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Painterly Struggle: Conflict and Resolution within Raphaelle Peale's Still Life Paintings

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Painterly Struggle: Conflict and Resolution within Raphaelle Peale's Still Life Paintings
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2008

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PAINTERLY STRUGGLE: CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION WITHIN RAPHAELLE
PEALE'S STILL LIFE PAINTINGS













By

JASON FREDERICK


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006







































Copyright 2006

by

Jason Frederick

































For my wife Nicole, my muse.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am extremely fortunate for the support I received during this entire process and

want to thank a number of people. I want to show extreme gratitude to Eric Segal for his

continued guidance and friendship throughout my graduate experience. In the school of

art history and history, Dr. Melissa Hyde, Dr. Alexander Alberro, and Dr. Jon Sensbach

deserve many thanks. My friends Larry "The machine" and Monica "Money" McDowell

read my thesis and offered their comments and encouragement. My parents continued

support and belief in me, were an inspiration and driving force behind my work. And

last, but far from least, Nicole's love, patience, and sacrifice allowed this to happen.















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ................................................................................... iv

L IST O F F IG U R E S ...... ............................... ........................ .. .. ...... .............. vi

ABSTRACT .............. .......................................... ix

CHAPTER

1 IN SIG H T ........................................................................... 1

2 REBELLIOUS SINCE BIRTH ............................................................................6

3 A DEEPER LOOK INSIDE .............. .................................... 53

4 OPENING UP A NEW DOOR ............................................................................70

5 C O N C L U SIO N ......... ......................................................................... ......... ........84

B IB L IO G R A PH Y ........ .. ....................................... ......... .............. 86

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ...................................................................... ..................90
























v
















LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page

1-1 Portrait of Charles W illson Peale 1822 .......... ........... ........................ ............... 5

2-1 View of Garden at Belfield ..................................................................... 26

2-2 B lackberries 1813 .............. ..... .... ........................ .. ...... .. ............. 26

2-3 Still Life w ith G rapes in D ish 1814....................................... ......................... 27

2-4 Still Life w ith Celery and W ine 1816.................................... ......... ............... 27

2-5 Still Life with W ine and Cake 1822 ............................... ................... ..................28

2-6 Still Life with Strawberries and Ostrich Egg Cup 1814..........................................29

2-7 B ow l of P beaches 18 18 ........................................................................... ...............29

2-8 Still L ife w ith P eaches 182 1 ............................................................ .....................30

2-9 Still Life with Fruit and Glassware 1629................................................................. 30

2-10 Still Life w ith O ranges 1818 ....................................... ................... ..... ......... 31

2-11 Lem ons and G rapes 1818 ................................... ............. .................................. 31

2-12 Still Life with Cardoon and Francolin 1628.........................................................32

2-13 Still Life with Onions, Garlic, and Chestnuts Date Unknown ..............................33

2-14 Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts 1772 .................................... ............... 34

2-15 Still Life with Lem ons and Oranges 1760s ................................... .................35

2-16 Still Life with Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape 1771 .............................36

2-17 M elons and M morning Glories 1813.................................... ......................... 37

2-18 Still Life w ith W aterm elon 1822 .................................................................. 38

2-19 Cheese and Three Crackers 1813 ........................................ ........................ 38









2-20 Still Life w ith R aisin Cake 1813 ........................................ ......................... 39

2-21 Still Life with W ine, Cake, and Nuts 1819................................... .................40

2-22 Still L ife w ith C ake 18 18............................................................... .....................4 1

2-23 The Exhumation of the M astodon 1806-08 .................................. ............... 42

2-24 Portrait of Raphaelle Peale 1817 ......................... ................. ........... .... 43

2-25 Venus Rising from the Sea-A Deception (After the Bath) 1823.............................44

2-26 The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsey Peale 1795 ...........................44

2-27 Landscape Looking Toward Sellers Hall from Mill Bank 1818 ............................45

2-28 M illbank 1818........................................................................................ 45

2-29 Pleasure Party by A Mill 1790 ................... ........ ....................... 46

2-30 V iew on the W issahickon 1830 ......................................... ........................... 46

2-31 Falls of Niagara, Viewed from the American Side 1891 ......................................47

2-32 The Canadian Side Of Niagara Falls, Platform Rock 1831 .............. ...............47

2-33 G general Joseph Bloom field 1777 ........................................ ........................ 48

2-34 Thom as Jefferson 1791.................................................. ............................... 48

2-35 Still Life with Apples, Sherry, and Tea Cake 1822................... .............. 49

2-36 F ruit and Silver B ow l 18 14 ........................................................... .....................49

2-37 His Excellency George Washington Esquire, Commander in Chief of the Federal
A rm y 17 8 0 .........................................................................5 0

2-38 W ashington at Princeton 1779 .................................................... ...................51

2-39 Washington and his Generals at Yorktown 1784 ............................................. 52

3-1 Fruit Piece with Peaches Covered by Handkerchief 1819 ......................................68

3-2 Lem ons and Sugars 1822 ........................................... ........ .... .. ............... .68

3-3 Still Life w ith Liquer and Fruit........................................................ ............... 69

3-4 G irl B before A M irror 1932 .............................................................. .....................69

4-1 Fruits and Nuts in Dish .............................. ...... ..... ... .. .... ....... 82









4-2 Still Life with Lemons and Oranges 1814....................................... ............... 82

4-3 Still Life w ith W ine G lass 1818 ......................... ............. ......... ... .................83

4-4 Still Life with Raisins, Apple, and Basket 1820-22................................................83














Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

PAINTERLY STRUGGLE: CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION WITHIN RAPHAELLE
PEALE'S STILL LIFE PAINTINGS

By

JASON FREDERICK

May 2006

Chair: Eric Segal
Major Department: Art and Art History

The still life paintings of Raphaelle Peale play an important role in understanding

more about his personal life This thesis concentrates upon the fields of Psychoanalysis

and Narratology, which serve as important roles in helping to define Raphaelle's

rebellious nature By focusing on how these theories are demonstrated throughout his still

life paintings, answers regarding his problematic personal life and repetitive subject

matter will be revealed

This study is organized into five chapters, including an introduction and a brief

conclusion Chapters 2 through 4 each deal with specific concerns surrounding

Raphaelle's life My analysis in Chapter 2 centers upon Raphaelle's rebellious nature

with regards toward his father and choice of subject matter In Chapter 3, I engaged with

psychoanalytic theory as it pertained toward his ever-increasing problematic situation in

relation to intemperate and over-indulgent behavior Chapter 4 conveys an understanding

of narratological theory as it pertains to his still life paintings, revealing a narrative or









story about his personal life with references toward self-control, realization, and

regulation

Still life paintings have been a discredited as a low genre of art throughout the

history of painting This assumption requires attention and must be approached from an

academic standpoint I hope to present an alternative and commendable view of his still

life works by addressing contradictory issues of restraint and self-discipline throughout

Raphaelle's childhood, personal life, family relationships, and still life paintings















CHAPTER 1
INSIGHT

Raphaelle Peale's (1774-1825) artwork was a representation of himself as an artist

and individual Peale was regarded as the first professionally committed still life painter

in the history of the United States William Dunlap, the great eighteenth-century

chronicler of American art wrote, "Raphaelle was a painter of portraits in oil and

miniature, but excelled more in compositions of still life He may perhaps be considered

the first in point of time who adopted this branch of painting in America, and many of his

pictures are in collections of men of taste and highly esteemed"1 His illustrious career,

largely comprised of still life painting, flourished and dissipated within the confinements

of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Peale steered away from floral arrangements, a popular

subject among the Dutch still life painters, and overwhelmingly focused on food with a

concentration upon fruit, desserts, wine, and liquor

Raphaelle's paintings are associated with neoclassical traits, which were especially

seen throughout the decorative arts of the nineteenth-century, and are characterized by

order, symmetry, simplicity of style, and spatial clarity One of the main themes of my

work focused on how Raphaelle's works portrayed a delicate balancing act between

temperance, necessity, restraint, over-indulgence, and lack of self-control Raphaelle's

still life paintings, which include solid forms, present viewers with an illusion and




1 William H. Gerdts & Russell Burke, American Still Life Painting (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971):
138.









indicate a taste and talent for deception2 The observer is led to believe the works contain

physically accessible objects, but to the viewer's frustration, these desires and objects are

inaccessible

Even though these characteristics of organization and clarity are present

throughout the works, Raphaelle's "dining-room pictures" demonstrated an incapability

to elude certain subject matter3 Still life painting was encouraged in the Peale household,

but more as a Peale family painting practice in preparation for superior genres of art such

as miniatures, landscapes and portraits4 According to Charles Willson Peale (1822;

Figl-1), Raphaelle's father, the genre of still life was geared toward beginners or

amateurs He stated, "The art of painting portraits cannot be attained without a vast deal

of practice, the artist must love the art, or he will not succeed to perfection It is not like

the painting of still life; the painting of objects that have no motion, which any person of

tolerable genius, with some application may acquire"5 Charles Willson considered still

life as mechanical, possessing little inspirational value, inventiveness or imagination

Charles Willson believed, as he wrote, "that great art was a product of the mind

and could influence moral behavior and promote the political and social values of a

community through the strength of its imagery"6 Others shared his view Jonathan

Richardson, an English Baroque portrait painter wrote of still life paintings, "they cannot


2 Lillian B. Miller, The Peale Family: Creation of a Legacy 1770-1870 (New York: Abbeville Press, 1996):
135.

3 William H. Gerdts, Painters of the Humble Truth: Masterpieces of American Still Life 1801-1939
(Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1981): 56.

4 Miller 1996, 138.

5 Miller 1996, 138.

6 Miller 1996, 47.









Improve the Mind, they excite no Noble Sentiments"7 Even though still life painting has

a decorative appeal, much like landscape and portrait paintings, Charles Willson thought

still life was an unsuitable career for Raphaelle, his talented eldest son8 His concerns

were not limited to matters of painting Charles Willson referred to "neglecting yourself"

and "a governing of passion," which revealed that he was aware of Raphaelle's

continuing problematic situation regarding temperance and over-indulgence

Although a small number of letters written by Raphaelle exist today, we can gain

insight into his life through the remarks and letters written by family members and

friends For example, Charles Willson sturdily recommended Raphaelle put an end to still

life and make use of his valuable time as seen in a letter written on November 15, 1817,

which stated

I well know your talents, and am fully confident that if you applied [yourself] as
you ought to do, you would be the first painter in America...your pictures of still-
life are acknowledged to be, even by painters here, far exceeding all other works of
that kind and you have often heard me say that I thought with such talents of exact
imitation your portraits ought also be more excellent-My dear Raphaelle Then why
will you neglect yourself? Why not govern every unruly passion? Why not act the
man, and with a firm determination act accordingly to your best judgment? Wealth,
honor, and happiness would then be your lot!9

In other words, Charles Willson was offering encouragement, hoping Raphaelle would

put a stop to his personal problems of over-indulgence and pursue a career in portraiture

Raphaelle's "kitchen pictures" masterfully display a visual balance pertaining to

subject matter, which presents traits of restraint and self-discipline, virtues undetected in




7 Miller 1996, 135.

SMiller 1996, 138.

9 Cikovsky, 104-105.









his excessive personal life10 These assets captured in his works contain both conscious

and unconscious elements An ulterior motive, whether conscious or unconscious, was to

display a struggle with the physical and emotional effects of temperance and over-

indulgence, which contributed toward alcoholism and the gout Raphaelle's artwork was

an emotional outlet and representation of an incessant troubling personal life The

tabletop arrangements were a form of expression and self-recognition, which focused on

a delicate balance between temperance, over-indulgence, necessity, restraint, and lack of

self-control Although the still life contained complicated features, Raphaelle cleverly

formulated calm, serene, fresh, and balanced works of art.


10 Gerdts 1981, 56.










































Figure 1-1. Portrait of Charles


Ison Peale 1822


ri
IQP














CHAPTER 2
REBELLIOUS SINCE BIRTH

The still life paintings executed by Raphaelle Peale present the viewer with

rebellious subject matter, which continuously depict a troublesome relationship between

father and son Despite Charles Willson's repeated pleas steering Raphaelle away from

still life and encouraging the profitable, reputable, and respected genre of portraiture,

Raphaelle rebelled This act of resistance toward authority can not only be seen

throughout Raphaelle's choice of genre and subject matter, but also through the way he

approached his personal life The influence of Raphaelle's politics within his immediate

family, contribute to this rebellious nature Raphaelle's still life paintings exercise an

oppositional approach, while presenting a relentless confrontation between himself and

his father

As mentioned earlier, not only did Charles Willson worry about Raphaelle's lack

of income and patronage, but also about his precarious and rebellious health and self-

governance Raphaelle's life does not mirror the symmetrical and structured depictions of

his still life paintings, but rather these works represent an ongoing confrontation between

order and disorder throughout his personal life In contrast to Raphaelle, Charles Willson

was a man who focused on regimen and health He practiced strict dietary control,

exercise, temperance, and abstinence from alcohol By 1804, Charles Willson stopped

drinking wine altogether and became a strong advocate of diet, which centered upon

simple foods and water For example, Charles Willson enjoyed soups, boiled or steamed

fish and meat, vegetables, and "perfectly ripe" fruits, which needed to be enjoyed with









cautious flavoring or spices1 Charles Willson tried instilling proper habits into

Raphaelle's daily routine, which was diverted by intemperance and over-indulgence,

leading to a rebellious and unhealthy life style2

Charles Willson Peale owned a farm in Belfield (1816; Fig2-1), an area outside of

Philadelphia Although he planted corn, wheat, hay, potatoes, and turnips, he lacked an

abundant cash crop In 1812, although refusing to drink alcohol, he decided to plant

currants and hoped these vineyards would supply an abundant cash crop The currants

were known as "the most widely consumed fruits in Pennsylvania" and made a

tremendous wine, "producing more profit for one acre well tended, than by any other

culture"3 As the years passed, Charles Willson's friends enjoyed the wine and he decided

to enlarge the garden for wine production even though he gave up drinking alcohol as

noted in a third person autobiography stating, he therefore drank none of his excellent

wine he visited a friend in the City who politely invited him to drink a glass of Wine

He thanked his friend, but said that he never drank wine Water was his only drink"4

Although Charles Willson had the ability to produce successful and bountiful

vineyards, he was able to refrain from drinking the wine, a difficult feat for his son

Raphaelle Once again, Raphaelle directly disobeyed his father, as an over consumption

of wine and alcohol became a large part of his life Despite Raphaelle's over-indulgence

in alcohol, Charles Willson continued to grow this sweet wine The wine at Belfield





1 Miller 1996, 139 & 143.
2 David C. Ward, Charles Willson Peale: Art and Selfhood in the Early Republic (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 2004): 123-131.
3 Sellers, 364 & Weaver, 156.
4 Sellers, 362.









became famous among wine enthusiasts, the people of Philadelphia, and was the most

profitable and successful product of his farm

The Pennsylvania Dutch produced some of the most prevalent vineyards in

southeastern Pennsylvania and this is portrayed throughout Raphaelle's still life paintings

In Berks County alone, some vineyards surpassed over five hundred acres The main

goal, besides financial gain, was to produce a wine similar to those vineyards in Germany

One of the first documentation of these thriving vineyards is seen in Blackberries (1813;

Fig2-2), a typical scene found within the confinements of southeastern Pennsylvania,

which included his father's farm at Belfield This painting represents a successful peak of

growth as the ripened red and blackberries appear in a succulent and mature state

Another example of these prosperous vineyards is seen in Still Life i//h Grapes in Dish

(1814; Fig2-3) Once again, Raphaelle was able to depict perfection as the grapes appear

recently plucked from their previous resting place upon a vine and placed into a bowl

Raphaelle maintains fluidity with these works as he displays the profusion of the

vineyards

Though Charles Willson supported the temperance movement as seen throughout

his lifestyle and in his Essay to Promote Domestic Happiness, he still grew, produced,

and sold some of the most outstanding wine in the region5 The vineyards flourished until

"an economic depression, competition from Ohio and California, and the temperance

movement rooted up all but the smallest plots" 6 Raphaelle's still life paintings entitled

Still Life 11 ith Celery and Wine (1816; Fig2-4) and Sill Life i/ ith Cake (1822; Fig2-5)


5 Miller 1991, 129-145.

6 Weaver, 160.









depict the decline of Charles Willson's and other Pennsylvania farmers' vineyards

Unlike the ripe, seasoned, and full-grown grapes and berries seen in his previous works,

Raphaelle shows the affects on the vineyards of a depression, out-of-state competition,

and the temperance movement Raphaelle is able to attain this goal by depicting the

transformation of the grapes into dry, withered, and shrunken raisins As time changes the

vineyards from thriving and booming areas of production toward arid and desiccated

diminutive plots, Raphaelle documented this change

Even though Charles Willson practiced a healthy life full of self-control,

temperance, longevity, and regimen, an oppositional approach is emulated within

Raphaelle's paintings and personal life The cakes and wine, items seen at weddings and

special events, depicted throughout some of his works were also seen at funerals7

Therefore, Raphaelle was indicating that an over consumption of cakes and wine would

contribute to the gout and eventually his death This matter concerning death is seen in a

letter written by Charles Willson to Raphaelle on June 26, 1818 stating, "But I fear,

Raphaelle that you are not right I am led to think so by seeing the word suicide in your

letter [to Patty] He is a miserable poor wretch who has not sense enough to know the

folly of such rash actions who thinks he can justify himself in the opinion that he can

dispose of himself fearless of consequences"8 The ultimate rebellious act performed by

Raphaelle would be an early death, a direct insubordination of Charles Willson's wishes

and desires Raphaelle's gout was not only a constant reminder of misery and lack of self-

control, but a rebellious sign toward his father Raphaelle's self-destructive actions


Weaver, 114-115.

8 Cikovsky, 107.









against regimen and health are a standing metaphor, resembling a constant battle between

father and son

Raphaelle continues a non-cooperative attitude toward Charles Willson with

illustrations of melons, berries, apples, grapes, and peaches as seen in his works entitled,

Still Life 11 ith Strawberries and Ostrich Egg Cup (1814; Fig2-6), Bowl of Peaches (1818;

Fig2-7), and Still Life i ith Peaches (1821; Fig2-8) In early nineteenth-century, these

items grew in abundance throughout the Middle Atlantic States and flourished all over

the region of eastern Pennsylvania The fruits were used as the foundation for alcoholic

drinks, which included wine, cider, brandies, and oftentimes peaches were used to clear

the palate of a wine connoisseur9 Many of Raphaelle's works contained carafes and

glasses of wine or liquor and fruit, which contributed toward intemperate acts of over

consumption As noted earlier, Raphaelle depicted a life of temperance and organization

upon the canvas as he painted a single glass of wine or fruit displayed neatly within or

around a basket, but this trait remained absent throughout his personal life An existing

conflict between Charles Willson and Raphaelle had an immense impact upon

Raphaelle's still life paintings The tension between father and son concentrated on the

powers of self-regulation and dissolute behavior, leading to physical illness Raphaelle's

paintings pleased Charles Willson as metaphors of temperance and self-regulation, yet

Charles Willson ultimately disapproved of Raphaelle's rebellious life style

At a young age, Raphaelle worked closely with his father in the Philadelphia

Museum, always running errands and performing certain tasks as he took care of animals,

engaged in taxidermy, and arranged exhibits for the museum After the American


9 Miler 1996, 147.









Revolution, many young women and men "stayed at home and replicated their parents

world as closely as they could"10 A majority still found their lives controlled by the

authority of the man of the house with power over his dependents and "young adults had

depended upon their family's support in an economy that offered them few avenues to

independence" 1 An increasing problematic situation regarding Raphaelle's finances can

be seen in a letter written by Charles Willson to Raphaelle on March 1 1818:

Dear Raphaelle, yesterday Patty sent for me and when I see [sic] her she told me
that she wanted me to prevail on her children to consent to be separated... [sic] she
that you ought to come home and help her along in their experiences, & advices
that you should sell your house, pay your debts, and do what you can to gain
support for the family12

Raphaelle was dependant upon Charles Willson from a young age Around 1793,

Raphaelle was nineteen and traveled on expeditions to Cayenne, French Guiana, and

South America, before ending up in Mexicol3 He collected New World Species for his

father's museum, representing different types of animals from around the world The

Spanish were known as the most expert agriculturalists in Europe and carried their

tradition to Mexicol4 In the eighteenth-century, Mexico became a flourishing

environment for Spanish Baroque still life painting This acted as an inspirational journey

for Raphaelle as he had submitted a plethora of still life works similar to the Spanish still

life style


10 Joyce Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans (Cambridge,
Massachusetts, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000): 8.

1 Appleby, 8 and 19.
12 Cikovsky, 105-06.

"Charles Coleman Sellers, Mr. Peale's Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of
Natural Science and Art (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1980): 63.

14Lloyd, 158 & 167.









Raphaelle witnessed beautiful grapes, ripe lemons, and matured oranges within the

flourishing Mexican gardens An example of Spanish fruit, a noticeable trait within the

still life paintings of Raphaelle was, Still Life i i//l Fruit and Glassware (1629; Fig2-9) by

Juan van der Hamen15 This painting displays grapes, oranges, peaches, pears, and pickles

within the confinements of the canvas The depiction of fruit became one of the dominant

features throughout Raphaelle's works as seen in his StillLife il it/ Oranges (1818; Fig2-

10) and Lemons and Grapes (1818; Fig2- 1) Raphaelle displays several different items

including lemons, oranges, and grapes, which were found in Spanish gardens and

throughout the Spanish still life paintings Raphaelle used these Spanish still life

paintings as a form of rebellion and inspiration against his father's works of American

landscapes and portraiture

Two other still life works, which influenced Raphaelle, were StillLife i/ih

Cardoon and Francolin (1628; Fig2-12) by Felipe Ramirez and Still Life I it/ Onions,

Garlic, and Chestnuts (date unknown; Fig2-13) by Juan Sanchez Cotan16 Along with

traveling to Mexico and witnessing Spanish gardens, the Spanish still life works by Cotan

were available to Raphaelle at The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia17

Unlike Charles Willson's works, these paintings served as an inspiration to Raphaelle and

his chosen profession Both paintings have similar attributes to Raphaelle's works such as

grapes, apples, and lemons The fruits are displayed in quiet grandeur, revealing seasoned

grapes, berries, and apples, while illustrating slightly flawed and dry lemons These



15 William B. Jordan, Spanish Still Life 1600-1650. (Japan: Nissha Printing Company, 1985): 140-141.

16 Jordan, 49.

17Gerdts 1981, 56. Miller 1996, 285.









attributes are both seen with Raphaelle's still life paintings The celery is the most

important physical element within the Spanish still life, revealing itself in Raphaelle's

work entitled, StillLife i i/h Celery and Wine (1816)18 The celery is not captured in

magnificent splendor, rather roughly exposed with arid, rotten cut stalks, which have

begun browning in color Raphaelle also used the contrast of light and shade seen

between the fore and background of the works Metaphorically speaking, this variation

between light and shade represents the conflict between Charles Willson and Raphaelle

Luis Melendez, considered "one of the greatest still life specialist of eighteenth-

century Spain," painted works entitled Still Life i/ ilh Oranges and Walnuts (1772; Fig2-

14), Still Life i/ ith Lemons and Oranges (1760's; Fig2-15), and Still Life li i/l

Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape (1771; Fig2-16), and also influenced

Raphaelle's production of still life works19 Many of Raphaelle's paintings display

similar subject matter to Still Life i/ih Oranges and Walnuts (1772), such as chestnuts,

oranges, and a container for alcoholic liquor The aspect concentrated upon in this work

is the melon in the back left side behind the ripe oranges The depiction of this melon is

strikingly similar to the one found within the foreground of Raphaelle's Melons and

Morning Glories (1813; Fig2-17) Even though smaller in size, the untouched melon in

the foreground space has resembling stripes to those found upon Melendez's canvas

The other work by Melendez, which contained similar subjects of Raphaelle's later

work, is Still Life i//h Lemons and Oranges (1760's) Once again, similar subject matter

radiates from the canvas as seen with the illustrious lemons and oranges, an earthenware


18 Miller 1996, 138.

19 Peter Cherry and William B. Jordan, Spanish Still Life from Velazquez to Goya. (London: National
Gallery Publications, 1995): 153, 160-61.









jug used for alcoholic liquors, and a basket for containing these items One of the items of

concern is located in the rear left hand side between the jug and basket Though slightly

different from the melon found in Still Life i/ ith Oranges and Walnuts (1772) and Melons

andMorning Glories (1813), the rind of the melon matches those found within

Raphaelle's Still Life i/ ith Watermelon (1822; Fig2-18) Along with the melon, the

circular and rectangular boxes attract attention The circular boxes would have contained

cheese, a similar subject seen in Raphaelle's Cheese i/ ith Three Crackers (1813; Fig2-19)

and the rectangular boxes held sweets, such as "dulce de Membrilla" or a thick quince

jelly eaten in slices The sweet jelly was to be cut into slices, a similar trait seen with

Raphaelle's cakes in Still Life i/ ith Raisin Cake (1813; Fig2-20), StillLife ,/ ith Wine,

Cake, andNuts (1819; Fig2-21), and Still Life / i/th Cake (1818; Fig2-22) These

similarities are apparent throughout both of these artist's works

Still Life 1 i/th Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape (1771) presents striking

similarities to Raphaelle's Still Life / i/th Watermelon (1822)20 The watermelons in these

works are exposed, leaving their juicy, red insides open to the outside air They are not

neatly sliced open; it appears as if they were ripped open or dropped to the ground

Finally, a similarity exists between the rinds regarding smooth, bumpy, and circular

texture and shape As the paintings illustrate, the Spanish Still Life works of Melendez

undeniably and remarkably influenced Raphaelle's still life paintings Once again,

Raphaelle revolts against his father's artistic training and utilizes instead the Spanish still

life as an inspiration and driving force in pursuit of his artistic dream


20 Cherry and Jordan, 161.









A particular instance leading toward Raphaelle's rebellious nature occurred in

October of 1795, when George Washington visited Philadelphia and consented sitting for

a portrait painted by members of the Peale family21 Charles Willson, James, Raphaelle's

uncle, Rembrandt, Raphaelle's brother, and Raphaelle were the artists permitted into the

room in hope of capturing the portrait of George Washington22 Instead of Charles

Willson enabling Raphaelle, the older and most gifted son, the privilege and opportunity

was presented to the younger seventeen-year-old Rembrandt23 Further, James and

Raphaelle were not allowed in the room until the second day At this time, Raphaelle

produced a profile drawing as he was placed behind the general in the corner of the room

Perhaps Charles Willson made this decision hoping that Raphaelle would take

painting more seriously and let no one out perform his artistic ability This occurrence

between father and son influenced Raphaelle's disobedience towards Charles Willson's

controlling nature at a young age Instead of painting a portrait of George Washington in

proper heroic manner, Raphaelle decided to execute a profile, a direct defiance of his

father's requests This incident helped develop a patterned relationship of denial and

rebellion between Charles Willson and Raphaelle

In 1797, at the age of twenty-three, Raphaelle married against Charles Willson's

wishes The bride was Martha (Patty) McGlathery, an Irish woman who came from a

long line of master builders and carpenters Even though Patty's father, Matthew was a


21 Carol Eaton Hevner, Rembrandt Peale 1778-1860: A Life in the Arts. (Philadelphia: The Historical
Society of Pennsylvania, 1985): 13 & 32.
22 Charles Willson Peale, Charles Willson Peale and His World (New York: H.N. Abrams, 1983): 190.
This source mentions that Titian Ramsay I was also permitted into the room on the second day along with
James and Raphaelle.

23 Lloyd, 157.









member of Philadelphia's Carpenters' Company, Charles Willson, who came from

generations of Anglican English, rejected this family, hailing from Dublin, Ireland24

Along with rejecting Charles Willson's wishes regarding marriage, Raphaelle continued

to defy his father's desires with the battle between temperance and over-indulgence

Once again, Raphaelle had blatantly dismissed Charles Willson's wishes and desires as

seen with the marriage and over consumption of alcohol, a recurring theme throughout

his life

Another instance occurring in the summer of 1801 contributed toward Raphaelle's

rebellious nature Charles Willson headed a scientific expedition, which unearthed and

excavated fragmentary remains of three mastodons This expedition was funded by the

American Philosophical Society and President Thomas Jefferson25 Once again,

Rembrandt was invited to assist his father, but Raphaelle was excluded from this

historical event Charles Willson commemorated this experience with his painting

entitled, The Exhumation of the Mastodon (1806-08; Fig2-23)26 Even though Raphaelle

was not invited to participate in the actual excavation process along with other family

members, he was included in the painting Rembrandt stands in the center of the work

and gestures down toward the mammoth bones in imitation of his father On the other

hand, Charles Willson and Raphaelle are holding opposite ends of a scroll and yet they

are connected The laborers and members of his family are separated, which is similar to

the scroll separating Charles Willson and Raphaelle


24 Lloyd, 167.

25Laura Rigal, The American Manufactory: Art, Labor, and the World of Things in the Early Republic.
(Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998): 91. Charles Willson was a member of the
Philosophical Society and painted portraits of President Jefferson.
26 Rigal, 91-92.









Even though Raphaelle was considered an alcoholic, Charles Willson considered

him a genius Raphaelle was noted as having a "wayward nature and propensity for

alcohol"27 Raphaelle would laugh away the failure, as he would awake in pain

Raphaelle was "all laughter" and considered a stupendous tavern companion and

comedian28 In 1817, Charles Willson challenged the professional genre and artistic

credibility of the forty-three year old Raphaelle, which further fueled Raphaelle's

rebellious lifestyle In a letter dated February 17, 1817, Charles Willson invited

Raphaelle to Belfield, Pennsylvania to sit for a portrait requested years earlier Why

would Charles Willson decide to execute this painting after all of these years? In a letter

to Rubens Peale, Raphaelle's brother, Charles wrote, it might be a lesson to help him

with his colouring"29 Raphaelle, a man of forty-three, did not need assistance with

coloring This useful advice would have benefited Raphaelle at a much younger age

Within the portrait of Raphaelle, Charles Willson executed a still life in the upper right

hand corner of the painting This specific depiction of a still life was lacking quiet

dignity, presenting itself as awkwardly clumped together, quite unlike Raphaelle's still

life Charles Willson implemented Raphaelle's portrait with utmost perfection, but

haphazardly painted the still life rendition This work entitled, Portrait ofRaphaelle

Peale, (1822; Fig2-24) is seen as a sarcastic comment upon the still life genre30

In response to Charles Willson's criticism as seen with the Portrait ofRaphaelle

Peale (1822), Raphaelle continued his rebellious attitude toward Charles Willson with the

27 Peale, 196.

28 Sellers, 169.

29 Lloyd, 164.

30 Lloyd, 164. The dates of 1817 and 1822 are both applied to this work.









work entitled, Venus Rising from the Sea-A Deception (After the Bath), (1823; Fig2-25)31

Perhaps Raphaelle mislead his father's intentions as Charles Willson thought Raphaelle

might paint a portrait, but instead, Raphaelle has depicted a sheet, covering the women's

body and face The partial anatomy seen with the woman's right foot, left arm, and hair

protruding from behind the sheet serves as an act of rebellion alluding away from

portraiture The deceptive traits found within Raphaelle's works, which ironically were

inherited from his father, seem so real Three-dimensionality exists, as the objects are

almost interchangeable with real objects, especially seen with his still life paintings This

allusion conveys a deeper meaning seen with the work as Raphaelle learned about the

value of visual deception from an early age He learned the art of deceit from his father's

work entitled, The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titan Ramsey Peale, (1795; Fig2-

26)32 According to Phoebe Lloyd, such a deception represented the highest criterion

of artistic excellence"33 Charles Willson was deceived, believing an actual woman

existed upon the other side of the sheet and Raphaelle was painting a portrait

Charles Willson, James, and Rembrandt were known for painting landscapes and

portraits Rather than following in his family's footsteps, Raphaelle rebelled against the

wishes and desires of his father to pursue a career in still life painting Even though

Charles Coleman Sellers, an early American historian, considered Peale's Museum as

"The House of God! Here is nothing but truth spoken," Charles Willson changed and

modified his canvases Charles Willson thought it was necessary to manipulate nature



31 Miller 1996, 90.
32 Miller 1996, 50.

33 Lloyd, 156.









and create aesthetically pleasing works for artistic purposes, he thought the most

important life lessons were found within the grand design and totality of nature, though

he controlled naturalistic scenes34

Inside the Philadelphia Museum, the senior Peale and his sons were supposed to

"represent appropriate scenery" 35 The values expressed above can be seen in his works

entitled, Landscape Looking Toward Sellers Hall from Mill Bank, (1818; Fig2-27) and

Millbank (1818; Fig2-28)36 Certain natural environmental flaws such, as a gray cloud, a

broken tree limb or brown leaves would be excluded from the painting An enhanced

color scheme was often added, visually improving the work Sometimes a mountain,

stream or tree would be placed into the painting as an expansion of aesthetic quality

Charles Willson learned reshaping, arranging, discarding, and recomposing natural

elements of a scene, a manipulation of nature These depicted scenes were untouchable or

non-existent as a whole in the world When executing landscape paintings, efforts to

locate "views that will look well in paintings" suggest Charles Willson was in search of

certain requirements to fulfill the canvas37 A manipulation of nature for aesthetic

purposes and "cull from various scenes such parts as best create one perfect whole" were

goals Charles Willson strived to achieve in order to execute picturesque landscapes38

James Peale also contributed toward the manipulation of nature within landscape

paintings In regards to Sawrey Gilpin, an English Romantic animal and landscape

34 Miller 1996, 69,

35Rigal, 97.

36 Miller 1996, 76.

7 Miller 1996, 76.

38 Miller 1996, 77.









painter, James followed Gilpin's advice to use formal sketchbooks during his travels in

order for documentation Pleasure Party by A Mill (1790; Fig2-29) and View on the

Wissahickon (1830; Fig2-30) reveal Gilpin's advice, as James Peale followed

instructions upon which elements should remain or be discarded in a natural scene39

Rembrandt was also accountable for this technique of manipulation as seen with the Falls

of Niagara, Viewed from the American Side (1831; Fig2-31) and The Canadian Side of

Niagara Falls, Platform Rock (1831; Fig2-32)40 Rembrandt altered the treatment of light,

which created lavish purples and yellows upon the canvas He mimicked natural scenes

by including foreign elements normally absent from landscape paintings Charles

Willson, James, and Rembrandt, "shaped nature into art and then created art from

manipulated nature" which, exercised control over the scenes depicted and forbid the

scene to determine the painting41 Unlike Raphaelle, Charles Willson, James, and

Rembrandt acquired control over their canvases and personal lives

Together with landscape painting, Charles Willson executed manipulative

portraiture In 1785, Charles Willson opened an exhibition referred to as "my perspective

views with changeable effects," dealing with landscapes and historical subjects42 "In

1797, Peale wrote, "Truth is most preferable tho' dressed in a course garb"43 His

portraits continued along with a modified approach; shaping eyes, heads, and expressions

to meet academic specifications The portraits express character as Charles Willson

39 Miller 1996, 79 & 208.
40 Miller 1996, 84-85.

41 Miller 1996, 83.

42 Bringham, 1.

43 Miller 1996, 77.









interpreted, which was based upon scientific literature of the day Even though Peale

always conveyed a "good eye" for detail, he progressed beyond observation,

hypothesizing about eyes, head features, and expressions infused within the works

Charles Willson would remove certain physical flaws, which would take quality away

from the highly individualized sitter

Examples can be seen with Charles Willson's, General Joseph Bloomfield (1777;

Fig2-33) and Thomas Jefferson (1791; Fig2-34)44 Peale removed all signs of exhaustion

and age, as these portraits appear as timeless representations of political figures Wrinkles

and gray hair are conveniently brushed away and facial features are highlighted by the

rosy, pink skin tone The examples mentioned above in regards toward landscape and

portrait painting display Charles Willson, James, and Rembrandt's repeated alteration of

works Perhaps the modification throughout their works led toward a continued patronage

by consumers and sitters

Charles Willson encouraged Raphaelle towards a career as a painter in portraiture,

a course flourishing with proceeds, which would support a family and enhance an artistic

reputation Raphaelle decided to travel upon a different path, the realm of still life

painting Though producing portraiture during his younger years, by 1811, Raphaelle

ignored his father's advice and focused his artistic energy upon still life45 Portraiture was

not Raphaelle's genre of choice Speculations arose surrounding Raphaelle's choice of

still life over landscape and portrait paintings The desire to fulfill requirements of his

patrons influenced Raphaelle's decision because the demands for perfection were


44 Miller 1996, 66-67.

45 Lloyd, 164.









extreme Many scholars will argue that Raphaelle implemented still life in a manner

similar to his father's landscapes and portraiture Raphaelle organized still life with

precision by assembling tabletop arrangements in order to fulfill a personal desire, a

comparable characteristic of Charles Willson's works On the other hand, Raphaelle

decided painting more than the beautiful and sublime, a repetitive topic found throughout

the works of Charles Willson Raphaelle presented so-called "flaws" within his works,

painting an actual aspect of nature unlike his father's search for the most picturesque

scenes This accomplishment placed nature into the realm of art without manipulation

Raphaelle's still life works represent a form of rebellion with regards to subject

matter An example of rebellion is seen with Cheese i/ ith Three Crackers (1813)46

Instead of displaying an untouched block of cheese in entirety, Raphaelle depicted this

subject partially eaten An act of rebellion is presented as he drifted away from creating a

perfect whole derived from separate parts of a work As an alternative, Raphaelle does

not follow in his father's footsteps of exhibiting a perfect work He simply leaves the

elements presented in a natural state without altering the subject in order to show beauty,

a highly uncharacteristic trait of Charles Willson

Raphaelle was rebellious from a young age as noted in an autobiography of Peggy

Durgan, the Peale's "nourse"47 Charles Willson ordered the bread of the family to be

from a neighborhood baker and not homemade Raphaelle did not enjoy the baker's bread

and continually refused any liking of the kind Peggy was known for spoiling the children

and "constantly supplied the pettish Boy with cakes she secretly baked" This simple


46 Miller 1996, 33.

47 Charles Coleman Sellers, Charles Willson Peale (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1969): 224.









example with bread displays Raphaelle's rebellious nature from an early age and a

beginning of his enjoyments with cakes, which plagued him throughout his life48 Other

works of Raphaelle, as seen with Still Life i i ih Apples, .\li/e i and Tea Cake (1822;

Fig2-35), depict fruit in an utmost state of ripe perfection and beauty49 The apple and

orange appear to have been recently removed from their trees as the bright red and yellow

colors project from the canvas The grapes become slightly visible, hiding behind a lush

green vine, recently detached from the vineyard In response to his father's manipulations

of landscape and portraiture, Raphaelle represents rebellion in Fruit and Silver Bowl

(1814; Fig2-36)50 A new step was developed in the work of Raphaelle as he illustrated

fruit outside of a perfectly ripe content, such as an over ripe melon or browning green

peppers In contrast to his father's style, Raphaelle focused upon inserting certain realistic

elements, which enhanced the work Raphaelle was not afraid to display the side of art

his father never took the time to show

Continuing further with rebellion, Raphaelle executed, Still Life i i/h Celery and

Wine (1816) Once again, Raphaelle displayed fruit outside of its ripe, perfected context

Spotted, brown apples, a brown, cut lemon, slightly wilted, thin, colorless celery, and

overripe grapes fill the canvas In contrast to the previous work, Raphaelle decided to

place the fruit and vegetables inside and around the wicker basket Even though beauty is

absent as seen with the brown fruit, according to Charles Willson, Raphaelle placed these

objects in and around beautiful, expensive containers By positioning the fruit, Raphaelle



48 Sellers, 224.

49 Cikovsky, 12.
50 Cikovsky, 23.









continued displaying, regardless of physical appearance, these true works presented in

nature Raphaelle is considered rebellious because he painted the truth

In addition, as previously mentioned, the politics surrounding the family

contributed to Raphaelle's rebellious qualities Leaving Annapolis in December of 1775,

Charles Willson decided to move to Philadelphia and take full advantage of the city's

culture and trade51 The residents were preparing for war when Peale arrived, so he

decided to participate, both militarily and politically, in the American Revolution

Charles Willson's involvement stretched from painting replicas of flags, broadcasting

revolutionary ideology, and serving as a "common soldier"52 He fought for George

Washington's army and was promoted to captain before joining "The Furious Whigs" in

1776, a radical political group53 For some time after, he served as an agent, collecting

estates from British sympathizers In the same year, Charles Willson also spent one term

as a representative in the Pennsylvania legislature and was elected into the American

Philosophical Society54 The military and political involvement of Charles Willson fueled

the artistic projects of landscape and portrait painting, which Raphaelle avoided, as seen

with Charles Willson's portraits of General Joseph Bloomfield, Thomas Jefferson, and

George Washington Predominantly after 1811, Raphaelle "seems to have preferred still

life"55 Once again, Raphaelle rebelled against his father in regards to composition and




51 Miller 1996, 21.

52 Miller 1996, 21.

53 Miller 1996, 21.

54 Miller 1996, 21 & Sellers, 24.

55 Miller 1996, 139.









genre as he abstained from using the politics and patronage of the American Revolution

to support his still life paintings

Charles Willson used political influence as a means for patronage, seen with his

mezzotint, His Excellency George Washington Esquire, Commander in Chief of the

Federal Army (1780; Fig2-37)56 George Washington was a favorite object of portraiture

with Charles Willson as seen with two other oil portraits entitled, Washington at

Princeton (1779; Fig2-38) and Washington and His Generals at Yorktown (1784; Fig2-

39)57 Once more, Raphaelle rebelled against Charles Willson and the American

Revolution, as Raphaelle did not use military or political actions for subject matter or

patronage Raphaelle rebelled against this "fake" perception of a national identity

Charles Willson altered the paintings by placing non-existent, historical battle scenes or

landscapes behind portrait paintings contributing to a false sense of reality An example

can be seen with Washington at Princeton (1779) and Washington and his Generals at

Yorktown (1784), as these works present a scenario of Washington leaning on a canon or

casually conversing with his generals during the middle of battle History must show "the

true image of a nation" but Charles Willson fashioned and projected "a national identity

for domestic and foreign consumption"58 These highly unlikely scenes further evidence a

continued separation between Charles Willson and Raphaelle on professional and

personal levels Raphaelle was rebelling against his father in regards to the selected

patronage and politics surrounding landscape and portrait paintings, which derived from


56 Miller 1996, 23.

57 Miller 1996, 68.

58 Eve Kornfeld, Creating an American Culture 1175-1800: A Brief History with Documents (Boston and
New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2001): 39.









the American Revolution For these reasons, Raphaelle wanted to reveal truthful,

genuine, and authentic scenes of national identity, defining a new type of history

painting, the still life


Figure 2-1. View of Garden at Belfield


rtgure 2-2. dlacKDerrles l 1ij


























Figure 2-3. Still Life with Grapes in Dish 1814


f gure 2-4. Still Lite with Celery and Wine 1816








































Figure 2-5. Still Life with Wine and Cake 1822
































Figure 2-6. Still Life with Strawberries and Ostrich Egg Cup 1814


Figure 2-7. Bowl of Peaches 18





























figure 2-s. till Lite with teacnes iszi


Figure 2-9. Still Life with Fruit and Glassware 1629


























































igure 2-11. Lemons and Grapes 1818

















/~


Figure 2-12. Still Life with Cardoon and Francolin 1628















































:


-a


Figure 2-13. Still Lite with Unions, Ciarlic, and Chestnuts Date Unknown


............ .... ......















































Figure 2 Still Life withe rai LnnO s ll riWalnuts 17
Figure 2-14. Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts 1772





















































Phaea c The Natlenas Gadery Loaran
Figure 2-15. Still Life with Lemons and Oranges 1760s































Figure 2-16. Still Life with Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape 1771







































igure 2-17. Melons and Morning Glories 1813








































Figure 2-18. Still Life with Watermelon 1822


iree Crackers 1813


Figure 2.









































1lgure 2-2U. Still Lite with Kaisin Cake 113






































Figure 2-21. Still Life with Wine, Cake, and Nuts 1819







































Figure 2-22. Still L


with Cake 1818





































Figure 2-23. The Exhumation of the Mastodon 1806-08
















































Figure 2-24. Portrait of Raphaelle Peale 1817




























Figure 2-25. Venus Rising from the Sea-A Deception (After the Bath) 1823


Figure 2-26. The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsey Peale 1795




















Figure 2-27. Landscape Looking Toward Sellers Hall from Mill Bank 1818


Figure 2-28. Millbank 1818

































Figure 2-29. Pleasure Party by A Mill 1790


Figure 2-30. View on the



























Figure 2-31. Falls of Niagara, Viewed from the American Side 1891


'Ar'


igure 2-32. The Canadian Side Of Niagara Falls, Platform Rock 1831




























Figure 2-33. General Joseph Bloomfield 1777


Figure 2-34. Thomas Jefferson 1791































Figure 2-35. Still Life with Apples, Sherry, and Tea Cake 1822


Figure 2-36. Fruit and Silver Bowl 1814
















































Figure 2-37. His Excellency George Washington Esquire, Commander in Chief of the
Federal Army, 1780
















































Figure 2-38. Washington at Princeton 11//9














.1'n


1Iai


I
I;


Figure 2-39. Washington and his Generals at Yorktown 1784














CHAPTER 3
A DEEPER LOOK INSIDE

A further understanding of Raphaelle Peale's still life paintings and personal life

are attained through psychoanalysis, a method of studying the mind and treating mental

and emotional disorders based on revealing and investigating roles of the unconscious

mind All art has a transitional quality as it occupies or connects the space between

illusion and reality1 Psychoanalysis offers insight into the realms of illusion and reality,

which deals with the art and science of mental and emotional transformation2

Sigmund Freud's "The Unpleasure or Pleasure Principle" provides a

psychoanalytical model for understanding why Raphaelle continued painting still life For

example, Raphaelle was confronted with unpleasure as seen with his personal problems

surrounding intemperance and over-indulgence In a letter written to his patron Charles

Graff on September 6, 1816, Raphaelle confirmed his problematic situation with this

disease stating, "My old and inveterate enemy, the Gout, has Commenced a most violent

attack on me, two months previous to its regular time-and most unfortunately on the day

that I was to Commence still life, in the most beautiful productions of Fruit, I therefore

fear that the Season will pass without producing a single Picture, I meant to have devoted

all my time, Principally, to Painting of fine Peaches "3



1 Laurie Schneider Adams, Art and Psychoanalysis (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993): 42.
2 Schneider, 53.

3 Phoebe Lloyd, "Philadelphia Story," Art in America (November 1988): 200.









According to Freud, a goal of the conscious or unconscious mind is to formulate a

"perceptual or imaginary identity" and thus gain gratification or satisfaction Freud stated

in his Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis, "We humans with the high standards for our

civilization and under the pressure of our internal repressions, find reality unsatisfying

quite generally, and for that reason entertain a life of phantasy in which we like to make

up for the insufficiencies of reality by the production of wish-fulfillment"4 Kaja

Silverman, an American film critic, has described Freud's theory as meaning; the

unconscious exhibits inflexibility or sternness in its means for change When the

unconscious discovers a clarification regarding unpleasure, repetitive attempts toward a

positive solution occur in order to begin to formulate a solution5 "For Freud, pleasure

represents the absence of unpleasure; it is a state of relaxation much more intimately

connected with death than with life"6 Raphaelle's pleasure and over-indulgence with

food and alcohol were associated with death, rather than life, and this theory aids in

explaining Raphaelle's repeated subject matter, as he painted forty-four still life paintings

between 1813 and 18177

A continuation with Raphaelle's still life can be seen with Freud's "Reality

Principle" While the pleasure principle relates to people acting upon good feelings, the

reality principle relates to individuals subordinating or subduing pleasure as a process of

sublimation The process of sublimation represses or stores unattainable desires in the

unconscious, a process that can take place in the realm of art Through his still life

4 Levine, 197.

5 Kaja Silverman, The Subjects of Semiotics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983): 56.

6 Silverman, 57.

7 Cikovsky, 28.









paintings, Raphaelle transformed a reality of dissatisfaction into a fantasy of satisfaction

In his personal life, Raphaelle struggled with the pleasures of intemperance and over-

indulgence, but found a release with his still life paintings8

According to Freud, dreams are symbolic fulfillments of unattainable wishes that

have been repressed Though an unconscious dream or sleep-like state is absent in the art

of painting, dream-like mechanisms are apparent The Interpretation ofDreams by Freud

sets forth the theories as condensation and displacement, which can be applied to a

continued analysis of Raphaelle's still life paintings Condensation, considered as a

metaphor, occurs when sets of complex psychic images are packed into one simple image

Raphaelle's art can be approached as a dense metaphor, embodying contradictions around

his personal problems with over-indulgence and intemperance Displacement, a shift in a

desire from the original object to a more acceptable or immediate substitute, is a concept

that parallels condensation For example, in terms of Raphaelle's paintings, a single cake

or glass of wine represents condensation because Raphaelle metaphorically places his

emotional problems of temperance and self-control into a depiction of this single image

Displacement parallels condensation because Raphaelle shifts his feelings regarding

over-indulgence and intemperance toward an immediate substitute, a single glass of wine,

cake or piece of fruit, symbolizing moderation and control Raphaelle's feelings and

problems are displaced from primary causes of temperance and over-indulgence to

something else, his artwork9





8 Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dream (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 74-105.

9 Freud 1999, 74-105.









Another psychoanaylitic theory applying to Raphaelle's work is a representation of

a "drive" for wish fulfillment An unsatisfying reality and a subsequent or succeeding

production of wish fulfillments, lead to a fantasy life, while in turn escaping from

reality10 This "drive" or expression transforms into a wish, which was the motivating

force behind Raphaelle's psychic activity The still life paintings resemble a release of the

pleasure principle, which was an adjustment of unpleasure Raphaelle attempted to attain

temperance with his works contrasting with his over-indulgence in alcohol, desserts, and

fruit Despite repeated pleas from his father, trying to steer him away from still life,

Raphaelle continued painting and expressing through still life

Raphaelle's paintings portrayed a life of fantasy and reality Further insight into

Raphaelle Peale can be attained through analysis of the following section found in

Formulations of the Two Principles of Mental Functioning (1911) by Freud:

An artist is originally a man who turns away from reality because he cannot come
to terms with the renunciation of instinctual satisfaction which it first demands, and
who allows his erotic and ambitious wishes full play in the life of fantasy He finds
the way back to reality, however, from this world of fantasy by making use of
special gifts to mould his fantasies into truths of a new kind, which are valued by
men as precious reflections of reality Thus in a certain fashion he actually becomes
the hero, the king, the creator, or the favorite he desired to be, without following
the long roundabout path of making real alterations in the external world But he
can only achieve this because other men feel the same dissatisfaction as he does
with the renunciation demanded by reality and because the dissatisfaction, which
results from the replacement of the pleasure principle by the reality principle, is
itself part of reality1

In other words, Raphaelle turned away from reality and ventured toward fantasy

because he was unable to find satisfaction within his life Still life was Raphaelle's

special gift, which returned him back from a fantasy world and enabled him to truthfully


10 Levine, 198.

11 Levine, 198-199.









depict reflections of reality Raphaelle used still life, as a means of displaying his

personal desires moderation in contrast to his difficulty with the reality of his

intemperance and lack of self-control

Peale's father was not only concerned by Raphaelle's still life subject matter, but

also with his son's precarious lifestyle and approach to health and self-governance

Raphaelle displayed battles with intemperance in still-life paintings, which eventually

affected his physical well-being In contrast to Raphaelle, Charles Willson focused upon

regimen and health Charles practiced strict dietary control with exercise, temperance and

abstinence from alcohol, and focused on a diet centered on simple foods and water12

Charles repeatedly attempted to instill these habits into Raphaelle's daily routine because

intemperance, over-indulgence and an unhealthy life style dominated his life As noted

earlier with "The Pleasure or Unpleasure Principle," Raphaelle not only tried to find

answers for unpleasure by repeatedly painting still life, but he also repeatedly

overindulged in alcohol and rich foods while battling intemperance, which contributed to

a development of the gout Charles wrote a letter on February 2, 1818,

My dear Raphaelle, It gives me great pain to think how wretchedly you govern
yourself I am not uniformed of your associations you are possessed of superior
talents to most men, and yet you will associate with beings that disgrace you-you
have promised time after time to refrain from intemperance and you have nearly
destroyed, or thrown away your life; you have been on the brink of the Grave, and
you must certainly know the cause of all your suffering! Then why not act the man
and respect yourself13

These letters were not only written to Raphaelle, but to other family members and

friends too Letters concerning Raphaelle's health found their way to Raphaelle's


12 Miller 1996, 142.

13 Cikovsky, 105.









brothers Rembrandt, Rubens and Linnaeus, his sister Angelica, and Benjamin West, a

friend and eighteenth-century artist A letter to Angelica on November 24, 1818, states

You ask me where Raphaelle is, the other day I received a letter from him which
informs me that he has been almost at death's door, reduced to a skeleton by a fit of
the Gout [which] confined him 8 weeks-I have wrote to advise him to get from the
country as soon as possible as I have always considered the neighborhood of
Norfolk an unhealthy country14

The still-life paintings of Raphaelle "appear to be complex images that express a moral

tension between necessity and indulgence, reason and passion," which concerned

Raphaelle's family members and friends15

In Freud's study of Wit and the Comic, he argues that the primary focus of art is to

seek pleasure and avoid pain, therefore obeying "the pain and pleasure," which

dominated artists' lives and works16 This diagnosis is especially seen in Fruit Piece i/ ilh

Peaches Covered by Handkerchief (1819; Fig3-1) The pictorial goal illustrates a struggle

between temperance and over-indulgence Raphaelle eschewed pain as a handkerchief,

which covers a majority of the peaches, serves as a warning and addresses pain by

visually informing the viewer to enjoy the peaches in moderation Painful affects of the

gout may appear if these ripe, rich, and succulent peaches are not enjoyed with self-

discipline and moderation Raphaelle successfully combined pleasure and temperance by

leaving two of the peaches unveiled, which enabled an act of self-control and restraint

with balance and symmetry





14 Cikovsky, 107.

15 Miller 1996, 136.

16 Daniel E. Schneider, The Psychoanalyst and The Artist (New York: The Alexa Press Inc., 1950), 61.









In 1909, Freud declared, "If a person who is at logger heads with reality possesses

an artistic gift, he can transform his fantasies into artistic creations instead of

symptoms"17 The reality of dissatisfaction is transformed by the artwork turning into a

fantasy of satisfaction "The artist's fantasy is materially embodied in a public medium: In

this manner, he can escape the doom of neurosis and by this round about path regain his

contact with reality"18 Raphaelle transformed an emotional battle with temperance and

over-indulgence onto the canvas

An inducement to renounce pleasure is placed upon the patient in psychoanalytic

work Exposure of determinable consequences is encouraged because complications arise

in asking a total revilement of pleasure19 In an exchange from reality towards the

pleasure principle, Raphaelle displayed in his paintings items sumptuous in nature, which

if enjoyed in excess may perhaps lead to ill health In Freud's the Claims of

Psychoanalysis to Scientific Interest (1913), an artist "represents his most personal

wishful fantasies as fulfilled" and "they only become a work of art when they have

undergone a transformation, which softens what is offensive in them, conceals their

personal origin, and by obeying the laws of beauty, bribes other people with the bonus of

pleasure"20 Art is also "an activity intended to allay ungratified wishes-in the first place

in the creative artist himself and subsequently in his audience or spectators"21 Art

becomes an "accepted reality, thanks to artistic illusion, symbols and substitutes are able

1 Levine, 197.

18Levine, 198.

19 Freud 1999, 158-159.

20 Levine, 74-81.

21 Levine, 74-81.









to provoke real emotions art develops into a region halfway between a reality which

frustrates wishes and the wish-fulfilling world of the imagination "22 Raphaelle's works

represent personal ungratified wishes, which have been softened by the subject matter,

leaving the offensive nature behind and revealing images of beauty Raphaelle portrayed

problems amid pleasure, intemperance, and over-indulgence upon the canvas

Freud's paper, Remembering, Repeating, and Working-Through (1914), states,

"If the artist is able to achieve admiration and gratitude from people who have purchased

his works then he has made an unconscious connection with their pleasures and desires in

returning honor, power, and love"23 Even though obtaining patronage was a difficult

task, Raphaelle accomplished acceptance by selling his still life paintings If Raphaelle

was fortunate, the artworks sold for fifteen dollars24 In Freud's, The Future ofIllusion

(1927), he proceeded to say, "The creations of art heighten his feelings of identification

by providing an occasion for sharing highly valued emotional experiences"25 Raphaelle's

paintings may have been meant to invoke similar wishes of conscious or unconscious

matter from the general community For example, perhaps patrons with similar problems

regarding intemperance and over-indulgence purchased these works, therefore leading to

a personal connection between Raphaelle and the patron

According to Freud's Autobiographical Study (1925), an artist was not seen as

neurotic, where he had the ability to revert back towards reality without remaining in a



22 Levine, 199.

23 Levine, 201.

24 Cikovsky, 28.

25 Levine, 203-204.









dream-like state or world of imagination26 The works of Raphaelle were imaginary

gratifications seen with unconscious wishes, similar to dreams The tension between

temperance and intemperance in Raphaelle's life and artwork are captured within the

images of his paintings Lemons and Sugars (1822; Fig3-2) displays a subtle example of

Raphaelle's unconscious wishes, while encapsulating the "dessert" aspect following a

meal27 These desserts Raphaelle depicted demonstrate an exploitation of unnecessary

and additional pleasure seen throughout his personal life and canvas Lemons and Sugars

(1822), dissimilar to Raphaelle's personal life, is extremely organized Attention focuses

upon the arrangement of three orderly placed lemons within a basket, a decorative urn

containing sugar, and a carafe encapsulating wine A leather bound book of poems, a

knife, and a spoon offsets the main features The presentation of orderly fashion

throughout the work reflects attributes otherwise lacking in Raphaelle's life and is an

example of how Raphaelle found an enabling balance through consumption with such

subjects

Another example, which displayed Raphaelle's personal equanimity, is Still Life

1 i/i/ Apples, .V\/i y and Tea Cake (1822; Fig2-35) The desert pieces illustrated typify

moderation Raphaelle masterly displayed a single glass of liquor, a small, solitary

decorative cake, and two dissimilar sized plump apples accompanied by luscious, ripe

grapes The ordered and controlled nature presented with these culinary images belies the

unbalanced and immoderate lifestyle of Raphaelle Freud's position indicates, "A man

who is a true artist has more at his disposal In the first place, he understands how to work


26 Levine, 202.

27 Cikovsky, 52.









over his daydreams in such a way as to make them lose what is too personal about them

and repels strangers, and to make it possible for others to share in the enjoyment of

them"28 Raphaelle was able to intertwine personal fantasy and public display

The severity of Raphaelle's appalling habits were exemplified in a letter that his

father wrote to him after a meeting with Raphaelle's wife on July 1, 1807: "She said we

are very happy when he don't drink, and yet she said you could not do with out it for you

passed one day a tremor came on and you was miserable until you had it and she was

compelled to advise you to take a little"29 The still life paintings presented self-control,

moderation, and temperance, which belie his personal life According to letters, the gout

plagued Raphaelle after 1812 and the production and exhibition of Raphaelle's still life

was affected by his gout as only a pair of pictures were exhibited between 1819-1820 In

a letter written on November 30, 1823 by Charles to Rembrandt, Raphaelle's brother: "I

gave my best advice saying you may yet by temperance restore your powers of body and

mind, but otherwise you will soon die in misery"30 These physical symptoms

experienced from the gout compromised Raphaelle's physical and mental health and his

ability to paint

In dealing with a conscious and unconscious mental state, psychoanalyst Jacques

Lacan offers further insight into Raphaelle's still life paintings Lacan saw his work as a

return to and extension of Freud The first theory focuses upon "social recognition" as a

goal of the artist The social recognition introduces a private fantasy into public areas of



28 Levine, 201-202.

29 Cikovsky, 97.

30 Cikovsky, 113-115.









history and culture31 In other words, Raphaelle was placing personal and private

problems upon a canvas for public display Secondly, Lacan introduced the relation of art

to his concept of "the Thing," which he explained as: "All art is characterized by a certain

mode of organization around this emptiness A work of art always involves encircling

the Thing The object is established in a certain relationship to the Thing and is intended

to encircle and render both present and absent I am trying to show you how Freudian

aesthetics reveals that the Thing is inaccessible You don't paint in the same way; but

you always paint the same thing or, rather, the absence of the same thing"32

These two theories can be used to analyze Raphaelle's works StillLife i i/l Raisin

Cake (1813, Fig 2-20), Still Life i/ ilh Liquer and Fruit (1814; Fig3-3), and Still Life i/ ilh

Cake (1818; Fig2-22)33 Still Life i/ i/h Raisin Cake (1813) and Still Life i/ i/i Cake (1818)

signify important explanatory roles, which draw a link between desert foodstuffs and

Raphaelle's affects from the gout Each painting presents small decorative cakes, which

were produced with eggs and decorated with hard, colored refined sugars or icing, and

single glasses of wine These cakes are sliced equally into pieces of four or six Green

leaves and portly grapes generously provide balance and stability within the canvas

Raphaelle depicted equally sliced cakes and single glasses of wine in order to display

moderate portions and self-control as proper tactics of consumption An over

consumption of these items contributed to Raphaelle's gout, as noted in a letter written by

his father to Rembrandt, Raphaelle's brother, on October 9, 1815:



31 Levine, 203-204.
32 Levine, 204.

33 Cikovsky, 54, 63, & 66.









Your brother is in great danger from an attack of the gout in his stomach He had
been too closely employed for some time in painting miniatures and took no
exercise Perhaps indulging too much his appetite at the same time with pickles and
which every prudent man ought to banish from his table as being neither good for
the old or the young-stimulus condiments are ever ruinous to the stomach-simple
foods makes good blood, good spirits, good health...Raphaelle is still in the same
dangerous state the physicians have very little hope for his life34

While repeating themes of temperance and self-control throughout his works and

displaying a presence and absence of a "Thing," Raphaelle searches for social recognition

amongst pears, patrons, and above all, his father

An example of desire for social recognition, presence and absence of the "Thing,"

and perfect symmetry is seen with StillLife i ilth Liquer and Fruit (1814) Depicted

within this work are a glass and carafe of wine, overly mature grapes, flourishing lemons

and oranges, and seasoned nuts Containment, balance, and display of proper

consumption are displayed as some of the fruit rests within a bowl in the center of the

canvas The nuts and wine on either side of the bowl of fruit render a balancing quality

absent in Raphaelle's life Moderation is depicted without overcrowding the canvas

Through paintings such as this, Raphaelle strived to portray temperance as an important

characteristic Self-discipline is expressed as Raphaelle displayed a few pieces of fruit

and a single glass of wine for consumption and takes self-control one-step further placing

a top on the carafe According to Levine, both Freud and Lacan believed that, "art neither

succeeds in representing the presence of the object of desire... nor does it simply fail to

represent it and thereby yield only its absence" 35 The "Thing," whether present or


34 Cikovsky, 102.

35 Levine, 204.









absent, conscious or subconscious, presents itself as the struggling characteristic seen

throughout Raphaelle's life

Lacan notes the development of the "mirror stage" as a type of dialect between

artist and viewer The "mirror stage" is seen as a drama or serious narrative work, in

which one manufactures a subject, but deteriorates from fantasy that extends the body

image36 Although the "mirror stage" initially occurs when a child has noticed itself in a

mirror and expresses incoherent and coherent feelings, these concepts can be applied to

Raphaelle's works Raphaelle was having difficulty with self-control as seen in a letter

from his brother Rubens to his sister Angelica on November 6, 1813: "Raphaelle has had

a severe attack of the gout in both legs, which has confined him to his bed for a week past

but is up and about the house now with crutches"37 As noted earlier, Raphaelle's works

are seen as an image of himself

The incoherent and coherent aspects associated with the "mirror stage" or "double

role," commonly revealed throughout portrait paintings, are seen within Raphaelle's still

life Freud often used the term "splitting of the ego," denoting a psychological

phenomenon where two psychical attitudes co-exist unconsciously in the ego One

functions in relation toward reality and the second as a wish38 For example, Pablo

Picasso's Girl Before a Mirror (1931; Fig3-4) offers a different reflection than one,

which is normally noticed through physical observation39 The girl's reflection in the

mirror is different from the actual physical depiction in reality This reflection of the girl

36 Sheridan, 4 & 5.

7 Cikovsky, 101.

38 Adams, 48.

39 Adams, 49.









presents a "double" or inner self, similarly seen in Raphaelle's works The still life by

Raphaelle reflects this "double" or inner self without actual representation of a physical

mirror or portrait; the work is a reflection or metaphor of his body and desire In contrast,

Charles Willson depicted the "double role" of his son through his work, Portrait of

Raphaelle Peale (1817; Fig2-24)40 This portrait presents a "double" or inner side of

Raphaelle The viewer is presented with a physical rendition of a healthy Raphaelle and

the inner side of intemperance, lingers with the still life in the background

Raphaelle's still life paintings entitled, Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814; Fig2-36) and

Still Life ii ih Celery and Wine (1816; Fig2-4) present images of order and restraint,

which serve as a coherent external image upon the canvas In other words, Raphaelle

addresses and responds to the issues of incoherence, an inability to compose thoughts in a

clear or orderly manner, in his personal life, which include a lack of restraint and self-

discipline throughout his paintings Raphaelle's still life acts as a coherent mirror By

painting overly ripe or slightly rotten fruit, which mirrors the affects of the gout and over-

indulgence upon his physical body, Raphaelle displays a lack of restraint with

intemperance Further, poised and arranged within Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814) are

apples, grapes, peppers, and honey melon, symbolizing the organization absent

throughout his life Although this work radiates symmetry, spoiling apples, over ripe and

dark grapes, browning apples, and dried honey melon aesthetically dominate the canvas

The fruit, items of over-indulgence, symbolize the suffering and rapid influence of the

gout Raphaelle was allegorically painting and coherently recognizing these external

images


40 The Portrait ofRaphaelle is also given the date 1822.









In Still Life i illh Celery and Wine (1816), all the fruit and vegetables contain shades

of brown, which indicate decomposition A half empty carafe of wine is strategically

located in the background and suggests consumption of alcohol in line with moderation

seen in earlier works with a single glass of wine Still Life i i/i/ Celery and Wine (1816) is

a progression of Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814) as the fruit has become browner and

slightly rotten This coherent depiction and realization provides a connection between

Raphaelle's personal life and paintings

Lacan continues one step further than Freud with the "mirror stage" and has

recognized that "the appearance of beauty intimidates and stops desire"41 Raphaelle's

presentation of subject matter changes from luscious, ripe, plump, and decorative items

toward slightly rotting, brown, and spoiled fruits and vegetables Raphaelle has stopped

portraying beauty, as it has intimidated him, and therefore the desire to achieve

temperance and self-control has come to an end Raphaelle has come to terms with his

ever-increasing problematic situation in regards to the gout and begins to depict this

realization on canvas


41 Levine, 205.





































figure j- truit nece witn reacnes covered Dy -ianaKercnlet 11 9


figure i-z. Lemons ana sugars 1LLa































Figure 3-3. Still Life with Liquer and Fruit


Figure 3-4. Girl Before A Mirror 1932















CHAPTER 4
OPENING UP A NEW DOOR

In dealing with visual art, narrative is considered a foreign mode of

communication, a story added to the image1 In traditional narrative theory, the source of

information the narrator has favored a unified voice In other words, one narrator

determines the outcome a reader receives2 In addition, a narrative is rarely developed as

a one-sided structure in traditional narrative theory; several different angles and points of

view need equal attention in order for a complete understanding of the subject A narrator

is seen as "the person who carries out or submits to the action, but also the person (the

same one or another) who reports it, and, if need be, all those people who participate,

even though passively, in this narrating activity"3 In the case of Raphaelle Peale, a focus

is placed upon his still-life paintings in this study, showing that the works possess more

than one unified voice or utterer of speech found in traditional narrative theory4 To

explore this concept I shall concentrate directly upon subject matter, which acts as the

narrative and sheds new light on Peale's life

Following the readings of theorists such as Mieke Bal, Norman Bryson, Susana

Onega, and Jose Angel Garcia Landa, the works of Peale can be placed into three



1 Mieke Bal & Norman Bryson, "Semiotics and Art History: A Discussion of Context and Senders" in The
Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998): 202.

2 Bal & Bryson, 203.

3 Onega & Landa, 173.

4 Bal & Bryson, 188.









different types of narrative categories As noted earlier, a narrative is not one-sided, a

concept stressed throughout Peale's paintings The first narrative begins with the

acknowledgement of the work by a viewer or observer The second narrative is from the

side of the writer, sender, producer or artist of the work The third narrative, upon which

this chapter focuses, appears from the subject matter of the works, in this case, the

contents of Peale's still life paintings in regards to fruit, vegetables, cakes, and wine5 His

works follow along with Mikhail Bakhtin's notion of polyphony, usually seen with the

intertwining of different melodies or voices within novels or voices The paintings of

Peale can be viewed as polyphony, a pluralistic view or an intertwining of three different

narratives including the viewer, painter, and subject matter6

Several attempts have been made at constructing a more practical and useful

definition with the informational sources of the narrative One attempt in particular

involves three narrative agents, which include the narrator or speaker, thefocalizer or

source of the vision (work of art), and the actor or subject acting out the fabula or events

presented in sequence7 All three of these narrative agents are presented as subjects

throughout Peale's works For example, the narrator(s) are the collective still life

paintings because they visually inform the viewer of Peale's struggles between self-

control and over-indulgence They further describe the deterioration of his mental and

physical well-being throughout his life The works act as chapters of a book, which

explain his current state Thefocalizer is a specific element or subject within the work or



5 Bal & Bryson, 204.

6 Bal & Bryson, 203.

7 Bal & Bryson, 204.









narrator(s), which attracts the viewer and becomes the center of attention For example,

Fruits andNuts in a Dish (1818; Fig4-1) displays a brightly colored orange, maturing

apple, nuts, and raisins The raisins become thefocalizer because they are different than

the seasoned orange, apple, and nuts These withered and dry raisins were once succulent

and luscious grapes, which draw focus away from the other subjects of the painting

Finally, the actor or representative who acts out the fabula is the subject, which

includes fruits, vegetables, desert cakes, and liquors Narrative qualities are given to

subjects who have the story told by one of its "characters"8 This subject matter engages

in a mutual interaction The placement and orientation of the subject matter establishes a

communal relationship between the actors and the episode of the paintings The subjects

take on the role of the undramatized narrator The author or producer of the works, in

this case Peale, explicitly places a narrator into the story, even if personal characteristics

are absent in the works An implied "second self' or narrator is created throughout his

paintings9 An example is seen with, Fruit Piece i ith Peaches Covered by a

Handkerchief (1819, Fig3-1) The metaphorical focus of this specific painting was an

avoidance of pain as the handkerchief or undramatized narrator covers a majority of the

peaches, symbolizing moderation, as only two peaches are available for consumption

The fly unmistakably draws the viewer's attention toward the uncovered peaches,

validating self-control and restraint, as only a couple of the peaches should be consumed

at one time10 The subjects are explaining a story as the handkerchief metaphorically



8 Onega & Landa, 184.

9 Onega & Landa, 147.

10 Miller 1996, 140. The insect is also referred to as a wasp.









represents a shield of temperance, concealing over-consumption, which is represented by

the plentiful amount of peaches

Found throughout certain paintings, the narrator is different from the works

produced by the author or painter, which leads to the role of the dramatized narrator As

seen with Peale's still life paintings, many dramatized narrators are never labeled as

narrators Peale's works, referred as filtering devices, contain disguised narrators who

reveal helpful information in order to understand the works11 The paintings develop and

present themselves as several episodes of his life story The episodes are linked together

with one another, forming a narrative The actions carried out by these paintings

represent the episodes and relay messages to the viewer as scenes from a story

Roland Barthes wrote, "There are countless forms of narrative in the world

narrative is present in history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained-

glass windows, and conversation In this infinite variety of forms, it is present at all times

"12 Roland Barthes's analysis of narrative presents five codes: proairetic, hermeneutic,

semic, symbolic, and referential Among these, the proairetic and symbolic codes are the

most useful for an analysis of narrative within Peale's still life paintings According to

Barthes, theproairetic code is a "series of models of action that help readers place details

into plot sequences we can tentatively place and organize the details we encounter as we

read"13 In other words, Peale's still life, which include fruit, vegetables, and alcohol,

follow along in a sequence resembling a story of his personal life Integration of the


1 Onega & Landa, 148.
12 Gerald Prince, Narratology: The Form and Functioning of Narrative (Berlin, New York, Amsterdam:
Mouton Publishers, 1982): 1.

13 Bal & Bryson, 202-203.









symbolic code, though executed by the viewer, is another aspect of a narrative that needs

to be addressed because Peale's still life works display a metaphorical self-portrait

Interpretations of the still life paintings are another important aspect revealed by the

subject matter through semiosis The paintings of Peale can be considered a

representamen or sign and object or referent, the thing for which the sign stands14 "A

sign, or representamen, something which stands to somebody for something is some

respect or capacity It creates in the mind as equivalent sign, or perhaps a more

developed sign The sign stands for something, its object""15 The paintings represent

something other than what is depicted on the canvas

Examples of his works, which support and display the proairetic code, begin in

1813 and stretch until 1822 Since failed attempts at depicting motion through paintings

exist, Peale's works as a whole are seen as an aggressive form of fragmentation Peale

painted certain works in order to capture specific aspects as a whole As such, the works

are best understood when the individual paintings are viewed jointly without

fragmentation

The first group of works supporting the proairetic code includes Still Life I ilh

Raisin Cake (1813; Fig2-20), Still Life i/ ith Cake (1818; Fig2-22), and Still Life i/ ilh

Wine, Cakes, and Nuts (1819; Fig2-21), which depict an earlier stage of Raphaelle's life

At this period in time, Peale has begun depicting signs of difficulty with temperance In

StillLife i//h Raisin Cake (1813), Raphaelle painted a single cake neatly divided into six


14 Bal & Bryson, 188.
15 Bal & Bryson, 188.









pieces, accompanied by a glass of wine16 In Raphaelle's time, cakes were time-

consuming to make and extremely expensive, so they only appeared at weddings,

religious holidays, and funerals It was not unusual for some of these special occasions to

have over one thousand people in attendance17 In response to an overwhelming amount

of guests, cakes were often sliced into equal, small pieces in order to accommodate large

audiences The act of evenly slicing these cakes into small pieces induced moderation,

which enabled everyone at these events the chance to enjoy these desserts A similar

approach is seen with the single glass of wine, which displays self-control as large

amounts of guests attend these functions Raphaelle is telling the viewer to enjoy alcohol

and rich desserts with moderation as he painted the cake divided into six slices and a

single glass of wine

StillLife ii ilh Cake (1818) continues Peale's theme of juxtaposing temperance and

over-indulgence A full glass of wine, ripe, green grapes, and a single cake decorate the

canvas Peale displays a decline in self-control and restraint by painting a single cake

divided into four, rather than six pieces At a conscious level, four larger slices of cake as

opposed to six signifies Peale's lack of temperance and restraint Still Life I i/h Wine,

Cakes, and Nuts (1819) epitomizes Peale's troublesome behavior regarding his physical

lifestyle and issues regarding over-indulgence, which contributed toward the gout A full

glass of wine, matured grapes, and seasoned nuts successfully balance the canvas The

areas of concentration are placed upon two cakes, one neatly sliced into four pieces and

the second left as whole Raphaelle is visually explaining his increasing problem with

16 Cikovsky, 105.

1 William Woys Weaver, Sauerkraut Yankess: Pennsylvania Dutch Foods and Foodways (Mechanicsburg,
Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2002): 114-115.









moderation and self-control with the numerical transformation This troublesome shift

occurs as the cakes change from six and four slices, toward entire, whole desserts By

eating the cakes in individual slices, Raphaelle's stomach would have become full and he

would not have been able to consume the entire cake By leaving the cakes as whole,

Raphaelle would have had time to eat the entire cake before realizing his stomach was

filled According to Charles Willson, these are examples of"improper indulgence," which

contrast the importance of moderation18 The lack of temperance has reached an ultimate

high as Raphaelle continues displaying signs of difficulty, which eventually fuels

ongoing tribulations with the gout

The second group of works offering a continuation and alteration of the proairetic

code is StillLife ii iih Liqueur andFruit (1814; Fig3-3), Lemons and Oranges (1814;

Fig4-2), and StillLife i/ ilh Wine Glass (1818; Fig4-3), which combine to create a

thematic contribution, signifying Raphaelle's continued difficulty with over-indulgence

These works compare in importance with the previous because of a continued

concentration upon the dessert aspect of a meal in regards to cakes and wine Each of the

previous works displayed a glass of wine and Still Life i i/ Liqueur and Fruit (1814),

Lemons and Oranges (1814), and Still Life i i/i/ Wine glass (1818) display similar subject

matter These canvases become more crowded as time progresses StillLife 1, i/h Liqueur

andFruit (1814) and Lemons and Oranges (1814) display a balancing effect with

lemons, oranges, nuts, raisins, and a full glass of wine accompanied by an entire carafe

The evolution from glass to carafe and plump ripe grapes to dried, shriveled raisins

insinuate a metamorphosis of intemperance as more wine is offered for consumption, and


18 Miller 1996, 142.









succulent grapes dissipate from the canvas The multitude of items indicates more

choices, which contribute to Raphaelle's problematic situations

StillLife 11 i/h Wine Glass (1818) presents a visual summary of Raphaelle's

continued battle with intemperance This work displays three grain items, which are

depicted as a cake, biscuit, and bagel, and balancing these items are grapes, berries, and

wine Although a carafe is absent, a full glass of wine decorates the scene The succulent

grapes and berries replace the carafe as a metaphor of intemperance and an abundant

supply of wine Once again, the grain items are left whole as Raphaelle insinuated a more

rapid rate of consumption, signifying a lack of balance between restraint and over-

indulgence

Still Life 11 ill Apples, .e/l i y, and Tea Cake (1822; Fig2-35), Still Life i i/h Cake

(1822; Fig2-5), and, Still Life i/ ilh Raisins, Apple, and Basket (1820-22; Fig4-4) carry on

the theme of the proairetic code Still Life il/ Apples, .\le/i y, and Tea Cake (1822)

visually displays two large pieces of fruit, a full glass of wine or liquor, and a whole

dessert cake Even though Raphaelle displays temperance with a single glass of wine,

leaving the cake whole signifies a lack of self-control Another example of intemperance

is seen with Still Life i/ i/i Cake (1822) as Raphaelle poised an untouched, large apple, a

transformation from grapes and raisins, and a whole decorated cake Raphaelle

continually changed and repeatedly placed these items throughout works The ordered

nature throughout all of the images belies the unbalanced and immoderate lifestyle of

Raphaelle, and through these works he attempts to reveal and resemble a story, a

narrative









If a viewer does not have access to Raphaelle's complete set of works or views his

still life out of sequential order, an unfolding pictorial narrative is still possible "Notice,

too, that the narrative experience as a whole would not be greatly compromised," if a

viewer were to begin with "later" or "middle" dated works rather than the "earlier"

years19 Despite the arrangement, the fabula or sequence of events can be reconstructed

Even with a viewer's varying experience upon point of entry, the impact at the end can be

similar20 Each work plays an important role with another painting They depend upon or

"work with" all the other images Erwin Panofsky referred to this as "iconography," a

continuous state of history displaying repetition or revision21 As noted earlier, Peale

obviously followed a mode of repetition as similar subjects with little or slight variation

reappear throughout the still life works

Two works entitled, Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814; Fig2-36) and Still Life / ilh

Celery and Wine (1816; Fig2-4) make the proairetic connection complete Both of these

paintings visually depict over-ripe or rotten fruits and vegetables In Fruit and Silver

Bowl (1814), the fruit mirrors Peale's body dealing with the gout and over-indulgence as

seen with browning apples and peppers, over-ripe, dark grapes, and dried honey melon

The fruits are organized on the canvas, an organization absent in his personal life Still

Life 11 i/lh Celery and Wine (1816) offers a similar approach with the wilted, brown celery,

transformation of grapes into raisins, and spotted, over ripe apples If certain items are

excluded from the narrative, then the meaning changes its course of action For example,


19 Whitney Davis, Replications: Archeology, Art History, and Psychoanalysis (Pennsylvania: The
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996): 213.
20 Davis, 213.

21 Davis, 210-211.









missing from Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814), but seen in Still Life il ith Celery and Wine

(1816) is the addition of a half empty carafe of wine or liquor All details of pictorial text

are related to one another in the narrative22 The absence of liquor in the carafe indicates

Peale's battle with alcoholism and emotional struggle with intemperance Once again,

Peale's works indicate a continuous struggle, which resemble a narrative

Another aspect of the proairetic view suggests a dynamic process or active

operation while treating the works with motion23 In other words, together, Peale's works

metaphorically resemble a series of motion or a continuous deterioration of his physical

state The viewer spends time on each item while moving about the surface of the

paintings An understanding of the narrative can only be reached by viewing Peale's

other works, which guides the viewer towards constant unfolding of the narrative or

uncovering of a story The physical action of movement obviously does not come from

the paintings, but from the viewer Peale's paintings are presented as chapters in a book

Once the still life paintings are viewed in sequential order, a knowledge and clarity of

Peale's life can begin to be understood

Letters written by Charles Willson coincide with Raphaelle's paintings, which

exemplify and contribute toward the narrative qualities of his works A letter written on

July 4, 1820 stated

Sometime past I have had my fears that you would be affected with Gout so as to
stop your progress with you paintings I have heard that our friend Mr Brewer has
wrote to inform us of your being now in a severe fit of the Gout, that letter I have
not yet seen When we reflect that in order to injoy health we ought to eat and drink
only such things as our best judgment on experience have proved as most
conducive to that end, also, in only such proportion as shall be in exact proportion


22 Davis, 212.

23 Bal & Bryson, 205.









as to quantity as will nourish the body, for a single particle more becomes a clog
and a burden to the digestive powers, therefore produces disease more or less in
due proportion to the excess When we set down at the Table (perhaps loaded with
a variety of unnecessary articles, for two or three things is really all that is needful)
then think on the end! & resolve that taste shall not be superior to reason The
government of all other passions as essential to promote health, is certainly of vast
import The mind has a vast influence on the health of the body...Dear Raphaelle
you must not think that what I have wrote is a charge on you of a breach of such
rules, though like myself you may not always possess intire command of the
appetite, and one motive I have for writing such, is a means of confirming my
habits to like restrictions, they are rules which I daily endeavor to put into
practice24

Charles Willson wrote another letter, on January 19, 1821, which provided evidentiary

proof of Raphaelle's ills with the gout and intemperance: "As health is the most

important of all considerations, I have therefore desired to write to you Now more to the

purpose, you have a gouty habit-And you know the cause of the Gout, therefore after

taking what care you can to keep clear of it, be avoiding everything that you know tends

to produce it, and in addition as far as you can follow my practice, and I flatter myself

that you will find the good affects of it"25 Once again, Charles Willson has expressed his

concerns toward Raphaelle's ever increasing detrimental situation regarding his health

The psychological impact of imagery also contributed as a characteristic of

narration with Raphaelle's subjects This process reverts back towards childhood

development, when children were able to understand pictures before words In this stage

of development, images precede the written word Peale applied "regression," a going

back in time or space, enabling an ability of communication with the unconscious child




24 Lillian B. Miller, The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Volume 3, The Belfield
Years, 1810-1820 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1991): 832-833.
25 Lillian B. Miller, The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Volume 4, Charles
Willson Peale: His Last Years, 1821-1827 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996): 11-13.









of the adult26 The paintings depict a struggle between over-indulgence and temperance

with imagery, rather than with words Through regression of the unconscious mind,

certain adults can relate to the still life As a result, the images become the narrative

element by resembling a story with pictures, as opposed to words

Peale's works can be viewed as characters or agents of an action However, these

subjects additionally act as the narrator or "voice" of the paintings27 The "voice"

constructed by Raphaelle presents discourse or expression, while actively upholding a

conversation or visual dialogue throughout his paintings28 The works serve as a

conversation piece between two or more people, the paintings and viewer occupying

those roles, with images resembling a language Still life is a part of language, a

communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as a

voice, sound, gestures or written symbol Peale's works serve as a signal and system of

signs used in the rules of communication Therefore, we learn and read that Peale's still

life paintings resemble a narrative, a story told with a visual language of communication,

which enable the viewer to understand more about Peale's life Raphaelle's still life

images offer insight to his struggles with intemperance As mentioned earlier, narrative

theory lends a hand in reading objects upon Raphaelle's canvases as characters, which

participate and contribute toward emotional conflicts and visual dramatizations

Additionally, examining the still life works in a chronological order offers an evolving

and original experience into Raphaelle's personal life



26 Laurie Schneider Adams, Art and Psychoanalysis (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993): 41-42.

27 Onega & Landa, 172.

28 Bal & Bryson, 202.



































figure 4-1. truits and Nuts in Dish


figure 4-2. till Lite witM Lemons ana ranges Il14

































Figure 4-3. Still Life with


aisins, Apple, and Basket 1820-22


igure 4-4. Still Life with














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

Even though Raphaelle was unable to achieve the goal of self-control, he

displayed personal problems of intemperance and desires of moderation on canvas

Raphaelle's symmetrical and well-balanced tabletop arrangements were examples of the

desired life his father, Charles Willson, wished him to acquire Interpretations and

theories based on art and psychoanalysis have offered aid in understanding the hidden

underlying intentions within his works As Raphaelle began to realize his problematic

situation based on excess, which derived from an over abundance of rich foods and

alcohol, his still life paintings depicted a story of an increasing battle with the gout and

alcoholism

The chronological narrative has led to a further understanding about the struggles

observed during his life The theme of rebellion toward health, genre, and subject matter,

offer evidence and highlight the conflictive relationship between Raphaelle and his father

As a result, Psychoanalysis, Narratology, and a rebellious relationship between father and

son enhance the understanding of Raphaelle's still life paintings Raphaelle was a man

known, not only for his still life paintings, but his consistent battle with overindulgence,

intemperance, and self-control These issues projected a shadow upon his personal life

and perfectly rendered still life As a result, the harmonizing and balanced "tabletop still









life" arrangements became examples of the desired life he wished to acquire, but was

unable to contain1


1 Gerdts 1981, 56.














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Appleby, Joyce Inheriting The Revolution: The First Generations of Americans
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000

Bal, Mieke Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1985

-On Story Telling: Essays in Narratology Sonoma, California: Polebridge Press, 1991

- Seeing Signs: The Use of Semiotics for the Understanding of Visual Art," in The
Subjects of Art History: Historical Objects in Contemporary Perspective United
Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1998

- and Norman Bryson "Semiotics and Art History," in The Art Bulletin Vol 73 (June,
1991): 174-288

Bridenbaugh, Carl The Colonial Craftsman New York: New York University Press,
Washington Square, 1950

Brigham, David R Public Culture In The Early Republic: Peale's Museum and Its
Audience Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995

Cheetham, Mark A, Micheale Ann Holly, and Keith Moxey "Between Art History and
Psychoanalysis: I/Eye-ing Monet with Freud and Lacan," in The Subjects of Art
History: Historical Objects in Contemporary Perspective United Kingdom,
Cambridge University Press, 1998

Cikovsky, Nicolai Raphaelle Peale Still Lifes Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1988

Davis, Whitney Replications: Archaeology, Art History, Psychoanalysis University Park,
Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996

Evans, Dorinda "Raphaelle Peale's Venus Rising From The Sea: Further Support for a
Change in Interpretation," in American Art Journal, Vol 14, No 3 (Summer, 1982):
63-70

Freud, Sigmund On Creativity and the Unconscious: Papers on the Psychology of Art,
Literature, Love, Religion New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1958

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1801-1939 Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1981

Gerdts, William H and Russell Burke American Still Life Painting New York: Praeger
Publishers, 1971

Goodheart, Eugene Desire and Its Discontents New York: Columbia University
Press, 1991

Hevner, Carol Eaton Rembrandt Peale 1778-1860: A Life in the Arts Philadelphia: The
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1985

Jordan, William B Spanish Still Life in the Golden Age: 1600-1650 Fort Worth: Kimbell
Art Museum, 1985

-and Peter Cherry Spanish Still Life from Velazquez to Goya London: National Gallery
Publications, 1995

Kornfeld, Eve Creating an American Culture 1775-1800: A Brief History with
Documents Boston: Bedford/St Martin's, 2001

Kuhns, Richard Psychoanalytic Theory of Art: A Philosophy of Art on Developmental
Principles New York, Columbia University Press, 1983

Lloyd, Phoebe "Philadelphia Story," in Art in America, Vol 76 (November, 1998):155-
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Luna, Juan J "The Fruits of Enlightenment: Still Lifes by Luis Melendez," in The
Magazine ofFranco Maria Ricci, Vol 125, (December/January, 2003/2004): 79-
106

- The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1991 Vol I

- The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family New Haven: Yale
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- The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family New Haven: Yale
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Miller, Lillian B The Peale Family: Creation of a Legacy 1770-1870 New York:
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- "Charles Willson Peale as History Painter: The Exhumation of the Mastodon ," in The
American Art Journal, Vol 13-14 (Winter, 1981): 47-68

- "Father and Son: The Relationship of Charles Willson Peale and Raphaelle Peale," in
The American Art Journal, Vol 25, No /2 (1993): 4-61

Miller, Lillian B and David C Ward New Perspectives On Charles Wilson Peale: A 250th
Anniversary Collection Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press,
1991

Nemerov, Alexander The Body of Raphaelle Peale: Still Life and Selfhood, 1812-1814
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001

Onega, Susana and Jose Angel Garcia Landa Narratology: An Introduction London and
New York: Longman Publishing, 1996

Peale, Charles Willson Charles Willson Peale and His World New York: HN Adams,
1983

Prince, Gerald Narratology: The Form and Functioning of Narrative New York: Mouton
Publishers, 1982

Richardson, Edgar P, Brooke Hindle, and Lillian B Miller Charles Willson Peale and His
World New York: HN Abrams, 1983

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Early Republic Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998

Schneider, Daniel E The Psychoanalyst and the Artist Easthampton, New York: The
Alexa Press, Inc, 1950

Sellers, Charles Coleman Charles Willson Peale New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
1969

-Mr Peale's Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural
Science and Art New York: WW Norton and Company, Inc, 1980

Silverman, Kaja The Subjects of Semiotics New York: Oxford University Press, 1983

Spector, Jack J The Aesthetics of Freud: A Study in Psychoanalysis and Art New York,
Praeger Publishers, 1972

Ward, David C Charles Willson Peale: Art and Selfhood in the Early Republic
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004

Ward, David C and Sidney Hart "Subversion and Illusion in the Life and Art of
Raphaelle Peale," in American Art, Vol 8, No3/4 (Summer-Autumn, 1994): 96-121






89


Weaver, William Woys Sauerkraut Yankees: Pennsylvania Dutch Foods and Foodways
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2002















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jason Frederick earned his BA in history at Slippery Rock University in 1998




Full Text

PAGE 1

PAINTERLY STRUGGLE: CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION WITHIN RAPHAELLE PEALES STILL LIFE PAINTINGS By JASON FREDERICK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Jason Frederick

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For my wife Nicole, my muse.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am extremely fortunate for the support I received during this entire process and want to thank a number of people. I want to show extreme gratitude to Eric Segal for his continued guidance and friendship throughout my graduate experience. In the school of art history and history, Dr. Melissa Hyde, Dr. Alexander Alberro, and Dr. Jon Sensbach deserve many thanks. My friends Larry The machine and Monica Money McDowell read my thesis and offered their comments and encouragement. My parents continued support and belief in me, were an inspiration and driving force behind my work. And last, but far from least, Nicoles love, patience, and sacrifice allowed this to happen. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES ...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INSIGHT......................................................................................................................1 2 REBELLIOUS SINCE BIRTH....................................................................................6 3 A DEEPER LOOK INSIDE.......................................................................................53 4 OPENING UP A NEW DOOR..................................................................................70 5 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................84 BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................................................86 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................90 v

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Portrait of Charles Willson Peale 1822........................................................................5 2-1 View of Garden at Belfield.........................................................................................26 2-2 Blackberries 1813.......................................................................................................26 2-3 Still Life with Grapes in Dish 1814............................................................................27 2-4 Still Life with Celery and Wine 1816.........................................................................27 2-5 Still Life with Wine and Cake 1822...........................................................................28 2-6 Still Life with Strawberries and Ostrich Egg Cup 1814.............................................29 2-7 Bowl of Peaches 1818................................................................................................29 2-8 Still Life with Peaches 1821.......................................................................................30 2-9 Still Life with Fruit and Glassware 1629....................................................................30 2-10 Still Life with Oranges 1818....................................................................................31 2-11 Lemons and Grapes 1818.........................................................................................31 2-12 Still Life with Cardoon and Francolin 1628.............................................................32 2-13 Still Life with Onions, Garlic, and Chestnuts Date Unknown.................................33 2-14 Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts 1772...............................................................34 2-15 Still Life with Lemons and Oranges 1760s..............................................................35 2-16 Still Life with Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape 1771................................36 2-17 Melons and Morning Glories 1813...........................................................................37 2-18 Still Life with Watermelon 1822..............................................................................38 2-19 Cheese and Three Crackers 1813.............................................................................38 vi

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2-20 Still Life with Raisin Cake 1813..............................................................................39 2-21 Still Life with Wine, Cake, and Nuts 1819...............................................................40 2-22 Still Life with Cake 1818..........................................................................................41 2-23 The Exhumation of the Mastodon 1806.............................................................42 2-24 Portrait of Raphaelle Peale 1817..............................................................................43 2-25 Venus Rising from the Sea-A Deception (After the Bath) 1823..............................44 2-26 The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsey Peale 1795.............................44 2-27 Landscape Looking Toward Sellers Hall from Mill Bank 1818..............................45 2-28 Millbank 1818...........................................................................................................45 2-29 Pleasure Party by A Mill 1790.................................................................................46 2-30 View on the Wissahickon 1830................................................................................46 2-31 Falls of Niagara, Viewed from the American Side 1891.........................................47 2-32 The Canadian Side Of Niagara Falls, Platform Rock 1831......................................47 2-33 General Joseph Bloomfield 1777.............................................................................48 2-34 Thomas Jefferson 1791.............................................................................................48 2-35 Still Life with Apples, Sherry, and Tea Cake 1822..................................................49 2-36 Fruit and Silver Bowl 1814......................................................................................49 2-37 His Excellency George Washington Esquire, Commander in Chief of the Federal Army, 1780...............................................................................................................50 2-38 Washington at Princeton 1779..................................................................................51 2-39 Washington and his Generals at Yorktown 1784.....................................................52 3-1 Fruit Piece with Peaches Covered by Handkerchief 1819.........................................68 3-2 Lemons and Sugars 1822............................................................................................68 3-3 Still Life with Liquer and Fruit...................................................................................69 3-4 Girl Before A Mirror 1932.........................................................................................69 4-1 Fruits and Nuts in Dish...............................................................................................82 vii

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4-2 Still Life with Lemons and Oranges 1814..................................................................82 4-3 Still Life with Wine Glass 1818.................................................................................83 4-4 Still Life with Raisins, Apple, and Basket 1820...................................................83 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts PAINTERLY STRUGGLE: CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION WITHIN RAPHAELLE PEALES STILL LIFE PAINTINGS By JASON FREDERICK May 2006 Chair: Eric Segal Major Department: Art and Art History The still life paintings of Raphaelle Peale play an important role in understanding more about his personal life This thesis concentrates upon the fields of Psychoanalysis and Narratology, which serve as important roles in helping to define Raphaelles rebellious nature By focusing on how these theories are demonstrated throughout his still life paintings, answers regarding his problematic personal life and repetitive subject matter will be revealed This study is organized into five chapters, including an introduction and a brief conclusion Chapters 2 through 4 each deal with specific concerns surrounding Raphaelles life My analysis in Chapter 2 centers upon Raphaelles rebellious nature with regards toward his father and choice of subject matter In Chapter 3, I engaged with psychoanalytic theory as it pertained toward his ever-increasing problematic situation in relation to intemperate and over-indulgent behavior Chapter 4 conveys an understanding of narratological theory as it pertains to his still life paintings, revealing a narrative or ix

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story about his personal life with references toward self-control, realization, and regulation Still life paintings have been a discredited as a low genre of art throughout the history of painting This assumption requires attention and must be approached from an academic standpoint I hope to present an alternative and commendable view of his still life works by addressing contradictory issues of restraint and self-discipline throughout Raphaelles childhood, personal life, family relationships, and still life paintings x

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CHAPTER 1 INSIGHT Raphaelle Peales (1774) artwork was a representation of himself as an artist and individual Peale was regarded as the first professionally committed still life painter in the history of the United States William Dunlap, the great eighteenth-century chronicler of American art wrote, Raphaelle was a painter of portraits in oil and miniature, but excelled more in compositions of still life He may perhaps be considered the first in point of time who adopted this branch of painting in America, and many of his pictures are in collections of men of taste and highly esteemed 1 His illustrious career, largely comprised of still life painting, flourished and dissipated within the confinements of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Peale steered away from floral arrangements, a popular subject among the Dutch still life painters, and overwhelmingly focused on food with a concentration upon fruit, desserts, wine, and liquor Raphaelles paintings are associated with neoclassical traits, which were especially seen throughout the decorative arts of the nineteenth-century, and are characterized by order, symmetry, simplicity of style, and spatial clarity One of the main themes of my work focused on how Raphaelles works portrayed a delicate balancing act between temperance, necessity, restraint, over-indulgence, and lack of self-control Raphaelles still life paintings, which include solid forms, present viewers with an illusion and 1 William H. Gerdts & Russell Burke, American Still Life Painting (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971): 138. 1

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2 indicate a taste and talent for deception 2 The observer is led to believe the works contain physically accessible objects, but to the viewers frustration, these desires and objects are inaccessible Even though these characteristics of organization and clarity are present throughout the works, Raphaelles dining-room pictures demonstrated an incapability to elude certain subject matter 3 Still life painting was encouraged in the Peale household, but more as a Peale family painting practice in preparation for superior genres of art such as miniatures, landscapes and portraits 4 According to Charles Willson Peale (1822; Fig1-1), Raphaelles father, the genre of still life was geared toward beginners or amateurs He stated, The art of painting portr aits cannot be attained without a vast deal of practice, the artist must love the art, or he will not succeed to perf ection It is not like the painting of still life; the painting of objects that have no motion, which any person of tolerable genius, with some application may acquire 5 Charles Willson considered still life as mechanical, possessing little inspirational value, inventiveness or imagination Charles Willson believed, as he wrote, that great art was a product of the mind and could influence moral behavior and promote the political and social values of a community through the strength of its imagery 6 Others shared his view Jonathan Richardson, an English Baroque portrait painter wrote of still life paintings, they cannot 2 Lillian B. Miller, The Peale Family: Creation of a Legacy 1770-1870 (New York: Abbeville Press, 1996): 135. 3 William H. Gerdts, Painters of the Humble Truth: Masterpieces of American Still Life 1801-1939 (Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1981): 56. 4 Miller 1996, 138. 5 Miller 1996, 138. 6 Miller 1996, 47.

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3 Improve the Mind, they excite no Noble Sentiments 7 Even though still life painting has a decorative appeal, much like landscape and portrait paintings, Charles Willson thought still life was an unsuitable career for Raphaelle, his talented eldest son 8 His concerns were not limited to matters of painting Charles Willson referred to neglecting yourself and a governing of passion, which revealed that he was aware of Raphaelles continuing problematic situation regarding temperance and over-indulgence Although a small number of letters written by Raphaelle exist today, we can gain insight into his life through the remarks and letters written by family members and friends For example, Charles Willson sturdily recommended Raphaelle put an end to still life and make use of his valuable time as seen in a letter written on November 15, 1817, which stated I well know your talents, and am fully confident that if you applied [yourself] as you ought to do, you would be the first painter in Americayour pictures of still-life are acknowledged to be, even by painters here, far exceeding all other works of that kind and you have often heard me say that I thought with such talents of exact imitation your portraits ought also be more excellent-My dear Raphaelle Then why will you neglect yourself? Why not govern every unruly passion? Why not act the man, and with a firm determination act accordingly to your best judgment? Wealth, honor, and happiness would then be your lot! 9 In other words, Charles Willson was offering encouragement, hoping Raphaelle would put a stop to his personal problems of over-indulgence and pursue a career in portraiture Raphaelles kitchen pictures masterfully display a visual balance pertaining to subject matter, which presents traits of restraint and self-discipline, virtues undetected in 7 Miller 1996, 135. 8 Miller 1996, 138. 9 Cikovsky, 104-105.

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4 his excessive personal life 10 These assets captured in his works contain both conscious and unconscious elements An ulterior motive, whether conscious or unconscious, was to display a struggle with the physical and emotional effects of temperance and over-indulgence, which contributed toward alcoholism and the gout Raphaelles artwork was an emotional outlet and representation of an incessant troubling personal life The tabletop arrangements were a form of expression and self-recognition, which focused on a delicate balance between temperance, over-indulgence, necessity, restraint, and lack of self-control Although the still life contained complicated features, Raphaelle cleverly formulated calm, serene, fresh, and balanced works of art. 10 Gerdts 1981, 56.

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5 Figure 1-1. Portrait of Charles Willson Peale 1822

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CHAPTER 2 REBELLIOUS SINCE BIRTH The still life paintings executed by Raphaelle Peale present the viewer with rebellious subject matter, which continuously depict a troublesome relationship between father and son Despite Charles Willsons repeated pleas steering Raphaelle away from still life and encouraging the profitable, reputable, and respected genre of portraiture, Raphaelle rebelled This act of resistance toward authority can not only be seen throughout Raphaelles choice of genre and subject matter, but also through the way he approached his personal life The influence of Raphaelles politics within his immediate family, contribute to this rebellious nature Raphaelles still life paintings exercise an oppositional approach, while presenting a relentless confrontation between himself and his father As mentioned earlier, not only did Charles Willson worry about Raphaelles lack of income and patronage, but also about his precarious and rebellious health and self-governance Raphaelles life does not mirror the symmetrical and structured depictions of his still life paintings, but rather these works represent an ongoing confrontation between order and disorder throughout his personal life In contrast to Raphaelle, Charles Willson was a man who focused on regimen and health He practiced strict dietary control, exercise, temperance, and abstinence from alcohol By 1804, Charles Willson stopped drinking wine altogether and became a strong advocate of diet, which centered upon simple foods and water For example, Charles Willson enjoyed soups, boiled or steamed fish and meat, vegetables, and perfectly ripe fruits, which needed to be enjoyed with 6

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7 cautious flavoring or spices 1 Charles Willson tried instilling proper habits into Raphaelles daily routine, which was diverted by intemperance and over-indulgence, leading to a rebellious and unhealthy life style 2 Charles Willson Peale owned a farm in Be lfield (1816; Fig2-1), an area outside of Philadelphia Although he planted corn, wheat, ha y, potatoes, and turnips, he lacked an abundant cash crop In 1812, although refusi ng to drink alcohol, he decided to plant currants and hoped these vineyards would s upply an abundant cash crop The currants were known as the most widely consum ed fruits in Pennsylvania and made a tremendous wine, producing more profit fo r one acre well tended, than by any other culture 3 As the years passed, Charles Willsons friends enjoyed the wine and he decided to enlarge the garden for wine production even though he gave up drinking alcohol as noted in a third person autobiography stating, he therefore drank none of his excellent wine he visited a friend in the City who politely invited him to drink a glass of Wine He thanked his friend, but said that he never drank wine Water was his only drink 4 Although Charles Willson had the ability to produce successful and bountiful vineyards, he was able to refrain from drinking the wine, a difficult feat for his son Raphaelle Once again, Raphaelle directly disobeyed his father, as an over consumption of wine and alcohol became a large part of his life Despite Raphaelles over-indulgence in alcohol, Charles Willson continued to grow this sweet wine The wine at Belfield 1 Miller 1996, 139 & 143. 2 David C. Ward, Charles Willson Peale: Art and Selfhood in the Early Republic (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004): 123-131. 3 Sellers, 364 & Weaver, 156. 4 Sellers, 362.

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8 became famous among wine enthusiasts, the people of Philadelphia, and was the most profitable and successful product of his farm The Pennsylvania Dutch produced some of the most prevalent vineyards in southeastern Pennsylvania and this is portray ed throughout Raphaelles still life paintings In Berks County alone, some vineyards surp assed over five hundred acres The main goal, besides financial gain, was to produce a wi ne similar to those vineyards in Germany One of the first documentations of th ese thriving vineyards is seen in Blackberries (1813; Fig2-2), a typical scene found within the conf inements of southeastern Pennsylvania, which included his fathers farm at Belfield This painting represents a successful peak of growth as the ripened red and blackberries appear in a succulent and mature state Another example of these prospe rous vineyards is seen in Still Life with Grapes in Dish (1814; Fig2-3) Once again, Raphaelle was able to depict perfection as the grapes appear recently plucked from their previous resti ng place upon a vine and placed into a bowl Raphaelle maintains fluidity with these wo rks as he displays the profusion of the vineyards Though Charles Willson supported the temperance movement as seen throughout his lifestyle and in his Essay to Promote Domestic Happiness, he still grew, produced, and sold some of the most outstanding wine in the region 5 The vineyards flourished until an economic depression, competition from Ohio and California, and the temperance movement rooted up all but the smallest plots 6 Raphaelles still life paintings entitled Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816; Fig2-4) and Sill Life with Cake (1822; Fig2-5) 5 Miller 1991, 129-145. 6 Weaver, 160.

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9 depict the decline of Charles Willsons and other Pennsylvania farmers vineyards Unlike the ripe, seasoned, and full-grown grapes and berries seen in his previous works, Raphaelle shows the affects on the vineyards of a depression, out-of-state competition, and the temperance movement Raphaelle is able to attain this goal by depicting the transformation of the grapes into dry, withered, and shrunken raisins As time changes the vineyards from thriving and booming areas of production toward arid and desiccated diminutive plots, Raphaelle documented this change Even though Charles Willson practiced a healthy life full of self-control, temperance, longevity, and regimen, an oppositional approach is emulated within Raphaelles paintings and personal life The cakes and wine, items seen at weddings and special events, depicted throughout some of his works were also seen at funerals 7 Therefore, Raphaelle was indicating that an over consumption of cakes and wine would contribute to the gout and eventually his death This matter concerning death is seen in a letter written by Charles Willson to Raphaelle on June 26, 1818 stating, But I fear, Raphaelle that you are not right I am led to think so by seeing the word suicide in your letter [to Patty] He is a miserable poor wretch who has not sense enough to know the folly of such rash actions who thinks he can justify himself in the opinion that he can dispose of himself fearless of consequences 8 The ultimate rebellious act performed by Raphaelle would be an early death, a direct insubordination of Charles Willsons wishes and desires Raphaelles gout was not only a constant reminder of misery and lack of self-control, but a rebellious sign toward his father Raphaelles self-destructive actions 7 Weaver, 114-115. 8 Cikovsky, 107.

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10 against regimen and health are a standing metaphor, resembling a constant battle between father and son Raphaelle continues a non-cooperative attitude toward Charles Willson with illustrations of melons, berries, apples, grapes, and peaches as seen in his works entitled, Still Life with Strawberries and Ostrich Egg Cup (1814; Fig2-6), Bowl of Peaches (1818; Fig2-7), and Still Life with Peaches (1821; Fig2-8) In early nineteenth-century, these items grew in abundance throughout the Middle Atlantic States and flourished all over the region of eastern Pennsylvania The fru its were used as the foundation for alcoholic drinks, which included wine, cide r, brandies, and oftentimes peaches were used to clear the palate of a wine connoisseur 9 Many of Raphaelles works contained carafes and glasses of wine or liquor and fruit, which contributed toward intemperate acts of over consumption As noted earlier, Raphaelle depicted a life of temperance and organization upon the canvas as he painted a single glass of wine or fruit displayed neatly within or around a basket, but this trait remained absent throughout his personal life An existing conflict between Charles Willson and Raphaelle had an immense impact upon Raphaelles still life paintings The tension between father and son concentrated on the powers of self-regulation and dissolute behavior, leading to physical illness Raphaelles paintings pleased Charles Willson as metaphors of temperance and self-regulation, yet Charles Willson ultimately disapproved of Raphaelles rebellious life style At a young age, Raphaelle worked closely with his father in the Philadelphia Museum, always running errands and performing certain tasks as he took care of animals, engaged in taxidermy, and arranged exhibits for the museum After the American 9 Miler 1996, 147.

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11 Revolution, many young women and men stayed at home and replicated their parents world as closely as they could 10 A majority still found their lives controlled by the authority of the man of the house with power over his dependents and young adults had depended upon their familys support in an economy that offered them few avenues to independence 11 An increasing problematic situation regarding Raphaelles finances can be seen in a letter written by Charles Willson to Raphaelle on March 1 1818: Dear Raphaelle, yesterday Patty sent for me and when I see [sic] her she told me that she wanted me to prevail on her children to consent to be separated[sic] she that you ought to come home and help her along in their experiences, & advices that you should sell your house, pay your debts, and do what you can to gain support for the family 12 Raphaelle was dependant upon Charles Willson from a young age Around 1793, Raphaelle was nineteen and traveled on expeditions to Cayenne, French Guiana, and South America, before ending up in Mexico 13 He collected New World Species for his fathers museum, representing different types of animals from around the world The Spanish were known as the most expert agriculturalists in Europe and carried their tradition to Mexico 14 In the eighteenth-century, Mexico became a flourishing environment for Spanish Baroque still life painting This acted as an inspirational journey for Raphaelle as he had submitted a plethora of still life works similar to the Spanish still life style 10 Joyce Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans (Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000): 8. 11 Appleby, 8 and 19. 12 Cikovsky, 105-06. 13 Charles Coleman Sellers, Mr. Peales Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1980): 63. 14 Lloyd, 158 & 167.

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12 Raphaelle witnessed beautiful grapes, ripe lemons, and matured oranges within the flourishing Mexican gardens An example of Sp anish fruit, a noticea ble trait within the still life paintings of Raphaelle was, Still Life with Fruit and Glassware (1629; Fig2-9) by Juan van der Hamen 15 This painting displays grapes, oranges, peaches, pears, and pickles within the confinements of th e canvas The depiction of fruit became one of the dominant features throughout Raphaelles works as seen in his Still Life with Oranges (1818; Fig2-10) and Lemons and Grapes (1818; Fig2-11 ) Raphaelle displays several different items including lemons, oranges, and grapes, which were found in Spanish gardens and throughout the Spanish still life paintings Raphaelle used these Spanish still life paintings as a form of rebellion and inspira tion against his fathers works of American landscapes and portraiture Two other still life works, which influenced Raphaelle, were Still Life with Cardoon and Francolin (1628; Fig2-12) by Felipe Ramirez and Still Life with Onions, Garlic, and Chestnuts (date unknown; Fig2-13) by Juan Sanchez Cotan 16 Along with traveling to Mexico and witnessing Spanish gardens, the Spanish still life works by Cotan were available to Raphaelle at The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia 17 Unlike Charles Willsons works, these paintings served as an inspiration to Raphaelle and his chosen profession Both paintings have similar attributes to Raphaelles works such as grapes, apples, and lemons The fruits are displayed in quiet grandeur, revealing seasoned grapes, berries, and apples, while illustrating slightly flawed and dry lemons These 15 William B. Jordan, Spanish Still Life 1600-1650 (Japan: Nissha Printing Company, 1985): 140-141. 16 Jordan, 49. 17 Gerdts 1981, 56. Miller 1996, 285.

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13 attributes are both seen with Raphaelles still life paintings The celery is the most important physical element within the Spanish still life, revealing itself in Raphaelles work entitled, Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816) 18 The celery is not captured in magnificent splendor, rather roughly exposed with arid, rotten cut stalks, which have begun browning in color Raphaelle also used the contrast of light and shade seen between the fore and background of the works Metaphorically speaking, this variation between light and shade represents the conflict between Charles Willson and Raphaelle Luis Melendez, considered one of the gr eatest still life specialist of eighteenthcentury Spain, painted works entitled Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts (1772; Fig2-14), Still Life with Lemons and Oranges (1760s; Fig2-15), and Still Life with Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape (1771; Fig2-16 ), and also influenced Raphaelles production of still life works 19 Many of Raphaelles paintings display similar subject matter to Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts (1772), such as chestnuts, oranges, and a container for al coholic liquor The aspect conc entrated upon in this work is the melon in the back left side behind the ripe oranges The depic tion of this melon is strikingly similar to the one found w ithin the foreground of Raphaelles Melons and Morning Glories (1813; Fig2-17) Even though smaller in size, the untouched melon in the foreground space has resembling stripe s to those found upon Melendezs canvas The other work by Melendez, which contained similar subjects of Raphaelles later work, is Still Life with Lemons and Oranges (1760s) Once again, similar subject matter radiates from the canvas as seen with the illustrious lemons and oranges, an earthenware 18 Miller 1996, 138. 19 Peter Cherry and William B. Jordan, Spanish Still Life from Velazquez to Goya (London: National Gallery Publications, 1995): 153, 160-61.

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14 jug used for alcoholic liquors, and a basket fo r containing these items One of the items of concern is located in the rear left hand side between the jug and basket Though slightly different from the melon found in Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts (1772) and Melons and Morning Glories (1813), the rind of the melon matches those found within Raphaelles Still Life with Watermelon (1822; Fig2-18) Along with the melon, the circular and rectangular boxes attract attention The circ ular boxes would have contained cheese, a similar subject seen in Raphaelles Cheese with Three Crackers (1813; Fig2-19) and the rectangular boxes held sweets, such as dulce de Membrilla or a thick quince jelly eaten in slices The sweet jelly was to be cut into slices, a similar trait seen with Raphaelles cakes in Still Life with Raisin Cake (1813; Fig2-20), Still Life with Wine, Cake, and Nuts (1819; Fig2-21 ), and Still Life with Cake (1818; Fig2-22) These similarities are apparent throughout both of these artists works Still Life with Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape (1771) presents striking similarities to Raphaelles Still Life with Watermelon (1822) 20 The watermelons in these works are exposed, leaving their juicy, red insides open to the outside air They are not neatly sliced open; it appears as if they were ripped open or dropped to the ground Finally, a similarity exists between the rinds regarding smooth, bumpy, and circular texture and shape As the paintings illustrate, the Spanish Still Life works of Melendez undeniably and remarkably influenced Raphaelles still life paintings Once again, Raphaelle revolts against his fathers artistic training and utilizes instead the Spanish still life as an inspiration and driving force in pursuit of his artistic dream 20 Cherry and Jordan, 161.

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15 A particular instance leading toward Raphaelles rebellious nature occurred in October of 1795, when George Washington visited Philadelphia and consented sitting for a portrait painted by members of the Peale family 21 Charles Willson, James, Raphaelles uncle, Rembrandt, Raphaelles brother, and Raphaelle were the artists permitted into the room in hope of capturing the portrait of George Washington 22 Instead of Charles Willson enabling Raphaelle, the older and most gifted son, the privilege and opportunity was presented to the younger seventeen-year-old Rembrandt 23 Further, James and Raphaelle were not allowed in the room until the second day At this time, Raphaelle produced a profile drawing as he was placed behind the general in the corner of the room Perhaps Charles Willson made this decision hoping that Raphaelle would take painting more seriously and let no one out perform his artistic ability This occurrence between father and son influenced Raphaelles disobedience towards Charles Willsons controlling nature at a young age Instead of painting a portrait of George Washington in proper heroic manner, Raphaelle decided to execute a profile, a direct defiance of his fathers requests This incident helped develop a patterned relationship of denial and rebellion between Charles Willson and Raphaelle In 1797, at the age of twenty-three, Raphaelle married against Charles Willsons wishes The bride was Martha (Patty) McGlathery, an Irish woman who came from a long line of master builders and carpenters Even though Pattys father, Matthew was a 21 Carol Eaton Hevner, Rembrandt Peale 1778-1860: A Life in the Arts (Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1985): 13 & 32. 22 Charles Willson Peale, Charles Willson Peale and His World (New York: H.N. Abrams, 1983): 190. This source mentions that Titian Ramsay I was also permitted into the room on the second day along with James and Raphaelle. 23 Lloyd, 157.

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16 member of Philadelphias Carpenters Company, Charles Willson, who came from generations of Anglican English, rejected this family, hailing from Dublin, Ireland 24 Along with rejecting Charles Willsons wishes regarding marriage, Raphaelle continued to defy his fathers desires with the battle between temperance and over-indulgence Once again, Raphaelle had blatantly dismissed Charles Willsons wishes and desires as seen with the marriage and over consumption of alcohol, a recurring theme throughout his life Another instance occurring in the summer of 1801 contributed toward Raphaelles rebellious nature Charles Willson headed a scientific expedition, which unearthed and excavated fragmentary remains of three mastodons This expedition was funded by the American Philosophical Society and President Thomas Jefferson 25 Once again, Rembrandt was invited to assist his fath er, but Raphaelle was excluded from this historical event Charles Willson commemorated this experience with his painting entitled, The Exhumation of the Mastodon (1806-08; Fig2-23) 26 Even though Raphaelle was not invited to participate in the actual excavation process along with other family members, he was included in the painting Rembrandt stands in the center of the work and gestures down toward the mammoth bones in imitation of his father On the other hand, Charles Willson and Raphaelle are holding opposite ends of a scroll and yet they are connected The laborers and members of his family are separated, which is similar to the scroll separating Charles Willson and Raphaelle 24 Lloyd, 167. 25 Laura Rigal, The American Manufactory: Art, Labor, and the World of Things in the Early Republic (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998): 91. Charles Willson was a member of the Philosophical Society and painted portraits of President Jefferson. 26 Rigal, 91-92.

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17 Even though Raphaelle was considered an alcoholic, Charles Willson considered him a genius Raphaelle was noted as having a wayward nature and propensity for alcohol 27 Raphaelle would laugh away the failure, as he would awake in pain Raphaelle was all laughter and considered a stupendous tavern companion and comedian 28 In 1817, Charles Willson challenged the professional genre and artistic credibility of the forty-three year old Raphaelle, which further fueled Raphaelles rebellious lifestyle In a letter dated February 17, 1817, Charles Willson invited Raphaelle to Belfield, Pennsylvania to sit for a portrait requested years earlier Why would Charles Willson decide to execute this painting after all of these years? In a letter to Rubens Peale, Raphaelles brother, Charles wrote, it might be a lesson to help him with his colouring 29 Raphaelle, a man of forty-three, did not need assistance with coloring This useful advice would have benefited Raphaelle at a much younger age Within the portrait of Raphaelle, Charles W illson executed a still life in the upper right hand corner of the painting This specific depiction of a still life was lacking quiet dignity, presenting itself as awkwardly clumpe d together, quite unlike Raphaelles still life Charles Willson implemented Raphaelles portrait with utmost perfection, but haphazardly painted the still life rendition This work entitled, Portrait of Raphaelle Peale, (1822; Fig2-24) is seen as a sarcastic comment upon the still life genre 30 In response to Charles Willsons criticism as seen with the Portrait of Raphaelle Peale (1822), Raphaelle continued his rebellious attitude toward Charles Willson with the 27 Peale, 196. 28 Sellers, 169. 29 Lloyd, 164. 30 Lloyd, 164. The dates of 1817 and 1822 are both applied to this work.

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18 work entitled, Venus Rising from the Sea-A Deception (After the Bath), (1823; Fig2-25) 31 Perhaps Raphaelle mislead his fathers inte ntions as Charles Willson thought Raphaelle might paint a portrait, but instead, Raphaelle has depicted a sheet, covering the womens body and face The partial anatomy seen with th e womans right foot, left arm, and hair protruding from behind the sheet serves as an act of rebellion alluding away from portraiture The deceptive tra its found within Raphaelles works, which ironically were inherited from his father, seem so real Three-dimensionality exists, as the objects are almost interchangeable with real objects, especi ally seen with his still life paintings This allusion conveys a deeper meaning seen with the work as Raphaelle learned about the value of visual deception from an early age He learned the art of deceit from his fathers work entitled, The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titan Ramsey Peale, (1795; Fig2-26) 32 According to Phoebe Lloyd, such a deception represented the highest criterion of artistic excellence 33 Charles Willson was deceived, believing an actual woman existed upon the other side of the sheet and Raphaelle was painting a portrait Charles Willson, James, and Rembrandt were known for painting landscapes and portraits Rather than following in his familys footsteps, Raphaelle rebelled against the wishes and desires of his father to pursue a career in still life painting Even though Charles Coleman Sellers, an early American historian, considered Peales Museum as The House of God! Here is nothing but truth spoken, Charles Willson changed and modified his canvases Charles Willson thought it was necessary to manipulate nature 31 Miller 1996, 90. 32 Miller 1996, 50. 33 Lloyd, 156.

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19 and create aesthetically pleasing works for artistic purposes, he thought the most important life lessons were found within the grand design and totality of nature, though he controlled naturalistic scenes 34 Inside the Philadelphia Museum, the senior Peale and his sons were supposed to represent appropriate scenery 35 The values expressed above can be seen in his works entitled, Landscape Looking Toward Sellers Hall from Mill Bank, (1818; Fig2-27) and Millbank (1818; Fig2-28 ) 36 Certain natural environmental flaws such, as a gray cloud, a broken tree limb or brown leaves would be excluded from the painting An enhanced color scheme was often added, visually improving the work Sometimes a mountain, stream or tree would be placed into the painting as an expansion of aesthetic quality Charles Willson learned reshaping, arranging, discarding, and recomposing natural elements of a scene, a manipulation of nature These depicted scenes were untouchable or non-existent as a whole in the world When executing landscape paintings, efforts to locate views that will look well in paintings suggest Charles Willson was in search of certain requirements to fulfill the canvas 37 A manipulation of nature for aesthetic purposes and cull from various scenes such parts as best create one perfect whole were goals Charles Willson strived to achieve in order to execute picturesque landscapes 38 James Peale also contributed toward the manipulation of nature within landscape paintings In regards to Sawrey Gilpin, an English Romantic animal and landscape 34 Miller 1996, 69, 35 Rigal, 97. 36 Miller 1996, 76. 37 Miller 1996, 76. 38 Miller 1996, 77.

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20 painter, James followed Gilpins advice to use formal sketchbooks during his travels in order for documentation Pleasure Party by A Mill (1790; Fig2-29) and View on the Wissahickon (1830; Fig2-30) reveal Gilp ins advice, as James Peale followed instructions upon which elements should rema in or be discarded in a natural scene 39 Rembrandt was also accountable for this techni que of manipulation as seen with the Falls of Niagara, Viewed from the American Side (1831; Fig2-31) and Th e Canadian Side of Niagara Falls, Platform Rock (1831; Fig2-32) 40 Rembrandt altered the treatment of light, which created lavish purples and yellows upon the canvas He mimicked natural scenes by including foreign elements normally absent from landscape paintings Charles Willson, James, and Rembrandt, shaped nature into art and then created art from manipulated nature which, exercised control over the scenes depicted and forbid the scene to determine the painting 41 Unlike Raphaelle, Charles Willson, James, and Rembrandt acquired control over their canvases and personal lives Together with landscape painting, Charles Willson executed manipulative portraiture In 1785, Charles Willson opened an exhibition referred to as my perspective views with changeable effects, dealing with landscapes and historical subjects 42 In 1797, Peale wrote, Truth is most preferable tho dressed in a course garb 43 His portraits continued along with a modified approach; shaping eyes, heads, and expressions to meet academic specifications The portraits express character as Charles Willson 39 Miller 1996, 79 & 208. 40 Miller 1996, 84-85. 41 Miller 1996, 83. 42 Bringham, 1. 43 Miller 1996, 77.

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21 interpreted, which was based upon scientific literature of the day Even though Peale always conveyed a good eye for detail, he progressed beyond observation, hypothesizing about eyes, head features, and expressions infused within the works Charles Willson would remove certain physical flaws, which would take quality away from the highly individualized sitter Examples can be seen with Charles Willsons, General Joseph Bloomfield (1777; Fig2-33) and Thomas Jefferson (1791; Fig2-34) 44 Peale removed all signs of exhaustion and age, as these portraits appear as timeless representations of political figures Wrinkles and gray hair are conveniently brushed away and facial features are highlighted by the rosy, pink skin tone The examples mentioned above in regards toward landscape and portrait painting display Charles Willson, James, and Rembrandts repeated alteration of works Perhaps the modification throughout their works led toward a continued patronage by consumers and sitters Charles Willson encouraged Raphaelle towards a career as a painter in portraiture, a course flourishing with proceeds, which would support a family and enhance an artistic reputation Raphaelle decided to travel upon a different path, the realm of still life painting Though producing portraiture during his younger years, by 1811, Raphaelle ignored his fathers advice and focused his artistic energy upon still life 45 Portraiture was not Raphaelles genre of choice Speculations arose surrounding Raphaelles choice of still life over landscape and portrait paintings The desire to fulfill requirements of his patrons influenced Raphaelles decision because the demands for perfection were 44 Miller 1996, 66-67. 45 Lloyd, 164.

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22 extreme Many scholars will argue that Raphaelle implemented still life in a manner similar to his fathers landscapes and portraiture Raphaelle organized still life with precision by assembling tabletop arrangements in order to fulfill a personal desire, a comparable characteristic of Charles Willsons works On the other hand, Raphaelle decided painting more than the beautiful and sublime, a repetitive topic found throughout the works of Charles Willson Raphaelle presented so-called flaws within his works, painting an actual aspect of nature unlike his fathers search for the most picturesque scenes This accomplishment placed nature into the realm of art without manipulation Raphaelles still life works represent a form of rebellion with regards to subject matter An example of rebellion is seen with Cheese with Three Crackers (1813) 46 Instead of displaying an untouched block of cheese in entirety, Raphaelle depicted this subject partially eaten An act of rebellion is presented as he drifted away from creating a perfect whole derived from separate parts of a work As an alternative, Raphaelle does not follow in his fathers footsteps of exhibiting a perfect work He simply leaves the elements presented in a natural state without altering the subject in order to show beauty, a highly uncharacteristic trait of Charles Willson Raphaelle was rebellious from a young age as noted in an autobiography of Peggy Durgan, the Peales nourse 47 Charles Willson ordered the bread of the family to be from a neighborhood baker and not homemade Raphaelle did not enjoy the bakers bread and continually refused any liking of the kind Peggy was known for spoiling the children and constantly supplied the pettish Boy with cakes she secretly baked This simple 46 Miller 1996, 33. 47 Charles Coleman Sellers, Charles Willson Peale (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1969): 224.

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23 example with bread displays Raphaelles rebellious nature from an early age and a beginning of his enjoyments with cakes, which plagued him throughout his life 48 Other works of Raphaelle, as seen with Still Life with Apples, Sherry, and Tea Cake (1822; Fig2-35), depict fruit in an utmost stat e of ripe perfection and beauty 49 The apple and orange appear to have been recently removed from their trees as the bright red and yellow colors project from the canvas The grapes be come slightly visible, hiding behind a lush green vine, recently detached from the vineyard In response to his fathers manipulations of landscape and portraiture, Raph aelle represents rebellion in Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814; Fig2-36) 50 A new step was developed in the work of Raphaelle as he illustrated fruit outside of a perfectly ripe content, such as an over ripe melon or browning green peppers In contrast to his fathers style, Raphaelle focused upon inserting certain realistic elements, which enhanced the work Raphaelle was not afraid to display the side of art his father never took the time to show Continuing further with rebellion, Raphaelle executed, Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816) Once again, Raphaelle displayed fruit outside of its ripe, perfected context Spotted, brown apples, a brown, cut lemon, slightly wilted, thin, colorless celery, and overripe grapes fill the canvas In contrast to the previous work, Raphaelle decided to place the fruit and vegetables inside and around the wicker basket Even though beauty is absent as seen with the brown fruit, according to Charles Willson, Raphaelle placed these objects in and around beautiful, expensive containers By positioning the fruit, Raphaelle 48 Sellers, 224. 49 Cikovsky, 12. 50 Cikovsky, 23.

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24 continued displaying, regardless of physical appearance, these true works presented in nature Raphaelle is considered rebellious because he painted the truth In addition, as previously mentioned, the politics surrounding the family contributed to Raphaelles rebellious qualities Leaving Annapolis in December of 1775, Charles Willson decided to move to Philadelphia and take full advantage of the citys culture and trade 51 The residents were preparing for war when Peale arrived, so he decided to participate, both militarily and politically, in the American Revolution Charles Willsons involvement stretched from painting replicas of flags, broadcasting revolutionary ideology, and serving as a common soldier 52 He fought for George Washingtons army and was promoted to captain before joining The Furious Whigs in 1776, a radical political group 53 For some time after, he served as an agent, collecting estates from British sympathizers In the same year, Charles Willson also spent one term as a representative in the Pennsylvania legislature and was elected into the American Philosophical Society 54 The military and political involvement of Charles Willson fueled the artistic projects of landscape and portrait painting, which Raphaelle avoided, as seen with Charles Willsons portraits of General Joseph Bloomfield, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington Predominantly after 1811, Raphaelle seems to have preferred still life 55 Once again, Raphaelle rebelled against his father in regards to composition and 51 Miller 1996, 21. 52 Miller 1996, 21. 53 Miller 1996, 21. 54 Miller 1996, 21 & Sellers, 24. 55 Miller 1996, 139.

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25 genre as he abstained from using the politics and patronage of the American Revolution to support his still life paintings Charles Willson used political influence as a means for patronage, seen with his mezzotint, His Excellency George Washington Es quire, Commander in Chief of the Federal Army (1780; Fig2-37) 56 George Washington was a favorite object of portraiture with Charles Willson as seen with two other oil portraits entitled, Washington at Princeton (1779; Fig2-38) and Washington and His Generals at Yorktown (1784; Fig239 ) 57 Once more, Raphaelle rebelled against Charles Willson and the American Revolution, as Raphaelle did not use military or political actions for subject matter or patronage Raphaelle rebelled against this fake perception of a national identity Charles Willson altered the paintings by placing non-existent, historical battle scenes or landscapes behind portrait paintings contributing to a false sense of reality An example can be seen with Washington at Princeton (1779) and Washington and his Generals at Yorktown (1784), as these works present a scenario of Washington leaning on a canon or casually conversing with his generals during the middle of battle History must show the true image of a nation but Charles Willson fashioned and projected a national identity for domestic and foreign consumption 58 These highly unlikely scenes further evidence a continued separation between Charles Willson and Raphaelle on professional and personal levels Raphaelle was rebelling against his father in regards to the selected patronage and politics surrounding landscape and portrait paintings, which derived from 56 Miller 1996, 23. 57 Miller 1996, 68. 58 Eve Kornfeld, Creating an American Culture 1175-1800: A Brief History with Documents (Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2001): 39.

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26 the American Revolution For these reasons, Raphaelle wanted to reveal truthful, genuine, and authentic scenes of national identity, defining a new type of history painting, the still life Figure 2-1. View of Garden at Belfield Figure 2-2. Blackberries 1813

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27 Figure 2-3. Still Life with Grapes in Dish 1814 Figure 2-4. Still Life with Celery and Wine 1816

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28 Figure 2-5. Still Life with Wine and Cake 1822

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29 Figure 2-6. Still Life with Strawberries and Ostrich Egg Cup 1814 Figure 2-7. Bowl of Peaches 1818

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30 Figure 2-8. Still Life with Peaches 1821 Figure 2-9. Still Life with Fruit and Glassware 1629

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31 Figure 2-10. Still Life with Oranges 1818 Figure 2-11. Lemons and Grapes 1818

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32 Figure 2-12. Still Life with Cardoon and Francolin 1628

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33 Figure 2-13. Still Life with Onions, Garlic, and Chestnuts Date Unknown

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34 Figure 2-14. Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts 1772

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35 Figure 2-15. Still Life with Lemons and Oranges 1760s

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36 Figure 2-16. Still Life with Watermelons and Apples in a Landscape 1771

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37 Figure 2-17. Melons and Morning Glories 1813

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38 Figure 2-18. Still Life with Watermelon 1822 Figure 2-19. Cheese and Three Crackers 1813

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39 Figure 2-20. Still Life with Raisin Cake 1813

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40 Figure 2-21. Still Life with Wine, Cake, and Nuts 1819

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41 Figure 2-22. Still Life with Cake 1818

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42 Figure 2-23. The Exhumation of the Mastodon 1806

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43 Figure 2-24. Portrait of Raphaelle Peale 1817

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44 Figure 2-25. Venus Rising from the Sea-A Deception (After the Bath) 1823 Figure 2-26. The Staircase Group: Raphaelle and Titian Ramsey Peale 1795

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45 Figure 2-27. Landscape Looking Toward Sellers Hall from Mill Bank 1818 Figure 2-28. Millbank 1818

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46 Figure 2-29. Pleasure Party by A Mill 1790 Figure 2-30. View on the Wissahickon 1830

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47 Figure 2-31. Falls of Niagara, Viewed from the American Side 1891 Figure 2-32. The Canadian Side Of Niagara Falls, Platform Rock 1831

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48 Figure 2-33. General Joseph Bloomfield 1777 Figure 2-34. Thomas Jefferson 1791

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49 Figure 2-35. Still Life with Apples, Sherry, and Tea Cake 1822 Figure 2-36. Fruit and Silver Bowl 1814

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50 Figure 2-37. His Excellency George Washington Esquire, Commander in Chief of the Federal Army, 1780

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51 Figure 2-38. Washington at Princeton 1779

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52 Figure 2-39. Washington and his Generals at Yorktown 1784

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CHAPTER 3 A DEEPER LOOK INSIDE A further understanding of Raphaelle Peales still life paintings and personal life are attained through psychoanalysis, a method of studying the mind and treating mental and emotional disorders based on revealing and investigating roles of the unconscious mind All art has a transitional quality as it occupies or connects the space between illusion and reality 1 Psychoanalysis offers insight into the realms of illusion and reality, which deals with the art and science of mental and emotional transformation 2 Sigmund Freuds The Unpleasure or Pleasure Principle provides a psychoanalytical model for understanding why Raphaelle continued painting still life For example, Raphaelle was confronted with unpleasure as seen with his personal problems surrounding intemperance and over-indulgence In a letter written to his patron Charles Graff on September 6, 1816, Raphaelle confirmed his problematic situation with this disease stating, My old and inveterate enemy, the Gout, has Commenced a most violent attack on me, two months previous to its regular time-and most unfortunately on the day that I was to Commence still life, in the most beautiful productions of Fruit, I therefore fear that the Season will pass without producing a single Picture, I meant to have devoted all my time, Principally, to Painting of fine Peaches 3 1 Laurie Schneider Adams, Art and Psychoanalysis (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993): 42. 2 Schneider, 53. 3 Phoebe Lloyd, Philadelphia Story, Art in America (November 1988): 200. 53

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54 According to Freud, a goal of the conscious or unconscious mind is to formulate a perceptual or imaginary identity and thus gain gratification or satisfaction Freud stated in his Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis, We humans with the high standards for our civilization and under the pressure of our internal repressions, find reality unsatisfying quite generally, and for that reason entertain a life of phantasy in which we like to make up for the insufficiencies of reality by the production of wish-fulfillment 4 Kaja Silverman, an American film critic, has described Freuds theory as meaning; the unconscious exhibits inflexibility or sternness in its means for change When the unconscious discovers a clarification regarding unpleasure, repetitive attempts toward a positive solution occur in order to begin to formulate a solution 5 For Freud, pleasure represents the absence of unpleasure; it is a state of relaxation much more intimately connected with death than with life 6 Raphaelles pleasure and over-indulgence with food and alcohol were associated with death, rather than life, and this theory aids in explaining Raphaelles repeated subject matter, as he painted forty-four still life paintings between 1813 and 1817 7 A continuation with Raphaelles still life can be seen with Freuds Reality Principle While the pleasure principle relates to people acting upon good feelings, the reality principle relates to individuals subordinating or subduing pleasure as a process of sublimation The process of sublimation represses or stores unattainable desires in the unconscious, a process that can take place in the realm of art Through his still life 4 Levine, 197. 5 Kaja Silverman, The Subjects of Semiotics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983): 56. 6 Silverman, 57. 7 Cikovsky, 28.

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55 paintings, Raphaelle transformed a reality of dissatisfaction into a fantasy of satisfaction In his personal life, Raphaelle struggled with the pleasures of intemperance and over-indulgence, but found a release with his still life paintings 8 According to Freud, dreams are symbolic fulfillments of unattainable wishes that have been repressed Though an unconscious dream or sleep-like state is absent in the art of painting, dream-like mechanisms are apparent The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud sets forth the theories as condensation and displacement, which can be applied to a continued analysis of Raphaelles still life paintings Condensation, considered as a metaphor, occurs when sets of complex psychic images are packed into one simple image Raphaelles art can be approached as a dense metaphor, embodying contradictions around his personal problems with over-indulgence and intemperance Displacement, a shift in a desire from the original object to a more acceptable or immediate substitute, is a concept that parallels condensation For example, in terms of Raphaelles paintings, a single cake or glass of wine represents condensation because Raphaelle metaphorically places his emotional problems of temperance and self-control into a depiction of this single image Displacement parallels condensation because Raphaelle shifts his feelings regarding over-indulgence and intemperance toward an immediate substitute, a single glass of wine, cake or piece of fruit, symbolizing moderation and control Raphaelles feelings and problems are displaced from primary causes of temperance and over-indulgence to something else, his artwork 9 8 Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dream (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 74-105. 9 Freud 1999, 74-105.

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56 Another psychoanaylitic theory applying to Raphaelles work is a representation of a drive for wish fulfillment An unsatisfying reality and a subsequent or succeeding production of wish fulfillments, lead to a fantasy life, while in turn escaping from reality 10 This drive or expression transforms into a wish, which was the motivating force behind Raphaelles psychic activity The still life paintings resemble a release of the pleasure principle, which was an adjustment of unpleasure Raphaelle attempted to attain temperance with his works contrasting with his over-indulgence in alcohol, desserts, and fruit Despite repeated pleas from his father, trying to steer him away from still life, Raphaelle continued painting and expressing through still life Raphaelles paintings portrayed a life of fantasy and reality Further insight into Raphaelle Peale can be attained through analysis of the following section found in Formulations of the Two Principles of Mental Functioning (1911) by Freud: An artist is originally a man who turns away from reality because he cannot come to terms with the renunciation of instinctual satisfaction which it first demands, and who allows his erotic and ambitious wishes full play in the life of fantasy He finds the way back to reality, however, from this world of fantasy by making use of special gifts to mould his fantasies into truths of a new kind, which are valued by men as precious reflections of reality Thus in a certain fashion he actually becomes the hero, the king, the creator, or the favorite he desired to be, without following the long roundabout path of making real alterations in the external world But he can only achieve this because other men feel the same dissatisfaction as he does with the renunciation demanded by reality and because the dissatisfaction, which results from the replacement of the pleasure principle by the reality principle, is itself part of reality 11 In other words, Raphaelle turned away from reality and ventured toward fantasy because he was unable to find satisfaction within his life Still life was Raphaelles special gift, which returned him back from a fantasy world and enabled him to truthfully 10 Levine, 198. 11 Levine, 198-199.

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57 depict reflections of reality Raphaelle used still life, as a means of displaying his personal desires moderation in contrast to his difficulty with the reality of his intemperance and lack of self-control Peales father was not only concerned by Raphaelles still life subject matter, but also with his sons precarious lifestyle and approach to health and self-governance Raphaelle displayed battles with intemperance in still-life paintings, which eventually affected his physical well-being In contrast to Raphaelle, Charles Willson focused upon regimen and health Charles practiced strict dietary control with exercise, temperance and abstinence from alcohol, and focused on a diet centered on simple foods and water 12 Charles repeatedly attempted to instill these habits into Raphaelles daily routine because intemperance, over-indulgence and an unhealthy life style dominated his life As noted earlier with The Pleasure or Unpleasure Principle, Raphaelle not only tried to find answers for unpleasure by repeatedly painting still life, but he also repeatedly overindulged in alcohol and rich foods while battling intemperance, which contributed to a development of the gout Charles wrote a letter on February 2, 1818, My dear Raphaelle, It gives me great pain to think how wretchedly you govern yourself I am not uniformed of your associations you are possessed of superior talents to most men, and yet you will associate with beings that disgrace you-you have promised time after time to refrain from intemperance and you have nearly destroyed, or thrown away your life; you have been on the brink of the Grave, and you must certainly know the cause of all your suffering! Then why not act the man and respect yourself 13 These letters were not only written to Raphaelle, but to other family members and friends too Letters concerning Raphaelles health found their way to Raphaelles 12 Miller 1996, 142. 13 Cikovsky, 105.

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58 brothers Rembrandt, Rubens and Linnaeus, his sister Angelica, and Benjamin West, a friend and eighteenth-century artist A letter to Angelica on November 24, 1818, states You ask me where Raphaelle is, the other day I received a letter from him which informs me that he has been almost at deaths door, reduced to a skeleton by a fit of the Gout [which] confined him 8 weeks-I have wrote to advise him to get from the country as soon as possible as I have always considered the neighborhood of Norfolk an unhealthy country 14 The still-life paintings of Raphaelle appear to be complex images that express a moral tension between necessity and indulgence, reason and passion, which concerned Raphaelles family members and friends 15 In Freuds study of Wit and the Comic, he argues that the primary focus of art is to seek pleasure and avoid pain, therefore obeying the pain and pleasure, which dominated artists lives and works 16 This diagnosis is especially seen in Fruit Piece with Peaches Covered by Handkerchief (1819; Fig3-1) The pictoria l goal illustrates a struggle between temperance and over-indulgence Rapha elle eschewed pain as a handkerchief, which covers a majority of the peaches, se rves as a warning and addresses pain by visually informing the viewer to enjoy the p eaches in moderation Painful affects of the gout may appear if these ripe, rich, and su cculent peaches are not enjoyed with selfdiscipline and moderatio n Raphaelle successfully comb ined pleasure and temperance by leaving two of the peaches unveiled, which en abled an act of self -control and restraint with balance and symmetry 14 Cikovsky, 107. 15 Miller 1996, 136. 16 Daniel E. Schneider, The Psychoanalyst and The Artist (New York: The Alexa Press Inc., 1950), 61.

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59 In 1909, Freud declared, If a person who is at logger heads with reality possesses an artistic gift, he can transform his fantasies into artistic creations instead of symptoms 17 The reality of dissatisfaction is transformed by the artwork turning into a fantasy of satisfaction The artists fantasy is materially embodied in a public medium: In this manner, he can escape the doom of neurosis and by this round about path regain his contact with reality 18 Raphaelle transformed an emotional battle with temperance and over-indulgence onto the canvas An inducement to renounce pleasure is placed upon the patient in psychoanalytic work Exposure of determinable consequences is encouraged because complications arise in asking a total revilement of pleasure 19 In an exchange from reality towards the pleasure principle, Raphaelle displayed in his paintings items sumptuous in nature, which if enjoyed in excess may perhaps lead to ill health In Freuds the Claims of Psychoanalysis to Scientific Interest (1913), an artist represents his most personal wishful fantasies as fulfilled and they only become a work of art when they have undergone a transformation, which softens what is offensive in them, conceals their personal origin, and by obeying the laws of beauty, bribes other people with the bonus of pleasure 20 Art is also an activity intended to allay ungratified wishes-in the first place in the creative artist himself and subsequently in his audience or spectators 21 Art becomes an accepted reality, thanks to artistic illusion, symbols and substitutes are able 17 Levine, 197. 18 Levine, 198. 19 Freud 1999, 158-159. 20 Levine, 74-81. 21 Levine, 74-81.

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60 to provoke real emotions art develops into a region halfway between a reality which frustrates wishes and the wish-fulfilling world of the imagination 22 Raphaelles works represent personal ungratified wishes, which have been softened by the subject matter, leaving the offensive nature behind and revealing images of beauty Raphaelle portrayed problems amid pleasure, intemperance, and over-indulgence upon the canvas Freuds paper, Remembering, Repeating, and Working-Through (1914), states, If the artist is able to achieve admiration and gratitude from people who have purchased his works then he has made an unconscious connection with their pleasures and desires in returning honor, power, and love 23 Even though obtaining patronage was a difficult task, Raphaelle accomplished acceptance by selling his still life paintings If Raphaelle was fortunate, the artworks sold for fifteen dollars 24 In Freuds, The Future of Illusion (1927), he proceeded to say, The creations of art heighten his feelings of identification by providing an occasion for sharing highly valued emotional experiences 25 Raphaelles paintings may have been meant to invoke similar wishes of conscious or unconscious matter from the general community For example, perhaps patrons with similar problems regarding intemperance and over-indulgence purchased these works, therefore leading to a personal connection between Raphaelle and the patron According to Freuds Autobiographical Study (1925), an artist was not seen as neurotic, where he had the ability to revert back towards reality without remaining in a 22 Levine, 199. 23 Levine, 201. 24 Cikovsky, 28. 25 Levine, 203-204.

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61 dream-like state or world of imagination 26 The works of Raphaelle were imaginary gratifications seen with unconscious wishes similar to dreams The tension between temperance and intemperance in Raphaelles life and artwork are captured within the images of his paintings Lemons and Sugars (1822; Fig3-2) displays a subtle example of Raphaelles unconscious wishes, while encap sulating the dessert aspect following a meal 27 These desserts Raphaelle depicted demonstrate an exploitation of unnecessary and additional pleasure seen throughout his personal life and canvas Lemons and Sugars (1822), dissimilar to Raphaelles personal life, is extremely organized Attention focuses upon the arrangement of three orderly placed lemons within a basket, a decorative urn containing sugar, and a carafe encapsulating wine A leather bound book of poems, a knife, and a spoon offsets the main features The presentation of orderly fashion throughout the work reflects attributes otherwise lacking in Raphaelles life and is an example of how Raphaelle found an enabling balance through consumption with such subjects Another example, which displayed Ra phaelles personal equanimity, is Still Life with Apples, Sherry and Tea Cake (1822; Fig2-35) The desert pieces illustrated typify moderation Raphaelle masterly displayed a single glass of liquor, a small, solitary decorative cake, and two dissimilar sized plump apples accompanied by luscious, ripe grapes The ordered and contro lled nature presented with these culinary images belies the unbalanced and immoderate lifestyle of Raphaelle Freuds position indicates, A man who is a true artist has more at his disposal In the first pl ace, he understands how to work 26 Levine, 202. 27 Cikovsky, 52.

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62 over his daydreams in such a way as to make them lose what is too personal about them and repels strangers, and to make it possible for others to share in the enjoyment of them 28 Raphaelle was able to intertwine personal fantasy and public display The severity of Raphaelles appalling habits were exemplified in a letter that his father wrote to him after a meeting with Raphaelles wife on July 1, 1807: She said we are very happy when he dont drink, and yet she said you could not do with out it for you passed one day a tremor came on and you was miserable until you had it and she was compelled to advise you to take a little 29 The still life paintings presented self-control, moderation, and temperance, which belie his personal life According to letters, the gout plagued Raphaelle after 1812 and the production and exhibition of Raphaelles still life was affected by his gout as only a pair of pictures were exhibited between 1819 In a letter written on November 30, 1823 by Charles to Rembrandt, Raphaelles brother: I gave my best advice saying you may yet by temperance restore your powers of body and mind, but otherwise you will soon die in misery 30 These physical symptoms experienced from the gout compromised Raphaelles physical and mental health and his ability to paint In dealing with a conscious and unconscious mental state, psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan offers further insight into Raphaelles still life paintings Lacan saw his work as a return to and extension of Freud The first theory focuses upon social recognition as a goal of the artist The social recognition introduces a private fantasy into public areas of 28 Levine, 201-202. 29 Cikovsky, 97. 30 Cikovsky, 113-115.

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63 history and culture 31 In other words, Raphaelle was placing personal and private problems upon a canvas for public display Secondly, Lacan introduced the relation of art to his concept of the Thing, which he explained as: All art is characterized by a certain mode of organization around this emptiness A work of art always involves encircling the Thing The object is established in a certain relationship to the Thing and is intended to encircle and render both present and absent I am trying to show you how Freudian aesthetics reveals that the Thing is inaccessible You dont paint in the same way; but you always paint the same thing or, rather, the absence of the same thing 32 These two theories can be used to analyze Raphaelles works Still Life with Raisin Cake (1813, Fig 2-20), Still Life with Liquer and Fruit (1814; Fig3-3), and Still Life with Cake (1818; Fig2-22) 33 Still Life with Raisin Cake (1813) and Still Life with Cake (1818) signify important explanatory roles, which draw a link between desert foodstuffs and Raphaelles affects from the gout Each painting presents small decorative cakes, which were produced with eggs and decorated with hard, colored refined sugars or icing, and single glasses of wine These cakes are sliced equally into pieces of four or six Green leaves and portly grapes generously provide balance and stability within the canvas Raphaelle depicted equally sliced cakes and single glasses of wine in order to display moderate portions and self-control as proper tactics of consumption An over consumption of these items contributed to Raphaelles gout, as noted in a letter written by his father to Rembrandt, Raphaelles brother, on October 9, 1815: 31 Levine, 203-204. 32 Levine, 204. 33 Cikovsky, 54, 63, & 66.

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64 Your brother is in great danger from an attack of the gout in his stomach He had been too closely employed for some time in painting miniatures and took no exercise Perhaps indulging too much his appetite at the same time with pickles and which every prudent man ought to banish from his table as being neither good for the old or the young-stimulus condiments are ever ruinous to the stomach-simple foods makes good blood, good spirits, good healthRaphaelle is still in the same dangerous state the physicians have very little hope for his life 34 While repeating themes of temperance and self-control throughout his works and displaying a presence and absence of a Thing, Raphaelle searches for social recognition amongst pears, patrons, and above all, his father An example of desire for social recognition, presence and absence of the Thing, and perfect symmetry is seen with Still Life with Liquer and Fruit (1814) Depicted within this work are a glass and carafe of wine, overly mature grapes, flourishing lemons and oranges, and seasoned nuts Containment, balance, and display of proper consumption are displayed as some of the fruit rests within a bowl in the center of the canvas The nuts and wine on either side of the bowl of fruit render a balancing quality absent in Raphaelles life Moderation is depicted without overcrowding the canvas Through paintings such as this, Raphaelle strived to portray temperance as an important characteristic Self-discipline is expressed as Raphaelle displayed a few pieces of fruit and a single glass of wine for consumption and takes self-control one-step further placing a top on the carafe According to Levine, both Freud and Lacan believed that, art neither succeeds in representing the presence of the object of desirenor does it simply fail to represent it and thereby yield only its absence 35 The Thing, whether present or 34 Cikovsky, 102. 35 Levine, 204.

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65 absent, conscious or subconscious, presents itself as the struggling characteristic seen throughout Raphaelles life Lacan notes the development of the mirror stage as a type of dialect between artist and viewer The mirror stage is seen as a drama or serious narrative work, in which one manufactures a subject, but deteriorates from fantasy that extends the body image 36 Although the mirror stage initially occurs when a child has noticed itself in a mirror and expresses incoherent and coherent feelings, these concepts can be applied to Raphaelles works Raphaelle was having difficulty with self-control as seen in a letter from his brother Rubens to his sister Angelica on November 6, 1813: Raphaelle has had a severe attack of the gout in both legs, which has confined him to his bed for a week past but is up and about the house now with crutches 37 As noted earlier, Raphaelles works are seen as an image of himself The incoherent and coherent aspects associated with the mirror stage or double role, commonly revealed throughout portrait paintings, are seen within Raphaelles still life Freud often used the term splitting of the ego, denoting a psychological phenomenon where two psychical attitudes co-exist unconsciously in the ego One functions in relation toward reality and the second as a wish 38 For example, Pablo Picassos Girl Before a Mirror (1931; Fig3-4) offers a different reflection than one, which is normally noticed through physical observation 39 The girls reflection in the mirror is different from the actual physical depiction in reality This reflection of the girl 36 Sheridan, 4 & 5. 37 Cikovsky, 101. 38 Adams, 48. 39 Adams, 49.

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66 presents a double or inner self, similarly seen in Raphaelles works The still life by Raphaelle reflects this double or inner self without actual representation of a physical mirror or portrait; the work is a reflection or metaphor of his body and desire In contrast, Charles Willson depicted the double role of his son through his work, Portrait of Raphaelle Peale (1817; Fig2-24) 40 This portrait presents a double or inner side of Raphaelle The viewer is presented with a physical rendition of a healthy Raphaelle and the inner side of intemperance, lingers with the still life in the background Raphaelles still life paintings entitled, Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814; Fig2-36) and Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816; Fig2-4) present imag es of order and restraint, which serve as a coherent ex ternal image upon the canvas In other words, Raphaelle addresses and responds to the i ssues of incoherence, an inab ility to compose thoughts in a clear or orderly manner, in his personal life which include a lack of restraint and selfdiscipline throughout his paintings Raphaelles still life acts as a coherent mirror By painting overly ripe or slightly rotten fruit, which mirrors th e affects of the gout and overindulgence upon his physical body, Raphaelle displays a lack of rest raint with intemperance Further, poised and arranged within Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814) are apples, grapes, peppers, and honey melon, symbolizing the organization absent throughout his life Although this work radiates symmetry, spoiling apples, over ripe and dark grapes, browning apples, and dried hone y melon aesthetically dominate the canvas The fruit, items of over-indulgence, symboli ze the suffering and rapid influence of the gout Raphaelle was allegoric ally painting and coherently recognizing these external images 40 The Portrait of Raphaelle is also given the date 1822.

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67 In Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816), all the fruit and vegetables contain shades of brown, which indicate decomposition A half empty carafe of wine is strategically located in the background and suggests consumption of alcohol in line with moderation seen in earlier works with a single glass of wine Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816) is a progression of Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814) as the fruit has become browner and slightly rotten This coherent depiction and realization provides a connection between Raphaelles personal life and paintings Lacan continues one step further than Freud with the mirror stage and has recognized that the appearance of beauty intimidates and stops desire 41 Raphaelles presentation of subject matter changes from luscious, ripe, plump, and decorative items toward slightly rotting, brown, and spoiled fruits and vegetables Raphaelle has stopped portraying beauty, as it has intimidated him, and therefore the desire to achieve temperance and self-control has come to an end Raphaelle has come to terms with his ever-increasing problematic situation in regards to the gout and begins to depict this realization on canvas 41 Levine, 205.

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68 Figure 3-1. Fruit Piece with Peaches Covered by Handkerchief 1819 Figure 3-2. Lemons and Sugars 1822

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69 Figure 3-3. Still Life with Liquer and Fruit Figure 3-4. Girl Before A Mirror 1932

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CHAPTER 4 OPENING UP A NEW DOOR In dealing with visual art, narrative is considered a foreign mode of communication, a story added to the image 1 In traditional narrative theory, the source of information the narrator has favored a unified voice In other words, one narrator determines the outcome a reader receives 2 In addition, a narrative is rarely developed as a one-sided structure in traditional narrative theory; several different angles and points of view need equal attention in order for a complete understanding of the subject A narrator is seen as the person who carries out or submits to the action, but also the person (the same one or another) who reports it, and, if need be, all those people who participate, even though passively, in this narrating activity 3 In the case of Raphaelle Peale, a focus is placed upon his still-life paintings in this study, showing that the works possess more than one unified voice or utterer of speech found in traditional narrative theory 4 To explore this concept I shall concentrate directly upon subject matter, which acts as the narrative and sheds new light on Peales life Following the readings of theorists such as Mieke Bal, Norman Bryson, Susana Onega, and Jose Angel Garcia Landa, the works of Peale can be placed into three 1 Mieke Bal & Norman Bryson, Semiotics and Art History: A Discussion of Context and Senders in The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998): 202. 2 Bal & Bryson, 203. 3 Onega & Landa, 173. 4 Bal & Bryson, 188. 70

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71 different types of narrative categories As noted earlier, a narrative is not one-sided, a concept stressed throughout Peales paintings The first narrative begins with the acknowledgement of the work by a viewer or observer The second narrative is from the side of the writer, sender, producer or artist of the work The third narrative, upon which this chapter focuses, appears from the subject matter of the works, in this case, the contents of Peales still life paintings in regards to fruit, vegetables, cakes, and wine 5 His works follow along with Mikhail Bakhtins notion of polyphony, usually seen with the intertwining of different melodies or voices within novels or voices The paintings of Peale can be viewed as polyphony, a pluralistic view or an intertwining of three different narratives including the viewer, painter, and subject matter 6 Several attempts have been made at constructing a more practical and useful definition with the informational sources of the narrative One attempt in particular involves three narrative agents, which include the narrator or speaker, the focalizer or source of the vision (work of art), and the actor or subject acting out the fabula or events presented in sequence 7 All three of these narrative agents are presented as subjects throughout Peales works For example, the narrator(s) are the collective still life paintings because they visually inform the viewer of Peales struggles between self-control and over-indulgence They further describe the deterioration of his mental and physical well-being throughout his life The works act as chapters of a book, which explain his current state The focalizer is a specific element or subject within the work or 5 Bal & Bryson, 204. 6 Bal & Bryson, 203. 7 Bal & Bryson, 204.

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72 narrator(s), which attracts the viewer and becomes the center of attention For example, Fruits and Nuts in a Dish (1818; Fig4-1) displays a brig htly colored or ange, maturing apple, nuts, and raisins The raisins become the focalizer because they are different than the seasoned orange, apple, and nuts These withered and dry raisin s were once succulent and luscious grapes, which draw focus away from the other subjects of the painting Finally, the actor or representative who acts out the fabula is the subject, which includes fruits, vegetables, desert cakes, and liquors Narrative qualities are given to subjects who have the story told by one of its characters 8 This subject matter engages in a mutual interaction The placement and orientation of the subject matter establishes a communal relationship between the actors and the episode of the paintings The subjects take on the role of the undramatized narrator The author or producer of the works, in this case Peale, explicitly places a narrator into the story, even if personal characteristics are absent in the works An implied second self or narrator is created throughout his paintings 9 An example is seen with, Fruit Piece with Peaches Covered by a Handkerchief (1819, Fig3-1) The metaphorical focu s of this specific painting was an avoidance of pain as the handkerchief or undramatized narrator covers a majority of the peaches, symbolizing moderation, as only tw o peaches are available for consumption The fly unmistakably draws the viewers attention toward the uncovered peaches, validating self-control an d restraint, as only a couple of the peaches should be consumed at one time 10 The subjects are explaining a story as the handkerchief metaphorically 8 Onega & Landa, 184. 9 Onega & Landa, 147. 10 Miller 1996, 140. The insect is also referred to as a wasp.

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73 represents a shield of temperance, concealing over-consumption, which is represented by the plentiful amount of peaches Found throughout certain paintings, the narrator is different from the works produced by the author or painter, which leads to the role of the dramatized narrator As seen with Peales still life paintings, many dramatized narrators are never labeled as narrators Peales works, referred as filtering devices, contain disguised narrators who reveal helpful information in order to understand the works 11 The paintings develop and present themselves as several episodes of his life story The episodes are linked together with one another, forming a narrative The actions carried out by these paintings represent the episodes and relay messages to the viewer as scenes from a story Roland Barthes wrote, There are countless forms of narrative in the world narrative is present in history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained-glass windows, and conversation In this infinite variety of forms, it is present at all times 12 Roland Barthess analysis of narrative presents five codes: proairetic, hermeneutic, semic, symbolic, and referential Among these, the proairetic and symbolic codes are the most useful for an analysis of narrative within Peales still life paintings According to Barthes, the proairetic code is a series of models of action that help readers place details into plot sequences we can tentatively place and organize the details we encounter as we read 13 In other words, Peales still life, which include fruit, vegetables, and alcohol, follow along in a sequence resembling a story of his personal life Integration of the 11 Onega & Landa, 148. 12 Gerald Prince, Narratology: The Form and Functioning of Narrative (Berlin, New York, Amsterdam: Mouton Publishers, 1982): 1. 13 Bal & Bryson, 202-203.

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74 symbolic code, though executed by the viewer, is another aspect of a narrative that needs to be addressed because Peales still life works display a metaphorical self-portrait Interpretations of the still life paintings are another important aspect revealed by the subject matter through semiosis The paintings of Peale can be considered a representamen or sign and object or referent, the thing for which the sign stands 14 A sign, or representamen, something which stands to somebody for something is some respect or capacity It creates in the mind as equivalent sign, or perhaps a more developed sign The sign stands for something, its object 15 The paintings represent something other than what is depicted on the canvas Examples of his works, which support and display the proairetic code, begin in 1813 and stretch until 1822 Since failed attempts at depicting motion through paintings exist, Peales works as a whole are seen as an aggressive form of fragmentation Peale painted certain works in order to capture specific aspects as a whole As such, the works are best understood when the individual paintings are viewed jointly without fragmentation The first group of works supporting the proairetic code includes Still Life with Raisin Cake (1813; Fig2-20), Still Life with Cake (1818; Fig2-22), and Still Life with Wine, Cakes, and Nuts (1819; Fig2-21), which depict an earlier stage of Raphaelles life At this period in time, Peale has begun depi cting signs of difficulty with temperance In Still Life with Raisin Cake (1813), Raphaelle painted a singl e cake neatly divided into six 14 Bal & Bryson, 188. 15 Bal & Bryson, 188.

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75 pieces, accompanied by a glass of wine 16 In Raphaelles time, cakes were timeconsuming to make and extremely expensive, so they only appeared at weddings, religious holidays, and funerals It was not unusual for some of these special occasions to have over one thousand people in attendance 17 In response to an overwhelming amount of guests, cakes were often sliced into equal, small pieces in order to accommodate large audiences The act of evenly slicing these cakes into small pieces induced moderation, which enabled everyone at these events the chance to enjoy these desserts A similar approach is seen with the single glass of wine, which displays self-control as large amounts of guests attend these functions Raphaelle is telling the viewer to enjoy alcohol and rich desserts with moderation as he painted the cake divided into six slices and a single glass of wine Still Life with Cake (1818) continues Peales theme of juxtaposing temperance and over-indulgence A full glass of wine, ripe, green grapes, and a single cake decorate the canvas Peale displays a decline in self-control and restraint by painting a single cake divided into four, rather than six pieces At a conscious level, four larger slices of cake as opposed to six signifies Peales lack of temperance and restraint Still Life with Wine, Cakes, and Nuts (1819) epitomizes Peales troublesome behavior regarding his physical lifestyle and issues regarding over-indulgence, which contributed toward the gout A full glass of wine, matured grapes, and seasoned nuts successfully balance the canvas The areas of concentration are placed upon two cakes, one neatly sliced into four pieces and the second left as whole Raphaelle is visually explaining his increasing problem with 16 Cikovsky, 105. 17 William Woys Weaver, Sauerkraut Yankess: Pennsylvania Dutch Foods and Foodways (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2002): 114-115.

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76 moderation and self-control with the numerical transformation This troublesome shift occurs as the cakes change from six and four slices, toward entire, whole desserts By eating the cakes in individual slices, Raphaelles stomach would have become full and he would not have been able to consume the entire cake By leaving the cakes as whole, Raphaelle would have had time to eat the entire cake before realizing his stomach was filled According to Charles Willson, these are examples of improper indulgence, which contrast the importance of moderation 18 The lack of temperance has reached an ultimate high as Raphaelle continues displaying signs of difficulty, which eventually fuels ongoing tribulations with the gout The second group of works offering a continuation and alteration of the proairetic code is Still Life with Liqueur and Fruit (1814; Fig3-3), Lemons and Oranges (1814; Fig4-2), and Still Life with Wine Glass (1818; Fig4-3), which combine to create a thematic contribution, signifying Raphaelles continued difficulty with over-indulgence These works compare in importance with the previous because of a continued concentration upon the dessert aspe ct of a meal in regards to cakes and wine Each of the previous works displaye d a glass of wine and Still Life with Liqueur and Fruit (1814), Lemons and Oranges (1814), and Still Life with Wine glass (1818) display similar subject matter These canvases become more crowded as time progresses Still Life with Liqueur and Fruit (1814) and Lemons and Oranges (1814) display a balancing effect with lemons, oranges, nuts, raisins, and a full gla ss of wine accompanied by an entire carafe The evolution from glass to carafe and plump ripe grapes to dried, shriveled raisins insinuate a metamorphosis of intemperance as more wine is offered for consumption, and 18 Miller 1996, 142.

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77 succulent grapes dissipate from the canvas The multitude of items indicates more choices, which contribute to Raphaelles problematic situations Still Life with Wine Glass (1818) presents a visual summary of Raphaelles continued battle with intemperance This work displays three grain items, which are depicted as a cake, biscuit, and bagel, and balancing these items are grapes, berries, and wine Although a carafe is absent, a full glass of wine decorates the scene The succulent grapes and berries replace the carafe as a metaphor of intemperance and an abundant supply of wine Once again, the grain items are left whole as Raphaelle insinuated a more rapid rate of consumption, signifying a lack of balance between restraint and over-indulgence Still Life with Apples, Sherry, and Tea Cake (1822; Fig2-35), Still Life with Cake (1822; Fig2-5), and, Still Life with Raisins, Apple, and Basket (1820-22; Fig4-4) carry on the theme of the proairetic code Still Life with Apples, Sherry, and Tea Cake (1822) visually displays two large pieces of fruit, a full glass of wine or liquor, and a whole dessert cake Even though Raphaelle displays temperance with a single glass of wine, leaving the cake whole signifies a lack of self-control Another example of intemperance is seen with Still Life with Cake (1822) as Raphaelle poised an untouched, large apple, a transformation from grapes and raisins, and a whole decorated cake Raphaelle continually changed and repeatedly placed these items throughout works The ordered nature throughout all of the images belies the unbalanced and immoderate lifestyle of Raphaelle, and through these works he attemp ts to reveal and resemble a story, a narrative

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78 If a viewer does not have access to Raphaelles complete set of works or views his still life out of sequential order, an unfolding pictorial narrative is still possible Notice, too, that the narrative experience as a whole would not be greatly compromised, if a viewer were to begin with later or middle dated works rather than the earlier years 19 Despite the arrangement, the fabula or sequence of events can be reconstructed Even with a viewers varying experience upon point of entry, the impact at the end can be similar 20 Each work plays an important role with another painting They depend upon or work with all the other images Erwin Panofsky referred to this as iconography, a continuous state of history displaying repetition or revision 21 As noted earlier, Peale obviously followed a mode of repetition as similar subjects with little or slight variation reappear throughout the still life works Two works entitled, Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814; Fig2-36) and Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816; Fig2-4) make the proairetic connection complete Both of these paintings visually depict over-ripe or rotten fru its and vegetables In Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814), the fruit mirrors Peales body dealin g with the gout and over-indulgence as seen with browning apples and peppers, ove r-ripe, dark grapes, and dried honey melon The fruits are organized on the canvas, an or ganization absent in his personal life Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816) offers a similar approach with the wilted, brown celery, transformation of grapes into raisins, and spot ted, over ripe apples If certain items are excluded from the narrative, then the meaning changes its course of action For example, 19 Whitney Davis, Replications: Archeology, Art History, and Psychoanalysis (Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996): 213. 20 Davis, 213. 21 Davis, 210-211.

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79 missing from Fruit and Silver Bowl (1814), but seen in Still Life with Celery and Wine (1816) is the addition of a half empty carafe of wine or liquor All details of pictorial text are related to one another in the narrative 22 The absence of liquor in the carafe indicates Peales battle with alcoholism and emotional struggle with intemperance Once again, Peales works indicate a continuous struggle, which resemble a narrative Another aspect of the proairetic view suggests a dynamic process or active operation while treating the works with motion 23 In other words, together, Peales works metaphorically resemble a series of motion or a continuous deterioration of his physical state The viewer spends time on each item while moving about the surface of the paintings An understanding of the narrative can only be reached by viewing Peales other works, which guides the viewer towards constant unfolding of the narrative or uncovering of a story The physical action of movement obviously does not come from the paintings, but from the viewer Peales paintings are presented as chapters in a book Once the still life paintings are viewed in sequential order, a knowledge and clarity of Peales life can begin to be understood Letters written by Charles Willson coincide with Raphaelles paintings, which exemplify and contribute toward the narrative qualities of his works A letter written on July 4, 1820 stated Sometime past I have had my fears that you would be affected with Gout so as to stop your progress with you paintings I have heard that our friend Mr Brewer has wrote to inform us of your being now in a severe fit of the Gout, that letter I have not yet seen When we reflect that in order to injoy health we ought to eat and drink only such things as our best judgment on experience have proved as most conducive to that end, also, in only such proportion as shall be in exact proportion 22 Davis, 212. 23 Bal & Bryson, 205.

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80 as to quantity as will nourish the body, for a single particle more becomes a clog and a burden to the digestive powers, therefore produces disease more or less in due proportion to the excess When we set down at the Table (perhaps loaded with a variety of unnecessary articles, for two or three things is really all that is needful) then think on the end! & resolve that taste shall not be superior to reason The government of all other passions as essential to promote health, is certainly of vast import The mind has a vast influence on the health of the bodyDear Raphaelle you must not think that what I have wrote is a charge on you of a breach of such rules, though like myself you may not always possess intire command of the appetite, and one motive I have for writing such, is a means of confirming my habits to like restrictions, they are rules which I daily endeavor to put into practice 24 Charles Willson wrote another letter, on January 19, 1821, which provided evidentiary proof of Raphaelles ills with the gout and intemperance: As health is the most important of all considerations, I have therefore desired to write to you Now more to the purpose, you have a gouty habit-And you know the cause of the Gout, therefore after taking what care you can to keep clear of it, be avoiding everything that you know tends to produce it, and in addition as far as you can follow my practice, and I flatter myself that you will find the good affects of it 25 Once again, Charles Willson has expressed his concerns toward Raphaelles ever increasing detrimental situation regarding his health The psychological impact of imagery also contributed as a characteristic of narration with Raphaelles subjects This process reverts back towards childhood development, when children were able to understand pictures before words In this stage of development, images precede the written word Peale applied regression, a going back in time or space, enabling an ability of communication with the unconscious child 24 Lillian B. Miller, The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Volume 3, The Belfield Years, 1810-1820 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1991): 832-833. 25 Lillian B. Miller, The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Volume 4, Charles Willson Peale: His Last Years, 1821-1827 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996): 11-13.

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81 of the adult 26 The paintings depict a struggle between over-indulgence and temperance with imagery, rather than with words Through regression of the unconscious mind, certain adults can relate to the still life As a result, the images become the narrative element by resembling a story with pictures, as opposed to words Peales works can be viewed as characters or agents of an action However, these subjects additionally act as the narrator or voice of the paintings 27 The voice constructed by Raphaelle presents discourse or expression, while actively upholding a conversation or visual dialogue throughout his paintings 28 The works serve as a conversation piece between two or more people, the paintings and viewer occupying those roles, with images resembling a language Still life is a part of language, a communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as a voice, sound, gestures or written symbol Peales works serve as a signal and system of signs used in the rules of communication Therefore, we learn and read that Peales still life paintings resemble a narrative, a story told with a visual language of communication, which enable the viewer to understand more about Peales life Raphaelles still life images offer insight to his struggles with intemperance As mentioned earlier, narrative theory lends a hand in reading objects upon Raphaelles canvases as characters, which participate and contribute toward emotional conflicts and visual dramatizations Additionally, examining the still life works in a chronological order offers an evolving and original experience into Raphaelles personal life 26 Laurie Schneider Adams, Art and Psychoanalysis (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993): 41-42. 27 Onega & Landa, 172. 28 Bal & Bryson, 202.

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82 Figure 4-1. Fruits and Nuts in Dish Figure 4-2. Still Life with Lemons and Oranges 1814

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83 Figure 4-3. Still Life with Wine Glass 1818 Figure 4-4. Still Life with Raisins, Apple, and Basket 1820

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Even though Raphaelle was unable to achieve the goal of self-control, he displayed personal problems of intemperance and desires of moderation on canvas Raphaelles symmetrical and well-balanced tabletop arrangements were examples of the desired life his father, Charles Willson, wished him to acquire Interpretations and theories based on art and psychoanalysis have offered aid in understanding the hidden underlying intentions within his works As Raphaelle began to realize his problematic situation based on excess, which derived from an over abundance of rich foods and alcohol, his still life paintings depicted a story of an increasing battle with the gout and alcoholism The chronological narrative has led to a further understanding about the struggles observed during his life The theme of rebellion toward health, genre, and subject matter, offer evidence and highlight the conflictive relationship between Raphaelle and his father As a result, Psychoanalysis, Narratology, and a rebellious relationship between father and son enhance the understanding of Raphaelles still life paintings Raphaelle was a man known, not only for his still life paintings, but his consistent battle with overindulgence, intemperance, and self-control These issues projected a shadow upon his personal life and perfectly rendered still life As a result, the harmonizing and balanced tabletop still 84

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85 life arrangements became examples of the desired life he wished to acquire, but was unable to contain 1 1 Gerdts 1981, 56.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Laurie Schneider Art and Psychoanalysis New York, New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993 Appleby, Joyce Inheriting The Revolution: The First Generations of Americans Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000 Bal, Mieke Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985 On Story Telling: Essays in Narratology Sonoma, California: Polebridge Press, 1991 Seeing Signs: The Use of Semiotics for the Understanding of Visual Art, in The Subjects of Art History: Historical Objects in Contemporary Perspective United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1998 and Norman Bryson Semiotics and Art History, in The Art Bulletin Vol 73 (June, 1991): 174 Bridenbaugh, Carl The Colonial Craftsman New York: New York University Press, Washington Square, 1950 Brigham, David R Public Culture In The Early Republic: Peales Museum and Its Audience Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995 Cheetham, Mark A, Micheale Ann Holly, and Keith Moxey Between Art History and Psychoanalysis: I/Eye-ing Monet with Freud and Lacan, in The Subjects of Art History: Historical Objects in Contemporary Perspective United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press,1998 Cikovsky, Nicolai Raphaelle Peale Still Lifes Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1988 Davis, Whitney Replications: Archaeology, Art History, Psychoanalysis University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996 Evans, Dorinda Raphaelle Peales Venus Rising From The Sea: Further Support for a Change in Interpretation, in American Art Journal, Vol 14, No 3 (Summer, 1982): 63 Freud, Sigmund On Creativity and the Unconscious: Papers on the Psychology of Art, Literature, Love, Religion New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1958 The Interpretation of Dreams New York: Avon Books, 1965 86

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87 Writings on Literature Stanford, California: Stanford University Press,1997 Gerdts, William H Painters of the Humble Truth: Masterpieces of American Still Life 1801 Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1981 Gerdts, William H and Russell Burke American Still Life Painting New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971 Goodheart, Eugene Desire and Its Discontents New York: Columbia University Press,1991 Hevner, Carol Eaton Rembrandt Peale 1778-1860: A Life in the Arts Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1985 Jordan, William B Spanish Still Life in the Golden Age: 1600 Fort Worth: Kimbell Art Museum, 1985 and Peter Cherry Spanish Still Life from Velazquez to Goya London: National Gallery Publications, 1995 Kornfeld, Eve Creating an American Culture 1775: A Brief History with Documents Boston: Bedford/St Martins, 2001 Kuhns, Richard Psychoanalytic Theory of Art: A Philosophy of Art on Developmental Principles New York, Columbia University Press, 1983 Lloyd, Phoebe Philadelphia Story, in Art in America, Vol 76 (November, 1998):155202 Luna, Juan J The Fruits of Enlightenment: Still Lifes by Luis Melendez, in The Magazine of Franco Maria Ricci, Vol 125, (December/January, 2003/2004): 79106 The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991 Vol I The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991 Vol III The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991 Vol IV The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991 Vol V Miller, Lillian B The Peale Family: Creation of a Legacy 1770 New York: Abbeville Press, 1996

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88 Charles Willson Peale as History Painter: The Exhumation of the Mastodon , in The American Art Journal, Vol 13 (Winter, 1981): 47 Father and Son: The Relationship of Charles Willson Peale and Raphaelle Peale, in The American Art Journal, Vol 25, No (1993): 4 Miller, Lillian B and David C Ward New Perspectives On Charles Wilson Peale: A 250 th Anniversary Collection Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991 Nemerov, Alexander The Body of Raphaelle Peale: Still Life and Selfhood, 1812 Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001 Onega, Susana and Jose Angel Garcia Landa Narratology: An Introduction London and New York: Longman Publishing, 1996 Peale, Charles Willson Charles Willson Peale and His World New York: HN Adams, 1983 Prince, Gerald Narratology: The Form and Functioning of Narrative New York: Mouton Publishers, 1982 Richardson, Edgar P, Brooke Hindle, and Lillian B Miller Charles Willson Peale and His World New York: HN Abrams, 1983 Rigal, Laura The American Manufactory: Art, Labor, and the World of Things in the Early Republic Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998 Schneider, Daniel E The Psychoanalyst and the Artist Easthampton, New York: The Alexa Press, Inc, 1950 Sellers, Charles Coleman Charles Willson Peale New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1969 Mr Peales Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art New York: WW Norton and Company, Inc, 1980 Silverman, Kaja The Subjects of Semiotics New York: Oxford University Press, 1983 Spector, Jack J The Aesthetics of Freud: A Study in Psychoanalysis and Art New York, Praeger Publishers, 1972 Ward, David C Charles Willson Peale: Art and Selfhood in the Early Republic Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004 Ward, David C and Sidney Hart Subversion and Illusion in the Life and Art of Raphaelle Peale, in American Art, Vol 8, No3/4 (Summer-Autumn, 1994): 96

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89 Weaver, William Woys Sauerkraut Yankees: Pennsylvania Dutch Foods and Foodways Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2002

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jason Frederick earned his BA in history at Slippery Rock University in 1998 90