building data as a common data m odel for supporting multiple views. Lifecycle Approaches Framework of a Virtual Laboratory fo r Construction Project Management The need for information varies throughout the life cycle of the project. Boucher and Miresco (2006) developed a model that offers a framework that serves various groups along the lifecycle of the project. A start up process explores all the possibilities for the best scenario of the project, helps define the scope of works for th e different parties invol ved in the construction phase. A planning process offers a time management schema that allows the general contractor to set a timetable for the baseline project sc hedule. An execution process updates and tracks the construction flow and progress thro ugh the construction phase of th e project. A closing process, as the last step before the proj ect is completed, allows the genera l contractor to produce the final reports for the completion of the project. The m odel offers construction management teams the flexibility of scope management, cost mana gement, bidding management, time management, procurement management, project management and project closing.

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51 Information Management as a Basis for Comp uter Aided Lifecycle Ma nagement in Civil and Building Engineering In this model Kochendorfer and Riediger ( 2006) offered an illustration of a processoriented approach to link activities, project me mbers, and information throughout the life cycle of a construction project. This approach allo ws for mapping different levels of detail and transferring information to facil ity management systems. Throughout the lifecycle of the project, the model can be detailed or summarized. The analyses of the information provide risk management and event-oriented asset management with relevant information. Using information technology to manage information during the lif ecycle of the project, the proposed model provides information in time and in the necessary quality, as well as allowing for the capture of information in the construction process. Mapping rules and interdependencies between disciplines throughout the different phases in the lifecycle of a building, reduces the comp lexity of the management of a construction project. The proposed approach c overs planning and controlling task s as well as the leadership of teams of specialists. The Com puter Aided Lifecycle Management (CALM) approach organizes the information required in such a way that it onl y needs to be captured once, and so that it can be processed during the lifecycl e of a building in a consiste nt way. The design of CALM integrates checklists for each team member to support information capturing. These checklists are generated from a database where characte ristics of the project and the building are considered. Concurrent Construction and Life Cycle Project Management Jaafari (1997) investigated C oncurrent Construction and its potential application in life cycle management of capital projects. As the co nstruction industry is un der pressure to reduce delivery time and cost despite increases in uncertainties, umbiguities and complexities that

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52 surround today's projects, the authors believe th at concurrent construc tions hold the key to success on integrating all project phases into a single phase. etc... the paper covers examples of approaches that could overcome these barriers. Cognizance of Visual Design Manageme nt of Life Cycle Project Management Jaafari and Chaaya (2001) introduced a visual design management system that has been developed to reflect the fundame ntals of information and design management within the lifecycle project management paradigm. They present a unique approach to information management within a life-cycle project management model, where the focus is shifted from the delivery of the physical facility to the creation of a business to servic e the project objectives employing concurrent engineering/construction a pproaches. The typical lifecycle objectives incorporated are life-cycle cost and net wort h, or cost/worth ratio. The definition and broad design of the facility and its components are deemed a collectiv e responsibility, discharged by composite teams whose members are drawn from the respective participants. Their inputs are evaluated in real time against th e above objectives. The traditiona l responsibility for detailing and conformity to the relevant codes and standa rds will still reside with the relevant design professionals. A Simulation Model for Life Cycle Project Management Jaafari and Doloi (2005) put fo rward a simulation model designe d for holistic evaluation of project functionality within a li fe cycle project management framework. The authors described a methodology for development of the aforementione d tool referred to as a dynamic simulation modeling system (DSMS). The DSMS is geared toward modeling of service and manufacturing processes with hierarchical and modular modelin g methodology. The aim of this development is to apply the simulation technique in order to evaluate the overall project functionalities from the dynamic business perspective. A se t of business objective functions (i.e., life cycle objective

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53 function [LCOF]) has been employed as a basi s for decision making throughout the project’s life. Object-oriented programming language w ith the object-oriented database technology facilitates the necessary model capability. A brief case study was used to demonstrate and discuss the model capability. Synthesis of a Model for Life -Cycle Project Management Jaafari and Manivong (2005) developed a model focused on life-cycle project management model designed to facilitate employment of life-cycle objective based project management approaches to support concurrent engineeri ng and construction. The model is intended to integrate processes under which projects are pr oposed and implemented. Through a case study of a large capital project, the study i llustrate the needs and requireme nts of the industry for a model to incorporate the basic shift from the traditional objectives of cost, time, and quality to life-cycle objective functions, such as return on investment , facility operability, an d life-cycle integration. The authors described the fundamental philosoph y and framework for the development of lifecycle project management in general and contrast s this with the traditional project management models. Database in Data Exchange and Information Sharing Entity-Relationship Model The entity-relationship (E-R) model, one of the most popular methods for relational database schema development, relates entities a nd their relationships. An entity is defined by a unique object with a set of attributes. The relatio nship associates various entities based on linked attributes. A relationship can be represente d by: one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many (Korth and Silberschatz 1991).

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54 The NIAM NIAM (Nijssen's Information Analysis Method) consists of an enti ty relationship method, it provides ONF (Optimal Normal Form) to normalize the data model into a relational database schema (Abudayyeh and Rasdorf 1991). Data Warehousing A data warehouse is a database that collects and stores data from multiple remote and heterogeneous information sources. The queries can be answered locally without accessing the original information sources. This feature ma kes it a great tool for management reporting, queries analysis, decision support system s, and executive information systems. The database allows for the flexibility to manipulate the data and create a new subjectoriented data that end users can access direct ly using powerful graphical query and reporting tools. The data warehousing consists of a collection of decision support tec hnologies, in order to enable the user make better and faster decisions. The pr imary purpose of these efforts is to provide easy access to specially prepared data that can be us ed with decision support applications, such as management reporting, queries, decision support sy stems, and executive information systems. (Ahmad and Azhar 2002) Application of Data Warehouse and Deci sion Support Systems in Construction Management The applications of data warehousing integrat ed with a DSS in construction management practice are seen to have considerable potenti al. This system was an attempt to provide construction managers with information and insight in to the existing data, as well as to be able to make decision more efficiently without interrupt ing the daily work of an On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP) system. Chau ( 2002) investigated the data ware housing’ technology as a new

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55 database discipline and created a multidimensional data cube that integrates the data warehouse with a DSS allowing access the right data in a direct, rapid and meani ngful way. This allowed construction managers to view da ta from various perspectives w ith significantly reduced query time, thus making decisions fast er and more comprehensive. Integration of Virtually Real Construction Model and Design-for-Safety-Process Database Hadikusumo and Rowlinson (2002) developed a VR model linked with a database, in order to visually identify the safety hazards on a cons truction jobsite based on the identification of the construction components. The aim of the research was to produce a design-for-safety-process (DFSP) tool. The components of the DFSP tool are VR construction components and processes, virtual reality functions, and DFSP database. The integration of these components enables a user to do a walk-through in the virtuall y real project and to identify safety hazards inherited within construction components and processes as well as to select precautions needed to prevent the occurrence of accidents. Database Systems According to Naja (1999) database systems provide various facili ties including modelling data, queries, semantic integrity control, concur rency control, recovery and authorisation. The transition from relational database technology to object technology is char acterized by a richer data model to meet the requirements of new a pplications such as computer-aided design CAD systems. However, it is believed that object te chnology still has several shortcomings. One of these is that conventionally the obj ect model is not able to deal w ith data that can be described and queried according to different viewpoints. A m odel is proposed in this study which specifies object-oriented multiview databases that can repres ent data and ensure their integrity according to different viewpoints.

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56 Web and Database Exchange Web Based Constructability Review System Kurenas et al. (2006) based on th e Paulson’s level of influence (LOI), argued that decisions or actions made earlier in the project delivery pro cess impacts greatly the total project costs. The study introduces the concept of c onstructability review to analyze the project from the buildability stand point in order to determine prior to the construction phase the project plans and specifications to determine the efficiency of the construction activities. The benefits from such an approach is to reduce the changes in the co nstruction phase, as well as to reduce the total construction costs through value engineer ing studies of the project systems. Developing a Framework to Support Data Exch ange from Heterogeneous Source via IFC and Web Services Issa et al. (2006) proposed a system to tran slate non-IFC compliant AEC applications into IFC and allow data sharing in real time over the internet using web based services with other parties involved in the construc tion process. Due to the comple xity and fragmentation of the construction industry, specialized firms in mechanical, electrical , structural steel among others require a huge amount of coordination. Standard s and models developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) and Industry Foundation Cla sses (IFC) are developed to minimize the adverse effects of the fragmentation; the problem remains as various AEC applications remain non-compliant with the IFC and IAI standards and models. Building Information Model East and Kirby (2006) indicated that the pur pose of building information model (BIM) is to transfer information throughout the lifecycle of the project, increas ing the ability to efficiently operate the facility. BIM offers a mechanism to capture and maintain information needed to operate the facilities. BIM offers the owner inform ation about parts, repair instruction, systems

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57 operations and maintenance that help operate the facility. BIM serves as a centralized equipment catalogue to ensure completeness and compliance with the requirements. BIM over the life cycle of the project ensures the accuracy of the information over time, allowing the personal in charge of the operations and maintenance to interact w ith the model and reflect updates and changes. Latency in Error and Change Management Lee and Pena-Mora (2006) studied the latency in managing errors and changes in order to understand how latency can disrup t construction. The study analyzed the gap between perceived and real performance as well as the increase in the scope of work. The main challenge of the study is to grasp the effect of changes and e rrors on the construction project, as well as the timing issue in changes. Changes and errors were studied as a source or ca talyst that generates consequent effects on the project due to cons truction activities’ inte rdependency such as imposed, technical, and procedural relationships (Badiru and Pu lat, 1995). If the errors and changes are not identified immediately, once they appear in a la ter stage of a project, they can cause significant impact on proj ect performance considering in terdependency in construction. Building Construction Coordination by and Ad aptive Representation of the Cooperation Context Bignon et al. (2006) studied the coordinati on of actors during the complex building construction activities, involving the numerous and heterogeneous actors during relatively short periods. They argued that the cooperation betwee n actors is an essential factor for project success, with particular emphasis on coordination as a key activity and as such they developed a tool to provide the actors with indicators of the activity stat ement. They believed that the different actors involved in the construction activiti es are limited to the terms of their goals and visions of the project, hence the cooperation of the independe nt actors takes different forms related to the types of acto r’s organizations. Thus, they proposed “building construction

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58 dashboard” to assist decision-ma king; it allows each actor to ob tain a synthetic and adapted vision of the collective process. The development of this tool is based on a description of the domain by a meta-model describing the cooperative activity. The meta-model allows information sharing and context visualization. ICON Project Modeling Method The ICON (Integration of Information in C onstruction) method (Cooper et al. 1993) was developed to improve the manageability of modeling a domain by using object oriented technology. In the ICON method, a domain can be divided into manageable forms, which represent different perspectives in the domain. Each perspectiv e is represented by an entityrelationship model, where each model can be inco rporated into a single domain model by using a multiple inheritance relationship between differe nt perspective models. This method could be very useful in developing a more specific type of project model based on the project models mentioned above. Various perspective models can be developed and incorporated to a single domain model by using inheritance relationships. The Integrated Building Process Model The Integrated Building Process Model (IBPM) (Sanvido 1990) is a reference model for a facility project process. The ma in objective of IBPM is to improve the current management practice by identifying important f unctions and information flow over the lifecycle of a facility project. IBPM has the "Provide Facility" function at the highest level, and has five sub models: "Manage Facility," "Plan Facil ity," "Design Facility," "Cons truct Facility," and "Operate Facility." These represent phases over the proj ect lifecycle, and are d ecomposed into more detailed levels. IBPM is desc ribed in IDEFO, an informati on process modeling language. IDEFO consists of function, control, input, output, and mechanism. Each function requires information on input, control, mechanism and output. The input is an entity which is pr ocessed by a function,

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59 and control is a guideline or constraint for th e process. The mechanisms are tools or human resources to perform the process, and the output is information or data generated by the process. The output can further be used as input, mechanism, or control for other functions. The input of the "Construct Facility" process includes site, available materials, and other resources. The control of the process includes bid and construc tion documents, project execution plan, contract, and construction plan; and construction team is mechanism; and construction knowledge and post-construction documents are bo th output. Construction knowledge includes experience and lessons learned during construc tion, and post construction information includes as-built drawings, operation and maintenance pro cedures, and so forth. The construction team includes general contractors and construc tion managers (Hetrick and Khayyal 1989). Web Based Information Management Sy stem for Construction Projects Lam and Chan (2005) developed a web-based project information ma nagement (WebPIM) system for civil engineering applications, with particular emphasis on construction project management. In their proposed system, all project information is centralized in a project database residing on the project server, instead of bei ng distributed to many different locations. By utilizing the latest web technol ogy, the system works as an info rmation platform for all design and construction participants throughout the life cy cle of the constr uction project. Software to Simulate and Optimize Asset Management in Construction and Manufacturing Salim and Timmerman (2005) believed that a sset management and resource allocation will be key technologies for the successful management of many public and priv ate enterprises. They described a number of such currently availabl e tools that simulate the real construction environments, and evaluated thei r ability to solve complex probl ems, and suitability for use by non specialist.

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60 Future Trends in Information Tec hnologies for Project Management Froese et al. (2005) described in the results of a survey that examined speculations about how information technology will be used to supp ort project management in the year 2020. They interpreted the responses received from a gr oup of experts in the field of architecture, engineering and construction. Va rious perspectives of inform ation technology and project management are considered, such as the project management environment, computing systems, application areas, and informa tion integration. Similar questi ons were asked in surveys conducted in 1991 (Froese and Waugh, 1991) and in 1996 (Waugh et al. 1996). The results were interpreted separately and in comparison to each other. Based on the results of those surveys, hypothetical scenarios of a day in the life of a project manager in the year 2010 and 2015 were included in the studies. This study helps us fo cus on thinking about fu ture directions in technology, so that we might better contribute to the developments that w ill shape the future of project management. The findings of the survey suggest that “More big national/global firms, more small, local specialized firms, fewer regi onal mid-sized firms”. Some smaller players will be driven out of the business, but other medium to small companies will fragment. These changes will be due to demands for higher levels of technical capabilities and the ability of technically savvy workers to do well by themselves. A CPM Based Construction Quality In spection and Decision-Aid System Leu and Tzeng (2005) adopted th e concept of decision support to establish a CPM-based construction quality inspection a nd decision-aid system (CQIDS) to improve ineffective field quality inspection processes. The system cons isted of two main subs ystems: the database subsystem and the decision subsystem. The data base subsystem contains information about quality specification, shop drawings, checklist s, and corrective acti ons that comprises a multimedia network. The decision subsystem contains statistical algorithms to facilitate in situ

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61 quality data analysis. Moreover, in order to execute quality management in a timely fashion, quality management timetables are generated auto matically from the CQIDS and sent to help quality supervisors by integrati ng quality management activities within the project's own CPM network. PPMS: a Web-based construction Proj ect Performance Monitoring System Cheung (2004) described the development of aWeb-based construction Project Performance Monitoring System (PPMS) that aims to assist project managers in exercising construction project control.With the aid of a panel of projec t management specialists, the following project performance m easure categories were identified for inclusion in the PPMS: People, Cost, Time, Quality, Safety and Hea lth, Environment, Client Satisfaction, and Communication. For each of the performance me asure categories, performance indicators and their measurements are also established. The mon itoring process is automa ted through the use of the World Wide Web and databa se technology. Data collection a nd dissemination are similarly automated. The use of the PPMS can help senior project management, project directors, project managers, etc., in monitoring and assessing project performance. PHOTO-NET II: a Computer-Based Monitoring System Applied to Project Management Abeid et al. (2003) described the development and implementation of an automated realtime monitoring system for construction project s programmed in a Delphi environment. The system links time-lapse digital movies of constr uction activities, critical path method (CPM) and progress control techniques. It accepts digital images taken from multiple cameras, stores them in chronological order and links them to a database that c ontains schedule information. The digital pictures taken from up to four cameras are placed on a website from where a remote computer(s) can capture and store the pictures in the database. The system enables management staff at the contractor’s and owner representative s’ headquarters to follow developments at the

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62 construction site in real time. Additionally, time-la pse films of activities at the construction site taken by multiple cameras can be played back in synchrony with dynamic graphs showing planned versus actual schedules. PHOTO-NET II introduces a new concept in time-lapse photography that allows the user to manipulate the frame rate, enabling a reasonable playback time as well as the implementation of the tec hnology for long-term construction projects using standard PCs. A Model of Information Management for Co nstruction Using Information Technology Mak (2001) The construction indus try is slow in utilising information technology IT to manage projects. Application of IT is pi ecemeal, discrete and non-systematic. Managing information for construction project s is crucial in order to make good and full use of IT in the construction industry. The study proposes a simp lified model to achieve managing information for construction by utilising the ubiquitous In ternet technologies. The openness of these technologies is receiving atten tion of not only academics and amateurs but also of business entities and government organisations. A database-web link is required in order to properly store, organise and archive information. In ternet technologies can be adap ted to a corporate Intranet or business Extranet. Experiencing the advantages of Internet technologies is crucial in order to avoid negative perceptions. Intelligent Representation for Computer-Aided Building Design Khemlani et al. (1998) argued that any com putational system that can support design development, analysis, and evaluation is an ‘int elligent’ building repres entation which should be able to represent all the differe nt components that make up a bu ilding, along with the manner in which they come together. The aim is to deve lop building representati ons for computer-aided design primarily at the schematic design phase. Based on the assumptions that buildings are unique assemblies of discrete, mostly standardiz ed components, the model is represented into

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63 two components: the Object Database ODB whic h stores detailed information about various building elements, and the Project Database PDB which holds information about how these elements are assembled to make up a partic ular building. An ODB may be shared by many building projects, while the PDB must necessarily be unique to each. The data schemas of both the PDB and the ODB are described in detail as is their computational implementation to the extent that it has been completed. Model-based Dynamic Resource Management for Construction Projects By simulating the model with heuristic and indus try data, the author st udies the effect of resource coverage on project performance. Park (2005) argued that systematically managing the tradeoff between the excess resource that can resu lt in cost overruns, and low resource coverage or long lead-time in resource acquisition that can de lay the project schedule, is critical to ensure project delivery in time and within budget. As an effort to address these issues, the author proposes a model-based dynamic approach is for construction resource management. The dynamics of construction progress and the trad eoff with resource cove rage are identified. Using Engineering Drawing Interpretation for Automatic Detection of Version Information in CADD Engineering Drawing Cao et al. (2005) focused in this study on th e management of the many different versions of the drawing generated before the final product is achieved, in order to assist the Engineer identify the changes among the various versions of the drawigs. The multiple engineering drawings produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) software are widely employed in the construction industry, as we ll as many other manufacturing sectors. The drawing management system needs to maintain the history of different vers ions of drawings, and version control becomes a key function for a ny drawing management system. A knowledgebased version information extraction method is introduced. The method analyzes the layout of

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64 the drawing frame and extracts the version inform ation with the help of predefined key words. Then a comparison method between two versions of drawing is introduced. The comparison method highlights the differences between two vers ions of the drawings, so that engineers can locate and find the changes quickly. Utilizing Exchanged Documents in Constructi on Projects for Decisi on Support Based on Data Warehousing Technique Zhiliang et al. (2005) studied the large numbe r of documents involved in construction projects. These documents are exchanged among multiple parties, including the owner, contractors and engineers. Based on the data warehousing technique, this study presents a method which can utilize electr onically exchanged documents among project participants for decision support. Managing Design Data in an Integrated CAAD Environment: A Product Model Approach Liebich et al. (1997) proposed a prototype arch itectural design environment which aims to integrate various applications for designing a building. Within an object-oriented design environment, a core data model and a data ma nagement system have been implemented to seamlessly connect all applications. The process of design has been investigated with the purpose of characterising the role that a system of this kind may have. In defining the system, an approach has been used that privileges the rela tionships with the existi ng computer-aided design (CAD) tools based on data exchange sta ndards in course of definition today. VIRCON Interactive System for Te aching Construction Management Jaafari et al. (2001) focused on a syst em called VIRCON (short for VIRtual CONstruction), in which the traditional construc tion planning is combined with 3D/4D models of the project. To facilitate current best prac tices with 3D/4D models of the project, VIRCON has been implemented using object-oriented prog ramming, client/server configuration, database

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65 management information, and CAD systems. The innovation in the design of VIRCON is associated with an unique scheduling and simula tion engine developed to integrate cost planning and scheduling and accommodate integrated cross-impact analysis. GIS for Collaboration Geographic Information Systems (GIS) GIS is among the most widely embraced softwa re technologies of the past decade. For many people, GIS is "mapping software". A GIS cr eates maps from data pulled from database. Formally, GIS is a powerful database technology for the management of data having a spatial character. Digital map products can then be cr eated showing selected information symbolized effectively to highlight specific characteristics. In a stricter sense, GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information i.e., data is identified according to thei r locations. One of the ma in benefits of GIS is improved management of information resources. GIS can use information from many different sources, in many different formats and can link data sets together by common locational data, such as addresses. GIS makes it possible to link information that is difficult to associate through any other means. Thus, a GIS can use combinations of information to build and analyze integrated information. GIS can also convert existing digita l information into a form that meets user's analysis need. Visualization of information analys is results is an important benefit of GIS as it presents facts in a compelling way. The informati on can be presented concisely in the form of a map and accompanying report, allowing clear information understanding. Since better information leads to better decisions, GIS is not just an automated decision making system but a tool to query, analyze, and map data in s upport of the decision making process (ESRI 2000).

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66 GIS applications are becoming common in dive rse areas such as facilities location and planning, site selection and pr eparation, land management, road planning, management and design, environmental monitoring and analysis, re sidential and commercial site surveying, public works surveys and engineering, municipal land utili ty surveys, infrastructure evaluation, soils modeling, and etc. The rapid evolution of GIS technology over the past decade has motivated major GIS development efforts ranging in scale fr om very local to global. The rationale behind the development of these GIS app lications is that accurate and re liable spatial representation of data will support better or at l east more efficient decision-making. For the construction industry, however, the t echnology of GIS does not have a wide range of applications. While reliable da tabases are certainly an importan t component of an integrated information system, the integration of prove n project modeling and information analysis methodologies is also essential (Wright. 2000). Unfortunately, the integration of GIS and conventional construction project modeling me thods has not evolved to the point where information analysis is widely conducted using spatially oriented decision-support systems. Until we are able to achieve a high level of models-G IS integration, the benefits of GIS will not be reaped in full. GIS-Functionality for Building Mo del Integration and Analysis Willenbacher et al. (2006) studied the potential of GIS as an approach of integrating spatial analyses in building model management system in order to recogni ze changes. The model establishes relations between elements of different partial models. 3D spatial component are used to improve cooperation and communication between di fferent agents. The agents as part of the intelligent building elements re cognize changes on their elements and propagate these to potentially affected elements of their environment according to th e configured settings informing the planner and the related software systems about changes on other elements in other partial

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67 models (processes). The objective of this cont ribution is to offer considerable value in minimizing mistakes and inconsistencies during building life cycle. The key to the success of information exchange between the processes, their participants and the involved software is established by th e identification of exis ting dependencies between the processes. In the case of the building model, a building object oriented model which focuses on the geometry and topology of the objects, is e xpected to make an impor tant contribution. This study focuses on the conception a nd realization of 3D GIS co mponents as a basis for the identification of relations between el ements of different partial models. Constructing GIS: Actor Networks of Collaboration Harvey (2005) argued that th e social coordination of geogr aphic information technologies relies on collaboration between actors from the public, private, and educ ation sectors. Diffusion, implementation, information sharing, and studies of the use of geographic information systems (GISs) examine the collaboration in relation to sp ecific activities. Applying concepts from actor network theories, this study examines the soci o-technical context. Th e construction metaphor distinguishes social network approaches from actor network approaches. This study provides insight into the relationships of GIS socio-technical networ ks, which are invaluable for understanding the alliances, data sharing arrangements, and standa rds necessary for specific GIS tasks or functions. The results of research suggest that collabora tion involve the construction and maintenance of hybrid networks that connect multiple human and non-human actors into strategic alliances. An important finding is that technologies are among the “key players” in the GIS community. Standards, an organizational technology, focus st rategic alliances and involve diverse groups in mutually beneficial projects. These groups are in long-te rm relationships that the introduction of GIS technologi es can substantially alter.

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68 The Open Black Box: The Role of The End-User In GIS Integration Poore (2005) argued that spatial data infrastructures depend on participation at local levels, such as counties and watersheds, and that they mu st be developed to supp ort feedback from local users. Thus, GIS theory will be enhanced when it makes room for the users and supports their practical work. Applying Collaborative Engineering to the Facility Delivery Process Testbed Demonstration Brucker and Stumpf (2005) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL ) have been developed a collaborative engineering (CE) software environment to enable sharing of design information as it is created and refined during the facility design and construction process. Improved information sharing capabilities and conflict management during co llaborative design enables a team to resolve design issues and conflicts earli er in design development, resulting in an improved facility design, fewer errors and omissions , and better interdisciplinary c oordination of design goals and building systems. An integrated information model to bridge the gap between product and process information for a construction project no t only encourages those involved in construction to use and add to design information, is believ ed to provide richer in formation representation, better efficiency and data consistency, and th e flexibility to support life-cycle information management. An important part of the CE resear ch program at USACERL is the development of an integrated information model that allows ag ents to communicate/collaborate over the life cycle of the project. GIS Development and Planning Colla boration Examples from France Roche and Humeau (2005) dealt with the charact eristics of French territorial organization and problems arising from the decentralization of power to municipal level by implementing a

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69 partnership of geographic information system s (GIS) projects that can contribute to intermunicipal cooperation in region al administration. They found that GIS for Coordination of Fast-Track Projects Shanmugam et al. (2005) studied the potential use of GIS to meet the increasing demands of delivering projects w ithin a short period of time on a fast -track basis, where the construction begins when the design is between 35% and 65%complete. One of the key challenges they found was in ensuring that the flow of informati on and deliverables between the engineering, procurement, and construction is synchronized. They studied GIS as a potentail solution to increase the information flow. As a result of this study, they concl uded that GIS has the capability to capture the relationships between different deliverables, record the status of deliverables, and process queries from any of the teams regarding status and impact of disruptions. Thus, it will suppor t the decision making required for rapid development of pragmatic plans. Furthermore, GIS allows both spatial and non-spatial data. The design of the geographic information system and its implem entation within AutoCAD map environment was also discussed. A GIS–Based Bridge Management System Aouad et al. (2005) studied the use of GIS technology for the management and maintenance of bridges and road networks. Du e to the spatial data handling capabilities, geographic information system (GIS) technol ogy has increasingly b een considered for implementation in many infrastructure planning and management systems, including bridge management systems. In this study, the use of a hybrid business and information modeling approach to develop a model to support the de velopment of a geographic information system (GIS) based bridge management system is di scussed. Information systems requirements were used to capture organizational processes as we ll as information systems requirements. This

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70 facilitates business decision making and busines s process change. Using this hybrid modeling approach, first the organization’s business objec tives, functions, and processes are modeled. Object-oriented methods are then employed to define object mode ls and show the relationships between objects and the operati ons performed on them. Geo-visualization for Constructing and Sharing Concepts MacEachren et al. (2005) proposed the use of geo-visualization t ools to give humanenvironment scientists visual means to build conc epts from data (individually and collectively) and to connect these concepts to each other at appropriate levels of abstraction. They believe that representations of scientif ic knowledge must reflect the dynamic nature of knowledge construction and the evolving networks of relation s between scientific concepts. They focused on tools to capture and explore the concepts that underlie collaborative science activities, with examples drawn from the domain of human-e nvironment interaction. These tools can help individual researchers describe the process of knowledge constr uction while enabling teams of collaborators to synthesize co mmon concepts. The visualizati on approach links geographic visualization techniques with concept mapping tools, and allows the knowledge structures that result to be shared through a We b portal that helps scientists work collectively to advance their understanding. The integration of geo-visua lization and knowledge representation methods emphasizes the process through which abstract co ncepts can be contextualized by the data, methods, people, and perspectives that produced them. This contextualization is a critical component of a knowledge structure, without which much of the meaning th at guides the sharing of concepts is lost. Integrating Barcode and GIS for Monitoring Construction Progress Cheng and Chen (2002) developed an automated schedule monitoring system for precast building construction, and erection of prefabricated structural com ponents. In this research, the

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71 system ArcSched was developed to assist engineers in contro lling and monitoring the erection process in a real time basis. ArcSched is co mposed of a Geographic Information System GIS integrated with a database management sy stem. Through systematic monitoring of the construction process and representation of the erection progress in graphics and colors, the scheduled components for erection are repetitively tracked and we ll controlled to implement the lifting schedule as planned. Distributed Object Models for Collabor ation in the Construction Industry Van Leeuwen and van der Zee (2005) introdu ced a methodology, which is called Concept Modeling, where the author forms a generic basis for the support of collaborative design applied to the integration of information from the suppl y chain in the design pr ocess. The distributed object model, design information and product informa tion can be integrated while the actual data objects remain at their source. The project presente d in this paper concerns the implementation in the Dutch construction industr y of a methodology for sharing product information through a distributed object model. Through the distribu ted object model, design information and product information can be integrated while the actual data objects remain at their source. This enables the supply chain to provide information of a high semantic level to designers while keeping the control over the information and maintaining th e relationship of the information with their business processes. The advantages of this approach in which information is shared, rather than exchanged, are numerous. Redundancy of informa tion is minimized, consistency is improved, and updated information is available immediately. Moreover, design and construction processes can benefit significantly from the dynamic aspect s of accessing information that is tied to business processes in the supply chain.

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72 Application of Integrated GPS and GIS Tec hnology for Reducing Construction Waste and Improving Construction Efficiency Kong et al. (2005) presented a study on applyi ng an integrated Global Position System (GPS) and Geographacial Information System (G IS) technology to the re duction of construction waste. During the study, a prototype study is developed from automa tic data capture system such as the barcoding system for construction mate rial and equipment (M&E) management onsite, whilst the integrated GPS and GIS technology is combined to the M&E system based on the Wide Area Network (WAN). GIS – Space Analysis GIS-Based Cost Estimates Integratin g with Material Layout Planning Cheng and Yang (2005) focused on developing an automated site layout system for construction materials. The system, Material Plan, which included a geographic information system (GIS) based cost estimating system inte grated with material layout planning, is a new tool to assist managers in identifying suitabl e areas to locate construction materials. As tabulation of all project quantities is calculated using GIS, linkages are established between the graphical features of detailed design and the related estimating quantities. Based on information regarding quantities and locations of the materials required in the project, this study identifies the suitable site to store the materials. Using the concept of ‘‘searching by elimination,’’ the system develops a heuristic approach, modeling the pr ocess of human decision making to generate potential sites for placing the materials. An objective function called the proximity index is developed to determine the optimal site. In conc lusion, MaterialPlan demons trates that GIS is a promising tool for solving construction layout problems and thus opens up a new way of thinking for the management of spatial info rmation in construction planning and design.

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73 Fuzzy Decision Support System for Mate rial Routing on Construction Sites Yang (2005) studied the planning and visualization of routes for materials movement on a complex construction site. They developed a PC based software tool, named Virtual Construction Material Router (V CMR) that produces sequences of materials routing scenarios based on site layout, available route, activ ity schedules, and lo cation of temporary accommodation. The core of this system is a GI S-fuzzy based decision-support system, which extends the planners experience and assists them ma ke informed decisions to the complexities of time-activities compressed site materials management . The goal of the system is to ensure the selection and visualization of the most suitable route for materials movement. CAD Standards and The Institut ions of Higher Education Erdener and Gruenwald (2005) focused on the need, development and implementation of CAD standards to efficiently communicate pl anning, design, construction, and management information among the internal and external parties involved. These standards are instrumental in consolidating information; origin ating from operational and academ ic units of a university. They constitute the backbone of the Facility Manage ment Information System (FMIS) and eliminate necessary conversions and duplic ation of efforts. This st udy highlights the theoretical underpinnings for standardization and illustra tes the strength and w eaknesses of various standards and implementations in CAD and thei r uses in the Design Information Management component of a university FMIS. Although th e study concentrates on design information management , the very same standards are us eful both in constructi on and in management information activities. Developing a Conceptual Framework fo r Visually-Enabled Geo-Collaboration MacEachren and Brewer (2005) in this study argue that to suppor t collaboration with geospatial information, specific a ttention must be given to tool s that mediate understanding and

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74 support negotiation among participants. In addition, th ey contend that visual representations have a particularly important role to play as medi ators of geo-collaborative activities. With these contentions as a starting point, they present a framework for the study of visually-enabled collaboration with geospatial information and for development, implementation, and assessment of geo-information technologies that support that collaboration. A CAD-Based Model for Site Planning Moselhi (2004) look at a computer-aided de sign (CAD)-based site layout model designed to account for the diverse nature of construction sites. In the proposed model, the site layout problem is represented by a flexible object-based model. The model allows the configuration of physical objects and their encapsula ted attributes to suit the unique demands of each project. This feature facilitates the transf er of experts’ knowledge to a set of libraries imbedded in the developed model. The study describes the stru cture of the proposed model and its four components: (i) user interface; (i i) database; (iii) pr oject; and (iv) layout control modules. The functionality of these four components and th eir interconnectivity are also discussed. The developed model is implemented in a computer system that operates in CAD environment and makes use of object-based design concepts. Two nu merical examples, drawn from the literature, are analyzed and the results are compared with those reported by other earlier studies. The examples demonstrate the use of the proposed model and illust rate its essential features. Dynamic Knowledge Map for Reusing Experts’ Tacit Knowledge in the AEC Industry Clayton et al. (2004) indicated that knowledge in the Ar chitecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is experience-based and tacit. The typical strategy for knowledge management is focused on computer-based appr oaches for capturing a nd disseminating explicit knowledge. AEC firms have been successful at collecting and storing explicit information in enterprise databases, but they are poor at know ledge retrieval and exchange. Consequently, AEC

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75 professionals find it difficult to reuse core e xperts’ knowledge for highly knowledge-intensive AEC activities. This situation calls for a method for disseminating tacit knowledge from experts’ brains to achieve higher quality AEC projects. The primary purpos e of this paper is to set a theoretical foundation for clarifyi ng the contribution of experts’ tacit knowledge in the AEC industry. The secondary purpose is to describe the concept fo r prototype software, Dynamic Knowledge Map, that can assist in the reus e of experts’ tacit knowledge. The Dynamic Knowledge Map is a Web-based knowledge navigato r that searches for experts and facilitates communication with those experts by using internet technology. Visualisation in Architecture, En gineering and Construction (AEC) Bouchlaghem et al. (2005) indi cated that in the AEC industr ies, computer visualization usage can cover the whole lifecycle of a product from presentation of initial concepts to the final stages of production and can also extend to ma intenance issues. Three-dimensional walkthroughs can be created from hand drawn sketches at the very early stages of the design process. Threedimensional models can be used by design team s to communicate design intent to client and users and to compare and evalua te design options. During more advanced stages of design, 3D representations can be used to check the inte grity of services coor dination, accessibility and maintainability. During constructi on, visualization can facilitate the interpretation of design details by site operatives. The concept of visualiz ation is not limited to modeling physical objects but can also be extended to the representation of abstract data sets of the type obtained from simulation programs used in performance assess ment or from Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applications. The study reviewed the applicat ion of visualization in the process of design and construction and then presente d findings from three research pr ojects that made use of some of these techniques at various stages of the pr ocess: for collaborative working during concept

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76 design stage, for design development and marke ting in the house buildin g sector, and for the modeling of design details dur ing the construction stage. Summary Table 2-1 shows a summary of the literature presented in this chapter allowing the comparison of the various computer tools develo ped to apply the computer technologies to the Construction industry. The last two decades have witnessed a growing interest in introducing computer tools and computer tec hnologies to the construction i ndustry. At the early stages, the focus in the 1980s was on gathering project data and building historical databases and models such as TIME, ORPLAN and Cons truction Planex were developed. In the 1990s a growing interest was devoted to integrating CAD with the construction project schedule in order to exchange info rmation and communication among the design, and construction teams. Databases related to CAD app lications and Object Oriented approaches were developed, e.g. OPIS by Froese and Paulson (1 994) and COMBINE an attempt to integrate design system to analyze the performance of a planned building by Augenbroe (1995). Arount the turn of this century, 4D CA D approaches were investigated in the applica tion of project planning. Life cycle approaches started with OSC ON and OSCON-CAD by A ouad et al.(1998) and used an object oriented database inked to C AD in order to share information among various computer applications. These models revolved ar ound the engineering aspect of the construction industry and did not target the construction management teams as the heart of the construction processes. The proposed VIAM model focuse s on the construction processes from the perspective of the construction t eam, as the heart of the construc tion activities. The VIAM model uses a lifecycle approach to integrate inform ation from the various teams involved in the construction process throughout the li fe of the project. It provides the construction team with a

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77 Table 2-1. Comparison of the various comput er tools targeting the construction industry Target Objective Author Model D E S I G N E R A R C H I T E C T C O N S T R U C T I O N M A I T E N A N C E S C H E D U L E E S T I M A T E C O S T R E S O U R C E S M A N A G E M E N T O B J E C T O R I E N T E D Approach Gray (1986) TIME X X X Historical data Darwiche et al. (1988) ORPLAN X X Project Data Zozaya and Hendrickson (1988) Constructi on Planex X XXXX Design data Ito et al. (1989) CAD Link X XDatabase Timberline (1990) CAD Integrator X X XX Take off from CAD Cherneff et al. (1991) Builder X X Create Schedule from CAD Sriram and Logcher (1993) DICE X X Coordination of Engineering Info Morad and Baliveau (1994) Know Plan X Simulation 4D CAD Ito (1994) PMAPM X X XLife Cycle Information sharing & Communication ISO/IS (1994) STEP X X X Information exchange and terminology Bjork (1994) RATAS X X XX Computer Aided Building DESIGN Kartam (1994) ISICAD X XCAD interface to Object oriented model Froese and Paulson (1994) SIMSite X CAD designed to planning projects Froese and Paulson (1994) OPIS X X XObject Oriented database to integrate the project information Augenbroe (1995) COMBIN E X X Integrated design system to analyze the performance of a planned building Pena-Mora et al. (1995) DRIM X X X Communication of design, used to mitigate conflict Sriram et al. (1993) DICE X Communicate information related to the design Storer (1996) ATLAS X Integration for large scale engineering Kim and Ahn (1996) BOD X X Linking design to Construction

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78 Table 2-2. Continued Gorti et al. (1996) DICE X X Coordination of Engineering Info Alshawi (1996) SPACE X XX XIntegration of construction information Adjei-Kumi (1997) VR Planner X X Simulation Virtual Reality PlantSpace (1997) PlantSpace Systems X X XXX 3D visualization and model review Primavera (1999) P3e X XXX Planning and Control of project using SQL database Intergraph Schedule Review X XXXX XReview of project and analysis of project CIFE CIFE X X 4D Cad for planning projects Aouad et al. (1998) OSCON X X XX Database to manage the Construction processes Aouad et al. (1998) OSCON CAD X X XXXXX XStore CAD information in an integrated object oriented database shared across of a range of computer applications Sthrathclyde University DMEM X X Integration of product development for manufacturing industry Sthrathclyde University VCSR X Simulation of construction projects using projects simulations IAI (2002) IAI/IFC X X X X Project information sharing among the A/E/C to reduce cost and improve quality Iteractive Visualizer (1994) Interactive Visualizer X X X Develop applications in virtual environment to visualize the physical system Jaafari and Chayaa (2002) CVDM X X X XXXXX XIntended to VISUAL DESIGN MANAGEMENT by simulating a 3D CAD and linking it to multimedia and communication support. It is based on C++ and the Work Breakdown Structure Brodt (2005) IFCBIM X XXXXX XBuilding Information Model (BIM) integrates all the relevant aspects into a coherent organization of data that authorized computer applications can access, modify and/or add to Dib (2006) VIAM (proposed model) X X XXXXXXX XLife Cycle approach using BIM to integrate all the relevant aspects of the construction project from the perspective of the Construction Management team. VIAM is a comprehensive approach designed to help retrieve, update and communicate information through the different phases of the project and the various teams involved in the process.

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79 tool to access reliable information, as well as to update and keep track of the construction progress on site. The VIAM model is an information sharing tool that works at multiple levels. It serves the construction management team as a communication tool at multiple levels throughout the lifecycle of the project. Next Chapter 4 summarizes the findings of the application of the VIAM model and illustrates the relationships among the various teams involved at the construction phase, describes the information maze in existence at a construction project, and presents the VIAM model as a potential solution to the existing da ily challenges. Chapter 4 also summarizes the roles and expectations of the different team members in the construction company studied.

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80 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The VIAM suggested model targets the construction management (CM) team and focuses on the roles and expectations of the CM team. The VIAM model is shaped to assist the CM team in their daily tasks. The CM team serves on beha lf of the owner as the expert in construction processes, and works as a link between the ow ner and the various parties involved in the construction phase. The challenge that faces the VI AM is to provide the CM team in the field with the accurate and up-to-date reliable constr uction information. This information will be used in the field to build the different construction elements that constitute the constructed facility. Figure 4-1 illustrates the role of the CM t eam as the link between the designing team, the owner’s entity and the operations teams. The ope rations teams are the su bcontractors who are the expert labor force who specialize in specific trades. Figure 4-1. Role of the C onstruction Management Team The CM team is a complex entity; it consists of an executive team, a senior management team, an on-site management team and an on-site filed management team. The onsite teams are the ones who keep up with the cons truction activities. They are, s econd to the designer entity, the expert in the requirements and the details of th e construction project. Th e CM team members are Owner Operations Design Construction Management Team R1 R2 R3

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81 the ones who will ensure that the components of the construction facility are executed per the requirements of the designer. Figure 4-1 shows a series of relationships R1, R2 and R3 that classifies the interaction of the CM team w ith the various entities . The relationships are described as follows: The Relation R1 between the CM team and the Owner is in form of: Cost reports. The CM team generates at the end of every billing cycle, and in accordance with the schedule of values a detailed bill ing document that summarizes the construction activities that occurred during that billing cycl e. The owner pays the CM team in accordance to the cost reports. Schedule progress. The CM team generates at the end of every month a schedule progress report, reflecting to the owner th e actual progress of the construc tion activities in reference to the expected or scheduled progress. The CM te am monitors the schedule to ensure that the project is delivered on time. The CM team needs to be able to justify any deviation from the agreed or planned progress schedule. Expert advice . The CM team serves the role of the c onsultant to the owner in the occurrence of changes. The CM team is expected to manage the change at the level of cost and schedule impact on the construction progress. The Relation R2 between the CM team and the designing entity is in the form of: Submittals. These are forms developed by the operati ons teams. These documents explain in details the sequence, materials and the way things are going to be put toge ther in the field in order to meet and achieve the design requirements. The CM team reviews these submittals and make sure they meet the building code and the design requirements. If these documents

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82 fulfill the requirements in the best of knowledge of the CM team, it is then forwarded to the designer entity which will approve or modify the submittal to meet the design requirements. Best practices. The CM team on occasions comes up with suggestions to the design team in order to modify certain detail requirements set by the contracts documents. The CM team relies on previous experience to modify a require ment or take additional actions in order to prevent common mistakes or correct certa in mistakes that occur in the field. Quality assurance and quality control documents. The CM team keeps track of the construction processes, the materials used and the documentations to show that all the design requirements were met as agreed in the submittal forms and the contract documents. The Relation R3 between the CM team and the Operation teams is in form of: Management and coordination. The CM team enforces the agreed and planned schedule to ensure that the operation teams perform on site per plans. The CM team ensures that the operations team is doing what they are supposed t o, and respect their side of the contract, as well as the work of the other trades working along side by side onsite. Design communication. The CM team communicates with the operations team through a progress schedule, and the construction submittals . The CM team assist the on site operations team in understanding and meeting the design re quirements. On some opportunities, the CM team might include the designer entity in or der to clarify the contract documents. These correspondence are called Requests for Information (RFI), in case the cl arification require a change or a deviation from the contract documents, the change is called Change Order (CO) where the CM team is to monitor this CO a nd document additional cost accrued or additional time needed to meet these new expectations.

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83 Close observations of the comm on practices in the constructi on processes and technologies used in performing the daily tasks to produce th e end product shows that the project information requires different agents to interpret the data in order to complete the project goals. The data flows through what can be described as the info rmation maze, where the data percolates through the system to reach, occasionally after it is t oo late, the people in the field who need that construction information. Figure 4-2 illustrates the information maze and shows how project information making its way through the various ag ents, to reach the construction teams in the field in charge of th e construction activities. Figure 4-2. The Information maze The actual practices in the construction industr y result in time delays, the information goes through different channels, where the different agents have to approve, check and verify the information before communicating it down the line. Occasionally informati on gets delayed as the chain grows longer. It is very common that information is lost along the way and occasionally it never makes it to the field. Misco mmunications occur as the various agents interpret differently Data Data Data Data Information Information

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84 the data. The delays can cause schedule overrun and cost overrun, leading to litigation and loss of time and resources. VIAM model based on the direct observation of the construction practices in the field, and validated by the findings of the survey c onducted for that purpose, the VIAM suggests a Common Shared Database be tween the different parties involved in the construc tion project that extends throughout the lifecycle of the projec t. The database allows two way; access and management to visual information from the tabul ar organized data, as well as to access the tabular organized information from the visual information. This database is posted on a web server where all the various partic ipants have access to the most up to date reliable information. This step will eliminate the maze process desc ribed above, reduce the communication chain and as a result is expected to reduce informa tion loss, delays and miscommunications. The cooperation of the various teams i nvolved in the construction proce ss is the key to the success of the VIAM model. The operations teams acting onsite rely on visual information in form of sketches and CAD drawings in order to visualize and locate the various construction components in reference to other building components. The construction inform ation pertinent to the construction element is extracted from the notes on the drawings as we ll as the set of codes and specifications. The VIAM approach is to use the same methodology used by the operation teams on site, and put it in a computerized environment. The paper is re placed by a computer screen and the information relative to a specific construction element is re lated to the graphical representation of the element, and can be retrieved by means of point and click. The proposed VIAM serves as an integrated construction project information model with the intentions to facilitate ma nagement of activities throughout the life cycle of a construction

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85 project. By the integration of the graphic drawings and text ual databases, the VIAM model serves as a tool to provide accurate and reliab le information fast. The full benefits of the suggested model is achieved by accessing the text ual information from the drawing, (by point and click) as well as being able to view th e graphical representation related to textual information in the database, creating a two way connection between the graphical and the textual information. The suggested approach in this model is to in tegrate graphic objects in to databases in order to allow the user to store and execute database scripts and queries, as any other database. The drawings and the textual information are tied an d interconnected allowing scripts, query files, and database references to be processed using a Structured Qu ery Language (SQL). SQL allows visual query languages to express complex queries in a visual, less unsophisticated way. This approach renders the complicated SQL querying more user friendly and within reach of the unsophisticated, with limited or no progr amming knowledge, construction user. In order to prove the concept of the VIAM , a Geographical Information System (GIS) platform was used for its capability of linking a database to a CAD drawing. The objective was to able to view graphical repres entations and linking attributes fr om a database to the graphical components. Using the GIS software's visual ization tools, records could be accessed from existing databases and displayed visually in form of drawings, and make it easy to integrate data from all over the organization and wo rk with the data graphically. Steps and procedures to follow in order to achi eve the integration of the database with the drawing using GIS as a tool: Data provided from Architect: CAD Drawing

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86 The CAD drawing needed to be organized such as all construction elements were organized in respective layers Creating a Geo-Workspace in GIS, this will c onsist of the area where the work will be performed. The Geo-Workspace will have to be cr eated as a Read-Write, and will be saved in the assigned name Defining a Coordinate system for the Geo-Work space. The coordinate system is used for display purposes, the choice of the coordinate system will be used to better serve the representation of the data, in Construction it will be projection, and use the coordinates of the points based on North coordinates an d East Coordinates of the points Create an access Warehouse. The access warehouse is the database that will include all the information related to the project Now that the information is organized in CAD, and the Geo-Workspace is created with the appropriate coordinate system, the CAD layers can be imported to the GIS workspace and digitized. Digitizing the information is to define the different elements so that all the data is vector data, and has a coordinate system to defi ne it in relation to its exact coordinate on the globe At this level, the user needs to connect the vector information to the data warehouse, the database. For example, the layer “Doors” would be connected to the database table titled “Doors”, and so forth for al l the layers corresponding to the construction elements The information in the database table “Doors” will consist of the attributes to the features in the layer “Doors” Additional tables that are create d separately in an access database format can be joined with the tables in the database warehouse created in GIS. The purpose from this joining procedure

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87 is to allow the user to access the informati on in the additional databases from the queries displayed visually in GIS Further during the construction process, when changes occur, features can be added or modified using the editing functi ons within GIS. Similarly to the above described procedures. For example additional doors will be added in the layer “Doors” and the information related to this door will be automatically added in the database table named “Doors”, allowing the user to access the information in the table from the drawing, or the visual information from the tables The construction elements of the building ar e organized in a DATA FRAME that will be called “Project Example”. Hence, the Executiv e manager in Construction Company “X” in charge of multiple projects will have access to multiple “Data Frames”. To access information related to a specific project “Project Example”, he/she will have to access the data frame titled “Project Example” to be able to see information pertinent to this project. The Data Frame titled “Project Example” will c onsist of layers, organized in groups of layers, which are representations of the different phases of the pr oject or the diffe rent buildings. Each one of the group layers in cludes a list of layers correspo nding to the different building construction elements. Each one of the layers act as a reference to the data contained in data sources such as: Vector datasets: these will be the feature layers , and will be CAD files, coverages, shapefiles, geodatabase, and databases. Raster datasets: these will be raster layers such as Grids and Images The Layer Window, contains a ll the different features each feature will represent a window in the particular phase of th e building. Figure 4-3 shows a cap tion from the VIAM model where

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88 the user can retrieve tabular information from point and click on the grap hical representation of the construction element on the screen: Figure 4-3. Visual Informa tion related to Tabular Data Once the class of feature “Windows” is sel ected in the Group layer Phase 1, one will be able to see in the drawing map all the widows in this phase. The class of feature “Windows” also includes a reference to the database “Windows” that has textual information related to these windows; one can switch between th e drawing view and the table view or be able to see both at the same time. Developing, through GIS-based model, give the power to work graphically using construction element as the unit of analysis, thus the user can quickly develop custom tools, interfaces, and complete applications that makes the proposed model easy to work with in any organization.

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89 The construction process for walls. To better illustrate the answer, a real problem situation is used to give a broader perspective of the project organizati on to keep track of a particular construction element such as the “Walls” as a set of construction elements. The information provided in the contract do cuments related to the walls is as follows: The CAD drawings showing the walls as well as other construction elements on the same drawing sheet. Figure 4-4 shows a portion from a typical contract document drawing sheet. Representation of a typical layout of the various construction elements as well as annotations on the drawing sheet designated to indicate to the user the various detail related to the construction elements. On this drawing the t ypes of the walls are represented in small diamond shapes that include numbers, these numbers will refer to the type of the wall and will determine the characteristics and the guideline s that needs to be followed to provide the required item. Figure 4-5 shows a copy of thes e annotations. For instance, Wall type 2 will be an 8 inch CMU that extends to interstitial slab or 8 inches above the highest adjacent ceiling. Wall type 10 will be 8 inches CMU to unde rside of structural slab, or to underside of interstitial slab of continuing structure. The General specification section in CSI Division 4 will identify the general expectation and the general guidelines for the builder as per the expectations of the designer. Division 4 will provide the guidelines and the specificatio ns that the CM team will have to provide such as:

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90 Figure 4-4. Sheet representi ng walls and other construction elements on one floor of the building Preconstruction Testing Service: a qualified independent testing agency needs to perform, on site, testing as indicated below. Payment for th ese services will be made by owner. Retesting of materials failing to meet sp ecified requirements shall be do ne at Contractor's expense Concrete Masonry Unit Test: For each concrete masonry unit indicated, per ASTM C 140 Prism Test: For each type of wall cons truction indicated, per ASTM C 13 14 Mortar Test: For mortar prop erties per ASTM C 270, for each 5000 sq. ft. of wall area Grout Test: For compressive stre ngth per ASTM C 1019, for each 5000 sq. ft. of wall area

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91 . Figure 4-5. Different wall types annotations on the drawing sheets In order to build a wall in place, the field s uperintendent has to make sure the following steps are followed: Identify the layout of the wall in order to place it as shown per the design drawings Make sure the subcontractor who is going to perform the work on site has provided documentation and has met the general conditions , such as the appropriate insurance and has fully mobilized on site Make sure that the material is available and ha s passed all the quality control tests that need to be performed as shown in the example above

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92 Architect Supplemental Information (ASI) or Ch ange Order (CO) are changes that affect the construction processes. The ASI takes effect immediately, and requires the contractor to build per the ASI provided. However the Change Order is subject to negotiation and approval by the parties. Usually, the construction crew will build per the CO only after it is approved. The VIAM approach consists of the following steps: Digitize the walls into GIS. The layer “Walls” w ould be connected to a table in the database warehouse that will be filled with the attributes related to the different walls in this layer This database in GIS can be connected to any database table outsi de GIS by joining the tables. Instead of having one huge database table it will be fo rmed of independent linked tables that each will serve a specific purpose The tables as shown in Figure 4-6 are: A “General Company Information” table , dedicated to the information about the Subcontractor, which includes the Contra ctor Name, Type of Company, Division, Emergency Contact, Emergency Tel No., Tel No., Fax No., Website, Trade, Federal ID, Spec Section, Safety Program Contact, Safety Program Tel, Safety Record and Program Comments, Notes. This table is used by the Pr oject Manager. It is however connected to another table, “General Team Info” table th at will be used by the field personnel A “General Team Info” table for when the fi eld superintendent need s to access the name and responsibilities of the different individuals in charge of th e coordination tasks, such as the safety, field, and office personnel. This table will have information on: Company Name, Prefix, Contact Name, Title, Tel No., Fa x No., Mobile, Pager, Home Tel, and Email Address. The “General Team Info” and “G eneral Company Information” tables will interconnected by the field “Company Name”

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93 A “Work Progress” table that a llows the Field Manager to tr ack the work progress. This has the following fields: Wall ID, Number of Workers, Date, 8-courses, Inspection, Reinforced/Grouted, Date, 16-courses, Insp ection, Reinforced/Grouted, Date, Top Up, Inspection, Reinforced/Grouted, Date , Finishing, Date, and Caulking A “Responsibilities” table that allocates the different respon sibilities based on the wall types, Wall ID, Wall Type, and Responsibilit y. The “Responsibility” and “Work Progress” tables are linked by the key field Wall ID Using these four different ta bles that are interconnected together: “Work Progress” connected to “Responsibility ” by the field “Wall ID” allows for the linking of the subcontractor to the work progress on the walls; then the “Gener al team Info” table will tie the data gathered from the combination of the two tables descri bed above, through the fiel d “Title”; then the combination of the three different tables is th en linked to the “General Company Information” through the field “Company Name”. The field manager, can record the work progress by updating the work progress on site, and the Project manager in the office can have a ccess to the up-to-date jobsite information and will be able to generate the costs and the report s that might be needed to billing, as well as comparing the actual versus planned work progress. The information presented in Figure 4-6 is ta bulated as shown in Table 4-1. When it comes to accessing the information related to the construction elements, the initial information such as the design requirements, the type of walls as well as who is supposed to perform what task and when the different tasks needs to be performed can be determined from Table 4-1 as follows:

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94 Figure 4-6. Relation connec ting the tables together The field manager will be accessing a table “G eneral Information Access” this table will have built in information organized in fiel ds such as: Wall ID, Wall Type, Width, Height, Scheduled Early start, Duration, Actual Early St art, Actual Duration, RCO #, ASI #, and RFI #. This table will provide the information needed for the construction of the wall and can be accessed from the visual represen tation of the drawing. The field Wall Type in this table is linked to the field Wall Type in the table “Wall Types” providing detailed information about the specific wall based on its annotati on. The “General Information Acce ss” table is also linked to the table of work progress by the field “Wall ID”. Hence all the work progress is reflected in this table as they are both tied together. As for tracking of changes, there is a tabl e dedicated to Change Orders titled “RCO” (for the Request for Change Order), once the CO is accepted, by the construction management team, the change will be reflected in the table “Gen eral Information Access” under the field RCO #,

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95 because both tables are linked through the field “Wall ID”. The same goes for the RFI # (Request for Information), i.e., information generated to cl arify the scope of work, and the ASI # (for any additional information and changes requested by the Architect or Owner to be processed immediately). Table 4-3. Wall types Wall Type Wall Thickness Security Reinforcement Note A CMU 6 inch Minimum/ Non Secure A1 CMU 6 inch Medium Security A2 CMU 6 inch Maximum Security A3 CMU 6 inch T.O. CMU = 3'4" AFF # 5 @ 16" O.C. Vert Provide Bullnose cap units at top of partial height walls per detail WT-002 A4 CMU 6 inch T.O. CMU = 4'0" AFF # 5 @ 16" O.C. Vert Provide Bullnose cap units at top of partial height walls per detail WT-002 A5 CMU 6 inch T.O. CMU = 10'0" AFF # 5 @ 16" O.C. Vert Provide Bullnose cap units at top of partial height walls per detail WT-002 A6 CMU 6 inch Minimum/Non Secure, T.O. CMU = 8" Above F. Ceiling B CMU 8 inch Minimum/Non Secure B1 CMU 8 inch Medium Security Figure 4-7 shows the different relationships in MS Access between the tables, tying the work progress, changes and the existing informa tion and keeping all the information current and up-to-date. The connection of the tables as repres ented and described above will allow the user to query the information from al the tables, gene rating reports and updating the work progress as well as changes and additional information. At a ll times the table “General Information Access” will show the project’s initial information as well as the additional changes so that the user can

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96 see the changes in the scope of work and still keep track of the initial settings, providing historical project information. Figure 4-8 is also a view from MS Access and illustrates the queries as well as the interconnected tables that constitute the VI AM database. Figure 4-9 shows how the VIAM database keeps track of and updates the informati on related to the inspec tions of the walls and ties it to the general database of the project. Figure 4-10 shows how VIAM handles a query searching for activities by “Early Start” criteria. The user can query the data according to location, content, proximity, and intersection. For example, data can be added to maps to fi nd the geographic factors that drive trends and distributions or locations at wh ich particular characteristics coin cide. By means of Structured Query Language (SQL), the user can aggregate data geographically by categorizing it based on Figure 4-7. Tables and re lationships from MSAccess

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97 Figure 4-8. A sample query to access and retrieve information Figure 4-9. Inspection table ti ed to the project database

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98 areas such as the different phases of the proj ect, or based on common ch aracteristics such all “Features = Windows” and “Attr ibutes = “Aluminum”. The user can narrow the search by adding to the selection AND “Attri butes = Early Start = Today’s da te”. Furthermore, the output from one analysis can be used as the input to th e next analysis which enables the user to create advanced geo-processing applica tions, as shown in Figure 4-10. Figure 4-10. An illustration of a query in the suggested model The VIAM model combines layers of informa tion about a location in a building to give a proper understanding of that lo cation. The layers of Information combined depend on the purpose of (1) finding the dimension of a wall, (2) the (X,Y) Coordinate s, (3) the number of CMU blocks, (4) the area of steel reinforcement, (5) the number of stirru ps and their spacing, (6) the cost, (7) the duration, (8) th e starting and finish da te, and (9) can link data sets together by common locatable data, such as location, which helps different parties share their data. By

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99 creating a shared database, one part y can benefit from the work of another; data can be collected once and used many times. The VIAM model with its visualization capabi lities makes it easy to create drawings and add specific data to them. Using the GIS software's powerful visual ization tools, records can be accessed from existing databases and displayed visu ally in form of drawings, and makes it easy to integrate data from all over the organi zation and work with the data graphically. The advantages of the proposed model at the construction ph ase are that it: Solves the existing industry problems relevant to time delays, information loss, miscommunication, and litigation Reduces time delays (communication shared directly between th e parties through the common database) Eliminates loss of information (all information is shared in the database, accessible from a network) Detects miscommunication at earl ier levels, implying less changes Reduces cost overrun (eliminates costs cau sed by miscommunication, and changes) Reduces time loss (less effort spent on communication and tracking changes) Reduces chances of litigations (less changes, less time delays, less cost overrun) In addition to solving the existing industry problems, th e model offers the following additional advantages for the constructi on company in the construction phase: Flexibility to manage Human Resource dut ies, within the construction company Ability to evaluate the team performances Ability to create reliable historical data for future reference projects Ability to compare company performance to national averages

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100 Ability to compare and rate team performances vs. other teams within the same company Ability to collaborate and share knowledge and lessons learned among different teams within the same company The Effectiveness of the VIAM Model As illustrated in the procedures listed above, team members will use different tables based on the information they are reporting or the inform ation they need to have access to. For instance the field superintendent will have access to the tables “General Information Access” for Read Only and/or View Only purposes, as he will only access this page to retrieve information related to the construction elements. The “Wall Types” table is also Read Only and/or View Only to the field superintendent, as the information in th is table is provided by the Designer. The “Work Progress” table is accessible to the field superintendent as read-wri te, as he/she will need to add to this table as the work progresses onsite. The construction changes table, “RCO” table w ill be accessible to the project manager for approval purposes, once approved it will be linked to the rest of the Project Database, and will be accessible to be viewed by the Field crew on site. Due to the linking of the tables, once the fi eld superintendent enters the information relative to the work progress that day it is fina l, as any other formal document. For example, when a wall is reported built, or in progress, the situation should not change the following day, however, in case the field superi ntendent, changes the informati on in the “Work Progress” table the following day, it will be reflected on the “Gen eral Information Table” as the new information will be added to the initial one, showing both versi ons. This process is not to be confused with creating inconsistent data, but a reevaluation of the data and it is not likely to happen, unless some mistake was detected in entering the data. In current practice, the field superintendent fills

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101 a daily progress report by hand and submits it to the project manager (PM). Once submitted it is final and the field superintendent would not be able to replace any document submitted as they are considered final and legal documents. A change order added to the “RCO” table will be reflected on the “General Information Table” through the addition of new information to the table, as this type of change should be added to the initial Contract Documents. If fo r some reason the once approved Change Order is cancelled, the status of the Change Order reflecte d in the “General Info rmation Table” will show the initial state, the Change orde r, and its status as cancelled, as the construction crew needs to show and keep track of the initial specificati ons and requirements as well as the change. For example, a wall that has been deleted by means of a Change order, will still remain in the database under the section of initial contract documen ts, but once you run the query to limit your view only to the item still remaining after the Change Order, you will be able to graphically observe that this wall has been elim inated as it did not satisfy the query. The VIAM integration of life cycle approach. This section describes processes used by the construction team throughout the lifecycle of the project. Figures 4-11, 4-12 and 413 represent the outside co mmunication between the construction team and the subcontractors at the cons truction and the preconstruc tion phases as well as the maintenance and the repair crew at the post construction phase. At the preconstruction phase, the CM team needs to come up with a maximum guaranteed price for the owner and subcontractors and supplie rs are contacted and provided with related drawings and specifications and they are requested to submit a quote. Typically the subcontractors and suppliers will provide a quote to the CM and lock the price in for a certain

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102 period of time. After that deadline is met the CM will be at risk to rene gotiate a new price with the material supplier. The CM at the end of the preconstruction pha se will have a quote fr om subcontractors and suppliers relative to a certai n product. Figure 4-11 illustrates the two way communication among the CM team and the subcontractors. Figure 4-11. Product supply comm unication, preconstruction phase At the construction phase the CM will get a de tailed set of drawings and specifications from the A/E entity. The project engineer (PE) w ill send the detailed drawings and specifications to the related supplier requesting detailed specifi cations of their product and setting a specific time frame for the supplier to respond. The PE once the information from the subcontractors and suppliers is received, checks them for complian ce with the A/E specifications. In case of noncompliance the PE will contact the supplier once again and highlight the changes and the noncomplying parts and requests from the supplier to provide a complying material or in some cases explain why it is not possible to meet these specifications suggested by the A/E entity. At the level where the PE is confident and ha s a clear picture about the product and that it meets the specifications, he/she will send the doc uments to the A/E who will need to approve them. In some cases where the supplier suggests changes and modifications the A/E will either accept, reject or negotiate with the supplier through the PE. Estimating Team Subcontractors and Suppliers

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103 At the point where the A/E accepts the product specified as per the drawings and the specifications or as per negotiati on, the PE will need to notify th e PM who will need to contact the subcontractors and supp liers to get the final price. In general the price is agreed on the preconstruction phase when the subcontractors and suppliers send a quote to the CM team specifying the price and the time frame to honor this price. But in he case of any changes that need to be accounted for, they will be negot iated between the PM and the subcontractors and suppliers and copied to the fi eld superintendent and the PE, and a delivery date is set. The PE will stay in touch with the supplier to make sure the product is delivered on site at the specified date set by the superintendent as it is required to the flow of work on the jobsite. Figure 4-12 illustrates the different phases the product supply chain process goes through starting from the preconstruction phase along the constr uction and post construction phases. In each phase of the process different act ors come into play. But the whol e process should be coherent in order to convey the knowledge and pass it on through the lifecycl e of the project. Once the product is delivered the billing process starts. This cy cle is between the PM supplier and the CPA. The supplier will send the bill to the CPA who will forward it to the PM to make sure it is the same price agreed upon in the cont ract. In case the price is right, the PM will approve the bill and a check is sent to the s upplier within the agreed time frame set in the contract. In case the price is not accepted by the PM, a negotiati on phase can take place between the supplier and the PM and could end in litigation in case one of the two parties is not fulfilling their side of the contract. Figure 4-13 illustrates the link between the c onstruction phase and the post operations and maintenance phase. After the building is comple ted, the post construction phase takes place. The construction team will hand over the building to th e maintenance and repair crew. Typically the

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104 construction team leaves a copy of the drawings and the specifications and operating manuals for the owner to ensure that the maintenance crew s have enough information and become familiar with the product to be able to perform maintenance tasks prope rly and without the need to go back to the constr uction team for help and guidance. Figure 4-12. Product supply chain communications, construction phase The goal for this computer tool is not to cha nge the procedures and the way things are done, however it is designed to organize the data in a way to facili tate communication and reduce the redundancy in the way things are done. By understanding the roles and relationship Figure 4-13. Product maintenance and repair re lated communications, post construction phase R epair & Maintenance Crew Database Acceptance Delivery Payment A/E PE Sub/Supplier PE Sub/ Supplier PM Sub/ Supplier CPA PM

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105 among the different players and the different role s they need to fulfill the GIS based computer tool will facilitate the roles of the different players and help them reduce their errors and time wasted by linking all the information needed to th e drawing. The PE for example in this case in expediting materials and making sure the material is within compliance with the specifications and the A/E guidelines will need to go to one sour ce and will be able to have all the most up to date information related to the material he/she is expediting. It is more effi cient to the PE to find the right information in one place instead of gather ing bits and pieces from different locations as it is the case in actual practices. Roles of the Various CM Team Participants A survey was conducted to establish a baseline know-how of the c onstruction processes, general construction practices and to measure how much time is needed to complete the different tasks. A comparison of the actual findings with the VIAM was made to help provide proof that this proposed model will help redu ce time and cost to do business. The knowledge generated by the “HOW TO” questions was used to generate the flowcharts and identify the processes as well as the sequence of steps that needed to be achieved in order to fulfill the tasks. The survey was conducted within one constructi on company in order to determine the roles and duties of the construction team members with in this company. The findings about the roles and duties of the team members can then be broa dened to extend to the construction industry in general. The terms of reference vary from one company to the other. The same job title of “Project Engineer” given to two different subjec ts in two separate construction companies have different terms of references. However the role of the construction team remains the same. In addition, the roles of the same subject vary along the life cycle of the project. At the preconstruction phase, the PE is i nvolved in gathering quotes to pr ice the construc tion activities,

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106 while in the construction phase, the main duties are to ensure the submittals are in accordance with the design specifications, at the closeout ph ase of the job, the role s change to assemble closeout documents, warranties documentations a nd operations manual to be transferred to the owner Table 4-2 shows business and operations parame ters for two construction companies. As shown in Table 4-3 in company “A” the duties and the expectati ons from the different team members vary, for example the job assignment for a Project Engineer in company “A” is that he/she will be responsible for performing a sp ecific list of tasks while in company “B” the Project Engineer is expected to perform a variation of these du ties in addition to some extra duties. Thus the purpose of conducting the survey in the settings of one construction company is to ensure consistency and to be able to reduce variations in the results. Table 4-2. Business and operations para meters for two construction companies Company A Commercial construction company Typical construction projects average around 5 million U.S. Dollars Total yearly volume is 80 Millions U.S. Dollars Onsite construction team consists of: Project Manager Assistant Project Manager 1 Project Engineer Superintendent Secretary 1 Co-op, (a student intern) Company “A” share an accountant among other jobs within the company Company B Commercial construction company Typical construction projects average around 15 Millions U.S. Dollars Total yearly volume is 400 Millions U.S. Dollars Onsite construction team consists of: Project Manager Assistant Project Manager 2 Project Engineers Superintendent Assistant Superintendent Secretary Up to 2 Co-ops (Student Interns) Job Accountant

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107 Table 4-3. List of the duties and expectations from the same job title among the two companies Company “A”: Company “B”: Handles and checks working and shop drawings on site Expedite materials and maintain material expediting logs Documents, records, and distributes all revisions to working drawings Review coordination drawings Keep as-built drawings current Facilitate Project Administration Keep record of back charges Maintain jobsite files Helps Superintendent maintain schedule Assist with preparati on of project status reports Enforces quality control guidelines Administer RFI process Keep minutes of meetings Create document logs Record material brought and stored on site Expedite subcontractor and Vendor Pricing Handles and revises shop drawings Prepare O&M manuals and warranties Estimates and records all change orders Develop a submittal log Coordinates and oversees completion of preliminary and final punch lists Conduct subcontractor preconstruction meetings Complete daily subcontractor reports Prepare meeting minutes and agendas Enforces Safety guidelines Process progress photos Keep record on work in progress Generate Correspondence Track submittals and maintain shop drawings Post Document revisions Prepare closeout log The Project Engineer Roles in the Surveyed Company Summary job description. Assists the Project Manager and senior Engineers with planning and daily execution of construction projects. Responsible for tracking all submittals and material deliveries, maintain ing schedules and budgets, and coordinating the material and equipment deliveries. Manage, direct and coordinate subcontractors. Purpose. Provide comprehensive support to Project Managers and Superintendents as they focus on building current and new business.

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108 Essential functions. The essential functions are: Help project management proac tively manage the project budget by controlling expenditures, coordinating owner and subcontractor b illings, identifying work not covered by subcontractor, and ensuring successful office s upport related to overall cost and schedule Help project management review Safety a nd Quality Control programs. Coordinate necessary actions with Superintende nt regarding special field problems Coordinate all procedures, correspondence, et c. with the Office Manager in accordance with the Operations Manual Review and process all submittal data and shop drawings Ensure all submittals, deliveries, etc. that affect the project schedule are expedited and delivery schedules are coordina ted with the Superintendent Prepare weekly and monthly status reports and monitor/review weekly subcontractor meeting minutes, change orders, etc Distribute change documents to subcontractor s and prepare change proposal requests for price review May go with Project Manager to meetings with architect and owner repr esentatives. Provide information required by owner and prepare necessary progress reports and summaries Ensure action plans from owner/ architect meetings address all outstanding issues related to the project schedule and a ssist Project Manager in preparing meeting minutes Ensure all changes, clarifications, directives , RFIs, etc. are updated on “as-built” plans and coordinated with company supervis ion and subcontractors/suppliers Responsible for assisting with close-out documents Maintain and follow-up tickler board system issues, RFI logs, and change request log

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109 Work conditions. Most work occurs on construction sites in an office trailer or an existing structure. Due to daily condition changes on co nstruction projects, when employees are outside of the office trailer or structur e they must wear appropriate personal protective equipment as required by the company's safety policies and as required for weather conditions. The Project Manager Roles in the Surveyed Company Summary job description. Serves as the primary company representative responsible for managing all administrative and technical requirements for constr uction projects. Supervises all activities related to contract administration, ch ange orders, submittals, procurement, project financials set-up and updates, and schedule to ensure projects are completed in a quality, profitable, safe and timely manner. Purpose. Maintain constant focus on meeting/exceed ing customer needs and expectations by managing all aspects of assigned projec ts. Build new business by working with current/future customers in a proactive, consultative nature to promote all construction services the company offers. Essential functions. The essential functions are: Determine resources needed – people, tools, equi pment, materials and internal services – for each project. Decide how and when those needs will be met and by whom Collaborate with Pre-Construction Services to prepare, review, and monitor information and reports related to all costs involved in assigned projects Collaborate with the Scheduling Director to create a construction schedule and an organization and responsibilities matrix at the start of each project, prior to subcontracts being issued. Review with al l project participants (employ ees, subcontractors, customers,

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110 suppliers, government regulators, utilities, et c.) to ensure work is completed on time and within budget Create and manage project budgets Manage the subcontracting process including init ial scope review meetings, finalizing agreed price, develop subcontract scope of work, and manage the subcontract distribution and final execution process Develop site specific special provisions subcontract exhibit Comply with owner contract requirements (such as bonds, fees, notifications, schedules, reporting, costs). Establish plan s to comply with and report on MBE requirements of the project contract Confirm all required paperwork from subcont ractors and suppliers is completed at appropriately designated times before and during the project Set up subcontractor pre-work mee ting, keep minutes and follow up Assist the Senior Project Mana ger in preparing and maintaining the Senior Project Manager checklist; review it with proj ect staff each quarter and assi gn responsibilities and follow-up plans Build effective relationships with customers, design team, user groups, and subcontractors that reflect and support company core values and meet/exceed the customer’s expectations Establish relationships and co mmunication tools as needed w ith suppliers and other key people to verify all materials, supplies, tool s, equipment, and personnel are obtained and/or delivered when necessary

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111 Confirm all mandatory periodic planning, progre ss, and close out meetings are attended by project staff and other key pe ople on project concerns, proble ms, and unexpected situations that may arise with subcontractors, suppliers, customer changes, etc Ensure project site and company assets are secure, and maintain a safe and respectful working environment at all times by implemen ting safety, EEO, risk management, training, and quality control programs Communicate with all suppliers and subcont ractors to be certain they understand performance standards related to predetermined schedules or pl ans and specifications. If performance problems occur, coordinate with th e Sr. Project Manager, Operations Director and Vice President regarding th e appropriate actions to ta ke with the subcontractor If not based at the project site , visit project sites to compar e progress to schedule, compare actual versus estimated cost, check complian ce with plans and specifications, review any problems, and verify the quality of work bei ng performed meets contract specifications and the company guidelines. Assist in developi ng the site logistics and utilization plans Evaluate and direct responsibility fo r training and developing your team Manage the project closeout process to settle all financ ial obligations, demobilize all resources, and transition th e project to the customer Working conditions. The majority of work is completed on job sites in an office trailer or in an existing structure. Due to daily c ondition changes on construction projects, when employees are outside of the office trailer or structure they must wear appropriate personal protective equipment as required by the company' s safety policies and as required for weather conditions.

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112 The Field Superintendent Roles in the Surveyed Company Job description summary. Responsible for all field activitie s associated with the project and supervision of all field construction work by subcontractors and employees. Collaborate with the Project Manager to ensure the project is built on time, within budget, and in accordance with the company’s policies and pr ocedures and the concep ts of Service, Talent and Choices. Manage and mentor Assistant Superi ntendents and other field personnel. Essential functions. The essential functions are: Participate in preconstruction planning when possible regarding the project schedule and budget. Review project estimates and cost cont rol system at the begi nning of the project Communicate with subcontractors and employees (in conjunction with the Project Manager) a consistent level of expecta tions and direction regarding schedules, construction methods, company policies and procedures, permits, safe ty, quality control and other performance standards Assist the Project Manager in reviewing and updating progress and cost reports, schedules, and requirements for completion on a regular basis Explore and advise project team on appropriate changes in methods, materials schedules, and procedures. Ensure all materials are properly te sted according to spec ifications, and ensure all test results are properly recorded Manage project equipment issues by reviewi ng project equipment needs with the Project Manager and Equipment Supervisor; implementi ng the preventative maintenance program; and managing rental equipment Support community, client and s ubcontractor relations and even ts to enhance the company’s image and build relationships

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113 Understand thoroughly project specifications, th e contract and its general conditions, and confirm all materials and subcontract work comply with contract documents and quality specifications Participate in making scopes for subcont racts and Prebid/Postbid meetings Ensure project site and company assets are secure, and maintain a safe and respectful working environment at all times by implemen ting safety, EEO, risk management, training, and quality control programs Manage and document employee and subcont ractor problems or nonperformance (in collaboration with the Project Manager) th rough mentoring/traini ng, disciplinary action, termination, back charges, or other appropriate actions Review and approve all bills for materials a nd subcontractor requisitions. Confirm extra charges from subcontractors/suppl iers are reasonable and work is correctly executed, and coordinate with Project Manager for approval on extra charges Facilitate weekly project progre ss and safety meetings with al l subcontractor representatives and coordinate the upcoming week’s work to be accomplished. Attend all progress meetings with the owner/architect representatives Make presentations as needed to keep owners /architects informed of progress and to proactively seek new business opportu nities through relationships Ensure the project closeout process is finalized to settle all financial obligations, demobilize all resources, and transition the project to the client Build and stretch people by providing challe nging assignments, achievable/motivational development plans, and ongoing actionable/candi d feedback that help employees achieve career goals

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114 Negotiate skillfully in tough situations with internal and external parties by winning concessions without damaging relationsh ips and being direct and diplomatic All other duties and resp onsibilities as assigned Working conditions. The majority of work is completed on job sites in an office trailer or in an existing structure. Due to daily c ondition changes on construction projects, when employees are outside of the office trailer or structure they must wear appropriate personal protective equipment as required by the company' s safety policies and as required for weather conditions. The Field Assistant Superintendent Roles in the Surveyed Company Job description summary. Assist the Superintendent by managing designated field activities associated with the project and superv ision of designated fi eld construction work by subcontractors and employees. Assist the project team to ensure the project is built on time, within budget, and in accordance with the company’s policies & pr ocedures and th e concepts of Service, Talent and Choices. Essential functions. The essential functions are: Direct and coordinate subcontra ctor and the company field pe rsonnel in designated areas of expertise Assist the Superintendent in communicating wi th subcontractors and employees a consistent level of expectations and di rection regarding schedules, construction methods, company policies and procedures, permits, safety, qual ity control and other performance standards Review and update progress and cost reports, schedules, and requirements for completion on a regular basis as delegated by th e Project Manager/Superintendent

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115 Ensure all materials are properly tested according to specifications, and en sure all test results are properly recorded Support community, client and s ubcontractor relations and even ts to enhance the company’s image and build relationships Coordinate with Superintendent to ensure pr oject site and company assets are secure, and maintain a safe and respectful working envi ronment at all times by implementing safety, EEO, risk management, training, and quality control programs Attend weekly project progress meetings w ith all subcontractor representatives and understand the upcoming week’s work to be accomplished Attend internal/external traini ng opportunities to continuously learn and develop new skills Assist Superintendent in ensu ring the project closeout proces s is finalized to settle all financial obligations, demobilize all resources, and transition the project to the customer All other duties and resp onsibilities as assigned Working conditions. The majority of work is completed on job sites in an office trailer or in an existing structure. Due to daily c ondition changes on construction projects, when employees are outside of the office trailer or structure they must wear appropriate personal protective equipment as required by the company' s safety policies and as required for weather conditions. Survey Results In order to determine the roles of the vari ous team members as well as the way they execute their tasks a survey was conducted with in the settings of one Construction Company. The construction company is based in the Unite d States of America and operates nationally dealing only with commercial projects. The survey was conducted among the field and office

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116 construction team members, targeting the team s who are working on projects of sizes ranging from U.S. $10 million and up to more than U.S. $ 75 million. On every construction project the team consisted of an field office Construction Ma nagement team of at least a Project Manager and a Project Engineer, and a fi eld Construction Management team formed by a Superintendent and a Project Engineer Field. The minimum size of the construction management team on the smaller construction projects wa s four (4) team members. The survey consisted of two different questionna ires. One questionnaire was targeted at the construction management team in the field and another one was targeted at the construction management team office crew. Based on their ro le as a field or office team member, the respondent answered the a ppropriate questionnaire. The Objectives of the CM Office Survey The questionnaire consisted of a series of 71 questions, the questions varied from demographic questions that help determine the le vel of education of the respondent (Question # 70), the type of degree (construc tion related or not) (Question # 71), the number of years the respondent been in the constructi on industry (Question # 69). In a nother series of questions, the questionnaire gathered information relative to the construction project (s) the respondent was involved in, and the value of th e projects he/she was responsible for (Questions # 1, through 4) this series of questions help determine the work load of the respondent, as well as the duration of the construction project and at what phase the project is. The logic be hind this series of questions was to validate the assumption that the work load and the expectations from the office construction member vary throughout the constructi on project. The Project Engineer in the office at the early stages of the cons truction project is involved extens ively in creating submittal logs, and expediting materials, reviewing shop draw ings for compliance with specifications and requirements from the designer entities, however as the construction activ ities progress through

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117 the life cycle of the project, the tasks of the CM office team member shift towards estimating cost changes, documenting and keeping track of changes. Question # 5 inquired whether the respondent is involved at the pr econstruction level of the proj ect in the estimating of the quantities and material take off. The answers we re consistently indicati ng that the company had an estimating department that dealt with the estimating and bidding of the job at the preconstruction phase. The only estimating perfor med by the construction team refers to the estimation of the change and the deviations fr om the initial contract documents. A separate section of the questionnaire inqui res about tasks performed by th e various team members and the amount of time they spend executing these estimating tasks on a daily basis. Questions 6, 22 and 23 inquired about the time the respondent arrives to the jobsite, the time he or she leaves the job location, and Ques tion # 23 asked the respondent to estimate the amount of time spent daily on the job location. Qu estion # 23 investigated as well the amount of time the respondent spends at the location of the jobsite. In th e case where the amount of time spent on the jobsite was less than the amount calculated from arri val time to departure time, the answer revealed whether the re spondents leave their jobsite lo cation, or involved in traveling activities. Questions 7 through 21, of the survey inquired about the various mee tings the respondent participates in throughout the day, on the various days of the week. The survey investigated the frequency of occurrence of such meetings as we ll as the purpose of such meetings, and the timing of these meetings. The questions related to the timing of the meetings tended to reflect the character of the various parties involved in the meetings, the meetings with the subcontractor entities tend to be early at th e beginning of the day, the meeting with the owner and designer entity tend to be mid day or late in the morn ing. However the coordination meeting between the

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118 construction management field crew and the offi ce crew tended to vary from early in the morning to later in the afternoon as one of the end of the day activity th e construction team get involved with. Questions 24 through 30 invest igated the relationship of the respondent with the other construction team members as we ll as the other teams involved in the construc tion activities during the construction pha se of the project. Questions 31 through 61 investigated the vari ous construction activit ies the respondent is involved in, as well as the time required to execu te these tasks, and how do they execute the various tasks. The objective from these set of questions is to determine the various daily activities and the amount of time spent per activit y a day, as well as the tolls used to perform such activities. The questions 62 through 67 investigated ti me spent on the phone, or using the fax and copy machine. The purpose from these questions is to identify the communication technologies and the means and methods used to share info rmation among the various participants. These series of questions give an insight on how information is sh ared and distributed among the various teams involved in the construction project. Analysis of the Construc tion Management Team As shown in Figures 4-14 through 4-16 a majori ty of the office crew had less than 10 years of experience in the construction industry and the majority of respondents were classified as college graduates. As shown in Figures 4-17 through 4-16, 80% of the population of the field crew had more than 5 years of experience. Si xty percent (60%) of th is population had an AA degree or less as their level of education. On ly 30% of this population had a degree in construction. Figure 4-20 shows a distribution of the respondents based on the size of the

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119 construction project that they we re involved in. In general, as shown, the field crew tended to always be less in size than the office crew. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1-5 Years510 Years10-20 Years20 + YearsRespondents (n=125) Figure 4-14. Office crew y ears of construction experience 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 High SchoolAA DegreeBachelors Degree Master Degree OtherRespondents (n=125) Figure 4-15. Office crew level of education

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120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120YesNoRespondents (n=125) Figure 4-16. Office crew unive rsity education in construction 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1-5 Years510 Years10-20 Years20 + YearsRespondents (n=125) Figure 4-17. Field crew y ears of construc tion experience

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121 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 High SchoolAA DegreeBachelors Degree Master DegreeRespondents (n=125) Figure 4-18. Field crew level of education 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 YesNoRespondents (n=125) Figure 4-19. Field crew uni versity degree in construction

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122 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 10 M 25 M25 M 50 M50 M 75 M75 M +Project ValueRespondents (n=125) PE Field Figure 4-20. Comparison of the Size of the crew on the various projects A closer analysis of the office crew breakdow n of their daily tasks is shown in Figures 421 and 4-22. The daily tasks that the Office Engineer typically gets involved with on daily basis can be categorized in three main categories, (1) Coordination and Meetings, (2) Tracking Changes and Updating Information, (3) Checking Compliance of Shop drawings and submittals with the required specifications. The Projec t Engineer spends around 3 hours a day tracking changes and estimating cost of changes, 2.8 hours a day checking the compliance of the shop drawings with the required set of specifications. The Project Engineer spends 1.5 hours a day generating meeting minutes, in order to document the meetings with the various entities involved in the construction project. The purpose of thes e meeting is to communicate the changes to the parties involved with the constr uction activities, the owner to update the cost changes and the schedule modifications. The pr oject engineer spends around 20 minutes a day updating the contract documents to reflect the changes and the additional in formation supplied by the designer entity. The project engineer spends on average 1. 5 hours a day in meetings with the owner, field CM crew and the subcontractors for coordination and keeping tr ack of changes and their cost.

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123 A closer analysis of breakdown of the field crew’s daily tasks is shown in Figures 4-23 and 4-24. The analysis of the survey responses of the field crews showed that the tasks the field construction teams got involved with on a daily basis revolves mostly around being in the field, checking on the compliance of the construction activities with the set requirements in the specifications and the approved shop drawi ngs, reporting and documenting work progress, investigating potential problems initiated by chan ges. The field crew members typically spend on the average 4.5 hours in the field, tracking ch anges, coordinating materials on site, and checking compliance of the construction activities with the set of contract documents. The field crew members spends close to 1.5 hours a da y on the phone and another 1.5 hours a day in meetings with the subcontractors on site and with the CM office cr ew to coordinate the construction activities communicat e an update to the construc tion schedule assign tasks and coordinate new construction activities. The field crew members sp ends around 3 hours a day tracking changes and estimating the cost of changes, and making su re the changes are reflected in the construction set of documents. Two (2) hours a day are dedicated to the schedule to monitor and update the c onstruction progress of the activities analyze the effect of changes on the existing schedule and manage the construction activities based on space availability, resource availability and possible starting date. When it comes to working on the computer, the field crew members spends close to half an hour a day us ing it, including checking emails and the weather conditions. Next Chapter 5 presents a summary of the va lidation case study us ed and highlights the application and challenges of the VIAM model through examples from real projects that are used to validate the theories behind it. This chapter al so lists the challenges to the use of information technologies on construction projects and it characterizes these challenges in terms

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124 CM Officer Daily Tasks0.00.51.01.52.02.53.0Coordinating delivery of materials Meeting with subcontractors Updating contract docs and drawings Meeting with owner and A/E Tracking schedule Meeting with field team Field Checking materials compliance with specs Expediting materials Corresponding via e-mail Photocopy machine Fax machine Working on generating meeting minutes Phone conversations Working on the computer Tracking changes Checking & tracking of shop drawings Estimating cost of changesAverage Hours/Day Figure 4-21. Daily tasks br eakdown for a project engineer Coordinating & Meeting, 47.2% Checking Compliance & Field Measurements , 21.1% Tracking Changes & Updating Information, 31.7% Figure 4-22. Project engin eer’s tasks on a typical day

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125 people challenge, technology gap, and the paradigm of relying on the com puter technologies in the daily line of work. CM Field Officer Daily Tasks0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.5Meeting with owner and A/E Safety Meetings Updating shop drawings Corresponding via e-mail Fax machine Photocopy machine Meeting with subcontractors Updating contract docs and drawings Meeting with construction management team Working on the computer Phone conversation Tracking of the schedule Checking materials compliance with specs Expedite materials Estimating cost changes Coordinate delivery of materials Tracking changes Field Average Hours/Day Figure 4-23. Daily tasks brea kdown of a field crew member

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126 Tracking Changes & Updating Information, 32.3% Coordinating & Meeting, 30.3% Checking Submittals, 37.4% Figure 4-24. Field crew me mber’s tasks on a typical day

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127 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS For validation purposes of the VIAM model, a case study was conducted in the settings of a construction project. A prototyp e VIAM model was developed using MS Access as the database engine, and the ESRI GIS software as a plat form to link the database to the graphical representation of the construction compone nts. The purpose of the study was to: Observe first hand the improvement in data access and reporting Measure reduction in time delays and info rmation loss due to miscommunications as communication shared directly between the parties through the common database Detect miscommunication at earl ier levels, implying less changes Reduce cost overrun (eliminates costs cau sed by miscommunication, and changes) Reduce time loss (less effort spent on communication and tracking changes) In addition to solving existing industry probl ems, the VIAM model was observed to study the additional advantages it can offer at the level of the construction company construction phase. The advantages observed were: Flexibility in managing Human Resource dut ies, within the construction company Ability to evaluate the team performances Ability to create reliable Historical data for future reference projects Ability to compare company performance to national averages Compare and rate team performances vs . other teams within the same company Ability to share knowledge and lessons learned among different teams within the same company

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128 The Parameters of the Case Study The project used to test the model is a fast tr ack project. The project consists of a 2-level building with a total area of 180,000 square feet. The building is steel structure, with masonry block and brick on the outside sh ell of the building. The building is designed to sustain a 200 mph hurricane strength wind and still be fully fu nctional. The building can be self sustainable, and is equipped with two large generators w ith an additional one for emergency back up. The building is an office building; the systems in th is building however are super sized and designed to function in extreme conditions. The other main challenge that faced the cons truction team was to deliver this facility operational in an overall duration of seven mont hs from the 100 % complete set of contract documents. The set of 20% contract documents wa s issued ten months prior to the turn key deadline. The construction process was expedited; the challenge to the de sign team was to keep up with the construction activities, and vice ve rsa to the construction and operation teams to accommodate the design change. The process can be best described as a moving target, where both design and construction teams are working side by side to accommodate the owner needs. The Challenges for the Construction Team The construction management (CM) team on this project had a contract with the owner for a guaranteed maximum price, and committed to deliver the facility operational in duration of ten months from the issuance of notice of commencement based on the 20% complete contract documents. The CM team was striving to work with the available design to erect the structure of the building for the systems to go in place. But with the information related to the sizes and weights of the mechanical, electrical and techno logical systems being continuously fed to the designers by the manufacturers, the design engineer was consta ntly revising the design and issuing changes to reinforce the structure in order to accommodate the new equipments. The

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129 challenge to the construction management team was to balance the speed of the construction activities while maintaining flexibility to incorp orate change. Going too fast would mean more cost involved to take it apart and reorder the correct structural elements, and waiting till the design was complete would result in critical time loss, the only thing that could not be replaced. Another example would be to supply the bric k that needs to go on the outside of the building. The architect at some locations in the building initially wanted to have placed store front glass to give the building an aesthetic appeal, but with the problem they faced with getting the storefront material to sustai n a 200 mph wind, the ar chitect had to change the storefront to masonry walls and brick on the outside. Brick manuf acturing goes in batches, and in order to get the brick to color match with the previous bric k, it needs to be from the same mix, hence it is very critical to have the brick count accurate to start with. The op tions available to the CM team were to either order a dditional brick with the risk that it might not be needed, implying more unnecessary costs to the owner, or waiting until the design info rmation was complete and the final count was ready, and then or der the bricks. It was critical to order the brick as early as possible because the lead time on the brick was six weeks from the date the order was placed. The key issue was to communicate the correct information accurately and as fast as possible between the manufacturer, material supplie rs and the design entitie s. With a system in place such as the VIAM model, the information was available to all the parties as soon as it was released by the designer. Instead of the typical process in place, where the submittal takes seven working days to complete the cycle, the VIAM m odel allows to cut the process to three working days. This means that with the existing practic es if a submittal was mailed by the manufacturer on Monday noon, it will not be returned with an an swer till seven working days later, using a 5day work week, the answer will be received by the manufacturer issuing the submittal on the

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130 following week on Tuesday by the end of the work ing day. However, using the VIAM model the answer to the submittal issued by the manufact urer on Monday noon will be received by the end of the day on Wednesday of the same week. The Air Handling Units (AHU) required 10 weeks lead time from the date the order is received by the manufacturer. The im pact of receiving the order on Friday October the 13th 2006, and Monday October the 16th 2006, even though it is only one working day, on the delivery of the AHU on th e job site is a one week delay, as the manufacturer shuts down duri ng the period of December 23rd 2006 till January 1st 2007. Receiving and transmitting submittals from and to the operations crew is not the only challenge facing the CM. building things correctly from the first time means saving time to stop the construction processes loose valuable time to fix the mistakes and proceed again. The VIAM model with the developed tables and databases th at can be easily accessi ble to the construction and operation crews is an assuranc e to all the parties that all ar e building off the most up-to-date set of contract documents. Being able to update the work progress daily and posting it on the server of the project allows the A/E entity to ha ve a clear understanding of the work progress. On November 17th 2006, the Electrical Engineer has issued a revision to the electrical contract documents, as per request of the owner one of the offices have been changed to an IT room, the engineer required more boxes to be routed to that room in order to accommodate the new function of the room. With the actual rate of flow of information requiring a 7 working days cycle to complete, not incl uding the holidays (November 23rd through Sunday November 26th 2006), by the time the information was conveyed to the operations crews it would have been too late to accommodate this change as the concre te on the slab on grade have been poured as coordinated and agreed per the CM team and the Operations crews on site in their daily meetings.

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131 The VIAM model allows the A/E designing entities to be at the same pace with the operations and CM crews on site, as they are updated with the detaile d look-a-head schedule developed and perfected in the daily coordination meetings of the Operation crews on site. The VIAM model generates automatically tabu lar reports updating th e work progress and the quantities of work performed on site. Figure 5-1 shows an MS Access form that reports the work progress on site on a daily basis. The in formation documented updates the quantities in work complete tables, thus allowing the CM team to generate detailed and accurate billing at end of the billing period. Figure 5-2. Daily wo rk progress report

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132 Figure 5-2 shows an illustration of another fo rm that updates the construction elements layer and the corresponding databa se table. At end of every working day, the field CM crew reports the information related to the progre ss of work, inspection, and other requirements dictated by the contract documents. Figure 5-3 is a form that extrac ts information pertinent to the construction of the footings. This form provides information related to the dimensions, locations, reinforcement, and thickness of the construction elements the footings. Some of the information on the forms was left off because it is private and classified company information. Figure 5-3. Footing progress form

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133 Figure 5-4. Information related to the construction of the footings

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134 Application of computer technology in the construction industry challenges. Based on the experience gained in applying the VIAM mode l to the settings of the case study and other construction project, the author was able to obs erve first hand the challenges that face the advances of the computer technology in the construction industry. Th ese challenges can be described in three categories: The nature of people in the construction industry The fact that the computer approaches fail to target the needs of the construction people in order to help improve their productivity, and help them do their job more efficiently The cost of the technology is relatively hi gh and it is still not reliable enough to the construction crews on site The people challenge. The people working in the cons truction industry can be divided into two groups: the Office crew and the Field crew. The office crew. This crew is typically composed of individuals with college degrees related to management, engineering or construc tion. They tend to be familiar with computer technologies and tend to use the computer to conduct their correspondence, through emails, and to generate documents and indivi dual tables to organize the work and the keep track of their duties. They rely on the word processing software mo stly to generate letter s, fax cover letters and reports; they rely on spre adsheets to keep track of cost and pay applications fo r monthly reports and calculations of costs and k eeping track of project budgets. Th e computer is also used to generate emails and keep track of phone calls and co rrespondence. In add ition, in some cases they may use some scheduling software such as P3 Primavera Project Planner, and also on some projects they could be using CAD applications to view and print the drawings generated by the designers or they could be usi ng project management software or specific web sites for managing

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135 the project. Most companies also rely on some soft ware in order to keep track of costs, changes and keep track of correspondence. The field crew. The field crew can be described as “resistant to change” and they subscribe to the statement “if it is not broken, do not fix it”. They are the Dinosaurs of the construction industry. They are not willing to cha nge simply because they have spent most of their career doing business wit hout the computer technology a nd it works for them, so why change? The field crew members are typically people th at started their career in the field working on some of the construction trades and they have spent all their life build ing things, they do not have a college degree, if they happen to have a computer, they would use it to generate some very basic table, using a spread sheet or write a letter to a s ubcontractor for non compliance, but this seldom occurs. They see their duty to spen d most of their time in the field based on their duty, which is to manage the labo r and the construction activities. All they need is a detailed 2-dimensional drawing and a book of specifications, and they will deliver a facility. The preferred way to comm unicate with these crew members is to print the letter and put it in their corre spondence box on their desk, usually on their way in or out of the office they will check their box and take note of the communications and changes. They communicate with the office crew members thr ough coordination staff m eetings, at 7:00 am daily or twice a week based on the pace of the project. They communicate with the subcontractors through daily meetings early in th e morning before the subs start their daily activities. The technology gap. As described above, there are tw o types of construction crews and the source of most construction information is in the field, hence they re ly on the field crew to

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136 report the ongoing work progress. The failure to de ploy the right tool for the field crews to use disconnects the chain of technol ogical communication and the au tomation of the process. The failure of the available computer software to respond to the need s and the types of information the field crew needs to perform their duties, c ontributes to widening the gap between the field crews and the computer technology. For instance CAD software would be of no use to the field crew, as all they need is to visualize in 2-D the building layout, where the components go in reference to other components in the buildi ng. They do not need to design neither draw construction components, a print out of the dr awing generated by the de signer will do the job. Scheduling and planning software, such as the P3 Primavera Project Planner, would be too complicated for the field crew, as it will provid e a lot of information, but would still not be enough to build the construction elements on site , unless it is detailed to the level of the construction element. For instance, the field manager can use P3 to communicate with the concrete subcontractor, and highlig hts the need to finish the forming of the columns for the first floor by the end of the week, but the field mana ger needs to provide more information to the subcontractor pertinent to the activities required to be comple ted. Knowing the starting date, responsibility, cost, and other parameters pr ovides good general information but it does not provide information relevant to the quality control and the types of materials that needs to be used, neither a plan of action specifying to the su bcontractor where to star t in order to maximize the usage of space allowing more crews to work together on site and still not affect the productivity, quality and the work flow of activities of the different subs. The field crew in order to convey all these information will need to have access to more than one computer tool. With the current lack of software interoperability and user-friendly tools, it is easier and more convenient to use a pencil and paper to repr esent the plan of action and to

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137 assign at a meeting where all subc ontractors are present the tasks for the day. The plan of action is then developed based on their ac tive involvement in the process. The reliability and cost of computer technology. The use of computer technology in the construction process is challenging as to the ava ilability of the information, reliability of the hardware to provide access to the information wh enever it is needed, th e availability of the computer network to allow access to the server. An additional challenge would be how to store the information in a way to reduce the redunda ncy and the duplication of the information. The Internet has become more available a nd accessible but still it can shut down the productivity of the construction activ ities in case the Internet is not available to connect the field crew to the server where all the information is av ailable. Server manageme nt is also a challenge as the information volume grows exponentially al ong the construction proj ect progress. Current construction companies are facing the challenge of keeping up with the growth of the information collected and running out of space to keep and manage the information and its availability to the construction teams. The huge volume of information will eventually slow down their network server in terms of access, updating, and management of the information. Benefits of the VIAM model. The VIAM model allowed the CM team office crew to have up-to-date information related to the progress of work activities on a da ily basis. It helped generate quantities and detailed billing information at the end of the period. The daily work progress reports provided a concre te estimating of the productivity on site for the various teams. The VIAM model provided weekly look-a-head activities to the opera tion crews on site, and highlighted to them clear expectations of construc tion activities that needed to be performed with detailed forms specifying the design details. Th e operations crews were then evaluated based on meeting these detailed expectations on a daily basis. The VIAM provided the CM team with

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138 daily productivity rates for the various teams and trades on site, allowing the CM team to use these data for future historical reference. Next Chapter 6 presents the summ ary and conclusions of the study.

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139 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Computer and information technologies offer significant potential to improve management practices in the construction indus try. However, the exchange of information between the phases of a facility and between the different participants on a project is typically paper based, even though all parties involved in cons truction rely on computers to do their tasks. This dissertation presents a visual database model (VIAM) as a so lution to significantly imp rove use of computer and information technologies in communicati on, project documentation, and knowledge sharing among the different participants through the life-cycle of the facility. The m odel is organized in a format that is simple and accessible to the differe nt users, and does not change or complicate the construction processes. The basis of the model uses the construction element as the least common denominator between the different participan ts throughout the life-cycle of th e facility. Multiple pieces of information related to the different constructi on elements are organize d in tables and forms stored in a database. The differe nt participants use computer applications to control, document, and communicate construction information and knowledge among themselves for the life cycle of the construction project. For validation purposes of the VIAM model, a case study was conducted in the settings of a construction project. A prot otype VIAM model was devel oped using MS Access as the database engine, and the ESRI GI S software as a platform to li nk the database to the graphical representation of the construction components. The model was developed around three different axes. The first axis is focused on the access and re trieval of construction information related to a certain construction element. The second axis is designed to report and provide feedback from the field on the work progress, quality assuranc e, and inspection. The third axis targets the

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140 executive management of the construction company in order to evaluate the performance of the construction crews, generate cost data and us eful historical data for future reference. The first axis is in form of tables that fo cus on the construction information related to a certain construction element. This information is relevant to the field people in charge of the construction and the quality control activities. This information is organized and accessible to the builders in a simplified format, straight to the point in order to reduce errors and miscommunications of knowledge orig inated by the design entities. The second axis is designed to report and provide feedback from the field on the work progress, quality assurance, and inspection. This information is organized in tables that are linked to the tables mentioned in the firs t axis through the common denominator, the construction entity. The third axis allows the project management entities to generate cost data based on feedback from the field. These data allow the ge neration of progress reports to keep track of actual versus as-planned schedule. Data generated along this axis is used to analyze productivity trends, predict behavior, detect delays and better understand the effect of changes on the construction processes. Historical data can be generated for refere nce for future bids and project approaches. In conclusion, as shown in the case study, th e VIAM model will allow for more effective project management especially on complicated pr oject. However, its effectiveness will be limited by the commitment from upper management to training the field crew members and improving their computer skills Next Chapter 7 presents the recommendations and vision of the author for the use of computer and information technologies in the cons truction industry, such as the incorporation of

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141 3D models in the VIAM approach, introducing a Space Oriented Scheduling approach, Real time application to predict behavi or, incorporating the use of mobile technology and RFID technologies on the construction pr oject. Finally, the author’s l ong term vision for the future implementation of computer and information technologies in the c onstruction industry is presented.

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142 CHAPTER 7 RECOMMENDATIONS The long term vision for the construction indus try is that will be taking advantage of computer technologies. In addition it will be expected to operate in harmony with the Architecture and Engineering discipline s over the life cycle of the project. Incorporating 3D into VIAM The model suggested in this study can be a first step in a direction to the full automation of the construction industry. The model approaches the construction industry from the perspective of the end user and the know how they have to perform the work on the jobsite, and provide the users with an information sharing tool that uses the same approach as they do by using the 2D CAD drawing and linking it to a database that holds the information relative to the various construction elements. The model can be develope d to incorporate a 3D model to visualize the construction elements. By moving one step forwar d to the 3D view, the coordination time spent on a job site would be eliminated. The results of the survey show that a couple of hours a week is spent on coordination involving designer, subcontr actor and construction ma nagers. This activity can be eliminated, giving room to other activities. 3D model will also visualize the space available of the construction jobs ite; the size of openings can be matched with the size of the systems that needs to go through these opening so lving the problem of tearing down walls in order to get equipment in the building. A Space Oriented Scheduling Approach On the construction jobsite the challenge that is faced by all the various teams, is that of improving productivity. The various teams involved on a construc tion jobsite would like to maximize their productivity and needless to say what is optimal for one team may not be optimal for the whole project. The various teams on the c onstruction site have at some point during the

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143 project conflicting interests. The model can offe r a space analysis scheduling approach that can allocate the teams based on space availability and optimize the schedule to maximize the productivity of the overall project. Real Time Application to Predict Behavior A real time application to predict the flow of construction activities can be incorporated in the model to generate futuristic scenarios. Ba sed on the various assumptions it can reflect the progress of work and the interac tions of workers on site, the power of this approach can reduce the accidents on site as well as allow to be able to spot space conflicts earlier in the scheduling phase of the construction project. Incorporating Mobile Technology Using mobile computers the field construction officer can identify design criteria for the construction elements as well as be able to report progress constructi on activities with the convenience of mobile portal that can be carried on the jobsite. The poten tial advantage of this technology can save time and effort as well as m oney by allowing the CM to monitor quality and schedule, as well as generate automatically cost progress and constructio n progress in real time respectively to the design er and owner entities. Incorporating RFID Technology Ultimately by introducing RFID technology, in a ddition to a mobile por tal in the hands of the field construction officer, the wile walki ng the jobsite with a computer can generate information automatically to update information on work progress, and quality control. Once the material is available on site, simply scanning the shipment will allow accurate count of the material delivered, its location on site as well as time stamping the date received. The office manager can then start the paper work to bill fo r this received material through the integration with financial reporting systems. The senior ma nagement is updated similarly to the Architect

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144 and the other parties involved in the proce ss, by given access to the database. Senior management will be able to observe the work pr ogress, spot trends and behaviors of the onsite construction team and will be able to measure the performance of the onsite construction crews and efficiently manage the human resources by di stributing the work load fairly among the terms members so that not one is overw helmed with work at one time. Long Term Vision The long term vision for the cons truction industry at the level of the construction team is that the construction team is integrated, shar ing and coordinating information among each other as one entity. At the level of the construction company, the co nstruction team needs to be integrated with the senior and higher manageme nt teams. The information shared with the partners and suppliers involved in the construction processes will allow integration of the information sharing and exchanging without th e need for manual translation or re-entry. The construction industry will deliver projec ts on time, within budget, defect free, efficiently, and without compromising the quality product. Using computer based information management the project managers are able to measure efficiently the performance of on site construction, allowing them to analyze and upda te information relate d to the construction processes in order to make correct decision and have effective c ontrol over the project, throughout the life cycle of the projec t, helping save cost and time. The information related to the life cycle of the project is integrated in structured databases. The database includes a graphical model of th e element, making it a visual database, which includes information related to the constructi on elements as components of the construction project. The construction managers have access to measuring and assessing project performance on an ongoing basis.

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145 Information related to the construction perf ormance is safely stored and instantly accessible and retrievable on demand to authorized user in the specified format, with complete assurance of security and integrity of the in formation. Variance from estimated budgets and schedules are recorded and evaluated for future pr ojects and transferred as historical data for future references and are shared at the level of the organization as well as the project level . At the completion of the construction project, th e database will be available to the facility operation and maintenance function for use as a facility control model, supporting routine operations and maintenance activ ities as well as planning and execution of facilities upgrades and other actions downstream in th e lifecycle. The projects historical database can be used in future projects to support the rapid generati on of procurement packages and supporting schedule and financial data when designs are approved, and the automatic dissemination of the design and quality assurance packages to project team members and qualified suppliers and vendors. The projects historical database will also include the total construction execution plan data, complete with specifications, bills of material, time-phased la bor/material/equipment staging, and resource allocations. That can be used to su pport the simulation of ever y task and step in the construction process with an accurate time component, as the gathered knowledge is continuously updated and applied by expert sy stems to support all technical and business functions of the construction processes.

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146 APPENDIX A SUMMARY OF THE SUPERINT ENDENT QUESTIONNAIRE 1. How many projects you are concurrently working on? Number of Projects Number of Respondents 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 72 2. What is the total dollar value of the projects you are currently working on? Dollar Value Range Number of Respondents [$10 Millions ,$25 Millions] 9 [$25 Millions ,$50 Millions] 16 [$50 Millions ,$75 Millions] 42 $75 Millions 8 3. In your Division, do you have a department th at only deals with estimating and bidding on jobs (departmental)? Answer Number of Respondents YES (Departmental) 75 NO (Non-Departmental) 0 4. On a typical day, what time do you arrive at the jobsite? Arrival Time Range Number of Respondents Before 5:30 AM 4 [5:30 AM, 6:30 AM] 37 [6:30 AM, 7:30 AM] 34 After 7:30 AM 0

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147 5. What is the first activity you get i nvolved with on a typical day? Activity List Number of Respondents Check Email 8 Check Correspondence Box 11 Coordination Meeting 39 Walk the Job Site 19 6. Do you have a meeting with the construction management team? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 7. Is this a recurrent meeting? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 8. How often do you have such a meeting? Recurrence of Meeting Number of Respondents Daily 38 Three times / Week 19 Twice a Week 14 Once a Week 4 Other 0 9. Do you have a meeting with the Subcontractor team? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0

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148 10. Is this a recurrent meeting? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 11. How often do you have such a meeting? Recurrence of Meeting Number of Respondents Daily 29 Three times / Week 27 Twice a Week 19 Once a Week 0 Other 0 12. What time does this meeting occur? Meeting Time Range Nu mber of Respondents Before 7:30 AM 18 Before Lunch 57 Lunch Meeting 0 After Lunch Meeting 0 At End of Working Day 0 13. What is the purpose of such a m eeting? (Check all that apply) Objective of meeting Number of Respondents Coordination 75 Reporting Progress 70 Assigning New Tasks 75 Reporting from previous day 75 Other 68

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149 14. Do you have a meeting with the Owner? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 15. Is this a recurrent meeting? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 16. How often do you have such a meeting? Recurrence of Meeting Number of Respondents Daily 0 Three times / Week 0 Twice a Week 0 Once a Week 71 Other 4 17. What time does this meeting occur? Meeting Time Range Nu mber of Respondents Before 7:30 AM 0 Before Lunch 37 Lunch Meeting 0 After Lunch Meeting 38 At End of Working Day 0

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150 18. What is the purpose of such a m eeting? (Check all that apply) Objective of meeting Number of Respondents Coordination 75 Reporting Progress 70 Assigning New Tasks 75 Reporting from previous day 0 Other 68 19. Do you have a meeting with the Safety team? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 20. Is this a recurrent meeting? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 21. How often do you have such a meeting? Recurrence of Meeting Number of Respondents Daily 0 Three times / Week 0 Twice a Week 20 Once a Week 55 Other 0

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151 22. What time does this meeting occur? Meeting Time Range Nu mber of Respondents Before 7:30 AM 0 Before Lunch 57 Lunch Meeting 0 After Lunch Meeting 18 At End of Working Day 0 23. On a typical day, what time do you leave the jobsite? Departure Time Range Number of Respondents Before 4:00 PM 5 [4:00 PM, 5:00 PM] 28 [5:00 PM, 6:00 PM] 34 After 6:00 PM 8 24. On average how many hours a day do you spend on the jobsite? Working Day Length Nu mber of Respondents 8 hours 0 [8 hours, 9 hours] 0 [9 hours, 10 hours] 25 [10 hours, 11 hours] 32 More than 11 hours 18 The Different Tasks and Duties As a Superintendent do you work closely with: (please select all that apply) 25. The Project Manager? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0

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152 26. The Project Engineer? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 0 27. The Subcontractors? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 28. The Material Suppliers? Answer Number of Respondents YES 18 NO 57 29. The A/E entity, (Architect & Engineers)? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 30. The Owner entity? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 31. The Building Inspector? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 3

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153 32. The Vendors? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 3 33. As a Superintendent, are you required to update the drawings on the Contract Documents? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 3 34. Do you update the Contract Documents and drawi ngs (the hard copy) with a set of codes and colors? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 3 35. How frequent do you update the Cont ract Documents and drawings? Frequency Number of Respondents Once a week 36 Twice a week 21 Three times a week 15 Daily 0 On arrival 0 36. Do you agree with the following statement: “U pdating the changes on the CD’s drawings is a tedious time consuming activity”. Answer Number of Respondents YES 5 NO 70

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154 37. What proportion of your day do you spend updating shop drawings? Time a day Number of Respondents Two hours 0 One hour 0 Half an hour 35 Other 37 38. As a Superintendent, are you required to keep track of the changes? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 39. Do you track changes (check all that apply): Methods Number of Respondents Computer Log/ Database 47 Hard copy in Binders 75 Marking the CD’s 75 Meetings 75 Other 75 40. What proportion of your day do you spend tracking changes? Time a day Number of Respondents Three hours 50 Two hours 25 One hour 0 Other 0

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155 41. As a Superintendent, are you required to estimate the cost of changes? Answer Number of Respondents YES 56 NO 19 42. What proportion of your day do you sp end estimating cost changes? Time a week Number of Respondents Three hours 30 Two hours 26 One hour 0 Other 0 43. Do you use any of the tools listed below? Tools Number of Respondents Microsoft Excel 18 Timberline 0 Other commercial Software 0 In house developed Software 0 Paper, Pencil & Drawing 38 44. As a Superintendent, are you required to keep log of the shop drawings? Answer Number of Respondents YES 0 NO 75 45. As a Superintendent, are you require d to document the work progress? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0

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156 46. How do you document the work progress: Methods Number of Respondents Computer Log/ Database 22 Hard copy in Binders 75 Hand written Notes 75 Daily Logs 75 Other 57 47. As a Superintendent, are you required to keep track of the schedule in order to provide the resources necessary for the work progress? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 48. How do you keep track of the schedule: Methods Number of Respondents Hard copy of schedule 75 On a Planning and scheduling Software 22 Communications with the Construction crews 75 Other 0 49. What proportion of your day do you keep track of the schedule? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 10 Two hours 43 One hour 17 Other 5

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157 50. As a Superintendent, are you required to check the compliance of the shop drawings with the CD’s? Answer Number of Respondents YES 0 NO 72 51. As a Superintendent, are you required to coor dinate the delivery of materials to the jobsite? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 0 52. What proportion of your day do you c oordinate materials delivery? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 45 Two hours 27 One hour 0 Other 42 (it could be weeks) 53. As a Superintendent, are you require d to expedite the materials? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 0 54. What proportion of your day do you expedite materials? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 37 Two hours 29 One hour 9 Other 45 (in meetings)

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158 55. As a Superintendent, are you required to ch eck the material for compliance with the specifications? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 0 56. What proportion of your day do you check comp liance of material with specifications? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 34 Two hours 31 One hour 7 Other 0 57. As a Superintendent, are you require d to generate meeting minutes? Answer Number of Respondents YES 72 NO 0 58. What proportion of your day do you work on generating the meeting minutes? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 0 Other 75 59. Do you use word document to generate the report? Answer Number of Respondents YES 15 NO 60

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159 60. Do you keep log of the report on a project database? Answer Number of Respondents YES 0 NO 75 61. Do you need to communicate the report to different parties? Answer Number of Respondents YES 75 NO 0 62. Do you communicate the report by the means of a hard copy to the other parties? Answer Number of Respondents YES 70 NO 0 63. What portion of your day do you spend talking on the phone? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 25 One hour 35 Other 15 64. What portion of your day do you spend at the photocopy machine? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 0 Other 75

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160 65. What portion of your day do you spend at the fax machine? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 0 Other 75 66. What portion of your day do you spend on the computer corresponding via email? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 0 Other 75 67. What portion of your day do you spend working on the computer? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 3 One hour 17 Other 55 68. What portion of your day do you spend outside in the field checking on work progress? Time a Day Number of Respondents More than Three hours 54 Three hours 15 Two hour 3 One hour 0 Other 3

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161 69. On your typical day to work do you wear: Working Attire Numb er of Respondents Hard toe shoes, working boots 75 Khakis or working clothing 70 Nice shirt and pants to sit for meetings 5 Keep eye protection goggles in the office 75 70. How many years you have been in this position? Number of Years Nu mber of Respondents 1 to 5 years 15 5 to 10 years 30 10 to 20 years 20 More than 20 years 10 71. What is your level of education? Level of Education Number of Respondents High School 43 AA degree 12 Bachelors Degree 15 Masters Degree 5 Other 0 72. Do you have a degree in construction? Answer Number of Respondents YES 20 NO 55

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162 APPENDIX B SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT ENGINEER QUESTIONAIRE 1. How many projects you are concurrently working on? Number of Projects Number of Respondents 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 125 2. What is the total dollar value of the projects you are currently working on? Dollar Value Range Number of Respondents [$10 Millions ,$25 Millions] 14 [$25 Millions ,$50 Millions] 40 [$50 Millions ,$75 Millions] 54 $75 Millions 17 3. How long ago did the project you are working on Start? Project Started Numb er of Respondents Less than Six Month 19 Six Month to A Year 53 1 Year to 2 Years 29 More than 2 years 24 4. What is the duration of the project? Project Duration Numb er of Respondents One year 8 One to Two years 32 Two to Three Years 55 More than Three years 30

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163 5. In your firm, do you have a department that only deals with estimating and bidding on jobs (departmental)? Answer Number of Respondents YES (Departmental) 125 NO (Non Departmental) 0 6. On a typical day, what time do you arrive at the jobsite? Arrival Time Range Number of Respondents Before 6:30 AM 10 [6:30 AM, 7:00 AM] 48 [7:00 AM, 7:30 AM] 57 After 7:30 AM 10 7. Do you start your day with a meeting with the construction management team? Answer Number of Respondents YES 53 NO 72 8. Is this a recurrent meeting? Answer Number of Respondents YES 53 NO 0 9. How often do you have a meeting with the construction management team? Recurrence of Meeting Number of Respondents Daily 51 Three times / Week 37 Twice a Week 18 Once a Week 15 Other 4

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164 10. What time does this meeting occur? Meeting Time Range Nu mber of Respondents Before 7:30 AM 41 Before Lunch 47 Lunch Meeting 16 After Lunch Meeting 31 At End of Working Day 0 11. What is the purpose of such a meeting? Objective of meeting Number of Respondents Coordination 125 Reporting Progress 100 Assigning New Tasks 100 Reporting from previous day 75 Other 70 12. Do you have a meeting with the cons truction management team Field? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 13. Is this a recurrent meeting? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0

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165 14. How often do you have a meeting with th e construction management team Field? Recurrence of Meeting Number of Respondents Daily 51 Three times / Week 59 Twice a Week 15 Once a Week 0 Other 0 15. What time does this meeting occur? Meeting Time Range Nu mber of Respondents Before 7:30 AM 79 Before Lunch 46 Lunch Meeting 0 After Lunch Meeting 0 At End of Working Day 0 16. What is the purpose of such a meeting? Objective of meeting Number of Respondents Coordination 125 Reporting Progress 100 Assigning New Tasks 100 Reporting from previous day 75 Other 70 17. Do you have a meeting with the Subcontractor teams? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0

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166 18. Is this a recurrent meeting? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 19. How often do you have a meeting with the Subcontractor teams? Recurrence of Meeting Number of Respondents Daily 0 Three times / Week 46 Twice a Week 50 Once a Week 25 Other 4 20. What time does this meeting occur? Meeting Time Range Nu mber of Respondents Before 7:30 AM 0 Before Lunch 54 Lunch Meeting 0 After Lunch Meeting 71 At End of Working Day 0 21. What is the purpose of such a meeting? Objective of meeting Number of Respondents Coordination 125 Reporting Progress 100 Assigning New Tasks 100 Reporting from previous day 75 Other 70

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167 22. On a typical day, what time do you leave the jobsite? Departure Time Range Number of Respondents Before 5:00 PM 0 [5:00 PM, 5:30 PM] 55 [5:30 PM, 6:00 PM] 60 After 6:00 PM 10 23. On average how many hours a day do you spend on the jobsite? Working Day Length Nu mber of Respondents 8 hours 0 [8 hours, 9 hours] 0 [9 hours, 10 hours] 50 [10 hours, 11 hours] 53 More than 11 hours 22 The Different Tasks and Duties As a PE do you work closely with: (please select all that apply) 24. The Project Manager? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 25. The Superintendent? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0

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168 26. The Subcontractors? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 27. The Material Suppliers? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 28. The A/E entity, (Architect & Engineers)? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 29. The Owner entity, (Architect & Engineers)? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 30. Is there any other category not covered under the previously stated categories? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 31. As a PE, are you required to update the drawings on the Contract Documents? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0

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169 32. Do you update the Contract Documents and drawi ngs (the hard copy) with a set of codes and colors? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 33. Do you update the Contract Documents and drawings Frequency Number of Respondents Once a week 42 Twice a week 37 Three times a week 22 Daily 13 On arrival 11 34. Do you agree with the following statement: “U pdating the changes on the CD’s drawings is a tedious time consuming activity”. Answer Number of Respondents YES 110 NO 15 35. As a PE, are you required to keep track of the changes? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0

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170 36. Do you track changes: Methods Number of Respondents Computer Log/ Database 125 Hard copy in Binders 125 Marking the CD’s 125 Meetings 125 Other 125 37. What proportion of your day do you spend tracking changes? Time a day Number of Respondents Three hours 63 Two hours 39 One hour 23 Other 0 38. As a PE, are you required to estimate the cost of changes? Answer Number of Respondents YES 35 NO 90 39. What proportion of your day do you sp end estimating cost changes? Time a week Number of Respondents Three hours 35 Two hours 0 One hour 0 Other 0

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171 40. Do you use any of the tools listed below? Tools Number of Respondents Microsoft Excel 110 Timberline 0 Other commercial Software 0 In-house developed Software0 Paper, Pencil & Drawing 15 41. As a PE, are you required to keep log of the shop drawings? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 42. How do you track the shop drawings: Methods Number of Respondents Computer Log/ Database 125 Hard copy in Binders 125 Hard Copy Communications 125 Other 120 43. What proportion of your day do you keep track of shop drawings? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 100 Two hours 25 One hour 0 Other 0

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172 44. As a PE, are you required to document the work progress? Answer Number of Respondents YES 0 NO 125 45. As a PE, are you required to keep track of th e schedule in order to provide the resources necessary for the work progress? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 46. How do you keep track of the schedule: Methods Number of Respondents Hard copy of schedule 75 On a Planning and scheduling Software 28 Communications with the Construction crews 22 Other 0 47. What proportion of your day do you keep track of the schedule? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 0 Other 125

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173 48. As a PE, are you required to check the complian ce of the shop drawings with the CD’s? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 49. What proportion of your day do you check compliance of shop drawings? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 58 Two hours 55 One hour 10 Other 2 50. As a PE, are you required to coordinate the delivery of material s to the jobsite? Answer Number of Respondents YES 25 NO 100 51. What proportion of your day do you c oordinate materials delivery? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 0 Other 25 52. As a PE, are you required to expedite the materials? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0

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174 53. What proportion of your day do you expedite materials? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 30 Other 95 54. As a PE, are you required to check the materi al for compliance with the specifications? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 55. What proportion of your day do you check complia nce of material w ith specifications? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 27 Other 98 56. As a PE, are you required to generate meeting minutes? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 57. What proportion of your day do you work on generating the meeting minutes? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 10 Two hours 44 One hour 55 Other 16

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175 58. Do you use word document to generate the report? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 59. Do you keep log of the report on a project database? Answer Number of Respondents YES 0 NO 125 60. Do you need to communicate the report to different parties? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 61. Do you communicate the report by the means of a hard copy to the other parties? Answer Number of Respondents YES 125 NO 0 62. What portion of your day do you spend talking on the phone? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 75 One hour 50 Other 0

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176 63. What portion of your day do you spend at the photocopy machine? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 15 One hour 72 Other 38 64. What portion of your day do you spend at the fax machine? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 35 One hour 35 Other 55 65. What portion of your day do you spend on the computer corresponding via email? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 75 Other 50 66. What portion of your day do you spend working on the computer? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 66 Two hours 36 One hour 23 Other 0

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177 67. What portion of your day do you spend outside in the field checking on work progress? Time a Day Number of Respondents Three hours 0 Two hours 0 One hour 25 Other 100 68. On your typical day to work do you wear: Working Attire Numb er of Respondents Hard toe shoes, working boots 70 Khakis or working clothing 70 Nice shirt and pants to sit for meetings 55 Keep eye protection goggles in the office 125 69. How many years you have been in this position? Number of Years Nu mber of Respondents 1 to 5 years 55 5 to 10 years 40 10 to 20 years 20 More than 20 years 10 70. What is your level of education? Level of Education Number of Respondents High School 0 AA degree 30 Bachelors Degree 75 Masters Degree 15 Other 5

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178 71. Do you have a degree in construction? Answer Number of Respondents YES 110 NO 15

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180 Caldas, C.H. and Soibelman, L. (2006). "A Combined Text Mining Method to Improve Document Management in Construction Projects." Proceedings , Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 2912-2918. Cao, Y., Li, H. and Liang, Y. (2005). “Using engi neering drawing interpretation for automatic detection of version informati on in CADD engineering drawing.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 14(3), 361– 367. Caron, C. and Bdard, Y. (2005). “Lessons Learne d from Case Studies on the Implementation of Geospatial Information Technologies.” URISA Journal, 14(1), 17-36. Changwan, K.T, Haas, C.T. and Liapi, K.A. (2005). “Rapid, on-site spatial information acquisition and its use for infrastr ucture operation and maintenance.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 14(5), 666. Chen, H.M. and Tien, H.C. (2006). "Realtime Online Collaboation For Computer-Aided Design Using a Peer to Peer Network." Proceedings , Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 584-593. Chen, L. and Sherif, M. (2006). "Empirical An alysis of Knowledge Managemet Activities in Construction Organisations." Proceedings , Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civ il and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 1564-1573. Cheng, M.Y. and Chen, J.C. (2002). “Integrati ng barcode and GIS for monitoring construction progress.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 11(1), 23. Cheng, M.Y. and Yang, S.H. (2001). “GIS-Based Cost Estimates Integrating With Material Layout Planning.” Journal of Journal of Constr uction Engineering and Management, 127(4), 291-299. Cheung, S., Suen, H. and Cheung, K. (2004). “PPMS: a Web-based construction Project Performance Monitoring System.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 13(3), 361– 376. Danso-Amoako, M.O., Issa, R.A. and Cox, R. (2006). "Developing A Framework to Support Data Excahnge From Heterogeneous Sources Via IFC and Web Services.” Proceedings , Joint International Confer ence on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 2477-2486. East, E.W. and Kirby, J.G. (2006). "E volving a Building Information Model." Proceedings, Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 2302-2310. Ercoskun, K., Dikbas, A. and Turk Z. (2006). "Linking CRM and CAD with IFC-CRM Gate." Proceedings , Joint International Conference on Co mputing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 3753-3762.

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181 Erdener, E. and Gruenwald, H. (2001). CAD standards and the institutions of higher education Facilities . 19(7/8), 287-295. Erdogan, B., Anumba, C.J., Bouchlaghem, D. an d Nielsen Y. (2006). "O rganizational Change Management for Collaborative Construction Environments." Proceedings , Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering, Montreal, Canada, 3186-3197. Fard, M.G., Staub-French, S., Po B. and To ry, M. (2006). "Requirements for a Mobile Interactive Workspace to Support Design Development and Coordination." Proceedings, Joint International Confer ence on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering, Montreal, Canada, 3587-3596. Fetz, T., Oberguggenberger, M. and Jager, J. (1999). “Fuzzy Models in Geotechnical Engineering and Construction Management.” Journal of Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 14(2), 93. Flemming, U., and Aygen, Z. (2001). “A hybrid re presentation of architectural precedents.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 10(6), 687. Francis, A. and Miresco, E. (2006). "Toward a new Generation of Construction Management Software." Proceedings , Joint International Conferen ce on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering, Montreal, Canada, 3558-3567. Froese, T., Fischer, M. and Grobler, F. (1999). “Industry Fo undation Classes for Project Management-A trial implementation.” Froese, T., Kosovac, B. and Vanier, D. (2000). “Integrating Heterogeneou s Data Representations in Model-Based AEC/FM Systems.” CIT2000 (Construction Information Technology ), Reykjavik, Iceland, June 27-30, 2000, pp. 556-567. Froese, T. and Rankin, J. (2002). “Information Population of an Integrated Construction Management System.” Journal of Computer-Aided Civ il and Infrastructure Engineering, 17 (4), 256-268. Froese, T., Yu, K., Liston, K.and Fischer, M. (2000). “System Architectures for AEC Interoperability.” Fruchter, R. and Swaminathan, S. (2006). "Bridg ing the Analog ad Digital Worlds in Support of Design Knowledge Life Cycle." Proceedings , Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 604-613. Garba, S. and Hassanein, M. (2004). “A Review of Object Oriented CAD Potential For Building Information Modeling And Life Cycle Management.” Proceedings , 1st ASCAAD International conference, e-Design in Architecture KFUPM , Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, 343359.

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182 Hadikusumo, B.H.W. and Rowlinson, S. (2002). “Int egration of virtually re al construction model and design-for-safety-process database.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 11(5), 501– 509. Hartmann, A. and Naaranoja, M. (2006). "Imp roving the Conditions for Knowledge Sharing Within Construction Firms." Proceedings , Joint International C onference on Computing and Decision Making in Civ il and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 3446-3455. Harvey, F. (2001). “Constructing GIS: Actor Networks of Collaboration.” URISA Journal, 13(1), 29-37. Heng, L., Zhen, C.L. Y. and Kong S. C.W. (200 5). “Application of integrated GPS and GIS technology for reducing construction waste and improving construction efficiency.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 14(3), 323– 331. Jaafari, A. and Manivong, K. (2000). “Synthe sis of a Model for Life-Cycle Project Management.” Journal of Computer-Aided Civi l and Infrastructure Engineering, 15 (1), 26. Jaafari, A. and Doloi, H.K. (2002). “A Simula tion Model for Life Cycle Project Management.” Journal of Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructu re Engineering, 17 (3), 162. Jeng, T.S. and Eastman, C.M. (1998). “A databa se architecture for de sign collaboration.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 7(6), 475. Khallafallah, A. and El-Rayes, K. (2006). "D ecision Support Sysem for Optimizing Construction Site Layouts." Proceedings, Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 3001-3009. Khemlani, L., Timerman, A., Benne, B. and Kala yi, Y. (1998). “Intellig ent representation for computer-aided building design.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 8(1), 49. Kim, I., Liebich, T. and Maver, T. (1997). “M anaging design data in an integrated CAAD environment: a product model approach.” Journal of Automation in Construction, 7 (1), 35-53. Kochendorfer, B. and Riediger, N. (2006). "Inf ormation Management as a Basis for CALM Computer Aided lifecycle Managemet in Civil and Building Engineeering." Proceedings, Joint International Confer ence on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 2273-2281. Kondratova, I., Lumsden, J. and Langton, N. (2006). "Multimodal Field Data Entry: Performance and Usability Issues." Proceedings , Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering , Montreal, Canada, 1614-1623. Krhu, V. (2003). “A View-Based Approach for Construction Process Modeling.” Journal of Computer-Aided Civil and In frastructure Engineering, 18 (4), 275-285.

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186 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Hazar Dib was born in Tallabbas Gharbi, Akka r, Lebanon. He completed his Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering, at the University of Balamand in Lebanon in July 2000. He went to graduate school at the Univer sity of Balamand in Lebanon and graduated in July 2002 with a Master of Science in Civil Engineering. In Augus t 2002, he joined the University of Florida to pursue a Ph.D. degree in the College of Desi gn Construction and Pla nning, specializing in construction management a nd information technology.