Citation
Revision and Phylogeny of the Tribe Curiini LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

Material Information

Title:
Revision and Phylogeny of the Tribe Curiini LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)
Creator:
NEARNS, EUGENIO HERNAN
Copyright Date:
2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Abdomen ( jstor )
Female animals ( jstor )
Hair ( jstor )
Holotypes ( jstor )
Insect antennae ( jstor )
Leaf blade ( jstor )
New species ( jstor )
Punctures ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Vertices ( jstor )
Key Largo ( local )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Eugenio Hernan Nearns. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Embargo Date:
8/31/2006
Resource Identifier:
649810169 ( OCLC )

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Full Text












REVISION AND PHYLOGENY OF THE TRIBE CURIINI LECONTE
(COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE: CERAMBYCINAE)















By

EUGENIO HERNAN NEARNS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Eugenio Hernan Nearns

































To my parents, Joseph Eugene Nearns and Bruna Palanza Nearns















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my supervisory committee chair (Dr. Marc A. Branham) for

his mentoring throughout my degree program. This work simply would not have been

produced without Dr. Branham's support and guidance. I also thank my other committee

members, Dr. Steven W. Lingafelter for his guidance, generous support, and for

suggesting this project; and Dr. Michael C. Thomas for his guidance and friendship, and

for being the catalyst that led me to study cerambycids.

For their friendship, advice, and encouragement, I am grateful to Joseph E. Nearns,

Bruna P. Nearns, Bobbie Jo Nearns, Roberto Pandolfi, James E. Wappes, Roy F. Morris,

Charyn J. Micheli, Julio Micheli, Frank T. Hovore, Miguel Monne, JC Marvin, Shane

Bouchard, Jose Luis Aramayo, Julieta Ledezma Arias, Antonio Bonasso, Teresita de

Zayas, Donald W. Hall, Pete Coon, Debbie Hall, and my labmates in the Branham Lab:

Jennifer M. Zaspel, Seth M. Bybee, and Kyle A. Buecke.

I appreciate specimen loans and assistance from Michael C. Thomas and Paul E.

Skelley (Florida State Collection of Arthropods); Robert Davidson and Bob Androw

(Carnegie Museum of Natural History); John A. Chemsak and Cheryl Barr (Essig

Museum of Entomology); Sharon Shute (The Natural History Museum); Lee Herman and

David Grimaldi (American Museum of Natural History); Ed Riley (Texas A&M

University); Victoria Bayless and Andrew R. Cline (Louisiana State Arthropod

Museum); James E. Wappes (San Antonio, TX), Roy F. Morris (Lakeland, FL); Robert

H. Turnbow (Ft. Rucker, AL); Frank T. Hovore (Santa Clarita, CA); Steven W.









Lingafelter and Warren Steiner (National Museum of Natural History); Charyn and Julio

Micheli (Ponce, PR); Douglas Yanega (University of California Entomology Research

Collection); Michael A. Ivie (West Indian Beetle Fauna Project); Angel Solis (Instituto

Nacional de Biodiversidad); Nayla Garcia Rodriguez and Ileana Fernandez Garcia

(Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica); the Zayas family (Havana, Cuba); J. Howard Frank

(University of Florida); Daniel Heffern (Houston, TX); Francesco Vitali (Genova, Italy);

Robert E. Woodruff (Gainesville, FL); Miguel Monne (Museu Nacional, Universidade

Federal do Rio de Janeiro); Kelvin A. Guerrero (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic);

Sergio Devesa (San Vicente, Spain), Julien Touroult (Paris, France); and Alain Audureau

(Saint Gilles Croix de Vie, France).

Finally, I would like to thank my wife and best friend of nearly 20 years, Jodi

Nearns, for the encouragement and support to pursue my passion.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TA BLES .................................................................... ............ .. ix

LIST OF FIGURES ............................... ... ...... ... ................. .x

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ...... ...................... xiv

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................1

L literature R review ..................................................... ................ 1
Life History and Host Plant Associations ......................................... ...............3
F o ssil C u riin i ................................................................................................................ 4
Phylogenetic A analysis .................................................................. ....

2 NEW SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS AND SYNONYMIES ...........................................7

In tro d u ctio n .................................................................................. 7
M materials and M methods ................................................... .................................. 8
Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847 ............................. ..... .... ........................8
Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30 = Plectromerus dentipes
(Olivier, 1790: 268), new synonymy ...................................... ............... 8
Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1 = Plectromerus distinctus
(Cam eron, 1910: 186), new synonymy...........................................................
Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262), new combination .................9
Plectromerus new species 1 Neam s ............. ............................................. 10
Plectromerus new species 2 Neam s ............. ............................................. 13
Plectromerus new species 3 Neam s ............. ............................................. 16
Plectromerus new species 4 Nearns ............................ ....................21
Plectromerus new species 5 Neams ............. ............................................. 24
Plectromerus new species 6 Nearms ............ ............................................. 27
Plectromerus new species 7 Neams ............. ............................................. 30
Plectromerus new species 8 Neam s ............. ............................................. 33









3 REVISION OF CURIINI LECONTE ............................ .................... 48

Curiini L eC onte, 1873: 304 ............................................................... .....................48
K ey to the G enera of Curiini ........................................ .......................... 49
G enus Curius N ew m an, 1840: 17 ........................................................... ......50
Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51 ................................................50
Curius dentatus Newman, 1840: 17........................... ..... ............... 54
Curiuspanamensis Bates, 1885: 268 ................................. ............... 62
Curiuspunctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55).................................. ............... 65
K ey to the Species of Curius............................................... .................. 68
Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43............. .....................................68
Plectromerus acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344)....... ...................................... 69
Plectromerus bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16............................................ 71
Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268) ...............................................73
Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186)....................................... 87
Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262), new combination ..........93
Plectrom erus exis Zayas, 1975: 123 .................................... ............... 96
Plectromerusfasciatus (Gahan, 1895: 109) ............... .................100
Plectromerusfemoratus (Fabricius, 1792: 316)......................................104
Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19 ...........................108
Plectromerus lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25...........................110
Plectromerus navassae Nearns & Steiner, 2006: 63 ...............................113
Plectromerus ornatus Fisher, 1947: 34................................................117
Plectrom eruspinicola Zayas, 1975: 125...................................................118
Plectromeruspumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33 .....................................123
Plectromerus ramosi Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30 ..................................126
Plectromerus serratus (Cameron, 1910: 185)......................................... 130
Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali, 2004: 453 ..............................................133
Plectromerus unidentatus Fisher, 1942: 17.................................... 134
Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, 1985: 81...................................... 136
Key to the Species of Plectromerus ................ ...................... ............... 139

4 PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS ........................................ .......................... 170

Introduction .............. .... ......... ............ .............................170
M materials and M methods ........................................... ....................................... 17 1
T ax on S am pling ............ ............................................................ .. .... .. ... .. 17 1
In g rou p T ax a ...............................................................17 1
Outgroup Taxa........................................... 171
Specim en Preparation ......................................................... ............... 172
C character Sam pling ..................... .. ...... ............................................173
Characters U sed in A nalyses ................................... ............................. ....... 173
Phylogenetic M ethods ............................................................. ............ .190
R esu lts ...................................... ...................................................... 19 1
D discussion ....................................................................... .......... 191









5 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS............................................... ....................196

In tro d u ctio n .......................................................................................................... 1 9 6
M materials and M methods ............................................ ....................................... 198
R e su lts ........................................... ...........................................................1 9 8
Discussion .......................... ...................... 199

LIST O F R EFER EN CE S ............................... ................. ................... .... ...........203

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................ ............................................212













































viii
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

1-1 Classification of Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304. .................. ............. ............ ...5

1-2 Revised classification of Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304 as proposed by Nearns (in
p ro g re ss). ........................................................... ................ 6

2-1 Acronyms of entomological collections studied. .............................................. 38

4-1 Data matrix of 36 taxa and 41 morphological characters................ ............. 193

5-1 Biogeographic distribution of Curiini. ...................................... ............... 202
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

2-1 Four species of Plectrom erus ...................................................... ............... 39

2-2 Plectromerus new species 1 Neams, holotype, male...................... ...............40

2-3 Plectromerus new species 2 Neams, holotype, female.................... ..............41

2-4 Plectromerus new species 3 Neams, holotype, male...................... ...............42

2-5 Plectromerus new species 4 Neams, holotype, male...................... ...............43

2-6 Plectromerus new species 5 Neams, holotype, female.........................................44

2-7 Plectromerus new species 6 Neams, holotype, female.................... ..............45

2-8 Plectromerus new species 7 Nearm s................ .............................. ............. .. 46

2-9 Plectromerus new species 8 Neams, holotype, male....................... ...............47

3-1 F our species of C urius ............................................................................. .... .... 143

3-2 Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray. ........................................ ........................ 144

3-3 Curius dentatus Newman, male. ........................................ ........................ 145

3-4 Curiuspanamensis Bates, m ale. ........................................ ........................ 146

3-5 C uriuspunctatus (Fisher) .................................................................................... 147

3-6 Plectrom erus acunai (Fisher).......................................... ........................... 148

3-7 Plectromerus bidentatus Fisher, male ................................ ................ 149

3-8 Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier), male.. ...................................... ...............150

3-9 Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype, female................. .................... 151

3-10 Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) (= Curiosa dominicana), dorsal habitus,
illustration by Julio M icheli (1983).................................. ......................... 152









3-11 Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) (= Curiosa dominicana). ..........................153

3-12 Plectrom erus exis Zayas, m ale ........................................................... .... .......... 154

3-13 Plectromerusfasciatus (Gahan). ......................................................................155

3-14 Plectromerusfemoratus (Fabricius), holotype, male..........................................156

3-15 Two Plectromerus species in Dominican amber..............................157

3-16 Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, holotype. .......................................158

3-17 Comparison of antennal morphology. ....................................... ............... 159

3-18 Four species of Plectrom erus ...................................................... .................. 160

3-19 Tw o species of Plectrom erus. ...........................................................................161

3-20 Tegmen and parameres, ventral view................. ...............................................162

3-21 Three species of Plectromerus. ........................................ ......................... 163

3-22 Plectrom erus ornatus Fisher ................................. ............... ............... 164

3-23 Plectromeruspinicola Zayas, male............................................... ...............165

3-24 Plectromeruspumilus Cazier & Lacey. ...................................... ............... 166

3-25 Plectromerus serratus (Cameron), holotype, male .............................................167

3-26 Plectromerus unidentatus Fisher, paratype, female....................... ...............168

3-27 Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, paratype, male. ................................................169

4 -1 C h aracter 2 : ey e sh ap e............................................. ......................................... 174

4-2 Characters 1 and 5 (arrows point to setae). ................................. .................175

4-3 Character 6: scape with excavation on dorsal surface (arrow points to
ex cav action ...................................................... ................. 17 5

4-4 Character 7: length of third antennomere compared to fourth (arrow points to
fourth antennom ere). ..................................................................... ...................176

4-5 Character 8: length of fifth antennomere compared to fourth (arrow points to
fourth antennom ere). ..................................................................... ...................176

4-6 Character 9: antennae annulate. ........................................ ......................... 177









4-7 Character 11: antennomeres 6-10 produced externally at apices on outer
m margins. .............................................................................177

4-8 Characters 13 and 14 (arrows point to setae). .............................. ......... ...... .178

4-9 Character 16: pronotum, dorsal surface. ..................................... ............... 178

4-10 Character 18: pronotum ornamented with distinct "inverted Y" marking ...........179

4-11 Character 19: pronotal sides ................................. ............... ............... 179

4-12 Character 20: pronotal constriction. ............................... .. ........................ 180

4-13 Character 21: pronotal disk w ith scar or callus. .....................................................180

4-14 Character 22: males with sexually dimorphic prothoracic punctation.................182

4-15 Character 26: elytral apices. ........................................... ............................ 183

4-16 Character 28: prosternal process between procoxae. ...........................................184

4-17 Character 29: procoxal cavities open behind. .............................. ............... .184

4-18 Character 30: prosternal process between procoxae. ...........................................185

4-19 Character 31: mesosternal process shape (Plectromerus new species 8)............. 185

4-20 Character 32: metafemoral armature............................................. ...............185

4-21 Character 33: if metafemora armed with one sharp tooth, then tooth with
serrations on posterior m argin ................................................................... ....... 186

4-22 Characters 34 and 35....... ........................... .........................................186

4-23 Character 36: basal (non-clavate) portion of metafemora compared to
m etafem oral club ............................................ .............. ..... ......... 187

4-24 Character 37: metafemoral shape............... ............... 187

4-25 Character 38: m etatibial shape. ........................................ ......................... 188

4-26 Character 39: length of metatibia in relation to metafemur. ..................................188

4-27 Character 40: metalegs with first tarsomere at least twice as long as second....... 189

4-28 Character 41: m ale genitalia ........................................................ ............... 190

4-29 Strict consensus (L = 207 steps, CI = 43, RI = 61) of four most parsimonious
trees with characters states mapped. ........................................... ............... 194









4-30 Strict consensus (L = 207 steps, CI = 43, RI = 61) of four most parsimonious
trees. Bremer support values are reported above the branches, bootstrap support
values (> 70%) are reported below the branches. .............................................195

5-1 M ap of the C aribbean. ..................................................................................200

5-2 Area cladogram based on the strict consensus tree of four most parsimonious
trees found in a phylogenetic analysis of Curiini .............................................201















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

REVISION AND PHYLOGENY OF THE TRIBE CURIINI LECONTE
(COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE: CERAMBYCINAE)

By

Eugenio Hernan Nearns

August 2006

Chair: Marc A. Branham
Major Department: Entomology & Nematology

A revision and phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Curiini LeConte, 1873 is

presented. A phylogenetic analysis of Curiini employing 31 ingroup taxa, 5 outgroup

taxa, and 42 morphological characters was conducted. Results suggest that the tribe is

paraphyletic with respect to the outgroup taxa chosen. The genus Curius is monophyletic

and strongly supported by 7 synapomorphies. The genus Plectromerus is paraphyletic

and strongly supported by 6 synapomorphies. Results of this analysis suggest that

Curiosa dominicana Micheli, 1983 is a highly derived Plectromerus, therefore,

Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983), new combination, is proposed. Eight new

species of Plectromerus are described and illustrated: Plectromerus new species 1 from

Nicaragua, Plectromerus new species 2 from Guatemala, Plectromerus new species 3

from Costa Rica and Honduras, Plectromerus new species 4 and Plectromerus new

species 8 from Dominican Republic, Plectromerus new species 5 from Haiti,

Plectromerus new species 6 from Cayman Islands, and Plectromerus new species 7 from









Panama. The following new synonymies are proposed: Plectromerus costatus Cazier &

Lacey, 1952 = Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790), and Plectromerus crenulatus

Cazier, 1952 = Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910). Diagnoses of all known curiine

species are presented with notes on distribution, diversity, and relationships. New

country records are reported for P. dentipes; P. exis Zayas, 1975; P. fasciatus (Gahan,

1895); P. pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952; and P. wappesi Giesbert, 1985. Keys to the

tribe as well as the four species of Curius and 27 species of Plectromerus are presented.

A biogeographic analysis based on the results of a phylogenetic analysis of the tribe

suggests that more basal species of Curius and Plectromerus are of Antillean distribution

while more derived taxa are of Antillean, Central American, and South American

distribution.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

The longhorned beetle tribe Curiini LeConte, 1873 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae:

Cerambycinae) is a medium-sized group of Neotropical cerambycid beetles. As currently

defined, the tribe consists of three genera (Curiosa Micheli, 1983; Curius Newman,

1840; and Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847) containing 29 extant and 2 extinct species.

The genus Pentomacrus White, 1855 was synonymized with Plectromerus in 1985.

Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the tribe (Chapter 4), the synonymy of the monotypic

genus, Curiosa Micheli, 1983, is proposed (Chapter 2). The curiines are of

predominantly Antillean distribution and show a high level of endemism, with 17 of 31

species occurring in Hispaniola and Cuba, and they also occur in the SE USA and range

from SE Mexico to Venezuela (Monne & Hovore, 2005).

The tribe has traditionally been defined by the presence of following morphological

characters: coarsely faceted eyes; a flat, transverse head; and strongly clavate femora

armed beneath with a broad tooth. In catalogs, the tribe has been placed in the subfamily

Cerambycinae between the Ibidionini and Obriini.

Literature Review

The type genus of the tribe is Curius Newman, 1840 which currently contains four

species: the type species for the genus Curius dentatus Newman, 1840 known only from

SE USA; Curiuspanamensis Bates, 1885, known only from Panama; and Curius

chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006, known only from Venezuela. In his classic work

Cerambycidae of North America, Linsley (1963) expressed doubt about the placement of









C. panamensis in the genus Curius based on the original description and figure.

Craighead (1923) described the larva of C. dentatus and noted that it shared many

morphological characters with Euderces (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Tillomorphini).

Fragoso (1978) illustrated the male and female genitalia of C. dentatus in his analysis of

tribal classification within the subfamily.

The genus Plectromerus was first treated by LeConte (1873), LeConte & Horn

(1883), and Leng (1885). Linsley (1963) designated Obrium dentatum LeConte, 1824 as

the type species (= Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790)). There has been some

confusion about the generic attributes of this genus and Pentomacrus (Linsley, 1963;

Micheli, 1983; Micheli & Nearns, 2005), but no previous revisionary work has been

done. Cameron (1910) described two species in Pentomacrus and provided a key for this

genus only. Cazier and Lacey (1952) commented on the taxonomic problem clouding

these two genera and included both in a single key. Later, Giesbert (1985) stated that the

differences were not sufficient to justify two genera and thus synonymized Pentomacrus

with Plectromerus. Though recent works still mention both genera (Pifia et al., 2004;

Vitali, 2004; Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser, 2003), no formal discussion about the

revalidation of Pentomacrus has been made. Several workers provided keys to the

Curiini (Arnett, 1973; Arnett et al., 2002; Cameron, 1910; Cazier and Lacey, 1952;

Micheli, 1983; Vitali, 2004; Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser, 2003).

The monotypic genus Curiosa was created with the description of Curiosa

dominicana Micheli, 1983 from a single female specimen collected in the Dominican

Republic. Micheli (1983) stated that this species fit Linsley's (1963) tribal definition

with a few exceptions, the most significant in his opinion being the lack of coarsely-









faceted eyes (Curiosa has finely-faceted eyes) and the number of antennomeres (Curiosa

has 10-segmented antennae, all other described curiines have 11-segmented antennae).

Only two additional specimens are known to have been collected since Micheli's work,

one female deposited at the National Museum of Natural History (Washington, DC) and

the other (sex undetermined) at the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, MA)

(MCZWeb, 2006).

Life History and Host Plant Associations

Little has been published about the life history and host plant associations for the

majority of curiine species. With the exception ofPlectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa

dominicana), all known curiine species have coarsely faceted eyes and are thought to be

nocturnal. The finely faceted eyes ofPlectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana)

suggest that it may be diurnal.

Various authors have listed host plant associations for P. dentipes, a commonly

collected species found in the SE USA (Linsley & Chemsak, 1997; Monne, 1993; Ree,

2003). In general, curiines are attracted to light and may be collected by beating dead

twigs and branches of various trees including pine (Giesbert, 1985; Ree, 2003; Zayas,

1975). Plectromeruspinicola has emerged from cut pine branches (Zayas, 1975),

Plectromerusfasciatus has been reared from girdled Inga ingoides branches (Chalumeau

& Touroult, 2005b), and Plectromerus ramosi has been reared from Eugenia nr.

ligustrina branches (Micheli & Nearns, 2005). Females of Curius dentatus Newman

were collected with pheromone-baited traps in Illinois (Lacey et al., 2004). Life history

and host plant associations for the curiines are not well understood and merit further

study.









Fossil Curiini

At least 8 fossil curiine specimens are known from Dominican amber, dated from

mid-Miocene, approximately 17-20 MYO (Grimaldi, 1996; Grimaldi & Engel, 2005).

The first fossil curiine to be described was Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali from a single

Dominican amber specimen (Vitali, 2004). Nearns & Branham (2005) described the

second fossil curiine, Plectromerus grimaldii, from Dominican amber and provided

additional notes on the holotype of P. tertiarius. Evans & Bellamy (1996) illustrated a

well-preserved curiine fossil (pl. 41) which unfortunately is unavailable for study

(G. Poinar, pers. comm.). Two additional curiine fossils in excellent condition are

deposited in the private collection of Ettore Morone, Italy (D. Grimaldi, pers. comm.),

another undetermined curiine fossil is deposited in the American Meseum of Natural

History (No. DR-10-1857), and two undetermined fossil curiines are deposited in the

private collection ofF. Vitali (Genova, Italy).

Phylogenetic Analysis

The Curiini have been somewhat arbitrarily assigned to various genera (Linsley,

1963) and no previous revisionary work has been done (Micheli & Nearns, 2005). A

thorough revision and phylogeny, using morphological and fossil data is needed to test

the monophyly of the tribe and discover the evolutionary history among the genera and

species. Historical placement of the Curiini within the subfamily Cerambycinae may

provide insight for the selection of outgroup taxa in a phylogenetic analysis. In addition,

a modern key to the tribe is needed, as all existing keys are incomplete and outdated.









Table 1-1. Classification ofCuriini LeConte, 1873: 304.

Curiosa Micheli, 1983: 261
dominicana Micheli, 1983: 262

Curius Newman, 1840: 17
chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51
dentatus Newman, 1840: 17
concinnatus Haldeman, 1847: 43
panamensis Bates, 1885: 268
punctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55) *

Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43
Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297
Curius; Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840)
acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344)
bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16
costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30
dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268)
dentatum J.E. LeConte, 1824: 172
scambus Newman, 1840: 79
distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186) **
exis Zayas, 1975: 123
fasciatus (Gahan, 1895: 109)
femoratus (Fabricius, 1792: 316)
femoratus White, 1855: 297
grimaldii Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19 (fossil)
lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25
ornatus Fisher, 1947: 34
pinicola Zayas, 1975: 125
pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33
ramosi Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30
serratus (Cameron, 1910: 185)
crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1
tertiarius Vitali, 2004: 453 (fossil)
unidentatus Fisher, 1942: 17
wappesi Giesbert, 1985: 81


Classification based on Monne & Hovore (2005).
* Curiuspunctatus (Fisher) was transferred from Plectromerus by Nearns et al. (2005).
** Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron) was revalidated by Micheli & Nearns (2005).









Table 1-2. Revised classification of Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304 as proposed by Nearns
(in progress).

Curius Newman, 1840:17
chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51
dentatus Newman, 1840: 17
concinnatus Haldeman, 1847: 43
panamensis Bates, 1885: 268
punctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55)
Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43
Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297
Curius Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840)
Curiosa Micheli, 1983: 262
acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344)
bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16
dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268)
dentatum J.E. LeConte, 1824: 172
scambus Newman, 1840: 79
costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30
distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186)
crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1
dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262)
exis Zayas, 1975: 123
fasciatus (Gahan, 1895: 109)
femoratus (Fabricius, 1792: 316)
femoratus White, 1855: 297
grimaldii Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19 (fossil)
lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25
ornatus Fisher, 1947: 34
pinicola Zayas, 1975: 125
pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33
ramosi Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30
serratus (Cameron, 1910: 185)
tertiarius Vitali, 2004: 453 (fossil)
unidentatus Fisher, 1942: 17
wappesi Giesbert, 1985: 81
new species 1 Nearns (in progress)
new species 2 Nearns (in progress)
new species 3 Nearns (in progress)
new species 4 Nearns (in progress)
new species 5 Nearns (in progress)
new species 6 Nearns (in progress)
new species 7 Nearns (in progress)
new species 8 Nearns (in progress)














CHAPTER 2
NEW SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS AND SYNONYMIES

Introduction

During the course of this revision, several taxonomic problems in the genus

Plectromerus were identified: Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron) was revalidated by

Micheli & Nearns (2005), Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier was found to be a junior

synonym of P. distinctus, and Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey was found to be a

junior synonym ofPlectromerus dentipes (Olivier). A phylogenetic analysis of Curiini

(Chapter 4) suggests that Curiosa dominicana Micheli is a highly derived Plectromerus.

Therefore, a new combination, Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) is proposed. In

addition, 12 new species of Plectromerus and one new species of Curius were noticed

among specimens borrowed from various entomological collections. Of these, five have

already been described: Plectromerus lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, Plectromerus

ramosi Micheli & Nearns, Plectromerus grimaldii Neams & Branham, Plectromerus

navassae Neams & Steiner, and Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray.

The remaining eight new species of Plectromerus are described in this chapter. A

phylogenetic species concept is applied in this study. Species are defined as the smallest

aggregation of populations (sexual) or lineages (asexual) diagnosable by a unique

combination of character states in comparable individuals (semaphoronts) (Nixon &

Wheeler, 1990). Article 9 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (2000)

states that a thesis does not constitute a publication; therefore a manuscript is in

preparation to publish these taxonomic changes and species descriptions.









Materials and Methods

Approximately 800 specimens from various entomological collections were studied

(Table 2-1). Observations of the specimens were made using a Nikon SMZ800

stereomicroscope with 20x eyepieces equipped with a drawing tube. Habitus

photographs were produced with the Microptics Digital Lab XLT photography system, an

Auto-Montage Pro system, and a Nikon Coolpix 995 with an Optem microscope

adapter. Specimens were imaged with a JEOL JSM-5510LV Scanning Electron

Microscope operated at 1.5kV.

Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847

= Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297
= Curius Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840)

Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30 = Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier,
1790: 268), new synonymy

Cazier & Lacey (1952) described Plectromerus costatus and stated that it was most

closely related to Plectromerus dentipes but could be separated from it ". .. by the much

larger and more densely placed punctures on the pronotal disk and by the non-serrate, or

but slightly serrate, posterior margin of the femoral spine" (Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 32).

Unfortunately, the depository of the holotype of P. dentipes is unknown (Monne, 2005)

and therefore, unavailable for study. However, after careful examination of the holotype

of P. costatus (Figure 2-la) and approximately 400 specimens of P. dentipes from USA,

Bahamas, and Cuba, the characters mentioned by Cazier & Lacey (1952) were found to

be variable in P. dentipes. In P. dentipes, metafemoral tooth serration ranges from very

slightly serrate to moderately serrate. The size and density of pronotal punctation in P.

dentipes is also variable, suggesting one species instead of two (Figure 2-1b).









Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1 = Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910:
186), new synonymy

Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser (2003) synonymized Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier and

Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron) with Plectromerus serratus (Cameron) without

comparing type specimens. Micheli & Nearns (2005) restored P. distinctus from

synonymy. The type specimens of P. crenulatus (Figure 2-1c) and P. serratus (Figure 3-

25a) were examined carefully and differences between them suggest two species instead

of one. The two species are similar but can be distinguished by the following characters:

P. crenulatus has long, suberect hairs on the elytra and granulose punctures on the

pronotum, whereas P. serratus lacks the hairs and granules and has microsculpturing on

the pronotum.

In addition, the type specimens of P. crenulatus (Figure 2-1c) and P. distinctus

(Figure 2-1d) were carefully examined and P. crenulatus was found to be a junior

synonym ofP. distinctus. Both type specimens are female, collected in Haiti, and have

long, suberect setae on the elytra, granulose punctures on the pronotum, similar

metafemoral serrations, and metatibial curvature.

Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262), new combination

= Curiosa dominicana Micheli, 1983: 262

Micheli (1983) described Curiosa dominicana from a single female specimen,

noting that it presented unusual characters for a curiine. Indeed, C. dominicana possesses

several autapomorphies which are unique within the tribe, such as antennae with 10

segments (11 segments in Curius and Plectromerus), scape distinctly longest

antennomere (third or fifth distinctly longer than scape in Curius, fifth distinctly longer

than scape in Plectromerus), finely faceted eyes (coarsely faceted in Curius and









Plectromerus), and each elytron ornamented with a small, yellowish marking (absent in

Curius and Plectromerus) (Figure 3-10, 3-1 la-d). However, a phylogenetic analysis of

Curiini (Chapter 4) suggests that C. dominicana is a highly derived Plectromerus (Figure

4-29). Based on this analysis, a new combination, Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli)

is proposed.

Plectromerus new species 1 Nearns

Description: Male (Figure 2-2a-c). Length 9.9 mm, width 2.2 mm (measured

across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-2a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical.

Integument testaceous, with head, basal antennomeres, portions of pronotum, venter, and

femoral apices ferrugineus; each elytron testaceous with three major macular regions as

follows: (1) basal third with a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, irregular macula beginning

below humerus and reaching sutural midpoint; (2) a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow,

irregular macula from sutural midpoint to about apical third, not reaching margin; and (3)

apical third testaceous, with broader, ferrugineus, oblique, irregular macula from just

below apical third to about below suture midpoint. Head with front nearly flat,

transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly

concave between antennal tubercles, which are slightly raised and separated by about the

width of two antennal sockets; vertex microsculptured, with dense, shallow punctures;

vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse,

subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longer than

body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as long as scape, about twice as long as

fourth, fifth antennomere longest, almost 4 times longer than fourth, about 1.5 times

longer than third, antennomeres 6-10 becoming progressively shorter, eleventh slightly

longer than tenth, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth moderately flattened,









apices of antennomeres 5-10 produced externally. Scape with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence; antennomeres 2-8 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect,

pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle,

slightly broader at apex than base, sides broadly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal

third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin moderately arcuate; disk

convex, slightly flattened, with one moderately raised, median callus at about the center,

with two moderately raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to center, and two

moderately raised, submedial calli slightly posterior to center; lateral margins of

pronotum with patch of coarse, deep punctures, and two long, suberect setae

anterolaterally. Basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned

submedially, arising from deep punctures. Surface microsculptured, with dense, shallow

punctures. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about

3 times as long as width at humeri, about 3.3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3

times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel,

slightly sinuate around middle, somewhat evenly rounded to apex; elytral apices

individually, broadly rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuate. Elytral disk

moderately concave medially, subsuturally, creating a distinct costa on each elytron; base

of each elytron moderately raised. Elytral surface strongly shining; punctation

moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming more shallow

toward apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine,

pale hair. Underside with portions of prosternum strongly shining, one irregular patch of

coarse, deep punctures front of and spanning the width of the procoxae; narrowest area of

prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and









about 0.3 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded covers

(Figure 2-2b), prosternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal

cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface shining, sparsely and shallowly punctate.

Metasternum surface shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with scattered deeper

punctures and sparse suberect, pale hairs interspersed. Metepisterum sparsely clothed

with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen shining;

finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures

each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly shorter than

preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion of metafemora

slightly shorter than metafemoral club; meso- and metafemora slightly arcuate, shining,

clothed with moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; clavate portion

darker; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth

with posterior edge strongly, deeply serrate, with about 14 serration "peaks" of uneven

height and distribution, each peak with a short, curved, pale hair; metatibiae very slightly

sinuate, nearly straight, slightly flattened, about 0.8 times as long as metafemora,

gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale

pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-2c).

Type: Holotype, male (Figure 2-2a), NICARAGUA, El. 1400m, Cerro

Chimborazo, 13002'N, 85056'W, 20 Nov. 71, Stockwell, beating dead branches (EMEC).

Geographic distribution: Known only from Jinotega department, Nicaragua

(Central America).









Discussion: This species is described from a single male specimen, collected

beating dead branches at 1,400 m elevation. The holotype described herein represents the

only known specimen and nothing is known about its biology.

From congeners, Plectromerus new species 1 can be distinguished by the

combination of the following characters: intricate elytral pattern; pronotal disk with

moderately raised calli; fifth antennomere almost 4 times longer than fourth and about 1.5

times longer than third; and strongly, deeply serrate metafemoral teeth. Plectromerus

exis (Figure 3-12a-c), Plectromerus new species 4 (Figure 2-5a-c), and P. lingafelteri

(Figure 3-19a-c) also have rather intricate elytral patterns, however, P. exis can easily be

distinguished by the distinct tubercle in the center of the pronotum (Figure 3-12b) and

very weakly serrate (almost smooth) metafemoral teeth in both Plectromerus new species

4 and P. lingafelteri.

Plectromerus new species 2 Nearns

Description: Female (Figure 2-3a-c). Length 7.2-8.0 mm, width 1.7-2.0 mm

(measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-3a. General form small, narrow,

subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of pronotum, scutellum and femoral

apices ferrugineus; each elytron testaceous with three major macular regions as follows:

(1) basal third with a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, macula beginning below humerus and

reaching sutural midpoint; (2) a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, macula from sutural

midpoint to just above apical third; and (3) apical third testaceous, with ferrugineus,

arcuate-transverse, macula. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median,

shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, nearly flat between antennal

tubercles, which are very slightly raised and separated by about the width of two antennal

sockets; vertex microsculptured, with moderately dense, shallow punctures; vertex with









short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform,

shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, about as long as body; scape bowed,

third antennomere about as long as scape, about 1.5 times longer than fourth, fifth

antennomere longest, slightly more than twice as long as fourth, about 1.3 times longer

than third, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of

antennomeres 6-10 produced externally, eleventh antennomere slightly longer than tenth.

Scape with short, pale, recumbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-6 ciliate beneath with

coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times

as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base, sides broadly

inflated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal

margin slightly arcuate; basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae

positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures; lateral margins of pronotum

without patch of coarse, deep punctures, but with one long, suberect seta anterolaterally.

Surface opaque, microsculptured, very sparsely and shallowly punctate, with a slightly

raised median callus; surface with moderately dense short, recumbent, pale pubescence.

Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as

long as width at humeri, about 2.6 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times

broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides moderately sinuate

around middle (Figure 2-3c), evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices individually, broadly

rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuate. Elytral disk moderately concave medially,

subsuturally, creating a distinct costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised.

Elytral surface strongly shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal

third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third;









each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside with prosternum moderately

shining, area in front of procoxae without patch of coarse punctures; narrowest area of

prosternal process between procoxae about 0.3 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and

about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded covers;

prosternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind.

Meso- and metasternum and surface moderately shining, sparsely and finely punctate,

with dense, short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with

short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen moderately

shining, finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and

punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly rounded, slightly longer

than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion of

metafemoral slightly longer than metafemoral club, meso- and metafemora moderately

arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale

pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral

teeth with posterior edge moderately serrate, with about 20-24 serration "peaks", each

serration peak with a short, pale, curved hair; metatibiae strongly sinuate, slightly

flattened, about half as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with

moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser

distally (Figure 2-3b).

Types: Holotype, female (Figure 2-3a), GUATEMALA, Izabal Dpto., Cerro Negro

Norte, 15021'N, 88041'W, 1180m, 18-19. vii. 2001 DCH, DY, Univ. Calif. Riverside,

Ent. Res. Museum, UCRC ENT 68968 (UCRC). Paratype, 1 female, GUATEMALA,

Izabal, 25km SE Morales, 900m, May 31-June 2, 1997, E. Giesbert, J. Monzon (FSCA).









Geographic distribution: Known only from Izabal department, Guatemala

(Central America).

Discussion: This species is described from two females and the male is unknown.

The type series described herein represents the only known specimens and nothing is

known about its biology.

From congeners, Plectromerus new species 2 can be distinguished by the

combination of the following characters: pronotal surface with moderately dense, short

pubescence; each elytron with two distinct oblique maculae and one arcuate-transverse

macula; and metafemora strongly pedunculate-clavate with moderately serrate teeth.

Plectromerus new species 2 is most similar to Plectromerus new species 3 (Figure 2-4a-

c) but can be distinguished by the moderately serrate teeth with about 20-24 serration

"peaks" (strongly, deeply serrate with about 10-14 serration "peaks" in Plectromerus new

species 3) and the three distinct maculae per elytron (two distinct maculae per elytron in

Plectromerus new species 3).

Plectromerus new species 3 Nearns

Description: Male (Figure 2-4a-c). Length 5.8-6.8 mm, width 1.4-1.7 mm

(measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-4a. General form small, narrow,

subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of head, pronotum ferrugineus; each

elytron testaceous with two major macular regions as follows: (1) basal third with a

ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, macula beginning below humerus and reaching sutural

midpoint; (2) apical third with a ferrugineus, arcuate-transverse, narrow, macula. Head

with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just

beyond vertex, shallowly concave and nearly flat between antennal tubercles, which are

slightly raised and separated by about the width of two antennal sockets, vertex









microsculptured, with scattered, shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emarginate.

Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere

about as long as scape, about twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere longest, about 3

times longer than fourth, about 1.5 times longer than third, basal antennomeres

subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced

externally. Scape with short, pale, recumbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-7 ciliate

beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical,

about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base,

sides broadly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just

before apex; basal margin moderately arcuate; lateral margins of pronotum with patch of

coarse, deep punctures, and one or two long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Surface

opaque, microsculptured, very sparsely and shallowly punctate, with a slightly raised

median callus; basal third of disk with one or two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned

submedially, arising from deep punctures. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as

broad, impunctate. Elytra about 3 times as long as width at humeri, nearly 3 times as

long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at

middle); sides moderately sinuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices

individually, broadly rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuate. Elytral disk

moderately concave medially, subsuturally, creating a distinct costa on each elytron; base

of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface strongly shining; punctation moderately

dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides,

almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside









with prosternum moderately shining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in

front of each procoxa (Figure 2-4b); narrowest area of prostemal process between

procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.3 times the width of

apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between

procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesostemum surface

moderately shining, sparsely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface moderately

shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with sparse deeper punctures and suberect, pale

hairs interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongly shining; finely, shallowly

punctate; with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale

hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding stemite. Legs with

femora pedunculate-clavate, metafemoral club about as long as basal portion, meso- and

metafemora moderately arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely,

recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad

triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge very strongly, distinctly serrate,

with about 10-14 serration "peaks", each serration peak with a short, pale, curved hair;

metatibiae strongly arcuate, slightly flattened, about 0.7 times as long as metafemora,

gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale

pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-4c).

Female. Length 6.2-6.8 mm, width 1.5-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very

similar to male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lacking

irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa. Abdomen with terminal sternite

evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite.









Types: Holotype, male (Figure 2-4a), HONDURAS: Francisco Morazan, El

Rincon, 1 Dec. 1995, R. Turnbow (FSCA). Allotype, female, COSTA RICA, Est. Cacao,

1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., Tp Malaise, 1990, L-N

323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 070459 (INBio). Paratypes, 15 (all from COSTA

RICA): 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan.,

MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258383(INBio);

1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan.,

MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258362 (INBio);

1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan.,

MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258102 (INBio);

1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan.,

MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258096 (INBio);

1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan.,

MalaiseTp, GNP Biodiv. Surv. Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO

CRI000 247525 (USNM); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan

Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO

CRI000 258213 (INBio); 1 female, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan

Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO

CRI000 258079 (INBio); 1 male, Est. Maritza, 600m, lado O Vol. Orosi, Prov.

Guanacaste, Tp Malaise, Ene a abr 1992, L-N 326900, 373000, INBIO CRI000 377644

(FSCA); 1 male, Est. Maritza, 600m, lado O Vol. Orosi, Prov. Guanacaste, Tp Malaise,

Ene a abr 1992, L-N 326900, 373000, INBIO CRI000 377788 (ENPC); 1 female, Estac.

Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanacaste, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, Malaise









Tp. GNP Biod. Survey, INBIO CRI000 168806 (ENPC); 1 female, Estac. Cacao, 1000-

1400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanacaste, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, Malaise Tp. GNP

Biod. Survey, INBIO CRI000 168868 (INBio); 1 female, Estac. Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW

side Volcan Cacao, Guanac. Pr., Malaise Tp. 1988-1989, GNP Biodiv. Survey, 323300,

375700, INBIO CRI000 103614 (INBio); 1 female, Estac. Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW side

Volcan Cacao, Guanac. Pr., Malaise Tp. 1988-1989, GNP Biodiv. Survey, 323300,

375700, INBIO CRI000 073785 (USNM); 1 female, Est. Maritza, 600m, lado O Vol.

Orosi, Prov. Guanacaste, P. Campos, Feb 1992, L-N 326900, 373000, INBIO CRI000

888519 (FSCA); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanacaste,

Jul 1989 Mar 1990, Malaise Tp. GNP Biod. Survey, NBIO CRI000168807 (INBio).

Geographic distribution: Known only from Francisco Morazan department,

Honduras; and Guanacaste province, Costa Rica (Central America).

Discussion: This species is described from 17 specimens and the type series

described herein represents the only known specimens. All specimens except the

holotype were collected in Malaise traps, most at 600-1,400 m elevation.

From congeners, Plectromerus new species 3 can be distinguished by the

combination of the following characters: pronotal surface opaque, microsculptured; each

elytron with one distinct oblique macula and one arcuate-transverse band; and

metafemora strongly pedunculate-clavate with strongly, deeply serrate teeth.

Plectromerus new species 3 is most similar to Plectromerus new species 2 (Figure 2-3a-

c) but can be distinguished by the strongly, deeply serrate teeth with about 10-14

serration "peaks" (moderately serrate with about 20-24 serration "peaks" in Plectromerus









new species 2) and the two distinct maculae per elytron (three distinct maculae per

elytron in Plectromerus new species 2).

Plectromerus new species 4 Nearns

Description: Male (Figure 2-5a-c). Length 5.6-7.0 mm, width 1.3-1.5 mm

(measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-5a. General form small, narrow,

subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of head, pronotum, and antennae

ferrugineus; each elytron testaceous with three major macular regions as follows: (1)

basal third with a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, irregular, vaguely defined, macula

beginning below humerus and reaching sutural midpoint; (2) a ferrugineus, oblique,

thicker, irregular, vaguely defined, macula from sutural midpoint to about apical third,

not reaching margin; and (3) apical third testaceous, with narrow, ferrugineus, oblique,

irregular, vaguely defined, macula from just below apical third to about below suture

midpoint. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from

between eyes to just beyond vertex, somewhat concave between antennal tubercles,

which are moderately raised and separated by the width of about 2.3 antennal sockets,

vertex microsculptured, with dense, coarse. shallow punctures; vertex with short,

recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly

emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third

antennomere slightly longer than scape, nearly twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere

longest, almost 3 times longer than fourth, antennomeres 6-10 becoming progressively

shorter, eleventh antennomere slightly longer than tenth, basal antennomeres

subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 5-10 produced

externally. Scape with short, pale, recumbent pubescence; with shallow excavation

dorsally; antennomeres 2-6 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale









hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide, widest at middle, apex

about as wide as base, sides broadly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a

slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex, somewhat

flattened, with one moderately raised, median callus immediately posterior to center, and

two moderately raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to center, and two smaller slightly

raised, submedial calli slightly posterior to center (Figure 2-5b); basal third of disk with

two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures;

lateral margins of pronotum with patch of coarse, deep punctures, and two long, suberect

setae anterolaterally. Surface opaque, microsculptured, feebly shining, with portions of

calli granulose. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra

about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.5 times as long as pronotal length,

about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly

parallel, slightly sinuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex; each elytron

individually, evenly rounded; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk slightly

concave medially, subsuturally, creating a moderately raised costa on each elytron; base

of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface moderately shining; punctation moderately

dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides,

almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside

with prosternum moderately shining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in

front of procoxae; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times

as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is

subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae gradually

declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface moderately shining,









sparsely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface moderately shining, sparsely and

finely punctate, with sparse deeper punctures and suberect, pale hairs interspersed.

Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser

posteriorly. Abdomen strongly shining; finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with sparse

long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite

broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora gradually

clavate, metafemoral club about as long as basal portion, meso- and metafemora slightly

arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale

pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral

teeth with posterior edge nearly smooth, very weakly serrate, with indistinctly and

irregular serration "peaks"; metatibiae moderately sinuate, slightly flattened, about 0.7

times as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense,

fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-5c).

Female. Length 9.2 mm; width 2.1 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to

male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular

patch of punctures in front of each procoxa. Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly,

broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite.

Types: Holotype, male (Figure 2-5a), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, La Cumbre de

Puerto Plata, 2000', May 8-9, 1985, E. Giesbert, Coll. (FSCA). Allotype, female,

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, La Cumbre, Puerto Plata, Prov., Puerto Plata, R.D., 26-XII-

1978, Cols. Dominguez-Silfa, M.N.H.N. (MNDR). Paratypes, 2 (all from DOMINICAN

REPUBLIC): 1 male, same data as holotype (FSCA); 1 male, P. Plata Prov. 2000', La

Cumbre Rsh. Sta., V-8, 9-1985, J. E. Wappes (JEWC).









Geographic distribution: Known only from Puerto Plata province, Dominican

Republic (Greater Antilles).

Discussion: This species is described from four specimens. The type series

described herein represents the only known specimens and nothing is known about its

biology.

From congeners, Plectromerus new species 4 can be distinguished by the

combination of the following characters: scape with shallow excavation dorsally;

pronotal disk with moderately raised calli; and metafemoral teeth very weakly serrate

(almost smooth). Plectromerus new species 4 is most similar to P. lingafelteri (Figure 3-

19a-c) but can be distinguished by the moderately raised pronotal disk calli (more weakly

raised in P. lingafelteri), testaceous integument (darker in P. lingafelteri), and vertex of

head with moderately dense, coarse, shallow punctation (vertex of head with sparse,

smaller, more shallow punctation in P. lingafelteri).

Plectromerus new species 5 Nearns

Description: Female (Figure 2-6a-c). Length 8.5 mm, width 2.1 mm (measured

across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-6a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical.

Integument testaceous, with portions of head, pronotum, and femoral apices ferrugineus;

pronotum with dark reddish-brown to black maculae; each elytron testaceous with two

large, irregular, ferrugineus macular regions, one at basal third, the other at apical third,

elytral apices testaceous. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow

line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, moderately concave between antennal

tubercles, which are somewhat raised and separated by the width of about 2.5 antennal

sockets, vertex microsculptured, with moderately dense, shallow punctures; vertex with

short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform,









shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape

bowed, third antennomere about as long as scape, only slightly longer than fourth, fifth

antennomere longest, almost twice as long as fourth, about 1.3 times longer than third,

antennomeres 6-10 becoming progressively shorter, eleventh slightly longer than tenth,

basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres

6-10 produced externally. Scape microsculptured with dense, shallow punctation;

antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs.

Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at base, broader at base

than apex, sides nearly parallel, slightly constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation

just before apex; disk convex, with one strongly raised, median callus at about the center,

with two strongly raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to center, and two moderately

raised, submedial calli slightly posterior to center. Basal third of disk with one long,

pale, suberect seta positioned submedially on each side, arising from a deep puncture

setaee broken off); lateral margins of pronotum without patch of coarse, deep punctures;

lateral margins with one slightly raised callus just anterior to middle; pronotum with two

or three long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Surface strongly shining, microsculptured,

with sparse, shallow punctation. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad,

impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 3.5 times as long as

pronotal length, about 1.7 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at base);

sides nearly parallel, slightly sinuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex; elytral

apices individually, evenly rounded; epipleural margin slightly sinuate. Elytral disk

slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each elytron; base of

each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse,









and deep at basal two-thirds; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides; each

puncture with a short, fine, pale hair; elytra with scattered, long, suberect, pale hairs.

Underside with prosternum strongly shining, with very sparsely and finely punctate,

short, pale pubescence; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.3

times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which

is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae gradually

declivous; procoxal cavities open behind (Figure 2-6b). Meso- and metasternum surface

strongly shining, very sparsely and finely punctate. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with

short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongly

shining, finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with few long, suberect, pale hairs and

punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly rounded, slightly longer

than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion distinctly

longer than metafemoral club, meso- and metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed

with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of

each femoral club with a broad, acute, triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior

edge nearly smooth, metatibiae slightly sinuate, slightly flattened, about 0.7 as long as

metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine,

recumbent, pale pubescence distally (Figure 2-6c).

Type: Holotype, female (Figure 2-6a), HAITI, Morne Guimy, 22km., SE. Fond

Verrettes, 19 JUL 1956, 6500' B.&B. Valentine, Foret des Pins, Hardwood cloud forest,

beating (WIBF, to be deposited at USNM).

Geographic distribution: Known only from Morne Guimy, Haiti (Greater

Antilles).









Discussion: This species is described from a single female specimen collected

beating at approximately 1,980 m elevation. The holotype described herein represents

the only known specimen and nothing is known about its biology.

This species is a very distinctive from known congeners and can easily be

distinguished by the combination of the following characters: third antennomere only

slightly longer than fourth; pronotal disk with dark reddish-brown to black maculae and

with strongly raised calli; and metafemoral club small, with tooth very weakly serrate

(Figure 2-6a-c).

Plectromerus new species 6 Nearns

Description: Female (Figure 2-7a-c). Length 6.7 mm, width 1.5 mm (measured

across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-7a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical.

Integument testaceous, with portions of antennae, and pronotum ferrugineus; head dark

reddish-brown; each elytron testaceous with two vaguely defined macular regions as

follows: (1) basal third with one narrow, transverse, ferrugineus, macula not reaching

epipleural margins, and (2) apical third with one thicker, subcircular, ferrugineus, macula

not reaching epipleural margins. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median,

shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, nearly flat and very slightly

concave between antennal tubercles, which are separated by about the width of two

antennal sockets, vertex microsculptured, with dense, shallow punctures; vertex with

short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform,

shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, about as long as body; scape bowed,

third antennomere about as long as scape, a little longer than fourth, fifth antennomere

longest, about twice as long as fourth, about 1.5 times as long as third, basal

antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 5-8









slightly produced externally (antennomeres 9-11 missing on left antenna, and 5-11

missing on right). Scape with short, pale, recumbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-7

ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum

subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, about as wide at base as

apex, sides slightly inflated, slightly constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just

before apex; basal margin very slightly arcuate; disk convex, somewhat flattened, with

two very slightly raised, submedial inflations slightly anterior to center, and two smaller

very slightly raised, submedial inflations slightly posterior to center; lateral margins of

pronotum without patch of coarse, deep punctures, with one long, recumbent seta

anterolaterally. Surface opaque, microsculptured, slightly shining, with dense, shallow

punctation, basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned

submedially, arising from deep punctures. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as

broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.8 times as

long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at

middle); sides nearly parallel, very slightly sinuate, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices

individually rounded, nearly subtruncate; epipleural margin slightly sinuate (Figure 2-7c).

Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each

elytron; base of each slightly raised. Elytral surface moderately shining; punctation

moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex

and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; punctures each with a short, fine, pale,

recumbent hair, with scattered long, suberect setae (each about as long as scape) (Figure

2-7c). Underside with prosternum moderately shining, with scattered, coarse, shallow

punctation; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as









wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is

subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae gradually

declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface moderately shining,

sparsely punctate with coarse, shallow punctures. Metasternum surface moderately

shining, with moderately dense, deep punctures, with a few suberect, pale hairs

interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence,

which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen moderately shining; finely, shallowly punctate,

with scattered coarse punctures; abdomen with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and

punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly rounded, slightly longer

than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, metafemoral club slightly

longer than basal portion, meso- and metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with

sparse, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad,

acute triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge weakly, very shallowly

serrate, with about 16 irregular serration "peaks"; each peak with a short, curved, pale

hair; metatibiae nearly straight, very slightly sinuate, slightly flattened, about 0.7 times

long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine,

recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-7b).

Type: Holotype, female (Figure 2-7a), CAYMAN ISLANDS, Grand Cayman,

West Bay (Town Hall Cresent), 21-VII-1-VIII-1986, Diderot Gicca, blacklight trap

(FSCA).

Geographic distribution: Known only from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands

(Greater Antilles).









Discussion: This species is described from a single female specimen collected in a

blacklight trap. The holotype described herein represents the only known specimen and

nothing is known about its biology.

From congeners, Plectromerus new species 6 can be distinguished by the

combination of the following characters: elytra with scattered long, suberect setae;

pronotal disk microsculptured with dense, shallow punctation; and metafemoral teeth

weakly, irregularly serrate. This species is very similar to P. wappesi and P. unidentatus

in several characters including antennal segment proportions, pronotal disk punctation,

shape of elytral apices, and metafemoral and metatibial shape. However, Plectromerus

new species 6 can be easily be distinguished from P. unidentatus by the scattered long,

suberect setae on the elytra elytraa without long, suberect setae P. unidentatus), and from

P. wappesi by the very weakly, irregularly serrate metafemoral teeth (moderately, evenly

serrate in P. wappesi), and lack of scattered long, suberect setae on scape, pronotal disk,

and metafemora (scape, pronotal disk, and metafemora with long, suberect setae in P.

wappesi).

Plectromerus new species 7 Nearns

Description: Female (Figure 2-8a-d). Length 6.2 mm, width 1.4 mm (measured

across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-8a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical.

Integument testaceous, with portions of head, pronotum, elytra, and femoral apices

ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from

between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which

are slightly raised and separated by the width of about two antennal sockets; vertex

microsculptured, with dense, shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, ovate, very shallowly emarginate.









Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere

about as long as scape, about 1.5 times longer than fourth, fifth antennomere longest,

slightly more than twice as long as fourth, about 1.5 times longer than third, only slightly

longer than sixth and seventh, eleventh slightly longer than tenth, about as long as scape,

basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres

6-10 produced externally. Scape with short, pale, recumbent pubescence; antennomeres

2-5 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum

subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex

than base, sides broadly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation

just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex, with scattered, long,

suberect, pale hairs; basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned

submedially, arising from deep punctures; lateral margins of pronotum with patch of

coarse, deep punctures, and two long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Surface opaque,

slightly shining; pronotal disk somewhat wrinkled, moderately granulose. Scutellum

small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as

width at humeri, about 2.3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader

basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides slightly sinuate around middle,

evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices individually, sinuately rounded; epipleural margin

strongly sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint

costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface strongly

shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures

becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture

with a short, fine, pale hair; elytra with scattered, long, suberect, pale hairs. Underside









with prostemum strongly shining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front

of each procoxa; narrowest area of prostemal process between procoxae about 0.2 times

as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.3 times the width of apex of process which is

subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae gradually

declivous; procoxal cavities very narrowly open behind (Figure 2-8b). Meso- and

metastemum surface strongly shining, sparsely and finely punctate. Metepistemum

sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly.

Abdomen strongly shining, sparsely and finely punctate, abdomen with two long,

suberect, pale hairs per sternite; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than

preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, metafemoral club slightly

longer than basal portion, meso- and metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with

sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence and with sparse,

scattered, suberect, pale hairs arising from shallow punctures; underside of each femoral

club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge strongly, deeply

serrate, with about 14-17 serration "peaks"; each peak with a short, curved, pale hair;

metatibiae moderately sinuate slightly flattened, about 0.5 times as long as metafemora,

gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale

pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-8d).

Male. Length 5.0-6.8 mm; width 1.1-1.5 mm (measured across humeri). Very

similar to male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lacking

irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa (Figure 2-8c). Abdomen with

terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded, about 1.5 times longer than preceding stemite.









Types: Holotype, female (Figure 2-8a), PANAMA, Pan. Pr., 12 km N El Llano, 24

Jan 1993, F.T. Hovore, coll (USNM). Allotype, male, PANAMA, Pma Province, Cerro

Campana 850m, 8040'N, 79056'W, 12 Mar. '71 W. Biven (USNM). Paratypes, 2 (all

from PANAMA): 1 female, Pma. Pr., Liano-Carti Rd., Km-9, El. 350m., 16 Feb. '91,

Stockwell (FTHC); 1 female, C.Z., Diablo, 2 April '78, Wm. Biven (FSCA).

Geographic distribution: Known only from Panama province, Panama (Central

America).

Discussion: This species is described from one male and three females. The type

series described herein represents the only known specimens and nothing is known about

its biology.

This species is unusual among Plectromerus species in having the procoxal cavities

very narrowly open behind (Figure 4-17b), similar only to P. dominicanus (= Curiosa

dominicana). From congeners, Plectromerus new species 7 can be distinguished by the

combination of the following characters: pronotal disk opaque, moderately granulose;

elytral apices individually, sinuately rounded; and metafemoral teeth strongly, deeply

serrate. This species is most similar to P. wappesi but differs from it in having the

pronotal disk somewhat wrinkled, nearly granulose (microsculptured with dense, round,

shallow punctation in P. wappesi), strongly, deeply serrate metafemoral teeth

(moderately, evenly serrate in P. wappesi), and elytra apices individually, sinuately

rounded (jointly rounded to subtruncate in P. wappesi).

Plectromerus new species 8 Nearns

Description: Male (Figure 2-9a-d). Length 8.5-10.2 mm, width 1.9-2.4 mm

(measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-9a. General form small, narrow,

subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of head, antennae, and elytra









ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from

between eyes to just beyond vertex, shallowly concave between antennal tubercles, which

are slightly raised and separated by the width of about two antennal sockets; vertex

lightly microsculptured, with scattered, moderately deep punctures; vertex with short,

recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, moderately

emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third

antennomere about as long as scape, more than twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere

longest, more than 3 times longer than fourth, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from

fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 5-10 produced externally. Scape with

short, pale, recumbent pubescence, with shallow to moderately deep excavation dorsally

(Figure 2-9d); antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect,

pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle,

slightly wider at base than at apex, sides broadly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal

third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex,

somewhat flattened, with one slightly raised, median callus immediately posterior to

center, about as long as the fourth antennomere, and two moderately raised, submedial

calli slightly anterior to center, and two smaller very slightly raised, submedial calli

slightly posterior to center; basal third of disk with one long, pale, recumbent or suberect

seta positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures; lateral margins of pronotum

with patch of coarse, deep punctures, and one or two long, suberect setae anterolaterally.

Surface opaque, microsculptured, moderately shining, with dense, moderately deep,

somewhat evenly spaced punctation. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad,

impunctate. Elytra nearly 3 times as long as width at humeri, about 3 times as long as









pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at

middle); sides nearly parallel, very slightly sinuate, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices

individually rounded to weakly subtruncate; epipleural margin moderately sinuate.

Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each

elytron; base of each slightly raised. Elytral surface moderately shining; punctation

moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex

and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair;

elytral apices with few long, pale, suberect hair. Underside with prosternum strongly

shining, with scattered, coarse, deep punctation, one irregular patch of 2-3 coarse, deep

punctures in front of each procoxa; narrowest area of prosternal process between

procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of

apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between

procoxae gradually declivous, procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface

strongly shining, sparsely punctate with coarse, deep punctures. Metasternum surface

strongly shining, with moderately dense, deep punctures, with a few suberect, pale hairs

interspersed (Figure 2-9c). Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongly shining; finely, shallowly

punctate, with scattered coarse punctures; abdomen with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs

and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly

longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora gradually clavate, metafemoral club

slightly longer than basal portion, meso- and metafemora slightly arcuate, shining,

clothed with sparse, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club

with a broad, acute triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge very weakly









serrate, with indistinctly and irregular serration "peaks"; each peak with a short, curved,

pale hair; metatibiae nearly straight, very slightly sinuate, slightly flattened, about as long

as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine,

recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-9b).

Female. Length 7.4-10.2 mm; width 1.8-2.4 mm (measured across humeri). Very

similar to male except pronotal sides lacking patch of deep, coarse punctures and

prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa. Abdomen with

terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding stemite.

Types: Holotype, male (Figure 2-9a), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Pedernales, PN

Sierra de Bahoruco, Las Abejas, 1150 m. at tree fall, Spec.ID: 6903, E. Nearns & S.

Lingafelter 18-VI-2005 (USNM). Allotype, female, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:

Independencia, Sierra de Bahoruco, north slope, 13.5 km SE Puerto Escondido, 18-12-

18N, 71-31-08W, 1789 m. 24-26 Mar 2004, R. Davidson, J. Rawlins, C. Young, C.

Nunez, M. Rial, ecotonal Pinus grassland, malaise trap, Sample 41183 (CMNH).

Paratypes, 4 (all from DOMINICAN REPUBLIC): 1 male and 2 females, Pedernales. La

Abeja, 38 kmNNW Cabo Rojo (1809N, 7138W), 1160m. 13 July 1987, J. Rawlins, R.

Davidson (CMNH); 1 male, Payaso, 13 July 1996, R. Turnbow (RHTC).

Geographic distribution: Known from Barahona and Pedernales provinces,

Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles).

Discussion: This species is described from six specimens, several of which were

collected at between 1,150-1,789 m elevation. The type series described herein represent

the only known specimens and nothing is known about its biology.









From congeners, Plectromerus new species 8 can be separated from congeners by

the combination of the following characters: scape with shallow to moderately deep

excavation dorsally; pronotal disk with slightly to moderately raised calli; metafemora

gradually clavate; and metafemoral teeth very weakly serrate. This species is most

similar to P. fasciatus in several characters including antennal segment proportions,

gradually clavate metafemora, and very weakly serrate metafemoral teeth. However,

Plectromerus new species 8 differs in having the pronotum with dense, moderately deep,

somewhat evenly spaced punctation (pronotum with dense, confluent, very shallow

punctation in P. fasciatus), and elytral apices with few long, pale, suberect setae elytraa

with scattered to moderately dense, long, pale, suberect, setae in P. fasciatus).









Table 2-1. Acronyms of entomological collections studied.

AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA
BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
CMNH Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
DHPC Daniel Heffern Private Collection, Houston, TX, USA
EFGC Edmund F. Giesbert Collection, Gainesville (at FSCA), FL, USA
EMEC Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
ENPC Eugenio H. Nearns Private Collection, Gainesville, FL, USA
FDZC Fernando de Zayas Collection, Havana, Cuba
FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, FL, USA
FTHC Frank T. Hovore Private Collection, Santa Clarita, CA, USA
FVPC Francesco Vitali Private Collection, Genova, Italy
IESC Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica, Havana, Cuba
INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica
JAMC Julio and Charyn Micheli Private Collection, Ponce, PR, USA
JEWC James E. Wappes Private Collection, San Antonio, TX, USA
LSAM Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
MNDR Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
MNHN Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Havana, Cuba
MNRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
REWC Robert E. Woodruff Private Collection, Gainesville, FL, USA
RFMC Roy F. Morris Private Collection, Lakeland, FL, USA
RHTC Robert H. Turnbow, Jr. Private Collection, Ft. Rucker, AL, USA
SDPC Sergio Devesa Private Collection, San Vicente, Spain
TAMU Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
UCRC University of California Entomology Research Collection, Riverside, CA, USA
USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Wash., DC, USA
WIBF West Indian Beetle Fauna Project, Michael A. Ivie, Bozeman, MT, USA













































Figure 2-1. Four species of Plectromerus. A) Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey,
holotype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier), female,
dorsal habitus. C) Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier, holotype, female, dorsal
habitus. D) Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype, female, dorsal
habitus.

















































Figure 2-2. Plectromerus new species 1 Nearns, holotype, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B)
Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

















































Figure 2-3. Plectromerus new species 2 Nearns, holotype, female. A) Dorsal habitus. B)
Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view. C) Lateral habitus.

















































Figure 2-4. Plectromerus new species 3 Nearns, holotype, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B)
Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.
























'y rf
t ^ w


C1


I S N I
Figure 2-5. Plectromerus new species 4 Nearns, holotype, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B)
Closeup of pronotum, lateral view. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia,
ventral view.




































a J
BbE


Figure 2-6. Plectromerus new species 5 Nearns, holotype, female. A) Dorsal habitus.
B) Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral
view.

















































Figure 2-7. Plectromerus new species 6 Nearns, holotype, female. A) Dorsal habitus.
B) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view. C) Lateral habitus.



















































Figure 2-8. Plectromerus new species 7 Nearns. A) Holotype, female, dorsal habitus.
B) Holotype, female, closeup of prosternum. C) Allotype, male closeup of
prosternum. D) Holotype, female, closeup of metafemur and metatibia,
ventral view.





























c M dA
Figure 2-9. Plectromerus new species 8 Nearns, holotype, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B)
Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view. C) Closeup of
metasternum. D) Closeup or scape excavation, dorsal view.














CHAPTER 3
REVISION OF CURIINI LECONTE

Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304

The longhorned beetle tribe Curiini LeConte, 1873 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae:

Cerambycinae) is a medium-sized group of Neotropical cerambycid beetles. As currently

defined, the tribe consists of three genera (Curiosa Micheli, 1983; Curius Newman,

1840; and Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847) containing 29 extant and two extinct species.

The genus Pentomacrus White, 1855 was synonymized with Plectromerus in 1985 and

the synonymy of a fourth genus (Curiosa Micheli, 1983) with Plectromerus is proposed

in Chapter 2. The curiines are of predominantly of Antillean distribution but also occur

in the SE USA, and range from SE Mexico to Venezuela.

The tribe has traditionally been defined by the presence of the following

morphological characters: coarsely faceted eyes, a flat, transverse head, and strongly

clavate femora armed beneath with a broad tooth. In catalogs, the tribe has been placed

consistently within the subfamily Cerambycinae between the Ibidionini and Obriini. A

previous phylogenetic analysis of the Curiini has not been conducted and the monophyly

of the tribe is untested. Recent works on the curiines have been provided by Vitali

(2004), Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser (2003), Micheli & Nearns (2005), Nearns & Branham

(2005), Nearns & Ray (2006), Nearns & Steiner (2006), Nearns & Turnbow (2005), and

Nearns et al. (2005).

The genera of the Curiini were first grouped together by LeConte (1873) who

included the genera Curius and Plectromerus in "Group IV, the Curii" and placed the









tribe before the Obriini. LeConte also provided a description of the unifying characters

for the tribe. In his Coleopterum Catalogus, Aurivillius (1912) listed the Curiini for the

first time and included the genera Curius, Plectromerus, and Pentomacrus. Leng (1920)

and Blackwelder (1944) also placed the Curiini before the Graciliini. Amett (1973)

placed the Curiini between the Ibidionini and the Hyboderini. Linsley (1963) and

Downie & Amett (1996) placed the Curiini between the Ibidionini and the Obriini. The

more recent literature placed the Curiini between the Callidiopini and the Graciliini

(Amett et al., 2002; Monne & Hovore, 2003; Peck, 2005).

Early workers provided very brief, non-specific descriptions of new species and

illustrations were either missing or of poor quality (Bates, 1885; Fabricius, 1792;

Newman, 1840; Olivier, 1790; White, 1855). Improved work began with Gahan's

description of Pentomacrusfasciatus in 1895. Gahan (1895) also recognized that White

(1855) and other workers overlooked Fabricius' description with regard to Pentomacrus

femoratus. Other notable workers include Fisher, Linsley, and Zayas. Fisher was a

prolific worker who described five new species of curiines from 1932 to 1947. Zayas

(1975) described two Cuban species and provided illustrations to all described Cuban

curiines except Plectromerus ornatus in his revision of the family. Linsley (1963) made

a significant contribution when he provided a description of the tribe and keys to genera

as well as species for North America.

Key to the Genera of Curiini

Previous keys to the genera of Curiini were provided by Linsley (1963) and

Micheli (1983).

1 Third antennomere distinctly longer than scape; prosternal process between
procoxae nearly straight (not gradually declivous). ................ .. Curius









Third antennomere about as long or distinctly shorter than scape; prosternal
process between procoxae gradually or abruptly declivous ....... Plectromerus

Genus Curius Newman, 1840: 17

Original description:

Caput porrectum, oculis magnis, fere retundis, ad antennarum basim vix
emarginatis; antennae corpore longicores, graciles, 11-articulatae, articulus lus
caeteris paullo crassior, 2us brevis, 3us caeteris longior, 4us et sequentes
longitudine fere aequales: prothorax capite duplo longior, dorso paullo
complanatus, lateribus convexus: elytra prothorace latiora, lateribus parallel, apice
rotundata: pedes longitudine mediocres, femoribus tumidis, subtus dente magno
median armatis. (Newman, 1840: 17)

Linsley's redescription:

Form depressed; integument opaque. Antennae with fourth segment a little shorter
than fifth. Pronotum rounded at sides; prosternum with anterior coxal cavities
nearly contiguous. Legs with femora gradually clavate. Abdomen with first
segment as long as following 2 together. (Linsley, 1963: 134)

Additions to Linsley's redescription:

Fifth antennomere a little shorter to half as long as fifth. Males with sexually

dimorphic, prothoracic punctation.

Type species: Curius dentatus Newman, 1840.

Geographic distribution: SE USA, Cuba, Panama, and Venezuela.

Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51

Introduction:

As currently defined, the genus Curius Newman, 1840 contains three species:
Curius dentatus Newman, 1840, known from southeastern United States, Curius
panamensis Bates, 1885, known only from Panama, and Curiuspunctatus (Fisher,
1932), an endemic Cuban species (Monne, 2005; Monne & Hovore, 2005; Nearns
et al., 2005; Peck, 2005). LeConte (1873) designated the tribe Curiini (= Curii)
with Curius as the type genus and synonymized Plectromerus concinnatus
Haldeman, 1847 with C. dentatus. Linsley (1963) provided a diagnosis of the tribe
and genus based on the two North American species, C. dentatus and Plectromerus
dentipes (Olivier, 1790). Zayas (1975) provided a description and illustration of
Pentomacruspunctatus Fisher, 1932 and Lingafelter & Nearns (2005) provided a









color photograph of the holotype. Nearns et al. (2005) transferred P. punctatus to
Curius.

During the senior author's revisionary work on the tribe Curiini, 23 specimens of a
new species of Curius collected in Aragua, Venezuela were discovered. The
species described herein is the first record of a curiine in South America and
represents a significant range extension for the genus. (Nearns & Ray, 2006: 49)

Original description:

Male. Length 8.4 mm, width 1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in
Figure 3-la. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous,
with portions of head, antennal apices, pronotum, elytra, apical portions of femora
and tibiae, and sternum ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a
median, shallow groove from between eyes to just beyond vertex, concave between
antennal tubercles, which are moderately raised and widely separated. Eyes
coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven-
segmented, subcylindrical, about 1.5 times longer than body; scape slightly bowed,
slightly longer than fourth antennomere, third antennomere longest, more than 2
times longer than fourth, slightly longer than fifth, fifth is second longest, seventh
slightly longer than sixth. Antennomeres 2-8 ciliate beneath with coarse,
moderately long, suberect, hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long
as wide, evenly rounded at sides, widest at middle, slightly broader at base than
apex, slightly constricted at basal third; disk convex, each side of pronotum with
one long, suberect, pale hair anterolaterally. Surface opaque, granulate-punctate,
with a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median
impressions, for example, Fig. 3-2c); surface ornamented with ferrugineus
markings as follows: a narrow, longitudinal, median vitta, extending from anterior
margin to middle, where it is divided into two longitudinal vittae, which extend to
the base, a thinner longitudinal sinuate vitta on each side (Fig. 3-la). Lateral
margins of pronotum ferrugineus. Scutellum small, subquadrate, a little longer than
broad, granulose. Elytra about 3 times as long as width at humeri, a little more
than 4 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.4 times broader basally than
pronotum at widest (at middle); sides moderately sinuate around middle; elytral
apices separately pointed; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk
nearly flat; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface opaque, with three
irregularly shaped, ferrugineus, lateral vittae arranged as follows: one at basal half,
two at apical half (Fig. 3-la); punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at
basal third; punctures becoming shallower towards apex and sides, almost obsolete
at apical third. Underside with prosternum slightly shining, granulate-punctate,
with raised nodules interspersed among a dense field of gland pores (rounded,
elevated tubercles with circular median impressions) (Fig. 3-2a, c); prosternal
process between coxae nearly flat, narrowest area of prosternal process about 0.3
times as wide as coxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process
which is cordate (Fig. 3-2a). Mesosternum surface shining, sparsely and finely
punctate. Metasternum surface shining, sparsely punctate, with moderately dense
deeper punctures. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale









pubescence. Abdomen shining; sparsely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with a few
long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite
broadly subtruncate, slightly shorter than preceding stemite. Legs with femora
clavate, meso- and metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with recumbent,
short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a small, acute
triangular tooth with posterior edge smooth; metatibiae nearly straight, very slightly
sinuate; clothed with fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer apically.

Female. Length 7.5-8.6 mm; width 1.5-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very
similar to male except pronotum not as elongate, about 1.3 times as long as wide;
pronotum and prostemum lacking gland pores, prostemum with sparse, shallow
punctures with a short hair (Fig. 3-2d); narrowest area of prostemal process 0.3-0.5
times as wide as coxal cavity (Fig. 3-2b). Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly,
broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding stemite. (Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51)

Holotype: male (Figure 3-la), VENEZUELA, Rancho Grande, 11-14-21-1969, P.

& P. Spangler, collected at blacklight (USNM).

Material examined:

Holotype, male, VENEZUELA, Arag., Rancho Grande, II-14-21-1969, P. & P.
Spangler, collected at blacklight (USNM). Allotype, female, VENEZUELA, El
Encantado, Arajua [sic] 30-VI-2001, Cope collection (JAMC). Paratypes, 3 (all
from VENEZUELA): 1 female, Aragua, Rancho Grande, 1100 m., 17-20 I 1978,
blacklight, cloud forest, J.B. Heppner (USNM); 2 females, Aragua: Geremba, 2050
m, VII.1991 (MNRJ).

Additional specimens have been reported to us by Alain Audureau (Saint Gilles
Croix de Vie, France), but were not available for study in time for inclusion as part
of the type series: 18 specimens, all from VENEZUELA, Aragua, Geremba
(2050m), Alain Audureau, collection dates: 12/04/1999, 15/05/1999, 07/1999,
09/06/2000, 07/2002, 25/09/2002, 29/09/2002, 15/02/2003, 22/02/2003,
07/04/2003, 21/02/2004, 12/05/2005, 14/05/2005, 28/05/2005. (Nearns & Ray,
2006: 53)

Geographic distribution: Known only from Aragua province, Venezuela (South

America).

Discussion:

This species can be distinguished from its presently known congeners by the
following characters: the third antennomere is longest, slightly longer than the fifth
and without a spine, the fifth antennomere is about twice as long as the fourth, and
the elytral apices are separately pointed. Curius chemsaki can be confused with C.
panamensis and the two species share similar pronotal proportions and markings









(Fig. 3-la-b, e) as well as similar pronotal and prostemal punctation and nodules.
However, the new species can be distinguished by antennal morphology: both
sexes of C. panamensis have a strong spine at the apex of the third antennomere
(absent in C. chemsaki) and the third antennomere is equal to or slightly shorter
than the fifth in C. panamensis (the third antennomere is slightly longer than the
fifth in C. chemsaki). Also, the pronotum and elytra of C. panamensis are clothed
with short, pale, recumbent, moderately dense hairs (absent in C. chemsaki) and the
elytral apices of C. panamensis are rounded (separately pointed in C. chemsaki).

Linsley (1963) defined the genus based on the North American species, C.
dentatus. Based on Bates' original description and figure, Linsley (1963)
expressed doubt about the placement of the only other Curius species at the time of
his writing, C. panamensis. Our detailed examination of the pronotal and
prosternal punctation of C. dentatus, C. panamensis, C. punctatus, and C.
chemsaki, revealed a new synapomorphy for the genus overlooked by previous
workers, male-specific gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular
median impressions).

Notes on sexual dimorphism seen in gland pores: Sexual dimorphism in pronotal
and/or prosternal punctation has been noted in morphological descriptions of
cerambycine species from several tribes (e.g. LeConte, 1873; Casey 1912; Dusham,
1921; Linsley, 1963; Mermudes & Napp, 2000; Mermudes & Napp, 2004; Monne
& Napp, 2005; Micheli & Nearns, 2005; Nearns & Steiner, 2006). Within
taxonomic literature, male-specific punctures have not previously been linked to
aspects of natural history or behavior. We here include the presence of male-
specific pheromone gland pores as a morphological character and suggest that the
presence of gland pores may indicate that volatile pheromones play a role in the
reproductive behavior of this species. Histology and SEM studies of three
cerambycine species revealed that male-specific punctures contain gland pores that
are pheromone release sites (Iwabuchi, 1986; Nakamuta et al., 1994; Noldt et al.,
1995). We have identified male-specific gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles
with circular median impressions) on the pronota and prosterna of C. chemsaki
(Fig. 3-2c), as well as on the pronota and prosterna of males of C. dentatus, C.
panamensis, and C. punctatus (unpublished data). In addition, we have identified
male-specific gland pores with a different morphological structure on the prosterna
of another curiine, Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790) (unpublished data).
Volatile pheromone production by curiine species is supported by the presence of
C. dentatus in traps baited with synthetic pheromone (Lacey et al., 2004). A recent
morphological survey by Ray et al. (2006) used SEM to identify male-specific
gland pores in 50 additional cerambycine species, suggesting gland pores are an
informative morphological character that provides information about natural
history. (Nearns & Ray, 2006: 54)









Curius dentatus Newman, 1840: 17

= Plectromerus concinnatus Haldeman, 1847: 43
= Curius concinnatus Melsheimer, 1853: 106

Original description:

Testaceus, obscurus, subtiliter ac crebre punctus; caput fuscum, antennae pallidae,
articulis apice fuscis: prothorax testaceus, vittd longitudinal ante marginem
posticam divisd, fusca: elytra testacea, fusco nubila: femora apice late fusca. (Corp.
long. .275 unc. Lat. .075 unc.) (Newman, 1840: 17)

Linsley's redescription:

Male. Form depressed; integument dull, brownish-testaceous, very obscurely
pubescent; pronotum and elytra with vague longitudinal dark areas. Head densely,
contiguously punctate; antennae exceeding elytral apices by about 3 12 segments,
finely punctate, annulate, second segment much longer than broad, third segment
longest, fourth segment much shorter than third, about 1/10 shorter than fifth.
Pronotum flattened, sides rounded, surface very densely punctate; prosternum
impressed, finely, densely punctate; metasternum minutely punctate, sparsely
pubescent, with scattered very coarse punctures. Elytra nearly 3 times as long as
subbasal width; surface shallowly, moderately coarsely punctate, basal punctures
mostly separated by 1 diameter or less; pubescence very short, obscure, sparse;
apices rounded to suture. Legs with femora finely punctate and pubescent,
gradually clavate, armed beneath with a tooth, larger on anterior pair; tibiae
slender. Abdomen finely punctate, sparsely pubescent, with a few coarse
punctures, particularly at sides; fifth stemite shorter than fourth, subtruncate at
apex. Length, 5-7 mm. Female. Antennae exceeding elytral apices by about 2
segments; abdomen with fifth sternite longer than fourth, rounded at apex. Length,
5-7mm. (Linsley, 1963: 134)

Additions to Linsley's redescription: Males with pronotal and prosternal surface

opaque, granulate-punctate, with a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles

with circular median impressions) (Figure 3-3b); females lacking pronotal and prosternal

gland pores, prosternum with sparse, shallow punctures each with a short hair (for

example, Figure 3-2d). Male specimens examined measured: length 5.0-9.2 mm, width

1.0-2.1 mm (measured across humeri); female specimens examined measured: length 5.0-

10.0 mm; width 1.2-2.3 mm (measured across humeri). Male genitalia with parameres as


in Figure 4-28a.









Holotype: female (BMNH).

Material examined: Specimens, 2 (all from ALABAMA, USA): 1 male, Baldwin

Co., R'd Pecan, VII 1972 (JEWC); 1 male, Mobile, V.12.1957, B.K. Dozier, at light

(FSCA).

Specimens, 38 (all from FLORIDA, USA): 8 males and 1 female, Dixie Co., 4 mi.

N. Old Town, May 18-20 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 2 males, Dixie Co., 4 mi. N.

Old Town, May 11-12 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 3 males and 1 female, 2-IX-77,

Alachua Co., T.H. Atkinson (FSCA); 1 male and 2 females, Miami, V. 1917, 14,278, H.

Klages Coll'n, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 female, Miami, V. 2, 14,278, H. Klages

Coll'n, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 male, Miami, IV. 16, 14,278, H. Klages Coll'n,

C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 female, Hernando Co., Withlacoo. S.F., Croom Area,

beating dead branches, SpecimenID: 1459, Gino Nearns 07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 male,

Liberty Co., Torreya S.P., at UV light, flood plain forest, SpecimenID: 3594, Gino

Nearns 05/22/2004 (ENPC); 1 female, Gadsden Co., Aspalaga Landing, UV light,

SpecID: 6639, Nearns, Morris & Wappes, 29-V-2005 (ENPC); 1 female, Polk Co., vic.

Bartow, along Peace River, 29-IV-1990, R. Morris (FSCA); 1 male, Polk Co., vic.

Bartow, along Peace River, 24-IV-1990, R. Morris (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Cam.

Mus. Acc. 349 (CMNH); 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Stat., 14-18 April

1989, Chen Wen Young (CMNH); 1 female, Indian River Co., SR512 .5mi W 1-95, 1-10-

V-1977, Fla. Med. Ent. Lab., Suction trap (FSCA); 1 female, Lake County, Alexander

Spgs. Cpgd., 6 Mi. S. Astor Park, 21-IV-1975, at (UV) black light, J.B. Heppner collector

(FSCA); 1 female, Leon Co., Tall Timbers Res. Sta., Hammock Wood Yard, 15-VIII-

1972, light trap (FSCA); 1 female, Gainesville, Alachua County, Grace Thomas Coll. V-









1964, at light (FSCA); 1 male, Alachua Co., Gainesville, 22-V-1983, M.C. Thomas

(FSCA); 2 females, 3367 Hopk. U.S., Jun. 19/05 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Apalchcla

[sic], Juniperus (USNM); 2 females, 3369 Hopk. U.S., Reared Nov. 10/05, Fiske WF

Colr., Apalachicola, Taxodium distichum (USNM); 1 male, Crescent City, Coll Hubbard

& Schwarz (USNM).

Specimens, 41 (all from GEORGIA, USA): 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest,

window trap, 31 July 6 Aug. 1976, R. Turnbow (AMNH); 1 male, Clarke Co., Athens,

25 June 1972, R. Tumbow (AMNH); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, 2 July

1973, R. Turnbow (AMNH); 1 male and 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window

trap, 6-13 Aug. 1976, R. Tumbow (USNM); 2 females, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest,

window trap, 20-27 Aug. 1976, R. Tumbow (USNM); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall

Forest, 14 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest,

window trap, 24-31 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall

Forest, window trap, 25 June 2 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 female, Clarke Co.,

Whitehall Forest, window trap, 25 June 2 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male and 1

female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 16-23 July 1976, R. Tumbow

(FSCA); 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 9-16 July 1976, R. Tumbow

(FSCA); 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 6-13 Aug. 1976, R. Turnbow

(USNM); 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, emerged, July 1974, R. Turnbow, ex.

sweet gum (FSCA); 1 female, Jackson Co., Hardeman Forest, 5-7 Aug. 1975, R.

Tumbow (AMNH); 1 female, Thomasville, V-12-1948, Werner-Nutting (EMEC); 4

males and 3 females, Sumter Co., 1982, W.L. Tedders, 83-1134, #33473, Host: Pecan

(USNM); 1 female, Dekalb Co., VI-13-69 (TAMU); 1 female, Dekalb Co., VIII-1-79









(JEWC); 1 male, Buena Vista, 3 VII 46, John Lutz III, J.C. Lutz Collection 1961

(USNM); 1 male, Grady Co., Beachton, 1-7-VII-1967, E.V. Komareck, Sr.(USNM); 1

male, Greene Co., R'd Pecan, VII-1972 (JEWC); 1 male, 3744 Hopk. U.S., July 18/06

reared, WF Fiske Collector, Griffen, Deodar (USNM); 1 male, 3744 Hopk. U.S., Nov.

12/07 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Griffen, Deodar (USNM); 1 female, 3744 Hopk. U.S.,

July 3/07 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Griffen, Deodar (USNM); 2 males and 2 females,

3744a Hopk. U.S., Jun. 26/06 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Griffen, Deodar (USNM); 2

females, 1629b Hopk. U.S., reared, WF Fiske Collector, Jesup, Taxodium ditichum

(USNM); 1 male, 1629c Hopk. U.S., Apr. 29, 03, WF Fiske Collector, Jesup, Cupressus

(USNM); 1 male, 3743 Hopk. U.S., Jun. 1/06 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Griffen,

Deodar (USNM).

Specimens, 5 (all from LOUISIANA, USA): 1 male, Baton Rouge, VII-21-22,

O.W. Rosewall (LSAM); 1 male, St. Martin Par., 4mi S of Belle River, 20-VII-1995,

D.A. Duerr II, 7-20 BP ST8 (LSAM); 1 male, Baton Rouge, X-22 1965, D.K. Pollet

(LSAM); 1 male, Henry Ulke Beetle Coll. CMNH Acc. No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 female,

Covington, 28/5, Collection H. Soltau (USNM).

Specimens, 6 (all from MARYLAND, USA): 1 male, Calvert Co., Sunderland, ex.

oak 1981, J. Glaser (CNMH); 1 male, Balto Co., Towson, 7-VII-81, J. Glaser (CMHN);

1 male, Calvert Co., Battle Creek Cypress Swamp, 18 Aug. 1987, Collectors: A. & B.

Norden & D. Williams (USNM); 1 male, Plummers I, 30.7.'10, EA Schwarz Collector

(USNM); 2 females, Plummer's I., 25.7, HS Barber Collector (USNM).

One male, MISSISSIPPI, Hancock Co., 28.8, Collection H. Soltau (USNM).









Specimens, 22 (all from NORTH CAROLINA, USA): 1 female, Cleveland Co.,

June 7-19, 1970, at light, J.S. Ashe (TAMU); 1 female, Killdevil Hills, Dare Co., 27-VII-

1955, KV Krombein (USNM); 1 female, Killdevil Hills, Dare Co., 24-VII-1955, KV

Krombein (USNM); 3 males, Catawba Co., Hog Hill, bl trap, 20-27-July-1976, R.

Turnbow (FSCA); 2 males and 1 female, 3657 Hopk. U.S., Aug 20/07, reared, WF Fiske

collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 3 males, 3657d Hopk. U.S., Oct 3 '06, reared, WF

Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 female, 3188a Hopk. U.S., Apr. 7/06, reared,

WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 2 males and 1 female, 3111G Hopk. U.S.,

Jul. 1-'05, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 female, 3111G Hopk.

U.S., Aug. 8 '05, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 male, 3646c

Hopk. U.S., Aug. 1-06, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 2 males, 3663

Hopk. U.S., Aug. 20/07, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 male,

3663P Hopk. U.S., Jun. 18/06, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1

female, 3663fHopk. U.S., Aug. 1/06, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM).

One female, OKLAHOMA, Latimer Co., VII-85, K. Stephan (TAMU).

One male, PENNSYLVANIA, York Co., 5mi NW Davidsburg, 23 VII 1971, PJ

Spangler, black lite (USNM).

Specimens, 19 (all from TENNESSEE, USA): 1 female, Pulaski, July 8, 1946, at

light near farm (USNM); 3 males, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, July 1974, R.D. Ward,

emerged from Cercis canadensis (CMNH); 1 female, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 20-24 May

1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis (CMNH); 1 female Bolivar,

Hardeman Co, 4-11 June 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis (CMNH); 1

male, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 4-11 June 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis









canadensis 1-III 1975 (CMNH); 3 males, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 27 Mar 1974, R.D.

Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis 6-IV 1975 (CMNH); 3 females, Bolivar,

Hardeman Co, 27 Dec 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis 8-III 1975

(CMNH); 4 males and 2 females, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 27 Mar 1974, R.D. Ward,

emerged from Cercis canadensis 12-IV 1975 (CMNH).

Specimens, 15 (all from TEXAS, USA): 1 male and 1 female, San Augustine Co.,

Piney Woods Conserv. Ctr., 14 mi. SE Broaddus, VII-15-21-1993, E.G. Riley, Malaise

trap (TAMU); 1 male, Sabine Co., E. Hemphill, "Beech Bottom", VI-23-VII-2 1989, R.

Anderson & E. Morris, malaise trap (TAMU); 1 female, Tyler Co., Kirby State Forest,

30034'30"N, 94025'03"W, V-19-VI-8-2003, E. Riley, Lindgren funnel trap (TAMU); 2

males, Sabine Co., 9 mi. E Hemphill, "beech bottom" VIII-25-IX-10-1989, R. Anderson

& E. Morris, flight intercept trap, beech-magnolia forest (TAMU); 2 males, Tyler Co.,

Kirby State Forest, 30034'30"N, 94025'03"W, VII-20-VIII-24-2003, E.G. Riley,

Lindgren funnel trap (TAMU); 1 male and 1 female, Sabine Co., 9 mi. E Hemphill,

"Beech Bottom" VIII-6-16-1989, R. Anderson & E. Morris, Malaise trap, beech-

magnolia forest (TAMU); 1 male, Montgomery Co., Jones St. Forest, 8mi. S Conroe, VI-

21-27-1987, R. Wharton, Malaise trap (TAMU); 1 female, Montgomery Co., The

Woodlands, June 20-26 1977, J.E. Wappes (JEWC); 2 males, Chambers Co., I-10 at

Trinity R., emerged IV-28/V-10 1993, D.J. Heffern, reared from Taxodium distichum

coll'd II-12-1993 (TAMU); 1 male, Chambers Co., 1-10 at Trinity R., emerged V-11/V-

31 1993, D.J. Heffern, reared from Taxodium distichum coll'd II-12-1993 (TAMU).

Specimens, 24 (all from VIRGINIA, USA): 2 females, Essex Co., 1 mi. SE

Dunnsville, 37052'N, 76048'W, 24 vi-9 viii 1992, Malaise trap, D.R. Smith (USNM); 1









female, Essex Co., 1 mi. SE Dunnsville, 37052'N, 76048'W, 14 viii 2 ix 1993, Malaise

trap, D.R. Smith (USNM); 4 male and 2 females, Cape Henry, vi-2, J.N. Knull (AMNH);

1 female, Arlington, 27 June 1950, J.G. Franciemont (USNM); 1 male, 6939 Hopk. U.S.,

Reared, A.D. Hopkins Collector, Virginia Beach, Pinus (USNM); 1 male, 11876i, Hopk.

U.S., Aug 28-16 Reared, FC Craighead Collector, Falls Church, Acer rubrum (USNM); 1

male, Hopk. U.S. 12286, Reared Aug. 3-14, H.B. Kirk Collector, Falls Church, Pinus

(USNM); 3 males and 3 females, Hopk. U.S. 12286, Reared 7/21/14 H.B. Kirk, H.B.

Kirk Collector, Falls Church, Pinus (USNM); 4 females, 6923a Hopk. U.S., Reared, AD

Hopkins Collector, Cape Henry, Pinus (USNM); 1 female, Collected on ? suet cage,

Arlington, 7-2-32, FW Poos Coll., Fred W. Poos Collection 1955 (USNM).

Specimens, 10 (all from WASHINGTON, D.C., USA): 5 males and 2 females,

Henry Ulke Beetle Coll. CMNH Acc. No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 female, Coll. ML Linell, Ac.

5409 CollChasPalm (AMNH); 1 male, no label data (USNM); 1 male, 20.6, Coll

Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM).

Geographic distribution: Widely distributed in the SE USA (AL, DC, GA, FL, IL,

LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, PA, TN, VA).

Discussion: This species (3-1c, 3-3a-c) is widely distributed in the SE USA. Lacey

et al. (2004) collected a series of female specimens in pheromone-baited traps in Illinois.

Linsley & Chemsak (1997) listed the following host plants: Acer spp., including A.

rubrum, Celtis, Cupressus, Juniperus, Pinus, and Taxodium distichum. Curius dentatus

is attracted to lights and has been collected in a variety of traps (Lindgren funnel,

Malaise, flight intercept, and window) as well as reared from various hosts, including

Cercis canadensis and sweet gum. Craighead (1923) described the larva of C. dentatus









and noted that it shared many morphological characters with Euderces (Cerambycidae:

Cerambycinae: Tillomorphini). Fragoso (1978) illustrated the male and female genitalia

of this species in his analysis of the tribal classification within the subfamily

Cerambycinae.

In Newman's (1840) description of this species he stated that the holotype "... is in

the cabinet of the Entomological Club." Monne's (2005) catalog does not list where this

type is deposited. However, a curator of Coleoptera at the BMNH stated that the

holotype was included in the material donated to the museum by the Entomological Club

in 1844. The holotype is a female, 8.1 mm in length, and in very poor condition: the

apical segments of the antennae are absent, only the left metaleg is complete, the

remaining legs have missing tarsi and the right proleg is missing the tibia. The holotype

bears the following labels: handwritten number 298 registration Ent. Club/[18]44-12,

handwritten determination label in Newman's hand Curius Newm,/dentatus Newm; a

second handwritten label: Curius dentatus Newman type in Arrow's handwriting (S.

Shute, pers. comm.).

This species ranges in size from 5.0-10.0 mm in length. Male specimens examined

measured: length 5.0-9.2 mm, width 1.0-2.1 mm (measured across humeri); female

specimens examined measured: length 5.0-10.0 mm; width 1.2-2.3 mm (measured across

humeri). This species is very similar to C. punctatus but can be separated by the

following characters: eyes nearly subreniform (eyes ovate-emarginate in C. punctatus);

antennae very slightly flattened (more strongly flattened in C. punctatus); and femora

with distal half distinctly darker in most specimens femoraa with knees distinctly darker

in C. punctatus).









Curiuspanamensis Bates, 1885: 268

Original description:

Oblongo-linearis, depressus, breviter incumbenti-pilosus, opacus, fusco-testaceus;
antennis, articulis apice exceptis, femorum pedunculis, tibias et tarsis elytrorumque
lituris, pallido-testaceis; antennis (o) quam corpus duplo longioribus, tenuibus,
pubescentibus et infra sparsim ciliates, scapo graditim clavate, articulis 30 et 40
apice extus acute products, 50 quam caeteri multo longiori (quam 4u' duplo
longiori); thorace valde elongate, cylindrico subdepresso, punctulato, opaco; elytris
apice conjunctim acute rotundatis passim creberrime punctulatis, fascia angusta
antemediana, macula triangulari suturali versus apicem, apice et vitta irregulari
marginali pallide testaceis; pedibus valde elongates, femoribus long pedunculatis,
clavis subtus acute dentatis. Long. 4 /2 lin. Hab. Panama, Tole (Champion). One
example. (Bates, 1885: 268)

Redescription: Male (Figure 3-le, 3-4a-c). Length 6.4-10.7 mm, width 1.2-2.0

mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-4a. General form small, narrow,

subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of head, antennal apices, pronotum,

elytra, distal portions of femora and tibiae, and sternum ferrugineus. Head with front

nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow groove from between eyes to just beyond

vertex, concave between antennal tubercles, which are strongly raised and separated by

about the width of two antennal sockets; vertex granulose; with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, ovate-emarginate, deeply emarginate.

Antennae eleven-segmented, subcylindrical, almost twice as long as body; scape slightly

bowed, about as long as fourth antennomere; third antennomere equal to or slightly

shorter than fifth, almost twice as long as fourth, armed with acute mesal spine, fifth

antennomere equal to or slightly longer than third. Scape and antennomeres 2-8 ciliate

beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about

1.7 times as long as wide, evenly rounded at sides, widest at middle, slightly broader at

apex than base, slightly constricted at basal third; disk convex, each side of pronotum

with one long, suberect, pale hair anterolaterally. Surface opaque, granulate-punctate,









with a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median

impressions) (Figure 3-4b); surface ornamented with ferrugineus markings as follows: a

narrow, longitudinal, median vitta, extending from anterior margin to middle, where it is

divided into two longitudinal vittae, which extend to the base, a thinner longitudinal

sinuate vitta on each side. Lateral margins of pronotum ferrugineus. Scutellum small,

subquadrate, a little longer than broad, granulose, with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence. Elytra about 3 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.3 times as long as

pronotal length, about 1.2 times broader basally than pronotum at widest (at middle);

sides moderately sinuate around middle; elytral apices separately, narrowly rounded,

forming a blunt point; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk nearly flat; base

of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface opaque, with three irregularly shaped,

broad, ferrugineus, lateral maculae arranged as follows: one at basal third, one at apical

half, and one at apical third not quite reaching elytral apices; punctation nearly uniformly

spaced, moderately dense, deep at basal third; punctures becoming shallower towards

apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, recumbent,

pale hair. Underside with prosternum slightly shining, granulate-punctate, with raised

nodules interspersed among a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles

with circular median impressions) (Figure 3-4b); prosternal process between procoxae

nearly flat, narrowest area of prosternal process about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal

cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular; procoxal

cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface shining, densely and finely punctate.

Metasternum surface shining, densely and finely punctate, with scattered deeper

punctures and a few long, suberect, pale hairs. Metepistemum clothed with short,









recumbent, pale pubescence. Abdomen shining, clothed with short, recumbent, pale

pubescence; densely and shallowly punctate; with a few long, suberect, pale hairs; fifth

stemite broadly subtruncate, slightly shorter than preceding sternite. Legs with femora

very gradually clavate; distal portion of femora and tibiae distinctly darker; meso- and

metafemora slightly arcuate, weakly shining, clothed with recumbent, short, pale

pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a small, acute triangular tooth with

posterior edge very weakly serrate, nearly smooth; metatibiae nearly straight, very

slightly sinuate (Figure 3-4c); clothed with fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming

longer distally; metalegs with first tarsomere about twice as long or longer than second.

Female. Length 8.5-13.0 mm; width 1.7-2.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very

similar to male except pronotum not as elongate; pronotum and prostemum lacking gland

pores, prosternum with sparse, shallow punctures each with a short hair (for example,

Figure 3-2d). Abdomen with terminal stemite evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer

than preceding sternite.

Holotype: PANAMA, Chiriqui: Tole. (BMNH).

Material examined: Specimens, 18 (all from PANAMA): 1 male, C.Z., Barro

Colorado Is., 909'N, 79051'W, 05-11-1997, Pickering-Windsor, Lot # 7319 (JEWC); 2

females, Panama Pr., Altos de Pacora, Jan 4-10, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female,

C.Z., Barro Colorado Is., 909'N, 79051'W, 29-1-1997, Pickering-Windsor, Lot #7295

(USNM); 2 males and 1 female, Panama pr., Cerro Azul, 2200', Jan 4-9, E. Giesbert,

Coll. (EFGC); 1 male and 3 females, Canal Zone, Vic. Ft. San Lorenzo, Jan 5 1983, E.

Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, C.Z., Barro Colorado Is., 909'N, 79051'W, 05-11-1997,

Pickering-Windsor, Lot #7819 (JEWC); 1 male, C.Z., Barro Colorado Is., 909'N,









79051'W, 29-1-1997, Pickering-Windsor, Lot #7295 (JEWC); 1 male and 1 female,

Panama, Cerro Azul, em. 26 Dec. 1991, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 female, Panama, Cerro

Azul, em. 20-30 Jan. 1992, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 female, Pn Pry, C. Azul Altus de,

Pacoras 4,10-1-94, JE Wappes (JEWC); 1 male, Vie. Ft. San Lorenzo, Jan 2 1983, E.

Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC).

Geographic distribution: Known only from Panama province, Panama (Central

America).

Discussion: Curiuspanamensis is endemic to Panama and nothing is known about

its biology.

This species is most closely related to C. chemsaki but can easily be distinguished

from all congeners by the presence of the mesal spine on the third antennomere.

Curiuspunctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55)

= Pentomacruspunctatus Fisher, 1932: 55
= Plectromeruspunctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55)

Original description:

Male. Broadly elongate, rather strongly flattened above, and feebly shining.
Above and beneath pale yellow, with the head, tips of antennal joints, sides of
sternum, tips of femora, numerous irregular spots on pronotum, and three broad,
transverse, zigzag fasciae on each elytron, black.

Head coarsely, confluently punctate, glabrous, front rather strongly constricted by
the eyes, with a narrow, longitudinal, median groove, broadly concave between the
antennal tubercles, which are widely separated, and rather strongly elevated; eyes
large, strongly convex, feebly emarginate, and widely separated from each other on
the top. Antenna about one and one-half times as long as the body, sparsely
clothed with short, inconspicuous pubescence, with numerous long, erect hairs on
the underside of the joints, which are slightly flattened, but unarmed at apices; first
joint robust, cylindrical, arcuate, slightly expanded toward apex, and one-half as
long as the third joint, which is distinctly longer than the fourth; eleventh joint
subequal in length to the tenth.

Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, and subequal in width at base and apex; sides
feebly, arcuately rounded, slightly constricted at base; disk slightly uneven, and









more or less flattened; surface glabrous, densely, coarsely, irregularly ocellate-
punctate, irregularly scabrous, and ornamented with black or dark brown spots as
follows: A narrow, longitudinal, median vitta, extending from anterior margin to
middle, where it is divided into two longitudinal vittae, which extend to, or nearly
to, the base, and from two to four round or elongate spots on each side. Scutellum
transverse, broadly rounded at apex, and the surface glabrous.

Elytra two and one-half times as long as pronotum, and at base feebly wider than
pronotum at middle; humeri rather strongly elevated; sides nearly parallel from
base to near the tips, which are separately, rather narrowly rounded; surface
coarsely, densely punctate, scabrous in basal regions, with a very short,
inconspicuous hair in the center of each puncture, each elytron ornamented with
three broad, transverse, zigzag fasciae, one near base, one at middle, and the other
one at apical fourth.

Abdomen beneath feebly, sparsely punctate, and clothed with a few long, semierect
hairs; last segment broadly rounded at apex. Prosternum broadly, transversely
concave, glabrous, feebly, coarsely rugose; prosternal process rather narrow
between the coxal cavities, and strongly declivous posteriorly. Legs rather long,
glabrous; femora strongly, abruptly clavate, petiolate at bases, and each femur
armed with a short tooth on underside near the apex; tibiae slightly flattened, and
the anterior pair feebly arcuate.

Female. Differs from the male in having the antennae only slightly longer than the
body, pronotum about as wide as long, and the surface coarsely, uniformly
scabrous.

Length, 5-10 mm.; width, 1.4-2.8 mm. Type locality. Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba.
Type, allotype, and paratypes. U.S.N.M. No. 43736. Paratypes. In American
Museum of Natural History and in S. C. Bruner collection. (Fisher, 1932: 55)

Holotype: male (Figure 3-5a), CUBA, Sep. 7/30, Santiago de las Vegas, Habana,

E.E.A. de Cuba No. 9399, Type No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM).

Material examined: Holotype, male (Figure 3-5a), CUBA, Sep. 7/30, Santiago de

las Vegas, Habana, E.E.A. de Cuba No. 9399, Type No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM).

Allotype, female, CUBA, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399, Nov.29/30, Santiago de Las Vegas,

Habana, Allotype No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM). Specimens, 7 (all from CUBA): 1

female, paratype, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399, Nov.29/30, Santiago de Las Vegas, Habana,

Paratype No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM); 1 male, paratype, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399,









Nov.29/30, Santiago de Las Vegas, Habana, Paratype No, Punctatus Fisher (AMNH); 1

female, Minacarloza, Cienfuegos, XII-1-27, Wilson (FSCA); 1 female, paratype, E.E.A.

de Cuba, No. 9399, Nov 29/30, Santiago de las Vegas, Habana, J. Acufia, Col. (IESC); 1

male, Casa de Visita FAME, Topes de Collantes, S. Spiritus, Luz, Fecha 5-VI-2002, Col.

R. Nunez Luz (ENPC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, Rio Yao, Sierra Maestra, Oct.

25/41, J. Acuna, col. (IESC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399

(IESC).

Geographic distribution: Known from Cienfuegos, Ciudad de la Habana,

Granma, and Sancti Spiritus provinces, Cuba (Greater Antilles).

Discussion: This species (Figure 3-1d, 3-5a-c) is most closely related the C.

dentatus (Figure 4-29). Nearns et al. (2005) transferred this species to Curius from

Plectromerus. Fisher (1932) stated that the eight specimens in the type series emerged

from native (Cuban) wood but the host plant is not reported. Fisher (1932) also stated

that this species is allied to P. femoratus, but it is clear that he never saw the type

specimen of that very large, distinct species (Figure 3-14a). Pifia et al. (2004) listed this

species from the Trinidad Mountains, Cuba.

Male specimens examined: length 8.9-12.0 mm, width 2.0-2.7 mm (measured

across humeri); female specimens examined: length 8.3-11.0 mm; width 2.0-2.5 mm

(measured across humeri). This species is very similar to C. dentatus but can be

separated by the following characters: eyes ovate-emarginate (eyes nearly subreniform in

C. dentatus); antennae more strongly flattened (very slightly flattened in C. dentatus);

and femora with knees distinctly darker femoraa with distal half distinctly darker in most

specimens of C. dentatus).









Key to the Species of Curius

1 Fifth antennomere equal to or only slightly longer than fourth ............... 2
1' Fifth antennomere about twice as long as fourth. ...................... .3

2(1) Antennae not distinctly flattened; distal half of femora distinctly darker than basal
half; body length 5.5-10 mm (SE USA). ....... dentatus Newman (Figure 3-3a)
Antennae distinctly flattened; femoral knees distinctly darker; body length 9.0-
12.5 mm (Cuba). ................... punctatuss (Fisher) (Figure 3-5a)

3(1') Third antennomere armed with spine, equal to or slightly shorter than fifth;
pronotum and elytra clothed with short, pale, recumbent, moderately dense hairs;
body length 6.5-15 mm (Panama) ........... panamensis Bates (Figure 3-4a)
Third antennomere without spine, slightly longer than fifth; pronotum and elytra
not as above; body length 7.5-8.6 mm (Venezuela). ........................
................... .............. .chemsaki Nearns & Ray (Figure 3-la)

Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43

= Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297
= Curius Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840)

Linsley's redescription:

Form cylindrical, integument shining. Antennae with fourth segment very much
shorter than fifth. Pronotum with sides nearly straight; prosternum with anterior
coxae distinctly separated. Legs with femora suddenly clavate. Abdomen with
first segment as long as following 3 together. (Linsley, 1963: 135)

Additions to Linsley's redescription

Pronotum with sides nearly straight to globose. Legs with femora gradually to

pedunculate clavate.

Type species: Obrium dentatum J. E. LeConte, 1824 (Linsley designation, 1963:

135) [= Callidium dentipes Olivier, 1790].

Geographic distribution: SE USA, Mexico, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles,


Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.









Discussion:

The genus Plectromerus Haldeman (1847) was first treated by LeConte (1873),
LeConte & Horn (1883), and Leng (1885). There has been some confusion about
the generic attributes of this genus and Pentomacrus White (Linsley 1963, Micheli
1983), but no thorough revisionary work has been done. Cameron (1910)
described two species in Pentomacrus and provided a key for species of this genus
only. Cazier & Lacey (1952) commented on the taxonomic problem clouding these
two genera and included the species assigned to both within a single key.
Subsequently, Giesbert (1985) stated that the supposed differences were not
sufficient to justify two genera and synonymized Pentomacrus with Plectromerus.
Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser (2003) provided a key for all species of Plectromerus,
which later was modified by Vitali (2004) to include a new fossil species and to
subdivide the genus into two groups, Plectromerus and Pentomacrus. (Micheli &
Nearns, 2005: 23)

Plectromerus acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344)

= Pentomacrus acuhai Fisher, 1936: 344

Original description:

Slender, subcylindrical, subopaque, uniformly brownish yellow, the pronotum and
elytra ornamented with dark brown markings.

Head with front transverse, flat between the antennal tubercles, which are widely
separated and feebly elevated; surface feebly, coarsely, irregularly punctate, with a
few long, erect hairs; eyes coarsely granulated, strongly convex, elongate, feebly
emarginate, widely separated from each other on the top. Antenna about as long as
the body, unarmed, feebly, longitudinally carinate, rather densely ciliate beneath
with short, erect hairs.

Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, cylindrical, subequal in width at base and
apex; sides nearly parallel, feebly sinuate; disk slightly uneven, strongly convex;
surface glabrous, feebly, coarsely, irregularly punctate, ornamented with dark
brown as follows: A small median spot and a narrow, sinuate, longitudinal vitta on
each side. Scutellum transverse, broadly rounded at apex, with the surface
glabrous.

Elytra three times as long as pronotum, distinctly wider than pronotum; sides nearly
parallel from base to apical fourth, then arcuately narrowed to the tips, which are
separately arcuately, obliquely emarginate, with a large tooth at each outer angle;
disk slightly flattened; surface glabrous, densely, coarsely punctate basally, finely,
obsoletely punctate toward apices, and each elytron ornamented with three dark
brown spots, one at basal fourth, one at middle, and one at apical fourth.









Body beneath glabrous, impunctate; last abdominal segment broadly rounded at
apex. Legs clothed with short, inconspicuous yellowish pubescence; femora
strongly, abruptly clavate, petiolate at bases, each femur armed on the under side
near apex with a large tooth, which is smooth on posterior margin.

Length, 9-9.5 mm.; width, 1.75-2 mm. Type locality. Loma del Gato, Sierra del
Cobre, Oriente Province, Cuba. Type. United States National Museum, Cat. No.
51749. Paratype in the collection of S. C. Bruner. Described from two specimens
collected by J. Acufia (E. E. A. Entom. Cuba, No. 10815). The type was collected
at the type locality, July 4-7, 1936, and the paratype was collected at Pico
Turquino, Oriente Province, Cuba, at an elevation of 3,750 feet, June 10-29, 1936.
(Fisher, 1936: 344)

Holotype: female (Figure 3-6a), CUBA, Loma del Gato, Sierra del Cobre, Oriente,

July 4-7/36, J. Acuna, Col., E.E.A. Cuba, Ento. No.10815, Type No. 51749 U.S.N.M.

(USNM).

Material examined: Holotype, female (Figure 3-6a), CUBA, Loma del Gato,

Sierra del Cobre, Oriente, July 4-7/36, J. Acuna, Col., E.E.A. Cuba, Ento. No.10815,

Type No. 51749 U.S.N.M. (USNM). Specimens, 24 (all from CUBA): 1 male, paratype,

Pico Turquino, 3750 feet, E.E.A. Cuba, Ento. No. 10815, Junio 10-29/36, J. Acufia Col.

(IESC); 1 male and 1 female, Soledad, Cienfuegos, XI-16 1927, Gavinas Wilson (FSCA);

2 females, Cardero, Turquino, Ote., X 1966, Col. I. Garcia (IESC); 1 female, Casa de

Visita FAME, Topes de Collantes, S. Spiritus, Luz, Fecha 30-IV-9-V.2002, Col. L.

Garcia (IESC); 1 male, Casa de Visita FAME, Topes de Collantes, S. Spiritus, Luz,

Fecha 30-IV-9-V.2002, Col. R. Nunez (IESC); 17 specimens, sex undetermined (FDZC).

Geographic distribution: Known from Cienfuegos, Sancti Spiritus, and Santiago

de Cuba provinces, Cuba (Greater Antilles).

Discussion: This species (Figure 3-6a-c) is endemic to Cuba. Zayas (1975)

redescribed this species in his revision of the family and stated that he had collected a

series at the following localities: Sierra Cristal, Gran Piedra, Loma del Gato, Buenos









Aires, and Topes de Collantes. Pifia et al. (2004) listed this species from the Trinidad

Mountains, Cuba. The holotype measures: length 8.7 mm, width 1.8 mm (measured

across humeri).

This species most closely resembles P. bidentatus but can be easily distinguished

by the metafemora armed with a single acute tooth (metafemora with two distinct acute

teeth in P. bidentatus). From P. dentipes, this species can be easily distinguished by the

apex of each elytron armed with a strong, acute spine (elytral apices subtruncate to

strongly truncate in P. dentipes).

Plectromerus bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16

Original description:

Slender, subcylindrical, rather strongly shining, uniformly pale brownish yellow,
pronotum and elytra ornamented with dark brown markings.

Head with the front transverse, flat between the antennal tubercles, which are
widely separated and feebly elevated; surface feebly, coarsely, irregularly punctate,
finely densely granulose, with a few long, erect hairs; eyes feebly emarginate,
strongly convex, coarsely granulated, and very widely separated from each other on
the top. Antenna about as long as the body, unarmed, slightly flattened, ciliate
beneath with moderately long, erect hairs, the segments feebly, obtusely angulate
on inner margins at apices.

Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, cylindrical, subequal in width at base and
apex; sides parallel, feebly, broadly, arcuately constricted on basal half; disk even,
strongly convex; surface nearly smooth at middle, coarsely, sparsely, irregularly
punctate at sides, indistinctly pubescent, ornamented with dark-brown markings as
follows: A narrow, elongate, median spot, and a narrow, sinuate vitta on each side,
the vitta not extending to base or apex, and more or less interrupted at the middle,
Scutellum transverse, broadly rounded at apex, with the surface glabrous.

Elytra nearly three times as long and distinctly wider than pronotum; sides nearly
parallel from humeral angles to apical fifth, then feebly converging to the tips,
which are separately feebly, broadly, arcuately emarginate, with a large, acute tooth
at the outer angle; disk slightly flattened; surface rather densely, coarsely punctate
basally, more obsoletely punctate toward apices, with a few scattered, erect hairs,
and each elytron ornamented with three narrow, transverse, zigzag, dark-brown
markings, one at basal third, one near middle, and the other at apical third.









Body beneath nearly glabrous, strongly shining; abdomen impunctate, the last
visible sternite broadly rounded at apex; prosternum coarsely, very sparsely,
irregularly punctate. Legs clothed with short, inconspicuous pubescence; femora
petiolate, strongly, abruptly clavate, the anterior and middle pairs armed on the
under sides near apices with a short, acute tooth, and the posterior pair each armed
with two acute teeth, which are not serrate on posterior margins; tibiae arcuate or
sinuate.

Length 7-8 mm., width 1.5-1.75 mm. Type locality. Loma de la Pena, northwest of
Constanza, Dominican Republic. Type and paratype. In the Museum of
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., No. 23773. Paratype in the United
States National Museum, No. 53735. Described from three specimens (one type,
sex not determined) collected at the type locality at an elevation of 5,000 feet,
during August 1938 by P. J. Darlington, Jr. (Fisher, 1942: 16)

Holotype: (sex not determined), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Constanza: Loma de

la Pefia, northwest of Constanza, No. 23773 (MCZ).

Material examined: Specimens 9 (all from DOMINICAN REPUBLIC): 2 males

and 3 females, Duarte. Reserva Loma, Quita Espuela, Camelo, 13.2 km NNE San

Francisco de Macoris, 19024.46'N, 70009.52'W., 515 m. 6 Apr 2004, C. Young, R.

Davidson, J. Rawlins, edge of wet broadleaf forest, canopy trap, Sample 11293 (CMNH);

1 male, Duarte. Reserva Loma, Quita Espuela, Camelo, 13.1 km NNE San Francisco de

Macoris, 19024.44'N, 70009.47'W., 512 m. 6 Apr 2004, C. Young, R. Davidson, J.

Rawlins, burned patch in broadleaf forest, canopy trap, Sample 11393 (CMNH); 1 male,

La Vega. Cordillera Central, 4.1 km SW El Convento, 18-50-38N, 70-42-51W., 1733 m.

31 May 2003, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson, C. Young, C. Nunez, P. Acevedo, montane forest

with pines near pasture, canopy trap, Sample 22192 (CMNH); 1 male, Monsenor Nouel

Prov., Cabo Vito 19-01.165'N, 70031.197'W, 4 July 2004, beating C. J. Micheli, coll.

(JAMC); 1 male, Prov. La Vega, ca. 10km E. Constanza, 1295m, 31AUG1988, beating in

pine, guava forest, M.A. Ivie, T.K. Philips & K.A. Johnson (WIBF).









Geographic distribution: Known from Duarte, La Vega, and Monsefior Nouel

provinces, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles).

Discussion: This species (Figure 3-7a-c) is endemic to Hispaniola and has been

collected beating vegetation and in canopy traps. Male specimens examined measured:

length 6.2-8.5 mm, width 1.5-1.9 mm (measured across humeri); female specimens

examined measured: length 7.8-8.1 mm; width 1.7-1.8 mm (measured across humeri).

The prostemal process between the procoxae is very distinctive in this species,

being abruptly declivous instead of gradually declivous and not expanded distally as in

all other known Plectromerus species (Figure 3-7c). Plectromerus bidentatus most

closely resembles P. dentipes but can be easily distinguished by the apex of each elytron

armed with a strong, acute spine (elytral apices subtruncate to strongly truncate in P.

dentipes). Plectromerus bidentatus and P. acunai both have the apex of each elytron

armed with a strong, acute spine however, P. bidentatus can be easily distinguished by

the metafemora armed with a two distinct acute teeth (Figure 3-7b) (metafemora with one

acute tooth in P. acunai).

Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268)

= Callidium dentipes Olivier, 1790: 268
= Obrium dentatum J.E. LeConte, 1824: 172
= Curius scambus Newman, 1840: 79
= Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30, new synonymy

Original description:

Callidium thorace cylindrico, testaceum, elytris fasciis duabus fuscis, femribus
dentatis, Ent. ou hist. nat. des ins. I1 est de la grandeur du Callidie mystique. Les
antennes sont testacees, de la longueur du corps. Les antennules sont testacees,
filiformes, avec le dernier article un peu plus gros que les autres. La tete est
testacee, & les yeux sont bruns; ils ont une petite echancrure a cote de l'insertion
des antennas. Le corcelet est testace, arrondi, presque cylindrique. L'ecusson est
petit & arrondi posterieu ement. Les elytres sont pointillees, testacees, avec des
bandes obscures. Le dessous du corps & les pattes sont testacees. Les cuisses sont









un peu renslees, & a mees chacune d'une dent, don't celle des posterieures est la
plus longue. Il se trouve dans l'Amerique Septentrionale, la Georgie. (Olivier,
1790: 268)

Linsley's redescription:

Male. Form elongate; subcylindrical; integument shining, brown or reddish-brown,
pronotum and elytra with paler areas; sparsely and very obscurely pubescent. Head
finely, not densely punctate above; antennae exceeding elytral apices by about 2
segments, basal segments cylindrical, outer segments a little expanded at apex,
scape a little longer than third segment, second segment longer than wide; fourth
segment a little more than half as long as long as third segment, fifth segment 1 /2
times as long as third segment, 2 /4 times as long as fourth, segments 5 to 10
successively decreasing in length, eleventh segment longer than tenth. Pronotum
subcylindrical, 1 i2 times as long as basal width, but little wider at middle, surface
polished, shining, very sparsely punctate; prosternum polished, glabrous,
impunctate except for a group of coarse punctures on each side in front of coxae.
Elytra a little more than 2 /2 times as long as basal width; surface coarsely punctate,
punctures dense at base and in dark areas of basal 3/5, sparser in pale areas, very
sparse and much finer over posterior 2/5; apices feebly truncate. Legs with femora
suddenly clavate, armed beneath with a tooth, finely punctate, thinly clothed with
fine appressed pubescence. Abdomen shining, subglabrous, impunctate; fifth
stemite broadly rounded. Length, 6-8 mm. Female. Antennae barely attaining
elytral apices; prosternum glabrous and impunctate; abdomen with fifth sternite
rounded at apex. (Linsley, 1963: 135)

Holotype: USA, Georgia (depository unknown).

Material examined: Holotype of Curius scambus Newman (= P. dentipes

(Olivier)), male (BMNH).

Specimens, 9 (all from ALABAMA, USA): 1 male, 16-V-1948, W. Rosenberg

(USNM); 1 male and 1 female, 19-V-1949, W. Rosenberg (USNM); 1 female, 6-V-1949,

W. Rosenberg (USNM); 1 female, 14-V-1948, W. Rosenberg (USNM); 1 male, Baldwin

Co., reared, pecan, 1971 (JEWC); 1 male, Baldwin Co., R'd: Pecan, 1972 (USNM); 1

female, Baldwin Co., 1972, R'd: Pecan (JEWC); 1 female, Highlands Co., H. Hammock

St. Pk., 7-VII-94, RF Morris II (USNM).

1 male, CALIFORNIA, Orange Co., Palos Verdes Peninsula, July 1995, F.T.

Hovore, coll., inside hotel restaurant, alive on tabletop, walking on butter (ENPC).









Specimens, 222 (all from FLORIDA, USA): 1 male, L. Worth, 2.6, Coll Hubbard

& Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Orlando, bred from pecan, 15 May 08, Chittenden No 317,

Russell Coll (USNM); 1 male, Escambia Co., Sta. Rosa Isl., Ft. Pickens, 30019.5'N,

87017'W, MV UV light, 27-28 May 2003, A.K.& M.A. Tishechkin (LSAM); 1 male,

Gainesville, 5-14-1947, H.V. Weems, Jr., at light (FSCA); 1 male, Babson Park, R.E.

Vild Coll. 12-X-61, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 male, Collection of Msr. A.T. Slosson, Ac.

26226 (AMNH); 1 male, L. Worth, 5-6, Schwarz, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903

(AMNH); 1 male, Crescent City, IV-24-08, Van Duzee Coll (AMNH); 1 male, Key

Largo, C. Schaeffer Collection (AMNH); 1 male, Key Largo Key, Monroe Co., H.V.

Weems, Jr. Coll. 3 IV 66, beating hammock vegetation at night (FSCA); 1 male, 3368,

Hopk. U.S., May 8/05 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Apalchcla [sic], evergreen scrub oak

(USNM); 1 male, Paradise Key, Feb. 27, 1919, A Wetmore Collector (AMNH); 1 female,

Everglade, Apr. 9-'12 (AMNH); 1 male, Elliots Key, C. Schaeffer Collection (AMNH); 1

male, L. Worth, C. Schaeffer Collection (AMNH); 1 male, Taylor Co., Williams

Landing, 24-25-VII-1967, R. Smith (USNM); 1 female, 2-IX-77, Alachua Co., T.H.

Atkinson, in window-pane trap with ethanol in hardwood hammock (USNM); 1 female,

23-V-78, Flagler Co., T.H. Atkinson, in window-pane trap with ethanol in slash pine

plantation (USNM); 1 female, 22-VI-78, Flagler Co., T.H. Atkinson, in window-pane

trap with ethanol in slash pine plantation (USNM); 1 female, Key Largo, F.W. Mead

Coll., 2 V 57 (FSCA); 1 male, Key Largo, March 23-24, 1973, ex brush pile, J.S. Ashe

(TAMU); 1 female, St. Petersburg, W.C. Carroll Coll. 9 X 64, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1

female, Long Key, VIII-24-70 (TAMU); 1 female, Royal Palm Park, 9-IX-31, L Bottimer

(USNM); 1 female, Ft. Lauderdale, 9-26-1962, Cat. No. 11109 (FSCA); 1 female,









Knights Key, Marathon, XII-1-1970 (USNM); 1 female, Knight's Key, Marathon, II-1-

1971 (JEWC); 1 female, Marathon, Fla. Keys, V-24-1971 (USNM); 1 female, Biscayne,

36.4, Coll Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 female, DeLand, G.W. Desin Coll. 10-X-61

(FSCA); 1 female, Paradise Key, Feb. 26. (USNM); 1 female, Miami, O.D. Link Coll., 26

II 49, S.P.B. Ace. 104064 (FSCA); 1 female, Gainesville, 5-11-1947, H.V. Weems, Jr.,

14279 (FSCA); 1 female, Matheson Hamm., D.R. Paulson Coll. II-15-57 (FSCA); 1

female, Jackson Co., F.W. Mead coll. 4 VIII 54, coll. at light (FSCA); 1 female,

Courtnay, G.W. Desin Coll. 5 XI 63, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Miami, XII 15

1961, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 3 females, Miami, V-27-1963, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 2

females, Monroe Co., Flamingo, Florida Bay, 26 November 1990, S. Thompson

(CMNH); 1 female, Miami, V-2, H. Klages Coll'n, C.M. Ace. 11414 (CMNH); 1 male

and 2 females, Carn. Mus. Acc. 349 (CMNH); 1 female, ex Rhacoma crossopetim [sic],

Big Pine, Schwarz & Barber '19 (USNM); 1 female, no label data (AMNH); 1 female,

Paradise Key, Mar. 1-' 19, H Barber collector (USNM); 1 female, Ormond Beach, John

N. Pott Coll. 3-XI-67, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 4 females, Sea Horse Key, Levy Co., H.A.

Denmark coll. 7 IX 57, at black light (FSCA); 2 females, Destin, G.W. Desin coll. 10 V

62, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 male and 2 females, Destin, R.E. Woodruff coll. 16 V 60

(FSCA); 1 female, 10087d, Hopk. U.S., H.S. Barber, Colr., Martha, Mar. 7/10 (USNM);

1 female, Dade Co., 10-XII-36, O.D. Link Coll. (FSCA); 1 female, Palmetto, VI-8-45, on

weed, #45-13816 (USNM); 1 female, South Miami, IV-17-45, In Cassia pod, #45-7861

(USNM); 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., 14-18-IX-1978, H.V. Weems, Jr.

& Fred E. Lohrer, insect flight trap (FSCA); 1 female, Monroe Co., Key Largo, emerged

24-31 Dec. 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 female, Long Key, Cotton Bloom, XI-11-32,









CF Rainwater Coll., #88 (USNM); 1 male, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., 8 mi. S of

Lk. Placid, 7-VII-1988, P. Skelley, blacklight trap (FSCA); 1 female, Highlands Co.,

Archbold Biol. Sta., UVL 1-X-1977, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female,

Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., 29-IX-1980, UVL, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male

and 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., UVL 20-IV-1976, L.L. Lampert, Jr.

(FSCA); 1 male, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., 24-IX-1978, L.L. Lampert, Jr.

(FSCA); 1 male, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., 25-IX-1978, L.L. Lampert, Jr.

(FSCA); 1 male, Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid, 17-IX-1975, Rosenberg Collection

(USNM); 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., 8 mi. S of Lk. Placid, 30-VI-

1988, P. Skelley, beating bushes (FSCA); 1 female, Fort Pierce, St. Lucie Co., E.W.

Campbell Coll. 31-XII-80, Jackson trap (FSCA); 1 female, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, 5-

V-1990, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 female, Dade Co., Miami, L.D. Howarton, 16-IV-84,

Jackson Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Cudjoe Key, W.H. Pierce coll. 4-V-71, in McPhail trap

(FSCA); 1 female, Monroe Co., Key Largo, emerged 11-20 Aug. 1979, R. Turnbow, ex

Mastichodendronfoetidissimum (Jacq.) Cronquist (FSCA); 1 female, Kissimmee, R.E.

Vild, Coll. 19-XI-61 (FSCA); 2 females, Mascotte, C.L. Felshaw coll. 20-V-63, in

Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Key Largo, 16-III-1972, J. Wappes, UVL (FSCA); 1

female, Broward Co., Hollywood, 4-V-1994, B. Coy, X Citrofortunella microcarpa

(FSCA): 1 female, Brevard Co., Merritt Isl., F.A. Smith, 1-XII-81, Calamondin (FSCA);

1 female, Marathon, Fla. Keys, VII-10-1971 (AMNH); 1 female, Jupiter, XII.17.38, Acc.

36406, Collectors F.E. Watson, L.J. Sanford (AMNH); 1 female, Miami, Nov. 5.1911

(AMNH); 1 female, Fort Myers, Apr. 20-12 (AMNH); 1 male and 2 females, Marco, Apr.

19, '12 (AMNH); 2 males and 2 females, Key Largo, Ac. 5409, Coll Chas Palm









(AMNH); 1 male and 2 females, Marco, Apr. 17 12, Wm. T. Davis Collection, from

Sapodilla, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 female, Sanford, IV-26-08,

Van Duzee Coll (AMNH); 1 female, Key Largo, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903

(AMNH); 1 female, Leng, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 female, Key

Largo, Fla. Keys, III-22-1971 (AMNH); 1 female, St. Petersburg, W.E. Wynn Coll. 10 XI

64, in Steiner Trap (EMEC); 2 females, Manatee Co., D.C. Chancey Coll. 30-VI-64, in

Steiner Trap (EMEC); 1 female, East Bradenton, D.C. Chancey and Frederick Coll. 21-

V-64 (EMEC); 2 females, Miami, VI-13-1963, B.K. Dozier, Va. Key (EMEC); 1 female,

Lake Placid, 7-13-1948, B.T. McDermott (EMEC); 1 male, St. Lucie, 20.4, Coll.

Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 female, Biscayne, 17.5, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz

(USNM); 1 male, Monroe Co., VII.6.1961, Big Pine Key lights, C.F. Harbison, Nat. Hist.

Mus. San Diego, Calif. Acc'n. No. 1961.c (EMEC); 1 female, Everglades N.P.

XII.4.1961, Flamingo Prairie, C.F. Harbison, Nat. Hist. Mus. San Diego, Calif. Acc'n.

No. 1961.c (EMEC); 2 females, L. Worth (AMNH); 1 male and 1 female, L. Worth, IV-

1918, 14.278, H. Klages coll'n, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 male, Miami, V-4, H.

Klages Coll'n, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 male, Coral Gables, IV-'57, from Jamaica,

R.W. Swanson coll. (FSCA); 1 female, 3369, Hopk. U.S., reared Nov. 10/05, Fiske WF

Collector, Apalachicola, Taxodium distichum (USNM); 1 male and 2 females, 3367,

Hopk. U.S., June 19/08 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Apalchcla [sic], Juniperus (USNM);

1 male, Biscayne, 21-5, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Key Largo, R.E.

Woodruff coll. 7 XII 66, J.H. Knowles Coll. 7 XII 66, beating at night (FSCA); 1 female,

Longwood, G.W. Desin coll. 18 X 61, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 male, Orange City,

G.W. Desin coll. 9 X 61, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 male, Big Pine, iii Schwarz (USNM);









1 male, Paradise Key, Mar. 10 (USNM); 1 male, Miami, VI-1-1963, B.K. Dozier

(FSCA); 1 male, Miami, VI-13-1963, Va. Key, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 1 male, Paradise

Key, 22-26-iii-19, CA Mosier (USNM); 1 male, Paradise Key, 13.3.19, HS Barber,

Shoemaker Collection 1956 (USNM); 1 male, Key West, 20-III-12, EA Schwarz

Collector (USNM); 1 male, U.S.N.M. Acc. 10725, Wing mounted HG Good (USNM); 1

male, Bay Co., St. Andrew's St. Rec. Area, 13 May 1984, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male,

Pinellas Co.: Weedon Key, 7-iv-1995, W. Lu (ENPC); Imale, Ft. Meyers, May 3-5, '08,

Van Duzee Wickham Collection 1933 (USNM); 1 male, L. Worth, Schwarz (AMNH); 2

males and 3 females, Key Largo, Catal. No. 1610, Brooklyn Museum Coll. 1929

(UNSM); 1 male, Key West, IV, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Tampa,

21.4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 2 males, Miami, VI-13-1963, B.K. Dozier, Va.

Key (FSCA); 2 males and 1 female, Center Hill, E.W. Holder, Jr. coll. 20-IV-65, in

Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Volusia Co., H.A. Denmark coll. 11-VIII-56 (FSCA); 1

male, Jefferson Co., Aucilla Wldlf. Mgt. Areajct. hwys 59 & 98, 11 June 1988, R.

Tumbow (FSCA); 1 male, Pinellas Co., St. Petersburg, 10-VI-1982, K. Hickman,

Calomondin (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Up. Key Largo, Fla. Keys, III-18-1972

(JEWC); 1 male, Bradford Co., S. of Keystone Heights, G.B. Edwards, 13-X-1979

(FSCA); 1 female, Orlando, J.R. Woodley coll. 25-X-61 (FSCA); 1 female, Monroe Co.,

Upper Key Largo, 10-VI-1994, R. Morris (FSCA); 1 male, Alachua Co., Gainesville,

Doyle Conner Building, 6-VIII-1990, P. Skelley, light (FSCA); 2 males, Broward Co., V-

17-1937, Pampano, D.R. Paulson coll., on P. clausa (FSCA); 3 males, Monroe Co., Key

Largo, March 23, 1973, J.R. Ables (TAMU); 1 male, Dixie Co., 4 mi. N. Old Town, May

18-20 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, Dade Co., Matheson Hammock, Dec 15









1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female, Dade Co., Matheson Hammock, Dec 16 1978,

E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male and 1 female, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, May 1 1977,

E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Emg'd Oct 19, 1977, E.

Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Emg'd Jan, 1978, E.

Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female, Monroe Co., Upper Key Largo, May 13-15 1979, E.

Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, Hernando Co., Withlacoochee State Forest, beating dead

oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenlD 1463, Gino Nearns -

07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 female, Hernando Co., Withlacoochee State Forest, beating dead

oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenlD 1466, Gino Nearns -

07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 male, Hernando Co., Withlacoochee State Forest, beating dead

oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenlD 1464, Gino Nearns -

07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 female, Hernando Co., Withlacoochee S.F., Croom Area, beating

dead oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenlD 1469, Gino Neams

07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 male, Monroe Co., SugarloafKey, along CR 939, beating

mangrove & buttonwood, SpecID: 6119, 26-III-2005, Neams & Leavengood (ENPC); 1

female, Dade Co., Miami Bch, 16-XI-1989, W. Franchillon & D. Storch, sticky board in

Terminalia catappa (FSCA); 1 male, Dade Co., Matheson Hammack Park, May 8, 1990,

coll. E. G. Riely (TAMU); 1 female, Pascoe Co., Holiday, 10-10-1993, W.H. Yackley

(CMHN); 1 male and 1 female, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Cactus Hammock, V-15-

1990: Coll. E.G. Riley, night beating (TAMU); 1 male, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key,

Watson's Nature Trail & vic., V-14-1990: E. Riley (TAMU); 1 female, Monroe Co.,

Marathon, Point Crane Hammock, 5-V-1990, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 male and 1

female, Jefferson Co., Aucilla Wldlf. Mgt. Area, jct. hwys. 59 & 98, 11 June 1988, R.









Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male, Dade Co., Miami, 3-X-1988, D. Gruber, F.F.D trap (FSCA); 1

female, Key Largo, 18-III-1972, L.L. Lampert, UVL (FSCA); 1 female, Alachua County,

Gainesville, NW 42nd Terrace, September 2000, JL Foltz (Frontalin + Turp. Lindgren

Funnel) (ENPC); 1 male, Monroe Co., Upper Key Largo, VI-3-5-1993, Androw, Brattain,

Keeney & Morris (CMNH); 1 male, Dade Co., Camp Mahachee, 8-IV-1991, M.C.

Thomas (FSCA); 1 female, Charlotte Co., Charlotte Harbor, 11-IV-1991, S. Wilson,

Jackson trap (FSCA); 1 male, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta.18-X-1980, UVL, L.L.

Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male, Escambia Co., Sta. Rosa Isl., Ft. Pickens, 30019.5'N,

87017'W, beating dead twigs, 28 May 2003, A.K. Tishechkin (LSAM); 1 male, Orange

Co., V-28-29, H Clark, Florida Fruit Fly Trap Surv (USNM); 1 male, St. Augustine, CW

Johnson Collector (USNM); 1 male, Paradise Key, Mar 1-19, H Barber Collector

(USNM); 2 males, Paradise Key, Apr. 27, CA Mosier '19 (USNM); 1 male, Sebastian,

Feb, 10, 1919, A Wetmore Collector (USNM); 1 male, Key Largo, M.A. Cazier

Collector, Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 male, St. Petersbug, S.O. Storms Coll. 12-XI-64, in

McPhail trap (FSCA); 1 male, Levy Co., H.V. Weems, Jr. Coll. 9-IX-55, coll. at light

(FSCA); 5 males, Miami, VI-13-1963, B.K. Dozier, Va. Key (FSCA); 1 male,

Hallandale, VII-1-1962, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 2 males, Monroe Co., Fla. Keys, IV-3-5-

1953, coll. E.L. Mockford (FSCA); 1 male, Wildwood, E.W. Holder, Jr., coll. 6-V-65, in

Steiner trap (FSCA); 2 males, Henry Ulke Beetle Collection, CMNH Acc. No. 1645

(CMNH); 1 male, John Pennekamp St. Park, Key Largo, VI-17-1965, Collectors: L. &

C.W. O'Brien (EMEC); 1 male, L. Harney, May 4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1

male, Biscayne, 27-4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Marco, Apr. 19. '12

(AMNH); 1 male, Dade Co., X 1953, L.N. Bell, UA (EMEC); 1 male, Paradise Key, 27-









II-' 19, EA Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, St. Nicholas, Collection WH Ashmead (USNM); 1

male, Bartow, 16.7, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 female, Crescent City, Coll.

Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Biscayne, 17-5, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz

(USNM); 1 male, Biscayne, 29-4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male,

Homestead, VIII-12-1960, R.M. Baronowski (FSCA); 1 male, Key Largo, 14278,

Shoemaker Collection 1956 (USNM); 1 male, Monroe Co., 3 mi. NE Tavernier,

Plantation Key, 12 DEC 1985, M.A. Ivie (WIBF); 1 male, 20-III-12, EA Schwartz

Collector (USNM); 1 male, Hopk. U.S., Jun-1/05 reared, WFFiske collector, Apalchola,

evergreen scrub oak (USNM).

Specimens, 6 (all from GEORGIA, USA): 1 female, Greene Co., R'd pecan, V-

1972 J. Wappes (JEWC); 1 female, Clinch Co., R'd pecan, VI+VII-1972 J. Wappes

(JEWC); 1 male, Lowndes Co., VII-62 (FSCA); 1 male, Henry Ulke Beetle Coll. CMNH

Acc. No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 male and 1 female, 16108, Hopk. U.S., Apr. 25/03, WF Fiske

Collector, Brunswick, Cupressus (USNM).

Specimens, 26 (all from LOUISIANA, USA): 1 female, E. Baton Rouge Parish, 26-

IX-1972, Coll. D.F. Andrews (LSAM); 1 female, Henry Ulke Beetle Coll. CMNH No.

1645 (CMNH); 1 female, Baton Rouge, 8-18-28, Attrahent Butyraldehyde, CE Smith

Coll, Norman Allen Coll (LSAM); 1 female, in pecan limb, Bellechase, V-12-1935, J.C.

Pritchett, N.O. # 12024 (USNM); 1 male and 1 female, Cameron Par., Grand Chenier,

Dead limbs coll., III-11-82: E. Riley, reared from dead limbs, emerged VIII-10-20, 1982

(TAMU); 1 female, E. Baton Rouge, Par., Baton Rouge, VI-1987, Coll. E.G. Riley

(TAMU); 1 female, E. Baton Rouge, Par., Baton Rouge, VI-1987, Coll. E.G. Riley,

reared from dead Cypress, T. disticum (TAMU); 1 male, Cameron Par., Grand Chenier,









Dead limbs coll., III1-11-82: E. Riley, reared from dead limbs, emerged V-9-, 1982

(TAMU); 1 female, M.A. Cazier Collector, Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 male, New Orleans,

24-IX-1974, V.A. Brou (FSCA); 1 male, New Iberia, 16/6/45, Collection H. Soltau

(USNM); 1 male, Grant Parish, 23-3-V-1972, Boll Weevil Sex Attractant Trap (LSAM);

1 male, Baton Rouge, East B.R. Parish, 6-VII-1982, R. Levy collector (LSAM); 1 male

and 1 female, Rapides Parish, 6-V-1973, Boll Weevil Sex Attractant Trap (LSAM); 1

male and 1 female, E. Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge, LSU, 9-11-V-1986, Coll. D.A. Rider,

collected at light (LSAM); 1 male, W. Feliciana Par., 5 mi. E Hwy 61; cabin, 15 Sept

2000, coll. A.R. Cline, MV light (ENPC); 1 female, EBR Par. nr. LSU campus, 31 July

2003, D. Henne collr. ex. Quercus virginiana (ENPC); 1 male and 1 female, New

Orleans, 31-III-45, Rau, in Cercis canadensis, 45-8777 (USNM); 1 male, St. Landry

Parish, 18-V-1974, C.E. Eastmand, in soy beans (LSAM); 1 female, St. Landry Parish,

13-VI-1974, C.E. Eastmand, in soy beans (LSAM); 1 female, St. Landry Parish, 30-V-

1974, C.E. Eastmand (LSAM); 1 female, Latourche Parish, near Chackbay, November

10, 2000, Coll. Sadie L. Granier (ENPC); 1 female, EBR Par., LSU Campus, 28 May

2001, A. Tishechkin, hand collected at lights (ENPC).

Specimens, 58 (all from TEXAS, USA): 20 males and 29 females, Brazos Col,

College Station, Riley Estate, 3035' 18"N, 9615 '12"W, emerged by IX-2003, Coll.

E.G. Riley, ex. Juniperus virginiana limbs cut, IV-2001 (TAMU); 2 males and 1 female,

Brazos Col, College Station, Riley Estate, 30035'18"N, 9615'12"W, emerged by V-15-

2002, E.G. Riley, ex. Juniperus (TAMU); 1 female, Oragne Co., Orange, 3010'25"N,

93045'36"W, V-25-1997, Coll. E.G. Riley 533 (TAMU); 1 female, Brazos Co, College

Station, Lick Creek Pk., X-31-XI-11-1998, M. Yoder, G. Gorena, B. Rodriguez & I.









Warriner, malaise trap (TAMU); 2 females, Brazos Col, College Station, Lick Creek Pk.,

IX-2-3-1995, R.R. Garces, Malaise trap (TAMU); 1 female, Brazos Col, College Station,

Lick Creek Pk., IX-23-30-1995, R.R. Garces, Malaise trap (TAMU); 1 female, M.A.

Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH).

Specimens, 18 (all from BAHAMAS): Holotype ofP. costatus Cazier (= P.

dentipes (Olivier)), male (Figure 2-la), South Bimini Isl., B.W.I., V-25-1951, Cazier &

Gertch (AMNH), 1 male, paratype of P. costatus Cazier (= P. dentipes (Olivier)), South

Bimini Isl., June 1951, M. Cazier, C. & P. Vaurie collectors (AMNH); 2 males,

Gladstone Road, Nassau, XI-24-1959, A.M. Nadler (AMNH); 1 male and 1 female,

Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, XI-1986, D.B. & R.W. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 4 females,

Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, 1-VII-1987, J.R. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 1 female,

Eleuthera, 9-15, Wickham collection, 1933 (USNM); 2 males and 1 female, Man-O-War

Cay, nr Abaco, Aug. 15-24, 1971, H. & A. Howden (WIBF); 1 male, Andros Isl., San

Andros, June 22, 1976, J.W. Smith and F.D.Bennett (TAMU); 1 male and 1 female,

Andros Island, Nicoll's Town, 6-VI-2001, coll. M.C. Thomas, beating palmetto & slash

(FSCA); 1 female, Andros Island, Bowen Sound, 8-VI-2001, coll. M.C. Thomas, beating

(FSCA).

Specimens, 67 (all from CUBA): 1 male, Holguin, 1904, Sharp Coll. 1905-313

(WIBF); 1 male, Cayamas, 1-6, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male, Cayamas, 10-1,

EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male, Cayamas, 12-5, EA Schwarz Collector

(USNM); 2 males, Cayamas, 10-6, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 female, Cayamas,

6-6, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male, Cayamas, 14-2, EA Schwarz Collector

(AMNH); 1 male, Camaguey, Col. J. Acuna, Julio 19 1923 (USNM); 1 male and 2









females, Cayamas, 29-5, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male and 1 female, Cayamas,

23-5, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 female, Cayamas, ?, EA Schwarz Collector, 290

(USNM); 1 female, coll. Geitner, Tippman Coll. '57, 213112 (USNM); 1 male, Soledad,

Cienfuegos, J. Bot. v. 1986, Las Villas (FSCA); 1 male, Soledad, 2-VI-1925, Museum of

Comparative Zoology (EMEC); 1 male, Soledad (Cienfuegos) May, 1936, Darlington,

Museum of Comparative Zoology (USNM); 1 female, Florida Bianca, nr. Alto Songo,

Oriente Prov., 23-24 MAY 1959, M.W. Sanderson, C59-3 (WIBF); 1 male, Smithsonian

Parish Expedition, Port Moa, Feb. 8, 1930, #14, 109546 (USNM); 1 female, Camaguey,

Sept. 26-21, Col. J. Rutz, finca "La Ciegas" vino a luz por noche (IESC); 2 males,

Camaguey, Col. J. Acufia, Julio 19, 1923 (IESC); 1 female, Niguero Cabo Cruz, Ote., VI-

1965, Col. Zayas-Valdes (IESC); 1 male, Loma la Llaga, Najasa, Cam., X-1964, Col.

Zayas (IESC); 1 female, Loma la Llaga, Najasa, Cam., V-1964, Col. Zayas (IESC); 1

male, San Felipe, Arroyo Blanco, L.V. 10-IV-1975, L.F. Armas (IESC); 1 male,

Tortuguilla, XII 1965, Prov. Ote, Zayas-Garcia (IESC); 1 female, Cienaga de Zapata, P.

Larga, V 1963, Las Villas, Alayo-Zayas-Garcia (IESC); 1 male, Cienaga de Zapata, V

1963, Las Villas, Alayo-Garcia (IESC); 1 male, Cienaga de Zapata, V 1963, Las Villas,

Alayo-Zayas-Garcia (IESC); 1 female, no label data (IESC); 1 female, Cuabitas, Stgo. de

Cuba Ote., P. Alayao, Col., VII-1950 (IESC); 1 male, Soledad, Cienfuegos, J. Bot, V

19?6, Las Villas, Col. Coralia Sanchez (IESC); 1 male, Cayo Canuco, Caibarien, L.V.II

1974, L.F. Armas (IESC); 30 specimens (FDZC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined

(MNHN); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, Playa Larga- Cienaga de Zapata- Matanzas. 15

X 1999, col. Sergio Devesa (SDPC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, Estaci6n Jarico-

Banao- Sancti Spiritus. 15 III 2006, col. Sergio Devesa (SDPC).




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REVISION AND PHYLOGENY OF THE TRIBE CURIINI LECONTE (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE: CERAMBYCINAE) By EUGENIO HERNN NEARNS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Eugenio Hernn Nearns

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To my parents, Joseph Eugene N earns and Bruna Palanza Nearns

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my supervisory comm ittee chair (Dr. Marc A. Branham) for his mentoring throughout my degree program. This work simply would not have been produced without Dr. Branhams support and gu idance. I also thank my other committee members, Dr. Steven W. Lingafelter for his guidance, generous support, and for suggesting this project; and Dr. Michael C. Thomas for his guidance and friendship, and for being the catalyst that led me to study cerambycids. For their friendship, advice, and encouragemen t, I am grateful to Joseph E. Nearns, Bruna P. Nearns, Bobbie Jo Nearns, Roberto Pandolfi, James E. Wappes, Roy F. Morris, Charyn J. Micheli, Julio Micheli, Frank T. Hovore, Miguel Monn, JC Marvin, Shane Bouchard, Jos Luis Aramayo, Julieta Led ezma Arias, Antonio B onasso, Teresita de Zayas, Donald W. Hall, Pete Coon, Debbie Hall, and my labmates in the Branham Lab: Jennifer M. Zaspel, Seth M. Bybee, and Kyle A. Buecke. I appreciate specimen loans and assistance from Michael C. Thomas and Paul E. Skelley (Florida State Colle ction of Arthropods); Robert Davidson and Bob Androw (Carnegie Museum of Natural History); John A. Chemsak and Cheryl Barr (Essig Museum of Entomology); Sharon Shute (The Natural History Museum); Lee Herman and David Grimaldi (American Museum of Na tural History); Ed Riley (Texas A&M University); Victoria Bayless and Andr ew R. Cline (Louisiana State Arthropod Museum); James E. Wappes (San Antonio, TX ), Roy F. Morris (Lak eland, FL); Robert H. Turnbow (Ft. Rucker, AL); Frank T. Hovore (Santa Clarita, CA); Steven W.

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v Lingafelter and Warren Steiner (National Muse um of Natural History); Charyn and Julio Micheli (Ponce, PR); Douglas Yanega (Uni versity of California Entomology Research Collection); Michael A. Ivie (West Indian B eetle Fauna Project); Angel Sols (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad); Nayla Garca Rodrguez and Ileana Fernndez Garca (Instituto de Ecologa y Sistemtica); the Zaya s family (Havana, Cuba); J. Howard Frank (University of Florida); Daniel Heffern (H ouston, TX); Francesco Vitali (Genova, Italy); Robert E. Woodruff (Gainesville, FL); Mi guel Monn (Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro); Kelvin A. Guerrero (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic); Sergio Devesa (San Vicente, Spain), Julie n Touroult (Paris, France); and Alain Audureau (Saint Gilles Croix de Vie, France). Finally, I would like to thank my wife a nd best friend of nearly 20 years, Jodi Nearns, for the encouragement and support to pursue my passion.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xiv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................1 Literature Review.........................................................................................................1 Life History and Host Plant Associations.....................................................................3 Fossil Curiini................................................................................................................4 Phylogenetic Analysis..................................................................................................4 2 NEW SPECIES DESCRIPTI ONS AND SYNONYMIES...........................................7 Introduction...................................................................................................................7 Materials and Methods.................................................................................................8 Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847..........................................................................8 Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30 = Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268), new synonymy.................................................................8 Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1 = Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186), new synonymy..............................................................9 Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262), new combination....................9 Plectromerus new species 1 Nearns....................................................................10 Plectromerus new species 2 Nearns....................................................................13 Plectromerus new species 3 Nearns....................................................................16 Plectromerus new species 4 Nearns....................................................................21 Plectromerus new species 5 Nearns....................................................................24 Plectromerus new species 6 Nearns....................................................................27 Plectromerus new species 7 Nearns....................................................................30 Plectromerus new species 8 Nearns....................................................................33

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vii 3 REVISION OF CURIINI LECONTE........................................................................48 Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304........................................................................................48 Key to the Genera of Curiini...............................................................................49 Genus Curius Newman, 1840: 17.......................................................................50 Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51...................................................50 Curius dentatus Newman, 1840: 17.............................................................54 Curius panamensis Bates, 1885: 268...........................................................62 Curius punctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55).............................................................65 Key to the Species of Curius ........................................................................68 Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43...........................................................68 Plectromerus acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344).....................................................69 Plectromerus bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16....................................................71 Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268).................................................73 Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186)............................................87 Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262), new combination...........93 Plectromerus exis Zayas, 1975: 123............................................................96 Plectromerus fasciatus (Gahan, 1895: 109)...............................................100 Plectromerus femoratus (Fabricius, 1792: 316).........................................104 Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19..............................108 Plectromerus lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25..............................110 Plectromerus navassae Nearns & Steiner, 2006: 63..................................113 Plectromerus ornatus Fisher, 1947: 34......................................................117 Plectromerus pinicola Zayas, 1975: 125....................................................118 Plectromerus pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33......................................123 Plectromerus ramosi Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30....................................126 Plectromerus serratus (Cameron, 1910: 185)............................................130 Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali, 2004: 453..................................................133 Plectromerus unidentatus Fisher, 1942: 17................................................134 Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, 1985: 81..................................................136 Key to the Species of Plectromerus ...........................................................139 4 PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS...............................................................................170 Introduction...............................................................................................................170 Materials and Methods.............................................................................................171 Taxon Sampling.................................................................................................171 Ingroup Taxa.....................................................................................................171 Outgroup Taxa...................................................................................................171 Specimen Preparation........................................................................................172 Character Sampling...........................................................................................173 Characters Used in Analyses.............................................................................173 Phylogenetic Methods.......................................................................................190 Results.......................................................................................................................191 Discussion.................................................................................................................191

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viii 5 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS........................................................................196 Introduction...............................................................................................................196 Materials and Methods.............................................................................................198 Results.......................................................................................................................198 Discussion.................................................................................................................199 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................203 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................212

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Classification of Cu riini LeConte, 1873: 304............................................................5 1-2 Revised classification of Curiini LeC onte, 1873: 304 as proposed by Nearns (in progress).....................................................................................................................6 2-1 Acronyms of entomological collections studied......................................................38 4-1 Data matrix of 36 taxa and 41 morphological characters.......................................193 5-1 Biogeographic distribution of Curiini....................................................................202

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x LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Four species of Plectromerus ...................................................................................39 2-2 Plectromerus new species 1 Nearns, holotype, male...............................................40 2-3 Plectromerus new species 2 Nearns, holotype, female............................................41 2-4 Plectromerus new species 3 Nearns, holotype, male...............................................42 2-5 Plectromerus new species 4 Nearns, holotype, male...............................................43 2-6 Plectromerus new species 5 Nearns, holotype, female............................................44 2-7 Plectromerus new species 6 Nearns, holotype, female............................................45 2-8 Plectromerus new species 7 Nearns.........................................................................46 2-9 Plectromerus new species 8 Nearns, holotype, male...............................................47 3-1 Four species of Curius ............................................................................................143 3-2 Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray.............................................................................144 3-3 Curius dentatus Newman, male.............................................................................145 3-4 Curius panamensis Bates, male.............................................................................146 3-5 Curius punctatus (Fisher).......................................................................................147 3-6 Plectromerus acunai (Fisher).................................................................................148 3-7 Plectromerus bidentatus Fisher, male....................................................................149 3-8 Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier), male...................................................................150 3-9 Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype, female...........................................151 3-10 Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) (= Curiosa dominicana ), dorsal habitus, illustration by Julio Micheli (1983)........................................................................152

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xi 3-11 Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) (= Curiosa dominicana ).............................153 3-12 Plectromerus exis Zayas, male...............................................................................154 3-13 Plectromerus fasciatus (Gahan).............................................................................155 3-14 Plectromerus femoratus (Fabricius), holotype, male.............................................156 3-15 Two Plectromerus species in Dominican amber....................................................157 3-16 Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, holotype..........................................158 3-17 Comparison of antennal morphology.....................................................................159 3-18 Four species of Plectromerus .................................................................................160 3-19 Two species of Plectromerus .................................................................................161 3-20 Tegmen and parame res, ventral view.....................................................................162 3-21 Three species of Plectromerus ...............................................................................163 3-22 Plectromerus ornatus Fisher..................................................................................164 3-23 Plectromerus pinicola Zayas, male........................................................................165 3-24 Plectromerus pumilus Cazier & Lacey..................................................................166 3-25 Plectromerus serratus (Cameron), holotype, male................................................167 3-26 Plectromerus unidentatus Fisher, paratype, female...............................................168 3-27 Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, paratype, male....................................................169 4-1 Character 2: eye shape............................................................................................174 4-2 Characters 1 and 5 (arr ows point to setae).............................................................175 4-3 Character 6: scape with excavati on on dorsal surface (arrow points to excavation).............................................................................................................175 4-4 Character 7: length of third antennomere compared to fourth (arrow points to fourth antennomere)...............................................................................................176 4-5 Character 8: length of fifth antennomer e compared to fourth (arrow points to fourth antennomere)...............................................................................................176 4-6 Character 9: antennae annulate..............................................................................177

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xii 4-7 Character 11: antennomeres 6-10 produced externally at apices on outer margins...................................................................................................................177 4-8 Characters 13 and 14 (a rrows point to setae).........................................................178 4-9 Character 16: pronotum, dorsal surface.................................................................178 4-10 Character 18: pronotum ornamented w ith distinct inverted Y marking.............179 4-11 Character 19: pronotal sides...................................................................................179 4-12 Character 20: pronotal constriction........................................................................180 4-13 Character 21: pronotal disk with scar or callus......................................................180 4-14 Character 22: males with sexuall y dimorphic prothoracic punctation...................182 4-15 Character 26: elytral apices....................................................................................183 4-16 Character 28: prosternal process between procoxae..............................................184 4-17 Character 29: procoxal cavities open behind.........................................................184 4-18 Character 30: prosternal process between procoxae..............................................185 4-19 Character 31: mesosternal process shape ( Plectromerus new species 8)...............185 4-20 Character 32: metafemoral armature......................................................................185 4-21 Character 33: if metafemora armed with one sharp tooth, then tooth with serrations on posterior margin................................................................................186 4-22 Characters 34 and 35..............................................................................................186 4-23 Character 36: basal (non-clavate) portion of metafemora compared to metafemoral club....................................................................................................187 4-24 Character 37: metafemoral shape...........................................................................187 4-25 Character 38: metatibial shape...............................................................................188 4-26 Character 39: length of meta tibia in relation to metafemur...................................188 4-27 Character 40: metalegs with first tars omere at least twice as long as second........189 4-28 Character 41: male genitalia...................................................................................190 4-29 Strict consensus (L = 207 steps, CI = 43, RI = 61) of four most parsimonious trees with characters states mapped.......................................................................194

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xiii 4-30 Strict consensus (L = 207 steps, CI = 43, RI = 61) of four most parsimonious trees. Bremer support values are report ed above the branch es, bootstrap support values (> 70%) are reported below the branches...................................................195 5-1 Map of the Caribbean.............................................................................................200 5-2 Area cladogram based on the strict cons ensus tree of four most parsimonious trees found in a phylogenetic analysis of Curiini...................................................201

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xiv Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science REVISION AND PHYLOGENY OF THE TRIBE CURIINI LECONTE (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE: CERAMBYCINAE) By Eugenio Hernn Nearns August 2006 Chair: Marc A. Branham Major Department: Entomology & Nematology A revision and phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Curiini LeConte, 1873 is presented. A phylogenetic an alysis of Curiini employing 31 ingroup taxa, 5 outgroup taxa, and 42 morphological char acters was conducted. Results suggest that the tribe is paraphyletic with respect to the outgroup taxa chosen. The genus Curius is monophyletic and strongly supported by 7 synapomorphies. The genus Plectromerus is paraphyletic and strongly supported by 6 synapomorphies. Results of this anal ysis suggest that Curiosa dominicana Micheli, 1983 is a highly derived Plectromerus therefore, Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983), new combina tion, is proposed. Eight new species of Plectromerus are described and illustrated: Plectromerus new species 1 from Nicaragua, Plectromerus new species 2 from Guatemala, Plectromerus new species 3 from Costa Rica and Honduras, Plectromerus new species 4 and Plectromerus new species 8 from Dominican Republic, Plectromerus new species 5 from Haiti, Plectromerus new species 6 from Cayman Islands, and Plectromerus new species 7 from

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xv Panama. The following new synonymies are proposed: Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952 = Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790), and Plectromerus crenulatu s Cazier, 1952 = Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910). Diagnoses of all known curiine species are presented with notes on distribution, diversit y, and relationships. New country records are reported for P. dentipes ; P. exis Zayas, 1975; P. fasciatus (Gahan, 1895); P. pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952; and P. wappesi Giesbert, 1985. Keys to the tribe as well as the four species of Curius and 27 species of Plectromerus are presented. A biogeographic analysis based on the result s of a phylogenetic anal ysis of the tribe suggests that more basal species of Curius and Plectromerus are of Antillean distribution while more derived taxa are of Antillea n, Central American, and South American distribution.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW The longhorned beetle tribe Curiini LeC onte, 1873 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) is a medium-sized group of Neot ropical cerambycid beetles. As currently defined, the tribe consists of three genera ( Curiosa Micheli, 1983; Curius Newman, 1840; and Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847) containing 29 ex tant and 2 extinct species. The genus Pentomacrus White, 1855 was synonymized with Plectromerus in 1985. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the trib e (Chapter 4), the synonymy of the monotypic genus, Curiosa Micheli, 1983, is proposed (Chapt er 2). The curiines are of predominantly Antillean distribution and show a high level of endemism, with 17 of 31 species occurring in Hispaniola and Cuba, and they also occur in the SE USA and range from SE Mexico to Vene zuela (Monn & Hovore, 2005). The tribe has traditionally been define d by the presence of following morphological characters: coarsely faceted eyes; a flat, tr ansverse head; and strongly clavate femora armed beneath with a broad toot h. In catalogs, the tribe has been placed in the subfamily Cerambycinae between the Ibidionini and Obriini. Literature Review The type genus of the tribe is Curius Newman, 1840 which currently contains four species: the type species for the genus Curius dentatus Newman, 1840 known only from SE USA; Curius panamensis Bates, 1885, known only from Panama; and Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006, known only from Venezuela. In his classic work Cerambycidae of North America, Linsley (1963 ) expressed doubt about the placement of

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2 C. panamensis in the genus Curius based on the original de scription and figure. Craighead (1923) described the larva of C. dentatus and noted that it shared many morphological characters with Euderces (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Tillomorphini). Fragoso (1978) illustrated the male and female genitalia of C. dentatus in his analysis of tribal classification within the subfamily. The genus Plectromerus was first treated by LeC onte (1873), LeConte & Horn (1883), and Leng (1885). Li nsley (1963) designated Obrium dentatum LeConte, 1824 as the type species (= Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790)). There has been some confusion about the generic at tributes of this genus and Pentomacrus (Linsley, 1963; Micheli, 1983; Micheli & N earns, 2005), but no previous revisionary work has been done. Cameron (1910) desc ribed two species in Pentomacrus and provided a key for this genus only. Cazier and Lacey (1952) co mmented on the taxonomic problem clouding these two genera and included both in a single ke y. Later, Giesbert ( 1985) stated that the differences were not sufficient to ju stify two genera and thus synonymized Pentomacrus with Plectromerus Though recent works still mention both genera (Pia et al., 2004; Vitali, 2004; Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser, 2003), no formal discussion about the revalidation of Pentomacrus has been made. Several workers provided keys to the Curiini (Arnett, 1973; Arne tt et al., 2002; Cameron, 1910; Cazier and Lacey, 1952; Micheli, 1983; Vita li, 2004; Vitali & R ezbanyai-Reser, 2003). The monotypic genus Curiosa was created with the description of Curiosa dominicana Micheli, 1983 from a single female specimen collected in the Dominican Republic. Micheli (1983) stated that this species fit Lins leys (1963) tribal definition with a few exceptions, the most significant in his opinion being the lack of coarsely-

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3 faceted eyes ( Curiosa has finely-faceted eyes) and the number of antennomeres ( Curiosa has 10-segmented antennae, all other described curiines have 11-segmented antennae). Only two additional specimens are known to have been collected since Michelis work, one female deposited at the National Muse um of Natural History (Washington, DC) and the other (sex undetermined) at the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, MA) (MCZWeb, 2006). Life History and Host Plant Associations Little has been published about the life hi story and host plant a ssociations for the majority of curiine species. With the exception of Plectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana ), all known curiine species have coarse ly faceted eyes and are thought to be nocturnal. The finely faceted eyes of Plectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana ) suggest that it may be diurnal. Various authors have listed host plant associations for P. dentipes a commonly collected species found in the SE USA (Lin sley & Chemsak, 1997; Monn, 1993; Ree, 2003). In general, curiines ar e attracted to light and may be collected by beating dead twigs and branches of various trees includi ng pine (Giesbert, 1985; Ree, 2003; Zayas, 1975). Plectromerus pinicola has emerged from cut pine branches (Zayas, 1975), Plectromerus fasciatus has been reared from girdled Inga ingoides branches (Chalumeau & Touroult, 2005b), and Plectromerus ramosi has been reared from Eugenia nr. ligustrina branches (Micheli & N earns, 2005). Females of Curius dentatus Newman were collected with pheromone-baited traps in Illinois (Lacey et al., 2004). Life history and host plant associations for the curiin es are not well understood and merit further study.

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4 Fossil Curiini At least 8 fossil curiine specimens are known from Dominican amber, dated from mid-Miocene, approximately 17-20 MYO (Gri maldi, 1996; Grimaldi & Engel, 2005). The first fossil curiine to be described was Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali from a single Dominican amber specimen (Vitali, 2004). Nearns & Branham (2005) described the second fossil curiine, Plectromerus grimaldii from Dominican amber and provided additional notes on the holotype of P. tertiarius Evans & Bellamy (1996) illustrated a well-preserved curiine fossil (pl. 41) whic h unfortunately is unavailable for study (G. Poinar, pers. comm.). Two additional curiine fossils in excellent condition are deposited in the private collection of Ettore Morone, Italy (D. Gr imaldi, pers. comm.), another undetermined curiine fossil is deposit ed in the American Meseum of Natural History (No. DR-10-1857), and two undetermined fossil curiines are deposited in the private collection of F. Vitali (Genova, Italy). Phylogenetic Analysis The Curiini have been somewhat arbitrar ily assigned to various genera (Linsley, 1963) and no previous revisi onary work has been done (Micheli & Nearns, 2005). A thorough revision and phylogeny, using morphological and fossil data is needed to test the monophyly of the tribe and discover the evolutionary history among the genera and species. Historical placement of the Cur iini within the subfamily Cerambycinae may provide insight for the selection of outgroup ta xa in a phylogenetic analysis. In addition, a modern key to the tribe is needed, as a ll existing keys are incomplete and outdated.

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5 Table 1-1. Classification of Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304. Curiosa Micheli, 1983: 261 dominicana Micheli, 1983: 262 Curius Newman, 1840: 17 chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51 dentatus Newman, 1840: 17 concinnatus Haldeman, 1847: 43 panamensis Bates, 1885: 268 punctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55) Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43 Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297 Curius ; Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840) acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344) bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16 costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30 dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268) dentatum J.E. LeConte, 1824: 172 scambus Newman, 1840: 79 distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186) ** exis Zayas, 1975: 123 fasciatus (Gahan, 1895: 109) femoratus (Fabricius, 1792: 316) femoratus White, 1855: 297 grimaldii Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19 (fossil) lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25 ornatus Fisher, 1947: 34 pinicola Zayas, 1975: 125 pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33 ramosi Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30 serratus (Cameron, 1910: 185) crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1 tertiarius Vitali, 2004: 453 (fossil) unidentatus Fisher, 1942: 17 wappesi Giesbert, 1985: 81 Classification based on Monn & Hovore (2005). Curius punctatus (Fisher) was transferred from Plectromerus by Nearns et al. (2005). ** Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron) was revalidated by Micheli & Nearns (2005).

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6 Table 1-2. Revised classificat ion of Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304 as proposed by Nearns (in progress). Curius Newman, 1840:17 chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51 dentatus Newman, 1840: 17 concinnatus Haldeman, 1847: 43 panamensis Bates, 1885: 268 punctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55) Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43 Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297 Curius Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840) Curiosa Micheli, 1983: 262 acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344) bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16 dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268) dentatum J.E. LeConte, 1824: 172 scambus Newman, 1840: 79 costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30 distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186) crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1 dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262) exis Zayas, 1975: 123 fasciatus (Gahan, 1895: 109) femoratus (Fabricius, 1792: 316) femoratus White, 1855: 297 grimaldii Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19 (fossil) lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25 ornatus Fisher, 1947: 34 pinicola Zayas, 1975: 125 pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33 ramosi Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30 serratus (Cameron, 1910: 185) tertiarius Vitali, 2004: 453 (fossil) unidentatus Fisher, 1942: 17 wappesi Giesbert, 1985: 81 new species 1 Nearns (in progress) new species 2 Nearns (in progress) new species 3 Nearns (in progress) new species 4 Nearns (in progress) new species 5 Nearns (in progress) new species 6 Nearns (in progress) new species 7 Nearns (in progress) new species 8 Nearns (in progress)

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7 CHAPTER 2 NEW SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS AND SYNONYMIES Introduction During the course of this revision, se veral taxonomic problems in the genus Plectromerus were identified: Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron) was revalidated by Micheli & Nearns (2005), Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier was found to be a junior synonym of P. distinctus and Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey was found to be a junior synonym of Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier). A phylogenetic analysis of Curiini (Chapter 4) suggests that Curiosa dominicana Micheli is a highly derived Plectromerus Therefore, a new combination, Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) is proposed. In addition, 12 new species of Plectromerus and one new species of Curius were noticed among specimens borrowed from various entomol ogical collections. Of these, five have already been described: Plectromerus lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, Plectromerus ramosi Micheli & Nearns, Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, Plectromerus navassae Nearns & Steiner, and Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray. The remaining eight new species of Plectromerus are described in this chapter. A phylogenetic species concept is applied in this study. Species are defined as the smallest aggregation of populations (s exual) or lineages (asexua l) diagnosable by a unique combination of character states in comp arable individuals (semaphoronts) (Nixon & Wheeler, 1990). Article 9 of the International Code of Z oological Nomenclature (2000) states that a thesis does not constitute a publication; therefore a manuscript is in preparation to publish these taxonomic changes and species descriptions.

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8 Materials and Methods Approximately 800 specimens from various entomological collections were studied (Table 2-1). Observations of the sp ecimens were made using a Nikon SMZ800 stereomicroscope with 20 eyepieces e quipped with a drawing tube. Habitus photographs were produced with the Microp tics Digital Lab XLT photography system, an Auto-Montage Pro system, and a Nikon C oolpix 995 with an Optem microscope adapter. Specimens were imaged with a JEOL JSM-5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope operated at 1.5kV. Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847 = Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297 = Curius Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840) Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30 = Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268), new synonymy Cazier & Lacey (1952) described Plectromerus costatus and stated that it was most closely related to Plectromerus dentipes but could be separated from it . . by the much larger and more densely placed punctures on th e pronotal disk and by the non-serrate, or but slightly serrate, posterior margin of the femoral spin e (Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 32). Unfortunately, the depository of the holotype of P. dentipes is unknown (Monn, 2005) and therefore, unavailable for study. However, after careful examination of the holotype of P. costatus (Figure 2-1a) and approximately 400 specimens of P. dentipes from USA, Bahamas, and Cuba, the characters menti oned by Cazier & Lacey (1952) were found to be variable in P. dentipes In P. dentipes metafemoral tooth serration ranges from very slightly serrate to moderately serrate. The size and dens ity of pronotal punctation in P. dentipes is also variable, suggesting one sp ecies instead of two (Figure 2-1b).

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9 Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1 = Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186), new synonymy Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser (2003) synonymized Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier and Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron) with Plectromerus serratus (Cameron) without comparing type specimens. Mich eli & Nearns (2005) restored P. distinctus from synonymy. The type specimens of P. crenulatus (Figure 2-1c) and P. serratus (Figure 325a) were examined carefully and differences between them suggest two species instead of one. The two species are similar but can be distinguished by the following characters: P. crenulatus has long, suberect hairs on the elytra and granulose punctures on the pronotum, whereas P. serratus lacks the hairs and granules and has microsculpturing on the pronotum. In addition, the type specimens of P. crenulatus (Figure 2-1c) and P. distinctu s (Figure 2-1d) were carefully examined and P. crenulatus was found to be a junior synonym of P. distinctus Both type specimens are female, collected in Haiti, and have long, suberect setae on the elytra, gra nulose punctures on the pronotum, similar metafemoral serrations, and metatibial curvature. Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262), new combination = Curiosa dominicana Micheli, 1983: 262 Micheli (1983) described Curiosa dominicana from a single female specimen, noting that it presented unusual char acters for a curiine. Indeed, C dominicana possesses several autapomorphies which are unique within the tribe, such as antennae with 10 segments (11 segments in Curius and Plectromerus ), scape distinctly longest antennomere (third or fifth dis tinctly longer than scape in Curius fifth distinctly longer than scape in Plectromerus ), finely faceted eyes (coarsely faceted in Curius and

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10 Plectromerus ), and each elytron ornamented with a small, yellowish marking (absent in Curius and Plectromerus ) (Figure 3-10, 3-11a-d). Howeve r, a phylogenetic analysis of Curiini (Chapter 4) suggests that C dominicana is a highly derived Plectromerus (Figure 4-29). Based on this analysis, a new combination, Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) is proposed. Plectromerus new species 1 Nearns Description : Male (Figure 2-2a-c). Lengt h 9.9 mm, width 2.2 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-2a. Ge neral form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with head, basal an tennomeres, portions of pronotum, venter, and femoral apices ferrugineus; each elytron test aceous with three major macular regions as follows: (1) basal third with a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, irregu lar macula beginning below humerus and reaching sutural midpoi nt; (2) a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, irregular macula from sutural midpoint to a bout apical third, not reaching margin; and (3) apical third testaceous, with broader, ferr ugineus, oblique, irregular macula from just below apical third to about below suture midpoint. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which ar e slightly raised and separated by about the width of two antennal sockets; vertex microsculptured, with dense, shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubes cence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antenn ae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as long as scape, about twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere longest, almost 4 times longer than fourth, about 1.5 times longer than third, antennomeres 6-10 becoming progressively shorter, eleventh slightly longer than tenth, basal antennomeres subcylin drical, from fifth m oderately flattened,

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11 apices of antennomeres 5-10 produced externa lly. Scape with short, recumbent, pale pubescence; antennomeres 2-8 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base, sides br oadly inflated, arcuatel y constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation ju st before apex; basal margin moderately arcuate; disk convex, slightly flattened, with one moderately raised, median callus at about the center, with two moderately raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to center, and two moderately raised, submedial calli slightly posterior to center; lateral margins of pronotum with patch of coarse, deep punctures, and two long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures. Su rface microsculptured, with dense, shallow punctures. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 3 times as long as width at humeri, about 3.3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, slightly sinuate around middle, somewhat evenly rounded to apex; elytral apices individually, broadly rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuat e. Elytral disk moderately concave medially, subsuturally, creat ing a distinct costa on each elytron; base of each elytron moderately raised. Elytral surface strongly shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at ba sal third; punctures b ecoming more shallow toward apex and sides, almost obsolete at apic al third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside with portions of prosternum strongl y shining, one irre gular patch of coarse, deep punctures front of and spanning th e width of the procoxae; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and

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12 about 0.3 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners (Figure 2-2b), prosternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface sh ining, sparsely and shallowly punctate. Metasternum surface shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with scattered deeper punctures and sparse suberect, pale hairs inte rspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, whic h is denser posteriorly. Abdomen shining; finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with spar se long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth stern ite broadly subtruncate, slightly shorter than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion of metafemora slightly shorter than metafemoral club; meso and metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with moderately de nsely, recumbent, short, pa le pubescence; clavate portion darker; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge strongly, deeply serrate, with about 14 serration peaks of uneven height and distribution, each peak with a short, curved, pale hair; me tatibiae very slightly sinuate, nearly straight, slightly flattene d, about 0.8 times as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; cl othed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coar ser distally (Figure 2-2c). Type : Holotype, male (Figure 2-2a), NICARAGUA, El. 1400m, Cerro Chimborazo, 13N, 85W, 20 Nov. 71, Stockw ell, beating dead branches (EMEC). Geographic distribution : Known only from Jinotega department, Nicaragua (Central America).

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13 Discussion : This species is described from a single male specimen, collected beating dead branches at 1,400 m elevation. The holotype desc ribed herein represents the only known specimen and nothing is known about its biology. From congeners, Plectromerus new species 1 can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: intricate elytral pattern; pronotal disk with moderately raised calli; fifth antennomere al most 4 times longer than fourth and about 1.5 times longer than third; and strongly, deeply serrate metafemoral teeth. Plectromerus exis (Figure 3-12a-c), Plectromerus new species 4 (Figure 2-5a-c), and P. lingafelteri (Figure 3-19a-c) also have rather intricate elytral pa tterns, however, P. exis can easily be distinguished by the distinct t ubercle in the center of the pronotum (Figure 3-12b) and very weakly serrate (almost sm ooth) metafemoral teeth in both Plectromerus new species 4 and P. lingafelteri Plectromerus new species 2 Nearns Description : Female (Figure 2-3a-c). Length 7.2-8.0 mm, width 1.7-2.0 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Fi gure 2-3a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument te staceous, with portions of pronotum, scutellum and femoral apices ferrugineus; each elytron testaceous w ith three major macular regions as follows: (1) basal third with a ferrugi neus, oblique, narrow, macula beginning below humerus and reaching sutural midpoint; (2) a ferrugineus oblique, narrow, macula from sutural midpoint to just above apical third; and (3 ) apical third testaceous, with ferrugineus, arcuate-transverse, macula. Head with front nearly flat, tr ansverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, nearly flat between antennal tubercles, which are very slightly raised a nd separated by about the width of two antennal sockets; vertex microsculptured, with modera tely dense, shallow punctures; vertex with

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14 short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segm ented, about as long as body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as long as scape, about 1.5 times longer than fourth, fifth antennomere longest, slightly more than twi ce as long as fourth, about 1.3 times longer than third, basal antennomeres s ubcylindrical, from fifth sli ghtly flattened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced externally, eleven th antennomere slightly longer than tenth. Scape with short, pale, recu mbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-6 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base, sides broadly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures; lateral margins of pronotum without patch of coarse, deep punctures, but with one long, sube rect seta anterolaterally. Surface opaque, microsculptured, very sparsely and shallowly punctate, with a slightly raised median callus; surface with moderately dense short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.6 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides moderately sinuate around middle (Figure 2-3c), evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices individually, broadly rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuate. Elytral disk moderately concave medially, subsuturally, creating a distinct costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface strongly shini ng; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex an d sides, almost obsolet e at apical third;

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15 each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside with prosternum moderately shining, area in front of procoxae without pa tch of coarse punctures ; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.3 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae graduall y declivous; procoxal cav ities open behind. Mesoand metasternum and surface moderately shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with dense, short, recumbent, pale pubes cence. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen moderately shining, finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen w ith sparse long, sube rect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine pale hair; fifth sternite br oadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion of metafemoral slightly longer than metafemoral club, mesoand metafemora moderately arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge moderately serra te, with about 20-24 serration peaks, each serration peak with a short, pale, curved hair; metatibiae strongly sinuate, slightly flattened, about half as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pa le pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-3b). Types : Holotype, female (Figure 2-3a), GUATEMALA, Izabal Dpto., Cerro Negro Norte, 15N, 88W, 1180m, 18-19. vii. 2001 DCH, DY, Univ. Calif. Riverside, Ent. Res. Museum, UCRC ENT 68968 (UCRC ). Paratype, 1 female, GUATEMALA, Izabal, 25km SE Morales, 900m, May 31-June 2, 1997, E. Giesbert, J. Monzon (FSCA).

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16 Geographic distribution : Known only from Izabal department, Guatemala (Central America). Discussion : This species is described from two females and the male is unknown. The type series described herein represen ts the only known specimens and nothing is known about its biology. From congeners, Plectromerus new species 2 can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: prono tal surface with moderately dense, short pubescence; each elytron with two distinct oblique maculae and one arcuate-transverse macula; and metafemora strongly pedunculateclavate with moderately serrate teeth. Plectromerus new species 2 is most similar to Plectromerus new species 3 (Figure 2-4ac) but can be distinguished by the moderate ly serrate teeth with about 20-24 serration peaks (strongly, deeply serrate with about 10-14 serration peaks in Plectromerus new species 3) and the three distinct maculae per elytron (two distinct maculae per elytron in Plectromerus new species 3). Plectromerus new species 3 Nearns Description : Male (Figure 2-4a-c). Length 5.8-6.8 mm, width 1.4-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Fi gure 2-4a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument te staceous, with portions of head, pronotum ferrugineus; each elytron testaceous with two major macular regions as follo ws: (1) basal third with a ferrugineus, oblique, narrow, macula begi nning below humerus and reaching sutural midpoint; (2) apical third w ith a ferrugineus, arcuate-tr ansverse, narrow, macula. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a medi an, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, shallowly concave and nearly fl at between antennal tubercles, which are slightly raised and separated by about th e width of two antennal sockets, vertex

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17 microsculptured, with scattered, shallow puncture s; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transver se, subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longe r than body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as long as scape, about twice as l ong as fourth, fifth ante nnomere longest, about 3 times longer than fourth, about 1.5 times longer than third, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly fla ttened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced externally. Scape with shor t, pale, recumbent pubescen ce; antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at mi ddle, slightly broader at apex than base, sides broadly inflated, arcuatel y constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin moderately arcuate; lateral margins of pr onotum with patch of coarse, deep punctures, and one or two long, suberect setae antero laterally. Surface opaque, microsculptured, very sparsely and shallowly punctate, with a slightly raised median callus; basal third of disk with one or two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 3 times as long as width at humeri, nearly 3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides moderately sinuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices individually, broadly rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuat e. Elytral disk moderately concave medially, subsuturally, creat ing a distinct costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface strongly shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punc tures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each punc ture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside

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18 with prosternum moderately sh ining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front of each procoxa (Figure 2-4b); narrowe st area of prostern al process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxa l cavity, and about 0.3 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cav ities open behind. Mesosternum surface moderately shining, sparsely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface moderately shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with sparse deeper punctures and suberect, pale hairs interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. A bdomen strongly shining; finely, shallowly punctate; with sparse long, suberect, pale hair s and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, metafemoral club about as long as basal portion, mesoand metafemora moderately arcuate, shining, clot hed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; unde rside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posteri or edge very strongly, distinctly serrate, with about 10-14 serration peaks, each serrat ion peak with a short, pale, curved hair; metatibiae strongly arcuate, slightly flattened, about 0.7 times as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; cl othed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coar ser distally (Figure 2-4c). Female. Length 6.2-6.8 mm, width 1.5-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides lack ing coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa. Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite.

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19 Types : Holotype, male (Figure 2-4a), HONDURAS: Francisco Morazn, El Rincon, 1 Dec. 1995, R. Turnbow (FSCA). A llotype, female, COSTA RICA, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., Tp Malaise, 1990, L-N 323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 070459 (INBio). Para types, 15 (all from COSTA RICA): 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste de l Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258383(INBio); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suro este del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258362 (INBio); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suro este del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258102 (INBio); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suro este del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258096 (INBio); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suro este del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, GNP Biodiv. Surv. Ju l 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 247525 (USNM); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258213 (INBio); 1 female, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, Lado suroeste del Volcan Cacao, Prov. Guan., MalaiseTp, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, L-N-323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 258079 (INBio); 1 male, Est. Maritza, 600m, lado O Vol. Orosi, Prov. Guanacaste, Tp Malaise, Ene a abr 1992, L-N 326900, 373000, INBIO CRI000 377644 (FSCA); 1 male, Est. Maritza, 600m, lado O Vol. Orosi, Prov. Guanacaste, Tp Malaise, Ene a abr 1992, L-N 326900, 373000, INBIO CRI000 377788 (ENPC); 1 female, Estac. Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanacaste, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, Malaise

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20 Tp. GNP Biod. Survey, INBIO CRI000 168806 (ENPC); 1 female, Estac. Cacao, 10001400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanacas te, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, Malaise Tp. GNP Biod. Survey, INBIO CRI000 168868 (INBio); 1 female, Estac. Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanac. Pr., Ma laise Tp. 1988-1989, GNP Biodiv. Survey, 323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 103614 (INBio); 1 female Estac. Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanac. Pr., Malais e Tp. 1988-1989, GNP Biodiv. Survey, 323300, 375700, INBIO CRI000 073785 (USNM); 1 female, Est. Maritza, 600m, lado O Vol. Orosi, Prov. Guanacaste, P. Cam pos, Feb 1992, L-N 326900, 373000, INBIO CRI000 888519 (FSCA); 1 male, Est. Cacao, 1000-1400m, SW side Volcan Cacao, Guanacaste, Jul 1989 Mar 1990, Malaise Tp. GNP Biod. Survey, NBIO CRI000168807 (INBio). Geographic distribution : Known only from Francisco Morazn department, Honduras; and Guanacaste province, Costa Rica (Central America). Discussion : This species is described from 17 specimens and the type series described herein represents the only known specimens. All specimens except the holotype were collected in Malaise traps, most at 600-1,400 m elevation. From congeners, Plectromerus new species 3 can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: pr onotal surface opaque, microsculptured; each elytron with one distinct oblique macula and one arcuate-transverse band; and metafemora strongly pedunculate-clavate with strongly, deeply serrate teeth. Plectromerus new species 3 is most similar to Plectromerus new species 2 (Figure 2-3ac) but can be distinguished by the strongl y, deeply serrate teeth with about 10-14 serration peaks (moderately serrate with about 2024 serration peaks in Plectromerus

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21 new species 2) and the two distinct macul ae per elytron (three distinct maculae per elytron in Plectromerus new species 2). Plectromerus new species 4 Nearns Description : Male (Figure 2-5a-c). Length 5.6-7.0 mm, width 1.3-1.5 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Fi gure 2-5a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of head, pronotum, and antennae ferrugineus; each elytron testaceous with th ree major macular regions as follows: (1) basal third with a ferrugineus, oblique, na rrow, irregular, vaguely defined, macula beginning below humerus and reaching sutu ral midpoint; (2) a ferrugineus, oblique, thicker, irregular, vaguely de fined, macula from sutural mi dpoint to about apical third, not reaching margin; and (3) apical third te staceous, with narrow, ferrugineus, oblique, irregular, vaguely defi ned, macula from just below api cal third to about below suture midpoint. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, somewh at concave between antennal tubercles, which are moderately raised and separated by the width of about 2.3 antennal sockets, vertex microsculptured, with dense, coarse shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, sl ightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere slightly longer than scape, nearly twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere longest, almost 3 times longer than fourth, antennomeres 6-10 becoming progressively shorter, eleventh antenn omere slightly longer than tenth, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly fla ttened, apices of antennomeres 5-10 produced externally. Scape with shor t, pale, recumbent pubescence; with shallow excavation dorsally; antennomeres 2-6 ciliate beneath w ith coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale

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22 hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide, widest at middle, apex about as wide as base, sides broadly inflated, arcuately cons tricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal marg in slightly arcuate; disk convex, somewhat flattened, with one moderately raised, median callus immediat ely posterior to center, and two moderately raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to center, and two smaller slightly raised, submedial calli slightly posterior to center (Figure 2-5b ); basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned s ubmedially, arising from deep punctures; lateral margins of pronotum with patch of co arse, deep punctures, and two long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Surface opaque, micros culptured, feebly shining, with portions of calli granulose. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.5 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, slightly sinuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex; each elytron individually, evenly rounded; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a mode rately raised costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surf ace moderately shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punc tures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each punc ture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside with prosternum moderately sh ining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front of procoxae; narrowest area of proste rnal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; pros ternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum su rface moderately shining,

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23 sparsely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface moderately shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with sparse deeper puncture s and suberect, pale hairs interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongly shining; finely, shallowly pu nctate; abdomen with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora gradually clavate, metafemoral club about as long as basal portion, mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge nearly smooth, ve ry weakly serrate, with indistinctly and irregular serration peaks; me tatibiae moderately sinuate, slightly flattened, about 0.7 times as long as metafemora, gradually expande d distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 2-5c). Female. Length 9.2 mm; width 2.1 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa. Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Types : Holotype, male (Figure 2-5a), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, La Cumbre de Puerto Plata, 2000', May 8-9, 1985, E. Giesbe rt, Coll. (FSCA). Allotype, female, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, La Cumbre, Puerto Pl ata, Prov., Puerto Plata, R.D., 26-XII1978, Cols. Dominguez-Silfa, M.N.H.N. (MNDR) Paratypes, 2 (all from DOMINICAN REPUBLIC): 1 male, same data as holotype (FSCA); 1 male, P. Plata Prov. 2000', La Cumbre Rsh. Sta., V-8, 9-1985, J. E. Wappes (JEWC).

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24 Geographic distribution : Known only from Puerto Plata province, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species is described from four specimens. The type series described herein represents the only known specimens and nothing is known about its biology. From congeners, Plectromerus new species 4 can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: scape with shallow excavation dorsally; pronotal disk with moderately raised calli; and metafemoral teeth very weakly serrate (almost smooth). Plectromerus new species 4 is most similar to P. lingafelteri (Figure 319a-c) but can be distinguished by the moderately raised pronotal disk calli (more weakly raised in P. lingafelteri ), testaceous integument (darker in P. lingafelteri ), and vertex of head with moderately dense, coarse, shallo w punctation (vertex of head with sparse, smaller, more shallow punctation in P. lingafelteri ). Plectromerus new species 5 Nearns Description : Female (Figure 2-6a-c). Lengt h 8.5 mm, width 2.1 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-6a. Ge neral form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of hea d, pronotum, and femoral apices ferrugineus; pronotum with dark reddish-brown to black m aculae; each elytron testaceous with two large, irregular, ferrugineus macular regions, one at basal third, the other at apical third, elytral apices testaceous. Head with front nearly flat, transv erse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond ve rtex, moderately concave between antennal tubercles, which are somewhat raised and separated by the width of about 2.5 antennal sockets, vertex microsculpture d, with moderately dense, shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform,

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25 shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven se gmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as long as scap e, only slightly longe r than fourth, fifth antennomere longest, almost twice as long as fourth, about 1.3 times longer than third, antennomeres 6-10 becoming progressively shorter, eleventh slightly longer than tenth, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fift h slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced externally. Scape microsculp tured with dense, shallow punctation; antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at base broader at base than apex, sides nearly parallel, slightly cons tricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; disk convex, with one strong ly raised, median callus at about the center, with two strongly raised, submed ial calli slightly anterior to center, and two moderately raised, submedial calli slightly posterior to center. Basal third of disk with one long, pale, suberect seta positioned submedially on each side, arising from a deep puncture (setae broken off); lateral margins of pronotum without patch of coarse, deep punctures; lateral margins with one slight ly raised callus just anterior to middle; pronotum with two or three long, suberect setae anterolaterall y. Surface strongly shining, microsculptured, with sparse, shallow punctation. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 3.5 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.7 times broader basally than pronotum at wide st point (at base); sides nearly parallel, slightly sinuate ar ound middle, evenly rounded to apex; elytral apices individually, evenly r ounded; epipleural margin slig htly sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, crea ting a faint costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse,

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26 and deep at basal two-thirds ; punctures becoming finer to wards apex and sides; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair; elytra with scattered, long, s uberect, pale hairs. Underside with prosternum strongly shining, with very sparsely and finely punctate, short, pale pubescence; narro west area of prosternal proc ess between procoxae about 0.3 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; pros ternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind (F igure 2-6b). Mesoand metasternum surface strongly shining, very sparsely and finely punctate. Metepist ernum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongly shining, finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with few long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine pale hair; fifth sternite br oadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion distinctly longer than metafemoral club, mesoand metafe mora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumb ent, short, pale pube scence; underside of each femoral club with a broad, acute, triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge nearly smooth, metatibiae s lightly sinuate, slightly fl attened, about 0.7 as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence distally (Figure 2-6c). Type : Holotype, female (Figure 2-6a), HAITI, Morne Guimy, 22km., SE. Fond Verrettes, 19 JUL 1956, 6500' B.&B. Valentine, Foret des Pins, Hardwood cloud forest, beating (WIBF, to be deposited at USNM). Geographic distribution : Known only from Morne Guimy, Haiti (Greater Antilles).

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27 Discussion : This species is described from a single female specimen collected beating at approximately 1,980 m elevation. The holotype de scribed herein represents the only known specimen and nothing is known about its biology. This species is a very distinctive from known congeners and can easily be distinguished by the combination of the fo llowing characters: third antennomere only slightly longer than fourth; pronotal disk w ith dark reddish-brown to black maculae and with strongly raised calli; and metafemoral club small, with tooth very weakly serrate (Figure 2-6a-c). Plectromerus new species 6 Nearns Description : Female (Figure 2-7a-c). Lengt h 6.7 mm, width 1.5 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-7a. Ge neral form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of ante nnae, and pronotum ferrugineus; head dark reddish-brown; each elytron testaceous with two vaguely defined macular regions as follows: (1) basal third with one narrow, tr ansverse, ferrugineus, macula not reaching epipleural margins, and (2) apical third with one thicker, subcircular, ferrugineus, macula not reaching epipleural margins. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just be yond vertex, nearly flat and very slightly concave between antennal tubercles, whic h are separated by about the width of two antennal sockets, vertex microsculptured, w ith dense, shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antennae eleven segm ented, about as long as body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as l ong as scape, a little longer than fourth, fifth antennomere longest, about twice as long as fourth, about 1.5 times as long as third, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slight ly flattened, apices of antennomeres 5-8

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28 slightly produced externally (antenno meres 9-11 missing on left antenna, and 5-11 missing on right). Scape with short, pale recumbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath with coarse, modera tely long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, about as wide at base as apex, sides slightly inflated, slightly constricte d at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin very slightly ar cuate; disk convex, some what flattened, with two very slightly raised, submedial inflations slightly anterior to center, and two smaller very slightly raised, submedial inflations slightly posterior to center; lateral margins of pronotum without patch of coarse, deep punctures, with one long, recumbent seta anterolaterally. Surface opaque, microsculpture d, slightly shining, with dense, shallow punctation, basal third of disk with tw o long, pale, recumbent setae positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.8 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, very slightly sinuate, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices individually rounded, nearly subtru ncate; epipleural margin sli ghtly sinuate (Figure 2-7c). Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each elytron; base of each slightly raised. Elytral surface moderately shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basa l third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; punctures each with a short, fine, pale, recumbent hair, with scattered long, suberect setae (each about as l ong as scape) (Figure 2-7c). Underside with prosternum moderately shini ng, with scattered, coarse, shallow punctation; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as

PAGE 44

29 wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; pros ternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface moderately shining, sparsely punctate with coar se, shallow punctures. Meta sternum surface moderately shining, with moderately dense, deep punc tures, with a few suberect, pale hairs interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen moderately shining; finely, shallowly punctate, with scattered coarse punctur es; abdomen with sparse l ong, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine pale hair; fifth sternite br oadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, metafemoral club slightly longer than basal portion, mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparse, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; und erside of each femoral club with a broad, acute triangular tooth; meta femoral teeth with posterior edge weakly, very shallowly serrate, with about 16 irregular serration peak s; each peak with a short, curved, pale hair; metatibiae nearly straight, very slightly sinuate, slightly fl attened, about 0.7 times long as metafemora, gradually expanded dista lly; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longe r and coarser distally (Figure 2-7b). Type : Holotype, female (Figure 2-7a), CAYMAN ISLANDS, Grand Cayman, West Bay (Town Hall Cresent), 21-VII-1-VIII -1986, Diderot Gicca, blacklight trap (FSCA). Geographic distribution : Known only from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands (Greater Antilles).

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30 Discussion : This species is described from a single female specimen collected in a blacklight trap. The holotype described he rein represents the only known specimen and nothing is known about its biology. From congeners, Plectromerus new species 6 can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: elyt ra with scattered l ong, suberect setae; pronotal disk microsculptured with dense, shallow punctation; and metafemoral teeth weakly, irregularly serrate. This species is very similar to P. wappesi and P. unidentatus in several characters including antennal segment proportions, pronot al disk punctation, shape of elytral apices, and metafemo ral and metatibial shape. However, Plectromerus new species 6 can be easily be distinguished from P. unidentatus by the scattered long, suberect setae on the elytra (ely tra without long, suberect setae P. unidentatus ), and from P. wappesi by the very weakly, irregularly serrat e metafemoral teeth (moderately, evenly serrate in P. wappesi ), and lack of scatte red long, suberect setae on scape, pronotal disk, and metafemora (scape, pronotal disk, and metafemora with long, suberect setae in P. wappesi ). Plectromerus new species 7 Nearns Description : Female (Figure 2-8a-d). Lengt h 6.2 mm, width 1.4 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 2-8a. Ge neral form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of h ead, pronotum, elytra, and femoral apices ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which are slightly raised and separated by the wi dth of about two antennal sockets; vertex microsculptured, with dense, shallow puncture s; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transver se, ovate, very shallowly emarginate.

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31 Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longe r than body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as long as scape, about 1.5 times l onger than fourth, fifth antennomere longest, slightly more than twice as long as fourth, about 1.5 times longer th an third, only slightly longer than sixth and seventh, el eventh slightly longer than te nth, about as long as scape, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fift h slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced externally. Scape with shor t, pale, recumbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-5 ciliate beneath with coarse, modera tely long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide widest at middle, sli ghtly broader at apex than base, sides broadly inflate d, arcuately constricted at basa l third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex, with scattered, long, suberect, pale hairs; basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures; la teral margins of pronotum with patch of coarse, deep punctures, and two long, suberect setae ante rolaterally. Surface opaque, slightly shining; pronotal disk somewhat wrinkled, moderately granulose. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.3 times as long as pronotal length, a bout 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at mi ddle); sides slightly sinuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex, elytra l apices individually, sinuately rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface strongly shining; punctation moderately dense, coar se, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almo st obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair; elytra wi th scattered, long, suberect, pale hairs. Underside

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32 with prosternum strongly shining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front of each procoxa; narrowest ar ea of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.3 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; pros ternal process between procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities very narrow ly open behind (Figure 2-8b). Mesoand metasternum surface strongly shining, sparsely and finely punctate. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pa le pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongly shining, sparsely and fi nely punctate, abdomen with two long, suberect, pale hairs per sterni te; fifth sternite broadly subt runcate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, metafemoral club slightly longer than basal portion, mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence and with sparse, scattered, suberect, pale hairs arising from shallow punctures; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular t ooth; metafemoral teeth with po sterior edge strongly, deeply serrate, with about 14-17 serration peaks; each peak with a short, curved, pale hair; metatibiae moderately sinuate slightly flattened, about 0.5 times as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; cl othed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coar ser distally (Figure 2-8d). Male. Length 5.0-6.8 mm; width 1.1-1.5 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides lack ing coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa (Figure 2-8c). Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded, a bout 1.5 times longer than preceding sternite.

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33 Types : Holotype, female (Figure 2-8a), PANAMA, Pan. Pr., 12 km N El Llano, 24 Jan 1993, F.T. Hovore, coll (USNM). Allot ype, male, PANAMA, Pma Province, Cerro Campana 850m, 8N, 79W, 12 Mar. 71 W. Biven (USNM). Paratypes, 2 (all from PANAMA): 1 female, Pma. Pr., Li ano-Carti Rd., Km-9, El. 350m., 16 Feb. Stockwell (FTHC); 1 female, C.Z., Di ablo, 2 April Wm. Biven (FSCA). Geographic distribution : Known only from Panama province, Panama (Central America). Discussion : This species is described from one male and three females. The type series described herein repr esents the only known specimens and nothing is known about its biology. This species is unusual among Plectromerus species in having the procoxal cavities very narrowly open behind (Figure 4-17b), similar only to P. dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana ). From congeners, Plectromerus new species 7 can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: prono tal disk opaque, moderately granulose; elytral apices individually, sinuately rounded; and metafe moral teeth strongly, deeply serrate. This species is most similar to P. wappesi but differs from it in having the pronotal disk somewhat wrinkled, nearly gra nulose (microsculptured with dense, round, shallow punctation in P. wappesi ), strongly, deeply serrate metafemoral teeth (moderately, evenly serrate in P. wappesi ), and elytra apices individually, sinuately rounded (jointly rounded to subtruncate in P. wappesi ). Plectromerus new species 8 Nearns Description : Male (Figure 2-9a-d). Length 8.5-10.2 mm, width 1.9-2.4 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Fi gure 2-9a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument te staceous, with portions of head, antennae, and elytra

PAGE 49

34 ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, shallowl y concave between antennal tubercles, which are slightly raised and separated by the wi dth of about two antennal sockets; vertex lightly microsculptured, with scattered, moderately deep pun ctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, moderately emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, sl ightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere about as long as scape, more than twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere longest, more than 3 times longer than four th, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antenno meres 5-10 produced exte rnally. Scape with short, pale, recumbent pubescence, with shal low to moderately de ep excavation dorsally (Figure 2-9d); antennomeres 27 ciliate beneath with coarse moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly wider at base than at apex, sides br oadly inflated, arcuatel y constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex, somewhat flattened, with one slightly rais ed, median callus immedi ately posterior to center, about as long as the fourth antennom ere, and two moderately raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to ce nter, and two smaller very sli ghtly raised, submedial calli slightly posterior to center; ba sal third of disk with one l ong, pale, recumbent or suberect seta positioned submedially, arising from d eep punctures; lateral margins of pronotum with patch of coarse, deep punctures, and one or two long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Surface opaque, microsculptured, moderately shining, with dense, moderately deep, somewhat evenly spaced punctation. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra nearly 3 times as long as width at humeri, about 3 times as long as

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35 pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader ba sally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, very slightly sinuate, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices individually rounded to weakly subtruncate; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each elytron; base of each slightly raised. Elytral surface moderately shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basa l third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair; elytral apices with few long, pale, suberect hair. Underside with prosternum strongly shining, with scattered, coarse, deep punctati on, one irregular patch of 2-3 coarse, deep punctures in front of each procoxa; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxa l cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae gradually declivous, procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface strongly shining, sparsely punctate with co arse, deep punctures. Metasternum surface strongly shining, with moderately dense, deep punctures, with a few suberect, pale hairs interspersed (Figure 2-9c). Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. A bdomen strongly shining; finely, shallowly punctate, with scattered coarse punctures; abdomen with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora gradually clavate, metafemoral club slightly longer than basal portion, mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparse, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad, acute triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge very weakly

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36 serrate, with indistinctly and irregular serration peaks; each peak with a short, curved, pale hair; metatibiae nearly straight, very sl ightly sinuate, slightly flattened, about as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally ; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longe r and coarser distally (Figure 2-9b). Female. Length 7.4-10.2 mm; width 1.8-2.4 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides l acking patch of deep, coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of puncture s in front of each pr ocoxa. Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounde d, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Types : Holotype, male (Figure 2-9a), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Pedernales, PN Sierra de Bahoruco, Las Abejas, 1150 m. at tree fall, Spec.ID: 6903, E. Nearns & S. Lingafelter 18-VI-2005 (USNM). Allo type, female, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Independencia, Sierra de Bahoruco, north sl ope, 13.5 km SE Puerto Escondido, 18-1218N, 71-31-08W, 1789 m. 24-26 Mar 2004, R. Davidson, J. Rawlins, C. Young, C. Nunez, M. Rial, ecotonal Pinus grassland, malaise trap, Sample 41183 (CMNH). Paratypes, 4 (all from DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ): 1 male and 2 females, Pedernales. La Abeja, 38 km NNW Cabo Rojo (18N, 71W ), 1160m. 13 July 1987, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson (CMNH); 1 male, Payaso, 13 July 1996, R. Turnbow (RHTC). Geographic distribution : Known from Barahona and Pedernales provinces, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species is described from si x specimens, several of which were collected at between 1,150-1,789 m elevation. The type series described herein represent the only known specimens and nothing is known about its biology.

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37 From congeners, Plectromerus new species 8 can be separated from congeners by the combination of the following characters: scape with shallow to moderately deep excavation dorsally; pronotal disk with slight ly to moderately raised calli; metafemora gradually clavate; and metafemoral teeth very weakly serrate. This species is most similar to P. fasciatus in several characters includi ng antennal segment proportions, gradually clavate metafemora, and very weakly serrate metafemoral teeth. However, Plectromerus new species 8 differs in having the pr onotum with dense, moderately deep, somewhat evenly spaced punctation (pronotum with dense, confluent, very shallow punctation in P. fasciatus ), and elytral apices with few long, pale, suberect setae (elytra with scattered to moderately dens e, long, pale, suberect, setae in P. fasciatus ).

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38 Table 2-1. Acronyms of entomo logical collections studied. AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom CMNH Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA, USA DHPC Daniel Heffern Private Collection, Houston, TX, USA EFGC Edmund F. Giesbert Collecti on, Gainesville (at FSCA), FL, USA EMEC Essig Museum of Entomology, Univer sity of California, Berkeley, CA, USA ENPC Eugenio H. Nearns Private Collection, Gainesville, FL, USA FDZC Fernando de Zayas Collection, Havana, Cuba FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, FL, USA FTHC Frank T. Hovore Private Co llection, Santa Clarita, CA, USA FVPC Francesco Vitali Priv ate Collection, Genova, Italy IESC Instituto de Ecologa y Sistemtica, Havana, Cuba INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica JAMC Julio and Charyn Micheli Pr ivate Collection, Ponce, PR, USA JEWC James E. Wappes Private Co llection, San Antonio, TX, USA LSAM Louisiana State Arthropo d Museum, Baton Rouge, LA, USA MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Ha rvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA MNDR Museo Nacional de Historia Natu ral, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic MNHN Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Havana, Cuba MNRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil REWC Robert E. Woodruff Private Collection, Gainesville, FL, USA RFMC Roy F. Morris Private Collection, Lakeland, FL, USA RHTC Robert H. Turnbow, Jr. Priv ate Collection, Ft. Rucker, AL, USA SDPC Sergio Devesa Private Collection, San Vicente, Spain TAMU Texas A&M Universit y, College Station, TX, USA UCRC University of California Entomology Research Collection, Riverside, CA, USA USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Wash., DC, USA WIBF West Indian Beetle Fauna Projec t, Michael A. Ivie, Bozeman, MT, USA

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39 Figure 2-1. Four species of Plectromerus A) Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, holotype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier), female, dorsal habitus. C) Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier, holotype, female, dorsal habitus. D) Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype, female, dorsal habitus.

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40 Figure 2-2. Plectromerus new species 1 Nearns, holotype, male A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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41 Figure 2-3. Plectromerus new species 2 Nearns, holotype, fema le. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ve ntral view. C) Lateral habitus.

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42 Figure 2-4. Plectromerus new species 3 Nearns, holotype, male A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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43 Figure 2-5. Plectromerus new species 4 Nearns, holotype, male A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of pronotum, lateral view. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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44 Figure 2-6. Plectromerus new species 5 Nearns, holotype, fe male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum. C) Close up of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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45 Figure 2-7. Plectromerus new species 6 Nearns, holotype, fe male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view. C) Lateral habitus.

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46 Figure 2-8. Plectromerus new species 7 Nearns. A) Holo type, female, dorsal habitus. B) Holotype, female, closeup of proste rnum. C) Allotype, male closeup of prosternum. D) Holotype, female, closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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47 Figure 2-9. Plectromerus new species 8 Nearns, holotype, male A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia ventral view. C) Closeup of metasternum. D) Closeup or scape excavation, dorsal view.

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48 CHAPTER 3 REVISION OF CURIINI LECONTE Curiini LeConte, 1873: 304 The longhorned beetle tribe Curiini LeC onte, 1873 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) is a medium-sized group of Neot ropical cerambycid beetles. As currently defined, the tribe consists of three genera ( Curiosa Micheli, 1983; Curius Newman, 1840; and Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847) containing 29 exta nt and two extinct species. The genus Pentomacrus White, 1855 was synonymized with Plectromerus in 1985 and the synonymy of a fourth genus ( Curiosa Micheli, 1983) with Plectromerus is proposed in Chapter 2. The curiines are of predomin antly of Antillean distribution but also occur in the SE USA, and range from SE Mexico to Venezuela. The tribe has traditionally been de fined by the presence of the following morphological characters: coarsely faceted ey es, a flat, transverse head, and strongly clavate femora armed beneath with a broad toot h. In catalogs, the tribe has been placed consistently within the subfamily Cerambycin ae between the Ibidionini and Obriini. A previous phylogenetic analysis of the Cur iini has not been conducted and the monophyly of the tribe is untested. Recent works on th e curiines have been provided by Vitali (2004), Vitali & Rezbanyai-Re ser (2003), Micheli & Nearns (2005), Nearns & Branham (2005), Nearns & Ray (2006), Nearns & Stei ner (2006), Nearns & Turnbow (2005), and Nearns et al. (2005). The genera of the Curiini were firs t grouped together by LeConte (1873) who included the genera Curius and Plectromerus in Group IV, the Curii and placed the

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49 tribe before the Obriini. LeConte also provi ded a description of the unifying characters for the tribe. In his Coleopterum Catalogus Aurivillius (1912) liste d the Curiini for the first time and included the genera Curius Plectromerus and Pentomacrus Leng (1920) and Blackwelder (1944) also placed the Curi ini before the Graciliini. Arnett (1973) placed the Curiini between the Ibidionini and the Hyboderini. Linsley (1963) and Downie & Arnett (1996) placed the Curiini be tween the Ibidionini and the Obriini. The more recent literature placed the Curiini be tween the Callidiopini and the Graciliini (Arnett et al., 2002; Monn & Hovore, 2003; Peck, 2005). Early workers provided very brief, non-sp ecific descriptions of new species and illustrations were either missing or of poor quality (Bates, 1885; Fabricius, 1792; Newman, 1840; Olivier, 1790; White, 1855). Improved work began with Gahans description of Pentomacrus fasciatus in 1895. Gahan (1895) also recognized that White (1855) and other workers ove rlooked Fabricius descri ption with regard to Pentomacrus femoratus Other notable workers include Fisher Linsley, and Zayas. Fisher was a prolific worker who described five new species of curiines from 1932 to 1947. Zayas (1975) described two Cuban species and provi ded illustrations to all described Cuban curiines except Plectromerus ornatus in his revision of the family. Linsley (1963) made a significant contribution when he provided a de scription of the tribe and keys to genera as well as species for North America. Key to the Genera of Curiini Previous keys to the genera of Cur iini were provided by Linsley (1963) and Micheli (1983). 1 Third antennomere distinctly longer th an scape; prosternal process between procoxae nearly straight (not gradually declivous). . . . . . . . . . Curius

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50 Third antennomere about as long or dis tinctly shorter than scape; prosternal process between procoxae gradually or abruptly declivous. . . . Plectromerus Genus Curius Newman, 1840: 17 Original description : Caput porrectum, oculis magnis, fer retundis, ad antennarum basim vix emarginatis; antennae corpore longicores, graciles, 11-articulatae, articulus 1us caeteris paull crassior, 2us brevis, 3us caeteris longior, 4us et sequentes longitudine fer aequales: prothora x capite dupl longior, dorso paull complanatus, lateribus convexus: elytra prot horace latiora, lateribus parallela, apice rotundata: pedes longitudine mediocres, femoribus tumidis, subts dente magno mediano armatis. (Newman, 1840: 17) Linsleys redescription : Form depressed; integument opaque. Ante nnae with fourth segment a little shorter than fifth. Pronotum rounded at sides; pr osternum with anteri or coxal cavities nearly contiguous. Legs with femora gr adually clavate. Abdomen with first segment as long as following 2 together. (Linsley, 1963: 134) Additions to Linsleys redescription : Fifth antennomere a little shorter to half as long as fifth. Males with sexually dimorphic, prothoracic punctation. Type species : Curius dentatus Newman, 1840. Geographic distribution : SE USA, Cuba, Panama, and Venezuela. Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51 Introduction : As currently defined, the genus Curius Newman, 1840 contains three species: Curius dentatus Newman, 1840, known from southeastern United States, Curius panamensis Bates, 1885, known only from Panama, and Curius punctatus (Fisher, 1932), an endemic Cuban species (Monn 2005; Monn & Hovore, 2005; Nearns et al., 2005; Peck, 2005). LeConte (1873) de signated the tribe Curiini (= Curii) with Curius as the type genus and synonymized Plectromerus concinnatus Haldeman, 1847 with C. dentatus Linsley (1963) provided a diagnosis of the tribe and genus based on the two North American species, C. dentatus and Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790). Zayas (1975) provide d a description a nd illustration of Pentomacrus punctatus Fisher, 1932 and Lingafelter & Nearns (2005) provided a

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51 color photograph of the holotype. Nearns et al. (2 005) transferred P. punctatus to Curius During the senior authors revisionary work on the tribe Curiini, 23 specimens of a new species of Curius collected in Aragua, Venezuela were discovered. The species described herein is the first re cord of a curiine in South America and represents a significant range extensi on for the genus. (Nearns & Ray, 2006: 49) Original description : Male. Length 8.4 mm, width 1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-1a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of head, antennal apices, pr onotum, elytra, apical portions of femora and tibiae, and sternum ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow groove from between eyes to just beyond vertex, concave between antennal tubercles, which are moderately raised and widely separated. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emarginate. Antennae elevensegmented, subcylindrical, about 1.5 times longer than body; scape slightly bowed, slightly longer than fourth antennomere, third antennomere longest, more than 2 times longer than fourth, slightly longer than fifth, fifth is second longest, seventh slightly longer than sixth. Antennom eres 2-8 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide, evenly rounded at si des, widest at middle, sli ghtly broader at base than apex, slightly constricted at basal third; disk convex, each side of pronotum with one long, suberect, pale hair anterolate rally. Surface opaque, granulate-punctate, with a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median impressions, for example, Fig. 3-2c); surface ornamented with ferrugineus markings as follows: a narrow, longitudina l, median vitta, extending from anterior margin to middle, where it is divided into two longitudinal vittae, which extend to the base, a thinner longitudinal sinuate vi tta on each side (Fig. 3-1a). Lateral margins of pronotum ferrugineus. Scutellum small, subquadrate, a little longer than broad, granulose. Elytra about 3 times as long as wi dth at humeri, a little more than 4 times as long as pronotal lengt h, about 1.4 times broader basally than pronotum at widest (at middl e); sides moderately sinua te around middle; elytral apices separately pointed; epipleural ma rgin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk nearly flat; base of each el ytron slightly raised. Elytral surface opaque, with three irregularly shaped, ferrugineus lateral vittae arranged as fo llows: one at basal half, two at apical half (Fig. 31a); punctation moderately de nse, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming shallower to wards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third. Underside with prosternum slightly shining, granulate-punctate, with raised nodules inters persed among a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median impressions) (Fig. 3-2a, c); prosternal process between coxae nearly flat, narrowe st area of prostern al process about 0.3 times as wide as coxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is cordate (Fig. 3-2a). Mesoster num surface shining, sparsely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface shining, spar sely punctate, with moderately dense deeper punctures. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale

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52 pubescence. Abdomen shining; sparsely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with a few long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly s horter than preceding sternite. Legs with femora clavate, mesoand metafemora slightly ar cuate, shining, clothed with recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a small, acute triangular tooth with posterior edge smooth; metatibiae near ly straight, very slightly sinuate; clothed with fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, beco ming longer apically. Female. Length 7.5-8.6 mm; width 1.5-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotum not as elongate, about 1.3 times as long as wide; pronotum and prosternum lacking gland por es, prosternum with sparse, shallow punctures with a short hair (Fig. 3-2d); na rrowest area of prosternal process 0.3-0.5 times as wide as coxal cavity (Fig. 3-2b). Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than pr eceding sternite. (Nearns & Ray, 2006: 51) Holotype : male (Figure 3-1a), VENEZUELA, Rancho Grande, II-14-21-1969, P. & P. Spangler, collected at blacklight (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, male, VENEZUELA, Arag., Ra ncho Grande, II-14-21-1969, P. & P. Spangler, collected at blacklight (USN M). Allotype, female, VENEZUELA, El Encantado, Arajua [sic] 30-VI-2001, Cope co llection (JAMC). Paratypes, 3 (all from VENEZUELA): 1 female, Ara gua, Rancho Grande, 1100 m., 17-20 I 1978, blacklight, cloud forest, J.B. Heppner (USN M); 2 females, Aragua: Geremba, 2050 m, VII.1991 (MNRJ). Additional specimens have been reported to us by Alain Audureau (Saint Gilles Croix de Vie, France), but were not availa ble for study in time for inclusion as part of the type series: 18 specimens, all from VENEZUELA, Aragua, Geremba (2050m), Alain Audureau, collection dates: 12/04/1999, 15/05/1999, 07/1999, 09/06/2000, 07/2002, 25/09/2002, 29/09/2002, 15/02/2003, 22/02/2003, 07/04/2003, 21/02/2004, 12/05/2005, 14/05/ 2005, 28/05/2005. (Nearns & Ray, 2006: 53) Geographic distribution : Known only from Aragua province, Venezuela (South America). Discussion : This species can be distinguished fr om its presently known congeners by the following characters: the third antennomere is longest, sli ghtly longer than the fifth and without a spine, the fifth antennomere is about twice as long as the fourth, and the elytral apices are separately pointed. Curius chemsaki can be confused with C. panamensi s and the two species share similar pronotal proportions and markings

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53 (Fig. 3-1a-b, e) as well as similar pro notal and prosternal punctation and nodules. However, the new species can be dist inguished by antennal morphology: both sexes of C. panamensis have a strong spine at the apex of the third antennomere (absent in C. chemsaki ) and the third antennomere is e qual to or slightly shorter than the fifth in C. panamensis (the third antennomere is slightly longer than the fifth in C. chemsaki ). Also, the pronotum and elytra of C. panamensis are clothed with short, pale, recumbent, m oderately dense hairs (absent in C. chemsaki ) and the elytral apices of C. panamensis are rounded (separately pointed in C. chemsaki ). Linsley (1963) defined the genus ba sed on the North American species, C. dentatus Based on Bates original desc ription and figure, Linsley (1963) expressed doubt about the placement of the only other Curius species at the time of his writing, C. panamensis Our detailed examination of the pronotal and prosternal punctation of C. dentatus C. panamensis C. punctatus and C. chemsaki revealed a new synapomorphy fo r the genus overlooked by previous workers, male-specific gland pores (rounde d, elevated tubercles with circular median impressions). Notes on sexual dimorphism seen in gland pores : Sexual dimorphism in pronotal and/or prosternal punctation has been noted in morphological descriptions of cerambycine species from several tribes (e.g. LeConte, 1873; Casey 1912; Dusham, 1921; Linsley, 1963; Mermudes & Napp, 2000; Mermudes & Napp, 2004; Monn & Napp, 2005; Micheli & Nearns, 2005; N earns & Steiner, 2006). Within taxonomic literature, male-specific puncture s have not previously been linked to aspects of natural history or behavior. We here include the presence of malespecific pheromone gland pores as a mor phological character a nd suggest that the presence of gland pores may indicate that volatile pheromones play a role in the reproductive behavior of this species. Histology and SEM studies of three cerambycine species revealed that male-spe cific punctures contain gland pores that are pheromone release sites (Iwabuchi, 1986; Nakamuta et al., 1994; Noldt et al., 1995). We have identified male-specific gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median impressions) on the prono ta and prosterna of C. chemsaki (Fig. 3-2c), as well as on the pr onota and prosterna of males of C. dentatus C. panamensis and C. punctatus (unpublished data). In a ddition, we have identified male-specific gland pores with a different morphological struct ure on the prosterna of another curiine, Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790) (un published data). Volatile pheromone production by curiine species is supported by the presence of C. dentatus in traps baited with synthetic ph eromone (Lacey et al., 2004). A recent morphological survey by Ray et al. (2006) used SEM to identify male-specific gland pores in 50 additional cerambycine species, suggesting gland pores are an informative morphological character that provides information about natural history. (Nearns & Ray, 2006: 54)

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54 Curius dentatus Newman, 1840: 17 = Plectromerus concinnatus Haldeman, 1847: 43 = Curius concinnatus Melsheimer, 1853: 106 Original description : Testaceus, obscurus, subtilitr ac crebr punctus; caput fuscum, antennae pallidae, articulis apice fuscis: prothorax testaceu s, vitt longitudinali ante marginem posticam divis, fusc: elytra testacea, fu sco nubila: femora apice lat fusca. (Corp. long. .275 unc. Lat. .075 unc.) (Newman, 1840: 17) Linsleys redescription : Male Form depressed; integument dull, brownish-testaceous, very obscurely pubescent; pronotum and elytra with vague longitudinal dark areas. Head densely, contiguously punctate; antennae exceeding elytral apices by about 3 segments, finely punctate, annulate, second segment much longer than broad, third segment longest, fourth segment much shorter than third, about 1/10 shorter than fifth. Pronotum flattened, sides rounded, surface very densely punctate; prosternum impressed, finely, densely punctate; me tasternum minutely punctate, sparsely pubescent, with scattered very coarse punctu res. Elytra nearly 3 times as long as subbasal width; surface sha llowly, moderately coarsely punctate, basal punctures mostly separated by 1 diameter or less; pubescence very short, obscure, sparse; apices rounded to suture. Legs with femora finely punctate and pubescent, gradually clavate, armed beneath with a tooth, larger on anterior pair; tibiae slender. Abdomen finely punctate, sp arsely pubescent, with a few coarse punctures, particularly at si des; fifth sternite shorter than fourth, subtruncate at apex. Length, 5-7 mm. Female Antennae exceeding elytral apices by about 2 segments; abdomen with fifth sternite longe r than fourth, rounded at apex. Length, 5-7mm. (Linsley, 1963: 134) Additions to Linsleys redescription : Males with pronotal and prosternal surface opaque, granulate-punctate, with a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median impressi ons) (Figure 3-3b); females l acking pronotal and prosternal gland pores, prosternum with sparse, shallo w punctures each with a short hair (for example, Figure 3-2d). Male specimens ex amined measured: length 5.0-9.2 mm, width 1.0-2.1 mm (measured across humeri); female specimens examined measured: length 5.010.0 mm; width 1.2-2.3 mm (measured across humeri). Male genitalia with parameres as in Figure 4-28a.

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55 Holotype : female (BMNH). Material examined : Specimens, 2 (all from ALABAMA, USA): 1 male, Baldwin Co., Rd Pecan, VII 1972 (JEWC); 1 male, Mobile, V.12.1957, B.K. Dozier, at light (FSCA). Specimens, 38 (all from FLORIDA, USA): 8 males and 1 female, Dixie Co., 4 mi. N. Old Town, May 18-20 1978, E. Giesbert, Co ll. (EFGC); 2 males, Dixie Co., 4 mi. N. Old Town, May 11-12 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 3 males and 1 female, 2-IX-77, Alachua Co., T.H. Atkinson (FSCA); 1 male and 2 females, Miami, V. 1917, 14,278, H. Klages Colln, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 female, Miami, V. 2, 14,278, H. Klages Colln, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 male, Miami, IV. 16, 14,278, H. Klages Colln, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 female, Hern ando Co., Withlacoo. S.F., Croom Area, beating dead branches, SpecimenID: 1459, Gino Nearns 07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 male, Liberty Co., Torreya S.P., at UV light, flood plain forest, Sp ecimenID: 3594, Gino Nearns 05/22/2004 (ENPC); 1 female, Ga dsden Co., Aspalaga Landing, UV light, SpecID: 6639, Nearns, Morris & Wappes, 29V-2005 (ENPC); 1 female, Polk Co., vic. Bartow, along Peace River, 29-IV-1990, R. Morris (FSCA); 1 male, Polk Co., vic. Bartow, along Peace River, 24-IV-1990, R. Mo rris (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Carn. Mus. Acc. 349 (CMNH); 1 female, Highla nds Co., Archbold Biol Stat., 14-18 April 1989, Chen Wen Young (CMNH); 1 female, Indi an River Co., SR512 .5mi W I-95, 1-10V-1977, Fla. Med. Ent. Lab., Suction trap ( FSCA); 1 female, Lake County, Alexander Spgs. Cpgd., 6 Mi. S. Astor Park, 21-IV-1975, at (UV) black light, J.B. Heppner collector (FSCA); 1 female, Leon Co., Tall Timbers Res. Sta., Hammoc k Wood Yard, 15-VIII1972, light trap (FSCA); 1 female, Gainesvill e, Alachua County, Grace Thomas Coll. V-

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56 1964, at light (FSCA); 1 male, Alachua Co., Gainesville, 22-V-1983, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 2 females, 3367 Hopk. U.S., Jun. 19/05 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Apalchcla [sic], Juniperus (USNM); 2 females, 3369 Hopk. U.S., Reared Nov. 10/05, Fiske WF Colr., Apalachicola, Taxodium distichum (USNM); 1 male, Crescent City, Coll Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM). Specimens, 41 (all from GEORGIA, USA) : 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 31 July 6 Aug. 1976, R. Turnbow (AMNH); 1 male, Clarke Co., Athens, 25 June 1972, R. Turnbow (AMNH); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, 2 July 1973, R. Turnbow (AMNH); 1 male and 1 fema le, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 6-13 Aug. 1976, R. Turnbow (USNM); 2 females, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 20-27 Aug. 1976, R. Turnbow (U SNM); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, 14 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 24-31 July 1976, R. Turnbow ( FSCA); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 25 June 2 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 25 June 2 Ju ly 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest, window trap, 16-23 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Forest window trap, 9-16 July 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Fo rest, window trap, 6-13 Aug.1976, R. Turnbow (USNM); 1 male, Clarke Co., Whitehall Fo rest, emerged, July 1974, R. Turnbow, ex. sweet gum (FSCA); 1 female, Jackson Co., Hardeman Forest, 5-7 Aug. 1975, R. Turnbow (AMNH); 1 female, Thomasvill e, V-12-1948, Werner-Nutting (EMEC); 4 males and 3 females, Sumter Co., 1982, W.L. Tedders, 83-1134, #33473, Host: Pecan (USNM); 1 female, Dekalb Co., VI-13-69 (TAMU); 1 female, Dekalb Co., VIII-1-79

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57 (JEWC); 1 male, Buena Vista, 3 VII 46, John Lutz III, J.C. Lutz Collection 1961 (USNM); 1 male, Grady Co., Beachton, 1-7VII-1967, E.V. Komareck, Sr.(USNM); 1 male, Greene Co., Rd Pecan, VII-1972 (JEWC); 1 male, 3744 Hopk. U.S., July 18/06 reared, WF Fiske Collector Griffen, Deodar (USNM); 1 male, 3744 Hopk. U.S., Nov. 12/07 reared, WF Fiske Coll ector, Griffen, Deodar (USNM) ; 1 female, 3744 Hopk. U.S., July 3/07 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Gri ffen, Deodar (USNM); 2 males and 2 females, 3744a Hopk. U.S., Jun. 26/06 reared, WF Fisk e Collector, Griffen, Deodar (USNM); 2 females, 1629b Hopk. U.S., reare d, WF Fiske Collector, Jesup, Taxodium ditichum (USNM); 1 male, 1629c Hopk. U.S., Apr. 29, 03, WF Fiske Collector, Jesup, Cupressus (USNM); 1 male, 3743 Hopk. U.S., Jun. 1/06 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Griffen, Deodar (USNM). Specimens, 5 (all from LOUISIANA, USA): 1 male, Baton Rouge, VII-21-22, O.W. Rosewall (LSAM); 1 male, St. Martin Par., 4mi S of Belle River, 20-VII-1995, D.A. Duerr II, 7-20 BP ST8 (LSAM); 1 male, Baton Rouge, X-22 1965, D.K. Pollet (LSAM); 1 male, Henry Ulke Beetle Co ll. CMNH Acc. No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 female, Covington, 28/5, Collection H. Soltau (USNM). Specimens, 6 (all from MARYLAND, USA) : 1 male, Calvert Co., Sunderland, ex. oak 1981, J. Glaser (CNMH); 1 male, Balt o Co., Towson, 7-VII-81, J. Glaser (CMHN); 1 male, Calvert Co., Battle Creek Cypre ss Swamp, 18 Aug. 1987, Collectors: A. & B. Norden & D. Williams (USNM); 1 male, Pl ummers I, 30.7., EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 2 females, Plummers I., 25.7, HS Barber Collector (USNM). One male, MISSISSIPPI, Hancock Co., 28.8, Collection H. Soltau (USNM).

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58 Specimens, 22 (all from NORTH CAROLI NA, USA): 1 female, Cleveland Co., June 7-19, 1970, at light, J.S. Ashe (TAMU); 1 female, Killdevil Hills, Dare Co., 27-VII1955, KV Krombein (USNM); 1 female, Killdevil Hills, Dare Co., 24-VII-1955, KV Krombein (USNM); 3 males, Catawba C o., Hog Hill, bl trap, 20-27-July-1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 2 males and 1 female, 3657 Hopk. U.S., Aug 20/07, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 3 males, 3657d Hopk. U.S., Oct 3 reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 female, 3188a Hopk. U.S., Apr. 7/06, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 2 males and 1 female, 3111G Hopk. U.S., Jul. 1-, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 female, 3111G Hopk. U.S., Aug. 8 reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 male, 3646c Hopk. U.S., Aug. 1-06, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 2 males, 3663 Hopk. U.S., Aug. 20/07, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 male, 3663P Hopk. U.S., Jun. 18/06, rear ed, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM); 1 female, 3663f Hopk. U.S., Aug. 1/06, reared, WF Fiske collector, Tryon, Pinus (USNM). One female, OKLAHOMA, Latimer Co., VII-85, K. Stephan (TAMU). One male, PENNSYLVANIA, York Co., 5mi NW Davidsburg, 23 VII 1971, PJ Spangler, black lite (USNM). Specimens, 19 (all from TE NNESSEE, USA): 1 female, Pulaski, July 8, 1946, at light near farm (USNM); 3 males, Boliv ar, Hardeman Co, July 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis (CMNH); 1 female, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 20-24 May 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis (CMNH); 1 female Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 4-11 June 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis (CMNH); 1 male, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 4-11 June 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis

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59 canadensis 1-III 1975 (CMNH); 3 males, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 27 Mar 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis 6-IV 1975 (CMNH); 3 females, Bolivar, Hardeman Co, 27 Dec 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis 8-III 1975 (CMNH); 4 males and 2 females, Bolivar Hardeman Co, 27 Mar 1974, R.D. Ward, emerged from Cercis canadensis 12-IV 1975 (CMNH). Specimens, 15 (all from TEXAS, USA): 1 male and 1 female, San Augustine Co., Piney Woods Conserv. Ctr., 14 mi. SE Br oaddus, VII-15-21-1993, E.G. Riley, Malaise trap (TAMU); 1 male, Sabine Co., E. Hemphill, Beech Bottom, VI-23-VII-2 1989, R. Anderson & E. Morris, malaise trap (TAMU) ; 1 female, Tyler Co., Kirby State Forest, 30N, 94W, V-19-VI-8-2003, E. Riley, Lindgren funnel trap (TAMU); 2 males, Sabine Co., 9 mi. E Hemphill, beech bottom VIII-25-IX-10-1989, R. Anderson & E. Morris, flight intercept trap, beechmagnolia forest (TAMU); 2 males, Tyler Co., Kirby State Forest, 304N, 94 03W, VII-20-VIII-24-2003, E.G. Riley, Lindgren funnel trap (TAMU); 1 male and 1 female, Sabine Co., 9 mi. E Hemphill, Beech Bottom VIII-6-16-1989, R. Anderson & E. Morris, Malaise trap, beechmagnolia forest (TAMU); 1 male, Montgomery Co., Jones St. Forest, 8mi. S Conroe, VI21-27-1987, R. Wharton, Malaise trap (T AMU); 1 female, Montgomery Co., The Woodlands, June 20-26 1977, J.E. Wappes (JEW C); 2 males, Chambers Co., I-10 at Trinity R., emerged IV-28/V-10 1993, D.J. Heffern, reared from Taxodium distichum colld II-12-1993 (TAMU); 1 male, Chambers Co., I-10 at Trinity R., emerged V-11/V31 1993, D.J. Heffern, reared from Taxodium distichum colld II-12-1993 (TAMU). Specimens, 24 (all from VIRGINIA, US A): 2 females, Essex Co., 1 mi. SE Dunnsville, 37N, 76W, 24 vi-9 viii 1992 Malaise trap, D.R. Smith (USNM); 1

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60 female, Essex Co., 1 mi. SE Dunnsville, 37 52N, 76W, 14 viii 2 ix 1993, Malaise trap, D.R. Smith (USNM); 4 male and 2 females, Cape Henry, vi-2, J.N. Knull (AMNH); 1 female, Arlington, 27 June 1950, J.G. Fran ciemont (USNM); 1 male, 6939 Hopk. U.S., Reared, A.D. Hopkins Collector, Virginia Beach, Pinus (USNM); 1 male, 11876i, Hopk. U.S., Aug 28-16 Reared, FC Craighead Collector, Falls Church, Acer rubrum (USNM); 1 male, Hopk. U.S. 12286, Reared Aug. 3-14, H.B. Kirk Collector, Falls Church, Pinus (USNM); 3 males and 3 females, Hopk. U.S. 12286, Reared 7/21/14 H.B. Kirk, H.B. Kirk Collector, Falls Church, Pinus (USNM); 4 females, 6923a Hopk. U.S., Reared, AD Hopkins Collector, Cape Henry, Pinus (USNM); 1 female, Collected on ? suet cage, Arlington, 7-2-32, FW Poos Coll., Fred W. Poos Collect ion 1955 (USNM). Specimens, 10 (all from WASHINGTON, D.C., USA): 5 males and 2 females, Henry Ulke Beetle Coll. CMNH Acc. No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 female, Coll. ML Linell, Ac. 5409 CollChasPalm (AMNH); 1 male, no label data (USNM); 1 male, 20.6, Coll Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM). Geographic distribution : Widely distributed in the SE USA (AL, DC, GA, FL, IL, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, PA, TN, VA). Discussion : This species (3-1c, 3-3a-c) is widely distributed in the SE USA. Lacey et al. (2004) collected a series of female specimens in pherom one-baited traps in Illinois. Linsley & Chemsak (1997) lis ted the following host plants: Acer spp., including A. rubrum Celtis Cupressus Juniperus Pinus and Taxodium distichum Curius dentatus is attracted to lights and ha s been collected in a variety of traps (Lindgren funnel, Malaise, flight intercept, and window) as well as reared from various hosts, including Cercis canadensis and sweet gum. Craighead ( 1923) described the larva of C. dentatus

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61 and noted that it shared ma ny morphological characters with Euderces (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Tillomorphini). Fragoso (1978) illustrated the male and female genitalia of this species in his analysis of the tribal classification within the subfamily Cerambycinae. In Newmans (1840) description of this specie s he stated that the holotype . . is in the cabinet of the Entomological Club. M onns (2005) catalog does not list where this type is deposited. However, a curator of Coleoptera at the BMNH stated that the holotype was included in the material donate d to the museum by the Entomological Club in 1844. The holotype is a female, 8.1 mm in length, and in very poor condition: the apical segments of the antennae are absent only the left metaleg is complete, the remaining legs have missing tarsi and the right proleg is missing the tibia. The holotype bears the following labels: handwritten number 298 registration Ent. Club/[18]44-12, handwritten determination label in Newmans hand Curius Newm,/ dentatus Newm; a second handwritten label: Curius dentatus Newman type in Arrows handwriting (S. Shute, pers. comm.). This species ranges in size from 5.0-10.0 mm in length. Male specimens examined measured: length 5.0-9.2 mm, width 1.0-2.1 mm (measured across humeri); female specimens examined measured: length 5.0-10.0 mm; width 1.2-2.3 mm (measured across humeri). This species is very similar to C. punctatus but can be separated by the following characters: eyes nearly subreniform (eyes ovate-emarginate in C. punctatus ); antennae very slightly flattene d (more strongly flattened in C. punctatus ); and femora with distal half distinctly da rker in most specimens (femora with knees distinctly darker in C. punctatus ).

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62 Curius panamensis Bates, 1885: 268 Original description : Oblongo-linearis, depressus, breviter incumb enti-pilosus, opacus, fusco-testaceus; antennis, articulis apice exceptis, femorum pedunculis, tibias et tarsis elytrorumque lituris, pallido-testaceis; antennis ( ) quam corpus duplo longioribus, tenuibus, pubescentibus et infra sparsim ciliates, sca po graditim clavate, articulis 3 et 4 apice extus acute productis, 5 quam caeteri multo longiori (quam 4us duplo longiori); thorace valde elongate, cylindric o subdepresso, punctulato, opaco; elytris apice conjunctim acute rotundatis passim creberrime punctulatis, fascia angusta antemediana, macula triangul ari suturali versus apicem, apice et vitta irregulari marginali pallide testaceis; pedibus valde elongates, femoribus longe pedunculatis, clavis subtus acute dentatis. Long. 4 lin. Hab. Panama, Tol (Champion). One example. (Bates, 1885: 268) Redescription : Male (Figure 3-1e, 3-4a-c). Length 6.4-10.7 mm, width 1.2-2.0 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-4a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument te staceous, with portions of h ead, antennal apices, pronotum, elytra, distal portions of femora a nd tibiae, and sternum ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, sha llow groove from between eyes to just beyond vertex, concave between antenna l tubercles, which are strong ly raised and separated by about the width of two antennal sockets; vertex granulose; wi th short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transver se, ovate-emarginate, deeply emarginate. Antennae eleven-segmented, subcylindrical, al most twice as long as body; scape slightly bowed, about as long as fourth antennomere; third antennom ere equal to or slightly shorter than fifth, almost twice as long as fourth, armed with acute mesal spine, fifth antennomere equal to or slightly longer than third. Scape and an tennomeres 2-8 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.7 times as long as wide, evenly rounded at si des, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base, slightly cons tricted at basal third; disk convex, each side of pronotum with one long, suberect, pale hair anterolaterally. Surf ace opaque, granulate-punctate,

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63 with a dense field of gland pores (rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median impressions) (Figure 3-4b); surface ornamented with ferrugineus markings as follows: a narrow, longitudinal, median vitta, extending fr om anterior margin to middle, where it is divided into two longitudinal vittae, which extend to the base, a thinner longitudinal sinuate vitta on each side. Lateral margins of pronotum ferrugineus. Scutellum small, subquadrate, a little longer than broad, granulose, with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Elytra about 3 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.2 times broader basa lly than pronotum at widest (at middle); sides moderately sinuate around middle; el ytral apices separately, narrowly rounded, forming a blunt point; epipleural margin moderate ly sinuate. Elytral di sk nearly flat; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral su rface opaque, with three irregularly shaped, broad, ferrugineus, lateral maculae arranged as follows: one at basal third, one at apical half, and one at apical third not quite reach ing elytral apices; puncta tion nearly uniformly spaced, moderately dense, deep at basal th ird; punctures becoming shallower towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical th ird; each puncture with a short, recumbent, pale hair. Underside with prosternum slightly shini ng, granulate-punctate with raised nodules interspersed among a de nse field of gland pores (r ounded, elevated tubercles with circular median impre ssions) (Figure 3-4b) ; prosternal process between procoxae nearly flat, narrowest area of prosternal process about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface sh ining, densely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface shining, densely and fi nely punctate, with scattered deeper punctures and a few long, suberect, pale hair s. Metepisternum clothed with short,

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64 recumbent, pale pubescence. Abdomen shining, clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence; densely and shallowly punctate; wi th a few long, suberect pale hairs; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slight ly shorter than preceding sternite. Legs with femora very gradually clavate; distal portion of femora and tibiae distinctly darker; mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, weakly shin ing, clothed with recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a small, acute triangular tooth with posterior edge very weakly serrate, nearly smooth; metatibiae n early straight, very slightly sinuate (Figure 3-4c ); clothed with fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer distally; metalegs with first tarsomer e about twice as long or longer than second. Female. Length 8.5-13.0 mm; width 1.7-2.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotum not as el ongate; pronotum and prosternum lacking gland pores, prosternum with sparse shallow punctures each with a short hair (for example, Figure 3-2d). Abdomen with terminal sterni te evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Holotype : PANAMA, Chiriqu: Tol. (BMNH). Material examined : Specimens, 18 (all from PANAMA): 1 male, C.Z., Barro Colorado Is., 9'N, 7951'W, 05-11-1997, Pickering-Windsor, Lot # 7319 (JEWC); 2 females, Panama Pr., Altos de Pacora, Jan 4-10, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female, C.Z., Barro Colorado Is., 9'N, 7951'W, 29-I-1997, Pickering-Windsor, Lot #7295 (USNM); 2 males and 1 female, Panama pr., Cerro Azul, 2200', Jan 4-9, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male and 3 females, Canal Zone, Vic. Ft. San Lorenzo, Jan 5 1983, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, C.Z., Ba rro Colorado Is., 9'N, 79'W, 05-11-1997, Pickering-Windsor, Lot #7819 (JEWC); 1 male C.Z., Barro Colorado Is., 9'N,

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65 79'W, 29-I-1997, Pickering-Windsor, Lot #7295 (JEWC); 1 male and 1 female, Panama, Cerro Azul, em. 26 Dec. 1991, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 female, Panama, Cerro Azul, em. 20-30 Jan. 1992, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 female, Pn Prv, C. Azul Altus de, Pacoras 4,10-I-94, JE Wappes (JEWC); 1 male, Vic. Ft. San Lorenzo, Jan 2 1983, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC). Geographic distribution : Known only from Panama province, Panama (Central America). Discussion : Curius panamensis is endemic to Panama and nothing is known about its biology. This species is most closely related to C. chemsaki but can easily be distinguished from all congeners by the presence of the mesal spine on the third antennomere. Curius punctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55) = Pentomacrus punctatus Fisher, 1932: 55 = Plectromerus punctatus (Fisher, 1932: 55) Original description : Male. Broadly elongate, rather strongly flattened above, and feebly shining. Above and beneath pale yellow, with the head, tips of antennal joints, sides of sternum, tips of femora, numerous irre gular spots on pronotum, and three broad, transverse, zigzag fasciae on each elytron, black. Head coarsely, confluently punctate, glabr ous, front rather strongly constricted by the eyes, with a narrow, longitudinal, me dian groove, broadly concave between the antennal tubercles, which are widely sepa rated, and rather str ongly elevated; eyes large, strongly convex, feebly emarginate, and widely separated from each other on the top. Antenna about one and one-half times as long as the body, sparsely clothed with short, inconspicuous pube scence, with numerous long, erect hairs on the underside of the joints, wh ich are slightly flattened, but unarmed at apices; first joint robust, cylindrical, arcuate, slightly expanded toward apex, and one-half as long as the third joint, which is distinc tly longer than the fourth; eleventh joint subequal in length to the tenth. Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, and s ubequal in width at base and apex; sides feebly, arcuately rounded, sli ghtly constricted at base; disk slightly uneven, and

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66 more or less flattened; surface glabrous, densely, coarsely, irregularly ocellatepunctate, irregularly scabrous, and ornament ed with black or dark brown spots as follows: A narrow, longitudinal, median vi tta, extending from anterior margin to middle, where it is divided into two long itudinal vittae, which extend to, or nearly to, the base, and from two to four round or elongate spots on each side. Scutellum transverse, broadly rounded at apex, and the surface glabrous. Elytra two and one-half times as long as pronotum, and at base feebly wider than pronotum at middle; humeri rather strongl y elevated; sides nearly parallel from base to near the tips, which are sepa rately, rather narro wly rounded; surface coarsely, densely punctate, scabrous in basal regions with a very short, inconspicuous hair in the center of each puncture, each elytron ornamented with three broad, transverse, zigzag fasciae, one near base, one at middle, and the other one at apical fourth. Abdomen beneath feebly, sparsely punctate and clothed with a few long, semierect hairs; last segment broadly rounded at ap ex. Prosternum broadly, transversely concave, glabrous, feebly, coarsely rugos e; prosternal process rather narrow between the coxal cavities, and strongly declivous poste riorly. Legs rather long, glabrous; femora strongly, abruptly clav ate, petiolate at bases, and each femur armed with a short tooth on underside near the apex; tibiae slightly flattened, and the anterior pair feebly arcuate. Female. Differs from the male in having the antennae only slight ly longer than the body, pronotum about as wide as long, and the surface coarsely, uniformly scabrous. Length, 5-10 mm.; width, 1.4-2.8 mm. Type locality. Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Type, allotype, and paratypes. U.S.N.M. No. 43736. Paratypes. In American Museum of Natural History and in S. C. Bruner collection. (Fisher, 1932: 55) Holotype : male (Figure 3-5a), CUBA, Sep. 7/ 30, Santiago de las Vegas, Habana, E.E.A. de Cuba No. 9399, Type No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, male (Figure 3-5a), CUBA, Sep. 7/30, Santiago de las Vegas, Habana, E.E.A. de Cuba No. 9399, Type No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM). Allotype, female, CUBA, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399, Nov.29/30, Santiago de Las Vegas, Habana, Allotype No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM) Specimens, 7 (all from CUBA): 1 female, paratype, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399, Nov.29/30, Santiago de Las Vegas, Habana, Paratype No 43736 U.S.N.M. (USNM); 1 ma le, paratype, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399,

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67 Nov.29/30, Santiago de Las Vegas, Habana, Pa ratype No, Punctatus Fisher (AMNH); 1 female, Minacarloza, Cienfuegos, XII-1-27, Wilson (FSCA); 1 female, paratype, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399, Nov 29/30, Santiago de las Vegas, Habana, J. Acua, Col. (IESC); 1 male, Casa de Visita FAME, Topes de Collant es, S. Spritus, Luz, Fecha 5-VI-2002, Col. R. Nunez Luz (ENPC); 1 specimen, sex undete rmined, Rio Yao, Sierra Maestra, Oct. 25/41, J. Acuna, col. (IESC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, E.E.A. de Cuba, No. 9399 (IESC). Geographic distribution : Known from Cienfuegos, Ciudad de la Habana, Granma, and Sancti Spritus provinc es, Cuba (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species (Figure 3-1d, 3-5a -c) is most closely related the C. dentatus (Figure 4-29). Nearns et al. (2005) transfe rred this species to Curius from Plectromerus Fisher (1932) stated th at the eight specimens in the type series emerged from native (Cuban) wood but the host plant is not reported. Fisher (1932) also stated that this species is allied to P. femoratus but it is clear that he never saw the type specimen of that very large, di stinct species (Figure 3-14a). Pia et al. (2004) listed this species from the Trinidad Mountains, Cuba. Male specimens examined: length 8.9-12.0 mm, width 2.0-2.7 mm (measured across humeri); female specimens ex amined: length 8.3-11.0 mm; width 2.0-2.5 mm (measured across humeri). This species is very similar to C. dentatus but can be separated by the following characters: eyes ovate-emarginate (eyes nearly subreniform in C. dentatus ); antennae more strongly flattene d (very slightly flattened in C. dentatus ); and femora with knees distinctly darker (femora with distal half distin ctly darker in most specimens of C. dentatus ).

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68 Key to the Species of Curius 1 Fifth antennomere equal to or only slightly l onger than fourth. . . . . . . . .2 1 Fifth antennomere about twice as long as fourth. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2(1) Antennae not distinctly fla ttened; distal half of femora distinctly darker than basal half; body length 5.5-10 mm (SE USA). . . . dentatus Newman (Figure 3-3a) -Antennae distinctly flattened; femora l knees distinctly darker; body length 9.012.5 mm (Cuba). . . . . . . . . . . . . punctatus (Fisher) (Figure 3-5a) 3(1) Third antennomere armed with spine, e qual to or slightly shorter than fifth; pronotum and elytra clothed with short, pa le, recumbent, moderately dense hairs; body length 6.5-15 mm (Panama). . . . . . panamensis Bates (Figure 3-4a) -Third antennomere without spine, slightly longer than fifth; pronotum and elytra not as above; body length 7.5-8.6 mm (Venezuela). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemsaki Nearns & Ray (Figure 3-1a) Genus Plectromerus Haldeman, 1847: 43 = Pentomacrus White, 1855: 297 = Curius Lacordaire, 1869: 352 (not Newman, 1840) Linsleys redescription : Form cylindrical, integument shining. An tennae with fourth segment very much shorter than fifth. Pronotum with sides n early straight; proste rnum with anterior coxae distinctly separated. Legs with femora suddenly clavate. Abdomen with first segment as long as followi ng 3 together. (Linsley, 1963: 135) Additions to Linsleys redescription Pronotum with sides nearly straight to gl obose. Legs with femora gradually to pedunculate clavate. Type species : Obrium dentatum J. E. LeConte, 1824 (Linsley designation, 1963: 135) [= Callidium dentipes Olivier, 1790]. Geographic distribution : SE USA, Mexico, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua Costa Rica, and Panama.

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69 Discussion : The genus Plectromerus Haldeman (1847) was first treated by LeConte (1873), LeConte & Horn (1883), and Leng (1885). There has been some confusion about the generic attributes of this genus and Pentomacrus White (Linsley 1963, Micheli 1983), but no thorough revisionary work has been done. Cameron (1910) described two species in Pentomacrus and provided a key for species of this genus only. Cazier & Lacey (1952) commented on the taxonomic problem clouding these two genera and included the species a ssigned to both within a single key. Subsequently, Giesbert (1985) stated that the suppos ed differences were not sufficient to justify two genera and synonymized Pentomacrus with Plectromerus Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser (2003) pr ovided a key for all species of Plectromerus which later was modified by Vitali (2004) to include a new fossil species and to subdivide the genus into two groups, Plectromerus and Pentomacrus (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 23) Plectromerus acunai (Fisher, 1936: 344) = Pentomacrus acuai Fisher, 1936: 344 Original description : Slender, subcylindrical, subopaque, uniform ly brownish yellow, the pronotum and elytra ornamented with dark brown markings. Head with front transverse, flat between the antennal tubercles, which are widely separated and feebly elevated ; surface feebly, coarsely, irregularly punctate, with a few long, erect hairs; eyes coarsely granulated, strongl y convex, elongate, feebly emarginate, widely separated from each ot her on the top. Antenna about as long as the body, unarmed, feebly, longitudinally cari nate, rather densely ciliate beneath with short, erect hairs. Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, cy lindrical, subequal in width at base and apex; sides nearly parallel, feebly sinuate ; disk slightly uneven, strongly convex; surface glabrous, feebly, coarsely, irregul arly punctate, ornamented with dark brown as follows: A small median spot a nd a narrow, sinuate, longitudinal vitta on each side. Scutellum transverse, broa dly rounded at apex, with the surface glabrous. Elytra three times as long as pronotum, di stinctly wider than pronotum; sides nearly parallel from base to apical fourth, then arcuately narrowed to the tips, which are separately arcuately, obliquely emarginate, with a large tooth at each outer angle; disk slightly flattened; surface glabrous, de nsely, coarsely punctate basally, finely, obsoletely punctate toward apices, and each elytron ornamented with three dark brown spots, one at basal fourth, one at middle, and one at apical fourth.

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70 Body beneath glabrous, impunctate; last abdominal segment broadly rounded at apex. Legs clothed with short, inco nspicuous yellowish pubescence; femora strongly, abruptly clavate, petiolate at ba ses, each femur armed on the under side near apex with a large tooth, which is smooth on posterior margin. Length, 9-9.5 mm.; width, 1.75-2 mm. Type locality. Loma del Gato, Sierra del Cobre, Oriente Province, Cuba. Type. United States National Museum, Cat. No. 51749. Paratype in the collection of S. C. Bruner. Described from two specimens collected by J. Acua (E. E. A. Entom. Cuba, No. 10815). The type was collected at the type locality, July 4-7, 1936, and the paratype was collected at Pico Turquino, Oriente Province, Cuba, at an elevation of 3,750 feet, June 10-29, 1936. (Fisher, 1936: 344) Holotype : female (Figure 3-6a), CUBA, Loma de l Gato, Sierra del Cobre, Oriente, July 4-7/36, J. Acuna, Col., E.E.A. C uba, Ento. No.10815, Type No. 51749 U.S.N.M. (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, female (Figure 36a), CUBA, Loma del Gato, Sierra del Cobre, Oriente, July 4-7/3 6, J. Acuna, Col., E.E.A. Cuba, Ento. No.10815, Type No. 51749 U.S.N.M. (USNM). Specimens, 24 (all from CUBA): 1 male, paratype, Pico Turquino, 3750 feet, E.E.A. Cuba, Ent o. No. 10815, Junio 10-29/36, J. Acua Col. (IESC); 1 male and 1 female, Soledad, Cien fuegos, XI-16 1927, Gavinas Wilson (FSCA); 2 females, Cardero, Turquino, Ote., X 1966, Col. I. Garcia (IESC); 1 female, Casa de Visita FAME, Topes de Collantes, S. Sp ritus, Luz, Fecha 30-IV-9-V.2002, Col. L. Garcia (IESC); 1 male, Casa de Visita FAME Topes de Collantes, S. Spritus, Luz, Fecha 30-IV-9-V.2002, Col. R. Nunez (IESC); 17 specimens, sex undetermined (FDZC). Geographic distribution : Known from Cienfuegos, Sancti Spritus, and Santiago de Cuba provinces, Cuba (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species (Figure 3-6a-c) is endemic to Cuba. Zayas (1975) redescribed this species in his revision of th e family and stated that he had collected a series at the following localities: Sierra Cr istal, Gran Piedra, Loma del Gato, Buenos

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71 Aires, and Topes de Collantes. Pia et al (2004) listed this speci es from the Trinidad Mountains, Cuba. The holotype measures : length 8.7 mm, width 1.8 mm (measured across humeri). This species most closely resembles P. bidentatus but can be easily distinguished by the metafemora armed with a single acute tooth (metafemora with two distinct acute teeth in P. bidentatus ). From P. dentipes this species can be easily distinguished by the apex of each elytron armed with a strong, acu te spine (elytral apices subtruncate to strongly truncate in P. dentipes ). Plectromerus bidentatus Fisher, 1942: 16 Original description : Slender, subcylindrical, rather strongly shining, uniformly pale brownish yellow, pronotum and elytra ornamented with dark brown markings. Head with the front transverse, flat be tween the antennal tubercles, which are widely separated and feebly elevated; su rface feebly, coarsely, irregularly punctate, finely densely granulose, with a few l ong, erect hairs; eyes feebly emarginate, strongly convex, coarsely granulated, and very widely separated from each other on the top. Antenna about as long as the body, unarmed, slightly flattened, ciliate beneath with moderately long, erect hairs, the segments feebly, obtusely angulate on inner margins at apices. Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, cy lindrical, subequal in width at base and apex; sides parallel, feebly, broadly, arcuately constricte d on basal half; disk even, strongly convex; surface nearly smooth at middle, coarsely, sparsely, irregularly punctate at sides, indistinctly pubescent, ornamented with dark-brown markings as follows: A narrow, elongate, median spot, and a narrow, sinuate vitta on each side, the vitta not extending to base or apex, and more or less interrupted at the middle, Scutellum transverse, broadly rounded at apex, with the surface glabrous. Elytra nearly three times as long and dis tinctly wider than pronotum; sides nearly parallel from humeral angles to apical fifth, then feeb ly converging to the tips, which are separately feebly, broadly, arcuately emarginate with a large, acute tooth at the outer angle; disk s lightly flattened; surface rath er densely, coarsely punctate basally, more obsoletely punctate toward ap ices, with a few scattered, erect hairs, and each elytron ornamented with three narrow, transverse, zigzag, dark-brown markings, one at basal third, one near middle, and the other at apical third.

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72 Body beneath nearly glabrous, strongly shining; abdomen impunctate, the last visible sternite broadly r ounded at apex; prosternum coarsely, very sparsely, irregularly punctate. Legs clothed with short, inc onspicuous pubescence; femora petiolate, strongly, abruptly clavate, the anterior and middle pairs armed on the under sides near apices with a short, acute tooth, and th e posterior pair each armed with two acute teeth, which are not serrate on posterior margins; tibiae arcuate or sinuate. Length 7-8 mm., width 1.5-1.75 mm. Type local ity. Loma de la Pena, northwest of Constanza, Dominican Republic. Type and paratype. In the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., No. 23773. Paratype in the United States National Museum, No. 53735. Descri bed from three specimens (one type, sex not determined) collected at the type locality at an elevation of 5,000 feet, during August 1938 by P. J. Darlington, Jr. (Fisher, 1942: 16) Holotype : (sex not determined), DOMINIC AN REPUBLIC, Constanza: Loma de la Pea, northwest of Constanza, No. 23773 (MCZ). Material examined : Specimens 9 (all from DOMINICAN REPUBLIC): 2 males and 3 females, Duarte. Reserva Loma, Quita Espuela, Camelo, 13.2 km NNE San Francisco de Macoris, 19.46'N, 70 .52'W., 515 m. 6 Apr 2004, C. Young, R. Davidson, J. Rawlins, edge of wet broadl eaf forest, canopy trap, Sample 11293 (CMNH); 1 male, Duarte. Reserva Loma, Quita Espue la, Camelo, 13.1 km NNE San Francisco de Macoris, 19.44'N, 70.47'W., 512 m. 6 Apr 2004, C. Young, R. Davidson, J. Rawlins, burned patch in broadleaf fore st, canopy trap, Sample 11393 (CMNH); 1 male, La Vega. Cordillera Central, 4.1 km SW El Convento, 18-5038N, 70-42-51W., 1733 m. 31 May 2003, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson, C. Youn g, C. Nunez, P. Acevedo, montane forest with pines near pasture, canopy trap, Sa mple 22192 (CMNH); 1 male, Monsenor Nouel Prov., Cabo Vito 19-01.165N, 70.197W, 4 July 2004, beating C. J. Micheli, coll. (JAMC); 1 male, Prov. La Vega, ca. 10km E. Constanza, 1295m, 31AUG1988, beating in pine, guava forest, M.A. Ivie, T.K. Philips & K.A. Johnson (WIBF).

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73 Geographic distribution : Known from Duarte, La Vega, and Monseor Nouel provinces, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species (Figure 3-7a-c) is endemic to Hispaniola and has been collected beating vegetation and in canopy trap s. Male specimens examined measured: length 6.2-8.5 mm, width 1.5-1.9 mm (measur ed across humeri); female specimens examined measured: length 7.8-8.1 mm; width 1.7-1.8 mm (measured across humeri). The prosternal process between the procox ae is very distinctive in this species, being abruptly declivous instead of gradually declivous and not expanded distally as in all other known Plectromerus species (Figure 3-7c). Plectromerus bidentatus most closely resembles P. dentipes but can be easily distinguishe d by the apex of each elytron armed with a strong, acute spine (elytral ap ices subtruncate to strongly truncate in P. dentipes ). Plectromerus bidentatus and P. acunai both have the apex of each elytron armed with a strong, acute spine however, P. bidentatus can be easily distinguished by the metafemora armed with a two distinct acu te teeth (Figure 3-7b) (metafemora with one acute tooth in P. acunai ). Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790: 268) = Callidium dentipes Olivier, 1790: 268 = Obrium dentatum J.E. LeConte, 1824: 172 = Curius scambus Newman, 1840: 79 = Plectromerus costatus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 30, new synonymy Original description : Callidium thorace cylindrico, testaceum, elytris fasciis duabus fuscis, femribus dentatis, Ent. ou hist. nat. des ins. Il es t de la grandeur du Callidie mystique. Les antennes sont testaces, de la longueur du corps. Les antennules sont testaces, filiformes, avec le dernier article un peu plus gros que les autres. La tte est testace, & les yeux sont bruns; ils ont une petite chancrure co t de linsertion des antennas. Le corcelet est testac, arrondi, presque cylindrique. Lecusson est petit & arrondi postrieu ement. Les l ytres sont pointilles, testaces, avec des bandes obscures. Le dessous du corps & les pattes sont testaces. Les cuisses sont

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74 un peu rensles, & a mes chacune dune de nt, dont celle des postrieures est la plus longue. Il se trouve da ns lAmrique Septentriona le, la Gorgie. (Olivier, 1790: 268) Linsleys redescription : Male. Form elongate; subcylindrical; integument shining, brown or reddish-brown, pronotum and elytra with pale r areas; sparsely and very obscurely pubescent. Head finely, not densely punctate above; antenn ae exceeding elytral apices by about 2 segments, basal segments cylindrical, out er segments a little expanded at apex, scape a little longer than third segment, second segment longer than wide; fourth segment a little more than half as long as long as third segment, fifth segment 1 times as long as third segment, 2 ti mes as long as fourth, segments 5 to 10 successively decreasing in length, eleventh segment longer than tenth. Pronotum subcylindrical, 1 times as long as basal width, but little wider at middle, surface polished, shining, very sparsely punct ate; prosternum polished, glabrous, impunctate except for a group of coarse punctu res on each side in front of coxae. Elytra a little more than 2 times as l ong as basal width; surface coarsely punctate, punctures dense at base and in dark areas of basal 3/5, sparser in pale areas, very sparse and much finer over posterior 2/5; ap ices feebly truncate. Legs with femora suddenly clavate, armed beneath with a t ooth, finely punctate, thinly clothed with fine appressed pubescence. Abdomen shining, subglabrous, impunctate; fifth sternite broadly rounde d. Length, 6-8 mm. Female Antennae barely attaining elytral apices; prosternum glabrous and impunctate; abdomen with fifth sternite rounded at apex. (Linsley, 1963: 135) Holotype : USA, Georgia (depository unknown). Material examined : Holotype of Curius scambus Newman (= P. dentipes (Olivier)), male (BMNH). Specimens, 9 (all from ALABAMA, US A): 1 male, 16-V-1948, W. Rosenberg (USNM); 1 male and 1 female, 19-V-1949, W. Rosenberg (USNM); 1 female, 6-V-1949, W. Rosenberg (USNM); 1 female, 14-V-1948, W. Rosenberg (USNM); 1 male, Baldwin Co., reared, pecan, 1971 (JEWC); 1 male, Baldwin Co., Rd: Pecan, 1972 (USNM); 1 female, Baldwin Co., 1972, Rd: Pecan (JEWC) ; 1 female, Highlands Co., H. Hammock St. Pk., 7-VII-94, RF Morris II (USNM). 1 male, CALIFORNIA, Orange Co., Palo s Verdes Peninsula, July 1995, F.T. Hovore, coll., inside hotel restaurant, alive on tabletop, walking on butter (ENPC).

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75 Specimens, 222 (all from FLORIDA, USA) : 1 male, L. Worth, 2.6, Coll Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Orlando, bred from pecan, 15 May 08, Chittenden No 317, Russell Coll (USNM); 1 male, Escambia Co., Sta. Rosa Isl., Ft. Pickens, 30.5N, 87W, MV UV light, 27-28 May 2003, A.K. & M.A. Tishechkin (LSAM); 1 male, Gainesville, 5-14-1947, H.V. Weems, Jr., at lig ht (FSCA); 1 male, Babson Park, R.E. Vild Coll. 12-X-61, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 male, Collection of Msr. A.T. Slosson, Ac. 26226 (AMNH); 1 male, L. Worth, 5-6, Schwar z, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 male, Crescent City, IV-24-08, Van Duzee Coll (AMNH); 1 male, Key Largo, C. Schaeffer Collection (AMNH); 1 male, Key Largo Key, Monroe Co., H.V. Weems, Jr. Coll. 3 IV 66, beating hammock vegetation at night (FSCA); 1 male, 3368, Hopk. U.S., May 8/05 reared, WF Fiske Collect or, Apalchcla [sic], evergreen scrub oak (USNM); 1 male, Paradise Key, Feb. 27, 1919, A Wetmore Collector (AMNH); 1 female, Everglade, Apr. 9(AMNH); 1 male, Ellio ts Key, C. Schaeffer Collection (AMNH); 1 male, L. Worth, C. Schaeffer Collecti on (AMNH); 1 male, Taylor Co., Williams Landing, 24-25-VII-1967, R. Smith (USNM); 1 female, 2-IX-77, Alachua Co., T.H. Atkinson, in window-pane trap with ethanol in hardwood hammock (USNM); 1 female, 23-V-78, Flagler Co., T.H. Atkinson, in window-p ane trap with ethanol in slash pine plantation (USNM); 1 female, 22-VI-78, Fl agler Co., T.H. Atkinson, in window-pane trap with ethanol in slash pine plantati on (USNM); 1 female, Key Largo, F.W. Mead Coll., 2 V 57 (FSCA); 1 male, Key Largo, Ma rch 23-24, 1973, ex brush pile, J.S. Ashe (TAMU); 1 female, St. Petersburg, W.C. Carroll Coll. 9 X 64, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Long Key, VIII-24-70 (TAMU); 1 female, Royal Palm Park, 9-IX-31, L Bottimer (USNM); 1 female, Ft. Lauderdale, 926-1962, Cat. No. 11109 (FSCA); 1 female,

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76 Knights Key, Marathon, XII-1-1970 (USNM); 1 female, Knights Key, Marathon, II-11971 (JEWC); 1 female, Marathon, Fla. Keys V-24-1971 (USNM); 1 female, Biscayne, 36.4, Coll Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 fema le, DeLand, G.W. Desin Coll. 10-X-61 (FSCA); 1 female, Paradise Key, Feb. 26. (USN M); 1 female, Miami, O.D. Link Coll., 26 III 49, S.P.B. Acc. 104064 (FSCA); 1 female, Ga inesville, 5-11-1947, H.V. Weems, Jr., 14279 (FSCA); 1 female, Matheson Hamm., D. R. Paulson Coll. II-15-57 (FSCA); 1 female, Jackson Co., F.W. Mead coll. 4 VIII 54, coll. at light (FSCA); 1 female, Courtnay, G.W. Desin Coll. 5 XI 63, in Stei ner Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Miami, XII 15 1961, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 3 females, Mi ami, V-27-1963, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 2 females, Monroe Co., Flamingo, Florida Bay, 26 November 1990, S. Thompson (CMNH); 1 female, Miami, V-2, H. Klages Colln, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 male and 2 females, Carn. Mus. Acc. 349 (CMNH); 1 female, ex Rhacoma crossopetim [sic], Big Pine, Schwarz & Barber (USNM); 1 female, no label data (AMNH); 1 female, Paradise Key, Mar. 1-, H Barber colle ctor (USNM); 1 female, Ormond Beach, John N. Pott Coll. 3-XI-67, in Stei ner Trap (FSCA); 4 females, Sea Horse Key, Levy Co., H.A. Denmark coll. 7 IX 57, at black light (FSCA) ; 2 females, Destin, G.W. Desin coll. 10 V 62, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 male and 2 fe males, Destin, R.E. Woodruff coll. 16 V 60 (FSCA); 1 female, 10087d, Hopk. U.S., H.S. Ba rber, Colr., Martha, Mar. 7/10 (USNM); 1 female, Dade Co., 10-XII-36, O.D. Link Coll. (FSCA); 1 female, Palmetto, VI-8-45, on weed, #45-13816 (USNM); 1 female, South Miami, IV-17-45, In Cassia pod, #45-7861 (USNM); 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Bi ol. Sta., 14-18-IX-1978, H.V. Weems, Jr. & Fred E. Lohrer, insect flight trap (FSC A); 1 female, Monroe Co., Key Largo, emerged 24-31 Dec. 1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 fe male, Long Key, Cotton Bloom, XI-11-32,

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77 CF Rainwater Coll., #88 (USNM); 1 male, Highl ands Co., Archbold Biol Sta., 8 mi. S of Lk. Placid, 7-VII-1988, P. Skelley, blacklight trap (FSCA); 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., UVL 1-X-1977, L.L. Lamp ert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., 29-IX-1980, UVL, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol Sta., UVL 20-IV-1976, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male, Highlands Co., Archbold Bi ol. Sta., 24-IX-1978, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male, Highlands Co., Archbold Bi ol. Sta., 25-IX-1978, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male, Archbold Biol. Sta., Lake Placid, 17-IX-1975, Rosenberg Collection (USNM); 1 female, Highlands Co., Archbold Bi ol. Sta., 8 mi. S of Lk. Placid, 30-VI1988, P. Skelley, beating bushes (FSCA); 1 fe male, Fort Pierce, St. Lucie Co., E.W. Campbell Coll. 31-XII-80, Jackson trap (FSCA) ; 1 female, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, 5V-1990, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 female, Da de Co., Miami, L.D. Howarton, 16-IV-84, Jackson Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Cudjoe Key, W.H. Pierce coll. 4-V-71, in McPhail trap (FSCA); 1 female, Monroe Co., Key Largo, emerged 11-20 Aug. 1979, R. Turnbow, ex Mastichodendron foetidissimum (Jacq.) Cronquist (FSCA); 1 female, Kissimmee, R.E. Vild, Coll. 19-XI-61 (FSCA); 2 females, Mascotte, C.L. Felshaw coll. 20-V-63, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Key La rgo, 16-III-1972, J. Wappes, UVL (FSCA); 1 female, Broward Co., Hollywood, 4-V-1994, B. Coy, X Citrofortunella microcarpa (FSCA): 1 female, Brevard Co., Merritt Isl ., F.A. Smith, 1-XII-81, Calamondin (FSCA); 1 female, Marathon, Fla. Keys, VII-10-1971 (AMNH); 1 female, Jupiter, XII.17.38, Acc. 36406, Collectors F.E. Watson, L.J. Sanford (AMNH); 1 female, Miami, Nov. 5.1911 (AMNH); 1 female, Fort Myers, Apr. 20-12 (A MNH); 1 male and 2 females, Marco, Apr. 19, (AMNH); 2 males and 2 females, Key Largo, Ac. 5409, Coll Chas Palm

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78 (AMNH); 1 male and 2 females, Marco, Ap r. 17 12, Wm. T. Davis Collection, from Sapodilla, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 female, Sanford, IV-26-08, Van Duzee Coll (AMNH); 1 female, Key Largo, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 female, Leng, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 female, Key Largo, Fla. Keys, III-22-1971 (AMNH); 1 fema le, St. Petersburg, W.E. Wynn Coll. 10 XI 64, in Steiner Trap (EMEC); 2 females, Ma natee Co., D.C. Chancey Coll. 30-VI-64, in Steiner Trap (EMEC); 1 female, East Braden ton, D.C. Chancey and Frederick Coll. 21V-64 (EMEC); 2 females, Miami, VI-13-1963, B.K. Dozier, Va. Key (EMEC); 1 female, Lake Placid, 7-13-1948, B.T. McDermott (E MEC); 1 male, St. Lucie, 20.4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 female, Biscayne, 17.5, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Monroe Co., VII.6.1961, Big Pine Key lights, C.F. Harbison, Nat. Hist. Mus. San Diego, Calif. Accn. No. 1961.c (EMEC); 1 female, Everglades N.P. XII.4.1961, Flamingo Prairie, C.F. Harbison, Na t. Hist. Mus. San Diego, Calif. Accn. No. 1961.c (EMEC); 2 females, L. Worth (AM NH); 1 male and 1 female, L. Worth, IV1918, 14.278, H. Klages colln, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 male, Miami, V-4, H. Klages Colln, C.M. Acc. 11414 (CMNH); 1 ma le, Coral Gables, IV-, from Jamaica, R.W. Swanson coll. (FSCA); 1 female, 3369, Hopk. U.S., reared Nov. 10/05, Fiske WF Collector, Apalachicola, Taxodium distichum (USNM); 1 male and 2 females, 3367, Hopk. U.S., June 19/08 reared, WF Fiske Collector, Apalchcla [sic], Juniperus (USNM); 1 male, Biscayne, 21-5, Coll. Hubbard & Sc hwarz (USNM); 1 male, Key Largo, R.E. Woodruff coll. 7 XII 66, J.H. Knowles Coll. 7 XII 66, beating at night (FSCA); 1 female, Longwood, G.W. Desin coll. 18 X 61, in Stei ner Trap (FSCA); 1 male, Orange City, G.W. Desin coll. 9 X 61, in Steiner Trap ( FSCA); 1 male, Big Pine, iii Schwarz (USNM);

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79 1 male, Paradise Key, Mar. 10 (USNM); 1 male, Miami, VI-1-1963, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 1 male, Miami, VI-13-1963, Va. Key, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 1 male, Paradise Key, 22-26-iii-19, CA Mosier (USNM); 1 male, Paradise Key, 13.3.19, HS Barber, Shoemaker Collection 1956 (USNM); 1 ma le, Key West, 20-III-12, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male, U.S.N.M. A cc. 10725, Wing mounted HG Good (USNM); 1 male, Bay Co., St. Andrews St. Rec. Ar ea, 13 May 1984, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male, Pinellas Co.: Weedon Key, 7-iv-1995, W. Lu (ENPC); 1male, Ft. Meyers, May 3-5, Van Duzee Wickham Collection 1933 (USNM); 1 male, L. Worth, Schwarz (AMNH); 2 males and 3 females, Key Largo, Catal. No. 1610, Brooklyn Museum Coll. 1929 (UNSM); 1 male, Key West, IV, Coll. Hubba rd & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Tampa, 21.4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 2 male s, Miami, VI-13-1963, B.K. Dozier, Va. Key (FSCA); 2 males and 1 female, Center Hill, E.W. Holder, Jr. coll. 20-IV-65, in Steiner Trap (FSCA); 1 female, Volusia C o., H.A. Denmark coll. 11-VIII-56 (FSCA); 1 male, Jefferson Co., Aucilla Wldlf. Mgt. Area jct. hwys 59 & 98, 11 June 1988, R. Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male, Pinellas C o., St. Petersburg, 10-VI-1982, K. Hickman, Calomondin (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female Up. Key Largo, Fla. Keys, III-18-1972 (JEWC); 1 male, Bradford Co., S. of Ke ystone Heights, G.B. Edwards, 13-X-1979 (FSCA); 1 female, Orlando, J.R. Woodley co ll. 25-X-61 (FSCA); 1 female, Monroe Co., Upper Key Largo, 10-VI-1994, R. Morris (FSCA); 1 male, Alachua Co., Gainesville, Doyle Conner Building, 6-VIII1990, P. Skelley, light (FSCA) ; 2 males, Broward Co., V17-1937, Pampano, D.R. Paulson coll., on P. clausa (FSCA); 3 males, Monroe Co., Key Largo, March 23, 1973, J.R. Ables (TAMU); 1 ma le, Dixie Co., 4 mi. N. Old Town, May 18-20 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, Dade Co., Matheson Hammock, Dec 15

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80 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female Dade Co., Matheson Hammock, Dec 16 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male and 1 fe male, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, May 1 1977, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Emgd Oct 19, 1977, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Emgd Jan, 1978, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female, Monr oe Co., Upper Key Largo, May 13-15 1979, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 male, Hernando Co., Withlacoochee State Forest, beating dead oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenID 1463, Gino Nearns 07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 female, Hernando Co., With lacoochee State Forest, beating dead oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenID 1466, Gino Nearns 07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 male, Hernando Co., With lacoochee State Forest, beating dead oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenID 1464, Gino Nearns 07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 female, Hernando Co., W ithlacoochee S.F., Croom Area, beating dead oak branches, Croom Moto. Area, near Brooksville, SpecmenID 1469, Gino Nearns 07/26/2003 (ENPC); 1 male, Monroe Co., Sugarloaf Key, along CR 939, beating mangrove & buttonwood, SpecID: 6119, 26-II I-2005, Nearns & Leavengood (ENPC); 1 female, Dade Co., Miami Bch, 16-XI-1989, W. Fr anchillon & D. Storch, sticky board in Terminalia catappa (FSCA); 1 male, Dade Co., Matheson Hammack Park, May 8, 1990, coll. E. G. Riely (TAMU); 1 female, Pascoe Co., Holiday, 10-10-1993, W.H. Yackley (CMHN); 1 male and 1 female, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Cactus Hammock, V-151990: Coll. E.G. Riley, night beating (TAM U); 1 male, Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Watsons Nature Trail & vic., V-14-1990: E. Riley (TAMU); 1 female, Monroe Co., Marathon, Point Crane Hammock, 5-V-1990, M. C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Jefferson Co., Aucilla Wldlf. Mgt. Area, jct. hwys. 59 & 98, 11 June 1988, R.

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81 Turnbow (FSCA); 1 male, Dade Co., Miami, 3-X-1988, D. Gruber, F.F.D trap (FSCA); 1 female, Key Largo, 18-III-1972, L.L. Lampert, UVL (FSCA); 1 female, Alachua County, Gainesville, NW 42nd Terrace, September 2000, JL Foltz (Frontalin + Turp. Lindgren Funnel) (ENPC); 1 male, Monroe Co., Uppe r Key Largo, VI-3-5-1993, Androw, Brattain, Keeney & Morris (CMNH); 1 male, Dade Co., Camp Mahachee, 8-IV-1991, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 female, Charlotte C o., Charlotte Harbor, 11-IV-1991, S. Wilson, Jackson trap (FSCA); 1 male, Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. St a.18-X-1980, UVL, L.L. Lampert, Jr. (FSCA); 1 male, Escambia Co., Sta. Rosa Isl., Ft. Pickens, 30.5N, 87W, beating dead twigs, 28 May 2003, A. K. Tishechkin (LSAM); 1 male, Orange Co., V-28-29, H Clark, Florida Fr uit Fly Trap Surv (USNM); 1 male, St. Augustine, CW Johnson Collector (USNM); 1 male, Paradi se Key, Mar 1-19, H Barber Collector (USNM); 2 males, Paradise Key, Apr. 27, CA Mosier (USNM); 1 male, Sebastian, Feb, 10, 1919, A Wetmore Collector (USNM) ; 1 male, Key Largo, M.A. Cazier Collector, Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 male, St. Pe tersbug, S.O. Storms Coll. 12-XI-64, in McPhail trap (FSCA); 1 male, Levy Co., H.V. Weems, Jr. Coll. 9-IX-55, coll. at light (FSCA); 5 males, Miami, VI-13-1963, B. K. Dozier, Va. Key (FSCA); 1 male, Hallandale, VII-1-1962, B.K. Dozier (FSCA); 2 males, Monroe Co., Fla. Keys, IV-3-51953, coll. E.L. Mockford (FSCA); 1 male, W ildwood, E.W. Holder, Jr., coll. 6-V-65, in Steiner trap (FSCA); 2 males, Henry Ul ke Beetle Collection, CMNH Acc. No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 male, John Pennekamp St. Par k, Key Largo, VI-17-1965, Collectors: L. & C.W. OBrien (EMEC); 1 male L. Harney, May 4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Biscayne, 27-4, Coll. Hubbard & Schw arz (USNM); 1 male, Marco, Apr. 19. (AMNH); 1 male, Dade Co., X 1953, L.N. Be ll, UA (EMEC); 1 male, Paradise Key, 27-

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82 II-, EA Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, St. Ni cholas, Collection WH Ashmead (USNM); 1 male, Bartow, 16.7, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 female, Crescent City, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Bi scayne, 17-5, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Biscayne, 29-4, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM); 1 male, Homestead, VIII-12-1960, R.M. Baronow ski (FSCA); 1 male, Key Largo, 14278, Shoemaker Collection 1956 (USNM); 1 male Monroe Co., 3 mi. NE Tavernier, Plantation Key, 12 DEC 1985, M.A. Ivie (W IBF); 1 male, 20-III-12, EA Schwartz Collector (USNM); 1 male, Hopk. U.S., Jun-1/ 05 reared, WFFiske collector, Apalchola, evergreen scrub oak (USNM). Specimens, 6 (all from GEORGIA, USA) : 1 female, Greene Co., Rd pecan, V1972 J. Wappes (JEWC); 1 female, Clinch Co., Rd pecan, VI+VII-1972 J. Wappes (JEWC); 1 male, Lowndes Co., VII-62 (FSCA) ; 1 male, Henry Ulke Beetle Coll. CMNH Acc. No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 male and 1 female, 16108, Hopk. U.S., Apr. 25/03, WF Fiske Collector, Brunswick, Cupressus (USNM). Specimens, 26 (all from L OUISIANA, USA): 1 female, E. Baton Rouge Parish, 26IX-1972, Coll. D.F. Andrews (LSAM); 1 female, Henry Ulke Beetle Coll. CMNH No. 1645 (CMNH); 1 female, Baton Rouge, 8-18-28, Attrahent Butyrald ehyde, CE Smith Coll, Norman Allen Coll (LSAM); 1 female in pecan limb, Bellechase, V-12-1935, J.C. Pritchett, N.O. # 12024 (USNM); 1 male and 1 female, Cameron Par., Grand Chenier, Dead limbs coll., III-11-82: E. Riley, rear ed from dead limbs, emerged VIII-10-20, 1982 (TAMU); 1 female, E. Baton Rouge, Par ., Baton Rouge, VI-1987, Coll. E.G. Riley (TAMU); 1 female, E. Baton Rouge, Par ., Baton Rouge, VI-1987, Coll. E.G. Riley, reared from dead Cypress, T. disticum (TAMU); 1 male, Cameron Par., Grand Chenier,

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83 Dead limbs coll., III-11-82: E. Riley, reared from dead limbs, emerged V-9-, 1982 (TAMU); 1 female, M.A. Cazier Collector, Acc. 38903 (AMNH); 1 male, New Orleans, 24-IX-1974, V.A. Brou (FSCA); 1 male, Ne w Iberia, 16/6/45, Collection H. Soltau (USNM); 1 male, Grant Parish, 23-3-V-1972, Bo ll Weevil Sex Attractant Trap (LSAM); 1 male, Baton Rouge, East B.R. Parish, 6VII-1982, R. Levy collector (LSAM); 1 male and 1 female, Rapides Parish, 6-V-1973, Bo ll Weevil Sex Attracta nt Trap (LSAM); 1 male and 1 female, E. Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge, LSU, 9-11-V-1986, Coll. D.A. Rider, collected at light (LSAM); 1 male, W. Felic iana Par., 5 mi. E Hwy 61; cabin, 15 Sept 2000, coll. A.R. Cline, MV light (ENPC); 1 female, EBR Par. nr. LSU campus, 31 July 2003, D. Henne collr. ex. Quercus virginiana (ENPC); 1 male and 1 female, New Orleans, 31-III-45, Rau, in Cercis canadensis 45-8777 (USNM); 1 male, St. Landry Parish, 18-V-1974, C.E. Eastmand, in soy bean s (LSAM); 1 female, St. Landry Parish, 13-VI-1974, C.E. Eastmand, in soy beans (L SAM); 1 female, St. Landry Parish, 30-V1974, C.E. Eastmand (LSAM); 1 female, Lat ourche Parish, near Chackbay, November 10, 2000, Coll. Sadie L. Granier (ENPC); 1 female, EBR Par., LSU Campus, 28 May 2001, A. Tishechkin, hand collected at lights (ENPC). Specimens, 58 (all from TEXAS, USA): 20 males and 29 females, Brazos Col, College Station, Riley Estate, 30 N, 96W, emerged by IX-2003, Coll. E.G. Riley, ex. Juniperus virginiana limbs cut, IV-2001 (TAMU); 2 males and 1 female, Brazos Col, College Station, Riley Estate 30N, 96W, emerged by V-152002, E.G. Riley, ex. Juniperus (TAMU); 1 female, Oragne Co., Orange, 30N, 93W, V-25-1997, Coll. E.G. Riley 5 33 (TAMU); 1 female, Brazos Co, College Station, Lick Creek Pk., X-31-XI-11-1998, M. Yoder, G. Gorena, B. Rodriguez & I.

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84 Warriner, malaise trap (TAMU); 2 females, Br azos Col, College Station, Lick Creek Pk., IX-2-3-1995, R.R. Garces, Malaise trap (TAM U); 1 female, Brazos Col, College Station, Lick Creek Pk., IX-23-30-1995, R.R. Garces Malaise trap (TAMU); 1 female, M.A. Cazier Collection Acc. 38903 (AMNH). Specimens, 18 (all from BAHAMAS): Holotype of P. costatus Cazier (= P. dentipes (Olivier)), male (Figure 2-1a), Sout h Bimini Isl., B.W.I., V-25-1951, Cazier & Gertch (AMNH), 1 male, paratype of P. costatus Cazier (= P. dentipes (Olivier)), South Bimini Isl., June 1951, M. Cazier, C. & P. Vaurie collectors (AMNH); 2 males, Gladstone Road, Nassau, XI-24-1959, A.M. Nadler (AMNH); 1 male and 1 female, Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, XI-1986, D.B. & R.W. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 4 females, Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, 1-VII-1987, J.R. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 1 female, Eleuthera, 9-15, Wickham collection, 1933 (U SNM); 2 males and 1 female, Man-O-War Cay, nr Abaco, Aug. 15-24, 1971, H. & A. Howd en (WIBF); 1 male, Andros Isl., San Andros, June 22, 1976, J.W. Smith and F.D.Bennett (TAMU); 1 male and 1 female, Andros Island, Nicolls Town, 6-VI-2001, coll. M.C. Thomas, beating palmetto & slash (FSCA); 1 female, Andros Island, Bowen S ound, 8-VI-2001, coll. M.C. Thomas, beating (FSCA). Specimens, 67 (all from CUBA): 1 male, Holguin, 1904, Sharp Coll. 1905-313 (WIBF); 1 male, Cayamas, 1-6, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male, Cayamas, 10-1, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male, Cayamas, 12-5, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 2 males, Cayamas, 10-6, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 female, Cayamas, 6-6, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male Cayamas, 14-2, EA Schwarz Collector (AMNH); 1 male, Camaguey, Col. J. Acuna, Julio 19 1923 (USNM); 1 male and 2

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85 females, Cayamas, 29-5, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 male and 1 female, Cayamas, 23-5, EA Schwarz Collector (USNM); 1 female Cayamas, ?, EA Schwarz Collector, 290 (USNM); 1 female, coll. Geitner, Tippman Coll. 213112 (USNM); 1 male, Soledad, Cienfuegos, J. Bot. v. 1986, Las Villas (FSC A); 1 male, Soledad, 2-VI-1925, Museum of Comparative Zoology (EMEC); 1 male, So ledad (Cienfuegos) May, 1936, Darlington, Museum of Comparative Zool ogy (USNM); 1 female, Florida Bianca, nr. Alto Songo, Oriente Prov., 23-24 MAY 1959, M.W. Sanders on, C59-3 (WIBF); 1 male, Smithsonian Parish Expedition, Port Moa, Feb. 8, 1930, #14, 109546 (USNM); 1 female, Camagey, Sept. 26-21, Col. J. Rutz, finca La Ciegas vino a luz por noche (IESC); 2 males, Camagey, Col. J. Acua, Julio 19, 1923 (IESC); 1 female, Niguero Cabo Cruz, Ote., VI1965, Col. Zayas-Valds (IESC); 1 male, Lo ma la Llaga, Najasa, Cam., X-1964, Col. Zayas (IESC); 1 female, Loma la Llaga, Najasa, Cam., V-1964, Col. Zayas (IESC); 1 male, San Felipe, Arroyo Blanco, L.V. 10-IV-1975, L.F. Armas (IESC); 1 male, Tortuguilla, XII 1965, Prov. Ote, Zayas-Garcia (IE SC); 1 female, Cienaga de Zapata, P. Larga, V 1963, Las Villas, Alayo-Zayas-Garcia (IESC); 1 male, Ci enaga de Zapata, V 1963, Las Villas, Alayo-Garcia (IESC); 1 male Cienaga de Zapata, V 1963, Las Villas, Alayo-Zayas-Garcia (IESC); 1 female, no label data (IESC); 1 female, Cuabitas, Stgo. de Cuba Ote., P. Alayao, Col., VII-1950 (IESC ); 1 male, Soledad, Cienfuegos, J. Bot, V 19?6, Las Villas, Col. Coralia Sanchez (IE SC); 1 male, Cayo Canuco, Caibarien, L.V.II 1974, L.F. Armas (IESC); 30 specimens (F DZC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined (MNHN); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, Playa La rgaCinaga de ZapataMatanzas. 15 X 1999, col. Sergio Devesa (SDPC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, Estacin JaricoBanaoSancti Spritus. 15 III 2006, col. Sergio Devesa (SDPC).

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86 Geographic distribution : Widely distributed in SE USA (AL, FL, GA, LA, TX), Cuba (Camagey, Cienfuegos, Guantnamo, Ho lgun, Santiago de Cuba, and Villa Clara provinces), and Bahamas, new country record (Abaco, Eleuthera, New Providence, and South Bimini Island). Discussion : This species (Figure 3-8a-c, 3-18e) is widely distributed in the SE USA, Bahamas, and Cuba. A single specimen r ecently collected in California is believed to be introduced (F.T. Hovore, pers. comm.). Zayas (1975) stated that P. dentipes is commonly collected throughout Cuba. Linsle y & Chemsak (1997) listed the following host plants: Carya pecan Cercis canadensis Conocarpus erectus Crossopetalum rhacoma Lysiloma latisliqua Metopium toxiferum and Quercus Plectomerus dentipes is attracted to lights and ha s been collected in a variety of traps (Lindgren funnel, McPhail trap, Jackson trap, fli ght intercept, FFD, Steiner tr ap, boll weevil sex attractant trap, traps baited with attrahent Butyraldehyde, and traps baited with frontalin + turp), and associated with various plants (ma ngrove & buttonwood, oak branches, sticky board in Terminalia catappa Juniperus virginiana in soy beans, Cupressus Pinus clausa Taxodium distichum calamondin, Sapodilla Citrofortunella and Mastichodendron foetidissimum ). Ree (2003) list this sp ecies as attacking pecan. Plectromerus dentipes ranges in size from 4.5 mm-9.0 mm in length. Male specimens examined measured: length 4.3-8.7 mm, width 1.0-2.2 mm (measured across humeri); female specimens examined m easured: length 4.5-9.0 mm; width 1.0-2.1 mm (measured across humeri). This species most closely resembles P. acunai and P. bidentatus but can easily be separated from both by the subtruncate to strongly truncate elytral apices (apex of each elytr on armed with a strong, acute spine in P. acunai and P.

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87 bidentatus ). In addition, the metafemora of P. dentipes are armed with a single acute tooth (metafemora armed with two distinct acute teeth in P. bidentatus ). Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910: 186) = Pentomacrus distinctus Cameron, 1910: 186 = Plectromerus crenulatus Cazier, 1952: 1, new synonymy Original description : Testaceous, rather shining. Head shallowly punctured, slightly infuscate on the front. Thorax almost cylindrical, mu ch longer than broad, with shallow puncturation, disc marked on either with ill-defined ferrugineus spot. Elytra shining testaceous, rather coarsely pu nctured, each marked with two ferruginous bands, one situated before the middle a nd convex backwards, the other placed behind the middle and slightly convex forw ards, each pair meets its fellow at the suture. Antennae and legs testaceous, all the femora armed with a tooth, that of the middle and posterior, larger and having the pos terior edge of the tooth of the hinder femora serrated. All the tibiae distinc tly sinuated. Length, 5 mm. Taken by sweeping near Port au Prince, Haiti, in February, 1908. (Cameron, 1910: 186) Redescription : Male. Length 4.0-6.0 mm, wi dth 0.9-1.3 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Fi gure 3-9a. General form sma ll, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of h ead and pronotum ferrugineus; each elytron testaceous with two vaguely defined macular re gions as follows: (1) basal third with one narrow, transverse to slightly oblique, fe rrugineus, macula not reaching epipleural margins, and (2) apical third with one broa der, subcircular, ferrugineus, macula not reaching epipleural margins. Head with front nearly flat, tr ansverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just be yond vertex, slightly conc ave between antennal tubercles, which are separated by about the wi dth of two antennal sockets, vertex with dense, shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowl y emarginate. Antennae eleven segmented, about as long as body; scape bowed, third ante nnomere equal to or slightly shorter than scape, a little longer than fourth, fifth antennom ere longest, about twic e as long as fourth,

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88 slightly longer than scape, basal antennomeres subcylindr ical, from fifth slightly flattened, from sixth progressive ly shorter; apices of antennomeres 5-8 slightly produced externally. Scape with short, pale, recumbent pubescence, rarely with long, suberect setae; antennomeres 2-6 ciliate beneath w ith coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly wider at apex than base, sides s lightly inflated, nearly parallel, slightly constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex; lateral margins of pr onotum with patch of coarse, deep punctures, with one long, recumbent seta anterolaterall y. Surface with portions microsculptured, moderately shining; disk with granulose punc tures (for example Figure 3-9b), basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent set ae positioned submedially, arising from deep punctures. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.8 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, very slightly sinuate, evenly rounded to ape x, elytral apices indivi dually, broadly rounded to nearly subtruncate; epipleural margin sli ghtly sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on e ach elytron; base of each slightly raised. Elytral surface strongly shini ng; punctation moderately dense, rather evenly spaced, deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; punctures each with a short, fine, pa le, recumbent hair, with sparse to dense scattered long, suberect setae ( each about as long as scape). Underside with prosternum strongly shining; one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front of each procoxa; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as

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89 procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process be tween procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface stro ngly shining, sparsely punctate with coarse, shallow punctures. Metasternum su rface strongly shining, with sparse, fine punctures, with a few suberect, pale hairs in terspersed. Metepister num sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, whic h is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongly shining; finely, shallowly punctate; with sp arse long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth st ernite broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, metafemoral club slightly longer than basal portion, mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparse, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; und erside of each femoral club with a broad, acute triangular tooth; metafe moral teeth with posterior edge moderately to strongly, deeply serrate, with about 10 irregular serra tion peaks; each peak w ith a short, curved, pale hair; metatibiae strongly sinuate, s lightly flattened, about 0.7 times long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer a nd coarser distally (for example Figure 39c). Female (Figure 3-9a-c, 3-18a, 3-18c, 3-21b, 3-21h). Length 4.1-6.7 mm; width 0.9-1.5 mm (measured across humeri). Very si milar to male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lackin g irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa. Abdomen with terminal ster nite evenly, broadly rounded, about 1.5 times longer than preceding sternite. Holotype : female (Figure 3-9a), HAITI, Dr. Cameron (BMNH).

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90 Material examined : Holotype, female (Figure 3-9a), HAITI, Dr. Cameron (BMNH). Holotype of P. crenulatus Cazier (= P. distinctus ), female, HAITI, about 60 ft. alt. F. 4629 L., Manville, Feb. 6.10.1922 (A MNH). Specimens, 70 (all from DOMINICAN REPUBLIC): 1 female, San Pe dro Prov., 13 km. E. Boca Chica, 27-V1992, coll. M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 male, San Pedro Prov., 13 km. E. Boca Chica, 15-V1992, coll. M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 5 males a nd 1 female, Barahona, 4.5 km. S. Barahona, 22-V-1992, coll. M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 fema le, San Pedro Prov., 4 km, E Tintero, 15V-1992, coll. M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 female, Puerto Plata Prov., 14 km. W. P. Plata, V11-1985, J.E. Wappes (USNM); 1 male and 3 fe males, San Pedro Prov., Nr. Juan Dolio, V-13, 18-1985, J.E. Wappes (JEWC); 2 females, Prov. Pedernales, 24 km. N. Cabo Rojo, 610m., 21 AUG 1988, wet forest at light & ni ght beating, M. Ivie, Philips & Johnson (WIBF); 1 female, Prov. Barahona, 32 km. S. Barahona, nr. coast, 29 AUG 1988, on dead logs, M.A. Ivie, T.K. Philips & K.A. Johns on colrs (WIBF); 1 female, Prov. Pedernales, P.N. Sierra de Baoruco, Las Abej as, 1240m., 1809.023N, 7137.387W, 09 AUG 1999, M.A. Ivie (WIBF); 1 female, Prov. Bara hona, hill above Barahona, 19 JULY 1999, 75m, M.A. Ivie colr., beating at night (WIBF); 1 male and 1 female, Prov. La Altagracia, P.N. del Este, Boca de Yuma entrance, 05 AUG 1999, at night, 18.904N, 6837.087W, M.A. Ivie, beating veget. (WIBF); 1 male, Prov. La Altagracia, P.N. del Este, Boca de Yuma entrance, 05 AUG 1999, 18.904N, 6837.087 W, M.A. Ivie, beating at night (WIBF); 2 males and 2 females, Prov. Barahona, E. of Cachon, Hotel Oasis, 18.029N, 71.379W, 26 JULY 1999, at light, M. A. Ivie & K.A. Guerrero (WIBF); 2 males and 8 females, Barahona, 4.5 km. S Barahona, 17 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 5 males and 2 females Barahona, 4.5 km. S Barahona, 22 May 1992, R.

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91 Turnbow (RFTC); 1 female, Barahona, 4.5 km. S Barahona, 16 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 2 females, San Pedro, 13 km. E Boca Chica, 27 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 1 female, Pedernales, 25.5 km. N Cabo Rojo, 21 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 1 male and 1 female, Barahona, 4-5 km. S Barahona, 13 July 1996, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 3 males and 2 females, 12 km W San Pedro de Macoris, May 5-19 1985, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 1 female, Prov. Pede rnales, Km. 24 N. Cabo Rojo 3000ft, 2-VII98 blacklight trap, R.E. Woodruff & R.M. Baranowski (REWC); 1 female, Prov. Pedernales, Cabo Rojo, Alcoa headquart ers, 10-VI-1998 blacklight trap, R.E. Woodruff, P.H. Freytag (REWC); 1 male, Pede rnales Prov., PN Jaragua, trail to Carlitos ca. 6 km S of Hwy 44, 106 meters, blackli ght, 17.932N, 71.271W, 8 July 2004 Perez, Lingafelter (USNM); 1 male, Prov. Mont e Cristi, 13 km. N. Villa Elisa, 31-V1994, coll. M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 male, Prov La Altagracia, 5 km. W. La Laguna Nisibon, 17-VI-98, R.E. Woodruff, citrus (REW C); 1 male, Prov. La Altagracia, P.N. del Este, Boca de Yuma, 1821.904N, 6837.094W, 05 AUG 1999, 2m, at light, M.A. Ivie & K.A. Guerrero (WIBF); 1 male, Prov. La Alta gracia, Boca de Yuma entr., Par. Nac. del Este, 06 AUG 1999, 12m, 1821.904N, 6837.094W, M.A. Ivie, beating vegetation (WIBF); 1 male, Barahona Prov., 4.5 km. S Barahona, 22 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 1 male, Barahona, Punta Prieta, 13 July 1996, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 2 males, San Pedro, 4 km. E Tintero, 15 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RFTC); 1 male, Pedernales, 14.5 km N Cabo Rojo, 165 m., 18-03N, 71-39W, 26-27 September 1991, C. Young, S. Thompson, R. Davidson, J. Rawlins, arid thornscrub (CMNH); 1 male, Pedernales, 26 km N Cabo Rojo, 18-06N, 7138W, 730m, 13 July 1990, J. Rawlins, C. Young, S. Thompson (CMNH); 1 male, Pedernales, al ong Rio Mulito, 13 km N Pedernales., 18-

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92 09N, 71-46W, 230m, 17 July 1992, J. Rawlins, S. Thompson, C. Young, R. Davidson, riparian woodland (CMNH); 1 male, Barahona, 5 km SE Polo, slopes of Loma la Torre, 18-03N, 71-16W, 980m, 18 July 1992, disturbe d forest with coffee, C. Young, R. Davidson, S. Thompson, J. Rawlins, Ca rnegie Museum Specimen Number CMNH239,093 (CMNH); 1 female, Pedernales, 26 km N Cabo Rojo, 760m, 17 July 1987, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson (CMNH); 1 female Pedernales, 14.5 km N Cabo Rojo, 18-03N, 71-39W, 165 m., 19 July 1990, J. Rawlins, C. Young, S. Thompson (CMNH); 1 female, Pedernales, Sierra de Baoruco, Aceitill ar, 25.2 km ENE Pedernales, 18-05-29N, 71-3116W, 1272 m, 14 June 2003, C. Young, J. Rawlin s, C. Nunez, R. Davidson, P. Acevedo, M. de la Cruz, dense broadleaf fore st, pine, UV light, sample 42212 (CMNH); 5 specimens, sex undetermined, La Altagracia, Punta Cana near Ecol ogical Reserve, 0-5 meters, beating, Nearns&Lingafelter 12-V I-2005 (ENPC), 1 specimen, sex undetermined, La Altagracia, Boca de Yuma, 3-20 mete rs, beating, Nearns&Lingafelter 27-VI-2005 (ENPC). Geographic distribution : Known from Haiti and Dominican Republic (Barahona, La Altagracia, Monte Cristi, Pedernales, Puer to Plata, and San Pedr o provinces) (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species is endemic to Hispaniola and has been collected at UV light and beating vegetation. Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser (2003) synonymized P. distinctus with P. serratus and Micheli & Nearns (2005) subsequently revalidated P. distinctus after comparing type specimens for both species (Figs. 3-18a-d). Plectromerus distinctus is one of the smallest species in the genus, ranging in length from 4.0 mm-6.7 mm. From congeners, P. distinctus can be distinguished by the

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93 combination of the following characters: elyt ra with scattered l ong, suberect setae; pronotal disk granulose; and metafemoral teet h moderately to str ongly, deeply serrate. This species is very similar to P. wappesi but can be distingui shed by the granulose pronotal disk (pronotal disk with dense, round, shallow punctures in P. wappesi ). Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli, 1983: 262), new combination = Curiosa dominicana Micheli, 1983: 262 Original description : Holotype female: Length 5.7 mm; gr eatest width 1.6 mm at apical of elytra. General appearance Small, moderately narrow, integument dark reddish-brown, becoming feebly lighter in color on antennae, portions of underside, palpi and legs; moderately sparsely clothed with long and short, recumbent and suberect whitish hairs on head, pronotum and elytra; each elytron ornamented at basal with a small, transverse, yellowish spot, which is placed within a large, subtriangular, blackish, glabrous area. Head Front about 1 times broader than long, feebly convex, shallowly foveate on each side, w ith a feeble, narrow, median groove extending from about anterior to beyond vertex; antennal tubercles widely separated at base. Surface feebly shin ing, alutaceous in part; front shallowly, irregularly, moderately fine ly punctate and finely rugos e; vertex and posteriorly shagreened and sparsely, very inconspi cuously punctate; mandibles coarsely rugose-punctate on external face; vent ral surface moderately shining, with transverse rugae. Eyes ovate, transverse narrowing posteriorly, feebly emarginate on upper margin. Pubescence short, fine, recumbent, moderately sparse on vertex and posteriorly, elsewhere long, coarse, s uberect and very sparse. Antennae reaching to about apical of elytra; scape about 4 tim es longer than broad and about 1 times as long as the distance be tween antennal socket s, slightly longer than next 2 segments together; 2nd segment twice as long as broad, 3rd about 1 times length of 4th, 5th about 1 times length of 3rd, 6th to 9th becoming progressively slightly shorter, 7th subequal in length to 3rd, 10th slightly longer than 9th. All segments feebly shining, alutace ous; punctures fine on basal segments becoming finer on distal ones; pubescen ce sparse on basal segments becoming denser on distal ones and c onsisting of short, fine, recumbent, inconspicuous hairs with long, coarse, suber ect ciliae intermixed. Prothorax strongly arched in lateral view. Pronotum : One and times longer than broad, widest at middle, a li ttle narrower at base than at apex. Lateral outline broadly arcuately expanded from anterola teral angle to middle, thence broadly rounded to basal 1/5 where it is strongly constricted, thereafte r sinuate to basal margin. Basal margin straight; anteri or margin broadly arcuately produced. Surface subopaque, finely granulose-rugos e dorsally, becoming very finely

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94 granulose on sides; punctation sparse, ve ry fine. Pubescence consisting of long, suberect hairs which are sparse on disk, very sparse on sides, and short, fine, recumbent hairs which are moderately dens ely distributed along base. Scutellum subtruncate at apex; moderately densel y clothed with long, recumbent hairs. Elytra Two and times longer than subbasal width; 2 times longer, and about 1 times broader basally than pronotum at middle. Disk unevenly depressed from base to basal each elytron tumid centrobasally; posterior two-thirds strongly convex. Humeral angels not prominent. Outline of sides slightly convergent from posthumeral region to basal thence slightly dive rgent to about apical thereafter broadly, evenly rounded to api ces, which are separately and moderately narrowly rounded. Epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Each elytron ornamented at basal with a small, transverse, yellowish spot which is placed within a large, subtriangular, blackish area, the anterior margin of which is obliquely, arcuately expanded forward, th e posterior margin extending obliquely from subsutural basal to about lateroapical Surface deeply, moderately coarsely, closely and occasionally conflu ently punctate basally in front of subtriangular areas, punctures becoming finer toward sides, but coarse along margins; humeri impunctate; subtriangular ar eas finely alveolat e; regions extending from posterior margins of subtriangular ar eas to apices finely rugose with sparse, inconspicuous punctures. Pubescence moderately sparse, becoming very sparse around humeral angles and si des anteriorly, and consis ting of moderately long, recumbent hairs with a few longer, subere ct hairs intermixed; subtriangular areas and yellowish spots glabrous. Prosternum Anterior margin narrowly, feebly emarginate a middle; prosternal process between coxae about as broad as width of coxal cavity. Surface along anterior margin shining, with transverse rugae and a few fine punctures; remaining portion subopaque, shagreened, very finely, very sparsely punctate; process sulcate between raised margins of coxal cavities. Pubescence c onsisting of a few scattered hairs. Mesosternum Surface shining, very sparsely and very finely punctate; very sparsely clothed with a few short, except outer portion of mesepisternum which is moderately densely clothed. Metasternum Surface shining, very sparsely and very finely punctate; very sparsely clothed with a few short and long hairs, becoming moderately densely clothed about posterolateral angles. Legs Anterior legs with femora longer th an tibiae; ventral fe moral tooth small, acute, feebly compressed basally; tibiae mode rately sinuate. Intermediate legs with femora and tibiae subequal in length; femoral ventral tooth acute, broad at base, strongly compressed; tibiae feebly sinuate. Posterior legs with femoral ventral tooth acute, obliquely dir ected backward, compressed, smaller and narrower than same on mesofemora; femora barely reaching 5th abdominal sternite in female; tibiae slender, feebly arcuat e, feebly compressed apically, subequal in length to

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95 femora. Surface on all legs moderately st rongly shining, finely wrinkled in part, very finely and sparsely punctate. Pube scence on femora and tibiae consisting of sparse, short, fine, recumbent hairs with l onger, coarser, suber ect hairs intermixed. Abdomen Surface shining, very sparsely, very finely punctate and clothed with a few short and long hairs; 5th sternite broadly, ev enly rounded at apex. (Micheli, 1983: 262) Holotype : female (Figure 3-11a), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: La Vega, 20 km. SE. Constanza, May 26, 1978, C.W. & L.B. OBrien & Marshall (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, female (Figure 3-11a), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: La Vega, 20 km. SE. Constanza, May 26, 1978, C. W. & L. B. OBrien & Marshall (USNM). Specimens, 2 (all from DOMINI CAN REPUBLIC): 1 female, Pico Duarte Trail 8000 ft., Below La Compartici on, beating vegetation, 19.254N, 70.155'W, 1 July 2004 S. W. Lingafelter (USNM); 1 sp ecimen, sex undetermined, Prov. La Vega, Trail from La Comparticion-La Pelona, P. N. A. Bermudez, 2450-3070 m, 18 July 2002, coll. D. Perez, B. Hierro, R. Bastardo (MCZWeb, 2006). Geographic distribution : Known only from La Vega province, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Plectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana ) is endemic to Hispaniola and is known only from three specim ens, all collected at high altitude in the Sierra Central region of the Dominican Republic (Figure 3-10, 3-11a-d). This species has been collected beating dead Pinus occidentalis branches (S.W. Lingafelter, pers. comm.). The finely faceted eyes of this species sugge st that it may be diurnal. All other known curiine species have coarsely faceted eyes and are thought to be nocturnal. Micheli (1983) described Curiosa dominicana from a single female specimen, noting that it presented unusual characters fo r a curiine. Lingaf elter & Nearns (2005) provided a color habitus photograph of the holot ype. A phylogenetic analysis of the tribe

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96 suggests that this specie s is a highly derived Plectromerus with several autapomorphies. The combination of the following characters make this the most distinctive species in the genus: antennae with 10 segments, scape distin ctly longest antennomere, finely faceted eyes, and each elytron ornamented with a small, yellowish marking (Figure 3-11a-d). Plectromerus exis Zayas, 1975: 123 Original description : Estrecho, alargado, color castao-ferruginoso amarillento, brillante, marcado con manchas castao oscuras en el pronoto y en los litros. La cabeza es corta y est fuertemente punzada, y marcada con dos manc has en forma de Y invertida entre los tubrculos antenales, cuyas ramas laterals se unen en la base. Antenas como de una y media vez el largo del cuerpo, finas, anilladas y algo compresas. Pronoto alargado, subcilindrico, ensanchado delant e del medio, la superficie lisa y con fuertes punciones por los lados, manchado en el dorso con manchitas ms o menos alargadas que adoptan distintas formas en los individuos. Elitros como del ancho de los ojos, con los hombros brevemente redondeados, moderadamente prominentes, lados paralelos, aguzadam ente redondeados hacia el extreme, y truncados en el pice. Son aplanados en el dorso con una costilla amplia poco elevada, situada a lo largo y por el centr o poco conspicua; en la base y el pice stan fuerte, gruesa y esparcidamente punzados, y manchados con una banda en zigzag en la base, un manchn en cada elitro detras de esta, otra franja transversal delante del pice y un manchn a cado lado, ms o menos cuadrados. Las patas con los fmurs engrosados; la maza oscure cida, con el consabido dienticito, fmurs arqueados. El diente de los metafmures es aserrado en su borde exterior, y las metatibias son sumamente aqueadas. Largo: 5-8 mm. (Zayas, 1975: 123) Redescription : Male (Figure 3-12a-c, 3-18f). Length 6.7-8.2 mm, width 1.3-1.5 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-12a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument te staceous, with head, apices of antennomeres 3-11, portions of pronotum, elytra, and femo ral apices ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, concave between antennal tubercles, which are sligh tly to moderately raised and separated by about the width of two antennal sockets; ve rtex microsculptured, with dense, shallow punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted,

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97 transverse, subreniform, deeply emarginate Antennae eleven segmented, antennomere 8 surpassing elytral apices; scape bowed, thir d antennomere slightly longer than scape, about twice as long as fourt h, fifth antennomere longest, slig htly longer than width of elytra at humeri, about 3 times longer than fourth, about 1.5 times longer than third, antennomeres 6-10 becoming progressively shorter, eleventh slightly longer than tenth, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fift h slightly flattened. Scape with short, recumbent, pale pubescence; antennomeres 27 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.8 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly br oader at apex than base, side s nearly parallel, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex, with one strongly rais ed, median tubercle (Figure 3-12b); lateral margins of pronotum with two long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Surface strongly microsculptured, with scattered, shallow punctu res; surface ornamented with a narrow, longitudinal, irregular, ferrugineus vitta on either side of median tubercle; median tubercle ferrugineus. Scutellum small, rounded, distinctly lo nger than broad, impunctate. Elytra about 3 times as long as width at humer i, about 2.5 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.5 times broader basally than pr onotum at widest poi nt (at middle); sides strongly sinuate around middle; el ytral apices individually, br oadly rounded; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk sli ghtly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each elytron; base of each elytron moderately raised. Elytral surface microsculptured, with portions glabrous and strongly shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punc tures becoming more shallow toward apex and sides, almost obsolete at apic al third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair.

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98 Underside with prosternum strongly shining, with moderately dense, fine punctures; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.1 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.3 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners, prosternal process be tween procoxae gradually declivous; procoxal cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface stro ngly shining, very sparsely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface strongly shinin g, very sparsely and finely punctate, with scattered deeper punctures and sparse suberect pale hairs interspe rsed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pa le pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen shining; finely, sha llowly punctate; abdomen with sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine, pa le hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion of metafemora distinctly longer th an metafemoral club; mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, cl othed with moderately densel y, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; clavate portion darker; unders ide of each femoral club with a small triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with pos terior edge nearly smooth, very weakly serrate; metatibiae very slightly sinuate, nearly straight slightly flattened, about 0.7 times as long as metafemora, gradually expanded dist ally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longe r and coarser dista lly (Figure 3-12c); metalegs with first tarsomere about twice as long or longer than second. Holotype : male, CUBA, Col. F. de Zayas, Loma del Gato, 6-1959, Oriente (FDZC).

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99 Material examined : Holotype, male, CUBA, Col. F. de Zayas, Loma del Gato, 61959, Oriente (FDZC). Specimens, 7 (all from CU BA): 1 male, Col. F. de Zayas, Sierra Maestra, Turquino, 8 1964, Oriente (FDZC); 2 specimens, Col. F. de Zayas, Sierra Cristal, 6 1959, Oriente (FDZC); 1 specime n, sex undetermined, Col. F. de Zayas, Jiguan, Oriente (FDZC); 1 male, P. Guija ibn, P. Rio, 5-1953 (FDZC); 1 male, Pico Turquino, Ote., VI 1964, Zayas Gracia (IESC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined (MNHN). Specimens, 2 (all from DOMINICA N REPUBLIC): 1 male, Pedernales, 25.5 km., N Cabo Rojo, 20 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 male, Dajabon, 13km. S. Loma de Cabrera, V-27-1978, O'Briens & Marsha ll (JAMC). 1 specimen, JAMAICA, sex undetermined (FVPC). Geographic distribution : Known from Cuba (Granma, Pinar del Rio, and Santiago de Cuba provinces), Dominican Re public (Dajabn and Pedernales provinces), and Jamaica, new country record (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Zayas (1975) stated that this species was common throughout Cuba and that all of the type specimens colle cted were perching on vegetation, but no host information was provided. Nearns (2006) listed P. exis and Nearns et al (2006) provided a color habitus photograph of the holotype de posited in the FDZC. Nearns & Turnbow (2005) provided the first reco rd of this species outside of Cuba. Subsequently, a photograph of a specimen collected in Jamai ca (sex undetermined) was provided to the author by F. Vitali (FVPC). This species is easily distinguished fro m all other presently known congeners by the distinctly elongate pronotal dimensions and distinctly elevated tubercle on the pronotal disk (Figure 3-12b).

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100 Plectromerus fasciatus (Gahan, 1895: 109) = Pentomacrus fasciatus Gahan, 1895: 109 = Plectromerus n. sp., Chalumeau & Touroult, 2005b: 113 Original description : Fulvous-testaceous; elytra subnitid, each with three ferruginous brown bands, the first a little behind the base, and crossing in a slightly oblique direction, the second behind the middle and transverse, the third near the apex. Prothorax distinctly longer than broad, somewhat rounded at the middle of each side, punctured above, and having a not very distinct oblong brow nish spot on each side of the disk. Elytra strongly and rather thickly punctured, each almo st rounded at the apex. Femora each armed underneath with a shar p and distinct toot h. Antennae about half as long again as the body, with the thir d joint twice as long as the fourth, and distinctly shorter than the fifth. Long. 6-9 mm. Hab. Grenada-Balthazar, on the Windward si de and St. Vincent-Leeward side (H. H. Smith). Var. Bands of elytra obsolete. One of the St. Vincent specimens. (Gahan, 1895: 109) Redescription : Male (Figure 3-13a-c). Le ngth 8.0-10.2 mm, width 1.9-2.2 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Fi gure 3-13a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with portions of head, pronotum, and elytra ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which are slightly raised and separated by about th e width of two antennal sockets; surface of vertex microsculptured, with moderately de nse, irregular, shallow, punctures. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform. Antennae eleven segmented, about 1.3 times longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere slightly longer than scape, more than twice the length of fourth, fifth antennomer e longest, more than 3 times longer than fourth, antennomeres 6-11 becoming progr essively shorter, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly fla ttened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced externally. Scape with few long, suberect, pa le hairs; antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath

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101 with coarse, moderately l ong, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at ba se than apex, sides moderately inflated, arcuately c onstricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk c onvex, with scattered, long, suberect, pale hairs arising from deep punctures; each side of pr onotum with coarse, deep punctures laterally and one or two long, suberect setae antero laterally. Surface microsculptured, densely, shallowly punctate, sl ightly shining. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.8 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader ba sally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, very sligh tly sinuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices strongly subtruncate to truncate; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk sligh tly concave medially, subsutur ally, creating a faint costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface moderately shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punc tures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apic al third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair; elytra with moderately dense, scattered, long, suberect, pale hairs. Underside with prosternum strongly shining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front of procoxae; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; procoxa l cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface strongly shining, sparsely a nd finely punctate. Metasternum surface strongly shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with few d eeper punctures and suberect, pale hairs interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence,

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102 which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongl y shining; very fine ly, shallowly punctate; abdomen with sparse, long, suberect, pale ha irs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncat e, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora gradually clavate, mesoand me tafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recu mbent, short, pale pubescence and with scattered, suberect, pale hairs arising from shallow punctures; underside of each femoral club with a broad, acute triangul ar tooth with posterior ed ge weakly serrate, with irregular, indistinct peaks ; mesoand metatibiae nearly straight; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pa le pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 3-13c). Female. Length 7.3-10.2 mm; width 1.7-2.2 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides lack ing coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctures in front of procoxae. Abdomen w ith terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Lectotype : male (Figure 3-13a), GRENADA, Balthazar, (Windward side), W.I., H.H. Smith, 107 (BMNH). Material examined : Lectotype, male (Figure 3-13a), GRENADA, Balthazar, (Windward side), W. I., H. H. Smith 107 (BMNH). Specimens, 13 (all from MONTSERRAT): 1 female, Cassava Ghaut, Beattie House, 16.91N, 62.95W, 23-03 Apr Mar 2002, 632 ft, A. Krakower, u. v. light (WIBF); 1 male and 1 female, Cassava Ghaut, Beattie House, 16.91 N, 62.95W, 08-17 Apr 2002, 632 ft, A. Krakower, Malaise tr. (WIBF); 1 male: Ca ssava Ghaut, Beattie House, 16.91N, 62.95W, 14-21 June 2002, 632 ft, A. Krakower light trap (WIBF); 1 male, Cassava

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103 Ghaut, Beattie House, 16.91N, 62.95W, 21 Jan 15 Feb 2002, 632 ft, A. Krakower, u. v. light (WIBF); 1 male and 1 female, Cassava Ghaut, Beattie House, 16.91N, 62.95W, 05-15 Feb 2002, 632 ft, A. Krakower, Malaise tr. (WIBF); 1 male and 1 female, Cassava Ghaut, Beattie House, 16.91N, 62.95W, 11-23 Mar 2002, 632 ft, A. Krakower, u.v. light (WIBF); 1 male, Trail from Cassava Ghaut south to waterpipe, 22 May 2003, K.A. Marske colr. (WIBF); 1 female, Cassava Ghaut to Lawyers Mountain, 28 May 2003, M.A. Marske colr. (WIBF); 1 female, Cassava Ghaut, Beattie House, 30 May-06 June 2002, A. Kra kower, uv light (WIBF); 1 female, between Anne-Maries and Beattie house, 28 J une 2002, M.A. Ivie colr. (WIBF). Geographic distribution : Known from Grenada, St. Vincent, and Montserrat, new country record (Lesser Antilles). Discussion : Plectromerus fasciatus is endemic to the Lesser Antilles and has been collected at UV light and in Malaise traps. Chalumeau & Touroult (2005b) provided a color habitus photograph and stated that it had been reared from pois doux ( Inga ingoides ) branches girdled by Oncideres amputator (Fabricius) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Onciderini) collected on Saint Vincent at 450 m elevation. Chalumeau & Touroult (2005a) designated the lectotype fo r this species and W oodruff et al. (1998) listed this species from Grenada. A series of specimens from Montserrat (WIBF), mentioned by Chalumeau & Touroult (2005b, p. 113) as a new species, was examined by the author and identified as P. fasciatus Although the Montserrat specimens ha ve less dense setae on the elytra, femora, and tibiae compared to the holotype of P. fasciatus the series otherwise has very similar antennal segment proportions, pronotal and elytral puncta tion, elytral apices,

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104 metafemoral club shape, and metafemoral t ooth serrations. Three additional specimens collected on Martinique (moist forest near Fort-de-France, emerged in June-July 2006) are also believed to be P. fasciatus (J. Touroult, pers. comm.). Vitali (2004) correctly noted th at Zayas (1975) listing of P. fasciatus from Cuba was ncorrect. Chalumeau & Touroult (2005b) al so commented on this in their treatment of P. fasciatus The specimens in the FDZC were examined by the author, confirming Vitalis (2004) statement that these were instead P. pumilus (Figure 3-24b). This distinctively large species is most similar to Plectromerus new species 8 in several characters including an tennal segment proportions, gr adually clavate metafemora, and very weakly serrate metafemoral teeth. However, P. fasciatus differs in having the pronotum with dense, confluent, very sh allow punctation (pro notum with dense, moderately deep, somewhat evenly spaced punctation in Plectromerus new species 8), elytral apices strongly subt runcate to truncate (rounded to weakly subtruncate in Plectromerus new species 8), elytra with scattere d to moderately dense, long, pale, suberect setae (elytra with fe w long, pale, suberect setae in Plectromerus new species 8). Plectromerus femoratus (Fabricius, 1792: 316) = Saperda femoratus Fabricius, 1792: 316 = Pentomacrus femoratus White, 1855: 297 Original description : S. thorace antice fusco postice testaceo, elyt ris fasciis tribus nigris testaceisque, antennis longissimis. Habitat Mus. Britann. Media. Caput nigrum, antennis longis, flavis, anticulis apice subspinosis. Elytra obtussa fasciis tribus testaceisque alternis: fascia prima nigra, puncto flavo. Pedes flavi, femoribus incrassatis, apice unidentatus. (Fabricius, 1792: 316)

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105 Redescription : Male (holotype) (Fi gure 3-14a-c). Lengt h 17.0 mm, width 4.0 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-14a. General form medium-sized, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous with head, portions of scape, anterior portion of pronotum, and portions of elytra ferrugineus. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, concave between antennal tubercles, which are modera tely raised and separated by about the width of two antennal sockets. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform. Antennae eleven segmented, about twice as long as body; scape bowed, third antennomere almost twice the length of scape, about twice the length of fourth; fifth antennomere longest, more than twice as long as fourth, distinc tly longer than pronotum; antennomeres 6-11 becoming progressively shorter, seventh sligh tly bowed, sixth through eleventh distinctly longer than scape, antennomeres subcylindric al, 4-11 very slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 5-6 very slightly produced ex ternally. Scape with distinct dorsal and ventral excavation at base (Figure 3-14b); s cape with sparse, shor t, pale, recumbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-3 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum globose, about as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at base than apex, sides broadly and evenly rounde d, abruptly constricte d at basal third, and a very slight inflation just before apex; di sk convex, somewhat flattened, with one very slightly raised, median callus immediately poste rior to center, about as long as pedicel, and two very slightly raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to center, and two smaller slightly raised, submedial calli slightly posteri or to center; basal third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent or suberect seta pos itioned submedially, arising from deep punctures; lateral margins of pronotum with pa tch of coarse, deep punctures, and one or

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106 two long, suberect setae anterolaterally. Surface opaque, microsculptured, weakly shining, with dense, shallow punctation. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.8 times as long as width at humeri, slightly more than 3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.2 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly para llel, slightly sinuat e around middle, evenly rounded to apex; elytral apices individua lly, evenly rounded; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral di sk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, cr eating a faint costa on each elytron; base of each elytr on slightly raised. Elytral surface opaque; punctation moderately dense, rather evenly spaced, and deep at ba sal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almo st obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside with prosternum mode rately shining, one irregular patch of coarse, shallow punctures in front of procoxae; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.7 times the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners; prosternal process between procoxae graduall y declivous; procoxal cav ities open behind. Mesosternum surface moderately shining, spar sely and shallowly punctate. Metasternum surface moderately shining, microsculptured, sparsely punctate, with short, pale, recumbent seta arising from each puncture. Me tepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen moderately shining, very finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen w ith sparse long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fi ne, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora gradually clavate; clavate portion distinctly elongate, distinc tly longer than basal porti on (Figure 3-14c); mesoand

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107 metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clot hed with sparse, recumbent, short, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a small triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge very weakly serra te, with about 12 very small and irregular serration peaks; each peak with a short, curved, pale hair ; metatibiae nearly straight, very slightly sinuate, slightly flattened, about as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally. Holotype : male (Figure 3-14a), JAMAICA, handwritten labe l states: this specimen is almost certainly the type of Saperda femorata Fabr., Ent. Syst. I. 2. P. 316 signed C.J.G. (BMNH). Material examined : Holotype, male (Figure 3-14a) JAMAICA, handwritten label states: this specimen is almo st certainly the type of Saperda femorata Fabr., Ent. Syst. I. 2. P. 316 signed C.J.G. (BMNH). Geographic distribution : Known only from Jamai ca (Greater Antilles). Discussion : At 17 mm, Plectromerus femoratus is distinctly larger than any other species in the tribe. The holotype is the only known specimen and nothing is known about its biology. A handwritten label on the ho lotype, signed C.J.G., is believed to have been placed by C.J. Gahan, who stated: The Fabrician description of this species seems to have been overlooked by White and other authors. I have little doubt that one of Whites type specimens was the original type described by Fabricius (who st ates that it was in the British Museum). The species is one that may be easily identified. (Gahan, 1895: 109) In addition to its size, the combination of the following characters will serve to distinguish this species from all congeners : antennae about twice the body length; scape with deep excavation on dorsal surface (Fi gure 3-14b); fifth antennomere distinctly

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108 longer than pronotum; pronotum globose, sides strongly, evenly rounded; and metafemoral club gradually clavate, distinctly elongate (Figure 3-14c). Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19 Introduction : Dominican amber is renowned for its we ll-preserved and highly diverse insect inclusions. These ancient resins formed from extinct Hymenaea trees from the mid-Miocene, approximately 17-20 MYO, and have yielded a rich fauna of over 400 families and 1,500 species of insects (Grimaldi, 1996; Grimaldi & Engel, 2005). However, specimens of the beetle family Cerambycidae are not especially common in Dominican amber. Linsley ( 1961) observed that although cerambycid fossils were known from various parts of the world, they were generally not well studied. Approximately two dozen species of cerambycids were described from compression fossils of the Florissant (Meyer, 2003) and a cerambycid in Dominican amber has been described by Ma rtins & Galileo (1999). Vitali (2004) described the first Curiini fossil, Plectromerus tertiarius from a partial specimen included in Dominican amber (Fig. 3-15b). Micheli & Nearns (2005) recently reviewed the genus Plectromerus Haldeman (1847), a genus distributed throughout th e Caribbean, southeastern USA, and southeastern Mexico (Micheli & Near ns, 2005; Monn, 2005; Monn & Hovore, 2003). Plectromerus is one of three gene ra currently recognized in the tribe Curiini and it is perhaps best characterized by me tafemora armed with one or more large teeth (plectrum, Latin for spur; meros, Greek for femur). The paper herein describes a second Plectromerus species known from Dominican amber. In addition, a comparison is made between our new fossil species P. grimaldii and the fossil described by Vitali, P. tertiarius (Nearns & Branham, 2005: 17) Original description : Female. Length 7.1 mm, width 1.8 mm (measur ed across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-15a. General form small, narro w, subcylindrical. Elytra with two indistinctly defined and very faint, tran sverse ferruginous fasciae on each elytron, one at basal third and anot her just behind middle. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line fr om between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which are somewhat raised and widely separated. Much of head surface is obscured by an opaque film, exposed areas with surface opaque, alveolate-punctate. Eyes coarsely faceted, prominent, transverse, subreniform (Fig. 3-16b). An tennae eleven-segmented, slightly longer than body, impunctate; scape bowed, third ante nnomere subequal to scape, almost twice as long as fourth, fifth antenno mere longest, about 2.6 times longer than fourth, antennomeres 6-11 becoming progr essively shorter, sixth through eighth slightly longer than third, eleventh sligh tly longer than fourt h, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly fla ttened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced

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109 externally, antennomeres 7-9 slightly bow ed (Fig. 3-17b, 3-17d). Antennomeres 26 ciliate beneath with coarse, m oderately long, suberect, hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wi de, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base, sides broadly inflated, ar cuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex. Surface opaque, alveolate-punctate. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.7 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.5 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest (at middle); sides nearly parallel slightly sinuate ar ound middle, evenly rounded to apex which is subtruncate; ep ipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concav e medially, subsuturally, cr eating a faint costa on each elytron Surface shining; punctation dense, coarse, punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obs olete on apical third; glabrous. Underside with prosternum shining; narrowe st area of prosternal pr ocess between coxae about 0.25 times as wide as coxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is cordate (emarginated at middle of apex). Mesosternum surface shining, sparsely and finely punctate (Fig. 3-16b) Metasternum surface shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with a few suberect hairs; first visible abdominal ventrite longest, about 2.5 times longer than second, about as long as next three visible abdominal ventrites combined, fifth visi ble abdominal ventrite evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than fourth. Legs very finely punctate, with femora clavate, mesoand metafemora arcuate, underside of each femoral club with a small triangular tooth with posterior edge smooth; metafemora about 1.2 times longer than metatibiae; tibiae slightly fl attened, expanded apically, base of tibiae slightly arcuate (Fig. 3-16c) (Nearns & Branham, 2005: 19) Holotype : female (Figure 3-15a), in the co llection of the AMNH, No. DR-16-535. Included in a piece of Dominican am ber from the Dominican Republic. Material examined : Holotype, female, in the collection of the AMNH, No. DR-16-535. Included in a piece of Dominican amber (Oligo-Miocene) from the Dominican Republic. Amber yellow-brownish, moderately clear; cu t and polished to a flat, oval shape, measuring 18.5 X 15 X 8 mm. Specimen is in good condition except damage to left antenna: antennomere 7 is incomplete antennomeres 8-11 are missing. (Nearns & Branham, 2005: 22) Geographic distribution : Known only from Dominican amber, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Although gender cannot be dete rmined conclusively, we believe the holotype of P. grimaldii to be female based on the evenly, broadly rounded fifth visible abdominal

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110 ventrite and the lack of an irregular patch of coarse punctures in front of each prosternal coxa (a male characteris tic seen in many extant species of Plectromerus ). From other congeners, P. grimaldii can be distinguished by the following combination of characters: the shape and punctation of pronotum (widest at middle, alveolate-punctate), the el ytral punctation (dense, coarse ), the glabrous pronotum and elytra, and the small, non-serrat e metafemoral tooth (Fig. 3-16c). Curius punctatus (Fisher) and P. exis Zayas also have small me tafemoral teeth which are not serrate, however these species ca n be distinguished by having the third antennomere longest (fifth longest in P. grimaldii ) and different pronotal dimensions: in C. punctatus the pronotum is almost as wide as long, in P. exis the pronotum has a distinct tubercle in the cen ter and the length is about 1.8 times the width (1.5 times as long as wide in P. grimaldii ). Plectromerus grimaldii superficially resembles P. tertiarius in pronotal shape and elytral punctation. They differ, however, with respect to elytral apices (subtruncate in P. grimaldii evenly rounded in P. tertiarius ) and visible abdominal ventrite relationships (first ventrite as long as next 3 visible abdominal ventrites combined in P. grimaldii first ventrite slightly longer than next 2 visi ble abdominal ventrites combined in P. tertiarius ). In addition, significant di fferences can be seen in antennomere morphology. These differences exceed the variation in antennal morphology seen in extant species and across gender in Plectromerus In P. grimaldii the fifth antennomere is about 1.9 times longer than the tenth (about 1.6 times longer in P. tertiarius ), fifth antennomere about 1.5 times longer than seventh (about 1.1 times longer in P. tertiarius ). In P. tertiarius the seventh antennomere is slightly longer than the sixth (subequal in P. grimaldii ) and the eleventh antennomere is slightly longer than the tenth (subequal in P. grimaldii ). In addition, antennomeres 5-10 are distinctly produced externally in P. tertiarius whereas in P. grimaldii antennomeres 6-10 are only moderately produced externally (Fig. 3-17b-d). (N earns & Branham, 2005: 22) Plectromerus lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25 Introduction : Increased interest in the rich diversity of the Caribbean region has generated indepth studies of its cerambycid fauna (Lingafelter & Micheli 2004, Micheli 2003, Micheli & Micheli 2004, V itali & Rezbanyai-Reser 2003, Zayas 1975). Recent extensive collecting in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands has resulted in the discovery of new species, with estimated faunal counts of 131, 71, and 45 longhorned beetle species, respectively, for the three areas. Continued surveys of varied habitats within the region ar e necessary for any future analyses of biodiversity a nd biogeography of West Indi an Cerambycidae. (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 23)

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111 Original description : Male. Length 5.5-7.2 mm, width 1.2-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Small, narrow, subcylindrical. Head, antennae, and pronotum ferrugineus, with some areas of pronotum, clavate portion of femo ra, apex of tibiae, and underside usually much darker; scape underneath, palpi, base of distal four antennomeres, femoral pedicle, and tarsi testaceus; each elytron w ith a dark macula just beneath humerus, this sometimes reaching basal third, hume ral angle pale; dorsum with three major macular regions (Fig. 3-19a) as follows: (1) basal third dark with posterior margin irregular, obliquely reachi ng suture, with another dar k, oblique, narrow, irregular macula just beneath separated by a pale i rregular fascia, and not reaching suture; (2) an irregular, median dark macula not reaching suture, partially interrupted by a narrow, pale longitudinal area, and bordered posteriorly by an oblique, pale fascia; and (3) apical third ferrugine us, anterior margin obliquely reaching suture. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which are somewhat raised and widely separated. Surface feebly shining, microsculptured, with some fine wrinkles and irregular, shallow punctation. Pubescence short, pale, recumbent, sparse to moderately dense with a few scattered long, suberect hairs. Eyes prominent, transverse, subreniform. Antennae 11-segmented, slightly longer than body, impunctate; third antennomere sube qual to scape, almost twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere 1.3 longer than third, 2.6 longer than fourth, sixth to tenth becoming progressively shorter, eight h subequal to third, eleventh slightly longer than tenth, subequal to ninth; basa l antennomeres subcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennom eres 5-10 produced externally, more pronounced on antennomeres 7-10. Antennomer es feebly shining, clothed with fine, short, recumbent, pale pubescence with slightly long er, suberect hairs intermixed and antennomeres 2-6 ciliate beneath with coarse moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcyli ndrical, about 1.5-1.6 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly br oader at base than apex, si des feebly inflated, broadly arcuately constricted at basa l fifth, and a slight inflati on just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate, apical margin nearly straight; disk convex, slightly depressed posteriorly, sometimes with th ree feeble tumescences, one centrally on disk and two anterior to this one, one on each side (these are barely discernible in some specimens). Surface opaque, microsculptured, with fine, sparse punctures, each of these with a fine, short, pale hair; punctation much coarser and deeper laterally (as large as on base of elytra) and shining. Pubescence slightly denser towards margins; each side of pronotum with two long, suberect setae, one anterolateral, the other one discal at ba sal third. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, shining, impunctate, with sparse, short pale pubescence. Elytra about 2.6 to 3 times as long as width at humeri, 2.5 to 3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.5 broader basally than pronotum at widest (at middle); sides nearly parallel, very slightly si nuate around middle, evenly rounded to apex which is rounded; epipleural margin moderately si nuate. Disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally; base of each elytron sligh tly raised. Surface shining, except basal macula which is matte; punctation moderately dense, coarse, shallow at basal third,

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112 punctures becoming finer towards apex and si des, almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine pale ha ir (some appear to have fallen off). Underside with prosternum shining, slight ly rugose, apical fourth impunctate and one irregular patch of coarse, deep punc tures in front of each coxa (Fig. 3-19b); with sparse, short, fine, pale hairs; narro west area of prosternal process between coxae about 0.17 to 0.2 as wide as coxal cav ity, and about 0.3 the width of apex of process which is subtriangular with rounded corners. Mesosternum shining, impunctate, very sparsely clothed with short, fine, pale hairs. Mesepisternum with denser pubescence than mesosternum. Meta sternum shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with short, pale, moderately dense pubescence, much sparser on centroposterior area, much denser at poste ro-lateral angles, and with very few longer, pale hairs intermixed. Metepi sternum clothed with moderately dense pubescence, denser posteriorly. Abdomen sh ining, clothed with sparse, short, pale pubescence, and with a few longer, suberect pale hairs; fift h sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than precedi ng sternite. Legs with femora pedunculateclavate, mesoand metafemora arcuate, shining, impunctate, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, shor t, pale pubescence; underside of each femoral club with a broad tr iangular tooth with posterio r edge smooth, not serrate; tibiae slightly arcuate, sinuate though not strongly; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becomi ng longer and coarser apically. Genitalia see Fig. 3-20a. Female. Length 5.5-8.3 mm; width 1.2-1.9 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum impunctate (Fig. 3-19c). Abdomen with te rminal sternite evenly, broadly rounded. (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 25) Holotype : male (Figure 3-19a), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Pico Duarte Trail, 3300 ft., Los Tablones, beating, 19.222'N, 7027.736'W, 29 June 2004, S. Lingafelter (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, male, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Pico Duarte Trail, 3300 ft., Los Tablones, beating, 19.222'N, 70.736' W, 29 June 2004, S. Lingafelter (USNM). Allotype, female, DOMINIC AN REPUBLIC, Pedernales Prov., PN Sierra Baoruco, Las Abejas, 18.011' N, 71.342'W, 1150 meters, 11 July 2004, blacklight, C. J. Micheli, coll. (U SNM). Paratypes, 14 (all from the Dominican Republic): 1 male, same data as holotype, except day coll. (USNM); 2 males, Pico Duarte Trail, Cinaga to Los Tablones, beating, 19.222'N, 70.736'W, 29 June 2004, C. J. Micheli (JAMC); 1 male and 1 female, Pedernales Prov., PN Sierra Baor uco, Las Abejas, 1150 m, 18.011'N, 71.342'W, ex. dead log w/ white fungus, 11 July 2004, S. Lingafelter (USNM); 2 males and 1 female, Pico Duarte Tr ail, 3300 ft., Los Tablones, blacklighting, 19.222'N, 70.736'W, 17 July 2004, S. W. Lingafelter (USNM); 1 male,

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113 Pedernales Prov., 25.5 km N. Cabo Rojo, 12-21-V-1992, coll. M. C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 female, Azua, East side of cr est, Sierra Martn Garca, 7 km WNW Barrero, 18-21 N, 70-58W, 860m, 25-26 July 1992, C. Young, R. Davidson, S. Thompson, J. Rawlins, cloud forest adjacent to disturbed forest (CMNH); 2 males, Prov. Hato Mayor, Par. Nac. Los Haitises, 01-02 Apr 1992, bosque humido, W. Sabana dl Mar, M. Ivie, D. Sikes, Lanier (WIBF); 1 male, Barahona, 4.5 km. S Barahona, 22 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 male, Pedernales, 25.5 km. N Cabo Rojo, 21 May 1992, R. Turnbow (RHT C). (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 29) Geographic distribution : Known from Azua, Barahona, La Vega, and Pedernales provinces, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : The intensity and breadth of maculations seem to be variable among specimens. Some specimens are mostly ferrugineus w ithout any very dark areas but with the described light elytral pattern. This species can be distinguished fr om the presently known congeners by the combination of the following characters : the opaque, microsculptured, finely punctate pronotum, the smooth metafemoral tooth, and the elytral maculation. At first glance, P. lingafelteri resembles Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier, 1790) (Fig. 318e) but this species has a shiny pronotum, the metafemoral tooth is serrate, and the elytral apex is moderately subtruncate (rounded in P. lingafelteri ). Another species with a rather intricate elytral pattern is P. exis Zayas (1975) (Fig. 3-18f), but P. lingafelteri can be easily recognized by the shap e and length of the pronotum, the length of the third antennomere, and the elytral punctation. In P. exis the pronotum has a distinct tubercle in the cen ter and the length is about 1.8 times the width (1.5 to 1.6 in P. lingafelteri ), the third antennomere is distinctly longer than the scape (subequal in P. lingafelteri ), and the elytral dark areas are opaque and microsculptured (not so in P. lingafelteri ). (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30) Plectromerus navassae Nearns & Steiner, 2006: 63 Introduction : Navassa Island is located approximately 160 km south of Guantanamo, Cuba and 56 km west of Haiti. The uninhabited, beach less island rises abruptly from the sea with cliffs reaching heights of more than 20 m and covers a mere 5 km2. An unincorporated territory of the U.S. sin ce 1857, the tiny island is now home to the Navassa National Wildlife Refuge, esta blished in 1999 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to preserve and protect the islands biodiversity. The island, estimated to be between 2 and 5 million years old, has never been connected to another larger land mass, and is composed of Eocene limestone with rugged karst surface characterized by red oolitic soil. A recent expedition organized by the Center for Marine Conservation (Was hington, DC), which also included

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114 entomologists from the National Park Service and Smithsonian Institution, documented a rich diversity of plants and animals, 30% of which may be endemic to the island. The island has significant forest cover, dominated by four species of tropical-subtropical trees: Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacquin, Ficus populnea Willdenow var. brevifolia (Nuttall) Warb, Coccoloba diversifolia Jacquin, and Metopium brownei (Jacquin) (Burne et al., 1974; Grace et al., 2000; Powell, 1999; Steiner & Swearingen, 1998, 2000; Swearingen, 1999). Of the 541 morphospecies of insects captu red on the Navassa expedition mentioned above, 10 were Cerambycidae (Steiner & Swearingen, 2000), including the species described here. Micheli & Nearns (2005) recently reviewed the genus Plectromerus Haldeman (1847), a genus distri buted throughout the Caribbean, southeastern USA, and southeastern Mexico (Micheli & Nearns, 2005; Monn, 2005; Monn & Hovore, 2005). Plectromerus is one of three genera currently recognized in the tribe Curiini and it is perhaps best characterized by metafemora armed with one or more large teeth (ple ctrum, Latin for spur; meros, Greek for femur). Additional works have come from Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser (2003), Nearns & Turnbow (2005), and Nearns et al. (2005). Two species of fossil Plectromerus have also recently been de scribed from Dominican amber: Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali (2004) and Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham (2005). (Nearns & Steiner, 2006: 61) Original description : Male. Length 5.1-6.7 mm, width 1.2-1.6 mm (m easured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-21a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with head, antennae, and basal four th of elytra ferrugineus. Apical half of each elytron and visible abdominal segments distinctly darker, dark brown to black (Fig. 3-21a, 3-21d). Head with front nearly flat, tr ansverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which are somewhat rais ed and widely separated. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform. Antenn ae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomere subequal to scape, only slightly longer than fourth, fifth antennomere longest, almost 2 times longer than fourth, antennomeres 6-11 becoming progressively shorter, sixth through eleventh sl ightly longer than third, basal antennomeres subcylindrical, fr om fifth slightly fl attened, apices of antennomeres 6-10 produced externally. S cape with few long, suberect, pale hairs; antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.5 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base, sides broadly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex, with scattered, long, suberect, pale hairs; each side of pronotum with coarse, deep punctures laterally and one or two long, s uberect setae anterolaterally. Surface opaque, alveolate-punctate. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.75 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, slightly sinuate around middle,

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115 evenly rounded to apex which is very s lightly subtruncate; epipleural margin moderately sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave media lly, subsutura lly; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral su rface shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each punctu re with a short, fine, pale hair; elytra with scattered, long, sube rect, pale hairs. Underside with prosternum shining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front of each coxa; narrowest area of prosternal process between coxae about 0.17 times as wide as coxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of pro cess which is subtriangular with rounded corners; coxal cavities open behind (Fi g. 3-21e). Mesosternum surface shining, sparsely and finely punctate. Metasternum surface shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with moderately dense deeper punctures and suberect, pale hairs interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen shining, dark brown to black in color; finely, shallowly punctate; abdome n with moderately dense long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtruncate, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora clavate, mesoand metafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed wi th sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence a nd with scattered, suberect, pale hairs arising from shallo w punctures; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth with posterio r edge moderately se rrate, with about 12 serration peaks; tibiae slight ly arcuate, sinuate though not strongly; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pa le pubescence, becoming longer and coarser apically (Fig. 3-21g). Female. Length 5.3-7.3 mm; width 1.3-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctures in fr ont of each coxa (Fig. 3-21f). Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly, broa dly rounded, about 1.5 times longer than preceding sternite. (Nearns & Steiner, 2006: 63) Holotype : male (Figure 3-21a), NAVASSA ISLAND, near lighthouse, 80 m., 18.82N, 75.74W, 3 August 1998, Collrs. W. E. Steiner, J. M. Swearingen, et al., at black light in open weedy scrub near mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone and red oolitic soil (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, male (Fig. 3-21a), NAVASSA ISLAND, near lighthouse, 80 m., 18.82N, 75.74W, 3 August 1998, Collrs. W. E. Steiner, J. M. Swearingen, et al., at black light in open weedy scrub near mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone and red oolitic soil (USNM). Allo type, female, NAVASSA ISLAND, central forest area, 70 m., 18.08N, 75.69W, 28 July 1998, Collrs. W. E. Steiner, J. M. Swearingen, et al., at black light in gap of mixed forest ( Ficus

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116 Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone (USNM). Paratypes, 15 (all from Navassa Island, collected by W. E. Steiner, J. M. Swear ingen, et al. except as noted): 2 males, central forest area, 70 m., 18.99N, 75.67W, 26 July 4 August 1998, Collrs. W. E. Steiner, J. M. Swearingen, et al., Malaise trap in gap of mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Coccoloba Sideroxylon Thrinax ) on limestone (USNM); 1 male, central forest area, 70 m., 18 3.99N, 75.67W, 26 July 4 August 1998, Collrs. W. E. Steiner, J. M. Swearingen, et al., Malaise trap in gap of mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Coccoloba Sideroxylon Thrinax ) on limestone (UCRC); 1 female, same data as allotype (USNM); 1 male and 1 female, near lighthouse, 80 m., 18.82N, 75.74W, 24 July 4 Aug. 1998, taken in Malaise trap, edge of open weedy scrub and mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone (FSCA); 1 male (dissected), near li ghthouse, 80 m., 18.82N, 75.74W, 26 July 1998, at black light in open we edy scrub near mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone and red ool itic soil (ENPC); 1 female, near lighthouse, 80 m., 18.82N, 75.74W, 31 July 1998, at bl ack light in open weedy scrub near mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone and red oolitic soil (FTHC); 1 female, near lighthouse, 80 m., 18 23.82N, 75.74W, 2 August 1998, at black light in open weedy scrub near mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone and red oolitic soil (CMNH); 1 male, E. end of east savanna, 65 m., 18.75N, 75.52W, 1 August 1998, at black light in open weedy scrub near mixed forest ( Ficus Metopium Thrinax ) on limestone and red oolitic soil (CMNH); 1 female, forest west of li ghthouse, 75 m., 18.91N, 75.81W, 30 July 4 Aug. 1998, Malaise trap in moist depression of mixed interior forest ( Ficus Sideroxylon Metopium Coccoloba ) (EMEC); 2 females, forest west of lighthouse, 75 m., 18.91N, 75.81W, 30 July 1998, at black light in moist depression of mixed interior forest ( Ficus, Sideroxylon Metopium Coccoloba ) (AMNH, WIBF); 1 female, bluff of southwest rim, 65 m., 18.75N, 75.94W, 25-30 July 1998, Malaise trap in open mixed forest ( Ficus, Metopium, Coccoloba ) at rim of upper terrace on limestone and red oolitic so il (TAMU); 1 female, 7 May 1999, S. Navarro (USNM). (Nearns & Steiner, 2006: 66) Geographic distribution : Known only from Navassa Island (Greater Antilles). Discussion : We believe Plectromerus navassae to be endemic to Navassa Island and the type series described herein repr esents the only known specimens This species is very distinctive from the known congeners and can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: the alveolate-punctate pronotu m, the presence of long, suberect hairs on elytra, apic al half of elytra and abdominal segments dark brown or black, and moderately serrate metafemoral teeth. Three other known species, Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron, 1910) (Fig. 3-21b), Plectromerus fasciatus (Gahan, 1895) (Fig. 3-13a), and Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, 1985 (Fig. 3-21c) also possess long, suberect elytral hairs and serrate metafemoral teeth. From P. distinctus the new species can easily be recognized by the alveolate-punctate pronotum (granulose punctures in P. distinctus ) and elytral

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117 coloration (elytra with small, ferrugineus fasciae in P. distinctus and P. fasciatus ). From P. wappesi the new species can easily be recognized by elytral coloration (elytra with small, ferrugineus fasciae in P. wappesi ). The clavate metafemora and slightly sinuate metatibiae in P. navassae (Fig. 3-21g) are somewhat similar to P. distinctus (Fig. 3-21h) but differ significantly from P. wappesi which possess pedunculate-clavate metafemora and more st rongly sinuate metatibiae (Fig. 3-21i). (Nearns & Steiner, 2006: 67) Plectromerus ornatus Fisher, 1947: 34 Original description : Slender; subcylindrical, pronotum subopaque, elytra moderately shining, pale brownish yellow, the pronotum and elytra ornamented with dark-brown markings. Head with front transverse, flat between the antennal tubercles, which are widely separated and slightly elevated; surface sparsely, finely punctate, obsoletely granulose, sparsely clothed with short, inconspicuous hairs, with a few long, erect hairs intermixed; eyes slightly emargi nate, strongly convex, strongly granulated, and widely separated from each other on the top. Antenna about as long as the body, unarmed, slightly flattened, sparsely ci liate beneath with short, erect hairs; segments 7 to 10 obtusely angulat e at apices on inner margins. Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, cy lindrical, subequal in width at base and apex, vaguely expanded at middle; sides nearly parallel; disk even, strongly convex; surface finely, sparsely, irregularly punctate, densely, finely granulose, clothed with very short, i ndistinct recumbent hairs, a nd ornamented with numerous small dark-brown spots. Scutellum transv erse, broadly rounded at apex, the surface glabrous. Elytra nearly three times as long as a nd distinctly wider than pronotum; sides nearly parallel from humeral angels to ap ical fifth, then arcuately converging to the tips, which are separately broadly rounded; disk slightly flattened; surface densely, coarsely punctate basa lly, more finely punctate toward apices, each puncture with a short, recumbent, yellowish hair, and each elytron ornamented with three broad, zigzag, dark-brown fasciae, one at basal third, one near middle, and the other at apical third. Body beneath sparsely clothed with short recumbent and long erect, inconspicuous hairs; abdomen not punctate, last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex. Legs sparsely clothed with short, recumb ent, inconspicuous pubescence; femora petiolate, strongly, abruptly cl avate, each armed on inner side near apices with a short, obtuse tooth, which is not serrate on posterior margin; tibi ae nearly straight. Length 5.5mm., width 1.2mm. Type locality. Moa, Oriente, Cuba. Described from a single specimen (sex not determin ed) collected November 3-16, 1945, by J. Acua. (Fisher, 1947: 34)

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118 Holotype : male (Figure 3-22a), CUBA, Moa, Oriente, Nov. 3-16 / 45, J. Acuna, Col., Type. No. 58119 U.S.N.M. (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, male (Figure 3-22a) CUBA, Moa, Oriente, Nov. 316 / 45, J. Acuna, Col., Type. No. 58119 U.S.N. M. (USNM). Specimens, 2 (all from CUBA): 2 females, Matanzas Prov., Cienag a Zapata, at Playa Larga, 11 & 12 Feb. 1981, P. Spangler, A. Vega, Collect ed in malaise trap (WIBF). Geographic distribution : Known from Holgun and Matanzas provinces, Cuba (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Fisher (1947) described this small species from a single male specimen and Lingafelter & Nearns (2005) provided a color habitus photograph of the holotype. This species is very rarely collected and only three specimens were available for study (including two females collected in Malaise tr aps). No specimens were found in the three largest collections in Cuba (FDZC, IESC, MNHN) and Zayas (1975) stated that he had never collected it. From congeners, P. ornatus (Figure 3-22a-c) can be distinguished by the combination of the following char acters: antennomeres 5-11 equa l to or longer than third; pronotum microsculptured, with scattered, large, shallow punctures; pron otum with distinct, small dark maculae; metafemoral gradually clavate; metafemoral teeth very small, not serrate. Plectromerus pinicola Zayas, 1975: 125 Original description : Alargado, paralelo, subcompreso, de color am arillo ocre, con la cabeza ms oscura, tres manchitas poco conspicuas en el disco del pronoto, el borde apical de sta, y en los litros cuartro manchas ms oscuras, y su cuarto apical, de color castao.

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119 Cabeza anchamente acanalada entre los tub rculos antenales, transversalmente compresa detrs de stos, antennas finas, apeneas ms largas que le cuerpo, con sus segmentos como conviene al gnero en que se ubica. Pronoto como dos veces ms largo que ancho, subcilndr ico, apenas abultado en el medio por los lados, y constrenido en la base, liso, con alguna s punciones laterals; en algunos ejemplares las tres manchas sealadas pueden unirse formando una sola discal, o de otro modo estar casi borradas; escutelo diminuto, re dondeado por detrs; litros ms anchos que el pronoto en la base, subpara lelos, poco convexos, separadamente redondeadas y en corto declive en el p ice, fina, homognea y esparcidamente punzados. Cada litro con dos mancha s separadas de los bordes, y a veces encorvadas, y el pice, de castao oscuro ; de stas manchas, la primera situada delante del medio, y la segunda estrechament e separada del rea apical oscurecida. Patas moderadas, con el diente usual de los fmures pequeo, y situado ms bien hacia el pice de los mismos. Mide 5-6 mm. Descrita la especies de cuatro ejempl ares comunicados por el Dr. R. Hochmut como emergidas de trozos de pinos recole ctados en Malas Aguas, Pinar de Rio, en marzo 19, 1969. Tipo en mi coleccion. (Zayas, 1975: 125) Redescription : Male (Figure 3-23a-c). Length 6.0-6.7 mm, width 1.5-1.6 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Fi gure 3-23a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument testaceous, with head, basa l antennomeres, portions of pronotum ferrugineus; each elytron testace ous with three major macular regions as follows: (1) basal third with a ferrugineus, arcuate, broad, irregul ar macula beginning below humerus and not reaching elytral sutu re; (2) a ferrugineus, transverse, narrow macula not reaching elytral suture; and (3) apical third testaceous, almost entirely occupied by a large, ferrugi neus, irregular macula. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, slightly concave between antennal tubercles, which ar e slightly raised and separated by about the width of two antennal sockets; vertex weakly microsculptu red, with scattered, deep punctures; vertex with short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, shallowly emargina te. Antennae eleven segmented, slightly longer than body; scape bowed, third antennomer e about as long as scape, almost twice

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120 as long as fourth, fifth antennomere longest, about 2.5 times longer than fourth, about 1.5 times longer than third, antennomeres 6-10 b ecoming progressively shorter, eleventh slightly longer than tenth, basal antennom eres subcylindrical, from third moderately flattened, apices of antennomeres 5-10 pr oduced externally. Antennae with short, recumbent, pale pubescence; antennomeres 211 ciliate above and beneath with coarse, short, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly br oader at apex than base, side s slightly inflated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; disk convex; each side of pronotum with patc h of coarse, deep punctures laterally. Basal third of di sk with one long, pale, recumbent seta positioned submedially, arising from a deep puncture; one long, recu mbent seta anterolaterally. Surface weakly microsculptured, sparsely, finely, sha llowly punctate, strongly shining. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.7 times as long as width at humeri, about 2.7 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times br oader basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, evenly rounded to apex, elytral apices broadly rounded; epipleural margin moderate ly sinuate. Elytral disk slightly concave medially, subsuturally, crea ting a faint costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surf ace strongly shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punc tures becoming finer towards apex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each punc ture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside with prosternum strongly shining, one irregular patch of coarse, deep punctures in front of each procoxa; narrowest ar ea of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is

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121 subtriangular with rounded corners; procoxa l cavities open behind. Mesosternum surface strongly shining, sparsely a nd finely punctate. Metasternum surface strongly shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with few d eeper punctures and suberect, pale hairs interspersed. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen strongl y shining; very fine ly, shallowly punctate; abdomen with sparse, long, suberect, pale ha irs and punctures each with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth sternite broadly subtrun cate, about as long as preceding sternite. Legs with femora gradually clavate, mesoand me tafemora slightly arcuate, shining, clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumb ent, short, pale pube scence; underside of each femoral club with a broad, acute triangular tooth with posterior edge nearly smooth, very weakly serrate, with i rregular, indistinct peaks; mesoand metatibiae nearly straight; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 3-23c). Female. Very similar to male except pr onotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctu res in front of procoxae. Abdomen with terminal sternite evenly, broadly rounde d, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Lectotype : male, CUBA, Hochmut, Malas Aguas, P. Rio, det F. de Zayas, 3-1969 (FDZC). Material examined : Lectotype, male, CUBA, Hochmut, Malas Aguas, P. Rio, det F. de Zayas, 3-1969 (FDZC). Specimens, 10 (a ll from CUBA): 1 male, 12 1/2 K., S. of Pinar Rio, Sept. 12-23 '13 (AMNH); 1 male, 12 1/2 K., S. of Pinar Rio, Sept. 12-23 '13 (USNM); 1 male, Bermejales, Pi nar Galalon, Los Palacios, PR, Pinus tropicalis 19801981, IV-III Marz (IESC); 1 female, Bermej ales, Pinar Galalon, Los Palacios, PR, Pinus

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122 tropicalis (Morelet), 1980-1981, V-IV Apr. (IESC); 1 male, Bermejales, Pinar Galalon, Los Palacios, PR, Pinus tropicalis (Morelet), 1980-1981, VII-II May. (IESC); 1 female, Bermejales, Pinar Galalon, Los Palacios, PR, Pinus tropicalis 1980-1981, V-IV Apr. (IESC); 3 specimens, sex undetermined, same data as lectotype (FDZC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, El MoncadaVialesPina r del Ro, 15 V 2003, col. Sergio Devesa (SDPC). Geographic distribution : Known only from Pinar del Rio province, Cuba (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Plectromerus pinicola is endemic to Cuba and known only from Pinar del Rio province in the wester n portion of the island. Zaya s (1975) stated that this species was reared from cut pine bran ches and label data indicates that Pinus tropicalis is probable host. Nearns (2006) listed P pinicola and Nearns et al. ( 2006) studied the four specimens in the syntype series at the FD ZC, designated the lectotype, and provided a color habitus photograp h of the lectotype. From congeners, P. pinicola can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: strongly shining integument; metafemora with teeth very weakly serrate, nearly smooth; metatibiae nearly straig ht (Figure 3-23c). This species is most similar to P. pumilus but can be easily disti nguished by its larger si ze, lack of two dark pronotal maculae (present in P. pumilus ), and prosterna in males with patch of coarse punctures in front of procoxae (p rosterna in males without on e distinct patch of coarse punctures in front of each procoxa in P. pumilus ).

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123 Plectromerus pumilus Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33 = Pentomacrus fasciatus Gahan (Zayas, 1975: 127) = Plectromerus fasciatus (Gahan) (Nearns, 2006: 55) Original description : Small, narrow, head and pronotum rufous, elytra testaceous, with three rufous, transverse bands, legs testaceous, pronotum with two small, round, median, dark spots, one on either side; an tennae slightly longer than body. Male: Head with anterior portion of front slightly convex, shallowly, irregularly punctate, front between antennae shallowl y concave, deeply, rugosely punctate, finely alutaceous, posterior portion transv ersely crenulate; anterior margin of epistoma truncate; antennae a little longe r than body, first segment evenly rounded, a little longer than th ird, fourth segment tw o-thirds of length of third, fifth segment longer than third, following segments gra dually decreasing in length, first segment sparsely, shallowly punctate and clothed w ith short, decumbent, yellowish pile, segments 2 to 11 moderately densely clothe d with short, decumbent, yellowish pile, with few scattered, longer, suberect, yellowi sh hairs. Pronotum glabrous except for subapical, lateral hairs on either side, and hair laterally on either side of disc at base; distinctly longer than wide, widest just behind anterior margin which is slightly produced medially, lateral margin s almost parallel to basal third, gradually sinuate to base, basal margin truncate, di sc with slightly elevated median area, which has two rounded dark spots one on e ither side, surface sparsely, finely punctate, more deeply but sparsely punc tate on anterior lateral two-thirds; scutellum evenly rounded apically, glab rous. Elytra glabrous, wider than pronotum, side margins subparallel, slightly sinuate before middle, evenly rounded to apex which is feebly truncate, surface sl ightly concave media lly, basal half with large, sparsely placed pu nctures, punctures smaller and more sparsely placed apically, maculate, with transverse fuscous spot on basal third, not reaching suture or side margin, median transverse band extending from side margin to near suture, subapical lighter and wider spot extending from margin to suture. Under surface testaceous, with only a few scattered punctures and long erect hairs on the abdomen; legs sparsely clothed with shor t decumbent yellowish pile, petiolate, clavate portion with sharp postmedian ventra l spine, posterior margin of spine on hind legs not serrate, tibi ae nearly straight, apical abdominal segment evenly rounded. Female: Similar to the male except that lateral margins of pronotum are nearly impunctate, only a few very fine scattered punctures are evident, and the apical abdominal segment is more broadly rounded. Male, length, 3.5 mm.; width, 1.0 mm. Female, length, 4.0 mm.; width, 1.2 mm.

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124 Type Material: Holotype, ma le, collected on South Bimini Island, Bahamas, June, 1951 (M. Cazier, C. and P. Vaurie); alloty pe, female, same locality, July, 1951 (C. and P. Vaurie). (Cazier & Lacey, 1952: 33) Holotype : male (Figure 3-24a), BAHAMAS, S outh Bimini Isl., B.W.I., June 1951, M. Cazier, C. & P. Va urie collectors (AMNH). Material examined : Holotype, male (Figure 3-24a), BAHAMAS, South Bimini Isl., B.W.I., June 1951, M. Cazier, C. & P. Vaurie collectors (AMNH). Specimens, 35 (all from BAHAMAS): 2 females, Andros Is ., Behring Point, 8 June 2001, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 male and 1 female, Andros Is., Behring Point, 5 June 2004, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 male, Andros Is., Bowen Sounds, 8 June 2001, R. Turnbow (JEWC); 1 male, Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 4 June 2001, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 male, Andros Is., Money Point, 7 June 2004, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 male, Andros Is., Mastic Point, 9 June 2004, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 female, Andros Is ., Forfar Field Station, 6 June 2004, R. Turnbow (RHTC); 1 male and 5 females, Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, 1-VII-1987, D.B. & R.W. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 1 male Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, 11-XI-19-XII-1986, D.B. & R.W. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, XI-1986, J.R. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 2 females, Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, 5-10-XI1986, J.R. Wiley, malaise trap (FSCA); 1 female, Eleuthera, Rainbow Bay, 16-26-X1985, J.R. Wiley (FSCA); 1 male, Eleuth era, Rainbow Bay, 21-X-1985, J.R. Wiley (FSCA); 1 female, Andros Is., Behring Point, 5 VI 2004, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 female, Andros Is., Behring Point, 8 VI 2001, M.C. Thomas, beating (FSCA); 1 female, Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 11 VI 2004, M.C. Thomas (FSCA); 1 male and 1 female, B.W.I., Exuma, VI11-1968, Hummingbird Cay, W. of Georgetown, B.K. Dozier coll. (FSCA); 2 males and 1 female, B.W.I ., South Bimini, June 14, 1967, B.K. Dozier coll. (FSCA, EMEC); 2 males and 1 female B.W.I., South Bimini, June 15, 1967, B.K.

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125 Dozier coll. (FSCA); 1 male New Providence Is., 5mi. E. Clifton Pier IV-10-11-65, Bahama Is. B.W.I., B. D. Valentine & R.W. Hamilton Co llectors (WIBF); 1 male, Ragged Is. Group, Buena Vista Cay, III-22-65, Bahama Is. B.W.I., B.D. Valentine & R.D. Hamilton Collectors (WIBF). Specimens, 10 (all from CUBA): 1 specimen, sex undetermined, Col. F. de Zayas, Cinaga de Zapata, Matanzas, 5-1962 (F DZC); 3 specimens, sex undetermined, Pen. Guanacahabibes [sic], Pinar del Rio, Jul. 1955, F. de Zayas (FDZC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, no label data (FDZC); 1 specimen, sex undetermined, P. Mendoza, PR 553 (FDZC); 2 specimens, sex undetermined, Camping Peas BlancasJibacoaSanta Cruz del NorteProvincia de La Habana. 07 IV 2003, a la luz (250 W vapor Hg), col. Sergio Devesa (SDPC); 1 specimen, sex undete rmined, Boca de CanasSanta Cruz del NorteProvincia de La Habana, 24 IX 2004, a la luz (250 W vapor Hg), col. Sergio Devesa (SDPC). Geographic distribution : Known from Bahamas (A ndros Island, Eleuthera, Exuma, New Providence, Ragged Isla nd Group, and South Bimini) and Cuba, new country record (La Habana, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio provinces) (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species has been collected at lights, beating vegetation, and in Malaise traps. Vitali (2004) correctly noted that Zayas (1975) listing of P. fasciatus from Cuba was instead P. pumilus (for example Figure 3-24b). Zayas (1975) stated that this species was not commonly collected in Cuba and did not list any host information. Plectromerus pumilus (Figure 3-24a-c) is the smalle st species in the genus, ranging in size from 3.5-5.2 mm in leng th. Male specimens examined measured: length 3.5-5.1 mm, width 0.9-1.2 mm (measured across humeri); female specimens examined measured:

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126 length 3.8-5.2 mm; width 0.9-1.3 mm (measur ed across humeri). From congeners, P. pumilus can be separated by the combination of the following characters: pronotal disk with two distinct, small, round, dark, granul ose maculae; strongly shining integument; males with lateral margins of pronotum with patch of coarse punctures, but prosternum without patch of coarse punctu res in front of procoxae (Fig ure 3-24c); and metafemora with teeth nearly smooth, very weakly serrate (Figure 3-24d). This species is similar to P. dentipes but can be easily distinguished by th e two dark pronotal maculae (absent in P. dentipes ); metafemoral teeth with edge nearly smooth, very weakly serrate (metafemoral tooth very slightly serrate to moderately serrate in P. dentipes ); prosterna in males lacking patch of coarse punctu res in front of procoxae (pro sterna in males with one distinct patch of coarse puncture s in front of each procoxa in P. dentipes ). Plectromerus ramosi Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30 = Plectromerus n. sp. Chalumeau & Touroult, 2005b: 113 Original description : Male. Length 4.3-6.5 mm, width 1.0-1.6 mm (measured across humeri). Small, narrow, subcylindrical. Integument ferrugi neus, varying from light to dark, with two testaceus maculae (sometimes transverse fasciae) on each elytron, one at basal third, small, and oblong, and another just behind middle, this one oblique. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes and antennal tubercles, slightly concav e between antennal tubercles, which are slightly raised and widely separated. Surface moderately shining, with fine wrinkles, coarsely, rugosel y, densely, confluently punctate, punctures shallower beyond vertex. Head with a fine, short pale seta in each puncture and a few scattered long, pale, suberect hairs. Ey es prominent, transverse, subreniform. Antennae 11-segmented, slightly longer than body, third antennomere subequal to scape, about 1.3 to 1.8 longer than fourt h, fifth antennomere about 1.4 longer than third, varying from slightly less than twice to three times the length of fourth, sixth subequal to seventh, eighth to tenth b ecoming progressively shorter, eleventh slightly longer than tenth; basal antenn omeres subcylindrical, from antennomere 5 slightly flattened, with apices of ante nnomeres 5-10 produced ex ternally (fifth only very slightly), more pronounced on an tennomeres 7-10. Antennomeres feebly shining, scape moderately coarsely, m oderately densely, shallowly punctate; clothed with fine, short, recumbent, pale pubescence with slightly longer, suberect

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127 hairs intermixed, sparser on basal segm ents, becoming denser on distal ones, antennomeres 2-6 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum about 1.3 longer than broad, widest at middle, slightly broader at base than apex, sides arcuately inflated, with a broad constriction at basal fifth, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal a nd apical margins slightly arcuate; disk slightly flattened medially, sometimes w ith three broad, rounded raised areas, one medial and two anterior to middle, one on each side. Surface moderately shining, often with fine wrinkles, sparse to m oderately densely, shallowly, moderately coarse punctation on disk, laterally alutac eus with deeper punctures. Pronotum mostly glabrous except each side with two long, suberect setae, one anterolateral, the other one discal at basal third. Scut ellum small, rounded, shining, impunctate. Elytra about 2.7 to 3 times as long as widt h at humeri, about 2.6 to 3 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.2 to 1.4 times br oader basally than pronotum at widest (at middle); sides slightly sinuate, even ly rounded to apex which is rounded; epipleural margin sinuate. Disk slightly concave medially, s ubsuturally, creating a faint costa on each elytron. Surface shining; punctation moderately dense, coarse, punctures becoming finer towards apex and si des, almost obsolete at apical third; glabrous except for a few very fine, in conspicuous short hairs in punctures near apex. Underside with prosternum shini ng, rugose; apical fourth impunctate and one irregular patch of coarse punctures in front of each coxa (Fig. -3-19e); with very sparse, short, inconspi cuous, pale hairs; narrowest area of prosternal process between coxae about 0.25 to 0.3 as wide as coxal cavity, and about 0.25 to 0.5 the width of apex of process which is su btriangular with rounded corners. Mesosternum shining; moderately finely to moderately coarsely punctate; with few short, inconspicuous pale ha irs. Mesepisternum sparsely punctate; sparsely clothed with fine, short, pale hairs. Mesepime ron with denser pubescence. Metasternum shining; moderately finely to moderate ly coarsely, sparsely punctate; punctures with a fine, short, pale hair. Metepister num moderately densely clothed with short, recumbent, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen shining; finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with a few long, suberect pale hairs and punctures with a short, fine, pale hair; fifth ster nite broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pe dunculate-clavate, mesoand metafemora arcuate, shining, finely, shallowly punctate clothed with sparsely to moderately densely, recumbent, short, pale pubescence ; underside of each femoral club with a broad triangular tooth with posterior edge strongly serra te; tibiae slightly arcuate, sinuate; clothed with sparse to moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pale pubescence, becoming longer and coarser apica lly. Genitalia see Fig. 3-20b. Female. Length 5.0-7.2 mm; width 1.2-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male. Antennae about as l ong as body. Lateral punctures on pronotum not distinctly deep and prosternum only fi nely punctate, lacking patches of coarse punctation (Fig. 3-19f). Narrowest area of prosternal process between coxae about 0.25 to 0.4 as wide as coxal cavity, and a bout 0.3 to 0.6 the width of apex of process. (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 30)

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128 Holotype : male (Figure 3-19d), PUERTO RICO, Maricao, Rd. 120, Km. 13.8, 26IV-1980, J. & N. Micheli, coll., beating foliage (USNM). Material examined : Holotype, male, PUERTO RICO, Maricao, Rd. 120, Km. 13.8, 26-IV-1980, J. & N. Micheli, coll., beating foliage (USN M). Allotype, female, PUERTO RICO, Maricao, Rd. 120, Km. 15.9, ex twigs Eugenia nr. ligustrina coll. 17-X-1981, emerged XII-81, J. Micheli, coll. (USNM). Paratypes, 56: 1 female, same data as holotype (JAMC); 1 male, PUERTO RICO, Maricao, Rd. 120, Km. 13.8, 3-V1980, J. Micheli, coll., beating dead foliage (JAMC); 1 male, same data as previous except, 10-V-1980 (JAMC); 3 males, PUERTO RICO, Maricao, Rd. 120, Km. 15.9, ex twigs Eugenia nr. ligustrina coll. 17-X-1981, emerged XI-81, J. Micheli, coll. (JAMC, ENPC); 14 males and 2 fema les, same data as previous except, emerged XII-81 (JAMC, USNM, ENPC; 2 dissected); 1 male and 1 female, same data as previous except, emerged II-82 (J AMC); 4 males and 4 females, same data as previous except, emerged III-82 (JAM C, ENPC; 1 dissected); 1 male, PUERTO RICO, Maricao, Rd. 120, Km. 15.9, 18-X-1981, bea ting foliage, J. Micheli, coll. (JAMC); 1 male, PUERTO RICO, Maricao For., Water Filtration Plant, 18'N, 66W, 17 June 2002, Turpenia paniculata Steven W. Lingafelter (USNM); 1 female, PUERTO RICO, Maricao, Bos que Estatal de Maricao, 3.3 km SW Maricao, 18-09-39N, 67-00-05W forest, 550 m, 10-11 June 1996, J. Rawlins, C. Young, R. Davidson, W. Zanol, S. Thompson, M. Klingler (CMNH); 1 female, PUERTO RICO, Hwy 120, km. 16.2, Hdqts. Maricao St. For. 8-8-1999, C. W. Obrien (DHPC); 1 female, PUERTO RI CO, Hwy. 120, K10H2, Maricao For. Res., July 26, 1979, L.B. O'Brien (JEWC); 1 ma le, PUERTO RICO, Gunica Forest, 6IV-2001, ex dead log, Charyn J. Micheli, coll. (JAMC); 1 female, PUERTO RICO, Gunica Forest, Ballena trail, bea ting, 17'49"N, 66'74"W, 16 June 2002, Steven W. Lingafelter (USNM); 1 male, PUERTO RICO, Gunica Forest, Ballena trail, UV light, Spec ID:4228, Nearns & Lingafelter, 27-VII-2004 (ENPC); 1 male, PUERTO RICO, Ponce, Rd. 132, Km. 20, 26VI-1972, J. Micheli, coll., at lights (JAMC); 2 males, PUERTO RICO, Ponce dry forest at Holiday Inn, 17'N, 66'W, 20 June 2002, beating, Steven W. Lingafelter (USNM, ENPC; 1 dissected); 1 male, PUERTO RICO, Ponce dr y forest behind Holiday Inn, 17'N, 66'W, 1 July 2002, Thouinia portoricensis Steven W. Lingafelter (USNM); 2 males and 2 females, PUERTO RICO, Guani ca, Bosque Estatal de Guanica, 3.6 km E Guanica, 17-58-11N, 66-52-28W, thorns crub, 100 m, 12 June 1996, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson, C. Young, M. K lingler, W. Zanol, S. Th ompson (CMNH); 1 female, 17'50"N, 066'48"W, PUERTO RICO, Guan ica, Bosque Estatal de Guanica, just W. Punta Ballena on Rt. 333, 9.VIII .1999, P. W. Kovarik, collector, beating (WIBF); 1 female, PUERTO RICO, Hu macao Dist., Casa Cabuy, Hwy.191 nr. Florida, 31-VII-2-VIII-1999, J. E. Eger, MV & UV lights (RFMC); 1 female, VIRGIN ISLANDS, St. John, Lameshur Bay VIERS, 09 March 1984, at UV light, W. B. Muchmore colr. (WIBF); 1 female, VIRGIN ISLANDS, St. John, Est. Caneel Bay, Lind Point, December 1992, J. Comisky colr. (WIBF); 1 male and 1

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129 female, VIRGIN ISLANDS, St. John, Lameshure Bay, VIERS, 21-28 July 1994, M. S. Becker colr, ultraviolet light (WIBF); 2 males, BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS, Guana Island, Sugarloaf trail, 100-800 ft., 09 OCT 1994, M. A. & L. L. Ivie (WIBF). (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 32) Geographic distribution : Known from Puerto Rico, St. John, US Virgin Islands, Guana Island, and British Virg in Islands (West Indies). Discussion : Throughout the series there is some variati on in color and slight variation in the shape of pronotal margins, pronotal texture, punctation on pronotum and mesosternum, and proportion and shape of the prosternal process. Specimens collected in the wet forest of Maricao are quite dark and the pale maculae on the elytra tend to be rather compact (Fig. 3-19d). Those from the drier areas of Gunica and Ponce (in Puerto Rico) and the Virgin Islands are lighter colored with the pale areas on the elytra more like fasc iae (Fig. 3-19g). Except for color, other variation is slight and there is much overl ap. To further invest igate the possibility of two distinct species, dissections of male genitalia of se veral specimens from each phenotype were made by the junior author. Detailed study of the tegmen including the parameres (lateral lobes) and phallobase (basal piece) revealed no consistent morphological characters (Fig. 3-20b). Since we ca n find no significant differences between specimens from wet and dry areas, only a single species will be proposed. This species can be confused with Plectromerus serratus (Cameron) but can be distinguished by the punctat ion of the pronotum: in P. serratus the pronotum is impunctate and dull, whereas P. ramosi has a shiny pronotum and distinct punctation. Also, the fifth antennomere in P. serratus (Fig. 3-19i) is distinctly pronounced externally at apex whereas in P. ramosi (Fig. 3-19h) it is only slightly expanded. Some small, light specimens of P. ramosi are similar to P. distinctus (Cameron) but the latter species has long, s uberect hairs on the elytra and granulose punctures on the pronotum, both lacking in P. ramosi From other congeners, P. ramosi can be distinguished by the following combination of characters: the shape and punctation of pronotum (widest at mi ddle, shallow, moderately coarse punctures), the punctation and macular pattern of elytra, the glabrous pronotum and elytra, and the serrate metafemora l tooth. (Micheli & Nearns, 2005: 33)

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130 Plectromerus serratus (Cameron, 1910: 185) = Pentomacrus serratus Cameron, 1910: 185 Original description : Reddish-testaceous, head and thorax dull, very obsoletely and diffusely punctured, the latter much longer than br oad, slightly rounded at th e sides. Elytra rather shining, coarsely and thickly punctured, less so at apex. Anterior femora armed with a tooth, middle and posterior femora armed with a strong tooth, the posterior edge of the tooth on the hinder femora bei ng finely but distinc tly serrated for its whole length. Anterior and middle tibiae s lightly, posterior distinctly, sinuated. Legs and antennae reddish-testaceous. (Cameron, 1910: 135) Redescription : Male (holotype) (Figure 3-18b, 3-18d, 3-19i, 3-25a-c). Length 5.4 mm, width 1.2 mm (measured across humeri). Habitus as in Figure 3-25a. General form small, narrow, subcylindrical Integument testaceous. Head with front nearly flat, transverse, with a median, shallow line from between eyes to just beyond vertex, nearly flat between antennal tubercles, which are very slightly rais ed and separated by about the width of two antennal sockets; vertex microsculptured, with a few sparse, fine, shallow punctures; vertex with sparse, short, recumben t, pale pubescence. Eyes coarsely faceted, transverse, subreniform, very shallowly emarginate. Ante nnae eleven segmented, about as long as body; scape bowed, third antennomere slightly longer than scape, almost twice as long as fourth, fifth antennomere longest, abou t twice as long as fourth, slightly longer than third, basal antennomeres s ubcylindrical, from fifth slightly flattened, apices of antennomeres 5-10 produced externally. Scap e with short, pale, recumbent pubescence; antennomeres 2-7 ciliate beneath with coarse, moderately long, suberect, pale hairs. Pronotum subcylindrical, about 1.3 times as long as wide, widest at middle, slightly broader at apex than base, sides broadly infl ated, arcuately constricted at basal third, and a slight inflation just before apex; basal margin slightly arcuate; basa l third of disk with two long, pale, recumbent setae positioned s ubmedially, arising from deep punctures

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131 (left seta is broken); lateral margins of pronot um with patch of coarse, deep punctures, with one long, suberect seta anterolaterally. Surface, microsculptured, weakly shining, very sparsely, faintly, and shallowly punctate, with a slightly raised median callus, and two slightly raised, submedial calli slightly anterior to cente r (Figure 3-25b) ; surface with very sparse, short, recumbent, pale pubescence. Scutellum small, rounded, almost as long as broad, impunctate. Elytra about 2.6 times as long as wi dth at humeri, about 3.5 times as long as pronotal length, about 1.3 times broa der basally than pronotum at widest point (at middle); sides nearly parallel, evenly rounded to apex, elytra l apices individually, narrowly rounded; epipleural margin strongly sinuate. Elytral disk shallowly concave medially, subsuturally, creating a faint costa on each elytron; base of each elytron slightly raised. Elytral surface strongly shining; puncta tion moderately dense, coarse, and deep at basal third; punctures becoming finer towards ap ex and sides, almost obsolete at apical third; each puncture with a short, fine, pale hair. Underside with prosternum strongly shining, area in front of procoxae with patc h of coarse punctures; narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae not visi ble (specimen glued to board); procoxal cavities open behind. Mesoand metasternum surface strongly shining, sparsely and finely punctate, with sparse, short, recumben t, pale pubescence. Metepisternum sparsely clothed with short, recumben t, pale pubescence, which is denser posteriorly. Abdomen moderately shining, finely, shallowly punctate; abdomen with sparse, long, suberect, pale hairs and punctures each with a short, fine pale hair; fifth sternite broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Legs with femora pedunculate-clavate, basal portion of metafemoral about as long as metafemoral club, mesoand metafemora moderately arcuate, shining, clothed with sp arsely to moderately densely, recumbent,

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132 short, pale pubescence; underside of each fe moral club with a broad triangular tooth; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge str ongly serrate, with about 12 serration peaks, each serration peak with a short, pale, curved hair; metatibi ae strongly sinuate, slightly flattened, about half as long as metafemora, gradually expanded distally; clothed with moderately dense, fine, recumbent, pa le pubescence, becoming longer and coarser distally (Figure 3-25c). Female. Length 6.5 mm; width 1.5 mm (measured across humeri). Very similar to male except pronotal sides lacking coarse punctures and prosternum lacking irregular patch of punctures in front of each procoxa. Narrowest area of prosternal process between procoxae about 0.2 times as wide as procoxal cavity, and about 0.5 times the width of apex of process which is subtria ngular with rounded corn ers; procoxal cavities open behind. Abdomen with terminal sterni te evenly, broadly rounded, slightly longer than preceding sternite. Metafemoral teeth with posterior edge st rongly serrate, with about 18 serration peaks. Holotype : male (Figure 3-25a), HAITI (BMNH). Material examined : Holotype, male (Figure 3-25 a), HAITI (BMNH). 1 female, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, 2000, 9 km NE Ja rabacoa, May 8-12, 1985, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC). Geographic distribution : Known from Port au Prince, Haiti; and La Vega province, Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Cameron (1910) stated that the holo type was collected sweeping near Port au Prince, Haiti, in February, 1908 but the holotype specimen does not bear this information. This species is rarely collected and nothi ng is known about its biology.

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133 Plectromerus serratus can be distinguished from congeners by the combination of the following characters: head with vertex microsculptured, very sparsely, finely punctate; pronotal disk microsculptured; elytra testaceous, without ferrugineus maculae; and metafemoral teeth strongly, deeply serrate. This species is most similar to Plectromerus new species 2 but can be distinguished by the pronotal surface with very sparse, short, recumbent, pale pubescence (pr onotal surface with moderately dense short, recumbent, pale pubescence in Plectromerus new species 2), elytra with faint costae (elytra with distinct costae in Plectromerus new species 2), and the metafemoral teeth with 12-18 serrations peaks (metafemoral teeth with 20-24 serrations peaks in Plectromerus new species 2). Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali, 2004: 453 Original description : Male. Length 8,8 mm. Elongated; pitc h-brown, except for the elytra, reddish brown without pattern apparently, and for reddish testaceous palpi. Head transverse, broader than the prothorax; antennal tubercles widely separated, scarcely elevated; eyes big, prominent, a pproached at the basis of the mandibles, coarsely faceted; palpi shor t, least joint api cally widened, as long as the second least. Antennae 11-segmented, sc arcely longer than the body (10th joint reaches the apex of the elytra), joints 1-4 with few semi-erect setae at inner side, 5-10 outer dentate, 6-11 slightly bowed. Scape bowed, its outer apex prominent; pedicle scarcely longer than broad; 3rd joint scarcely shorter than the scape, nearly twice as long as the fourth; 6th joint one-third longer than the third; 7th joint one-half longer than the third; 8th and 9th joint one-fourth longer than the third; 10th joint as long as the scape; 11th joint one-third longer than the third. Prothorax very elongate, 1 times longer than broad, sub-cordate, bowed in front part of sides, constricted at about one-third of their length from the basis. Elytra elongate, 2 times longer than broad at basis, almost parallel-sides, slightly constr icted at the middle of their length, then sparsely and finely punctured from the basis until the middle of their length, then sparsely and finely puncture d toward the tips. Hind wings hyaline, their veins reddish testaceous ; two cubital veins develope d, first cubital vein with two branches (cu1a, cu1b); cubital cross-veins cu1a-c1b delimiting a cell, cross-vein cu2, a1 delimiting a cell; stigma very small, hyaline. Underside surface covered by fine, erect, black pubescence. Meta sternum longitudinally grooved. Fist abdominal sternite three times longer than other visible sternites; pygidium evenly rounded. Legs long, slender; femora club-shaped, armed by one sharp, smooth,

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134 well developed tooth at the middle of hind side; tibiae straight, linear, only at the basis suddenly bowed, provided by fine, little to oth at the apex; tars i short, sparsely pubescent. Hind legs lacking. Holotype. male, Dominican Republic Lower Miocene (25-20.000.000 BP), ex. coll. Y. R. Goldman (autho rs coll.). (V itali, 2004: 453) Holotype : male (Figure 3-15b), DOMINICA N REPUBLIC, Lower Miocene (2520.000.000 BP), ex. coll. Y. R. Goldman (FVPC). Material examined : Holotype, male (Figure 3-15b), DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Lower Miocene (25-20.000.000 BP), ex. coll. Y. R. Goldman (FVPC). Geographic distribution : Known only from Dominican amber (Lower Miocene), Dominican Republic (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Notes on Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali holotype: ventral habitus as in Fig. 3-15b (dorsal habitus completely obscured), length approximately 7 mm (exact measurement not possible since abdomen is bent up through open elytra), included in a piece of Dominican amber (Lower Miocene) from the Dominican Republic. Amber yellow-brownish, partially obscur ed by numerous, small bubbles; cut and polished in a near-oval shape, measuri ng 42 X 22 X 15 mm. Specimen is damaged as follows: metathoracic legs are missing ex cept coxae and trochanters; left antenna is damaged, missing part of antennomere 8, completely missing antennomeres 911. One important character in particular, the prosternal process between coxae, is not visible due to position of proand me sothoracic legs. Elytral punctation can be inferred from ventral view due to open elyt ra which are semi-translucent. Vitali (2004) states that the holotype is a male however, we see nothing to support this. In our opinion, the broadly r ounded fifth abdominal segment is more indicative of a female Plectromerus (irregular patches of coar se punctures in front of each prosternal coxa are also not visible but the view is partially obscured). Vitali (2004) also states that the first abdominal ventrite is 3 times longer than other visible ventrites, however, our measuremen ts show it to be about 2 times longer. (Nearns & Branham, 2005: 23) Plectromerus unidentatus Fisher, 1942: 17 Original description : Slender, subcylindrical, rather strongly sh ining, dark brownish yellow, the head and pronotum more reddish brown, and the elytra ornamented with dark reddish-brown markings.

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135 Head with the front transverse, feebly concave between the antennal tubercles, which are widely separated and slightly elevated; surface glabrous, coarsely, densely, uniformly punctate; eyes vaguely emarginate, and very strongly convex. Antenna about as long as the body, unarmed, ciliate beneath with a few moderately long, erect hairs; basal segments, subcylindr ical, feebly expanded at apices; apical segments slightly flattened, feebly, obtuse ly angulated on inner margins at apices. Pronotum distinctly longer than wide, cy lindrical, subequal in width at base and apex; sides sinuate and parallel, feebly, br oadly constricted in front of and behind the middle; disk slightly uneven, strongly convex; surface glabrous, coarsely, rather densely, shallowly, uniformly punctate, the intervals finely, densely granulose. Scutellum transverse, broadly rounded at apex, with the surface glabrous. Elytra nearly three times as long and dis tinctly wider then pronotum; sides nearly parallel from humeral angles to apical fifth, then arcu ately converging to the tips, which are conjointly broadly rounded; disk moderately convex; surface glabrous, coarsely, densely, uniformly punctate, the punctures very deep and elongate basally, becoming finer near apices, a nd each elytron ornamented with dark reddish-brown markings as follows: A transv erse spot at basal fourth along lateral margin, but not extending to sutural marg in, and a transverse, narrow, irregular fascia at the apical fourth. Body beneath glabrous, strongly shining; abdomen impunctate, the last visible sternite broadly rounded at ap ex; prosternum smooth ante riorly, sparsely, coarsely punctate posteriorly. Legs sparsely clot hed with short, inc onspicuous pubescence; femora strongly petiolate, strongly, abruptly clavate, a nd each armed with a large, triangular tooth, which is not serrat e on posterior margin; tibiae sinuate. Length 5.5-7 mm., width 1.25-1.5 mm. Type lo cality. Mandeville, Jamaica. Type and paratypes. In the Museum of Co mparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., No. 53734. Described from five specimens (one type, sex not determined) collected at the type locality by A. E. Wight. (Fisher, 1942: 17) Holotype : sex undetermined, JAMAIC A, Mandeville (MCZ). Material examined : Specimens, 6 (all from JAMAICA): 1 female, Balaclava, 24.27.III.1937, M. Savariau Collr. (USNM); 1 female, paratype, Mandeville., A.E.Wight, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Paratype 53734 (USNM); 2 males, 4000' Hardwar Gap, VII-21-1966, A. T. Howden (WIBF); 1 male, Kingston, 16 Jun 1958, M. W. Sanderson, at light (WIBF); 1 male and 1 fema le, St. Cath. Par., Mt. Diablo, Hollymount,

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136 2754ft. 21-24 April '73, Don & Mignon Davis (WIBF on loan from USNM); 1 male, Try., Barbecue Bottom, VIII 10 1966, A. T. Howden (WIBF). Geographic distribution : Known from the Parishes of Kingston, Manchester, Saint Catherine, Saint-Elizabeth, and Trelawny, Jamaica (Greater Antilles). Discussion : This species (Figure 3-26a-c) is endemic to Jamaica and has been collected at lights. Nothing else is kn own about its biology. The holotype measures: length 7.0 mm, width 1.6 mm (measured across humeri). Males specimens measured: length 5.4-7.4 mm, width 1.3-1.5 mm (measur ed across humeri), female specimens measured at: length 6.3-7.4 mm, widt h 1.4-1.7 mm (measured across humeri). Plectromerus unidentatus is most similar to P. wappesi but can be distinguished by the very weakly, irregularly serrate metafemo ral teeth (Figure 3-26b) (moderately, evenly serrate metafemoral teeth in P. wappesi ), elytral punctures somewh at elongate and evenly spaced (elytral punctures rounded, not evenly spaced in P. wappesi ), and scape, pronotal disk, and metafemora without long, suberect se tae (scape, pronotal disk, and metafemora with long, suberect setae in P. wappesi ). Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, 1985: 81 Original description : Male. Form small, subcylindrical; inte gument testaceous, with head, antennae, base and apex of pronotum, bases of tibi ae, and tarsi slight ly more ferruginous; eyes and tips of mandibles black; elytra with 2 wide, usually indistinctly defined, common, transverse ferruginous fasciae, one behind base, the other at apical ; long erect hairs sparsely s cattered on entire body. Head rather small, front nearly flat, with median line shallowly impr essed, slightly concave between antennal tubercles; surface closely, subrugosely punc tate, with punctures nearly contiguous and subalveolate on vertex; eyes prominent, transverse, subreniform; antennae slightly longer than body, scape finely punctate, 3rd segment slightly shorter than scape, longer than 4th, 5th segment 1 times as long as 4th, segments 6 to 11 subequal with apical segments slightly shorter, basal segments cylindrical, segments from 5th slightly flattened, with segments 5 to 10 somewhat produced externally at apices, segments 2 to 5 spar sely fringed beneath with pale hairs.

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137 Pronotum subcylindrical, with sides slightly si nuate, narrowed in front of base and at apex, hind margin emarginate; disk convex; surface opaque, alveolate-punctate, with a few scattered pale flying hairs. Scutellum small, rounded, shining, impunctate. Elytra 2 times as long as broad, sides very slightly si nuate medially, apices rounded to suture (rarely subtr uncate); surface shining, deeply, moderately densely punctate, with punctures becoming sm aller and sparser at apical 2/5, apical nearly impunctate, glabrous with excep tion of scattered long flying hairs. Underside with prosternum glabrous, moderately finely punctate on basal with an indistinct patch of co arser punctures superimposed in front of each coxa; prosternal process narrow; metasternum with apical half medially impressed and moderately sparsely punctate with scattered, erect, pale hairs; abdomen sparsely punctate with erect, pale hairs, terminal sternite rounded at ap ex, about as long as penultimate sternite, termin al tergite subtruncate. Legs with femora pedunculateclavate, shining, sparsely clothed with short, extremely fine, recumbent, golden pubescence and scattered long flying hairs; underside of each femoral club armed with a broad triangular tooth, metafemora w ith hind edges of teeth finely crenulate; tibiae curved, metatibiae sinuate. Length 5.0-6.5 mm, width 1.0-1.5 mm. Female. Very similar to male. Proster num simply punctate, lacking patches of coarser punctures; antennae as long as body; abdomen with terminal sternite visibly longer than penultimate sternite Length 5.0-8.0 mm, width 1.0-1.75 mm. Types. Holotype male and allotype female (both in California Academy of Sciences) and 4 male paratypes from 10 km N Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, MEXICO, 15-16-VI-1983 (E. Giesbe rt). Additional paratypes: 4 7 from 15-18 km N Tulum, Quintana R oo, 11-12-X-1982 (J. Wappes); 2 from Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, 29 -III-1960 (J.F.G. Clarke); 1 from 2 mi NE San Miguel, Cozumel Island, Quintana Roo, 3 -IV-1960. Paratypes are deposited in the USNM and the collections of James E. Wa ppes and the author. (Giesbert, 1985: 81) Holotype : male, MEXICO, Quintana Roo, 10 km N Puerto Morelos, 15-16-VI1983 (EMEC). Material examined : 12 paratype specimens (all from MEXICO): 4 males and 4 females, Quin. Roo., 15-18 km N Tulu m, X-11,12-1982, JE Wappes (EFGC, FSCA, JEWC, USNM, RFTC); 4 males, Quintana R oo, 10 km N Puerto Morelos, June 15-16, 1983, E. Giesbert, Coll. (EFGC); 4 specimens (all from MEXICO): 1 male, Q. Roo, 15 km W Pto. Morelos, June 1218, 1993, E. Giesbert, coll. (E FGC); 1 male, Q.R., 14mi. NE. Tulum, Aug. 8, 1974, C.W. & L. OBr ien & Marshall (TAMU); 1 male and 1

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138 female, Quintana Roo, Cancun, Moon Palace, em. 25/V/02, R. Morris, ex. Buttonwood girdles (ENPC). Specimens, 5 (all from JAMAICA): 1 male ,Clar. Par., Portland Ridge, nr. Jackson Bay Cave, 40ft., 4 May 1973, Don & Mignon Da vis (WIBF, on loan from USNM); 1 female, Try., Duncans, VIII-9-1966, A.T. Howden, collected at light (WIBF); 1 female, W.I., C.M.Acc.2522, Rae Town, VII-16-99 (CM NH); 2 males, Kingston, Tip Top Hotel, Ruthven Rd., R.E. Woodruff, 7-V-69, blackli ght trap (WIBF, on loan from FSCA). One female, HONDURAS, intercepted under bark of unidentified wood at Mobile, Alabama, from Honduras, 12-19-1939, Mobile 6682 (USNM). Geographic distribution : Known from Quintana Roo, Mexico; Honduras, new country record (Central America); and Jamaica, new country record (Greater Antilles). Discussion : Giesbert (1983) stated that this species was collected beating dead branches. It has also been collected at lights and reared from buttonwood girdles (R.F. Morris, pers. comm.). Giesbert (1985) commented on the variability of the elytral markings, stating that . . in a number of specimens the two da rk fasciae are reduced to four indistinct ferruginous spots and that . . in the Cozumel specimen, the markings are darker and more distinct (Giesbert, 1985: 81). This species (Figs. 321c, 3-21i, 3-27a-c) is very similar to Plectromerus new species 6 in several charac ters including antennal segment proportions, pronotal disk puncta tion, shape of elytral ap ices, and metafemoral and metatibial shape. However, P. wappesi can be distinguished from Plectromerus new species 6 by the moderately, evenly serrate metafemoral teeth (very weakly, irregularly serrate metafemoral teeth in Plectromerus new species 6), and scape, pronotal disk, and

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139 metafemora with long, suberect setae (scape, pronotal disk, and metafemora without long, suberect setae in Plectromerus new species 6). Key to the Species of Plectromerus Keys to the species of Plectromerus (= Pentomacrus ) have been provided by several workers (Cameron, 1910; Cazier and Lacey, 1952; Vitali, 2004; Vitali & Rezbanyai-Reser, 2003). 1 Eyes finely faceted; antennae 10-segemented (Dominican Republic). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dominicanus (Figure 3-10, 3-11) 1 Eyes coarsely faceted; antennae 11-segmented. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2 Outer angles of elytra form acute spine (Figur e 4-25e). . . . . . . . . . . .3 2 Outer angles of elytra not as a bove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3(2) Metafemora with two distinct teeth (Domini can Republic). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bidentatus (Figure 3-7) -Metafemora with one tooth (Cuba). . . . . . . . . . . acunai (Figure 3-6) 4(2) Elytra with long, pale, erect or suberect setae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4 Elytra without scattered, long, pale, erect or suberect setae. . . . . . . . . 10 5(4) Head, elytral apices, and abdominal se gments distinctly black or dark brown (Navassa Island). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . navassae (Figure 3-21) 5 Head, elytral apices, and abdominal segments not as above. . . . . . . . . .6 6(5) Metafemoral tooth weakly serrate; me tatibiae nearly straight; elytral apices subtruncate (Lesser Antilles). . . . . . . . . . . . fasciatus (Figure 3-13) 6 Metafemoral tooth moderately to strongl y serrate; metatibiae slightly to strongly bowed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7(6) Scape, pronotal disk, elytra, and meta femora with long, suberect setae; pronotal disk with dense, round, shallow puncture s; metafemoral club longer than basal portion; metatibiae strongly bowed (SE Mexic o, Jamaica, Honduras). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wappesi (Figure 3-27) 7 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8(7) Metatibiae strongly bowed; metafemo ral club shorter than basal portion; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge st rongly, deeply serra te, with about 14-17 serration peaks (Panama). . . . . . . . . . . new species 7 (Figure 2-8) 8 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

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140 9(8) Pronotum microsculptured; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge weakly, very shallowly serrate; metatibiae slightly sinuate (C ayman Islands). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . new species 6 (Figure 2-7) -Pronotal disk granulose; metafemoral te eth moderately to st rongly, deeply serrate; metatibiae strongly sinuate (Dominican Republic). . . distinctus (Figure 3-11) 10(4) Pronotal disk with two distinct, small, round, dark, granulose maculae; metafemoral teeth with edge nearly smoot h, very weakly serrate; prosterna in males lacking patch of coarse punctures in front of procoxae (Bahamas, Cuba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pumilus (Figure 3-24) 10 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11(10) Large species (17 mm); antennae ab out twice the body lengt h in males; scape with deep excavation on dorsal surf ace (Figure 3-14b); fifth antennomere distinctly longer than pronotum; pronot um globose, sides strongly, evenly rounded; metafemoral club gradually clavate, distinctly elongate (Jamaica). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . femoratus (Figure 3-14) 11 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12(11) Pronotal disk with distinctly elevat ed tubercle (Figure 3-12b) (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exis (Figure 3-12) 12 Pronotal disk without distinctly elevated tuberc le. . . . . . . . . . . . .13 13(12) Scape with shallow to moderately deep excavation dorsally; pronotal disk with slightly to moderately raised calli; metafemora gradually clavate; metafemoral teeth very weakly serrate (D ominican Republic). . . new species 8 (Figure 2-9) 13 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 14(13) Third antennomere only s lightly longer than fourth ; pronotal disk with dark reddish-brown to black maculae and with strongly raised calli; metafemoral club small, with tooth very weakly serrate (Haiti). . . . . new species 5 (Figure 2-6) 14 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15(14) Scape with shallow excavation dorsally ; pronotal disk with moderately raised calli; metafemoral teeth very weakly serrate, almost smooth (Dominican Republic). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . new species 4 (Figure 2-5) 15 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 16(15) Head with vertex microsculptured, very sparsely, finely punctate; pronotal disk microsculptured; elytra testaceous, w ithout ferrugineus maculae; metafemoral teeth strongly, deeply serrate (Dominican Republic). . . serratus (Figure 3-25) 16 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17(16) Pronotum strongly shining, sparsely, finely, shallowly punctate; metafemoral teeth with posterior edge very weakly serrate, nearly smooth (Cuba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pinicola (Figure 3-23)

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141 17 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 18(17) Elytral punctures somewhat elongate an d evenly spaced; metafemoral teeth very weakly, irregularly serrate (Jamaica). . . . . . . . unidentatus (Figure 3-26) 18 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19(18) Pronotum opaque, microsculptured, finely punctate; metafemoral teeth smooth, not serrate; elytral maculation forming di stinct X pattern (Dominican Republic). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lingafelteri (Figure 3-19a-c) 19 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 20(19) Pronotal surface with moderately dense, short pubescence; each elytron with two distinct oblique maculae and one arcuat e-transverse macula; and metafemora strongly pedunculate-clavate with moderately serrate teeth (Guatemala). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . new species 2 (Figure 2-3) 20 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 21(20) Elytra with intricate pa ttern; pronotal disk with m oderately raised calli; fifth antennomere almost 4 times longer than f ourth and about 1.5 times longer than third; metafemoral teeth strongly, deeply serrat e (Nicaragua). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . new species 1 (Figure 2-2) 21 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 22(21) Elytral apices subtrunc ate to strongly truncate; meta femoral teeth very slightly serrate to moderately serrate; prosterna in males with one distinct patch of coarse punctures in front of each procoxa (Bahamas, C uba, SE USA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dentipes (Figure 3-10) 22 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 23(22) Pronotum moderately shining, somewhat flattened, with shallow, moderately coarse punctures; metafemoral teeth st rongly serrate; metatibiae slightly to strongly sinuate (Puerto Rico, Vi rgin Islands). . . . . ramosi (Figure 3-19d-h) 23 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 24(23) Pronotal surface opaque, microsculpture d; each elytron with one distinct oblique macula and one arcuate-transverse ba nd; metafemora strongly pedunculateclavate with strongly, deeply se rrate teeth (Costa Rica, Hondur as). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . new species 3 (Figure 2-4a-c) 24 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25(24) Antennomeres 5-11 equal to or longer than third; pronotum microsculptured, with scattered, large, sh allow punctures; pronotum with distinct, small dark maculae; metafemoral gradually clavate; me tafemoral teeth very small, not serrate (Cuba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ornatus (Figure 3-22) 25 Not with above combination of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

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142 26(25) Fossil in Dominican amber; pronotu m with shallow, moderately coarse punctures; metafemoral teeth small, not serr ate (Dominican Republic). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grimaldii (Figure 3-15a, 3-16) Fossil in Dominican amber, dorsal habitus not visible but illustrated by Vitali (2004) (Dominican Republic). . . . . . . . . . . tertiarius (Figure 3-15b)

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143 Figure 3-1. Four species of Curius A) Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray, holotype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray, allotype, female, dorsal habitus. C) Curius dentatus Newman, male, dorsal habitus. D) Curius punctatus (Fisher), holotype, male, dorsal habitus; e, Curius panamensis Bates, male, dorsal habitus.

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144 Figure 3-2. Curius chemsaki Nearns & Ray. A) Holotype, male, closeup of prosternum. B) Allotype, female, closeup of proste rnum. C) Holotype, male, prosternal gland pores (430 magnifi cation). D) Allotype, fe male, prosternal punctation (400 magnification).

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145 Figure 3-3. Curius dentatus Newman, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum (125 magnification). C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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146 Figure 3-4. Curius panamensis Bates, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum (84 magnification). C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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147 Figure 3-5. Curius punctatus (Fisher). A) Holotype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Holotype, male, closeup of pronotum. C) Male, closeup of metafemur, ventral view.

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148 Figure 3-6. Plectromerus acunai (Fisher). A) Holotype, female, dorsal habitus. B) Male, closeup of prosternum. C) Holo type, female, closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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149 Figure 3-7. Plectromerus bidentatus Fisher, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of metafemur, ventral view. C) Closeup of prosternal.

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150 Figure 3-8. Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier), male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafe mur and metatibia, ventral view.

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151 Figure 3-9. Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype, female. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of pronotum. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, dorsal view.

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152 Figure 3-10. Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) (= Curiosa dominicana ), dorsal habitus, illustration by Julio Micheli (1983).

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153 Figure 3-11. Plectromerus dominicanus (Micheli) (= Curiosa dominicana ). A) Holotype, female, dorsal habitus. B) Holotype, female, lateral habitus. C) Female, closeup of metafemur and meta tibia, ventral view. D) Holotype, female, closeup of head.

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154 Figure 3-12. Plectromerus exis Zayas, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of pronotum, lateral view. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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155 Figure 3-13. Plectromerus fasciatus (Gahan). A) Holotype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Male, closeup of pronotum. C) Male, closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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156 Figure 3-14. Plectromerus femoratus (Fabricius), holotype, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of scape with dorsal excavat ion. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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157 Figure 3-15. Two Plectromerus species in Dominican amber. A) Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, holotype dorsal habitus. B) Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali, holotype ventral habitus.

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158 Figure 3-16. Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, holotype. A) Closeup of mesosternum. B) Closeup of prosternum C) Closeup of right metafemur and metatibia, ventral view. D) Close up of pronotum and elytral punctation.

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159 Figure 3-17. Comparison of antennal morphology. A) Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali, illustration of antennomeres 4-11, arrow points to fifth antennomere. B) Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, illustration of antennomeres 4-11, arrow points to fifth antennomere. C) Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali, holotype, right antenna, ventral view, a rrow points to fifth antennomere. D) Plectromerus grimaldii Nearns & Branham, holot ype, right antenna, dorsal view, arrow points to fifth antennomere.

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160 Figure 3-18. Four species of Plectromerus A) Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype. B) Plectromerus serratus (Cameron), holotype. C) Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), view of pronotum and base of elytron. D) Plectromerus serratus (Cameron), view of pronotum and base of elytron. E) Plectromerus dentipes (Olivier). F) Plectromerus exis Zayas.

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161 Figure 3-19. Two species of Plectromerus A-C) Plectromerus lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns. A) Holotype. B) Closeup of prosternum male. C) Closeup of prosternum, female. D-H) Plectromerus ramosi Micheli & Nearns. D) Holotype. E) Closeup of prosternum male. F) Closeup of prosternum, female. G) Lighter phenotype. H) Closeup of fifth antennomere. I) Plectromerus serratus (Cameron), closeup of fifth antennomere of holotype.

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162 Figure 3-20. Tegmen and parameres, ventral view. A) Plectromerus lingafelteri Micheli & Nearns. B) Plectromerus ramosi Micheli & Nearns.

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163 Figure 3-21. Three species of Plectromerus A) Plectromerus navassae Nearns & Steiner, holotype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype, female, dorsal habitus. C) Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, paratype, male, dorsal habitus. D-G) Plectromerus navassae Nearns & Steiner. D) Holotype, male, lateral view. E) Holotype male, closeup of prosternum. F) Allotype, female, close up of prosternum. G) Holotype, male, metafemur and metatibia, ventral view. H) Plectromerus distinctus (Cameron), holotype, female, metafemur and metatibia, ventral view. I) Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, paratype, male metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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164 Figure 3-22. Plectromerus ornatus Fisher. A) Holotype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Holotype, male, closeup of pronotum, la teral view. C) Female, closeup of metafemur and metatibia, dorsal view.

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165 Figure 3-23. Plectromerus pinicola Zayas, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafe mur and metatibia, ventral view.

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166 Figure 3-24. Plectromerus pumilus Cazier & Lacey. A) Holot ype, male, dorsal habitus. B) Specimen from FDZC, dorsal habitus. C) Male, closeup of prosternum. D) Male, closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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167 Figure 3-25. Plectromerus serratus (Cameron), holotype, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of pronotum, lateral view. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, dorsal view.

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168 Figure 3-26. Plectromerus unidentatus Fisher, paratype, female. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ve ntral view. C) Closeup of pronotum.

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169 Figure 3-27. Plectromerus wappesi Giesbert, paratype, male. A) Dorsal habitus. B) Closeup of prosternum. C) Closeup of metafemur and metatibia, ventral view.

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170 CHAPTER 4 PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS Introduction Phylogenetic analysis is a t echnique used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of organisms. The benefit over similar methods (such as phenetic approaches) is that a phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis groups taxa not only on simila rity, but on shared derived traits (synapomorphies). Othe r methods define groups based on overall similarity (which may or may not be shared) and produce grouping s which therefore might be artificial or not representative of common ancestry. One of the greatest strengths of phylogenetic reconstructions is that this t ype of analysis generates a patt ern of similarity (hypothesized relatedness) by a simultaneous analysis of all characters included in the analysis. The most parsimonious solution is generated given all of the data rather than a select few characters that might be pr eferred by the investigator. Although the family Cerambycidae (Coleopt era) has received significant taxonomic attention over the last century, very few phyl ogenetic analyses of have been conducted to date. Napp (1994) employed adult and larval morphological characters to test the phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies. The Oxypeltinae and Disteniidae were found to be distinct from Cerambycidae and two monophyletic subgroups were found within the Cerambycidae (Napp, 1994). Linga felter (1998) conducted a generic-level phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Ela phidionini (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) employing morphological characters and imp lied weighting parsimony. The monophyly of the tribe Elaphidionini wa s weakly supported by three char acters (Lingafelter, 1998).

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171 Monn (2005) conducted a phyloge netic analysis on the genus Coccoderus (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Torneutini) based on 31 mor phological characters and 12 taxa and found that the monophyly of the genus was supported by five characters. Monn & Napp (2005) conducted a generic-level cl adistic analysis of the tribe Torneutini (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) based on 72 morphological characte rs and 31 ingroup taxa and found the tribe to be paraphyl etic. The monophyly of the Curiini has not previously been tested. Materials and Methods Taxon Sampling Approximately 800 specimens from various entomological collections were studied (Table 2-1). Observations of the sp ecimens were made using a Nikon SMZ800 stereomicroscope with 20 eyepie ces equipped with a drawing tube. Ingroup Taxa The ingroup consisted of 31 described sp ecies of Curiini, including two fossil species from Dominican amber (Lower Miocene), P. tertiarius Vitali and P. grimaldii Nearns & Branham (Table 4-1). Outgroup Taxa A total of five outgroup taxa we re selected from tribes tr aditionally near Curiini in the subfamily Cerambycinae (Nixon & Carpenter, 1993): Obrium maculatum (Olivier) in the tribe Obriini was chosen as the root ta xon; two species in the tribe Callidiopini, Coscinedes gracilis Bates and Parommidion extricatum Martins, and two species in the tribe Graciliini, Hypexilis pallida Horn, and Perigracilia delicata Knull (Table 4-1).

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172 Specimen Preparation Specimens were prepared for dissection by relaxing them in hot water for one hour. The aedeagus was extracted using a technique described by McDermott & Buck (1959). A #0 insect pin was modified to have a be nt tip forming a tiny hook. The bent-tip pin was inserted into the abdominal opening and carefully retracted so that the hook caught the aedeagus, which is gently pulled from the abdomen. Using this technique, the aedeagus was extracted without damaging the exoskeleton. The extracted aedeagus was then prepared using a technique described by Li ngafelter (1998) wherei n it was placed in 10% KOH solution and heated for 30 minutes. This procedure removed tissues that would otherwise obscure the structures. It was observed that leaving the aedeagus in KOH solution longer than 30 minutes caused ex cessive clearing of the structures and distorted the setae at the tips of the parame res. The cleared aedeagus was placed in a watch glass containing 95% ethy l alcohol and the tegmen was separated from the median lobe using forceps and a camelhair br ush under a Nikon SMZ800 stereo dissection microscope. A temporary slide was prep ared to view the tegmen under a compound microscope. The tegmen was placed on a glass well-slide with the well filled with 95% ethyl alcohol and covered with a cover slip and positioned by carefully sliding the cover slip over the well, rotating the tegmen into the correct alignment. The temporary slide was viewed under a Nikon Eclipse E600 compou nd microscope with 2 Plan Apo bright field, 10 DIC Plan Apo, and 20 DIC Plan Apo compound objectives fitted with a drawing tube.

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173 Character Sampling A total of 41 morphological characters were coded (16 binary, 25 multi-state). Twelve characters (32 states) were coded fr om the head, including eyes and antennae; 10 characters (38 states) were coded from the pr othorax; five characte rs (21 states) were coded from the elytra and scutellum; nine characters (25 states) were coded from the metafemora and metatibiae; four characters ( 11 states) was coded from the mesosternum; and one character (four states) was coded from male genitalic structures. All characters were run as non-additive and unweighted. Characters Used in Analyses The following is a description of the morphological characters used in the phylogenetic analysis. Morphological charac ters were coded from both males and females (as little sexual dimorphism is pres ent) unless indicated ot herwise. Character and character state numbers refer to data c oded in the data matrix for each taxon (Table 4-1). Characters were coded using WinC lada version 1.00.08 (Nixon, 1999) and saved in a .NEX file. Inapplicable data was c oded as missing data (Strong & Lipscomb, 1999). Character 1 : Head with two or more long, subere ct setae posterior to antennae: (0) absent, (1) present (Figure 42a). This character is pr esent in all ingroup and outgroup taxa except the two fossil species ( P. grimaldii and P. tertiarius ), in which the character could not be observed due to the po sition or condition of the specimen. Character 2 : Eye shape: (0) ovate (Figure 4-1a ), (1) ovate-emarginate (Figure 41b), (2) subreniform (Figure 4-1c). State 2 is the general condition in Plectromerus

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174 Figure 4-1. Character 2: eye shape. A) Ovate ( Plectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana )). B) Ovate-emarginate ( Coscinedes gracilis ). C) Subreniform ( Plectromerus fasciatus ). Character 3 : Number of antennomeres: (0) 10, (1) 11, (2) 12. Within Cerambycidae, the ancestral state for number of antennomeres is thought to be 11. With the exception of P. dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana ), which has 10 antennomeres, all presently known curiine speci es have 11 antennomeres. Character 4 : Longest antennomere(s): (0) scape, (1) third, (2) fifth, (3) eleventh, (4) third and fifth longest. Plectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana ) is unique among curiines for having the scape as the longest antennomere. In all other known species of Plectromerus the fifth antennomere is the longest. In Curius the third is longest ( C. dentatus C. panamensis C. punctatus ) or third is equal to fifth ( C. chemsaki ). This character has been used historically to separate Curius and Plectromerus Character 5 : Scape with long, suberect or erect setae on dorsal surface: (0) absent, (1) present (Figure 4-2b).

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175 Figure 4-2. Characters 1 and 5 (a rrows point to setae). A) ch aracter 1: head with two or more long, suberect setae posterior to an tennae. B) Character 5: scape with long, suberect or erect setae on dorsal surface. Character 6 : Scape with excavation on dorsal surface: (0) absent (Figure 4-3a), (1) shallow (Figure 4-3b), (2) deep (Figure 4-3c). This charact er is present in only three species: P. femoratus Plectromerus new species 4, and Plectromerus new species 8, all from the Greater Antilles. Figure 4-3. Character 6: scape with excav ation on dorsal surface (arrow points to excavation). A) Absent ( Plectromerus acunai ). B) Shallow ( Plectromerus new species 8). C) Deep ( Plectromerus femoratus ). Character 7 : Length of third antennomere compar ed to fourth: (0) about 1.3 times longer or less (Figure 4-4a), (1) about 1.5 times longer (Figure 4-4b), (2) about 1.7 times longer or more (Figure 4-4c).

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176 Figure 4-4. Character 7: length of third antennomere compared to fourth (arrow points to fourth antennomere). A) About 1.3 times longer or less (Plectromerus new species 5). B) About 1.5 times longer ( Plectromerus exis ). C) About 1.7 times longer or more ( Plectromerus new species 1) Character 8 : Length of fifth antennomere compar ed to fourth: (0) about 1.3 times longer or less (Figure 4-5a), (1) about 1.5 times longer (Figure 4-5b), (2) about 1.7 times longer or more (Figure 4-5c). Curius dentatus and C. punctatus have the fifth antennomere equal to or only slightly longer th an fourth. The fifth antennomere is about twice as long as fourth in C. chemsaki and C. panamensis and is a good character for separating those species from the other two species in the genus. Figure 4-5. Character 8: lengt h of fifth antennomere compared to fourth (arrow points to fourth antennomere). A) About 1.3 times longer or less ( Curius punctatus ). B) About 1.5 times longer ( Plectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana )). C) About 1.7 times longer or more ( Plectromerus femoratus ). Character 9 : Antennae annulate: (0) absent (Fig ure 4-6a), (1) pr esent (Figure 46b). State 1 is the general condition in all Curius species but is also present in two Plectromerus species ( P dentipes and P exis ).

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177 Figure 4-6. Character 9: ante nnae annulate. A) Absent ( Plectromerus new species 8). B) Present ( Curius chemsaki ). Character 10 : Antennomeres 6-10 flattened: (0) abse nt, (1) present. State 0 is the general condition in Curius ; state 1 is the general condition in Plectromerus Character 11 : Antennomeres 6-10 produced externa lly at apices on outer margins: (0) absent (Figure 4-7a), (1) present (Figure 4-7b). State 0 is th e general condition in Curius ; state 1 is the general condition in Plectromerus Figure 4-7. Character 11: antennomeres 6-10 produced externally at apices on outer margins. A) Absent ( Curius dentatus ). B) Present ( Plectromerus new species 1). Character 12 : Antennae about 1.3 times longer th an body or more: (0) absent, (1) present. Character 13 : Pronotum with long, suberect setae anterolaterally: (0) absent, (1) present (Figure 4-8a). State 1 is the general condition in all curiines. Character 14 : Pronotum, sub-medial, basal third of disk with 1-4 long, suberect setae arising from deep puncture: (0) absent, (1) present (Figure 4-8b). State 1 is the general condition in Plectromerus

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178 Figure 4-8. Characters 13 a nd 14 (arrows point to setae). A) Pronotum with long, suberect setae anterolaterally ( Plectromerus new species 3). B) Pronotum, sub-medial, basal third of disk with 14 long, suberect setae arising from deep puncture ( Plectromerus acunai ). Character 15 : Pronotum, anterior portion of disk strongly shining (glossy): (0) absent, (1) present. Character 16 : Pronotum, dorsal surface: (0) microsculptured with very sparse, shallow punctation (Figure 4-9a), (1) granulose (Figure 4-9b), (2) punctate with glabrous areas (Figure 4-9c), (3) microsculptured with punctures interspers ed (Figure 4-9d), (4) heavily, evenly punctate (Figure 4-9e). State 1 is the general condition in Curius Figure 4-9. Character 16: pronotum, dorsal su rface. A) Microsculptured with very sparse, shallow punctation ( Plectromerus new species 5). B) Granulose ( Curius dentatus ). C) Punctate with glabrous areas ( Plectromerus acunai ). D) Microsculptured with punctures interspersed ( Plectromerus new species 8). E) Heavily, evenly punctate ( Coscinedes gracilis ). Character 17 : Pronotum, dorsal surface setae: (0) very short, recumbent setae (no long, suberect setae), (1) very short, recumb ent setae with few long, suberect setae, (2) very short, recumbent setae with dense long, suberect setae, (3) short, recumbent setae (no long, suberect setae), (4) short, recumbent setae with sparse long, suberect setae, (5)

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179 short, recumbent setae mixed with dense, l ong, suberect setae, (6) dense, long suberect setae. Character 18 : Pronotum ornamented with distin ct inverted Y marking: (0) absent (Figure 4-10a), (1) pr esent (Figure 4-10b). The pres ence of this ch aracter is a synapomorphy of Curius and is not present in any known Plectromerus species. Figure 4-10. Character 18: pronot um ornamented with distinct inverted Y marking. A) Absent ( Plectromerus new species 8). B) Present ( Curius chemsaki ). Character 19 : Pronotal sides: (0) near ly parallel, slightly inflated (widest) at middle (Figure 4-11a), (1) widest area distin ctly behind middle (Figure 4-11b), (2) evenly rounded, nearly cylindrical (Figure 4-11c), (3) sides tuberculate or protuberate (Figure 411d), (4) globose, sides broadly rounded (Figur e 4-11e). State 2 is the general condition in Curius ; state 0 is the general condition in Plectromerus Figure 4-11. Character 19: pronotal sides. A) Nearly parallel, slightly inflated (widest) at middle ( Plectromerus fasciatus ). B) Widest area di stinctly behind middle ( Hypexilis pallida ). C) Evenly rounded, nearly cylindrical ( Curius dentatus ). D) Sides tuberculat e or protuberate ( Obrium maculatum ). E) Globose, sides broadly rounded ( Plectromerus femoratus ).

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180 Character 20 : Pronotal constriction: (0) somewhat evenly constricted at apex and base (Figure 4-12a), (1) slightly more constr icted at base than ap ex (Figure 4-12b), (2) slightly more constricted at apex than base (Figure 4-12c), (3) very strongly constricted at base (Figure 4-12d). State 0 is the general condition in Curius ; state 1 is the general condition in Plectromerus Figure 4-12. Character 20: pr onotal constriction. A) Some what evenly constricted at apex and base ( Curius dentatus ). B) Slightly more constricted at base than apex ( Plectromerus fasciatus ). C) Slightly more constricted at apex than base ( Plectromerus new species 5). D) Very st rongly constricted at base ( Obrium maculatum ). Character 21 : Pronotal disk with callus: (0) ab sent (Figure 4-13a), (1) median callus, slightly raised or ab sent calli, two anterior and two posterior (Figure 4-13b), (2) five moderately raised calli, one in center, tw o anterior and two posterior (Figure 4-13c). State 0 is the ge neral condition in Curius Figure 4-13. Character 21: pronotal disk with scar or callus. A) Absent ( Curius panamensis ). B) Median scar, slightly raised or absent calli, two anterior and two posterior ( Plectromerus serratus ). C) Five moderately raised calli, one in center, two anterior and two posterior ( Plectromerus new species 4).

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181 Character 22 : Males with sexually dimorphic pr othoracic punctation: (0) absent (Figure 4-14a), (1) one large pa tch of coarse punctures in fr ont of procoxae; one patch of coarse punctures on each pronotal lateral margin (Figure 4-14 b), (2) two distinct patches of coarse punctures in front of procoxae; one patch of coarse punctures on each pronotal lateral margin (Figure 4-14c), (3) pronotum and prosternum with rounded, elevated tubercles with circular median impressions (Figure 4-14d) (4) two distinct patches of coarse punctures in front of procoxae; la teral margins of pronotum without patch of coarse punctures (Figure 4-14e ), (5) prosternum without pa tches of coarse punctures in front of procoxae; lateral margins of pronotum with patch of coarse punctures (Figure 414f). The presence of sexually dimorphic, prothoracic punctation in male cerambycines has been noted by several workers. State 3 is the general condition for Curius

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182 Figure 4-14. Character 22: males with sexua lly dimorphic prothoracic punctation. A) Absent ( Plectromerus exis ). B) One large patch of coarse punctures in front of procoxae; one patch of coarse punct ures on each pronotal lateral margin ( Plectromerus new species 1). C) Two distinct patches of coarse punctures in front of procoxae; one patch of coar se punctures on each pronotal lateral margin ( Plectromerus pinicola ). D) Pronotum and prosternum with donutshaped punctures ( Curius punctatus ). E) Two distinct patches of coarse punctures in front of proc oxae; lateral margins of pronotum without patch of coarse punctures ( Parommidion extricatum ). F) Lateral margins of pronotum with patch of coarse punctures; pros ternum without patches of coarse punctures ( Plectromerus pumilus ). Character 23 : Scutellum surface granulose: (0) abse nt, (1) present. This character is present in two species of Curius ( C. chemsaki and C. panamensis ). Character 24 : Scutellum with dense setae: (0) absent, (1) present. Character 25 : Elytral disk concave medially, s ubsuturally: (0) ab sent, (1) very shallow, no costae present, (2) shallow to moderately dee p, costae present. Character 26 : Elytral apices: (0) broadly round ed (Figure 4-15a), (1) narrowly rounded (very slightly constricted or point ed) (Figure 4-15b), (2) subtruncate / rounded (Figure 4-15c), (3) strongly tr uncate, straight across (Figur e 4-15d), (4) strongly truncate, concave across (Figure 4-15e), (4) outer margin s with large, acute spine (Figure 4-15f), (5) inner margins forming a blunt, curved point (Figure 4-15g).

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183 Figure 4-15. Character 26: elytral apices. A) Broadly rounded ( Plectromerus new species 1). B) Narrowl y rounded (very slightly constricted or pointed) ( Plectromerus serratus ). C) Subtrun cate / rounded ( Plectromerus new species 8). D) Strongly truncate, straight across ( Plectromerus dentipes ). E) Strongly truncate, concave across ( Parommidion extricatum ). F) Outer margins with large, acute spine ( Plectromerus bidentatus ). G) Inner margins forming a blunt, curved point ( Curius chemsaki ). Character 27 : Elytral setae: (0) very short, recumbent setae arising from punctures, (1) very short, recumbent setae ar ising from punctures with very sparse, long, suberect setae only at apical third, (2) very short, recumben t setae arising from punctures with sparse, long, suberect set ae, (3) very short, recumben t setae arising from punctures with dense, long, suberect setae, (4) dense, short, recumbent setae arising from punctures, (5) dense, med. length suberect setae mixe d with dense long setae, (6) dense, long suberect setae. Character 28 : Prosternal process between procox ae: (0) very thin, about 0.1 times width of procoxal cavity (Figure 4-16a), (1 ) medium, about 0.2 times width of procoxal cavity (Figure 4-16b), (2) wide about 0.3 times width of pr ocoxal cavity (Figure 4-16c).

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184 Figure 4-16. Character 28: pros ternal process between procoxae. A) (0) very thin, about 0.1 times width of procoxal cavity ( Obrium maculatum ). B) Medium, about 0.2 times width of procoxal cavity ( Plectromerus fasciatus ). C) Wide, about 0.3 times width of procoxal cavity ( Curius punctatus ). Character 29 : Procoxal cavities open behind: (0 ) absent (Figure 4-17a), (1) narrowly open, nearly closed (Figure 4-17b), (2 ) widely open (Figure 4-17c). State 2 is the general condition in the curiines. Figure 4-17. Character 29: procoxal cavities open behind. A) Absent ( Coscinedes gracilis ). B) Narrowly open, nearly closed ( Plectromerus new species 7). C) Widely open ( Plectromerus new species 8). Character 30 : Prosternal process between procox ae: (0) nearly flat, not declivous (Figure 4-18a), (1) gradually declivous (Fi gure 4-18b), (2) abruptly declivous (Figure 418c). State 0 is the general condition in Curius ; state 1 is the general condition in Plectromerus

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185 Figure 4-18. Character 30: pr osternal process between proc oxae. A) Nearly flat, not declivous ( Coscinedes gracilis ). B) Gradually declivous ( Plectromerus dentipes ). C) Abruptly declivous ( Plectromerus bidentatus ). Character 31 : Mesosternal process shape as in Figure 4-19: (0) absent, (1) present (Figure 4-19). The presence of this ch aracter is a synapomorphy for the tribe. Figure 4-19. Character 31: mesosternal process shape ( Plectromerus new species 8). Character 32 : Metafemoral armature: (0) no tooth present (Figure 4-20a), (1) with one sharp tooth (Figure 4-20b), (2) with two sharp teeth (Fig ure 4-20c). State 1 is the general condition for the tribe. Figure 4-20. Character 32: metafemora l armature. A) No tooth present ( Parommidion extricatum ). B) With one sharp tooth ( Plectromerus dentipes ). C) With two sharp teeth ( Plectromerus bidentatus ). Character 33 : If metafemora armed with one sharp tooth, then tooth with serrations on posterior margin: (0) absent ( no serration peaks) (Figur e 4-21a), (1) feebly

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186 serrate (very small, indistinct peaks) (Fi gure 4-21b), (2) moderately serrate (moderate sized) (Figure 4-21c), (3) st rongly serrate (deep, distin ct peaks) (Figure 4-21d). Figure 4-21. Character 33: if metafemora armed with one sharp tooth, then tooth with serrations on posterior margin. A) Ab sent (no peaks, edge is smooth) ( Curius punctatus ). B) Feebly serrate (very small, indistinct peaks) ( Plectromerus new species 6). C) Moderate ly serrate (moderate sized) ( Plectromerus distinctus ). D) Strongly serrate (deep, distinct peaks) ( Plectromerus new species 1). Character 34 : Metafemora with long, erect setae: (0) absent, (1) present (Figure 422a). Character 35 : Metafemora: distal portion distinc tly darker than basal: (0) absent, (1) present (Figure 4-22b). Stat e 1 is the general condition in Curius Figure 4-22. Characters 34 and 35. A) Metafemora with long, erect setae ( Plectromerus wappesi ). B) Metafemora: distal porti on distinctly darker than basal ( Curius dentatus ).

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187 Character 36 : Basal (non-clavate) portion of metafemora compared to metafemoral club: (0) distinctly longer (Figure 4-23a), (1) about equal (Figure 4-23b), (2) distinctly shorter (Figur e 4-23c). State 1 is the general condition in Plectromerus Figure 4-23. Character 36: basal (non-clavate) portion of metafemora compared to metafemoral club. A) Distinctly longer ( Plectromerus exis ). B) About equal ( Plectromerus serratus ). C) Distinctly shorter ( Plectromerus femoratus ). Character 37 : Metafemoral shape: (0) gradually enlarged from base, not pedunculate-clavate (Figure 4-24a ), (1) pedunculate clavate (Figure 4-24b). State 0 is the general condition in Curius Figure 4-24. Character 37: metafemoral shap e. A) Gradually enlarged from base ( Plectromerus fasciatus ). B) Pedunculate clavate ( Plectromerus new species 7). Character 38 : Metatibial shape: (0) nearly strai ght (Figure 4-25a), (1) moderately sinuate (Figure 4-25b), (2) strong ly sinuate (Figure 4-25c), (3 ) squared, nearly straight. State 3 is present on ly in outgroup taxa.

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188 Figure 4-25. Character 38: metatibia l shape. A) Nearly straight ( Plectromerus pinicola ). B) Moderately sinuate ( Plectromerus new species 4). C) Strongly sinuate ( Plectromerus new species 7). Character 39 : Length of metatibia in relation to metafemur: (0) about equal length (Figure 4-26a), (1) slightly shorter, about 0.7 times length (Figure 4-26b), (2) distinctly shorter, about 0.5 times length (Figure 4-26c). Figure 4-26. Character 39: leng th of metatibia in relation to metafemur. A) About equal length ( Plectromerus dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana )). B) Slightly shorter, about 0.7 times length ( Plectromerus new species 5). C) Distinctly shorter, about 0.5 times length ( Plectromerus new species 4). Character 40 : Metatarsi with first tarsomere a bout twice as long as second: (0) absent (Figure 4-27a), (1) pr esent (Figure 4-27b). The pres ence of this ch aracter is a synapomorphy of Curius

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189 Figure 4-27. Character 40: meta legs with first tarsomere at least twice as long as second. A) Absent ( Plectromerus dentatus ). B) Present ( Curius panamensis ). Character 41 : Male genitalia: (0) parameres with more than three short setae projecting from tips of lateral lobes (Figure 4-28a), (1) pa rameres with two long setae projecting from tips of lateral lobes (Figure 4-28b), (2) para meres with more than three long setae projecting from tips of lateral lobes, (3) parame res with three short setae projecting from tips of lateral lobes. Several authors have employed characters of the parameres (Entwistle, 1963; Fragoso, 1978; Franceschini, 2002; Komiya & Nylander, 2005; Lingafelter, 1998; Marques & Napp, 2003; Mermudes & Napp, 2004; Micheli & Nearns, 2005; Monn, 2005; Monn & Na pp, 2005; Veiga-Ferreira, 1964). The morphological characters present in the parame res of male Curiini were not found to be useful for species identification however, the nu mber and length of setae at the tips of the parameres were useful as a generic-level ch aracter. No male specimens were available for dissection for P. acunai P. dominicanus (= Curiosa dominicana ), P. femoratus Plectromerus new species 2, P. grimaldii Plectromerus new species 3, Plectromerus new species 4, Plectromerus new species 5, Plectromerus new species 6, P. serratus P. tertiarius P. unidentatus

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190 Figure 4-28. Character 41: male genitalia. A) Parameres with several short setae projecting from tips of lateral lobes ( Curius dentatus ). B) Parameres with two long setae projecting from tips of lateral lobes ( Plectromerus dentatus ). Phylogenetic Methods Phylogenetic analyses were performed us ing parsimony as the optimality criterion implemented in TNT 1.0 (Goloboff, Farris & Nixon, 2003) using New Technology Tree Search (rather than heuristic search) with the following options selected: Sectorial Search, Ratchet, Drift, and Tree Fusing (Goloboff, 2002). Consistency Index (CI) and Retention Index (RI) were computed in WinCla da. Analyses were run on a Dell Latitude D810, Intel Pentium M processor 1.73GHz with 512 MB RAM, running Windows XP Professional operating system. Bremer suppor t and bootstrap values were computed in PAUP* 4.0b10 (Swofford, 2001) via batch file s created using TreeRot.v2c (Sorenson, 1999) on a 700MHz G4 iMac running Mac OS X with 1 GB RAM. Bremer support values were computed based on the strict cons ensus tree of four most parsimonious trees, using five random additions, 20 replicates, and 1,000 trees held per replicate. Bootstrap support values were computed by resampling all characters, with 1,000 replicates and 1,000 maximum trees per replicate.

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191 Results Phylogenetic analyses of 36 taxa and 41 morphological characters produced four most parsimonious trees of length 205. Of 41 morphological ch aracters, 39 were parsimony informative. The strict consensus of the four most parsimonious trees (L = 207 steps, CI = 43, RI = 61) suggests that the genus Curius is a monophyletic group and is defined by seven synapomorphi es (Figure 4-29). The genus Plectromerus is supported by six synapomorphies and is para phyletic with the monotypic genus Curiosa falling out within the Plectromerus clade. The tribe Curiini is paraphyletic due to four outgroup taxa ( Coscinedes gracilis Hypexilis pallida Parommidion extricatum and Perigracilia delicata ) being placed between the Curius and Plectromerus clades (Figure 4-29). Bremer support values of branch support ranged from 0 to 5, and four nodes were supported by bootstrap values of greater than 70% (Figure 4-30). Discussion Phylogenetic analyses produced a well resolved strict consensus tree (Figure 4-29). A strict consensus tree was computed from th ese four trees as it contains all the nodes present in all four most parsimonious trees. This method is superior to simply selecting one of the most parsimonious trees and ignori ng the rest. CI and RI are both low (43 and 61, respectively), indicating hi gh levels of homoplasy among the characters coded. Bootstrap support values greater than 70% were reported for the Curius clade, the node containing C. chemsaki and C. panamensis (within the Curius clade), the node containing the two outgroup taxa from the tribe Graciliini ( Hypexilis pallida and Perigracilia delicata ), and the Plectromerus clade (Figure 4-30). The Plectromerus clade also has a Bremer support value of 4, which indicates this clade is st rongly supported by the characters included in this analysis.

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192 Results suggest that the tribe Curiini is not a monophyletic group. Four outgroup taxa in the closely related tribes Callidiopi ni and Graciliini are placed within Curiini, between Curius and Plectromerus (Figure 4-29). However, traditional ideas of generic designations for Curius and Plectromerus were supported (see the discussion section on the genus Plectromerus in Chapter 3). The synonymy of the genus Pentomacrus with Plectromerus is also supported. Inte restingly, the monotypic genus Curiosa appears to be a highly derived Plectromerus species (Figure 4-29). Wh ile no known males of this species have been collected and only thr ee specimens are known, it is felt that synonymizing Curiosa with Plectromerus is justified based on the amount of data that places it within Plectromerus It is curious that Curiosa has been traditionally treated as a monotypic species, when in fact this analysis which is the first empirical study of this group, suggests it is a highly derived Plectromerus on a comparatively long branch of 10 characters. This long branch is evidence that this species underwent significant evolution in comparison to other Plectromerus species. This may be due to the hypothesis that this species has shifted from a nocturnal habit (a condition of all other Curius and Plectromerus species) to a diurnal ha bit (see discussion of this species in Chapter 3). The two fossil taxa included in this analysis both fall out within the Plectromerus clade, however, P. tertiarius (along with P. femoratus ) appears as the most basal taxon and P. grimaldii as a more derived species. These fi ndings should be viewed in light of the fact that many important characters for P. tertiarius could not be scored due to the condition of the fossil and the missing or inapp licable data which may have had an effect on the placement of this taxon (Strong & Lipscomb, 1999).

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193 Table 4-1. Data matrix of 36 ta xa and 41 morphological characters. Taxa Characters 1 10 20 30 40 Obrium maculatum 111210001 0001112603 3000010600 000-112030 10 Coscinedes gracilis 111300000 1100004004 10?0013020 000-002131 03 Hypexilis pallida 111300010 1010003301 20?0001412 100-002030 10 Perigracilia delicata 112300010 0010001001 2000011002 100-002030 02 Paromm. extricatum 111300000 1101103103 0040114212 110-101030 12 Curiosa dominicana 100010110 1101103500 10?0100521 1110111100 0? Curius chemsaki 121100221 1011001012 0031016012 0111010211 10 Curius dentatus 111100101 1001001012 0030010012 0111012000 10 Curius panamensis 111500221 1011001312 0031011412 0111011001 10 Curius punctatus 111100101 1001001012 0030021012 0110012002 10 Plect. acunai 121200220 1101112100 1120025012 1111011001 0? Plect. bidentatus 121200220 1101112400 1120025212 212?011012 01 Plect. dentipes 121200221 1101112100 1120023012 1112011112 01 Plect. distinctus 121200120 1101113100 1120021312 1112001122 01 Plect. exis 111200121 1111003000 1100022012 1111010102 01 Plect. fasciatus 121210220 1101103200 1120013312 1111101000 01 Plect. femoratus 121202220 1011103004 1150010012 1111002100 0? Plect. grimaldii ?21200220 11011?2?00 1??0012?12 1110001000 0? Plect. lingafelteri 121200220 1101103400 1110020012 1111011111 01 Plect. navassae 121210120 1101103100 1120011212 1112102111 01 Plect. ornatus 121200120 1101103100 1120020012 1111002101 01 Plect. pinicola 121200120 1101112100 1120020012 1111002001 01 Plect. pumilus 121200120 1101112100 1150020012 1111001110 01 Plect. ramosi 121200220 1101102100 1120021012 1113001012 01 Plect. serratus 121200220 1101103100 1120021012 1113001122 0? Plect. tertiarius ??12??220 110??????0 1?????0??? ??1??????? ?? Plect. unidentatus 121200120 1101113100 1120000012 1111001112 0? Plect. wappesi 121210120 1101103200 1120022312 1112102122 01 Plect. new species 1 121200220 1101100100 1210020012 1113011121 01 Plect. new species 2 121200120 1101100400 11?0020012 1113001122 0? Plect. new species 3 121200220 1101103400 1120020012 1113001122 0? Plect. new species 4 121201220 1101103400 1210021012 1111011112 0? Plect. new species 5 121200020 1101110100 22?0010012 1110011101 0? Plect. new species 6 121200120 1101103100 11?0011312 1111001112 0? Plect. new species 7 101210120 1101113200 1120020311 1113111122 01 Plect. new species 8 121201220 1101113100 1120012112 1111002000 01 Missing data is indicated by ?, in applicable data indicated by

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194 Figure 4-29. Strict consensus (L = 207 steps, CI = 43, RI = 61) of four most parsimonious trees with characters stat es mapped. Closed circles represent non-homoplasious character changes, ope n circles represent homoplasious character changes. Numbers above ci rcles are character numbers, numbers below circles are character states.

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195 Figure 4-30. Strict consensus (L = 207 steps, CI = 43, RI = 61) of four most parsimonious trees. Bremer support va lues are reported above the branches, bootstrap support values (> 70%) ar e reported below the branches.

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196 CHAPTER 5 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS Introduction Historical biogeography is th e study of the distribution of organisms resulting from long-term historical factors (Schuh, 2000). The geographic di stribution of organisms is altered over space and time by three different processes: extinction, dispersal, and vicariance (allopatric sp eciation) (Crisci, 2001). From observed geographic distributions, hypotheses can be proposed to explain how th e patterns were formed (Liebherr, 1988). Several different approaches to biogeography have been deve loped to explai n patterns of distribution, including center of origin and dispersal, panbiogeography, and cladistic biogeography. The concept that organisms aris e from a single point and disperse from a center of origin is no longer d eemed valid as the center of origin cannot be accurately identified (Crisci, 2001; Schuh, 2000). Croi zats panbiogeography attempted to develop a method of identifying geographic homologi es through track analysis, however this method is no longer considered a rigorous method of biogeographic analysis (Humphries & Parenti, 1999). Hennigs (1966) developmen t of phylogenetic systematics (cladistics) provided workers with a rigorous method for determining relationships among taxa as well as geographic regions. In cladistic biogeography, phylog enetic relationships have the potential to elucidate histor ical distributions as well as the historical relationships among geographic areas occupied (Crisci et al., 2003; Humphries & Parenti, 1999; Liebherr, 1988).

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197 The Caribbean has a long and exciting history of biogeographic study (Allen, 1911; Darlington, 1938; Hedges, 1996a; Hedges, 1996b; Hedges et al., 1992; Iturralde-Vinent & MacPhee, 1999; Rosen, 1975) with a focus on the large, mountainous islands of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico). Work in the area has often reflected popular notions of the time. Early workers proposed land bridges to explain distributions of the Caribbean mammal fauna (Allen 1911). Subsequent workers supported a passive dispersal model of Caribbean biogeography (Darlington, 1938; Hedges, 1996a; Hedges, 1996b). Recently, howev er, Iturralde-Vinent & MacPhee (1999) discussed two main models of faunal formation in the Greater Antilles: strict dispersal, strict continent-island vicar iance, and proposed one that combines dispersal and vicariance in a two-phase process. Rosen (1975) argued for a vicariance m odel of Caribbean biogeography which incorporated a geophysical model based on Malfait and Dinkelmans plate-tectonic model of Caribbean evolution, in which the Ca ribbean was formed from an original East Pacific Plate intrusion into the western Atlantic Rosens model predic ts that the biota of the Greater Antilles is relatively older than that of the Costa Rican-Panamanian region (Rosen, 1975: 455). It also predicts that lower Central American taxa will be more closely related to mainland (North and South Am erican) taxa than to those of the Antilles (Rosen, 1975: 455). Hedges (1996a, 1996b) and Hedges et al. ( 1992) were critical of Rosens (1975) vicariance model and argued for a passive disp ersal model (i.e., rafting) of Caribbean biogeography. In this model, water currents in the Caribbean generally move in a west, north-west direction, moving water and flotsa m from the Amazon and Orinoco basins to

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198 the Greater Antilles. Hedges predicts that it should be very difficult to colonize islands against the prevailing water currents (from Cuba to Puerto Rico, for example), but very easy to go with the current, for example from Hispaniola to Cuba. Iturralde-Vinent & MacPhee (1999) were critical of Hedges hypothesis of mostly over-water dispersal and proposed the GAARla ndia (Greater Antilles + Aves Ridge) hypothesis which combines elements of both vi cariance and dispersal (Iturralde-Vinent & MacPhee, 1999; MacPhee & IturraldeVinent, 1995). The GAARlandia hypothesis proposes that the developing northern Greater Antilles and northwestern South America were briefly connected by a landspan. Th e uplift event that created these connections was completed by 32 MYO which ended the GAARlandia landspan phase. Subsequently, tectonic activity in the Ca ribbean has resulted in the subdivision of existing land areas (Iturralde-Vinent & MacPhee, 1999). Materials and Methods A phylogenetic analysis of Curiini was conduc ted (for a more detailed explanation of the phylogenetic analysis, see Chapter 4). The strict consensu s tree of four most parsimonious trees (Figure 4-29) was used to create a taxon-ar ea cladogram by mapping geographic areas of distribution for each in group taxon in the analysis (Figure 5-2). Results Results suggest that the more basal taxa within the Curius clade are distributed in North America (SE USA) and the Greater An tilles (Cuba) while the more derived taxa are endemic to Central America (Panama) a nd South America (Venezuela) (Figure 5-2). Within the Plectromerus clade, a similar pattern is obs erved in which the more basal species exhibit an Antillean distribution (G reater and Lesser Antilles) while the more derived taxa occur in North America (SE US A, SE Mexico), Central America (Costa

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199 Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Pa nama), as well as the Greater and Lesser Antilles (Figure 5-2). Discussion The Caribbean (Figure 5-1) is a comple x geographic region and home to a diverse flora and fauna with a high rate of ende micity among insects (Genaro & Tejuca, 2001; Liebherr, 1988; Monn & Hovore, 2005; Pec k, 2005). For example, Swearingen (1999) estimated that as much as 30% of the inve rtebrate fauna on Navassa Island (Greater Antilles) is endemic, and Liebherr (1988) repor ts that as much as 40% of Antillean ant species are single-island endemics. Like many vertebrate and invertebrate ta xa in the Caribbean, the Curiini exhibit high levels of endemicity (Table 5-1). The majority of curiines are found in the Greater Antilles, with 17 of 31 species (55%) occurri ng on the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti). The highest level of diversity is on Hispaniola, with 11 Plectromerus species, 10 of which are endemic to the island. From the two described Plectromerus fossils in Dominican amber, dated fr om mid-Miocene, a minimum date of approximately 17-20 MYO is known for the presence of Plectromerus on Hispaniola. Cuba ranks second with seven species of curiines including four endemic species. Two endemic species of Plectromerus occur on Jamaica. Navassa Island, situated between Jamaica and Haiti, has one endemic species as do the Cayman Islands. Only two species are presently known from the Lesser Antilles (Table 5-1). Four curiine species are widely distributed: C. dentatus is known from SE USA and P dentipes occurs in SE USA, Bahamas, and Cuba. Plectromerus exis is fairly widespread in the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola). Plectromerus

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200 wappesi originally described from SE Mexico, is the only species known to occur in both the Greater Antilles (Jamaica), and Central America (Honduras). Figure 5-1. Map of the Caribbean. Rosens (1975) vicariance m odel of Caribbean biogeography predicts that the biota of the Greater Antilles is relatively older th an that of the Costa Rican-Panamanian region and that the lower Central American taxa will be more closely rela ted to mainland (North and South America) taxa than to those of the Antilles (Rosen, 1975: 455). Rosens (1975) model adequately explains the result s of a biogeographical analysis of Curiini which suggests that the more basal taxa within the Plectromerus clade exhibit an Antillean distribution while the more derive d taxa occur in North America, Central America, as well as the Antilles (Figure 5-2).

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201 Figure 5-2. Area cladogram based on the strict consensus tree of four most parsimonious trees found in a phylogenetic analysis of Curiini.

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202 Table 5-1. Biogeographic di stribution of Curiini. Biogeographic Region Greater Antilles Lesser Ant. Cent. America Taxon SE USA Bahamas Mexico Cuba Hispaniola Jamaica Navassa Island Cayman Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands. Montserrat St. Vincent Grenada Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Venezuela C. dominicana + C. chemsaki + C. dentatus + C. punctatus + C. panamensis + P. acunai + P. bidentatus + P. dentipes + + + P. distinctus + P. exis +++ P. fasciatus +++ P. femoratus + P. grimaldii + P. ornatus + P. pinicola + P. lingafelteri + P. navassae + P. pumilus + + P. ramosi ++ P. serratus + P. tertiarius + P. unidentatus + P. wappesi + + + P. new species 1 + P. new species 2 + P. new species 3 + + P. new species 4 + P. new species 5 + P. new species 6 + P. new species 7 + P. new species 8 + 2 2 1 71141111 11 1 1 2 1 121

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208 Mermudes, J.R.M. & Napp, D.S. (2004) Comparative morphological study of the Neotropical Cleomenini genera and their tranferences to the tribes Rhopalophorini Blanchard and Rhinotragini Thomson (Col eoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 48, 251-272. Meyer, H.W. (2003) The Fossils of Florissant. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 58 pp. McDermott, F.A. & Buck, J.B. (1959) Transactions of the American Entomological Society 85, 1-112. Micheli, C.J. & Nearns, E.H. (2005) Two new species of Plectromerus Haldeman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the West Indies. Zootaxa, 1028, 23-36. Micheli, J. (1983) Curiosa dominicana a new genus and species of Curiini from Dominican Republic. The Coleopterists Bulletin 37(3), 261-266. Micheli, J.A. (2003) New longhorn beetles from Puerto Rico (West Indies) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 57(2), 191-204. Monn, M.A. (2005) Catalogue of the Ceramb ycidae (Coleoptera) of the Neotropical Region. Part I. Subfamily Cerambycinae. Zootaxa 946, 1-765. Monn, M.A. & Hovore, F.T. (2003) Checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera), of the Western Hemisphere. 385 pp. Monn, M.A. & Hovore, F.T. (2005) Checkli st of the Cerambycidae, or longhorned wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera), of th e Western Hemisphere. BioQuip Products, Rancho Dominguez, CA. 392 pp. Monn, M.L. 2005. Revisao, analise cladistica e biogeografia de Coccoderus Buquet (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 49, 369-391. Monn, M.L. & Napp, D.S. (2005) Cladistic an alysis of the tribe Torneutini Thomson (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Ce rambycinae: Trachyderoinia). Zootaxa 1062, 1-56. Nakamuta, K., Sato, H., & Nakashima, T. ( 1994) Behavioral and morphological evidence for a male-produced sex pheromone in the cryptomeria twig borer, Anaglyptus subfasciatus Pic (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Japanese Journal of Entomology 62, 371-376. Napp, D.S. (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among the subfamilies of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera Chrysomeloidea). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 38, 265-419. Nearns, E.H. (2006) A checklist of the Ce rambycidae (Coleoptera) holdings of the Fernando de Zayas Collection, Havana, Cuba. The Coleopterists Bulletin 60(1), 53-57.

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209 Nearns, E.H. & Branham, M.A. (2005) A new species of Plectromerus Haldeman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Dominican amber with notes on the fossil Plectromerus tertiarius Vitali. Zootaxa 1088, 17-24. Nearns, E.H., Branham, M.A., & Bybee, S. M. (2006) Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) types of the Fernando de Zayas Collection, Havana, Cuba. Zootaxa 1270, 1-17. Nearns, E.H., Branham, M.A., Rodri guez, N.G., & Garcia, I.F. (2005) Curius punctatus (Fisher), new combination (C oleoptera: Cerambycidae). Insecta Mundi 19, 172. Nearns, E.H. & Ray, A.M. (2006) A new species of Curius Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Venezuela with notes on sexual punctation. Zootaxa 1256, 49-57. Nearns, E.H. & Steiner, W.E ., Jr. (2006) A new species of Plectromerus Haldeman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Navassa Island, Greater Antilles. Zootaxa 1163, 61-68. Nearns, E.H. & Turnbow, R.H. (2005) First record of Plectromerus exis Zayas in the Dominican Republic (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Insecta Mundi 19, 158. Newman, E. (1840) Entomological notes. The Entomologist 2, 17-19. Nixon, K.C. (1999) The Parsimony Ratche t, a New Method for Rapid Parsimony Analysis. Cladistics 15, 407-414. Nixon, K.C. & Carpenter, J.M. (1993) On Outgroups. Cladistics 9, 413-426. Nixon, K.C. & Wheeler, Q.D. (1990) An am plification of the phylogenetic species concept. Cladistics 6, 211-223. Noldt, U., Fettkther, R., & Dettner, K. ( 1995) Structure of the sex pheromone-producing prothoracic glands of the male old house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 24, 223-234. Olivier, A.G. (1790) Encyclopedie methodique Historie naturelle. Insectes. Vol. 5. Panckoucke, Paris. 793 pp. Peck, S.B. (2005) A Checklist of the Beetle s of Cuba with Data on Distributions and Bionomics (Insecta: Coleoptera). Arth ropods of Florida and Neighboring Land. Vol. 18. Florida Department of Agricultur e and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL. 241 pp. Pia, A.L., Garcia, I.F., & Anaya, M.T. ( 2004) Lista a preliminar de los Colepteros (Insecta, Coleoptera) de Topes de Colla ntes, Trinida, Sancti Spritus, Cuba. Boletin de la Sociedad Entomolgica Aragonesa 34, 101-106.

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210 Powell, R. (1999) Herpetology of Navassa Island, West Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science 35(1-2), 1-13. Ray, A.M., Lacey, E.S., & Hanks, L.M. (2006) Predicted taxonomic patterns in pheromone production by longhorned beetles. Naturwissenschaften [in press] Ree, B. (2003) A partial list of damaging in sects attacking pecan in the United States. Available from: http://peca nkernel.tamu.edu/insect_list/ PecanInsectList.pdf (last accessed August 1, 2006). Rosen, D.E. (1975) A vicariance model of Caribbean biogeography. Systematic Zoology 24, 431-464. Schuh, R.T. (2000) Biological systematics: principles and applications. Cornell University Press, Ithaca. 236 pp. Sorenson, M.D. (1999) TreeRot, ver. 2. Boston University, Boston, MA. Steiner, W.E., Jr. & Swearingen, J.M. (1998) Entomology on Navassa Island. The Ent. News. Department of Entomology Newsle tter, Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 12(9), 3-4. Steiner, W.E., Jr. & Swearingen, J.M. (2000) An entomological survey of Navassa Island, with notes on species richness and endemism. Abstracts, 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference. Managing th e Mosaic: Connecting People and Natural Diversity. Natural Areas Association (2000), 39. Strong, E.E. & Lipscomb, D. (1999) Char acter coding and inapplicable data. Cladistics 15, 363-371. Swearingen, J.M. (1999) Natural history on a little-known island: Cracking Navassas oyster. Park Science 19, 5-7. Swofford, D.L. (2001) PAUP*: Phylogeneti c Analysis using Parsimony (*and other Methods), ver. 4.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. Veiga-Ferreira, G.D. (1964) Longicornios de Mocambique. I. Revista de Entomologia de Mocambique 4, 451-838. Vitali, F (2004) Plectromerus tertiarius new fossil species from Hispaniola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Curiini). Lambillionea 104(3), 453-458. Vitali, F. & Rezbanyai-Reser, L. (2003) Beitrge zur Insektenfauna von Jamaika, Westindien (Karabik) 5. Bockkfer I & II. Les cahiers Magellanes No. 26, 1-16; No. 27, 1-27. White, A. (1855) Catalogue of the coleopterous insects in the coll ection of the British Museum: Longicornia 2. London 8, 175-412.

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211 Woodruff, R.E., Beck, B.M., Skelley, P.E ., Schotman, C.Y.L., & Thomas, M.C. (1998) Checklist and bibliography of the insects of Grenada and the Grenadines. Center for Systematic Entomology, Memoir No. 2, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 286 pp. Zayas, F. de. (1975) Revisin de la familia Cerambycidae (Coleoptera, Phytophagoidea). Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Instit uto de Zoologa, La Habana, Cuba. 443 pp.

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212 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Eugenio (Gino) Nearns was born in 1968 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He grew up abroad (Liberia, Costa Rica, Greece, and the Philippines) before graduating from Marathon High School in the Florida Keys, in 1986. After graduation, Gino attended the University of Florida, where he met his wife, J odi. Two years later he enlisted in the U.S. Navy, where he served aboard the aircraft ca rrier USS Forrestal (CV-59) and worked in a variety of areas including navigation, pub lic relations, and engineering. In 1993, Gino returned to the University of Florida, and 3 years later graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in electronic media. Gino work ed as a 3D animator, graphic designer, and website programmer for several years in Gain esville, FL, before re turning to school in 2004 to pursue his masters degree in entomology.